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|Previous research demonstrates that patients typically have difficulty remembering information presented during healthcare consultations. This study examined how olderadults learn and remember verbally presented medical information. Healthy olderadults were tested for recall in experimental and field settings. Participants viewed a five-minute…
Previous research demonstrates that patients typically have difficulty remembering information presented during healthcare consultations. This study examined how olderadults learn and remember verbally presented medical information. Healthy olderadults were tested for recall in experimental and field settings. Participants viewed a five-minute video of a simulated healthcare consultation and completed free recall, cued recall, and recognition memory tasks. Differences
Hyponatremia is a common disorder seen in the emergency department and is more prevalent in olderadults than in other adult populations (Miller, 2009). Though often discovered by accident, through routine bloodwork, even mild hyponatremia has been shown to have potentially dangerous consequences for olderadults, increasing their risks for falls, altered mental status, osteoporosis and fractures, and gastrointestinal disturbances (Soiza and Talbot, 2011). Optimal management of olderadults with hyponatremia in the ED involves not only treatment of serum sodium levels and the immediate consequence of the disorder, but exploration and reversal of the causes of the hyponatremia to avoid recurrence. This case study illustrates the clinical presentation, complications and management of hyponatremia in the setting of the emergency department. PMID:22981422
Objective: A pair of experiments investigated the hypothesis that bimodal (auditory-visual) speech presentation and expanded auditory bandwidth would improve speech intelligibility and increase working memory performance for olderadults by reducing the cognitive effort needed for speech perception.Background: Although telephone communication is important for helping olderadults maintain social engagement, age-related sensory and working memory limits may make telephone conversations
Lynn M. Brault; Jaimie L. Gilbert; Charissa R. Lansing; Jason S. McCarley; Arthur F. Kramer
|ADMINISTRATORS OF ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN ADULT SCHOOLS AND JUNIOR COLLEGES IN CALIFORNIA WERE SURVEYED IN MAY 1967 AS TO WAYS IN WHICH THEIR PROGRAMS WERE SERVING THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF ADULTS AGED 50 AND OVER. FINE ARTS, CRAFTS, HOMEMAKING, BUSINESS EDUCATION, AMERICANIZATION, CIVIC EDUCATION AND SPECIAL FIELDS, VOCATIONAL AND INDUSTRIAL…
The purpose of the present study was to examine a comprehensive set of television advertisements, across networks and times of day, to determine how olderadults are portrayed. Olderadults appeared in 15% of advertisements, and in those ads, older women were underrepresented relative to men, and olderadults appeared less frequently on youth-oriented networks and during the evening. Older
Monica M. Lee; Brian Carpenter; Lawrence S. Meyers
... may believe the traumatic event is happening again. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) . While OCD is not common among olderadults, some older ... violence and harm to loved ones. Some with OCD are preoccupied with order and symmetry; others accumulate ...
... unique challenges faced by older people with cancer. Care Management Find practical tips on how olderadults can manage their cancer care and cope with financial concerns. Health Assessment Find ...
... Alcohol Use Disorders Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Underage Drinking College Drinking Women OlderAdults Minority Health and Health ...
... Health & Education > Mental Health Information OlderAdults and Mental Health Depression Depression is not a normal part of ... Research Clinical Trials: Current Studies on OlderAdults Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General/OlderAdults ...
Background It is well known that olderadults figure prominently in the use of emergency departments (ED) across the United States. Previous research has differentiated ED visits by levels of clinical severity and found health status and other individual characteristics distinguished severe from non-severe visits. In this research, we classified olderadults into population groups that persistently present with severe, non-severe, or indeterminate patterns of ED episodes. We then contrasted the three groups using a comprehensive set of covariates. Methods Using a unique dataset linking individual characteristics with Medicare claims for calendar years 1991-2007, we identified patterns of ED use among the large, nationally representative AHEAD sample consisting of 5,510 olderadults. We then classified one group of olderadults who persistently presented to the ED with clinically severe episodes and another group who persistently presented to the ED with non-severe episodes. These two groups were contrasted using logistic regression, and then contrasted against a third group with a persistent pattern of ED episodes with indeterminate levels of severity using multinomial logistic regression. Variable selection was based on Andersen's behavioral model of health services use and featured clinical status, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health behaviors, health service use patterns, local health care supply, and other contextual effects. Results We identified 948 individuals (17.2% of the entire sample) who presented a pattern in which their ED episodes were typically defined as severe and 1,076 individuals (19.5%) who typically presented with non-severe episodes. Individuals who persistently presented to the ED with severe episodes were more likely to be older (AOR 1.52), men (AOR 1.28), current smokers (AOR 1.60), experience diabetes (AOR (AOR 1.80), heart disease (AOR 1.70), hypertension (AOR 1.32) and have a greater amount of morbidity (AOR 1.48) than those who persistently presented to the ED with non-severe episodes. When contrasted with 1,177 individuals with a persistent pattern of indeterminate severity ED use, persons with severe patterns were older (AOR 1.36), more likely to be obese (AOR 1.36), and experience heart disease (AOR 1.49) and hypertension (AOR 1.36) while persons with non-severe patterns were less likely to smoke (AOR 0.63) and have diabetes (AOR 0.67) or lung disease (AOR 0.58). Conclusions We distinguished three large, readily identifiable groups of olderadults which figure prominently in the use of EDs across the United States. Our results suggest that one group affects the general capacity of the ED to provide care as they persistently present with severe episodes requiring urgent staff attention and greater resource allocation. Another group persistently presents with non-severe episodes and creates a considerable share of the excess demand for ED care. Future research should determine how chronic disease management programs and varied co-payment obligations might impact the use of the ED by these two large and distinct groups of olderadults with consistent ED use patterns.
Depression is less prevalent among olderadults than among younger adults but can have serious consequences. Over half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and more closely associated with depression. Depressed olderadults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are younger adults. Risk factors leading to the development of late life depression likely comprise complex interactions among genetic vulnerabilities, cognitive diathesis, age-associated neurobiological changes, and stressful events. Insomnia is an often overlooked risk factor for late life depression. We suggest that a common pathway to depression in olderadults, regardless of which predisposing risks are most prominent, may be curtailment of daily activities. Accompanying self-critical thinking may exacerbate and maintain a depressed state. Offsetting the increasing prevalence of certain risk factors in late life are age-related increases in psychological resilience. Other protective factors include higher education and socioeconomic status, engagement in valued activities, and religious or spiritual involvement. Treatments including behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive bibliotherapy, problem-solving therapy, brief psychodynamic therapy, and life review/reminiscence therapy are effective but too infrequently used with olderadults. Preventive interventions including education for individuals with chronic illness, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving skills training, group support, and life review have also received support.
Fiske, Amy; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Gatz, Margaret
The Texas Revised Inventory of Grief-Present scale (TRIG-Present) is one of the most widely used grief measures; however, researchers have only empirically examined the validity and underlying factor structure of TRIG-Present scores in a few studies. Hence, in the present investigation, we sought to examine the factorial validity of the…
Futterman, Andrew; Holland, Jason M.; Brown, Patrick J.; Thompson, Larry W.; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores
This article presents a number of historical themes that are relevant to emerging efforts in the religious education of olderadults. Drawing on themes in Jewish, Christian, Confucian, and other world religions the author indicates that religious bodies have shown respect for the elderly, especially for their abilities as teachers and counselors. Olderadults have pursued learning either by living
Despite concern about cognitive decline in old age, few studies document the types and frequency of memory errors olderadults make in everyday life. In the present study, 105 healthy olderadults completed the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ; Sunderland, Harris, & Baddeley, 1983, Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 22, 341), indicating what memory errors they had experienced in
Recent studies have shown that lead, even at relatively low levels of exposure, has the potential to harm not only the young and the occupationally-exposed, but also older people. Because they have been alive for a longer period of time, olderadults have had more potential exposures to lead. They may have been exposed to lead while working in unregulated occupations, or they may have encountered more lead in the environment on a daily basis. Several large epidemiological studies have found that older people have higher blood and bone lead levels than younger adults. Additionally, sporadic clusters of acute lead exposure among olderadults as a result of activities such as ceramic glaze hobby work and consumption of moonshine whiskey continue to be reported. After lead enters the body, it circulates in the blood reaching the soft tissues and bone. Researchers have learned that lead can hibernate within bone for decades. Although lead within bone is of uncertain toxicity to bone tissue, conditions of bone resorption, such as osteoporosis, can cause bone lead to reenter the bloodstream where it can then re-expose the soft tissue, and, potentially, exert delayed deleterious effects. Evidence is emerging that blood and bone lead levels, reflecting relatively modest exposures, are associated with hypertension, renal insufficiency, and cognitive impairment. Medical treatments that now exist to slow the rate of bone resorption may maintain lead within bones. On-going studies evaluating the relationship between body lead stores and both cognitive and renal impairment, as well as the potential modifying effect of bone resorption, will help determine whether bone resorption should be retarded specifically to preserve organ function. Physicians should be aware of potential past and present lead exposures among their older patients. Ongoing lead exposure should be prevented. In the future, treatment of osteoporosis may be undertaken not only to improve bone health but also to prevent mobilization of bone lead stores and subsequent toxicity. PMID:11083332
This report is one in a series of four that discuss the increased fire risks for four groups of the general population: olderadults; the mobility impaired; the deaf or hard of hearing; and the blind or visually impaired. Olderadults those over 65 years ...
|Over the next few decades the olderadult population will increase dramatically, and prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders are also expected to increase in the elderly cohort. These demographic projections highlight the need for diagnostic instruments and methods that are specifically tailored to olderadults. The current paper discusses the…
Mohlman, Jan; Sirota, Karen Gainer; Papp, Laszlo A.; Staples, Alison M.; King, Arlene; Gorenstein, Ethan E.
Hearing loss affects approximately one-third of adults 61 to 70 years of age and more than 80 percent of those older than 85 years. Men usually experience greater hearing loss and have earlier onset compared with women. The most common type is age-related hearing loss; however, many conditions can interfere with the conduction of sound vibrations to the inner ear and their conversion to electrical impulses for conduction to the brain. Screening for hearing loss is recommended in adultsolder than 50 to 60 years. Office screening tests include the whispered voice test and audioscopy. Older patients who admit to having difficulty hearing may be referred directly for audiometry. The history can identify risk factors for hearing loss, especially noise exposure and use of ototoxic medications. Examination of the auditory canal and tympanic membrane can identify causes of conductive hearing loss. Audiometric testing is required to confirm hearing loss. Adultspresenting with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss should be referred for urgent assessment. Management of hearing loss is based on addressing underlying causes, especially obstructions (including cerumen) and ototoxic medications. Residual hearing should be optimized by use of hearing aids, assistive listening devices, and rehabilitation programs. Surgical implants are indicated for selected patients. Major barriers to improved hearing in olderadults include lack of recognition of hearing loss; perception that hearing loss is a normal part of aging or is not amenable to treatment; and patient nonadherence with hearing aids because of stigma, cost, inconvenience, disappointing initial results, or other factors. PMID:22962895
Anemia is a common, multifactorial condition among olderadults. The World Health Organization (WHO) definition of anemia (hemoglobin concentration <12 g/dL in women and <13 g/dL in men) is most often used in epidemiologic studies of olderadults. More than 10% of community-dwelling adults age 65 years and older has WHO-defined anemia. After age 50 years, prevalence of anemia increases with advancing age and exceeds 20% in those 85 years and older. In nursing homes, anemia is present in 48–63% of residents. Incidence of anemia in olderadults is not well characterized. Among olderadults with anemia, approximately one-third have evidence of iron, folate, and/or vitamin B12 deficiency, another third have renal insufficiency and/or chronic inflammation, and the remaining third have anemia that is unexplained. Several studies demonstrate that anemia is associated with poorer survival in olderadults. This review details the distribution and consequences of anemia in olderadults and identifies future epidemiologic research needs.
Recent epidemiological data show that adults who are 45 and older comprise the fastest growing age group of drug users as well as new AIDS cases in the United States. Prevention and intervention studies show that risk behaviors leading to HIV infection are increasing among older users, particularly among the socially vulnerable. Yet olderadults remain an under-researched population of
... Incontinence Related Video Aging & Health A to Z Diabetes Unique to OlderAdults This section provides information ... care and improve or maintain quality of life. Diabetes and Other Conditions Having high levels of sugar ( ...
... Tolson D, Lough M, & Brown M. Developing Evidence-Based Smoking Cessation Training/Education Initiatives in Partnership with Older People and Health Professionals. Caledonian Nursing & Midwifery Research Centre: Glasgow 2004. 16 Hughes JR, Keely J & ...
Objective: To discuss the unique issues related to pain in olderadults and to outline methods for assessment and treatment of geriatric pain. Synthesis: A model for pain assessment and treatment in the olderadult is presented. Existing data indicate that cognitive-behavioral treatments are effective for pain management in olderadults, although modifications in treatment procedures may be needed to
The authors' aim in the present study was to examine the effects of a brief forgiveness intervention for olderadults. The psychoeducational group intervention consists of (a) established core components of previous forgiveness interventions and (b) additional components considering specific needs of olderadults. Seventy-eight olderadults (mean…
Allemand, Mathias; Steiner, Marianne; Hill, Patrick L.
Pain is the most common symptom associated with cancer. Despite the fact that appropriate pain management exists, cancer pain often is inadequately controlled. Sixty percent to 85% of individuals with advanced cancer have either severe or chronic pain. Issues associated with cancer pain and pain management in later life include the effect of pain on the person, friends, and family; the influence of hope; the perception that olderadults are less sensitive to painful stimuli; the special problems of drug management in olderadults; and the unique issues of older women affected by cancer. This article concludes with implications for nurses. Future research needs to be directed to pain management at home, the ethics of pain management, pain in the cognitively impaired person, and the specific needs of older women. PMID:10703349
Recent studies indicate that aging is associated with dysfunctional changes in pain modulatory capacity, potentially contributing to increased incidence of pain in olderadults. However, age-related changes in offset analgesia (offset), a form of temporal pain inhibition, remain poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to investigate age differences in offset analgesia of heat pain in healthy younger and olderadults. To explore the peripheral mechanisms underlying offset, an additional aim of the study was to test offset at 2 anatomical sites with known differences in nociceptor innervation. A total of 25 younger adults and 20 olderadults completed 6 offset trials in which the experimental heat stimulus was presented to the volar forearm and glabrous skin of the palm. Each trial consisted of 3 continuous phases: an initial 15-second painful stimulus (T1), a slight increase in temperature from T1 for 5seconds (T2), and a slight decrease back to the initial testing temperature for 10seconds (T3). During each trial, subjects rated pain intensity continuously using an electronic visual analogue scale (0-100). Olderadults demonstrated reduced offset compared to younger adults when tested on the volar forearm. Interestingly, offset analgesia was nonexistent on the palm for all subjects. The reduced offset found in olderadults may reflect an age-related decline in endogenous inhibitory systems. However, although the exact mechanisms underlying offset remain unknown, the absence of offset at the palm suggests that peripheral mechanisms may be involved in initiating this phenomenon. PMID:23872117
Naugle, Kelly M; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Fillingim, Roger B; Riley, Joseph L
The plight of olderadults during catastrophic events is a societal concern. Older persons have an increased prevalence of cognitive disorders, chronic illnesses, and mobility problems that limit their ability to cope. These disorders may result in a lack of mental capacity and the ability to discern when they should evacuate or resolve problems encountered during a catastrophe. Some older persons may have limited transportation options, and many of the elderly survivors are at increased risk for abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Recommendations for future catastrophic events include the development of a federal tracking system for elders and other vulnerable adults, the designation of separate shelter areas for elders and other vulnerable adults, and involvement of gerontological professionals in all aspects of emergency preparedness and care delivery, including training of frontline workers. Preparation through preevent planning that includes region-specific social services, medical and public health resources, volunteers, and facilities for elders and vulnerable adults is critical. Elders need to be protected from abuse and fraud during catastrophic events. A public health triage system for elders and other vulnerable populations in pre- and postdisaster situations is useful, and disaster preparedness is paramount. Communities and members of safety and rescue teams must address ethical issues before an event. When olderadults are involved, consideration needs to be given to triage decision making, transporting those who are immobile, the care of olderadults who receive palliative care, and the equitable distribution of resources. Nurses are perfectly equipped with the skills, knowledge, and training needed to plan and implement disaster preparedness programs. In keeping with the tradition of Florence Nightingale, nurses can assume several crucial roles in disaster preparedness for olderadults. Nurses possess the ability to participate and lead community policy development, serve on rescue teams, perform patient assessments, and deliver care. Nurses are crucial to well-planned and executed programs for catastrophic events that affect olderadults. Also, all health care providers involved must be aware of the physical and psychological ramifications of disaster relief. The health and resilience of disaster-relief teams depend on paying attention to signs and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and seeking appropriate treatment should it occur. PMID:21095558
|Action integration is the process through which actions performed on a stimulus and perceptual aspects of the stimulus become bound as a unitary object. This process appears to be controlled by the dopaminergic system in the prefrontal cortex, an area that is known to decrease in volume and dopamine functioning in olderadults. Although the…
Introduces the faith development paradigm of James Fowler, describing six stages of faith development: intuitive-projective faith, mythic-literal faith, synthetic-conventional faith, individuating-reflective faith, conjunctive faith, and universalizing faith. Reviews one research project in which Fowler's paradigm was applied to olderadults.…
Action integration is the process through which actions performed on a stimulus and perceptual aspects of the stimulus become bound as a unitary object. This process appears to be controlled by the dopaminergic system in the prefrontal cortex, an area that is known to decrease in volume and dopamine functioning in olderadults. Although the…
The purpose of this study is to compare differences in the functional fitness of a group of olderadults to determine if they are aging successfully, to analyze the differences in functional fitness between females and males, and to determine differences in four categories by sex. Participants were placed into four categories based on senior fitness test (SFT) scores. More
The purpose of this study was to profile olderadults who garden for pleasure and to analyze whether gardeners could be segmented into specific types based on their motivations for gardening. A mail survey which included the Leisure Motivation Scale (Beard & Ragheb, 1983) and socio-demographic and health-related questions was sent to all 499 volunteers-303 responded with usable data. The
|Societal myths argue against active expression of sexuality in olderadults, but these prejudices are unfounded. Using a deconstructionist framework, this article addresses issues surrounding sexuality in olderadults. Implications for clinical practice are given.|
The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of social importance on prospective remembering in younger and olderadults as a possible factor contributing to the age-prospective memory paradox. Using a between-subjects design, 40 younger and 40 olderadults worked on a time-based prospective memory task in which social importance was varied. Overall, younger adults outperformed olderadults
Mareike Altgassen; Matthias Kliegel; Maria Brandimonte; Pina Filippello
|This paper uses the social cognitive theory model to review the literature on olderadult gambling, and related personal and environment characteristics. Results show that lottery is the kind of gambling most frequently played by olderadults, followed by casino games. Olderadults take trips to casinos to socialize, find excitement, and win…
This guide is intended for Adult Basic Education (ABE) practitioners, specifically Texas ABE cooperative directors, who wish to increase recruitment and attendance among undereducated olderadults. General information may be used for all olderadults, but two age categories (age 45-64 and age 65 and older) are distinguished in instances seemingly…
Purposes were to assess the effectiveness of an instrument designed to measure nutrition knowledge of olderadults, and to use this instrument to compare nutrition krowledge of olderadults according to age, sex, education, occupation and sources of nutrition information. A 24-item nutrition knowledge test was adapted for use with olderadults, and was administered to 104 subjects (60 years
An opportunity exists for those working with olderadults in nursing homes to significantly encourage independence in the olderadult using a creative approach. The use of folklore is suggested as a means for assisting the olderadult toward a reconnection with the individuation process.
Cochlear implants allow individuals with severe-to-profound hearing loss access to sound and spoken language. The number of olderadults in the United States who are potential candidates for cochlear implantation is approximately 150,000 and will continue to increase with the aging of the population. Should cochlear implantation (CI) be routinely recommended for these olderadults, and do these individuals benefit from CI? We reviewed our 12 year experience with cochlear implantation in adults ?60 years (n = 445) at Johns Hopkins to investigate the impact of CI on speech understanding and to identify factors associated with speech performance. Complete data on speech outcomes at baseline and 1 year post-CI were available for 83 individuals. Our results demonstrate that cochlear implantation in adults ?60 years consistently improved speech understanding scores with a mean increase of 60. 0% (S. D. 24. 1) on HINT sentences in quiet . The magnitude of the gain in speech scores was negatively associated with age at implantation such that for every increasing year of age at CI the gain in speech scores was 1. 3 percentage points less (95% CI: 0. 6 – 1. 9) after adjusting for age at hearing loss onset. Conversely, individuals with higher pre-CI speech scores (HINT scores between 40–60%) had significantly greater post-CI speech scores by a mean of 10. 0 percentage points (95% CI: 0. 4 – 19. 6) than those with lower pre-CI speech scores (HINT <40%) after adjusting for age at CI and age at hearing loss onset. These results suggest that olderadult CI candidates who are younger at implantation and with higher preoperative speech scores obtain the highest speech understanding scores after cochlear implantation with possible implications for current Medicare policy. Finally, we provide an extended discussion of the epidemiology and impact of hearing loss in olderadults. Future research of CI in olderadults should expand beyond simple speech outcomes to take into account the broad cognitive, social, and physical functioning outcomes that are likely detrimentally impacted by hearing loss and may be mitigated by cochlear implantation.
Lin, Frank R.; Chien, Wade W.; Li, Lingsheng; Niparko, John K.; Francis, Howard W.
This article reviews recent medical and social science literature on sexual functioning in olderadults. We provide a broad\\u000a definition of sexual functioning that includes a range of solo and partnered forms of sexual expression. We identify four\\u000a determinants of sexual functioning: biologic, psychological, social context (including culture), and interactions of these\\u000a with each other. Recent literature on the impact
Osteoporotic fractures are emerging as a major public health problem in the aging population. Fractures result in increased morbidity, mortality and health expenditures. This article reviews current evidence for the management of common issues following osteoporotic fractures in olderadults including: (1) thromboembolism prevention; (2) delirium prevention; (3) pain management; (4) rehabilitation; (5) assessing the cause of fracture; and (6) prevention of subsequent fractures. Areas for practice improvement and further research are highlighted.
\\u000a The differential diagnosis of widespread pain in olderadults is broad, with fibromyaglia syndrome (FMS) leading the list.\\u000a While the exact pathogenesis of FMS is not clear, recent studies suggest that abnormal pain processing and central sensitization\\u000a contribute to the development of chronic muscle pain and tender points. Precise diagnosis of FMS requires a targeted history\\u000a and physical examination. A
Cheryl D. Bernstein; Jordan F. Karp; Debra K. Weiner
As adults age, they tend to have problems remembering the details of events and the contexts in which events occurred. This review presents evidence that emotion can enhance olderadults’ abilities to remember episodic detail. Olderadults are more likely to remember affective details of an event (e.g., whether something was good or bad, or how an event made them
Age-related loss of strength contributes to impaired mobility and increases the risk of falls. Recent research has focused on 2 approaches to preventing age-related loss of strength--promoting physical activity and exercise (especially strength training) and using trophic factors to enhance muscle performance. Epidemiologic evidence strongly supports a role of regular physical activity in successful aging by preserving muscle performance, promoting mobility, and reducing fall risk. Randomized controlled trials provide convincing evidence that strength and endurance training improve muscle performance in olderadults. Evidence is rapidly accumulating from randomized trials that endurance, strength, and balance training promote mobility and reduce fall risk, though exercise effects differ according to the type of exercise, details of the exercise program, and the target group of olderadults. Because lifetime regular physical activity is recommended for all olderadults, a reasonable strategy (especially for weak adults) is an activity program that includes strength training. In contrast, insufficient evidence exists to recommend the long-term use of trophic factors to preserve muscular performance. An intervention that merits additional study is avoiding the use of psychoactive drugs because drugs like benzodiazepines appear to be risk factors for inactivity and may have unrecognized direct effects on muscular performance. Because chronic illness is a risk factor for inactivity and disuse muscle atrophy, randomized trials comparing strength training with other interventions would be useful in understanding whether strength training has advantages in preserving muscle performance and improving health-related quality of life in a variety of chronic illnesses such as depressive illness.
The present study examined age differences in the discrimination between anxiety and depressive symptoms in a community sample of 374 adults, ages 18–93. Olderadults were less accurate and more likely than younger adults to label symptoms as neither anxiety nor depression. Both older and younger adults were more accurate in their classification of depressive than anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that additional efforts are needed to educate the general public, particularly olderadults, about anxiety and its symptoms.
Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Petkus, Andrew J.; McChesney, Kathleen; Stein, Murray B.; Judd, Patricia H.; Rockwell, Enid; Sewell, Daniel D.; Patterson, Thomas L.
Importance Although there is a growing recognition that olderadults and those with extensive comorbid conditions undergo cancer screening too frequently, there is little information about patients’ perceptions regarding cessation of cancer screening. Information on olderadults’ views of screening cessation would be helpful both for clinicians and for those designing interventions to reduce overscreening. Objective To obtain a deeper understanding of olderadults’ perspectives on screening cessation and their experiences communicating with clinicians about this topic. Design Semistructured interview study. Setting Senior health center affiliated with an urban hospital. Participants We interviewed 33 olderadultspresenting to a senior health center. Their median age was 76 years (range, 63–91 years). Of the 33 participants, 27 were women; 15 were African American, 16 were white, 1 was Asian, and 1 was American Indian. Main Outcome Measures We transcribed audio recordings of interviews and analyzed them using methods of grounded theory to identify themes and illustrative quotes. Results Undergoing screening tests was perceived by participants as morally obligatory. Although many saw continued screening as a habit or custom not involving any decision, cessation of screening would require a major decision. Many asserted that they had never discussed screening cessation with their physicians or considered stopping on their own; some reported being upset when their physician recommended stopping. Although some would accept a physician’s strong recommendation to stop, others thought that such a physician’s recommendation would threaten trust or lead them to get another opinion. Participants were skeptical about the role of statistics and the recommendations of government panels in screening decisions but were more favorable toward stopping because of the balance of risks and benefits, complications, or test burdens. Conclusions and Relevance For many olderadults, stopping screening is a major decision, but continuing screening is not. A physician’s recommendation to stop may threaten patient trust. Effective strategies to reduce nonbeneficial screening may include discussion of the balance of risks and benefits, complications, or burdens.
Torke, Alexia M.; Schwartz, Peter H.; Holtz, Laura R.; Montz, Kianna; Sachs, Greg A.
This paper uses the social cognitive theory model to review the literature on olderadult gambling, and related personal and\\u000a environment characteristics. Results show that lottery is the kind of gambling most frequently played by olderadults, followed\\u000a by casino games. Olderadults take trips to casinos to socialize, find excitement, and win money. Although prevalence estimate\\u000a studies suggest that
A number of recent studies have shown that associative memory for within-item features is enhanced for emotionally arousing items, whereas arousal-enhanced binding is not seen for associations between distinct items (for a review see Mather, 2007). The costs and benefits of arousal in memory binding have been examined for younger adults but not for olderadults. The present experiment examined whether arousal would enhance younger and olderadults' within-item and between-item memory binding. The results revealed that arousal improved younger adults' within-item memory binding but not that of olderadults. Arousal worsened both groups' between-item memory binding.
The definition of “polypharmacy” ranges from the use of a large number of medications; the use of potentially inappropriate medications, which can increase the risk for adverse drug events; medication underuse despite instructions to the contrary; and medication duplication. Olderadults are particularly at risk because they often present with several medical conditions requiring pharmacotherapy. Cancer-related therapy adds to this risk in olderadults, but few studies have been conducted in this patient population. In this review, we outline the adverse outcomes associated with polypharmacy and present polypharmacy definitions offered by the geriatrics literature. We also examine the strengths and weaknesses of these definitions and explore the relationships among these definitions and what is known about the prevalence and impact of polypharmacy.
