Sample records for older adults presenting

  1. Older Adults' Memory for Verbally Presented Medical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankoff, Sarah M.; Sandberg, Elisabeth Hollister

    2012-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that patients typically have difficulty remembering information presented during healthcare consultations. This study examined how older adults learn and remember verbally presented medical information. Healthy older adults were tested for recall in experimental and field settings. Participants viewed a five-minute…

  2. Presentation modality influences WAIS Digit Span performance in younger and older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen A. Kemtes; Daniel N. Allen

    2008-01-01

    The WAIS–R Digit Span subtests require oral presentation of digits. Older adults with hearing impairments may have reduced recall due to deficits in hearing. It is also possible that older adults' recall is influenced by recall superiority for auditory versus visual information (the auditory superiority effect). Auditory and visual versions of the Digits Forward and Backward tasks were administered to

  3. Smoking and Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Stop Smoking > About Smoking > Facts & Figures Smoking and Older Adults Older smokers are at greater risks from smoking ... health. 1 Key Facts About Tobacco Use Among Older Adults Today's generation of older Americans had smoking rates ...

  4. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Older Adults A national 2008 survey found that about 40 ... of adults ages 65 and older drink alcohol. Older adults can experience a variety of problems from drinking ...

  5. Depression in Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Depression In Older Adults: More Facts Depression In Older Adults: More Facts Depression affects more than 19 million ... medication, psychotherapy or a combination of both. [8] Older Adult Attitudes Toward Depression: According to a Mental Health ...

  6. The ‘Positive Effect’ Is Present in Older Chinese Adults: Evidence from an Eye Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingxin; He, Liyuan; Jia, Liping; Tian, Jing; Benson, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    The 'Positive Effect' is defined as the phenomenon of preferential cognitive processing of positive affective information, and avoidance or dismissal of negative affective information in the social environment. The ‘Positive Effect’ is found for older people compared with younger people in western societies and is believed to reflect a preference for positive emotional regulation in older adults. It is not known whether such an effect is Universal, and in East Asian cultures, there is a highly controversial debate concerning this question. In the current experiment we explored whether Chinese older participants showed a 'Positive Effect' when they inspected picture pairs that were either a positive or a negative picture presented with a neutral picture, or a positive and negative picture paired together. The results indicated that both groups of participants showed an attentional bias to both pleasant (more processing of) and unpleasant pictures (initial orienting to) when these were paired with neutral pictures. When pleasant and unpleasant pictures were paired together both groups showed an initial orientation bias for the pleasant picture, but the older participants showed this bias for initial orienting and increased processing measures, providing evidence of a ‘Positive Effect’ in older Chinese adults. PMID:25880585

  7. Depression - older adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... daily life for weeks or longer. Depression in older adults is a widespread problem, but it is not ... In older adults, life changes can increase the risk for depression or make existing depression worse. Some of these changes ...

  8. Yoga and Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to learn more about its safe use in older adults. Recent studies in people in their late 40’s ... yet available on its effectiveness and safety for older adults. If you’re thinking about practicing yoga, keep ...

  9. Medications and Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Membership About the AAAAI Share | Medications and Older Adults This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, ... effects can be. This is especially true for older adults with allergies or asthma. Asthma Medications There are ...

  10. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alcohol: You Can Get Help Heath and Aging Older Adults and Alcohol: You Can Get Help What's inside ... and Fractures Also of Interest Alcohol Use and Older Adults - NIHSeniorHealth PDF (284.1 KB) Order Share this: ? ...

  11. Older Adults and Depression

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you well. If you are in a crisis Older adults with depression are at risk for suicide. In fact, white men age 85 and older ... be connected to a trained counselor at a suicide crisis center nearest you. For more information on Older Adults and Depression Contact us to find out more ...

  12. Enhancing Older Adults' Eyewitness Memory for Present and Future Events With the Self-Administered Interview

    E-print Network

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    abuse and maltreatment of older adults in hospitals and care homes (Bennett, Jenkins, & Asif, 2000). These developments demand innovation in public policy--including policy within the criminal justice system (Kalache adults. This is surprising, as cognitive aging research indicates that one of the most significant

  13. Dementia: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Aging & Health A to Z Dementia Unique to Older Adults This section provides information to help older adults ... quality of life. Managing Additional Health Problems in Older Adults with Dementia Dementia is rare in adults younger ...

  14. Older Adult Psychological Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry A. Edelstein; Erin L. Woodhead; Daniel L. Segal; Marnin J. Heisel; Emily H. Bower; Angela J. Lowery; Sarah A. Stoner

    2007-01-01

    The psychological assessment of older adults is often challenging due to the frequent co-morbidity of mental and physical health problems, multiple medications, interactions among medications, age-related sensory and cognitive deficits, and the paucity of assessment instruments with psychometric support for use with older adults. First, psychological assessment instruments for examining five important clinical areas (suicide ideation, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression,

  15. Osteoporosis: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    Unique to Older Adults This section provides information to help older adults and their caregivers consider their disease or condition in conjunction with other health issues. As older adults live longer, they may have more than one ...

  16. Delirium: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    Unique to Older Adults This section provides information to help older adults and their caregivers consider their disease or condition in conjunction with other health issues. As older adults live longer, they may have more than one ...

  17. Reward-Related Decision Making in Older Adults: Relationship to Clinical Presentation of Depression

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Amanda R.; Alexopoulos, George S.; Yuen, Genevieve S.; Morimoto, Sarah Shizuko; Gunning, Faith M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Impairment in reward processes has been found in individuals with depression and in the aging population. The purpose of this study was twofold: 1. To use an affective neuroscience probe to identify abnormalities in reward-related decision making in late-life depression. 2. To examine the relationship of reward-related decision making abnormalities in depressed, older adults to the clinical expression of apathy in depression. We hypothesized that relative to elderly, healthy subjects, depressed, elderly patients would exhibit impaired decision making and that apathetic, depressed patients would show greater impairment in decision making than non-apathetic, depressed patients. Methods We used the Iowa Gambling Task to examine reward-related decision making in 60 non-demented, elderly patients with non-psychotic major depression and 36 elderly, psychiatrically healthy participants. Apathy was quantified using the Apathy Evaluation Scale. Of those with major depression, 18 individuals reported clinically significant apathy whereas 42 participants did not have apathy. Results Older adults with depression and healthy comparison participants did not differ in their performance on the IGT. However, apathetic, depressed older adults adopted an advantageous strategy and selected cards from the conservative decks compared to non-apathetic, depressed older adults. Non-apathetic, depressed patients showed a failure to adopt a conservative strategy and persisted in making risky decisions throughout the task. Conclusions This study indicates that apathy in older, depressed adults is associated with a conservative response style on a behavioral probe of the systems involved in reward-related decision making. This conservative response style may be the result of reduced sensitivity to rewards in apathetic individuals. PMID:25306937

  18. Nutrition for Older Adults

    E-print Network

    Sweeten, Mary K.; Ryan-Crowe, V. Cass

    1982-01-01

    of younger adults. The primary difference is that older adults should reduce energy or calorie intake. Energy Older adults may eat smaller amounts of food because of their decreased energy need. They need to avoid foods which are high in calories... products. Much water is con- sumed in food, beverages and soup. Liquid intake needed varies with the individual and the food eaten, but older persons should get at least 1 quart a day. Sodium and Potassium Sodium and potassium play a major role...

  19. Comparing characteristics of adverse drug events between older and younger adults presenting to a Taiwan emergency department.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Chia; Huang, Hsien-Hao; Fan, Ju-Sing; Chen, Min-Hui; Hsu, Teh-Fu; Yen, David Hung-Tsang; Huang, Mu-Shung; Wang, Chien-Ying; Huang, Chun-I; Lee, Chen-Hsen

    2015-02-01

    To compare the proportion, seriousness, preventability of adverse drug events (ADEs) between the older adults (? 65 years old) and younger adults (<65 years old) presenting to the emergency department (ED), we conducted a prospective observational cohort study of patients 18 years and older presenting to the ED. For all ED visits between March 1, 2009, and Feb 28, 2010, investigators identified ADEs and assessed cases using the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale. Outcomes (proportion, seriousness, and preventability of ADE, length of ED stay, and hospitalization) and associated variables were measured and compared between younger and older adults. The results showed that of 58,569 ED visits, 295 older adults, and 157 younger adults were diagnosed as having an ADE and included in our analysis. The proportion of ADEs leading to ED visits in the older group, 14.3 per 1000 ?(295/20,628), was significantly higher than the younger group of 4.1 per 1000 ?(157/37,941). The older group with ADE had a longer ED stay (odds ratio [OR] 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-6.4 for stay ? 24 hours) and larger proportion of preventable ADEs (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.6) than the younger group, but there was no significant difference in terms of serious ADEs (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3-1.3 for fatal and life threatening) and hospitalization (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.9-2.6) between the 2 groups. In addition, patients in the older group were more likely to be male, to have symptoms of fatigue or altered mental status, to involve cardiovascular, renal, and respiratory systems, and to have higher Charlson comorbidity index scores, higher number of prescription medications, and higher proportion of unintentional overdose. In conclusion, the proportion of ADE-related ED visits in older adults was higher than younger adults, and many of these were preventable. The most common drug categories associated with preventable ADEs in the older adults were antithrombotic agents, antidiabetic agents, and cardiovascular agents. PMID:25700322

  20. Falls and Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Falls and Older Adults: About Falls In This Topic About Falls Causes and Risk Factors Making Personal ... for More Information National Institute on Aging Related Topics Balance Problems Osteoporosis The information in this topic ...

  1. Older Adults and Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About Us Home > Health & Education > Mental Health Information Older Adults and Mental Health Depression Depression is not a ... increased risk for suicide . Share Science News About Older Adults NIMH Hosts Twitter Chat on Depression and Older ...

  2. Quitting Smoking for Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Quitting Smoking for Older Adults Quitting When You’re Older If you’re ... for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Challenges for Older Adults Click for more information There are a few ...

  3. Depression in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Amy; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Gatz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Depression is less prevalent among older adults than among younger adults but can have serious consequences. Over half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and more closely associated with depression. Depressed older adults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are younger adults. Risk factors leading to the development of late life depression likely comprise complex interactions among genetic vulnerabilities, cognitive diathesis, age-associated neurobiological changes, and stressful events. Insomnia is an often overlooked risk factor for late life depression. We suggest that a common pathway to depression in older adults, regardless of which predisposing risks are most prominent, may be curtailment of daily activities. Accompanying self-critical thinking may exacerbate and maintain a depressed state. Offsetting the increasing prevalence of certain risk factors in late life are age-related increases in psychological resilience. Other protective factors include higher education and socioeconomic status, engagement in valued activities, and religious or spiritual involvement. Treatments including behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive bibliotherapy, problem-solving therapy, brief psychodynamic therapy, and life review/reminiscence therapy are effective but too infrequently used with older adults. Preventive interventions including education for individuals with chronic illness, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving skills training, group support, and life review have also received support. PMID:19327033

  4. Hearing Loss and Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... I find additional information about hearing loss and older adults? The NIDCD maintains a directory of organizations that ... questions and provide information on hearing loss and older adults: Late-deafened adults Hearing aids Presbycusis For more ...

  5. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can ... likely than women to have problems with alcohol. Older Adults are Sensitive to Alcohol's Effects As people age, ...

  6. Pain in older adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lois L; Talerico, Karen Amann

    2002-01-01

    This chapter reviews 80 published research reports of pain and pain problems in older adults by nurse researchers and researchers from other disciplines. Reports were identified through searches of MEDLINE and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) using the search terms pain, older adult, aged and pain, and dementia. Reports were included if published between 1985 to 2001, if conducted on samples age 60 or older, if conducted by nurses or relevant to nursing research, and if published in English. Descriptive, qualitative, correlational, longitudinal, and intervention studies were included. Key findings include the following: pain is widely prevalent in older adult populations; few studies have included minority groups; under-identification and undertreatment of pain in older adults is a consistent interpretation of research findings; pain intensity rating scales are as valid and reliable in older populations as in younger populations; current observational methods of assessing pain in cognitively impaired older adults must be used with caution; nursing intervention studies demonstrate the beneficial effects of education and interventions aimed at improved pain assessment. The main recommendations are: careful attention should be given to the conceptualization and definition of pain; examination of pain should include physiological, motivational, cognitive, and affective factors; studies evaluating undertreatment of pain should include measures of pain self-report; standardized pain measures should be used; studies of persons over the age of 85 and studies of ethnic minorities are needed; more attention should be given to nursing intervention studies and should include both pharmacological and nonpharmacological, psychosocial interventions. PMID:12092519

  7. Older Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Jeffrey

    In an effort to improve the quality of life for area senior citizens, De Anza College has established an older adult education program which combines adaptive physical education with holistic health care principles to instruct students in relaxation, nutrition, and physical activity. Classes are held in convalescent hospitals, retirement homes,…

  8. Bereavement in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, James P.

    1994-01-01

    Factors that place older adults at risk for problems associated with the bereavement process are identified and discussed. Provides guidelines for distinguishing between normal bereavement depression and clinical depression, discusses the impact of different types of loss, describes three types of intervention, and explores countertransference.…

  9. Diabetes Resources for Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Older Adults Text Size: S M L | About Diabetes Resources for Older Adults Diabetes occurs in people of ... issues that affect this population. Help me find resources for: Managing My Diabetes Preventing Type 2 Diabetes ...

  10. Medications Older Adults Should Avoid

    MedlinePLUS

    Medications Older Adults Should Avoid Tools and Tips Printer-friendly PDF Click here to see our other tip sheets. Because older adults often experience chronic health conditions that require treatment ...

  11. Older-Adults and Asthma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... younger age groups. How Common Is Asthma in Older Adults? To learn about how common certain diseases are ... from the hospital. How Is Asthma Different Among Older Adults? Most persons with asthma have their first symptoms ...

  12. Pain Assessment for Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen Flaherty

    WHY: Studies on pain in older adults (persons 65 years of age and older) have demonstrated that 25%-50% of community dwelling older people have persistent pain. Additionally, 45-80% of nursing home residents report pain that is often left untreated. Pain is strongly associated with depression and can result in decreased socialization, impaired ambulation and increased healthcare utilization and costs. Older

  13. Suicide Notes of the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenaars, Antoon A.

    1992-01-01

    Outlines literature on suicide notes of older adults. Presents author's own lifespan research related to elderly, which indicated that long-term instability was critical in understanding suicide in elderly; that indirect expressions were much less frequently observed in notes of elderly than in those of younger adults; and that older males often…

  14. Older Adults and Smell Loss

    MedlinePLUS

    ... flavors in food. Narrator: Maryann Perrett is an older adult who lost her sense of smell. Maryann: The type of smell problem I have is, I can't smell at all. I have no sense of ... on the lives of older people. Dr. Beauchamp: For older people, a loss ...

  15. Clinical Interviewing with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohlman, Jan; Sirota, Karen Gainer; Papp, Laszlo A.; Staples, Alison M.; King, Arlene; Gorenstein, Ethan E.

    2012-01-01

    Over the next few decades the older adult population will increase dramatically, and prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders are also expected to increase in the elderly cohort. These demographic projections highlight the need for diagnostic instruments and methods that are specifically tailored to older adults. The current paper discusses the…

  16. Financial Issues of Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon A. DeVaney

    This chapter highlights three important concerns regarding older adults. The concerns are (a) how to finance the increased\\u000a number of years of retirement, (b) to provide for adequate health at the very old ages, and (c) that older women, especially\\u000a minorities, are likely to be more economically disadvantaged than older men. To respond to the first and third concerns, older

  17. Hearing loss in older adults.

    PubMed

    Walling, Anne D; Dickson, Gretchen M

    2012-06-15

    Hearing loss affects approximately one-third of adults 61 to 70 years of age and more than 80 percent of those older than 85 years. Men usually experience greater hearing loss and have earlier onset compared with women. The most common type is age-related hearing loss; however, many conditions can interfere with the conduction of sound vibrations to the inner ear and their conversion to electrical impulses for conduction to the brain. Screening for hearing loss is recommended in adults older than 50 to 60 years. Office screening tests include the whispered voice test and audioscopy. Older patients who admit to having difficulty hearing may be referred directly for audiometry. The history can identify risk factors for hearing loss, especially noise exposure and use of ototoxic medications. Examination of the auditory canal and tympanic membrane can identify causes of conductive hearing loss. Audiometric testing is required to confirm hearing loss. Adults presenting with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss should be referred for urgent assessment. Management of hearing loss is based on addressing underlying causes, especially obstructions (including cerumen) and ototoxic medications. Residual hearing should be optimized by use of hearing aids, assistive listening devices, and rehabilitation programs. Surgical implants are indicated for selected patients. Major barriers to improved hearing in older adults include lack of recognition of hearing loss; perception that hearing loss is a normal part of aging or is not amenable to treatment; and patient nonadherence with hearing aids because of stigma, cost, inconvenience, disappointing initial results, or other factors. PMID:22962895

  18. Falls Among Older Adults: An Overview

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Room Social Media Publications Injury Center Falls Among Older Adults: An Overview On this Page How big is ... fracture rates than black women. 17 How can older adults prevent falls? Older adults can stay independent and ...

  19. Diabetes: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... experience, even if they seem minor to you. Drug Interactions If you’re an older adult who ... medications, which can put you at risk for drug interactions. Here’s how to steer clear of problems: ...

  20. Computer acceptance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Nägle, Sibylle; Schmidt, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    Even though computers play a massive role in everyday life of modern societies, older adults, and especially older women, are less likely to use a computer, and they perform fewer activities on it than younger adults. To get a better understanding of the factors affecting older adults' intention towards and usage of computers, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology (UTAUT) was applied as part of a more extensive study with 52 users and non-users of computers, ranging in age from 50 to 90 years. The model covers various aspects of computer usage in old age via four key constructs, namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences, and facilitating conditions, as well as the variables gender, age, experience, and voluntariness it. Interestingly, next to performance expectancy, facilitating conditions showed the strongest correlation with use as well as with intention. Effort expectancy showed no significant correlation with the intention of older adults to use a computer. PMID:22317258

  1. Reaching Out to Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Brenda

    1988-01-01

    Reviews demographic and health data on older Americans and describes services at the Topeka Public Library that are targeted to serve adults aged 75 and older, including selection and delivery of books to shut-ins and nursing homes, materials and information for the visually handicapped, and special programing. (8 references) (MES)

  2. Medication Adherence among Older Adults with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Leutwyler, Heather C.; Fox, Patrick J.; Wallhagen, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Older adults with schizophrenia are a growing segment of the population yet their physical and mental health status is extremely poor. The paper presents findings from a qualitative study that explored the understanding older adults with schizophrenia have of their physical health status. The study was conducted among 28 older adults with schizophrenia from a variety of settings using semi-structured interviews and participant observation. Self-management of psychiatric and non-psychiatric medications and its affect on their health status was one of the central themes that emerged from the study. Different styles of medication adherence were identified and factors associated with each style are presented. The findings provide insights into the design of clinical interventions aimed at promoting medication adherence among older adults with schizophrenia. PMID:23327119

  3. Effects of a Forgiveness Intervention for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allemand, Mathias; Steiner, Marianne; Hill, Patrick L.

    2013-01-01

    The authors' aim in the present study was to examine the effects of a brief forgiveness intervention for older adults. The psychoeducational group intervention consists of (a) established core components of previous forgiveness interventions and (b) additional components considering specific needs of older adults. Seventy-eight older adults (mean…

  4. Severe sepsis in older adults.

    PubMed

    Umberger, Reba; Callen, Bonnie; Brown, Mary Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Severe sepsis may be underrecognized in older adults. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review special considerations related to early detection of severe sepsis in older adults. Normal organ changes attributed to aging may delay early detection of sepsis at the time when interventions have the greatest potential to improve patient outcomes. Systems are reviewed for changes. For example, the cardiovascular system may have a limited or absent compensatory response to inflammation after an infectious insult, and the febrile response and recruitment of white blood cells may be blunted because of immunosenescence in aging. Three of the 4 hallmark responses (temperature, heart rate, and white blood cell count) to systemic inflammation may be diminished in older adults as compared with younger adults. It is important to consider that older adults may not always manifest the typical systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Atypical signs such as confusion, decreased appetite, and unsteady gait may occur before sepsis related organ failure. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria and a comparison of organ failure criteria were reviewed. Mortality rates in sepsis and severe sepsis remain high and are often complicated by multiple organ failures. As the numbers of older adults increase, early identification and prompt treatment is crucial in improving patient outcomes. PMID:26039648

  5. Fire Safety Checklist for Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    A U.S. Fire Administration Fire Safety Checklist for Older Adults FA-221/July 2012 Older adults (age 65 and older) are more than twice ... die in a fire than the general population. Older adults have a higher risk of injury from fires. ...

  6. Dual diagnosis in older adults: a review.

    PubMed

    Searby, Adam; Maude, Phil; McGrath, Ian

    2015-02-01

    Dual diagnosis is associated with frequent relapse, poor treatment engagement and overall unsatisfactory treatment outcomes. A comprehensive review of the contemporary literature examining this issue was conducted, finding a paucity of literature concerning dual diagnosis in older adults. Of the literature appraised for this review, a number of studies examined US Veteran's Affairs populations, which were largely male. Studies concerning older mental health populations were scarce. During the literature search, a number of background studies that influenced contemporary research regarding dual diagnosis in older adults were found; these studies were examined regarding their contribution to contemporary paradigms concerning older adults with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders. This review presents the results of the contemporary literature concerning dual diagnosis in older adults. Several recurring themes emerge from the literature, including the notion of a statistically small population that, in absolute terms, represents a sizeable number of individuals coming to the attention of aged mental health services in the future. Additionally, the potential for under-diagnosis in this cohort is highlighted, potentially creating a hidden population of older adults with dual diagnosis. PMID:25625710

  7. Catastrophic events and older adults.

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Elizabeth; Dyer, Carmel B

    2010-12-01

    The plight of older adults during catastrophic events is a societal concern. Older persons have an increased prevalence of cognitive disorders, chronic illnesses, and mobility problems that limit their ability to cope. These disorders may result in a lack of mental capacity and the ability to discern when they should evacuate or resolve problems encountered during a catastrophe. Some older persons may have limited transportation options, and many of the elderly survivors are at increased risk for abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Recommendations for future catastrophic events include the development of a federal tracking system for elders and other vulnerable adults, the designation of separate shelter areas for elders and other vulnerable adults, and involvement of gerontological professionals in all aspects of emergency preparedness and care delivery, including training of frontline workers. Preparation through preevent planning that includes region-specific social services, medical and public health resources, volunteers, and facilities for elders and vulnerable adults is critical. Elders need to be protected from abuse and fraud during catastrophic events. A public health triage system for elders and other vulnerable populations in pre- and postdisaster situations is useful, and disaster preparedness is paramount. Communities and members of safety and rescue teams must address ethical issues before an event. When older adults are involved, consideration needs to be given to triage decision making, transporting those who are immobile, the care of older adults who receive palliative care, and the equitable distribution of resources. Nurses are perfectly equipped with the skills, knowledge, and training needed to plan and implement disaster preparedness programs. In keeping with the tradition of Florence Nightingale, nurses can assume several crucial roles in disaster preparedness for older adults. Nurses possess the ability to participate and lead community policy development, serve on rescue teams, perform patient assessments, and deliver care. Nurses are crucial to well-planned and executed programs for catastrophic events that affect older adults. Also, all health care providers involved must be aware of the physical and psychological ramifications of disaster relief. The health and resilience of disaster-relief teams depend on paying attention to signs and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and seeking appropriate treatment should it occur. PMID:21095558

  8. JAMA Patient Page: Fitness for Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Fitness for Older Adults K eeping active and remaining fit can help ... Fitness and physical activity are safe for most older adults—even for those with stable chronic conditions, such ...

  9. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides information to help older adults and their caregivers consider their disease or condition in conjunction with other health issues. ...

  10. JAMA Patient Page: Frailty in Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Frailty in Older Adults F railty , commonly associated with aging, includes several characteristics (see below). Frail older adults are weak, often have many complex medical problems, ...

  11. Four Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Consumers Consumer Updates Four Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults Search the Consumer Updates Section Get Consumer Updates ... More Information Medicines and You: A Guide for Older Adults NIH Senior Health National Institute on Aging More ...

  12. Healthy Weights for Healthy Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Women For Seniors Healthy Weights for Healthy Older Adults Published June 04, 2014 Print Email Men and ... dramatic difference in the quality of life for older adults. You are never too old to enjoy the ...

  13. Heart Failure: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    Heart Failure Unique to Older Adults This section provides information to help older adults and their caregivers ... or maintain quality of life. Urinary Incontinence and Heart Failure If you have heart failure, you may ...

  14. Recognition of rapid speech by blind and sighted older adults

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Salant, Sandra; Friedman, Sarah A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to determine if older blind participants recognize time-compressed speech better than older sighted participants. Method Three groups of adults with normal hearing participated (n = 10/group): older sighted, older blind, and younger sighted listeners. Low-predictability sentences that were uncompressed (0% time compression ratio, TCR) and compressed at three rates (40%, 50%, and 60% TCR) were presented to listeners in quiet and noise. Results Older blind listeners recognized all time-compressed speech stimuli significantly better than older sighted listeners in quiet. In noise, the older blind adults recognized the uncompressed and 40% TCR speech stimuli better than the older sighted adults. Performance differences between the younger sighted adults and older blind adults were not observed. Conclusions The findings support the notion that older blind adults recognize time-compressed speech considerably better than older sighted adults in quiet and noise. Their performance levels are similar to those of younger adults, suggesting that age-related difficulty in understanding time-compressed speech is not an inevitable consequence of aging. Rather, frequent listening to speech at rapid rates, which was highly correlated with performance of the older blind adults, may be a useful technique to minimize age-related slowing in speech understanding. PMID:20689022

  15. Five Ways Older Adults Can Be More Active

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Older Adults Can Be More Active Five Ways Older Adults Can Be More Active As you get older, ... Be More Active Keywords: physical activity Five Ways Older Adults Can Be More Active As you get older, ...

  16. Older Adults and Gambling: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the social cognitive theory model to review the literature on older adult gambling, and related personal and environment characteristics. Results show that lottery is the kind of gambling most frequently played by older adults, followed by casino games. Older adults take trips to casinos to socialize, find excitement, and win…

  17. Cochlear Implantation in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Frank R.; Chien, Wade W.; Li, Lingsheng; Niparko, John K.; Francis, Howard W.

    2012-01-01

    Cochlear implants allow individuals with severe-to-profound hearing loss access to sound and spoken language. The number of older adults in the United States who are potential candidates for cochlear implantation is approximately 150,000 and will continue to increase with the aging of the population. Should cochlear implantation (CI) be routinely recommended for these older adults, and do these individuals benefit from CI? We reviewed our 12 year experience with cochlear implantation in adults ?60 years (n = 445) at Johns Hopkins to investigate the impact of CI on speech understanding and to identify factors associated with speech performance. Complete data on speech outcomes at baseline and 1 year post-CI were available for 83 individuals. Our results demonstrate that cochlear implantation in adults ?60 years consistently improved speech understanding scores with a mean increase of 60. 0% (S. D. 24. 1) on HINT sentences in quiet . The magnitude of the gain in speech scores was negatively associated with age at implantation such that for every increasing year of age at CI the gain in speech scores was 1. 3 percentage points less (95% CI: 0. 6 – 1. 9) after adjusting for age at hearing loss onset. Conversely, individuals with higher pre-CI speech scores (HINT scores between 40–60%) had significantly greater post-CI speech scores by a mean of 10. 0 percentage points (95% CI: 0. 4 – 19. 6) than those with lower pre-CI speech scores (HINT <40%) after adjusting for age at CI and age at hearing loss onset. These results suggest that older adult CI candidates who are younger at implantation and with higher preoperative speech scores obtain the highest speech understanding scores after cochlear implantation with possible implications for current Medicare policy. Finally, we provide an extended discussion of the epidemiology and impact of hearing loss in older adults. Future research of CI in older adults should expand beyond simple speech outcomes to take into account the broad cognitive, social, and physical functioning outcomes that are likely detrimentally impacted by hearing loss and may be mitigated by cochlear implantation. PMID:22932787

  18. Cochlear implantation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lin, Frank R; Chien, Wade W; Li, Lingsheng; Clarrett, Danisa M; Niparko, John K; Francis, Howard W

    2012-09-01

    Cochlear implants allow individuals with severe to profound hearing loss access to sound and spoken language. The number of older adults in the United States who are potential candidates for cochlear implantation (CI) is approximately 150,000 and will continue to increase with the aging of the population. Should CI be routinely recommended for these older adults, and do these individuals benefit from CI? We reviewed our 12-year experience with CI in adults aged ?60 years (n = 445) at Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions to investigate the impact of CI on speech understanding and to identify factors associated with speech performance. Complete data on speech outcomes at baseline and 1 year post-CI were available for 83 individuals. Our results demonstrate that CI in adults aged ?60 years consistently improved speech understanding scores, with a mean increase of 60.0% (SD 24.1) on HINT (Hearing in Noise Test) sentences in quiet. The magnitude of the gain in speech scores was negatively associated with age at implantation, such that for every increasing year of age at CI the gain in speech scores was 1.3 percentage points less (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.6-1.9) after adjusting for age at hearing loss onset. Conversely, individuals with higher pre-CI speech scores (HINT scores between 40% and 60%) had significantly greater post-CI speech scores by a mean of 10.0 percentage points (95% CI, 0.4-19.6) than those with lower pre-CI speech scores (HINT <40%) after adjusting for age at CI and age at hearing loss onset. These results suggest that older adult CI candidates who are younger at implantation and with higher preoperative speech scores obtain the highest speech understanding scores after CI, with possible implications for current United States Medicare policy. Finally, we provide an extended discussion of the epidemiology and impact of hearing loss in older adults. Future research of CI in older adults should expand beyond simple speech outcomes to take into account the broad cognitive, social, and physical functioning outcomes that are likely detrimentally affected by hearing loss and may be mitigated by CI. PMID:22932787

  19. Older Adults and Food Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Safety / Older Adults and Food Safety Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  20. Tobacco myths: the older adult perspective.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lana M

    2015-05-01

    Twenty adults ages 50 and older who had ceased using tobacco for 1 year or longer were interviewed. Participants provided personal insights into three myths found in the literature surrounding tobacco use and cessation in older adults and were asked to describe any perceived benefits of tobacco use. The findings indicate older adult tobacco users may need additional education on tobacco risks and cessation benefits provided by health care providers during routine office visits. PMID:25642695

  1. Older Adults and Gambling: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanchai Ariyabuddhiphongs

    This paper uses the social cognitive theory model to review the literature on older adult gambling, and related personal and\\u000a environment characteristics. Results show that lottery is the kind of gambling most frequently played by older adults, followed\\u000a by casino games. Older adults take trips to casinos to socialize, find excitement, and win money. Although prevalence estimate\\u000a studies suggest that

  2. Impact of Health Conditions on Food Intakes Among Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryna Shatenstein

    2008-01-01

    Even well older adults may experience a range of age-related physiological changes and chronic health conditions and may become increasingly sedentary—key factors that could affect appetite and hunger and lead to changes in diet composition. The present article reviews recent literature on the impact of prevalent health conditions on dietary choice. Research shows some evidence that older adults make positive

  3. Older Adults' Comprehension of Transformational and Deactivation Negation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolin, Sara J.

    2015-01-01

    The present research aimed to examine young and older adults' comprehension of negated text to determine the locus of older adults' difficulty in understanding this text construction. Participants were asked to read short passages at their own pace, complete a lexical decision task, and answer a comprehension question about what they had read.…

  4. Older Adults Do Not Notice Their Names: A New Twist to a Classic Attention Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Kilb, Angela; Maddox, Geoffrey B.; Thomas, Jenna; Fine, Hope C.; Chen, Tina; Cowan, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Although working memory spans are, on average, lower for older adults than young adults, we demonstrate in 5 experiments a way in which older adults paradoxically resemble higher capacity young adults. Specifically, in a selective-listening task, older adults almost always failed to notice their names presented in an unattended channel. This is an…

  5. Sleep protects memories from interference in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sonni, Akshata; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2015-07-01

    In a recent study, we demonstrated that sleep-dependent consolidation of declarative memories is preserved in older adults. The present study examined whether this benefit of sleep for declarative learning in older adults reflects a passive role of sleep in protecting memories from decay or an active role in stabilizing them. Young and older adults learned a visuospatial task, and recall was probed after sleep or wake. Although a reduction in performance was observed after sleep and wake, task-related interference before recall had a larger detriment on performance in the wake condition. This was true for young and high performing older adults only. Low performing older adults did not receive a benefit of sleep on the visuospatial task. Performance changes were associated with early night nonrapid eye movement sleep in young adults and with early night rapid eye movement sleep in high performing older adults. These results demonstrate that performance benefits from sleep in older adults as a result of an active memory stabilization process; importantly, the extent of this benefit of sleep is closely linked to the level of initial acquisition of the episodic information in older adults. PMID:25890819

  6. Horticultural Therapy Education and Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon Simson; Rebecca Haller

    1997-01-01

    Horticulture has been identified as the number one leisure pursuit of older Americans and as a therapeutic activity which enhances physical and mental health. Instrumental to the involvement of older adults with horticulture is the professional horticultural therapist (HT). Horticultural therapist education, competency skills and professional challenges related to older persons are explored using data from two surveys. The primary

  7. Training Older Adults to Access Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.; Bertera, Robert L.; Morgan, Russell; Wuertz, Ellen; Attey, Alfred M. O.

    2007-01-01

    Many older adults do not use health information available on the Internet. Older adults residing in affordable housing were taught to use the NIHSeniorHealth.gov Web site. Participants were predominantly African American women with limited education and income (N = 42). Outcomes included changes in computer and health Web site navigation skills.…

  8. Textile Recycling, Convenience, and the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domina, Tanya; Koch, Kathryn

    2001-01-01

    Results of a study to examine the recycling practices and needs of older adults (n=217) indicated that older adults do recycle traditional materials, but need accommodations for physical limitations. They report textile recycling as time consuming and difficult and used donations to religious organizations as their principal means of textile…

  9. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Older Adults' Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godkin, M. Dianne; Toth, Ellen L.

    1994-01-01

    Examined knowledge, attitudes, and opinions of 60 older adults about cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Most had little or no accurate knowledge of CPR. Knowledge deficits and misconceptions of older adults should be addressed so that they may become informed and active participants in CPR decision-making process. (BF)

  10. Older Adults' Acceptance of Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated variables contributing to older adults' information technology acceptance through a survey, which was used to find factors explaining and predicting older adults' information technology acceptance behaviors. Four factors, including needs satisfaction, perceived usability, support availability, and public acceptance, were…

  11. Sexual Permissiveness in Younger and Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laner, Mary Riege; Housker, Steve L.

    1980-01-01

    Samples (N=2) of older and samples (N=2) of younger adult respondents, surveyed in 1972 and in 1978 with regard to permissiveness toward specific sexual behaviors, revealed considerable, but not complete, attitudinal similarity between men and women in all groups and increased permissiveness toward nonmarital sexual behaviors among older adults.…

  12. Death, Suicide, and the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastenbaum, Robert

    1992-01-01

    Notes characteristics of older adults at high risk for suicide (male, living alone, living in low-income transient urban area, depression). Provides converging perspectives on death and suicide from standpoints of external observer and older adult. Interprets statistical pattern and critiques current policy proposals for limiting society's…

  13. [Substance abuse in older adults].

    PubMed

    Bitar, Raoul; Dürsteler, Kenneth M; Rösner, Susanne; Grosshans, Martin; Herdener, Marcus; Mutschler, Jochen

    2014-09-01

    In respect of demographic change, the number of older patients with substance abuse and addiction is on the raise. In this review we present important clinical and therapeutic aspects of substance abuse and addiction in the elderly and focus on alcohol, benzodiazepines and opioids. Daily and risky alcohol consumption is common among older people. They also have an increased risk getting alcohol-related complications. For early detection, laboratory parameters and questionnaires such as the AUDIT-C are suitable. Therapeutically brief interventions have been proved successful. Also, abuse of benzodiazepines, especially low-dose addiction, is widespread among older persons, although often overlooked, and patients often do not recognize their addiction. The physician has to know the correct indication, adequate dosage and pharmacological interactions. A slow-dose reduction is recommended in case of addiction. Thanks to opioid substitution therapy, patients with an opioidaddiction can reach a higher age. Age influences the effects of the substitute, which may require an adjustment of the dosage. Treatment of elderly patients should be based on their needs and resources and is usually very effective. PMID:25183616

  14. Phenomenological Characteristics of Emotional Memories in Younger and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mickley, Katherine R.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Older adults sometimes show a “positivity effect” in memory, remembering proportionally more positive information than young adults. Using a modified Memory Characteristics, the present study examined whether emotional valence impacts the phenomenological qualities associated with young and older adults’ memories. Aging did not impact the effect of valence on the qualities of high-arousal memories. However, aging sometimes impacted subjective memory for detail of low-arousal memories: In Experiment 2, older adults reported remembering more thoughts, feelings, and temporal order details about positive low-arousal stimuli, while young adults’ ratings for those dimensions were higher for negative low-arousal stimuli. These findings suggest that valence most readily affects the qualities of young and older adults’ emotional memories when those memories are low in arousal. PMID:19468956

  15. Older adult consumers of Texas public mental health services: 

    E-print Network

    Karlin, Bradley Eric

    2002-01-01

    at disproportionately low rates. Although recent changes in public policies and perceptions portend improved access to mental health services, we cannot assume that older adults are finding their way into the therapy room and receiving treatment. The present study...

  16. Suicide in older adults: the role of emotions and cognition.

    PubMed

    Kiosses, Dimitris N; Szanto, Katalin; Alexopoulos, George S

    2014-11-01

    Suicide in older adults is a significant clinical concern. In this review of recent findings, we concentrate on the role of emotions and cognition in suicide risk and behavior in older adults. We discuss the epidemiology of suicide in older adults, integrate recent findings on non-psychotic major depression, schizophrenia and suicidal ideation, explore the relationship of emotion regulation with suicide, present recent advances on suicide in demented patients, and describe the latest developments on cognition and decision processes in suicide. PMID:25226883

  17. Literacy of Older Adults in America. Adult Literacy Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent State Univ., OH. Ohio Literacy Resource Center.

    As part of the National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) of 1992, the National Center for Education Statistics published a separate study that focuses on the literacy skills of older adults (aged 60 years and older) from a variety of perspectives, such as age, sex, amount of education, race or ethnic background, income, and geographic region. Some of…

  18. After the Disaster: Considerations for Older Adults 

    E-print Network

    Crocker, Andrew

    2005-10-07

    When older adults must evacuate their homes, they may worry about receiving their Social Security payments, receiving Medicare benefits from new health care providers, and replacing medications left behind. This publication explains who to call...

  19. Older Adults' Knowledge of Internet Hazards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Galen A.; Hough, Michelle G.; Mazur, Elizabeth; Signorella, Margaret L.

    2010-01-01

    Older adults are less likely to be using computers and less knowledgeable about Internet security than are younger users. The two groups do not differ on trust of Internet information. The younger group shows no age or gender differences. Within the older group, computer users are more trusting of Internet information, and along with those with…

  20. Anxiety and Depression: Implications for Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jodi Levy-Cushman; Angela McBride; Norman Abeles

    1999-01-01

    By the year 2030, it is projected that one in every three Americans will be 55-years-old or older. This age group is by far the fastest growing segment of the population. With the growing number of older adults, the importance of understanding aging and common disorders of later life is essential. In particular, anxiety and depression are among the most

  1. OLDER ADULTS?A PILOT STUDY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee T. Ferris; James S. Williams; Chwan-Li Shen; Kendra A. O'Keefe; Kimberly B. Hale

    Older individuals, as a group, tend to experience difficulty sleeping compared to younger adults. Improving sleep in the elderly would have beneficial public health consequences. This study utilized 8 sedentary, older adults, 78.1 ± 3.1 years of age, who participated in a six-month long resistance training (RT) program. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to examine sleep quality,

  2. Cognitive Therapy for Suicidal Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory K. Brown; Lisa M. Brown; Sunil S. Bhar; Aaron T. Beck

    Suicide among older adults is a major public health problem. In 2004, there were approximately 5,198 suicides among those\\u000a 65 and older in the United States according to the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control\\u000a and Prevention (CDC, n.d.). The rate of suicide for adults over the age of 65 was 14.3 per 100,000 and

  3. Community-Dwelling Adults Versus Older Adults: Psychopathology and the Continuum Hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciana Laganà; Carmine Tramutolo; Lucia Boncori; Anna Clara Cruciani

    2012-01-01

    Little empirical evidence is available on older adults regarding the existence of a continuum between “normal” personality traits and DSM-IV-TR Axes I and II disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Given the typical complexity of clinical presentations in advanced age, it is feasible to expect a dimensional conceptualization of psychopathology to apply to older adults. In this pilot investigation, we first

  4. Recognising pain in older adults living in sheltered accommodation: the views of nurses and older adults.

    PubMed

    Blomqvist, K; Hallberg, I R

    2001-06-01

    Sixty-six randomly selected older adults and their contact nurses participated in interviews based on standardised assessments of pain and open-ended questions focusing how pain was expressed and recognised. The sample included older adults with normal as well as cognitively impaired function. Seventy-nine percent of older adults with normal cognition were often in pain. Contact nurses assessed pain in 57% of cognitively impaired older adults. The content in the statements showed that pain recognition was a communicative interactive process based on verbal and non-verbal expressions. The process comprised attempts to understand the cause and intention of the expression and to verify the presence of pain. Changes in mood, facial expressions and physiological responses were described less often by older adults than by their nurses. Contact nurses of cognitively impaired older adults judged immobility as the source of pain, that it was possible to see when the person was in pain and that pain was expressed by paralinguistic and body language more often than contact nurses of cognitively healthy older adults. Characteristics of nurses and older adults could facilitate or hinder pain recognition. The findings indicate a need for reflective discussions in the staff group focusing on how to perform systematic assessments of verbal and non-verbal expressions and of hindrances and facilitators for recognising pain in older adults. PMID:11245867

  5. Older and Younger Adult Memory for Health Appointment Information: Implications for Automated Telephone Messaging Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel G. Morrow; Von O. Leirer; Lisa M. Carver; Elizabeth Decker Tanke

    1998-01-01

    The authors examined how the organization and presentation modality of automated telephone messages influence older and younger adult memory for appointment information. Older and younger adults organized appointment information in similar ways, suggesting that they share a schema for attending appointments (Experiment 1). Older and younger adults' memories for messages improved when these messages were compatible with this schema. Longer

  6. First Year Graduate Social Work Students' Knowledge of and attitude Toward Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zvi D. Gellis; Susan Sherman; Frances Lawrance

    2003-01-01

    The present study examined attitudes and knowledge of 96 first year MSW social work students toward older adults using the Aging Semantic Differential (ASD) and the Facts on Aging Quiz II. Results suggest that the sample had limited previous contact with older adults and little knowledge about aging prior to admission. Students reported negative attitudes toward older adults on productivity,

  7. Social relationships as predictors of depression and suicidal ideation in older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Vanderhorst; S. McLaren

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of depression and suicidal ideation among older adults is considered to be a major mental health concern among this age group. The present study investigated the human relatedness variables of marital status, social support resources and sense of belonging as predictors of depression and suicidal ideation in older adults. A community sample of 110 older adults (M age

  8. Preventing Malnutrition in Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Accessed October 29, 2010 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Senior health: How to detect and prevent malnutrition.. Accessed October 29, 2010 National Resource Center on Nutrition, Physical Activity and Aging. Malnutrition and Older Americans. Accessed ...

  9. Young and Older Adults' Reading of Distracters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Susan; Mcdowd, Joan; Metcalf, Kim; Liu, Chiung-Ju

    2008-01-01

    Eye-tracking technology was employed to examine young and older adults' performance in the reading with distraction paradigm. Distracters of 1, 2, and 4 words that formed meaningful phrases were used. There were marked age differences in fixation patterns. Young adults' fixations to the distracters and targets increased with distracter length.…

  10. Evaluation of Verbal Behavior in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Amy C.; Fuqua, Wayne; Merritt, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 5% of older adults have a dementia diagnosis, and language deterioration is commonly associated with this disorder (Kempler, 2005). Several instruments have been developed to diagnose dementia and assess language capabilities of elderly adults. However, none of these instruments take a functional approach to language assessment as…

  11. Patterns of Rumination by Young and Older Adults

    E-print Network

    Schmalzried, RaLynn Cheri

    2012-05-31

    adults. This study examined the pattern of rumination by both young and older adults and compared rumination to working memory, inhibition, and mood. Based on findings from a small pilot study, it was hypothesized that older adults would ruminate less...

