Previous research demonstrates that patients typically have difficulty remembering information presented during healthcare consultations. This study examined how older adults learn and remember verbally presented medical information. Healthy older adults were tested for recall in experimental and field settings. Participants viewed a five-minute…
Bankoff, Sarah M.; Sandberg, Elisabeth Hollister
The 'Positive Effect' is defined as the phenomenon of preferential cognitive processing of positive affective information, and avoidance or dismissal of negative affective information in the social environment. The ‘Positive Effect’ is found for older people compared with younger people in western societies and is believed to reflect a preference for positive emotional regulation in older adults. It is not known whether such an effect is Universal, and in East Asian cultures, there is a highly controversial debate concerning this question. In the current experiment we explored whether Chinese older participants showed a 'Positive Effect' when they inspected picture pairs that were either a positive or a negative picture presented with a neutral picture, or a positive and negative picture paired together. The results indicated that both groups of participants showed an attentional bias to both pleasant (more processing of) and unpleasant pictures (initial orienting to) when these were paired with neutral pictures. When pleasant and unpleasant pictures were paired together both groups showed an initial orientation bias for the pleasant picture, but the older participants showed this bias for initial orienting and increased processing measures, providing evidence of a ‘Positive Effect’ in older Chinese adults. PMID:25880585
Wang, Jingxin; He, Liyuan; Jia, Liping; Tian, Jing; Benson, Valerie
Ageing is a dynamic process, and trends in the health status of older adults aged at least 60 years vary over time because of several factors. We examined reported trends in morbidity and mortality in older adults during the past two decades to identify patterns of ageing across the world. We showed some evidence for compression of morbidity (ie, a reduced amount of time spent in worse health), in four types of studies: 1) of good quality based on assessment criteria scores; 2) those in which a disability-related or impairment-related measure of morbidity was used; 3) longitudinal studies; or 4) studies undertaken in the USA and other high-income countries. Many studies, however, reported contrasting evidence (ie, for an expansion of morbidity), but with different methods, these measures are not directly comparable. Expansion of morbidity was more common when trends in chronic disease prevalence were studied. Our secondary analysis of data from longitudinal ageing surveys presents similar results. However, patterns of limitations in functioning vary substantially between countries and within countries over time, with no discernible explanation. Data from low-income countries are very sparse, and efforts to obtain information about the health of older adults in less-developed regions of the world are urgently needed. We especially need studies that focus on refining measurements of health, functioning, and disability in older people, with a core set of domains of functioning, that investigate the effects of these evolving patterns on the health-care system and their economic implications. PMID:25468158
Chatterji, Somnath; Byles, Julie; Cutler, David; Seeman, Teresa; Verdes, Emese
Objective Impairment in reward processes has been found in individuals with depression and in the aging population. The purpose of this study was twofold: 1. To use an affective neuroscience probe to identify abnormalities in reward-related decision making in late-life depression. 2. To examine the relationship of reward-related decision making abnormalities in depressed, older adults to the clinical expression of apathy in depression. We hypothesized that relative to elderly, healthy subjects, depressed, elderly patients would exhibit impaired decision making and that apathetic, depressed patients would show greater impairment in decision making than non-apathetic, depressed patients. Methods We used the Iowa Gambling Task to examine reward-related decision making in 60 non-demented, elderly patients with non-psychotic major depression and 36 elderly, psychiatrically healthy participants. Apathy was quantified using the Apathy Evaluation Scale. Of those with major depression, 18 individuals reported clinically significant apathy whereas 42 participants did not have apathy. Results Older adults with depression and healthy comparison participants did not differ in their performance on the IGT. However, apathetic, depressed older adults adopted an advantageous strategy and selected cards from the conservative decks compared to non-apathetic, depressed older adults. Non-apathetic, depressed patients showed a failure to adopt a conservative strategy and persisted in making risky decisions throughout the task. Conclusions This study indicates that apathy in older, depressed adults is associated with a conservative response style on a behavioral probe of the systems involved in reward-related decision making. This conservative response style may be the result of reduced sensitivity to rewards in apathetic individuals. PMID:25306937
McGovern, Amanda R.; Alexopoulos, George S.; Yuen, Genevieve S.; Morimoto, Sarah Shizuko; Gunning, Faith M.
To compare the proportion, seriousness, preventability of adverse drug events (ADEs) between the older adults (?65 years old) and younger adults (<65 years old) presenting to the emergency department (ED), we conducted a prospective observational cohort study of patients 18 years and older presenting to the ED. For all ED visits between March 1, 2009, and Feb 28, 2010, investigators identified ADEs and assessed cases using the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale. Outcomes (proportion, seriousness, and preventability of ADE, length of ED stay, and hospitalization) and associated variables were measured and compared between younger and older adults. The results showed that of 58,569 ED visits, 295 older adults, and 157 younger adults were diagnosed as having an ADE and included in our analysis. The proportion of ADEs leading to ED visits in the older group, 14.3 per 1000?(295/20,628), was significantly higher than the younger group of 4.1 per 1000?(157/37,941).The older group with ADE had a longer ED stay (odds ratio [OR] 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-6.4 for stay ? 24 hours) and larger proportion of preventable ADEs (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.6) than the younger group, but there was no significant difference in terms of serious ADEs (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3-1.3 for fatal and life threatening) and hospitalization (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.9-2.6) between the 2 groups. In addition, patients in the older group were more likely to be male, to have symptoms of fatigue or altered mental status, to involve cardiovascular, renal, and respiratory systems, and to have higher Charlson comorbidity index scores, higher number of prescription medications, and higher proportion of unintentional overdose. In conclusion, the proportion of ADE-related ED visits in older adults was higher than younger adults, and many of these were preventable. The most common drug categories associated with preventable ADEs in the older adults were antithrombotic agents, antidiabetic agents, and cardiovascular agents. PMID:25700322
Chen, Yen-Chia; Huang, Hsien-Hao; Fan, Ju-Sing; Chen, Min-Hui; Hsu, Teh-Fu; Yen, David Hung-Tsang; Huang, Mu-Shung; Wang, Chien-Ying; Huang, Chun-I; Lee, Chen-Hsen
As a supplement to the International Adult Literacy Survey, the Netherlands devoted special attention to the literacy proficiency of older adults. A close look at the literacy skills of older adults and their use in daily life is relevant because demographic developments, individualisation, the position of older employees in the labour market and…
van der Kamp, Max; Boudard, Emmanuel
WHY: Studies on pain in older adults (persons 65 years of age and older) have demonstrated that 25%-50% of community dwelling older people have persistent pain. Additionally, 45-80% of nursing home residents report pain that is often left untreated. Pain is strongly associated with depression and can result in decreased socialization, impaired ambulation and increased healthcare utilization and costs. Older
Action integration is the process through which actions performed on a stimulus and perceptual aspects of the stimulus become bound as a unitary object. This process appears to be controlled by the dopaminergic system in the prefrontal cortex, an area that is known to decrease in volume and dopamine functioning in older adults. Although the decline should lead to reduced action integration in older adults, we found equivalent integration in both young and older adults. This indicates that older adults may be able to compensate for their dopaminergic deficiencies by activating additional neural networks that are not used by young adults. PMID:20810199
Bloesch, Emily K.; Abrams, Richard A.
The positive effect of rehabilitation is well documented among older adults where functional disability affects daily activities and participation. Existing knowledge, however, needs to be implemented in daily routines. Everyday rehabilitation in the municipalities is improving. Fast-track methods are tested in hospitals. More studies are needed for follow-up evaluation and regarding how, for whom and for how long rehabilitation should take place. All doctors should be aware of and able to handle the patient's need of rehabilitation in an integrated health-care perspective. PMID:25096739
Hendriksen, Carsten; Lyngbye, Pernille Würtz
and is most common in middle-aged and older adults. Older adults are known to exhibit turbulent blood flow that blood flow patterns would be improved in middle- aged adults with pre-diabetes after participation ultrasound) and calculated blood flow shear rates at rest in middle-aged adults with pre-diabetes (n=16, 51
Gasch, Audrey P.
Insomnia outcome studies from the last 15 years show consistent success for behavioral treatment with older adults. The present review of evaluation and treatment covers the effects of aging on ability to sleep, the insomnia classification system, the treatment efficacy database, and critical outcome research methodology. Clinical trial methodology with older adults includes familiar challenges; for example, the need for
Sidney D. Nau; Christina S. McCrae; Kristen G. Cook; Kenneth L. Lichstein
Previous research suggests that older adults are more verbose than young adults and that general inhibitory difficulties might play a role in such tendencies. In the present study of 60 young adults and 61 older adults, the authors examined whether verbosity might also be related to difficulty deciphering emotional expressions. Measures of verbosity included total talking time, percentage of time spent on-topic, and extremity of off-topic verbosity. Over all 3 measures, older men and women were significantly more verbose than young men and women. Older men's (but not older women's) verbosity was related to poorer emotion recognition, which fully mediated the age effect. The results are consistent with the idea that older men who talk more do so, in part, because they fail to decipher the emotional cues of a listener. PMID:20545434
Ruffman, Ted; Murray, Janice; Halberstadt, Jamin; Taumoepeau, Mele
Over the next few decades the older adult population will increase dramatically, and prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders are also expected to increase in the elderly cohort. These demographic projections highlight the need for diagnostic instruments and methods that are specifically tailored to older adults. The current paper discusses the…
Mohlman, Jan; Sirota, Karen Gainer; Papp, Laszlo A.; Staples, Alison M.; King, Arlene; Gorenstein, Ethan E.
Hearing loss affects approximately one-third of adults 61 to 70 years of age and more than 80 percent of those older than 85 years. Men usually experience greater hearing loss and have earlier onset compared with women. The most common type is age-related hearing loss; however, many conditions can interfere with the conduction of sound vibrations to the inner ear and their conversion to electrical impulses for conduction to the brain. Screening for hearing loss is recommended in adults older than 50 to 60 years. Office screening tests include the whispered voice test and audioscopy. Older patients who admit to having difficulty hearing may be referred directly for audiometry. The history can identify risk factors for hearing loss, especially noise exposure and use of ototoxic medications. Examination of the auditory canal and tympanic membrane can identify causes of conductive hearing loss. Audiometric testing is required to confirm hearing loss. Adults presenting with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss should be referred for urgent assessment. Management of hearing loss is based on addressing underlying causes, especially obstructions (including cerumen) and ototoxic medications. Residual hearing should be optimized by use of hearing aids, assistive listening devices, and rehabilitation programs. Surgical implants are indicated for selected patients. Major barriers to improved hearing in older adults include lack of recognition of hearing loss; perception that hearing loss is a normal part of aging or is not amenable to treatment; and patient nonadherence with hearing aids because of stigma, cost, inconvenience, disappointing initial results, or other factors. PMID:22962895
Walling, Anne D; Dickson, Gretchen M
The Texas Revised Inventory of Grief-Present scale (TRIG-Present) is one of the most widely used grief measures; however, researchers have only empirically examined the validity and underlying factor structure of TRIG-Present scores in a few studies. Hence, in the present investigation, we sought to examine the factorial validity of the…
Futterman, Andrew; Holland, Jason M.; Brown, Patrick J.; Thompson, Larry W.; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores
Sleep is an essential physiological process with restorative functions. It is reported that the prevalence of chronic sleep-related complaints in older adults is over 50%, which is higher than that in younger adults. The etiology of sleep disorders in older adults is considered to be multifactorial, consisting of normal age-related changes(e.g., sleep fragmentation, earlier awakening, and decreased slow wave sleep), medical or psychiatric diseases (e.g., lifestyle-related diseases, dementia, delirium, and depression), primary age-related sleep disorders(e.g., sleep-related breathing disorders and periodic limb movement disorders), or a combination of these factors. Because sleep disorders in older adults may have implications for quality of life, it is crucial to distinguish normal age-related sleep changes from those originating from pathological processes. This mini-review discusses crucial points in the diagnosis and management of sleep disorders in older adults. PMID:24261205
Older adults show an associative deficit in episodic memory compared to younger adults. Previous research suggests both strategic and automatic binding deficits contribute to older adults' poorer memory performance. Using behavioral manipulations designed to affect strategic and automatic binding of associations, three experiments attempted to simulate an associative deficit in younger adults. In these experiments participants learned face-scene pairs and then were given item and associative recognition memory tests. We manipulated the time allotted at encoding and retrieval to simulate strategic deficits, and the length of the retention interval to simulate automatic deficits. Results indicate that both manipulations separately contribute to a differential decline in associative memory, similar to the one shown by older adults, especially as reflected in the differential increase in false alarm rate in the associative memory test more than in the item memory test. Considerations of possible underlying brain mechanisms are discussed. PMID:23509862
Brubaker, Matthew S; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe
This study evaluated a PowerPoint home safety (PPHS) presentation in enhancing awareness, knowledge and behavior change among senior center attendees in southern Illinois. Twelve centers were utilized as data collection sites in a pretest-posttest control group design. Through stratified randomization, centers were placed into categories (high,…
McCrary-Quarles, Audrey R.
Sepsis is a potentially fatal response to infection affecting patients across the life span. Sepsis can progress from systemic inflammatory response to severe sepsis and septic shock if not recognized promptly and managed effectively. Risk factors for sepsis include age, gender, the presence of invasive devices (eg, urinary catheters), and chronic medical conditions (eg, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Sepsis awareness is essential and includes identification of population-focused risk factors, recognition of clinical signs and symptoms, and timely implementation of interventions. The purpose of this article was to examine sepsis in older adults, including prevalence, atypical presentation of the condition, and considerations for sepsis management in the elderly population. PMID:25741958
Englert, Nadine C; Ross, Carl
... Professionals, Businesses & Schools Partners & Community Organizations About NDEP | Contact Us | Site Map Tengo diabetes ¿Corro riesgo? You are here: NDEP Home > Resources > Diabetes Resources for Older Adults Text Size: S M L | About Diabetes Resources for ...
Even though computers play a massive role in everyday life of modern societies, older adults, and especially older women, are less likely to use a computer, and they perform fewer activities on it than younger adults. To get a better understanding of the factors affecting older adults' intention towards and usage of computers, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology (UTAUT) was applied as part of a more extensive study with 52 users and non-users of computers, ranging in age from 50 to 90 years. The model covers various aspects of computer usage in old age via four key constructs, namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences, and facilitating conditions, as well as the variables gender, age, experience, and voluntariness it. Interestingly, next to performance expectancy, facilitating conditions showed the strongest correlation with use as well as with intention. Effort expectancy showed no significant correlation with the intention of older adults to use a computer. PMID:22317258
Nägle, Sibylle; Schmidt, Ludger
Older adults with schizophrenia are a growing segment of the population yet their physical and mental health status is extremely poor. The paper presents findings from a qualitative study that explored the understanding older adults with schizophrenia have of their physical health status. The study was conducted among 28 older adults with schizophrenia from a variety of settings using semi-structured interviews and participant observation. Self-management of psychiatric and non-psychiatric medications and its affect on their health status was one of the central themes that emerged from the study. Different styles of medication adherence were identified and factors associated with each style are presented. The findings provide insights into the design of clinical interventions aimed at promoting medication adherence among older adults with schizophrenia. PMID:23327119
Leutwyler, Heather C.; Fox, Patrick J.; Wallhagen, Margaret
The authors' aim in the present study was to examine the effects of a brief forgiveness intervention for older adults. The psychoeducational group intervention consists of (a) established core components of previous forgiveness interventions and (b) additional components considering specific needs of older adults. Seventy-eight older adults (mean…
Allemand, Mathias; Steiner, Marianne; Hill, Patrick L.
Recent epidemiological data show that adults who are 45 and older comprise the fastest growing age group of drug users as well as new AIDS cases in the United States. Prevention and intervention studies show that risk behaviors leading to HIV infection are increasing among older users, particularly among the socially vulnerable. Yet older adults remain an under-researched population of
Miriam W. Boeri
Alcohol use problems among older adults have been called the "invisible epidemic." As the population of older adults continues to grow, there is an increased need to reexamine alcohol use in this population. The authors provide an overview on alcohol use in the over-60 age group. The main areas of focus included research on the prevalence of drinking in that population, as well as comments on the best practices in assessment and psychological treatment. Several screening assessments have been recommended for use with older adults, such as the CAGE questionnaire, Michigan Alcohol Screening Test-Geriatric version, Alcohol-Related Problems Survey, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. The authors note age-appropriate psychological treatment interventions that include brief interventions, family interventions, motivational counseling, and cognitive behavioral therapies. Barriers to assessment and treatment are also discussed. PMID:17128962
Sorocco, Kristen H; Ferrell, Sean W
Action integration is the process through which actions performed on a stimulus and perceptual aspects of the stimulus become bound as a unitary object. This process appears to be controlled by the dopaminergic system in the prefrontal cortex, an area that is known to decrease in volume and dopamine functioning in older adults. Although the…
Bloesch, Emily K.; Abrams, Richard A.
This study evaluated effects on creativity of a Quality of Life Program for 55 older adults. Subjects participated in a variety of creative activities. An increase in scores (particularly in fluency and flexibility) by the experimental group supported a growth theory of lifelong creativity. (DB)
According to recent census figures, 10% of today's population are over 65 years old. It has often been stated that individual learning needs and capabilities decline with age. To challenge this idea, a study was conducted to gather information about older adults, their learning interests, activities, and obstacles. Four hypotheses were tested…
Outdoor adventure education programs generally have not met the demands of older adults. Ways to attract older adults to these programs and to tailor activities to allay their fears and maximize their enjoyment are discussed. (PP)
Objectives. Previous research has suggested that older adults’ ability to detect a word as correctly or incorrectly spelled is intact, relative to younger adults. The purpose of the present experiment was to investigate the stability of misspelling detection processes across older adulthood when misspellings are presented in the context of reading. Methods. Participants included 180 older adults represented equally from three decades: young–old adults in their 60s, middle-old adults in their 70s, and old–old adults in their 80s. They read sentences about health-related topics one word at a time and pressed a key to detect misspellings. A repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted on misspelling detection accuracy as well as response times for correctly detected misspellings. Results. There was a consistent age-related decline in misspelling detection, where middle-old and old–old adults were less accurate and slower than young–old adults in detecting misspellings. Discussion. Requiring misspelling detection during reading increases the working memory demands that are necessary for successful comprehension. In resource-demanding contexts, the top–down verification process of confirming a word’s orthographic features becomes more difficult with increasing age. PMID:20616153
Farrell, Meagan T.; Margolin, Sara J.
In this article, we present four experiments comparing the performance of younger and older adults on directed forget- ting tasks. In this type of task (e.g., see Bjork, 1989), partici- pants are presented items to study, some of which they are told to remember and others of which they are told to forget. Because the cueing as to which items
Rose T. Zacks; Gabriel Radvansky; Lynn Hasher
This study investigated variables contributing to older adults’ information technology acceptance through a survey, which was used to find factors explaining and predicting older adults’ information technology acceptance behaviors. Four factors, including needs satisfaction, perceived usability, support availability, and public acceptance, were found using factor analysis. According to older adults’ self-reported scores, the factors of needs satisfaction and support availability
Lin Wang; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Gavriel Salvendy
This paper uses the social cognitive theory model to review the literature on older adult gambling, and related personal and environment characteristics. Results show that lottery is the kind of gambling most frequently played by older adults, followed by casino games. Older adults take trips to casinos to socialize, find excitement, and win…
This guide is intended for Adult Basic Education (ABE) practitioners, specifically Texas ABE cooperative directors, who wish to increase recruitment and attendance among undereducated older adults. General information may be used for all older adults, but two age categories (age 45-64 and age 65 and older) are distinguished in instances seemingly…
Kasworm, Carol; Stedman, Ken C.
As adults age, they tend to have problems remembering the details of events and the contexts in which events occurred. This review presents evidence that emotion can enhance older adults’ abilities to remember episodic detail. Older adults are more likely to remember affective details of an event (e.g., whether something was good or bad, or how an event made them
Elizabeth A. Kensinger
This guide provides information and suggestions for developing programs that meet the needs of older adults at community colleges. Recommended procedures are presented for the following stages of program development: (1) leadership influences, highlighting the process of hiring effective leaders, key leadership skills, and leaders'…
of Hurricane Katrina Profile of Displaced Older Adults Following Hurricane Katrina, around 73% of deaths in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. In Part One of this series, we describe a group of older adults who Katrina made landfall, we share how they prepared for Hurricane Katrina. The pro- file also includes
Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa
This article provides a review of the evidence supporting exercise as an effective treatment of depression in older adults. Depression is prevalent among older adults and is associated with significant morbidity, increased risk of mortality, and economic burden. Although effective treatments for depression exist (e.g., antidepressant medication, cognitive-behavioral therapy), the disorder remains inadequately treated for many older individuals. Recently, the
Krista A. Barbour; James A. Blumenthal
In 1999 we proposed a Modified Food Guide Pyramid for 70+ Adults. It has been extensively used in a variety of settings and formats to highlight the unique dietary challenges of older adults. We now propose a Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults in a format consistent with the MyPyramid graphic. I...
Conducting research in the home setting with homebound older adults presents distinct ethical and practical challenges that require special consideration. This article describes the methodological issues that make studying homebound older adults especially vulnerable to therapeutic misconception and researcher role conflict and offers practical…
Locher, Julie L.; Bronstein, Janet; Robinson, Caroline O.; Williams, Charlotte; Ritchie, Christine S.
Even well older adults may experience a range of age-related physiological changes and chronic health conditions and may become increasingly sedentary—key factors that could affect appetite and hunger and lead to changes in diet composition. The present article reviews recent literature on the impact of prevalent health conditions on dietary choice. Research shows some evidence that older adults make positive
The objective of this study was to present findings from a literature review on the documented health benefits of arts programs for older adults. A systematic literature review was conducted to examine research publications on participatory arts programs for older adults and their reported impact on health outcomes. A total of 2,205 articles were found. Of these, 11 were eligible
Melissa Castora-Binkley; Linda Noelker; Thomas Prohaska; William Satariano
Due to an aging population and increases in healthcare costs, particular attention needs to be focused on developing Internet sites that provide older adults with credible and accurate healthcare information. Present research findings suggest that motivation is only one factor that influences whether or not older adults utilize the World Wide Web…
Hardt, Jeffrey H.; Hollis-Sawyer, Lisa
The definition of “polypharmacy” ranges from the use of a large number of medications; the use of potentially inappropriate medications, which can increase the risk for adverse drug events; medication underuse despite instructions to the contrary; and medication duplication. Older adults are particularly at risk because they often present with several medical conditions requiring pharmacotherapy. Cancer-related therapy adds to this risk in older adults, but few studies have been conducted in this patient population. In this review, we outline the adverse outcomes associated with polypharmacy and present polypharmacy definitions offered by the geriatrics literature. We also examine the strengths and weaknesses of these definitions and explore the relationships among these definitions and what is known about the prevalence and impact of polypharmacy. PMID:20418534
Maggiore, Ronald J.; Gross, Cary P.
Although working memory spans are, on average, lower for older adults than young adults, we demonstrate in 5 experiments a way in which older adults paradoxically resemble higher capacity young adults. Specifically, in a selective-listening task, older adults almost always failed to notice their names presented in an unattended channel. This is an…
Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Kilb, Angela; Maddox, Geoffrey B.; Thomas, Jenna; Fine, Hope C.; Chen, Tina; Cowan, Nelson
of Hurricane Katrina Six to Ten Months After Hurricane Katrina In disasters, older persons face accumulated.Readers shouldreviewtheProfile of Displaced Older Adult in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in Part Oneofthe Disaster setuphouseintheircurrentresidence.Showinga 2005calendar,weremindedstudyparticipantsthat Hurricane Katrina hit on August 29, 2005
Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa
This study investigated variables contributing to older adults' information technology acceptance through a survey, which was used to find factors explaining and predicting older adults' information technology acceptance behaviors. Four factors, including needs satisfaction, perceived usability, support availability, and public acceptance, were…
Wang, Lin; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Salvendy, Gavriel
Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…
Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon
Examined knowledge, attitudes, and opinions of 60 older adults about cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Most had little or no accurate knowledge of CPR. Knowledge deficits and misconceptions of older adults should be addressed so that they may become informed and active participants in CPR decision-making process. (BF)
Godkin, M. Dianne; Toth, Ellen L.
Results of a study to examine the recycling practices and needs of older adults (n=217) indicated that older adults do recycle traditional materials, but need accommodations for physical limitations. They report textile recycling as time consuming and difficult and used donations to religious organizations as their principal means of textile…
Domina, Tanya; Koch, Kathryn
Obesity is associated with an increased risk for early death, heart disease and stroke, disability and several other comorbidities. Although there is concern about the potential burden on health-care services with the aging demographic and the increasing trend of obesity prevalence in older adults, evidence on which to base management strategies is conflicting for various reasons. The analytic framework for this review is based on a scoping review methodology, and was conducted to examine what is known about the diagnosis, treatment and management of obesity in older adults. A total of 492 relevant research articles were identified using PubMed, Scirus, EBSCO, Clinicaltrials.gov, Cochrane Reviews and Google Scholar. The findings of this review indicate that the current WHO (World Health Organization)-recommended body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio obesity thresholds for the general adult population may not be appropriate for older adults. Alternatively, weight change or physical fitness may be more useful measures of mortality and health risk in obese older adults. Furthermore, although obesity in older adults is associated with several disorders that increase functional disability, epidemiological evidence suggests that obesity is protective against mortality in seniors. Consequently, the trend toward increasing prevalence of obesity in older adults will lead to an increase in unhealthy life years and health-care costs. The findings from this review also suggest that treatment strategies for obese older adults should focus on maintaining body weight and improving physical fitness and function rather than weight loss, and that a combination of aerobic and resistance exercise appears to be the most effective strategy. In conclusion, this review demonstrates the need for more research to clarify the definition of obesity in older adults, to establish criteria for evaluating when to treat older adults for obesity, and to develop effective treatment strategies focused on functional outcomes in obese older adults. PMID:22410960
Decaria, J E; Sharp, C; Petrella, R J
The present study used the German Aging Semantic Differential (ASD) to assess attitudes toward younger and older adults in a heterogeneous sample of n = 151 younger and n = 143 older adults. The questionnaire was administered in two versions, one referring to the evaluation of younger adults, the other to the evaluation of older adults.…
Gluth, Sebastian; Ebner, Natalie C.; Schmiedek, Florian
Changes and advancements in technology have the potential to benefit older adults by promoting independence and increasing the ability to age in place. However, older adults are less likely to adopt new technology unless they see benefits to themselves. This study assessed the perceptions of 30 older adults in the Midwest concerning technology via three separate focus groups (i.e., independent apartment complex, a rural community, exercise program participants), which addressed a need in the literature (i.e., inclusion of oldest-old and rural individuals). The focus group questions included items such as what technology older adults currently used, desired improvements in technology, and the greatest challenges participants were facing or would face in the future. Overall, older adults were enthusiastic about learning new forms of technology that could help them maintain their independence and quality of life. Five themes emerged from all three focus groups: (a) Frustrations, Limitations, and Usability Concerns; (b) Transportation; (c) Help and Assistance; (d) Self-Monitoring; and (e) Gaming. The themes have important implications for future technology developed for older adults; in particular, older adults were willing and eager to adopt new technology when usefulness and usability outweighed feelings of inadequacy. PMID:23244061
Heinz, Melinda; Martin, Peter; Margrett, Jennifer A; Yearns, Mary; Franke, Warren; Yang, Hen-I; Wong, Johnny; Chang, Carl K
When older adults must evacuate their homes, they may worry about receiving their Social Security payments, receiving Medicare benefits from new health care providers, and replacing medications left behind. This publication explains who to call...
... Safety Traumatic Brain Injury Injury Response Violence Prevention Data & Statistics (WISQARS) Funded Programs Communications Press Room Social Media Publications Injury Center Falls Among Older Adults: An Overview On this Page How big is the problem? What outcomes are linked to ...
The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) states that within the next few decades, adults aged 65 and older will represent 20% of the US population. As a result, health professionals will see an increase in the number of older patients they treat and as such, must be knowledgeable about the aging process and age-associated issues in order to provide appropriate
Older adults are less likely to be using computers and less knowledgeable about Internet security than are younger users. The two groups do not differ on trust of Internet information. The younger group shows no age or gender differences. Within the older group, computer users are more trusting of Internet information, and along with those with…
Grimes, Galen A.; Hough, Michelle G.; Mazur, Elizabeth; Signorella, Margaret L.
Approximately 34 million people, or 13 percent of the population of the United States, are 65 or older. It is not just the increasing numbers that make it important for counselors to serve as advocates for older adults. Ageism, societal marginalization, vulnerability, and elder abuse are growing problems for this population. There is evidence that…
Goodman, Jane; Waters, Elinor
\\u000a Physical activity offers an effective, nonpharmacological means to improve the health of older adults, including those with\\u000a arthritis. Clinical practice guidelines identify a substantial therapeutic role for physical activity in osteoarthritis and\\u000a rheumatoid arthritis. For older adults, including those with arthritis, regular physical activity counteracts the reduction\\u000a in fitness, stamina, and loss of muscle strength associated with aging, prevents the
Dorothy D. Dunlop; Pamela A. Semanik; Rowland W. Chang
Vaccination is a vital component of routine preventative health. Older adults can potentially benefit most from vaccines because they have greater susceptibility to disease and associated complications. The number of infections covered and the types of vaccines available has grown significantly in recent years. Although this represents tremendous progress, it can also result in confusion and missed opportunities to provided recommended vaccinations. This review summarizes the current guidelines for vaccination of older adults and highlights the latest innovations. PMID:25753174
Pilkinton, Mark Alexander; Talbot, H Keipp
British students 60 years and older in 1985-86 were studied in order to learn about their age, sex, marital status, employment background, the subjects they study, their reasons for studying, how they study, and what they think about their studies. Considered by the researchers to be the largest survey of older students, the study involved 2,254…
Clennell, Stephanie, Ed.; And Others
This study examined how Flesch Reading Ease and text cohesion affect older adults' comprehension of common health texts. All older adults benefited when high Flesh Reading Ease was combined with high cohesion. Older adults with small working memories had more difficulty understanding texts high in Flesch Reading Ease. Additionally, older adults…
Liu, Chiung-Ju; Kemper, Susan; Bovaird, James A.
... Accessed October 29, 2010 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Senior health: How to detect and prevent malnutrition.. Accessed October 29, 2010 National Resource Center on Nutrition, Physical Activity and Aging. Malnutrition and Older Americans. Accessed ...
Approximately 5% of older adults have a dementia diagnosis, and language deterioration is commonly associated with this disorder (Kempler, 2005). Several instruments have been developed to diagnose dementia and assess language capabilities of elderly adults. However, none of these instruments take a functional approach to language assessment as…
Gross, Amy C.; Fuqua, Wayne; Merritt, Todd A.