The present study examined the extent to which olderadults began public mental health treatment throughout Texas in 1999, the types of services they used, and how they compared on demographic and clinical variables to younger consumers. Notwithstanding recent policy and related developments, olderadults were found to use public mental health services at substantially low rates, as in past
|Due to an aging population and increases in healthcare costs, particular attention needs to be focused on developing Internet sites that provide olderadults with credible and accurate healthcare information. Present research findings suggest that motivation is only one factor that influences whether or not olderadults utilize the World Wide Web…
Very little is known about factors that predict fear of crime in olderadults. Indeed, the topic itself remains a source of controversy, with early studies indicating higher levels of crime fear with age, and new, more methodologically rigorous studies demonstrating the opposite trend. The present exploratory investigation included 106 olderadults and assessed the relationship between demographic variables, interpersonal
Ron Acierno; Alyssa A. Rheingold; Heidi S. Resnick; Dean G. Kilpatrick
Gangliogliomas are rare benign tumors of the central nervous system that typically involve the temporal lobe in younger patients. We present a 63-year-old man with an unusual occipital ganglioma with new seizures resolving after resection. A search of the literature revealed only three reports of occipital ganglioma in adults over 30 years old. Therefore, ganglioglioma of the occipital lobe in older patients is rare, but is a diagnostic consideration. PMID:20727766
Deipolyi, Amy; Auguste, Kurtis I; Yang, Isaac; Tihan, Tarik; Parsa, Andrew T
|Objective: To explore olderadults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, olderadults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview…
|Results of a study to examine the recycling practices and needs of olderadults (n=217) indicated that olderadults do recycle traditional materials, but need accommodations for physical limitations. They report textile recycling as time consuming and difficult and used donations to religious organizations as their principal means of textile…
|This chapter examines the potential for personal growth, development, and learning of olderadult women who will have many productive years in the workforce. What implications are there for adult education communities who will interact with these older women? How do they adapt to the educational environment, and what social support will enable…
Many olderadults do not use health information available on the Internet. Olderadults residing in affordable housing were taught to use the NIHSeniorHealth.gov Web site. Participants were predominantly African American women with limited education and income (N = 42). Outcomes included changes in computer and health Web site navigation skills. Results showed significant improvements for all demographic groups in both computer
Elizabeth M. Bertera; Robert L. Bertera; Russell Morgan; Ellen Wuertz; Alfred M. O. Attey
\\u000a Optimizing medication adherence is a significant challenge for clinicians caring for olderadults, particularly those with\\u000a multiple chronic health conditions. Nearly half of all adults aged 65 or older take five or more medications regularly; however,\\u000a adherence to chronic pharmacological therapies is often poor . Overall, 40% of older Medicare beneficiaries reported one\\u000a or more forms of medication non-adherence in
S. Nicole Hastings; Janine C. Kosmoski; Jason M. Moss
Relationship skills building is the focus of an innovative clinical experience with olderadults for junior level nursing students in a psychiatric mental health course. The clinical experience is designed to help students apply, integrate, and validate previously learned therapeutic communication skills and experience discovery of self and others. This article describes a clinical experience that introduces students to olderadults, who will make up the majority of health care recipients in the students' future careers, and helps students explore the nurse's role in mental health care for olderadults. Not only did students engaged in the clinical experience learn to develop a relationship with the olderadults, but they learned much more--they learned to appreciate the value of life, the importance of listening, and the rich and varied life stories of olderadults. PMID:18557314
McNeill, Cheryl; Shattell, Mona; Rossen, Eileen; Bartlett, Robin
Despite concern about cognitive decline in old age, few studies document the types and frequency of memory errors olderadults make in everyday life. In the present study, 105 healthy olderadults completed the Everyday Memory Questionnaire (EMQ; Sunderland, Harris, & Baddeley, 1983 , Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 22, 341), indicating what memory errors they had experienced in the last 24 hours, the Memory Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (MSEQ; West, Thorn, & Bagwell, 2003 , Psychology and Aging, 18, 111), and other neuropsychological and cognitive tasks. EMQ and MSEQ scores were unrelated and made separate contributions to variance on the Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE; Folstein, Folstein, & McHugh, 1975 , Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189), suggesting separate constructs. Tip-of-the-tongue errors were the most commonly reported, and the EMQ Faces/Places and New Things subscales were most strongly related to MMSE. These findings may help training programs target memory errors commonly experienced by olderadults, and suggest which types of memory errors could indicate cognitive declines of clinical concern. PMID:22694275
The issues of rising numbers of disasters, overwhelming increases in number of olderadults, and historically flawed evacuations present real challenges. During the next two decades, the number of American baby boomers, who turn 65, will increase by 40%. As evidenced by recent disasters, the imperfections and vulnerabilities of flawed evacuations for olderadults are still present. This study examined the level of willingness to evacuate among olderadults in the event of a disaster. Despite the extensive literature on disasters and evacuation, a significant question regarding evacuation and olderadults has not been addressed. The study addressed the following concern: What is the level of willingness among olderadults to evacuate when asked to do so by emergency management officials? The sample population consisted of 765 voluntary participants aged 60 years and older from 30 senior/community centers within seven counties within a midwestern state. A group administered survey (The Disaster Evacuation Survey) included a total of 15 questions. The findings revealed that olderadults are more likely to comply with a mandatory evacuation order. Important practical implications for emergency officials responding to vulnerable olderadults in disaster situations are also provided. PMID:21598145
This study examined the ability of cognitively normal young adults (n = 30) and olderadults (n = 30) to perform a delayed match-to-sample task involving varying degrees of spatial interference to assess spatial pattern separation. Each trial consisted of a sample phase followed by a choice phase. During the sample phase, a circle appeared briefly on a computer screen. The participant was instructed to remember the location of the circle on the screen. During the choice phase, two circles were displayed simultaneously, and the participant was asked to indicate which circle was in the same location as the sample phase circle. The two circles on choice phase trials were separated by one of four possible spatial separations: 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 cm. Smaller separations are likely to create increased overlap among memory representations, which may result in heightened interference and a greater need for pattern separation. Consistent with this hypothesis, performance increased as a function of increased spatial separation in both young and olderadults. However, young adults outperformed olderadults, suggesting that spatial pattern separation may be less efficient in olderadults due to potential age-related changes in the dentate gyrus and CA3 hippocampal subregions. Olderadults also were divided into older impaired and older unimpaired groups based on their performance on a standardized test of verbal memory. The older impaired group was significantly impaired relative to both the older unimpaired and young groups, suggesting that pattern separation deficits may be variable in olderadults. The present findings may have important implications for designing behavioral interventions for olderadults that structure daily living tasks to reduce interference, thus improving memory function. PMID:22467270
Holden, Heather M; Hoebel, Calhuei; Loftis, Kelly; Gilbert, Paul E
Changes and advancements in technology have the potential to benefit olderadults by promoting independence and increasing the ability to age in place. However, olderadults are less likely to adopt new technology unless they see benefits to themselves. This study assessed the perceptions of 30 olderadults in the Midwest concerning technology via three separate focus groups (i.e., independent apartment complex, a rural community, exercise program participants), which addressed a need in the literature (i.e., inclusion of oldest-old and rural individuals). The focus group questions included items such as what technology olderadults currently used, desired improvements in technology, and the greatest challenges participants were facing or would face in the future. Overall, olderadults were enthusiastic about learning new forms of technology that could help them maintain their independence and quality of life. Five themes emerged from all three focus groups: (a) Frustrations, Limitations, and Usability Concerns; (b) Transportation; (c) Help and Assistance; (d) Self-Monitoring; and (e) Gaming. The themes have important implications for future technology developed for olderadults; in particular, olderadults were willing and eager to adopt new technology when usefulness and usability outweighed feelings of inadequacy. PMID:23244061
Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter; Margrett, Jennifer A; Yearns, Mary; Franke, Warren; Yang, Hen-I; Wong, Johnny; Chang, Carl K
Better understanding of how Hispanic olderadults describe their chronic pain might suggest ways to support Hispanic olderadults to talk about important pain information with their practitioner. The study aim was to describe how Hispanic olderadults communicate pain information, including the amount of pain information and communication processes employed. A secondary analysis with a descriptive design was used. The data was from a larger primary study that tested the effect of practitioner pain question phrasing on the amount of pain information described by olderadults with osteoarthritis pain. The sample for the current secondary analysis was comprised of the 24 Hispanic olderadults with chronic osteoarthritis pain. In the primary study olderadults watched and orally responded to a videotape of a practitioner asking about their pain. Pain content from the patient responses was content analyzed by two independent raters. In the current secondary analysis study communication processes were also content analyzed by two independent raters using a priori criteria from Communication Accommodation Theory (clarity, syntax, complexity, explicitness, and staying on topic). Participants described M = 5.5 (SD = 3.39) items of pain information. The majority stayed on topic, half spoke clearly and explicitly. Hispanic olderadults with osteoarthritis pain concisely describe clinically important pain information when given the opportunity to do so.
In two experiments recognition of actions of a robbery presented in a video was examined in older and younger adults. In both experiments olderadults had more false alarms and showed less accurate recognition than younger adults. In addition, when participants were asked in Experiment 1 to indicate Remember\\/Know\\/Guess judgments for actions they considered true, olderadults accepted more false
A handful of scholars have acknowledged that, along side the traditional homeless, there are now older people who become homeless for the first time in old age. Few researchers, however, have systematically compared the recent older homeless with the chronic or traditional homeless. In the research presented here, we compare recent older homeless with long-term older homeless adults in Toronto according to their health and wealth, their housing history, and their use of health and social services. Findings indicate that people who become homeless for the first time at older ages have needs that are different from the lifetime elderly homeless and require different approaches to intervention. PMID:17804358
Olderadults with schizophrenia experience a high prevalence of comorbid conditions. The perspective of olderadults with schizophrenia about their physical health has not been considered as a contributing factor. This paper presents findings from a grounded theory study that explored this perspective among 28 olderadults with schizophrenia. Analyses revealed that finding a sense of belonging supported feeling physically healthy. A sense of connection with others and a physical place were associated with supporting a sense of belonging. Awareness of the facilitators of and barriers to finding a place to belong is key to improving the physical health of this vulnerable population. PMID:20624018
Leutwyler, Heather C; Chafetz, Linda; Wallhagen, Margaret
Text Version... Olderadults can learn to remember high-value information ... the efficient use of memory, in both ... lose their memories of inessential ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials
Recent research has demonstrated benefits for olderadults from training attentional control using a variable priority strategy, but the construct validity of the training task and the degree to which benefits of training transfer to other contexts are unclear. The goal of this study was to characterize baseline performance on the training task in a sample of 105 healthy older
|Approximately 34 million people, or 13 percent of the population of the United States, are 65 or older. It is not just the increasing numbers that make it important for counselors to serve as advocates for olderadults. Ageism, societal marginalization, vulnerability, and elder abuse are growing problems for this population. There is evidence…
|Olderadults are less likely to be using computers and less knowledgeable about Internet security than are younger users. The two groups do not differ on trust of Internet information. The younger group shows no age or gender differences. Within the older group, computer users are more trusting of Internet information, and along with those with…
Grimes, Galen A.; Hough, Michelle G.; Mazur, Elizabeth; Signorella, Margaret L.
|Self-reports of frequency of crying episodes are described for two nonclinical samples of younger and olderadult men and women. Comparison of samples revealed no evidence for either a decreased or increased frequency of crying among the older sample. Crying episodes function as an adaptive coping response to and should not be automatically…
The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) states that within the next few decades, adults aged 65 and older will represent 20% of the US population. As a result, health professionals will see an increase in the number of older patients they treat and as such, must be knowledgeable about the aging process and age-associated issues in order to provide appropriate
|Behavioral interventions based on operant principles are commonly attempted to manage agitation in olderadults with dementia. The extent to which operant conditioning can occur in persons with particular dementias, however, is unclear. The present study involved use of a button-pressing task to evaluate the sensitivity of the responding of older…
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between self-efficacy and imagery use in older male (n = 40) and female (n = 52) exercisers. Participants’ self-efficacy was evaluated using the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Exercisers, and their use of imagery was evaluated using the Exercise Imagery Questionnaire. Results revealed that olderadult exercisers were most efficacious in
Natascha N. Wesch; Marcia I. Milne; Shauna M. Burke; Craig R. Hall
\\u000a Physical activity offers an effective, nonpharmacological means to improve the health of olderadults, including those with\\u000a arthritis. Clinical practice guidelines identify a substantial therapeutic role for physical activity in osteoarthritis and\\u000a rheumatoid arthritis. For olderadults, including those with arthritis, regular physical activity counteracts the reduction\\u000a in fitness, stamina, and loss of muscle strength associated with aging, prevents the
Dorothy D. Dunlop; Pamela A. Semanik; Rowland W. Chang
Little empirical evidence is available on olderadults regarding the existence of a continuum between “normal” personality traits and DSM-IV-TR Axes I and II disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Given the typical complexity of clinical presentations in advanced age, it is feasible to expect a dimensional conceptualization of psychopathology to apply to olderadults. In this pilot investigation, we first
Luciana Laganà; Carmine Tramutolo; Lucia Boncori; Anna Clara Cruciani
More than 2 million olderadults identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT). The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the physical and mental health needs of LGBT olderadults to sensitize nurses to the specific needs of this group. Nurses are in a prominent position to create health care environments that will meet the needs of this invisible, and often misunderstood, group of people. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 39(11), 46-52.]. PMID:24066784
Jablonski, Rita A; Vance, David E; Beattie, Elizabeth
... asthma medications come in the form of an inhaler. Using an inhaler requires a certain degree of coordination and dexterity. The patient must press down quickly on the inhaler while drawing in a short, deep breath. Older ...
... Some people who are treated for cancer experience “fuzzy” thinking or memory problems, particularly if they are ... their own. However, for some older people, this “fuzzy thinking” can make it harder to carry out ...
... that raise the risk for stroke, such as: Obesity Diabetes A smoking habit Sedentary lifestyle Drug or ... sources of disability in older people. Overweight and obesity make arthritis worse which can increase your risk ...
|This study examined how Flesch Reading Ease and text cohesion affect olderadults' comprehension of common health texts. All olderadults benefited when high Flesh Reading Ease was combined with high cohesion. Olderadults with small working memories had more difficulty understanding texts high in Flesch Reading Ease. Additionally, olderadults…
... Unit@dhs.gov www.fema.gov National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (NCPTSD) A center within the U.S. Department of ... adults, eliminate the stigma of mental illness and treatment, promote healthy ... care for olderadults. To achieve this vision, the Foundation’s ...
Due to the social isolation imposed by chronic illness and functional limitations, homebound olderadults are more vulnerable to depression than their mobility-unimpaired peers. In this study, we compared 81 low-income homebound olderadults, aged 60 and older, with their 130 ambulatory peers who attended senior centers, with respect to their depressive symptoms, depression risk and protective factors, and self-reported
Olderadults continue to be sexually active in their later years. A range of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV have been reported among olderadults. Risk factors for STIs in older populations include (a) normal sexual changes associated with aging (e.g., increased time to attain an erection, decreased vaginal lubrication, decreases in sexual hormones); (b) psychosocial changes (e.g., loss of partner or spouse and re-entering the dating scene); and (c) risky sexual behaviors, including no or infrequent use of condoms. Screening of adults for STIs should occur regardless of age based on guidelines such as those from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. As discussed in this article, nurses can use assessment guides and engage in interventions such as counseling and education with olderadults to reduce STI risk or refer for treatment. Numerous online resources exist for both nurses and olderadults to increase knowledge of STIs. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 39(11), 53-60.]. PMID:24066789
In 1999 we proposed a Modified Food Guide Pyramid for adults aged 70+ y. It has been extensively used in a variety of settings and formats to highlight the unique dietary challenges of olderadults. We now propose a Modified MyPyramid for OlderAdults in a format consistent with the MyPyramid graphic. It is not intended to substitute for MyPyramid, which is a multifunctional Internet-based program allowing for the calculation of individualized food-based dietary guidance and providing supplemental information on food choices and preparation. Pedagogic issues related to computer availability, Web access, and Internet literacy of olderadults suggests a graphic version of MyPyramid is needed. Emphasized are whole grains and variety within the grains group; variety and nutrient density, with specific emphasis on different forms particularly suited to olderadults' needs (e.g. frozen) in the vegetables and fruits groups; low-fat and non-fat forms of dairy products including reduced lactose alternatives in the milk group; low saturated fat and trans fat choices in the oils group; and low saturated fat and vegetable choices in the meat and beans group. Underlying themes stress nutrient- and fiber-rich foods within each group and food sources of nutrients rather than supplements. Fluid and physical activity icons serve as the foundation of MyPyramid for OlderAdults. A flag to maintain an awareness of the potential need to consider supplemental forms of calcium, and vitamins D and B-12 is placed at the top of the pyramid. Discussed are newer concerns about potential overnutrition in the current food landscape available to olderadults. PMID:18156396
Lichtenstein, Alice H; Rasmussen, Helen; Yu, Winifred W; Epstein, Susanna R; Russell, Robert M
This chapter focuses on the special issues that need to be considered when making decisions to screen older persons for cancer.\\u000a Specifically, while there is substantial evidence that screening for colorectal, breast, and cervical cancer reduces cancer\\u000a mortality among persons in their 50s and 60s [1–6], few screening trials included persons over age 70. Therefore, clinicians\\u000a must assess whether to
Depression is related to disability and affects rehabilitation participation, outcomes, and compliance with treatment. Improving olderadult depression detection and referral requires knowledge, skills, supportive organizational policies, and access to mental health experts. This review provides a selected overview of evidence-based approaches for screening of suspected cases of depression in olderadults by physical therapists and other non-mental health professionals and discusses procedures to refer suspected cases to primary care providers and/or mental health specialists for evaluation, including resources and a tool to assist in communicating depression-related information to the primary care provider or mental health specialist. We hope that this review will promote the incorporation of evidence-based screening and referral of suspected cases of depression in olderadults into routine practice. PMID:23619921
|Olderadults are the fastest growing segment of the population. With these changing demographics, mental health professionals will be seeing more older clients. Additionally, olderadults are an underserved population in that most olderadults in need of mental health services do not receive treatment. Thus, it is essential that treatments for…
... and is frequently followed by admission to a nursing home and extensive rehabilitation. 2 One in three adults who lived independently before their hip fracture remains in a nursing home for at least a year after their ...
Objective Investigate the importance of viewing belief systems about health maintenance holistically. Methods Qualitative (N=74) and quantitative data (N=95) were obtained from multi-ethnic rural-dwelling olderadults with diabetes to characterize their Common Sense Models (CSMs) of diabetes. Results There is a discrete number of CSMs held by olderadults, each characterized by unique clusters of diabetes-related knowledge and beliefs. Individuals whose CSM was shaped by biomedical knowledge were better able to achieve glycemic control. Conclusions Viewing individuals’ health beliefs incrementally or in a piece-meal strategy may be less effective for health behavior change than focusing on beliefs holistically.
Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Ip, Edward H.; Chapman, Christine; Kirk, Julienne K.; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.
The mistreatment of olderadults can take many forms, including abuse, neglect, financial exploitation, and abandonment. Reporting suspected mistreatment is mandated in most states, but many clinicians have little or no training in recognizing the indicators of mistreatment and so most cases go unreported. The Elder Assessment Instrument provides a way for nurses to screen olderadults for possible mistreatment and can be used in most clinical settings. For a free online video demonstrating the use of this instrument, go to http://links.lww.com/A321. PMID:19033914
Foot problems related to aging or disease processes such as nail fungus or arthritis often go unrecognized and untreated, and can lead to considerable dysfunction. Multiple contributing factors, such as repetitive stress and structural changes in the foot, further compromise function. Effective topical management approaches for xerosis, fissures, hyperkeratotic lesions, and fungal infections can lessen the severity of symptoms. However, when recalcitrant, such as long-standing onychomycosis, prescription medications may be warranted. These medications are not without serious side effects and should be used with caution in olderadults. New methods that pose fewer risks, such as film-forming solutions and photodynamic therapy, are emerging to treat skin and toenail infections. Several nonpharmacological and pharmacological treatment approaches are presented in this article. PMID:20873688
Syncope is a frequent symptom in older patients. The diagnostic and therapeutic management may be complex, particularly in olderadults with syncope and comorbidities or cognitive impairment. Morbidity related to syncope is more common in older persons and ranges from loss of confidence, depressive illness and fear of falling, to fractures and consequent institutionalization. Moreover, advan-ced age is associated with short and long-term morbidity and mortality after syncope. A standardized approach may obtain a definite diagnosis in more than 90% of the older patients with syncope and may reduce diagnostic tools and hospitalizations. The initial evaluation, including anamnesis, medical examination, orthostatic hypotension test and electrocardiogram (ECG), may be more difficult in the elderly, specially for the limited value of medical history, particularly for the certain diagnosis of neuro-mediated syncope. For this reason neuroautonomic assessment is an essential step to confirm a suspect of neuromediated syncope. Orthostatic blood pressure measurement, head up tilt test, carotid sinus massage and insertable cardiac monitor are safe and useful investigations, particularly in older patients. The most common causes of syncope in the olderadults are orthostatic hypotension, carotid sinus hypersensitivity, neuromediated syncope and cardiac arrhythmias. The diagnostic evaluation and the treatment of cardiac syncope are similar in older and young patients and for this reason will not be discussed. In older patients unexplained falls could be related to syncope, particularly in patients with retrograde amnesia. There are no consistent differences in the treatment of syncope between older and younger population, but a specific approach is necessary for orthostatic hypotension, drug therapy and pacemaker implantation. PMID:19749680
Ungar, A; Morrione, A; Rafanelli, M; Ruffolo, E; Brunetti, M A; Chisciotti, V M; Masotti, G; Del Rosso, A; Marchionni, N
The difficulty of reasoning tasks depends on their relational complexity, which increases with the number of relations that must be considered simultaneously to make an inference, and on the number of irrelevant items that must be inhibited. The authors examined the ability of younger and olderadults to integrate multiple relations and inhibit irrelevant stimuli. Young adults performed well at all but the highest level of relational complexity, whereas olderadults performed poorly even at a medium level of relational complexity, especially when irrelevant information was presented. Simulations based on a neurocomputational model of analogical reasoning, Learning and Inference with Schemas and Analogies (LISA), suggest that the observed decline in reasoning performance may be explained by a decline in attention and inhibitory functions in olderadults. PMID:15584784
Viskontas, Indre V; Morrison, Robert G; Holyoak, Keith J; Hummel, John E; Knowlton, Barbara J
|Objective: Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant medication for treating child, adolescent, and adult ADHD. This meta-analysis compared the effects in younger and olderadults. Method: A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from two double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Data from patients aged 18-25 years were compared with data from…
We investigated comprehension of and adaptation to speech in an unfamiliar accent in olderadults. Participants performed a speeded sentence verification task for accented sentences: one group upon auditory-only presentation, and the other group upon audiovisual presentation. Our questions were whether audiovisual presentation would facilitate adaptation to the novel accent, and which cognitive and linguistic measures would predict adaptation. Participants
Abstract The success of home telemedicine depends on end-user adoption, which has been slow despite rapid advances in technological development. This study focuses on an examination of significant factors that may predict the successful adoption of home telemedicine services (HTS) among olderadults. Based on previous studies in the fields of remote patient monitoring, assisted living technologies, and consumer health information technology acceptance, eight factors were identified as a framework for qualitative testing. Twelve focus groups were conducted with an older population living in both urban and rural environments. The results reveal seven predictors that play an important role in perceptions of HTS: perceived usefulness, effort expectancy, social influence, perceived security, computer anxiety, facilitating conditions, and physicians' opinion. The results provide important insights in the field of olderadults' acceptance of HTS, with guidelines for the strategic planning, developing, and marketing of HTS for the graying market. PMID:23931702
Cimperman, Miha; Bren?i?, Maja Makovec; Trkman, Peter; Stanonik, Mateja de Leonni
Olderadult women age 55+ years (N = 549) were interviewed as part of a population-based epidemiological research study of lifetime experiences with physical and sexual assault and current mental health problems. Although overall rates of psychopathology were low, producing very small cells for comparison, women who reported experiencing physical…
Acierno, Ron; Lawyer, Steven R.; Rheingold, Alyssa; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.
A quantitative descriptive secondary data analysis design was used to describe older black adult communication of osteoarthritis pain and the communication strategies used to convey the pain information. Pain content from 74 older black adults with persistent osteoarthritis pain was analyzed using criteria from the American Pain Society arthritis pain management guidelines that included type of pain (nociceptive/neuropathic), quality of pain, source, location, intensity, duration/time course, pain affect, effect on personal lifestyle, functional status, current pain treatments, use of recommended glucosamine sulfate, effectiveness of prescribed treatments, prescription analgesic side effects, weight management to ideal body weight, exercise regimen or physical therapy and/or occupational therapy, and indications for surgery. Communication strategies were analyzed with criteria derived from Communication Accommodation Theory that included being clear, using medical syntax, using ethnic specific syntax, being explicit, and staying on topic when discussing pain. The majority of communicated pain content included pain location, intensity, and timing. Regarding communication strategies, most of the older black adults used specific descriptions of pain and remained on topic. Fewer used explicit descriptions of pain that produced a vivid mental image, and few used medical terminology. Use of medical syntax and more explicit descriptions might improve communication about pain between health care practitioners and patients. Practitioners might assist older black adults with persistent osteoarthritis pain to communicate important clinical pain information by helping them to use relevant medical terminology and more explicit pain descriptions when discussing pain management. PMID:23141080
|This cross-sectional study assessed undergraduate attitudes toward olderadults and attitude endurance 3 to 18 months after aging coursework. Survey respondents included 349 students who took an aging elective and 430 comparison students. Aging-elective students indicated more positive attitudes than comparison students. Attitudes did not vary…
Funderburk, Brooke; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Storms, Lene Levy; Solomon, David H.
As the population continues to age, social work practitioners and researchers will increasingly confront the needs of elders with alcohol use disorders. Alcohol abuse poses special risks for increased morbidity and mortality among olderadults, contributing to the heightened use of medical resources and the related increase in medical costs. Although, the prevalence of alcohol use disorders in the elderly
Sherry M. Cummings; Brian Bride; Ann M. Rawlins-Shaw
Use of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) was compared with nurse-administered intermittent intramuscular (NM) Injections of morphine in olderadults during their postoperative recovery. Data analyses indicated that the PCA and IM groups did not dyfer in pain intensity, pain distress, and satisfaction. The PCA group had significantly less sleep disturbance from pain than the IM group. Neither group was considered to
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a new model of health care designed to improve the quality of life and the efficiency of resource use for olderadults with multimorbidity. Design and Methods: Guided Care enhances primary care by infusing the operative principles of seven chronic care innovations: disease management, self-management, case management, lifestyle
Cynthia M. Boyd; Chad Boult; Efrat Shadmi; Bruce Leff; Rosemarie Brager; Linda Dunbar; Jennifer L. Wolff; Stephen Wegener
|A survey of 157 olderadult volunteers suggests that volunteering provides substantial benefits such as maintaining a sense of identity and self-esteem, meeting the need to belong to a group, and affording opportunities to undertake new learning challenges. Volunteer organizations should attempt to meet these needs as a way to retain volunteers.…
|This curriculum guide contains materials for a course that provides occupationally specific training designed to develop knowledge and skills for employment in the area of services for olderadults. Contents include an introduction, the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) covered; sample course outlines; instructional strategies organized…
|This qualitative study explores the international migration patterns and the family lives of olderadults. Informants (N = 54) reported that they came to the United States to help out their grown children with housekeeping, child care, and domestic economizing. They described how they strategically navigated U.S. immigration laws choosing to…
This article is a summary of the findings of a research project that included ten older rural adults from a county in south Georgia. The research focused on self-directed learning. The researcher conducted two interviews with each participant over a two day period. The findings focused around four research questions: what is the nature of…
... the safety of certain activities and increasing your fitness level. The September 3, 2008, issue of JAMA includes an article reporting that regular physical activity can improve mental function in olderadults with memory complaints. This Patient Page is based on one ...
Scimitar syndrome is a rare congenital heart disease. It is divided into subgroups of infantile, adult, and multiple cardiac and extracardiac malformation. Most patients are diagnosed during infancy and occasionally in adolescence, but very few patients are older than 20 years of age, and only some cases have severe symptoms that require surgical correction. We report a case of a
Shiang-Fen Huang; Wen-Chung Yu; Jia-Haur Chern; Yu-Chin Lee
This cross-sectional study assessed undergraduate attitudes toward olderadults and attitude endurance 3 to 18 months after aging coursework. Survey respondents included 349 students who took an aging elective and 430 comparison students. Aging-elective students indicated more positive attitudes than comparison students. Attitudes did not vary across 3 groups staggered by time elapsed from completing the course until testing (3
Brooke Funderburk; JoAnn Damron-Rodriguez; Lené Levy Storms; David H. Solomon
|In this study we will analyze the attitude of olderadults to advertisements, differentiating between advertisements that contain rhetorical figures (trope ads) and those that do not (explicit ads). We will also study their attitude toward the brand advertised according to their degree of involvement with the product. In the course of the…
|Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if olderadults are capable and willing to interact with a computerized exercise promotion interface and to determine to what extent they accept computer-generated exercise recommendations. Design and Methods: Time and requests for assistance were recorded while 34 college-educated volunteers,…
Along with many city and countries around the world, the age structure of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region's population is shifting towards a greater proportion of olderadults. In 1983, the aged population (65 years and above) reached 7% and this rate is expected to double to 14.4% by 2016, a relatively short period of 33 years. However, negative
Upon completion of the chapter, the student will be able to:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Identify the different components of the history and physical examination and how these differ in olderadults compared to\\u000a younger adults.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a Identify and understand the potential challenges in caring for olderadults and ways to overcome them.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a Enumerate the changes that occur with normal aging and
Approximately 5% of olderadults have a dementia diagnosis, and language deterioration is commonly associated with this disorder (Kempler, 2005). Several instruments have been developed to diagnose dementia and assess language capabilities of elderly adults. However, none of these instruments take a functional approach to language assessment as described by Skinner (1957). The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a function-based assessment for language deficits of olderadults. Thirty-one participants were categorized into a control group (n ?=? 15) and a dementia group (n ?=? 16) based on their score on the Dementia Rating Scale-2. Individuals with dementia performed significantly worse on the tact assessment than those without dementia. Participants from both groups performed better on measures of tacts than intraverbals or mands, even though topographically identical responses were required in these assessments. The data provide support for Skinner's conceptualization of functionally independent verbal operants. PMID:23814369
The purpose of the present research was to explore the role of stereotype threat as a mediator of older people’s memory performance under different instructional sets. In three studies, younger and older participants completed a memory test that was either framed as a memorization or as an impression formation task. Across these studies, memory performance was greater for younger than for olderadults and was higher in the impression formation than memorization condition, but was not different for olderadults in the two instruction conditions. These results also showed that age differences in memory performance were mediated by participants’ feelings of stereotype threat, such that age was positively related to stereotype threat and stereotype threat was negatively related to memory performance. These data demonstrate that concerns about being negatively stereotyped influence age differences in memory performance, and that the effects of these feelings on performance are not easily reduced by reframing the task instructions.
Declines in executive function and dual-task performance have been related to falls in olderadults, and recent research suggests that olderadults at risk for falls also show impairments on real-world tasks, such as crossing a street. The present study examined whether falls risk was associated with driving performance in a high-fidelity simulator. Participants were classified as high or low falls risk using the Physiological Profile Assessment and completed a number of challenging simulated driving assessments in which they responded quickly to unexpected events. High falls risk drivers had slower response times (~2.1 seconds) to unexpected events compared to low falls risk drivers (~1.7 seconds). Furthermore, when asked to perform a concurrent cognitive task while driving, high falls risk drivers showed greater costs to secondary task performance than did low falls risk drivers, and low falls risk olderadults also outperformed high falls risk olderadults on a computer-based measure of dual-task performance. Our results suggest that attentional differences between high and low falls risk olderadults extend to simulated driving performance.
Gaspar, John G.; Neider, Mark B.; Kramer, Arthur F.
|The British "Older and Wiser" project demonstrated the need for educational opportunities for olderadults from minority groups. The double barriers of ageism and racism faced by these adults must be addressed. (SK)|
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The focus in this paper is on the social domain of quality of life, and more particularly loneliness. The empirical literature on olderadult loneliness is reviewed, thereby challenging three often-held assumptions that figure prominently in public debates on loneliness. The first assumption that loneliness is a problem specifically for older people finds only partial support. Loneliness is common only among the very old. The second assumption is that people in individualistic societies are most lonely. Contrary to this belief, findings show that olderadults in northern European countries tend to be less lonely than those in the more familialistic southern European countries. The scarce data on Central and Eastern Europe suggest a high prevalence of olderadult loneliness in those countries. The third assumption that loneliness has increased over the past decades finds no support. Loneliness levels have decreased, albeit slightly. The review notes the persistence of ageist attitudes, and underscores the importance of considering people's frame of reference and normative orientation in analyses of loneliness. PMID:19517025
SYNOPSIS Despite the benefits of treatment for late-life depression, we are faced with the challenges of underutilization of mental health services by olderadults and non-adherence to offered interventions. This paper describes psychosocial and interactional barriers and facilitators of treatment engagement among depressed olderadults served by community health care settings. We describe the need to engage olderadults in treatment using interventions that: 1. target psychological barriers such as stigma and other negative beliefs about depression and its treatment; and 2. increase individuals’ involvement in the treatment decision-making process. We then present personalized treatment engagement interventions that our group has designed for a variety of community settings.