  12. Purposeful visits for hospitalized older adult patients.

    PubMed

    Mramor, Bill; Hagman, Jan; Ford, Deborah; Oman, Kathleen S; Cumbler, Ethan

    2015-03-01

    Hospitalization can be an isolating and stressful experience for older adults who find themselves cut off from normal routines and social support systems. The Purposeful Visitation Program (PVP) provided structured interactions for hospitalized geriatric patients using volunteers trained to elicit discussion about recreation and leisure. The goal of the program was to improve patients' orientation, level of calmness, and mood through guided cognitively stimulating interactions. Between January and July 2010, seven volunteers were trained and provided the program to 98 older adults on a geriatric inpatient hospital unit of a large academic medical center. Ninety-nine percent of patients reported enjoying their volunteer visit, and 96% thought other patients would also benefit. Volunteers and staff observed improvements, primarily in patient mood, after visits. PVP represents a cost-effective method of providing structured, individualized, and stimulating social interactions for older adults in a hospital setting. PMID:25486113

  13. Interventions to Improve Walking in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Brach, Jennifer S; Vanswearingen, Jessie M

    2013-12-01

    Interventions to improve walking in older adults have historically been multifactorial (i.e. strengthening, endurance and flexibility programs) focusing on improving the underlying impairments. These impairment-based programs have resulted in only modest improvements in walking. In older adults, walking is slow, less stable, inefficient, and the timing and coordination of stepping with postures and phases of gait is poor. We argue the timing and coordination problems are evidence of the loss of motor skill in walking. Taking a lesson from the sports world and from neurorehabilitation, task-oriented motor learning exercise is an essential component of training to improve motor skill and may be a beneficial approach to improving walking in older adults. In this article we: 1) briefly review the current literature regarding impairment-based interventions for improving mobility, 2) discuss why the results have been only modest, and 3) suggest an alternative approach to intervention (i.e. task oriented motor learning). PMID:24319641

  14. Executive functioning in older adults with hoarding disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Catherine R.; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Schiehser, Dawn; Almklov, Erin; Golshan, Shahrokh; Saxena, Sanjaya

    2014-01-01

    Background Hoarding disorder (HD) is a chronic and debilitating psychiatric condition. Midlife HD patients have been found to have neurocognitive impairment, particularly in areas of executive functioning, but the extent to which this is due to comorbid psychiatric disorders has not been clear. Aims/Method The purpose of the present investigation was to examine executive functioning in geriatric HD patients without any comorbid Axis I disorders (n = 42) compared with a healthy older adult comparison group (n = 25). We hypothesized that older adults with HD would perform significantly worse on measures of executive functioning (Wisconsin Card Sort Task [Psychological Assessment Resources, Lutz, Florida, USA] (Psychological Assessment Resources, 2003) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV digit span and letter-number sequencing tests [Pearson, San Antonio, TX, USA]). Results Older adults with HD showed significant differences from healthy older controls in multiple aspects of executive functioning. Compared with healthy controls, older adults with HD committed significantly more total, non-perseverative errors and conceptual level responses on the Wisconsin Card Sort Task and had significantly worse performance on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV digit span and letter-number sequencing tests. Hoarding symptom severity was strongly correlated with executive dysfunction in the HD group. Conclusions Compared with demographically-matched controls, older adults with HD have dysfunction in several domains of executive functioning including mental control, working memory, inhibition, and set shifting. Executive dysfunction is strongly correlated with hoarding severity and is not because of comorbid psychiatric disorders in HD patients. These results have broad clinical implications suggesting that executive functioning should be assessed and taken into consideration when developing intervention strategies for older adults with HD. PMID:23440720

  15. Screening for mistreatment of older adults.

    PubMed

    Fulmer, Terry

    2008-12-01

    The mistreatment of older adults can take many forms, including abuse, neglect, financial exploitation, and abandonment. Reporting suspected mistreatment is mandated in most states, but many clinicians have little or no training in recognizing the indicators of mistreatment and so most cases go unreported. The Elder Assessment Instrument provides a way for nurses to screen older adults for possible mistreatment and can be used in most clinical settings. For a free online video demonstrating the use of this instrument, go to http://links.lww.com/A321. PMID:19033914

  16. Excessive Body Weight in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N; Bales, Connie W

    2015-08-01

    The health challenges prompted by obesity in the older adult population are poorly recognized and understudied. A defined treatment of geriatric obesity is difficult to establish, as it must take into account biological heterogeneity, age-related comorbidities, and functional limitations (sarcopenia/dynapenia). This retrospective article highlights the current understanding of the optimal body mass index (BMI) in later life, addressing appropriate recommendations based on BMI category, age, and health history. The findings of randomized control trials of weight loss/maintenance interventions help one to move closer to evidence-based and appropriately individualized recommendations for body weight management in older adults. PMID:26195092

  17. Atomoxetine Treatment for ADHD: Younger Adults Compared with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durell, Todd; Adler, Lenard; Wilens, Timothy; Paczkowski, Martin; Schuh, Kory

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant medication for treating child, adolescent, and adult ADHD. This meta-analysis compared the effects in younger and older adults. Method: A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from two double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Data from patients aged 18-25 years were compared with data from…

  18. The International Network for Older Adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Dianne

    1992-07-01

    Although funds were not available to bring members of the Older Adults Network to the World Assembly of Adult Education in January 1990, there was, among the delegates, considerable interest in the subject and several meetings were arranged. The thing that struck me most was not how different were our situations, coming as we did from every corner of the earth, but how many problems and concerns we had in common. With the second Network Newsletter, sent out in the spring of 1991, questionnaires asked for brief details of schemes which involved older people in projects that were, in some way, conservational. They could be involved in conserving language, mythology or history. They might be working to improve and save their environment. The aim is to establish a small but useful register of such projects in sufficient detail to encourage contact and replication by others. For this purpose, small grants are being made available from the money given by CIDA. Slowly but surely, the Older Adults Network is gathering information about positive actions being taken to ensure that older people, in all countries, have the skills and opportunities they need to continue as fully participating citizens. With the rapidly increasing number of older people in all our countries, this small beginning will, hopefully, be a foundation on which much important work will be done in the years to come.

  19. Facilitating positive outcomes in older adults with wounds.

    PubMed

    Stotts, Nancy A; Hopf, Harriet W

    2005-06-01

    Older people with wounds are not the same as younger people with wounds. Older people experience biologic differences in wound healing that result in delayed healing, increased wound infection, and a greater incidence of dehiscence. Clinicians need to assess the risk of dehiscence in the older population, looking for serous drainage from the incision line and the absence of a palpable healing ridge. It is critical to recognize that older persons' presentation of wound infection is atypical. More subtle signs such as alteration in cognitive status and changes in function may indicate the presence of infection. The clinician who cares for older persons must be an exquisite detective when such changes occur to identify the source of the problem. As part of the normal trajectory of aging, older persons experience sensory loss and so may require accommodation when explanations are given to them about their wound and their wound care choices. Health care providers must consider hearing and vision changes that occur in older adults and tailor their explanations and teaching so that the message reaches the older adult and is successfully processed. Older persons have a higher incidence of cognitive changes and functional decline than do their younger counterparts, and these changes need to be assessed before a plan of care is developed to care for the older person with a wound. Limited data are available to help the clinician know the cognitive and functional level that is critical for older persons to understand their wound care choices, perform their own wound care, and to make choices about who will provide the care if they are unable to perform self-care. These seemingly basic issues raise questions for clinicians as we strive to provide evidence-based care to this ever-increasing population of older Americans. PMID:15924894

  20. Optimizing Sleep in Older Adults: Treating Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Wennberg, Alexandra M.; Canham, Sarah L.; Smith, Michael T.; Spira, Adam P.

    2013-01-01

    As the world’s population ages, the elevated prevalence of insomnia in older adults is a growing concern. Insomnia is characterized by difficulty falling or remaining asleep, or by non-restorative sleep, and resultant daytime dysfunction. In addition to being at elevated risk for primary insomnia, older adults are at greater risk for comorbid insomnia, which results from, or occurs in conjunction with another medical or psychiatric condition. In this review, we discuss normal changes in sleep that accompany aging, circadian rhythm changes and other factors that can contribute to late-life insomnia, useful tools for the assessment of insomnia and related problems in older people, and both non-pharmacological and pharmacological strategies for the management of insomnia and optimization of sleep in later life. PMID:23746664

  1. Attitudes toward Advertisements of the Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, M.; Moliner, M. A.; Sanchez, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we will analyze the attitude of older adults to advertisements, differentiating between advertisements that contain rhetorical figures (trope ads) and those that do not (explicit ads). We will also study their attitude toward the brand advertised according to their degree of involvement with the product. In the course of the…

  2. Mobility in Older Adults: A Comprehensive Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Sandra C.; Porter, Michelle M.; Menec, Verena H.

    2010-01-01

    Mobility is fundamental to active aging and is intimately linked to health status and quality of life. Although there is widespread acceptance regarding the importance of mobility in older adults, there have been few attempts to comprehensively portray mobility, and research has to a large extent been discipline specific. In this article, a new…

  3. The Learning Needs of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdie, Nola; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian

    2003-01-01

    Interviews with 17 older adults about learning needs and barriers resulted in a questionnaire completed by 160 elders. Most important needs were associated with transportation, health, and safety. Physical disabilities were the chief barrier. They felt most confident addressing health, safety, leisure, and transportation needs but not…

  4. Transnational Older Adults and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treas, Judith

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the international migration patterns and the family lives of older adults. Informants (N = 54) reported that they came to the United States to help out their grown children with housekeeping, child care, and domestic economizing. They described how they strategically navigated U.S. immigration laws choosing to…

  5. Current Psychopathology in Previously Assaulted Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acierno, Ron; Lawyer, Steven R.; Rheingold, Alyssa; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.

    2007-01-01

    Older adult women age 55+ years (N = 549) were interviewed as part of a population-based epidemiological research study of lifetime experiences with physical and sexual assault and current mental health problems. Although overall rates of psychopathology were low, producing very small cells for comparison, women who reported experiencing physical…

  6. Caribbean Students' Attitudes toward Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prudent, Ella S.; Tan, P. Philip

    2002-01-01

    A survey indicated that Caribbean college students (n=201) had largely neutral attitudes toward older adults. Those who had close relationships with elders had more positive attitudes. Social work students were more positive than sociology, psychology, or English majors. Ethnicity was not a factor. (SK)

  7. LIPID PROFILES OF RURAL OLDER ADULTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age is an independent, non-modifiable risk factor for CVD, the leading cause of death in the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine total cholesterol and lipoprotein sub-fractions in relation to statin use and ATPIII guidelines in a sample of older adults, n=278. 161f and 117m. Fa...

  8. Older adults challenged financially when adult children move home.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Steven P; Padilla-Frausto, D Imelda

    2014-02-01

    This policy brief looks at the financial burdens imposed on older Californians when adult children return home, often due to a crisis not of their own making, to live with their parents. The findings show that on average in California, the amount of money that older adults need in order to maintain a minimally decent standard of living while supporting one adult child in their home increases their expenses by a minimum of 50 percent. Low-income older adults are usually on fixed incomes, so helping an adult child can provide the child with a critical safety net but at the cost of the parents' own financial well-being. Policy approaches to assisting this vulnerable population of older adults include implementing reforms to increase Supplemental Security Income (SSI), improving the availability of affordable housing, assuring that all eligible nonelderly adults obtain health insurance through health care reform's expansion of Medi-Cal and subsidies, and increasing food assistance through SNAP and senior meal programs. PMID:24804354

  9. JAMA Patient Page: Preventive Care for Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Preventive Care for Older Adults I t is predicted that by 2030 about ... a series of articles about medical care for older adults. FACTORS INVOLVED IN PREVENTIVE CARE FOR MORE INFORMATION • ...

  10. Making Physical Activity a Part of an Older Adult's Life

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Compartir Making Physical Activity a Part of an Older Adult's Life When it comes to getting the physical ... are right for you. Here's what three different older adults are doing to meet the Guidelines: David, Age ...

  11. Cholesterol Drugs May Lower Stroke Risk for Healthy Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    Cholesterol Drugs May Lower Stroke Risk for Healthy Older Adults Statins and fibrates both drop chances by about ... 2015 TUESDAY, May 19, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Healthy older adults who take cholesterol-lowering drugs may be cutting ...

  12. Living with Multiple Health Problems: What Older Adults Should Know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Documents PDF Living With Multiple Health Problems: What Older Adults Should Know Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Living With Multiple Health Problems: What Older Adults Should Know Tools and Tips Printer-friendly PDF ...

  13. Older Adults and Drinking | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Older Adults and Drinking Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of ... quickly than when they were younger. Drinking puts older adults at greater risk for falls, car crashes, and ...

  14. Quick Guide to Health Literacy and Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health Promotion Quick Guide to Health Literacy and Older Adults skip to content ODPHP Health Communication Healthy People ... and Patient e-Health Resources Health Literacy and Older Adults Who is this guide for? Why are health ...

  15. Choices for Mobility Independence: Transportation Options for Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    Choices for Mobility Independence Transportation Options for Older Adults INDEPENDENT. ACTIVE. CONNECTED. CONFIDENT. IN CONTROL. Transportation Options for Older Adults H ave you ever thought about what would happen if the transportation ...

  16. Falls Risk and Simulated Driving Performance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, John G.; Neider, Mark B.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2013-01-01

    Declines in executive function and dual-task performance have been related to falls in older adults, and recent research suggests that older adults at risk for falls also show impairments on real-world tasks, such as crossing a street. The present study examined whether falls risk was associated with driving performance in a high-fidelity simulator. Participants were classified as high or low falls risk using the Physiological Profile Assessment and completed a number of challenging simulated driving assessments in which they responded quickly to unexpected events. High falls risk drivers had slower response times (~2.1 seconds) to unexpected events compared to low falls risk drivers (~1.7 seconds). Furthermore, when asked to perform a concurrent cognitive task while driving, high falls risk drivers showed greater costs to secondary task performance than did low falls risk drivers, and low falls risk older adults also outperformed high falls risk older adults on a computer-based measure of dual-task performance. Our results suggest that attentional differences between high and low falls risk older adults extend to simulated driving performance. PMID:23509627

  17. Design Lessons for Older Adult Personal Health Records Software from Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Pablo Hourcade; Elizabeth A. Chrischilles; Brian M. Gryzlak; Blake M. Hanson; Donald E. Dunbar; David A. Eichmann; Ryan R. Lorentzen

    \\u000a Online Personal Health Records (PHR) software has the potential to provide older adults with tools to better manage several\\u000a aspects of their health, including their use of medications. In spite of this potential, we still know little about how to\\u000a make PHRs accessible for older adults. We also know little about how to design PHRs in a way that will

  18. Lateral step initiation behavior in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sparto, Patrick J; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M; Redfern, Mark S

    2014-02-01

    Older adults have varied postural responses during induced and voluntary lateral stepping. The purpose of the research was to quantify the occurrence of different stepping strategies during lateral step initiation in older adults and to relate the stepping responses to retrospective history of falls. Seventy community-ambulating older adults (mean age 76 y, range 70-94 y) performed voluntary lateral steps as quickly as possible to the right or left in response to a visual cue, in a blocked design. Vertical ground reaction forces were measured using a forceplate, and the number and latency of postural adjustments were quantified. Subjects were assigned to groups based on their stepping strategy. The frequency of trials with one or two postural adjustments was compared with data from 20 younger adults (mean age 38 y, range 21-58 y). Logistic regression was used to relate presence of a fall in the previous year with the number and latency of postural adjustments. In comparison with younger adults, who almost always demonstrated one postural adjustment when stepping laterally, older adults constituted a continuous distribution in the percentage of step trials made with one postural adjustment (from 0% to 100% of trials). Latencies of the initial postural adjustment and foot liftoff varied depending on the number of postural adjustments made. A history of falls was associated a larger percentage of two postural adjustments, and a longer latency of foot liftoff. In conclusion, the number and latency of postural adjustments made during voluntary lateral stepping provides additional evidence that lateral control of posture may be a critical indicator of aging. PMID:24295896

  19. Employment opportunities for older adults: engineering design and research issues.

    PubMed

    Czaja, S J

    1994-01-01

    A challenge facing the engineering community is to find ways to integrate older people into the labor force. Despite laws regarding age discrimination and compulsory retirement, older people's participation in the labor force is declining. Unless strategies are developed to keep older people in the workforce, the issues of economic dependency and intergenerational equity are likely to become formidable in the near future. There are a number of areas where engineering applications can enhance older adults' employment opportunities. These include training, workplace and equipment design, and job design. An overview of current knowledge regarding aging and work is provided. Gaps in the knowledge base are identified as areas for research. Examples of how engineering can contribute to the integration of older people into work settings are presented. PMID:7843213

  20. Assessing pain in cognitively impaired older adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Soscia, Justine

    2003-01-01

    Assessing pain in cognitively impaired older adults with cancer presents a challenge to healthcare providers. As the age and number of older adults with cancer and cognitive impairments increase, so does the need for appropriate methods and instruments to adequately assess pain in this population. Oncology nurses report pain control to be one of the more challenging aspects of caring for patients with cancer. This article discusses methods and tools used by healthcare providers to accurately assess pain in cognitively impaired older adults with cancer, specific behavioral indicators that healthcare providers should recognize to assess pain accurately among this population, and the most appropriate pain scales to use when assessing pain in this population. PMID:12696213

  1. Self-controlled practice benefits motor learning in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lessa, Helena Thofehrn; Chiviacowsky, Suzete

    2015-04-01

    Providing learners with the chance to choose over certain aspects of practice has been consistently shown to facilitate the acquisition of motor skills in several populations. However, studies investigating the effects of providing autonomy support during the learning process of older adults remain scarce. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of self-controlled amount of practice on the learning of a sequential motor task in older adults. Participants in the self-control group were able to choose when to stop practicing a speed cup stacking task, while the number of practice trials for a yoked group was pre-determined, mirroring the self-control group. The opportunity to choose when stop practicing facilitated motor performance and learning compared to the yoked condition. The findings suggest that letting older adult learners choose the amount of practice, supporting their autonomy needs, has a positive influence on motor learning. PMID:25687663

  2. Older Adults and E-Learning: Opportunities and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Githens, Rod P.

    2007-01-01

    E-learning and distance education can play a role in helping older adults become integrated with the rest of society. As demographic and cultural changes affect the place of older adults in society, online learning programs become increasingly appealing to older adults. In this article, I discuss (1) the changing notion of work and learning in…

  3. Vitamin nutrition in older adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Karin A; Bernard, Marie A; Funderburg, Karen

    2002-11-01

    Proper vitamin nutrition is essential for all people but especially for elderly persons, because they are at higher risk for deficiency than younger adults. A review of the clinical effects of vitamin deficiency shows how easily deficiency can masquerade as other morbidities, such as skin, neurologic, and gait abnormalities. Given the numerous readily available forms and sources of supplementation, their low cost, and their rather limited potential for harm, the goal of good vitamin nutrition for the elderly is easily attainable. To be successful in this goal, physicians must look for patients at risk and for those with features of frank vitamin deficiency. Laboratory testing is most helpful with respect to vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. Given the great value of clinical assessment, the low cost of vitamins, and the higher cost of laboratory testing, the authors do not recommend testing before instituting multivitamin use or extra supplementation with individual vitamins unless the diagnosis of deficiency is in question or the use of supplementation would put the patient at risk. The authors' general recommendations are * one multivitamin daily * extra vitamin E for patients with cardiovascular risk factors or Alzheimer's dementia * extra vitamin D for patients with known osteoporosis, osteoporosis risk factors, or strong risk factors for vitamin D deficiency * extra folate for patients with cardiovascular risk factors (especially smokers) and alcoholics * extra thiamine for alcoholics. PMID:12608503

  4. Clostridium difficile infection in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Jump, Robin LP

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection, the most frequent cause of nosocomial diarrhea, disproportionately affects older adults. The two most important risk factors for developing C. difficile infection are antimicrobial exposure and age >65 years old. Risk factors specific to older adults are frequent interactions with healthcare systems and age-related changes in physiology, including immune senescence and changes to the gut microbiome. Metronidazole and oral vancomcyin are the mainstays of conventional treatment for C. difficile infection. Alternative therapies include fidaxomicin, a narrow-spectrum macrocyclic antibiotic, and fectal bacteriotherapy, which offers an excellent therapeutic outcome. Strategies to prevent C. difficile infections include enhanced infection control measures and reducing inappropriate antimicrobial use through stewardship. PMID:24955106

  5. Characteristics of lifelong physically active older adults.

    PubMed

    Chatfield, Sheryl L

    2015-07-01

    Most adults in developed countries fail to accrue enough regular physical activity to prevent or decrease the impact of chronic diseases associated with aging. I conducted semistructured interviews with 16 purposely selected older adults ranging in age from 53 to 70 years to explore the practices of successful lifelong adherents to physical activity. I used an interpretive descriptive approach to data analysis. My findings suggest that both social and competitive motivations were important during early adulthood, although for many participants the latter were more likely to endure over time. Based on these findings, I recommend that programmers be aware of the potential for older participants to be less fulfilled by social motivations as they become more experienced exercisers. PMID:25294347

  6. The disruptive – and beneficial – effects of distraction on older adults’ cognitive performance

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Jennifer C.; Hasher, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Older adults’ decreased ability to inhibit irrelevant information makes them especially susceptible to the negative effects of simultaneously occurring distraction. For example, older adults are more likely than young adults to process distraction presented during a task, which can result in delayed response times, decreased reading comprehension, disrupted problem solving, and reduced memory for target information. However, there is also some evidence that the tendency to process distraction can actually facilitate older adults’ performance when the distraction is congruent with the target information. For example, congruent distraction can speed response times, increase reading comprehension, benefit problem solving, and reduce forgetting in older adults. We review data showing that incongruent distraction can harm older adults’ performance, as well as evidence suggesting that congruent distraction can play a supportive role for older adults by facilitating processing of target information. Potential applications of distraction processing are also discussed. PMID:24634662

  7. Auditory Temporal Order Perception in Younger and Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgibbons, Peter J.; Gordon-Salant, Sandra

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the abilities of adult listeners to discriminate and identify temporal order of sounds presented in tonal sequence. Listeners had either normal hearing or mild to moderate sensorineural hearing losses. In general, older listeners performed more poorly than younger listeners on the discrimination and identification tasks. Order…

  8. Prejudice Reduction in University Programs for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Jose-Luis Alvarez; Camara, Carmen Palmero; Eguizabal, Alfredo Jimenez

    2011-01-01

    The present paper, drawing from the perspective of social cognition, examines and evaluates an intervention based on social-cognitive perspective-taking on the reduction of stereotyping and prejudice in older adults. Data were collected in a sample of Spanish participants with a mean age of 63.2 years. The intervention, aimed at reducing prejudice…

  9. Background: Pre-diabetes is present in nearly one third of the United States population and is most common in middle-aged and older adults. Older adults are known to exhibit turbulent

    E-print Network

    Gasch, Audrey P.

    , JKL). FIGURE 1: Measurement of Leg Blood Flow We measured leg blood flow using Doppler ultrasound (12 in a 12-week diet and exercise lifestyle intervention. Methods: We measured leg blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) and calculated blood flow shear rates at rest in middle-aged adults with pre-diabetes (n=16, 51

  10. Physical activity is medicine for older adults

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Denise

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence from high quality studies to strongly support the positive association between increased levels of physical activity, exercise participation and improved health in older adults. Worldwide, around 3.2 million deaths per year are being attributed to inactivity. In industrialised countries where people are living longer lives, the levels of chronic health conditions are increasing and the levels of physical activity are declining. Key factors in improving health are exercising at a moderate-to-vigorous level for at least 5?days per week and including both aerobic and strengthening exercises. Few older adults achieve the level of physical activity or exercise that accompanies health improvements. A challenge for health professionals is to increase physical activity and exercise participation in older adults. Some success in this has been reported when physicians have given specific, detailed and localised information to their patients, but more high quality research is needed to continue to address this issue of non-participation in physical activity and exercise of a high enough level to ensure health benefits. PMID:24255119

  11. Psychotherapy with Suicidal Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    Presents rationale for therapy, from assessment through psychotherapy, with suicidal elderly patients. Describes process including attention to situational and family components, crisis intervention, general treatment principles, and application of these principles to individual, group, and family therapy. Emphasizes intensity and complexity of…

  12. Representational Momentum in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Andrea S.; Jakobson, Lorna S.

    2011-01-01

    Humans have a tendency to perceive motion even in static images that simply "imply" movement. This tendency is so strong that our memory for actions depicted in static images is distorted in the direction of implied motion--a phenomenon known as representational momentum (RM). In the present study, we created an RM display depicting a pattern of…

  13. The mediating effect of perceived burdensomeness on the relation between depressive symptoms and suicide ideation in a community sample of older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danielle R. Jahn; Kelly C. Cukrowicz; Kitten Linton; Fiona Prabhu

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Suicide is a prevalent problem in older adults. One of the best predictors of suicide in older adults is suicide ideation; suicide ideation has been frequently associated with depression. However, suicide ideation is not always present when an older adult is depressed and is sometimes present when an older adult is not depressed. Perceived burdensomeness, a recently proposed risk

  14. Mobility in older adults: a comprehensive framework.

    PubMed

    Webber, Sandra C; Porter, Michelle M; Menec, Verena H

    2010-08-01

    Mobility is fundamental to active aging and is intimately linked to health status and quality of life. Although there is widespread acceptance regarding the importance of mobility in older adults, there have been few attempts to comprehensively portray mobility, and research has to a large extent been discipline specific. In this article, a new theoretical framework for mobility is presented with the goals of raising awareness of the complexity of factors that influence mobility and stimulating new integrative and interdisciplinary research ideas. Mobility is broadly defined as the ability to move oneself (e.g., by walking, by using assistive devices, or by using transportation) within community environments that expand from one's home, to the neighborhood, and to regions beyond. The concept of mobility is portrayed through 5 fundamental categories of determinants (cognitive, psychosocial, physical, environmental, and financial), with gender, culture, and biography (personal life history) conceptualized as critical cross-cutting influences. Each category of determinants consists of an increasing number of factors, demonstrating greater complexity, as the mobility environment expands farther from the home. The framework illustrates how mobility impairments can lead to limitations in accessing different life-spaces and stresses the associations among determinants that influence mobility. By bridging disciplines and representing mobility in an inclusive manner, the model suggests that research needs to be more interdisciplinary and current mobility findings should be interpreted more comprehensively, and new more complex strategies should be developed to address mobility concerns. PMID:20145017

  15. A novel approach to enhancing limb control in older adults.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Jason B; Kennedy, Deanna M; Shea, Charles H

    2015-07-01

    Two recent experiments have demonstrated that young adult participants were able to make faster and more harmonic movements in a typical reciprocal Fitts task (ID = 6) following a practice session of sine wave tracking (Boyle et al. in Exp Brain Res 223:377-387, 2012; J Mot Behav 46:277-285, 2014). The purpose of the present experiment was to replicate these findings with a young adult population (age 18-25) and determine whether sine wave tracking also enhances goal-directed limb movements in an older adult population (age 65-90). To establish a performance baseline, all participants were first pretested on a typical ID = 6 Fitts task. Participants in each age group were then randomly assigned to one of the two training conditions where they practiced (45 trials) on a typical Fitts task (ID = 6) or they were asked to track a sine wave template (45 trials). Following practice, all participants were then posttested under the ID = 6 Fitts conditions. The results demonstrated that both young and older adult participants that practiced under the sine wave conditions enhanced their Fitts task performance compared to participants in their respective age groups who practiced under the Fitts conditions. These enhancements included faster movement times, smaller dwell times, and more harmonic movements, all without decreases in movement accuracy. These results replicate our previous findings with young adults and extend the finding to older adult participants. Interestingly, the performances of the older adults following sine wave practice were as fast and as accurate as the young adults following Fitts task practice. PMID:25861028

  16. ATTITUDES OF OLDER ADULTS TOWARD A COMPUTER TRAINING PROGRAM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen A. Segrist

    2004-01-01

    Many older adult have an interest in learning to use computers. The study reported in this article examined whether older adults' attitudes toward computers can be influenced by direct, customized computer training. Thirty older participants who registered for introductory computer courses offered at a SeniorNet computer lab completed the Attitudes Toward Computers Questionnaire (ATCQ) before and after class participation. Attitudes

  17. Asthma Is More Severe in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dweik, Raed A.; Comhair, Suzy A.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Moore, Wendy C.; Peters, Stephen P.; Busse, William W.; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Calhoun, William J.; Castro, Mario; Chung, K. Fan; Fitzpatrick, Anne; Israel, Elliot; Teague, W. Gerald; Wenzel, Sally E.; Love, Thomas E.; Gaston, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Severe asthma occurs more often in older adult patients. We hypothesized that the greater risk for severe asthma in older individuals is due to aging, and is independent of asthma duration. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of prospectively collected data from adult participants (N=1130; 454 with severe asthma) enrolled from 2002 – 2011 in the Severe Asthma Research Program. Results The association between age and the probability of severe asthma, which was performed by applying a Locally Weighted Scatterplot Smoother, revealed an inflection point at age 45 for risk of severe asthma. The probability of severe asthma increased with each year of life until 45 years and thereafter increased at a much slower rate. Asthma duration also increased the probability of severe asthma but had less effect than aging. After adjustment for most comorbidities of aging and for asthma duration using logistic regression, asthmatics older than 45 maintained the greater probability of severe asthma [OR: 2.73 (95 CI: 1.96; 3.81)]. After 45, the age-related risk of severe asthma continued to increase in men, but not in women. Conclusions Overall, the impact of age and asthma duration on risk for asthma severity in men and women is greatest over times of 18-45 years of age; age has a greater effect than asthma duration on risk of severe asthma. PMID:26200463

  18. Sleep Reduces False Memory in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lo, June C.; Sim, Sam K. Y.; Chee, Michael W. L.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the effects of post-learning sleep and sleep architecture on false memory in healthy older adults. Design: Balanced, crossover design. False memory was induced using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm and assessed following nocturnal sleep and following a period of daytime wakefulness. Post-learning sleep structure was evaluated using polysomnography (PSG). Setting: Sleep research laboratory. Participants: Fourteen healthy older adults from the Singapore-Longitudinal Aging Brain Study (mean age ± standard deviation = 66.6 ± 4.1 y; 7 males). Measurements and Results: At encoding, participants studied lists of words that were semantically related to non-presented critical lures. At retrieval, they made “remember”/“know” and “new” judgments. Compared to wakefulness, post-learning sleep was associated with reduced “remember” responses, but not “know” responses to critical lures. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the veridical recognition of studied words, false recognition of unrelated distractors, discriminability, or response bias between the sleep and the wake conditions. More post-learning slow wave sleep was associated with greater reduction in false memory. Conclusions: In healthy older adults, sleep facilitates the reduction in false memory without affecting veridical memory. This benefit correlates with the amount of slow wave sleep in the post-learning sleep episode. Citation: Lo JC; Sim SK; Chee MW. Sleep reduces false memory in healthy older adults. SLEEP 2014;37(4):665-671. PMID:24744453

  19. Emotional memory for musical excerpts in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Irene; Dellacherie, Delphine; Samson, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009), but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008) or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013) may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24 h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24 h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and dementia. PMID:25814950

  20. Neighborhood Amenities and Mobility in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Andrea L.; Grubesic, Tony H.; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Tabb, Loni P.; Michael, Yvonne L.

    2013-01-01

    Diversity of neighborhood amenities may promote the mobility of older adults. A 2010 community-based sample of 510 adults aged ?65 years in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and geospatial data from the Esri Business Analyst database (Esri, Inc., Redlands, California) were used to assess associations of neighborhood amenity diversity with mobility. Neighborhoods were defined by census tract, and diversity of amenities was derived by using the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design's neighborhood development index (US Green Building Council, Washington, DC). Generalized estimating equations adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, and neighborhood characteristics were used to estimate differences in mobility score by tertile of amenity diversity. Analyses were stratified by participants' routine travel habits (stayed at home, stayed in home zip code, or traveled beyond home zip code). We found that for those who spent most of their time in their home neighborhoods, mobility scores (from the Life-Space Assessment, which ranges from 0 to 104 points) were 8.3 points higher (95% confidence interval: 0.1, 16.6) among those who lived in neighborhoods with the most amenity diversity compared with those who lived in neighborhoods with the least amenity diversity. No significant associations between amenity diversity and mobility were observed for those who did not leave home or who regularly traveled outside their neighborhoods. Neighborhoods with a high diversity of amenities may be important promoters of mobility in older adults who do not routinely travel outside their neighborhoods. PMID:23666814

  1. "Failure to thrive" in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sarkisian, C A; Lachs, M S

    1996-06-15

    The term "failure to thrive" is frequently used to describe older adults whose independence is declining. The term was exported from pediatrics in the 1970s and is used to describe older adults with various concurrent chronic diseases, functional impairments, or both. Despite this heterogeneity, failure to thrive has had its own international Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) code since 1979 and has been approached as a clinically meaningful diagnosis in many review articles. This conceptual framework, however, can create barriers to proper evaluation and management. The most worrisome of these barriers is the reinforcement of both fatalism and intellectual laziness, which need to be balanced with a deconstructionist approach, wherein the major areas of impairment are identified and quantified and have their interactions considered. Four syndromes known to be individually predictive of adverse outcomes in older adults are repeatedly cited as prevalent in patients with failure to thrive: impaired physical functioning, malnutrition, depression, and cognitive impairment. The differential diagnosis of contributors to each of these syndromes includes the other three syndromes, and multiple contributors often exist concurrently. Some of these contributors are unmodifiable, some are easily modifiable, and some are potentially modifiable but only with the use of resource-intensive strategies, initial interventions should be directed at easily remediable contributors in the hope of improving overall functional status, because a single contributor may simultaneously influence several other syndromes that conspire to create the phenotype of failure to thrive. How aggressively should more resource-intensive strategies for less easily modifiable contributors be pursued? This is a central clinical, ethical, and policy issue in geriatric medicine that cannot be settled without better process and outcome data. This paper examines the medical etymology of failure to thrive and proposes a rational approach to evaluation and management that is based on the limited medical literature. PMID:8633822

  2. Money Smart for Older Adults: Prevent Financial Exploitation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... exploitation. Financial exploitation crosses all social, educational, and economic boundaries. Why are older adults at risk of ... empowering consumers to take more control over their economic lives. The Office for Older Americans is a ...

  3. Information selectivity in decision making by younger and older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vered Rafaely; Itiel E. Dror; Bob Remington

    2006-01-01

    Past research has demonstrated that older adults are more likely than younger adults to exhibit information selectivity in decision making. Two alternative explanations have been proposed to account for this age difference. One explanation attributes the increase in information selectivity to older adults' reliance on prior knowledge, whereas the other explanation suggests that it reflects reduced information processing capacity. The

  4. Fruit and vegetable intake among older adults: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Kadell, Andria R.

    2013-01-01

    Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the world population. Older adults are also at heightened risk of chronic conditions (such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer) and specific geriatric conditions (such as cognitive impairment, frailty, and falls). Research studies have examined the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and subsequent health outcomes and the correlates of fruit and vegetable intake in the U.S. population. However, relatively few studies have specifically examined health impacts and correlates of fruit and vegetable intake among older adults, who have unique biophysical and socioeconomic circumstances. Evidence is reviewed to (1) describe findings related to consumption and chronic, geriatric, and other health outcomes among older adults and (2) describe patterns in fruit and vegetable consumption among older adults and how these patterns vary within and among populations. This review addresses specific barriers faced by older adults in obtaining and consuming fruits and vegetables in community settings. Recommendations for practice and policy are discussed. PMID:23769545

  5. Sleep and sleep disorders in older adults.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Kate

    2011-03-01

    A common but significant change associated with aging is a profound disruption to the daily sleep-wake cycle. It has been estimated that as many as 50% of older adults complain about difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep. Poor sleep results in increased risk of significant morbidity and mortality. Moreover, in younger adults, compromised sleep has been shown to have a consistent effect on cognitive function, which may suggest that sleep problems contribute to the cognitive changes that accompany older age. The multifactorial nature of variables affecting sleep in old age cannot be overstated. Changes in sleep have been thought to reflect normal developmental processes, which can be further compromised by sleep disturbances secondary to medical or psychiatric diseases (e.g., chronic pain, dementia, depression), a primary sleep disorder that can itself be age-related (e.g., Sleep Disordered Breathing and Periodic Limb Movements During Sleep), or some combination of any of these factors. Given that changes in sleep quality and quantity in later life have implications for quality of life and level of functioning, it is imperative to distinguish the normal age-related sleep changes from those originating from pathological processes. PMID:21225347

  6. Gait Speed and Survival in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Studenski, Stephanie; Perera, Subashan; Patel, Kushang; Rosano, Caterina; Faulkner, Kimberly; Inzitari, Marco; Brach, Jennifer; Chandler, Julie; Cawthon, Peggy; Connor, Elizabeth Barrett; Nevitt, Michael; Visser, Marjolein; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Badinelli, Stefania; Harris, Tamara; Newman, Anne B.; Cauley, Jane; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Context Survival estimates help individualize goals of care for geriatric patients, but life tables fail to account for the great variability in survival. Physical performance measures, such as gait speed, might help account for variability, allowing clinicians to make more individualized estimates. Objective To evaluate the relationship between gait speed and survival. Design, Setting, and Participants Pooled analysis of 9 cohort studies (collected between 1986 and 2000), using individual data from 34 485 community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years or older with baseline gait speed data, followed up for 6 to 21 years. Participants were a mean (SD) age of 73.5 (5.9) years; 59.6%, women; and 79.8%, white; and had a mean (SD) gait speed of 0.92 (0.27) m/s. Main Outcome Measures Survival rates and life expectancy. Results There were 17 528 deaths; the overall 5-year survival rate was 84.8% (confidence interval [CI], 79.6%–88.8%)and 10-year survival rate was 59.7% (95%CI, 46.5%–70.6%). Gait speed was associated with survival in all studies (pooled hazard ratio per 0.1 m/s, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.87–0.90; P<. 001). Survival increased across the full range of gait speeds, with significant increments per 0.1 m/s. At age 75, predicted 10-year survival across the range of gait speeds ranged from 19% to 87% in men and from 35% to 91% in women. Predicted survival based on age, sex, and gait speed was as accurate as predicted based on age, sex, use of mobility aids, and self-reported function or as age, sex, chronic conditions, smoking history, blood pressure, body mass index, and hospitalization. Conclusion In this pooled analysis of individual data from 9 selected cohorts, gait speed was associated with survival in older adults. PMID:21205966

  7. Prospective predictors of suicidal ideation during depressive episodes among older adolescents and young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne Vrshek-Schallhorn; Jennifer Czarlinski; Susan Mineka; Richard E. Zinbarg; Michelle Craske

    2011-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among older adolescents and young adults; however, few studies have prospectively examined risk for suicidal ideation. The present study in older adolescents and young adults investigated whether two personality traits previously implicated in risk for suicidal ideation, neuroticism and extraversion, as well as certain aspects of interpersonal functioning, prospectively predicted endorsement of suicidal

  8. Storytelling meets the Social Web: an HTML5 cross-platform application for older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiago Boldt Sousa; Pedro Tenreiro; Paula Alexandra Silva; Eduarda Mendes Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    This demonstration presents a storytelling application specif- ically designed for older adults to share stories and thoughts. Studies claim that older adults commonly have diculties in engaging with on- line social networks (1), but increased social inclusion and sense of well- being has been observed in those who engage (2). While following a user-centered design approach, we have developed an

  9. Older Adults' Training Courses: Considerations for Course Design and the Development of Learning Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    du Plessis, Karin; Anstey, Kaarin J.; Schlumpp, Arianne

    2011-01-01

    Demographic trends indicate that older adults live longer and maintain active lifestyles. The majority are educated and many enjoy the stimulation that ongoing learning opportunities present. In order for these older adults to benefit from learning opportunities, circumstances specific to these individuals (e.g. age-related decline) need to be…

  10. Use and Design of Handheld Computers for Older Adults - A review and appraisal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia Zhou; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive literature review to investigate whether and why older adults accept handheld computers, and how to design elderly-friendly handheld computers. Findings about acceptance, input devices, menu and functions, and output devices are summarized. First, older adults were under social pressure to use mobile phones, but they had low acceptance of advanced functions. Also, they had a

  11. Nutrition and the Older Adult. Module A-9. Block A. Basic Knowledge of the Aging Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest

    This instructional module on nutrition and the older adult is one in a block of 10 modules designed to provide the human services worker who works with older adults with basic information regarding the aging process. An introduction provides an overview of the module content. A listing of general objectives follows. Five sections present

  12. Update on managing generalized anxiety disorder in older adults.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Kalin M; Duncan, Nakia A; Heinrich, Krista; Shaw, Jennifer

    2015-04-01

    With the recent updates to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition; DSM-5), there are many questions on how to care for older adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and other psychiatric conditions. The current article reviews the new changes to the DSM-5 for diagnosis of GAD, discusses new anxiety assessment scales that are validated in older adults, evaluates pharmacological agents that have been studied in older adults for GAD treatment, and provides monitoring recommendations to help those who provide care to older adults experiencing GAD. PMID:25848826

  13. NICHE Recommended Care of the Critically Ill Older Adult.

    PubMed

    Giambattista, Laura; Howard, Richard; Ruhe Porto, Raquel; Barker, Nancy; Carroll, Dawn; Pfeiffer, Judith; Davidson, Judy E

    2015-01-01

    Nurses Improving Care for Healthsystem Elders provides evidence-based best practices for the care of the hospitalized older adult. Older adults are a vulnerable population at greater risk of functional decline during and after hospitalization, safety concerns related to polypharmacy, ineffective pain management, and population-specific physiological responses to medications. Family members of hospitalized older adults are also vulnerable and may experience postintensive care syndrome. This manuscript explores the application of Nurses Improving Care for Healthsystem Elders standards through a case study approach to optimize patient/family-centered care of the critically ill older adult. PMID:26039643

  14. Practice of Adult Education--Older Adults, Tourism, and Learning in Yellowstone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a program of learning for older adults in a national park. Because of the growing trend of tourism among retirees this learning during leisure is gaining prominence. The paper brings together the concepts of aging, self-directed learning, and tourism and leisure. In addition this paper presents a…

  15. Appropriate prescribing and important drug interactions in older adults.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Jeffrey; Paauw, Douglas S

    2015-03-01

    Polypharmacy, specifically the overuse and misuse of medications, is associated with adverse health events, increased disability, hospitalizations, and mortality. Mechanisms through which polypharmacy may increase adverse health outcomes include decreased adherence, increased drug side effects, higher use of potentially inappropriate medications, and more frequent drug-drug interactions. This article reviews clinical problems associated with polypharmacy and presents a framework to optimize prescribing for older adults. PMID:25700585

  16. Prejudice Reduction in University Programs for Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José-Luis Álvarez Castillo; Carmen Palmero Cámara; Alfredo Jiménez Eguizábal

    2011-01-01

    The present paper, drawing from the perspective of social cognition, examines and evaluates an intervention based on social-cognitive perspective-taking on the reduction of stereotyping and prejudice in older adults. Data were collected in a sample of Spanish participants with a mean age of 63.2 years. The intervention, aimed at reducing prejudice and stereotyping, was based on mental imagery and tested

  17. How retellings shape younger and older adults’ memories

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Mara

    2014-01-01

    The way a story is retold influences the way it is later remembered; after retelling an event in a biased manner people subsequently remember the event in line with their distorted retelling. This study tested the hypothesis that this should be especially true for older adults. To test this, older and younger adults retold a story to be entertaining, to be accurate, or did not complete an initial retelling. Later, all participants recalled the story as accurately as possible. On this final test younger adults were unaffected by how they had previously retold the story. In contrast, older adults had better memory for the story’s content and structure if they had previously retold the story accurately. Furthermore, for older adults, greater usage of storytelling language during the retelling was associated with lower subsequent recall. In summary, retellings exerted a greater effect on memory in older, compared with younger, adults. PMID:25436107

  18. Older Adults Make Less Advantageous Decisions than Younger Adults: Cognitive and Psychological Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; McGillivray, Shannon; Finn, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that older adults make less advantageous decisions than younger adults on the Iowa gambling task (IGT). Less advantageous decisions, as measured by the IGT, are characterized by choices that favor larger versus smaller immediate rewards, even though such choices may result in long-term negative consequences. The IGT, and measures of neuropsychological function, personality, and psychopathology were administered to 164 healthy adults 18–85 years of age. Older adults performed less advantageously on the IGT compared with younger adults. Additionally, a greater number of older adult’s IGT performances were classified as ‘impaired’ when compared to younger adults. Less advantageous decisions were associated with obsessive symptoms in older adults and with antisocial symptoms in younger adults. Performance on the IGT was positively associated with auditory working memory and psychomotor function in young adults, and in immediate memory in older adults. PMID:17445297

  19. Verbal expressive personality testing with older adults: 25+ years later.

    PubMed

    Panek, Paul E; Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Hayslip, Bert; Moske, Amanda Kay

    2013-01-01

    This review builds on those conducted over 25 years ago by Panek and Hayslip in examining the literature dealing with the use of verbal expressive techniques with older adults. Such findings based on the Rorschach Ink Blot Test, Holtzman Inkblot Technique, Hand Test, Sentence Completion methods, and the Thematic Apperception Test and kindred thematic apperceptive techniques are presented and evaluated regarding the evidence for age differences, differential diagnosis, extraneous individual differences in performance, and adequacy of normative data. Although available evidence appears to warrant the continued use of verbal expressive techniques with older adults, more adequately designed studies are necessary to fully support the potential of these assessment tools for decision making with this population: assisting in diagnosis, recommending the appropriateness of various living arrangements, facilitating supportive care choices, and aiding in treatment planning. PMID:23441570

  20. Perceived Trajectories of Life Satisfaction Across Past, Present, and Future: Profiles and Correlates of Subjective Change in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Röcke, Christina; Lachman, Margie E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite longitudinal stability in subjective well-being across adulthood, many adults perceive self-related change. This study was aimed at identifying differential subjective change profiles in life satisfaction rated for the present, the past, and the future and to examine their associations with sociodemographic variables and changes in adaptive functioning. We addressed this aim using Midlife in the United States survey data from two measurement occasions (N=3631, T1-age: 24-75). Using cluster analysis, a ‘Continuous High,’ and an ‘Incremental’ subgroup were identified at both occasions. A third subgroup was labeled ‘Present Low’ at T1 and ‘Decremental’ at T2. Although the average pattern across individual variables suggested stability, up to 60% of individuals fit profiles depicting perceived change, and some individuals changed subgroup membership over time. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, subgroups differed in level and change in biopsychosocial measures of adaptive functioning, with sense of control and social relationship quality showing stronger associations than personality and physical health. Results indicate that a person-centered approach to assessing life satisfaction provides a rich and dynamic picture of individual differences in subjective well-being across the adult lifespan. PMID:19140654

  1. Quantification of postural stability in older adults using mobile technology.

    PubMed

    Ozinga, Sarah J; Alberts, Jay L

    2014-12-01

    Traditional biomechanical systems used to capture kinematic data have shown that declines in postural stability are frequently present in older adults and neurological populations. Recent advances in processor speed and measuring capabilities of on-board electronics within mobile devices present an opportunity to gather kinematic data and apply biomechanical analyses to potentially quantify postural stability. The aim of this project was to determine if the kinematic data gathered using a mobile device were of sufficient quantity and quality to characterize postural stability in older adults. Twelve healthy older adults completed six different balance conditions under altered surface, stance and vision. Simultaneous kinematic measurements were gathered from a three-dimensional motion analysis system and iPad during balance conditions. Correlation between the two systems was significant across balance conditions and outcome measures: peak-to-peak (r = 0.70-0.99), normalized path length (r = 0.64-0.98), root mean square (r = 0.73-0.99) of linear acceleration, 95 % volume (r = 0.96-0.99) of linear and angular acceleration and total power across different frequencies (r = 0.79-0.92). The mean absolute percentage error metric, used to evaluate time-series measurements point-by-point, indicated that when measuring linear and angular acceleration, the iPad tracked the motion analysis system with average error between 6 and 10 % of motion analysis measurements across all balance conditions. Collectively, similar accuracy with the iPad compared to motion capture suggests the sensors provide sufficient accuracy and quality for the quantification of postural stability in older adults. The objectivity, portability, and ease of use of this device make it ideal for use in clinical environments, which often lack biomechanical systems. PMID:25150554

  2. COGNITIVE LEARNING APPLIED TO OLDER ADULT LEARNERS AND TECHNOLOGY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy J. Chaffin; Steven D. Harlow

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the needs of older adults learning computer skills and the place of technology, especially the computer, in enhancing their lives. A model is discussed that illuminates the process used by older adults to learn computer skills. The model may be used to analyze and provide specific aid for common difficulties of the aged. Suggestions and recommendations are

  3. Health Status and Health Literacy in Older Adults 

    E-print Network

    Fulton, Daphne Saxon

    2014-08-04

    it as the standard when testing their validity. The third section of this study used primary data to examine health literacy, patient activation and health status in older adults. The study participants were older adults (n=533) recruited from senior centers, aging...