The present study examined attitudes and knowledge of 96 first year MSW social work students toward older adults using the Aging Semantic Differential (ASD) and the Facts on Aging Quiz II. Results suggest that the sample had limited previous contact with older adults and little knowledge about aging prior to admission. Students reported negative attitudes toward older adults on productivity,
Zvi D. Gellis; Susan Sherman; Frances Lawrance
often than young adults and that the structure of rumination by young and older adults would differ, including the relationship between rumination, working memory, inhibition, and mood. These hypotheses were supported. Older adults reported less...
Schmalzried, RaLynn Cheri
Older adults continue to be sexually active in their later years. A range of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV have been reported among older adults. Risk factors for STIs in older populations include (a) normal sexual changes associated with aging (e.g., increased time to attain an erection, decreased vaginal lubrication, decreases in sexual hormones); (b) psychosocial changes (e.g., loss of partner or spouse and re-entering the dating scene); and (c) risky sexual behaviors, including no or infrequent use of condoms. Screening of adults for STIs should occur regardless of age based on guidelines such as those from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. As discussed in this article, nurses can use assessment guides and engage in interventions such as counseling and education with older adults to reduce STI risk or refer for treatment. Numerous online resources exist for both nurses and older adults to increase knowledge of STIs. PMID:24066789
Johnson, Beverly K
Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the population. With these changing demographics, mental health professionals will be seeing more older clients. Additionally, older adults are an underserved population in that most older adults in need of mental health services do not receive treatment. Thus, it is essential that treatments for…
Petkus, Andrew J.; Wetherell, Julie Loebach
Falls, a common cause of injury among older adults, have become increasingly prevalent. As the world’s population ages, the increase in—and the prevalence of—falls among older people makes this a serious and compelling societal and healthcare issue. Physical weakness is a critical predictor in falling. While considerable research has examined this relationship, comprehensive reviews of neuropsychological predictors of falls have been lacking. In this paper, we examine and discuss current studies of the neuropsychological predictors of falls in older adults, as related to sporting and non-sporting contexts. By integrating the existing evidence, we propose that brain aging is an important precursor of the increased risk of falls in older adults. Brain aging disrupts the neural integrity of motor outputs and reduces neuropsychological abilities. Older adults may shift from unconscious movement control to more conscious or attentive motor control. Increased understanding of the causes of falls will afford opportunities to reduce their incidence, reduce consequent injuries, improve overall well-being and quality of life, and possibly to prolong life. PMID:24782761
Liu, Yu; Chan, John S. Y.; Yan, Jin H.
Objective Investigate the importance of viewing belief systems about health maintenance holistically. Methods Qualitative (N=74) and quantitative data (N=95) were obtained from multi-ethnic rural-dwelling older adults with diabetes to characterize their Common Sense Models (CSMs) of diabetes. Results There is a discrete number of CSMs held by older adults, each characterized by unique clusters of diabetes-related knowledge and beliefs. Individuals whose CSM was shaped by biomedical knowledge were better able to achieve glycemic control. Conclusions Viewing individuals’ health beliefs incrementally or in a piece-meal strategy may be less effective for health behavior change than focusing on beliefs holistically. PMID:21683021
Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Ip, Edward H.; Chapman, Christine; Kirk, Julienne K.; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.
with furniture. Night lights are provided in the bedroom, bathroom and D D hallway. Light for general illumination in all rooms is controlled D D by a switch located directly inside the door. Fluorescent lighting is not used as older people have D D trouble... and adjusted. 0 0 The heating system requires minimum attention and 0 0 maintenance. " A screen is provided for use with an open fire. 0 0 13 Yes No FURNISHINGS 0 0 Tables and other furniture have rounded edges. 0 0 Chairs, sofa and tables stand firmly...
Objective: Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant medication for treating child, adolescent, and adult ADHD. This meta-analysis compared the effects in younger and older adults. Method: A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from two double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Data from patients aged 18-25 years were compared with data from…
Durell, Todd; Adler, Lenard; Wilens, Timothy; Paczkowski, Martin; Schuh, Kory
Although funds were not available to bring members of the Older Adults Network to the World Assembly of Adult Education in January 1990, there was, among the delegates, considerable interest in the subject and several meetings were arranged. The thing that struck me most was not how different were our situations, coming as we did from every corner of the earth, but how many problems and concerns we had in common. With the second Network Newsletter, sent out in the spring of 1991, questionnaires asked for brief details of schemes which involved older people in projects that were, in some way, conservational. They could be involved in conserving language, mythology or history. They might be working to improve and save their environment. The aim is to establish a small but useful register of such projects in sufficient detail to encourage contact and replication by others. For this purpose, small grants are being made available from the money given by CIDA. Slowly but surely, the Older Adults Network is gathering information about positive actions being taken to ensure that older people, in all countries, have the skills and opportunities they need to continue as fully participating citizens. With the rapidly increasing number of older people in all our countries, this small beginning will, hopefully, be a foundation on which much important work will be done in the years to come.
As the world’s population ages, the elevated prevalence of insomnia in older adults is a growing concern. Insomnia is characterized by difficulty falling or remaining asleep, or by non-restorative sleep, and resultant daytime dysfunction. In addition to being at elevated risk for primary insomnia, older adults are at greater risk for comorbid insomnia, which results from, or occurs in conjunction with another medical or psychiatric condition. In this review, we discuss normal changes in sleep that accompany aging, circadian rhythm changes and other factors that can contribute to late-life insomnia, useful tools for the assessment of insomnia and related problems in older people, and both non-pharmacological and pharmacological strategies for the management of insomnia and optimization of sleep in later life. PMID:23746664
Wennberg, Alexandra M.; Canham, Sarah L.; Smith, Michael T.; Spira, Adam P.
Abstract The success of home telemedicine depends on end-user adoption, which has been slow despite rapid advances in technological development. This study focuses on an examination of significant factors that may predict the successful adoption of home telemedicine services (HTS) among older adults. Based on previous studies in the fields of remote patient monitoring, assisted living technologies, and consumer health information technology acceptance, eight factors were identified as a framework for qualitative testing. Twelve focus groups were conducted with an older population living in both urban and rural environments. The results reveal seven predictors that play an important role in perceptions of HTS: perceived usefulness, effort expectancy, social influence, perceived security, computer anxiety, facilitating conditions, and physicians' opinion. The results provide important insights in the field of older adults' acceptance of HTS, with guidelines for the strategic planning, developing, and marketing of HTS for the graying market. PMID:23931702
Bren?i?, Maja Makovec; Trkman, Peter; de Leonni Stanonik, Mateja
Age is an independent, non-modifiable risk factor for CVD, the leading cause of death in the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine total cholesterol and lipoprotein sub-fractions in relation to statin use and ATPIII guidelines in a sample of older adults, n=278. 161f and 117m. Fa...
An experimental group of 55 older adults participated in creative activities (control group n=53). Completion of Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking and a morale scale demonstrated a positive link between creativity and life satisfaction. It was unclear whether increased satisfaction caused greater creativity or vice versa. (SK)
trend for older adults to seek care from non-pri- mary care specialists at a higher rate than in the recent past. In 2005, 43% of ambulatory care visits by patients aged 65 and over were to primary care physicians and 57% were to non-primary care spe- cialists. In 1980, 62% of ambulatory care visits by patients aged 65 and over
Discussion of older adults in the workforce focuses on methods for training them how to use computers. Topics discussed include changes in processing information into memory, learning skills, learning processes, the learning environment, content planning, self-pacing materials, group and cooperative learning, and the instructor's role. (five…
Carter, Janet Houser; Honeywell, Robert
This cross-sectional study assessed undergraduate attitudes toward older adults and attitude endurance 3 to 18 months after aging coursework. Survey respondents included 349 students who took an aging elective and 430 comparison students. Aging-elective students indicated more positive attitudes than comparison students. Attitudes did not vary…
Funderburk, Brooke; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Storms, Lene Levy; Solomon, David H.
The objectives of this continuing education article are to analyze the aging process and its effect on the nutritional status of frail older adults; determine how sarcopenia, anorexia, malnutrition, and Alzheimer disease increase the risk for pressure ulcer development and impact the healing process; and to apply evidence-based nutrition guidelines and implement practical solutions for wound healing. PMID:23426414
Posthauer, Mary Ellen; Collins, Nancy; Dorner, Becky; Sloan, Colleen
This curriculum guide contains materials for a course that provides occupationally specific training designed to develop knowledge and skills for employment in the area of services for older adults. Contents include an introduction, the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) covered; sample course outlines; instructional strategies organized…
The prevalence of dementia, in particular Alzheimer’s disease, is increasing with the expansion of the older adult population. In the absence of effective therapy, preventive approaches are essential to mitigate this public health problem. Blueberries contain polyphenolic compounds, most prominent...
Preventing Traumatic Brain Injury in Older Adults U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Most of ... ways to prevent it. What is a traumatic brain injury or TBI? Traumatic brain injury or TBI is ...
Methodological issues in geropsychological assessment research are discussed and illustrated through recent investigations. Cross-sectional studies are needed to extend and diversify age norms, and short-term longitudinal studies should be planned to assess the predictive validity of test outcomes and diagnostic profiles of older adults. (SLD)
La Rue, Asenath; Markee, Taryn
In this study we will analyze the attitude of older adults to advertisements, differentiating between advertisements that contain rhetorical figures (trope ads) and those that do not (explicit ads). We will also study their attitude toward the brand advertised according to their degree of involvement with the product. In the course of the…
Estrada, M.; Moliner, M. A.; Sanchez, J.
Mobility is fundamental to active aging and is intimately linked to health status and quality of life. Although there is widespread acceptance regarding the importance of mobility in older adults, there have been few attempts to comprehensively portray mobility, and research has to a large extent been discipline specific. In this article, a new…
Webber, Sandra C.; Porter, Michelle M.; Menec, Verena H.
Approximately 5% of older adults have a dementia diagnosis, and language deterioration is commonly associated with this disorder (Kempler, 2005). Several instruments have been developed to diagnose dementia and assess language capabilities of elderly adults. However, none of these instruments take a functional approach to language assessment as described by Skinner (1957). The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a function-based assessment for language deficits of older adults. Thirty-one participants were categorized into a control group (n ?=? 15) and a dementia group (n ?=? 16) based on their score on the Dementia Rating Scale-2. Individuals with dementia performed significantly worse on the tact assessment than those without dementia. Participants from both groups performed better on measures of tacts than intraverbals or mands, even though topographically identical responses were required in these assessments. The data provide support for Skinner's conceptualization of functionally independent verbal operants. PMID:23814369
Gross, Amy C.; Fuqua, R. Wayne; Merritt, Todd A.
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Preventing Falls in Older Adults Who Live in Community Settings: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Summaries ... full report is titled “Prevention of Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force ...
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With the shifting age demographics of the U.S. population, more psychologists will be asked to provide clinical services to older adults. Given the high prevalence of persistent pain in aging, in many cases this will mean providing empirically supported interventions for pain and the interference it creates. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad overview of the scope and impact of persistent pain in older people and to discuss mechanisms by which persistent geriatric pain can lead to suffering and disability. We consider the unique context of pain in older adulthood and review differences between older and younger people in terms of pain perception, the social network, beliefs about pain, pain-related coping, and adherence to pain medication. Finally, we discuss special issues affecting pain management in older adults, including dementia, polypharmacy, and barriers to accessing adequate pain care. This review also highlights a need for greater provider training in pain management to meet the needs of a changing U.S. population. PMID:24547805
Molton, Ivan R; Terrill, Alexandra L
As distance learning plays an increasing role in adult education, instruction to older adults must be adapted for individual learner differences. Two stereotypic adult education client groups have been described: the SAVY adult (Schooled, Active, Verbal, Younger) and the ONUS adult (Older, Non-Verbal, Unschooled, Sedentary). Instructional methods…
Richardson, Penelope Louise
SYNOPSIS Despite the benefits of treatment for late-life depression, we are faced with the challenges of underutilization of mental health services by older adults and non-adherence to offered interventions. This paper describes psychosocial and interactional barriers and facilitators of treatment engagement among depressed older adults served by community health care settings. We describe the need to engage older adults in treatment using interventions that: 1. target psychological barriers such as stigma and other negative beliefs about depression and its treatment; and 2. increase individuals’ involvement in the treatment decision-making process. We then present personalized treatment engagement interventions that our group has designed for a variety of community settings. PMID:21536170
Raue, Patrick J.; Sirey, Jo Anne
Context: Identifying ways to meet the health care needs of older adults is important because their numbers are increasing and they often have more health care issues. High resilience level may be one factor that helps older adults adjust to the hardships associated with aging. Rural community-dwelling older adults often face unique challenges such…
Abstract Interventions to improve the cognitive health of older adults are of critical importance. In the current study, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using a pill-based nutraceutical (NT-020) that contained a proprietary formulation of blueberry, carnosine, green tea, vitamin D3, and Biovin to evaluate the impact on changes in multiple domains of cognitive functioning. One hundred and five cognitively intact adults aged 65–85 years of age (M=73.6 years) were randomized to receive NT-020 (n=52) or a placebo (n=53). Participants were tested with a battery of cognitive performance tests that were classified into six broad domains—episodic memory, processing speed, verbal ability, working memory, executive functioning, and complex speed at baseline and 2 months later. The results indicated that persons taking NT-020 improved significantly on two measures of processing speed across the 2-month test period in contrast to persons on the placebo whose performance did not change. None of the other cognitive ability measures were related to intervention group. The results also indicated that the NT-020 was well tolerated by older adults, and the presence of adverse events or symptoms did not differ between the NT-020 and placebo groups. Overall, the results of the current study were promising and suggest the potential for interventions like these to improve the cognitive health of older adults. PMID:24134194
Rawson, Kerri S.; Martin, Christina; Eisel, Sarah L.; Sanberg, Cyndy D.; McEvoy, Cathy L.; Sanberg, Paul R.; Shytle, R. Douglas; Tan, Jun; Bickford, Paula C.
This analysis uses in-depth interview data collected from 145 African American, European American and Native American men and women aged 70 and older who reside in two rural North Carolina counties to understand the role of religious faith and prayer in the health self-management of these older adults. The analysis addresses three specific questions: how do these older adults use religion to help them manage their health; are there ethnic and gender differences in the use of religion; and are differences in health status related to differences in the use of religion? The integral role of religion in the lives of these older rural adults is an overarching theme present in the interview texts. Six major themes link religion and health self-management: (1) prayer and faith in health self-management, (2) reading the Bible, (3) church services, (4) mental and spiritual health, (5) stories of physical healing, and (6) ambivalence. Faith and religious activities provide an anchor in the lives of these older adults. There is little variation in the use of religion for health self-management by gender, ethnicity or health status. These results suggest that the strength of religion in rural culture may limit the effectiveness of general religiosity scales to discern the relationship of religion to health and health behavior in rural populations. PMID:14618010
Arcury, T A; Quandt, S A; McDonald, J; Bell, R A
Clostridium difficile infection, the most frequent cause of nosocomial diarrhea, disproportionately affects older adults. The two most important risk factors for developing C. difficile infection are antimicrobial exposure and age >65 years old. Risk factors specific to older adults are frequent interactions with healthcare systems and age-related changes in physiology, including immune senescence and changes to the gut microbiome. Metronidazole and oral vancomcyin are the mainstays of conventional treatment for C. difficile infection. Alternative therapies include fidaxomicin, a narrow-spectrum macrocyclic antibiotic, and fectal bacteriotherapy, which offers an excellent therapeutic outcome. Strategies to prevent C. difficile infections include enhanced infection control measures and reducing inappropriate antimicrobial use through stewardship. PMID:24955106
Jump, Robin LP
Abstract It is not yet clear whether intestinal mucosal permeability changes with advancing age in humans. This question is of high importance for drug and nutrition approaches for older adults. Our main objective was to answer the question if small intestinal barrier integrity deteriorates with healthy aging. We conducted a cross?sectional study including the pooled data of 215 nonsmoking healthy adults (93 female/122 male), 84 of whom were aged between 60 and 82 years. After a 12?h fast, all participants ingested 10 g of lactulose and 5 g of mannitol. Urine was collected for 5 h afterwards and analyzed for test sugars. The permeability index (PI = lactulose/mannitol) was used to assess small intestinal permeability. Low?grade inflammation defined by high?sensitivity C?reactive protein ?1 mL/L and kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate) were determined in the older age group. The PI was similar in older compared to younger adults (P =0.887). However, the urinary recovery of lactulose and mannitol was lower in the older adults and this change was neither associated with urinary volume nor glomerular filtration rate. The PI was not significantly correlated with low?grade inflammation or presence of noninsulin?dependent type 2 diabetes. However, it significantly deteriorated in the copresence of both conditions compared to low?grade inflammation alone (P =0.043) or type 2 diabetes alone (P =0.015). Small intestinal mucosal barrier does not deteriorate with age per se. But low?grade inflammation coupled with minor disease challenges, such as type 2 diabetes, can compromise the small intestinal barrier. PMID:24771689
Valentini, Luzia; Ramminger, Sara; Haas, Verena; Postrach, Elisa; Werich, Martina; Fischer, André; Koller, Michael; Swidsinski, Alexander; Bereswill, Stefan; Lochs, Herbert; Schulzke, Jörg?Dieter
\\u000a As the numbers of the elderly people is increasing rapidly, it is important and urgent to design appropriate products for\\u000a older adults. Because of physical and mental function decline, the elderly need to take multiple drugs, they often occurring\\u000a medication non-compliance behavior, seriously affecting the health of the elderly. Forget to take medicine is one the most\\u000a frequency problem, so
Yi-Lin Lo; Chang-Franw Lee; Wang-Chin Tsai
Geriatric education is an important component of the dental hygiene curriculum because, in it, students acquire skills and attitudes to help provide quality care to older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine if off-site exposure to nursing home residents with supervised oversight had the potential to improve dental hygiene students' attitudes toward older adults. Senior dental hygiene students at one school completed a pre-nursing home experience questionnaire. A series of geriatric lectures and discussions, which included discussions about students' anxieties of working with institutionalized older adults, were held prior to the nursing home experience. The students then participated in two supervised four-hour nursing home experiences, were debriefed after the experiences, and completed a second questionnaire. Of thirty-nine potential participants in the study, thirty-two took part in the pre-nursing home experience questionnaire (82.1 percent). They had a mean split Fabroni score of 34.2 (95 percent confidence interval: 32.2, 36.3). The thirty participants in the post-experience questionnaire (76.9 percent of total) had a mean split score of 32.7 (95 percent confidence interval: 30.1, 35.3). This study failed to reject the null hypothesis of no mean difference between the pre- and post-nursing home experience; however, the post-experience mean score was lower than the pre-nursing home experience mean score, indicating a more positive attitude toward older adults after the experience. PMID:25480277
Wiener, R Constance; Shockey, Alcinda Trickett; Long, D Leann
Abstract It is not yet clear whether intestinal mucosal permeability changes with advancing age in humans. This question is of high importance for drug and nutrition approaches for older adults. Our main objective was to answer the question if small intestinal barrier integrity deteriorates with healthy aging. We conducted a cross-sectional study including the pooled data of 215 nonsmoking healthy adults (93 female/122 male), 84 of whom were aged between 60 and 82 years. After a 12-h fast, all participants ingested 10 g of lactulose and 5 g of mannitol. Urine was collected for 5 h afterwards and analyzed for test sugars. The permeability index (PI = lactulose/mannitol) was used to assess small intestinal permeability. Low-grade inflammation defined by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ?1 mL/L and kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate) were determined in the older age group. The PI was similar in older compared to younger adults (P = 0.887). However, the urinary recovery of lactulose and mannitol was lower in the older adults and this change was neither associated with urinary volume nor glomerular filtration rate. The PI was not significantly correlated with low-grade inflammation or presence of noninsulin-dependent type 2 diabetes. However, it significantly deteriorated in the copresence of both conditions compared to low-grade inflammation alone (P = 0.043) or type 2 diabetes alone (P = 0.015). Small intestinal mucosal barrier does not deteriorate with age per se. But low-grade inflammation coupled with minor disease challenges, such as type 2 diabetes, can compromise the small intestinal barrier. PMID:24771689
Valentini, Luzia; Ramminger, Sara; Haas, Verena; Postrach, Elisa; Werich, Martina; Fischer, André; Koller, Michael; Swidsinski, Alexander; Bereswill, Stefan; Lochs, Herbert; Schulzke, Jörg-Dieter
OBJECTIVE To analyze the perception of and motivation for the chronic use of benzodiazepine among older adults. METHODS A qualitative study was conducted on 22 older adults living in Bambuí, MG, Southeastern Brazil, who were taking benzodiazepines and had the clinical and cognitive ability to respond to interview questions. The collected data were analyzed on the basis of the “signs, meanings, and actions” model. RESULTS The main reasons pointed out for the use of benzodiazepines were “nervousness”, “sleep problems”, and “worry” due to family and financial problems, everyday problems, and existential difficulties. None of the interviewees said that they used benzodiazepines in a dose higher than that recommended or had been warned by health professionals about any risks of their continuous use. Different strategies were used to obtain the prescription for the medication, and any physician would prescribe it, indicating that a bond was established with the drug and not with the health professional or healthcare service. Obtaining and consuming the medication turned into a crucial issue because benzodiazepine assumes the status of an essential food, which leads users to not think but sleep. It causes a feeling of relief from their problems such as awareness of human finitude and fragility, existential difficulties, and family problems. CONCLUSIONS Benzodiazepine assumes the characteristics of polyvalence among older adults, which extrapolate specific clinical indications, and of essentiality to deal with life’s problems in old age. Although it relieves the “nerves”, the chronic use of benzodiazepines buffers suffering and prevents older adults from going through the suffering. This shows important difficulties in the organization and planning of strategies that are necessary for minimizing the chronic use in this population.
Alvarenga, Jussara Mendonça; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; de Loyola, Antônio Ignácio; Uchoa, Elizabeth; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo
The issues of rising numbers of disasters, overwhelming increases in number of older adults, and historically flawed evacuations present real challenges. During the next two decades, the number of American baby boomers, who turn 65, will increase by 40%. As evidenced by recent disasters, the imperfections and vulnerabilities of flawed evacuations…
Gray-Graves, Amy; Turner, Keith W.; Swan, James H.
Examines three common disorders, dementia, depression, and delirium, which can be particularly difficult to diagnose in older adults. Presents three aspects that are helpful in making a decision: age-related differences, medical issues that need to be ruled out, and assessment methods particularly useful in the diagnostic process. (JPS)
Gintner, Gary G.
There is evidence from high quality studies to strongly support the positive association between increased levels of physical activity, exercise participation and improved health in older adults. Worldwide, around 3.2 million deaths per year are being attributed to inactivity. In industrialised countries where people are living longer lives, the levels of chronic health conditions are increasing and the levels of physical activity are declining. Key factors in improving health are exercising at a moderate-to-vigorous level for at least 5?days per week and including both aerobic and strengthening exercises. Few older adults achieve the level of physical activity or exercise that accompanies health improvements. A challenge for health professionals is to increase physical activity and exercise participation in older adults. Some success in this has been reported when physicians have given specific, detailed and localised information to their patients, but more high quality research is needed to continue to address this issue of non-participation in physical activity and exercise of a high enough level to ensure health benefits. PMID:24255119
The main purpose of the present study was to investigate cultural life scripts across three age groups. Adolescents, young adults, and older adults were asked to list the seven most important events that a typical newborn would experience in a lifetime. They also provided estimates of emotional valence and age for the life script events they listed. Results showed that
Ali ?. Tekcan; Burcu Kaya-K?z?löz; Handan Odaman
This study aimed to describe the prevalence of preventive safety measures in homes with older, urban-dwelling adults; determine the relationship between sociodemographic variables and injury prevention measures; and describe older adults' knowledge of safety topics. Teams conducted interviews and home observations in 603 homes to confirm preventive safety measures. Households with older adults were rarely observed to have recommended smoke alarm (34%) or carbon monoxide coverage (22%). Water temperature was safe in 64% of homes. Among households headed by someone other than the older adult, odds of having a working smoke alarm on every floor were much lower than in older adult-headed households (95% confidence interval: 0.04-0.35). Few older adults interviewed about safety knowledge correctly answered several items related to fire and carbon monoxide. Effort is needed to improve knowledge and promote the lifesaving benefits of injury countermeasures so that older adults can be adequately protected. PMID:22832066
Shields, Wendy C; Perry, Elise C; Szanton, Sarah L; Andrews, Margaret R; Stepnitz, Rebecca L; McDonald, Eileen M; Gielen, Andrea C
As part of the International Adult Literacy Survey, the literacy levels of older adults in the Netherlands were investigated. A sample of 918 adults aged 50-75 was tested on prose, document, and quantitative scales; 40 older adults were interviewed to determine in what contexts they experience literacy problems and what kinds of coping strategies…
van der Kamp, Max; Scheeren, Jo
While factor analyses have characterized pace, rhythm and variability as factors that explain variance in gait performance in older adults, comprehensive analyses incorporating many gait parameters have not been undertaken and normative data for many of those parameters are lacking. The purposes of this study were to conduct a factor analysis on nearly two dozen spatiotemporal gait parameters and to contribute to the normative database of gait parameters from healthy, able-bodied men and women over the age of 70. Data were extracted from 294 participants enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. Spatiotemporal gait data were obtained as participants completed two walks across a 5.6-m electronic walkway (GAITRite(®)). Five primary domains of spatiotemporal gait performance were identified: a "rhythm" domain was characterized by cadence and temporal parameters such as stride time; a "phase" domain was characterized by temporophasic parameters that constitute distinct divisions of the gait cycle; a "variability" domain encompassed gait cycle and step variability parameters; a "pace" domain was characterized by parameters that included gait speed, step length and stride length; and a "base of support" domain was characterized by step width and step width variability. Several domains differed between men and women and differed across age groups. Reference values of 23 gait parameters are presented which researchers or clinicians can use for assessing and interpreting gait dysfunction in aging persons. PMID:21531139
Hollman, John H; McDade, Eric M; Petersen, Ronald C
Objectives: Suicide is a prevalent problem in older adults. One of the best predictors of suicide in older adults is suicide ideation; suicide ideation has been frequently associated with depression. However, suicide ideation is not always present when an older adult is depressed and is sometimes present when an older adult is not depressed. Perceived burdensomeness, a recently proposed risk
Danielle R. Jahn; Kelly C. Cukrowicz; Kitten Linton; Fiona Prabhu
This study examined how Flesch Reading Ease and text cohesion affect older adults' comprehension of common health texts. All older adults benefited when high Flesh Reading Ease was combined with high cohesion. Older adults with small working memories had more difficulty understanding texts high in Flesch Reading Ease. Additionally, older adults with low verbal ability or older than 77 years of age had difficulty understanding texts high in text cohesion but low in Flesch Reading Ease. These results imply that writers must increase Flesch Reading Ease without disrupting text cohesion to ensure comprehension of health-related texts. PMID:19543546
Liu, Chiung-ju; Kemper, Susan; Bovaird, James A.
The aim of this study was to develop and validate an assessment tool for research consent competence in older participants. A four-item instrument was developed to assess the capacity of the older adults to consent to research. Data were obtained from 203 nursing home residents from two facilities and 201 community-dwelling older adults in a…
The number of older adults in US prisons continues to rise. In 2002, adults ages 50 and older made up 8% of the US prison population, up from 4% a decade prior. Many older offenders are released to communities that are poorly equipped to meet their special needs. and largely unprepared for the social and fiscal costs of their reentry.
Doreen Higgins; Margaret E. Severson
Many older adult have an interest in learning to use computers. The study reported in this article examined whether older adults' attitudes toward computers can be influenced by direct, customized computer training. Thirty older participants who registered for introductory computer courses offered at a SeniorNet computer lab completed the…
Segrist, Kathleen A.
Many older adult have an interest in learning to use computers. The study reported in this article examined whether older adults' attitudes toward computers can be influenced by direct, customized computer training. Thirty older participants who registered for introductory computer courses offered at a SeniorNet computer lab completed the…
Purpose: To determine whether older blind participants recognize time-compressed speech better than older sighted participants. Method: Three groups of adults with normal hearing participated (n = 10/group): (a) older sighted, (b) older blind, and (c) younger sighted listeners. Low-predictability sentences that were uncompressed (0% time…
Gordon-Salant, Sandra; Friedman, Sarah A.
Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) are associated with speech recognition in adverse conditions, reflecting the need to maintain and process speech fragments until lexical access can be achieved. When working memory resources are engaged in unlocking the lexicon, there is less Cognitive Spare Capacity (CSC) available for higher level processing of speech. CSC is essential for interpreting the linguistic content of speech input and preparing an appropriate response, that is, engaging in conversation. Previously, we showed, using a Cognitive Spare Capacity Test (CSCT) that in young adults with normal hearing, CSC was not generally related to WMC and that when CSC decreased in noise it could be restored by visual cues. In the present study, we investigated CSC in 24 older adults with age-related hearing loss, by administering the CSCT and a battery of cognitive tests. We found generally reduced CSC in older adults with hearing loss compared to the younger group in our previous study, probably because they had poorer cognitive skills and deployed them differently. Importantly, CSC was not reduced in the older group when listening conditions were optimal. Visual cues improved CSC more for this group than for the younger group in our previous study. CSC of older adults with hearing loss was not generally related to WMC but it was consistently related to episodic long term memory, suggesting that the efficiency of this processing bottleneck is important for executive processing of speech in this group. PMID:24904409
Mishra, Sushmit; Stenfelt, Stefan; Lunner, Thomas; Rönnberg, Jerker; Rudner, Mary
There is a common perception among physicians and patients that allergic diseases are not relevant in older adults. There is recognition that both innate and adaptive immune functions decline with aging. It is the function of a variety of immune cells in the form of allergic inflammation that is a hallmark of allergic diseases. In fact, there is a fairly consistent observation that measures of allergic sensitization, such as skin prick testing, specific IgE or total IgE decline with age. Nonetheless, the association between allergic sensitization and allergic diseases, particularly asthma and allergic rhinitis, remains robust in the elderly population. Consequently, an appropriate evaluation of allergic sensitivities is warranted and indicated in older asthma and rhinitis patients in order to provide optimal care for the individual and minimize any resultant morbidity and mortality. PMID:21667198
Viswanathan, Ravi K.; Mathur, Sameer K.