Proper vitamin nutrition is essential for all people but especially for elderly persons, because they are at higher risk for deficiency than younger adults. A review of the clinical effects of vitamin deficiency shows how easily deficiency can masquerade as other morbidities, such as skin, neurologic, and gait abnormalities. Given the numerous readily available forms and sources of supplementation, their low cost, and their rather limited potential for harm, the goal of good vitamin nutrition for the elderly is easily attainable. To be successful in this goal, physicians must look for patients at risk and for those with features of frank vitamin deficiency. Laboratory testing is most helpful with respect to vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. Given the great value of clinical assessment, the low cost of vitamins, and the higher cost of laboratory testing, the authors do not recommend testing before instituting multivitamin use or extra supplementation with individual vitamins unless the diagnosis of deficiency is in question or the use of supplementation would put the patient at risk. The authors' general recommendations are * one multivitamin daily * extra vitamin E for patients with cardiovascular risk factors or Alzheimer's dementia * extra vitamin D for patients with known osteoporosis, osteoporosis risk factors, or strong risk factors for vitamin D deficiency * extra folate for patients with cardiovascular risk factors (especially smokers) and alcoholics * extra thiamine for alcoholics. PMID:12608503
Johnson, Karin A; Bernard, Marie A; Funderburg, Karen
This study investigated the influence of attentional and motor demands on motor overflow in 17 healthy young (18-35 years) and 17 olderadults (60-80 years). Participants performed a finger pressing task by exerting either 33% or 66% of their maximal force output using their dominant or nondominant hand. Overflow was concurrently recorded in the passive hand. Attention was manipulated via a tactile stimulus presented to one or both hands for certain trials. Results showed that olderadults exhibited greater overflow than young adults and that the effect of target force was exacerbated in olderadults. Further, only olderadult overflow was increased when tactile stimulation was directed to one or both hands. Increased overflow in olderadults may result from bilateral cortical activation that is influenced by increased task demands. To perform comparatively to younger adults, olderadults may compensate for age-related brain changes by recruiting an increased cortical network. PMID:18728998
Addamo, Patricia K; Farrow, Maree; Hoy, Kate E; Bradshaw, John L; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie
|Context: Identifying ways to meet the health care needs of olderadults is important because their numbers are increasing and they often have more health care issues. High resilience level may be one factor that helps olderadults adjust to the hardships associated with aging. Rural community-dwelling olderadults often face unique challenges…
This article discusses the potential impact of new media on olderadults. It outlines trends in population aging and in the use of computers and the Internet. The potential demands of new media on olderadults are characterized, and physical and psychological changes in olderadults that may affect new media use are briefly reviewed. Finally, the article provides design
Interventions to reduce risk for chronic diseases have been recommended for olderadults. Specific programs that address risk factors for cardiovascular disease have been shown to improve risk status in olderadults. However, perceived barriers to these programs often limit the number of olderadults who participate in these programs. The aim of this study was to determine the principal
This paper reports a content analysis of 778 television commercials. Commercials were examined for the presence of olderadults. Commercials featuring olderadults were then examined more closely to describe the nature of the portrayals. Consistent with previous research, olderadults were shown to be underrepresented in the commercials examined, as compared to their presence in the population. This effect
Background: Impaired kidney function is associated with increased mortality risk in olderadults. It remains un- known, however, whether longitudinal declines in kid- ney function are independently associated with in- creased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in olderadults. Methods: The Cardiovascular Health Study evaluated a cohort of community-dwelling olderadults enrolled from 1989 to 1993 in 4 US communities with
Dena E. Rifkin; Michael G. Shlipak; Ronit Katz; Linda F. Fried; David Siscovick; Michel Chonchol; Anne B. Newman; Mark J. Sarnak
Pain is a physical, emotional and psychologic phenomenon that is often ignored in olderadults causing depression and poor quality of life. Olderadults report the use of complementary and alternative medicine in some form with 80% of these users reporting improvement in their health conditions. Although physical pain in the olderadult is usually managed with pharmacologic interventions, methods
Pain is a physical, emotional and psychologic phenomenon that is often ignored in olderadults causing depression and poor quality of life. Olderadults report the use of complementary and alternative medicine in some form with 80% of these users reporting improvement in their health conditions. Although physical pain in the olderadult is usually managed with pharmacologic interventions, Methods
|By searching the keywords of "olderadult" and "computer" in ERIC, Academic Search Premier, and PsycINFO, this study reviewed 70 studies published after 1990 that address olderadults' computer learning and usage. This study revealed 5 prominent themes among reviewed literature: (a) motivations and barriers of olderadults' usage of computers,…
By searching the keywords of “olderadult” and “computer” in ERIC, Academic Search Premier, and PsycINFO, this study reviewed 70 studies published after 1990 that address olderadults' computer learning and usage. This study revealed 5 prominent themes among reviewed literature: (a) motivations and barriers of olderadults' usage of computers, (b) age-related differences in computer learning and usage, (c)
Context: Identifying ways to meet the health care needs of olderadults is important because their numbers are increasing and they often have more health care issues. High resilience level may be one factor that helps olderadults adjust to the hardships associated with aging. Rural community-dwelling olderadults often face unique challenges such…
How might olderadults' nonobligatory social interactions in a “third place” be described and interpreted? The ethnographic methodology, primarily participant observation, was used to gather data from a naturally occurring group of olderadults who frequent a fast-food restaurant. Emerging themes include the concept of sociability, play, and laughter. Findings suggest that: (a) olderadults congregate at this fast-food restaurant
Phobias are common in later life, yet treatment research in this population remains scant. The efficacy of exposure therapy, in combination with other Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) components, in the treatment of specific phobia with a middle and older aged sample was examined. Sixteen adults aged 45–68 with DSM-IV diagnosis of a specific phobia received a manualized intervention over ten weeks, and were compared with a control group. Results indicated significant time effects in the treatment group for the primary outcome variables of phobic severity and avoidance as well as secondary outcome variables including depression and anxiety. Symptom presence and severity also significantly declined in the treatment group. No significant changes in state anxiety were noted across the treatment period. Such results provide support for the efficacy of exposure combined with CBT treatment for specific phobia in middle to older aged adults.
Pachana, Nancy A; Woodward, Rana M; Byrne, Gerard JA
This analysis uses in-depth interview data collected from 145 African American, European American and Native American men and women aged 70 and older who reside in two rural North Carolina counties to understand the role of religious faith and prayer in the health self-management of these olderadults. The analysis addresses three specific questions: how do these olderadults use religion to help them manage their health; are there ethnic and gender differences in the use of religion; and are differences in health status related to differences in the use of religion? The integral role of religion in the lives of these older rural adults is an overarching theme present in the interview texts. Six major themes link religion and health self-management: (1) prayer and faith in health self-management, (2) reading the Bible, (3) church services, (4) mental and spiritual health, (5) stories of physical healing, and (6) ambivalence. Faith and religious activities provide an anchor in the lives of these olderadults. There is little variation in the use of religion for health self-management by gender, ethnicity or health status. These results suggest that the strength of religion in rural culture may limit the effectiveness of general religiosity scales to discern the relationship of religion to health and health behavior in rural populations. PMID:14618010
Social work with olderadults frequently occurs in the client's home. Although practitioners and the professional literature acknowledge the existence of differences between agency-based and home-based practice, little attention has been given to the way the home environment impacts on the intervention process. This exploratory study examined practitioner-identified events that impact on the intervention process in home-based practice. The events
We examine practical memory concerns in a sample of community-dwelling olderadults. Participants responded to open-ended questions that were designed to solicit information regarding memory self-efficacy, memory management, memory remediation, and fears about memory aging in adulthood. Results indicated that (a) important dates, such as birthdays and anniversaries, were easily remembered, but names were not; (b) external memory aids were
Generativity is conceived as a configuration of psychosocial features constellated around the goal of providing for the next generation. This study used a stratified random sampling of young (ages 22–27), midlife (ages 37–42), and older (ages 67–72) adults to examine age–cohort differences in 4 generativity features: generative concern, commitments, actions, and narration. Although prevailing views on generativity (e.g., Erikson, 1963)
Antipsychotic medications are widely used to manage psychotic and behavioral disorders in olderadults, including primary\\u000a psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, and psychosis and behavioral disturbances associated with dementia. These two broad\\u000a diagnostic indications are associated with contrasting recommended treatment durations, with the former requiring indefinite\\u000a treatment across the life span. Antipsychotic drug dosing for schizophrenia is based primarily on
Chloe Leon; Philip Gerretsen; Hiroyuki Uchida; Takefumi Suzuki; Tarek Rajji; David C. Mamo
The present paper, drawing from the perspective of social cognition, examines and evaluates an intervention based on social-cognitive perspective-taking on the reduction of stereotyping and prejudice in olderadults. Data were collected in a sample of Spanish participants with a mean age of 63.2 years. The intervention, aimed at reducing prejudice…
Castillo, Jose-Luis Alvarez; Camara, Carmen Palmero; Eguizabal, Alfredo Jimenez
|The present paper, drawing from the perspective of social cognition, examines and evaluates an intervention based on social-cognitive perspective-taking on the reduction of stereotyping and prejudice in olderadults. Data were collected in a sample of Spanish participants with a mean age of 63.2 years. The intervention, aimed at reducing…
Castillo, Jose-Luis Alvarez; Camara, Carmen Palmero; Eguizabal, Alfredo Jimenez
|Presents a study of the contrasting social attitudes toward olderadults in three different social structures: the Caucasus region of the Soviet Union, a traditional society; Japan, transitional but retaining some traditional values; and the United States, with its obsolescence technology and youth-oriented culture. (MF)|
Late-onset alcoholism is a common occurrence in olderadults and may be a consequence of life-changing events such as retirement, declining health, loss of independence, or loss of a loved one. Alcohol use and misuse often go unrecognized. Alcohol use can cause significant drug interactions and exacerbate underlying disease. Because of physiologic changes in olderadults, alcohol pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics may be altered and contribute to adverse alcohol-induced clinical consequences. We report on an elderly man who may have had unrecognized alcohol-induced drug interactions, falling, and exacerbation of heart failure. Following a fall, he was admitted to the hospital. After discharge, the man and his wife relocated to an assisted living facility and he abstained from alcohol. Four months later the man received a prescription for a glass of wine or two with dinner; one week later after two glasses of wine, a dose of lorazepam was given. Later that evening the patient fell and suffered a subdural hematoma. The effects of alcohol in olderadults are discussed. PMID:22079793
Healthy monolingual olderadults experience changes in their lexical abilities. Bilingual individuals immersed in an environment in which their second language is dominant experience lexical changes, or attrition, in their first language. Changes in lexical skills in the first language of older individuals who are bilinguals, therefore, can be attributed to the typical processes accompanying older age, the typical processes accompanying first-language attrition in bilingual contexts, or both. The challenge, then, in understanding how lexical skills change in bilingual older individuals, lies in dissociating these processes. This paper addresses the difficulty of teasing apart the effects of ageing and attrition in older bilinguals and proposes some solutions. It presents preliminary results from a study of lexical processing in bilingual younger and older individuals. Processing differences were found for the older bilingual participants in their first language (L1), but not in their second language (L2). It is concluded that the lexical behaviour found for older bilinguals in this study can be attributed to L1 attrition and not to processes of ageing. These findings are discussed in the context of previous reports concerning changes in lexical skills associated with typical ageing and those associated with bilingual L1 attrition. PMID:18568793
Previous research has demonstrated that olderadults have difficulty retrieving contextual material over items alone. Recent research suggests this deficit can be reduced by adding emotional context, allowing for the possibility that memory for social impressions may show less age-related decline than memory for other types of contextual information. Two studies investigated how orienting to social or self-relevant aspects of information contributed to the learning and retrieval of impressions in young and olderadults. Participants encoded impressions of others in conditions varying in the use of self-reference (Experiment 1) and interpersonal meaningfulness (Experiment 2), and completed memory tasks requiring the retrieval of specific traits. For both experiments, age groups remembered similar numbers of impressions. In Experiment 1, using more self-relevant encoding contexts increased memory for impressions over orienting to stimuli in a non-social way, regardless of age. In Experiment 2, olderadults had enhanced memory for impressions presented in an interpersonally meaningful relative to a personally irrelevant way, whereas young adults were unaffected by this manipulation. The results provide evidence that increasing social relevance ameliorates age differences in memory for impressions, and enhances olderadults’ ability to successfully retrieve contextual information.
Mobility is fundamental to active aging and is intimately linked to health status and quality of life. Although there is widespread acceptance regarding the importance of mobility in olderadults, there have been few attempts to comprehensively portray mobility, and research has to a large extent been discipline specific. In this article, a new theoretical framework for mobility is presented with the goals of raising awareness of the complexity of factors that influence mobility and stimulating new integrative and interdisciplinary research ideas. Mobility is broadly defined as the ability to move oneself (e.g., by walking, by using assistive devices, or by using transportation) within community environments that expand from one's home, to the neighborhood, and to regions beyond. The concept of mobility is portrayed through 5 fundamental categories of determinants (cognitive, psychosocial, physical, environmental, and financial), with gender, culture, and biography (personal life history) conceptualized as critical cross-cutting influences. Each category of determinants consists of an increasing number of factors, demonstrating greater complexity, as the mobility environment expands farther from the home. The framework illustrates how mobility impairments can lead to limitations in accessing different life-spaces and stresses the associations among determinants that influence mobility. By bridging disciplines and representing mobility in an inclusive manner, the model suggests that research needs to be more interdisciplinary and current mobility findings should be interpreted more comprehensively, and new more complex strategies should be developed to address mobility concerns. PMID:20145017
Webber, Sandra C; Porter, Michelle M; Menec, Verena H
|The present experiment examined temporal discounting across 3 different age bands: adolescents, adults, and olderadults (mean ages 14, 46, and 73 years, respectively). A computerized task was employed in which participants were asked to choose between larger rewards available at a specified time in the future--either 100 British Pounds or 1,000…
This study aimed to describe the prevalence of preventive safety measures in homes with older, urban-dwelling adults; determine the relationship between sociodemographic variables and injury prevention measures; and describe olderadults' knowledge of safety topics. Teams conducted interviews and home observations in 603 homes to confirm preventive safety measures. Households with olderadults were rarely observed to have recommended smoke alarm (34%) or carbon monoxide coverage (22%). Water temperature was safe in 64% of homes. Among households headed by someone other than the olderadult, odds of having a working smoke alarm on every floor were much lower than in olderadult-headed households (95% confidence interval: 0.04-0.35). Few olderadults interviewed about safety knowledge correctly answered several items related to fire and carbon monoxide. Effort is needed to improve knowledge and promote the lifesaving benefits of injury countermeasures so that olderadults can be adequately protected. PMID:22832066
Shields, Wendy C; Perry, Elise C; Szanton, Sarah L; Andrews, Margaret R; Stepnitz, Rebecca L; McDonald, Eileen M; Gielen, Andrea C
The purpose of this study was to translate the original English version of the Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations Scales for Exercise and Functional Activity and to establish their reliability in older Thai adults in geriatric rehabilitation. This study used a correlational design with repeated measures. Reliability of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise Scale (SEES), the Self-Efficacy for Functional Activity Scale (SEFAS), the Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scale (OEES), and the Outcome Expectations for Functional Activity Scale (OEFAS) developed by Resnick was measured in 20 olderadults aged 60 years or older after hip or knee replacement or another orthopedic surgery of their lower extremity. All scales were translated into Thai and back translated into English according to the process described by Marin and Marin. The instruments were administered twice--the 1st and 2nd day in the participants' geriatric rehabilitation program (i.e., the 4th and 5th postoperative day). Results indicated that there was sufficient evidence for internal consistency of the SEES, SEFAS, OEES, and OEFAS with alpha coefficients of 0.84, 0.86, 0.70, and 0.86 respectively. Test-retest reliability of the tools was also demonstrated with Spearman correlation coefficients of 0.84 for the SEES, 0.87 for the SEFAS, 0.61 for the OEES, and 0.54 for the OEFAS. The findings from this study provide important information for instrument adaptation and the applicability of these scales for further studies of older Thai adults. PMID:16669574
Harnirattisai, Teeranut; Johnson, Rebecca A; Kawinwonggowit, Viroj
Objectives: Suicide is a prevalent problem in olderadults. One of the best predictors of suicide in olderadults is suicide ideation; suicide ideation has been frequently associated with depression. However, suicide ideation is not always present when an olderadult is depressed and is sometimes present when an olderadult is not depressed. Perceived burdensomeness, a recently proposed risk
Danielle R. Jahn; Kelly C. Cukrowicz; Kitten Linton; Fiona Prabhu
Conducting research in the home setting with home-bound olderadultspresents distinct ethical and practical challenges that require special consideration. This article describes the methodological issues that make studying homebound olderadults especially vulnerable to therapeutic misconception and researcher role conflict and offers practical strategies for researchers to deal with these problems when studying this population. In writing this article, we draw on more than a decade of descriptive and intervention research focusing exclusively on the homebound older population in which the authors have collaborated. Therapeutic misconception and researcher role conflict may occur because of methodological issues related to the recruitment of participants, the “homebound” status of participants, and the home setting as the interview site. Particular care is required on the part of the researcher to address these ethical issues. This may be accomplished especially through clear communication during the informed consent process with participants and in scientific communication with colleagues.
This article explores the possible risks associated with gun ownership by olderadults. We summarize existing regulations on who may own firearms, especially with respect to age. We then present data on older gun owners and violence committed by olderadults in general, followed by a discussion of gun violence perpetrated by gun owners whose functional and cognitive abilities have declined, perhaps as a result of dementia. For comparison purposes, we review regulations on driving among olderadults, drawing parallels to gun ownership. The paper concludes with recommendations for ensuring the safety of older gun owners and others, balanced against citizens' right to bear arms, and with some directions for research. PMID:17559168
Greene, Edith; Bornstein, Brian H; Dietrich, Hannah
|Reading and television preferences of 58 adults over 65 and 39 younger adults were compared. More younger people watched entertainment programs. More older blacks than whites read religious materials and watched TV for news; more older whites read leisure materials and viewed entertainment. More older people disliked TV violence. Overall, most…
Faced with economic uncertainty and declining retirement security, olderadults have increasingly tried to remain in, or return to, the workforce in recent years. Unfortunately, a host of factors, such as ageism and changing skill requirements, present challenges for olderadults seeking employment. Low-income olderadults, in particular, may lack necessary education and skills and have limited access to job opportunities and training. In this review, we examine factors that inhibit and support employment for low-income olderadults and explore the role of social work in facilitating their inclusion in the workforce. PMID:23600601
Anderson, Keith A; Richardson, Virginia E; Fields, Noelle L; Harootyan, Robert A
This work evaluated activity levels in a group of healthy olderadults to establish a target activity level for adults of similar age after total joint arthroplasty (TJA).With the decreasing age of TJA patients, it is essential to have a reference for activity level in younger patients as activity level affects quality of life and implant design. 54 asymptomatic, healthy olderadults with no clinical evidence of lower extremity OA participated. The main outcome measure, average daily step count, was measured using an accelerometer-based activity monitor. On average the group took 8813 ± 3611 steps per day, approximately 4000 more steps per day than has been previously reported in patients following total joint arthroplasty. The present work provides a reference for activity after joint arthroplasty which is relevant given the projected number of people under the age of 65 who will undergo joint arthroplasty in the coming years.
Thorp, Laura E.; Orozco, Diego; Block, Joel A.; Sumner, Dale R.; Wimmer, Markus A.
... an olderadult may "feel," an effect called subjective aging. But a team of researchers have shown ... feel, well, older. "Past research has referred to subjective age as a fixed number and we have ...
Previous studies show that olderadults have poorer immediate recall for language but the reason is unknown. Olderadults may recall fewer chunks from working memory, or may have difficulty binding words together to form multi-unit chunks. We examined these two hypotheses by presenting four types of spoken sentences for immediate free recall, differing in the number and length of
Amanda L. Gilchrist; Nelson Cowan; Moshe Naveh-Benjamin
Background Participating in regular physical activity is an important part of healthy aging. There is an increased risk for inactivity associated with aging and the risk becomes greater for adults who have a chronic disease. However, there is limited information on current physical activity levels for olderadults and even less for those with chronic diseases. Objective Our primary objective was to determine the proportion of olderadults who achieved a recommended amount of weekly physical activity (?1000 kcal/week). The secondary objectives were to identify variables associated with meeting guideline leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), and to describe the type of physical activities that respondents reported across different chronic diseases. Methods In this study we used the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.1 (2000/2001) to report LTPA for adults aged 65 years and older. This was a population-based self-report telephone survey. We used univariate logistic regression to provide odds ratios to determine differences in activity and the likelihood of meeting guideline recommendations. Results For adults over 65 years of age with no chronic diseases, 30% reported meeting guideline LTPA, while only 23% met the recommendations if they had one or more chronic diseases. Factors associated with achieving the guideline amount of physical activity included a higher level of education, higher income and moderate alcohol consumption. Likelihood for not achieving the recommended level of LTPA included low BMI, pain and the presence of mobility and dexterity problems. Walking, gardening and home exercises were the three most frequent types of reported physical activities. Conclusion This study provides the most recent evidence to suggest that older Canadians are not active enough and this is accentuated if a chronic disease is present. It is important to develop community-based programs to facilitate LTPA, in particular for older people with a chronic disease.
Brain imaging based on functional MRI (fMRI) provides a powerful tool for characterizing age-related changes in functional anatomy. However, between-population comparisons confront potential differences in measurement properties. The present experiment explores the feasibility of conducting fMRI studies in nondemented and demented olderadults by measuring hemodynamic response properties in an event-related design. A paradigm involving repeated presentation of sensory-motor response
Randy L. Buckner; Abraham Z. Snyder; Amy L. Sanders; Marcus E. Raichle; John C. Morris
Special problems of adult language learners aged 50 and older studying English as a second language include physical, social, and psychological factors. Physical factors related to aging include vision and hearing problems that adults may not be willing to admit to. Olderadults may also be more sensitive to room temperature and lighting, and may…
The literature shows conflicting results regarding olderadults’ (OA) postural control performance. Differing task demands amongst scientific studies may contribute to such ambiguous results. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the performance of postural control in olderadults and the relationship between visual information and body sway as a function of task demands. Old and young adults
Ana Caroline Prioli; Aline Steckelberg Cardozo; Paulo Barbosa de Freitas Júnior; José Angelo Barela
|This study analyzed the survey on adults administered by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008, and logistic regression analysis showed a close relationship between learning motivations of olderadults. The finding revealed that the higher age or the lower education attainment of olderadults, the lower their learning motivation. The…
OBJECTIVE:: This study determined the clinical characteristics of late-life hoarding disorder (HD). METHODS:: Olderadults (age 60 and older) with HD (n = 55) and without psychiatric diagnoses (n = 39) were compared on psychiatric, functional, cognitive, and health-related measures. Associations between age and clinical characteristics in a large sample of mixed age (n = 210; age range: 20-78) participants with HD were also determined. RESULTS:: Individuals with late-life HD were characterized by substantial impairments in psychiatric, functional, cognitive, and medical status. Health risks (e.g., risks of falls and fire) were also common. However, older age was generally not associated with increased severity of hoarding or other clinical correlates (with the exception of one global clinician-rated measure of severity). CONCLUSIONS:: Late-life HD is characterized by considerable morbidity and health risks, and these characteristics may be consistent across the lifespan in cross-sectional mixed-age samples of individuals with HD. PMID:22992656
Diefenbach, Gretchen J; Dimauro, Jennifer; Frost, Randy; Steketee, Gail; Tolin, David F
This research report compares characteristics of older homeless adults (age 55 and older) with younger homeless and examines gender differences within each age group. Data are drawn from intake interviews of 3,132 clients presenting at a local homeless center during a 3-year period. The authors find that older and younger clients differ significantly on many important characteristics, such as access
Context Survival estimates help individualize goals of care for geriatric patients, but life tables fail to account for the great variability in survival. Physical performance measures, such as gait speed, might help account for variability, allowing clinicians to make more individualized estimates. Objective To evaluate the relationship between gait speed and survival. Design, Setting, and Participants Pooled analysis of 9 cohort studies (collected between 1986 and 2000), using individual data from 34 485 community-dwelling olderadults aged 65 years or older with baseline gait speed data, followed up for 6 to 21 years. Participants were a mean (SD) age of 73.5 (5.9) years; 59.6%, women; and 79.8%, white; and had a mean (SD) gait speed of 0.92 (0.27) m/s. Main Outcome Measures Survival rates and life expectancy. Results There were 17 528 deaths; the overall 5-year survival rate was 84.8% (confidence interval [CI], 79.6%–88.8%)and 10-year survival rate was 59.7% (95%CI, 46.5%–70.6%). Gait speed was associated with survival in all studies (pooled hazard ratio per 0.1 m/s, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.87–0.90; P<. 001). Survival increased across the full range of gait speeds, with significant increments per 0.1 m/s. At age 75, predicted 10-year survival across the range of gait speeds ranged from 19% to 87% in men and from 35% to 91% in women. Predicted survival based on age, sex, and gait speed was as accurate as predicted based on age, sex, use of mobility aids, and self-reported function or as age, sex, chronic conditions, smoking history, blood pressure, body mass index, and hospitalization. Conclusion In this pooled analysis of individual data from 9 selected cohorts, gait speed was associated with survival in olderadults.
The present study replicates our study of olderadults' portrayal in Dutch television commercials conducted in 1993. The central question is whether olderadults are being portrayed more visibly in Dutch television commercials and whether this portrayal has become more diverse compared to ten years ago. Based on a list of descriptions of all commercials broadcasted by public television channels in 2003 (N= 4767) 117 commercials featuring olderadults were selected. By means of a quantitative content analysis it was examined whether and how older men and women are portrayed. It was concluded that although olderadults are not more prevalent compared to ten years ago, their portrayal is more diverse with respect to their roles and the advertised products. Olderadults were portrayed as more competent and less age-stereotypical in television commercials. PMID:17605283
Previous investigations of personality–intelligence relationships have sampled mainly young adults. The present study compared young and older groups in identifying personality predictors of cognitive abilities. A sample of 381 adults was administered the Woodcock–Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and the Big Five Inventory-44. Participants were separated into three groups: young adults (aged 19–60), olderadults that were cognitively comparable
Informatics tools can help support the health and independence of olderadults. In this paper, we present an approach towards integrating health-monitoring data and describe several techniques for the assessment and visualisation of integrated health and well-being of olderadults. We present three different visualisation techniques to provide distinct alternatives towards display of the same information, focusing on reducing the cognitive load of data interpretation. We demonstrate the feasibility of integrating health-monitoring information into a comprehensive measure of wellness, while also highlighting the challenges of designing visual displays targeted at multiple user groups. These visual displays of wellness can be incorporated into personal health records and can be an effective support for informed decision-making.
Three studies examined whether younger and olderadults better recall information associated with their own than information related to another age group. All studies compared young and olderadults with respect to incidental memory for previously presented stimuli (Studies 1 and 2: everyday objects; Study 3: vacation advertisements) that had been randomly paired with an age-related cue (e.g., photo of
The number of olderadults is increasing, yet little is known about their responses to treatment for substance dependence. While age-appropriate measures have been developed for depression and alcohol screening among olderadults, severity and outcome measurement for this population has not been addressed. The purpose of the present study was (1) to add to the limited but growing literature
|While research on parent-adult child relationships has expanded over the last two decades, most research has ignored the experiences of older fathers and their relationships with adult children. The present study sought to explore how midlife and older men assess the costs and rewards associated with their fatherhood experiences and how fathers'…
|The purpose of this study was to evaluate an experiential learning project with BSW students to see if their perceptions of olderadults have changed. The project consisted of an oral history project and presentation that matched BSW students with olderadults from diverse ethnic backgrounds to gather their immigration narratives. The study used…
The purpose of this study was to evaluate an experiential learning project with BSW students to see if their perceptions of olderadults have changed. The project consisted of an oral history project and presentation that matched BSW students with olderadults from diverse ethnic backgrounds to gather their immigration narratives. The study used a…
The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether inconsistency in reaction time (RT) is predictive of olderadults' ability to solve everyday problems. A sample of 304 community dwelling non-demented olderadults, ranging in age from 62 to 92, completed a measure of everyday problem solving, the Everyday Problems Test (EPT). Inconsistency in latencies across trials was assessed
Catherine L. Burton; Esther Strauss; David F. Hultsch; Michael A. Hunter
This paper presents a comprehensive literature review to investigate whether and why olderadults accept handheld computers, and how to design elderly-friendly handheld computers. Findings about acceptance, input devices, menu and functions, and output devices are summarized. First, olderadults were under social pressure to use mobile phones, but they had low acceptance of advanced functions. Also, they had a
The purpose of this article is to present a program of learning for olderadults in a national park. Because of the growing trend of tourism among retirees this learning during leisure is gaining prominence. The paper brings together the concepts of aging, self-directed learning, and tourism and leisure. In addition this paper presents a…
Olderadults differ from their younger counterparts in the way they view faces. We assessed whether olderadults can use past experience to mitigate these typical face-processing differences; that is, we examined whether there are age-related differences in the use of memory to support current processing. Eye movements of older and younger adults were monitored as they viewed faces that varied in the type/amount of prior exposure. Prior exposure was manipulated by including famous and novel faces, and by presenting faces up to five times. We expected that olderadults may have difficulty quickly establishing new representations to aid in the processing of recently presented faces, but would be able to invoke face representations that have been stored in memory long ago to aid in the processing of famous faces. Indeed, younger adults displayed effects of recent exposure with a decrease in the total fixations to the faces and a gradual increase in the proportion of fixations to the eyes. These effects of recent exposure were largely absent in olderadults. In contrast, the effect of fame, revealed by a subtle increase in fixations to the inner features of famous compared to non-famous faces, was similar for younger and olderadults. Our results suggest that olderadults’ current processing can benefit from lifetime experience, however the full benefit of recent experience on face processing is not realized in olderadults.
There are a rising number of olderadults; in the US alone nearly 20% of the population will be 65 or older by 2030. Chiropractic is one of the most frequently utilized types of complementary and alternative care by olderadults, used by an estimated 5% of olderadults in the U.S. annually. Chiropractic care involves many different types of interventions, including preventive strategies. This commentary by experts in the field of geriatrics, discusses the evidence for the use of spinal manipulative therapy, acupuncture, nutritional counseling and fall prevention strategies as delivered by doctors of chiropractic. Given the utilization of chiropractic services by the olderadult, it is imperative that providers be familiar with the evidence for and the prudent use of different management strategies for olderadults.
This literature review is intended to familiarize physicians and healthcare providers of olderadults with the potential causes of acute bleeding in olderadults and to review diagnostic approaches that can produce prompt identification of acute bleeding and facilitate timely treatment. Adverse events from anticoagulant treatment and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and aspirin use and abuse are among the most common causes of bleeding in olderadults. Diagnoses infrequently considered—mild congenital hemophilia, acquired hemophilia, von Willebrand disease, and platelet dysfunction—can contribute to acute bleeding in olderadults. The approach to management of bleeding varies. Management of acute bleeding in olderadults can be challenging because these patients often have chronic comorbidity and have been prescribed long-term concomitant medications that can complicate diagnosis and treatment. Prompt recognition of acquired hemophilia, referral to an expert hematologist, and timely initiation of treatment could improve outcome in older patients who experience bleeding episodes resulting from this condition.