  4. Volunteerism, Health, and Civic Engagement among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Benjamin H.; Gillespie, Alayna A.

    2008-01-01

    In North America, 40-50 per cent of older adults are actively involved as formal volunteers in providing diverse health and human services. We review empirical studies concerning older adults' motivations for volunteering, as well as the health and morale benefits they derive from this expression of altruism. Knowledge of the exact nature and…

  5. Clinical gait and stepping performance measures in older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. B. Alexander; A. Goldberg

    2006-01-01

    Problems with ambulation and mobility are frequent problems in older adults. Each year, about one in 100 older adults develops new severe mobility disability. Assessment of abnormal gait constitutes a major component of clinical practice and may lead to fall reduction. Clinicians can benefit from simple gait and mobility assessment tools to be used in busy clinical settings. This review

  6. Post-acute dispositions of older adults hospitalized for depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. L. Morrow-Howell; E. K. Proctor; W. R. Blinne; E. H. Rubin; J. A. Saunders; P. A. Rozario

    2006-01-01

    This study addressed factors associated with six-month post-acute dispositions (continuous community stay, medical hospitalization, psychiatric rehospitalization, nursing home placement, death) for older adults hospitalized for depression and discharged to the community. The sample included 199 older adults; and data were collected via medical records, interviews with discharge planners, patients, and family members. Over half of the sample remained in the

  7. Self-Report Measure of Psychological Abuse of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Kendon J.; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W.; Langley, Kate; Anetzberger, Georgia J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested key psychometric properties of the Older Adult Psychological Abuse Measure (OAPAM), one self-report scale of the Older Adult Mistreatment Assessment (OAMA). Design and Methods: Items and theory were developed in a prior concept mapping study. Subsequently, the measures were administered to 226 substantiated clients by 22…

  8. FACILITATION AND INTERFERENCE IN THE OLDER ADULT LEARNER. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCRYSTAL, THOMAS J.

    THIS STUDY IS CONCERNED WITH THE DEGREE TO WHICH OLDER AND YOUNGER ADULTS ARE SUBJECT TO THE INTERFERING EFFECTS OF PAST HABITS. TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH HYPOTHESES BASED ON ASSUMPTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY INTERFERENCE THEORY HOLD FOR THE OLDER ADULT POPULATION, THESE HYPOTHESES WERE TESTED IN A NEGATIVE TRANSFER TASK, WHERE INCOMPATIBLE…

  9. Health Literacy Programs for Older Adults: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Older adults make up the fastest growing age group in North America. This has demanded increased attention in supporting the health and well-being of this population and, in particular, the role of health information in promoting the health and well-being of older adults. Increased availability and accessibility of information as well as a greater…

  10. Dare to Dream: New Venture Incubator for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantman, Shira; Gimmon, Eli

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a project that aims to foster active aging through entrepreneurial activities among older adults. The project establishes the feasibility of implementing an intervention program that assimilates the concept and capabilities of entrepreneurship among older adults and supports them while launching new…

  11. Alcohol and the Older Adult: A Comprehensive Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roschelle A. Heuberger

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in the older adult is of major concern with the advent of baby boomers coming into the over 65-age bracket. Alcohol consumption has been touted as beneficial for health, and while that may be accurate for moderate consumption in younger persons, there is considerable risk associated with increased alcohol intake in older adults. This increase is partially due

  12. Observational Learning among Older Adults Living in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Colleen D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate learning by older adults living in nursing homes through observational learning based on Bandura's (1977) social learning theory. This quantitative study investigated if older adults could learn through observation. The nursing homes in the study were located in the midwestern United States. The…

  13. Quality of life in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Bourland; M. A. Stanley; A. G. Snyder; D. M. Novy; J. G. Beck; P. M. Averill; A. C. Swann

    2000-01-01

    Improving the quality of life is an important goal in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. The current study described subjective quality of life, or life satisfaction, in a sample of older adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Patients with GAD were compared to other anxious and nonpsychiatric samples on measures of life satisfaction. Older adults with GAD reported lower quality

  14. Health-Related Variables and Functional Fitness among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkin, Linda D.; Haddock, Bryan L.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the functional fitness of a convenient sample of older adults (greater than 70 years), to examine correlations between functional fitness and several other health-related variables and to compare with criterion performance data as established by Rikli and Jones (2001). One hundred and seven community-dwelling older adults with…

  15. Suicide and Older Adults: The Strengths Perspective in Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen Perkins; Carolyn Tice

    1994-01-01

    Suicide rates are higher among older adults than any other age group. In many instances, suicide among older adults can be prevented. One approach that can be used for prevention is the strengths perspective. This article offers an intervention technique that improves the coping of senior suicide clients by forming a coalition with the therapist and client to overcome the

  16. Perceived Burdensomeness and Suicide Ideation in Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly C. Cukrowicz; Jennifer S. Cheavens; Kimberly A. Van Orden; R. Michael Ragain; Ronald L. Cook

    2011-01-01

    Older adults have the highest risk of death by suicide in the United States. Improving our understanding of the factors that lead to increased risk of suicide in older adults will greatly inform our ability to prevent suicide in this high-risk group. Two studies were conducted to test the effect of perceived burdensomeness, a component of the interpersonal-psychological theory of

  17. Older Adult Suicide: Perceptions of Precipitants and Protective Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan D. Stice; Silvia Sara Canetto

    2008-01-01

    Suicide is culturally patterned. A cultural perspective, however, is rarely used to examine suicidal behavior among dominant groups in industrialized countries. This study explored the culture of suicide in the U.S. Mountain West region. Specifically, it examined the perceived precipitants and protectors of older adult suicide in a Mountain West community with higher than national average rates of older adult

  18. Treatment of Depression and Suicide in Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunil S. Bhar; Gregory K. Brown

    This article describes a cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) intervention for suicide prevention in older adults. Although many studies have found that CBT interventions are efficacious for reducing depressive symptoms in the elderly, researchers have yet to evaluate the efficacy of such interventions for preventing suicide or reducing suicide risk in older adults. In this article we describe a 12-session CBT

  19. Effectiveness of Weight Loss Interventions for Obese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Holly C.; West, Delia S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The consequences of obesity among older adults are significant, yet few obesity interventions target this group. Unfamiliarity with weight loss intervention effectiveness and concerns that weight loss negatively affects older adults may be inhibiting targeting this group. This paper reviews the evidence on intentional weight loss and effective weight loss interventions for obese older adults to help dispel concerns and guide health promotion practice. Data Source PubMed articles. Study Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Randomized controlled trials examining behavioral and pharmaceutical weight loss strategies with 1-year follow-up targeting obese (body mass index ?30) older adults (mean age ?60 years), and studies with quasi-experimental designs examining surgical weight loss strategies targeting older adults were examined. Data Extraction Abstracts were reviewed for study objective relevancy, with relevant articles extracted and reviewed. Data Synthesis Data were inserted into an analysis matrix. Results Evidence indicates behavioral strategies are effective in producing significant (all p < .05) weight loss without significant risk to obese older adults, but effectiveness evidence for surgical and pharmaceutical strategies for obese older adults is lacking, primarily because this group has not been targeted in trials or analyses did not isolate this group. Conclusion These findings support the promotion of intentional weight loss among obese older adults and provide guidance to health promotion practitioners on effective weight loss interventions to use with this group. PMID:23286596

  20. Sensory and Cognitive Factors Influencing Functional Ability in Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly M. Wood; Jerri D. Edwards; Olivio J. Clay; Virginia G. Wadley; Daniel L. Roenker; Karlene K. Ball

    2005-01-01

    Background: Age-related sensory and cognitive impairments have been related to functional performance in older adults. With regard to cognitive abilities, processing speed in particular may be strongly related to older adults’ abilities to perform everyday tasks. Identifying and comparing cognitive correlates of functional performance is particularly important in order to design interventions to promote independence and prevent functional disability. Objective:

  1. Community-Dwelling Adults versus Older Adults: Psychopathology and the Continuum Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagana, Luciana; Tramutolo, Carmine; Boncori, Lucia; Cruciani, Anna Clara

    2012-01-01

    Little empirical evidence is available on older adults regarding the existence of a continuum between "normal" personality traits and DSM-IV-TR Axes I and II disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Given the typical complexity of clinical presentations in advanced age, it is feasible to expect a dimensional conceptualization of…

  2. Longitudinal relationship between pain and depression in older adults: sex, age and physical disability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra W. Geerlings; Jos W. R. Twisk; Aartjan T. F. Beekman; Dorly J. H. Deeg; Willem van Tilburg

    2002-01-01

    Objective Better understanding of the relationship between pain and depression in older adults in the community is of particular importance\\u000a considering the high prevalence of both conditions in these adults. In the present study, the longitudinal relationship between\\u000a pain and depression in older adults was examined, thereby taking into account the role of physical disability and the possibly\\u000a modifying effect

  3. Personality disorders in older adults: emerging research issues.

    PubMed

    van Alphen, S P J; van Dijk, S D M; Videler, A C; Rossi, G; Dierckx, E; Bouckaert, F; Voshaar, R C Oude

    2015-01-01

    Empirical research focusing on personality disorders (PDs) among older adults is mainly limited to studies on psychometric properties of age-specific personality tests, the age neutrality of specific items/scales, and validation of personality inventories for older adults. We identified only two treatment studies-one on dialectical behavior therapy and one on schema therapy-both with promising results among older patients despite small and heterogeneous populations. More rigorous studies incorporating age-specific adaptations are needed. Furthermore, in contrast to increasing numbers of psychometric studies, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-5 pays little attention to the characteristics of older adults with PDs. Moreover, the constructs "personality change due to another medical condition" and "late-onset personality disorder" warrant further research among older adults. These needs will become even more pressing given the aging society worldwide. PMID:25421011

  4. Driving patterns in older adults with glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ability to drive is important for ensuring quality of life for many older adults. Glaucoma is prevalent in this age group and may affect driving. The purpose of this study is to determine if glaucoma and glaucomatous visual field (VF) loss are associated with driving cessation, limitations, and deference to another driver in older adults. Methods Cross-sectional study. Eighty-one glaucoma subjects and 58 glaucoma suspect controls between age 60 and 80 reported if they had ceased driving, limited their driving in various ways, or preferred another to drive. Results Twenty-three percent of glaucoma subjects and 6.9% of suspects had ceased driving (p?=?0.01). Glaucoma subjects also had more driving limitations than suspects (2.0 vs. 1.1, p?=?0.007). In multivariable models, driving cessation was more likely for glaucoma subjects as compared to suspects (OR?=?4.0; 95% CI?=?1.1-14.7; p?=?0.03). The odds of driving cessation doubled with each 5 decibel (dB) decrement in the better-eye VF mean deviation (MD) (OR?=?2.0; 95% CI?=?1.4-2.9; p??0.1 for both). Conclusions Glaucoma and glaucomatous VF loss are associated with greater likelihood of driving cessation and greater limitation of driving in the elderly. Further prospective study is merited to assess when and why people with glaucoma change their driving habits, and to determine if their observed self-regulation of driving is adequate to ensure safety. PMID:23432845

  5. Safety margins in older adults increase with improved control of a dynamic object

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, Christopher J.; Sternad, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Older adults face decreasing motor capabilities due to pervasive neuromuscular degradations. As a consequence, errors in movement control increase. Thus, older individuals should maintain larger safety margins than younger adults. While this has been shown for object manipulation tasks, several reports on whole-body activities, such as posture and locomotion, demonstrate age-related reductions in safety margins. This is despite increased costs for control errors, such as a fall. We posit that this paradox could be explained by the dynamic challenge presented by the body or also an external object, and that age-related reductions in safety margins are in part due to a decreased ability to control dynamics. To test this conjecture we used a virtual ball-in-cup task that had challenging dynamics, yet afforded an explicit rendering of the physics and safety margin. The hypotheses were: (1) When manipulating an object with challenging dynamics, older adults have smaller safety margins than younger adults. (2) Older adults increase their safety margins with practice. Nine young and 10 healthy older adults practiced moving the virtual ball-in-cup to a target location in exactly 2 s. The accuracy and precision of the timing error quantified skill, and the ball energy relative to an escape threshold quantified the safety margin. Compared to the young adults, older adults had increased timing errors, greater variability, and decreased safety margins. With practice, both young and older adults improved their ability to control the object with decreased timing errors and variability, and increased their safety margins. These results suggest that safety margins are related to the ability to control dynamics, and may explain why in tasks with simple dynamics older adults use adequate safety margins, but in more complex tasks, safety margins may be inadequate. Further, the results indicate that task-specific training may improve safety margins in older adults. PMID:25071566

  6. Attentional Bias for Emotional Information in Older Adults: The Role of Emotion and Future Time Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Demeyer, Ineke; De Raedt, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Research suggests that older adults display a positivity bias at the level of information processing. However, because studies investigating attentional bias for emotional information in older adults have produced mixed findings, research identifying inter-individual differences that may explain these inconsistent results is necessary. Therefore, we investigated whether mood, symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety and future time perspective are related to attentional bias in older adults. Method Thirty-seven healthy older adults and 25 healthy middle-aged adults completed questionnaires to assess mood, symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety and future time perspective. Attentional bias towards happy, sad and neutral information was measured using a modified exogenous cueing paradigm with long cue presentations, to measure maintained attention versus avoidance of emotional stimuli. Results Older adults showed attentional avoidance for all emotional faces, whereas no attentional biases were found in the middle-aged group. Moreover, in the older adult group, avoidance for negative information was related to anxiety. Future time perspective was unrelated to attentional bias. Discussion These findings suggest that anxiety may lead to inter-individual differences in attentional bias in older adults, and that avoidance from negative information may be an emotion regulation strategy. PMID:23750261

  7. End-of-life preferences in Afro-Caribbean older adults: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Moss, Karen O; Williams, Ishan C

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that older Blacks tend to prefer more aggressive treatment as they transition toward the end of life. African and Afro-Caribbean immigrants and their offspring are the fastest growing segments of the Black population in the United States. With the increasing population of Black older adults, the cost of end-of-life care is rising. This article presents a review of the literature on the end-of-life preferences of Afro-Caribbean older adults. Findings suggest that Afro-Caribbean older adults make end-of-life decisions with a significant emphasis on family structure, religion/spirituality, cultural identity, migration, and communication. Concerns regarding the meaning of end-of-life preparation and hospice are often viewed in ways that differ from that of healthcare providers. Future research is needed to investigate this process in the Afro-Caribbean older adult subset. PMID:25273681

  8. Adapting problem-solving therapy for depressed older adults in methadone maintenance treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Daniel; Morse, Jennifer Q; Reynolds, Charles F

    2011-01-01

    Late life depression is prevalent in older adults who are dependent on opiates. Depressive disorders among opiate abusers have detrimental effects on their well-being and ability to refrain from illegal drugs. There are numerous barriers to the provision of appropriate mental health care to older adults receiving methadone maintenance treatment. This article focuses on problem solving therapy (PST) and presents evidence that PST may be a promising non-pharmacological treatment for older methadone clients with comorbid depressive disorders that can be applied within the staffing and resource limits of methadone maintenance treatment facilities. The advantages of PST relative to other behavioral therapies for this population are based on evidence that PST is less cognitively demanding for an older adult population with mood and substance use disorders. A properly modified PST for an older adult substance dependent population with subsyndromal or diagnosed depression may be a viable option for methadone maintenance programs with limited resources. PMID:21036509

  9. Stereotype traits of older adults generated by young, middle-aged, and older Chinese participants

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yan Bing; Hummert, Mary Lee; Garstka, Teri A.

    2002-01-01

    ://dx.doi.org/10.2190/18YF-LD1R-X8NB- 4HTM 1 Citation: Zhang, Y. B., Hummert, M. L., & Garstka, T. A. (2002). Stereotype traits of older adults generated by young, middle-aged, and older Chinese participants. Hallym International Journal of Aging, 2 (4), 119...Zhang, Y. B., Hummert, M. L., & Garstka, T. A. (2002). Stereotype traits of older adults generated by young, middle-aged, and older Chinese participants. Hallym International Journal of Aging, 2 (4), 119-140. Publisher’s official version: http...

  10. Ethical perspectives on self-neglect among older adults.

    PubMed

    Mauk, Kristen L

    2011-01-01

    Self-neglect is a serious and growing problem among older adults. A 2004 survey from Adult Protective Services (APS) showed that adults age 60 or older were named in 85,000 reports of self-neglect from 21 states (Naik, Lai, Kunik, & Dyer, 2008; Teaster, Dugar, Mendiondo, Abner, & Cecil, 2006). Although rehabilitation nurses are obligated to uphold the autonomy of older adults and strengthen their independence, dilemmas result when people's poor health behaviors put them or others at risk for negative consequences. When making decisions about nursing actions related to self-neglecting elderly people, the basic principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and capacity must be considered. The purpose of this article is to discuss major ethical perspectives related to self-neglect among older adults. PMID:21473562

  11. Assessment and measurement of pain in older adults.

    PubMed

    Herr, K A; Garand, L

    2001-08-01

    Although the empiric base is still limited when providing clear directions for pain assessment and management in older adults, it is possible to identify recommendations for guiding practice based on consensus and a developing scientific base to support best practice activities. A brief overview of the epidemiology and consequences of pain is offered, followed by a summary of issues and approaches relevant to pain assessment in older adults. Cohort-specific recommendations for comprehensive pain assessment and measurement based on current evidence are then addressed, including strategies for assessment of pain in cognitively impaired older adults. PMID:11459715

  12. The perfect storm: older adults and acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Hain, Debra; Paixao, Rute

    2015-01-01

    Older adults have a high risk for acute kidney injury (AKI), often necessitating critical care admission. The majority of older adults live with 1 or more chronic conditions requiring multiple medications, and when faced with acute illness increased vulnerability can lead to poor health outcomes. When combined with circumstances that exacerbate chronic conditions, clinicians may witness the perfect storm. Some factors that contribute to AKI risk include the aging kidney, sepsis, polypharmacy, and nephrotoxic medications and contrast media. This paper discusses specific risks and approaches to care for older adults with AKI who are in critical care. PMID:26039649

  13. Older Adults Can Suppress Unwanted Memories When Given an Appropriate Strategy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Memory suppression refers to the ability to exclude distracting memories from conscious awareness, and this ability can be assessed with the think/no-think paradigm. Recent research with older adults has provided evidence suggesting both intact and deficient memory suppression. The present studies seek to understand the conditions contributing to older adults’ ability to suppress memories voluntarily. We report 2 experiments indicating that the specificity of the think/no-think task instructions contributes to older adults’ suppression success: When older adults receive open-ended instructions that require them to develop a retrieval suppression strategy on their own, they show diminished memory suppression compared with younger adults. Conversely, when older adults receive focused instructions directing them to a strategy thought to better isolate inhibitory control, they show suppression-induced forgetting similar to that exhibited by younger adults. Younger adults demonstrate memory suppression regardless of the specificity of the instructions given, suggesting that the ability to select a successful suppression strategy spontaneously may be compromised in older adults. If so, this deficit may be associated with diminished control over unwanted memories in naturalistic settings if impeded strategy development reduces the successful deployment of inhibitory control. PMID:25602491

  14. Testing the Limits of Optimizing Dual-Task Performance in Younger and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Strobach, Tilo; Frensch, Peter; Müller, Herrmann Josef; Schubert, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Impaired dual-task performance in younger and older adults can be improved with practice. Optimal conditions even allow for a (near) elimination of this impairment in younger adults. However, it is unknown whether such (near) elimination is the limit of performance improvements in older adults. The present study tests this limit in older adults under conditions of (a) a high amount of dual-task training and (b) training with simplified component tasks in dual-task situations. The data showed that a high amount of dual-task training in older adults provided no evidence for an improvement of dual-task performance to the optimal dual-task performance level achieved by younger adults. However, training with simplified component tasks in dual-task situations exclusively in older adults provided a similar level of optimal dual-task performance in both age groups. Therefore through applying a testing the limits approach, we demonstrated that older adults improved dual-task performance to the same level as younger adults at the end of training under very specific conditions. PMID:22408613

  15. Pain in older adults living in sheltered accommodation--agreement between assessments by older adults and staff.

    PubMed

    Blomqvist, K; Hallberg, I R

    1999-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the presence of pain, pain duration, localization(s), intensity, type and pharmacological treatment among older adults living in sheltered accommodation or receiving rehabilitation, as well as the agreement between pain assessments performed by staff and the older adults. Twenty-nine randomly selected older adults (65+ years) and the staff who looked after them participated in a structured interview based on standardized measures for pain assessment and physical, intellectual and communicative functions. Pain was found to be common, with a majority of participants experiencing it every day or all of the time. Nine out of 22 of the older adults in pain had no pain relief drugs at all. Agreement between assessments by the older adults and the staff was no higher than moderate and in general pain levels were underestimated. The findings indicate that older adults were at risk of undetected and untreated pain and the risk was even higher for those with speech difficulties. The provision of good nursing care for older adults in sheltered accommodation requires systematic routines for frequent pain assessments. PMID:10401349

  16. Training to Enhance Adult Memory (TEAM): An investigation of the effectiveness of a memory training program with older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kaci Fairchild; F. R. Scogin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Prior research examining the effectiveness of memory enhancement programs targeting both objective and subjective memory has yielded results with varying degrees of success. The current investigation aimed to contribute to the present body of memory training literature through the evaluation of an in-home memory enhancement program for older adults.Method: Fifty-three community-dwelling older adults were assigned to either a memory

  17. Older and Wiser: Older Adults’ Episodic Word Memory Benefits from Sentence Study Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Matzen, Laura E.; Benjamin, Aaron S.

    2013-01-01

    A hallmark of adaptive cognition is the ability to modulate learning in response to the demands posed by different types of tests and different types of materials. Here we evaluate how older adults process words and sentences differently by examining patterns of memory errors. In two experiments, we explored younger and older adults’ sensitivity to lures on a recognition test following study of words in these two types of contexts. Among the studied words were compound words such as “blackmail” and “jailbird” that were related to conjunction lures (e.g. “blackbird”) and semantic lures (e.g. “criminal”). Participants engaged in a recognition test that included old items, conjunction lures, semantic lures, and unrelated new items. In both experiments, younger and older adults had the same general pattern of memory errors: more incorrect endorsements of semantic than conjunction lures following sentence study and more incorrect endorsements of conjunction than semantic lures following list study. The similar pattern reveals that older and younger adults responded to the constraints of the two different study contexts in similar ways. However, while younger and older adults showed similar levels of memory performance for the list study context, the sentence study context elicited superior memory performance in the older participants. It appears as though memory tasks that take advantage of greater expertise in older adults--in this case, greater experience with sentence processing--can reveal superior memory performance in the elderly. PMID:23834493

  18. Older Adults Expend More Listening Effort than Young Adults Recognizing Speech in Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselin, Penny Anderson; Gagne, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Listening in noisy situations is a challenging experience for many older adults. The authors hypothesized that older adults exert more listening effort compared with young adults. Listening effort involves the attention and cognitive resources required to understand speech. The purpose was (a) to quantify the amount of listening effort…

  19. Depression Treatment Non-adherence and its Psychosocial Predictors: Differences between Young and Older Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Stein-Shvachman, Ifat; Karpas, Dikla Segel; Werner, Perla

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a common disease among young and older adults. Although it can be treated, non-adherence is very common among individuals of different ages. The aim of the present paper is to review and summarize research findings regarding depression among young and older adults, with a special focus on the phenomenon of treatment non-adherence among young and older adults with depression. The first section of the review focuses on describing the characteristics of depression in young and older adults. The second section focuses on treatment non-adherence of young and older adults, the prevalence of this phenomenon, and its consequences. The third section focuses on several factors (illness beliefs, treatment beliefs, self-stigma, and self-esteem) that were identified as having a significant association with treatment non-adherence of individuals with depression, with special attention focused on age differences. Results of the review of the literature reveal that research in the area of depression treatment non-adherence and its predictors among young and older adults has received, to date, very minor and limited attention. Thus, there is a need to expand the current body of knowledge and promote future interventions geared towards the unique characteristics of depression among young and older adults, in order to increase their treatment adherence. PMID:24307966

  20. Factors associated with geriatric syndromes in older homeless adults.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rebecca T; Kiely, Dan K; Bharel, Monica; Mitchell, Susan L

    2013-05-01

    Although older homeless adults have high rates of geriatric syndromes, risk factors for these syndromes are not known. We used multivariable regression models to estimate the association of subject characteristics with the total number of geriatric syndromes in 250 homeless adults aged 50 years and older. Geriatric syndromes included falls, cognitive impairment, frailty, major depression, sensory impairment, and urinary incontinence. A higher total number of geriatric syndromes was associated with having less than a high school education, medical comorbidities (diabetes and arthritis), alcohol and drug use problems, and difficulty performing one or more activities of daily living. Clinicians who care for older homeless patients with these characteristics should consider screening them for geriatric syndromes. Moreover, this study identifies potentially modifiable risk factors associated with the total number of geriatric syndromes in older homeless adults. This knowledge may provide targets for clinical interventions to improve the health of older homeless patients. PMID:23728022

  1. [Gait, balance and muscle assessment in older adults].

    PubMed

    Hars, M; Trombetti, A

    2013-06-12

    Deficits in gait, balance, and maximal and explosive force production in older adults are associated with an increased risk of falls and multiple adverse health outcomes (e.g., dependence, institutionalization and death). Assessment of gait, balance and muscle performances may have important implications for the screening and management of at-risk patients, and the development of targeted interventions. The present article provides a brief overview of available assessment methods, including validated clinical tests suitable for daily practice, and more complex instrumented assessments, recommended for clinical trials or longitudinal studies. PMID:23821845

  2. Prevalence and Determinants of Falls among Older Adults in Ecuador: An Analysis of the SABE I Survey

    PubMed Central

    Orces, Carlos H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study based on a nationally representative sample of older adults living in the Andes mountains and coastal region of the country indicates that 34.7% of older adults had fallen in the previous year in Ecuador. Among fallers, 30.6% reported a fall-related injury. The prevalence of falls was higher in women and among older adults residing in the rural Andes mountains. In the multivariate model, women, subjects with cognitive impairment, those reporting urinary incontinence, and those being physically active during the previous year were variables found independently associated with increased risk of falling among older adults in Ecuador. Moreover, a gradual and linear increase in the prevalence of falls was seen as the number of risk factors increased. Falls represent a major public health problem among older adults in Ecuador. The present findings may assist public health authorities to implement programs of awareness and fall prevention among older adults at higher risk of falls. PMID:23476643

  3. Factors that influence exercise participation amoung older adults 

    E-print Network

    Murphey, Kristina Kile

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey adults age 60 and older to measure their levels of exercise self-efficacy, attitudes toward exercise and health, and perceived exercise control beliefs. Participants also defined other intrapersonal factors...

  4. Determinants of functional decline in community-dwelling older adults 

    E-print Network

    Fieo, Robert Anthony

    2011-06-29

    The overarching theme of this thesis is the prevention of progressive-type disability. Unlike catastrophic disability, progressive disability is gradual and more common in older adults. Because progressive disability can ...

  5. Perceived burdensomeness and suicide ideation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Cukrowicz, Kelly C; Cheavens, Jennifer S; Van Orden, Kimberly A; Ragain, R Michael; Cook, Ronald L

    2011-06-01

    Older adults have the highest risk of death by suicide in the United States. Improving our understanding of the factors that lead to increased risk of suicide in older adults will greatly inform our ability to prevent suicide in this high-risk group. Two studies were conducted to test the effect of perceived burdensomeness, a component of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (Joiner, 2005), on suicide ideation in older adults. Further, gender was examined as a moderator of this association to determine if perceived burdensomeness exerted a greater influence on suicide ideation in males. The results of these studies suggest that perceived burdensomeness accounts for significant variance in suicide ideation, even after predictors such as depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and functional impairment are controlled. Gender did not moderate the association. The implications of these findings for treatment of older adults with suicide ideation and elevated suicide risk are discussed. PMID:21401264

  6. Urinary tract infections and asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Joan M; Good, Elliot

    2015-08-15

    Overuse of urinalysis in older adults to investigate vague changes in condition such as confusion, lethargy, and anorexia, has led to overtreatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria and associated antibiotic resistance. PMID:26180913

  7. Health Status and Health Literacy in Older Adults

    E-print Network

    Fulton, Daphne Saxon

    2014-08-04

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between health literacy and the health status of older adults. The first section of the study consisted of a comprehensive literature review of prior research regarding cognitive, health, and behavioral...

  8. Older Adults and Alcohol: You Can Get Help

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Get Help Heath and Aging Older Adults and Alcohol: You Can Get Help What's inside Worried about a drinking problem? Learn about the effects of alcohol on health and get needed support. Read this ...

  9. Upregulation of cognitive control networks in older adults' speech comprehension.

    PubMed

    Erb, Julia; Obleser, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Speech comprehension abilities decline with age and with age-related hearing loss, but it is unclear how this decline expresses in terms of central neural mechanisms. The current study examined neural speech processing in a group of older adults (aged 56-77, n = 16, with varying degrees of sensorineural hearing loss), and compared them to a cohort of young adults (aged 22-31, n = 30, self-reported normal hearing). In a functional MRI experiment, listeners heard and repeated back degraded sentences (4-band vocoded, where the temporal envelope of the acoustic signal is preserved, while the spectral information is substantially degraded). Behaviorally, older adults adapted to degraded speech at the same rate as young listeners, although their overall comprehension of degraded speech was lower. Neurally, both older and young adults relied on the left anterior insula for degraded more than clear speech perception. However, anterior insula engagement in older adults was dependent on hearing acuity. Young adults additionally employed the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Interestingly, this age group × degradation interaction was driven by a reduced dynamic range in older adults who displayed elevated levels of ACC activity for both degraded and clear speech, consistent with a persistent upregulation in cognitive control irrespective of task difficulty. For correct speech comprehension, older adults relied on the middle frontal gyrus in addition to a core speech comprehension network recruited by younger adults suggestive of a compensatory mechanism. Taken together, the results indicate that older adults increasingly recruit cognitive control networks, even under optimal listening conditions, at the expense of these systems' dynamic range. PMID:24399939

  10. Upregulation of cognitive control networks in older adults’ speech comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Erb, Julia; Obleser, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Speech comprehension abilities decline with age and with age-related hearing loss, but it is unclear how this decline expresses in terms of central neural mechanisms. The current study examined neural speech processing in a group of older adults (aged 56–77, n = 16, with varying degrees of sensorineural hearing loss), and compared them to a cohort of young adults (aged 22–31, n = 30, self-reported normal hearing). In a functional MRI experiment, listeners heard and repeated back degraded sentences (4-band vocoded, where the temporal envelope of the acoustic signal is preserved, while the spectral information is substantially degraded). Behaviorally, older adults adapted to degraded speech at the same rate as young listeners, although their overall comprehension of degraded speech was lower. Neurally, both older and young adults relied on the left anterior insula for degraded more than clear speech perception. However, anterior insula engagement in older adults was dependent on hearing acuity. Young adults additionally employed the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Interestingly, this age group × degradation interaction was driven by a reduced dynamic range in older adults who displayed elevated levels of ACC activity for both degraded and clear speech, consistent with a persistent upregulation in cognitive control irrespective of task difficulty. For correct speech comprehension, older adults relied on the middle frontal gyrus in addition to a core speech comprehension network recruited by younger adults suggestive of a compensatory mechanism. Taken together, the results indicate that older adults increasingly recruit cognitive control networks, even under optimal listening conditions, at the expense of these systems’ dynamic range. PMID:24399939

  11. Listeriosis Prevention for Older Adults: Effective Messages and Delivery Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Sheryl C.; Kosa, Katherine M.; Moore, Christina M.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Ten Eyck, Toby A.; Cowen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Individuals aged 60 years and older are at an increased risk for listeriosis and other foodborne illnesses. They can reduce their risk by following recommended food safety practices. A total of 8 focus groups were conducted to characterize older adults' food safety knowledge and practices, their impressions of educational materials on listeriosis…

  12. Food Choice Processes of Older Adults: A Qualitative Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Winter Falk; Carole A. Bisogni; Jeffery Sobal

    1996-01-01

    One way to promote optimal nutrition for older adults is to expand nutrition professionals’ understanding of the cognitive food choice processes of the elderly. This investigation used a constructivist approach and qualitative methods to elicit the factors important to the food choices of individuals aged 65 years and older who lived independently. Using a multiple-perspective model of the food choice

  13. Extended Workforce Participation of Older Adults: Issues and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Laura M.

    Demographic, social, and economic trends are pointing in the direction of increased work force participation for older adults. The four major forces responsible for change in work patterns are the changing work force, changing older people, economic forces, and social forces. These forces are mediated by social convention, especially the…

  14. Factors underlying the structure of older adult friendship networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca G. Adams; Rachel Torr

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the structure of older adult friendship networks and how the immediate social environment in which they are embedded shapes them. Data were a probability sample (N = 65) of the residents of Greensboro, North Carolina, aged 55 years or older, living in noninstitutional settings.Four of six bivariate hypotheses regarding the relationships between measures of homogeneity, internal hierarchy,

  15. EVALUATING RISK IN OLDER ADULTS USING PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid growth in the number of older Americans has many implications for public health, including the need to better understand the risks posed by environmental exposures to older adults. An important element for evaluating risk is the understanding of the doses of environment...

  16. Medication Management Assessment for Older Adults in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orwig, Denise; Brandt, Nicole; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the Medication Management Instrument for Deficiencies in the Elderly (MedMaIDE) and to provide results of reliability and validity testing. Design and Methods: Participants were 50 older adults, aged 65 and older, who lived in the community, took at least one prescription medication, and were then…

  17. Reasons for Living and Coping Abilities among Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Range, Lillian M.; Stringer, Traci A.

    1996-01-01

    In this study, 79 older adults completed the Reasons for Living and the Cope inventories. Overall coping was significantly correlated with total reasons for living, although the low correlation suggests the constructs were moderately unique. Found older women may underrate their ability to cope. Implies suicide prevention strategies should target…

  18. Suicide attempts and associated factors in older adults with schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl I. Cohen; Chadi G. Abdallah; Shilpa Diwan

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundAlthough there have been numerous studies of suicidality in younger populations with schizophrenia, there have been no studies focused on community-dwelling older adults with schizophrenia. This study provides data on the prevalence of suicidality and factors associated with previous suicide attempts among a mixed racial sample of older persons with schizophrenia living in New York City.

  19. A Comparison of Cohabiting Relationships among Older and Younger Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Valarie; Scott, Mindy E.