Diversity of neighborhood amenities may promote the mobility of older adults. A 2010 community-based sample of 510 adults aged ?65 years in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and geospatial data from the Esri Business Analyst database (Esri, Inc., Redlands, California) were used to assess associations of neighborhood amenity diversity with mobility. Neighborhoods were defined by census tract, and diversity of amenities was derived by using the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design's neighborhood development index (US Green Building Council, Washington, DC). Generalized estimating equations adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, and neighborhood characteristics were used to estimate differences in mobility score by tertile of amenity diversity. Analyses were stratified by participants' routine travel habits (stayed at home, stayed in home zip code, or traveled beyond home zip code). We found that for those who spent most of their time in their home neighborhoods, mobility scores (from the Life-Space Assessment, which ranges from 0 to 104 points) were 8.3 points higher (95% confidence interval: 0.1, 16.6) among those who lived in neighborhoods with the most amenity diversity compared with those who lived in neighborhoods with the least amenity diversity. No significant associations between amenity diversity and mobility were observed for those who did not leave home or who regularly traveled outside their neighborhoods. Neighborhoods with a high diversity of amenities may be important promoters of mobility in older adults who do not routinely travel outside their neighborhoods. PMID:23666814
Rosso, Andrea L; Grubesic, Tony H; Auchincloss, Amy H; Tabb, Loni P; Michael, Yvonne L
Diversity of neighborhood amenities may promote the mobility of older adults. A 2010 community-based sample of 510 adults aged ?65 years in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and geospatial data from the Esri Business Analyst database (Esri, Inc., Redlands, California) were used to assess associations of neighborhood amenity diversity with mobility. Neighborhoods were defined by census tract, and diversity of amenities was derived by using the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design's neighborhood development index (US Green Building Council, Washington, DC). Generalized estimating equations adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, and neighborhood characteristics were used to estimate differences in mobility score by tertile of amenity diversity. Analyses were stratified by participants' routine travel habits (stayed at home, stayed in home zip code, or traveled beyond home zip code). We found that for those who spent most of their time in their home neighborhoods, mobility scores (from the Life-Space Assessment, which ranges from 0 to 104 points) were 8.3 points higher (95% confidence interval: 0.1, 16.6) among those who lived in neighborhoods with the most amenity diversity compared with those who lived in neighborhoods with the least amenity diversity. No significant associations between amenity diversity and mobility were observed for those who did not leave home or who regularly traveled outside their neighborhoods. Neighborhoods with a high diversity of amenities may be important promoters of mobility in older adults who do not routinely travel outside their neighborhoods. PMID:23666814
Rosso, Andrea L.; Grubesic, Tony H.; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Tabb, Loni P.; Michael, Yvonne L.
The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009), but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008) or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013) may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24 h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24 h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and dementia.
Alonso, Irene; Dellacherie, Delphine; Samson, Séverine
As people age, they naturally experience sensory, perceptual, and cognitive changes. Many of these changes necessitate adaptations in designing programs for older adults. Choral singing is an activity that has many potential benefits for older adults, yet the rehearsal environment, presentation style, and content of material presented may need to…
Yinger, Olivia Swedberg
Older age is associated with changes in the brain, including the medial temporal lobe, which may result in mild spatial navigation deficits, especially in allocentric navigation. The aim of the study was to characterize the profile of real-space allocentric (world-centered, hippocampus-dependent) and egocentric (body-centered, parietal lobe dependent) navigation and learning in young vs. older adults, and to assess a possible influence of gender. We recruited healthy participants without cognitive deficits on standard neuropsychological testing, white matter lesions or pronounced hippocampal atrophy: 24 young participants (18–26 years old) and 44 older participants stratified as participants 60–70 years old (n = 24) and participants 71–84 years old (n = 20). All underwent spatial navigation testing in the real-space human analog of the Morris Water Maze, which has the advantage of assessing separately allocentric and egocentric navigation and learning. Of the eight consecutive trials, trials 2–8 were used to reduce bias by a rebound effect (more dramatic changes in performance between trials 1 and 2 relative to subsequent trials). The participants who were 71–84 years old (p < 0.001), but not those 60–70 years old, showed deficits in allocentric navigation compared to the young participants. There were no differences in egocentric navigation. All three groups showed spatial learning effect (p’ s ? 0.01). There were no gender differences in spatial navigation and learning. Linear regression limited to older participants showed linear (? = 0.30, p = 0.045) and quadratic (? = 0.30, p = 0.046) effect of age on allocentric navigation. There was no effect of age on egocentric navigation. These results demonstrate that navigation deficits in older age may be limited to allocentric navigation, whereas egocentric navigation and learning may remain preserved. This specific pattern of spatial navigation impairment may help differentiate normal aging from prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24391585
Gazova, Ivana; Laczó, Jan; Rubinova, Eva; Mokrisova, Ivana; Hyncicova, Eva; Andel, Ross; Vyhnalek, Martin; Sheardova, Katerina; Coulson, Elizabeth J.; Hort, Jakub
This work evaluated activity levels in a group of healthy older adults to establish a target activity level for adults of similar age after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). With the decreasing age of TJA patients, it is essential to have a reference for activity level in younger patients as activity level affects quality of life and implant design. 54 asymptomatic, healthy older adults with no clinical evidence of lower extremity OA participated. The main outcome measure, average daily step count, was measured using an accelerometer-based activity monitor. On average the group took 8813 ± 3611 steps per day, approximately 4000 more steps per day than has been previously reported in patients following total joint arthroplasty. The present work provides a reference for activity after joint arthroplasty which is relevant given the projected number of people under the age of 65 who will undergo joint arthroplasty in the coming years. PMID:23577274
Thorp, Laura E.; Orozco, Diego; Block, Joel A.; Sumner, Dale R.; Wimmer, Markus A.
This article briefly reviews some basic issues of adult development and measures used in assessing quality of life as a background for reviewing music studies with healthy older adults. Research shows that music activities (both music listening and music making) can influence older adults’ perceptions about the quality of their lives. Some research has examined the effects of music listening
Don D. Coffman
Whereas older adults typically show declines in various cognitive processes, they also typically demonstrate greater interest in social relationships. Part of this increased focus on interpersonal relations may extend to morality, which by its very nature is concerned with social contracts, obligations, and the give-and-take among people. The authors tested whether in comparison to younger adults, older adults show increased
Darcia Narvaez; Gabriel A. Radvansky; Nicholas A. Lynchard; David E. Copeland
Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the world population. Older adults are also at heightened risk of chronic conditions (such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer) and specific geriatric conditions (such as cognitive impairment, frailty, and falls). Research studies have examined the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and subsequent health outcomes and the correlates of fruit and vegetable intake in the U.S. population. However, relatively few studies have specifically examined health impacts and correlates of fruit and vegetable intake among older adults, who have unique biophysical and socioeconomic circumstances. Evidence is reviewed to (1) describe findings related to consumption and chronic, geriatric, and other health outcomes among older adults and (2) describe patterns in fruit and vegetable consumption among older adults and how these patterns vary within and among populations. This review addresses specific barriers faced by older adults in obtaining and consuming fruits and vegetables in community settings. Recommendations for practice and policy are discussed. PMID:23769545
Kadell, Andria R.
This qualitative study examines the judgment standard preferences of older adults related to surrogate decision-making for medical treatment. Thirty community dwelling adults over the age of 60 were presented with scenarios that depicted three decision-making standards, two of which are the predominant legal standards (substituted judgment and best interests), and a proposed third standard that allows the surrogate to consider the interests of the family in the decision-making process (best judgment). Half of the sample preferred substituted judgment, five preferred best interests, and ten chose best judgment. Selected cases are presented that demonstrate the themes associated with each judgment standard preference. PMID:12959484
Moore, Crystal Dea; Sparr, Jennifer; Sherman, Susan; Avery, Lisa
Recent work suggests that older adults’ decision-making behavior is highly affected by recent events. In the present work younger and older adults performed a two-choice task where one option provided a larger average reward, but there was a large amount of noise around the mean reward for each option which led to sharp improvements or declines in rewards over trials. Older adults showed greater responsiveness to recent events than younger adults as evidenced by fits of Reinforcement Learning (RL) models. Older adults were particularly sensitive to recent negative events, which was evidenced by a strong tendency for older adults to switch to the other option following steep declines in reward. This tendency led to superior performance for older adults in one condition where heightened sensitivity to recent negative events was advantageous. These results extend prior work that has found an older adult bias toward negative feedback, and suggest that older adults engage in more abrupt switching in response to negative outcomes than younger adults. PMID:25580469
Worthy, Darrell A.; Otto, A. Ross; Doll, Bradley B.; Byrne, Kaileigh A.; Maddox, W. Todd
Understanding older adults' social functioning difficulties requires insight into their recognition of emotion processing in voices and bodies, not just faces, the focus of most prior research. We examined 60 young and 61 older adults' recognition of basic emotions in facial, vocal, and bodily expressions, and when matching faces and bodies to voices, using 120 emotion items. Older adults were worse than young adults in 17 of 30 comparisons, with consistent difficulties in recognizing both positive (happy) and negative (angry and sad) vocal and bodily expressions. Nearly three quarters of older adults functioned at a level similar to the lowest one fourth of young adults, suggesting that age-related changes are common. In addition, we found that older adults' difficulty in matching emotions was not explained by difficulty on the component sources (i.e., faces or voices on their own), suggesting an additional problem of integration. PMID:19805486
Ruffman, Ted; Halberstadt, Jamin; Murray, Janice
With the recent updates to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition; DSM-5), there are many questions on how to care for older adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and other psychiatric conditions. The current article reviews the new changes to the DSM-5 for diagnosis of GAD, discusses new anxiety assessment scales that are validated in older adults, evaluates pharmacological agents that have been studied in older adults for GAD treatment, and provides monitoring recommendations to help those who provide care to older adults experiencing GAD. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 41(4), 10-20.]. PMID:25848826
Clifford, Kalin M; Duncan, Nakia A; Heinrich, Krista; Shaw, Jennifer
Although working memory spans are, on average, lower for older adults than young adults, we demonstrate in 5 experiments a way in which older adults paradoxically resemble higher capacity young adults. Specifically, in a selective-listening task, older adults almost always failed to notice their names presented in an unattended channel. This is an exaggeration of what high-span young adults show and the opposite of what low-span young adults show. This striking finding in older adults remained significant after controlling for working memory span and for noticing their names in an attended channel. The findings were replicated when presentation rate was slowed and when the ear in which the unattended name was presented was controlled. These results point to an account of older adults' performance involving not only an inhibition factor, which allows high-span young adults to suppress the channel to be ignored, but also an attentional capacity factor, with more unallocated capacity. This capacity allows low-span young adults to notice their names much more often than older adults with comparably low working memory spans do. PMID:24820668
Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Kilb, Angela; Maddox, Geoffrey B; Thomas, Jenna; Fine, Hope C; Chen, Tina; Cowan, Nelson
The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether inconsistency in reaction time (RT) is predictive of older adults' ability to solve everyday problems. A sample of 304 community dwelling non-demented older adults, ranging in age from 62 to 92, completed a measure of everyday problem solving, the Everyday Problems Test (EPT). Inconsistency in latencies across trials was assessed
Catherine L. Burton; Esther Strauss; David F. Hultsch; Michael A. Hunter
This article presents a framework for the integration of community services for older adults. A model for multidisciplinary practice is introduced to teach students and professionals how independent practitioners can integrate their community practices. Practitioners from disciplines such as medicine, nursing, social work, psychiatry, psychology, finance, law, and religion can develop collaborative community practices to more effectively serve older adults.
Terry Tirrito; Ilene Nathanson; Nieli Langer
In list-method directed forgetting, participants are cued to intentionally forget a previously studied list while remembering a subsequently presented 2nd list. Results from prior research are inconclusive on whether older adults show deficits in this type of task. In 3 experiments, the authors reexamined the issue and compared younger and older adults' responsiveness to the forget cue. Across the experiments,
Martina Zellner; Karl-Heinz Bäuml
The number of older adults is increasing, yet little is known about their responses to treatment for substance dependence. While age-appropriate measures have been developed for depression and alcohol screening among older adults, severity and outcome measurement for this population has not been addressed. The purpose of the present study was (1) to add to the limited but growing literature
Valerie J. Slaymaker; Patricia Owen
This paper presents a comprehensive literature review to investigate whether and why older adults accept handheld computers, and how to design elderly-friendly handheld computers. Findings about acceptance, input devices, menu and functions, and output devices are summarized. First, older adults were under social pressure to use mobile phones, but they had low acceptance of advanced functions. Also, they had a
Jia Zhou; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau
This demonstration presents a storytelling application specif- ically designed for older adults to share stories and thoughts. Studies claim that older adults commonly have diculties in engaging with on- line social networks (1), but increased social inclusion and sense of well- being has been observed in those who engage (2). While following a user-centered design approach, we have developed an
Tiago Boldt Sousa; Pedro Tenreiro; Paula Alexandra Silva; Eduarda Mendes Rodrigues
Little empirical evidence is available on older adults regarding the existence of a continuum between “normal” personality traits and DSM-IV-TR Axes I and II disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Given the typical complexity of clinical presentations in advanced age, it is feasible to expect a dimensional conceptualization of psychopathology to apply to older adults. In this pilot investigation, we first tested age differences in psychopathology, upholding the view that older adults should be considered separately from younger individuals in research on psychopathology. Then, in support of the dimensional approach, we tested the hypothesized continuity between normality and psychopathology by verifying the fulfillment of two operational criteria of continuity. A non-clinical sample of 100 Italian respondents was divided into two groups (50 people per group, 25 women and 25 men), aged 25–64 and 65–84, respectively. The instruments used were a measure of normal personality, SFERAS (Boncori & Barruffi, 2004) and one of Axes I and II psychopathology, TALEIA-400A (Boncori, 2007). MANOVA analyses demonstrated a significant effect on both measures, with older adults achieving higher Axis I scores and higher scores on normal personality traits connected to anxiety. The continuum hypothesis was confirmed on older and younger adults through correlational analyses that verified the fulfillment of both continuity criteria. Our results show that Italian older adults differ significantly in psychopathology from younger individuals; however, contrary to findings from other countries, in a negative direction. The continuity results (although in need of replication with larger samples, utilizing statistical methods better suited for these analyses, such as taxometric procedures) offer preliminary support for the notion that the dimensional approach to psychopathology could work well in older age. PMID:25419037
Lagana, Luciana; Tramutolo, C.; Boncori, L.; Cruciani, A.C.
Informatics tools can help support the health and independence of older adults. In this paper, we present an approach towards integrating health-monitoring data and describe several techniques for the assessment and visualisation of integrated health and well-being of older adults. We present three different visualisation techniques to provide distinct alternatives towards display of the same information, focusing on reducing the cognitive load of data interpretation. We demonstrate the feasibility of integrating health-monitoring information into a comprehensive measure of wellness, while also highlighting the challenges of designing visual displays targeted at multiple user groups. These visual displays of wellness can be incorporated into personal health records and can be an effective support for informed decision-making. PMID:23079025
Wilamowska, Katarzyna; Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire
The purpose of this article is to present a program of learning for older adults in a national park. Because of the growing trend of tourism among retirees this learning during leisure is gaining prominence. The paper brings together the concepts of aging, self-directed learning, and tourism and leisure. In addition this paper presents a…
Roberson, Donald N., Jr.
There are a rising number of older adults; in the US alone nearly 20% of the population will be 65 or older by 2030. Chiropractic is one of the most frequently utilized types of complementary and alternative care by older adults, used by an estimated 5% of older adults in the U.S. annually. Chiropractic care involves many different types of interventions, including preventive strategies. This commentary by experts in the field of geriatrics, discusses the evidence for the use of spinal manipulative therapy, acupuncture, nutritional counseling and fall prevention strategies as delivered by doctors of chiropractic. Given the utilization of chiropractic services by the older adult, it is imperative that providers be familiar with the evidence for and the prudent use of different management strategies for older adults. PMID:22348431
The present article investigates gait stability of healthy older persons during weight transfer. Ten healthy older persons and ten younger persons walked 10 min each on a treadmill at 3 different gait speeds. The intra-stride change in gait stability was defined by the local divergence exponent ?(t) estimated by a newly developed method. The intra-stride changes in ?(t) during weight transfer were identified by separating each stride into a single and double support phase. The intra-stride changes in ?(t) were also compared to changes in the variation of the gait kinematics, i.e., SD(t). The healthy older persons walked at the same preferred walking speed as the younger persons. However, they exhibited significantly larger ?(t) (p<0.001) during weight transfer in the double support phase. Local divergence was closely related to intra-stride changes in SD(t) of the feet in the anterior-posterior direction. Furthermore, a high correlation was found between local divergence and the variation in step length and step width for both older (R>0.67, p<0.05) and younger persons (R>0.67, p<0.05). The present results indicate that the gait kinematics of older adults are more dynamical unstable during the weight transfer compared to younger persons. Furthermore, a close relationship exists between intra-stride changes in dynamical stability and variation in step length and step width. Further work will validate the results of the present study using real-life perturbations of the gait kinematics of both younger and older adults. PMID:22541943
Ihlen, Espen A F; Sletvold, Olav; Goihl, Tobias; Wik, Per B; Vereijken, Beatrix; Helbostad, Jorunn
The way a story is retold influences the way it is later remembered; after retelling an event in a biased manner people subsequently remember the event in line with their distorted retelling. This study tested the hypothesis that this should be especially true for older adults. To test this, older and younger adults retold a story to be entertaining, to be accurate, or did not complete an initial retelling. Later, all participants recalled the story as accurately as possible. On this final test younger adults were unaffected by how they had previously retold the story. In contrast, older adults had better memory for the story's content and structure if they had previously retold the story accurately. Furthermore, for older adults, greater usage of storytelling language during the retelling was associated with lower subsequent recall. In summary, retellings exerted a greater effect on memory in older, compared with younger, adults. PMID:25436107
Barber, Sarah J; Mather, Mara
The way a story is retold influences the way it is later remembered; after retelling an event in a biased manner people subsequently remember the event in line with their distorted retelling. This study tested the hypothesis that this should be especially true for older adults. To test this, older and younger adults retold a story to be entertaining, to be accurate, or did not complete an initial retelling. Later, all participants recalled the story as accurately as possible. On this final test younger adults were unaffected by how they had previously retold the story. In contrast, older adults had better memory for the story’s content and structure if they had previously retold the story accurately. Furthermore, for older adults, greater usage of storytelling language during the retelling was associated with lower subsequent recall. In summary, retellings exerted a greater effect on memory in older, compared with younger, adults. PMID:25436107
This article presents the findings of a study that aimed to describe what constitutes therapeutic environments and interpret what it means to be in such environments for older adults. Interview and observational data collected in Swedish health care contexts were subjected to qualitative content analysis. The findings describe therapeutic environments as being constituted by three interacting and interwoven categories: the physical environment, people's doing and being in the environment, and an organizational philosophy of care. The findings are interpreted in light of the existential philosophy of home as a concept, a place, and an existential experience, highlighting that therapeutic environments can support existential at-homeness among patients. The findings of this study can contribute to nursing practice by providing a conceptual basis for reflecting on and evaluating how the physical environment, staff's doing and being, and the organizational philosophy of care cooperate to support well-being among older adults living in long-term care facilities. PMID:18561561
The purpose of this literature review is to examine existing models of psychosocial development of older adults especially framed around human mortality as a point of discussion that informs all aspects of human development in older adulthood. Well known, in addition to burgeoning, human psychosocial development models that considered older…
Moon, Paul J.
This report, ?Data Sources Available for Modeling Environmental Exposures in Older Adults,? focuses on information sources and data available for modeling environmental exposures in the older U.S. population, defined here to be people 60 years and older, with an emphasis on those...
OLDER ADULTS' USE OF COMPUTERS: A SURVEY Joy Goodman Department of Computing Science University older people, survey, computer use, interaction design 1. INTRODUCTION The number of older people of Glasgow GLASGOW G12 8QQ UK firstname.lastname@example.org Audrey Syme Division of Applied Computing University
Assessing cognitive change during a single visit requires the comparison of estimated premorbid abilities and current neuropsychological functioning. Although premorbid intellect has been widely examined, estimating premorbid memory abilities has received less attention. The current study used demographic variables and an estimate of premorbid intellect to predict premorbid memory abilities in a sample of 95 community-dwelling, cognitively intact older adults. These prediction formulae were then applied to a sample of 74 individuals with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment to look for discrepancies between premorbid and current memory abilities. Despite minimal differences between premorbid and current memory abilities in the intact sample, large and statistically significant differences were observed in the impaired sample. Although validation in larger samples is needed, the current estimates of premorbid memory abilities may aid clinicians in determining change across time. PMID:21154041
Clinical practice guidelines provide guidance in decision making relating to diagnosis, management, and treatment in specific areas of health care. They play an essential role in the evaluation and synthesis of an ever-expanding evidence base and are of increasing importance in aging societies with a high prevalence of overlapping disease comorbid conditions. Integration of chronic disease guidance is essential, particularly in older people, in order to understand critical disease interactions and the potential adverse effects that individual guideline statements may engender in different disease areas. This requires a need for flexibility that not only recognizes the differences in patients' characteristics, but also their preferences for medical interventions and health outcomes. The question is how this can be achieved. In this article, we look at the standardization of clinical practice guidelines from the chronic kidney disease standpoint and consider how tools for integrating guidelines, such as the ADAPTE process and the knowledge-to-action cycle, can be used to guide appropriate decision making and take account of patient choice in older adults with multimorbidity. PMID:25483849
Stevens, Paul E; Lamb, Edmund J; Levin, Adeera
Traditional biomechanical systems used to capture kinematic data have shown that declines in postural stability are frequently present in older adults and neurological populations. Recent advances in processor speed and measuring capabilities of on-board electronics within mobile devices present an opportunity to gather kinematic data and apply biomechanical analyses to potentially quantify postural stability. The aim of this project was to determine if the kinematic data gathered using a mobile device were of sufficient quantity and quality to characterize postural stability in older adults. Twelve healthy older adults completed six different balance conditions under altered surface, stance and vision. Simultaneous kinematic measurements were gathered from a three-dimensional motion analysis system and iPad during balance conditions. Correlation between the two systems was significant across balance conditions and outcome measures: peak-to-peak (r = 0.70-0.99), normalized path length (r = 0.64-0.98), root mean square (r = 0.73-0.99) of linear acceleration, 95 % volume (r = 0.96-0.99) of linear and angular acceleration and total power across different frequencies (r = 0.79-0.92). The mean absolute percentage error metric, used to evaluate time-series measurements point-by-point, indicated that when measuring linear and angular acceleration, the iPad tracked the motion analysis system with average error between 6 and 10 % of motion analysis measurements across all balance conditions. Collectively, similar accuracy with the iPad compared to motion capture suggests the sensors provide sufficient accuracy and quality for the quantification of postural stability in older adults. The objectivity, portability, and ease of use of this device make it ideal for use in clinical environments, which often lack biomechanical systems. PMID:25150554
Ozinga, Sarah J; Alberts, Jay L
Older adults with schizophrenia need physical activity interventions to improve their physical health. The purpose of this report is to describe the preliminary acceptability of a videogame-based physical activity program using the Kinect™ for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) in older adults with schizophrenia. PMID:24761318
Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin M; Vinogradov, Sophia; Dowling, Glenna A
Older adults make up the fastest growing age group in North America. This has demanded increased attention in supporting the health and well-being of this population and, in particular, the role of health information in promoting the health and well-being of older adults. Increased availability and accessibility of information as well as a greater…
Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon
Objective: Until recently, studies of balance abilities were conducted on nursing home residents or volunteers in a clinical laboratory setting. Little is known about balance abilities of older adults living independently in large urban cities or who represent different ethnic backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to describe balance abilities in these individuals.Subjects: Older adults (n = 251) ranging
Roberta A. Newton
background Streptococcus pneumoniae is the chief cause of pneumonia in older adults, but it remains unclear whether use of the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine alters the overall risk of community-acquired pneumonia. In a large population of older adults, we assessed the effectiveness of the pneumococcal vaccine. methods In this retrospective cohort study, 47,365 Group Health Cooperative members 65 years of age
Lisa A. Jackson; Kathleen M. Neuzil; Onchee Yu; Patti Benson; William E. Barlow; Annette L. Adams; Christi A. Hanson; Lisa D. Mahoney; David K. Shay; William W. Thompson
This study assesses the functional fitness of a convenient sample of older adults (greater than 70 years), to examine correlations between functional fitness and several other health-related variables and to compare with criterion performance data as established by Rikli and Jones (2001). One hundred and seven community-dwelling older adults with…
Wilkin, Linda D.; Haddock, Bryan L.
it as the standard when testing their validity. The third section of this study used primary data to examine health literacy, patient activation and health status in older adults. The study participants were older adults (n=533) recruited from senior centers, aging...
Fulton, Daphne Saxon
glucose tolerance test ( 200 mg/dl) participated in the study. Main Outcome Measures: Whole-body, lumbarThiazolidinedione Use and Bone Loss in Older Diabetic Adults Ann V. Schwartz, Deborah E. Sellmeyer (BMD) in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Design: We analyzed 4-yr follow-up data from the Health
Abraham, Nader G.
In this comprehensively updated second edition, written by Alicia Ann Clair and Jenny Memmott the extraordinary benefits of music therapy for older adults are detailed. "Therapeutic Uses of Music with Older Adults" not only examines these benefits but also clarifies the reasons that music is beneficial. This important book shows both informal and…
Clair, Alicia Ann; Memmott, Jenny
With a declining pool of youth to draw from, community colleges need to be concerned about what can be done to serve the needs of a burgeoning older adult population. Recent research on the educational needs of older adults reveals that they are interested in: (1) information on such personal business and financial topics as social security…
Craig, Ford M.
A predominate motivation theory used to predict exercise behavior is self-determination theory, which posits that motivation is driven by satisfaction of three basic psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. This study investigates the relationship between motivation, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and exercise in a sample of older adults. Significant differences were found between older adult exercisers and nonexercisers in intrinsic
Rena A. Kirkland; Nancy J. Karlin; Megan Babkes Stellino; Steven Pulos
THIS STUDY IS CONCERNED WITH THE DEGREE TO WHICH OLDER AND YOUNGER ADULTS ARE SUBJECT TO THE INTERFERING EFFECTS OF PAST HABITS. TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH HYPOTHESES BASED ON ASSUMPTIONS OF CONTEMPORARY INTERFERENCE THEORY HOLD FOR THE OLDER ADULT POPULATION, THESE HYPOTHESES WERE TESTED IN A NEGATIVE TRANSFER TASK, WHERE INCOMPATIBLE…
MCCRYSTAL, THOMAS J.
Purpose of the Study: Optimal mobility is an important element of healthy aging. Yet, older adults' perceptions of mobility and mobility preservation are not well understood. The purposes of our study were to (a) identify studies that report older adults' perceptions of mobility, (b) conduct a standardized methodological quality assessment, and (c) conduct a metasynthesis of the identified studies. PMID:24637252
Goins, R Turner; Jones, Jacqueline; Schure, Marc; Rosenberg, Dori E; Phelan, Elizabeth A; Dodson, Sherry; Jones, Dina L
Depression is a serious problem among older adults and there is limited research on the most effective way to implement and evaluate the effects of expressive touch, either alone or in combination with verbalization, on levels of depression. A convenience sample of 24 institutionalized depressed older adult subjects (15 females and 9 males), ages 67 to 91 years was used
MaryBeth Tank Buschmann; Linda M. Hollinger-Smith; Sharon E. Peterson-Kokkas
This article describes a cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) intervention for suicide prevention in older adults. Although many studies have found that CBT interventions are efficacious for reducing depressive symptoms in the elderly, researchers have yet to evaluate the efficacy of such interventions for preventing suicide or reducing suicide risk in older adults. In this article we describe a 12-session CBT
Sunil S. Bhar; Gregory K. Brown
Background: No rapid methods exist for screening overall dietary intakes of older adults. Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a scoring system for a diet screening tool to identify nutritional risk among community-dwelling older adults. Design: This cross-sectional st...
The importance of emotional wellness for rural older adults is a topic of growing significance. Older adults, now the fastest growing United States population sector, have special wellness needs. By the year 2030, about 70 million people will be over the age of 65. A low or declining sense of control over one's life increases depression. Emotional…
In North America, 40-50 per cent of older adults are actively involved as formal volunteers in providing diverse health and human services. We review empirical studies concerning older adults' motivations for volunteering, as well as the health and morale benefits they derive from this expression of altruism. Knowledge of the exact nature and…
Gottlieb, Benjamin H.; Gillespie, Alayna A.
and financial fraud. According to Federal Trade Commission over 20% of the victims of financial fraud are older email@example.com ABSTRACT Older adults are more susceptible to fraud than younger adults offline- ties, including managing their financial assets. Therefore, there is a need to develop risk
The purpose of this article is to describe a project that aims to foster active aging through entrepreneurial activities among older adults. The project establishes the feasibility of implementing an intervention program that assimilates the concept and capabilities of entrepreneurship among older adults and supports them while launching new…
Hantman, Shira; Gimmon, Eli
Emerging research suggests that older adults who experience age-related declines in regulatory abilities may have more difficulty inhibiting their expression of negative bias to stigmatized individuals as compared with young adults. However, it remains largely unexplored why this might be. For instance, older adults may hold stigmatized individuals more accountable for their conditions as compared with young adults, which could subsequently increase their expression of negative bias. The current study investigated this question by testing 90 older adults and 44 young adults. Researchers found that older adults with relatively impaired executive function placed a greater emphasis on controllability when evaluating stigmatized individuals and rated the stigmatized conditions overall as being more changeable. PMID:23042645
This study examined stereotype traits of older adults elicited from 40 young (M age = 19.6), 40 middle-aged (M = 36.8), and 40 older Chinese adults (M = 64.7). Trait lists were compared across age groups and to traits reported by U.S. and Chinese...
Zhang, Yan Bing; Hummert, Mary Lee; Garstka, Teri A.