The purposes of the study presented were to compare the health-promoting behaviors of olderadults with those of young and middle-aged adults, to examine the relationship of age and other sociodemographic characteristics to life style throughout adulthood, and to identify differing life-style patterns among olderadults. Six dimensions of life style were measured by the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile in 452 adults aged 18 to 88. Olderadults had higher scores in overall health-promoting life style and in the dimensions of health responsibility, nutrition, and stress management than both young and middle-aged adults. Sociodemographic variables accounted for only 13.4% of the variance in life style and for 5.2% to 18.6% in its six dimensions. Five major health-promoting life-style patterns were identified among olderadults, depicting a heterogeneous group with varying needs for health promotion programming. PMID:3140723
Walker, S N; Volkan, K; Sechrist, K R; Pender, N J
In two experiments recognition of actions of a robbery presented in a video was examined in older and younger adults. In both experiments olderadults had more false alarms and showed less accurate recognition than younger adults. In addition, when participants were asked in Experiment 1 to indicate Remember/Know/Guess judgments for actions they considered true, olderadults accepted more false actions with Remember judgments. And when participants were asked in Experiment 2 to attribute the source (i.e., perpetrator), the olderadults were less able to attribute actions that occurred during the robbery to their correct sources. Furthermore, we found a robust positive correlation between source attribution ability and recognition accuracy. Thus, source-memory deficits may contribute to olderadults' false memories in real-life eyewitness situations. PMID:21534031
This article examines characteristics of olderadult learners and discusses adult education theory and empowerment concepts, along with nutrition education and behavioral change strategies for olderadult nutrition education programs. Design components for olderadult nutrition education programs are presented. Educational and behavioral change strategies should be selected based on characteristics of the intended audience, including their nutrition needs, wants and desires, and should be based on appropriate theory. Multi-disciplinary research is needed to develop behavioral and educational theoretical frameworks, as well as designs, intervention strategies, and evaluation methods for educational programs that lead to olderadults adopting more healthful nutrition practices. This is one of a series of recent literature reviews on nutrition education for olderadults. PMID:14714681
The present research investigated the relationship between sleep and memory in younger and olderadults. Previous research has demonstrated that during the deep sleep stage (i.e., slow wave sleep), recently learned memories are reactivated and consolidated in younger adults. However, little research has examined whether memory consolidation occurs during deep sleep in olderadults. Younger adults and olderadults encoded
Assessing cognitive change during a single visit requires the comparison of estimated premorbid abilities and current neuropsychological functioning. Although premorbid intellect has been widely examined, estimating premorbid memory abilities has received less attention. The current study used demographic variables and an estimate of premorbid intellect to predict premorbid memory abilities in a sample of 95 community-dwelling, cognitively intact olderadults. These prediction formulae were then applied to a sample of 74 individuals with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment to look for discrepancies between premorbid and current memory abilities. Despite minimal differences between premorbid and current memory abilities in the intact sample, large and statistically significant differences were observed in the impaired sample. Although validation in larger samples is needed, the current estimates of premorbid memory abilities may aid clinicians in determining change across time.
This qualitative study describes environmental supports and barriers to physical activity in an olderadult sample drawn from low- and high-walkable neighborhoods. Thirty-seven individuals age 55 and over were recruited and answered open-ended survey questions, with a subsample invited back to partake in a semistructured interview. Content analysis identified categories and themes linking perceptions of neighborhood-environment characteristics to activity. Emerging categories and themes did not differ across neighborhood walkability, so results are presented for both groups combined. Infrastructure was the most common category identified to encourage activity, specifically, well-maintained sidewalks, bike paths or lanes, and traffic control. Other categories of land use, landscape, and aesthetics were reported. Poorly maintained or missing sidewalks, crosswalks, bike paths or lanes, and traffic safety were categories that discouraged activity. In conclusion, the information obtained is helpful in solidifying which environmental characteristics are important to measure as they relate to activity behavior in an olderadult population.
Strath, Scott; Isaacs, Raymond; Greenwald, Michael J.
Aging continues to be an important topic of study. For many olderadults, the elder years can be a challenging, if not difficult, time. Creativity interventions have been shown to positively affect mental and physiological health indicators. The process of creating and one's attitude toward life may be more important than the actual product or tangible outcome. While many activities are those typically thought of as creative, such as painting, there are also a number of useful interventions that are not traditionally identified as creative ones, but that are, in fact, creative activities. This paper describes recent work with creativity in olderadults, including research and clinical projects, and earlier works that could be refined as creative interventions. Recommendations for further investigation of creativity also are presented. PMID:17454290
|Within a communication predicament of aging and disability framework, this study examined the impact of two types of contextual variation on perceptions of olderadult assertiveness within problematic service encounters. Young (N = 66) and older (N = 66) participants evaluated conversational scenarios in which a visually-impaired older woman…
|Despite the record numbers of older learners today and the probable future growth of these numbers, older people today are underrepresented in adult education. Furthermore, a significant segment of older people has serious educational deficiencies hindering their ability to cope in the contemporary world. Surveys show that the characteristics…
Healthy monolingual olderadults experience changes in their lexical abilities. Bilingual individuals immersed in an environment in which their second language is dominant experience lexical changes, or attrition, in their first language. Changes in lexical skills in the first language of older individuals who are bilinguals, therefore, can be attributed to the typical processes accompanying older age, the typical processes
Mira Goral; Gary Libben; Loraine K. Obler; Gonia Jarema; Keren Ohayon
The current study examined cardiovascular reactivity and recovery during memory testing in a sample of 28 younger and 28 olderadults. Heart rate (HR) levels were measured before, during, and after a memory test (word list recall). Contrary to prediction, olderadults did not have a blunted cardiovascular response to memory tasks compared to younger adults. Word list recall performance was predicted by both Age and an Age x HR recovery interaction. As expected, younger adults performed better on the word list task than olderadults. In addition, olderadults with better posttest HR recovery performed significantly better than olderadults with poor posttest HR recovery, whereas HR recovery differences in younger adults were inconsequential. These relationships were not affected by subjective appraisals of anxiety and task difficulty. Overall, cardiac dysregulation, seen here as low HR recovery, represents an important, potentially modifiable, factor in memory performance in olderadults. In addition to being beneficial to overall health, interventions designed to help olderadults regulate their HR responses may help offset certain memory declines. PMID:19760500
Script analysis as a test of executive functions is presumed sensitive to cognitive changes seen with increasing age. Two studies evaluated if gender differences exist in performance on scripts for familiar and unfamiliar tasks in groups of cognitively intact olderadults. In Study 1, 26 olderadults completed male and female stereotypical scripts. Results were not significant but a tendency
Edward Helmes; J. D. Bush; Donna Pike; Deirdre Drake
This guide highlights certain institutional, research, and policy trends in how educational opportunities for olderadults have been evolving--especially during the past 15-20 years. Chapter 1 provides an overview of how olderadult education looks today within the context of aging issues and programs. It explores purposes, goals, rationales,…
|Olderadults make up the fastest growing age group in North America. This has demanded increased attention in supporting the health and well-being of this population and, in particular, the role of health information in promoting the health and well-being of olderadults. Increased availability and accessibility of information as well as a…
Many olderadults may reference God as both a source of helpful and harmful interactions in their lives. Attachment theory may be a useful lens for (a) assessment of olderadults' relational style to a Transcendent Other with implications for formulating future interactions; (b) understanding how attachment to God facilitates coping; and (c) viewing attachment to God as a mechanism
|The purpose of this study was to evaluate learning by olderadults living in nursing homes through observational learning based on Bandura's (1977) social learning theory. This quantitative study investigated if olderadults could learn through observation. The nursing homes in the study were located in the midwestern United States. The…
|The importance of emotional wellness for rural olderadults is a topic of growing significance. Olderadults, now the fastest growing United States population sector, have special wellness needs. By the year 2030, about 70 million people will be over the age of 65. A low or declining sense of control over one's life increases depression.…
background Streptococcus pneumoniae is the chief cause of pneumonia in olderadults, but it remains unclear whether use of the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine alters the overall risk of community-acquired pneumonia. In a large population of olderadults, we assessed the effectiveness of the pneumococcal vaccine. methods In this retrospective cohort study, 47,365 Group Health Cooperative members 65 years of age
Lisa A. Jackson; Kathleen M. Neuzil; Onchee Yu; Patti Benson; William E. Barlow; Annette L. Adams; Christi A. Hanson; Lisa D. Mahoney; David K. Shay; William W. Thompson
A predominate motivation theory used to predict exercise behavior is self-determination theory, which posits that motivation is driven by satisfaction of three basic psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. This study investigates the relationship between motivation, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and exercise in a sample of olderadults. Significant differences were found between olderadult exercisers and nonexercisers in intrinsic
Rena A. Kirkland; Nancy J. Karlin; Megan Babkes Stellino; Steven Pulos
|In this comprehensively updated second edition, written by Alicia Ann Clair and Jenny Memmott the extraordinary benefits of music therapy for olderadults are detailed. "Therapeutic Uses of Music with OlderAdults" not only examines these benefits but also clarifies the reasons that music is beneficial. This important book shows both informal…
The olderadult (55+) population is becoming a significant presence in the personal computer market. Seniors have the discretionary income, experience, interest, and free time to make use of computers in interesting ways. A literature review found that olderadults make use of computers in significant numbers: 30 percent of computer owners are…
|This study investigated olderadults' peer teaching experiences at a Lifelong Learning Institute through interviews with eight teachers and observations of their classes. Thematic analysis revealed themes of peer-to-peer teaching, volunteer teaching, and explorative teaching. Discussion of the themes examines the meaning of olderadults' peer…
Suicide is culturally patterned. A cultural perspective, however, is rarely used to examine suicidal behavior among dominant groups in industrialized countries. This study explored the culture of suicide in the U.S. Mountain West region. Specifically, it examined the perceived precipitants and protectors of olderadult suicide in a Mountain West community with higher than national average rates of olderadult
The primary research question for the study was, "Will olderadult amateur musicians' personality profiles reflect the traits found in professional musicians?" Participants (N = 58, ages 52 to 79) recruited from a New Horizons Institute "band camp" for olderadult amateur musicians completed a musical background questionnaire and the Cattell…
The Stroop interference effect, caused by difficulty inhibiting overlearned word reading, is often more pronounced in olderadults. This has been proposed to be due to declines in inhibitory control and frontal lobe functions with aging. Initial neuroimaging studies of inhibitory control show that olderadults have enhanced activation in multiple frontal areas, particularly in inferior frontal gyrus, indicative of
Scott A Langenecker; Kristy A Nielson; Stephen M Rao
|In North America, 40-50 per cent of olderadults are actively involved as formal volunteers in providing diverse health and human services. We review empirical studies concerning olderadults' motivations for volunteering, as well as the health and morale benefits they derive from this expression of altruism. Knowledge of the exact nature and…
Problems with ambulation and mobility are frequent problems in olderadults. Each year, about one in 100 olderadults develops new severe mobility disability. Assessment of abnormal gait constitutes a major component of clinical practice and may lead to fall reduction. Clinicians can benefit from simple gait and mobility assessment tools to be used in busy clinical settings. This review
|As in other countries, olderadults in Australia could benefit from acquiring information technology (IT) skills in many ways, including improved access to information on health issues and development of the skills needed for employment in high-demand IT-related occupations. The research on adult learning and the problems faced by many older…
|Part of an effort to expand and improve community college programs and services for olderadults, this two-part report summarizes results from a national survey of olderadult programs and provides an overview of current trends and their implications for action in community colleges. Following introductory sections, the report discusses a fall…
Adults aged 65 to 69 made up the largest part of the substance abuse treatment population aged 65 or older, increasing from 56 percent of olderadults in treatment in 1995 to 59 percent in 2005. In each year from 1995 to 2005, alcohol was the most frequen...
|With a declining pool of youth to draw from, community colleges need to be concerned about what can be done to serve the needs of a burgeoning olderadult population. Recent research on the educational needs of olderadults reveals that they are interested in: (1) information on such personal business and financial topics as social security…
Alcohol consumption in the olderadult is of major concern with the advent of baby boomers coming into the over 65-age bracket. Alcohol consumption has been touted as beneficial for health, and while that may be accurate for moderate consumption in younger persons, there is considerable risk associated with increased alcohol intake in olderadults. This increase is partially due
FLANAGAN, S., G. J. SALEM, M.-Y. WANG, S. E. SANKER, and G. A. GREENDALE. Squatting Exercises in OlderAdults: Kinematic and Kinetic Comparisons. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 635- 643, 2003. Purpose: Squatting activities may be used, within exercise programs, to preserve physical function in olderadults. This study characterized the lower-extremity peak joint angles, peak
SEAN FLANAGAN; GEORGE J. SALEM; MAN-YING WANG; SERENA E. SANKER; GAIL A. GREENDALE
Little empirical evidence is available on olderadults regarding the existence of a continuum between "normal" personality traits and DSM-IV-TR Axes I and II disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Given the typical complexity of clinical presentations in advanced age, it is feasible to expect a dimensional conceptualization of…
Lagana, Luciana; Tramutolo, Carmine; Boncori, Lucia; Cruciani, Anna Clara
Olderadults are increasing in weight along with the rest of the United States population. Likewise, their rates of bariatric\\u000a surgery have been on the rise with changes in insurance coverage, evidence of the safety of surgery, and importance of quality\\u000a of life during older age. Unfortunately, limited research has addressed the unique experiences of olderadults and there are
Heather C. Henrickson; Kathleen R. Ashton; Amy K. Windover; Leslie J. Heinberg
The ability to remember events – referred to as episodic memory – is typically subject to decline in older adulthood. Episodic memory decline has been attributed in part to less successful executive functioning, which may hinder an olderadult’s ability to implement controlled encoding and retrieval processes. Since bilingual olderadults often show more successful executive functioning than monolinguals, they may be better able to maintain episodic memory. To examine this hypothesis, we compared bilingual and monolingual olderadults on a picture scene recall task (assessing episodic memory) and a Simon task (assessing executive functioning). Bilinguals exhibited better episodic memory than their monolingual peers, recalling significantly more items overall. Within the bilingual group, earlier second language acquisition and more years speaking two languages were associated with better recall. Bilinguals also demonstrated higher executive functioning, and there was evidence that level of executive functioning was related to memory performance. Results indicate that extensive practice controlling two languages may benefit episodic memory in olderadults.
Objectives To determine whether healthy aging is associated with increased sleepiness, and whether healthy olderadults experience more sleepiness when acutely sleep deprived. Design A 5-day inpatient circadian rhythm-sleep study consisting of 3 baseline nights, followed by an extended 26-hour wake episode in constant conditions. Setting Intensive Physiological Monitoring Unit, General Clinical Research Center, Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Participants 37 healthy participants without medical, psychological, and sleep disorders: 26 young (7 women, 19 men; mean age 21.9 ± 3.3 years, range 18–29) and 11 “young-old” adults (3 women, 8 men; mean age 68.1 ± 3.6 years, range 65–76). Intervention An extended 26-hour wake episode in constant conditions. Measurements Electro-encephalographic-verified wakefulness, slow eye movements, sustained attention, subjective sleepiness. Results Across the first 16 hours corresponding to the usual waking day, both groups rated themselves as alert, had similar levels of vigilance, and little evidence of sleepiness. As the wake episode continued, the older subjects were less impaired, showing faster reaction times, fewer performance lapses and attentional failures, and less frequent unintentional sleep episodes. Conclusion This small study suggests that excessive sleepiness is not normal in healthy “young-old” adults. Symptoms of excessive sleepiness in this population, including reliance on caffeine to maintain alertness, should be evaluated and treated. Further study is needed to determine whether increased daytime sleepiness in middle-old (75–84 years) and old-old (85+) adults is normal, or is instead associated with sleep restriction, undiagnosed sleep disorders, medication side effects, mood disorders, and/or other medical disorders that disrupt sleep.
Duffy, Jeanne F.; Willson, Hannah J.; Wang, Wei; Czeisler, Charles A.
Background. Community mobility is crucial for maintaining independent functioning and quality of life for olderadults. Purpose. The present paper describes the relationship of cognition, particularly speed of processing as measured by the Useful Field of View Test, to mobility as indicated by driving behaviors, life space, and falls among healthy olderadults. Research examining the impact of cognitive speed of processing training (SOPT) on olderadults' community mobility (i.e., driving behaviors) is also summarized. Key Issues. Even slight cognitive declines can place olderadults at risk for mobility limitations. However, cognitive interventions like SOPT can mitigate declines in driving mobility. Implications. The potential of SOPT to sustain community mobility among olderadults is discussed.
O'Connor, Melissa L.; Hudak, Elizabeth M.; Edwards, Jerri D.
Inflammation increases with age and is associated with many chronic diseases that are prevalent among olderadults. Persistent pathogens such as latent herpesviruses and chronic bacterial infections can act as a source of inflammation. Herpesviruses, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), establish latent infections following primary infection and reactivate when the cellular immune system is compromised. EBV and CMV replication can induce proinflammatory cytokine production and thus could influence systemic inflammation. The present study addressed relationships among EBV and CMV antibody titers, and levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in a sample of 222 community dwelling olderadults (meanage= 64.1 ± 14.1 years). Participants were divided into two groups based on whether they were EBV seropositive and CMV seronegative (EBV+CMV?), or EBV and CMV seropositive (EBV+CMV+). Among individuals who were EBV+CMV?, EBV antibody titers were not associated with either CRP or IL-6 levels. However, among those who were EBV+CMV+, higher EBV antibody titers were related to elevated levels of CRP and IL-6 in those individuals with higher CMV antibody titers; there was no relationship between EBV antibody titers and CRP or IL-6 levels in those participants with lower CMV antibody titers. These data suggest that the combination of latent EBV and CMV reactivation (indexed by antibody titers) may boost CRP and IL-6 production. Thus, reactivation of multiple herpesviruses may drive inflammation and could contribute to poorer health among olderadults.
Bennett, Jeanette M.; Glaser, Ronald; Malarkey, William B.; Beversdorf, David Q.; Peng, Juan; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.
|The number of olderadults living with HIV/AIDS is larger than ever. Little is known about their sexual behaviors, although contrary to stereotypes, olderadults desire and engage in sexual activity. Despite increased recognition of the need for prevention interventions targeting HIV-positive individuals, no secondary HIV prevention interventions…
Illa, Lourdes; Echenique, Marisa; Saint Jean, Gilbert; Bustamante-Avellaneda, Victoria; Metsch, Lisa; Mendez-Mulet, Luis; Eisdorfer, Carl; Sanchez-Martinez, Mario
Objective Better understanding of the relationship between pain and depression in olderadults in the community is of particular importance\\u000a considering the high prevalence of both conditions in these adults. In the present study, the longitudinal relationship between\\u000a pain and depression in olderadults was examined, thereby taking into account the role of physical disability and the possibly\\u000a modifying effect
Sandra W. Geerlings; Jos W. R. Twisk; Aartjan T. F. Beekman; Dorly J. H. Deeg; Willem van Tilburg
Objectives.Although regrets and unfinished business with a deceased spouse are frequently discussed as crucial determinants of one's postloss adjustment, there have been few empirical investigations of bereavement-related regrets. This present study aimed to investigate the longitudinal course of these regrets and their correlates among widowed olderadults. METHODS: Drawing upon information from 201 widowed olderadults in the Changing Lives of Older Couples study, this present study used latent class growth analysis to identify unique longitudinal trajectories of regret from 6 to 48 months postloss and examine differences between these trajectories with regard to grief and depressive symptomatology. RESULTS: Three distinct bereavement-related regret trajectories were identified, characterized by Stable Low Regret, Stable High Regret, and Worsening High Regret. Results revealed that those in the Worsening High Regret group, whose bereavement-related regrets were exacerbated during the study, had the poorest grief outcomes. No differences were observed between these groups with regard to depressive symptoms, indicating that regret may be a unique marker of difficulties in the grieving process.Discussion.These findings highlight the importance of periodically reassessing bereavement-related regrets (and perhaps other aspects of the continued relationship with the deceased) over time and support the rationale behind interventions designed to facilitate resolution of these issues. PMID:23766434
Holland, Jason M; Thompson, Kara L; Rozalski, Vincent; Lichtenthal, Wendy G
Most falls in olderadults occur when walking, specifically following a trip. This study investigated the short- and longer term responses of young (n = 24, 27.6 ± 4.5 yr) and olderadults (n = 18, 69.1 ± 4.2 yr) to a trip during gait at comfortable speed and the role of interlimb coordination in recovery from tripping. Subjects walked on a self-paced treadmill when forward movement of their dominant leg was unexpectedly arrested for 250 ms. Recovery of center of mass (COM) movements and of double-support duration following perturbation was determined. In addition, the disruption and recovery of interlimb coordination of the arms and legs was evaluated. Although young and older subjects used similar lower limb strategies in response to the trip, olderadults had less stable COM movement patterns before perturbation, had longer transient destabilization (>25%) after perturbation, required more gait cycles to recover double-support duration (older, 3.48 ± 0.7 cycles; young, 2.88 ± 0.4 cycles), and had larger phase shifts that persisted after perturbation (older, -83° to -90°; young, -39° to -42°). Olderadults also had larger disruptions to interlimb coordination of the arms and legs. The timing of the initial disruption in coordination was correlated with the disturbance in gait stability only in young adults. In olderadults, greater initial COM instability was related to greater longer term arm incoordination. These results suggest a relationship between interlimb coordination and gait stability, which may be associated with fall risk in olderadults. Reduced coordination and gait stability suggest a need for stability-related functional training even in high-functioning olderadults. PMID:22298827
Krasovsky, T; Baniña, M C; Hacmon, R; Feldman, A G; Lamontagne, A; Levin, M F
OBJECTIVE To examine the association between allostatic load (AL), an index of multisystem physiological dysregulation, and frailty development over a 3-year follow-up in a sample of olderadults. DESIGN Longitudinal cohort study. SETTING Community. PARTICIPANTS High-functioning men and women aged 70–79 at study entry. MEASUREMENTS Multisystem physiological dysregulation, or AL, was assessed according to 13 biomarkers of cardiovascular, endocrine, immune, and metabolic function. An AL score was computed as the total number of biomarkers for which participant values fell into high-risk biomarker quartiles. Frailty status (not frail, intermediate frail, frail) was determined according to the total number of five indicators of frailty: weight loss, exhaustion, weak grip, slow gait, and low physical activity. The association between level of AL at baseline and frailty status 3 years later was examined using ordinal logistic regression in 803 participants not frail at baseline. RESULTS In a multivariable model adjusting for sociodemographic, health, and behavioral characteristics, each 1-unit increase in AL at baseline was associated with a 10% greater likelihood of frailty at the 3-year follow-up (cumulative adjusted odds ratio = 1.10, 95% confidence interval = 1.03–1.19). CONCLUSION These findings support the hypothesis that dysregulation across multiple physiological systems is associated with greater risk of frailty. Greater levels of multisystem physiological dysregulation may serve as a warning sign of frailty development in later life.
Aging may have an impact on the CA3 autoassociative network of the hippocampus, posited by computational models as supporting pattern completion. Twenty-five young (YAs) and 25 olderadults (OAs) performed a spatial pattern completion task using a computerized navigational paradigm analogous to a rodent pattern completion task reliant on the CA3. Participants identified a previously seen goal location, and the availability of distal cues in the environment was manipulated such that 0, 2, or 4 cues were missing. Performance in both groups declined as a function of decreased cue availability. However, controlling for age differences in task performance during a pre-experimental baseline task, OAs performed equivalently to YAs when all cues were available, but worse than YAs as the number of cues decreased. These findings suggest spatial pattern completion may be impaired in OAs. We discuss these findings in the context of a growing body of literature suggesting age-related imbalances in pattern separation vs. pattern completion. PMID:23407761
Substance use among olderadults is on the rise, with statistics indicating this to be a growing health problem. Brain changes in the reward center of the brain that naturally occur with aging are offered as one source of these statistics. Aging is generally associated with increased prevalence of chronic disease, disability, and death, and therefore a public health goal for olderadults is to maintain health, independence, and function. Psychiatric-mental health nurses are uniquely positioned to assist olderadults in achievement of these goals through health assessment and promotion. The use of client-centered counseling approaches that recognize the olderadult's developmental need for autonomy and choice in decision making have been shown to be effective in increasing motivation in this adult population. PMID:23758223
The literature examining trauma among olderadults is growing, but little is known about the efficacy of empirically supported interventions for PTSD within this population. Clinical writing on this topic often implies that cognitive-behavioral treatments may be ineffective or inappropriate for olderadults with PTSD given physical and/or cognitive vulnerabilities. Review of the limited research in this area, however, provides little support for the claim that cognitive-behavioral interventions are ineffective in treating PTSD among the elderly. In an effort to explicate specific issues related to treatment process and outcome among older survivors of trauma, a case series is presented outlining the treatment of three olderadults within the context of a structured, cognitive-behavioral group intervention. Observations from this case series suggests that cognitive-behavioral interventions continue to be useful in treating PTSD with this population. Specific treatment issues unique to olderadults are explored and recommendations for future research are discussed.
The literature examining trauma among olderadults is growing, but little is known about the efficacy of empirically supported interventions for PTSD within this population. Clinical writing on this topic often implies that cognitive-behavioral treatments may be ineffective or inappropriate for olderadults with PTSD given physical and/or cognitive vulnerabilities. Review of the limited research in this area, however, provides little support for the claim that cognitive-behavioral interventions are ineffective in treating PTSD among the elderly. In an effort to explicate specific issues related to treatment process and outcome among older survivors of trauma, a case series is presented outlining the treatment of three olderadults within the context of a structured, cognitive-behavioral group intervention. Observations from this case series suggests that cognitive-behavioral interventions continue to be useful in treating PTSD with this population. Specific treatment issues unique to olderadults are explored and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:22383863
This article reports the findings from a recent study of olderadults in the rural southwestern United States and discusses practice and research implications. The aim of the study was to analyze health disparities and strengths in the contexts of rurality, aging, a depressed economy, and limited health resources. Identified themes needing action included sustained access to prescriptions, transportation solutions for olderadults in isolated communities, inadequate access to care, poor infrastructure and coordination of services, scarce assisted living and in-home care for frail olderadults, and barriers related to culture, language, and economics.
This qualitative study examined multidisciplinary team members' perspectives of their involvement in olderadult hoarding cases. Fifteen informants, as representatives of four hoarding teams, described cases in which teams did or did not work well together. Specifically, informants described their (a) team characteristics, (b) awareness of hoarding as a mental health illness, (c) barriers to providing mental health services for olderadults who hoard, and (d) components of successful teamwork within the team and with the olderadult as hoarder. Implications include research to better guide interventions, team training to develop common perspectives, and policy development that supports mental health representation on teams and in-home mental health treatment. PMID:23289417
Koenig, Terry L; Leiste, Matthew R; Spano, Richard; Chapin, Rosemary K
Objectives. We examined the effect of age, income, and coverage on dental service utilization during 1996. Methods. We used data from the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Results. Edentulous and poorer olderadults are less likely to have coverage and less likely to report a dental visit than dentate or wealthier olderadults. Conclusions. These analyses help to describe the needs of olderadults as they cope with diminishing resources as a consequence of retirement, including persons previously accustomed to accessing oral health services with dental insurance.
Manski, Richard J.; Goodman, Harold S.; Reid, Britt C.; Macek, Mark D.
Community colleges and technical institutes are enrolling increasing numbers of adults of all ages. Those in the 60+ age category possess value orientations toward education that are quite different from those of younger adults. The identification and recognition of these differences should result in relevant, purposive programming for them. Institutional characteristics that attract olderadults are also important considerations for
David E. Daniel; Robert G. Templin; Ronald W. Shearon
Adults in later years of life continue to have educational needs and concomitant abilities to learn. Most diversionary programs do not fulfill those needs. The purpose of this study was to examine participation by olderadults in a literary discussion group. The program was conducted with a small group (N = 9) of adults in a retirement center. Subjects indicated
The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to examine reasons for participation in clinical research among olderadults with mobility limitation. A purposive sample of 20 men and 20 women aged 70 years or older was recruited. Data were collected by audiotaped telephone interviews using a semi-structured interview guide and transcribed verbatim. Participants expect privacy, professionalism by research staff, and respectful treatment. Benefits to protocol adherence include personal education, comparison of their health status with that of others, opportunity to maintain vitality, and altruism. Barriers to protocol adherence are apprehension, in particular a negative impact on their health care, randomization to the control group, and experimental drugs; and inconvenience. Factors promoting study completion are obligation, reciprocity, receipt of test results, health promotion, and socialization. Implications include meeting expectations, providing health education and study results to participants, reducing barriers to participation, and presenting opportunities for interaction with others.
Schlenk, Elizabeth A.; Ross, Diana; Stilley, Carol S.; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Olshansky, Ellen
A hallmark of adaptive cognition is the ability to modulate learning in response to the demands posed by different types of tests and different types of materials. Here we evaluate how olderadults process out-of-context words and sentences differently by examining patterns of memory errors. In two experiments, we explored younger and olderadults' sensitivity to lures on a recognition test following study of words in these two types of contexts. Among the studied words were compound words such as "blackmail" and "jailbird" that were related to conjunction lures (e.g., "blackbird") and semantic lures (e.g., "criminal"). Participants engaged in a recognition test that included old items, conjunction lures, semantic lures, and unrelated new items. In both experiments, younger and olderadults had the same general pattern of memory errors: more incorrect endorsements of semantic than conjunction lures following sentence study and more incorrect endorsements of conjunction than semantic lures following list study. The similar pattern reveals that older and younger adults responded to the constraints of the two different study contexts in similar ways. However, although younger and olderadults showed similar levels of memory performance for the list study context, the sentence study context elicited superior memory performance in the older participants. It appears as though memory tasks that take advantage of greater expertise in olderadults-in this case, greater experience with sentence processing-can reveal superior memory performance in the elderly. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23834493
Objectives When we think of technology-savvy consumers, olderadults are typically not the first persons that come to mind. The common misconception is that olderadults do not want to use or cannot use technology. But for an increasing number of olderadults, this is not true (Pew Internet and American Life Project, 2003). Olderadults do use technologies similar to their younger counterparts, but perhaps at different usage rates. Previous research has identified that there may be subgroups of olderadults, “Silver Surfers”, whose adoption patterns mimic younger adults (Pew Internet and American Life Project, 2003). Much of the previous research on age-related differences in technology usage has only investigated usage broadly -- from a “used” or “not used” standpoint. The present study investigated age-related differences in overall usage of technologies, as well as frequency of technology usage (i.e., never, occasional, or frequent). Methods The data were gathered through a questionnaire from younger adults (N=430) and olderadults (N=251) in three geographically separate and ethnically diverse areas of the United States. Results We found that younger adults use a greater breadth of technologies than olderadults. However, age-related differences in usage and the frequency of use depend on the technology domain. Conclusion This paper presents technology usage and frequency data to highlight age-related differences and similarities. The results provide insights into older and younger adults’ technology-use patterns, which in turn provide a basis for expectations about knowledge differences. Designers and trainers can benefit from understanding experience and knowledge differences.
Age-related reductions in pulmonary elastic recoil and respiratory muscle strength can affect how olderadults generate subglottal pressure required for speech production. The present study examined age-related changes in speech breathing by manipulating utterance length and loudness during a connected speech task (monologue). Twenty-three olderadults and twenty-eight young adults produced a monologue at comfortable loudness and pitch and with multi-talker babble noise playing in the room to elicit louder speech. Dependent variables included sound pressure level, speech rate, and lung volume initiation, termination, and excursion. Olderadults produced shorter utterances than young adults overall. Age-related effects were larger for longer utterances. Olderadults demonstrated very different lung volume adjustments for loud speech than young adults. These results suggest that olderadults have a more difficult time when the speech system is being taxed by both utterance length and loudness. The data were consistent with the hypothesis that both young and olderadults use utterance length in premotor speech planning processes. PMID:18790093
Age-related reductions in pulmonary elastic recoil and respiratory muscle strength can affect how olderadults generate subglottal pressure required for speech production. The present study examined age-related changes in speech breathing by manipulating utterance length and loudness during a connected speech task (monologue). Twenty-three olderadults and twenty-eight young adults produced a monologue at comfortable loudness and pitch and with multi-talker babble noise playing in the room to elicit louder speech. Dependent variables included sound pressure level, speech rate, and lung volume initiation, termination, and excursion. Olderadults produced shorter utterances than young adults overall. Age-related effects were larger for longer utterances. Olderadults demonstrated very different lung volume adjustments for loud speech than young adults. These results suggest that olderadults have a more difficult time when the speech system is being taxed by both utterance length and loudness. The data were consistent with the hypothesis that both young and olderadults use utterance length in premotor speech planning processes.