    2005-01-01

    This study explores how cohabitation differs for older and younger adults, drawing on data from 966 cohabitors in each of the first 2 waves of the National Survey of Families and Households. Older cohabitors report significantly higher levels of relationship quality and stability than younger cohabitors, although they are less likely to have plans…

  20. Site and neighborhood environments for walking among older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhe Wang; Chanam Lee

    2010-01-01

    Walking has significant health and mobility benefits for older adults. Previous environment–walking studies have focused on neighborhood environments, overlooking proximate site-level characteristics. This study examines both the neighborhood and site-level environments.A survey was conducted with 114 older adults from five assisted-living facilities in Houston, TX. A subset of 61 participants’ environments was examined using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Multivariate analyses

  1. Advances in the treatment of depression in older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melinda S. Lantz

    2004-01-01

    Depressive symptoms in older adults are common, but the minority of elderly meet criteria for major depressive disorder. This\\u000a has led to confusion regarding the recognition of diagnosis, approach to treatment, and monitoring of outcomes in this needy\\u000a population. Few depressed older adults are willing to seek treatment from psychiatrists or mental health specialists. Treatment\\u000a approaches to the depressive spectrum

  2. Drug Burden Index in older adults: theoretical and practical issues

    PubMed Central

    Kouladjian, Lisa; Gnjidic, Danijela; Chen, Timothy F; Mangoni, Arduino A; Hilmer, Sarah N

    2014-01-01

    Anticholinergic and sedative medications are commonly used in older adults and are associated with adverse clinical outcomes. The Drug Burden Index was developed to measure the cumulative exposure to these medications in older adults and its impact on physical and cognitive function. This narrative review discusses the research and clinical applications of the Drug Burden Index, and its advantages and limitations, compared with other pharmacologically developed measures of high-risk prescribing. PMID:25246778

  3. Theory of Mind Through the Ages: Older and Middle-Aged Adults Exhibit More Errors Than Do Younger Adults on a Continuous False Belief Task

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel M. Bernstein; Wendy Loken Thornton; Jessica A. Sommerville

    2011-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM), or the ability to understand mental states, is a fundamental aspect of social cognition. Previous research has documented marked advances in ToM in preschoolers, and declines in ToM in older-aged adults. In the present study, younger (n = 37), middle-aged (n = 20), and older (n = 37) adults completed a continuous false belief task measuring ToM. Middle-aged and older adults exhibited

  4. Walking through doorways causes forgetting: Younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Radvansky, Gabriel A; Pettijohn, Kyle A; Kim, Joonsung

    2015-06-01

    Previous research on event cognition has found that walking through doorways can cause forgetting. The explanation for this finding is that there is a competition between event models, producing interference, and depressing performance. The current study explored the degree to which this might be affected by the natural aging process. This is of interest because there is some evidence that older adults have trouble coordinating sources of interference, which is what is thought to underlie this effect. This would suggest that older adults should do worse on this task. Alternatively, there is also evidence that older adults are typically not disrupted at the event level of processing per se. This would suggest that older adults should perform similarly to younger adults on this task. In the study reported here, younger and older participants navigated through a virtual environment, and memory was tested with probes either before or after a shift and for objects that were associated with the participant (i.e., just picked up). In general, both younger and older adults had memory disrupted after walking through a doorway. Importantly, the magnitude of this disruption was similar in the 2 age groups. This is consistent with the idea that processing at the event level is relatively unaffected by the natural aging process. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26030773

  5. Recruitment of community-dwelling older adults for nursing research: a challenging process.

    PubMed

    Hawranik, P; Pangman, V

    2002-03-01

    In the face of changing demographics, the need for gerontological nursing research has become central to the development of relevant health and social policies and resources for older adults. The recruitment of community-dwelling older adults presents multiple challenges for the nurse researcher wishing to conduct meaningful research. A common concern cited in the literature is the recruitment of sufficient numbers of older participants. The recruitment of persons 65 years of age and older is influenced by factors such as gender and study design as well as physical, social, psychological, and age-related changes. This paper describes these factors, as well as effective strategies for recruiting older adults, the authors' conceptualization of a 3-phase recruitment process, and key points for the nurse researcher to consider when recruiting subjects. PMID:11998194

  6. The influence of nursing home residency on the capacities of low-dependency older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kieran M. Walsh; Thomas Waldmann

    2008-01-01

    Objective: With the growing number of low-dependency older adults in long-stay care and the lack of categorisation of these institutions in the Republic of Ireland, it can be asked if such facilities are truly beneficial. This paper presents an explorative investigation of the influence of the nursing home environment on the capacities of low-dependency older adults.Method: The participants consisted of

  7. A comparison of suicide rates between older adults in Ireland and the UK: 1975–2005

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Power; J. Brophy

    2008-01-01

    Background In recent years suicide among older adults has been increasing internationally. The suicide rate among older adults in Ireland is no exception. Aims The aim of the current study was to report the rate of suicide among older adults in Ireland and to compare these rates to those of the UK. Method Suicide rates from 1975–2005 for older adults

  8. Pain assessment and management in critically ill older adults.

    PubMed

    Kirksey, Kenn M; McGlory, Gayle; Sefcik, Elizabeth F

    2015-01-01

    Older adults comprise approximately 50% of patients admitted to critical care units in the United States. This population is particularly susceptible to multiple morbidities that can be exacerbated by confounding factors like age-related safety risks, polypharmacy, poor nutrition, and social isolation. The elderly are particularly vulnerable to health conditions (heart disease, stroke, and diabetes) that put them at greater risk of morbidity and mortality. When an older adult presents to the emergency department with 1 or more of these life-altering diagnoses, an admission to the intensive care unit is often inevitable. Pain is one of the most pervasive manifestations exhibited by intensive care unit patients. There are myriad challenges for critical care nurses in caring for patients experiencing pain-inadequate communication (cognitively impaired or intubated patients), addressing the concerns of family members, or gaps in patients' knowledge. The purpose of this article was to discuss the multidimensional nature of pain and identify concepts innate to pain homeostenosis for elderly patients in the critical care setting. Evidence-based strategies, including an interprofessional team approach and best practice recommendations regarding pharmacological and nonpharmacological pain management, are presented. PMID:26039645

  9. Instruments to assess mobility limitation in community-dwelling older adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jane; Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire J

    2015-04-01

    Mobility is critical in maintaining independence in older adults. This study aims to systematically review the scientific literature to identify measures of mobility limitation for community-dwelling older adults. A systematic search of PubMed, CINAHL, and psycINFO, using the search terms "mobility limitation", "mobility disability", and "mobility difficulty" yielded 1,847 articles from 1990 to 2012; a final selection of 103 articles was used for the present manuscript. Tools to measure mobility were found to be either self-report or performance-based instruments. Commonly measured constructs of mobility included walking, climbing stairs, and lower extremity function. There was heterogeneity in ways of defining and measuring mobility limitation in older adults living in the community. Given the lack of consistency in assessment tools for mobility, a clear understanding and standardization of instruments are required for comparison across studies and for better understanding indicators and outcomes of mobility limitation in community-dwelling older adults. PMID:24589525

  10. Activity-related energy expenditure in older adults: a call for more research.

    PubMed

    Hall, Katherine S; Morey, Miriam C; Dutta, Chhanda; Manini, Todd M; Weltman, Arthur L; Nelson, Miriam E; Morgan, Amy L; Senior, Jane G; Seyffarth, Chris; Buchner, David M

    2014-12-01

    The purposes of this article were to 1) provide an overview of the science of physical activity-related energy expenditure in older adults (?65 yr), 2) offer suggestions for future research and guidelines for how scientists should be reporting their results in this area, and 3) present strategies for making these data more accessible to the layperson. This article was meant to serve as a preliminary blueprint for future empirical work in the area of energy expenditure in older adults and translational efforts to make these data useful and accurate for older adults. This document was based upon deliberations of experts involved in the Strategic Health Initiative on Aging Committee of the American College of Sports Medicine. The article was designed to reach a broad audience who might not be familiar with the complexities of assessing energy expenditure, especially in older adults. PMID:24714651

  11. Optimizing the Benefits of Exercise on Physical Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Buford, Thomas W.; Anton, Stephen D.; Clark, David J.; Higgins, Torrance J.; Cooke, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    As the number of older adults continues to rise worldwide, the prevention of physical disability among seniors is an increasingly important public health priority. Physical exercise is among the best known methods of preventing disability, but accumulating evidence indicates that considerable variability exists in the responsiveness of older adults to standard training regimens. Accordingly, a need exists to develop tailored interventions to optimize the beneficial effects of exercise on the physical function of older adults at risk for becoming disabled. The present review summarizes the available literature related to the use of adjuvant or alternative strategies intended to enhance the efficacy of exercise in improving the physical function of older adults. Within this work, we also discuss potential future research directions in this area. PMID:24361365

  12. Sources of strength-training information and strength-training behavior among Japanese older adults.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Ai; Lee, Euna; Oka, Koichiro; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2014-07-01

    The promotion of strength training is now recognized as an important component of public health initiatives for older adults. To develop successful communication strategies to increase strength-training behavior among older adults, the identification of effective communication channels to reach older adults is necessary. This study aimed to identify the information sources about strength training that were associated with strength-training behaviors among Japanese older adults. The participants were 1144 adults (60-74 years old) randomly sampled from the registry of residential addresses. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted. The independent variables were sources of strength-training information (healthcare providers, friends, families, radio, television, newspapers, newsletters, posters, books, magazines, booklets, the Internet, lectures, other sources), and the dependent variable was regular strength-training behavior. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify potential relationships. After adjusting for demographic factors and all other information sources, strength-training information from healthcare providers, friends, books and the Internet were positively related to regular strength-training behavior. The findings of the present study contribute to a better understanding of strength-training behavior and the means of successful communication directed at increasing strength training among older adults. The results suggest that healthcare providers, friends, books and the Internet are effective methods of communication for increasing strength-training behaviors among older adults. PMID:24997193

  13. Diabetes self-care and the older adult.

    PubMed

    Weinger, Katie; Beverly, Elizabeth A; Smaldone, Arlene

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is highest in older adults, a population that is increasing. Diabetes self-care is complex with important recommendations for nutrition, physical activity, checking glucose levels, and taking medication. Older adults with diabetes have unique issues that impact self-care. As people age, their health status, support systems, physical and mental abilities, and nutritional requirements change. Furthermore, comorbidities, complications, and polypharmacy complicate diabetes self-care. Depression is also more common among the elderly and may lead to deterioration in self-care behaviors. Because of concerns about cognitive deficits and multiple comorbidities, adults older than 65 years are often excluded from research trials. Thus, little clinical evidence is available and the most appropriate treatment approaches and how to best support older patients' self-care efforts are unclear. This review summarizes the current literature, research findings, and expert and consensus recommendations with their rationales. PMID:24510969

  14. Risks of Combined Alcohol-Medication Use in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Alison A.; Whiteman, Elizabeth J.; Ward, Katherine T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many older adults drink alcohol and use medications that may be harmful when consumed together. Objective This article reviews the literature on alcohol and medication interactions with a focus on older adults. Methods Relevant articles were identified through a search of MEDLINE (1966-August 2006) for articles on alcohol medication interactions, diseases worsened by alcohol use, alcohol metabolism, absorption and distribution. Additional articles were identified by a manual search of the reference lists of the identified articles and review articles. Results Many older adults drink alcohol and take medications that may interact negatively with alcohol. Some of these interactions are due to age-related changes in the absorption, distribution and metabolism of alcohol and medications. Others are due to disulfiram-like reactions observed with some medications, exacerbation of therapeutic effects and adverse effects of medications when combined with alcohol, and alcohol’s interference with the effectiveness of some medications. Conclusions Older adults who drink alcohol and who take medications are at risk for a variety of harms depending on the amount of alcohol and the type of medications consumed. It is important for clinicians to know how much alcohol their older patients are drinking to be able to effectively assess their risks and to counsel them about safe use of alcohol and medications. Similarly, it is important for older adults to understand the potential risks of their combined alcohol and medication use to avoid the myriad of harms possible with unsafe use of these substances. PMID:17608249

  15. Emergency Department Utilization by Older Adults: a Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Lesley P.; Ackroyd-Stolarz, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    Background Emergency Departments (EDs) are playing an increasingly important role in the care of older adults. Characterizing ED usage will facilitate the planning for care delivery more suited to the complex health needs of this population. Methods In this retrospective cross-sectional study, administrative and clinical data were extracted from four study sites. Visits for patients aged 65 years or older were characterized using standard descriptive statistics. Results We analyzed 34,454 ED visits by older adults, accounting for 21.8% of the total ED visits for our study time period. Overall, 74.2% of patient visits were triaged as urgent or emergent. Almost half (49.8%) of visits involved diagnostic imaging, 62.1% involved lab work, and 30.8% involved consultation with hospital services. The most common ED diagnoses were symptom- or injury-related (25.0%, 17.1%. respectively). Length of stay increased with age group (Mann-Whitney U; p < .0001), as did the proportion of visits involving diagnostic testing and consultation (?2; p < .0001). Approximately 20% of older adults in our study population were admitted to hospital following their ED visit. Conclusions Older adults have distinct patterns of ED use. ED resource use intensity increases with age. These patterns may be used to target future interventions involving alternative care for older adults. PMID:25452824

  16. Forearm vascular responses to mental stress in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Heffernan, Matthew J.; Patel, Hardikkumar M.; Muller, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Forearm vascular conductance (FVC) increases in response to mental stress (verbal mental arithmetic) in young people. However, the effect of healthy aging and mental stress on FVC is unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that FVC and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) would be attenuated in older adults compared to young adults. In 13 young (27 ± 1 year) and 11 older (62 ± 1 year) subjects, we quantified heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), FVC (Doppler ultrasound), and CVC (laser Doppler flowmetry) in response to a 3?min bout of mental stress in the supine posture. Changes from baseline were compared between groups and physiological variables were also correlated. Older adults had a blunted HR response to mental stress (? = 7 ± 2 vs. 14 ± 2 beats/min) but ?MAP was comparable between groups (? = 11 ± 2 mmHg vs. 9 ± 1). During the third minute of mental stress, the %?FVC (?2 ± 5 vs. 31 ± 12%) and %?CVC (2 ± 6 vs. 31 ± 15%) were both impaired in older adults compared to young subjects. There was no relationship between ?HR and %?CVC in either group, but there was a positive relationship between ?HR and %?FVC in both young subjects (R = 0.610, P < 0.027) and older subjects (R = 0.615, P < 0.044), such that larger tachycardia was associated with higher forearm vasodilation. These data indicate that older adults have impaired forearm vasodilation in response to mental stress. PMID:24744859

  17. Investigating Mobile Text Entry for Older Adults

    E-print Network

    Dunlop, Mark D.

    , particularly on modern touchscreen phones. Reduced visual acuity, motor control and working memory are all that older users may be more willing to adopt new keyboard layouts than younger users, who were reluctant

  18. Cautiousness and Visual Selective Attention Performance of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panek, Paul E.; Rush, Michael C.

    Older adults are significantly slower than young adults in the naming response in the Stroop Color Word Interference Test. Hypotheses attempting to explain this age-related difference in a perceptual-cognitive task have included orthogenic principle, response-competition, and cautiousness. This study examines whether there are any significant…

  19. Older Adults, Chronic Disease and Leisure-Time Physical Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maureen C. Ashe; William C. Miller; Janice J. Eng; Luc Noreau

    2009-01-01

    Background: Participating in regular physical activity is an important part of healthy aging. There is an increased risk for inactivity associated with aging and the risk becomes greater for adults who have a chronic disease. However, there is limited information on current physical activity levels for older adults and even less for those with chronic diseases. Objective: Our primary objective

  20. Perceptions of Physical Activity by Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancey, Jonine M.; Clarke, Ann; Howat, Peter; Maycock, Bruce; Lee, Andy H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify issues and perceptions concerning physical activity in older adults. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Perth, Western Australia. Methods: Sixteen adults aged 65 to 74 years were interviewed in their own homes using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using a descriptive qualitative methodology.…

  1. The Structure of Verbal Abilities in Young and Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Kemper; Aaron Sumner

    2001-01-01

    Four language sample measures as well as measures of vocabulary, verbal fluency, and memory span were obtained from a sample of young adults and a sample of older adults. Factor analysis was used to analyze the structure of the vocabulary, fluency, and span measures for each age group. Then an \\

  2. Interventions to Prevent Falls Among Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence Z. Rubenstein; Judy A. Stevens; Vicky Scott

    Falls consistently rank among the most serious problems facing older persons and cause a tremendous amount of morbidity, mortality,\\u000a and disability (Brown, 1999; Nevitt, 1997; Robbins et al., 1989; Rubenstein, Josephson, & Robbins, 1994; Tinetti, Williams,\\u000a & Mayewski, 1986). At least a third of community-dwelling people aged 65 years and older fall each year (Centers for Disease\\u000a Control and Prevention

  3. Entity versus incremental theories predict older adults' memory performance.

    PubMed

    Plaks, Jason E; Chasteen, Alison L

    2013-12-01

    The authors examined whether older adults' implicit theories regarding the modifiability of memory in particular (Studies 1 and 3) and abilities in general (Study 2) would predict memory performance. In Study 1, individual differences in older adults' endorsement of the "entity theory" (a belief that one's ability is fixed) or "incremental theory" (a belief that one's ability is malleable) of memory were measured using a version of the Implicit Theories Measure (Dweck, 1999). Memory performance was assessed with a free-recall task. Results indicated that the higher the endorsement of the incremental theory, the better the free recall. In Study 2, older and younger adults' theories were measured using a more general version of the Implicit Theories Measure that focused on the modifiability of abilities in general. Again, for older adults, the higher the incremental endorsement, the better the free recall. Moreover, as predicted, implicit theories did not predict younger adults' memory performance. In Study 3, participants read mock news articles reporting evidence in favor of either the entity or incremental theory. Those in the incremental condition outperformed those in the entity condition on reading span and free-recall tasks. These effects were mediated by pretask worry such that, for those in the entity condition, higher worry was associated with lower performance. Taken together, these studies suggest that variation in entity versus incremental endorsement represents a key predictor of older adults' memory performance. PMID:24128076

  4. Older and younger adults' accuracy in discerning health and competence in older and younger faces.

    PubMed

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Franklin, Robert G; Boshyan, Jasmine; Luevano, Victor; Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Milosavljevic, Bosiljka; Lachman, Margie E

    2014-09-01

    We examined older and younger adults' accuracy judging the health and competence of faces. Accuracy differed significantly from chance and varied with face age but not rater age. Health ratings were more accurate for older than younger faces, with the reverse for competence ratings. Accuracy was greater for low attractive younger faces, but not for low attractive older faces. Greater accuracy judging older faces' health was paralleled by greater validity of attractiveness and looking older as predictors of their health. Greater accuracy judging younger faces' competence was paralleled by greater validity of attractiveness and a positive expression as predictors of their competence. Although the ability to recognize variations in health and cognitive ability is preserved in older adulthood, the effects of face age on accuracy and the different effects of attractiveness across face age may alter social interactions across the life span. PMID:25244467

  5. Cumulative exposure to traumatic events in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Ogle, Christin M.; Rubin, David C.; Siegler, Ilene C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present study examined the impact of cumulative trauma exposure on current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity in a nonclinical sample of adults in their 60s. The predictive utility of cumulative trauma exposure was compared to other known predictors of PTSD, including trauma severity, personality traits, social support, and event centrality. Method Community-dwelling adults (n = 2,515) from the crest of the Baby Boom generation completed the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire, the PTSD Checklist, the NEO Personality Inventory, the Centrality of Event Scale, and rated their current social support. Results Cumulative trauma exposure predicted greater PTSD symptom severity in hierarchical regression analyses consistent with a dose-response model. Neuroticism and event centrality also emerged as robust predictors of PTSD symptom severity. In contrast, the severity of individuals’ single most distressing life event, as measured by self-report ratings of the A1 PTSD diagnostic criterion, did not add explanatory variance to the model. Analyses concerning event categories revealed that cumulative exposure to childhood violence and adulthood physical assaults were most strongly associated with PTSD symptom severity in older adulthood. Moreover, cumulative self-oriented events accounted for a larger percentage of variance in symptom severity compared to events directed at others. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the cumulative impact of exposure to traumatic events throughout the life course contributes significantly to post-traumatic stress in older adulthood above and beyond other known predictors of PTSD. PMID:24011223

  6. Operationalizing environmental indicators for physical activity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Strath, Scott; Isaacs, Raymond; Greenwald, Michael J

    2007-10-01

    This qualitative study describes environmental supports and barriers to physical activity in an older adult sample drawn from low- and high-walkable neighborhoods. Thirty-seven individuals age 55 and over were recruited and answered open-ended survey questions, with a subsample invited back to partake in a semistructured interview. Content analysis identified categories and themes linking perceptions of neighborhood-environment characteristics to activity. Emerging categories and themes did not differ across neighborhood walkability, so results are presented for both groups combined. Infrastructure was the most common category identified to encourage activity, specifically, well-maintained sidewalks, bike paths or lanes, and traffic control. Other categories of land use, landscape, and aesthetics were reported. Poorly maintained or missing sidewalks, crosswalks, bike paths or lanes, and traffic safety were categories that discouraged activity. In conclusion, the information obtained is helpful in solidifying which environmental characteristics are important to measure as they relate to activity behavior in an older adult population. PMID:18048945

  7. Workshop on idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in older adults.

    PubMed

    Castriotta, Richard J; Eldadah, Basil A; Foster, W Michael; Halter, Jeffrey B; Hazzard, William R; Kiley, James P; King, Talmadge E; Horne, Frances McFarland; Nayfield, Susan G; Reynolds, Herbert Y; Schmader, Kenneth E; Toews, Galen B; High, Kevin P

    2010-09-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a heterogeneous disease with respect to clinical presentation and rates of progression, disproportionately affects older adults. The diagnosis of IPF is descriptive, based on clinical, radiologic, and histopathologic examination, and definitive diagnosis is hampered by poor interobserver agreement and lack of a consensus definition. There are no effective treatments. Cellular, molecular, genetic, and environmental risk factors have been identified for IPF, but the initiating event and the characteristics of preclinical stages are not known. IPF is predominantly a disease of older adults, and the processes underlying normal aging might significantly influence the development of IPF. Yet, the biology of aging and the principles of medical care for this population have been typically ignored in basic, translational, or clinical IPF research. In August 2009, the Association of Specialty Professors, in collaboration with the American College of Chest Physicians, the American Geriatrics Society, the National Institute on Aging, and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, held a workshop, summarized herein, to review what is known, to identify research gaps at the interface of aging and IPF, and to suggest priority areas for future research. Efforts to answer the questions identified will require the integration of geriatrics, gerontology, and pulmonary research, but these efforts have great potential to improve care for patients with IPF. PMID:20822991

  8. Spontaneous Strategy Use Protects Against Visual Working Memory Deficits in Older Adults Infected with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Steven Paul; Weber, Erica; Cameron, Marizela V.; Dawson, Matthew S.; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Bondi, Mark W.; Grant, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that older human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults are at particular risk for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), including dementia. Deficits in attention/working memory are posited to play a central role in the development of HAND among older adults. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible protective benefits of spontaneous strategy use during a visual working memory task in 46 older and 42 younger adults infected with HIV. Results revealed a significant interaction between age and strategy use, with older adults who used a meta-cognitive strategy demonstrating superior working memory performance versus non-strategy users. This effect was not observed in the younger HIV-infected sample and was not better explained by possible confounding factors, such as education, comorbid medical conditions, or HIV disease severity. Within the older group, strategy use was associated with better executive functions and higher estimated verbal intelligence. Findings from this study suggest that working memory declines in older HIV-infected adults are moderated by the use of higher-level mnemonic strategies and may inform cognitive neurorehabilitation efforts to improve cognitive and everyday functioning outcomes in older persons living with HIV infection. PMID:20876195

  9. Rethinking Adult Agency Programs: Writing Programs for Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Annamary Zappia

    A senior citizen agency in New York State explored the program development needs of the growing number of older women. Data were collected through telephone surveys of approximately 100 older women randomly selected from lists of present members, former members, and older women who had never been associated with the agency. Respondents were asked…

  10. Distinct effects of positive and negative music on older adults' auditory target identification performances.

    PubMed

    Vieillard, Sandrine; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Older adults, compared to younger adults, are more likely to attend to pleasant situations and avoid unpleasant ones. Yet, it is unclear whether such a phenomenon may be generalized to musical emotions. In this study, we investigated whether there is an age-related difference in how musical emotions are experienced and how positive and negative music influences attention performances in a target identification task. Thirty-one young and twenty-eight older adults were presented with 40 musical excerpts conveying happiness, peacefulness, sadness, and threat. While listening to music, participants were asked to rate their feelings and monitor each excerpt for the occurrence of an auditory target. Compared to younger adults, older adults reported experiencing weaker emotional activation when listening to threatening music and showed higher level of liking for happy music. Correct reaction times (RTs) for target identification were longer for threatening than for happy music in older adults but not in younger adults. This suggests that older adults benefit from a positive musical context and can regulate emotion elicited by negative music by decreasing attention towards it (and therefore towards the auditory target). PMID:24871301

  11. Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Anxiety Control Questionnaire among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerolimatos, Lindsay A.; Gould, Christine E.; Edelstein, Barry A.

    2012-01-01

    Among young adults and clinical populations, perceived inability to control internal and external events is associated with anxiety. At present, it is unclear what role perceived anxiety control plays in anxiety among older adults. The Anxiety Control Questionnaire (ACQ) was developed to assess one's perceived ability to cope with anxiety-related…

  12. Recruitment and Retention of Older Adults in Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Mody, Lona; Miller, Douglas K.; McGloin, Joanne M.; Div, M; Freeman, Marcie; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Magaziner, Jay; Studenski, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Older adults continue to be underrepresented in clinical research despite their burgeoning population in the United States and worldwide. Physicians often propose treatment plans for older adults based on data from studies involving primarily younger, more-functional, healthier participants. Major barriers to recruitment of older adults in aging research relate to their substantial health problems, social and cultural barriers, and potentially impaired capacity to provide informed consent. Institutionalized older adults offer another layer of complexity that requires cooperation from the institutions to participate in research activities. This paper provides study recruitment and retention techniques and strategies to address concerns and overcome barriers to older adult participation in clinical research. Key approaches include early in-depth planning; minimizing exclusion criteria; securing cooperation from all interested parties; using advisory boards, timely screening, identification, and approach of eligible patients; carefully reviewing the benefit:risk ratio to be sure it is appropriate; and employing strategies to ensure successful retention across the continuum of care. Targeting specific strategies to the condition, site, and population of interest and anticipating potential problems and promptly employing predeveloped contingency plans are keys to effective recruitment and retention. PMID:19093934

  13. Obesity, Intentional Weight Loss, and Physical Disability in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rejeski, W. Jack; Marsh, Anthony P.; Chmelo, Elizabeth; Rejeski, Jared J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary We examine obesity, intentional weight loss, and physical disability in older adults. Based on prospective epidemiological studies, BMI exhibits a curvilinear relationship with physical disability; there appears to be some protective effect associated with older adults being overweight. Whereas the greatest risk for physical disability occurs in older adults who are ?class II obesity, the effects of obesity on physical disability appears to be moderated by both sex and race. Obesity at age 30 constitutes a greater risk for disability later in life than when obesity develops at age 50 or later; however, physical activity may buffer the adverse effects obesity has on late life physical disability. Data from a limited number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) reinforce the important role that physical activity plays in weight loss programs for older adults. Furthermore, short-term studies have found that resistance training may be particularly beneficial in these programs since this mode of exercise attenuates the loss of fat-free mass during caloric restriction. Multi-year RCTs are needed to examine whether weight loss can alter the course of physical disablement in aging and to determine the long-term feasibility and effects of combining resistance exercise with weight loss in older adults. PMID:19922431

  14. Substance Abuse Treatment for Older Adults in Private Centers1

    PubMed Central

    Rothrauff, Tanja C.; Abraham, Amanda J.; Bride, Brian E.; Roman, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    By 2020, an estimated 4.4 million older adults will require substance abuse treatment compared to 1.7 million in 2000/01. This study examined the availability of special services for older adults, adoption of recommended treatment approaches, and organizational characteristics of centers that offer special services. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews with administrators and/or clinical directors from a nationally representative sample of 346 private treatment centers participating in the 2006/07 National Treatment Center Study. Results indicated that only 18% provided special services for older adults; age-specific recommendations were generally adopted; more older adult-specialty centers offered prescription drug addiction treatment, primary medical care, and housing assistance. The proportion of patients with Medicare payment predicted availability of special services. As more older adults will seek help with a myriad of SUDs over the next decade, treatment centers need to get ready for a plethora of challenges as well as unique opportunities for growth. PMID:21302179

  15. Workshop on immunizations in older adults: identifying future research agendas.

    PubMed

    High, Kevin P; D'Aquila, Richard T; Fuldner, Rebecca A; Gerding, Dale N; Halter, Jeffrey B; Haynes, Laura; Hazzard, William R; Jackson, Lisa A; Janoff, Edward; Levin, Myron J; Nayfield, Susan G; Nichol, Kristin L; Prabhudas, Mercy; Talbot, Helen K; Clayton, Charles P; Henderson, Randi; Scott, Catherine M; Tarver, Erika D; Woolard, Nancy F; Schmader, Kenneth E

    2010-04-01

    Goals for immunization in older adults may differ from those in young adults and children, in whom complete prevention of disease is the objective. Often, reduced hospitalization and death but also averting exacerbation of underlying chronic illness, functional decline, and frailty are important goals in the older age group. Because of the effect of age on dendritic cell function, T cell-mediated immune suppression, reduced proliferative capacity of T cells, and other immune responses, the efficacy of vaccines often wanes with advanced age. This article summarizes the discussion and proceedings of a workshop organized by the Association of Specialty Professors, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Geriatrics Society, the National Institute on Aging, and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Leading researchers and clinicians in the fields of immunology, epidemiology, infectious diseases, geriatrics, and gerontology reviewed the current status of vaccines in older adults, identified knowledge gaps, and suggest priority areas for future research. The goal of the workshop was to identify what is known about immunizations (efficacy, effect, and current schedule) in older adults and to recommend priorities for future research. Investigation in the areas identified has the potential to enhance understanding of the immune process in aging individuals, inform vaccine development, and lead to more-effective strategies to reduce the risk of vaccine-preventable illness in older adults. PMID:20398161

  16. Sleep disorders in the older adult - a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Neikrug, Ariel B; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 50% of older adults complain of difficulty sleeping. Poor sleep results in increased risk of significant morbidity and mortality. The decrements seen in the sleep of the older adult are often due to a decrease in the ability to get needed sleep. However, the decreased ability is less a function of age and more a function of other factors that accompany aging, such as medical and psychiatric illness, increased medication use, advances in the endogenous circadian clock and a higher prevalence of specific sleep disorders. Given the large number of older adults with sleep complaints and sleep disorders, there is a need for health care professionals to have an increased awareness of these sleep disturbances to better enable them to assess and treat these patients. A thorough sleep history (preferably in the presence of their bed partner) is required for a proper diagnosis, and when appropriate, an overnight sleep recording should be done. Treatment of primary sleep problems can improve the quality of life and daytime functioning of older adults. This paper reviews the diagnoses and characteristics of sleep disorders generally found in the older adult. While aimed at the practicing geriatrician, this paper is also of importance for any gerontologist interested in sleep. PMID:19738366

  17. Older adults in the Emergency Department: predicting physicians' burden levels.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, John G; Deimling, Gary T; Meldon, Stephen; Woolard, Bert

    2006-05-01

    The aging of the U.S population will have impact on hospital Emergency Departments (ED) nationwide. To date, ED research has focused on utilization rates and acuity without considering issues of burden and stress that emergency physicians may experience caring for the increasing numbers of older adult patients. Results of a survey of Emergency Medicine residents and their attendings indicates that physicians overestimate the percentage of their patient load aged 65 years and older, have less confidence managing older patients, and desire more geriatric Emergency Medicine training. Based on regression analysis, several factors predict higher levels of emergency physician burden including training level, experiences, patient census estimate gaps, and relational issues with patients. Findings suggest the need to systematically address how the profession of Emergency Medicine is responding to its growing older adult patient population. PMID:16740465

  18. Worry in Older Community-Residing Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Kaye; Clemson, Lindy; Cant, Rosemary; Ke, Liang; Cumming, Robert G.; Kendig, Hal; Mathews, Mark

    2011-01-01

    With rising longevity, increasing numbers of older people are experiencing changes in their everyday family and social life, changes in their financial status, and a greater number of chronic conditions affecting their health. We took the opportunity to explore these relationships with worry in a group of volunteer community-living elderly (n =…

  19. OLDER ADULTS: AN ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSCEPTIBLE POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The baby boom generation is quickly becoming the geriatric generation. The over-65 age bracket hit 13% of Americans in 1997, and is expected to reach 20% by 2030 accounting for 73 million Americans. World-wide the total number of older people (>60years) is expected to double from...

  20. The structure of verbal abilities in young and older adults

    E-print Network

    Kemper, Susan; Sumner, Aaron

    2001-06-01

    of anomia. In H. Whitaker & H. A. Whitaker (Eds.), Studies in neurolinguistics (Vol. 4, pp. 293-328). New York: Academic. Bentler, P. M. (1989). Theory and implementation of EQS: A structural equations program. Los Angeles, CA: BMDP Statistical Software... undergraduate students recruited through both electronic mailings and posted announcements. The older participants were community-dwelling older adults recruited from a roster of previous research participants. All participants were native speakers...

  1. Multidimensional Attitudes of Emergency Medicine Residents Toward Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Teresita M.; Chan, Shu B.; Hansoti, Bhakti

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The demands of our rapidly expanding older population strain many emergency departments (EDs), and older patients experience disproportionately high adverse health outcomes. Trainee attitude is key in improving care for older adults. There is negligible knowledge of baseline emergency medicine (EM) resident attitudes regarding elder patients. Awareness of baseline attitudes can serve to better structure training for improved care of older adults. The objective of the study is to identify baseline EM resident attitudes toward older adults using a validated attitude scale and multidimensional analysis. Methods Six EM residencies participated in a voluntary anonymous survey delivered in summer and fall 2009. We used factor analysis using the principal components method and Varimax rotation, to analyze attitude interdependence, translating the 21 survey questions into 6 independent dimensions. We adapted this survey from a validated instrument by the addition of 7 EM-specific questions to measures attitudes relevant to emergency care of elders and the training of EM residents in the geriatric competencies. Scoring was performed on a 5-point Likert scale. We compared factor scores using student t and ANOVA. Results 173 EM residents participated showing an overall positive attitude toward older adults, with a factor score of 3.79 (3.0 being a neutral score). Attitudes trended to more negative in successive post-graduate year (PGY) levels. Conclusion EM residents demonstrate an overall positive attitude towards the care of older adults. We noted a longitudinal hardening of attitude in social values, which are more negative in successive PGY-year levels. PMID:25035760

  2. Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures in the older adult.

    PubMed

    Yates, Erica

    2014-05-01

    Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are classified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, as a functional neurological symptom disorder. This disorder is often misdiagnosed as epilepsy, with the consequence that older adults may have been treated for years for epilepsy before they learn their seizures are non-epileptic. Video electroencephalography monitoring, which is the standardized approach for ruling out epilepsy, is often performed in a specialized epilepsy monitoring unit where the patient lies in bed 24 hours per day waiting for a seizure to be recorded. The immobility, loss of independence, and anxiety that occurs during the monitoring process can be difficult for older adults. It is important for all nurses to be aware of PNES and to be sensitive to the unique needs of older adults who are experiencing these seizures. PMID:24815758

  3. Nutritional Vulnerability in Older Adults: A Continuum of Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; McDonald, Shelley R.; Bales, Connie W.

    2015-01-01

    A nutritionally vulnerable older adult has a reduced physical reserve that limits the ability to mount a vigorous recovery in the face of an acute health threat or stressor. Often this vulnerability contributes to more medical complications, longer hospital stays, and increased likelihood of nursing home admission. We have characterized in this review the etiology of nutritional vulnerability across the continuum of the community, hospital, and long term care settings. Frail older adults may become less vulnerable with strong, consistent, and individualized nutritional care. Interventions for the vulnerable older adult must take their nutritional needs into account to optimize resiliency in the face of the acute and/or chronic health challenges they will surely face in their life course. PMID:26042189

  4. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease prevention in older adults.

    PubMed

    Cigolle, Christine T; Blaum, Caroline S; Halter, Jeffrey B

    2009-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of death as well as a leading cause of disability and impaired quality of life in older adults with diabetes. Therefore, preventing cardiovascular events in this population is an important goal of care. Available evidence supports the use of lipid-lowering agents and treatment of hypertension as effective measures to reduce cardiovascular risk in older adults with diabetes. Glucose control, smoking cessation, weight control, regular physical activity, and a prudent diet are also recommended, although data supporting the efficacy of these interventions are limited. While reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality remains a primary objective of preventive cardiology in older adults with diabetes, the impact of these interventions on functional well-being, cognition, and other geriatric syndromes requires further study. PMID:19944264

  5. Falls risk in older adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Vinik, Aaron I; Vinik, Etta J; Colberg, Sheri R; Morrison, Steven

    2015-02-01

    Falls are a major health issue for older adults, especially for those who develop type 2 diabetes who must contend with age-related declines in balance, muscle strength, and walking ability. They must also contend with health-related issues specific to the disease process. Given the general association between these variables and falls, being able to identify which measures negatively impact on balance in older diabetic persons is a critical step. Moreover, designing specific interventions to target these physiologic functions underlying balance and gait control will produce the greatest benefit for reducing falls in older persons with diabetes. PMID:25453303

  6. Emergency Department Visits by Older Adults for Motor Vehicle Collisions

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Jody A.; Ginde, Adit A.; Lowenstein, Steven R.; Betz, Marian E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: To describe the epidemiology and characteristics of emergency department (ED) visits by older adults for motor vehicle collisions (MVC) in the United States (U.S.). Methods: We analyzed ED visits for MVCs using data from the 2003–2007 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). Using U.S. Census data, we calculated annual incidence rates of driver or passenger MVC-related ED visits and examined visit characteristics, including triage acuity, tests performed and hospital admission or discharge. We compared older (65+ years) and younger (18–64 years) MVC patients and calculated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to measure the strength of associations between age group and various visit characteristics. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of admissions for MVC-related injuries among older adults. Results: From 2003–2007, there were an average of 237,000 annual ED visits by older adults for MVCs. The annual ED visit rate for MVCs was 6.4 (95% CI 4.6–8.3) visits per 1,000 for older adults and 16.4 (95% CI 14.0–18.8) visits per 1,000 for younger adults. Compared to younger MVC patients, after adjustment for gender, race and ethnicity, older MVC patients were more likely to have at least one imaging study performed (OR 3.69, 95% CI 1.46–9.36). Older MVC patients were not significantly more likely to arrive by ambulance (OR 1.47; 95% CI 0.76–2.86), have a high triage acuity (OR 1.56; 95% CI 0.77–3.14), or to have a diagnosis of a head, spinal cord or torso injury (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.42–2.23) as compared to younger MVC patients after adjustment for gender, race and ethnicity. Overall, 14.5% (95% CI 9.8–19.2) of older MVC patients and 6.1% (95% CI 4.8–7.5) of younger MVC patients were admitted to the hospital. There was also a non-statistically significant trend toward hospital admission for older versus younger MVC patients (OR 1.78; 95% CI 0.71–4.43), and admission to the ICU if hospitalized (OR 6.9, 95% CI 0.9–51.9), after adjustment for gender, race, ethnicity, and injury acuity. Markers of injury acuity studied included EMS arrival, high triage acuity category, ED imaging, and diagnosis of a head, spinal cord or internal injury. Conclusion: Although ED visits after MVC for older adults are less common per capita, older adults are more commonly admitted to the hospital and ICU. Older MVC victims require significant ED resources in terms of diagnostic imaging as compared to younger MVC patients. As the U.S. population ages, and as older adults continue to drive, EDs will have to allocate appropriate resources and develop diagnostic and treatment protocols to care for the increased volume of older adult MVC victims. PMID:24381674

  7. Home modification by older adults and their informal caregivers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heejung; Ahn, Yong Han; Steinhoff, Andreanna; Lee, Kang Hee

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine dyadic factors of home modification in frail older adults and their informal caregivers for improving health care at home in the United States. A secondary data analysis used the National Alliance for Caregiving and the American Association of Retired Persons caregiver survey dataset. Among randomly selected samples from 7 states in the U.S., 737dyads of informal caregivers and frail older adults were selected based on age and medical conditions. Descriptive analyses and a hierarchical binary logistic regression analysis were performed. The study findings showed that the prevalence of home modification in the survey population was 42.20% in the United States. The home modifying group was likely to live together in a rural area, to consist of older care-recipients and younger caregivers, and to be Caucasian (p<.05). Physically functional impairments were the strongest factors of home modification (p<.01), while older adults living with heart disease were more likely to modify their homes (p=.03). In conclusion, older adults' and their caregivers' factors clearly affect home modification for health care at home. Our findings revealed that home modification represents an important contribution to multidisciplinary care and is based on comprehensive assessments, multidisciplinary decision-making processes, and careful planning of individualized interventions. Relevant policy suggestions may enhance the effectiveness of home modification to support aging in place in the United States. PMID:25109810

  8. Older adults’ preferences for colorectal cancer-screening test attributes and test choice

    PubMed Central

    Kistler, Christine E; Hess, Thomas M; Howard, Kirsten; Pignone, Michael P; Crutchfield, Trisha M; Hawley, Sarah T; Brenner, Alison T; Ward, Kimberly T; Lewis, Carmen L

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding which attributes of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening tests drive older adults’ test preferences and choices may help improve decision making surrounding CRC screening in older adults. Materials and methods To explore older adults’ preferences for CRC-screening test attributes and screening tests, we conducted a survey with a discrete choice experiment (DCE), a directly selected preferred attribute question, and an unlabeled screening test-choice question in 116 cognitively intact adults aged 70–90 years, without a history of CRC or inflammatory bowel disease. Each participant answered ten discrete choice questions presenting two hypothetical tests comprised of four attributes: testing procedure, mortality reduction, test frequency, and complications. DCE responses were used to estimate each participant’s most important attribute and to simulate their preferred test among three existing CRC-screening tests. For each individual, we compared the DCE-derived attributes to directly selected attributes, and the DCE-derived preferred test to a directly selected unlabeled test. Results Older adults do not overwhelmingly value any one CRC-screening test attribute or prefer one type of CRC-screening test over other tests. However, small absolute DCE-derived preferences for the testing procedure attribute and for sigmoidoscopy-equivalent screening tests were revealed. Neither general health, functional, nor cognitive health status were associated with either an individual’s most important attribute or most preferred test choice. The DCE-derived most important attribute was associated with each participant’s directly selected unlabeled test choice. Conclusion Older adults’ preferences for CRC-screening tests are not easily predicted. Medical providers should actively explore older adults’ preferences for CRC screening, so that they can order a screening test that is concordant with their patients’ values. Effective interventions are needed to support complex decision making surrounding CRC screening in older adults.

  9. Innovations in dental care delivery for the older adult.

    PubMed

    Bethel, Lynn Ann; Kim, Esther E; Seitz, Charles M; Swann, Brian J

    2014-10-01

    Access to and reducing disparities in oral health for older adults is a complex problem that requires innovative strategies. In addition to offering dental services in alternative settings, such as senior centers, places that are familiar to older adults, and where physical limitations can be better accommodated, alternatives to the traditional provider should be considered. Many states are changing laws and practice acts to allow dental hygienists to provide preventive services without the supervision of a dentist. Also, collaborations between dental and non-dental professionals can be a successful strategy for increasing access to oral health care for this high-risk population. PMID:25201546

  10. Caring for older adults with dementia when disaster strikes.

    PubMed

    Adelman, Deborah S; Legg, Timothy J

    2010-08-01

    Diseaser emergencies are occurring with seemingly increased frequency. The likelihood that gerontological nurse will be involved in a disaster scenario, regardless of practices setting, is real. Instead of recoiling from this likelihood, the best approach is preparedness. In this article we examine what constitutes a disaster and how it differs from an emergency, as well as the potential impact of disaster on older adults in general and those with dementia in particular. Concepts of sheltering in plac, caring for older adults with dementia in a temporary shelter, and partnering with nurses in acute care settings are discussed. PMID:20669858

  11. Subjective Experiences of Older Adults Practicing Taiji and Qigong

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; DeCelle, Sharon; Reed, Mike; Rosengren, Karl; Schlagal, Robert; Greene, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative study following a 6-month Taiji (T'ai Chi)/Qigong (Ch'i Kung) intervention for older adults. The researchers conducted in-depth interviews of eight selected participants who elected to continue practicing Taiji after the intervention ended, in order to explore their subjective experiences of Taiji's effects and their motivations for continuing to practice. We created a Layers Model to capture the significance and meaning of the multidimensionality of their reported experiences. Participants not only reported simple benefits along five dimensions of experience (physical, mental, emotional, social and spiritual) but also described complex multidimensional experiences. Overall findings indicate that participants derived a very wide variety of perceived benefits, the most meaningful being a felt sense of body-mind-spirit integration. Our results support the important role of qualitative studies in researching the effects of Taiji and Qigong. PMID:21773028

  12. Use of affective prosody by young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, Kate; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen

    2010-03-01

    Emotion is conveyed in speech by semantic content (what is said) and by prosody (how it is said). Prior research suggests that older adults benefit from linguistic prosody when comprehending language but that they have difficulty understanding affective prosody. In a series of 3 experiments, young and older adults listened to sentences in which the emotional cues conveyed by semantic content and affective prosody were either congruent or incongruent and then indicated whether the talker sounded happy or sad. When judging the emotion of the talker, young adults were more attentive to the affective prosodic cues than to the semantic cues, whereas older adults performed less consistently when these cues conflicted. Participants' reading and repetition of the sentences were recorded so that age- and emotion-related changes in the production of emotional speech cues could be examined. Both young and older adults were able to produce affective prosody. The age-related difference in perceiving emotion was eliminated when listeners repeated the sentences before responding, consistent with previous findings regarding the beneficial role of repetition in conversation. The results of these experiments suggest that there are age-related differences in interpreting affective prosody but that repeating may be a compensatory strategy that could minimize the everyday consequences of these differences. PMID:20230124

  13. Toward a New Motivation to Learn Framework for Older Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yi-Yin; Sandmann, Lorilee R.