In the past decade, bariatric surgery has garnered attention as a treatment for obesity in older adults. Its increased popularity is a direct response to growing obesity rates in this segment of the population. Bariatric surgery among older adults has emerged as a contentious issue debated by federal and state governments, health care providers, and patients. It is important for geriatric nurses to comprehend the policy and health implications of bariatric surgery for older adults. The purpose of this paper is to (a) discuss the burden of growing obesity rates on the health of older adults, (b) present the results of a literature review of bariatric surgery outcomes in older adults, and (c) evaluate the policy implications of insurance coverage of bariatric procedures. PMID:25105356
Caceres, Billy A
The purpose of this paper is to develop a basis for the hypothesis that digital action games may produce cognitive benefits for older adults. First, a discussion of the relationship between cognitive and physical health shows the increasing weight given to the role of declines in cognition in the development of dependency in older adult population studies. Second, evidence that cognitive training produces 'far transfer' in elders is presented. The key issue is that one approach, known as extended practice training, has been successful in producing far transfer to memory and other processes. Its principles, which are consistent with those associated with positive brain plasticity effects, are identified. Those principles are then related to the mechanics of digital action games, which also have the important added feature of producing the experiences of presence, engagement, and flow, the subjective elements of game play that are likely to sustain interest and emotional investment in the skills practiced so that the play produces cognitive benefits. The specific cognitive abilities proposed to be improved by different types of game genres are outlined, and recent developments in game and interface design that may affect the willingness of older adults to play are described. PMID:25126043
Zelinski, Elizabeth M; Reyes, Ricardo
The purpose of this paper is to develop a basis for the hypothesis that digital action games may produce cognitive benefits for older adults. First, a discussion of the relationship between cognitive and physical health shows the increasing weight given to the role of declines in cognition in the development of dependency in older adult population studies. Second, evidence that cognitive training produces ‘far transfer’ in elders is presented. The key issue is that one approach, known as extended practice training, has been successful in producing far transfer to memory and other processes. Its principles, which are consistent with those associated with positive brain plasticity effects, are identified. Those principles are then related to the mechanics of digital action games, which also have the important added feature of producing the experiences of presence, engagement, and flow, the subjective elements of game play that are likely to sustain interest and emotional investment in the skills practiced so that the play produces cognitive benefits. The specific cognitive abilities proposed to be improved by different types of game genres are outlined, and recent developments in game and interface design that may affect the willingness of older adults to play are described. PMID:25126043
Zelinski, Elizabeth M.; Reyes, Ricardo
This study aimed to clarify the concept of productive engagement as it applies to older adults. The concept analysis was based on Walker and Avant's eight-step method. A literature review of articles published in English between 1990 and 2011 (n?=?37) was conducted, using an electronic search of multiple sources. Results revealed that four defining attributes for productive engagement include continuing to work either paid or unpaid, caring for others, engaging in social activities, and growing spirituality. The antecedents of productive engagement are sociocultural factors as well as individual and institutional capacities. Meanwhile, the consequences are increased feelings of usefulness, improved health and well-being, aged successfully, and enhanced quality of life. Model, borderline, and contrary cases are presented to illustrate the concept's defining attributes. Defining the concept of productive engagement provides a basis for nurses and other health professionals to better understand productive engagement in older adults, thus effective strategic plans or programs for promoting productive roles among older adults can be further developed. PMID:23320736
Thanakwang, Kattika; Isaramalai, Sang-Arun
Background The objectives of this study were to investigate older adults’ knowledge of prescription drug safety and interactions with alcohol, and to identify pharmacists’ willingness to disseminate prescription drug safety information to older adults. Methods The convenience sample consisted of 48 older adults aged 54–89 years who were recruited from a local pharmacy and who completed surveys addressing their alcohol consumption, understanding of alcohol and prescription drug interactions, and willingness to change habits regarding alcohol consumption and prescription drugs. To address pharmacist willingness, 90 pharmacists from local pharmacies volunteered and answered questions regarding their willingness to convey prescription drug safety information to older adults. Results Older adults reported low knowledge of alcohol and prescription drug safety, with women tending to be slightly more knowledgeable. More importantly, those who drank in the previous few months were less willing to talk to family and friends about how alcohol can have harmful interactions with prescription drugs, or to be an advocate for safe alcohol and prescription drug use than those who had not had a drink recently. Pharmacists reported that they were willing to convey prescription drug safety information to older adults via a variety of formats, including displaying or distributing a flyer, and directly administering a brief intervention. Conclusion In this study, older adults were found to have inadequate knowledge of prescription drug safety and interactions with alcohol, but pharmacists who regularly come in contact with older adults indicated that they were ready and willing to talk to older adults about prescription drug safety. Future research should focus on interventions whereby pharmacists disseminate prescription drug safety information to older adults in order to improve healthy prescription drug and alcohol behavior and reduce medical and health costs associated with interactions between alcohol and prescription drugs. PMID:23467625
Zanjani, Faika; Hoogland, Aasha I; Downer, Brian G
The number of older adults living with HIV/AIDS is larger than ever. Little is known about their sexual behaviors, although contrary to stereotypes, older adults desire and engage in sexual activity. Despite increased recognition of the need for prevention interventions targeting HIV-positive individuals, no secondary HIV prevention interventions…
Illa, Lourdes; Echenique, Marisa; Saint Jean, Gilbert; Bustamante-Avellaneda, Victoria; Metsch, Lisa; Mendez-Mulet, Luis; Eisdorfer, Carl; Sanchez-Martinez, Mario
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) remains the leading cause of death, especially in older adults. Managing modifiable risk factors (e.g., hyperlipidemia, hypertension) remains the primary approach to prevent ASCVD events and ASCVD-related mortality. Statins are generally considered one of the most effective approaches to reduce ASCVD risk, especially for secondary prevention, yet remain underutilized in older adults. The evidence to support statin therapy in older adults is less robust than in their younger counterparts, especially in individuals aged 75 years and older. Recent lipid guidelines have raised this concern, yet statin therapy is recommended in 'at risk' older adults. Determining which older adults should receive statin therapy for primary prevention of ASCVD is challenging, as the currently available risk estimation tools are of limited use in those aged over 75 years. Furthermore, non-statin therapies have been de-emphasized in recent clinical practice guidelines and remain understudied in the older adult population. This is unfortunate given that older adults are less likely to tolerate moderate- to high-intensity statins. Non-statin therapies could be viable options in this population if more was understood about their ability to lower ASCVD risk and safety profiles. Nevertheless, lipid-lowering agents remain an integral component of the overall strategy to reduce atherogenic burden in older adults. Future research in this area should aim to enroll more older adults in clinical trials, determine the utility of ASCVD risk estimation for primary prevention, and investigate the role of non-statin therapies in this population. PMID:25637391
Dixon, Dave L; Donohoe, Krista L; Ogbonna, Kelechi C; Barden, Sarah M
The thermic effect of food accounts for ~10% of daily energy expenditure. A reduction in the thermic effect of food, which has been variably observed in the older adults, could predispose to fat gain. We tested whether the thermic effect of food is reduced in older adults compared with young adults by analyzing our database of standardized studies conducted at the Mayo Clinic between 1999 and 2009. Data were available from 136 older adult volunteers aged 60-88 (56 females) and 141 young adults aged 18-35 years (67 females). Basal energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry to assess basal metabolic rate. Body fat, fat free mass, and visceral fat were measured using a combination of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and an abdominal CT scan. The thermic effect of food and postprandial insulinemia were measured in 123 older adults (52 females) and 86 young adults (38 females) of these volunteers. Basal metabolic rate adjusted for fat-free mass was less in older adults (p=0.01) and the thermic effect of food was ~1% (p=0.02) less in the older adults. After controlling for meal size and fat-free mass, body fat and fat distribution did not predict the thermic effect of food. Both basal metabolic rate and the thermic effect of food are less in older adults than young adults, even when they have similar amounts of lean tissue and consume a similar size meal. These factors contribute to lower daily energy expenditure in the older adults. PMID:24155251
Du, S; Rajjo, T; Santosa, S; Jensen, M D
The older patient often presents with clinically challenging dental problems combined with complex medical, social, psychological, and financial barriers to oral health. Through careful consideration, the clinician can design a thoughtfully sequenced treatment plan that addresses dental conditions and facilitates improved oral health. Several models serve to guide the clinician with this endeavor. Treatment planning for a medically complex patient with xerostomia and dementia involves a great deal of uncertainty, which may be attenuated by flexibility and good communication with the patient and all involved parties. PMID:25201539
Oong, Ella M; An, Gregory K
Background The ability to drive is important for ensuring quality of life for many older adults. Glaucoma is prevalent in this age group and may affect driving. The purpose of this study is to determine if glaucoma and glaucomatous visual field (VF) loss are associated with driving cessation, limitations, and deference to another driver in older adults. Methods Cross-sectional study. Eighty-one glaucoma subjects and 58 glaucoma suspect controls between age 60 and 80 reported if they had ceased driving, limited their driving in various ways, or preferred another to drive. Results Twenty-three percent of glaucoma subjects and 6.9% of suspects had ceased driving (p?=?0.01). Glaucoma subjects also had more driving limitations than suspects (2.0 vs. 1.1, p?=?0.007). In multivariable models, driving cessation was more likely for glaucoma subjects as compared to suspects (OR?=?4.0; 95% CI?=?1.1-14.7; p?=?0.03). The odds of driving cessation doubled with each 5 decibel (dB) decrement in the better-eye VF mean deviation (MD) (OR?=?2.0; 95% CI?=?1.4-2.9; p?0.001). Glaucoma subjects were also more likely than suspects to report a greater number of driving limitations (OR?=?4.7; 95% CI?=?1.3-16.8; p?=?0.02). The likelihood of reporting more limitations increased with the VF loss severity (OR?=?1.6 per 5 dB decrement in the better-eye VF MD; 95% CI?=?1.1-2.4; p?=?0.02). Neither glaucoma nor VF MD was associated with other driver preference (p?>?0.1 for both). Conclusions Glaucoma and glaucomatous VF loss are associated with greater likelihood of driving cessation and greater limitation of driving in the elderly. Further prospective study is merited to assess when and why people with glaucoma change their driving habits, and to determine if their observed self-regulation of driving is adequate to ensure safety. PMID:23432845
Empirical research focusing on personality disorders (PDs) among older adults is mainly limited to studies on psychometric properties of age-specific personality tests, the age neutrality of specific items/scales, and validation of personality inventories for older adults. We identified only two treatment studies-one on dialectical behavior therapy and one on schema therapy-both with promising results among older patients despite small and heterogeneous populations. More rigorous studies incorporating age-specific adaptations are needed. Furthermore, in contrast to increasing numbers of psychometric studies, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-5 pays little attention to the characteristics of older adults with PDs. Moreover, the constructs "personality change due to another medical condition" and "late-onset personality disorder" warrant further research among older adults. These needs will become even more pressing given the aging society worldwide. PMID:25421011
van Alphen, S P J; van Dijk, S D M; Videler, A C; Rossi, G; Dierckx, E; Bouckaert, F; Voshaar, R C Oude
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified consistent age-related changes during various cognitive tasks, such that older individuals display more positive and less negative task-related activity than young adults. Recently, evidence shows that chronic physical exercise may alter aging-related changes in brain activity; however, the effect of exercise has not been studied for the neural substrates of language function. Additionally, the potential mechanisms by which aging alters neural recruitment remain understudied. To address these points, the present study enrolled elderly adults who were either sedentary or physically active to characterize the neural correlates of language function during semantic fluency between these groups in comparison to a young adult sample. Participants underwent fMRI during semantic fluency and transcranial magnetic stimulation to collect the ipsilateral silent period, a measure of interhemispheric inhibition. Results indicated that sedentary older adults displayed reductions in negative task-related activity compared to the active old group in areas of the attention network. Longer interhemispheric inhibition was associated with more negative task-related activity in the right and left posterior perisylvian cortex, suggesting that sedentary aging may result in losses in task facilitatory cortical inhibition. However, these losses may be mitigated by regular engagement in physical exercise. PMID:23458438
Zlatar, Zvinka Z.; Towler, Stephen; McGregor, Keith M.; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Bauer, Andrew; Phan, Stephanie; Cohen, Matthew; Marsiske, Michael; Manini, Todd M.; Crosson, Bruce
Older adults face decreasing motor capabilities due to pervasive neuromuscular degradations. As a consequence, errors in movement control increase. Thus, older individuals should maintain larger safety margins than younger adults. While this has been shown for object manipulation tasks, several reports on whole-body activities, such as posture and locomotion, demonstrate age-related reductions in safety margins. This is despite increased costs for control errors, such as a fall. We posit that this paradox could be explained by the dynamic challenge presented by the body or also an external object, and that age-related reductions in safety margins are in part due to a decreased ability to control dynamics. To test this conjecture we used a virtual ball-in-cup task that had challenging dynamics, yet afforded an explicit rendering of the physics and safety margin. The hypotheses were: (1) When manipulating an object with challenging dynamics, older adults have smaller safety margins than younger adults. (2) Older adults increase their safety margins with practice. Nine young and 10 healthy older adults practiced moving the virtual ball-in-cup to a target location in exactly 2 s. The accuracy and precision of the timing error quantified skill, and the ball energy relative to an escape threshold quantified the safety margin. Compared to the young adults, older adults had increased timing errors, greater variability, and decreased safety margins. With practice, both young and older adults improved their ability to control the object with decreased timing errors and variability, and increased their safety margins. These results suggest that safety margins are related to the ability to control dynamics, and may explain why in tasks with simple dynamics older adults use adequate safety margins, but in more complex tasks, safety margins may be inadequate. Further, the results indicate that task-specific training may improve safety margins in older adults. PMID:25071566
Hasson, Christopher J.; Sternad, Dagmar
Already crowded and stressful, US emergency departments are facing the challenge of serving an aging population that requires complex and lengthy evaluations. Creative solutions are necessary to improve the value and ensure the quality of emergency care delivered to older adults while more fully addressing their complex underlying physical, social, cognitive, and situational needs. Developing models of geriatric emergency care, including some that are already in use at dedicated geriatric emergency departments, incorporate a variety of physical, procedural, and staffing changes. Among the options for “geriatricizing” emergency care are approaches that may eliminate the need for an emergency department visit, such as telemedicine; for initial hospitalization, such as patient observation units; and for rehospitalization, such as comprehensive discharge planning. By transforming its current safety-net role to becoming a partner in care coordination, emergency departments have the opportunity to better integrate into the broader health care system, improve patient health outcomes, contribute to optimizing the health care system, and reduce overall costs of care—keys to improving emergency care for patients of all ages. PMID:24301394
Hwang, Ula; Shah, Manish N.; Han, Jin H.; Carpenter, Christopher R.; Siu, Albert L.; Adams, James G.
We examined if unitization inherent preexperimentally could reduce the associative deficit in older adults. In Experiment 1, younger and older adults studied compound word (CW; e.g., store keeper) and noncompound word (NCW; e.g., needle birth) pairs. We found a reduction in the age-related associative deficit such that older but not younger adults showed a discrimination advantage for CW relative to NCW pairs on a yes-no associative recognition test. These results suggest that CW compared to NCW word pairs provide schematic support that older adults can use to improve their memory. In Experiment 2, reducing study time in younger adults decreased associative recognition performance, but did not produce a discrimination advantage for CW pairs. In Experiment 3, both older and younger adults showed a discrimination advantage for CW pairs on a two-alternative forced-choice recognition test, which encourages greater use of familiarity. These results suggest that test format influenced young adults' use of familiarity during associative recognition of unitized pairs, and that older adults rely more on familiarity than recollection for associative recognition. Unitization of preexperimental associations, as in CW pairs, can alleviate age-related associative deficits. PMID:25396267
Ahmad, Fahad N; Fernandes, Myra; Hockley, William E
This article reports the findings from a recent study of older adults in the rural southwestern United States and discusses practice and research implications. The aim of the study was to analyze health disparities and strengths in the contexts of rurality, aging, a depressed economy, and limited health resources. Identified themes needing action included sustained access to prescriptions, transportation solutions for older adults in isolated communities, inadequate access to care, poor infrastructure and coordination of services, scarce assisted living and in-home care for frail older adults, and barriers related to culture, language, and economics. PMID:22929381
Averill, Jennifer B.
Objectives When we think of technology-savvy consumers, older adults are typically not the first persons that come to mind. The common misconception is that older adults do not want to use or cannot use technology. But for an increasing number of older adults, this is not true (Pew Internet and American Life Project, 2003). Older adults do use technologies similar to their younger counterparts, but perhaps at different usage rates. Previous research has identified that there may be subgroups of older adults, “Silver Surfers”, whose adoption patterns mimic younger adults (Pew Internet and American Life Project, 2003). Much of the previous research on age-related differences in technology usage has only investigated usage broadly -- from a “used” or “not used” standpoint. The present study investigated age-related differences in overall usage of technologies, as well as frequency of technology usage (i.e., never, occasional, or frequent). Methods The data were gathered through a questionnaire from younger adults (N=430) and older adults (N=251) in three geographically separate and ethnically diverse areas of the United States. Results We found that younger adults use a greater breadth of technologies than older adults. However, age-related differences in usage and the frequency of use depend on the technology domain. Conclusion This paper presents technology usage and frequency data to highlight age-related differences and similarities. The results provide insights into older and younger adults’ technology-use patterns, which in turn provide a basis for expectations about knowledge differences. Designers and trainers can benefit from understanding experience and knowledge differences. PMID:22685360
Olson, Katherine E.; O’Brien, Marita A.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Charness, Neil
OBJECTIVES Lay perceptions of “successful aging” are important for understanding this multifaceted construct and developing ways to assist older adults to age well. The purpose of this qualitative study was to obtain older adults’ individual perspectives on what constitutes successful aging, along with their views regarding activities and interventions to enhance its likelihood. METHODS Qualitative interviews were conducted with 22 community-dwelling adults over age 60. Participants were recruited from retirement communities, a low-income senior housing complex, and a continued learning center in San Diego County. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a “Coding Consensus, Co-occurrence, and Comparison” grounded theory framework. RESULTS The mean age of participants was 80 years (range: 64 to 96), with 59% being women. Two primary themes were identified as key to successful aging - i.e., self-acceptance/self-contentment (with sub-themes of realistic self-appraisal, a review of one’s life, and focusing on the present) and engagement with life/self-growth (with sub-themes of novel pursuits, giving to others, social interactions, and positive attitude). A balance between these two constructs appeared critical. A need for interventions that address support systems and personally tailored information to make informed decisions and enhance coping strategies were also emphasized. CONCLUSIONS Older adults viewed successful aging as a balance between self-acceptance and self-contentedness on one hand and engagement with life and self-growth in later life on the other. This perspective supports the concept of wisdom as a major contributor to successful aging. Interventions to enhance successful aging may include those that promote productive and social engagement along with effective coping strategies. PMID:20593536
Reichstadt, Jennifer; Sengupta, Geetika; Depp, Colin A.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Jeste, Dilip V.
Prediction of mortality has focused on disease and frailty, although antecedent biomarkers may herald broad physiological decline. Olfaction, an ancestral chemical system, is a strong candidate biomarker because it is linked to diverse physiological processes. We sought to determine if olfactory dysfunction is a harbinger of 5-year mortality in the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project [NSHAP], a nationally representative sample of older U.S. adults. 3,005 community-dwelling adults aged 57–85 were studied in 2005–6 (Wave 1) and their mortality determined in 2010–11 (Wave 2). Olfactory dysfunction, determined objectively at Wave 1, was used to estimate the odds of 5-year, all cause mortality via logistic regression, controlling for demographics and health factors. Mortality for anosmic older adults was four times that of normosmic individuals while hyposmic individuals had intermediate mortality (p<0.001), a “dose-dependent” effect present across the age range. In a comprehensive model that included potential confounding factors, anosmic older adults had over three times the odds of death compared to normosmic individuals (OR, 3.37 [95%CI 2.04, 5.57]), higher than and independent of known leading causes of death, and did not result from the following mechanisms: nutrition, cognitive function, mental health, smoking and alcohol abuse or frailty. Olfactory function is thus one of the strongest predictors of 5-year mortality and may serve as a bellwether for slowed cellular regeneration or as a marker of cumulative toxic environmental exposures. This finding provides clues for pinpointing an underlying mechanism related to a fundamental component of the aging process. PMID:25271633
Pinto, Jayant M.; Wroblewski, Kristen E.; Kern, David W.; Schumm, L. Philip; McClintock, Martha K.
Memory suppression refers to the ability to exclude distracting memories from conscious awareness, and this ability can be assessed with the think/no-think paradigm. Recent research with older adults has provided evidence suggesting both intact and deficient memory suppression. The present studies seek to understand the conditions contributing to older adults’ ability to suppress memories voluntarily. We report 2 experiments indicating that the specificity of the think/no-think task instructions contributes to older adults’ suppression success: When older adults receive open-ended instructions that require them to develop a retrieval suppression strategy on their own, they show diminished memory suppression compared with younger adults. Conversely, when older adults receive focused instructions directing them to a strategy thought to better isolate inhibitory control, they show suppression-induced forgetting similar to that exhibited by younger adults. Younger adults demonstrate memory suppression regardless of the specificity of the instructions given, suggesting that the ability to select a successful suppression strategy spontaneously may be compromised in older adults. If so, this deficit may be associated with diminished control over unwanted memories in naturalistic settings if impeded strategy development reduces the successful deployment of inhibitory control. PMID:25602491
Purpose: Listening in noisy situations is a challenging experience for many older adults. The authors hypothesized that older adults exert more listening effort compared with young adults. Listening effort involves the attention and cognitive resources required to understand speech. The purpose was (a) to quantify the amount of listening effort…
Gosselin, Penny Anderson; Gagne, Jean-Pierre
Depression is a common disease among young and older adults. Although it can be treated, non-adherence is very common among individuals of different ages. The aim of the present paper is to review and summarize research findings regarding depression among young and older adults, with a special focus on the phenomenon of treatment non-adherence among young and older adults with depression. The first section of the review focuses on describing the characteristics of depression in young and older adults. The second section focuses on treatment non-adherence of young and older adults, the prevalence of this phenomenon, and its consequences. The third section focuses on several factors (illness beliefs, treatment beliefs, self-stigma, and self-esteem) that were identified as having a significant association with treatment non-adherence of individuals with depression, with special attention focused on age differences. Results of the review of the literature reveal that research in the area of depression treatment non-adherence and its predictors among young and older adults has received, to date, very minor and limited attention. Thus, there is a need to expand the current body of knowledge and promote future interventions geared towards the unique characteristics of depression among young and older adults, in order to increase their treatment adherence. PMID:24307966
Stein-Shvachman, Ifat; Karpas, Dikla Segel; Werner, Perla
The purpose of this study was to survey adults age 60 and older to measure their levels of exercise self-efficacy, attitudes toward exercise and health, and perceived exercise control beliefs. Participants also defined other intrapersonal factors...
Murphey, Kristina Kile
Knowledge concerning the current utilization of mental health care by the nation's geriatric population is greatly lacking. Research conducted prior to and during the 1980s consistently found that older adults utilize mental health care...
Karlin, Bradley Eric
... Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Quick Guide to Health Literacy and Older Adults skip to content ODPHP Health Communication Healthy People 2010 Health Communication Focus Area Health Literacy Improvement Consumer and Patient e-Health Resources Health ...
An interdisciplinary team of faculty and students developed the Hydrate for Health project to provide relevant and evidence-based information to community-dwelling older adults. Evidence-based factsheets on bladder health, nighttime urination, medication safety, and physical activity/exercise, as well as a fluid intake self-monitoring tool, were developed. Four focus groups were conducted and included older adults (N = 21) who participated in activities at two local senior centers to obtain their feedback about the relevance of the factsheets. Extensive revisions were required based on the feedback received. Older adults expressed a desire for pragmatic information (i.e., how to determine fluid sources from food, how to measure water, how to determine their own fluid needs). They also wanted information that could be easily incorporated into daily life. Nurses play a central role in listening to and incorporating older adults' voices into consumer education materials. PMID:25275782
Palmer, Mary H; Marquez, Celine S; Kline, Katherine V; Morris, Erin; Linares, Brenda; Carlson, Barbara W
... to tell others that someone you trust and love is abusing or neglecting you. Making matters worse, ... no good reason, is a form of abusive control. Sexual abuse: If an older adult suffers from ...
To effectively address medication adherence and improve cardiovascular health among older adults, a deeper understanding is needed of the barriers that this age group faces and approaches that would be most effective and feasible for improving adherence. We conducted a focus group study (n=25) in a diverse population of older adults with hypertension recruited from the Cohort Study of Medication Adherence in Older Adults (CoSMO). A structured guide was used to collect feedback on barriers to adherence and acceptability and feasibility of intervention strategies. The final coding framework outlines factors at the individual, relationship, health care system, and environmental or policy level which affect adherence in older adults, including memory, knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, side effects, social support, interaction with health care providers, and cost and convenience of medication filling. Patient responses highlighted the varied nature of barriers and the need for interventions which are both multi-faceted and tailored. PMID:25214707
Holt, Elizabeth W .; Rung, Ariane L.; Leon, Kyla A.; Firestein, Catherine; Krousel-Wood, Marie A.
Provides an overview of the epidemiology of falls among older adults, describes current prevention strategies, and highlights key areas that need to be addressed, including risk assessments, exercise, and environmental changes. (Contains 50 references.) (JOW)
Stevens, Judy A.
In a period of business downsizing, older workers are at risk for unemployment. Finding a suitable replacement job is difficult and can lead to emotional and financial distress. Counselors need to be aware of the work-related issues facing older adults and understand the suitable interventions that will help them make smoother career and life…
Brewington, Janice O.; Nassar-McMillan, Sylvia
The rapid growth in the number of older Americans has many implications for public health, including the need to better understand the risks posed by environmental exposures to older adults. An important element for evaluating risk is the understanding of the doses of environment...
One way to promote optimal nutrition for older adults is to expand nutrition professionals’ understanding of the cognitive food choice processes of the elderly. This investigation used a constructivist approach and qualitative methods to elicit the factors important to the food choices of individuals aged 65 years and older who lived independently. Using a multiple-perspective model of the food choice
Laura Winter Falk; Carole A. Bisogni; Jeffery Sobal
Older adult inmates have grown both in proportion and in number due to the confluence of a number of factors. This aging of the prison population has created a host of policy and practice issues that encompass justice considerations, cost containment issues, and biopsychosocial care needs. The older prisoner's physical, social, and psychological…
Snyder, Cindy; van Wormer, Katherine; Chadha, Janice; Jaggers, Jeremiah W.
This exploratory study examines older women's perceptions of living alone. Older adult women (N = 53) living alone were interviewed. Findings show tremendous variability in the perceptions of this sample. Whereas some women showed significant levels of loneliness and depression, many did not. Thirteen percent of the participants (n = 7) negatively perceived living alone, 49.1% (n = 26) neutrally
Elaine M. Eshbaugh
Diabetes mellitus exerts a strong effect on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk into older age (beyond ages 70-74 years). This effect is particularly noticeable with regard to coronary artery disease and cerebral microvascular disease. Thus, diabetes mellitus in older adults deserves the same careful medical attention as it does in middle age. PMID:25453299
Barzilay, Joshua I; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Kizer, Jorge R
The present study based on a nationally representative sample of older adults living in the Andes mountains and coastal region of the country indicates that 34.7% of older adults had fallen in the previous year in Ecuador. Among fallers, 30.6% reported a fall-related injury. The prevalence of falls was higher in women and among older adults residing in the rural Andes mountains. In the multivariate model, women, subjects with cognitive impairment, those reporting urinary incontinence, and those being physically active during the previous year were variables found independently associated with increased risk of falling among older adults in Ecuador. Moreover, a gradual and linear increase in the prevalence of falls was seen as the number of risk factors increased. Falls represent a major public health problem among older adults in Ecuador. The present findings may assist public health authorities to implement programs of awareness and fall prevention among older adults at higher risk of falls. PMID:23476643
Orces, Carlos H.
Thirty undergraduates and 31 older adults named the Boston Naming Test (BNT) stimulus pictures. Across younger and older participants, all 60 BNT pictures were presented in their standard size, in sizes 1.5 times larger than standard, and in sizes 1.5 times smaller than standard. BNT picture size had no effect on naming performance accuracy. PMID:16318476
Ferraro, F R; Barth, J; Morton, M; Whetham, T
Anticholinergic and sedative medications are commonly used in older adults and are associated with adverse clinical outcomes. The Drug Burden Index was developed to measure the cumulative exposure to these medications in older adults and its impact on physical and cognitive function. This narrative review discusses the research and clinical applications of the Drug Burden Index, and its advantages and limitations, compared with other pharmacologically developed measures of high-risk prescribing. PMID:25246778
Kouladjian, Lisa; Gnjidic, Danijela; Chen, Timothy F; Mangoni, Arduino A; Hilmer, Sarah N
Although the empirical base is still limited when providing clear directions for pain assessment and management in older adults, it is possible to identify recommendations for guiding practice based on consensus and a developing scientific base to support best practice activities. This article offers a brief overview of the epidemiology and consequences of pain, followed by a summary of issues and approaches relevant to pain assessment in older adults. Cohort specific recommendations for comprehensive pain assessment and measurement are then addressed. PMID:11459715
Herr, Keela A.; Garand, Linda
This study examines the perceptions and treatment of older Native American adults in colonial New England (1620–1783). Social\\u000a scientists have found that varying degrees of persistence and change have historically characterized Indian attitudes toward\\u000a older adults in communities located in the central and western United States. In regards to northeastern North America, historians\\u000a have learned that, during the colonial period,
Jason Eden; Naomi Eden
\\u000a Social networking sites (SNS) help users sustain and strengthen ties with friends and relatives. However older adults who\\u000a are less technically inclined individuals are often left aside these SNS felling as outsiders within their own family that\\u000a uses this media to socialize. To assist these non-technical older adults we developed two ambient displays aimed at seamlessly\\u000a integrate them into SNS.
Raymundo Cornejo; Jesús Favela; Monica Tentori
Older adults are vulnerable to nutrition-related health problems due to health and psychosocial changes that accompany aging. Those in rural communities face additional problems. This study characterizes the nutritional risk of rural older adults using the Nutritional Risk Index (NRI), paying particular attention to gender differences in risk. Data come from face-to-face interviews with a random sample of 638 White
Sara A. Quandt; Dinnie Chao
Objectives Limited evidence is available on HIV, aging and comorbidities in sub-Saharan Africa. This article describes the prevalence of HIV and chronic comorbidities among those aged 50 years and older in South Africa using nationally representative data. Design The WHO’s Study of global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) was conducted in South Africa in 2007–2008. SAGE includes nationally representative cohorts of persons aged 50 years and older, with comparison samples of those aged 18–49 years, which aims to study health and its determinants. Methods Logistic and linear regression models were applied to data from respondents aged 50 years and older to determine associations between age, sex and HIV status and various outcome variables including prevalence of seven chronic conditions. Results HIV prevalence among adults aged 50 and older in South Africa was 6.4% and was particularly elevated among Africans, women aged 50–59 and those living in rural areas. Rates of chronic disease were higher among all older adults compared with those aged 18–49. Of those aged 50 years and older, 29.6% had two or more of the seven chronic conditions compared with 8.8% of those aged 18–49 years (P < 0.0001). When controlling for age and sex among those aged 50 and older, BMI was lower among HIV-infected older adults aged 50 and older (27.5 kg/m2) than in HIV-uninfected individuals of the same age (30.6) (P < 0.0001). Grip strength among HIV-infected older adults was significantly (P=0.004) weaker than among similarly-aged HIV-uninfected individuals. Conclusion HIV-infected older adults in South Africa have high rates of chronic disease and weakness. Studies are required to examine HIV diagnostics and treatment instigation rates among older adults to ensure equity of access to quality care, as the number and percentage of older adults living with HIV is likely to increase. PMID:22781177
Negin, Joel; Martiniuk, Alexandra; Cumming, Robert G.; Naidoo, Nirmala; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Madurai, Lorna; Williams, Sharon; Kowal, Paul
Summary Serum testosterone levels decline slowly with normal ageing in men and, although all men are not destined to become hypogonadal as they age, the prevalence of androgen deficiency in the older male is not insignificant. Over the past several decades, there has been an increasing interest in evaluating whether testosterone therapy (male HRT) might be beneficial for certain older
J. Lisa Tenover
The demographic shift occurring in both developed and developing countries is towards an older population. For example, the U.S. population over the age of 65 years grew from 3.1 million in 1900 to 35.0 million in 2000. During that same time period individuals aged 85 years and older increased by ...