Although older homeless adults have high rates of geriatric syndromes, risk factors for these syndromes are not known. We used multivariable regression models to estimate the association of subject characteristics with the total number of geriatric syndromes in 250 homeless adults aged 50 years and older. Geriatric syndromes included falls, cognitive impairment, frailty, major depression, sensory impairment, and urinary incontinence. A higher total number of geriatric syndromes was associated with having less than a high school education, medical comorbidities (diabetes and arthritis), alcohol and drug use problems, and difficulty performing one or more activities of daily living. Clinicians who care for older homeless patients with these characteristics should consider screening them for geriatric syndromes. Moreover, this study identifies potentially modifiable risk factors associated with the total number of geriatric syndromes in older homeless adults. This knowledge may provide targets for clinical interventions to improve the health of older homeless patients. PMID:23728022
Brown, Rebecca T; Kiely, Dan K; Bharel, Monica; Mitchell, Susan L
The present study examined the effect of virtual reality\\/VR on training olderadults in spatial-based performance. Navigating\\u000a emergency escape routes in a local hospital was exemplified as the taks domain. 15 olderadults and 15 college students participated\\u000a in an experiment where VR, VR plus a bird-view map, and two-diemtional\\/2D map presentations were manipulated as within-subject\\u000a treatment levels of training
Olderadults' deficits in memory for context and memory for inter-item associations are often assumed to be related, yet typically are examined in separate experiments. The present study combined associative recognition and list discrimination into a single task with conditions that varied in terms of item, pair, and context information, and independently manipulated context salience and encoding strategy between subjects in order to examine their effects on memory for associative information in young and olderadults. Olderadults' memory for pairs was found to be less affected than that of young adults by manipulations of context and associative information, but the age difference in context effects on pair memory was influenced by an interaction of encoding strategy and context salience. The results provide novel evidence that olderadults' deficits in associative memory involve interactions between context and inter-item associations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23437899
Gambling participation rates among olderadults (65+ years) have been increasing in recent years. Very few studies have compared\\u000a older and younger gamblers on gambling motivation and problem gambling. This study compared 41 male and 63 female older gamblers\\u000a (66–87 years; median 73) to 20 male and 85 female younger gamblers (17–34 years; median 20) in New Zealand on gambling involvement,\\u000a gambling
The focus of the present study was to examine the cognitive processes comprising advance preparation – rule representation, task-set updating, and task-set reconfiguration – in young (20–25?years) and olderadults (61–83?years). Specifically, this study aimed at further characterizing age-related differences in advance preparation, and evaluating how additional time to prepare might reduce behavioral costs in olderadults. In line with previous findings, reaction time mixing costs were slightly larger for older compared to young adults, whereas behavioral switch costs were age-invariant. Following short preparation (600?ms), smaller antero-frontal event-related potential (ERP) correlates of rule representation were associated with pronounced congruency costs in olderadults. Centro-parietal ERP correlates of task-set updating and task-set reconfiguration were not delayed, but smaller in magnitude for older compared to young adults. Longer preparation (1200?ms) enabled olderadults to re-activate relevant task rules, as evident in reduced congruency costs, and temporally sustained ERP correlates of task-set updating and rule representation well beyond 600?ms. Age-invariant switch costs appear related to additional, potentially compensatory frontal activity recruited by olderadults to overcome difficulties in task-set reconfiguration.
Adults aged 65 years or older have been routinely and systematically excluded from research. With the number of olderadults at a record high and growing faster than any other age group, there must be an increased priority on meeting the enrollment challenges so intervention studies are relevant to this population. The challenge centers around the complexity and heterogeneity of olderadults, leaving a gap between olderadults who participate in studies and those who exist in the real world. Barriers to enrollment stem from both the researcher and participant side. Eight barriers from the research perspective and six from the participant perspective are identified and discussed. Solutions to these barriers can be approached from a three-tier framework. The lowest tier is direct solutions to problems, the middle involves support from funders and journals, and the top tier considers a comprehensive view of sampling and design decisions.
Preventing Falls in OlderAdults Who Live in Community Settings: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Summaries for Patients are a service provided by Annals to help patients better understand the ...
ABSTRACT. Phillips WT, Batterham AM, Valenzuela JE, Burkett LN. Reliability of maximal,strength testing in olderadults. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85:329-34. Objectives: To determine (1) the reliability of a maximal
Wayne T. Phillips; Alan M. Batterham; Julie E. Valenzuela; Lee N. Burkett
ABSTRACT. Bean JF, Vora A, Frontera WR. Benefits of exercise for community-dwelling olderadults. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85(Suppl 3):S31-42. This focused review highlights the benefits of exercise and
... Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Quick Guide to Health Literacy and OlderAdults skip to content ODPHP Health Communication Healthy People 2010 Health Communication Focus Area Health Literacy Improvement Consumer and Patient e-Health Resources Health ...
|Medical advances and lifestyle changes have resulted in olderadults living longer and healthier lives. Nevertheless, older adulthood, as other life stages, requires change in work, family, and health. Self-directed learning (SDL) is one way of negotiating these transitions. The purpose of this study was to understand this process of learning.…
|In this study, 79 olderadults completed the Reasons for Living and the Cope inventories. Overall coping was significantly correlated with total reasons for living, although the low correlation suggests the constructs were moderately unique. Found older women may underrate their ability to cope. Implies suicide prevention strategies should target…
|Individuals aged 60 years and older are at an increased risk for listeriosis and other foodborne illnesses. They can reduce their risk by following recommended food safety practices. A total of 8 focus groups were conducted to characterize olderadults' food safety knowledge and practices, their impressions of educational materials on listeriosis…
Cates, Sheryl C.; Kosa, Katherine M.; Moore, Christina M.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Ten Eyck, Toby A.; Cowen, Peter
|In 1986, the Ability Based on Older Dependable Experience (ABODE) Program was developed at De Anza College to train olderadults to serve as a temporary source of child care on an emergency basis. The program was sponsored by Tandem Computers, Incorporated, out of a desire to provide better employee benefits with respect to child care. The…
Memory complaints among olderadults are often influenced by depression and anxiety, but the association of stress to memory complaints has received little attention. We examined the associations of perceived stress, life events, and activity level to everyday memory complaints among healthy older women, while controlling for the influence of depression and anxiety. Participants (N=54) completed self-report questionnaires on memory
Chronic pain is a significant problem among olderadults. Undertreated or poorly managed pain can affect the physical, psychological, social, emotional, and spiritual well-being of older people. Several researchers have found that individuals turn to a wide array of cognitive and behavioral coping strategies when experiencing high levels of chronic pain. In addition, there is a growing body of evidence
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the Medication Management Instrument for Deficiencies in the Elderly (MedMaIDE) and to provide results of reliability and validity testing. Design and Methods: Participants were 50 olderadults, aged 65 and older, who lived in the community, took at least one prescription medication, and were then…
Orwig, Denise; Brandt, Nicole; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.
|The book is a textbook for preparing students for positions in professions through which the needs of olderadults are met. It is a manual for in-service training of agency staff, aides, and technicians and serves as a guide for leadership training workshops for board, council, and committee members, and other volunteers working with older…
This paper reviews studies on the effects of aerobic exercise upon blood pressure in older hypertensives. Controlled evaluations indicate average decreases in systolic and diastolic resting blood pressure of 8.8 rnm Hg systolic and 7.8 mm Hg, respectively, indicating a moderate, yet clinically important reduction. However, few studies have independently focused on the olderadult hypertensive, an increasingly important source
OBJECTIVES: The Medicare Prescription Drug Improvement and Modernization Act will provide drug benefits for a large proportion of persons aged 65 years and older in the United States. Few studies have examined the beliefs and attitudes of olderadults with respect to prescription drug insurance programs. The objec- tive of this study was to better understand the nature and range
RICHARD R. CLINE; KIRAN GUPTA; RESHMI L. SINGH; JON C. SCHOMMER
|Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the Medication Management Instrument for Deficiencies in the Elderly (MedMaIDE) and to provide results of reliability and validity testing. Design and Methods: Participants were 50 olderadults, aged 65 and older, who lived in the community, took at least one prescription medication, and were…
Orwig, Denise; Brandt, Nicole; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.
This study aimed to clarify what pleasurable recreational activities olderadults like to participate in, and to investigate the relationship between those activities and quality of life (QOL). Questionnaires were delivered to older residents (65 years and above) in a Japanese rural area. The residents’ background information, the amount of pleasure for various activities, and the QOL were surveyed. The
|Olderadult inmates have grown both in proportion and in number due to the confluence of a number of factors. This aging of the prison population has created a host of policy and practice issues that encompass justice considerations, cost containment issues, and biopsychosocial care needs. The older prisoner's physical, social, and psychological…
Snyder, Cindy; van Wormer, Katherine; Chadha, Janice; Jaggers, Jeremiah W.
Introduction Developing countries in Latin America (LA) are experiencing rapid aging as a result of advances in medical interventions. This rapid aging has not occurred with comparable improvements in standards of living. Chronic conditions are becoming highly prevalent while exposure to infectious communicable diseases is very common. This unique situation where communicable and non-communicable diseases coexist in the presence of low socioeconomic status place countries in LA in a unique epidemiological situation. Mexico presents a very good example where the impact of this situation on health warrants further analysis. Methods We use data from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANut 2006), a cross-sectional study representative of all urban and rural areas of Mexico. A total of 5,605 adultsolder than 60 years of age with valid values for Body Mass Index and Hemoglobin were analyzed. We first included a descriptive analysis of the coexistence of anemia and obesity by age, gender and characteristics of the living environment. We reported the weighted percentages for each covariate by each of four nutritional condition categories (obese and anemic, only-obese, only-anemic, not obese and not anemic). We used multinomial logit regressions to determine the association of socioeconomic characteristics, health status and the living environment with the presence of the three nutritional condition categories. Results In the ENSANut cohort 10.3% of olderadults are anemic, 25.0% are obese and 2.6% are both anemic and obese. Approximately 62% has neither anemia nor obesity. Within the 38% that fall in the three nutritional condition categories, the co-existence of obesity & anemia appears to be associated with metropolitan area residence, living alone, being male, having relatively high wealth, and reporting two or more chronic health conditions. Analyzing the effect of the covariates to distinguish between outcome categories, living environment, age, gender, wealth, and smoking show a significant effect when comparing across the three nutritional categories. Conclusions Older Mexican adults with both obesity & anemia have a different profile compared to that of adults with only one of the conditions. Future studies need to do a careful clinical evaluation of this group and design clinical interventions to avoid complications. Additionally, social support initiatives that target specific groups of olderadults according to their health and social needs must be established.
Based on personal interviews with 166 men and women older than age 65 and 246 mail questionnaires, this study finds that older people prefer television for national and world news, but newspapers for local news. Of television programs, both men and women prefer news and public affairs programs highest, but thereafter women prefer educational programs next while men favor sports
Studies suggest that cumulative exposure to lead, as measured in the bone, is associated with accelerated cognitive decline at older age. It is presently unclear, however, whether current blood lead levels (BLLs) are adversely related to cognitive functioning in olderadults. We evaluated BLLs in relation to cognition in the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The current
Edwin van Wijngaarden; Paul C. Winters; Deborah A. Cory-Slechta
Objectives: previous research has indicated that age-related medical or health conditions can affect driving performance in olderadults but little,if any,researchhas examinedthe mechanisms through which healthconditions affect driving difficulties in olderadults. Design: cross-sectional, correlational study. Setting: random sample from the community. We examined the nature of the relations among health conditions, health- related symptoms, physical fitness levels and specific
\\u000a Japanese society has many problems with regard to the aging population. This paper discusses safety changes in personal transportation\\u000a for olderadults. According to the statistics, the risk of traffic accidents among olderadults is extremely high. In order\\u000a to achieve traffic safety, it is important to address declining sensory and cognitive functions. We discuss three business\\u000a opportunities aimed at
Japanese society has many problems regarding the aging population. This paper discusses safety changes in personal transportation\\u000a for olderadults. According to the statistics, the risk of traffic accidents among olderadults is extremely high. In order\\u000a to achieve traffic safety, it is important to address declining sensory and cognitive functions. We discuss three business\\u000a chances aimed at reducing traffic
\\u000a Social networking sites (SNS) help users sustain and strengthen ties with friends and relatives. However olderadults who\\u000a are less technically inclined individuals are often left aside these SNS felling as outsiders within their own family that\\u000a uses this media to socialize. To assist these non-technical olderadults we developed two ambient displays aimed at seamlessly\\u000a integrate them into SNS.
This study examines the perceptions and treatment of older Native American adults in colonial New England (1620–1783). Social\\u000a scientists have found that varying degrees of persistence and change have historically characterized Indian attitudes toward\\u000a olderadults in communities located in the central and western United States. In regards to northeastern North America, historians\\u000a have learned that, during the colonial period,
Aging is associated with loss of muscle volume (MV) and force leading to difficulties with activities of daily living. However, the relationship between upper limb MV and joint strength has not been characterized for olderadults. Quantifying this relationship may help our understanding of the functional upper limb declines olderadults experience. Our objective was to assess the relationship between upper limb MV and maximal isometric joint moment-generating capacity (IJM) in a single cohort of healthy olderadults (age?65 years) for 6 major functional groups (32 muscles). MV was determined from MRI for 18 participants (75.1±4.3 years). IJM at the shoulder (abduction/adduction), elbow (flexion/extension), and wrist (flexion/extension) was measured. MV and IJM measurements were compared to previous reports for young adults (28.6±4.5 years). On average olderadults had 16.5% less total upper limb MV compared to young adults. Additionally, olderadult wrist extensors composed a significantly increased percentage of upper limb MV. Olderadult IJM was reduced across all joints, with significant differences for shoulder abductors (p<0.0001), adductors (p=0.01), and wrist flexors (p<0.0001). Young adults were strongest at the shoulder, which was not the case for olderadults. In olderadults, 40.6% of the variation in IJM was accounted for by MV changes (p?0.027), compared to 81.0% in young adults. We conclude that for olderadults, MV and IJM are, on average, reduced but the significant linear relationship between MV and IJM is maintained. These results suggest that olderadult MV and IJM cannot be simply scaled from young adults.
Vidt, Meghan E.; Daly, Melissa; Miller, Michael E.; Davis, Cralen C.; Marsh, Anthony P.; Saul, Katherine R.
Aging is associated with the loss of muscle volume (MV) and force leading to difficulties with activities of daily living. However, the relationship between upper limb MV and joint strength has not been characterized for olderadults. Quantifying this relationship may help our understanding of the functional declines of the upper limb that olderadults experience. Our objective was to assess the relationship between upper limb MV and maximal isometric joint moment-generating capacity (IJM) in a single cohort of healthy olderadults (age ? 65 years) for 6 major functional groups (32 muscles). MV was determined from MRI for 18 participants (75.1±4.3 years). IJM at the shoulder (abduction/adduction), elbow (flexion/extension), and wrist (flexion/extension) was measured. MV and IJM measurements were compared to previous reports for young adults (28.6±4.5 years). On average olderadults had 16.5% less total upper limb MV compared to young adults. Additionally, olderadult wrist extensors composed a significantly increased percentage of upper limb MV. Olderadult IJM was reduced across all joints, with significant differences for shoulder abductors (p<0.0001), adductors (p=0.01), and wrist flexors (p<0.0001). Young adults were strongest at the shoulder, which was not the case for olderadults. In olderadults, 40.6% of the variation in IJM was accounted for by MV changes (p?0.027), compared to 81.0% in young adults. We conclude that for olderadults, MV and IJM are, on average, reduced but the significant linear relationship between MV and IJM is maintained. These results suggest that olderadult MV and IJM cannot be simply scaled from young adults. PMID:22047782
Vidt, Meghan E; Daly, Melissa; Miller, Michael E; Davis, Cralen C; Marsh, Anthony P; Saul, Katherine R
Background: Serious gram-positive bacterial infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality among olderadults and can present significant challenges to clinicians. Data evaluating the safety and effectiveness of newer agents in this population are limited.Objective: Daptomycin is a lipopeptide with activity against resistant gram-positive organisms. To better understand the overall safety and effectiveness of daptomycin in olderadults
Daryl D. DePestel; Ellie Hershberger; Kenneth C. Lamp; Preeti N. Malani
Family members and friends are important for the psychological well being of olderadults. The present study examined the\\u000a relative contribution of these two sources of support to life satisfaction among Chinese olderadults living in Hong Kong.\\u000a The moderating role of familism, which represents the commitment of family members to the family, was also examined. One hundred\\u000a and eight
The goal of the study was to explore and assess consumer information processing problems from the perspective of elderly consumers in order to optimize product choices. Specifically, the investigation attempted to determine how older consumers, as compare...
... help: Sleep medications. Keep sleep medications to a minimum and follow your doctors instructions carefully. Many older ... will keep symptoms and side effects to a minimum for as long as possible. The most common ...
Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as “facial trustworthiness.”In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Todorov, 2008; Engell et al., 2010). Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that olderadults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Calder et al., 2003; Firestone et al., 2007; Ruffman et al., 2008; Chaby and Narme, 2009). Based on Todorov';s theory and the fact that olderadults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004) reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment), from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: young adults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and olderadults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness.
Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as "facial trustworthiness."In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Todorov, 2008; Engell et al., 2010). Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that olderadults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Calder et al., 2003; Firestone et al., 2007; Ruffman et al., 2008; Chaby and Narme, 2009). Based on Todorov';s theory and the fact that olderadults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004) reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment), from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: young adults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and olderadults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness. PMID:24046755
Just like other face dimensions, age influences the way faces are processed by adults as well as by children. However, it remains unclear under what conditions exactly such influence occurs at both ages, in that there is some mixed evidence concerning the presence of a systematic processing advantage for peer faces (own-age bias) across the lifespan. Inconsistency in the results may stem from the fact that the individual’s face representation adapts to represent the most predominant age traits of the faces present in the environment, which is reflective of the individual’s specific living conditions and social experience. In the current study we investigated the processing of younger and olderadult faces in two groups of adults (Experiment 1) and two groups of 3-year-old children (Experiment 2) who accumulated different amounts of experience with elderly people. Contact with elderly adults influenced the extent to which both adult and child participants showed greater discrimination abilities and stronger sensitivity to configural/featural cues in younger versus olderadult faces, as measured by the size of the inversion effect. In children, the size of the inversion effect for olderadult faces was also significantly correlated with the amount of contact with elderly people. These results show that, in both adults and children, visual experience with olderadult faces can tune perceptual processing strategies to the point of abolishing the discrimination disadvantage that participants typically manifest for those faces in comparison to younger adult faces.
The National Institute on Aging (NIA) and the National Library of Medicine recently launched NIHSeniorHealth.gov, a website developed from NIA research on olderadults, cognitive aging, and computer usage. This easy-to-use website "makes aging-related health information easily accessible for adults 60 and older" and serves as "a useful tool for family members and friends who are seeking online health information for their older relatives." Topics covered include Alzheimer's disease, arthritis, exercising for olderadults, and more. The website offers several options for enhancing usability, including a virtual voice that reads all text aloud. Visitors may also watch video clips (captions available), take short quizzes, or follow links to MEDLINEplus websites for more detailed information.
|This guide describes a model for a community-based literacy program for olderadults that uses olderadults as tutors. Guidelines are provided to program sponsors for implementing literacy education for olderadults. Chapter I provides an overview of the problem of illiterate olderadults and literacy education for them. Chapter II addresses the…
Using the Internet is an important aspect of leisure among olderadults, and satisfaction with Internet usage may be conducive to the well-being of olderadults. This study explored via questionnaires the relationship between olderadults' leisure satisfaction and their affinity for the Internet. A total of 103 olderadults were recruited from a local aging agency in a Midwestern
This article describes an innovative model for teaching gerontological social work that has been introduced into the social work methods curriculum in the Department of Social Work at a college in northern Israel. The basic concept of the model is to create an alternative learning environment by including older persons as full participants in the classroom. As experts on old age, they provide social work students with a hands-on learning experience intended to facilitate their understanding of aging. The changing needs of this growing population place a complex and pressing burden on the social systems that provide services to olderadults, and on the families that care for them. To meet these needs, it is predicted that there will be a substantial increase in the demand for social workers in the field of gerontology. At present, there is a shortage of social workers who wish to work with this population as a result of negative perceptions and stereotypes relating to old age. This calls for a different approach to teaching gerontological social work, one that will adapt the study of aging to today's older population while addressing the misconceptions and anxieties of social work students. PMID:23383713
This study aims to explore the prevalence and influence factors of depressive symptoms in Chinese olderadults from 1987 to 2012. The study investigated 81 published papers on depressive symptoms in Chinese olderadults using the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30) or the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) as a measuring tool through meta-analysis. A total of 88,417 Chinese olderadults were included in this review. The pooled prevalence of depressive symptoms in Chinese olderadults was 23.6% (95% CI: 20.3-27.2%). The pooled prevalence of depressive symptoms was greater in women. In addition, the prevalence of depressive symptoms in married olderadults was lower than in single adults (i.e., divorced, unmarried or widowed). Depressive morbidity with GDS-30 was significantly higher than with CES-D. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in Chinese olderadultspresented a downward tendency with increasing educational level. Moreover, the prevalence of depressive symptoms gradually increased with the year of data collection. Significant differences were found in the measurement tools, gender, degree of education and marital status, but none in age. PMID:24001674
Li, Dan; Zhang, Da-Jun; Shao, Jing-Jin; Qi, Xiao-Dong; Tian, Lin
Criminal suspects with distinctive facial features, such as tattoos or bruising, may stand out in a police lineup. To prevent suspects from being unfairly identified on the basis of their distinctive feature, the police often manipulate lineup images to ensure that all of the members appear similar. Recent research shows that replicating a distinctive feature across lineup members enhances eyewitness identification performance, relative to removing that feature on the target. In line with this finding, the present study demonstrated that with young adults (n = 60; mean age = 20), replication resulted in more target identifications than did removal in target-present lineups and that replication did not impair performance, relative to removal, in target-absent lineups. Olderadults (n = 90; mean age = 74) performed significantly worse than young adults, identifying fewer targets and more foils; moreover, olderadults showed a minimal benefit from replication over removal. This pattern is consistent with the associative deficit hypothesis of aging, such that olderadults form weaker links between faces and their distinctive features. Although replication did not produce much benefit over removal for olderadults, it was not detrimental to their performance. Therefore, the results suggest that replication may not be as beneficial to olderadults as it is to young adults and demonstrate a new practical implication of age-related associative deficits in memory. PMID:23150053
Badham, Stephen P; Wade, Kimberley A; Watts, Hannah J E; Woods, Natalie G; Maylor, Elizabeth A
|This article tells the story of policies relevant to education, ageism and olderadults between 1999 and 2005. It follows an article published in a previous "New Zealand Journal of Adult Learning" that described and critiqued policy developments between the 1980s and 2001. The story is located in the context of ongoing historical struggles…
Social Networking sites (SNS) use helps teenagers and younger adults to increase their social network and maintain those offline connections made in their daily activities. However olderadults are often left aside from SNS, missing interaction opportunities with the members of their social network. The lack of participation and access to these social capital sources might be relevant because several
|Dementia may be more common in olderadults with intellectual disability (ID) than in the general population. The increased risk for Alzheimer's disease in people with Down syndrome (DS) is well established, but much less is known about dementia in adults with ID who do not have DS. We estimated incidence rates from a longitudinal study of…
|The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of olderadults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…
Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel
In a typical reversal-learning experiment, one learns stimulus-outcome contingencies that then switch without warning. For instance, participants might have to repeatedly choose between two faces, one of which yields points whereas the other does not, with a reversal at some point in which face yields points. The current study examined age differences in the effects of outcome type on reversal learning. In the first experiment, the participants' task was either to select the person who would be in a better mood or to select the person who would yield more points. Reversals in which face was the correct option occurred several times. Olderadults did worse in blocks in which the correct response was to select the person who would not be angry than in blocks in which the correct response was to select the person who would smile. Younger adults did not show a difference by emotional valence. In the second study, the negative condition was switched to have the same format as the positive condition (to select who will be angry). Again, olderadults did worse with negative than positive outcomes, whereas younger adults did not show a difference by emotional valence. A third experiment replicated the lack of valence effects in younger adults with a harder probabilistic reversal-learning task. In the first two experiments, olderadults performed about as well as younger adults in the positive conditions but performed worse in the negative conditions. These findings suggest that negative emotional outcomes selectively impair olderadults' reversal learning.
Nashiro, Kaoru; Mather, Mara; Gorlick, Marissa A.; Nga, Lin
The motivations and benefits of educational travel among individuals aged 55 years old and over were examined in this study. A total of 136 olderadults enrolled in Elderhostel programs participated in this study and reported their perceived benefits and motivations for engaging in educational travel experiences. Correlation analyses were used to explore relationships between the adults' perceived benefits and
A study of behavior patterns, actions, and habits that contribute to olderadults falling in public places identified such factors as lack of familiarity, health, overexertion, environmental influences/hazards, eyesight and mobility behaviors, and pace. Prevention interventions should employ strategies that actively engage adults in critical…
Clemson, Lindy; Manor, Debra; Fitzgerald, Maureen H.
|The research reported in this study concerns olderadults from Australia who voluntarily chose to learn the craft of woodturning. The paper examines the literature of adult learning under the themes of presage factors, the learning environment, instructional methods, and techniques for facilitators. The paper then reports on the analysis of two…
|Objective: To identify issues and perceptions concerning physical activity in olderadults. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Perth, Western Australia. Methods: Sixteen adults aged 65 to 74 years were interviewed in their own homes using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using a descriptive qualitative methodology.…
Jancey, Jonine M.; Clarke, Ann; Howat, Peter; Maycock, Bruce; Lee, Andy H.
|Forty young adults, 40 healthy olderadults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required…
Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois
This study examined the size and composition of olderadults' social control networks and investigated behavioral and affective responses to the experience of social control. Social control in the health domain refers to regulatory attempts by others (direct), and feelings of obligation and responsibility to others (indirect), that encourage en- gagement in a healthy lifestyle. Participants were 181 adults aged
An estimated 4.3 million adults aged 50 or older, or 4.7 percent of adults in that age range, had used an illicit drug in the past year, based on data from 2006 to 2008. Marijuana use was more common than nonmedical use of prescription-type drugs for adul...
Objectives/Hypothesis To identify treatable risk factors for aspiration in olderadults—particularly those associated with sarcopenia – we examined tongue composition. We hypothesized that 1) isometric and swallowing posterior tongue strength would positively correlate with posterior tongue adiposity, and 2) healthy olderadults who aspirate would have greater tongue adiposity than healthy olderadults who did not aspirate. Study Design Prospective Methods Participants were 40 healthy adults, comprised of 20 aspirators (Mean age = 78 years) and 20 non-aspirators (Mean age = 81 years), as identified via flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Measures of maximal isometric posterior tongue strength and posterior swallowing tongue strength were acquired via tongue manometry. An index of posterior tongue adiposity was acquired via computed tomography for a 1 cm region of interest. Result(s) Posterior tongue adiposity was correlated with posterior tongue isometric (r = .32, p = 0.05) but not swallowing pressures (p > 0.05) as examined with separate partial correlation analyses. Tongue adiposity did not significantly differ as a function of age, gender, or aspiration status (p > 0.05). Conclusion(s) Lower posterior isometric tongue strength was associated with greater posterior tongue adiposity. However, aspiration in healthy olderadults was not affected by posterior tongue adiposity. This finding offers insight into the roles of tongue composition and strength in healthy olderadults.
Butler, Susan G.; Lintzenich, Catherine Rees; Leng, Xiaoyan; Stuart, Andrew; Feng, Xin; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.
Cardiovascular-related mortality increases in the cold winter months, particularly in olderadults. Previously, we reported that determinants of myocardial O(2) demand, such as the rate-pressure product, increase more in olderadults compared with young adults during cold stress. The aim of the present study was to determine if aging influences the coronary hemodynamic response to cold stress in humans. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography was used to noninvasively measure peak coronary blood velocity in the left anterior descending artery before and during acute (20 min) whole body cold stress in 10 young adults (25 ± 1 yr) and 11 older healthy adults (65 ± 2 yr). Coronary vascular resistance (diastolic blood pressure/peak coronary blood velocity), coronary perfusion time fraction (coronary perfusion time/R-R interval), and left ventricular wall stress were calculated. We found that cooling (via a water-perfused suit) increased left ventricular wall stress, a primary determinant of myocardial O(2) consumption, in both young and olderadults, although the magnitude of this increase was nearly twofold greater in olderadults (change of 9.1 ± 3.5% vs. 17.6 ± 3.2%, P < 0.05, change from baseline in young and olderadults and young vs. olderadults). Despite the increased myocardial O(2) demand during cooling, coronary vasodilation (decreased coronary vascular resistance) occurred only in young adults (3.22 ± 0.23 to 2.85 ± 0.18 mmHg·cm(-1)·s(-1), P < 0.05) and not olderadults (3.97 ± 0.24 to 3.79 ± 0.27 mmHg·cm(-1)·s(-1), P > 0.05). Consistent with a blunted coronary vascular response, absolute coronary perfusion time tended to decrease (P = 0.13) and coronary perfusion time fraction decreased (P < 0.05) during cooling in olderadults but not young adults. Collectively, these data suggest that olderadults demonstrate an altered coronary hemodynamic response to acute cold stress. PMID:22003058
Gao, Zhaohui; Wilson, Thad E; Drew, Rachel C; Ettinger, Joshua; Monahan, Kevin D
Cardiovascular-related mortality increases in the cold winter months, particularly in olderadults. Previously, we reported that determinants of myocardial O2 demand, such as the rate-pressure product, increase more in olderadults compared with young adults during cold stress. The aim of the present study was to determine if aging influences the coronary hemodynamic response to cold stress in humans. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography was used to noninvasively measure peak coronary blood velocity in the left anterior descending artery before and during acute (20 min) whole body cold stress in 10 young adults (25 ± 1 yr) and 11 older healthy adults (65 ± 2 yr). Coronary vascular resistance (diastolic blood pressure/peak coronary blood velocity), coronary perfusion time fraction (coronary perfusion time/R-R interval), and left ventricular wall stress were calculated. We found that cooling (via a water-perfused suit) increased left ventricular wall stress, a primary determinant of myocardial O2 consumption, in both young and olderadults, although the magnitude of this increase was nearly twofold greater in olderadults (change of 9.1 ± 3.5% vs. 17.6 ± 3.2%, P < 0.05, change from baseline in young and olderadults and young vs. olderadults). Despite the increased myocardial O2 demand during cooling, coronary vasodilation (decreased coronary vascular resistance) occurred only in young adults (3.22 ± 0.23 to 2.85 ± 0.18 mmHg·cm?1·s?1, P < 0.05) and not olderadults (3.97 ± 0.24 to 3.79 ± 0.27 mmHg·cm?1·s?1, P > 0.05). Consistent with a blunted coronary vascular response, absolute coronary perfusion time tended to decrease (P = 0.13) and coronary perfusion time fraction decreased (P < 0.05) during cooling in olderadults but not young adults. Collectively, these data suggest that olderadults demonstrate an altered coronary hemodynamic response to acute cold stress.