    2012-01-01

    Although existing literature addresses adults' motivation to learn, and some specifically focuses on older adults, it is now recognized that older adults are more heterogeneous and complex than other age groups. Therefore, this study seeks to provide an alternative theoretical framework to investigate motivation to learn for older adult learners…

  14. Executive performance in older Portuguese adults with low education.

    PubMed

    Pavão Martins, Isabel; Maruta, Carolina; Freitas, Vanda; Mares, Inês

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of executive functions is essential in clinical diagnosis, yet there are limited data regarding the performance of participants with low education. We present results on several measures of executive functions obtained in community-dwelling adults with an overall low education and study the effect of this variable in each test. A sample of 479 adults (64% female, mean age 66.4 years) was assessed by a battery comprising 13 measures of executive function (Trail Making Test; Symbol Search; Matrix reasoning; Semantic and phonemic verbal fluencies; Stroop test; and digit spans). Tests' psychometric properties and the effects of age, gender, and education were studied across education levels within each age group. Tests showed good psychometric properties. Education explained more variance than age in the majority of measures, with lower educational levels being significantly associated to worse scores. Tables are presented with mean scores, standard deviation, and the value of extreme percentiles for younger (50-65, N = 232) and older (>65 years, N = 247) × education (0-3, 4, 5-9, and >9 years) subgroups. Education-adjusted norms are necessary for an adequate interpretation of test results. The present data may be useful for clinicians caring for populations with low literacy. PMID:23259850

  15. Neural Correlates Associated with Successful Working Memory Performance in Older Adults as Revealed by Spatial ICA

    PubMed Central

    Saliasi, Emi; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M.; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate which neural correlates are associated with successful working memory performance, fMRI was recorded in healthy younger and older adults during performance on an n-back task with varying task demands. To identify functional networks supporting working memory processes, we used independent component analysis (ICA) decomposition of the fMRI data. Compared to younger adults, older adults showed a larger neural (BOLD) response in the more complex (2-back) than in the baseline (0-back) task condition, in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and in the right fronto-parietal network (FPN). Our results indicated that a higher BOLD response in the VLPFC was associated with increased performance accuracy in older adults, in both the baseline and the more complex task condition. This ‘BOLD-performance’ relationship suggests that the neural correlates linked with successful performance in the older adults are not uniquely related to specific working memory processes present in the complex but not in the baseline task condition. Furthermore, the selective presence of this relationship in older but not in younger adults suggests that increased neural activity in the VLPFC serves a compensatory role in the aging brain which benefits task performance in the elderly. PMID:24911016

  16. Proactive effects of memory in young and older adults: the role of change recollection.

    PubMed

    Wahlheim, Christopher N

    2014-08-01

    Age-related deficits in episodic memory are sometimes attributed to older adults being more susceptible to proactive interference. These deficits have been explained by impaired abilities to inhibit competing information and to recollect target information. In the present article, I propose that a change recollection deficit also contributes to age differences in proactive interference. Change recollection occurs when individuals can remember how information changed across episodes, and this counteracts proactive interference by preserving the temporal order of information. Three experiments were conducted to determine whether older adults are less likely to counteract proactive interference by recollecting change. Paired-associate learning paradigms with two lists of word pairs included pairs that repeated across lists, pairs that only appeared in List 2 (control items), and pairs with cues that repeated and responses that changed across lists. Young and older adults' abilities to detect changed pairs in List 2 and to later recollect those changes at test were measured, along with cued recall of the List 2 responses and confidence in recall performance. Change recollection produced proactive facilitation in the recall of changed pairs, whereas the failure to recollect change resulted in proactive interference. Confidence judgments were sensitive to these effects. The critical finding was that older adults recollected change less than did young adults, and this partially explained older adults' greater susceptibility to proactive interference. These findings have theoretical implications, showing that a change recollection deficit contributes to age-related deficits in episodic memory. PMID:24710672

  17. Operative risk stratification in the older adult.

    PubMed

    Scandrett, Karen G; Zuckerbraun, Brian S; Peitzman, Andrew B

    2015-02-01

    As the population ages, the health care system must to adapt to the needs of the older population. Hospitalization risks are particularly significant in the frail geriatric patients, with costly and morbid consequences. Appropriate preoperative assessment can identify sources of increased risk and enable the surgical team to manage this risk, through "prehabilitation," intraoperative modification, and postoperative care. Geriatric preoperative assessment expands usual risk stratification and careful medication review to include screening for functional disability, cognitive impairment, nutritional deficiency, and frailty. The information gathered can also equip the surgeon to develop a patient-centered and realistic treatment plan. PMID:25459549

  18. Negative emotional outcomes impair older adults' reversal learning.

    PubMed

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Mather, Mara; Gorlick, Marissa A; Nga, Lin

    2011-09-01

    In a typical reversal-learning experiment, one learns stimulus-outcome contingencies that then switch without warning. For instance, participants might have to repeatedly choose between two faces, one of which yields points whereas the other does not, with a reversal at some point in which face yields points. The current study examined age differences in the effects of outcome type on reversal learning. In the first experiment, the participants' task was either to select the person who would be in a better mood or to select the person who would yield more points. Reversals in which face was the correct option occurred several times. Older adults did worse in blocks in which the correct response was to select the person who would not be angry than in blocks in which the correct response was to select the person who would smile. Younger adults did not show a difference by emotional valence. In the second study, the negative condition was switched to have the same format as the positive condition (to select who will be angry). Again, older adults did worse with negative than positive outcomes, whereas younger adults did not show a difference by emotional valence. A third experiment replicated the lack of valence effects in younger adults with a harder probabilistic reversal-learning task. In the first two experiments, older adults performed about as well as younger adults in the positive conditions but performed worse in the negative conditions. These findings suggest that negative emotional outcomes selectively impair older adults' reversal learning. PMID:21432639

  19. Negative Emotional Outcomes Impair Older Adults' Reversal Learning

    PubMed Central

    Nashiro, Kaoru; Mather, Mara; Gorlick, Marissa A.; Nga, Lin

    2010-01-01

    In a typical reversal-learning experiment, one learns stimulus-outcome contingencies that then switch without warning. For instance, participants might have to repeatedly choose between two faces, one of which yields points whereas the other does not, with a reversal at some point in which face yields points. The current study examined age differences in the effects of outcome type on reversal learning. In the first experiment, the participants' task was either to select the person who would be in a better mood or to select the person who would yield more points. Reversals in which face was the correct option occurred several times. Older adults did worse in blocks in which the correct response was to select the person who would not be angry than in blocks in which the correct response was to select the person who would smile. Younger adults did not show a difference by emotional valence. In the second study, the negative condition was switched to have the same format as the positive condition (to select who will be angry). Again, older adults did worse with negative than positive outcomes, whereas younger adults did not show a difference by emotional valence. A third experiment replicated the lack of valence effects in younger adults with a harder probabilistic reversal-learning task. In the first two experiments, older adults performed about as well as younger adults in the positive conditions but performed worse in the negative conditions. These findings suggest that negative emotional outcomes selectively impair older adults' reversal learning. PMID:21432639

  20. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in U.S. older adults: findings from a nationally representative survey

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Kristin; Pietrzak, Robert H; El-Gabalawy, Renée; Mackenzie, Corey S; Sareen, Jitender

    2015-01-01

    Data on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in late life are lacking. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by examining the prevalence of the broadest range of psychiatric disorders in late life to date; comparing prevalences across older adult age groups using the largest sample of adults aged 85+; and exploring gender differences in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in late life. Using data from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, we examined the prevalence of past-year mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, and lifetime personality disorders in a nationally representative sample of 12,312 U.S. older adults. We stratified our analyses by gender and by older age groups: young-old (ages 55-64), middle-old (ages 65-74), old-old (ages 75-84), and oldest-old (ages 85+). The proportion of older adults who experienced any past-year anxiety disorder was 11.4%, while the prevalence of any past-year mood disorder was 6.8%. A total of 3.8% of older adults met criteria for any past-year substance use disorder, and 14.5% of older adults had one or more personality disorder. We observed a general pattern of decreasing rates of psychiatric disorders with increasing age. Women experienced higher rates of mood and anxiety disorders, while men had higher rates of substance use disorders and any personality disorder. Gender differences in rates of most psychiatric disorders decreased with increasing age. These data indicate that psychiatric disorders are prevalent among U.S. older adults, and support the importance of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of psychiatric disorders in this population. PMID:25655161

  1. When Distraction Holds Relevance: A Prospective Memory Benefit for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Joana S; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating to show that age-related increases in susceptibility to distracting information can benefit older more than young adults in several cognitive tasks. Here we focus on prospective memory (i.e., remembering to carry out future intentions) and examine the effect of presenting distracting information that is intention-related as a function of age. Young and older adults performed an ongoing 1-back working memory task to a rapid stream of pictures superimposed with to-be-ignored letter strings. Participants were additionally instructed to respond to target pictures (namely, animals) and, for half of the participants, some strings prior to the targets were intention-related words (i.e., animals). Results showed that presenting intention-related distracting information during the ongoing task was particularly advantageous for target detection in older compared to young adults. Moreover, a prospective memory benefit was observed even for older adults who showed no explicit memory for the target distracter words. We speculate that intention-related distracter information enhanced the accessibility of the prospective memory task and suggest that when distracting information holds relevance to intentions it can serve a compensatory role in prospective remembering in older adults. PMID:26067988

  2. Public health model identifies recruitment barriers among older adults with delirium and dementia.

    PubMed

    Bull, Margaret J; Boaz, Lesley; Sjostedt, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Recruiting older adults and their family caregivers into research studies presents challenges. Although the literature notes some general recruitment challenges, no studies specifically address the unique challenges of recruiting older adults who have Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and their family caregivers in studies about delirium or suggest using a framework to identify barriers to recruiting this population. In conducting a pilot study about preparing family caregivers to detect delirium symptoms in older adults with (AD) the researchers used the Public Health Model for identifying barriers to recruitment. The goals of this methodological article are to: (1) briefly describe the methodology of the pilot study to illustrate how the Public Health Model was applied in the context of the present study and (2) discuss the benefits of the Public Health Model for identifying the barriers to recruitment in a study that prepared family caregivers to detect delirium symptoms in older adults with AD. The Public Health Model helped us to identify four specific barriers to recruitment (lack of knowledge about delirium, desire to maintain normalcy, protective caregiving behaviors, and older adult's fears) and ways to overcome them. The Public Health Model might also help other researchers address similar issues. PMID:24387779

  3. When Distraction Holds Relevance: A Prospective Memory Benefit for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Joana S.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating to show that age-related increases in susceptibility to distracting information can benefit older more than young adults in several cognitive tasks. Here we focus on prospective memory (i.e., remembering to carry out future intentions) and examine the effect of presenting distracting information that is intention-related as a function of age. Young and older adults performed an ongoing 1-back working memory task to a rapid stream of pictures superimposed with to-be-ignored letter strings. Participants were additionally instructed to respond to target pictures (namely, animals) and, for half of the participants, some strings prior to the targets were intention-related words (i.e., animals). Results showed that presenting intention-related distracting information during the ongoing task was particularly advantageous for target detection in older compared to young adults. Moreover, a prospective memory benefit was observed even for older adults who showed no explicit memory for the target distracter words. We speculate that intention-related distracter information enhanced the accessibility of the prospective memory task and suggest that when distracting information holds relevance to intentions it can serve a compensatory role in prospective remembering in older adults. PMID:26067988

  4. Relationships between physical exercise and cognitive abilities in older adults.

    PubMed

    Clarkson-Smith, L; Hartley, A A

    1989-06-01

    We investigated relationships between physical exercise and the cognitive abilities of older adults. We hypothesized that the performance of vigorous exercisers would be superior to that of sedentary individuals on measures of reasoning, working memory, and reaction time. We gave a series of cognitive tasks to 62 older men and women who exercised vigorously and 62 sedentary men and women. Multivariate and univariate analyses of variance, with age and education as covariates, indicated that the performance of the exercisers was significantly better on measures of reasoning, working memory, and reaction time. Between-group differences persisted when vocabulary, on which the performance of exercisers was superior, was used as a third covariate. Subsequent analyses showed that neither self-rated health, medical conditions, nor medications contributed to the differences between exercise groups. Results suggest that the possible contribution of physical exercise to individual differences in cognition among older adults should be further investigated. PMID:2789745

  5. Ethnically Diverse Older Adults' Beliefs about Staying Mentally Sharp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Daniela B.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Laditka, James N.; Wu, Bei; Liu, Rui; Price, Anna E.; Tseng, Winston; Corwin, Sara J.; Ivey, Susan L.; Hunter, Rebecca; Sharkey, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined diverse older adults' (n = 396, ages 50+) views about how to stay mentally sharp. We conducted 42 focus groups in four languages at nine United States locations using a standardized discussion guide and methods. The groups represented African Americans, American Indians, Chinese Americans, Latinos, Whites other than Latinos,…

  6. Clinical trial recruitment challenges with older adults with cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith K. Payne; Cristina C. Hendrix

    2010-01-01

    Older adults continue to be disproportionately represented in research studies and cancer-related clinical trials. As survival rates for patients with cancer continue to increase, it is critical that we begin to gather data on how to provide the best care to the patient population where cancer is most prevalent. The purpose of this article was to provide an overview of

  7. Promoting Transfer in Memory Training for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cavallini, Elena; Dunlosky, John; Bottiroli, Sara; Hertzog, Christopher; Vecchi, Tomaso

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Many studies have focused on memory training in aging showing older adults can improve their performance. Unfortunately the benefits of training rarely generalize to other tasks that were not specifically trained. We investigated the benefits of instruction-based training in promoting transfer effects in older adults. Methods In Experiment 1, we evaluated transfer effects in a training group who practiced using standard mnemonics to learn paired associates and word lists, and this group was provided instructions about how the mnemonics could be used for two of the four transfer tasks (text learning, name-face learning, grocery list learning, place learning). In Experiment 2, we compared transfer effects for two different training groups: one practiced the strategies with the two trained tasks and did not receive instructions and one had the same practice but also received instructions on all the transfer tasks. Results Transfer in text learning occurred in both experiments. Such transfer is particularly interesting considering that text learning was the most dissimilar task in terms of both the nature of the materials and the underlying processes that support performance. Such transfer was reliably greater when training involved instructions about applicability than when it did not. Conclusions Instructions to use practiced strategies on new materials could be a useful technique in promoting transfer in older adults. It seems that the lack of transfer does not necessarily arise from older adults’ inabilities but instead because they do not realize that trained strategies can (or should) be applied to new materials. PMID:19966535

  8. Preventive Healthcare and Health Promotion for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakowski, William; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This issue on preventive health care and health promotion for older adults includes 14 articles on history and definition, development of guidelines, responsibility, implementation of programs for the elderly and how it differs from that for other populations, programs for minorities, access to health care information, and a description of a…

  9. ASSOCIATION OF WEIGHT STATUS WITH DIETARY PATTERNS IN OLDER ADULTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary patterns and weight status are reported for 2 groups of community-living older adults, a rural Pennsylvania group and an urban Boston group. Diet patterns were defined by cluster analysis. Two major dietary patterns were identified for rural study participants and 4 major dietary patterns we...

  10. Outreach Services for Older Adults at the Wadsworth Public Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Barbara A.

    This paper reports on a study conducted to assist the Wadsworth Public Library in future planning and refining of services to older adults especially in library outreach. A questionnaire was distributed to residents (n=350) of one nursing home, four apartment complexes for seniors, one assisted living complex, one senior center, and any patrons…

  11. Public Library Services to Older Adults in Northeastern Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Rachael A.

    This survey investigated the services offered to older adults by public libraries in northeastern Ohio. Questionnaires were mailed to 120 public libraries in that region, and 80 (66.6%) of them were returned. The responding libraries were divided into three categories based on the size of their service population: (1) over 50,000 people (16.3%);…

  12. Cognitive Style Predictors of Affect Change in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacowitz, Derek M.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive styles are the lenses through which individuals habitually process information from their environment. In this study, we evaluated whether different cognitive style individual difference variables, such as explanatory style and dispositional optimism, could predict changes in affective state over time in community-dwelling older adults.…

  13. Ethical Considerations When Working With Older Adults in Psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josh McGuire

    2009-01-01

    The growing number of older adults in America will result in an increasing demand for psychotherapists familiar with their psychological needs. To treat this population in an ethical manner, practitioners need to be aware of the unique characteristics of the aging process, especially in regards to age-related vulnerabilities, such as cognitive decline. Unfortunately, recent research has shown that those currently

  14. Executive Function and Gait in Older Adults With Cognitive Impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol C. Persad; Joshua L. Jones; James A. Ashton-Miller; Neil B. Alexander; Bruno Giordani

    2008-01-01

    Background. Cognitive impairment has been shown to predict falls risk in older adults. The ability to step accurately is necessary to safely traverse challenging terrain conditions such as uneven or slippery surfaces. However, it is unclear how well persons with cognitive impairment can step accurately to avoid such hazards and what specific aspects of cognition predict stepping ability in different

  15. Visual Arts and Older Adult Learners in Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Irma

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of visual arts and its impact on successful aging and older adult learners in retirement. Retirement is one of the most important economic, psychological, and social transitions in most people's lives. Longevity has increased in the last sixty years such that in 2010, the average person can…

  16. Examining health information-seeking behaviors of older adults.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Shomir; Le, Thai; White, Cathy; Thompson, Hilaire; Demiris, George

    2013-11-01

    This study aims to examine which resources older adults utilize for their health information needs, how trustworthy and reliable they find these resources, and the difficulties they face in obtaining health-related information. A 41-item survey designed to understand the information-seeking characteristics of older adults was developed and distributed to retirement communities. Some items were taken from the Health Information National Trends Survey. Of 1520 surveys, 403 were returned completed (26.6%). Respondents' mean age was 77.65 years. Average scores indicated respondents trusted particular sources of health information in the following order (highest to lowest): health care providers, pharmacists, friends and relatives, retirement community staff, newspapers, the Internet, television, and the radio. In conclusion, older adults have a greater amount of trust in a person with whom they are able to actively discuss their health as opposed to a nonliving source, which they have to access or manipulate, such as the Internet. Efforts must be made to help older adults better navigate and utilize the Internet and recognize dependable online sources so that they may increase their trust in its use, thereby increasing satisfaction with their own ability to seek and use sources of health information. PMID:23974574

  17. Motivations and Benefits of the Travel Experiences of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Young-Joo; Janke, Megan C.

    2011-01-01

    The motivations and benefits of educational travel among individuals aged 55 years old and over were examined in this study. A total of 136 older adults enrolled in Elderhostel programs participated in this study and reported their perceived benefits and motivations for engaging in educational travel experiences. Correlation analyses were used to…

  18. The Design of Online Learning Communities for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Marti M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the creation of SeniorSage, an eight week facilitated online learning community for older adult volunteers in a Florida learning center. Discusses how members were prepared to participate in the community, explains the instructional design theory that guided the development of SeniorSage, and recommends future research. (Author/LRW)

  19. Bilateral Brain Regions Associated with Naming in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obler, Loraine K.; Rykhlevskaia, Elena; Schnyer, David; Clark-Cotton, Manuella R.; Spiro, Avron, III; Hyun, JungMoon; Kim, Dae-Shik; Goral, Mira; Albert, Martin L.

    2010-01-01

    To determine structural brain correlates of naming abilities in older adults, we tested 24 individuals aged 56-79 on two confrontation-naming tests (the Boston Naming Test (BNT) and the Action Naming Test (ANT)), then collected from these individuals structural Magnetic-Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data. Overall,…

  20. Elevator and Escalator Safety Education for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanks, Roma Stovall

    1996-01-01

    In eight focus groups in five cities, older adults identified their concerns about safety on elevators and escalators, often related to misunderstanding of the equipment. Their preferences for delivery of safety information included video/television, pamphlets, discussions, and posters. Educational interventions and modifications for disabilities…

  1. Examining Health Information–Seeking Behaviors of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    CHAUDHURI, SHOMIR; LE, THAI; WHITE, CATHY; THOMPSON, HILAIRE; DEMIRIS, GEORGE

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine which resources older adults utilize for their health information needs, how trustworthy and reliable they find these resources, and the difficulties they face in obtaining health-related information. A 41-item survey designed to understand the information-seeking characteristics of older adults was developed and distributed to retirement communities. Some items were taken from the Health Information National Trends Survey. Of 1520 surveys, 403 were returned completed (26.6%). Respondents’ mean age was 77.65 years. Average scores indicated respondents trusted particular sources of health information in the following order (highest to lowest): health care providers, pharmacists, friends and relatives, retirement community staff, newspapers, the Internet, television, and the radio. In conclusion, older adults have a greater amount of trust in a person with whom they are able to actively discuss their health as opposed to a nonliving source, which they have to access or manipulate, such as the Internet. Efforts must be made to help older adults better navigate and utilize the Internet and recognize dependable online sources so that they may increase their trust in its use, thereby increasing satisfaction with their own ability to seek and use sources of health information. PMID:23974574

  2. OLDER ADULTS' USE OF COMPUTERS: A SURVEY Joy Goodman

    E-print Network

    Goodman, Joy

    OLDER ADULTS' USE OF COMPUTERS: A SURVEY Joy Goodman Department of Computing Science University of Glasgow GLASGOW G12 8QQ UK joy@dcs.gla.ac.uk Audrey Syme Division of Applied Computing University of Dundee DUNDEE DD1 4HN UK asyme@computing.dundee.ac.uk Roos Eisma Division of Applied Computing University

  3. Helping older adults locate 'lost' cursors using FieldMouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nic Hollinworth

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes how a standard optical mouse was augmented by the addition of a touch sensor inside the body of the mouse. When the mouse is released and subsequently touched it generates a Windows message which can then be used to execute an action. Three techniques were developed using the augmented mouse (nicknamed 'FieldMouse') to help older adult computer

  4. Technology: Education and Training Needs of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Lesa; Watson, Carol

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the global aging of the population on social, economic, political, and health care institutions is unequaled. Parallel to this, evolving developments in technology promise opportunities for sales and product development to support positive aging. Older adults are excited to utilize technologies that they perceive as practical.…

  5. Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Loebach Wetherell; Margaret Gatz; Michelle G. Craske

    2003-01-01

    Older adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; N = 75; M age = 67.1 years) were randomly assigned to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), a discussion group (DG) organized around worry-provoking topics, or a waiting period. Participants in both active conditions improved relative to the waiting list. Although CBT participants improved on more measures than DG participants, the authors found only 1

  6. Measurement of Functional Activities in Older Adults in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, R. I.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Evaluated two measures of social function in 195 older adults who underwent neurological, cognitive, and affective assessment. Found the Functional Activities Questionnaire superior to the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale in discriminating among functional levels and in predicting neurologist ratings and cognitive scores. (Author)

  7. Parochial Schools and Student Achievement: Findings for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, William

    2000-01-01

    Examines parochial schooling's effect on high-school graduation rates for older adults in the United States, based on data drawn from the 1988 and 1989 General Social Survey. There was a positive correlation between parochial school attendance and high-school graduation, but no causal relationship. (Contains 26 references.) (MLH)

  8. Participatory Action Research with Older Adults: Key Principles in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Thomas; Minkler, Meredith

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Although participatory action research (PAR) is increasingly viewed as an important complement to traditional investigator-driven research, relatively little PAR has taken place in which older adults have been prominent partners. This article provides a review of the literature on PAR in gerontology, highlighting key studies and their…

  9. Alkaline diets favor lean tissue mass in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maintaining muscle mass in aging is important to prevent falls and fractures. The net acid load from diets that are rich in acidogenic protein and cereal grains relative to their content of alkalinogenic fruits and vegetables may contribute to reduced lean tissue mass in older adults. This analysis ...

  10. DIETARY PATTERNS OF OLDER ADULTS IDENTIFIED AS PLAUSIBLE REPORTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Underreporting of dietary intake is a pervasive problem in assessing diet and may attenuate relationship between diet, biomarkers and health status. The purpose of this study was to identify misreporting among older rural adults using an established prediction algorithm (McCrory et al. Pub Health Nu...

  11. List Formats Improve Medication Instructions for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Daniel; And Others

    1995-01-01

    In 3 experiments older adults (n=27, n=36, and n=27) were given medication instructions as categorized lists, simple lists, or paragraphs. The first group preferred categorized lists; the second answered questions about listed instructions more quickly, and the third group recalled more information from simple lists. List format was considered…

  12. Living alone and depression in Chinese older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K.-L. Chou; A. H. Y. Ho; I. Chi

    2006-01-01

    Western literature has repeatedly indicated a strong relationship between living alone and depression among the aged population, however, studies among the Chinese population are scarce. In this paper, we examine whether the association between living alone and depression is independent of health status, social support and financial strain among Chinese older adults, and subsequently assess whether such association persists after

  13. Does perceived burdensomeness erode meaning in life among older adults?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly A. Van Orden; Patricia M. Bamonti; Deborah A. King; Paul R. Duberstein

    2012-01-01

    Background: Identification of risk factors for the loss of meaning in life among older adults is needed. In this article, we test hypotheses derived from the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide concerning the role of perceptions that one is a burden on others as a risk factor for lower meaning in life.Methods: A prospective design was used to examine the temporal

  14. Alcohol-drinking history and fatal injury in older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary S. Sorock; Li-Hui Chen; Sheila R. Gonzalgo; Susan P. Baker

    2006-01-01

    Although most clinical guidelines for older adults allow for one drink a day in persons without a history of alcoholism, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease, alcohol may contribute to fatal injury in the elderly. Using two national surveys, this case–control study determined the associations between drinking history and fatal injuries from falls, motor vehicle crashes and suicides. We performed a case–control

  15. Anxiety and Panic Disorders in Older Adults Sharon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Valente

    1999-01-01

    Despite the growing numbers of older adults in the home health care system, those who suffer from anxiety disorders often are not detected or effectively treated. Untreated anxiety disorders reduce the patient's quality of life, activities of daily living, and compliance with treatment. In worse cases, the patient may decide that life is not worth living and may contemplate suicide.

  16. Psychological Resilience to Suicide Ideation Among Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marnin J. Heisel; Gordon L. Flett

    2008-01-01

    We investigated associations between suicide ideation and a set of potential risk and resiliency factors in a heterogeneous sample of 107 older adults (mean age = 81.5 years, SD = 7.7 years; range, 67 to 98 years; 76% female) recruited in community, residential, and healthcare settings. Participants completed the Geriatric Suicide Ideation Scale (GSIS; Heisel & Flett, 2006) and measures

  17. Treatment of Depression and Suicide in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhar, Sunil S.; Brown, Gregory K.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) intervention for suicide prevention in older adults. Although many studies have found that CBT interventions are efficacious for reducing depressive symptoms in the elderly, researchers have yet to evaluate the efficacy of such interventions for preventing suicide or reducing suicide risk…

  18. Personality traits and perceived social support among depressed older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly C. Cukrowicz; Alexis T. Franzese; Steven R. Thorp; Jennifer S. Cheavens; Thomas R. Lynch

    2008-01-01

    The contribution of personality traits and social support to mental health is well established, but to our knowledge there have been no longitudinal investigations of the relation between personality and social support in depressed older adults. In the current study, we examined a repeated measures multi-level mixed model of change in perceived social support to determine whether personality traits and

  19. Neuropsychological Predictors of Driving Errors in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Jeffrey D; Uc, Ergun Y.; Anderson, Steven W.; Johnson, Amy M.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To identify neuropsychological factors associated with driving errors in older adults. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting Neuropsychological assessment laboratory and an instrumented vehicle on a 35-mile route on urban and rural roads. Participants One hundred eleven older adult drivers (ages 65-89 years; mean age 72.3 years) and 80 middle-aged drivers (age 40 to 64 years; mean age 57.2 years). Measurements Explanatory variables included age, neuropsychological measures (cognitive, visual, and motor), and a composite cognitive score (COGSTAT). The outcome variable was the safety error count, as classified by video review using a standardized taxonomy. Results Older drivers committed an average of 35.8 safety errors/drive (SD=12.8), compared to an average of 28.8 (SD=9.8) for middle-age drivers (P<0.001). Among older drivers, there was an increase of 2.6 errors per drive observed for each five-year age increase (P=0.026). After adjustment for age, education, and gender, COGSTAT was a significant predictor of safety errors in older drivers (P=0.005), with approximately a 10% increase in safety errors observed for a 10% decrease in cognitive function. Individual significant predictors of increased safety errors in older drivers included poorer scores on Complex Figure Test-Copy, Complex Figure Test-Recall, Block Design, Near Visual Acuity, and the Grooved Pegboard task. Conclusion Driving errors in older adults tend to increase, even in the absence of neurological diagnoses. Some of this increase can be explained by age-related decline in cognitive abilities, vision, and motor skills. Changes in visuospatial and visuomotor abilities appear to be particularly associated with unsafe driving in old age. PMID:20487082

  20. Perceptions of a Community-Based Yoga Intervention for Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neela K. Patel; Sreedhara Akkihebbalu; Sara E. Espinoza; Laura K. Chiodo

    2011-01-01

    Self-reported effects of yoga among older adults in an independent-living retirement community are presented. Weekly 60-minute beginner Iyengar yoga classes tailored to individual functional levels using props were conducted. Classes included stretching, flexibility, endurance, balance, and relaxation. Pre- and postintervention perceptions by focus-group discussions and key informant interviews were conducted at baseline, 12 weeks, and 1 year. Twelve older persons

  1. Longitudinal Increase in Anisometropia in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Haegerstrom-Portnoy, Gunilla; Schneck, Marilyn E.; Lott, Lori A.; Hewlett, Susan E.; Brabyn, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Anisometropia shows an exponential increase in prevalence with increasing age based on cross-sectional studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate longitudinal changes in anisometropia in all refractive components in older observers and to assess the influence of early cataract development. Methods Refractive error was assessed at two time points separated by ~12 years in 118 older observers (ages 67.1 and 79.3 years at the two test times). Anisometropia defined as ?1.00 D was calculated for all refractive components. The subjects had intact ocular lenses in both eyes throughout the study. Lens evaluations were performed at the second test using LOCS III. Results All refractive components approximately doubled in prevalence of anisometropia. Spherical equivalent anisometropia changed from 16.1% to 32.2%. Similar changes were found for spherical error (17% to 38.1%), primary astigmatism (7.6% to 17.8%) and oblique astigmatism (14.4% to 29.7%). Many who did not have anisometropia at the first visit subsequently developed anisometropia (for ex. 26.3% for spherical error and 22.9% for oblique cylinder). The onset of anisometropia occurred at all ages within the studied age range with no particular preference for any one age. A small number lost anisometropia over time. Individual comparisons of refractive error changes in the two eyes in combination with nuclear lens changes showed that early changes in nuclear sclerosis in the two eyes could account for a large proportion of anisometropia (~40%) but unequal hyperopic shift in the spherical component in the two eyes was the primary cause of the anisometropia. Conclusions Anisometropia is at least 10 times more common in the elderly than in children and anisometropia develops in all refractive components in the oldest observers. Clinicians need to be aware of this common condition that could lead to binocular vision problems and potentially cause falls in the elderly. PMID:24276578

  2. Mobile search: how to present search results for older users

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Zhou; H. Sato; Q. Gao; P. P. L. Rau; Y. Asano; K. Fujimura; F. Gao; H. Saito

    2007-01-01

    With thirty-one older participants, this study is conducted to investigate how to present search results on mobile device with aim to improve older users' mobile search performance and satisfaction, and to alleviate perceived disorientation and task workload. The focus groups section is to consider the issue of how many total number of search results should be provided for small- screen

  3. Neural correlates of auditory-cognitive processing in older adult cochlear implant recipients.

    PubMed

    Henkin, Yael; Yaar-Soffer, Yifat; Steinberg, Meidan; Muchnik, Chava

    2014-01-01

    With the growing number of older adults receiving cochlear implants (CI), there is general agreement that substantial benefits can be gained. Nonetheless, variability in speech perception performance is high, and the relative contribution and interactions among peripheral, central-auditory, and cognitive factors are not fully understood. The goal of the present study was to compare auditory-cognitive processing in older-adult CI recipients with that of older normal-hearing (NH) listeners by means of behavioral and electrophysiologic manifestations of a high-load cognitive task. Auditory event-related potentials (AERPs) were recorded from 9 older postlingually deafened adults with CI (age at CI >60) and 10 age-matched listeners with NH, while performing an auditory Stroop task. Participants were required to classify the speaker's gender (male/female) that produced the words 'mother' or 'father' while ignoring the irrelevant congruent or incongruent word meaning. Older CI and NH listeners exhibited comparable reaction time, performance accuracy, and initial sensory-perceptual processing (i.e. N1 potential). Nonetheless, older CI recipients showed substantially prolonged and less efficient perceptual processing (i.e. P3 potential). Congruency effects manifested in longer reaction time (i.e. Stroop effect), execution time, and P3 latency to incongruent versus congruent stimuli in both groups in a similar fashion; however, markedly prolonged P3 and shortened execution time were evident in older CI recipients. Collectively, older adults (CI and NH) employed a combined perceptual and postperceptual conflict processing strategy; nonetheless, the relative allotment of perceptual resources was substantially enhanced to maintain adequate performance in CI recipients. In sum, the recording of AERPs together with the simultaneously obtained behavioral measures during a Stroop task exposed a differential time course of auditory-cognitive processing in older CI recipients that was not manifested in the behavioral end products of processing. These data may have implications regarding clinical evaluation and rehabilitation procedures that should be tailored specifically for this unique group of patients. PMID:25733362

  4. Guide to Geriatric Syndromes: Common and Often Related Medical Conditions in Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Syndromes: Common and Often Related Medical Conditions in Older Adults Tools and Tips Printer-friendly PDF Click here ... living longer and healthier lives. Even so, many older adults develop one or more related medical problems called ...

  5. Somatic complaints in older adults: aging process or symptoms of depression 

    E-print Network

    Gentry, Ruth Anne

    2013-02-22

    This study examined the efficacy of somatic symptoms on a new measure of depression designed specifically for older adults. Resent research has shown somatic symptoms to be accurate predictors of depression in older adults, yet they have been...

  6. Individual Difference Factors in Risky Driving among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schwebel, David C.; Ball, Karlene K.; Severson, Joan; Barton, Benjamin K.; Rizzo, Matthew; Viamonte, Sarah M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Motor-vehicle crashes kill roughly 4,500 American adults over the age of 75 annually. Among younger adults, one behavioral factor consistently linked to risky driving is personality, but this predictor has been overshadowed by research on cognitive, perceptual, and motor processes among older drivers. Method In this study, a sample of 101 licensed drivers, all age 75 and over, were recruited to complete self-report measures on personality, temperament, and driving history. Participants also completed a virtual environment (VE) course designed to assess risk-taking driving behavior. State records of motor-vehicle crashes were collected. Results Results suggest both a sensation-seeking personality and an undercontrolled temperament are related to risky driving among older adults. Sensation-seeking was particularly related to history of violations and tickets, while temperamental control was more broadly related to a number of risky driving measures. Methodological and crash prevention issues are discussed. PMID:18023635

  7. Occupational therapy use by older adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Pergolotti, Mackenzi; Cutchin, Malcolm P; Weinberger, Morris; Meyer, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Occupational therapy may significantly improve cancer survivors' ability to participate in activities, thereby improving quality of life. Little is known, however, about the use of occupational therapy services by adults with cancer. The objective of this study was to understand what shapes patterns of occupational therapy use to help improve service delivery. We examined older (age >65 yr) adults diagnosed with breast, prostate, lung, or melanoma (skin) cancer between 2004 and 2007 (N = 27,131) using North Carolina Central Cancer Registry data linked to Medicare billing claims. Survivors who used occupational therapy within 1 yr before their cancer diagnosis were more likely to use occupational therapy after diagnosis but also experienced the highest levels of comorbidities. Survivors with Stage 4 cancers or lung cancer were less likely to use occupational therapy. These findings suggest possible disparities in utilization of occupational therapy by older adults with cancer. PMID:25184473

  8. Occupational Therapy Use by Older Adults With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pergolotti, Mackenzi; Cutchin, Malcolm P.; Weinberger, Morris; Meyer, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Occupational therapy may significantly improve cancer survivors’ ability to participate in activities, thereby improving quality of life. Little is known, however, about the use of occupational therapy services by adults with cancer. The objective of this study was to understand what shapes patterns of occupational therapy use to help improve service delivery. We examined older (age >65 yr) adults diagnosed with breast, prostate, lung, or melanoma (skin) cancer between 2004 and 2007 (N = 27,131) using North Carolina Central Cancer Registry data linked to Medicare billing claims. Survivors who used occupational therapy within 1 yr before their cancer diagnosis were more likely to use occupational therapy after diagnosis but also experienced the highest levels of comorbidities. Survivors with Stage 4 cancers or lung cancer were less likely to use occupational therapy. These findings suggest possible disparities in utilization of occupational therapy by older adults with cancer. PMID:25184473

  9. Preparing Human Service Practitioners to Teach Older Adults. Information Series No. 209.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiemstra, Roger

    This paper overviews existing research on how one teaches the older person. It is aimed at the many persons who work with older adults, regardless of whether they are trained to teach older adults. Suggestions are outlined for the design and implementation of effective education for older persons. Several areas that are examined are (1) the…

  10. Spatial and symbolic implicit sequence learning in young and older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin BoRachael; Rachael D. Seidler

    2010-01-01

    In three experiments, we examined the effects of age and spatial processing on implicit sequence learning. In experiment 1,\\u000a 48 older adults (OA) and 48 young adults (YA) performed the alternating serial reaction time task (ASRT) under one of four\\u000a conditions in which spatial processing demands were either present or absent from stimulus presentation (spatial vs. symbolic\\u000a cueing) and\\/or response

  11. Leg preference associated with protective stepping responses in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Young, Patricia M.; Whitall, Jill; Bair, Woei-Nan; Rogers, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Asymmetries in dynamic balance stability have been previously observed. The goal of this study was to determine whether leg preference influenced the stepping response to a waist-pull perturbation in older adult fallers and non-fallers. Methods 39 healthy, community-dwelling, older adult (>65 years) volunteers participated. Participants were grouped into non-faller and faller cohorts based on fall history in the 12 months prior to the study. Participants received 60 lateral waist-pull perturbations of varying magnitude towards their preferred and non-preferred sides during quiet standing. Outcome measures included balance tolerance limit, number of recovery steps taken and type of recovery step taken for perturbations to each side. Findings No significant differences in balance tolerance limit (P ? 0.102) or number of recovery steps taken (?2partial ? 0.027; P ? 0.442) were observed between perturbations towards the preferred and non-preferred legs. However, non-faller participants more frequently responded with a medial step when pulled towards their non-preferred side and cross-over steps when pulled towards their preferred side (P = 0.015). Interpretation Leg preference may influence the protective stepping response to standing balance perturbations in older adults at risk for falls, particularly with the type of recovery responses used. Such asymmetries in balance stability recovery may represent a contributing factor for falls among older individuals and should be considered for rehabilitation interventions aimed at improving balance stability and reducing fall risk. PMID:23962655

  12. Internet use and well-being in older adults.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jinmoo; Chun, Sanghee; Lee, Sunwoo; Lee, Kyung Hee; Kim, Junhyoung

    2015-05-01

    The Internet has become an important social context in the lives of older adults. Extant research has focused on the use of the Internet and how it influences well-being. However, conflicting findings exist. The purpose of the study was to develop an integrative research model in order to determine the nature of the relationships among Internet use, loneliness, social support, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being. Specifically, loneliness and social support were tested as potential mediators that may modify the relationship between Internet use and indicators of well-being. Data from the U.S. Health and Retirement Study (HRS) were used, and the association among Internet use, social support, loneliness, life satisfaction, and psychological well-being was explored. The sample consisted of 5,203 older adults (aged 65 years and older). The results indicated that higher levels of Internet use were significant predictors of higher levels of social support, reduced loneliness, and better life satisfaction and psychological well-being among older adults. PMID:25919967

  13. The role of cognitive flexibility in cognitive restructuring skill acquisition among older adults.

    PubMed

    Johnco, C; Wuthrich, V M; Rapee, R M

    2013-08-01

    Cognitive flexibility is one aspect of executive functioning that encompasses the ability to produce diverse ideas, consider response alternatives, and modify behaviors to manage changing circumstances. These processes are likely to be important for implementing cognitive restructuring. The present study investigated the impact of cognitive flexibility on older adults' ability to learn cognitive restructuring. Neuropsychological measures of cognitive flexibility were administered to 40 normal community-dwelling older adult volunteers and their ability to implement cognitive restructuring was coded and analyzed. Results indicated that the majority of participants showed good cognitive restructuring skill acquisition with brief training. The multiple regression analysis suggested that those with poorer cognitive flexibility on neuropsychological testing demonstrated poorer quality cognitive restructuring. In particular, perseverative thinking styles appear to negatively impact the ability to learn cognitive restructuring. Further research is needed to clarify whether older adults with poor cognitive flexibility can improve their cognitive restructuring skills with repetition over treatment or whether alternative skills should be considered. PMID:23253357

  14. Social Workers' Attitudes toward Older Adults: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Donna; Chonody, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Ageist attitudes toward older adults have been recognized as barriers to recruiting and training competent social workers. This article provides a systematic review of the literature that focused on social workers' and social work students' attitudes toward older adults and working with older adults. The authors sought empirical studies…

  15. Psychology and Aging The Influence of Semantic Relationships on Older Adult

    E-print Network

    Patel, Aniruddh D.

    Psychology and Aging The Influence of Semantic Relationships on Older Adult Map Memory Ayanna K Relationships on Older Adult Map Memory. Psychology and Aging. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0028504 #12;The Influence of Semantic Relationships on Older Adult Map Memory Ayanna K. Thomas, Bailey M

  16. Physical Activity Moderates Time-of-Day Differences in Older Adults' Working Memory Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie M. Bugg; Edward L. DeLosh; Benjamin A. Clegg

    2006-01-01

    Based on a synthesis of the literature on time of day and physical fitness effects on cognition, the current study examined whether physical activity moderated time-of-day differences in older adults' performance on a working memory task. Sedentary older adults' working memory performance declined significantly from morning to evening, whereas more active older adults performed similarly across the day. This interaction

  17. Computer use by older adults: A multi-disciplinary review Nicole Wagner, Khaled Hassanein *, Milena Head

    E-print Network

    Hitchcock, Adam P.

    Review Computer use by older adults: A multi-disciplinary review Nicole Wagner, Khaled Hassanein f o Article history: Available online 22 April 2010 Keywords: Older adults Aging Computer use of computer and Internet users. In many cases, older adults are the fastest growing computer and Internet user

  18. Bounded Rationality, Emotions and Older Adult Decision Making: Not so Fast and yet so Frugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanoch, Yaniv; Wood, Stacey; Rice, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Herbert Simon's work on bounded rationality has had little impact on researchers studying older adults' decision making. This omission is surprising, as human constraints on computation and memory are exacerbated in older adults. The study of older adults' decision-making processes could benefit from employing a bounded rationality perspective,…

  19. Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression in Older Adults Delivered via Videoconferencing: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazzari, Claudia; Egan, Sarah J.; Rees, Clare S.

    2011-01-01

    Depression affects up to 25% of older adults. Underdetection and subsequent undertreatment of depression in older adults has been attributed in part to difficulties in older adults being able to access treatment. This uncontrolled pilot study, N = 3, explored the acceptability and efficacy of a brief behavioral activation treatment delivered via…

  20. Specialty Nursing Association Global Vision Statement on Care of Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathy Mezey

    2010-01-01

    The unparalleled increase in the older-adult population impacts every aspect of health care delivery in the United States. With the total number of people aged 65 and over expected to represent approximately 20% of the U.S. population by 2030, older adults require a nurse workforce equipped to meet their growing and specific health care needs. Older adults constitute the largest

  1. Exercise Accelerates Wound Healing Among Healthy Older Adults: A Preliminary Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles F. Emery; Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser; Ronald Glaser; William B. Malarkey; David J. Frid

    2005-01-01

    Background. Older adults are likely to experience delayed rates of wound healing, impaired neuroendocrine responsiveness, and increased daily stress. Exercise activity has been shown to have a positive effect on physiological functioning and psychological functioning among older adults. This study evaluated the effect of a 3-month exercise program on wound healing, neuroendocrine function, and perceived stress among healthy older adults.

  2. The Effect of the Presence of Others on Caloric Intake in Homebound Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie L. Locher; Caroline O. Robinson; David L. Roth; Christine S. Ritchie; Kathryn L. Burgio

    2005-01-01

    Background. Undernutrition in homebound older adults is a significant problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the presence of others, both within the household and during meals, on caloric intake in homebound older adults. Methods. In-depth interviews and three 24-hour dietary recalls were obtained from 50 older adults who were receiving home health services. Descriptive

  3. Understanding Older Adults' Perceptions of Internet Use: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Robert; Spears, Jeffrey; Luptak, Marilyn; Wilby, Frances

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined factors related to older adults' perceptions of Internet use. Three hundred ninety five older adults participated in the study. The factor analysis revealed four factors perceived by older adults as critical to their Internet use: social connection, self-efficacy, the need to seek financial information, and the need to…

  4. The Treatment Initiation Program: An Intervention to Improve Depression Outcomes in Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jo Anne Sirey; Martha L. Bruce; M. P. H. George; S. Alexopoulos

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study tests the usefulness of the Treat- ment Initiation Program (TIP) to improve depression in older adults. The TIP is an individualized, early intervention to ad- dress older adults' attitudes (e.g., perceived need for care and stigma) about depression and treatment. Method: Older adults with major depression seeking mental health treatment were randomly assigned to either pharmaco-

  5. A Profile of Psychologists' Views of Critical Risk Factors for Completed Suicide in Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa M. Brown; Bruce Bongar; Karin M. Cleary

    2004-01-01

    The ability to accurately and reliably predict whether an older adult will commit suicide has eluded clinicians and researchers. A random national sample of psychologists who work with older adults was surveyed regarding their perception of 36 risk factors for completed suicide and indirect self-destructive behavior in older adults. This study produced a profile of psychologists' assessment and treatment practices

  6. Coping and thought suppression as predictors of suicidal ideation in depressed older adults with personality disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. C. Cukrowicz; A. G. Ekblad; J. S. Cheavens; M. Z. Rosenthal; T. R. Lynch

    2008-01-01

    Suicide rates are higher among older adults than any other age group and suicidal ideation is one of the best predictors of completed suicide in older adults. Despite this, few studies have evaluated predictors of suicidal ideation and other correlates of death by suicide (e.g. hopelessness) among older adults. Even fewer studies on this topic have been conducted among samples

  7. Mental health service use among Canadian older adults with anxiety disorders and clinically significant anxiety symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiffany Scott; Corey S. Mackenzie; Judith G. Chipperfield; Jitender Sareen

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Despite evidence of disproportionate underutilization of mental health services by older adults and by individuals with anxiety disorders, little is known specifically about service use by older adults with anxiety. This study examines the prevalence of mental health service use among older adults with anxiety disorders and clinically significant anxiety symptoms, as well as factors associated with service use.Method:

  8. Can Training in a Real-Time Strategy Video Game Attenuate Cognitive Decline in Older Adults?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chandramallika Basak; Walter R. Boot; Michelle W. Voss; Arthur F. Kramer

    2008-01-01

    Declines in various cognitive abilities, particularly executive control functions, are observed in older adults. An important goal of cognitive training is to slow or reverse these age-related declines. However, opinion is divided in the literature regarding whether cognitive training can engender transfer to a variety of cognitive skills in older adults. In the current study, the authors trained older adults

  9. Tuberculosis among older adults--time to take notice.

    PubMed

    Negin, Joel; Abimbola, Seye; Marais, Ben J

    2015-03-01

    Knowledge that older people are vulnerable to develop tuberculosis is rarely considered in developing country settings. According to 2010 Global Burden of Disease estimates, the majority of tuberculosis-related deaths occurred among people older than 50; most in those aged 65 and above. Older people also contribute a large proportion of Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs); 51% of tuberculosis DALYs occurred in patients aged 50 years and older in East Asia. Tuberculosis age distributions in Africa have been severely skewed by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, but emerging data suggest increasing disease burdens among older people. Older adults are more likely to develop extra-pulmonary and atypical forms of disease that are often harder to diagnose than conventional sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Their care is complicated by more frequent drug-related adverse events and increased co-morbidity, which may prove difficult to manage in regions where health resources are already constrained. Health systems will have to confront the challenge of an ageing global population and the integrated services required to address their health needs. PMID:25809769

  10. Chronic non-malignant musculoskeletal pain in older adults: clinical issues and opioid intervention.

    PubMed

    Podichetty, V K; Mazanec, D J; Biscup, R S

    2003-11-01

    Musculoskeletal pain is common, frequently under-reported, and inadequately treated in the older adult. The objective of this article is to review the management of musculoskeletal pain syndromes in older adults emphasising the potential role of opioid agents in carefully selected patients. Systematic analysis of the relevant literature was done. Even in cognitively impaired patients, assessment of musculoskeletal pain is mandatory. An algorithm for musculoskeletal pain is presented emphasising a stepwise pharmacological approach in combination with an array of non-pharmacological therapies. Comorbid conditions may limit therapeutic choices, particularly in the elderly. Repeated assessment of pain levels as well as functional status is critical for optimal pain management. PMID:14654573

  11. Human centred design considerations for connected health devices for the older adult.

    PubMed

    Harte, Richard P; Glynn, Liam G; Broderick, Barry J; Rodriguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Baker, Paul M A; McGuiness, Bernadette; O'Sullivan, Leonard; Diaz, Marta; Quinlan, Leo R; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2014-01-01

    Connected health devices are generally designed for unsupervised use, by non-healthcare professionals, facilitating independent control of the individuals own healthcare. Older adults are major users of such devices and are a population significantly increasing in size. This group presents challenges due to the wide spectrum of capabilities and attitudes towards technology. The fit between capabilities of the user and demands of the device can be optimised in a process called Human Centred Design. Here we review examples of some connected health devices chosen by random selection, assess older adult known capabilities and attitudes and finally make analytical recommendations for design approaches and design specifications. PMID:25563225

  12. Improving Medication Management among At-risk Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Delinda; Kripalani, Sunil; DuPapau, V.J.