The end-stage renal disease population is aging. Nearly half of all new patients are older than 65 years and one third are older than 70 years. Assessing the possibility of transplantation for older patients with end-stage renal disease often involves contemplating more complex issues, including cognitive impairment, decreased functional status, and frailty, which makes selecting appropriate candidates more difficult. Older transplant recipients have decreased patient and transplant survival compared with younger recipients. For example, 75% of deceased donor transplant recipients aged 30-49 years are alive after 5 years compared to only 61% for those older than 65 years. Despite poorer outcomes compared with younger recipients, older transplant recipients have a significant improvement in survival compared with similar patients who remain on the wait list, with decreases in mortality of 41%-61% depending on the study. Use of living donors, even older living donors, provides significantly better outcomes for elderly recipients compared with the use of deceased donors. However, in the absence of a living donor, survival is improved significantly by accepting an expanded criteria donor organ rather than waiting for a standard criteria deceased donor. Older transplant recipients experience more infectious complications and less acute rejection, but the risk of transplant loss from rejection is increased compared with younger patients. These immunologic issues, along with the fact that older patients often are excluded from transplant trials, have made selecting an ideal immunosuppressive regimen challenging. Prospective comparative trials of different agents in the elderly population are warranted to better define the risk-benefit profile. This review discusses transplantation outcomes, including patient and transplant survival, different donor types, quality of life, and immunosuppression for older dialysis patients. PMID:23261121
Knoll, Greg A
Despite the abundance of research reporting the neurophysiological and behavioral effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in healthy young adults and clinical populations, the extent of potential neuroplastic changes induced by tDCS in healthy older adults is not well understood. The present study compared the extent and time course of anodal tDCS-induced plastic changes in primary motor cortex (M1) in young and older adults. Furthermore, as it has been suggested that neuroplasticity and associated learning depends on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene polymorphisms, we also assessed the impact of BDNF polymorphism on these effects. Corticospinal excitability was examined using transcranial magnetic stimulation before and following (0, 10, 20, 30 min) anodal tDCS (30 min, 1 mA) or sham in young and older adults. While the overall extent of increases in corticospinal excitability induced by anodal tDCS did not vary reliably between young and older adults, older adults exhibited a delayed response; the largest increase in corticospinal excitability occurred 30 min following stimulation for older adults, but immediately post-stimulation for the young group. BDNF genotype did not result in significant differences in the observed excitability increases for either age group. The present study suggests that tDCS-induced plastic changes are delayed as a result of healthy aging, but that the overall efficacy of the plasticity mechanism remains unaffected. PMID:24936185
Fujiyama, Hakuei; Hyde, Jane; Hinder, Mark R.; Kim, Seok-Jin; McCormack, Graeme H.; Vickers, James C.; Summers, Jeffery J.
Despite decades of education and clinical practice guidelines underscoring disparities in pain management, pain continues to be inadequately managed in older African American adults as a result of patient, provider, and systems factors. Critical factors influencing pain assessment in older African American adults has not been extensively examined, contributing to a lack of data to inform health care providers' knowledge on culturally-responsive pain assessment in older African Americans. Assessing pain in older African Americans is unique because differences in language, cultural beliefs, and practices moderate how they report and express pain. This paper presents an overview of patient-provider factors that affect pain assessment in older African Americans with a focus on this population's unique cultural beliefs and practices. Recommendations for best practices for performance of a culturally-responsive pain assessment with older African Americans are provided. PMID:25595395
Booker, Staja Star; Pasero, Chris; Herr, Keela A
Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as "facial trustworthiness."In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Todorov, 2008; Engell et al., 2010). Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that older adults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Calder et al., 2003; Firestone et al., 2007; Ruffman et al., 2008; Chaby and Narme, 2009). Based on Todorov';s theory and the fact that older adults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004) reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment), from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: young adults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and older adults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness. PMID:24046755
Ethier-Majcher, Catherine; Joubert, Sven; Gosselin, Frédéric
This guide describes a model for a community-based literacy program for older adults that uses older adults as tutors. Guidelines are provided to program sponsors for implementing literacy education for older adults. Chapter I provides an overview of the problem of illiterate older adults and literacy education for them. Chapter II addresses the…
Jacobs, Bella; Ventura-Merkel, Catherine
Given the lack of understanding of how Korean immigrants express depressive symptoms, the purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to describe somatic symptoms and depressive symptoms and examine the relationship between them, as reported by older adult Korean immigrants. Purposive sampling was used in this study of 160 older adult (ages 65 to 91) Korean immigrants. Most of these participants immigrated to the United States at an older age. They reported a high level of depressive symptoms, and these symptoms were closely associated with somatic symptoms, a finding that coincides with previous studies differentiating Korean individuals from individuals of other cultures. The findings from this study highlight the need for health care providers to be aware of and recognize cultural differences in how patients express depressive symptoms somatically when assessing and treating depression within the older adult Korean immigrant population. PMID:24971586
Lee, Young Me
The National Institute on Aging (NIA) and the National Library of Medicine recently launched NIHSeniorHealth.gov, a website developed from NIA research on older adults, cognitive aging, and computer usage. This easy-to-use website "makes aging-related health information easily accessible for adults 60 and older" and serves as "a useful tool for family members and friends who are seeking online health information for their older relatives." Topics covered include Alzheimer's disease, arthritis, exercising for older adults, and more. The website offers several options for enhancing usability, including a virtual voice that reads all text aloud. Visitors may also watch video clips (captions available), take short quizzes, or follow links to MEDLINEplus websites for more detailed information.
Past research has suggested that patients might not accept depression treatment in part because of differences between patient and doctor understandings of depression. In this article, we use a cultural models approach to explore how older adults incorporate clinical and experiential knowledge into their model of depression. We conducted semistructured interviews about depression with 19 patients aged 65 years and older who were identified by their physicians as depressed. We found that whereas older adults viewed as helpful the doctor’s ability to identify symptoms and “put it all together” into a diagnosis, they felt that this viewpoint omitted important information about the etiology and feeling of depression grounded in embodied experience and social context. Our findings suggest that more emphasis on issues related to the etiology of depression, the effect of depression on social relationships, and emotions emanating from depression might lead to more acceptable depression treatments for older adults. PMID:18689531
Wittink, Marsha N.; Dahlberg, Britt; Biruk, Crystal; Barg, Frances K.
The purpose of this article is to describe a storytelling project that was designed to help community-dwelling older adults find meaning and purpose in their lives through reminiscing about the past. The storytelling project was successful not only for the older adults who participated but also for the nursing students, who were given an opportunity to learn about interviewing and communicating with older adults. The value of life review and storytelling as a nursing intervention became evident from this project. When time is taken to listen to the valuable stories and life lessons of the older population, nurses create a better understanding of their patients while their patients recall special memories and feel proud of their lives. PMID:19928712
Scott, Katie; DeBrew, Jacqueline Kayler
The population of older adults in America is expected to reach an unprecedented level in the near future. Some of them have difficulties with performing daily tasks and caregivers may not be able to match pace with the increasing need for assistance. Robots, especially mobile manipulators, have the potential for assisting older adults with daily tasks enabling them to live independently in their homes. However, little is known about their views of robot assistance in the home. Twenty-one independently living older Americans (65-93 years old) were asked about their preferences for and attitudes toward robot assistance via a structured group interview and questionnaires. In the group interview, they generated a diverse set of 121 tasks they would want a robot to assist them with in their homes. These data, along with their questionnaire responses, suggest that the older adults were generally open to robot assistance but were discriminating in their acceptance of assistance for different tasks. They preferred robot assistance over human assistance for tasks related to chores, manipulating objects, and information management. In contrast, they preferred human assistance to robot assistance for tasks related to personal care and leisure activities. Our study provides insights into older adults' attitudes and preferences for robot assistance with everyday living tasks in the home which may inform the design of robots that will be more likely accepted by older adults. PMID:25152779
Smarr, Cory-Ann; Mitzner, Tracy L; Beer, Jenay M; Prakash, Akanksha; Chen, Tiffany L; Kemp, Charles C; Rogers, Wendy A
The population of older adults in America is expected to reach an unprecedented level in the near future. Some of them have difficulties with performing daily tasks and caregivers may not be able to match pace with the increasing need for assistance. Robots, especially mobile manipulators, have the potential for assisting older adults with daily tasks enabling them to live independently in their homes. However, little is known about their views of robot assistance in the home. Twenty-one independently living older Americans (65–93 years old) were asked about their preferences for and attitudes toward robot assistance via a structured group interview and questionnaires. In the group interview, they generated a diverse set of 121 tasks they would want a robot to assist them with in their homes. These data, along with their questionnaire responses, suggest that the older adults were generally open to robot assistance but were discriminating in their acceptance of assistance for different tasks. They preferred robot assistance over human assistance for tasks related to chores, manipulating objects, and information management. In contrast, they preferred human assistance to robot assistance for tasks related to personal care and leisure activities. Our study provides insights into older adults' attitudes and preferences for robot assistance with everyday living tasks in the home which may inform the design of robots that will be more likely accepted by older adults. PMID:25152779
Mitzner, Tracy L.; Beer, Jenay M.; Prakash, Akanksha; Chen, Tiffany L.; Kemp, Charles C.; Rogers, Wendy A.
Background Emergency Departments (EDs) are playing an increasingly important role in the care of older adults. Characterizing ED usage will facilitate the planning for care delivery more suited to the complex health needs of this population. Methods In this retrospective cross-sectional study, administrative and clinical data were extracted from four study sites. Visits for patients aged 65 years or older were characterized using standard descriptive statistics. Results We analyzed 34,454 ED visits by older adults, accounting for 21.8% of the total ED visits for our study time period. Overall, 74.2% of patient visits were triaged as urgent or emergent. Almost half (49.8%) of visits involved diagnostic imaging, 62.1% involved lab work, and 30.8% involved consultation with hospital services. The most common ED diagnoses were symptom- or injury-related (25.0%, 17.1%. respectively). Length of stay increased with age group (Mann-Whitney U; p < .0001), as did the proportion of visits involving diagnostic testing and consultation (?2; p < .0001). Approximately 20% of older adults in our study population were admitted to hospital following their ED visit. Conclusions Older adults have distinct patterns of ED use. ED resource use intensity increases with age. These patterns may be used to target future interventions involving alternative care for older adults. PMID:25452824
Latham, Lesley P.; Ackroyd-Stolarz, Stacy
The purpose of this study was to explore older adults' perceptions of participation in physical activity (PA) as it impacts productive ageing and informs occupational therapy (OT) practice. In this phenomenological study, 15 community-dwelling older adults were recruited using purposive and snowball sampling at community locations. Data collection methods included two interviews and an observation. The primary finding was that older adults continue individual patterns of meaningful PA across their lifespan when they have support to adapt to age-associated limitations, with a gradual decline in intensity during older years. Although this study's qualitative methodology limits broad generalizability, the findings provide applicability when situated in the context of community-living older adults interested in health maintenance through PA participation. OT practitioners have an important role with community-dwelling older adults to impact productive ageing by designing and promoting meaningful PA with adaptations that address unique, age-associated concerns. There is a need for further experimental research taking an occupational performance and health perspective to enhance the contribution of OT for this population's health-related quality of life through meaningful PA. PMID:24302685
Janssen, Sclinda L; Stube, Jan E
According to Erik Erikson's theory on the stages of human development, achieving wisdom later in life involves revisiting previous crises and renewing psychosocial accomplishments. However, few studies have used Erikson's theory as a framework for examining how older adults self-manage physical and mental health changes that commonly occur later in life. This article presents findings from two qualitative studies that demonstrate how older adults apply wisdom in new domains. Specifically, it was found that older adults (1) reasserted autonomy by initiating creative problem solving and (2) applied skills gained from productive activities earlier in life to new health-related problems that arise later in life. These findings highlight the importance of engaging older adults to repurpose their life skills and thus reapply wisdom to new areas of their lives. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:25651571
Perry, Tam E; Ruggiano, Nicole; Shtompel, Natalia; Hassevoort, Luke
Mobility is critical in maintaining independence in older adults. This study aims to systematically review the scientific literature to identify measures of mobility limitation for community-dwelling older adults. A systematic search of PubMed, CINAHL, and psycINFO, using the search terms "mobility limitation", "mobility disability", and "mobility difficulty" yielded 1,847 articles from 1990 to 2012; a final selection of 103 articles was used for the present manuscript. Tools to measure mobility were found to be either self-report or performance-based instruments. Commonly measured constructs of mobility included walking, climbing stairs, and lower extremity function. There was heterogeneity in ways of defining and measuring mobility limitation in older adults living in the community. Given the lack of consistency in assessment tools for mobility, a clear understanding and standardization of instruments are required for comparison across studies and for better understanding indicators and outcomes of mobility limitation in community-dwelling older adults. PMID:24589525
Chung, Jane; Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire J
The purposes of this article were to 1) provide an overview of the science of physical activity-related energy expenditure in older adults (?65 yr), 2) offer suggestions for future research and guidelines for how scientists should be reporting their results in this area, and 3) present strategies for making these data more accessible to the layperson. This article was meant to serve as a preliminary blueprint for future empirical work in the area of energy expenditure in older adults and translational efforts to make these data useful and accurate for older adults. This document was based upon deliberations of experts involved in the Strategic Health Initiative on Aging Committee of the American College of Sports Medicine. The article was designed to reach a broad audience who might not be familiar with the complexities of assessing energy expenditure, especially in older adults. PMID:24714651
Hall, Katherine S; Morey, Miriam C; Dutta, Chhanda; Manini, Todd M; Weltman, Arthur L; Nelson, Miriam E; Morgan, Amy L; Senior, Jane G; Seyffarth, Chris; Buchner, David M
Purpose: To examine age-related differences in auditory speech recognition and visual text recognition performance for parallel sets of stimulus materials in the auditory and visual modalities. In addition, the effects of variation in rate of presentation of stimuli in each modality were investigated in each age group. Method: A mixed-model design…
Humes, Larry E.; Burk, Matthew H.; Coughlin, Maureen P.; Busey, Thomas A.; Strauser, Lauren E.
In the past decade inflammatory markers have emerged as strong independent risk indicators for cardiovascular disease. Even though adults over the age of 65 experience a high proportion of such events, most epidemiologic data are from middle-aged populations. In this review we examine the role that inflammatory markers play in the prediction of incident cardiovascular disease specifically in older adults.
Stephen B. Kritchevsky; Matteo Cesari; Marco Pahor
The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…
Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel
Older adults are significantly slower than young adults in the naming response in the Stroop Color Word Interference Test. Hypotheses attempting to explain this age-related difference in a perceptual-cognitive task have included orthogenic principle, response-competition, and cautiousness. This study examines whether there are any significant…
Panek, Paul E.; Rush, Michael C.
The research reported in this study concerns older adults from Australia who voluntarily chose to learn the craft of woodturning. The paper examines the literature of adult learning under the themes of presage factors, the learning environment, instructional methods, and techniques for facilitators. The paper then reports on the analysis of two…
Delahaye, Brian L.; Ehrich, Lisa C.
Dementia may be more common in older adults with intellectual disability (ID) than in the general population. The increased risk for Alzheimer's disease in people with Down syndrome (DS) is well established, but much less is known about dementia in adults with ID who do not have DS. We estimated incidence rates from a longitudinal study of…
Strydom, Andre; Chan, Trevor; King, Michael; Hassiotis, Angela; Livingston, Gill
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among measures of comprehension and production for stories depicted in wordless pictures books and measures of memory and attention for 2 age groups. Method: Sixty cognitively healthy adults participated. They consisted of two groups--young adults (20-29 years of age) and older…
Wright, Heather Harris; Capilouto, Gilson J.; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos
The Metacomprehension Scale was completed by 30 younger and 30 older adults. Younger adults reported greater use of strategies to resolve comprehension failures and valued good comprehension more. The regulation dimension of metacomprehension was a reliable predictor of comprehension performance. (SK)
Moore, DeWayne; And Others
Limited research indicates positive affective change following acute bouts of exercise, but whether this improved affect among younger subjects may be generalized to older individuals is not known. The present study, then, examined the effects of a single bout of physical activity among older participants. 16 trained women (Mage = 64.5 +/- 7.6 yr.) completed an abbreviated Profile of Mood States prior to and immediately following a 75-min. session of aerobic line dancing. A series of one-way analyses of variance with repeated measures were used to examine differences between pre- and posttest subscores on mood states. Significant decreases following exercise in scores on Tension, Depression, Fatigue, and Anger and a significant increase in scores on Vigor relative to preexercise (control) scores were found. Global mood was significantly improved after the exercise session. No significant difference was found between pre- and postexercise measures of Confusion. Previous findings of significant improvements in affect immediately after an acute bout of exercise may be generalized to older adults. Repetition with a nonexercised control group is desirable. PMID:7991308
Pierce, E F; Pate, D W
We examined older and younger adults’ accuracy judging the health and competence of faces. Accuracy differed significantly from chance and varied with face age but not rater age. Health ratings were more accurate for older than younger faces, with the reverse for competence ratings. Accuracy was greater for low attractive younger faces, but not for low attractive older faces. Greater accuracy judging older faces’ health was paralleled by greater validity of attractiveness and looking older as predictors of their health. Greater accuracy judging younger faces’ competence was paralleled by greater validity of attractiveness and a positive expression as predictors of their competence. Although the ability to recognize variations in health and cognitive ability is preserved in older adulthood, the effects of face age on accuracy and the different effects of attractiveness across face age may alter social interactions across the life span. PMID:25244467
Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Franklin, Robert G.; Boshyan, Jasmine; Luevano, Victor; Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Milosavljevic, Bosiljka; Lachman, Margie E.
Objectives The present study examined the impact of cumulative trauma exposure on current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity in a nonclinical sample of adults in their 60s. The predictive utility of cumulative trauma exposure was compared to other known predictors of PTSD, including trauma severity, personality traits, social support, and event centrality. Method Community-dwelling adults (n = 2,515) from the crest of the Baby Boom generation completed the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire, the PTSD Checklist, the NEO Personality Inventory, the Centrality of Event Scale, and rated their current social support. Results Cumulative trauma exposure predicted greater PTSD symptom severity in hierarchical regression analyses consistent with a dose-response model. Neuroticism and event centrality also emerged as robust predictors of PTSD symptom severity. In contrast, the severity of individuals’ single most distressing life event, as measured by self-report ratings of the A1 PTSD diagnostic criterion, did not add explanatory variance to the model. Analyses concerning event categories revealed that cumulative exposure to childhood violence and adulthood physical assaults were most strongly associated with PTSD symptom severity in older adulthood. Moreover, cumulative self-oriented events accounted for a larger percentage of variance in symptom severity compared to events directed at others. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the cumulative impact of exposure to traumatic events throughout the life course contributes significantly to post-traumatic stress in older adulthood above and beyond other known predictors of PTSD. PMID:24011223
Ogle, Christin M.; Rubin, David C.; Siegler, Ilene C.
This study compared young and older adults' ability to recognize bodily and auditory expressions of emotion and to match bodily and facial expressions to vocal expressions. Using emotion discrimination and matching techniques, participants assessed emotion in voices (Experiment 1), point-light displays (Experiment 2), and still photos of bodies with faces digitally erased (Experiment 3). Older adults' were worse at least some of the time in recognition of anger, sadness, fear, and happiness in bodily expressions and of anger in vocal expressions. Compared with young adults, older adults also found it more difficult to match auditory expressions to facial expressions (5 of 6 emotions) and bodily expressions (3 of 6 emotions). PMID:19739917
Ruffman, Ted; Sullivan, Susan; Dittrich, Winand
Older adults with cancer reporting fatigue and sleep disorders often have coexisting geriatric syndromes and are at high risk of further functional decline. This review summarizes special considerations in the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders and fatigue when older persons with cancer present with multiple comorbidities, polypharmacy, dementia, delirium, and/or falls. Physicians caring for these older adults need to be aware of the unique diagnostic and treatment concerns in this population so that these patients can receive optimal care. PMID:25299145
Waldman, Louis; Morrison, Laura J
Background Rapidly aging populations with an increased desire to remain at home and changes in health policy that promote the transfer of health care from formal places, as hospitals and institutions, to the more informal setting of one's home support the need for further research that is designed specifically to understand the experience of home among older adults. Yet, little is known among health care providers about the older adult's experience of home. The aim of this study was to understand the experience of home as experienced by older adults living in a rural community in Sweden. Methods Hermeneutical interpretation, as developed by von Post and Eriksson and based on Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics, was used to interpret interviews with six older adults. The interpretation included a self examination of the researcher's experiences and prejudices and proceeded through several readings which integrated the text with the reader, allowed new questions to emerge, fused the horizons, summarized main and sub-themes and allowed a new understanding to emerge. Results Two main and six sub-themes emerged. Home was experienced as the place the older adult could not imagine living without but also as the place one might be forced to leave. The older adult's thoughts vacillated between the well known present and all its comforts and the unknown future with all its questions and fears, including the underlying threat of loosing one's home. Conclusions Home has become so integral to life itself and such an intimate part of the older adult's being that when older adults lose their home, they also loose the place closest to their heart, the place where they are at home and can maintain their identity, integrity and way of living. Additional effort needs to be made to understand the older adult's experience of home within home health care in order to minimize intrusion and maximize care. There is a need to more fully explore the older adult's experience with health care providers in the home and its impact on the older adult's sense of "being at home" and their health and overall well-being. PMID:21410994
Faces are inherently dynamic stimuli. However, face perception in younger adults appears to be mediated by the ability to extract structural cues from static images and a benefit of motion is inconsistent. In contrast, static face processing is poorer and more image-dependent in older adults. We therefore compared the role of facial motion in younger and older adults to assess whether motion can enhance perception when static cues are insufficient. In our studies, older and younger adults learned faces presented in motion or in a sequence of static images, containing rigid (viewpoint) or nonrigid (expression) changes. Immediately following learning, participants matched a static test image to the learned face which varied by viewpoint (Experiment 1) or expression (Experiment 2) and was either learned or novel. First, we found an age effect with better face matching performance in younger than in older adults. However, we observed face matching performance improved in the older adult group, across changes in viewpoint and expression, when faces were learned in motion relative to static presentation. There was no benefit for facial (nonrigid) motion when the task involved matching inverted faces (Experiment 3), suggesting that the ability to use dynamic face information for the purpose of recognition reflects motion encoding which is specific to upright faces. Our results suggest that ageing may offer a unique insight into how dynamic cues support face processing, which may not be readily observed in younger adults' performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25328999
Maguinness, Corrina; Newell, Fiona N
We investigated whether extensive repetition can diminish age-related differences between younger and older adults in functional magnetic resonance adaptation (fMR-A). Datasets were obtained from 26 younger and 24 older healthy adults presented with two scenes that repeated 20 times amongst other novel scenes during fMRI scanning. The average cortical responses to the first eight (Repetitions 1-7) and the last eight (Repetitions 12-19) presentations out of 20 were compared within each group. Younger adults showed similar levels of fMR-A in both repetition sets. Conversely, older adults did not show reliable fMR-A in Repetitions 1-7, but they did in Repetitions 12-19; subtracting the latter from the former revealed a significant effect within left inferior occipital, left lingual, and the posterior part of fusiform gyrus. We concluded that cortical responsiveness in older adults are compromised, but extensive repetition can lead older adults to show a delayed but closer level of fMR-A compared to younger adults. PMID:22274135
Miyakoshi, Makoto; Chen, S-H Annabel; Matsuo, Kayako; Wu, Chiao-Yi; Suzuki, Atsunobu; Nakai, Toshiharu
Purpose In a society where technology progresses at an exponential rate, older adults are often unaware of the existence of different kinds of information and communication technologies (ICTs). To bridge the gap, we launched a 2-year project, during which we conducted focus groups (FGs) with demonstrations of ICTs, allowing older adults to try them out and to share their opinions. This study aimed at investigating how participants perceived this kind of initiative and how they reacted to different kinds of ICTs. Patients and methods In total, 14 FGs were conducted with community-dwelling older adults, with a frequency of two FGs on the same topic once per trimester. Twenty-three older adults (four men and 19 women) attended at least one FG but only nearly half of them were regular attendants (ten participating in at least five sessions). Age of participants ranged from 63 years to 88 years, with a mean of 77.1 years. All of them had completed secondary education. The analyses of the data were performed according to inductive thematic analysis. Results Four overarching themes emerged from the analysis. The first concerned participants’ motivation for and assessment of the project. The second theme identified the underlying factors of the “digital divide” between the younger and the older generations. The third theme concerned the factors of technology adoption among older adults. The fourth one identified participants’ attitudes toward assistive ICTs, designed specifically for older adults (“gerontechnologies”). Discussions and conclusion This project encouraging older adults to be informed about different kinds of ICTs was positively rated. With regard to ICTs, participants perceived a digital divide. The underlying factors are generation/cohort effects, cognitive and physical decline related to aging, and negative attitudes toward technologies. However, more and more older adults adopt different kinds of ICTs in order to fit in with the society. Concerning assistive ICTs, they manifested a lack of perceived need and usefulness. Also, there was a negative image of end users of this kind of technologies. The so-called gerontechnologies specifically targeting older adults contain stigmatizing symbolism that might prevent them from adopting them. PMID:25624752
Wu, Ya-Huei; Damnée, Souad; Kerhervé, Hélène; Ware, Caitlin; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie
In two experiments testing age differences in the subjective experience of listening, which we call meta-audition, young and older adults were first trained to learn pairs of semantic associates. Following training, both groups were tested on identification of words presented in noise, with the critical manipulation being whether the target item was congruent, incongruent or neutral with respect to prior training. Results of both experiments revealed that older as compared to young adults were more prone to “false hearing,” defined as mistaken high confidence in the accuracy of perception when a spoken word had been misperceived. These results were obtained even when performance was equated across age groups on control items by reducing the noise level for older adults. Such false hearing is shown to reflect older adults’ heavier reliance on context. Findings suggest that older adults’ greater ability to benefit from semantic context reflects their bias to respond consistently with the context, rather than their greater skill in using context. Procedures employed are unique in measuring the subjective experience of hearing as well as its accuracy. Both theoretical and applied implications of the findings are discussed. Convergence of results with those showing higher false memory, and false seeing are interpreted as showing that older adults are less able to constrain their processing in ways that are optimal for performance of a current task. That lessened constraint may be associated with decline in frontal-lobe functioning. PMID:22149253
Rogers, Chad S.; Jacoby, Larry L.; Sommers, Mitchell S.
Summary We examine obesity, intentional weight loss, and physical disability in older adults. Based on prospective epidemiological studies, BMI exhibits a curvilinear relationship with physical disability; there appears to be some protective effect associated with older adults being overweight. Whereas the greatest risk for physical disability occurs in older adults who are ?class II obesity, the effects of obesity on physical disability appears to be moderated by both sex and race. Obesity at age 30 constitutes a greater risk for disability later in life than when obesity develops at age 50 or later; however, physical activity may buffer the adverse effects obesity has on late life physical disability. Data from a limited number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) reinforce the important role that physical activity plays in weight loss programs for older adults. Furthermore, short-term studies have found that resistance training may be particularly beneficial in these programs since this mode of exercise attenuates the loss of fat-free mass during caloric restriction. Multi-year RCTs are needed to examine whether weight loss can alter the course of physical disablement in aging and to determine the long-term feasibility and effects of combining resistance exercise with weight loss in older adults. PMID:19922431
Rejeski, W. Jack; Marsh, Anthony P.; Chmelo, Elizabeth; Rejeski, Jared J.
Risk is a multifaceted and complex concept that mediates quality of life through the balance between risk taking and risk avoidance. Society expects older adults to identify and manage their personal risks yet little is known about the meaning of risk in their daily lives and how they balance the tensions between taking and avoiding risks. Therefore the purpose of this study was to explore how older adults construe risk. A qualitative exploratory study that incorporated photovoice methodology was used. Seventeen older adults, over a weeklong period, took pictures and kept a log of the places, spaces, events, activities, or situations that best represented risk. Subsequently, they participated in a follow-up individual interview. Older adults viewed risk both positively and negatively, judging the saliency of a risk according to criteria that related both to the risk itself and to personal characteristics. Although risk was avoided in specific situations, risk taking was participants' primary approach to risk, which assumed three forms: adaptive, opportunistic, and/or unjustifiable. Contrary to societal views, older adults view risk as constructive and personally relevant, and as something to be taken and need to be supported in risk taking rather than risk avoidance. PMID:22939541
Rush, Kathy L; Murphy, Mary Ann; Kozak, Jean Francois
Older adults, even with clinically normal hearing sensitivity, often report difficulty understanding speech in the presence of background noise. Part of this difficulty may be related to age-related degradations in the neural representation of speech sounds, such as formant transitions. Frequency-following responses (FFRs), which are dependent on phase-locked neural activity, were elicited using sounds consisting of linear frequency sweeps, which may be viewed as simple models of formant transitions. Eighteen adults (ten younger, 22-24 years old, and nine older, 51-67 years old) were tested. FFRs were elicited by tonal sweeps in six conditions. Two directions of frequency change, rising or falling, were used for each of three rates of frequency change. Stimulus-to-response cross correlations revealed that older adults had significantly poorer representation of the tonal sweeps, and that FFRs became poorer for faster rates of change. An additional FFR signal-to-noise ratio analysis based on time windows revealed that across the FFR waveforms and rates of frequency change, older adults had smaller (poorer) signal-to-noise ratios. These results indicate that older adults, even with clinically-normal hearing sensitivity, have degraded phase-locked neural representations of dynamic frequency. PMID:25724819
Clinard, Christopher G; Cotter, Caitlin M
The baby boom generation is quickly becoming the geriatric generation. The over-65 age bracket hit 13% of Americans in 1997, and is expected to reach 20% by 2030 accounting for 73 million Americans. World-wide the total number of older people (>60years) is expected to double from...
With rising longevity, increasing numbers of older people are experiencing changes in their everyday family and social life, changes in their financial status, and a greater number of chronic conditions affecting their health. We took the opportunity to explore these relationships with worry in a group of volunteer community-living elderly (n =…
Brock, Kaye; Clemson, Lindy; Cant, Rosemary; Ke, Liang; Cumming, Robert G.; Kendig, Hal; Mathews, Mark
Older people are an important and growing sector of the population, of whom the numbers who use computers are increasing rapidly. Yet their requirements are not often considered in the design of computer systems and software, and as a result they often find them difficult to use. In order to include them effectively, it is first necessary to find out
Joy Goodman; Audrey Syme; Roos Eisma
Many randomized, controlled trials indicate that vitamin D will lower falls and fractures, so it was reasonable for Sanders et al. to hypothesize that a single annual 500,000 IU oral dose of vitamin D3 would be effective in reducing falls and fractures in older women with one or more risk factors fo...