This qualitative study describes environmental supports and barriers to physical activity in an olderadult sample drawn from low- and high-walkable neighborhoods. Thirty-seven individuals age 55 and over were recruited and answered open-ended survey questions, with a subsample invited back to partake in a semistructured interview. Content analysis identified categories and themes linking perceptions of neighborhood-environment characteristics to activity. Emerging categories and themes did not differ across neighborhood walkability, so results are presented for both groups combined. Infrastructure was the most common category identified to encourage activity, specifically, well-maintained sidewalks, bike paths or lanes, and traffic control. Other categories of land use, landscape, and aesthetics were reported. Poorly maintained or missing sidewalks, crosswalks, bike paths or lanes, and traffic safety were categories that discouraged activity. In conclusion, the information obtained is helpful in solidifying which environmental characteristics are important to measure as they relate to activity behavior in an olderadult population. PMID:18048945
Strath, Scott; Isaacs, Raymond; Greenwald, Michael J
The possible effects of presentation format on the retention of television program content was examined. Younger and olderadults viewed two different types of programs in one of four formats reflecting those used in commercial and public television, and in previous research. Results showed no effects due to the manipulation for either age group; free recall, probed recall, and recognition
Recent studies suggest that older human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults are at particular risk for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), including dementia. Deficits in attention/working memory are posited to play a central role in the development of HAND among olderadults. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible protective benefits of spontaneous strategy use during a visual working memory task in 46 older and 42 younger adults infected with HIV. Results revealed a significant interaction between age and strategy use, with olderadults who used a meta-cognitive strategy demonstrating superior working memory performance versus non-strategy users. This effect was not observed in the younger HIV-infected sample and was not better explained by possible confounding factors, such as education, comorbid medical conditions, or HIV disease severity. Within the older group, strategy use was associated with better executive functions and higher estimated verbal intelligence. Findings from this study suggest that working memory declines in older HIV-infected adults are moderated by the use of higher-level mnemonic strategies and may inform cognitive neurorehabilitation efforts to improve cognitive and everyday functioning outcomes in older persons living with HIV infection.
Woods, Steven Paul; Weber, Erica; Cameron, Marizela V.; Dawson, Matthew S.; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Bondi, Mark W.; Grant, Igor
Recent studies suggest that older human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults are at particular risk for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), including dementia. Deficits in attention/working memory are posited to play a central role in the development of HAND among olderadults. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible protective benefits of spontaneous strategy use during a visual working memory task in 46 older and 42 younger adults infected with HIV. Results revealed a significant interaction between age and strategy use, with olderadults who used a meta-cognitive strategy demonstrating superior working memory performance versus non-strategy users. This effect was not observed in the younger HIV-infected sample and was not better explained by possible confounding factors, such as education, comorbid medical conditions, or HIV disease severity. Within the older group, strategy use was associated with better executive functions and higher estimated verbal intelligence. Findings from this study suggest that working memory declines in older HIV-infected adults are moderated by the use of higher-level mnemonic strategies and may inform cognitive neurorehabilitation efforts to improve cognitive and everyday functioning outcomes in older persons living with HIV infection. PMID:20876195
Woods, Steven Paul; Weber, Erica; Cameron, Marizela V; Dawson, Matthew S; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Bondi, Mark W; Grant, Igor
Many randomized, controlled trials indicate that vitamin D will lower falls and fractures, so it was reasonable for Sanders et al. to hypothesize that a single annual 500,000 IU oral dose of vitamin D3 would be effective in reducing falls and fractures in older women with one or more risk factors fo...
|Purpose: We attempt to determine whether older workers and early retirees avoid managed care plans and to explore whether health plan choices are linked to the health status of workers or their spouses. Design and Methods: We use the responses of those born between 1931 and 1941 to the 1994 and 1998 waves of the Health and Retirement Survey. We…
The baby boom generation is quickly becoming the geriatric generation. The over-65 age bracket hit 13% of Americans in 1997, and is expected to reach 20% by 2030 accounting for 73 million Americans. World-wide the total number of older people (>60years) is expected to double from...
Approximately 50% of olderadults complain of difficulty sleeping. Poor sleep results in increased risk of significant morbidity and mortality. The decrements seen in the sleep of the olderadult are often due to a decrease in the ability to get needed sleep. However, the decreased ability is less a function of age and more a function of other factors that accompany aging, such as medical and psychiatric illness, increased medication use, advances in the endogenous circadian clock and a higher prevalence of specific sleep disorders. Given the large number of olderadults with sleep complaints and sleep disorders, there is a need for health care professionals to have an increased awareness of these sleep disturbances to better enable them to assess and treat these patients. A thorough sleep history (preferably in the presence of their bed partner) is required for a proper diagnosis, and when appropriate, an overnight sleep recording should be done. Treatment of primary sleep problems can improve the quality of life and daytime functioning of olderadults. This paper reviews the diagnoses and characteristics of sleep disorders generally found in the olderadult. While aimed at the practicing geriatrician, this paper is also of importance for any gerontologist interested in sleep.
Goals for immunization in olderadults may differ from those in young adults and children, in whom complete prevention of disease is the objective. Often, reduced hospitalization and death but also averting exacerbation of underlying chronic illness, functional decline, and frailty are important goals in the older age group. Because of the effect of age on dendritic cell function, T cell-mediated immune suppression, reduced proliferative capacity of T cells, and other immune responses, the efficacy of vaccines often wanes with advanced age. This article summarizes the discussion and proceedings of a workshop organized by the Association of Specialty Professors, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Geriatrics Society, the National Institute on Aging, and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Leading researchers and clinicians in the fields of immunology, epidemiology, infectious diseases, geriatrics, and gerontology reviewed the current status of vaccines in olderadults, identified knowledge gaps, and suggest priority areas for future research. The goal of the workshop was to identify what is known about immunizations (efficacy, effect, and current schedule) in olderadults and to recommend priorities for future research. Investigation in the areas identified has the potential to enhance understanding of the immune process in aging individuals, inform vaccine development, and lead to more-effective strategies to reduce the risk of vaccine-preventable illness in olderadults. PMID:20398161
High, Kevin P; D'Aquila, Richard T; Fuldner, Rebecca A; Gerding, Dale N; Halter, Jeffrey B; Haynes, Laura; Hazzard, William R; Jackson, Lisa A; Janoff, Edward; Levin, Myron J; Nayfield, Susan G; Nichol, Kristin L; Prabhudas, Mercy; Talbot, Helen K; Clayton, Charles P; Henderson, Randi; Scott, Catherine M; Tarver, Erika D; Woolard, Nancy F; Schmader, Kenneth E
Introduction. Minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) is a common form of nephrotic syndrome in children and young adults. We investigated its clinical presentations, steroid responsiveness, sub- sequent clinical course and patterns of relapse in olderadults in whom it was diagnosed after the age of 50 years. Methods. The clinical records of renal patients followed-up in a single out patient
Persistent pain is a common health problem for olderadults, age 60+, with a prevalence twice that in younger adults. Yet, olderadults with chronic pain and headache are underrepresented in behaviorally oriented clinical programs that have proven effective for younger adults. A review of the literature indicates that olderadults develop multiple pain-related problems that are similar to those
We investigated whether extensive repetition can diminish age-related differences between younger and olderadults in functional magnetic resonance adaptation (fMR-A). Datasets were obtained from 26 younger and 24 older healthy adultspresented with two scenes that repeated 20 times amongst other novel scenes during fMRI scanning. The average cortical responses to the first eight (Repetitions 1-7) and the last eight (Repetitions 12-19) presentations out of 20 were compared within each group. Younger adults showed similar levels of fMR-A in both repetition sets. Conversely, olderadults did not show reliable fMR-A in Repetitions 1-7, but they did in Repetitions 12-19; subtracting the latter from the former revealed a significant effect within left inferior occipital, left lingual, and the posterior part of fusiform gyrus. We concluded that cortical responsiveness in olderadults are compromised, but extensive repetition can lead olderadults to show a delayed but closer level of fMR-A compared to younger adults. PMID:22274135
The expanding population of olderadults living in rural communities presents a rich opportunity for new clinical experiences for nursing students. The purpose of this research study was to explore the experiences of nursing students working with olderadults in rural communities, the experiences of olderadults, and the development of relationships. The sample included 96 nursing students and 16 olderadults. Using the phenomenological method, we solicited comprehensive descriptions through open-ended questions. The following themes describe the experience of nursing students and the olderadults they visited in their homes: (a) Welcoming Presence, (b) Developing a Trusting Relationship, (c) Spending Time Together, (d) Sharing and Listening to Stories, (e) Learning about Growing Old, and (f) Growing Nursing Students. Students believed that this experience was a vital component of their nursing education and it taught them how to develop a therapeutic relationship, learn how to listen, and how to be comfortable with themselves in the role of the student nurse. Students felt that the home setting was a safe environment to learn how to listen, carry out assessments, and receive feedback from olderadults. This clinical experience can be easily implemented in a nursing curriculum to better prepare nurses for the challenges of the future. PMID:23910926
Adults with schizophrenia are living longer, and data suggest they face health care disparities contributing to poor physical health. This article presents findings from a study that explored the understanding of physical health among olderadults with schizophrenia. One goal was to understand factors that influence experienced health care disparities. This grounded theory study used semi-structured interviews and participant observation and was conducted among 28 olderadults with schizophrenia living in a variety of settings. Trust evolved as a dynamic process that was built with factors of respect, caring, advocacy, and consistency and eroded through factors of disrespect, not being heard, lack of time and provider inaction, and stigmatization. When trust is given and received between providers, the health care system, and the olderadult with schizophrenia, the adult's physical health outcomes may improve and health care disparities may decline. These findings provide insights to promote optimal physical health outcomes. PMID:19928709
The Roadwise Review has been reported to provide an effective means of self-assessing and predicting driving difficulties in olderadults. We administered it to 73 community-dwelling older drivers (M = 73 years) and also gathered data on self-reported driving difficulties, 2-year retrospective collisions, and moving violations. The acuity tests and Useful Field of View exhibited substantial ceiling effects that limit predictive utility, and there was a high failure rate on the head and neck flexibility test. Additionally, the Roadwise Review did not predict self-reported driving problems or collision risk. Thus, in current form, it does not appear to be a useful tool for assessing older drivers. Future research efforts should assess predictive validity in a more heterogeneous sample of olderadults and with a broader range of outcomes, including on-road driving performance. PMID:20400499
Scialfa, Charles; Ference, Jennifer; Boone, Jessica; Tay, Richard; Hudson, Carl
Objectives Previous research has attributed olderadult’s difficulty with perceiving speech in noise to peripheral hearing loss. Recent studies have suggested a more complex picture, however, and implicate the central nervous system in sensation and sensory deficits. This study examines the relationship between the neuroanatomical structure of cognitive regions and the ability to perceive speech in noise in olderadults. In particular, the neuroanatomical characteristics of the left ventral and dorsal prefrontal cortex are considered relative to standard measures of hearing in noise. Design The participants were fifteen older and fourteen younger right-handed native speakers of American English who had no neurological deficits and scored better than normal on standardized cognitive tests. We measured the participants’ peripheral hearing ability as well as their ability to perceive speech in noise using standardized tests. Anatomical magnetic resonance images were taken and analyzed to extract regional volumes and thicknesses of several key neuroanatomical structures. Results The results showed that younger adults had better hearing sensitivity and better speech perception in noise ability than olderadults. For the olderadults only, the volume of the left pars triangularis and the cortical thickness of the left superior frontal gyrus were significant predictors of performance on the speech-in-noise test. Discussion These findings suggest that, in addition to peripheral structures, the central nervous system also contributes to the ability to perceive speech in noise. In olderadults, a decline in the volume and cortical thickness of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during aging can therefore be a factor in a declining ability to perceive speech in a naturalistic environment. Our study shows a link between anatomy of PFC and speech perception in olderadults. These findings are consistent with the decline-compensation hypothesis, which states that a decline in sensory processing due to cognitive aging can be accompanied by an increase in the recruitment of more general cognitive areas as a means of compensation. We found that a larger PFC volume may compensate for declining peripheral hearing. Clinically, recognizing the contribution of the cerebral cortex expands treatment possibilities for hearing loss in olderadults beyond peripheral hearing aids to include strategies for improving cognitive function. We conclude by considering several mechanisms by which the PFC may facilitate speech perception in noise including inhibitory control, attention, cross-modal compensation, and phonological working memory, though no definitive conclusion can be drawn.
Wong, Patrick C. M.; Ettlinger, Marc; Sheppard, John P.; Gunasekera, Geshri M.; Dhar, Sumitrajit
Dementia and delirium, the most common causes of cognitive impairment (CI) among hospitalized olderadults, are associated with higher mortality rates, increased morbidity and higher health care costs. A growing body of science suggests that these olderadults and their caregivers are particularly vulnerable to systems of care that either do not recognize or meet their needs. The consequences can be devastating for these olderadults and add to the burden of hospital staff and caregivers, especially during the transition from hospital to home. Unfortunately, little evidence exists to guide optimal care of this patient group. Available research findings suggest that hospitalized cognitively impaired elders may benefit from interventions aimed at improving care management of both CI and co-morbid conditions but the exact nature and intensity of interventions needed are not known. This article will explore the need for improved transitional care for this vulnerable population and their caregivers.
Naylor, Mary D.; Hirschman, Karen B.; Bowles, Kathryn H.; Bixby, M. Brian; Konick-McMahan, JoAnne; Stephens, Caroline
Despite the recognized benefits of strength training in preventing physical and functional decline among olderadults, little information exists on their views of this exercise modality. This study used focus groups to obtain an in-depth understanding of olderadults' attitudes and concerns about a strength training intervention and to identify factors that determined their adherence to this exercise program. Three focus groups were conducted with 24 former participants after the completion of the 16-week intervention. Major themes that emerged from the focus group discussions were categorized according to Dishman, Sallis, and Orenstein's  framework of factors influencing adherence, including personal, activity, and environmental characteristics. The most frequently reported factors were enjoyment of strength training, accessibility of the exercise facility, and the social reinforcement provided by exercise leaders and partners. Recommendations for strength training program development with olderadults are discussed in light of these factors. PMID:16491534
Sharon, B F; Hennessy, C H; Brandon, L J; Boyette, L W
This article discusses published reports and studies from the past decade that focused primarily on using written or other tangible nutrition educational resources with olderadults, such as brief "handouts," newsletters, brochures, booklets, curricular lessons, board games, audiotapes and videotapes. Studies of health professionals' needs and desires for such materials are also reviewed. Thirteen articles, of which four were theory-based, were found. They are summarized in tables that include details regarding the educational resource(s) used; a description of the subjects and controls, if any; the evaluation methods used; and results obtained. Ten practical suggestions are offered to help educators select or develop more effective printed, audiotape, videotape and other tangible nutrition education resources appropriate for olderadults. Much research remains to be done in this area. This article is one of a series of literature reviews of topics related to nutrition education for olderadults. PMID:15030160
The HIV/AIDS surveillance data indicates that the proportion of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) who were 50 years old or older increased to 42.7% in 2011 from 16.5% in 2007 in Nanning, the capital city of Guangxi Province. A greater number of newly diagnosed HIV cases compared to clinical AIDS cases were identified from olderadults. The dominant HIV transmission mode among older PLWHAs was heterosexual although approximately 30% of all PLWHAs acquired HIV through heterosexual contacts. PMID:22984779
Abstract The HIV/AIDS surveillance data indicates that the proportion of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) who were 50 years old or older increased to 42.7% in 2011 from 16.5% in 2007 in Nanning, the capital city of Guangxi Province. A greater number of newly diagnosed HIV cases compared to clinical AIDS cases were identified from olderadults. The dominant HIV transmission mode among older PLWHAs was heterosexual although approximately 30% of all PLWHAs acquired HIV through heterosexual contacts.
Lin, Xinqin; Xu, Yongfang; Chen, Shiyi; Shi, Jian; Morisky, Donald
Dementia affects an olderadult's ability to complete activities of daily living independently. It is envisioned that the principles of pervasive and ubiquitous computing can be applied to develop an intelligent environment that can assist an olderadult overcome the problems that they face, and hence im- prove independence and quality of life at home. This paper presents research being
Alex Mihailidis; Brent Carmichael; Jennifer Boger; Geoff Fernie
The present study examined 2 approaches to the measurement of everyday cognition in olderadults. Measures differing in the degree of structure offered for solving problems in the domains of medication use, financial management, and food preparation and nutrition were administered to a sample of 130 community-dwelling olderadults ranging in age from 60 to 90 (M = 73 years,
The present study aimed to investigate factors associated with sexual interest and behaviors in married olderadults. The study recruited olderadults from the Open Protection Centers for Elderly. A 30-items questionnaire addressing sexuality, emotional and physical intimacy, demographics, and background data was constructed. Dichotomous responses were used for intimacy and sexuality items. Data were analyzed using Chi-square tests, Pearson's
S. Papaharitou; E. Nakopoulou; P. Kirana; G. Giaglis; M. Moraitou; D. Hatzichristou
Falls are a major threat to the health and independence of olderadults, people aged 65 and older. Each year in the United States, nearly one-third of olderadults experience a fall. Falls can be devastating. About one out of ten falls among olderadults ...
D. Wallace H. Falk I. Arias J. L. Gerberding M. Ballesteros
Olderadults have reduced memory, primarily for recall, but also for recognition (Craik and McDowd, 1987), particularly for unfamiliar faces (Bartlett et al., 1989). Behavioral studies have shown that age-related memory declines are due in part to distraction from impaired inhibition of task-irrelevant input during encoding (Healey et al., 2008). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to uncover the sources of memory deficits associated with aging. To date, this work has focused on successful encoding, while the neural correlates of unsuccessful encoding are unknown. Here we provide novel evidence of a neural mechanism underlying memory failures exclusively affecting olderadults. Whereas both younger and olderadults showed reduced activation of brain regions important for encoding (e.g., hippocampus) during unsuccessful encoding, only olderadults showed increased activity in brain regions mediating distraction (e.g., auditory cortex) and in left prefrontal cortex. Further, these regions were functionally connected with medial parietal areas, previously identified as default mode regions (Raichle and Snyder, 2007), which may reflect environmental monitoring. Our results suggest that increased distraction from task-irrelevant input (auditory in this case), associated with the unfamiliar and noisy fMRI environment, may increase environmental monitoring. This in turn could hinder suppression of default mode processing, resulting in memory failures in olderadults. These findings provide novel evidence of a brain mechanism underlying the behavioral evidence that impaired inhibition of extraneous input during encoding leads to memory failure in olderadults, and may have implications for the ubiquitous use of fMRI for investigating neurocognitive aging.
Stevens, W. Dale; Hasher, Lynn; Chiew, Kimberly S.; Grady, Cheryl L.
... adults should do four types of activities regularly: aerobic (or endurance) exercise and activities to strengthen muscles, ... give you more than just one benefit! Water aerobics with weights gives you strengthening and aerobic benefits. ...
Objective Olderadults are particularly vulnerable to the effects of depression, however, they are less likely to seek and engage in mental health treatment. African-American olderadults are even less likely than their White counterparts to seek and engage in mental health treatment. This qualitative study examined the experience of being depressed among African-American elders and their perceptions of barriers confronted when contemplating seeking mental health services. In addition, we examined how coping strategies are utilized by African-American elders who choose not to seek professional mental health services. Method A total of 37 interviews were conducted with African-American elders endorsing at least mild symptoms of depression. Interviews were audiotaped and subsequently transcribed. Content analysis was utilized to analyze the qualitative data. Results Thematic analysis of the interviews with African-American olderadults is presented within three areas: (1) Beliefs about Depression Among Older African-Americans: (2) Barriers to Seeking Treatment for Older African-Americans: and (3) Cultural Coping Strategies for Depressed African-American OlderAdults. Conclusion Older African-Americans in this study identified a number of experiences living in the Black community that impacted their treatment seeking attitudes and behaviors. which led to identification and utilization of more culturally endorsed coping strategies to deal with their depression. Findings from this study provide a greater understanding of the stigma associated with having a mental illness and its influence on attitudes toward mental health services.
Olderadults, as active members of the Veterans of Foreign Wars (VFW), describe multiple benefits of participation in the organization to their overall well-being. This qualitative study examined the perspectives of 20 active participants of a VFW Post and its Ladies Auxiliary. Findings indicate that, for the study participants, the VFW serves as a primary source of cross-generational influence, emotional support, and meaningful activity and provides a safe and secure environment for members. This article provides valuable information that social work researchers and practitioners can use to help increase olderadults' civic engagement and address service gaps. PMID:21967140
This article seeks to educate health care providers in understanding the need for immunization of olderadults with the new herpes zoster vaccine, Zostavax(®). Herpes zoster (shingles) is a painful and disabling condition that can result in significant morbidity, loss of productivity, and decrease in quality of life. Herpes zoster is a reactivation of the varicella zoster virus, the same virus that causes chicken pox. Anyone who has had chickenpox can get shingles. Evidence found in the literature demonstrates that the vaccine prevents shingles in approximately half of adults 60 and older. PMID:20506935
Diseaser emergencies are occurring with seemingly increased frequency. The likelihood that gerontological nurse will be involved in a disaster scenario, regardless of practices setting, is real. Instead of recoiling from this likelihood, the best approach is preparedness. In this article we examine what constitutes a disaster and how it differs from an emergency, as well as the potential impact of disaster on olderadults in general and those with dementia in particular. Concepts of sheltering in plac, caring for olderadults with dementia in a temporary shelter, and partnering with nurses in acute care settings are discussed. PMID:20669858
The purpose of this systematic literature review was to describe the empirical findings on health literacy in adults 65 and older. A systematic search for research studies from 1999 to early 2010 was conducted in MEDLINE and CINAHL databases. Articles were analyzed using the following foci: skills and health knowledge, functional health literacy, and health behaviors and health outcomes. Findings indicated that advancing age resulted in a significant increase in prevalence of inadequate health literacy. Further research is needed to develop evidence-based, culturally congruent interventions to improve health literacy among olderadults. PMID:21634314
This article presents a qualitative study following a 6-month Taiji (T'ai Chi)/Qigong (Ch'i Kung) intervention for olderadults. The researchers conducted in-depth interviews of eight selected participants who elected to continue practicing Taiji after the intervention ended, in order to explore their subjective experiences of Taiji's effects and their motivations for continuing to practice. We created a Layers Model to capture the significance and meaning of the multidimensionality of their reported experiences. Participants not only reported simple benefits along five dimensions of experience (physical, mental, emotional, social and spiritual) but also described complex multidimensional experiences. Overall findings indicate that participants derived a very wide variety of perceived benefits, the most meaningful being a felt sense of body-mind-spirit integration. Our results support the important role of qualitative studies in researching the effects of Taiji and Qigong. PMID:21773028
ABSTRACTPubMed lists over 6,000 references (700 reviews) on unintentional falls in olderadults. This article traces key methodological milestones in the application of epidemiologic methods since the earliest publications in the late 1940s. Within the context of advances in case definition, sampling, measurement, research design, and statistical analysis, the article reviews estimates of frequency of occurrence, risk factor associations, morbidity and mortality consequences, demonstration of the multiple risk factor theory of falls using fall prevention interventions, and the challenges of fall risk prediction models. Methodological explanations are provided for observed heterogeneities, and the case is presented for moving beyond undifferentiated lists of risk factors by focusing on balance and gait as the factors through which the mechanistic effects of distal risk factors can be understood. Moreover, the case is made to advance our statistical analyses by looking at interactions among intrinsic risk factors and between intrinsic, extrinsic, and environmental factors. PMID:21356155
Context Epidemiologists and public health researchers are studying neighborhood’s effect on individual health. The health of olderadults may be more influenced by their neighborhoods as a result of decreased mobility. However, research on neighborhood’s influence on olderadults’ health, specifically, is limited. Evidence acquisition Recent studies on neighborhood and health for olderadults were identified. Studies were identified through searches databases including PsychINFO, CINAHL, PubMed, Academic Search Premier, Ageline, Social Science Citation Index, and Health Source. Criteria for inclusion were: human studies; English language; study sample included adults aged ?55 years; health outcomes including mental health, health behaviors, morbidity, and mortality; neighborhood as the primary exposure variable of interest; empirical research; and studies that included >=10 neighborhoods. Air pollution studies were excluded. Five hundred thirty-eight relevant articles were published 1997–2007; 33 of these articles met inclusion criteria. Evidence synthesis The measures of objective and perceived aspects of neighborhood were summarized. Neighborhood was primarily operationalized using census-defined boundaries. Measures of neighborhood were principally derived from objective sources of data; eight studies assessed perceived neighborhood alone or in combination with objective measures. Six categories of neighborhood characteristics were socioeconomic composition, racial composition, demographics, perceived resources and/or problems, physical environment, and social environment. The studies are primarily cross-sectional and use administrative data to characterize neighborhood. Conclusions These studies suggest that neighborhood environment is important for olderadults’ health and functioning.
The incidence of multiple myeloma (MM) increases with age, and with the aging of the population, the number of adults with MM is expected to double in the next 20 years. Novel agents, including the immunomodulatory agents thalidomide and lenalidomide, and the proteosome inhibitor bortezomib have dramatically changed the treatment of multiple myeloma in the past decade. The purpose of this review was to examine the recent clinical therapeutic trials in olderadults with MM. A number of trials have evaluated the addition of novel agents to the traditional backbone of melphalan and prednisone. The combination of thalidomide with melphalan and prednisone has been evaluated in 7 randomized trials. The combination improves response rates and, in meta-analyses, survival, but at the expense of increased toxicity. Other combination regimens which include lenalidomide or bortezomib likewise are associated with higher response rates, but at the expense of greater toxicity. High dose dexamethasone is excessively toxic in olderadults and should be avoided. The roles for high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplant or intermediate-dose melphalan with autologous stem cell transplant in olderadults with MM in the era of modern therapy remain to be defined. In summary, there are a number of new therapeutic options for olderadults with MM, allowing an individualized treatment strategy based on the patient's comorbidities and goals of care.
Wildes, Tanya M; Vij, Ravi; Petersdorf, Stephen H.; Medeiros, Bruno C.; Hurria, Arti
The incidence of multiple myeloma (MM) increases with age, and with the aging of the population, the number of adults with MM is expected to double in the next 20 years. Novel agents, including the immunomodulatory agents thalidomide and lenalidomide, and the proteosome inhibitor bortezomib have dramatically changed the treatment of multiple myeloma in the past decade. The purpose of this review was to examine the recent clinical therapeutic trials in olderadults with MM. A number of trials have evaluated the addition of novel agents to the traditional backbone of melphalan and prednisone. The combination of thalidomide with melphalan and prednisone has been evaluated in 7 randomized trials. The combination improves response rates and, in meta-analyses, survival, but at the expense of increased toxicity. Other combination regimens which include lenalidomide or bortezomib likewise are associated with higher response rates, but at the expense of greater toxicity. High dose dexamethasone is excessively toxic in olderadults and should be avoided. The roles for high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplant or intermediate-dose melphalan with autologous stem cell transplant in olderadults with MM in the era of modern therapy remain to be defined. In summary, there are a number of new therapeutic options for olderadults with MM, allowing an individualized treatment strategy based on the patient's comorbidities and goals of care. PMID:23024730
Wildes, Tanya M; Vij, Ravi; Petersdorf, Stephen H; Medeiros, Bruno C; Hurria, Arti
Many U.S. states rely on olderadults to self-regulate their driving and determine when driving is no longer a safe option. However, the relationship of olderadults' self-rated driving in terms of actual driving competency outcomes is unclear. The current study investigates self-rated driving in terms of (1) systematic differences between olderadults with high (good/excellent) versus low (poor/fair/average) self-ratings, and (2) the predictive nature of self-rated driving to adverse driving outcomes in olderadults (n=350; mean age 73.9, SD=5.25, range 65-91). Adverse driving outcomes included self-reported incidences of (1) being pulled over by the police, (2) receiving a citation, (3) receiving a recommendation to cease or limit driving, (4) crashes, and (5) state-reported crashes. Results found that older drivers with low self-ratings reported more medical conditions, less driving frequency, and had been given more suggestions to stop/limit their driving; there were no other significant differences between low and high self-raters. Logistic regression revealed older drivers were more likely to have a state-reported crash and receive a suggestion to stop or limit driving. Men were more likely to report all adverse driving outcomes except for receiving a suggestion to stop or limit driving. Regarding self-rated driving, olderadults with high ratings were 66% less likely (OR=0.34, 95% CI=0.14-0.85) to have received suggestions to limit or stop driving after accounting for demographics, health and driving frequency. Self-ratings were not predictive of other driving outcomes (being pulled over by the police, receiving a citation, self-reported crashes, or state-reported crashes, ps>0.05). Most older drivers (85.14%) rated themselves as either good or excellent drivers regardless of their actual previous citation or crash rates. Self-rated driving is likely not related to actual driving proficiency as indicated by previous crash involvement in olderadults. Suggestions from other individuals to limit or cease driving may be more influential on self-ratings. PMID:22664719
Reality monitoring refers to a person's ability to distinguish between perceived and imagined events. Prior research has demonstrated that young adults show a reality-monitoring advantage for negative arousing information as compared with neutral information. The present research examined whether this reality-monitoring benefit extends to positive information in young adults and whether olderadults show a reality-monitoring advantage for emotional information
Elizabeth A. Kensinger; Jacqueline L. OBrien; Kelley Swanberg; Rachel J. Garoff-Eaton; Daniel L. Schacter
Background: Alcohol misuse, especially binge drinking in young people, and alcoholic liver disease are major public health concerns. However, alcohol misuse in older people is underestimated and often goes undetected.Objective: To document alcohol consumption and clinical presentation of alcohol misuse in hospital inpatients aged ?60 years.Methods: 208 inpatients aged ?60 years, referred to the alcohol liaison nurse between 1998 and
Milan M Mehta; Kieran J Moriarty; David Proctor; Mary Bird; Wendy Darling
This analysis uses in-depth interview data collected from 145 AfricanAmerican, European American and Native American men and women aged 70and older who reside in two rural North Carolina counties to understand therole of religious faith and prayer in the health self-management of theseolder adults. The analysis addresses three specific questions: how do theseolder adults use religion to help them manage
Thomas A. Arcury; Sara A. Quandt; Juliana McDonald; Ronny A. Bell
Eighty-four olderadults who had retired from the workforce and were enrolled in Vancouver adult education programs completed a short form of the Education Participation Scale (E.P.S.), from which items known to be job-related had been deleted. The new version of the E.P.S. was factor analyzed to examine the extent to which previously identified factors would re-emerge. The E.P.S. clustered
A Center for Substance Abuse Treatment Knowledge Application Program based on cognitive-behavioral and self-management treatment approaches and targeted to olderadults with substance abuse was provided through a community behavioral health center. A sample of 199 adults aged 50 and above participated in the 18-session program. Observations were made at intake and 6 months after intake. Program completers versus noncompleters
Freida H. Outlaw; Jules M. Marquart; Ajanta Roy; Jason K. Luellen; Mary Moran; Amy Willis; Thomas Doub
Recent research suggests that olderadults are more susceptible to interference effects than are young adults; however, that research has failed to equate differences in original learning. In 4 experiments, the authors show that olderadults are more susceptible to interference effects produced by a misleading prime. Even when original learning was equated, olderadults were 10 times as likely
Larry L. Jacoby; Anthony J. Bishara; Sandra Hessels; Jeffrey P. Toth
This study investigated the extent to which olderadults' associative memory functioning can be modified through instruction and practice based on individuals' memory status. Here 42 younger adults and 42 olderadults performed four tasks that measured strategic and binding aspects of memory. With latent class analysis, two classes of olderadults were identified. The first class showed higher memory
Twenty adults received training in prospective memory; 23 who received training in reducing worries about forgetfulness and 22 controls formed a comparison group. Results of a telephone task and a prospective categorization task revealed significant but small effects for the prospective memory group. After 3 months, the comparison group's…
Olderadults with persistent pain are not simply a chronologically older version of younger pain patients. Pain-related disability in olderadults may be driven by pain ‘homeostenosis’, that is, diminished ability to effectively respond to the stress of persistent pain. Some of the comorbidities of ageing that can contribute to pain homeostenosis include cognitive and physical impairments, increased sensitivity to suprathreshold pain stimuli, medical and psychological comorbidities, altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and social isolation. A key distinction between older and younger individuals with persistent pain is the normal and pathological ageing-associated brain changes. These may alter the expression and experience of pain with impaired descending inhibition and dysfunction of pain gating mechanisms. Cognizance of these brain changes is needed to guide appropriate evaluation and treatment approaches. This paper reviews data that support these ageing-associated phenomena. Specifically, we discuss age-related changes in the brain (both normal and pathological) and in pain physiology; changes in experience and expression of pain that occur with dementia and contribute to pain homeostenosis; and unique aspects of age and pain-associated psychological function and their contribution to disability. We also present data demonstrating changes in brain morphology and neuropsychological performance that accompany persistent non-malignant pain in olderadults and the treatment implications of these brain changes. Finally, preliminary data are presented on the efficacy of mindfulness meditation, a treatment that has been examined explicitly in olderadults and targets optimizing brain function and descending inhibition.