    2013-01-01

    Low health literacy is common among Medicare recipients and affects their understanding of complex medication regimens. Interventions are needed to improve medication use among older adults, while addressing low health literacy. Community-dwelling older adults in this study were enrolled in an inner-city adult day center. They completed a baseline measure of health literacy, medication self-efficacy, and medication adherence. They were provided with a personalized, illustrated daily medication schedule (PictureRx™). Six weeks later, their medication self-efficacy and adherence were assessed. Among the 20 participants in this pilot project, 70% had high likelihood of limited health literacy and took an average of 13.2 prescription medications. Both self-efficacy and medication adherence increased significantly after provision of the PictureRx cards (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively). Al participants rated the PictureRx cards as very helpful in terms of helping them remember the medication’s purpose and dosing. Illustrated daily medication schedules improve medication self-efficacy and adherence among at-risk, community-dwelling older adults. PMID:22587641

  13. Gender Differences in Cognition among Older Adults in China.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Hu, Yuqing; McArdle, John J; Smith, James P; Zhao, Yaohui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. Modeled after the American Health and Retirement Study (HRS), the CHARLS Pilot survey respondents are 45 years and older in two quite distinct provinces-Zhejiang, a high-growth industrialized province on the East Coast, and Gansu, a largely agricultural and poor province in the West-in a sense new and old China. Our cognition measures proxy for two different dimensions of adult cognition-episodic memory and intact mental status. On both measures, Chinese women score much lower than do Chinese men, a gender difference that grows among older Chinese cohorts. We relate both these cognition scores to schooling, urban residence, family and community levels of economic resources, and height. We find that cognition is more closely related to mean community resources than to family resources, especially for women, suggesting that in traditional poor Chinese communities there are strong economic incentives to favor boys at the expense of girls. We also find that these gender differences in cognitive ability have been steadily decreasing across birth cohorts as the economy of China grew rapidly. Among cohorts of young adults in China, there is no longer any gender disparity in cognitive ability. This parallels the situation in the United States where cognition scores of adult women actually exceed those of adult men. PMID:24347682

  14. The association among neighborhood socioeconomic status, race and chronic pain in black and white older adults.

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Molly; Hart-Johnson, Tamera; Green, Carmen R.

    2007-01-01

    The association among race, neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES), and chronic pain has not been well examined in older people. Clinical data was obtained from older adults (>50 years old) presenting to a tertiary care pain center. The relative roles of race and neighborhood SES on the chronic pain experienced in older black and white adults were assessed. Older blacks experienced more affective pain, pain-related disability and mood disorder symptoms than older whites. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed previously hypothesized factors for the McGill Pain Questionnaire pain dimensions and the Pain Disability Index. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses also identified factors in the Brief Symptom Inventory and neighborhood SES. Structural equation modeling showed black race was associated with lower neighborhood SES and also with increased affective pain, obligatory disability and mood disorders mediationally through neighborhood SES. It was indirectly associated with increased sensory and miscellaneous pain, and voluntary disability through low neighborhood SES. Racial interaction examination showed that neighborhood SES had the same relationship to outcomes by race. We found increasing neighborhood SES is associated with decreasing negative chronic pain outcomes for older blacks and whites. Our data provide evidence that both race and neighborhood SES are important factors to consider when examining the chronic pain experience among older Americans. PMID:17987920

  15. Telepsychiatry for Neurocognitive Testing in Older Rural Latino Adults.

    PubMed

    Vahia, Ipsit V; Ng, Bernardo; Camacho, Alvaro; Cardenas, Veronica; Cherner, Mariana; Depp, Colin A; Palmer, Barton W; Jeste, Dilip V; Agha, Zia

    2015-07-01

    As the population of older Latinos in the U.S. increases, availability of culturally adapted geriatric psychiatry services is becoming a growing concern. This issue is exacerbated for rural Latino populations. In this study, we assessed whether neurocognitive assessment via telepsychiatry (TP) using a Spanish-language battery would be comparable to in-person (IP) testing using the same battery in a sample of Spanish-speaking older adults in a rural setting. Patients (N = 22) received IP and TP testing 2 weeks apart. The order of IP and TP test administrations in individual subjects was determined randomly. Comparison of scores indicated that there were no significant differences between IP and TP test performance though both groups scored non-significantly higher at the second visit. This study demonstrates feasibility and utility of neurocognitive testing in Spanish using TP among older rural Latinos. PMID:25708655

  16. Older adults with hip fractures. Treatment of pain following hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Feldt, Karen S; Finch, Michael

    2002-08-01

    This study examined pain experiences and treatment for older adults in long-term care or rehabilitation settings 3 week after surgical repair of a hip fracture. Pain report and pain treatment for cognitively intact residents were compared with cognitively impaired residents. Two thirds of all participants reported pain. Most rated pain as slight or mild in severity. Pain report was similar for cognitively impaired and intact participants. Pain was reported as severe or worse by 17% of the residents. Nursing care plans documented comfort as a goal for fewer than half the participants. Almost 40% (n = 23) of the participants were receiving no pain medication 3 weeks postoperatively, five of these rated their pain as moderate or severe. Pain documentation, including effective non-pharmacological treatments, needs to be improved for cognitively impaired and intact older adults who are recovering from hip fracture surgery. PMID:12219551

  17. Enteral nutritional support of the critically ill older adult.

    PubMed

    Finoccchiaro, Darlene; Hook, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition continues to be a concern for the older adult in the intensive care setting despite widespread knowledge of the benefits of adequate nutrition and existing evidence-based protocols. The incidence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients ranges between 22% and 43% with the highest probability of occurrence, 50% or more, in the intensive care unit patient. The deleterious effects of malnutrition for the critically ill older adult are described with suggested and accepted screening tools for existing or acquired malnutrition. A discussion of early oral and enteral feeding interventions and strategies for overcoming barriers is explored. Enteral feeding complications are delineated, and perceived barriers or risks are disputed. This paper concludes with suggestions for future research and a definitive role for advanced nursing nutrition champions. PMID:26039647

  18. Assessment of subjective cognitive impairment among older adults.

    PubMed

    Hill, Nikki L; Mogle, Jacqueline M; Munoz, Elizabeth; Wion, Rachel; Colancecco, Elise M

    2015-04-01

    Subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) refers to an individual's everyday concerns related to cognitive functioning, which can exist even in the absence of objectively assessed impairment. SCI is common among older adults, and although symptoms may be mild, SCI is associated with subsequent cognitive decline as well as significant negative effects on everyday functional ability, mood, and social engagement. Despite the potential consequences, SCI is often underreported and undetected. Thus, it is critical to consider assessing for SCI among older adults to determine cognitive impairment risk and support early intervention to promote functional well-being and health management. The current article reviews factors related to SCI, evaluates existing methods for the assessment of SCI, and proposes a person-centered framework for enhancing assessment. Application of the framework is further illustrated through the use of clinical examples. PMID:25800031

  19. Optimism and Planning for Future Care Needs among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sörensen, Silvia; Hirsch, Jameson K.; Lyness, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with an increase in need for assistance. Preparation for future care (PFC) is related to improved coping ability as well as better mental and physical health outcomes among older adults. We examined the association of optimism with components of PFC among older adults. We also explored race differences in the relationship between optimism and PFC. In Study 1, multiple regression showed that optimism was positively related to concrete planning. In Study 2, optimism was related to gathering information. An exploratory analysis combining the samples yielded a race interaction: For Whites higher optimism, but for Blacks lower optimism was associated with more planning. High optimism may be a barrier to future planning in certain social and cultural contexts. PMID:26045699

  20. Vaccination of Older Adults with Dementia Against Respiratory Infections.

    PubMed

    Ridda, Iman; Dastouri, Fereshteh; King, Catherine; Yin, J Kevin; Tashani, Mohamed; Rashid, Harunor

    2014-07-13

    People with dementia are at a greater risk of complications from respiratory infections therefore can benefit from vaccinations against influenza, pneumococcal disease and pertussis. This review aimed to evaluate the uptake and impact of vaccination in older adults with dementia against respiratory infections and identify knowledge gaps. Key databases were explored, search results were assessed, relevant studies identified, and data were synthesised and summarised. Most available data suggest that older adults with dementia are less likely to receive influenza or pneumococcal vaccine while a few studies indicate an increase in vaccination uptake but poor immunogenicity. Among dementia patients, community dwellers have a lower vaccination rate than home care residents. However, vaccinations against influenza and pneumococcal disease can benefit individuals with dementia by reducing both mortality and morbidity. Health professionals caring for patients with dementia could play a role in fostering vaccination of these individuals. PMID:25019234

  1. Sleep, Memory, and Aging: The Link Between Slow-Wave Sleep and Episodic Memory Changes from Younger to Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Scullin, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    In younger adults, recently learned episodic memories are reactivated and consolidated during slow-wave sleep (SWS). Interestingly, SWS declines across the lifespan but little research has examined whether sleep-dependent memory consolidation occurs in older adults. In the present study, younger adults and healthy older adults encoded word pairs in the morning or evening and then returned following a sleep or no-sleep interval. Sleep stage scoring was obtained using a home sleep-stage monitoring system. In the younger adult group, there was a positive correlation between word retention and amount of SWS. In contrast, the older adults demonstrated no significant positive correlations, but one significant negative correlation, between memory and SWS. These findings suggest that the link between episodic memory and SWS that is typically observed in younger adults may be weakened or otherwise changed in the healthy elderly. PMID:22708533

  2. Factors that influence dental students' attitudes about older adults.

    PubMed

    Nochajski, Thomas H; Waldrop, Deborah P; Davis, Elaine L; Fabiano, Jude A; Goldberg, Louis J

    2009-01-01

    Our study considered dental students' general attitudes towards older persons using the Aging Semantic Differential. The influence of age, gender, cohort, education, and academic exposure on general attitudes towards older adults was evaluated using a total of 328 dental students across all four years of academic standing. Students were assessed in the fall and spring semesters. The results showed differential responding on the four subscales, with slight positive ratings on the autonomy, acceptability, and integrity subscales and a slight negative rating for instrumentality. Females expressed more negative attitudes than their male counterparts, with no age differences. There was also no significant impact from a specific, didactic educational component offered to the fourth-year students. However, the fourth-year students were the only group to show positive changes across the full academic year. The results suggest that general attitudes can be changed, but didactic (classroom) forms of education alone are insufficient to meaningfully modify students' perceptions of the elderly. Exposure to older adults in a clinical setting appears to be a critical element, as the fourth-year students received much greater exposure to older patients and more intensified interface with their mentors. PMID:19126770

  3. Prevalence and factors associated with frailty among Peruvian older adults.

    PubMed

    Runzer-Colmenares, Fernando M; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Al Snih, Soham; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Parodi, José F; Wong, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the prevalence and factors associated with frailty in Peruvian Navy Veteran's older adults and family members. A total of 311 non-institutionalized men and women aged 60 years and older, from the Geriatrics Service of the Peruvian Navy Medical Center (Centro Médico Naval "Cirujano Mayor Santiago Távara") were assessed between May and October 2010. Frailty was defined as having two or more of the following components: (1) unintentional weight-loss, (2) weakness (lowest 20% in grip-strength), (3) self-reported exhaustion, and (4) slow walking speed (lowest 20% 8-m walk-time in seconds). Additionally, information on socio-demographic factors, medical conditions, depressive symptoms, disability, and cognitive function were obtained. Of the 311 participants, 78 (25.1%) were not frail, 147 (47.3%) were pre-frail, and 86 (27.8%) were frail. Using logistic regression analysis, we found that older age, being married, falls in the last year and disability were factors significantly associated with being frail. We conclude that prevalence of pre-frail and frail status in Peruvian Navy Veterans and family members is high. Our data reports risk factors for frailty that have been reported in the past in other population groups. A larger sample and longitudinal follow-up are needed to design and implement comprehensive geriatric interventions that can benefit Peruvian Navy Veteran's older adults at risk of becoming frail. PMID:23978328

  4. Ethnic Minority Older Adults Participating in Clinical ResearchDeveloping Trust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gina Moreno-John; Anthony Gachie; Candace M. Fleming; Anna NÁpoles-Springer; Elizabeth Mutran; Spero M. Manson

    2004-01-01

    Objectives:African American, Latino, and American Indian older adults are underrepresented in clinical research studies. A significant barrier to participation in research is mistrust of the scientific community and institutions. The aims of this article are to discuss the lack of representation of ethnic minorities in clinical research. Methods:This article presents a review of the literature regarding medical research mistrust. Also

  5. Languaging as Agent and Constituent of Cognitive Change in an Older Adult: An Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Merrill; Lapkin, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Vygotsky's writings have established the critical importance of language in the development of higher mental functions, including memory and attention. One of the processes involved in this development is languaging, the activity of mediating cognitively complex ideas using language (Swain, 2006). The present study of an older adult with mild…

  6. Waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors among rural older adults: gender differences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overweight and obese patients present with a greater risk for CVD. The purpose of this study was to explore how weight status relates to cardiovascular risk factor in older adults in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (114 male, 158 female mean age 78. 5). Anthropometric and health data, along with a f...

  7. Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Associated with Amoxapine and Lithium in an Older Adult

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjay Gupta; Anthony A. Racaniello

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the presentation of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (N0M.S) in the primary care setting in an older adult with major depression with psychosis. This patient had been stable on a regimen of amoxapine, lithium carbonate, lorazepam, and benztropine. The patient had rigidity, altered sensorium, diaphoresis, autonomic instability, elevated WBC count and urine myoglobin, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) reaching 1331

  8. Racial Differences in Volunteer Engagement by Older Adults: An Empowerment Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Fengyan; Copeland, Valire Carr; Wexler, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Volunteering is viewed as an empowerment process whereby older adults actively participate in the community and improve their well-being and health. Yet little is known about racial differences in volunteering, and even less in terms of perceived benefits from volunteering as a means of empowerment. The present study addresses this research gap by…

  9. A Healthy Old Age: A Sourcebook for Health Promotion with Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FallCreek, Stephanie; Mettler, Molly

    The purpose of this sourcebook is to provide information about health promotion program planning, activities, and resources to people planning wellness programs for older adults. The materials are divided into two parts: background information and resources. The Wallingford Wellness Project is presented as an example of a comprehensive health…

  10. Treating the Whole Person: A Combination of Medical and Psychiatric Treatment for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Penny P.

    1997-01-01

    Presents the experience of, and case studies resulting from, working with older adults whose changing physical health has directly affected their emotional health. Claims that adjustments to a new body concept can be aided by a team-oriented approach, which includes medical doctors, physical therapists, occupational therapists, dieticians, and…

  11. Psychosocial Treatments for Major Depression and Dysthymia in Older Adults: A Review of the Research Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalaquett, Carlos P.; Stens, Andrea N.

    2006-01-01

    Older adults represent a growing segment of the population with the highest suicide rate and an increasing need of counseling services for major depression and dysthymia. The present study examined the literature with the purpose of identifying research addressing psychosocial treatments of depression in later life. A summary of treatments…

  12. Gerontology Content in MSW Curricula and Student Attitudes toward Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Mark D.

    2007-01-01

    The unprecedented growth in the nation's older adult population has called attention to the increasing need for geriatric social workers. However, research suggests that social work students hold ageist attitudes that prevent many from pursuing careers in gerontology. The present study sought to identify student perceptions of gerontology content…

  13. Promoting Community Wellbeing: The Case for Lifelong Learning for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan B.; Kee, Youngwha

    2014-01-01

    Community wellbeing is a function of many factors working in concert to promote an optimal quality of life for all members of a community. It is argued here that the promotion of lifelong learning among older adults can significantly contribute to community wellbeing. The aging society is a worldwide phenomenon presenting both opportunities and…

  14. American Geriatrics Society abstracted clinical practice guideline for postoperative delirium in older adults.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The abstracted set of recommendations presented here provides essential guidance both on the prevention of postoperative delirium in older patients at risk of delirium and on the treatment of older surgical patients with delirium, and is based on the 2014 American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Guideline. The full version of the guideline, American Geriatrics Society Clinical Practice Guideline for Postoperative Delirium in Older Adults is available at the website of the AGS. The overall aims of the study were twofold: first, to present nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions that should be implemented perioperatively for the prevention of postoperative delirium in older adults; and second, to present nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions that should be implemented perioperatively for the treatment of postoperative delirium in older adults. Prevention recommendations focused on primary prevention (i.e., preventing delirium before it occurs) in patients who are at risk for postoperative delirium (e.g., those identified as moderate-to-high risk based on previous risk stratification models such as the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines, Delirium: Diagnosis, Prevention and Management. Clinical Guideline 103; London (UK): 2010 July 29). For management of delirium, the goals of this guideline are to decrease delirium severity and duration, ensure patient safety and improve outcomes. PMID:25495432

  15. Configuration of services used by depressed older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Choi; N. Morrow-Howell; E. Proctor

    2006-01-01

    As a more comprehensive service use measure, this study identifies service use configurations based on the use of 17 services. Factors associated with service use configurations are examined guided by the Andersen and Network Episode models. Self-report data at admission and at six-month follow-up were collected, along with information from medical charts among 140 older adults hospitalized for major depression.

  16. Depression, Immune Function, and Health in Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine L. Applegate; Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser; Ronald Glaser

    In summary, there are clearly significant immunological declines associated with depression, depressed mood, and stress. Unfortunately,\\u000a these distress-related effects are magnified in elderly populations because the aging process itself contributes to downward\\u000a change in immune function. The interaction of distress and aging leaves older adults open to physical health complications.\\u000a Alterations of immune function have been linked to poorer vaccine

  17. Psychological Services for Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James P. Acquilano; Philip W. Davidson; Matthew P. Janicki

    In this chapter, we review the psychological needs and service provisions for older adults with an intellectual disability\\u000a (ID). The reader will be directed toward research that identifies an increasing longevity, concomitant increases in aging-related\\u000a morbidities, and psychosocial factors. Specific aging-related conditions will be discussed, along with their impact on functional\\u000a status and mental health, including a discussion of the

  18. Toward achieving universal usability for older adults through multimodal feedback

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Kathlene Emery; Paula J. Edwards; Julie A. Jacko; Kevin P. Moloney; Leon Barnard; Thitima Kongnakorn; François Sainfort; Ingrid U. Scott

    2002-01-01

    This experiment examines the effect of combinations of feedback (auditory, haptic, and\\/or visual) on the performance of older adults completing a drag-and-drop computer task. Participants completed a series of drag-and-drop tasks under each of seven feedback conditions (3 unimodal, 3 bimodal, 1 trimodal). Performance was assessed using measures of efficiency and accuracy. For analyses of results, participants were grouped based

  19. Vagus nerve stimulation therapy for epilepsy in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sirven, J I; Sperling, M; Naritoku, D; Schachter, S; Labar, D; Holmes, M; Wilensky, A; Cibula, J; Labiner, D M; Bergen, D; Ristanovic, R; Harvey, J; Dasheiff, R; Morris, G L; O'Donovan, C A; Ojemann, L; Scales, D; Nadkarni, M; Richards, B; Sanchez, J D

    2000-03-14

    The authors assessed the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for refractory epilepsy in 45 adults 50 years of age and older. They determined seizure frequency, adverse effects, and quality of life. At 3 months, 12 patients had a >50% decrease in seizure frequency; at 1 year, 21 of 31 studied individuals had a >50% seizure decrease. Side effects were mild and transient. Quality of life scores improved significantly with time. PMID:10720294

  20. Nutritional habits and cognitive performance of older adults.

    PubMed

    Mallidou, Anastasia; Cartie, Mario

    2015-05-01

    Healthy nutritional habits, including drinking plenty of water and maintaining hydration, are fundamental components for sustaining life, health and wellbeing. Evidence has suggested that certain dietary patterns and lifestyles could help delay the ageing process and reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease. This article explores the potential association between nutritional habits and the cognitive performance of older adults and identifies research gaps that could be filled by future studies on healthy ageing. PMID:26014793

  1. Social Inequalities in Response to Antidepressant Treatment in Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Cohen; Patricia R. Houck; Katalin Szanto; Mary Amanda Dew; Stephen E. Gilman; Charles F. Reynolds III

    2006-01-01

    Context:We examined the relationship between socio- economic status and response to treatment for depres- sion among older adults. Methods: Secondary analysis of pooled data from the open-labelphaseof2NationalInstituteofMentalHealth- funded clinical trials of nortriptyline hydrochloride or paroxetine combined with interpersonal psychotherapy (N=248). We used Cox proportional hazards regres- sion analyses to examine the association between socio- economic status, indexed by census tract

  2. Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Personality Disorders in Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer S. Cheavens; Thomas R. Lynch

    Personality disorders, by DSM-IV (American Psychological Association, 1994) definition, are long-standing\\/stable, first evidenced\\u000a in adolescence or early adulthood, and have associated pervasive difficulties in both interpersonal and impulsive functioning.\\u000a Based on these criteria, it is difficult to adequately assess personality pathology in older adults for whom adolescence and\\u000a early adulthood may have occurred decades ago. Additionally, several authors have argued

  3. Predicting Treatment Response in Older Adults with Insomnia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anouk Gagné; Charles M. Morin

    2001-01-01

    This study examined potential predictors of treatment outcome in late-life insomnia. Fifty-four older adults with chronic insomnia were treated with cognitive–behavior therapy (CBT), pharmacotherapy (PCT), or combined CBT plus PCT. Pretreatment characteristics such as demographic, clinical, psychometric, and sleep variables were examined as correlates or potential predictors of treatment response. Treatment response was defined by posttreatment sleep efficiency as measured

  4. Geographic Variations in Outpatient Antibiotic Prescribing in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuting; Steinman, Michael A.; Kaplan, Cameron M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Consequences of antibiotic overuse are substantial, especially among older adults who are more susceptible to adverse reactions. Findings on variation in antibiotic prescribing can target policy efforts to focused areas; however, little is known among older adults. Methods Using 2007–2009 Medicare Part D data (comprising 1.0–1.1 million patients per year), we examined geographic variations in antibiotic use among older adults in 306 Dartmouth hospital-referral regions (HRRs), 50 states and DC, and 4 national regions (South, West, Midwest, and Northeast). We also examined seasonal variation in antibiotic use across four regions. Differences in patient demographics, insurance status, and clinical characteristics were adjusted across regions. Results Substantial geographic and seasonal variation existed across regions, after adjusting for population characteristics. These differences could not be explained by differences in the prevalence of the underlying conditions. For example, the ratios of 75th and 25th percentiles of antibiotic spending are 1.31 across states and 1.32 across hospital-referral regions. The South saw the highest antibiotic use, where 21.4% of patients per quarter used an antibiotic, compared to 17.4% in the West (P<0.01), the lowest region. Regardless of region, the rate of antibiotic use was highest in the first quarter (20.9% in January–March) and lowest in the third quarter (16.9% July–September; P<0.01). Conclusions Areas with high rates of antibiotic use may benefit from targeted programs to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use. Quality improvement programs can set attainable targets using the low-prescribing areas as reference, particularly targeting to older adults. PMID:23007171

  5. Negative Social Interactions and Incident Hypertension Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sneed, Rodlescia S.; Cohen, Sheldon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if negative social interactions are prospectively associated with hypertension among older adults. Methods This is a secondary analysis of data from the 2006 and 2010 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, a survey of community-dwelling older adults (age >50). Total average negative social interactions were assessed at baseline by averaging the frequency of negative interactions across four domains (partner, children, other family, friends). Blood pressure was measured at both waves. Individuals were considered to have hypertension if they reported use of antihypertensive medications, had measured average resting systolic blood pressure ? 140 mmHg, or measured average resting diastolic blood pressure ?90 mmHg. Analyses excluded those hypertensive at baseline and controlled for demographics, personality, positive social interactions, and baseline health. Results Twenty-nine percent of participants developed hypertension over the four-year follow-up. Each one-unit increase in the total average negative social interaction score was associated with a 38% increased odds of developing hypertension. Sex moderated the association between total average negative social interactions and hypertension, with effects observed among women but not men. The association of total average negative interactions and hypertension in women was attributable primarily to interactions with friends, but also to negative interactions with family and partners. Age also moderated the association between total average negative social interactions and hypertension, with effects observed among those ages 51–64, but not those ages ?65. Conclusion In this sample of older adults, negative social interactions were associated with increased hypertension risk in women and the youngest older adults. PMID:24884909

  6. The organizational culture of emergency departments and the effect on care of older adults: a modified scoping study.

    PubMed

    Skar, Pål; Bruce, Anne; Sheets, Debra

    2015-04-01

    How does the organizational micro culture in emergency departments (EDs) impact the care of older adults presenting with a complaint or condition perceived as non-acute? This scoping study reviews the literature and maps three levels of ED culture (artifacts, values and beliefs, and assumptions). Findings on the artifact level indicate that EDs are poorly designed for the needs of older adults. Findings on the ED value and belief level indicate that EDs are for urgent cases (not geriatric care), that older adults do not receive the care and respect they should be given, that older adults require too much time, and that the basic nursing needs of older adults are not a priority for ED nurses. Finally, finding on the assumptions level underpinning ED behaviors suggest that older adults do not belong in the ED, most older adults in the ED are not critically ill and therefore can wait, and staff need to be available for acute cases at all times. A systematic review on the effect of ED micro culture on the quality of geriatric care is warranted. PMID:25543201

  7. Gambling behaviors and perceived health among incarcerated older adults.

    PubMed

    Kerber, Cindy H; Hickey, Kari L; Astroth, Kim M; Kim, MyoungJin

    2012-08-01

    The proliferation of lotteries and casinos has led to increased participation in gambling. Older adults who have opportunities to gamble may be vulnerable to gambling problems, and incarcerated older adults may be the most vulnerable. Furthermore, research has linked decreased health to gambling problems. This study compared perceived health and gambling problems among 43 incarcerated older adults from two county jails in the midwestern United States. Results from the South Oaks Gambling Screen indicated 48.83% of the sample scored in the problem or pathological range. Short Form-36 results were compared with U.S. norms for ages 55 to 64 and showed significantly lower perceived health scores on Role-Physical, Bodily Pain, Mental Health, Social Functioning, and Role-Emotional subscales. The problem and pathological gamblers showed significantly lower social functioning than the recreational gamblers. Assessment of health conditions and gambling behaviors is important for quantifying current and anticipated burdens of these conditions on correctional health care systems and the community. PMID:22801820

  8. The benefits of strength training for older adults.

    PubMed

    Seguin, Rebecca; Nelson, Miriam E

    2003-10-01

    Aging is associated with a number of physiologic and functional declines that can contribute to increased disability, frailty, and falls. Contributing factors are the loss of muscle mass and strength as age increases, a phenomenon called sarcopenia. Sarcopenia can result or be exacerbated by certain chronic conditions, and can also increase the burden of chronic disease. Current research has demonstrated that strength-training exercises have the ability to combat weakness and frailty and their debilitating consequences. Done regularly (e.g., 2 to 3 days per week), these exercises build muscle strength and muscle mass and preserve bone density, independence, and vitality with age. In addition, strength training also has the ability to reduce the risk of osteoporosis and the signs and symptoms of numerous chronic diseases such as heart disease, arthritis, and type 2 diabetes, while also improving sleep and reducing depression. This paper reviews the current research on strength training and older adults, evaluating exercise protocols in a variety of populations. It is clear that a variety of strength-training prescriptions from highly controlled laboratory-based to minimally supervised home-based programs have the ability to elicit meaningful health benefits in older adults. The key challenges as this field of exercise science moves forward are to best identify the most appropriate strength-training recommendations for older adults and to greatly increase the access to safe and effective programs in a variety of settings. PMID:14552938

  9. Civic engagement and older adults: a critical perspective.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Marty; Minkler, Meredith

    2006-06-01

    The aging of the baby boom generation, together with research that links volunteerism and positive health outcomes in later life, has contributed to a burgeoning of interest in initiatives and programs promoting civic engagement among older adults. Although useful in potentially expanding role options in later life, this growing attention also underscores the importance of stepping back to critically examine frequently overlooked questions concerning the framing and potential consequences of the new emphasis on civic engagement. Following a brief review of semantics and definitional issues in this area, we use a critical gerontology framework, emphasizing both political economy analysis and perspectives from the humanities, to explore underlying questions such as these: What roles are older adults being encouraged to play in civic life? What meanings are implied by these roles? What political and economic forces underlie these roles? What types of civic engagement are left out of the conversation? Our goal is to encourage a broadening of the dialogue to include potentially problematic normative and political economic dimensions of civic engagement, particularly volunteerism, as they pertain to older adults. PMID:16731870

  10. Dimensions of self-rated health in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Borim, Flávia Silva Arbex; Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Francisco, Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between negative self-rated health and indicators of health, wellbeing and sociodemographic variables in older adults. METHODS Cross-sectional study that used data from a population-based health survey with a probability cluster sample that was carried out in Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil,, in 2008 and 2009. The participants were older adults (? 60 years) and the dependent variable was self-rated health, categorized as: excellent, very good, good, bad and very bad. The adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated by means of Poisson multiple regression. RESULTS The highest prevalences of bad/very bad self-rated health were observed in the individuals who never attended school, in those with lower level of schooling, with monthly per capita family income lower than one minimum salary. Individuals who scored five or more in the physical health indicator also had bad self-rated health, as well as those who scored five or more in the Self-Reporting Questionnaire 20 and those who did not refer feeling happiness all the time. CONCLUSIONS The independent effects of material life conditions, physical and mental health and subjective wellbeing, observed in self-rated health, suggest that older adults can benefit by health policies supported by a global and integrative view of old age. PMID:25372161

  11. New perspectives for motivating better decisions in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Strough, JoNell; de Bruin, Wändi Bruine; Peters, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making competence in later adulthood is affected by declines in cognitive skills, and age-related changes in affect and experience can sometimes compensate. However, recent findings suggest that age-related changes in motivation also affect the extent to which adults draw from experience, affect, and deliberative skills when making decisions. To date, relatively little attention has been given to strategies for addressing age-related changes in motivation to promote better decisions in older adults. To address this limitation, we draw from diverse literatures to suggest promising intervention strategies for motivating older recipients’ motivation to make better decisions. We start by reviewing the life-span developmental literature, which suggests that older adults’ motivation to put effort into decisions depends on the perceived personal relevance of decisions as well as their self-efficacy (i.e., confidence in applying their ability and knowledge). Next, we discuss two approaches from the health intervention design literature, the mental models approach and the patient activation approach, which aim to improve motivation for decision making by improving personal relevance or by building self-efficacy or confidence to use new information and skills. Using examples from these literatures, we discuss how to construct interventions to motivate good decisions in later adulthood. PMID:26157398

  12. Older Adults: The Next Suicide Epidemic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Presents possible factors that might produce lower risk for suicide among future elderly in the United States. Makes predictions of elderly suicides based on assumption of stable rather than changing rates; produces estimates of more than twice current number of suicides and proportionate increase in number of suicides from 1:5 for 1980s to 1:3 by…

  13. Use of Senior Center and the Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Shik; Harada, Kazuhiro; Miyashita, Masashi; Lee, Eun-A; Park, Jin-Kee

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between the use of senior center and health-related quality of life in Korean older adults. Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted to two types of older adults who lived in Busan, Korea: 154 older adults who used a senior center and 137 older adults who did not use a senior center. The Korean version of short-form 36-item health survey was administered to assess the health-related quality of life. Demographic variables were obtained from a questionnaire. These were gender, age, family status, marital status, education, monthly income, present illness, body mass index and physical activity. Results The 8-domain scales of physical function and role-physical were significantly higher in the users of the senior center compared with the non-users (F=4.87, p=0.027 and F=7.02, p=0.009, respectively). The 8-domain scales of vitality was also significantly higher in the users of the senior center compared with the non-users (F=7.48, p=0.007). Conclusions The present study showed that the users of the senior center have higher physical function, role-physical and vitality compared with the non-users. These findings suggest that although the results are unable to specify causal relationships using the senior center may lead to some improvement in health-related quality of life. PMID:21894063

  14. Risk Aversion Among Depressed Older Adults with Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander L. Chapman; Thomas R. Lynch; M. Zachary Rosenthal; Jennifer S. Cheavens; Moria J. Smoski; K. Ranga Rama Krishnan

    2007-01-01

    Despite considerable research on depression in older adults, few studies have included individuals with personality disorders\\u000a or have used laboratory tasks to examine behavioral correlates of depression among older adults. This study used the Bechara\\u000a Gambling Task to examine the hypothesis that depressed older adults with co-morbid personality disorders (n = 59) would demonstrate greater aversion to risk, when compared with older

  15. Understanding Older Adults’ Usage of Community Green Spaces in Taipei, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Pleson, Eryn; Nieuwendyk, Laura M.; Lee, Karen K.; Chaddah, Anuradha; Nykiforuk, Candace I. J.; Schopflocher, Donald

    2014-01-01

    As the world’s population ages, there is an increasing need for community environments to support physical activity and social connections for older adults. This exploratory study sought to better understand older adults’ usage and perceptions of community green spaces in Taipei, Taiwan, through direct observations of seven green spaces and nineteen structured interviews. Descriptive statistics from observations using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) confirm that older adults use Taipei’s parks extensively. Our analyses of interviews support the following recommendations for age-friendly active living initiatives for older adults: make green spaces accessible to older adults; organize a variety of structured activities that appeal to older adults particularly in the morning; equip green spaces for age-appropriate physical activity; and, promote the health advantages of green spaces to older adults. PMID:24473116

  16. Monotic Auditory Processing Disorder Tests in the Older Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Cox, L. Clarke; McCoy, Sandra L.; Tun, Patricia A.; Wingfield, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if peripheral hearing loss of varying degrees in elderly subjects affected performance on monotic auditory processing disorder (APD) tests. A battery of monotic APD tests was administered to a group of well-educated and high-functioning older adults who were divided into three subgroups based on hearing acuity but similar in age: (1) normal hearing out to 4000 Hz with a slight high-frequency slope above that point, (2) normal hearing in the speech range but greater high-frequency loss (sloping configuration), and (3) hearing loss in both the low and high frequencies (low/high). The findings documented that subjects with normal hearing in the speech range performed well on all the APD tests. The subjects in the two hearing loss groups, however, performed more poorly on certain tests. The low/high loss subjects did significantly poorer than did the sloping subjects. These data suggest that low/high-frequency peripheral hearing loss is a factor for poor performance on certain monotic APD tests. Results further showed that when cognitive ability and presentation level are held constant, chronological age does not appear to be a contributing factor to performance on the majority of these monotic APD tests. If APD tests are to be administered to elder subjects, peripheral hearing loss configuration needs to be documented. For subjects with low/high-frequency losses, the tester needs to be aware that serious contamination of the results may occur. PMID:18795469

  17. Hospitalization of older adults due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Aline Pinto; Montilla, Dalia Elena Romero; de Almeida, Wanessa da Silva; de Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the temporal evolution of the hospitalization of older adults due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions according to their structure, magnitude and causes. METHODS Cross-sectional study based on data from the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified Health System and from the Primary Care Information System, referring to people aged 60 to 74 years living in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Souhteastern Brazil. The proportion and rate of hospitalizations due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions were calculated, both the global rate and, according to diagnoses, the most prevalent ones. The coverage of the Family Health Strategy and the number of medical consultations attended by older adults in primary care were estimated. To analyze the indicators’ impact on hospitalizations, a linear correlation test was used. RESULTS We found an intense reduction in hospitalizations due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions for all causes and age groups. Heart failure, cerebrovascular diseases and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases concentrated 50.0% of the hospitalizations. Adults older than 69 years had a higher risk of hospitalization due to one of these causes. We observed a higher risk of hospitalization among men. A negative correlation was found between the hospitalizations and the indicators of access to primary care. CONCLUSIONS Primary healthcare in the state of Rio de Janeiro has been significantly impacting the hospital morbidity of the older population. Studies of hospitalizations due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions can aid the identification of the main causes that are sensitive to the intervention of the health services, in order to indicate which actions are more effective to reduce hospitalizations and to increase the population’s quality of life. PMID:25372173

  18. It's all in how you view it: Pessimism, social relations, and life satisfaction in older adults with osteoarthritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tana Luger; Kelly A. Cotter; Aurora M. Sherman

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Current treatments for osteoarthritis (OA) continue to leave those burdened by the condition with pain and disability which affects physical and psychological well-being. The present study examines other psychosocial factors, such as dispositional personality and social relationships, in order to investigate their influence on the well-being of 160 older adults with OA (80% women).Method: Older adults were recruited for

  19. Detraining and Retraining in Older Adults Following Long-Term Muscle Power or Muscle Strength Specific Training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tim R. Henwood; Dennis R. Taaffe

    2008-01-01

    Background. Training cessation among older adults is associated with the loss of functional ability. However, exercise programs undertaken prior to activity cessation may offer functional protection. In the present study, the residual effects of muscle power or muscle strength training were investigated following extended detraining and subsequent retraining. Methods. Thirty-eight healthy independent older adults (65-84 years) entered a 24-week detraining

  20. Estimated Functional Capacity Predicts Mortality in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Xuemei; Laditka, James N.; Hardin, James W.; Blair, Steven N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine associations between functional capacity estimated from cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and mortality risks in adults aged 60 and older. DESIGN Prospective study, averaging 13.6 years follow-up. SETTING Preventive medical clinic. PARTICIPANTS Four thousand sixty adults who completed preventive medical examinations between 1971 and 2001; 24.7% women, mean age ± standard deviation 64.6 ± 4.9, body mass index (BMI) 25.9 ± 3.8 kg/m2. MEASUREMENTS CRF was quantified as metabolic equivalents (METs) achieved during maximal treadmill exercise. The lowest 20% of the age- and sex-specific MET distribution was defined as having low CRF, the middle 40% moderate CRF, and the upper 40% high CRF. Cox regression was used to estimate death rates (per 1,000 person-years), hazard ratios (HRs), and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS Nine hundred eighty-nine deaths occurred during follow-up. Death rates adjusted for age, sex, and examination year were 30.9, 18.3, and 13.4 for all causes (P<.001); 15.9, 8.6, and 5.4 for cardiovascular disease (CVD) (P<.001); and 6.1, 4.9, and 4.2 for cancer (P=.04) for subjects with low, moderate, and high CRF, respectively. After adjusting for smoking, abnormal electrocardiograms at rest or while exercising, percentage of age-predicted maximal heart rate achieved during exercise testing, baseline medical conditions, BMI, hypercholesterolemia, and family CVD and cancer history, subjects with high CRF had notably lower mortality risk than those with low CRF from all causes (HR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.47–0.74) and from CVD (HR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.41–0.80). CONCLUSION CRF is an important independent predictor of death in older adults. The results add to the existing evidence that promoting physical activity in older adults provides substantial health benefits, even in the oldest old. PMID:17979958

  1. Depressive Symptoms and Hospital Readmission in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Jennifer S.; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; Hirshon, Jon M.; Brown, Clayton H.; Goldberg, Richard; Rosenberg, Joseph H.; Comer, Angela C.; Furuno, Jon P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Identifying patients at high risk of hospital readmission may facilitate interventions to improve care. Depressive symptoms are prevalent among hospitalized older adults and may provide a target for these interventions if associated with readmission. The aim of this study was to quantify the risk of 30-day unplanned hospital readmission among adults age ?65 with depressive symptoms. Design and Setting Prospective cohort study of adults aged ?65 admitted to the University of Maryland Medical Center between 7/1/11 and 8/9/12. Participants 750 patients aged ?65 admitted to the general medical and surgical units and followed for 31 days following hospital discharge. Measurements Primary exposure was depressive symptoms at admission, defined as ?6 on the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Primary outcome was unplanned 30-day hospital readmission, defined as an unscheduled overnight stay at any inpatient facility not occurring in the emergency department. Results Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 19% and incidence of 30-day unplanned hospital readmission was 19%. Depressive symptoms were not significantly associated with hospital readmission (Relative Risk (RR) 1.20; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.83, 1.72). Age, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, and ?2 hospitalizations within the past 6 months were significant predictors of unplanned 30-day hospital readmission. Conclusion Although not associated with hospital readmission in our study, depressive symptoms are associated with other poor outcomes and may be under-diagnosed among hospitalized older adults. Hospitals interested in reducing readmission should focus on older patients with more comorbid illness and recent hospitalizations. PMID:24512099

  2. Amphetamine modulates brain signal variability and working memory in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Douglas D; Nagel, Irene E; Preuschhof, Claudia; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Marchner, Janina; Wiegert, Steffen; Jungehülsing, Gerhard J; Nyberg, Lars; Villringer, Arno; Li, Shu-Chen; Heekeren, Hauke R; Bäckman, Lars; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2015-06-16

    Better-performing younger adults typically express greater brain signal variability relative to older, poorer performers. Mechanisms for age and performance-graded differences in brain dynamics have, however, not yet been uncovered. Given the age-related decline of the dopamine (DA) system in normal cognitive aging, DA neuromodulation is one plausible mechanism. Hence, agents that boost systemic DA [such as d-amphetamine (AMPH)] may help to restore deficient signal variability levels. Furthermore, despite the standard practice of counterbalancing drug session order (AMPH first vs. placebo first), it remains understudied how AMPH may interact with practice effects, possibly influencing whether DA up-regulation is functional. We examined the effects of AMPH on functional-MRI-based blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal variability (SDBOLD) in younger and older adults during a working memory task (letter n-back). Older adults expressed lower brain signal variability at placebo, but met or exceeded young adult SDBOLD levels in the presence of AMPH. Drug session order greatly moderated change-change relations between AMPH-driven SDBOLD and reaction time means (RTmean) and SDs (RTSD). Older adults who received AMPH in the first session tended to improve in RTmean and RTSD when SDBOLD was boosted on AMPH, whereas younger and older adults who received AMPH in the second session showed either a performance improvement when SDBOLD decreased (for RTmean) or no effect at all (for RTSD). The present findings support the hypothesis that age differences in brain signal variability reflect aging-induced changes in dopaminergic neuromodulation. The observed interactions among AMPH, age, and session order highlight the state- and practice-dependent neurochemical basis of human brain dynamics. PMID:26034283