The demonstrated health benefits of active commuting (AC) and low participation rates among older adults indicate a need to examine the socioecological correlates of AC by age category. An online survey of employed U.S. adults examined AC participation and individual, employment-related, community, and environmental variables. Participants were dichotomized by age (younger: 18-49 yr; n = 638, 64% and older: ? 50 yr; n = 359, 36%). Logistic-regression analyses examined differences in AC correlates by age. Older adults were less likely to be active commuters (13.4%) than younger adults (27.9%; p < .001) For older adults, analyses yielded a Nagelkerke R2 = .76, with perceived behavioral control, behavioral beliefs, household cars, and walking distance as predictors. Analyses for younger adults resulted in a Nagelkerke R2 = .79, with perceived behavioral control, coworker normative beliefs, parking problems at work, greater employer and community support for AC, and bad weather as predictors. Findings suggest age should be considered when examining and targeting AC behaviors. PMID:23689245
Bopp, Melissa; Der Ananian, Cheryl; Campbell, Matthew E
Background Depressive symptoms, apathy, and fatigue are common symptoms among medically ill older adults and patients with advanced disease, and are associated with morbidity and mortality. Methylphenidate has been used to treat these symptoms because of its rapid effect. Objective To review the literature regarding the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate to treat depressive symptoms, apathy, and fatigue in medically ill older adults and in palliative care. Methods English-language articles presenting systematic reviews, clinical trials, or case series describing use of methylphenidate to treat depressive symptoms, fatigue, or apathy in medically ill older adults or in palliative care were identified. The keywords “methylphenidate” and either “depressive”, “depression”, “fatigue”, or “apathy” were used to search the Cochrane Database, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts. Included articles addressed depressive symptoms, apathy, or fatigue in 1) older adults (generally age 65 years or older), particularly those with comorbid medical illness; 2) adult patients receiving palliative care; and 3) adults with other chronic illnesses. We excluded articles regarding 1) treatment of depression in healthy young adults; 2) treatment of bipolar disorder or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; and 3) treatment of narcolepsy, chronic fatigue syndrome and related disorders. Results 19 controlled trials of methylphenidate in medically ill older adults or in palliative care were identified. Unfortunately, their conflicting results, small size, and poor methodologic quality limit our ability to draw inferences regarding the efficacy of methylphenidate, although the evidence of its safety is stronger. The available evidence suggests possible effectiveness of methylphenidate for depressive symptoms, fatigue, apathy, and cognitive slowing in various medically ill populations. Conclusions In the absence of definitive evidence of effectiveness, trials of low-dose methylphenidate in medically ill adults suffering from depression, apathy, or fatigue with monitoring for response and adverse effects are appropriate. PMID:19281939
Hardy, Susan E.
Natural disasters and other emergencies can cause an increased risk of foodborne illness. We conducted a nationally representative survey to understand consumers’ knowledge and use of recommended practices during\\/after extended power outages and other emergencies. Because older adults are at an increased risk for foodborne illness, this paper presents findings from a sample of older adults (n = 290). Only 17% of
Katherine M. Kosa; Sheryl C. Cates; Shawn Karns; Sandria L. Godwin; Richard J. Coppings
Objectives Previous research has attributed older adult’s difficulty with perceiving speech in noise to peripheral hearing loss. Recent studies have suggested a more complex picture, however, and implicate the central nervous system in sensation and sensory deficits. This study examines the relationship between the neuroanatomical structure of cognitive regions and the ability to perceive speech in noise in older adults. In particular, the neuroanatomical characteristics of the left ventral and dorsal prefrontal cortex are considered relative to standard measures of hearing in noise. Design The participants were fifteen older and fourteen younger right-handed native speakers of American English who had no neurological deficits and scored better than normal on standardized cognitive tests. We measured the participants’ peripheral hearing ability as well as their ability to perceive speech in noise using standardized tests. Anatomical magnetic resonance images were taken and analyzed to extract regional volumes and thicknesses of several key neuroanatomical structures. Results The results showed that younger adults had better hearing sensitivity and better speech perception in noise ability than older adults. For the older adults only, the volume of the left pars triangularis and the cortical thickness of the left superior frontal gyrus were significant predictors of performance on the speech-in-noise test. Discussion These findings suggest that, in addition to peripheral structures, the central nervous system also contributes to the ability to perceive speech in noise. In older adults, a decline in the volume and cortical thickness of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during aging can therefore be a factor in a declining ability to perceive speech in a naturalistic environment. Our study shows a link between anatomy of PFC and speech perception in older adults. These findings are consistent with the decline-compensation hypothesis, which states that a decline in sensory processing due to cognitive aging can be accompanied by an increase in the recruitment of more general cognitive areas as a means of compensation. We found that a larger PFC volume may compensate for declining peripheral hearing. Clinically, recognizing the contribution of the cerebral cortex expands treatment possibilities for hearing loss in older adults beyond peripheral hearing aids to include strategies for improving cognitive function. We conclude by considering several mechanisms by which the PFC may facilitate speech perception in noise including inhibitory control, attention, cross-modal compensation, and phonological working memory, though no definitive conclusion can be drawn. PMID:20588117
Wong, Patrick C. M.; Ettlinger, Marc; Sheppard, John P.; Gunasekera, Geshri M.; Dhar, Sumitrajit
Introduction The demands of our rapidly expanding older population strain many emergency departments (EDs), and older patients experience disproportionately high adverse health outcomes. Trainee attitude is key in improving care for older adults. There is negligible knowledge of baseline emergency medicine (EM) resident attitudes regarding elder patients. Awareness of baseline attitudes can serve to better structure training for improved care of older adults. The objective of the study is to identify baseline EM resident attitudes toward older adults using a validated attitude scale and multidimensional analysis. Methods Six EM residencies participated in a voluntary anonymous survey delivered in summer and fall 2009. We used factor analysis using the principal components method and Varimax rotation, to analyze attitude interdependence, translating the 21 survey questions into 6 independent dimensions. We adapted this survey from a validated instrument by the addition of 7 EM-specific questions to measures attitudes relevant to emergency care of elders and the training of EM residents in the geriatric competencies. Scoring was performed on a 5-point Likert scale. We compared factor scores using student t and ANOVA. Results 173 EM residents participated showing an overall positive attitude toward older adults, with a factor score of 3.79 (3.0 being a neutral score). Attitudes trended to more negative in successive post-graduate year (PGY) levels. Conclusion EM residents demonstrate an overall positive attitude towards the care of older adults. We noted a longitudinal hardening of attitude in social values, which are more negative in successive PGY-year levels. PMID:25035760
Hogan, Teresita M.; Chan, Shu B.; Hansoti, Bhakti
The Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale Form A (DAS-A), a self-report measure of depression-related attitudes, has been used in numerous depression studies. The DAS-A has a two-factor structure that has been found consistently with college student samples and clinically depressed samples of middle-aged adults, but it has not been validated with older adults. The present study examined the factor structure with a sample of 100 depressed older adults (average age = 68.19; average initial Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HRSD] score = 16.72) who participated in a depression treatment study. Results indicated the factor structure established with younger adults was not replicated with older adults. Furthermore, the factor structure with older adults was uncertain: a single factor structure, two-factor structure, and three-factor structure were essentially of equal validity. The uncertainty of the latent structure of the DAS-A suggests that it should be interpreted with caution whenever used with older adults. PMID:14982720
Floyd, M; Scogin, F; Chaplin, W F
This review aimed to discuss the importance of the comprehensive treatment of depression among older adults in Brazil. The abuse of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, including fluoxetine hydrochloride, as antidepressants has been considered a serious public health problem, particularly among older adults. Despite the consensus on the need for a comprehensive treatment of depression in this population, Brazil is still unprepared. The interface between pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy is limited due to the lack of healthcare services, specialized professionals, and effective healthcare planning. Fluoxetine has been used among older adults as an all-purpose drug for the treatment of depressive disorders because of psychosocial adversities, lack of social support, and limited access to adequate healthcare services for the treatment of this disorder. Preparing health professionals is a sine qua non for the reversal of the age pyramid, but this is not happening yet.
Wagner, Gabriela Arantes
This review aimed to discuss the importance of the comprehensive treatment of depression among older adults in Brazil. The abuse of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, including fluoxetine hydrochloride, as antidepressants has been considered a serious public health problem, particularly among older adults. Despite the consensus on the need for a comprehensive treatment of depression in this population, Brazil is still unprepared. The interface between pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy is limited due to the lack of healthcare services, specialized professionals, and effective healthcare planning. Fluoxetine has been used among older adults as an all-purpose drug for the treatment of depressive disorders because of psychosocial adversities, lack of social support, and limited access to adequate healthcare services for the treatment of this disorder. Preparing health professionals is a sine qua non for the reversal of the age pyramid, but this is not happening yet. PMID:25830872
Wagner, Gabriela Arantes
Dementia and delirium, the most common causes of cognitive impairment (CI) among hospitalized older adults, are associated with higher mortality rates, increased morbidity and higher health care costs. A growing body of science suggests that these older adults and their caregivers are particularly vulnerable to systems of care that either do not recognize or meet their needs. The consequences can be devastating for these older adults and add to the burden of hospital staff and caregivers, especially during the transition from hospital to home. Unfortunately, little evidence exists to guide optimal care of this patient group. Available research findings suggest that hospitalized cognitively impaired elders may benefit from interventions aimed at improving care management of both CI and co-morbid conditions but the exact nature and intensity of interventions needed are not known. This article will explore the need for improved transitional care for this vulnerable population and their caregivers. PMID:18032200
Naylor, Mary D.; Hirschman, Karen B.; Bowles, Kathryn H.; Bixby, M. Brian; Konick-McMahan, JoAnne; Stephens, Caroline
Despite the potential benefits of powered mobility, many older adults do not have access to this technology. To date, few studies have explored how prescribers make decisions regarding provision of powered mobility. Therefore, we undertook a qualitative study to develop a better understanding of prescribers' attitudes toward and practices with older adult candidates for powered mobility devices. Our analysis of 10 in-depth interviews identified three main themes: (1) "Deciding who should be entitled" explored how therapists decided who should have access to powered mobility, (2) "power wheelchair negotiation" described the discord between clients and therapists that became apparent during this process, and (3) "practical considerations" revealed how contextual factors shaped the provision of powered mobility. The findings suggest that the ways in which powered mobility is funded, provided, and accommodated should be improved so that more older adults have access to these devices and can use them to their full potential. PMID:23245788
Mortenson, W Ben; Clarke, Laura Hurd; Best, Krista
Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) use is a significant worldwide public health problem. Community-dwelling older adults are susceptible to the negative outcomes associated with the use of PIMs. A database search (January 1991-June 2013) produced 19 prospective correlational and 10 intervention studies. The current state of the science reveals that conceptual clarity is lacking regarding the use of PIMs. The prevalence of PIM use is well documented in an abundance of descriptive studies. However, researchers have not examined an intervention's effects on health outcomes in community-dwelling older adults. Although independent older adults can acquire PIMs outside of a provider, current interventions aim to change the behavior of the prescribing physician and pharmacist. Nurses need to collaborate with other disciplines in PIM use research. Priority needs are to design interventions that reduce the use of PIMs and negative health outcomes. PMID:24530281
Shade, Marcia Y; Berger, Ann M; Chaperon, Claudia
Purpose of the Study: Maintaining perceived psychological control in older adulthood is beneficial for health, well-being, and adjustment to chronic illness. Theoretically, control over specific, personally meaningful domains should inform general control beliefs. Thus, the objective of the present study was to examine perceived control over the exercise domain (operationalized as exercise intention belief) for its ability to predict general control beliefs in a sample of older adults with chronic illness over 1 year. Design and Methods: Longitudinal survey responses from 133 older adults with osteoarthritis (OA) were examined. Results: Longitudinal hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that higher baseline exercise intention beliefs predicted a lower perception of constraints on control 9–12 months later, but did not predict changes in mastery beliefs. Implications: Results suggest that bolstering exercise intention beliefs may protect against age-related increases in psychological constraints on perceived control for older adults with OA. PMID:23174513
Cotter, Kelly A.
This study aimed to clarify what pleasurable recreational activities older adults like to participate in, and to investigate the relationship between those activities and quality of life (QOL). Questionnaires were delivered to older residents (65 years and above) in a Japanese rural area. The residents' background information, the amount of pleasure for various activities, and the QOL were surveyed. The QOL was evaluated by the revised Philadelphia Geriatric Center (PGC) morale scale. The amount of pleasure taken in a majority of the activities, such as conversation with family or neighbors showed a significant association with the happiness score, but only a few activities showed significant association between the revised PGC morale scale and the amount of pleasure. The multiple regression analyses indicated that the amount of pleasure in exercise, the difficulty in managing finances, and amount of pleasure taken in watching TV were significant variables for predicting the happiness score. The results indicated that the amount of pleasure older adults experienced when engaging in activities such as conversation with family or neighbors showed significant association with the older adults' happiness. These results may be helpful in understanding contributions of various activities to the perception of pleasure in older adults. PMID:16368155
Onishi, Joji; Masuda, Yuichiro; Suzuki, Yusuke; Gotoh, Tadao; Kawamura, Takashi; Iguchi, Akihisa
Cancer is a disease of aging; approximately 60% of all cancers and 70% of cancer mortality occur in persons aged 65 years\\u000a and over. Aging is a highly individualized process, characterized by physiologic and psychosocial changes that can affect\\u000a tolerance to treatment. Older patients are a highly heterogeneous group, with varying levels of risk for functional or physical\\u000a decline and
Supriya Mohile; Nail Nagovskiy; Lodovico Balducci
Medication nonadherence is a common concern for nurses and family members who care for older adults. Medication nonadherence can be intentional and/or nonintentional. Understanding the reason for nonadherence is essential in achieving the desired clinical and behavioral outcomes. Traditional interventions, such as educational and behavioral interventions, must often be combined to be successful. New technologies offer nurses opportunities to explore interventions for the baby boomers, who are now tapping into Medicare. Nurses can contribute to finding a solution to medication adherence through policy, systems, practice, and research, with the first step being effective communication with older adults and their caregivers. PMID:24846467
Haugh, Kathy Henley
Access to and reducing disparities in oral health for older adults is a complex problem that requires innovative strategies. In addition to offering dental services in alternative settings, such as senior centers, places that are familiar to older adults, and where physical limitations can be better accommodated, alternatives to the traditional provider should be considered. Many states are changing laws and practice acts to allow dental hygienists to provide preventive services without the supervision of a dentist. Also, collaborations between dental and non-dental professionals can be a successful strategy for increasing access to oral health care for this high-risk population. PMID:25201546
Bethel, Lynn Ann; Kim, Esther E; Seitz, Charles M; Swann, Brian J
Background Sarcopenic indices are used to estimate loss of skeletal lean mass and function, and to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in older adults. It is believed that older women and men with lower skeletal lean mass will be weaker and have more functional limitations. Purpose 1) To classify community-dwelling older adults using two common sarcopenic indices: appendicular lean mass/height2 (ALM/ht2) and skeletal muscle index (SMI), and 2) to determine each indices value as indicators of lower extremity strength and physical function. Methods The sample consisted of 154 community-dwelling older adults (111 women, 43 men; mean age=82.4 SD=3.6 years; mean BMI=25.8 SD=4.4 kg/m2). Each underwent whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to assess lean mass. The 9-item modified physical performance test (PPT) and s elf-selected walking speed were used to evaluate function. Lower extremity strength was measured bilaterally using isokinetic dynamometry. Results The ALM/ht2 index classified 75 participants (49%) as sarcopenic (SP) and 79 (51%) as non-sarcopenic (NSP). The SMI classified 129 participants (84%) as SP and 25 (16%) as NSP. There were no differences in functional measures between groups by gender using either index after classification. The ALM/ht2 index was more strongly correlated with peak torque of all lower extremity muscle groups (r=.276–.487) compared with the SMI (r=.103–.344). There was no relationship between either sarcopenic index and physical function. Discussion There were marked differences in how two sarcopenic indices classified community-dwelling older adults. Lower extremity strength was lower in older women classified as sarcopenic compared to non-sarcopenic using the ALM/ht2 index, but LE strength was not different in older men. However, no lower extremity strength differences were observed between sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic men or women using the SMI classification. Neither sarcopenic index uniformly identified community-dwelling older adults with functional or strength deficits. Conclusions Detection of strength deficits using sarcopenic indices alone may be gender-specific, and may not reflect strength or functional decline in community-dwelling men 80 years of age or older. Given associations between lower extremity strength and physical function, strength measures remain a better predictor of physical performance than sarcopenic indices for community-dwelling older men and women. PMID:22166895
Merriwether, Ericka N.; Host, Helen H.; Sinacore, David R.
The purpose of this study was to examine the factors affecting the quality of life of the elderly people in Turkey. Three-hundred community-dwelling older adults (Mage=68.35, SD=5.80 years) participated in this study. The quality of life was examined through World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire-Older Adults Module Turkish Version (WHOQOL-OLD Turkish). Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) showed significant age differences in sensory abilities, social participation, and intimacy sub-scale scores. Post hoc Scheffe Test results indicated that elderly people aged 75 years and over differed from other age groups; although their scores in social participation and intimacy were lower; they had higher scores in sensory abilities than those aged 60-65 and 66-74 years. There were significant differences between the educational levels of these elderly people in sensory abilities, autonomy, past-present-and-future activities, social participation, and death-and-dying sub-scales. The autonomy, past-present-and-future activities, social participation, and death-and-dying scores of those with high school education were higher than that of those with secondary school or less education except in sensory abilities scores. There were differences found between the variable of with whom the elderly people lived and of QOL sub-scales of the elderly people's sensory abilities, past-today-and-future activities, death-and-dying, social participation, and intimacy. In addition, the total average score of the QOL sub-scales with the sufficiency of income of the elderly people were interconnected. In conclusion, the findings revealed that gender, age, education, marital status, childbearing, social insurance, health status, living arrangement and income variables are the determinant to improving the quality of life of elderly people. PMID:25064031
Bilgili, Naile; Arpac?, Fatma
As the population ages, the health care system must to adapt to the needs of the older population. Hospitalization risks are particularly significant in the frail geriatric patients, with costly and morbid consequences. Appropriate preoperative assessment can identify sources of increased risk and enable the surgical team to manage this risk, through "prehabilitation," intraoperative modification, and postoperative care. Geriatric preoperative assessment expands usual risk stratification and careful medication review to include screening for functional disability, cognitive impairment, nutritional deficiency, and frailty. The information gathered can also equip the surgeon to develop a patient-centered and realistic treatment plan. PMID:25459549
Scandrett, Karen G; Zuckerbraun, Brian S; Peitzman, Andrew B
This analysis uses in-depth interview data collected from 145 AfricanAmerican, European American and Native American men and women aged 70and older who reside in two rural North Carolina counties to understand therole of religious faith and prayer in the health self-management of theseolder adults. The analysis addresses three specific questions: how do theseolder adults use religion to help them manage
Thomas A. Arcury; Sara A. Quandt; Juliana McDonald; Ronny A. Bell
Hypermnesia is a net improvement in memory performance that occurs across tests in a multitest paradigm with only one study\\u000a session. Our goal was to identify possible age-related differences in hypermnesic recall. We observed hypermnesia for young\\u000a adults using verbal (Experiment 1) as well as pictorial (Experiment 2) material, but no hypermnesia for older adults in either\\u000a experiment. We found
Robert L. Widner; Hajime Otani; Anderson D. Smith
Older adults with persistent pain are not simply a chronologically older version of younger pain patients. Pain-related disability in older adults may be driven by pain ‘homeostenosis’, that is, diminished ability to effectively respond to the stress of persistent pain. Some of the comorbidities of ageing that can contribute to pain homeostenosis include cognitive and physical impairments, increased sensitivity to suprathreshold pain stimuli, medical and psychological comorbidities, altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and social isolation. A key distinction between older and younger individuals with persistent pain is the normal and pathological ageing-associated brain changes. These may alter the expression and experience of pain with impaired descending inhibition and dysfunction of pain gating mechanisms. Cognizance of these brain changes is needed to guide appropriate evaluation and treatment approaches. This paper reviews data that support these ageing-associated phenomena. Specifically, we discuss age-related changes in the brain (both normal and pathological) and in pain physiology; changes in experience and expression of pain that occur with dementia and contribute to pain homeostenosis; and unique aspects of age and pain-associated psychological function and their contribution to disability. We also present data demonstrating changes in brain morphology and neuropsychological performance that accompany persistent non-malignant pain in older adults and the treatment implications of these brain changes. Finally, preliminary data are presented on the efficacy of mindfulness meditation, a treatment that has been examined explicitly in older adults and targets optimizing brain function and descending inhibition. PMID:18487247
Karp, J. F.; Shega, J. W.; Morone, N. E.; Weiner, D. K.
OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms among institutionalized elderly individuals and to analyze factors associated with this condition. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study involving 462 individuals aged 60 or older, residents in long stay institutions in four Brazilian municipalities. The dependent variable was assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Poisson’s regression was used to evaluate associations with co-variables. We investigated which variables were most relevant in terms of presence of depressive symptoms within the studied context through factor analysis. RESULTS Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 48.7%. The variables associated with depressive symptoms were: regular/bad/very bad self-rated health; comorbidities; hospitalizations; and lack of friends in the institution. Five components accounted for 49.2% of total variance of the sample: functioning, social support, sensory deficiency, institutionalization and health conditions. In the factor analysis, functionality and social support were the components which explained a large part of observed variance. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of depressive symptoms, with significant variation in distribution, was observed. Such results emphasize the importance of health conditions and functioning for institutionalized older individuals developing depression. They also point to the importance of providing opportunities for interaction among institutionalized individuals. PMID:24897042
Santiago, Lívia Maria; Mattos, Inês Echenique
Although previous studies have demonstrated that the hippocampus plays a role in pain processing, the role of hippocampal subfields is uncertain. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between hippocampal subfield volumes and chronic pain in nondemented older adults. The study sample included 86 community-residing adults age 70 or older who were free of dementia and recruited from the Einstein Aging Study. Chronic pain was defined as pain over the last 3 months, that was moderate or severe (minimum rating of 4 out of 10) most, or all of the time. Hippocampal subfield volumes were estimated using FreeSurfer software. We modeled the association between chronic pain and hippocampal and subfield volume using linear regression. The sample had a mean age of 80 and was 58% female. Chronic pain, present in 55% of the sample, was associated with smaller right and total hippocampal volumes, particularly in women, after adjusting for age, education, and intracranial volume (eTICV). In addition, in women, volume was significantly reduced in participants with chronic pain in right CA2-3 (?=-0.35, p=0.010), right CA4-DG (?=-0.35, p=0.011), left presubiculum (?=-0.29, p=0.030), and left fimbria (?=-0.30, p=0.023). In men, chronic pain was not associated with the volume of any of the hippocampal subfield volumes. Chronic pain in women is associated with a reduction in the volume of right hippocampus and also selected hippocampal subfields. Future studies should clarify the mechanisms underlying the association between regional hippocampal volumes and chronic pain, particularly in women. PMID:24878607
Ezzati, Ali; Zimmerman, Molly E; Katz, Mindy J; Sundermann, Erin E; Smith, Jeremy L; Lipton, Michael L; Lipton, Richard B
Data on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in late life are lacking. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by examining the prevalence of the broadest range of psychiatric disorders in late life to date; comparing prevalences across older adult age groups using the largest sample of adults aged 85+; and exploring gender differences in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in late life. Using data from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, we examined the prevalence of past-year mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, and lifetime personality disorders in a nationally representative sample of 12,312 U.S. older adults. We stratified our analyses by gender and by older age groups: young-old (ages 55-64), middle-old (ages 65-74), old-old (ages 75-84), and oldest-old (ages 85+). The proportion of older adults who experienced any past-year anxiety disorder was 11.4%, while the prevalence of any past-year mood disorder was 6.8%. A total of 3.8% of older adults met criteria for any past-year substance use disorder, and 14.5% of older adults had one or more personality disorder. We observed a general pattern of decreasing rates of psychiatric disorders with increasing age. Women experienced higher rates of mood and anxiety disorders, while men had higher rates of substance use disorders and any personality disorder. Gender differences in rates of most psychiatric disorders decreased with increasing age. These data indicate that psychiatric disorders are prevalent among U.S. older adults, and support the importance of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of psychiatric disorders in this population. PMID:25655161
Reynolds, Kristin; Pietrzak, Robert H; El-Gabalawy, Renée; Mackenzie, Corey S; Sareen, Jitender
Data on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in late life are lacking. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by examining the prevalence of the broadest range of psychiatric disorders in late life to date; comparing prevalences across older adult age groups using the largest sample of adults aged 85+; and exploring gender differences in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in late life. Using data from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, we examined the prevalence of past-year mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, and lifetime personality disorders in a nationally representative sample of 12,312 U.S. older adults. We stratified our analyses by gender and by older age groups: young-old (ages 55-64), middle-old (ages 65-74), old-old (ages 75-84), and oldest-old (ages 85+). The proportion of older adults who experienced any past-year anxiety disorder was 11.4%, while the prevalence of any past-year mood disorder was 6.8%. A total of 3.8% of older adults met criteria for any past-year substance use disorder, and 14.5% of older adults had one or more personality disorder. We observed a general pattern of decreasing rates of psychiatric disorders with increasing age. Women experienced higher rates of mood and anxiety disorders, while men had higher rates of substance use disorders and any personality disorder. Gender differences in rates of most psychiatric disorders decreased with increasing age. These data indicate that psychiatric disorders are prevalent among U.S. older adults, and support the importance of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of psychiatric disorders in this population. PMID:25655161
Reynolds, Kristin; Pietrzak, Robert H; El-Gabalawy, Renée; Mackenzie, Corey S; Sareen, Jitender
Background: Alternating motion rate (AMR) and sequential motion rate (SMR) are tests of articulatory diadochokinesis that are widely used in the evaluation of motor speech. However, there are no quality normative data available for adults aged 65 years and older. Aims: There were two aims: (1) to obtain a representative, normative dataset of…
Pierce, John E.; Cotton, Susan; Perry, Alison
Purpose: Personal assistance care is a Medicaid benefit in New York, but few data are available on its prevalence and contribution to home care. We examined these issues in a New York City sample by assessing older adults' reports of weekly home care hours and Medicaid billing records. Design and Methods: With help from New York City's Human…
Albert, Steven M.; Brassard, Andrea B.; Simone, Bridget; Stern, Yaakov
Background. Although the importance of the context of task performance in the assessment of mobility in older adults is generally understood, there is little empirical evidence that demonstrates how sensitive older adults are to subtle changes in task demands. Thus, we developed a novel approach to examine this issue. Methods. We collected item response data to 81 animated video clips, where various mobility-related tasks were modified in a systematic fashion to manipulate task difficulty. Results. The participants (N = 234), 166 women and 68 men, had an average age of 81.9 years and a variety of comorbidities. Histograms of item responses revealed dramatic and systematic effects on older adults’ self-reported ability when varying walking speed, use of a handrail during ascent and descent of stairs, walking at different speeds outdoors over uneven terrain, and carrying an object. For example, there was almost a threefold increase in reporting the inability to walk at the fast speed compared with the slow speed for a minute or less, and twice as many participants reported the inability to walk at the fast speed outdoors over uneven terrain compared with indoors. Conclusions. The data provide clear evidence that varying the contextual features and demands of a simple task such as stair climbing has a significant impact on older adults’ self-reporting of ability related to mobility. More work is needed on the psychometric properties of such assessments and to determine if this methodology has conceptual and clinical relevance in studying mobility disability. PMID:21127192
Ip, Edward H.; Barnard, Ryan T.; Wong, Yue-Ling; Rejeski, W. Jack
When faced with changes in physical health, cognition, and daily functioning, older adults most frequently rely on family members for instrumental support and more intense care activities. Using a life span perspective as our guiding framework, we identified several developmental themes across the late-life caregiving research including individual…
Roberto, Karen A.; Jarrott, Shannon E.
In 2004 and 2005 the Beverly Foundation surveyed volunteer drivers in an effort to better understand how and why they support older adults. The sample comprised 714 volunteer drivers from 367 communities, representing 40 states, who responded to the survey. Their responses provided qualitative and quantitative information about who they are, why…
Kerschner, Helen; Rousseau, Marie-Helene
A number of methodological questions have been raised about the reliability and validity of measuring executive functioning (EF) across multiple time points. In this study, correlational and latent-variable analyses were used to examine test–retest reliability of 5 common measures of EF and the stability of a latent EF construct. One hundred eighteen nondemented older adults were tested twice over a
Mark L. Ettenhofer; David Z. Hambrick; Norman Abeles
Influenza directly or indirectly contributes to the four leading causes of global mortality, at rates that are highest in older adults. As the proportion of older adults in the Korean population is greater than in most other countries, influenza prevention is a greater public health priority in Korea than elsewhere. Conventional inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) is less immunogenic and efficacious (-50%) in older than in young adults, but adjuvanting the vaccine with oil-in-water emulsion MF59® increases immunogenicity, resulting in comparatively higher levels of hemagglutination inhibition antibodies and greater protection against all influenza, as well as cases requiring hospitalization. A recent observational study demonstrated that the adjuvanted vaccine protected older adults against influenza in a year when nonadjuvanted IIV was ineffective. In another multiyear study, the adjuvanted vaccine was estimated to be 25% more effective in preventing pneumonia and influenza hospitalizations compared to nonadjuvanted vaccine. Although MF59-adjuvanted vaccine is transiently more reactogenic than nonadjuvanted vaccine, there is no evidence that it increases risks for serious adverse events, including those with an autoimmune etiology. Experience thus far indicates a favorable balance of benefit to risk for MF59. This may reflect the adjuvant's mechanism of action in which the squalene oil emulsion increases antibody responses to co-administered antigen without acting more generally as an immunopotentiator. PMID:24265964
This study examined the reasons expressed by older adults for attending a university program in Barcelona (Spain). Results were based on the responses of 36 elders to questions from a semistructured interview. These were (a) reasons for joining a university course and (b) factors that prevent enrolling in that course. Participants mentioned more…
Villar, Feliciano; Triado, Carme; Pinazo, Sacramento; Celdran, Montserrat; Sole, Carme
Two major demographic trends underscore the importance of considering technology adoption by older adults: the aging of the population and rapid dissemination of technology within most societal contexts. In the past decade, developments in computer and information technologies have occurred at an unprecedented rate and technology has become an integral component of work, education, healthcare, communication and entertainment. At the
Sara J. Czaja
With the growing size of the population of aging Black individuals, it is important to understand successful aging in this group. This study, therefore, piloted the Successful Aging Inventory (SAI) with a convenience sample of Black older adults. Participants completed a demographic form, the SAI, Purpose in Life Test, Life Satisfaction…
Troutman, Meredith; Nies, Mary A.; Bentley, Monica
Purpose: Self-perceptions of health vary depending on one's social and cultural context. Rural residents have been characterized as having a distinct culture, and health differences by residence have been well documented. While there is evidence of poor health among rural older adults, little research has examined how they perceive and define…
Goins, R. Turner; Spencer, S. Melinda; Williams, Kimberly
Older adults (n = 113) participated in focus groups discussing their use of and attitudes about technology in the context of their home, work, and healthcare. Participants reported using a wide variety of technology items, particularly in their homes. Positive attitudes (i.e., likes) outnumbered negative attitudes (i.e., dislikes), suggesting that older adults perceive the benefits of technology use to outweigh the costs of such use. Positive attitudes were most frequently related to how the technology supported activities, enhanced convenience, and contained useful features. Negative attitudes were most frequently associated with technology creating inconveniences, unhelpful features, as well as security and reliability concerns. Given that older adults reported more positive than negative attitudes about the technologies they use, these results contradict stereotypes that older adults are afraid or unwilling to use technology. These findings also highlight the importance of perceived benefits of use and ease of use for models of technology acceptance. Emphasizing the benefits of technology in education and training programs may increase future technology adoption. PMID:20967133
Mitzner, Tracy L.; Boron, Julie B.; Fausset, Cara Bailey; Adams, Anne E.; Charness, Neil; Czaja, Sara J.; Dijkstra, Katinka; Fisk, Arthur D.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Sharit, Joseph
A method for increasing interaction between students and older adults in a geriatric pharmacy course uses an instructional module on stereotypes, age and personality, role changes, and nursing home living. The course requires students to conduct a life review of someone over age 65. The exercise improves student communication skills and…
Sumner, Edward D.; Haight, Barbara K.