Karp, J. F.; Shega, J. W.; Morone, N. E.; Weiner, D. K.
Optic flow is a powerful visual cue for the control of locomotion. Considerable research has focused on how healthy young people use and perceive optic flow. However, little is known on how olderadults use this type of visual motion to control walking. The purpose of this study is to investigate the ability of young and olderadults to adjust their physical walking trajectory in response to a rotation of the optic flow presented in a virtual environment. Ten healthy young adults (mean age 23.49 ± 4.72 yr) and 10 healthy olderadults (mean age 76.22 ± 3.11 yr) participated in the study. Subjects were instructed to walk straight in a virtual environment viewed within a head-mounted display unit as they walked overground for 5 m, while the focus of expansion was gradually rotated to the left or the right by 40°. All subjects responded with a similar strategy by rotating their head and body in the direction away from the orientation of the perturbation. The younger subjects achieved almost complete corrections and had very small net heading errors. In contrast, the olderadults had delayed and smaller reorientations, particularly in the head, thus showing significantly larger heading errors compared with younger subjects. We conclude that olderadults retain the ability to use optic flow to control their walking trajectory, although smaller, delayed head rotations and larger heading errors may indicate an age-dependent effect on sensorimotor coordination. PMID:21653718
Walking barefoot or in socks is common for ambulating indoors and has been reported to be associated with increased risk of falls and related injuries in the elderly. This study sought to determine if gait patterns differed between these two conditions for young and olderadults. A motion analysis system was used to record and calculate the stride characteristics and motion of the body's center of mass (COM) of 21 young and 20 olderadults. For the walking tasks, the participants walked on a smooth floor surface at their preferred speed either barefoot or in socks in a random order. The socks were commercially available and commonly used. The results demonstrated that while walking in socks, compared with walking barefoot, olderadults adopted a more cautious gait pattern including decreased walking speed and shortened stride length as well as reduced COM minimal velocity during the single limb support phase. Young adults, however, did not demonstrate significant changes. These findings suggest that walking with socks might present a greater balance threat for olderadults. Clinically, safety precautions about walking in socks should be considered to be given to olderadults, especially those with balance deficits. PMID:22867560
Many U.S. states rely on olderadults to self-regulate their driving and determine when driving is no longer a safe option. However, the relationship of olderadults’ self-rated driving in terms of actual driving competency outcomes is unclear. The current study investigates self-rated driving in terms of (1) systematic differences between olderadults with high (good/excellent) versus low (poor/fair/average) self-ratings, and (2) the predictive nature of self-rated driving to adverse driving outcomes in older drivers (n=350; mean age 73.9, SD=5.25, range 65–91). Adverse driving outcomes included self-reported incidences of (1) being pulled over by the police, (2) receiving a citation, (3) receiving a recommendation to cease or limit driving, (4) crashes, and (5) state-reported crashes. Results found that older drivers with low self-ratings reported more medical conditions, less driving frequency, and had been given more suggestions to stop/limit their driving; there were no other significant differences between low and high self-raters. Logistic regression revealed older drivers were more likely to have a state-reported crash and receive a suggestion to stop or limit driving. Men were more likely to report all adverse driving outcomes except for receiving a suggestion to stop or limit driving. Regarding self-rated driving, olderadults with high ratings were 66% less likely (OR=0.34, 95% CI=0.14–0.85) to have received suggestions to limit or stop driving after accounting for demographics, health and driving frequency. Self-ratings were not predictive of other driving outcomes (being pulled over by the police, receiving a citation, self-reported crashes, or state-reported crashes, ps>.05). Most older drivers (85.14%) rated themselves as either good or excellent drivers regardless of their actual previous citation or crash rates. Self-rated driving is likely not related to actual driving proficiency as indicated by previous crash involvement in olderadults. Suggestions from other individuals to limit or cease driving may be more influential on self-ratings.
Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), this study examined factors associated with cane use among community dwelling olderadults. Data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 106 community residing olderadults in Ottawa, Canada. Using a stepwise discriminant analysis, subjective norms, attitudes, and age surfaced as the key variables associated with cane use in this sample. The discriminant function accounted for 67% of the variance in cane use and correctly classified 91% of cases (Wilks's lambda = 0.33, lambda2 = 110.12, df = 3, p < 0.0001). The findings provide evidence for the utility of the TPB in its application to understanding cane use behaviors of older persons and have important implications for the design of theory-based fall prevention interventions to enhance the acceptance and effective use of mobility aids. PMID:11115146
Olderadults, as active members of the Veterans of Foreign Wars (VFW), describe multiple benefits of participation in the organization to their overall well-being. This qualitative study examined the perspectives of 20 active participants of a VFW Post and its Ladies Auxiliary. Findings indicate that, for the study participants, the VFW serves as a primary source of cross-generational influence, emotional
This qualitative study examined multidisciplinary team members' perspectives of their involvement in olderadult hoarding cases. Fifteen informants, as representatives of four hoarding teams, described cases in which teams did or did not work well together. Specifically, informants described their (1) team characteristics, (2) awareness of hoarding as a mental health illness, (3) barriers to providing mental health services for
Terry L. Koenig; Matthew R. Leiste; Richard Spano; Rosemary K. Chapin
During the past two decades, significant research and several government and health care quality groups have advised against the use of physical restraints in hospitals and nursing homes, yet olderadults are continuing to die, become injured or experience the iatrogenic complications associated with this practice. Deaths are usually caused by asphyxiation, but also occur from strangulation, or cardiac arrest. Olderadults with dementia are at high risk for restraint use because of impaired memory, language, judgment and visual perception. In moderate to severe dementia, the risk of falls is greater because of gait apraxia and unsteadiness. Agitation, disorientation, and pacing behaviors from delirium or dementia can precipitate staff to use restraints to prevent harm to the olderadult or to others. Physical restraints should be eliminated as an intervention in olderadults with dementia because they are also very likely to cause acute functional decline, incontinence, pressure ulcers and regressive behaviors in a short period of time. The purpose of this paper is to disseminate the dangers of this clinical practice and to summarize the latest research in restraint free care and restraint alternatives in the United States. PMID:16077257
Maintaining muscle mass in aging is important to prevent falls and fractures. The net acid load from diets that are rich in acidogenic protein and cereal grains relative to their content of alkalinogenic fruits and vegetables may contribute to reduced lean tissue mass in olderadults. This analysis ...
Purpose: This study was designed to improve the measurement of financial exploitation (FE) by testing psychometric properties of the olderadult financial exploitation measure (OAFEM), a client self-report instrument. Design and Methods: Rasch item response theory and traditional validation approaches were used. Questionnaires were administered by…
Conrad, Kendon J.; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W.; Langley, Kate; Wilber, Kathleen H.
|Discusses the findings of a national survey of public libraries that focused on service to olderadults. Areas discussed include services most frequently provided, services to the institutionalized, the impact of ageism on library policies, and the extent of cooperation with other agencies. (18 references) (CLB)|
The impact of travel on olderadults was examined through semi-structured interviews of a purposively selected sample of eight individuals ranging in age from 56 to 89 years. The interviews were designed to determine whether interviewees' travel had resulted in any transformative learning experiences. The participants (three Caucasian married…
|There is growing evidence that psychosocial treatments incorporating behavioral intervention strategies can be effective in the treatment of depression in olderadults with cognitive impairment. However, less work with such cases has focused on the use of cognitive interventions in tandem with these behavioral intervention strategies. This case…
Coon, David W.; Thompson, Larry W.; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores
Physical activity has been linked to better cognitive function in olderadults, especially for executive control processes. Researchers have suggested that temporal processing of durations less than 1 second is automatic and engages motor processes, while timing of longer durations engages executive processes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a higher level of physical activity is associated
Amanda N. Szabo; Ashley S. Bangert; Patricia A. Reuter-Lorenz; Rachael D. Seidler
The neuropsychological test scores of 2,030 cognitively normal olderadults were examined to evaluate performance patterns as they related to time of day (TOD) at which testing was initiated. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the association of TOD with scores on seven neuropsychological tests used in the clinical evaluation of dementia. Episodic memory performance was significantly related to
Barbara Martin; Angela L. H. Buffington; Kathleen A. Welsh-Bohmer; Jason Brandt
A study compared the characteristics and participation motivations of olderadult learners in age-segregated and age-integrated educational programs. The instrument for the research consisted of two parts--a Program Participants Survey to collect social and demographic information and Boshier's Education Participation Scale. Subjects were 482…
This article considers two nontraditional approaches for developing interventions to improve cognition in olderadults. Neither of these approaches relies on traditional explicit training of specific abilities in the laboratory. The first technique involves the activation of automatic processes through the formation of implementation intentions that enhance the probability that a desired action will be completed, such as remembering to
Denise C. Park; Angela H. Gutchess; Michelle L. Meade; Elizabeth A. L. Stine-Morrow
Olderadults are particularly vulnerable to deficiencies of calcium, vitamin D, and vitamin B12. Despite the availability of fortified foods in the United States, intakes of these nutrients among the elderly remain inadequate. Dietary supplements may be a convenient way to improve nutritional status within this population group. This article provides practical and evidence-based recommendations regarding the use of single
|Generativity is a concept first introduced by Erik Erikson as a part of his psychosocial theory which outlines eight stages of development in the human life. Generativity versus stagnation is the main developmental concern of middle adulthood; however, generativity is also recognized as an important theme in the lives of olderadults. Building on…
|This study examined diverse olderadults' (n = 396, ages 50+) views about how to stay mentally sharp. We conducted 42 focus groups in four languages at nine United States locations using a standardized discussion guide and methods. The groups represented African Americans, American Indians, Chinese Americans, Latinos, Whites other than Latinos,…
Friedman, Daniela B.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Laditka, James N.; Wu, Bei; Liu, Rui; Price, Anna E.; Tseng, Winston; Corwin, Sara J.; Ivey, Susan L.; Hunter, Rebecca; Sharkey, Joseph R.
Many normal olderadults have difficulties in remembering names. In this study, a memory training program for remembering names was developed. The goal of the training was to improve memory for names by increasing the meaningfulness of names. The effect of the strategy training was evaluated in comparison with an educational training condition, aimed at reducing worries about forgetfulness and
I. W. Schmidt; H. T. Dijkstra; I. J. Berg; B. G. Deelman
|Purpose: Three experiments measured benefit of spatial separation, benefit of binaural listening, and masking-level differences (MLDs) to assess age-related differences in binaural advantage. Method: Participants were younger and olderadults with normal hearing through 4.0 kHz. Experiment 1 compared spatial benefit with and without head shadow.…
Dubno, Judy R.; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.; Horwitz, Amy R.
We investigated associations between suicide ideation and a set of potential risk and resiliency factors in a heterogeneous sample of 107 olderadults (mean age = 81.5 years, SD = 7.7 years; range, 67 to 98 years; 76% female) recruited in community, residential, and healthcare settings. Participants completed the Geriatric Suicide Ideation Scale (GSIS; Heisel & Flett, 2006) and measures
Poor health has been implicated as a suppressor of the life satisfaction of olderadults. To clarify the contribution of arthritis to this process, functional disability, negative affect, pain, current severity of the disease, self-esteem, perception of general health, and internal health locus of control, were placed within a causal model as…
This article discusses published reports and studies from the past decade that focused primarily on using written or other tangible nutrition educational resources with olderadults, such as brief “handouts,” newsletters, brochures, booklets, curricular lessons, board games, audiotapes and videotapes. Studies of health professionals' needs and desires for such materials are also reviewed. Thirteen articles, of which four were theory-based,
We investigated interrelationships between the predisposition toward approaching experiences in a mindful and creative way, participation in specific activities, and cognition among olderadults. Participants were administered a battery measuring cognition (i.e., working memory, processing speed, divergent thinking, inductive reasoning, visuo-spatial processing), activity level, and the predisposition towards mental engagement (Need for Cognition, Mindfulness, and Openness to Experience). Results indicated
Jeanine M. Parisi; Elizabeth A. L. Stine-Morrow; Soo Rim Noh; Daniel G. Morrow
Examining gait characteristics in olderadults enhances our understanding of movement control in this population and helps to better target preventive interventions. Walking is a highly automated, regular motor behavior that is mostly controlled by subcortical locomotor brain regions. With increasing age, walking requires higher levels of attention and thus more cortical involvement in motor control. This can affect gait regularity by increasing stride-to-stride variability that is characteristically high among fallers. A growing number of clinical gait analysis systems is now available to determine gait variability and thus the falling risk in olderadults. Interventions targeting high gait variability in olderadults need to consider basic principles of motor learning. Previously common and automatic gait patterns have to be relearned and again brought up to a highly automated level of motor control. Regular walking exercise, and particularly T'ai Chi with its emphasis on sequenced, slow, and highly controlled movements, might be helpful in this relearning process. Further research is needed to explore other interventions that could favorably affect stride-to-stride variability of olderadults. PMID:14991291
|It is estimated that 1 in 10 adults aged 65 years and older have been diagnosed with dementia, which is associated with numerous behavioral excesses and deficits. Despite the publication of a special section of the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" ("JABA") on behavioral gerontology (Iwata, 1986), there continues to be a paucity of…
The contribution of personality traits and social support to mental health is well established, but to our knowledge there have been no longitudinal investigations of the relation between personality and social support in depressed olderadults. In the current study, we examined a repeated measures multi-level mixed model of change in perceived social support to determine whether personality traits and
Kelly C. Cukrowicz; Alexis T. Franzese; Steven R. Thorp; Jennifer S. Cheavens; Thomas R. Lynch
|One of the goals of "Healthy People 2010" is to decrease the incidence of limitation in physical activity due to arthritis. Physical education, recreation, and dance professionals can play an important role in meeting this objective by addressing barriers to physical activity and exercise in olderadults with arthritis, and by successfully…
Tremethick, Mary Jane; Hogan, Patricia I.; Coleman, Barb; Adams, Kady
The growing number of olderadults in America will result in an increasing demand for psychotherapists familiar with their psychological needs. To treat this population in an ethical manner, practitioners need to be aware of the unique characteristics of the aging process, especially in regards to age-related vulnerabilities, such as cognitive decline. Unfortunately, recent research has shown that those currently
In 3 experiments olderadults (n=27, n=36, and n=27) were given medication instructions as categorized lists, simple lists, or paragraphs. The first group preferred categorized lists; the second answered questions about listed instructions more quickly, and the third group recalled more information from simple lists. List format was considered…
This article reviews and assesses the existing research literature on the efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) to promote lifestyle changes and improve functioning among olderadults confronting serious health challenges. A comprehensive literature review was conducted of intervention studies that tested the use of MI to achieve behavioral…
Cummings, Sherry M.; Cooper, R. Lyle; Cassie, Kim McClure
|With the growing size of the population of aging Black individuals, it is important to understand successful aging in this group. This study, therefore, piloted the Successful Aging Inventory (SAI) with a convenience sample of Black olderadults. Participants completed a demographic form, the SAI, Purpose in Life Test, Life Satisfaction…
Troutman, Meredith; Nies, Mary A.; Bentley, Monica
|This qualitative research investigates the meaning of "keitai" (mobile phones) for older Japanese adults between the ages of 59 and 79. Participants' emails from keitai, handwritten daily logs, and audio and video recordings from meetings and interviews were collected during my stay of nearly seven months in one of the largest cities in Japan.…
|This article examines the relationship between the participation of olderadult learners in educational activities and successful aging. In partnership with seniors' organizations, focus-group interviews were conducted on seniors' involvement in learning and their perceptions of its influence on successful aging. Successful aging is defined in…
|Insomnia is associated with significant morbidity and is often a persistent problem, particularly in olderadults. It is important to attend to this complaint and not assume that it will remit spontaneously. In many cases, unfortunately, insomnia remains unrecognized and untreated, often because it is presumed that insomnia is an inevitable…
Belanger, Lynda; LeBlanc, Melanie; Morin, Charles M.
The study reported in this article used grounded theory methodology to investigate olderadults accounts of their use of information technology (IT). A small number of SeniorNet Wellington members volunteered to be interviewed about their experiences with and opinions about computer technology. It was found that participants began using computers because technology was associated with modern life, leading them to
|This article reviews and assesses the existing research literature on the efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) to promote lifestyle changes and improve functioning among olderadults confronting serious health challenges. A comprehensive literature review was conducted of intervention studies that tested the use of MI to achieve behavioral…
Cummings, Sherry M.; Cooper, R. Lyle; Cassie, Kim McClure
This review includes a brief discussion of psychotic symptoms in olderadults (psychotic symptoms in individuals with dementia are discussed in more detail in the review on dementia), a review of the literature on classification and diagnosis, course and progression of the illness, cognitive impairment and functioning, and treatment (both pharmacological and psychosocial). Since Kraepelin first described dementia praecox, hebephrenia,
|This article describes a cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) intervention for suicide prevention in olderadults. Although many studies have found that CBT interventions are efficacious for reducing depressive symptoms in the elderly, researchers have yet to evaluate the efficacy of such interventions for preventing suicide or reducing suicide risk…
|The objective of this research was to identify the effects of participation in learning on the subjective wellbeing of olderadults. Data were from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a large-scale, nationally representative survey of those aged 50 and above. The survey contains several wellbeing measures and information on three…
The motivations and benefits of educational travel among individuals aged 55 years old and over were examined in this study. A total of 136 olderadults enrolled in Elderhostel programs participated in this study and reported their perceived benefits and motivations for engaging in educational travel experiences. Correlation analyses were used to…
Two major demographic trends underscore the importance of considering technology adoption by olderadults: the aging of the population and rapid dissemination of technology within most societal contexts. In the past decade, developments in computer and information technologies have occurred at an unprecedented rate and technology has become an integral component of work, education, healthcare, communication and entertainment. At the
This study was designed to conduct an item analysis of Guglielmino's Self?Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS) completed by olderadults. Specifically, the investigation was designed to determine what, if any, differences might be identified when two methods of completing the SDLRS were used. Accordingly one group (n = 19) of subjects had the scale read to them and they orally
Two studies were conducted to examine the relationship between class cohesion and exercise adherence in olderadult exercisers. Study 1 examined the predictive ability of four dimensions of cohesion on exercise participation at 1, 6, and 12 months following the initial assessment of cohesion. Study 2 examined the effectiveness of a team-building intervention, designed to enhance class cohesion (and based
|The motivations and benefits of educational travel among individuals aged 55 years old and over were examined in this study. A total of 136 olderadults enrolled in Elderhostel programs participated in this study and reported their perceived benefits and motivations for engaging in educational travel experiences. Correlation analyses were used to…
The Social Vulnerability Scale (SVS), an informant-report of social vulnerability for olderadults, was piloted in a sample of 167 undergraduate students (63 male, 104 female) from the University of Queensland. Participants aged 18 - 53 (M ¼ 25.53 years, SD ¼ 7.83 years) completed the SVS by rating a relative or friend aged ? 50 years (M ¼ 71.65
DONNA M. PINSKER; Valerie Stone; Nancy Pachana; Stephen Greenspan
|Cognitive styles are the lenses through which individuals habitually process information from their environment. In this study, we evaluated whether different cognitive style individual difference variables, such as explanatory style and dispositional optimism, could predict changes in affective state over time in community-dwelling olderadults.…
|This student activity book and reference book, which are part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, are intended for use in 1- and 2- programs preparing Texas high school students for employment in occupations related to providing services for olderadults. The reference book…
Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences.
This article examines patterns of religious behavior and participation of olderadults from a sociological perspective from five areas: (a) a social profile of religious participation (b) a profile of patterns of religious behavior of the elderly, (c) the effects of age, period, and cohort on the socialization to religious practice, (d) the meaning and role of organized religion for
There is growing evidence that psychosocial treatments incorporating behavioral intervention strategies can be effective in the treatment of depression in olderadults with cognitive impairment. However, less work with such cases has focused on the use of cognitive interventions in tandem with these behavioral intervention strategies. This case…
Coon, David W.; Thompson, Larry W.; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify future trends and barriers that will either facilitate or impede the narrowing of the digital skills divide among olderadults during the next 10 years. Methodology: To address the research questions, this study used a modified version of the Delphi process using a panel of experts who…
Using the Sanders, Montgomery, Pittman and Balkwell (1984) instrument, this study found that the attitudes of a sample of undergraduate Singaporean students (n = 201) toward olderadults were in the neutral range. A small minority (5.6%) was planning a career in gerontology. Comparisons of the findings were made with an American sample. Implications for social work education and future
SummaryObjective: To test the association between obesity and specific types and anatomical sites of unintentional injuries in olderadults. Methods: Participants consisted of 52,857 men and women aged ?65 years from the 2003 and 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey. Weight, height, and details on injuries occurring in the past year were obtained by survey. Results: Obese individuals had a higher
Danielle R. Bouchard; William Pickett; Ian Janssen
Many olderadults use walkers to improve their stability and safety while walking. We have developed a robotically augmented walker to reduce fall risk and confusion, and to increase walker convenience and enjoyment. Using a modified version of the CARMEN navigation software suite (11), the walker is capable of parking itself and returning to the user when signaled by remote
Jared Glover; David Holstius; Michael Manojlovich; Keirsten Montgomery; Aaron Powers; Jack Wu; Sara Kiesler; Judith Matthews; Sebastian Thrun
Background: Bereavement is often associated with increased levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. The question of whether grief is associated with cognitive deficits in olderadults remains largely unanswered. Although Xavier and coworkers (see text) found preliminary evidence that grief, in the absence of depression, impacted on memory in a sample of the oldest-old in Brazil, the impact of bereavement
|Purpose: Self-perceptions of health vary depending on one's social and cultural context. Rural residents have been characterized as having a distinct culture, and health differences by residence have been well documented. While there is evidence of poor health among rural olderadults, little research has examined how they perceive and define…
Goins, R. Turner; Spencer, S. Melinda; Williams, Kimberly
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between olderadults' religiosity, sense of meaning in life, and health behavior. Three dimensions of religiosity were assessed: religious orientation (intrinsic and extrinsic), sanctification of the body, and relationship with God. Five health behaviors were measured: smoking, exercise, taking responsibility for one's own health, nutritious eating, and stress management. In
The purpose of this paper is to identify and illustrate the rationale and scientific support for Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) as a leisure activity of benefit to olderadults which allows them to become physically active and improve their overall health status. The findings suggest that TCC improves muscle strength, maintains posture control and dynamic standing balance, and improvesshoulder and
This abbreviated review outlines the physiologic changes associated with aging, and examines how these changes may affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anticancer therapies. We also provide an overview of studies that have been conducted evaluating the pharmacology of anticancer therapies in olderadults, and issue a call for further research.
Physical inactivity has been established to be an independent risk factor for a range of chronic diseases and con- ditions that threaten the health of the nation. However, only a minority of the population is currently meeting the recommended levels of regular physical activity, which have been linked with important health and quality- of-life benefits. Olderadults are at particular
|To determine structural brain correlates of naming abilities in olderadults, we tested 24 individuals aged 56-79 on two confrontation-naming tests (the Boston Naming Test (BNT) and the Action Naming Test (ANT)), then collected from these individuals structural Magnetic-Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data. Overall,…
Obler, Loraine K.; Rykhlevskaia, Elena; Schnyer, David; Clark-Cotton, Manuella R.; Spiro, Avron, III; Hyun, JungMoon; Kim, Dae-Shik; Goral, Mira; Albert, Martin L.
The behavioral assessment of anxiety in olderadults is reviewed in this article. Despite the high rate of anxiety symptoms uncovered during the course of large-scale epidemiological studies, the comprehensive evaluation of anxiety in this age group (55 and over) is not highly sophisticated at this juncture. In this review, diagnostic issues, psychometric evaluation, motoric assessment, and psychophysiological assessment are
Michel Hersen; Cvincent B. van Hasselt; Anthony J. Goreczny
Although the dengue iceberg phenomenon is well known, there is a paucity of data on inapparent dengue. Results from a seroepidemiological study conducted during a dengue epidemic in 2007 in Singapore showed a seroprevalence of 65.9% and an inapparent dengue rate of 78%. Olderadults (> 45 years old) had significantly higher rates of inapparent dengue infections (P < 0.05).
|This document provides a step-by-step description of the planning and implementation of a two day consumer concerns conference for olderadults held at Palomar Community College (California). The bulk of the document is made up of practical discussions of such planning phases as facility selection and decoration, conference publicity, snack and…
|Poor health has been implicated as a suppressor of the life satisfaction of olderadults. To clarify the contribution of arthritis to this process, functional disability, negative affect, pain, current severity of the disease, self-esteem, perception of general health, and internal health locus of control, were placed within a causal model as…
Background. Although the importance of the context of task performance in the assessment of mobility in olderadults is generally understood, there is little empirical evidence that demonstrates how sensitive olderadults are to subtle changes in task demands. Thus, we developed a novel approach to examine this issue. Methods. We collected item response data to 81 animated video clips, where various mobility-related tasks were modified in a systematic fashion to manipulate task difficulty. Results. The participants (N = 234), 166 women and 68 men, had an average age of 81.9 years and a variety of comorbidities. Histograms of item responses revealed dramatic and systematic effects on olderadults’ self-reported ability when varying walking speed, use of a handrail during ascent and descent of stairs, walking at different speeds outdoors over uneven terrain, and carrying an object. For example, there was almost a threefold increase in reporting the inability to walk at the fast speed compared with the slow speed for a minute or less, and twice as many participants reported the inability to walk at the fast speed outdoors over uneven terrain compared with indoors. Conclusions. The data provide clear evidence that varying the contextual features and demands of a simple task such as stair climbing has a significant impact on olderadults’ self-reporting of ability related to mobility. More work is needed on the psychometric properties of such assessments and to determine if this methodology has conceptual and clinical relevance in studying mobility disability.
Ip, Edward H.; Barnard, Ryan T.; Wong, Yue-Ling; Rejeski, W. Jack
Objectives To identify neuropsychological factors associated with driving errors in olderadults. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting Neuropsychological assessment laboratory and an instrumented vehicle on a 35-mile route on urban and rural roads. Participants One hundred eleven olderadult drivers (ages 65-89 years; mean age 72.3 years) and 80 middle-aged drivers (age 40 to 64 years; mean age 57.2 years). Measurements Explanatory variables included age, neuropsychological measures (cognitive, visual, and motor), and a composite cognitive score (COGSTAT). The outcome variable was the safety error count, as classified by video review using a standardized taxonomy. Results Older drivers committed an average of 35.8 safety errors/drive (SD=12.8), compared to an average of 28.8 (SD=9.8) for middle-age drivers (P<0.001). Among older drivers, there was an increase of 2.6 errors per drive observed for each five-year age increase (P=0.026). After adjustment for age, education, and gender, COGSTAT was a significant predictor of safety errors in older drivers (P=0.005), with approximately a 10% increase in safety errors observed for a 10% decrease in cognitive function. Individual significant predictors of increased safety errors in older drivers included poorer scores on Complex Figure Test-Copy, Complex Figure Test-Recall, Block Design, Near Visual Acuity, and the Grooved Pegboard task. Conclusion Driving errors in olderadults tend to increase, even in the absence of neurological diagnoses. Some of this increase can be explained by age-related decline in cognitive abilities, vision, and motor skills. Changes in visuospatial and visuomotor abilities appear to be particularly associated with unsafe driving in old age.