  3. The Social Outcomes of Older Adult Learning in Taiwan: Evaluation Framework and Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Hui

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the social outcomes of older adult learning in Taiwan. In light of our society's aging population structure, the task of establishing evaluation framework and indicators for the social outcomes of learning (SOL) as applied to older adults is urgent. In order to construct evaluation indicators for older

  4. Leisure and religious activity participation and mental health: gender analysis of older adults in Nepal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramraj Gautam; Tami Saito; Ichiro Kai

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Involvement in activities has been found to be beneficial for improving quality of life and successful aging for older adults. Little is known, however, about the involvement in activities and depression of older adults in Asian developing countries. This study explores whether participation in leisure social and religious activities are related to depression and satisfaction with life in older

  5. Levels of Knowledge About Suicide Facts and Myths Among Younger and Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel L. Segal

    2001-01-01

    Despite the fact that older adults have the highest suicide rate of any age group, little is known about the kind of information older adults possess about suicide facts. Purpose of study was to investigate the prevalence of a number of misconceptions about suicide in younger (N = 116; age range = 17-52 years;Mage = 26.2 years) and older (N

  6. The Role of the Social Environment on Physical and Mental Health of Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie A. Norstrand; Allen Glicksman; James Lubben; Morton Kleban

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the complex relationship between the environmental context and the well-being of older adults is paramount as aging in place is increasingly acknowledged as a policy goal. This study investigated how the social environment (measured by social capital) was related to both physical and mental health. A sample of 3,219 older adults (60 years and older) from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and

  7. Gender and Racial Disparities in Driving Cessation Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Moon; Mezuk, Briana; Lohman, Matthew C.; Edwards, Jerri; Rebok, George W.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To longitudinally examine gender and racial disparities in driving cessation among older adults. Methods Data came from the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) Study (n = 1,789). Logistic generalized estimating equations were used to identify predictors of driving cessation; stratified analysis and interaction terms were used to determine whether factors differed by gender and race. Results Two hundred and five (11.5%) participants stopped driving over the study period. Education was associated with increased risk of cessation for men (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10 to 1.78), but decreased risk for women (AOR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.82 to 0.98). Being married was associated with lower risk of cessation for men (AOR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.06 to 0.56) but unrelated to cessation for women (AOR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.56 to 1.80). Results were consistent with the hypothesis that racial disparities in cessation widen with age. Discussion Factors predictive of driving cessation vary by gender. Racial disparities in cessation are wider at older ages. Transportation policies and programs should account for social determinants and aim to address social disparities in driving mobility among older adults. PMID:22992714

  8. Virtual Visits in Home Health Care for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Husebø, Anne Marie Lunde

    2014-01-01

    Background. This review identifies the content of virtual visits in community nursing services to older adults and explores the manner in which service users and the nurses use virtual visits. Design. An integrative literature review. Method. Data collection comprised a literature search in three databases: Cinahl, Medline, and PubMed. In addition, a manual search of reference lists and expert consultation were performed. A total of 12 articles met the inclusion criteria. The articles were reviewed in terms of study characteristics, service content and utilization, and patient and health care provider experience. Results. Our review shows that in most studies the service is delivered on a daily basis and in combination with in-person visits. The findings suggest that older home-dwelling patients can benefit from virtual visits in terms of enhanced social inclusion and medication compliance. Service users and their nurses found virtual visits satisfactory and suitable for care delivery in home care to the elderly. Evidence for cost-saving benefits of virtual visits was not found. Conclusions. The findings can inform the planning of virtual visits in home health care as a complementary service to in-person visits, in order to meet the increasingly complex needs of older adults living at home. PMID:25506616

  9. ANXIETY AND ITS CORRELATES AMONG OLDER ADULTS ACCESSING AGING SERVICES

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Thomas M.; Simning, Adam; He, Hua; Conwell, Yeates

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess the characteristics of anxiety in aging services network (ASN) clients. Methods Interviews were conducted as part of an academic-community partnership for studying the mental health needs of community-dwelling older adults. Participants consisted of ASN clients in Monroe County, NY, that were aged 60 years and older and received an in-home assessment for care management services. The Goldberg Anxiety Scale screened for anxiety symptoms, and instruments covering the domains of associated mental health, physical health and disability, social support, negative life events, and other areas relevant to delivery of aging services were administered. Results Of 378 subjects enrolled, 27% had clinically significant levels of anxiety. In bivariate analyses anxiety was associated with having a current major depressive episode (MDE), five or more medical conditions, pain, younger age, less income, and negative life events. After controlling for MDE in multivariate analyses, medical conditions, pain, negative life events, and younger age were significant correlates of anxiety in ASN clients. Conclusions Anxiety was common among ASN clients who received in-home care management services. These anxious clients suffered from a combination of mental, medical, and social issues that suggests the need for multidisciplinary care. Because aging services providers work with their clients to ameliorate conditions that are highly correlated with anxiety, the ASN represents a promising venue for detecting, managing, and preventing anxiety among older adults. PMID:20066684

  10. Risk: benefit of treating high blood pressure in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Mukhtar, Omar; Jackson, Stephen H D

    2013-01-01

    Older people (those aged 65 years or over) comprise over 15% of the UK‘s population and this cohort is growing. Whilst at greatest risk from systemic arterial hypertension (hypertension), its resultant end organ damage and clinically significant cardiovascular disease, this group was initially neglected in clinical trials and thereby denied treatment, with the lack of evidence cited as justification. However since the 1960s, when the first landmark trials in severe diastolic hypertension were published, there has been a progressive attempt to understand the pathophysiology of hypertension and to expand the evidence base for treatment in older adults. In contrast to the participants of the very first randomized trials who had a mean age of 51 years, the recent Hypertension in the Very Elderly Trial demonstrated significant mortality and morbidity benefits from the treatment of both mixed systolic and diastolic hypertension, as well as isolated systolic hypertension in octogenarians. This review highlights the progressive evidence base behind the relative risks and benefits of treating hypertension in older adults. PMID:22775069

  11. Does mood state change risk taking tendency in older adults?

    PubMed

    Chou, Kee-Lee; Lee, Tatia M C; Ho, Andy H Y

    2007-06-01

    No study has been conducted to evaluate the influences of age differences on specific moods for risk taking tendencies. This study examined the patterns of risk taking tendencies among younger and older persons in 3 transient affective states: positive, neutral, and negative moods. By means of viewing happy, neutral, or sad movie clips, participants were induced to the respective mood. Risk taking tendencies were measured with decision tasks modified from the Choice Dilemmas Questionnaire (N. Kogan & M. A. Wallach, 1964). Consistent with the affect infusion model (J. P. Forgas, 1995), risk taking tendency was greater for those individuals who were in a happy mood than for those who were in a sad mood, for both young and older participants. However, an asymmetrical effect of positive and negative mood on risk taking tendency was identified among both the young and older participants, but in opposite directions. These results are consistent with the predictions of the negativity bias and the positivity effect found in young and older adults, respectively, and are interpreted via information processing and motivation effects of mood on the decision maker. PMID:17563186

  12. Social Relationships, Leisure Activity, and Health in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Po-Ju; Wray, Linda; Lin, Yeqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although the link between enhanced social relationships and better health has generally been well established, few studies have examined the role of leisure activity in this link. This study examined how leisure influences the link between social relationships and health in older age. Methods Using data from the 2006 and 2010 waves of the nationally representative U.S. Health and Retirement Study and structural equation modelling analyses, we examined data on 2,965 older participants to determine if leisure activities mediated the link between social relationships and health in 2010, controlling for race, education level, and health in 2006. Results The results demonstrated that leisure activities mediate the link between social relationships and health in these age groups. Perceptions of positive social relationships were associated with greater involvement in leisure activities, and greater involvement in leisure activities was associated with better health in older age. Discussion & Conclusions The contribution of leisure to health in these age groups is receiving increasing attention, and the results of this study add to the literature on this topic, by identifying the mediating effect of leisure activity on the link between social relationships and health. Future studies aimed at increasing leisure activity may contribute to improved health outcomes in older adults. PMID:24884905

  13. Cohort comparisons: emotional well-being among adolescents and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Ibrahim, Rahimah

    2014-01-01

    Background There are several negative stereotypes about older adults that have negatively influenced people’s attitude about aging. The present study compared emotional well-being between older adults and adolescents. Methods Data for this study came from 1,403 community-dwelling elderly persons and 1,190 secondary school students and were obtained from two national cross-sectional surveys. Emotional well-being was measured using the World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index. Data analysis was conducted using a multivariate analysis of covariance with SPSS software version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). Results Elderly people significantly scored higher levels of emotional well-being (mean, 62.3; standard deviation, 22.55) than younger people (mean, 57.9; standard deviation, 18.46; t, 5.32; P?0.001). The findings from the multivariate analysis of covariance revealed a significant difference between older adults and younger people in emotional well-being [F(3, 2587)=120.21; P?0.001; ?2=0.122] after controlling for sex. Conclusion Contrary to negative stereotypes about aging, our findings show a higher level of emotional well-being among older adults compared with younger people. PMID:24872683

  14. The role of switching, inhibition and working memory in older adults' performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test.

    PubMed

    Gamboz, Nadia; Borella, Erika; Brandimonte, Maria A

    2009-05-01

    The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) is considered a typical executive test. However, several interesting questions are still open as to the specific executive processes underlying this task. In the present study, we explored how local and global switching, inhibition and working memory, assessed through the Number-Letter, the Stop Signal and the Reading Span tasks, relate to older adults' performance in the WCST. Results showed that older adults' performance variability in the number of perseverative errors was predicted by the local switch component of the Number-Letter task. Results also showed age-related differences in inhibition, working memory and global switching, while local switching resulted largely spared in aging. This study provides evidence that switching abilities may contribute to performance of older adults in the WCST. It also provides initial evidence suggesting that switching processes, associated with local switch costs, are involved in performance on the WCST, at least in older adults. PMID:19105052

  15. Impact of Physical Activity on the Self-Perceived Quality of Life in Non-Frail Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Svantesson, Ulla; Jones, Janelle; Wolbert, Kristin; Alricsson, Marie

    2015-01-01

    As the population of older adults increases, healthy aging has become a global public health issue. Physical activity can help older adults reclaim or maintain a healthy aging process. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between physical activity, physical performance, quality of life and cognition in non-frail adults aged 65 and older. English articles in peer-reviewed journals about healthy, non-frail adults aged 65 and older were included in the present review. Additionally, articles were obtained from reviewing the reference lists of the aforementioned articles. Research proves an overwhelmingly positive correlation between physical activity and the reduction of preventable chronic illnesses, lower healthcare costs, improved cognition, improved muscle function, decreased fear of falling, and thereby, inevitably, an increased self-perceived quality of life. There is research evidence on healthy aging and the effect of physical activity, which could be of importance in a public health perspective. PMID:26124903

  16. Impact of Physical Activity on the Self-Perceived Quality of Life in Non-Frail Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Svantesson, Ulla; Jones, Janelle; Wolbert, Kristin; Alricsson, Marie

    2015-08-01

    As the population of older adults increases, healthy aging has become a global public health issue. Physical activity can help older adults reclaim or maintain a healthy aging process. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between physical activity, physical performance, quality of life and cognition in non-frail adults aged 65 and older. English articles in peer-reviewed journals about healthy, non-frail adults aged 65 and older were included in the present review. Additionally, articles were obtained from reviewing the reference lists of the aforementioned articles. Research proves an overwhelmingly positive correlation between physical activity and the reduction of preventable chronic illnesses, lower healthcare costs, improved cognition, improved muscle function, decreased fear of falling, and thereby, inevitably, an increased self-perceived quality of life. There is research evidence on healthy aging and the effect of physical activity, which could be of importance in a public health perspective. PMID:26124903

  17. Count me in: response to sexual orientation measures among older adults.

    PubMed

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Kim, Hyun-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Health disparities exist among sexual minority older adults. Yet, health and aging surveys rarely include sexual orientation measures and when they do, they often exclude older adults from being asked about sexual orientation. This is the first population-based study to assess item nonresponse to sexual orientation measures by age and change over time. We compare response rates and examine time trends in response patterns using adjusted logistic regressions. Among adults aged 65 and older, the nonresponse rate on sexual orientation is lower than income. While older adults show higher nonresponse rates on sexual orientation than younger adults, the nonresponse rates have significantly decreased over time. By 2010, only 1.23% of older adults responded don't know/not sure, with 1.55% refusing to answer sexual orientation questions. Decisions to not ask sexual orientation among older adults must be reconsidered, given documented health disparities and rapidly changing social trends in the understanding of diverse sexualities. PMID:25651579

  18. Selective attention affects conceptual object priming and recognition: a study with young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective attention at encoding on conceptual object priming (Experiment 1) and old–new recognition memory (Experiment 2) tasks in young and older adults. The procedures of both experiments included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. At encoding, the picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, were presented to the left and to the right of fixation. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to attend to the picture outline of a certain color and to classify the object as natural or artificial. After a short delay, participants performed a natural/artificial speeded conceptual classification task with repeated attended, repeated unattended, and new pictures. In Experiment 2, participants at encoding memorized the attended pictures and classify them as natural or artificial. After the encoding phase, they performed an old–new recognition memory task. Consistent with previous findings with perceptual priming tasks, we found that conceptual object priming, like explicit memory, required attention at encoding. Significant priming was obtained in both age groups, but only for those pictures that were attended at encoding. Although older adults were slower than young adults, both groups showed facilitation for attended pictures. In line with previous studies, young adults had better recognition memory than older adults. PMID:25628588

  19. Planning and task management in older adults: cooking breakfast.

    PubMed

    Craik, Fergus I M; Bialystok, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    The article describes a simulated "cooking breakfast" task in which participants must remember to start and stop cooking five foods so that all the foods are "ready" at the same time. In between starting and stopping operations, the participants also carried out a "table-setting" task as a filler activity. The breakfast task yields various measures of multitasking and executive control. Groups of younger and older adults performed the task; half of the participants in each group were bilinguals and the other half were monolinguals. The results showed substantial age-related decrements in most measures of executive control. Additionally, older bilinguals showed some advantages in task management over their monolingual peers. PMID:17225505

  20. Implications of controlled short-wavelength light exposure for sleep in older adults

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Environmental and physiological conditions make older adults more likely to lose synchronization to their local time and experience sleep disturbances. A regular, 24-hour light/dark cycle promotes synchronization. It is now well established that the circadian system is maximally sensitive to short-wavelength (blue) light. The purpose of the present study was to measure dose effectiveness (amounts and durations) of short-wavelength (blue) light for stimulating the circadian systems of older adults. We investigated the impact of six corneal irradiances (0.7 to 72 ?W/cm2) of 470-nm light on nocturnal melatonin production. Nine participants, each over 50 years of age completed a within-subjects study. Each week, participants were exposed to one of the six irradiances of 470-nm light for 90 minutes. Findings A two-factor (6 corneal irradiances × 10 exposure durations), within-subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted using the melatonin suppression levels. The ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of corneal irradiance (F5, 30 = 9.131, p < 0.0001), a significant main effect of exposure duration (F9, 54 = 5.731, p < 0.0001), and a significant interaction between these two variables (F45,270 = 1.927, p < 0.001). Post hoc t-tests revealed that corneal irradiances as low as 2 ?W/cm2 reliably suppressed melatonin after 90-minute exposure whereas 0.7 ?W/cm2 did not. Conclusions Sleep disorders are common and a serious problem for millions of older adults. The present results showed that comfortable, precise and effective doses of light can be prescribed to older adults to reliably stimulate the circadian system that presumably would promote entrainment and, thus, regular sleep. Field studies on the impact of short-wavelength-light doses on sleep efficiency in older adults should be performed. PMID:21902824

  1. The Influence of Self-Perceptions of Aging on Older Adults' Cognition and Behavior 

    E-print Network

    Hughes, Matthew Lane

    2014-07-29

    THE INFLUENCE OF SELF-PERCEPTIONS OF AGING ON OLDER ADULTS’ COGNITION AND BEHAVIOR A Dissertation by MATTHEW LANE HUGHES Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... for younger adults (M = 7.62) than for older adults (M = 6.00), which suggests that they formed a more complex schema of younger adults. 5 Younger adults also judge that negative traits are more typical of older adults than they are of younger adults...

  2. TOT phenomena: Gesture production in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Theocharopoulou, Foteini; Cocks, Naomi; Pring, Timothy; Dipper, Lucy T

    2015-06-01

    This study explored age-related changes in gesture to better understand the relationship between gesture and word retrieval from memory. The frequency of gestures during tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states highlights this relationship. There is a lack of evidence describing the form and content of iconic gestures arising spontaneously in such TOT states and a parallel gap addressing age-related variations. In this study, TOT states were induced in 45 participants from 2 age groups (older and younger adults) using a pseudoword paradigm. The type and frequency of gestures produced was recorded during 2 experimental conditions (single-word retrieval and narrative task). We found that both groups experienced a high number of TOT states, during which they gestured. Iconic co-TOT gestures were more common than noniconic gestures. Although there was no age effect on the type of gestures produced, there was a significant, task-specific age difference in the amount of gesturing. That is, younger adults gestured more in the narrative task, whereas older adults generated more gestures in the single-word-retrieval task. Task-specific age differences suggest that there are age-related differences in terms of the cognitive operations involved in TOT gesture production. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25961875

  3. Speech comprehension difficulties in older adults: cognitive slowing or age-related changes in hearing?

    PubMed

    Schneider, Bruce A; Daneman, Meredyth; Murphy, Dana R

    2005-06-01

    Speech comprehension declines more rapidly in older adults than in younger adults as speech rate increases. This effect is usually attributed to a slowing of brain function with age. Alternatively, this Age X Speed interaction could reflect the inability of the older adult's auditory system to cope with speed-induced stimulus degradation. When the authors speeded speech in a way that produced minimal degradation, both age groups were equally affected. However, when speech was speeded using other methods, word identification declined more in older than in younger adults. Hence, auditory decline rather than cognitive slowing may be responsible for older adults' poorer performance in speeded conditions. PMID:16029090

  4. Multimorbidity, disability, and mortality in community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    St John, Philip D.; Tyas, Suzanne L.; Menec, Verena; Tate, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe factors associated with multimorbidity in community-dwelling older adults; to determine if a simple measure of multimorbidity predicts death over 5 years; and to assess if any effect of multimorbidity on mortality is independent of key covariates. Design Analysis of an existing population-based cohort study. Cox proportional hazards models were constructed for time to death. Setting Manitoba. Participants A total of 1751 community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older were interviewed and followed for 5 years. Main outcome measures Age, sex, marital status, living arrangement, education, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score, and the Older Americans Resource and Services Multidimensional Functional Assessment Questionnaire score were recorded for each participant. Multimorbidity was defined based on a simple list of common health complaints and diseases, followed by an open-ended question about other problems. These were summed and the scores ranged from 0 to 16. Death and time of death were determined during the 5-year interval by death certificate, administrative data, or proxy report. Results Multimorbidity was more prevalent in women; older age groups; and those with lower educational levels, lower MMSE scores, more depressive symptoms, and higher levels of disability. Multimorbidity was a predictor of mortality in unadjusted models (hazard ratio 1.09, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.12). In models adjusting for age, sex, education, marital status, living arrangement, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and MMSE scores, this effect persisted (hazard ratio 1.04, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.08). However, after adjusting for functional status, the effect of multimorbidity was no longer significant. Conclusion Multimorbidity predicts 5-year mortality but the effect might be mediated by disability. PMID:24829022

  5. Stress hormones, sleep deprivation and cognition in older adults.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Marcello; Colizzi, Elena; Fisichella, Alberto; Valenti, Giorgio; Ceresini, Graziano; Dall'Aglio, Elisabetta; Ruffini, Livia; Lauretani, Fulvio; Parrino, Liborio; Ceda, Gian Paolo

    2013-09-01

    Cognition can be deteriorated in older persons because of several potential mechanisms including the hormonal changes occurring with age. Stress events cause modification in hormonal balance with acute and chronic changes such as increase in cortisol and thyroid hormones, and simultaneous alterations in dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, testosterone and insulin like growth factor-1 levels. The ability to cope with stress and regain previous healthy status, also called resiliency, is particularly impaired in older persons Thus, stressful conditions and hormonal dysregulation might concur to the onset of cognitive impairment in this population. In this review we address the relationship between stress hormones and cognitive function in older persons focusing on the role of one of the main stress factors, such as sleep deprivation (SD). We extracted and cross-checked data from 2000 to 2013 March and selected 112 full-text articles assessed for eligibility. In particular we considered 68 studies regarding the contribution of hormonal pathway to cognition in older adults, and 44 regarding hormones and SD both in rats and humans. We investigated how the activation of a stress-pattern response, like the one evoked from SD, can influence cognitive development and worsen cognitive status in the elderly. We will show the limited number of studies targeting the effects of SD and the consequent changes in stress hormones on cognitive function in this age group. We conclude that the current literature is not strong enough to give definitive answers on the role of stress hormonal pathway to the development of cognitive impairment in older individuals. PMID:23849175

  6. Anticholinergic activity of 107 medications commonly used by older adults.

    PubMed

    Chew, Marci L; Mulsant, Benoit H; Pollock, Bruce G; Lehman, Mark E; Greenspan, Andrew; Mahmoud, Ramy A; Kirshner, Margaret A; Sorisio, Denise A; Bies, Robert R; Gharabawi, Georges

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the anticholinergic activity (AA) of medications commonly used by older adults. A radioreceptor assay was used to investigate the AA of 107 medications. Six clinically relevant concentrations were assessed for each medication. Rodent forebrain and striatum homogenate was used with tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate. Drug-free serum was added to medication and atropine standard-curve samples. For medications that showed detectable AA, average steady-state peak plasma and serum concentrations (C(max)) in older adults were used to estimate relationships between in vitro dose and AA. All results are reported in pmol/mL of atropine equivalents. At typical doses administered to older adults, amitriptyline, atropine, clozapine, dicyclomine, doxepin, L-hyoscyamine, thioridazine, and tolterodine demonstrated AA exceeding 15 pmol/mL. Chlorpromazine, diphenhydramine, nortriptyline, olanzapine, oxybutynin, and paroxetine had AA values of 5 to 15 pmol/mL. Citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, lithium, mirtazapine, quetiapine, ranitidine, and temazepam had values less than 5 pmol/mL. Amoxicillin, celecoxib, cephalexin, diazepam, digoxin, diphenoxylate, donepezil, duloxetine, fentanyl, furosemide, hydrocodone, lansoprazole, levofloxacin, metformin, phenytoin, propoxyphene, and topiramate demonstrated AA only at the highest concentrations tested (patients with above-average C(max) values, who receive higher doses, or are frail may show AA). The remainder of the medications investigated did not demonstrate any AA at the concentrations examined. Psychotropic medications were particularly likely to demonstrate AA. Each of the drug classifications investigated (e.g., antipsychotic, cardiovascular) had at least one medication that demonstrated AA at therapeutic doses. Clinicians can use this information when choosing between equally efficacious medications, as well as in assessing overall anticholinergic burden. PMID:18510583

  7. Nondrug therapies for pain management among rural older adults.

    PubMed

    Fouladbakhsh, Judith M; Szczesny, Susan; Jenuwine, Elisabeth S; Vallerand, April H

    2011-06-01

    This quasiexperimental two-group pilot study tested an intervention aimed at educating older adults in rural communities about the appropriate use of nondrug treatments for pain. Earlier data reveal that older adults use significantly less nonpharmacologic modalities than their younger counterparts, and that pain self-treatment is prevalent in rural areas. Individuals aged ?60 years who experienced pain in the preceding 2 weeks were recruited from rural Midwestern communities through the use of flyers and information sessions at hospitals, churches, and community organizations. Upon enrollment, participants selected a date for an educational session, which was randomized to the experimental or control condition. All participants (n = 53) completed a series of questionnaires (Brief Pain Inventory, Symptom Distress Scale, Perceived Control Scale) at the initial educational session (T1) and at a two-week follow-up session (T2). Participants in the control and experimental groups attended a 30-minute educational session on safe use of over-the-counter medications; the experimental group also received an additional 30-minute session on safe and effective use of heat, cold, and relaxation breathing. Hot and cold packs and relaxation breathing instruction were provided for use over the 2-week period. There was a significant increase in the use of all nondrug treatments and a decrease in pain-related distress and current pain scores in the experimental group compared with the control group. This study informs nurses and other health care providers on the value of education for use of nondrug therapies in conjunction with pharmacologic pain management among rural older adults. PMID:21620309

  8. Typography manipulations can affect priming of word stem completion in older and younger adults.

    PubMed

    Gibson, J M; Brooks, J O; Friedman, L; Yesavage, J A

    1993-12-01

    The experiments reported here investigated whether changes of typography affected priming of word stem completion performance in older and younger adults. Across all experiments, the typeface in which a word appeared at presentation either did or did not match that of its 3-letter stem at test. In Experiment 1, no significant evidence of a typography effect was found when words were presented with a sentence judgment or letter judgment task. However, subsequent experiments revealed that, in both older and younger adults, only words presented with a syllable judgment task gave rise to the typography effect (Experiments 2-4). Specifically, performance was greater, when the presentation and test typeface matched than when they did not. Experiment 5, which used stem-cued recall, did not reveal a difference between syllable and letter judgment tasks. These findings highlight the complex nature of word stem completion performance. PMID:8292277

  9. Far transfer in cognitive training of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Zelinski, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This article reviews the literature on far transfer effects in training of older adults. Methods Adapting a taxonomy of transfer developed by Barnett and Ceci (2002), to rehabilitation or enhancement of existing cognitive skills; results of studies assessing transfer effects from training of memory, reasoning, UFOV, dual task performance, and complex training are classified. Results Comparisons of the transfer outcomes of both strategy training and extended practice approaches suggest that far transfer has been observed. Conclusions Outcomes for strategy studies training memory have had less success than extended practice studies in obtaining far transfer. Reasons for this are discussed, as are suggestions for improved assessment of transfer outcomes. PMID:19847070

  10. Equity considerations in the friendships of older adults.

    PubMed

    Roberto, K A; Scott, J P

    1986-03-01

    This study examined patterns of exchange between 110 older adults and their friends. Using equity theory as the conceptual base, the amount and type of distress reported in the overall friend relationship, the helping aspect of the friendship, and the affective component of the relationship by those individuals in equitable versus inequitable friendships were examined. The results support the postulate of equity theory that individuals who perceived their relationship to be equitable express less distress with all aspects of their friendships than those who perceived their friendships as inequitable. The type of distress reported by respondents in the inequitable group, however, was contrary to the propositions of equity theory. PMID:3950352

  11. Hearing Loss and Older Adults’ Perceptions of Access to Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy PandhiJessica; Jessica R. Schumacher; Steven Barnett; Maureen A. Smith

    We investigated whether hard-of-hearing older adults were more likely to report difficulties and delays in accessing care\\u000a and decreased satisfaction with healthcare access than those without hearing loss. The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (2003–2006\\u000a wave, N = 6,524) surveyed respondents regarding hearing, difficulties\\/delays in accessing care, satisfaction with healthcare\\u000a access, socio-demographics, chronic conditions, self-rated health, depression, and length of relationship with provider\\/site.\\u000a We

  12. Consider the Source: Adolescents and Adults Similarly Follow Older Adult Advice More than Peer Advice

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Gloria A.; Dellarco, Danielle V.; Casey, B. J.; Hartley, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals learn which of their actions are likely to be rewarded through trial and error. This form of learning is critical for adapting to new situations, which adolescents frequently encounter. Adolescents are also greatly influenced by their peers. The current study tested the extent to which adolescents rely on peer advice to guide their actions. Adolescent and young adult participants completed a probabilistic learning task in which they chose between four pairs of stimuli with different reinforcement probabilities, with one stimulus in each pair more frequently rewarded. Participants received advice about two of these pairs, once from a similarly aged peer and once from an older adult. Crucially, this advice was inaccurate, enabling the dissociation between experience-based and instruction-based learning. Adolescents and adults learned equally well from experience and no age group difference was evident in the overall influence of advice on choices. Surprisingly, when considering the source of advice, there was no evident influence of peer advice on adolescent choices. However, both adolescents and adults were biased toward choosing the stimulus recommended by the older adult. Contrary to conventional wisdom, these data suggest that adolescents may prioritize the advice of older adults over that of peers in certain decision-making contexts. PMID:26030134

  13. Age-Related Gene Expression Differences in Monocytes from Human Neonates, Young Adults, and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Ann-Jay; Kollmann, Tobias R.; Smale, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of age-related differences in the innate and adaptive immune systems have been proposed to contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection of human neonates and older adults. The emergence of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides an opportunity to obtain an unbiased, comprehensive, and quantitative view of gene expression differences in defined cell types from different age groups. An examination of ex vivo human monocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide stimulation or Listeria monocytogenes infection by RNA-seq revealed extensive similarities between neonates, young adults, and older adults, with an unexpectedly small number of genes exhibiting statistically significant age-dependent differences. By examining the differentially induced genes in the context of transcription factor binding motifs and RNA-seq data sets from mutant mouse strains, a previously described deficiency in interferon response factor-3 activity could be implicated in most of the differences between newborns and young adults. Contrary to these observations, older adults exhibited elevated expression of inflammatory genes at baseline, yet the responses following stimulation correlated more closely with those observed in younger adults. Notably, major differences in the expression of constitutively expressed genes were not observed, suggesting that the age-related differences are driven by environmental influences rather than cell-autonomous differences in monocyte development. PMID:26147648

  14. Muscle performance and physical function are associated with voluntary rate of neuromuscular activation in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Participants were recruited to three experimental groups: middle-aged healthy adults (MH), older healthy adults (OH), and older adults with mobility limitations (OML). OH and OML were primarily differentiated by performance on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Muscle performance (accele...

  15. Attitudes and beliefs about mental health among African American older adults suffering from depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyaien O. Conner; Brenda Lee; Vanessa Mayers; Deborah Robinson; Charles F. Reynolds III; Steve Albert; Charlotte Brown

    2010-01-01

    Depression among older adults is a major public health concern leading to increased disability and mortality. Less than 3% of older adults utilize professional mental health services for the treatment of depression, less than any other adult age group. And despite similar rates of depression, African Americans are significantly less likely to seek, engage and be retained in professional mental

  16. Sleep modulates word-pair learning but not motor sequence learning in healthy older adults

    E-print Network

    Ivry, Rich

    Sleep modulates word-pair learning but not motor sequence learning in healthy older adults Jessica Sleep benefits memory across a range of tasks for young adults. However, remarkably little is known of the role of sleep on memory for healthy older adults. We used 2 tasks, 1 assaying motor skill learning

  17. The Role of Healthcare Providers and Caregivers in Educating Older Adults about Foodborne Illness Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlgenant, Kelly C.; Cates, Sheryl C.; Godwin, Sandria L.; Speller-Henderson, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Adults aged 60 or older are more likely than younger adults to experience severe complications or even death as a result of foodborne infections. This study investigated which specific groups of healthcare providers or other caregivers are most receptive to providing food safety information to older adults. Telephone-based focus groups were…

  18. Knowledge of Results after Good Trials Enhances Learning in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; Wally, Raquel; Borges, Thiago

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, some researchers have examined motor learning in older adults. Some of these studies have specifically looked at the effectiveness of different manipulations of extrinsic feedback, or knowledge of results (KR). Given that many motor tasks may already be more challenging for older adults compared to younger adults, making KR more…

  19. Multiple Dimensions of Balance are Adversely A ected in Older Adults with Fibromyalgia

    E-print Network

    de Lijser, Peter

    Multiple Dimensions of Balance are Adversely A ected in Older Adults with Fibromyalgia Table 1 erent dimensions of balance and mobility in younger adults [2]. The goal of this study was to address this important question with a group of older adults with FM. The Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) Scale

  20. Action Prediction in Younger versus Older Adults: Neural Correlates of Motor Familiarity

    PubMed Central

    Diersch, Nadine; Mueller, Karsten; Cross, Emily S.; Stadler, Waltraud; Rieger, Martina; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Generating predictions during action observation is essential for efficient navigation through our social environment. With age, the sensitivity in action prediction declines. In younger adults, the action observation network (AON), consisting of premotor, parietal and occipitotemporal cortices, has been implicated in transforming executed and observed actions into a common code. Much less is known about age-related changes in the neural representation of observed actions. Using fMRI, the present study measured brain activity in younger and older adults during the prediction of temporarily occluded actions (figure skating elements and simple movement exercises). All participants were highly familiar with the movement exercises whereas only some participants were experienced figure skaters. With respect to the AON, the results confirm that this network was preferentially engaged for the more familiar movement exercises. Compared to younger adults, older adults recruited visual regions to perform the task and, additionally, the hippocampus and caudate when the observed actions were familiar to them. Thus, instead of effectively exploiting the sensorimotor matching properties of the AON, older adults seemed to rely predominantly on the visual dynamics of the observed actions to perform the task. Our data further suggest that the caudate played an important role during the prediction of the less familiar figure skating elements in better-performing groups. Together, these findings show that action prediction engages a distributed network in the brain, which is modulated by the content of the observed actions and the age and experience of the observer. PMID:23704980

  1. Poor Cardiac Rehabilitation Utilization Among Older Adults: A Self-Regulatory Model for Tailored Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Keib, Carrie N.; Reynolds, Nancy R.; Ahijevych, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    A greater number of older adults now live with coronary heart disease (CHD). This poses a significant public health problem as older adults are at high risk for CHD-related mortality and morbidity. Overwhelming data support benefits of cardiac rehabilitation for secondary prevention, yet only a small portion of eligible older adults receive it. While many studies have examined factors that affect cardiac rehabilitation utilization among older adults, few interventions have aimed to improve their cardiac rehabilitation participation rates. A substantial body of evidence indicates an individual’s illness perceptions appear to play a pivotal role in health behavior and may be a promising target for intervention. Drawing from theoretic and empiric findings of Leventhal and others, a self-regulatory model is proposed that explicates how CHD perceptions of older adults may influence cardiac rehabilitation participation. The model may provide a useful guide for the development of effective interventions tailored to older adults. PMID:20561883

  2. Work Hours, Retirement and Supportive Relations among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nahum-Shani, Inbal

    2010-01-01

    While the literature widely acknowledges the importance of social support to the health, well-being and performance of older adults, little is known about the way in which occupational conditions affect older employees’ access to social support over time and whether these effects are maintained after retirement. Accordingly, in the current study we examine the degree to which work hours have longer term effects on the amount and type of support older individuals receive from intimate coworkers, family and non-work friends, and whether these effects are attenuated or intensified for those who retire. Longitudinal data were collected from a random sample of members of nine unions, 6 months prior to their retirement eligibility (T1) and approximately one year after Time 1 (T2). Our findings indicate that while retirement attenuates the positive association between Time 1 work hours and subsequent coworkers' support as well as the negative relationship between Time 1 work hours and subsequent non-work friends support, retirement fails to attenuate the negative effect of Time 1 work hours on subsequent family support. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:20485475

  3. Disparities in Health and Disability Among Older Adults in Same-Sex Cohabiting Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Gilbert; Henning-Smith, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present study compared indicators of impaired health and disability between older adults in same-sex cohabiting relationships and their peers in opposite-sex cohabiting relationships. Methods Data were obtained on men (n=698) and women (n=630) aged 50 years and older and in self-reported same-sex relationships from the National Health Interview Survey. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to estimate differences in physical health, mental health and disability status. Results Compared to their peers in married opposite-sex relationships, older men in same-sex relationships exhibited greater odds of psychological distress, and older women in same-sex relationships experienced elevated odds of poor/fair health, needing help with ADLs and IADLs, functional limitations, and psychological distress. Discussion This study adds to the limited information on health and disability among older lesbian, gay and bisexual adults. As this population grows, gerontologists must develop a better understanding of the unique issues and challenges facing them and their families. PMID:25253727

  4. Treating Depression in Older Adults: Challenges to Implementing the Recommendations of an Expert Panel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Snowden; Lesley Steinman; John Frederick

    Depression is increasingly recognized as a significant public health problem among older adults. Because the condition is highly treatable and currently undertreated among community-based older adults, late-life depression is an appropriate focus for disease prevention programs. We report findings from a recent project to review the sci- entific literature for published reports about treatment for depression among community-dwelling older adults

  5. Overcoming Recruitment Barriers in Urban Older Adults Residing in Congregate Living Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Simning, Adam; van Wijngaarden, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Participation of minority older adults in mental health research has been limited by mistrust, transportation difficulties, lack of knowledge, and insufficient community partnership. We describe strategies utilized to overcome these recruitment barriers. Methods. Our target population included 553 public housing residents of older adult high-rise buildings in Rochester, NY. We had a two-stage cross-sectional study: Stage 1 was a health survey for all residents and Stage 2 was a psychiatric interview of English-speaking residents aged 60 years and older. Recruitment occurred through mailings, onsite activities, and resident referrals. Results. Stage 1 had 358 participants (64.7% response) and Stage 2 had 190 (61.6% target population response), with higher participation among African Americans. We found some strategies effective for overcoming recruitment barriers. First, we partnered with a community agency and organized onsite educational activities to improve residents' trust. Second, the study occurred entirely onsite, which facilitated participation of functionally impaired residents. Third, onsite activities allowed the residents to learn about the study and complete surveys in person. Fourth, we provided immediate incentives that resulted in many study referrals. Conclusions. Although recruitment of minority older adults presents unique challenges, a multifaceted community-tailored approach mitigated several recruitment barriers in this mental health study.