Physical inactivity has been established to be an independent risk factor for a range of chronic diseases and con- ditions that threaten the health of the nation. However, only a minority of the population is currently meeting the recommended levels of regular physical activity, which have been linked with important health and quality- of-life benefits. Older adults are at particular
Abby C. King
This study examined diverse older adults' (n = 396, ages 50+) views about how to stay mentally sharp. We conducted 42 focus groups in four languages at nine United States locations using a standardized discussion guide and methods. The groups represented African Americans, American Indians, Chinese Americans, Latinos, Whites other than Latinos,…
Friedman, Daniela B.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Laditka, James N.; Wu, Bei; Liu, Rui; Price, Anna E.; Tseng, Winston; Corwin, Sara J.; Ivey, Susan L.; Hunter, Rebecca; Sharkey, Joseph R.
This article reviews and assesses the existing research literature on the efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) to promote lifestyle changes and improve functioning among older adults confronting serious health challenges. A comprehensive literature review was conducted of intervention studies that tested the use of MI to achieve behavioral…
Cummings, Sherry M.; Cooper, R. Lyle; Cassie, Kim McClure
The usability of a touch-panel interface was compared among young, middle-aged, and older adults. In addition, a performance model of a touch panel was developed so that pointing time could be predicted with higher accuracy. Moreover, the target location to which a participant could point most quickly was determined. The pointing time with a PC mouse was longer for the
Atsuo Murata; Hirokazu Iwase
The impact of the global aging of the population on social, economic, political, and health care institutions is unequaled. Parallel to this, evolving developments in technology promise opportunities for sales and product development to support positive aging. Older adults are excited to utilize technologies that they perceive as practical.…
Huber, Lesa; Watson, Carol
One of the goals of "Healthy People 2010" is to decrease the incidence of limitation in physical activity due to arthritis. Physical education, recreation, and dance professionals can play an important role in meeting this objective by addressing barriers to physical activity and exercise in older adults with arthritis, and by successfully…
Tremethick, Mary Jane; Hogan, Patricia I.; Coleman, Barb; Adams, Kady
Essential tremor (ET), the most prevalent movement disorder, has a peak prevalence in the sixth decade of life, primarily affecting the hands and head. Persons with ET are often significantly disabled and medical intervention often had limited effectiveness. Describes a biobehavioral rehabilitation model for older adults with ET. (Author/JBJ)
Lundervold, Duane A.; Poppen, Roger
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify future trends and barriers that will either facilitate or impede the narrowing of the digital skills divide among older adults during the next 10 years. Methodology: To address the research questions, this study used a modified version of the Delphi process using a panel of experts who…
Gilliam, Brian K.
Enhancing tactile sensation in older adults with electrical noise stimulation Neel T. Dhruv, James low-level electrical noise stimulation was shown to enhance tactile sensitiv- ity in healthy young elderly subjects. Electrical noise stimulation resulted in a statistically signiÂ¢cant increase
Collins, James J.
Insight into one's own cognitive abilities, or metacognition, has been widely studied in developmental psychology. Relevance to the clinician is high, as memory complaints in older adults show an association with impending dementia, even after controlling for likely confounds. Another candidate marker of impending dementia under study is inconsistency in cognitive performance over short time intervals. Although there has been
Susan Vanderhill; David F. Hultsch; Michael A. Hunter; Esther Strauss
This qualitative research investigates the meaning of "keitai" (mobile phones) for older Japanese adults between the ages of 59 and 79. Participants' emails from keitai, handwritten daily logs, and audio and video recordings from meetings and interviews were collected during my stay of nearly seven months in one of the largest cities in Japan.…
Maintaining muscle mass in aging is important to prevent falls and fractures. The net acid load from diets that are rich in acidogenic protein and cereal grains relative to their content of alkalinogenic fruits and vegetables may contribute to reduced lean tissue mass in older adults. This analysis ...
The objective of this research was to identify the effects of participation in learning on the subjective wellbeing of older adults. Data were from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a large-scale, nationally representative survey of those aged 50 and above. The survey contains several wellbeing measures and information on three…
This paper reports on a study conducted to assist the Wadsworth Public Library in future planning and refining of services to older adults especially in library outreach. A questionnaire was distributed to residents (n=350) of one nursing home, four apartment complexes for seniors, one assisted living complex, one senior center, and any patrons…
Black, Barbara A.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hyphens that disambiguate phrasing in ambiguous sentences influence reading rate and reading comprehension for younger and older adults. Moreover, as working memory (WM) has been implicated in age-related changes in sentence comprehension for both auditory and written materials, we asked if it…
Anema, Inge; Obler, Loraine K.
A secondary analysis of data from the 1990 Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Supplement to the National Health Interview Survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of exercise among adults aged 55 and older and identify correlates of exercise in this population. Walking and participation in other exercises were the exercise variables, and the explanatory variables included sociodemographic measures, self-reported
Hirsch S. Ruchlin; Mark S. Lachs
Insomnia is associated with significant morbidity and is often a persistent problem, particularly in older adults. It is important to attend to this complaint and not assume that it will remit spontaneously. In many cases, unfortunately, insomnia remains unrecognized and untreated, often because it is presumed that insomnia is an inevitable…
Belanger, Lynda; LeBlanc, Melanie; Morin, Charles M.
Poor health has been implicated as a suppressor of the life satisfaction of older adults. To clarify the contribution of arthritis to this process, functional disability, negative affect, pain, current severity of the disease, self-esteem, perception of general health, and internal health locus of control, were placed within a causal model as…
Burckhardt, Carol S.
This student activity book and reference book, which are part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, are intended for use in 1- and 2- programs preparing Texas high school students for employment in occupations related to providing services for older adults. The reference book…
Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences.
Two studies were conducted to reexamine the psychometric properties of two major scales measuring attitudes toward older adults. The Kogan Attitudes Toward Old People Scale (Kogan OP Scale; Kogan, 1961b) was administered to a sample of 512 college students in Study One. The refined version (Polizzi & Millikin, 2002) of the Aging Semantic…
Iwasaki, Michiko; Jones, James A.
Gait is a complex motor task, initiated and governed by different areas of the brain. Studies have shown a clear association between gait and cognition. Impairments in both gait and cognition are prevalent in older adults. Older adults with gait impairment have an increased risk of developing cognitive impairments. Those with cognitive impairment often have gait impairments and more falls than cognitively healthy older adults. Recent studies have shown that quantitative gait analysis, particularly performed during dual task conditions, can detect gait deficits that cannot yet be seen by the naked eye, even to a trained specialist. Some studies have shown that such gait disturbances were measurable years before mild cognitive impairment or dementia or walking difficulties were clinically manifest. Quantitative gait analysis can provide early detection of gait and cognitive impairments as well as fall risk. Future quantitative gait studies may help distinguish dementia subtypes in early stages of the diseases. Early detection of gait and cognitive impairments would provide a better understanding of disease pathophysiology and progression. Early detection also allows the timely implementation of interventions with the ultimate goal of improving or maintaining mobility and functional independence for as long as possible. Quantitative gait analysis should be viewed as a clinical tool to aid diagnoses and treatment planning. This review examines the current literature on quantitatively measured gait impairment in older adults with mild cognitive impairment or a dementia subtype. PMID:24050167
Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Kressig, Reto W
animal and human models of plasticity in the brain's ability to process speech and other meaningful37 Auditory Training: Evidence for Neural Plasticity in Older Adults Samira Anderson Auditory, such as when trying to understand speech in noise or when listening to music. Here, we review evidence from
Dietary patterns and weight status are reported for 2 groups of community-living older adults, a rural Pennsylvania group and an urban Boston group. Diet patterns were defined by cluster analysis. Two major dietary patterns were identified for rural study participants and 4 major dietary patterns we...
Purpose: This study was designed to improve the measurement of financial exploitation (FE) by testing psychometric properties of the older adult financial exploitation measure (OAFEM), a client self-report instrument. Design and Methods: Rasch item response theory and traditional validation approaches were used. Questionnaires were administered by…
Conrad, Kendon J.; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W.; Langley, Kate; Wilber, Kathleen H.
The purpose of this study was to explore the role of visual arts and its impact on successful aging and older adult learners in retirement. Retirement is one of the most important economic, psychological, and social transitions in most people's lives. Longevity has increased in the last sixty years such that in 2010, the average person can…
The use of supportive group interventions with caregivers of frail older adults is discussed in this article. Four categories of group interventions are described: (1) mutual support groups, (2) psychoeducational groups, (3) social, recreational and educational groups, and (4) service and advocacy groups. Research evidence on the efficacy of group interventions with this population is also considered. Recommendations are made
Philip McCallion; Ronald W. Toseland
To determine structural brain correlates of naming abilities in older adults, we tested 24 individuals aged 56-79 on two confrontation-naming tests (the Boston Naming Test (BNT) and the Action Naming Test (ANT)), then collected from these individuals structural Magnetic-Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data. Overall,…
Obler, Loraine K.; Rykhlevskaia, Elena; Schnyer, David; Clark-Cotton, Manuella R.; Spiro, Avron, III; Hyun, JungMoon; Kim, Dae-Shik; Goral, Mira; Albert, Martin L.
Describes the creation of SeniorSage, an eight week facilitated online learning community for older adult volunteers in a Florida learning center. Discusses how members were prepared to participate in the community, explains the instructional design theory that guided the development of SeniorSage, and recommends future research. (Author/LRW)
Snyder, Marti M.
Western literature has repeatedly indicated a strong relationship between living alone and depression among the aged population, however, studies among the Chinese population are scarce. In this paper, we examine whether the association between living alone and depression is independent of health status, social support and financial strain among Chinese older adults, and subsequently assess whether such association persists after
K.-L. Chou; A. H. Y. Ho; I. Chi
OBJECTIVE To understand the job function of caregivers of older adults and contribute to the debate on the consolidation of this professional practice. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES This is a descriptive, qualitative, and exploratory study. Four focal group sessions were performed in 2011 with 11 elderly companions, formal caregivers of older adults in the Programa Acompanhante de Idosos (Program for Caregivers of Older Adults), Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. These sessions, guided by a semi-structured script, were audio-recorded and fully transcribed. Data were analyzed using the Content Analysis technique, Thematic Modality. RESULTS In view of considering the caregivers of older adults as a new category of workers, it was difficult to define their duties. The elderly companions themselves as well as the care receivers, their families, and the professionals that comprised the team were unclear about their duties. The professional practice of these formal caregivers has been built on the basis of constant discussions and negotiations among them and other team members in Programa Acompanhante de Idosos during daily work. This was achieved via a recognition process of their job functions and by setting apart other workers’ exclusive responsibilities. CONCLUSIONS The delimitation of specific job functions for elderly companions is currently one of the greatest challenges faced by these workers to develop and consolidate their professional role as well as improve Programa Acompanhante de Idosos. PMID:25372163
Batista, Marina Picazzio Perez; Barros, Juliana de Oliveira; de Almeida, Maria Helena Morgani; Mângia, Elisabete Ferreira; Lancman, Selma
Objective: This article discusses theoretical, psychometric, and practical considerations of quality of life assessment in older adults with cognitive impairment. It describes a new measure of quality of life in dementia, the QOL-AD, and examines the reliability and validity of patient and caregiver reports of patient quality of life. Methods: Subjects were 177 patient\\/caregiver dyads. Patient Mini Mental State Exam
REBECCA G. LOGSDON; LAURA E. GIBBONS; SUSAN M. MCCURRY; LINDA TERI
This study examined the associations between trait routinization and functional and cognitive as well as demographic indicators. A sample of American older adults living independently in a retirement community (n = 80) were assessed regarding their functional status, cognitive status, and preference for routine. Robust associations between…
Zisberg, Anna; Zysberg, Leehu; Young, Heather M.; Schepp, Karen G.
The neuropsychological test scores of 2,030 cognitively normal older adults were examined to evaluate performance patterns as they related to time of day (TOD) at which testing was initiated. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the association of TOD with scores on seven neuropsychological tests used in the clinical evaluation of dementia. Episodic memory performance was significantly related to
Barbara Martin; Angela L. H. Buffington; Kathleen A. Welsh-Bohmer; Jason Brandt
This article describes a cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) intervention for suicide prevention in older adults. Although many studies have found that CBT interventions are efficacious for reducing depressive symptoms in the elderly, researchers have yet to evaluate the efficacy of such interventions for preventing suicide or reducing suicide risk…
Bhar, Sunil S.; Brown, Gregory K.
Purpose: This analysis describes physical activity levels and factors associated with physical activity in an ethnically diverse (African American, Native American, white) sample of rural older adults with diabetes. Method: Data were collected using a population-based, cross-sectional stratified random sample survey of 701 community-dwelling…
Arcury, Thomas A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Bell, Ronny A.; Smith, Shannon L.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Wetmore-Arkader, Lindsay K.; Quandt, Sara A.
On the basis of metamemory assessment research and theories of discourse comprehension, the Metacomprehension Scale (MCS) was designed to assess multiple dimensions of metacomprehension. In a sample of younger (n = 30) and older (n = 30) adults, we examined age differences in self?assessed components of metacomprehension and the relation of the MCS to comprehension performance and general verbal ability.
DeWayne Moore; Karen Zabrucky; Nannette Evans Commander
Asserting that both humanistic and manpower considerations dictate that we address the aging process, this article describes the characteristics of older adults and illustrates the way in which they may be allowed to remain productive. Maslow's "Need Hierarchy" and Thorndike's "Theory of Developmental Tasks" are applied to the aging process. (JC)
Kowalski, Cash J.; Cangemi, Joseph P.
with the vulnerability of older adults before, during, and after a disaster. Since the 9/11 terrorist attack, there has. The paper ends with a call to action and suggestions for future research directions. Keywords: Community to action and future research directions. Motivations for a CRG Limitations of current emergency response
This study seeks to gain a holistic understanding of how older Korean-American adults' socio-demographic factors affect their attitudes toward the computer. The research was guided by four main questions: (1) What do participants describe as the consequences of their using the computer? (2) What attitudes toward the computer do participants…
There were two objectives to this study: (a) to establish flow and (2) to establish whether computer game interaction or content was important to the older adult, using the Nintendo Wii and the Sony PlayStation 2 consoles. An earlier study had identified the sports genre as a preference, and three games (golf, tennis, and boxing) were selected…
Marston, Hannah R.
Self-reported effects of yoga among older adults in an independent-living retirement community are presented. Weekly 60-minute beginner Iyengar yoga classes tailored to individual functional levels using props were conducted. Classes included stretching, flexibility, endurance, balance, and relaxation. Pre- and postintervention perceptions by focus-group discussions and key informant interviews were conducted at baseline, 12 weeks, and 1 year. Twelve older persons
Neela K. Patel; Sreedhara Akkihebbalu; Sara E. Espinoza; Laura K. Chiodo
This article uses qualitative research and narrative analysis to examine the experience of women age 55 and older who are parents caring for adult children with mental illness. Knowledge about the conflicts of older parents with dependent children is underdeveloped. In this study, analysis of women's stories about parenting in later life reveal…
Smith, Judith R.
Introduction Motor-vehicle crashes kill roughly 4,500 American adults over the age of 75 annually. Among younger adults, one behavioral factor consistently linked to risky driving is personality, but this predictor has been overshadowed by research on cognitive, perceptual, and motor processes among older drivers. Method In this study, a sample of 101 licensed drivers, all age 75 and over, were recruited to complete self-report measures on personality, temperament, and driving history. Participants also completed a virtual environment (VE) course designed to assess risk-taking driving behavior. State records of motor-vehicle crashes were collected. Results Results suggest both a sensation-seeking personality and an undercontrolled temperament are related to risky driving among older adults. Sensation-seeking was particularly related to history of violations and tickets, while temperamental control was more broadly related to a number of risky driving measures. Methodological and crash prevention issues are discussed. PMID:18023635
Schwebel, David C.; Ball, Karlene K.; Severson, Joan; Barton, Benjamin K.; Rizzo, Matthew; Viamonte, Sarah M.
Occupational therapy may significantly improve cancer survivors' ability to participate in activities, thereby improving quality of life. Little is known, however, about the use of occupational therapy services by adults with cancer. The objective of this study was to understand what shapes patterns of occupational therapy use to help improve service delivery. We examined older (age >65 yr) adults diagnosed with breast, prostate, lung, or melanoma (skin) cancer between 2004 and 2007 (N = 27,131) using North Carolina Central Cancer Registry data linked to Medicare billing claims. Survivors who used occupational therapy within 1 yr before their cancer diagnosis were more likely to use occupational therapy after diagnosis but also experienced the highest levels of comorbidities. Survivors with Stage 4 cancers or lung cancer were less likely to use occupational therapy. These findings suggest possible disparities in utilization of occupational therapy by older adults with cancer. PMID:25184473
Pergolotti, Mackenzi; Cutchin, Malcolm P; Weinberger, Morris; Meyer, Anne-Marie
A study identified distinguishing characteristics of active older adults who participate in educational activities and measured factors that motivated participation. The dependent variables were participation and nonparticipation; independent variables were educational attainment, anomie, life satisfaction, and certain learning-related factors. A…
Fisher, James C.
Background There are conflicting results about the association between body mass index (BMI) and depressive symptoms in older adults. The present study examined the relationship between weight and depressive symptoms over time in older adults in South Korea. Methods We used data from three waves of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging and ran a series of cross-lagged panel models to test the reciprocal relationship between depressive symptoms and obesity in older Korean adults. We assumed a temporally stable relationship between depressive symptoms and obesity and, thus imposed equality constraints over time. Results After controlling for the effect of depressive symptoms two years prior, underweight older adults had a higher depressive symptom score than those of normal weight. When controlling for obesity status from two years prior, older adults with higher levels of depressive symptoms were more likely to be underweight and less likely to be overweight than normal weight. The same patterns were observed in data from 2006 to 2008 and from 2008 to 2010. Conclusions These results show that there is a correlation between depressive symptoms and weight status. In middle-aged and elderly Asian populations, depression can lead to weight loss rather than obesity, and underweight may develop depressive symptoms. PMID:25501372
Kim, Jinseok; Noh, Jin-Won; Park, Jumin; Kwon, Young Dae
This study examined the efficacy of somatic symptoms on a new measure of depression designed specifically for older adults. Resent research has shown somatic symptoms to be accurate predictors of depression in older adults, yet they have been...
Gentry, Ruth Anne
Background Keeping older adults healthy and active is an emerging challenge of an aging society. Despite the importance of personal relationships to their health and well-being, changes in family structure have resulted in a lower frequency of intergenerational interactions. Limited studies have been conducted to compare different interaction style of intergenerational interaction. The present study aimed to compare the changes in visual attention, facial expression, engagement/behaviour, and intergenerational conversation in older adults brought about by a performance-based intergenerational (IG) program and a social-oriented IG program to determine a desirable interaction style for older adults. Methods The subjects of this study were 25 older adults who participated in intergenerational programs with preschool children aged 5 to 6 years at an adult day care centre in Tokyo. We used time sampling to perform a structured observation study. The 25 older participants of intergenerational programs were divided into two groups based on their interaction style: performance-based IG program (children sing songs and dance) and social-oriented IG program (older adults and children play games together). Based on the 5-minute video observation, we compared changes in visual attention, facial expression, engagement/behaviour, and intergenerational conversation between the performance-based and social-oriented IG programs. Results Constructive behaviour and intergenerational conversation were significantly higher in the social-oriented IG programming group than the performance-based IG programming group (p<0.001). No significant differences were observed in frequency of smiles, however, when weighted smiling rate was used, smiles were significantly more frequently observed in the social-oriented IG programming group than the performance-based IG programming (p<0.05). The visual attention occurred between the generations was significantly higher in the performance-based IG programming group than the social-oriented IG programming group (p<0.05). Conclusions Intergenerational programs with preschool children brought smiles and conversation to older adults. The social-oriented IG program allowed older adults to play more roles than the performance-based IG program. The intergenerational programs provide opportunities to fulfil basic human needs and reintegrate older adults into society. Further development of such beneficial programs is warranted. Trial registration UMIN-CTR clinical Trial: UMIN000010439 PMID:24138601
This study examined whether (a) older adults are wiser than college students, (b) college-educated older adults are wiser\\u000a than current college students, and (c) wise older adults show evidence of personal growth. Using a sample of 477 undergraduate\\u000a college students and 178 older adults (age 52+), results showed that college students tended to score as high on the self-administered\\u000a three-dimensional
The authors examined same- and cross-gender friendship norms in a sample of 135 adults (average age 73 years). Participants evaluated a friend’s behavior, quantitatively and qualitatively, in vignettes in which the friend’s gender was experimentally manipulated. Gender often significantly, though modestly, influenced normative evaluations. Women frequently had higher expectations of friends than men and placed a greater emphasis on intimacy. Women were more disapproving of violations of friendship rules, such as betraying a confidence, paying a surprise visit, and failing to stand up for a friend in public. However, both men and women were less approving of a man than a woman who greets another friend with a kiss or who requests to stay overnight. Respondents’ open-ended comments reflected positive attitudes regarding cross-gender friendships. Most findings demonstrated that men and women across a wide age range held similar cultural norms for close ties, norms of trust, commitment, and respect. PMID:20473364
Felmlee, Diane; Muraco, Anna
This study examined correlates of susceptibility to scams in 639 community-dwelling older adults without dementia from a cohort study of aging. Regression models adjusted for age, sex, education, and income were used to examine associations between susceptibility to scams, measured by 5-item self-report measure, and a number of potential correlates. Susceptibility was positively associated with age and negatively associated with income, cognition, psychological well being, social support, and literacy. Fully adjusted models indicated that older age and lower levels of cognitive function, decreased psychological well-being, and lower literacy in particular may be markers of susceptibility to financial victimization in old age. PMID:24499279
James, Bryan D.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Bennett, David A.
Sleep problems, prevalent among older adults, are associated with poor outcomes and high healthcare costs. In 2008, rest and sleep became its own area of occupation in the AOTA Occupational Therapy Practice Framework. This scoping review examined a broad context of sleep research in order to highlight efficacious interventions for older adults that fall within the occupational therapy scope of practice and present an agenda for research and practice. Four sleep intervention areas clearly aligned with the Practice Framework, including cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, physical activity, and multi-component interventions. Occupational therapy is primed to address sleep problems by targeting the context and environment, performance patterns, and limited engagement in evening activities that may contribute to poor sleep. Occupational therapy researchers and clinicians need to work collaboratively to establish the evidence-base for occupation-centered sleep interventions in order to improve the health and quality of life of the older adult. PMID:24844879
Leland, Natalie E.; Marcione, Nicole; Niemiec, Stacey L. Schepens; Don Fogelberg, Kaivalya Kelkar
Cognitive flexibility is one aspect of executive functioning that encompasses the ability to produce diverse ideas, consider response alternatives, and modify behaviors to manage changing circumstances. These processes are likely to be important for implementing cognitive restructuring. The present study investigated the impact of cognitive flexibility on older adults' ability to learn cognitive restructuring. Neuropsychological measures of cognitive flexibility were administered to 40 normal community-dwelling older adult volunteers and their ability to implement cognitive restructuring was coded and analyzed. Results indicated that the majority of participants showed good cognitive restructuring skill acquisition with brief training. The multiple regression analysis suggested that those with poorer cognitive flexibility on neuropsychological testing demonstrated poorer quality cognitive restructuring. In particular, perseverative thinking styles appear to negatively impact the ability to learn cognitive restructuring. Further research is needed to clarify whether older adults with poor cognitive flexibility can improve their cognitive restructuring skills with repetition over treatment or whether alternative skills should be considered. PMID:23253357
Johnco, C; Wuthrich, V M; Rapee, R M
As the aging population increases, so does the need to identify specific health problems associated with that age group and to develop and implement strategies to manage those problems efficiently. Peripheral arterial disease, a known threat to older adults' health and independence, often leads to decreased functional ability and potential limb loss. Nurses are in a unique position to screen older adults for the disease and to implement strategies to manage the problem. An overview of arterial physiology will be presented along with identification of risk factors, how to obtain ankle-brachial indexes and interpret the results, and treatment options for mild, moderate, and severe disease. Identifying the disease in its early stages and minimizing the effects will help keep older adults living independently and improve their quality of life. PMID:16102472
Review Computer use by older adults: A multi-disciplinary review Nicole Wagner, Khaled Hassanein f o Article history: Available online 22 April 2010 Keywords: Older adults Aging Computer use of computer and Internet users. In many cases, older adults are the fastest growing computer and Internet user
Hitchcock, Adam P.
Measuring impact of ICTs on Quality of Life of Older Adults Kay Connelly School of Informatics and Computing Indiana University RQ1: Does the technology impact the quality of life of older adults? RQ1.1: Does the technology change older adults' perceptions of quality of life? RQ1.2: Does the technology
This paper draws a socio-demographic, physical, psychosocial, and behavioural profile of housebound older adults with arthritis and compares older adults with rheumatoid arthritis to those with osteoarthritis. Data from 125 housebound older adults with osteoarthritis (65%) or rheumatoid arthritis (35%) were compared to published samples and to…
Nour, Kareen; Laforest, Sophie; Gignac, Monique; Gauvin, Lise
Background. Both oral health problems and cognitive impairment are relatively common among older adults. Poorer oral health appears to contribute to a decline in quality of life and to be related to various medical conditions. Little is known about the relationship of cognitive function to oral health among community-dwelling older adults. Methods. The sample included 1984 dentate community-dwelling older adults
Bei Wu; Brenda L. Plassman; Richard J. Crout; Jersey Liang
Herbert Simon's work on bounded rationality has had little impact on researchers studying older adults' decision making. This omission is surprising, as human constraints on computation and memory are exacerbated in older adults. The study of older adults' decision-making processes could benefit from employing a bounded rationality perspective,…
Hanoch, Yaniv; Wood, Stacey; Rice, Thomas
Background. Older adults are likely to experience delayed rates of wound healing, impaired neuroendocrine responsiveness, and increased daily stress. Exercise activity has been shown to have a positive effect on physiological functioning and psychological functioning among older adults. This study evaluated the effect of a 3-month exercise program on wound healing, neuroendocrine function, and perceived stress among healthy older adults.
Charles F. Emery; Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser; Ronald Glaser; William B. Malarkey; David J. Frid
The ability to accurately and reliably predict whether an older adult will commit suicide has eluded clinicians and researchers. A random national sample of psychologists who work with older adults was surveyed regarding their perception of 36 risk factors for completed suicide and indirect self-destructive behavior in older adults. This study produced a profile of psychologists' assessment and treatment practices
Lisa M. Brown; Bruce Bongar; Karin M. Cleary
This article describes how Web 2.0 technologies may facilitate journaling and related inquiry methods among older adults. Benefits and limitations of journaling are summarized as well as computer skills of older adults. We then describe how Web 2.0 technologies can enhance journaling among older adults by diminishing feelings of isolation,…
Shepherd, Craig E.; Aagard, Steven
Based on Nicholas' framework for assessing information needs, this research aims to construct a profile of both Israeli older adults and their information needs regarding laws and social services. Data were collected by questionnaires answered by 200 older adults, born in Europe, Asia and Africa, who attended social clubs for older adults. The…
Getz, Irith; Weissman, Gabriella
Low health literacy is common among Medicare recipients and affects their understanding of complex medication regimens. Interventions are needed to improve medication use among older adults, while addressing low health literacy. Community-dwelling older adults in this study were enrolled in an inner-city adult day center. They completed a baseline measure of health literacy, medication self-efficacy, and medication adherence. They were provided with a personalized, illustrated daily medication schedule (PictureRx™). Six weeks later, their medication self-efficacy and adherence were assessed. Among the 20 participants in this pilot project, 70% had high likelihood of limited health literacy and took an average of 13.2 prescription medications. Both self-efficacy and medication adherence increased significantly after provision of the PictureRx cards (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively). Al participants rated the PictureRx cards as very helpful in terms of helping them remember the medication’s purpose and dosing. Illustrated daily medication schedules improve medication self-efficacy and adherence among at-risk, community-dwelling older adults. PMID:22587641
Martin, Delinda; Kripalani, Sunil; DuPapau, V.J.
Abstract Objective To identify the health-related needs of community-dwelling older adults with mild memory loss. Design Qualitative study using semistructured, audiotaped, face-to-face interviews and focus groups. Setting A large community in Newfoundland. Participants Twenty-two adults between the ages of 58 and 80 years. Methods This needs assessment used a qualitative methodology of collecting and analyzing narrative data to develop an understanding of the issues, resources, and constraints of community-dwelling older adults with mild memory loss. Data were collected through semistructured, audiotaped, face-to-face interviews and focus groups. Transcripts of the interviews were analyzed using interpretive phenomenologic analysis. Main findings Three constitutive patterns with relational themes and subthemes were identified: forgetting and remembering, normalizing yet questioning, and having limited knowledge of resources. Participants described many examples of how their daily lives were affected by forgetfulness. They had very little knowledge of resources that provided information or support. Most of the participants believed they could not discuss their memory problems with their family doctors. Conclusion It is important for older adults with mild memory loss to have access to resources that will assist them in understanding their condition and make them feel supported. PMID:23486801
Parsons, Karen; Surprenant, Aimee; Tracey, Anne-Marie; Godwin, Marshall
Both sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and cognitive impairment are common among older adults, yet few studies have examined their relationship within this population to determine whether the effect of SDB on cognition is of similar or greater magnitude as that observed in younger- and middle-aged adults. Here, we review the extant literature and report that studies are largely supportive of an association between SDB and cognitive impairment in older adults, particularly in the domains of attention/vigilance, executive function, and verbal delayed recall memory. Presence of the APOE4 allele may confer increased vulnerability to SDB-associated cognitive dysfunction among elderly individuals. Although findings are mixed, there is strong evidence to suggest that SDB-related intermittent hypoxemia is the primary mechanism through which SDB exerts its adverse effects on cognition. We propose a microvascular model in which chronic intermittent hypoxemia causes vasculopathy that ultimately is expressed as cognitive impairment in the older adult. However, it remains unclear if the effects of SDB on cognition are the same regardless of age, or if there is a synergistic interaction between age and SDB. PMID:22752614
Zimmerman, Molly E.; Aloia, Mark S.