Dawson, Jeffrey D; Uc, Ergun Y.; Anderson, Steven W.; Johnson, Amy M.; Rizzo, Matthew
Aging is known to have a degrading influence on many structures and functions of the human sensorimotor system. The present\\u000a work assessed aging-related changes in postural sway using fractal and complexity measures of the center of pressure (COP)\\u000a dynamics with the hypothesis that complexity and fractality decreases in the older individuals. Older subjects (68 ± 4 years)\\u000a and young adult subjects (28 ± 7 years) performed
The present study examined the role of acculturation in manifestation of depressive symptoms among 230 Korean-American olderadults (M age?=?69.8, SD?=?7.05) in Florida. Given the cultural emphasis on modesty and self-effacement in the traditional Korean society, we hypothesized that older Korean-Americans who were less acculturated to American culture, when compared to the more acculturated ones, would be more likely to
OBJECTIVES To calculate and describe the anticholinergic burden of medications in community-dwelling olderadults and to identify patient-specific risk factors. DESIGN Descriptive cross-sectional study. SETTING Cardinal Health Visiting Pharmacist Program, Columbus, OH, between August 2002 and August 2009. PARTICIPANTS Community-dwelling adults 65 years or older who were referred through LifeCare Alliance (a provider of home-based senior services). INTERVENTION Comprehensive medication review records from medication therapy management (MTM) activities were used to calculate the anticholinergic burden using the anticholinergic cognitive burden (ACB) scale for each patient. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Proportion of olderadults in the community with a clinically relevant anticholinergic burden (defined as ACB score ?3). RESULTS From 341 included records, ACB score was calculated for all patients and an ACB score of 3 or greater was identified in 47.8% (n = 163) of patients. The odds increased significantly as the number of prescription (odds ratio 1.23 [95% CI 1.14-1.32], P < 0.001] and over-the-counter (1.17 [1.02-1.33], P = 0.02] medications increased. The odds also were significantly greater for patients with hypertension (3.01 [1.73-5.21], P < 0.001) and depression (2.6 [1.14-5.9], P = 0.02). CONCLUSION Nearly one-half of community-dwelling olderadults had a clinically relevant ACB score of 3 or greater. The ACB score could be used as a component of MTM services in a variety of practice settings to identify olderadults who are at higher risk for potential central and peripheral adverse effects related to cumulative anticholinergic activity of their medications. Additional research to measure the clinical impact of ACB assessment and modification is needed. PMID:24030127
West, Teri; Pruchnicki, Maria C; Porter, Kyle; Emptage, Ruth
Older patients are particularly vulnerable to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) because age is associated with changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics that may alter drug metabolism. In addition, other conditions, commonly observed in olderadults, may increase the risk of ADRs in the older population (including polypharmacy, comorbidity, cognitive and functional limitations). ADRs in olderadults are frequently preventable, suggesting that screening and prevention programmes aimed at reducing the rate of iatrogenic illness are necessary in this population. The present study reviews available approaches that may be used to screen and prevent the occurrence of ADRs in olderadults, including medication review, avoiding the use of potentially inappropriate medications, computer-based prescribing systems and comprehensive geriatric assessment. Available evidence on these approaches is mixed and controversial, and none of them showed a clear beneficial effect on patients' health outcomes. Limitation of these interventions is the lack of standardisation, and these differences may give reason for the variability of the results documented in randomised clinical studies. Interestingly, most of the available research is focused on a single intervention targeting either clinical or pharmacological factors causing ADRs. When these approaches are combined, positive effects on patients health outcomes can be shown, suggesting that integration of skills from different health care professionals is needed to address medical complexity of the olderadults. The challenge for future research is to integrate valuable information obtained by existing instruments and methodologies in a complete and global approach targeting all potential factors involved in the onset of ADRs. PMID:23537588
Onder, Graziano; van der Cammen, Tischa J M; Petrovic, Mirko; Somers, Annemie; Rajkumar, Chakravarthi
The purpose of the present research was to explore the role of stereotype threat as a mediator of older people's memory performance under different instructional sets. In three studies, younger and older participants completed a memory test that was either framed as a memorization or as an impression formation task. Across these studies, memory performance was greater for younger than
Alison L. Chasteen; Sudipa Bhattacharyya; Michelle Horhota; Raymond Tam; Lynn Hasher
|This article uses qualitative research and narrative analysis to examine the experience of women age 55 and older who are parents caring for adult children with mental illness. Knowledge about the conflicts of older parents with dependent children is underdeveloped. In this study, analysis of women's stories about parenting in later life reveal…
This article uses qualitative research and narrative analysis to examine the experience of women age 55 and older who are parents caring for adult children with mental illness. Knowledge about the conflicts of older parents with dependent children is underdeveloped. In this study, analysis of women's stories about parenting in later life reveal that the women have two sets of
This article uses qualitative research and narrative analysis to examine the experience of women age 55 and older who are parents caring for adult children with mental illness. Knowledge about the conflicts of older parents with dependent children is underdeveloped. In this study, analysis of women's stories about parenting in later life reveal…
This purpose of this mixed methods study was to understand access to primary care among olderadults who present to an inner city emergency department (ED) for nonurgent care. Questionnaires (N = 62) included demographic, illness characteristics, and health care utilization. Qualitative interviews (N = 20) were conducted. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, and qualitative methodology. More than half of the participants were female (60%), African American (57%) and pain was the presenting symptoms among 48% of the participants. Nearly all participants reported barriers to primary care; difficulty with phone systems and staff, and lack of available appointments resulting in an ED visit. Olderadults face barriers accessing primary care and as a result, can turn to the ED for their primary care needs. Interventions to improve access for vulnerable olderadults might have benefits not only for patient outcomes but also for health policy issues related to cost effective care and overcrowded EDs. PMID:23624569
We used the eyewitness suggestibility paradigm to investigate the hypothesis that cognitive aging is associated with an increase in misrecollections--confidently held but false memories of past events. When younger and olderadults were matched on their overall memory for experienced events, both groups showed comparable rates of suggestibility errors in which they claimed to have seen events in a video that had only been suggested in a subsequent questionnaire. However, olderadults were--alarmingly--most likely to commit suggestibility errors when they were most confident about the correctness of their response. By contrast, their younger, accuracy-matched counterparts were most likely to commit these errors when they were uncertain about the accuracy of their response. The elderly adults' propensity to make high-confidence errors fits our misrecollection account. PMID:17328371
Introduction Motor-vehicle crashes kill roughly 4,500 American adults over the age of 75 annually. Among younger adults, one behavioral factor consistently linked to risky driving is personality, but this predictor has been overshadowed by research on cognitive, perceptual, and motor processes among older drivers. Method In this study, a sample of 101 licensed drivers, all age 75 and over, were recruited to complete self-report measures on personality, temperament, and driving history. Participants also completed a virtual environment (VE) course designed to assess risk-taking driving behavior. State records of motor-vehicle crashes were collected. Results Results suggest both a sensation-seeking personality and an undercontrolled temperament are related to risky driving among olderadults. Sensation-seeking was particularly related to history of violations and tickets, while temperamental control was more broadly related to a number of risky driving measures. Methodological and crash prevention issues are discussed.
Schwebel, David C.; Ball, Karlene K.; Severson, Joan; Barton, Benjamin K.; Rizzo, Matthew; Viamonte, Sarah M.
The present study explored attitudes toward feminism in 245 U.S. college students and their older relatives. Participants\\u000a completed a scale of attitudes towards feminism, political orientation, a religiosity measure, and a demographic questionnaire.\\u000a Results indicated that olderadults were more conservative than younger adults on their attitudes towards feminism, religiosity,\\u000a and political orientation measures. In the young adult sample, attitudes
Kathryn E. Fitzpatrick Bettencourt; Tammi Vacha-Haase; Zinta S. Byrne
Less efficient glucose regulation, the ability to metabolize glucose, has been associated with poorer cognitive performances in older individuals not meeting criteria for type 2 diabetes ( Messier, Tsiakas, Gagnon, & Desrochers, 2010 ). Yet, the influence of glucose regulation on attentional functions, which are sensitive to aging, is still unclear. The present study examined the relationship between glucose regulation and performances on attentional tasks in nondiabetic olderadults. Twenty-two participants (60 years and older) were tested on neuropsychological tests of attention (Trail Making test, modified Stroop test) and on a computerized dual task, after receiving a 50-g glucose drink. Participants with the worse glucose regulation committed more errors on the switching condition of the modified Stroop test (p < .05) and tended to make more errors in divided-attention trials of the computerized dual task (p = .05). Altogether, these results suggest that glucose regulation may transiently influence performances of metabolically healthy olderadults on tasks requiring switching attention. PMID:22082080
Gagnon, Christine; Greenwood, Carol E; Bherer, Louis
Objective: Both the prevalence and incidence of HIV infection among olderadults are on the rise. Olderadults are at increased risk of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, which have historically been characterized as an inconsistent or \\
Erin E. Morgan; Steven Paul Woods; Lisa Delano-Wood; Mark W. Bondi; Igor Grant
|This study examines the ways that widowhood affects olderadults' perceived exchange of support with their children, and whether exchange patterns differ by gender. Data are from the Changing Lives of Older Couples (CLOC), a prospective study of 1,532 married individuals age 65 years and older. Spousal loss increases olderadults' dependence on…
Ha, Jung-Hwa; Carr, Deborah; Utz, Rebecca L.; Nesse, Randolph
The prevalence of HIV/AIDS among people in midlife and late adulthood has been increasing in Western countries over the last decade. We analyzed data from a prospective, observational multi-centre study on individuals newly diagnosed with HIV between January 2004 and March 2007 in 10 public counselling and testing sites in Latium, Italy. At diagnosis, routine demographic, epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data are recorded, and patients are asked to complete a questionnaire investigating socio-demographic and psycho-behavioural aspects. To analyze the association of individual characteristics with age, we compared olderadults (> or = 50 years) with their younger counterpart (18-49 years). To adjust for potential confounding effect of the epidemiological, clinical and behavioural characteristics, to identify factors associated with older age at HIV diagnosis, multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. Overall, 1073 individuals were identified, 125 of whom (11.6%) were aged 50 years or above. The questionnaire was completed by 41% (440/1073). Compared with their younger counterparts, a higher proportion of older patients were males, born in Italy, reported heterosexual or unknown HIV risk exposure, were never tested for HIV before and were in a more advanced stage of HIV infection at diagnosis. In addition, olderadults had a lower educational level and were more frequently living with their partners or children. With respect to psycho-behavioural characteristics, older patients were more likely to have paid money for sex and have never used recreational drugs. Interestingly, no differences were found regarding condom use, which was poor in both age groups. These findings may have important implications for the management of olderadults with HIV, who should be targeted by appropriate public health actions, such as opportunistic screening and easier access to healthcare. Moreover, strategies including information on HIV and prevention of risk behaviours are needed. PMID:18449818
Orchi, N; Balzano, R; Scognamiglio, P; Navarra, A; De Carli, G; Elia, P; Grisetti, S; Sampaolesi, A; Giuliani, M; De Filippis, A; Puro, V; Ippolito, G; Girardi, E
There is disagreement in the literature about whether a "positivity effect" in memory performance exists in olderadults. To assess the generalizability of the effect, the authors examined memory for autobiographical, picture, and word information in a group of younger (17-29 years old) and older (60-84 years old) adults. For the autobiographical memory task, the authors asked participants to produce 4 positive, 4 negative, and 4 neutral recent autobiographical memories and to recall these a week later. For the picture and word tasks, participants studied photos or words of different valences (positive, negative, neutral) and later remembered them on a free-recall test. The authors found significant correlations in memory performance, across task material, for recall of both positive and neutral valence autobiographical events, pictures, and words. When the authors examined accurate memories, they failed to find consistent evidence, across the different types of material, of a positivity effect in either age group. However, the false memory findings offer more consistent support for a positivity effect in olderadults. During recall of all 3 types of material, older participants recalled more false positive than false negative memories. PMID:18573004
To facilitate equal access to online shopping for all users, the present study examined if age- related differences in E-mall navigation exist as a function of web presentation media and web structure. 14 olderadults and 14 college students participated in an experiment where E-mall shopping navigation was evaluated in terms of the number of pages repeated visited, and retention
Dementia may be more common in olderadults with intellectual disability (ID) than in the general population. The increased risk for Alzheimer's disease in people with Down syndrome (DS) is well established, but much less is known about dementia in adults with ID who do not have DS. We estimated incidence rates from a longitudinal study of dementia in olderadults with ID without DS and compared them to general population rates. 222 participants with ID without DS aged 60 years and older were followed up an average of 2.9 years later to identify those who had declined in functional or cognitive abilities. Those who screened positive had a comprehensive assessment for dementia, diagnosed using ICD 10 and DSM IV criteria. 134 participants who did not have dementia at initial assessment were alive and interviewed at follow up; 21 (15.7%) were diagnosed with dementia. Overall incidence rate for those aged ? 60 was 54.6/1000 person years (95% CI 34.1-82.3). The highest incidence rate (97.8/1000 person years) was in the age group 70-74. Standardised incidence ratio for those aged ? 65 was 4.98 (95% CI 1.62-11.67). Incidence of dementia in older people with intellectual disabilities are up to five times higher than olderadults in the general population. Screening may be useful in this population given the high incident rates, particularly as more effective treatments become available. Studies to explore the underlying aetiological factors for dementia associated with intellectual disability could help to identify novel protective and risk factors. PMID:23578903
This study examined whether (a) olderadults are wiser than college students, (b) college-educated olderadults are wiser\\u000a than current college students, and (c) wise olderadults show evidence of personal growth. Using a sample of 477 undergraduate\\u000a college students and 178 olderadults (age 52+), results showed that college students tended to score as high on the self-administered\\u000a three-dimensional
Cognitive flexibility is one aspect of executive functioning that encompasses the ability to produce diverse ideas, consider response alternatives, and modify behaviors to manage changing circumstances. These processes are likely to be important for implementing cognitive restructuring. The present study investigated the impact of cognitive flexibility on olderadults' ability to learn cognitive restructuring. Neuropsychological measures of cognitive flexibility were administered to 40 normal community-dwelling olderadult volunteers and their ability to implement cognitive restructuring was coded and analyzed. Results indicated that the majority of participants showed good cognitive restructuring skill acquisition with brief training. The multiple regression analysis suggested that those with poorer cognitive flexibility on neuropsychological testing demonstrated poorer quality cognitive restructuring. In particular, perseverative thinking styles appear to negatively impact the ability to learn cognitive restructuring. Further research is needed to clarify whether olderadults with poor cognitive flexibility can improve their cognitive restructuring skills with repetition over treatment or whether alternative skills should be considered. PMID:23253357
Abstract Objective To identify the health-related needs of community-dwelling olderadults with mild memory loss. Design Qualitative study using semistructured, audiotaped, face-to-face interviews and focus groups. Setting A large community in Newfoundland. Participants Twenty-two adults between the ages of 58 and 80 years. Methods This needs assessment used a qualitative methodology of collecting and analyzing narrative data to develop an understanding of the issues, resources, and constraints of community-dwelling olderadults with mild memory loss. Data were collected through semistructured, audiotaped, face-to-face interviews and focus groups. Transcripts of the interviews were analyzed using interpretive phenomenologic analysis. Main findings Three constitutive patterns with relational themes and subthemes were identified: forgetting and remembering, normalizing yet questioning, and having limited knowledge of resources. Participants described many examples of how their daily lives were affected by forgetfulness. They had very little knowledge of resources that provided information or support. Most of the participants believed they could not discuss their memory problems with their family doctors. Conclusion It is important for olderadults with mild memory loss to have access to resources that will assist them in understanding their condition and make them feel supported.
Low health literacy is common among Medicare recipients and affects their understanding of complex medication regimens. Interventions are needed to improve medication use among olderadults, while addressing low health literacy. Community-dwelling olderadults in this study were enrolled in an inner-city adult day center. They completed a baseline measure of health literacy, medication self-efficacy, and medication adherence. They were provided with a personalized, illustrated daily medication schedule (PictureRx™). Six weeks later, their medication self-efficacy and adherence were assessed. Among the 20 participants in this pilot project, 70% had high likelihood of limited health literacy and took an average of 13.2 prescription medications. Both self-efficacy and medication adherence increased significantly after provision of the PictureRx cards (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively). Al participants rated the PictureRx cards as very helpful in terms of helping them remember the medication’s purpose and dosing. Illustrated daily medication schedules improve medication self-efficacy and adherence among at-risk, community-dwelling olderadults.
Olderadults have long been encouraged to maintain their autonomy by expressing their wishes for health care before they become too ill to meaningfully participate in decision making. This study explored the manner in which community-dwelling adults aged 55 and older plan for serious illness. An online survey was conducted within the province of Saskatchewan, Canada, with 283 adults ranging in age from 55 to 88 years. Planning for future medical care was important for the majority (78.4%) of respondents, although only 25.4% possessed a written advance care plan and 41.5% had designated a substitute decision maker. Sixty percent of respondents reported conversations about their treatment wishes; nearly half had discussed unacceptable states of health. Associations between key predictor variables and planning behaviors (discussions about treatment wishes or unacceptable states of health; designation of a substitute decision maker; preparation of a written advance care plan) were assessed using binary logistic regression. After controlling for all predictor variables, self-reported knowledge about advance care planning was the key variable significantly associated with all four planning behaviors. The efforts of nurses to educate olderadults regarding the process of advance care planning can play an important role in enhancing autonomy.
Objectives Specific cognitive abilities may explain the association of health literacy with health status. We studied the relationship between health literacy and memory and verbal fluency in olderadults. Design Cross-sectional cohort. Setting Twenty senior centers and apartment buildings in New York City, NY. Participants Independently living, English and Spanish-speaking adults ages 60 and older (n=414). Measurements Health literacy was measured using the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA). The associations of S-TOFHLA scores with immediate and delayed recall (Wechsler Memory Scale II), verbal fluency (Animal Naming), and global cognitive function (Mini Mental Status Exam, MMSE), were modeled with multivariable logistic and linear regression. Results Health literacy was inadequate in 24.3%. Impairment of immediate recall occurred in 20.4%; delayed recall, 15.0%; verbal fluency, 9.9%; and MMSE, 17.4%. Abnormal cognitive function was strongly associated with inadequate health literacy: immediate recall (AOR 3.44, 95% CI 1.71 to 6.94, p<.0001); delayed recall (AOR 3.48, 95% CI 1.58 to 7.67, p = .002); and verbal fluency (AOR 3.47, 95% CI 1.44 to 8.38, p=.006). These associations persisted in subgroups that excluded individuals with normal age-adjusted MMSE scores. Conclusion Memory and verbal fluency are strongly associated with health literacy, independently of education and health status, even among those with subtle cognitive dysfunction. Reducing the cognitive burden of health information might mitigate the detrimental effects of limited health literacy in olderadults. Research that examines the impact of materials tailored to olderadults' cognitive limitations on health literacy and health outcomes is needed.
Federman, Alex D.; Sano, Mary; Wolf, Michael S.; Siu, Albert L.; Halm, Ethan A.
BACKGROUND Little is known about complementary medication use among olderadults with cancer, particularly those undergoing chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of complementary medication use and to identify factors associated with its use among olderadults with cancer. METHODS The prevalence of complementary medication use (defined as herbal agents, minerals, or other dietary supplements excluding vitamins) was evaluated in a cohort of adults aged ?65 years who were about to start chemotherapy for their cancer. The association between complementary medication use and patient characteristics (sociodemographics; comorbidity; functional, nutritional, psychological, and cognitive status); medication use (number of medications and concurrent vitamin use); and cancer characteristics (type and stage) was analyzed. RESULTS The cohort included 545 patients [mean age 73 years (range 65–91); 52% female] with cancer (61% Stage IV). Seventeen percent (N=93) of these patients reported using ?1 complementary medications [mean number of complementary medications among users was 2 (range 1–10)]. Complementary medication use was associated with: 1) earlier cancer stage, with 29% of those with stages I–II vs. 17% with III–IV (OR=2.05, 95% CI:1.21–3.49); and 2) less impairment with instrumental activities of daily living (OR=1.39, 95% CI:1.12–1.73). CONCLUSIONS Complementary medication use was reported by 17% of olderadults with cancer and was more common among those with less advanced disease (receiving adjuvant potentially curative treatment) and higher functional status. Further studies are needed to determine the association between complementary medication use and cancer outcomes among olderadults.
Maggiore, Ronald J; Gross, Cary P; Togawa, Kayo; Tew, William P; Mohile, Supriya G; Owusu, Cynthia; Klepin, Heidi D; Lichtman, Stuart M; Gajra, Ajeet; Ramani, Rupal; Katheria, Vani; Klapper, Shira M; Hansen, Kurt; Hurria, Arti
|This article describes how Web 2.0 technologies may facilitate journaling and related inquiry methods among olderadults. Benefits and limitations of journaling are summarized as well as computer skills of olderadults. We then describe how Web 2.0 technologies can enhance journaling among olderadults by diminishing feelings of isolation,…
Purpose: Olderadults watch more television than younger people do. Television's role in mental health has been described in the general population, but less is known about how olderadults think of tele- vision in the context of depression. Design and Methods: Using a semistructured interview created to help clinicians understand how olderadults concep- tualize depression diagnosis and treatment,
Giang T. Nguyen; Marsha N. Wittink; Genevra F. Murray; Frances K. Barg
Suicide rates are higher among olderadults than any other age group and suicidal ideation is one of the best predictors of completed suicide in olderadults. Despite this, few studies have evaluated predictors of suicidal ideation and other correlates of death by suicide (e.g. hopelessness) among olderadults. Even fewer studies on this topic have been conducted among samples
K. C. Cukrowicz; A. G. Ekblad; J. S. Cheavens; M. Z. Rosenthal; T. R. Lynch
Myths and stereotypes of olderadults and sexuality are pervasive in nearly every aspect of our society. However, the Internet has provided olderadults a venue for expressing, experimenting, and challenging the popular idea that they are asexual and uninterested and incapable of being sexual. Olderadults are one of the fastest growing groups of Internet surfers and they are
Dietary self-management of diabetes is often difficult for olderadults to practice, particularly in rural communities. We describe patterns and correlates of dietary fat reduction among older rural adults with diabetes of any type. In-home interviews were conducted with a multiethnic random sample of 701 adults 65 years and older with diabetes from two North Carolina counties. The Fat and
Sara A. Quandt; Ronny A. Bell; Beverly M. Snively; Mara Z. Vitolins; Lindsay K. Wetmore-Arkader; Thomas A. Arcury
Many olderadults wish to remain in their own homes as they age . However, challenges in performing home upkeep tasks threaten an olderadult's ability to age in place. Even healthy independently living olderadults experience challenges in maintaining their home . Challenges with home tasks can be compensated through technology, such as home robots. However, for home robots
Jenay M. Beer; Cory-Ann Smarr; Tiffany L. Chen; Akanksha Prakash; Tracy L. Mitzner; Charles C. Kemp; Wendy A. Rogers
Depression affects up to 25% of olderadults. Underdetection and subsequent undertreatment of depression in olderadults has been attributed in part to difficulties in olderadults being able to access treatment. This uncontrolled pilot study, N = 3, explored the acceptability and efficacy of a brief behavioral activation treatment delivered via…
|Purpose: Olderadults watch more television than younger people do. Television's role in mental health has been described in the general population, but less is known about how olderadults think of television in the context of depression. Design and Methods: Using a semistructured interview created to help clinicians understand how olderadults…
This paper draws a socio-demographic, physical, psychosocial, and behavioural profile of housebound olderadults with arthritis and compares olderadults with rheumatoid arthritis to those with osteoarthritis. Data from 125 housebound olderadults with osteoarthritis (65%) or rheumatoid arthritis (35%) were compared to published samples and to…
Nour, Kareen; Laforest, Sophie; Gignac, Monique; Gauvin, Lise
Background: The quality of medication use in olderadults is a recurring problem of substantial concern. Efforts to both measure and improve the quality of medication use often define quality too narrowly and fall short of addressing the complexity of an olderadult's medication regimen.Objectives: In an effort to more comprehensively define the quality of medication use in olderadults,
Mary T. Roth; Charity G. Moore; Jena L. Ivey; Denise A. Esserman; William H. Campbell; Morris Weinberger
Situated learning theory understands learning to be a sociocultural activity, and individuals experience identity development as they participate in communities of practice. The purpose of this study was to understand how Korean olderadults’ computer learning in a classroom is a situated activity and how this learning influences olderadults’ identities. Eleven sessions of an intermediate course for olderadults
Declines in various cognitive abilities, particularly executive control functions, are observed in olderadults. An important goal of cognitive training is to slow or reverse these age-related declines. However, opinion is divided in the literature regarding whether cognitive training can engender transfer to a variety of cognitive skills in olderadults. In the current study, the authors trained olderadults
Chandramallika Basak; Walter R. Boot; Michelle W. Voss; Arthur F. Kramer
BACKGROUND: Depression in olderadults is a serious health problem with a poor prognosis. There is a need for indicated preventive psychological interventions for olderadults, that show to be promising in preventing depressive disorders. METHODS\\/DESIGN: This manuscript describes the design of a study evaluating 'Looking for Meaning', a newly developed prevention course for olderadults with depressive symptoms, based
Anne Margriet Pot; Anne-Sophie Melenhorst; Simone Onrust; Ernst T Bohlmeijer
This article describes how Web 2.0 technologies may facilitate journaling and related inquiry methods among olderadults. Benefits and limitations of journaling are summarized as well as computer skills of olderadults. We then describe how Web 2.0 technologies can enhance journaling among olderadults by diminishing feelings of isolation,…
Four focus groups were conducted with a total of 29 adults 60 years of age and older enrolled in the SENIOR Project, a health promotion intervention study designed to increase fruit and vegetable consumption and exercise among communitydwelling olderadults. The focus groups explored the motivations of olderadults to eat five or more servings of fruits and vegetables and\\/or
Mary L. Greaney; Faith D. Lees; Geoffrey W. Greene; Phillip G. Clark
The ability to accurately and reliably predict whether an olderadult will commit suicide has eluded clinicians and researchers. A random national sample of psychologists who work with olderadults was surveyed regarding their perception of 36 risk factors for completed suicide and indirect self-destructive behavior in olderadults. This study produced a profile of psychologists' assessment and treatment practices
|This paper draws a socio-demographic, physical, psychosocial, and behavioural profile of housebound olderadults with arthritis and compares olderadults with rheumatoid arthritis to those with osteoarthritis. Data from 125 housebound olderadults with osteoarthritis (65%) or rheumatoid arthritis (35%) were compared to published samples and to…
Nour, Kareen; Laforest, Sophie; Gignac, Monique; Gauvin, Lise
Musculoskeletal pain is common, frequently under-reported, and inadequately treated in the olderadult. The objective of this article is to review the management of musculoskeletal pain syndromes in olderadults emphasising the potential role of opioid agents in carefully selected patients. Systematic analysis of the relevant literature was done. Even in cognitively impaired patients, assessment of musculoskeletal pain is mandatory. An algorithm for musculoskeletal pain is presented emphasising a stepwise pharmacological approach in combination with an array of non-pharmacological therapies. Comorbid conditions may limit therapeutic choices, particularly in the elderly. Repeated assessment of pain levels as well as functional status is critical for optimal pain management.
The present study examines source memory for actions (e.g. placing items in a suitcase). For both young and olderadult participants, source memory for actions performed by the self was better than memory for actions performed by either a known (close) or unknown other. In addition, neither young nor olderadults were more likely to confuse self with close others than unknown others. Results suggest an advantage in source memory for actions performed by the self compared to others, possibly associated with sensorimotor cues that are relatively preserved in aging.
Background: older prisoners are a fast-growing group but there is limited evidence for how well their needs are being met. Objectives: to quantify the social and custodial needs of older prisoners and suggest improvements for service provision. Design: cross-sectional study. Setting: twelve prisons holding adult males in North West England. Subjects: two hundred and sixty-two prisoners; 97 aged between 50 and 59, 165 aged 60 and over. Methods: interview and case-note review for issues of social and custodial need and quality of life in prison, including Forensic Camberwell Assessment of Need and Lubben Scale for social networks. Results: many had problems mixing with younger prisoners, accommodation and activities, and limited contact with friends and family. A small group had personal care needs which were not well managed in prison. Conclusion: older prisoners have distinct social and custodial needs which need to be addressed by a national strategy for their care and management. PMID:23793783
Hayes, Adrian J; Burns, Alistair; Turnbull, Pauline; Shaw, Jenny J
Aging is associated with a natural dysregulation in immune functioning which may be amplified when it occurs in the context of chronic stress. Family dementia caregiving provides an excellent model to study the impact of chronic stress on immune functioning among older individuals. Empirical data suggest that the stress of caregiving dysregulate multiple components of innate and adaptive immunity. Elderly caregivers have poorer responses to vaccines, impaired control of latent viruses, exaggerated production of inflammatory mediators, and accelerated cellular aging, compared to noncaregiving olderadults. The chronic stress-induced immune dysregulation observed among older caregivers appear to be of sufficient magnitude to impact health. Furthermore, evidence suggests that chronic stress lead to premature aging of the immune system.
Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Hantsoo, Liisa; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.
Using data from a probability sample of adults in a metropolitan area, the accuracy of survey measures was assessed by comparisons to administrative records, census counts, and maps. Some types of information, including birth date and make and year of car, were reported accurately by most respondents, whereas frequent errors were detected for other types of information, including voting behavior, house value, and characteristics of neighbors. Comparisons were made with respect to the relative accuracy of the reports of respondents in three age groups: younger than 60, 60 through 69, and 70 or older. For many measures, no age differences were detected, and for those where age differences were observed, the older respondents were sometimes more accurate than the younger respondents. The potential consequences of measurement error are serious. Evidence to date, however, does not indicate consistently that these problems are any more serious for older respondents than for any other age group. PMID:3598086
Although some studies have confirmed positive associations between social engagement and well-being in later life, this study aimed to understand why some seniors cannot be engaged. The authors analyzed the lived experiences of 89 seniors in three rural communities in Canada, from semi-structured interviews and using the constant comparison method. Five factors make choices for social engagement in later life unequal among olderadults who differ by gender, class, age, and health status. Profound engagement in care work, compulsory altruism, personal resources, objectively perceived and subjectively available engagement opportunities, and ageist barriers around paid work constrain choices for seniors who lack privilege in the context of a market economy, particularly for low-income older women. To avoid stigmatizing vulnerable older persons, societal barriers to meaningful activities must be addressed - for example, through provision of income security or by reversing inter- and intragenerational ageism in access to the labor market. PMID:22373781
This study explored dressing and grooming habits and preferences of olderadults. Fifty-eight community-dwelling older persons (mean age = 80 years) in suburban Maryland responded to the Self-maintenance Habits and Preferences in Elderly (SHAPE) questionnaire. There was a large variability in preferences, and all items were very important for at least some of the participants. Women attributed higher levels of importance to dressing and grooming than did men. Importance ratings increased with level of education and were higher for unmarried persons, but were not related to age or need for assistance with instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). On an individual basis, this information can be used to suggest items for interventions or to structure a personal care environment. Alternately, it can be used in the aggregate as a guideline for designing programs of care to reflect the preferences of a majority of older persons. PMID:17310661
The aging population is a worldwide challenge. Understanding how olderadults have been portrayed would provide a foundation on which future scholarship can build. This study assesses and critiques the assumptions underlying the portrayal of olderadults and their learning in adult education journals from 1980 to 2006. On reviewing 93 articles in five adult education journals, three themes emerge.
Li-Kuang Chen; Young Sek Kim; Paul Moon; Sharan B. Merriam
The association among race, neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES), and chronic pain has not been well examined in older people. Clinical data was obtained from olderadults (>50 years old) presenting to a tertiary care pain center. The relative roles of race and neighborhood SES on the chronic pain experienced in older black and white adults were assessed. Older blacks experienced more affective pain, pain-related disability and mood disorder symptoms than older whites. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed previously hypothesized factors for the McGill Pain Questionnaire pain dimensions and the Pain Disability Index. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses also identified factors in the Brief Symptom Inventory and neighborhood SES. Structural equation modeling showed black race was associated with lower neighborhood SES and also with increased affective pain, obligatory disability and mood disorders mediationally through neighborhood SES. It was indirectly associated with increased sensory and miscellaneous pain, and voluntary disability through low neighborhood SES. Racial interaction examination showed that neighborhood SES had the same relationship to outcomes by race. We found increasing neighborhood SES is associated with decreasing negative chronic pain outcomes for older blacks and whites. Our data provide evidence that both race and neighborhood SES are important factors to consider when examining the chronic pain experience among older Americans.
Fuentes, Molly; Hart-Johnson, Tamera; Green, Carmen R.
We examined the prevalence of depressive symptoms over time in a sample of community-residing olderadults at baseline, two months, six months, and fourteen months. The nonprobability sample (N = 222), was 90% female, 87% Caucasian, 15% Hispanic, and 12% African-American with an average age of 75 years. If depressive symptoms had been measured at only one time, 19% of the sample would have scored above the cutoff, versus 39% scoring above the cutoff when measured at all four time periods. The findings provide evidence that depressive symptoms in olderadults are variable and fluctuate over time. The significance of this research was the longitudinal evaluation of depressive symptoms in community-residing elders.
McDougall, Graham J; Morgan, Stephanie; Vaughan, Phillip W.
Sarcopenia, or loss of muscle mass and strength, plays a major role in the disablement process in olderadults and increases the risk of impaired physical performance, falls, physical disability, frailty, and death. Oxidative stress is a major mechanism implicated in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia; aging muscle shows increased oxidative damage to DNA, protein, and lipids. Carotenoids quench free radicals, reduce damage from reactive oxygen species, and appear to modulate redox-sensitive transcription factors such as NF-kappaB that are involved in the upregulation of IL-6 and other proinflammatory cytokines. Recent epidemiological studies in community-dwelling olderadults show that low serum/plasma carotenoids are independently associated with low skeletal muscle strength and the development of walking disability. These observations are consistent with a growing number of studies showing that a diet with high intake of fruits and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of inflammation, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. PMID:17196927
Semba, Richard D; Lauretani, Fulvio; Ferrucci, Luigi