  6. Stressors, Coping Resources, and Depressive Symptoms among Rural American Indian Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Roh, Soonhee; Brown-Rice, Kathleen A; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Lawler, Michael J; Martin, James I

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of physical health stressors and coping resources with depressive symptoms among American Indian older adults age 50 years or older. The study used a convenience sample of 227 rural American Indian older adults. A hierarchical multiple regression tested three sets of predictors on depressive symptoms: (a) sociodemographics, (b) physical health stressors (functional disability and chronic medical conditions), and (c) coping resources (social support and spirituality). Most participants reported little difficulty in performing daily activities (e.g., eating, dressing, traveling, and managing money), while presenting over two types of chronic medical conditions. Depressive symptoms were predicted by higher scores on perceived social support and lower scores on functional disability; women and those having no health insurance also had higher levels of depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that social work practitioners should engage family and community support, advocate for access to adequate health care, and attend to women's unique circumstances and needs when working with American Indian older adults. PMID:25840024

  7. Bereavement reduces neutrophil oxidative burst only in older adults: role of the HPA axis and immunesenescence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of the chronic stress of bereavement on immunity is poorly understood. Previous studies have demonstrated negative effects on immunity in older adults, and those who report higher depressive symptoms. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of bereavement on neutrophil function in healthy young and old adults, also assessing serum levels of the stress hormones, cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS). 41 young (mean age 32 years) and 52 older adults (mean age 72 years), bereaved and non-bereaved, took part in the study. They completed questionnaires on socio-demographic and health behaviour characteristics, as well as psychosocial variables, and provided a blood sample for analysis of neutrophil function (phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production) and stress hormone analysis. Results Bereaved participants in both age groups reported more symptoms of depression and anxiety than controls and scored moderately highly on bereavement-specific questionnaires for these symptoms. Despite this, young bereaved participants showed robust neutrophil function when compared to age-matched non-bereaved controls, and comparable stress hormone levels, while reduced neutrophil ROS production and raised stress hormone levels (cortisol:DHEAS ratio) were seen in the older bereaved group compared to their age-matched controls. Conclusions Reduced neutrophil function among older bereaved participants may be the result of the inability to maintain stress hormone balance, specifically the cortisol:DHEAS ratio. PMID:25191511

  8. Computerized cognitive training with older adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kueider, Alexandra M; Parisi, Jeanine M; Gross, Alden L; Rebok, George W

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review to examine the efficacy of computer-based cognitive interventions for cognitively healthy older adults was conducted. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: average sample age of at least 55 years at time of training; participants did not have Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment; and the study measured cognitive outcomes as a result of training. Theoretical articles, review articles, and book chapters that did not include original data were excluded. We identified 151 studies published between 1984 and 2011, of which 38 met inclusion criteria and were further classified into three groups by the type of computerized program used: classic cognitive training tasks, neuropsychological software, and video games. Reported pre-post training effect sizes for intervention groups ranged from 0.06 to 6.32 for classic cognitive training interventions, 0.19 to 7.14 for neuropsychological software interventions, and 0.09 to 1.70 for video game interventions. Most studies reported older adults did not need to be technologically savvy in order to successfully complete or benefit from training. Overall, findings are comparable or better than those from reviews of more traditional, paper-and-pencil cognitive training approaches suggesting that computerized training is an effective, less labor intensive alternative. PMID:22792378

  9. Access to continued-use medication among older adults, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Karynna Pimentel; Brito, Alexandre dos Santos; Rodrigues, Claudia Soares; Luiz, Ronir Raggio

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence and associated access factors for all continued-use prescription drugs and the ways in which they can be obtained. METHODS Data was obtained from the 2008 Household National Survey. The sample comprised 27,333 individuals above 60 years who reported that they used continued-use prescription drugs. A descriptive analysis and binary and multiple multinomial logistic regressions were performed. RESULTS 86.0% of the older adults had access to all the medication they needed, and among them, 50.7% purchased said medication. Those who obtained medication from the public health system were younger (60-64 years), did not have health insurance plans, and belonged to the lower income groups. It is remarkable that 14.0% of the subjects still had no access to any continued-use medication, and for those with more than four chronic diseases, this amount reached 22.0%. Those with a greater number of chronic diseases ran a higher risk of not having access to all the medication they needed. CONCLUSIONS There are some groups of older adults with an increased risk of not obtaining all the medication they need and of purchasing it. The results of this study are expected to contribute to guide programs and plans for access to medication in Brazil. PMID:25741646

  10. Executive function and bilingualism in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kousaie, Shanna; Sheppard, Christine; Lemieux, Maude; Monetta, Laura; Taler, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that being bilingual results in advantages on executive control processes and disadvantages on language tasks relative to monolinguals. Furthermore, the executive function advantage is thought to be larger in older than younger adults, suggesting that bilingualism may buffer against age-related changes in executive function. However, there are potential confounds in some of the previous research, as well as inconsistencies in the literature. The goal of the current investigation was to examine the presence of a bilingual advantage in executive control and a bilingual disadvantage on language tasks in the same sample of young and older monolingual anglophones, monolingual francophones, and French/English bilinguals. Participants completed a series of executive function tasks, including a Stroop task, a Simon task, a sustained attention to response task (SART), the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST), and the digit span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and language tasks, including the Boston Naming Test (BNT), and category and letter fluency. The results do not demonstrate an unequivocal advantage for bilinguals on executive function tasks and raise questions about the reliability, robustness and/or specificity of previous findings. The results also did not demonstrate a disadvantage for bilinguals on language tasks. Rather, they suggest that there may be an influence of the language environment. It is concluded that additional research is required to fully characterize any language group differences in both executive function and language tasks. PMID:25120442

  11. Computerized Cognitive Training with Older Adults: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kueider, Alexandra M.; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Gross, Alden L.; Rebok, George W.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review to examine the efficacy of computer-based cognitive interventions for cognitively healthy older adults was conducted. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: average sample age of at least 55 years at time of training; participants did not have Alzheimer’s disease or mild cognitive impairment; and the study measured cognitive outcomes as a result of training. Theoretical articles, review articles, and book chapters that did not include original data were excluded. We identified 151 studies published between 1984 and 2011, of which 38 met inclusion criteria and were further classified into three groups by the type of computerized program used: classic cognitive training tasks, neuropsychological software, and video games. Reported pre-post training effect sizes for intervention groups ranged from 0.06 to 6.32 for classic cognitive training interventions, 0.19 to 7.14 for neuropsychological software interventions, and 0.09 to 1.70 for video game interventions. Most studies reported older adults did not need to be technologically savvy in order to successfully complete or benefit from training. Overall, findings are comparable or better than those from reviews of more traditional, paper-and-pencil cognitive training approaches suggesting that computerized training is an effective, less labor intensive alternative. PMID:22792378

  12. Access to continued-use medication among older adults, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Viana, Karynna Pimentel; Brito, Alexandre dos Santos; Rodrigues, Claudia Soares; Luiz, Ronir Raggio

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence and associated access factors for all continued-use prescription drugs and the ways in which they can be obtained. METHODS Data was obtained from the 2008 Household National Survey. The sample comprised 27,333 individuals above 60 years who reported that they used continued-use prescription drugs. A descriptive analysis and binary and multiple multinomial logistic regressions were performed. RESULTS 86.0% of the older adults had access to all the medication they needed, and among them, 50.7% purchased said medication. Those who obtained medication from the public health system were younger (60-64 years), did not have health insurance plans, and belonged to the lower income groups. It is remarkable that 14.0% of the subjects still had no access to any continued-use medication, and for those with more than four chronic diseases, this amount reached 22.0%. Those with a greater number of chronic diseases ran a higher risk of not having access to all the medication they needed. CONCLUSIONS There are some groups of older adults with an increased risk of not obtaining all the medication they need and of purchasing it. The results of this study are expected to contribute to guide programs and plans for access to medication in Brazil. PMID:25741646

  13. Older Adults’ Perception of Chronic Illness Management in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Minah; Kim, Jaiyong; Bae, Sang-Soo; Choi, Yong-Jun; Shin, Dong-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Despite the recent emphasis on a patient-centered chronic care model, few studies have investigated its use in older adults in South Korea. We explored how older Korean adults perceive and cope with their chronic illness. Methods: We conducted focus group interviews in Seoul, Korea in January 2010. Focus groups were formed by disease type (hypertension and type 2 diabetes) and gender using purposive sampling. Inclusion criteria were patients aged 60 and over who had been diagnosed with diabetes or hypertension and received care at a community health center for at least six months prior to participation. Interview data were analyzed through descriptive content analysis. Results: Among personal factors, most participants felt overwhelmed when they received their diagnosis. However, with time and control of their acute symptoms using medication, their worry diminished and participants tended to denying being identified as a patient or sick person. Among socio-familial factors, participants reported experiencing stigma with their chronic illness and feeling it was a symbol of weakness. Instead of modifying their lifestyles, which might interfere with their social relationships, they resorted to only following their medicine regime prescribed by their doctor. Participants also reported feeling that their doctor only prescribed medications and acted in an authoritative and threatening manner to induce and reinforce participants’ compliance with treatment. Conclusions: For successful patient-centered management of chronic illnesses, supportive environments that include family, friends, and healthcare providers should be established. PMID:25139170

  14. Executive function and bilingualism in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Kousaie, Shanna; Sheppard, Christine; Lemieux, Maude; Monetta, Laura; Taler, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that being bilingual results in advantages on executive control processes and disadvantages on language tasks relative to monolinguals. Furthermore, the executive function advantage is thought to be larger in older than younger adults, suggesting that bilingualism may buffer against age-related changes in executive function. However, there are potential confounds in some of the previous research, as well as inconsistencies in the literature. The goal of the current investigation was to examine the presence of a bilingual advantage in executive control and a bilingual disadvantage on language tasks in the same sample of young and older monolingual anglophones, monolingual francophones, and French/English bilinguals. Participants completed a series of executive function tasks, including a Stroop task, a Simon task, a sustained attention to response task (SART), the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST), and the digit span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and language tasks, including the Boston Naming Test (BNT), and category and letter fluency. The results do not demonstrate an unequivocal advantage for bilinguals on executive function tasks and raise questions about the reliability, robustness and/or specificity of previous findings. The results also did not demonstrate a disadvantage for bilinguals on language tasks. Rather, they suggest that there may be an influence of the language environment. It is concluded that additional research is required to fully characterize any language group differences in both executive function and language tasks. PMID:25120442

  15. Depression and associated factors in older adults in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective Late-life depression is an important public health problem because of its devastating consequences. The study aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of self-reported symptom-based depression in a national sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE wave 1) in 2008. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a probability sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements as well as questions on depression symptoms in the past 12 months. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to assess the association of socio-demographic factors, health variables, and depression. Results The overall prevalence of symptom-based depression in the past 12 months was 4.0%. In multivariable analysis, functional disability, lack of quality of life, and chronic conditions (angina, asthma, arthritis, and nocturnal sleep problems) were associated with self-reported depression symptoms in the past 12 months. Conclusions Self-reported depression in older South Africans seems to be a public health problem calling for appropriate interventions to reduce occurrence. Factors identified to be associated with depression, including functional disability, lack of quality of life, and chronic conditions (angina, asthma, arthritis, and nocturnal sleep problems), can be used to guide interventions. The identified protective and risk factors can help in formulating public health care policies to improve quality of life among older adults. PMID:23336621

  16. Auditory negative priming in younger and older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Axel Buchner; Susanne Mayr

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments are reported in which performance of old and young adults in an auditory negative priming task was compared. Auditory negative priming was not smaller in old than in young adults. This result was independent of whether or not conditions were present that had previously been assumed to favour episodic retrieval, as opposed to inhibitory processes, as a basis

  17. Normative data for healthy older adults and an abbreviated version of the Stroop test.

    PubMed

    Kang, Christine; Lee, Grace J; Yi, Dahyun; McPherson, Susan; Rogers, Steven; Tingus, Kathleen; Lu, Po H

    2013-01-01

    Normative data for the Kaplan version of the Stroop Test are presented for 153 healthy, cognitively intact older adults aged 50-89 years. Increasing age was associated with decreased performance on all three subtests (Stroop A, Stroop B, and Stroop C), while years of education was only associated with Stroop B performance. Hence the normative data were stratified by age into three groups (50-64, 65-74, 75-89). Completion times for the first half of each trial (half-time scores) were found to have good split-half reliability and correlated highly with the original full administration scores. Means and standard deviations for the half-time administration are also presented for this sample. The current study provides more comprehensive normative data for older adults than previously available, as well as normative information for half-time scores that may have future clinical utility as an alternative, abbreviated version of the Kaplan Stroop Test. PMID:23259830

  18. Gait characteristics and sensory abilities of older adults are modulated by gender.

    PubMed

    Scaglioni-Solano, Pietro; Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando

    2015-06-01

    Despite the general perception that women and men walk differently, little is known about the reasons for these differences, especially in older adults. Previous work on gender differences in older adults has focused on spatiotemporal parameters. This study aims to assess gender-related differences in gait spatiotemporal and quality parameters when walking on a flat walkway at two different self-selected speeds: comfortable and fast. Sensorimotor abilities (Strength, agility, standing balance, reaction time) were also compared by gender, and gender-specific associations between spatiotemporal and sensorimotor parameters and gait quality were studied. Two tri-axial accelerometers were used at head and pelvis levels to investigate spatiotemporal parameters (step length, velocity and cadence), and gait quality (harmonic ratios (HR) and attenuation of accelerations between body levels) in 122 older adults (90 women, 69.7±5.1y.o. and 32 men, 71.6±6.4y.o.). Both men and women walked with similar speed; however women presented faster cadence and shorter steps than men at both walking speeds. Women also walked with greater vertical HR (head and pelvis), mediolateral pelvis HR, and attenuation (mediolateral and anteroposterior) than men. Women had better control of standing balance on foam (eyes open and closed) and tandem test. Moreover, balance on foam, tandem test, step length and cadence were associated to gender-specific gait quality parameters. The aging process seems to be affecting men and women differently, thus, gender differences should be considered when preparing intervention programs to improve balance and gait in older populations or when establishing normative data for balance and gait in older adults. PMID:25943408

  19. Functional Compensation in the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Improves Memory-Dependent Decisions in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Huettel, Scott A.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Everyday consumer choices frequently involve memory, as when we retrieve information about consumer products when making purchasing decisions. In this context, poor memory may affect decision quality, particularly in individuals with memory decline, such as older adults. However, age differences in choice behavior may be reduced if older adults can recruit additional neural resources that support task performance. Although such functional compensation is well documented in other cognitive domains, it is presently unclear whether it can support memory-guided decision making and, if so, which brain regions play a role in compensation. The current study engaged younger and older humans in a memory-dependent choice task in which pairs of consumer products from a popular online-shopping site were evaluated with different delays between the first and second product. Using functional imaging (fMRI), we found that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) supports compensation as defined by three a priori criteria: (1) increased vmPFC activation was observed in older versus younger adults; (2) age-related increases in vmPFC activity were associated with increased retrieval demands; and (3) increased vmPFC activity was positively associated with performance in older adults—evidence of successful compensation. Extending these results, we observed evidence for compensation in connectivity between vmPFC and the dorsolateral PFC during memory-dependent choice. In contrast, we found no evidence for age differences in value-related processing or age-related compensation for choices without delayed retrieval. Together, these results converge on the conclusion that age-related decline in memory-dependent choice performance can be minimized via functional compensation in vmPFC. PMID:25411493

  20. Cognitive and Neural Effects of Semantic Encoding Strategy Training in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, B. A.; Barch, D. M.; Jacoby, L. L.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research suggests that older adults are less likely than young adults to use effective learning strategies during intentional encoding. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated whether training older adults to use semantic encoding strategies can increase their self-initiated use of these strategies and improve their recognition memory. The effects of training on older adults' brain activity during intentional encoding were also examined. Training increased older adults' self-initiated semantic encoding strategy use and eliminated pretraining age differences in recognition memory following intentional encoding. Training also increased older adults' brain activity in the medial superior frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and left caudate during intentional encoding. In addition, older adults' training-related changes in recognition memory were strongly correlated with training-related changes in brain activity in prefrontal and left lateral temporal regions associated with semantic processing and self-initiated verbal encoding strategy use in young adults. These neuroimaging results demonstrate that semantic encoding strategy training can alter older adults' brain activity patterns during intentional encoding and suggest that young and older adults may use the same network of brain regions to support self-initiated use of verbal encoding strategies. PMID:21709173

  1. Diabetes and Risk of Hospitalized Fall Injury Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Rebecca K.; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Resnick, Helaine E.; Sellmeyer, Deborah E.; Feingold, Kenneth R.; Cauley, Jane A.; Vittinghoff, Eric; De Rekeneire, Nathalie; Harris, Tamara B.; Nevitt, Michael C.; Cummings, Steven R.; Shorr, Ronald I.; Schwartz, Ann V.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether older adults with diabetes are at increased risk of an injurious fall requiring hospitalization. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The longitudinal Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study included 3,075 adults aged 70–79 years at baseline. Hospitalizations that included ICD-9-Clinical Modification codes for a fall and an injury were identified. The effect of diabetes with and without insulin use on the rate of first fall-related injury hospitalization was assessed using proportional hazards models. RESULTS At baseline, 719 participants had diabetes, and 117 of them were using insulin. Of the 293 participants who were hospitalized for a fall-related injury, 71 had diabetes, and 16 were using insulin. Diabetes was associated with a higher rate of injurious fall requiring hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR] 1.48 [95% CI 1.12–1.95]) in models adjusted for age, race, sex, BMI, and education. In those participants using insulin, compared with participants without diabetes, the HR was 3.00 (1.78–5.07). Additional adjustment for potential intermediaries, such as fainting in the past year, standing balance score, cystatin C level, and number of prescription medications, accounted for some of the increased risk associated with diabetes (1.41 [1.05–1.88]) and insulin-treated diabetes (2.24 [1.24–4.03]). Among participants with diabetes, a history of falling, poor standing balance score, and A1C level ?8% were risk factors for an injurious fall requiring hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS Older adults with diabetes, in particular those using insulin, are at greater risk of an injurious fall requiring hospitalization than those without diabetes. Among those with diabetes, poor glycemic control may increase the risk of an injurious fall. PMID:24130352

  2. Epidemiology of Gait Disorders in Community-Residing Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Verghese, Joe; LeValley, Aaron; Hall, Charles B.; Katz, Mindy J.; Ambrose, Anne F.; Lipton, Richard B.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the epidemiology of gait disorders in community-residing older adults and their association with death and institutionalization. DESIGN: Community-based cohort study. SETTING: Bronx County and the research center at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. PARTICIPANTS: The Einstein Aging study recruited 488 adults aged 70 to 99 between 1999 and 2001. At entry and during annual visits over 5 years, subjects received clinical evaluations to determine presence of neurological or nonneurological gait abnormalities. MEASUREMENTS: Prevalence and incidence of gait disorders based on clinical evaluations and time to institutionalization and death. RESULTS: Of 468 subjects (95.9%) with baseline gait evaluations, 168 had abnormal gaits: 70 neurological, 81 nonneurological, and 17 both. Prevalence of abnormal gait was 35.0% (95% confidence interval (CI)=28.6-42.1). Incidence of abnormal gait was 168.6 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI=117.4-242.0) and increased with age. Men had a higher incidence of neurological gait abnormalities, whereas women had a higher incidence of nonneurological gaits. Abnormal gaits were associated with greater risk of institutionalization and death (hazard ratio (HR)=2.2, 95% CI=1.5-3.2). The risk was strongly related to severity of impairment; subjects with moderate to severe gait abnormalities (HR=3.2, 95% CI=1.9-5.2) were at higher risk than those with mild gait abnormalities (HR=1.8, 95% CI=1.0-2.8). CONCLUSION: The incidence and prevalence of gait disorders are high in community-residing older adults and are associated with greater risk of institutionalization and death. PMID:16460376

  3. Adiposity measures predict olfactory processing speed in older adult carriers of the Apolipoprotein E ?4 allele

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, R.; Bartholow, J.; Green, E.; Morgan, C.D.; Murphy, C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The current study investigated the relationship between adiposity and P3 latency. Methods Fifty-one adults in two age groups (18-25 and 65+) participated. Odor stimuli were delivered via olfactometer as participants focused on a computer screen. Each stimulus was followed by presentation on the screen of four odor identification choices. Participants attempted identification by button press. Olfactory event-related potentials (OERPs) were recorded. BMI and waist circumference were measured as indicators of adiposity. Results In bivarate analyses with all participants included, positive correlations for P3 latency with both BMI and waist circumference were observed, indicating that as adiposity increased latencies also increased. When each age group was separately examined, correlations between adiposity measures and latency remained statistically significant for older adults. Furthermore, ApoE ?4 allele status was examined. Latencies remained positively correlated with adiposity in older adult ?4 carriers; but not in non-carriers. Conclusions This study indicates that adiposity predicts olfactory processing speed in older adults, specifically in ?4 carriers. Significance The results suggest that olfactory processing speed may be a useful measure for detecting and following the effects of adiposity on brain integrity and cognitive function in those at genetic risk for AD. PMID:22055839

  4. Changes and events over life course: a comparative study between groups of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Luípa Michele; Silva, Antônia Oliveira; Tura, Luiz Fernando Rangel; Moreira, Maria Adelaide Silva Paredes; Nogueira, Jordana Almeida; Cavalli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the changes which had occurred over the last year in the life of older adults, as well as the values attributed to these changes. METHOD: this is a multicentric, cross-sectional study, of the inquiry type, undertaken in three cities of the Brazilian Northeast, investigating two distinct groups of older adults. RESULTS: among the 236 older adults interviewed, it was observed that 30.0% reported health as the main change in their life course in the last year, this category being the most significant response among the older adults aged between 80 and 84 years old (37.7%). Changes in the family were mentioned by 11.5% of the older adults; death (9.6%) and alterations in routine activities (9.6%). In relation to the value attributed to these changes, it was ascertained that for 64.7% of the older adults aged between 65 and 69 years old, these changes were positive. In the older group, 49.4% of the older adults believe that their changes were related to losses. CONCLUSION: the knowledge of the changes mentioned, the value attributed to these changes, and the self-evaluation of health provide information which assists in formulating actions which are more specific to the real needs of these age groups. They also provide the health professionals with a better understanding of how some experiences are experienced in the life trajectories of these older adults. PMID:25806625

  5. THE PERSISTENCE OF INFERENCES IN MEMORY FOR YOUNGER AND OLDER ADULTS 

    E-print Network

    Guillory, Jimmeka J.

    2010-07-14

    Younger and older adults’ susceptibility to the continued influence of inferences in memory was examined using a paradigm implemented by Wilkes and Leatherbarrow. Research has shown that younger adults have difficulty forgetting inferences they make...

  6. Hearing loss and cognitive decline in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lin, Frank R; Yaffe, Kristine; Xia, Jin; Xue, Qian-Li; Harris, Tamara B; Purchase-Helzner, Elizabeth; Satterfield, Suzanne; Ayonayon, Hilsa N; Ferrucci, Luigi; Simonsick, Eleanor M

    2013-02-25

    BACKGROUND Whether hearing loss is independently associated with accelerated cognitive decline in older adults is unknown. METHODS We studied 1984 older adults (mean age, 77.4 years) enrolled in the Health ABC Study, a prospective observational study begun in 1997-1998. Our baseline cohort consisted of participants without prevalent cognitive impairment (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination [3MS] score, ?80) who underwent audiometric testing in year 5. Participants were followed up for 6 years. Hearing was defined at baseline using a pure-tone average of thresholds at 0.5 to 4 kHz in the better-hearing ear. Cognitive testing was performed in years 5, 8, 10, and 11 and consisted of the 3MS (measuring global function) and the Digit Symbol Substitution test (measuring executive function). Incident cognitive impairment was defined as a 3MS score of less than 80 or a decline in 3MS score of more than 5 points from baseline. Mixed-effects regression and Cox proportional hazards regression models were adjusted for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS In total, 1162 individuals with baseline hearing loss (pure-tone average >25 dB) had annual rates of decline in 3MS and Digit Symbol Substitution test scores that were 41% and 32% greater, respectively, than those among individuals with normal hearing. On the 3MS, the annual score changes were -0.65 (95% CI, -0.73 to -0.56) vs -0.46 (95% CI, -0.55 to -0.36) points per year (P = .004). On the Digit Symbol Substitution test, the annual score changes were -0.83 (95% CI, -0.94 to -0.73) vs -0.63 (95% CI, -0.75 to -0.51) points per year (P = .02). Compared to those with normal hearing, individuals with hearing loss at baseline had a 24% (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.05-1.48) increased risk for incident cognitive impairment. Rates of cognitive decline and the risk for incident cognitive impairment were linearly associated with the severity of an individual's baseline hearing loss. CONCLUSIONS Hearing loss is independently associated with accelerated cognitive decline and incident cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults. Further studies are needed to investigate what the mechanistic basis of this association is and whether hearing rehabilitative interventions could affect cognitive decline. PMID:23337978

  7. Developing a Tool for Measuring the Decision-Making Competence of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Finucane, Melissa L.; Gullion, Christina M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors evaluated the reliability and validity of a tool for measuring older adults’ decision-making competence (DMC). Two-hundred-five younger adults (25-45 years), 208 young-older adults (65-74 years), and 198 old-older adults (75-97 years) made judgments and decisions related to health, finance, and nutrition. Reliable indices of comprehension, dimension weighting, and cognitive reflection were developed. Unlike previous research, the authors were able to compare old-older with young-older adults’ performance. As hypothesized, old-older adults performed more poorly than young-older adults; both groups of older adults performed more poorly than younger adults. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that a large amount of variance in decision performance across age groups (including mean trends) could be accounted for by social variables, health measures, basic cognitive skills, attitudinal measures, and numeracy. Structural equation modeling revealed significant pathways from three exogenous latent factors (crystallized intelligence, other cognitive abilities, and age) to the endogenous DMC latent factor. Further research is needed to validate the meaning of performance on these tasks for real-life decision making. PMID:20545413

  8. So You Think You Look Young? Matching Older Adults' Subjective Ages with Age Estimations Provided by Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotter-Gruhn, Dana; Hess, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Perceived age plays an important role in the context of age identity and social interactions. To examine how accurate individuals are in estimating how old they look and how old others are, younger, middle-aged, and older adults rated photographs of older target persons (for whom we had information about objective and subjective age) in terms of…

  9. Ethical and legal issues in pain research in cognitively impaired older adults.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Todd B; Herr, Keela A; Mion, Lorraine C; Cowan, Ronald L

    2013-09-01

    Research involving those with dementia is critical to informing best practices and improving the quality of their lives. Pain research in people with dementia is of particular interest because the prevalence of both dementia and painful conditions increases with age. Considerable evidence exists documenting inadequate assessment and treatment of pain in this vulnerable population. Unfortunately, research that supports best practices for assessing and treating pain in the cognitively impaired is limited with obstacles to conducting research. Obstacles to research in older adults, including those with cognitive impairment, have been highlighted along with an urgent call for increased research to promote quality pain care for all older adults. The aims of this paper are to provide an overview of major ethical challenges that can occur in pain research in cognitively impaired populations and to present potential solutions when preparing study protocols. PMID:23245707

  10. ReadySteady: App for Accelerometer-based Activity Monitoring and Wellness-Motivation Feedback System for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Vankipuram, Mithra; McMahon, Siobhan; Fleury, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Increased physical activity and exercise have been found to reduce falls and decrease mortality and age-related morbidity in older adults. However, a large percentage of this population fail to achieve the necessary levels of activity needed to support health living. In this work, we present a mobile app developed on the iOS platform that monitors activity levels using accelerometry. The data captured by the sensor is utilized to provide real-time motivational feedback to enable reinforcement of positive behaviors in older adults. Pilot experiments (conducted with younger adults) performed to assess validity of activity measurement showed that system accurately measures sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous activities in a controlled lab setting. Pilot tests (conducted with older adults) in the user setting showed that while the app is adept at capturing gross body activity (such as sitting, walking and jogging), additional sensors may be required to capture activities involving the extremities. PMID:23304368

  11. An Examination of Instructors' Perceptions of Older Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levaque, Susan F.

    2012-01-01

    The number of U.S. citizens ages 65 years and older is steadily increasing, and members of this cohort are redefining what it means to be an older adult. As members of the Baby Boom generation reach older adulthood, many of them are seeking educational opportunities to help them to meet their needs and desires as lifelong learners. Several factors…

  12. Life Satisfaction of Older Adults in Hong Kong: The Role of Social Support from Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lou, Vivian W. Q.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the life satisfaction of older adults and the social support from grandchildren in Hong Kong. Two hundred and fifteen older people (from the ages of 64 to 101, mean age 79.3), whose youngest grandchild was aged 12 or older, were recruited from elderly service agencies to participate in the study.…

  13. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Responses during Aquatic Exercise in Water at Different Temperatures in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergamin, Marco; Ermolao, Andrea; Matten, Sonia; Sieverdes, John C.; Zaccaria, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological responses during upper-body aquatic exercises in older adults with different pool temperatures. Method: Eleven older men (aged 65 years and older) underwent 2 identical aquatic exercise sessions that consisted of 3 upper-body exercises using progressive intensities (30, 35, and 40…

  14. Older Adults' Satisfaction with Integrated Capitated Health and Long-Term Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atherly, Adam; Kane, Robert L.; Smith, Maureen A.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to develop an instrument to evaluate satisfaction with care for older adults in capitated environments. Although satisfaction with care is now widely accepted as an important outcome measure, there are relatively few satisfaction measures developed or validated on older persons. Because many older persons…

  15. Education and mortality among older adults in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ye; Zhang, Zhenmei; Gu, Danan

    2015-02-01

    This study examines the relationship between education and mortality, its underlying mechanisms, and its gender and age variations among older adults in China, using data from the 2002 to 2011 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. There is an inverse relationship between education and mortality risk. The relationship is explained in full by each of the three mechanisms: other socioeconomic attainments, social relationships and activities, and health status, and partially by physical exercise. In addition, primary education has a stronger effect on mortality for men than for women and the effect of education is stronger for the young old than for the oldest old. These findings underscore the importance of national and subpopulation contexts in understanding the relationship between education and mortality. PMID:25263739

  16. Use of Complementary Therapies for Health Promotion Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Nguyen, Ha T.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Bell, Ronny A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Lang, Wei; Quandt, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the types of complementary therapies used by older adults for health promotion, and delineates the predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with their use. One-hundred ninety-five African American and White participants (age 65+) completed a baseline interview and up to six sets of three daily follow-up interviews at monthly intervals. Complementary therapies for health promotion included home remedies, specific foods or beverages, herbs, supplements, vitamins, over-the-counter (OTC) medicine, prayer, exercise, and being active. Although gender, ethnicity, education, and trust in doctors were associated with the use of complementary therapies for health promotion, health information seeking was the predisposing factor most often associated. The enabling factors were also associated with their use. Health information seeking, which reflects a wellness lifestyle, had the most consistent associations with complementary therapy use for health promotion. This health self-management for health promotion may have positive effects on future medical expenditures. PMID:24652893

  17. Use of Complementary Therapies for Health Promotion Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas A; Nguyen, Ha T; Sandberg, Joanne C; Neiberg, Rebecca H; Altizer, Kathryn P; Bell, Ronny A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Lang, Wei; Quandt, Sara A

    2015-08-01

    This article describes the types of complementary therapies used by older adults for health promotion, and delineates the predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with their use. One-hundred ninety-five African American and White participants (age 65+) completed a baseline interview and up to six sets of three daily follow-up interviews at monthly intervals. Complementary therapies for health promotion included home remedies, specific foods or beverages, herbs, supplements, vitamins, over-the-counter (OTC) medicine, prayer, exercise, and being active. Although gender, ethnicity, education, and trust in doctors were associated with the use of complementary therapies for health promotion, health information seeking was the predisposing factor most often associated. The enabling factors were also associated with their use. Health information seeking, which reflects a wellness lifestyle, had the most consistent associations with complementary therapy use for health promotion. This health self-management for health promotion may have positive effects on future medical expenditures. PMID:24652893

  18. God as the ultimate attachment figure for older adults.

    PubMed

    Cicirelli, Victor G

    2004-12-01

    Attachment to God among older adults is an area of research that has been neglected thus far. The existence of such an attachment was explored in a study of 109 elders aged 70-97. A modest proportion of elders displayed a strong attachment to God, assessed by coding interview data for indicators of attachment. Strength of attachment to God was related (p < .05) to greater religiosity, greater fear of death, loss of other attachment figures, religious affiliation, and being younger in age, Black, and of lower socioeconomic status. Participants belonging to fundamentalist or evangelical Protestant denominations had a stronger attachment to God than those with other affiliations. Findings are interpreted in relation to existing literature on attachment to God. PMID:15764125

  19. Can older people remember medication reminders presented using synthetic speech?

    PubMed

    Wolters, Maria K; Johnson, Christine; Campbell, Pauline E; DePlacido, Christine G; McKinstry, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Reminders are often part of interventions to help older people adhere to complicated medication regimes. Computer-generated (synthetic) speech is ideal for tailoring reminders to different medication regimes. Since synthetic speech may be less intelligible than human speech, in particular under difficult listening conditions, we assessed how well older people can recall synthetic speech reminders for medications. 44 participants aged 50-80 with no cognitive impairment recalled reminders for one or four medications after a short distraction. We varied background noise, speech quality, and message design. Reminders were presented using a human voice and two synthetic voices. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Reminder recall was satisfactory if reminders were restricted to one familiar medication, regardless of the voice used. Repeating medication names supported recall of lists of medications. We conclude that spoken reminders should build on familiar information and be integrated with other adherence support measures. PMID:25080534

  20. Drawing to Remember: External Support of Older Adults’ Eyewitness Performance

    PubMed Central

    Dando, Coral J.

    2013-01-01

    Although healthy aging is accompanied by a general decline in memory functioning, environmental support at retrieval can improve older adults’ (+65 years) episodic remembering. Despite those over the age of 65years representing a growing proportion of the population, few environmental retrieval support methods have been empirically evaluated for use with older witnesses and victims of crime. Here, the efficacy of a novel retrieval technique, the Sketch Mental Reinstatement of Context, is compared with a standard Mental Reinstatement of Context and a no support control (Control). Fifty-one participants witnessed an unexpected live event, and 48 hours later were interviewed using one of three aforementioned techniques. In line with predictions emanating from cognitive theories of aging and the environmental support hypothesis, participants in the Sketch Mental Reinstatement of Context condition recalled significantly more correct information and fewer inaccurate items. The Sketch Mental Reinstatement of Context technique appears to scaffold memory retrieval in an age-appropriate manner during a post-event interview, possibly by encouraging more effortful retrieval and reducing dual-task load. As such, this procedure offers an effective alternative to current approaches, adding to the toolbox of techniques available to forensic and other interviewers. PMID:23922863

  1. Which Psychosocial Factors Best Predict Cognitive Performance in Older Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Zahodne, Laura B.; Nowinski, Cindy J.; Gershon, Richard C.; Manly, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Negative affect (e.g., depression) is associated with accelerated age-related cognitive decline and heightened dementia risk. Fewer studies examine positive psychosocial factors (e.g., emotional support, self-efficacy) in cognitive aging. Preliminary reports suggest that these variables predict slower cognitive decline independent of negative affect. No reports have examined these factors in a single model to determine which best relate to cognition. Data from 482 individuals 55 and older came from the normative sample for the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function. Negative and positive psychosocial factors, executive functioning, working memory, processing speed, and episodic memory were measured with the NIH Toolbox Emotion and Cognition modules. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling characterized independent relations between psychosocial factors and cognition. Psychosocial variables loaded onto negative and positive factors. Independent of education, negative affect and health status, greater emotional support was associated with better task-switching and processing speed. Greater self-efficacy was associated with better working memory. Negative affect was not independently associated with any cognitive variables. Findings support the conceptual distinctness of negative and positive psychosocial factors in older adults. Emotional support and self-efficacy may be more closely tied to cognition than other psychosocial variables. PMID:24685143

  2. Determinants of Death in the Hospital Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Amy S.; Ettner, Susan L.; Wenger, Neil S.; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To investigate patient-level determinants of in-hospital death, adjusting for patient and regional characteristics. DESIGN Using multivariable regression, the relationship between in-hospital death and participants’ social, functional, and health characteristics was investigated, controlling for regional Hospital Care Intensity Index (HCI) from the Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care. SETTING The Health and Retirement Study, a longitudinal nationally representative cohort of older adults. PARTICIPANTS People aged 67 and older who died between 2,000 and 2,006 (N = 3,539) were sampled. MEASUREMENTS In-hospital death. RESULTS Thirty-nine percent (n = 1,380) of participants died in the hospital (range 34% in Midwest to 45% in Northeast). Nursing home residence, functional dependence, and cancer or dementia diagnosis, among other characteristics, were associated with lower adjusted odds of in-hospital death. Being black or Hispanic, living alone, and having more medical comorbidities were associated with greater adjusted odds, as was higher HCI. Sex, education, net worth, and completion of an advance directive did not correlate with in-hospital death. CONCLUSION Black race, Hispanic ethnicity, and other functional and social characteristics are correlates of in hospital death, even after controlling for the role of HCI. Further work must be done to determine whether preferences, provider characteristics and practice patterns, or differential access to medical and community services drive this difference. PMID:22092014

  3. Hypertension Awareness and Associated Factors among Older Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, SangNam; Smith, Matthew Lee; Cho, Jinmyoung; Bailey, James E.; Ory, Marcia G.

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most preventable chronic conditions. Improving hypertension awareness is a critical first step to reducing morbidity and mortality from hypertension in the elderly, yet the factors associated with hypertension awareness in China are poorly understood. The objective of this paper is to examine the extent to which older Chinese adults are aware of their hypertension, and factors associated with this awareness. We included 2404 adults aged 60?years or older clinically identified as hypertensive from panel data surveyed in 1997, 2000, 2004, and 2006 as part of the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Comparing this data with respondents’ self-reported diagnosis of hypertension enabled us to characterize hypertension awareness. Covariates included socio-demographic, health status, functional disability, and behavioral factors. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify factors for hypertension awareness. We found 22.9% in 1997 and 42.7% in 2006 of study participants were aware of their hypertensive status. Lower awareness was found among those who lived in rural areas [odds ratio (OR)?=?0.64, 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 0.47–0.88]. Higher awareness was noted for persons who were aware of their hypertensive status in a previous survey wave (OR?=?7.43, 95% CI, 5.45–10.13), had high income (OR?=?1.55, 95% CI, 1.05–2.28), had stage two hypertension (OR?=?2.28, 95% CI, 1.69–3.06), had acute condition (OR?=?2.54, 95% CI, 1.89–3.42), and had greater activities of daily living limitations (OR?=?1.24, 95% CI, 1.08–1.43). Studying dynamics of hypertension awareness can help inform both clinical and public health approaches to improve healthcare. PMID:24350235

  4. Older adults report moderately more detailed autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Robert S; Mainetti, Matteo; Ascoli, Giorgio A

    2015-01-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) is an essential component of the human mind. Although the([A-z]+) amount and types of subjective detail (content) that compose AMs constitute important dimensions of recall, age-related changes in memory content are not well characterized. Previously, we introduced the Cue-Recalled Autobiographical Memory test (CRAM; see http://cramtest.info), an instrument that collects subjective reports of AM content, and applied it to college-aged subjects. CRAM elicits AMs using naturalistic word-cues. Subsequently, subjects date each cued AM to a life period and count the number of remembered details from specified categories (features), e.g., temporal detail, spatial detail, persons, objects, and emotions. The current work applies CRAM to a broad range of individuals (18-78 years old) to quantify the effects of age on AM content. Subject age showed a moderately positive effect on AM content: older compared with younger adults reported ?16% more details (?25 vs. ?21 in typical AMs). This age-related increase in memory content was similarly observed for remote and recent AMs, although content declined with the age of the event among all subjects. In general, the distribution of details across features was largely consistent among younger and older adults. However, certain types of details, i.e., those related to objects and sequences of events, contributed more to the age effect on content. Altogether, this work identifies a moderate age-related feature-specific alteration in the way life events are subjectively recalled, among an otherwise stable retrieval profile. PMID:26042064

  5. Older adults report moderately more detailed autobiographical memories

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Robert S.; Mainetti, Matteo; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2015-01-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) is an essential component of the human mind. Although the([A-z]+) amount and types of subjective detail (content) that compose AMs constitute important dimensions of recall, age-related changes in memory content are not well characterized. Previously, we introduced the Cue-Recalled Autobiographical Memory test (CRAM; see http://cramtest.info), an instrument that collects subjective reports of AM content, and applied it to college-aged subjects. CRAM elicits AMs using naturalistic word-cues. Subsequently, subjects date each cued AM to a life period and count the number of remembered details from specified categories (features), e.g., temporal detail, spatial detail, persons, objects, and emotions. The current work applies CRAM to a broad range of individuals (18–78 years old) to quantify the effects of age on AM content. Subject age showed a moderately positive effect on AM content: older compared with younger adults reported ?16% more details (?25 vs. ?21 in typical AMs). This age-related increase in memory content was similarly observed for remote and recent AMs, although content declined with the age of the event among all subjects. In general, the distribution of details across features was largely consistent among younger and older adults. However, certain types of details, i.e., those related to objects and sequences of events, contributed more to the age effect on content. Altogether, this work identifies a moderate age-related feature-specific alteration in the way life events are subjectively recalled, among an otherwise stable retrieval profile. PMID:26042064

  6. FOOD CHOICE AMONG HOMEBOUND OLDER ADULTS: MOTIVATIONS AND PERCEIVED BARRIERS

    PubMed Central

    LOCHER, J.L.; RITCHIE, C.S.; ROTH, D.L.; SEN, B.; DOUGLAS, K. VICKERS; VAILAS, L.I.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this paper is to identify: motivations and perceived barriers associated with food choices made by homebound older adults; whether motivations and perceived barriers vary according to social demographic characteristics; and whether motivations and perceived barriers are associated with dietary quality. Design This was an observational study using standard interview methods where participants were administered a questionnaire and completed three 24-hour dietary recalls. Setting Participants were interviewed in their homes. Participants 185 homebound older adults were included. Measurement Motivations were assessed using a modification of The Food Choice Questionnaire and perceived barriers were assessed using the Vailas Food Enjoyment Questionnaire. Participants answered questions regarding social demographic characteristics. Dietary quality measures of adequate intakes of calories, protein, vitamin D, and vitamin B12 were obtained from the three 24-hour dietary recalls. Results Mean age was 78.9; 80% were female; and 36% were African American. Key motivations in food choice included sensory appeal, convenience, and price. Key barriers included health, being on a special diet, and being unable to shop. These varied little by social demographics, except for age. Dietary quality varied according to different motivations and barriers. Conclusion Food choices are based upon a complex interaction between the social and environmental context, the individual, and the food. Efforts to change eating behaviors, especially community-based interventions involving self-management approaches, must carefully take into account individuals’ self-perceived motivations and barriers to food selection. Incorporating foods that are tasty, easy to prepare, inexpensive, and that involve caregivers are critical for successful interventions. PMID:19657547

  7. Terminal decline and practice effects in older adults without dementia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chia-Ning; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Ganguli, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To track cognitive change over time in dementia-free older adults and to examine terminal cognitive decline. Methods: A total of 1,230 subjects who remained free from dementia over 14 years of follow-up were included in a population-based epidemiologic cohort study. First, we compared survivors and decedents on their trajectories of 5 cognitive functions (learning, memory, language, psychomotor speed, executive functions), dissociating practice effects which can mask clinically significant decline from age-associated cognitive decline. We used longitudinal mixed-effects models with penalized linear spline. Second, limiting the sample to 613 subjects who died during follow-up, we identified the inflection points at which the rate of cognitive decline accelerated, in relation to time of death, controlling for practice effects. We used mixed-effects model with a change point. Results: Age-associated cognitive trajectories were similar between decedents and survivors without dementia. However, substantial differences were observed between the trajectories of practice effects of survivors and decedents, resembling those usually observed between normal and mildly cognitively impaired elderly. Executive and language functions showed the earliest terminal declines, more than 9 years prior to death, independent of practice effects. Conclusions: Terminal cognitive decline in older adults without dementia may reflect presymptomatic disease which does not cross the clinical threshold during life. Alternatively, cognitive decline attributed to normal aging may itself represent underlying neurodegenerative or vascular pathology. Although we cannot conclude definitively from this study, the separation of practice effects from age-associated decline could help identify preclinical dementia. Neurology® 2011;77:722–730 PMID:21832224

  8. Mediolateral balance and gait stability in older adults.

    PubMed

    Eduardo Cofré Lizama, L; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Rispens, Sietse M; Reeves, N Peter; Verschueren, Sabine M; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2015-06-01

    Early detection of balance impairment is crucial to identify individuals who may benefit from interventions aimed to prevent falls, which is a major problem in aging societies. Since mediolateral balance deteriorates with aging, we proposed a mediolateral balance assessment (MELBA) tool that uses a CoM-tracking task of predictable sinusoidal and unpredictable multisine targets. This method has shown to be reliable and sensitive to aging effect, however, it is not known whether it can predict performance on common daily-life tasks such as walking. This study aimed to determine whether MELBA is an ecologically valid tool by correlating its outputs with a measure of mediolateral gait stability known to be predictive of falls. Nineteen community-dwelling older adults (72±5 years) tracked predictable and unpredictable target displacements at increasing frequencies with their CoM by shifting their weight sideward. Response delay (phase-shift) and amplitude difference (gain) between the CoM and target in the frequency domain were used to quantify performance. To assess gait stability, the local divergence exponent was calculated using mediolateral accelerations with an inertial sensor when walking on a treadmill (LDETR) and in daily-life (LDEDL) for one week. Pearson product-moment correlation analyses were performed to determine correlations between performance on MELBA tasks and LDE. Results show that phase-shift bandwidth for the predictable target (range above -90°) was significantly correlated with LDETR whereas phase-shift bandwidth for the unpredictable target was significantly correlated with LDEDL. In conclusion MELBA is an ecologically valid tool for mediolateral balance assessment in community-dwelling older adults who exhibit subtle balance impairments. PMID:25953503

  9. Extra-Individual Correlates of Physical Activity Attainment in Rural Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shores, Kindal A.; West, Stephanie T.; Theriault, Daniel S.; Davison, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Challenged with a higher incidence of disease, reduced social support, and less access to physical activity facilities and services, rural older adults may find healthy active living a challenge. Despite these challenges, some rural older adults manage to achieve active lifestyles. Purpose: This study investigates the relative importance…

  10. Influenza control in the 21st century: Optimizing protection of older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold S. Monto; Filippo Ansaldi; Richard Aspinall; Janet E. McElhaney; Luis F. Montaño; Kristin L. Nichol; Joan Puig-Barberà; Joe Schmitt; Iain Stephenson

    2009-01-01

    Older adults (?65 years of age) are particularly vulnerable to influenza illness. This is due to a waning immune system that reduces their ability to respond to infection, which leads to more severe cases of disease. The majority (?90%) of influenza-related deaths occur in older adults and, in addition, catastrophic disability resulting from influenza-related hospitalization represents a significant burden in

  11. Does Expressive Writing Reduce Stress and Improve Health for Family Caregivers of Older Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Corey S.; Wiprzycka, Ursula J.; Hasher, Lynn; Goldstein, David

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We examined whether written emotional disclosure reduces stress and improves health outcomes for family caregivers of physically frail and cognitively impaired older adults, as it has been shown to do for certain student and clinical populations. Design and Methods: Primary caregivers of older adults attending a day program were randomly…

  12. Group Dynamics in a Discussion Group for Older Adults: Does Gender Play a Role?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Medeiros, Kate; Harris-Trovato, Dana; Bradley, Evelyn; Gaines, Jean; Parrish, John

    2007-01-01

    Lifelong learning programs continue to grow in span and scope. Few studies, however, have investigated how older adults themselves participate in group learning. The central question explored in our study was as follows: Does gender play a role in group dynamics for older adults? Two groups of volunteers (age 62 to 96 years) enrolled in a 16-week…

  13. Evaluation of a Peer-Led, Low-Intensity Physical Activity Program for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Danilea; Teufel, James; Brown, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity is a primary contributor to decreasing functional physical fitness and increasing chronic disease in older adults. Purpose: This study assessed the health-related benefits of ExerStart for Lay Leaders, a 20-week, community based, peer-led, low-impact exercise program for older adults. ExerStart focuses on aerobic…

  14. The Relationship Between Personality Type and the Participation in Education of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerads, Betsy I.

    A study was conducted to provide additional information for understanding the participation of older adults in educational activities. The general hypothesis was that a significant relationship exists between personality type and extent of participation in education of older adults. Questionnaires collected information from 52 volunteers from the…

  15. Do alternative names block young and older adults’ retrieval of proper names?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily S. Cross; Deborah M. Burke

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluates whether tip of the tongue experiences (TOTs) are caused by a more accessible word which blocks retrieval of the target word, especially for older adults. In a “competitor priming” paradigm, young and older adults produced the name of a famous character (e.g., Eliza Doolittle) in response to a question and subsequently named a picture of a famous

  16. Personal Strength and Finding Meaning in Conjugally Bereaved Older Adults: A Four-Year Prospective Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Su Hyun Kim; Diane Kjervik; Michael Belyea; Eun Sook Choi

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to identify the patterns and mechanisms of the development of personal strength of bereaved older adults over a 4-year period after spousal death. The findings showed that while bereaved older adults, on average, experienced a moderate level of personal strength at 6 months post-spousal death with a slight increase over a 4-year period, there was a

  17. Does Expressive Writing Reduce Stress and Improve Health for Family Caregivers of Older Adults?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corey S. Mackenzie; Ursula J. Wiprzycka; Lynn Hasher; David Goldstein

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We examined whether written emotional disclosure reduces stress and improves health out- comes for family caregivers of physically frail and cognitively impaired older adults, as it has been shown to do for certain student and clinical popula- tions. Design and Methods: Primary caregivers of older adults attending a day program were ran- domly assigned to expressive-writing (n = 14),

  18. An Investigation of the Relationship between Health Literacy and Social Communication Skills in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Eva Jackson

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine connections between health literacy and social communication skills in older adults, a population that experiences chronic health conditions but is reported to have low health literacy and declines in communication skills. Sixty-three older adults were administered the "Social Communication" subtest of the…

  19. Using Personal Narratives for Curriculum Development about Substance Abuse and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bial, Martha C.; Gutheil, Irene A.; Hanson, Meredith; White-Ryan, Linda

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a project to sensitize graduate social work students taking courses in substance abuse to the needs of older adults. Graduate social work students at a major urban school of social work in the Northeast were recruited and trained to interview older adults with a history of substance abuse problems regarding their life…

  20. Memory Training for Older Adults with Low Education: Mental Images versus Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Silva, Henrique Salmazo; Yassuda, Monica Sanches

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the benefits of memory training for older adults with low education. Twenty-nine healthy older adults with zero to two years of formal education participated. Sixteen participants received training based on categorization (categorization group = CATG) and 13 received training based on mental images (imagery…