Few studies have compared the phenomenological properties of younger and older adults' memories for emotional events. Some studies suggest that younger adults remember negative information more vividly than positive information whereas other studies suggest that positive emotion yields phenomenologically richer memories than negative emotion for both younger and older adults. One problem with previous studies is a tendency to treat emotion as a dichotomous variable. In contrast, emotional richness demands inclusion of assessments beyond just a positive and negative dimension (e.g., assessing specific emotions like anger, fear and happiness). The present study investigated different properties of autobiographical remembering as a function of discrete emotions and age. Thirty-two younger and thirty-one older adults participated by recalling recent and remote memories associated with six emotional categories and completed the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire for each. Results demonstrated that older adults' angry memories received lower ratings on some phenomenological properties than other emotional memories whereas younger adults' angry memories did not show this same pattern. These results are discussed within the context of socioemotional selectivity theory. PMID:25029295
Uzer, Tugba; Gulgoz, Sami
Connected health devices are generally designed for unsupervised use, by non-healthcare professionals, facilitating independent control of the individuals own healthcare. Older adults are major users of such devices and are a population significantly increasing in size. This group presents challenges due to the wide spectrum of capabilities and attitudes towards technology. The fit between capabilities of the user and demands of the device can be optimised in a process called Human Centred Design. Here we review examples of some connected health devices chosen by random selection, assess older adult known capabilities and attitudes and finally make analytical recommendations for design approaches and design specifications. PMID:25563225
Harte, Richard P.; Glynn, Liam G.; Broderick, Barry J.; Rodriguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Baker, Paul M. A.; McGuiness, Bernadette; O’Sullivan, Leonard; Diaz, Marta; Quinlan, Leo R.; ÓLaighin, Gearóid
Arthritis is highly prevalent and is the leading cause of disability among older adults in the United States owing to the aging of the population and increases in the prevalence of risk factors (e.g., obesity). Arthritis will play a large role in the health-related quality of life, functional independence, and disability of older adults in the upcoming decades. We have emphasized the role of the public health system in reducing the impact of this large and growing public health problem, and we have presented priority public health actions. PMID:22390506
Helmick, Charles G.; Brady, Teresa J.
BACKGROUND Little is known about complementary medication use among older adults with cancer, particularly those undergoing chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of complementary medication use and to identify factors associated with its use among older adults with cancer. METHODS The prevalence of complementary medication use (defined as herbal agents, minerals, or other dietary supplements excluding vitamins) was evaluated in a cohort of adults aged ?65 years who were about to start chemotherapy for their cancer. The association between complementary medication use and patient characteristics (sociodemographics; comorbidity; functional, nutritional, psychological, and cognitive status); medication use (number of medications and concurrent vitamin use); and cancer characteristics (type and stage) was analyzed. RESULTS The cohort included 545 patients [mean age 73 years (range 65–91); 52% female] with cancer (61% Stage IV). Seventeen percent (N=93) of these patients reported using ?1 complementary medications [mean number of complementary medications among users was 2 (range 1–10)]. Complementary medication use was associated with: 1) earlier cancer stage, with 29% of those with stages I–II vs. 17% with III–IV (OR=2.05, 95% CI:1.21–3.49); and 2) less impairment with instrumental activities of daily living (OR=1.39, 95% CI:1.12–1.73). CONCLUSIONS Complementary medication use was reported by 17% of older adults with cancer and was more common among those with less advanced disease (receiving adjuvant potentially curative treatment) and higher functional status. Further studies are needed to determine the association between complementary medication use and cancer outcomes among older adults. PMID:22359348
Maggiore, Ronald J; Gross, Cary P; Togawa, Kayo; Tew, William P; Mohile, Supriya G; Owusu, Cynthia; Klepin, Heidi D; Lichtman, Stuart M; Gajra, Ajeet; Ramani, Rupal; Katheria, Vani; Klapper, Shira M; Hansen, Kurt; Hurria, Arti
Many older adults do not meet physical activity recommendations and suffer from health-related complications. Reinforcement interventions can have pronounced effects on promoting behavior change; this study evaluated the efficacy of a reinforcement intervention to enhance walking in older adults. Forty-five sedentary adults with mild to moderate hypertension were randomized to 12-week interventions consisting of pedometers and guidelines to walk 10,000 steps/day or that same intervention with chances to win $1-$100 prizes for meeting recommendations. Patients walked an average of about 4,000 steps/day at baseline. Throughout the intervention, participants in the reinforcement intervention met walking goals on 82.5% ± 25.8% of days versus 55.3% ± 37.1% of days in the control condition, p < .01. Even though steps walked increased significantly in both groups relative to baseline, participants in the reinforcement condition walked an average of about 2,000 more steps/day than participants in the control condition, p < .02. Beneficial effects of the reinforcement condition relative to the control condition persisted at a 24-week follow-up evaluation, p < .02, although steps/day were lower than during the intervention period in both groups. Participants in the reinforcement intervention also evidenced greater reductions in blood pressure and weight over time and improvements in fitness indices, ps < .05. This reinforcement-based intervention substantially increased walking and improved clinical parameters, suggesting that larger-scale evaluations of reinforcement-based interventions for enhancing active lifestyles in older adults are warranted. Ultimately, economic analyses may reveal reinforcement interventions to be cost-effective, especially in high-risk populations of older adults. PMID:24128075
Petry, Nancy M.; Andrade, Leonardo F.; Barry, Danielle; Byrne, Shannon
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate quality of life (QOL) and attitudes to ageing in Turkish older adults at two old people's homes (nursing homes) and to explain relationship between QOL and attitudes to ageing. METHODS: This study is a quantitative and descriptive exploratory study of QOL and attitudes to ageing of older adults in nursing homes in a developing country. INSTRUMENTS: Two international data measurement tools were used for data collection. Data measurement instruments in this study are The World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument-Older Adults Module (WHOQOL-OLD) and the WHO - Attitudes to Ageing Questionnaire (AAQ). The WHOQOL-OLD module consists of 24 items assigned to six facets (sensory abilities, autonomy, past, present and future activities, social participation, death and dying and intimacy) AAQ consists of 24 items classified in three domains (psychosocial loss, physical change and psychological growth) with eight items each. PARTICIPANTS: The Turkish version of the WHOQOL-OLD and AAQ was administered to 120 older (>65 years) adults living in two old people's homes in Samsun Province, Turkey. This study was conducted and planned between on 1 November 2011 and on 31 November, 2011. RESULTS: The results indicated that there was significant relationship between QOL and attitudes to ageing of older adults. In this study, the highest significant relationship is between psychological growth subscale of attitudes to ageing and sensory abilities subscale of QOL (r = 0.579; P < 0.01). Overall QOL and overall attitudes to ageing had a significant and positive relationship (r = 0.408; P < 0.01). The dimensions of attitudes to ageing (psychosocial loss, physical change and psychological growth) were significant predictors for QOL in older adults in Turkey. It was found that the gender does not affect overall QOL in older adults. However, happiness is significant variable for overall QOL in this study. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that QOL is a complex, multidimensional concept that should be studied at different levels of analysis in Turkey and other developing countries. The results of this study emphasize the importance of QOL in older adults in older people's homes in Turkey and attitudes to ageing of nursing home residents in Turkey. PMID:23240580
Top, Mehmet; Dikmeta?, Elif
The association among race, neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES), and chronic pain has not been well examined in older people. Clinical data was obtained from older adults (>50 years old) presenting to a tertiary care pain center. The relative roles of race and neighborhood SES on the chronic pain experienced in older black and white adults were assessed. Older blacks experienced more affective pain, pain-related disability and mood disorder symptoms than older whites. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed previously hypothesized factors for the McGill Pain Questionnaire pain dimensions and the Pain Disability Index. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses also identified factors in the Brief Symptom Inventory and neighborhood SES. Structural equation modeling showed black race was associated with lower neighborhood SES and also with increased affective pain, obligatory disability and mood disorders mediationally through neighborhood SES. It was indirectly associated with increased sensory and miscellaneous pain, and voluntary disability through low neighborhood SES. Racial interaction examination showed that neighborhood SES had the same relationship to outcomes by race. We found increasing neighborhood SES is associated with decreasing negative chronic pain outcomes for older blacks and whites. Our data provide evidence that both race and neighborhood SES are important factors to consider when examining the chronic pain experience among older Americans. PMID:17987920
Fuentes, Molly; Hart-Johnson, Tamera; Green, Carmen R.
Abstract?Age-related changes in circadian rhythms may contribute to the sleep disruption observed in older adults. A reduction in responsiveness to photic stimuli in the circadian timing system has been hypothesized as a possible reason for the advanced circadian phase in older adults. This project compared phase-shifting responses to 2 h of broad-spectrum white light at moderate and high intensities in younger and older adults. Subjects included 29 healthy young (25.1 ± 4.1 years; male to female ratio: 8: 21) and 16 healthy older (66.5 ± 6.0 years; male to female ratio: 5: 11) subjects, who participated in two 4-night and 3-day laboratory stays, separated by at least 3 weeks. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three different time-points, 8 h before (?8), 3 h before (?3) or 3 h after (+3) the core body temperature minimum (CBTmin) measured on the baseline night. For each condition, subjects were exposed in a randomized order to 2 h light pulses of two intensities (2000 lux and 8000 lux) during the two different laboratory stays. Phase shifts were analysed according to the time of melatonin midpoint on the nights before and after light exposure. Older subjects in this study showed an earlier baseline phase and lower amplitude of melatonin rhythm compared to younger subjects, but there was no evidence of age-related changes in the magnitude or direction of phase shifts of melatonin midpoint in response to 2 h of light at either 2000 lux or 8000 lux. These results indicate that the acute phase-shifting response to moderate- or high-intensity broad spectrum light is not significantly affected by age. PMID:24144880
Kim, Seong Jae; Benloucif, Susan; Reid, Kathryn Jean; Weintraub, Sandra; Kennedy, Nancy; Wolfe, Lisa F; Zee, Phyllis C
Older people with intellectual disability (ID) are characterized by low physical activity (PA) levels. PA is important for reducing health risks and maintaining adequate fitness levels for performing activities of daily living. The aim of this study was to explore preferences of older adults with ID for specific physical activities, and to gain insight into facilitators and barriers to engaging into PA. Fourteen in-depth interviews and four focus groups were undertaken, with a total of 40 older adults with mild and moderate ID included in the analysis. NVivo software was used for analysing the transcribed verbatim interviews. In total, 30 codes for facilitators and barriers were identified. Themes concerning facilitators to PA were enjoyment, support from others, social contact and friendship, reward, familiarity, and routine of activities. Themes concerning barriers to PA were health and physiological factors, lack of self-confidence, lack of skills, lack of support, transportation problems, costs, and lack of appropriate PA options and materials. The results of the present study suggest that older adults with ID may benefit from specific PA programs, adapted to their individual needs and limitations. Results can be used for developing feasible health promotion programs for older adults with ID. PMID:24937743
van Schijndel-Speet, Marieke; Evenhuis, Heleen M; van Wijck, Ruud; van Empelen, Pepijn; Echteld, Michael A
In the present study we investigated the relations between younger and older adults' metacomprehension knowledge and their comprehension of expository and narrative texts as well as their self-perceptions of comprehension evaluation ability. We employed the Metacomprehension Scale (MCS) designed by Moore, Zabrucky, and Commander (1997a) to assess readers' metacomprehension knowledge; adults' self-perceived comprehension evaluation ability was measured using a Likert
The authors tested the feasibility and acceptability, and explored the outcomes, of 2 walking interventions based on ecological models among older adults living in retirement communities. An enhanced intervention (EI) was compared with a standard walking intervention (SI) among residents in 4 retirement facilities (N = 87 at baseline; mean age = 84.1 yr). All participants received a walking intervention including pedometers, printed materials, and biweekly group sessions. EI participants also received phone counseling and environmental-awareness components. Measures included pedometer step counts, activities of daily living, environment-related variables, physical function, depression, cognitive function, satisfaction, and adherence. Results indicated improvements among the total sample for step counts, neighborhood barriers, cognitive function, and satisfaction with walking opportunities. Satisfaction and adherence were high. Both walking interventions were feasible to implement among facility-dwelling older adults. Future studies can build on this multilevel approach. PMID:22186798
Rosenberg, Dori E; Kerr, Jacqueline; Sallis, James F; Norman, Gregory J; Calfas, Karen; Patrick, Kevin
This is the second year that editors of the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society have been gracious enough to allow us to compile the latest literature regarding medication misadventures (i.e., medication errors and adverse drug events) for its readers. As noted in some recent well written comprehensive reviews, medication errors due to suboptimal drug use continues to be very common in older adults.1–3 We believe that it is important to summarize this literature in a single place because it is very difficult to compile using standard literature search techniques as they often miss key studies. We hope you find these articles informative and useful in the conduct of high quality clinical research and care of older adults. PMID:25333528
Hanlon, Joseph T.; Semla, Todd P.; Schmader, Kenneth E.
Our study considered dental students' general attitudes towards older persons using the Aging Semantic Differential. The influence of age, gender, cohort, education, and academic exposure on general attitudes towards older adults was evaluated using a total of 328 dental students across all four years of academic standing. Students were assessed in the fall and spring semesters. The results showed differential responding on the four subscales, with slight positive ratings on the autonomy, acceptability, and integrity subscales and a slight negative rating for instrumentality. Females expressed more negative attitudes than their male counterparts, with no age differences. There was also no significant impact from a specific, didactic educational component offered to the fourth-year students. However, the fourth-year students were the only group to show positive changes across the full academic year. The results suggest that general attitudes can be changed, but didactic (classroom) forms of education alone are insufficient to meaningfully modify students' perceptions of the elderly. Exposure to older adults in a clinical setting appears to be a critical element, as the fourth-year students received much greater exposure to older patients and more intensified interface with their mentors. PMID:19126770
Nochajski, Thomas H; Waldrop, Deborah P; Davis, Elaine L; Fabiano, Jude A; Goldberg, Louis J
The objective of this study is to examine the prevalence and factors associated with frailty in Peruvian Navy Veteran's older adults and family members. A total of 311 non-institutionalized men and women aged 60 years and older, from the Geriatrics Service of the Peruvian Navy Medical Center (Centro Médico Naval "Cirujano Mayor Santiago Távara") were assessed between May and October 2010. Frailty was defined as having two or more of the following components: (1) unintentional weight-loss, (2) weakness (lowest 20% in grip-strength), (3) self-reported exhaustion, and (4) slow walking speed (lowest 20% 8-m walk-time in seconds). Additionally, information on socio-demographic factors, medical conditions, depressive symptoms, disability, and cognitive function were obtained. Of the 311 participants, 78 (25.1%) were not frail, 147 (47.3%) were pre-frail, and 86 (27.8%) were frail. Using logistic regression analysis, we found that older age, being married, falls in the last year and disability were factors significantly associated with being frail. We conclude that prevalence of pre-frail and frail status in Peruvian Navy Veterans and family members is high. Our data reports risk factors for frailty that have been reported in the past in other population groups. A larger sample and longitudinal follow-up are needed to design and implement comprehensive geriatric interventions that can benefit Peruvian Navy Veteran's older adults at risk of becoming frail. PMID:23978328
Runzer-Colmenares, Fernando M; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Al Snih, Soham; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Parodi, José F; Wong, Rebeca
The objective of this study is to examine the prevalence and factors associated with frailty in Peruvian Navy Veteran's older adults and family members. A total of 311 non-institutionalized men and women aged 60 years and older, from the Geriatrics Service of the Peruvian Navy Medical Center (Centro Médico Naval “Cirujano Mayor Santiago Távara”) were assessed between May and October 2010. Frailty was defined as having two or more of the following components: 1) unintentional weight-loss, 2) weakness (lowest 20% in grip-strength), 3) self-reported exhaustion, and 4) slow walking speed (lowest 20% 8-meter walk-time in seconds). Additionally, information on socio-demographic factors, medical conditions, depressive symptoms, disability, and cognitive function were obtained. Of the 311 participants, 78 (25.1%) were not frail, 147 (47.3%) were pre-frail, and 86 (27.8%) were frail. Using logistic regression analysis, we found that older age, being married, falls in the last year and disability were factors significantly associated with being frail. We conclude that prevalence of pre-frail and frail status in Peruvian Navy Veterans and family members is high. Our data reports risk factors for frailty that have been reported in the past in other population groups. A larger sample and longitudinal follow-up are needed to design and implement comprehensive geriatric interventions that can benefit Peruvian Navy Veteran's older adults at risk of becoming frail. PMID:23978328
Runzer-Colmenares, Fernando M.; Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Snih, Soham Al; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.; Parodi, José F.; Wong, Rebeca
When presented with emotional visual scenes, older adults have been found to be equally capable to regulate emotion expression as younger adults, corroborating the view that emotion regulation skills are maintained or even improved in later adulthood. However, the possibility that gaze direction might help achieve an emotion control goal has not been taken into account, raising the question whether the effortful processing of expressive regulation is really spared from the general age-related decline. Since it does not allow perceptual attention to be redirected away from the emotional source, music provides a useful way to address this question. In the present study, affective, behavioral, and physiological consequences of free expression of emotion, expressive suppression and expressive enhancement were measured in 31 younger and 30 older adults while they listened to positive and negative musical excerpts. The main results indicated that compared to younger adults, older adults reported experiencing less emotional intensity in response to negative music during the free expression of emotion condition. No age difference was found in the ability to amplify or reduce emotional expressions. However, an age-related decline in the ability to reduce the intensity of emotional state and an age-related increase in physiological reactivity were found when participants were instructed to suppress negative expression. Taken together, the current data support previous findings suggesting an age-related change in response to music. They also corroborate the observation that older adults are as efficient as younger adults at controlling behavioral expression. But most importantly, they suggest that when faced with auditory sources of negative emotion, older age does not always confer a better ability to regulate emotions. PMID:25741278
Vieillard, Sandrine; Harm, Jonathan; Bigand, Emmanuel
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an increasing problem among the elderly. Multiple factors related to ageing, such as comorbidities, nutritional status and swallowing dysfunction have been implicated in the increased incidence of CAP in the older population. Moreover, mortality in patients with CAP rises dramatically with increasing age. Streptococcus pneumoniae is still the most common pathogen among the elderly, although CAP may also be caused by drug-resistant microorganisms and aspiration pneumonia. Furthermore, in the elderly CAP has a different clinical presentation, often lacking the typical acute symptoms observed in younger adults, due to the lower local and systemic inflammatory response. Several independent prognostic factors for mortality in the elderly have been identified, including factors related to pneumonia severity, inadequate response to infection, and low functional status. CAP scores and biomarkers have lower prognostic value in the elderly, and so there is a need to find new scales or to set new cut-off points for current scores in this population. Adherence to the current guidelines for CAP has a significant beneficial impact on clinical outcomes in elderly patients. Particular attention should also be paid to nutritional status, fluid administration, functional status, and comorbidity stabilizing therapy in this group of frail patients. This article presents an up-to-date review of the main aspects of CAP in elderly patients, including epidemiology, causative organisms, clinical features, and prognosis, and assesses key points for best practices for the management of the disease. PMID:25165554
Simonetti, Antonella F.; Viasus, Diego; Garcia-Vidal, Carolina
\\u000a Rheumatic diseases and their resultant musculoskeletal and cardiopulmonary impairments are primary conditions limiting activity\\u000a and function in older adults. Certain rheumatologic conditions such as polymyalgia rheumatica, degenerative spinal stenosis,\\u000a and osteoporosis occur later in life. Other conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis (OA), and ankylosing spondylitis\\u000a manifest at younger ages but their clinical manifestations may exacerbate with advancing age and
Maura Daly Iversen; Madhuri K. Kale
The review describes evidence-based psychological treatments (EBTs) for insomnia in older adults. Following coding procedures developed by the American Psychological Association's Committee on Science and Practice of the Society for Clinical Psychology, two treatments were found to meet EBT criteria: sleep restriction–sleep compression therapy and multicomponent cognitive–behavioral therapy. One additional treatment (stimulus control therapy) partially met criteria, but further corroborating
Susan M. McCurry; Rebecca G. Logsdon; Linda Teri; Michael V. Vitiello
This study examined potential predictors of treatment outcome in late-life insomnia. Fifty-four older adults with chronic insomnia were treated with cognitive–behavior therapy (CBT), pharmacotherapy (PCT), or combined CBT plus PCT. Pretreatment characteristics such as demographic, clinical, psychometric, and sleep variables were examined as correlates or potential predictors of treatment response. Treatment response was defined by posttreatment sleep efficiency as measured
Anouk Gagné; Charles M. Morin
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. Clinical and subclinical disease increase\\u000a in prevalence with age and impose a significant burden on this population. Given the increase in absolute cardiovascular risk\\u000a with age, there is tremendous potential for benefit from primary and secondary cardiovascular disease preventive interventions\\u000a in the elderly. Recent clinical trials focusing
Ali Yazdanyar; Anne B. Newman
This article is an exploratory-descriptive study of older adult public housing residents who were forcibly relocated from their homes when Hurricane Andrew struck Miami-Dade County in 1992. The subjects were all African Americans (N = 58) with a mean age of 67 years (S.D. = 9.8) who lived in economically depressed, low-income communities. Almost 70% were females. The subjects suffered
Sara Sanders; Stan L. Bowie; Yvonne Dias Bowie
In 3 experiments, the authors examined part-set cuing effects in younger and older adults. Participants heard lists of category exemplars and later recalled them. Recall was uncued or cued with a subset of studied items. In Experiment 1, participants were cued with some of the category names, and they remembered fewer never-cued categories than a free-recall condition. In Experiment 2,
Elizabeth J. Marsh; Patrick O. Dolan; David A. Balota; Henry L. Roediger
Memory for actions that are performed is substantially better than memory for descriptions of actions (e.g., Earles, 1996).\\u000a In fact, people may form memories for actions even if they do not intend to or want to remember them. The directed forgetting\\u000a paradigm was used to test the ability of younger and older adults to intentionally forget simple actions (also known
Julie L. Earles; Alan W. Kersten
Objective: Prior studies have found high rates of alcohol use and abuse\\/depen- dence, depression, bankruptcy, and incar- ceration associated with recreational gam- bling. Despite growing rates of recreational gambling in older adults, little is known re- garding its health correlates in this age group. The objective of this study was to identify health and well-being correlates of past-year recreational gambling
Rani A. Desai; Paul K. Maciejewski; David J. Dausey; Barbara J. Caldarone; Marc N. Potenza
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between treatment with antipsychotics (both conventional and atypical) and all-cause mortality.\\u000aDESIGN: Population-based, retrospective cohort study.\\u000aSETTING: Ontario, Canada.\\u000aPATIENTS: Older adults with dementia who were followed between 1 April 1997 and 31 March 2003.\\u000aMEASUREMENTS: The risk for death was determined at 30, 60, 120, and 180 days after the initial dispensing of antipsychotic
Sudeep S. Gill; Susan E. Bronskill; Sharon-Lise T. Normand; Geoffrey M. Anderson; Kathy Sykora; Kelvin Lam; Chaim M. Bell; Philip E. Lee; Hadas D. Fischer; Nathan Herrmann; Jerry H. Gurwitz; Paula A. Rochon
In this chapter, we review the psychological needs and service provisions for older adults with an intellectual disability\\u000a (ID). The reader will be directed toward research that identifies an increasing longevity, concomitant increases in aging-related\\u000a morbidities, and psychosocial factors. Specific aging-related conditions will be discussed, along with their impact on functional\\u000a status and mental health, including a discussion of the
James P. Acquilano; Philip W. Davidson; Matthew P. Janicki
Older adults represent a growing segment of the population with the highest suicide rate and an increasing need of counseling services for major depression and dysthymia. The present study examined the literature with the purpose of identifying research addressing psychosocial treatments of depression in later life. A summary of treatments…
Zalaquett, Carlos P.; Stens, Andrea N.
Presents an overview of self-regulation models: theory of planned behavior, protection motivation theory, health belief model, action control theory, transtheoretical model of behavior change, health action process, and precaution adoption process. Applies models to health behavior change in older adults with cardiovascular disease or diabetes.…
Purdie, Nola; McCrindle, Andrea
Volunteering is viewed as an empowerment process whereby older adults actively participate in the community and improve their well-being and health. Yet little is known about racial differences in volunteering, and even less in terms of perceived benefits from volunteering as a means of empowerment. The present study addresses this research gap by…
Tang, Fengyan; Copeland, Valire Carr; Wexler, Sandra
The expansion of the social computing environment as a new basis for socioeconomic activities could enhance the quality of life of older adults, but also it could make the problem of digital divide more serious. In this study, the research directions and agenda of social computing for an aging society are presented, which have two major directions: basic study and
Yong Gu Ji; Junho Choi; Jee Yeon Lee; Kwanghee Han; Jinwoo Kim; In-Kwon Lee
The present research investigated the effects of negation on young and older adults' comprehension of sentences. Participants read sentences, named probe words, answered comprehension questions, and completed the operation-span test. Negation adversely affected comprehension in both age groups such that probe word naming times were marginally…
Margolin, Sara J.; Abrams, Lise
The present study tested cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia in older adults with osteoarthritis, coronary artery disease, or pulmonary disease. Ninety-two participants (mean age = 69 years) were randomly assigned to classroom CBT or stress management and wellness (SMW) training, which served as a placebo condition. Compared with SMW,…
Rybarczyk, Bruce; Stepanski, Edward; Fogg, Louis; Lopez, Martita; Barry, Paulette; Davis, Andrew
Purpose: We present final outcomes from the multiple-component Fit and Strong! intervention for older adults with lower extremity osteoarthritis. Design and Methods: A randomized controlled trial compared the effects of this exercise and behavior-change program followed by home-based reinforcement (n = 115) with a wait list control (n = 100) at 2,…
Hughes, Susan L.; Seymour, Rachel B.; Campbell, Richard T.; Huber, Gail; Pollak, Naomi; Sharma, Leena; Desai, Pankaja
As aging is occurring at a rate never before seen in South Korea, the present study examines the predictors of mental health in a nationally representative sample of older adults (n = 4,155), drawn from Wave I of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging. Findings show that sociodemographic factors, chronic health conditions, level of cognition, and…
Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Lee, Jungui
Community wellbeing is a function of many factors working in concert to promote an optimal quality of life for all members of a community. It is argued here that the promotion of lifelong learning among older adults can significantly contribute to community wellbeing. The aging society is a worldwide phenomenon presenting both opportunities and…
Merriam, Sharan B.; Kee, Youngwha
The unprecedented growth in the nation's older adult population has called attention to the increasing need for geriatric social workers. However, research suggests that social work students hold ageist attitudes that prevent many from pursuing careers in gerontology. The present study sought to identify student perceptions of gerontology content…
Olson, Mark D.
Prospective memory performance shows a decline in late adulthood. The present article examines the role of 3 main executive function facets (i.e., shifting, updating, and inhibition) as possible developmental mechanisms associated with these age effects. One hundred seventy-five young and 110 older adults performed a battery of cognitive tests…
Schnitzspahn, Katharina M.; Stahl, Christoph; Zeintl, Melanie; Kaller, Christoph P.; Kliegel, Matthias
'The extent to which an individual's medication-taking behaviour and/or execution of lifestyle changes, corresponds with agreed recommendations from a healthcare provider', is a highly complex behaviour, defined as adherence. However, intentional non-adherence is regularly observed and results in negative outcomes for patients along with increased healthcare provision costs. Whilst this is a consistent issue amongst adults of all ages, the burden of chronic disease is greatest amongst older adults. As a result, the absolute prevalence of intentional non-adherence is increased in this population. This non-systematic review of intentional non-adherence to medication highlights the extent of the problem amongst older adults. It notes that age, per se, is not a contributory factor in intentionally non-adherent behaviours. Moreover, it describes the difference in methodology required to identify such behaviours in contrast to reports of non-adherence in general: the use of focus groups, semi-structured, one-to-one interviews and questionnaires as opposed to pill counts, electronic medication monitors and analysis of prescription refill rates. Using Leventhal's Common-Sense Model of Self-Regulation, it emphasizes six key factors that may contribute to intentional non-adherence amongst older adults: illness beliefs, the perceived risks (e.g. dependence, adverse effects), benefits and necessity of potential treatments, the patient-practitioner relationship, inter-current physical and mental illnesses, financial constraints and pharmaceutical/pharmacological issues (poly-pharmacy/regimen complexity). It describes the current evidence for each of these aspects and notes the paucity of data validating Leventhal's model in this regard. It also reports on interventions that may address these issues and explicitly acknowledges the lack of evidence-based interventions available to healthcare practitioners. As a result, it highlights five key areas that require urgent research amongst older adults: (1) the overlap between intentional and unintentional non-adherence, particularly amongst those who may be frail or isolated; (2) the potential correlation between symptomatic benefit and intentional vs. unintentional non-adherence to medication; (3) an evaluation of the source of prescribing (i.e. a long-standing provider vs. an acute episode of care) and the patient-prescriber relationship as determinants of intentional and unintentional non-adherence; (4) the decision-making processes leading to selective intentional non-adherence amongst older adults with multiple medical problems; and (5) the development and evaluation of interventions designed to reduce intentional non-adherence, specifically addressing each of the aspects listed above. PMID:24566876
Mukhtar, Omar; Weinman, John; Jackson, Stephen H D
Older adults living in healthcare communities (HCCs) have multiple comorbidities and are at increased risk of malnutrition and unintended weight loss. Aging affects nearly every system as well as body composition and structure, causing physiological changes that can affect nutrition status. A significant percentage (56%) of residents who live in nursing facilities require extensive help to eat and have dental problems such as ill-fitting dentures, missing teeth, and swallowing problems, which can lead to inadequate caloric intake and unintended weight loss. Alzheimer disease or dementia is prevalent in both nursing facilities and in assisted living/residential care communities, where it affects 45% of older adults. In cognitively impaired residents, most tube feeding placements occur in the acute care setting and result in significant use of additional healthcare resources, along with high postinsertion mortality rates within 60 days of insertion. Nursing facilities receiving Medicare or Medicaid funding must abide by state and federal regulations and undergo rigorous surveys while balancing complex decisions related to initial placement of feeding tubes. Healthcare professionals must recognize the importance of establishing nutrition treatment goals that are resident centered and that respect the unique values and personal decisions of the older adult. Informed choice, resident-centered care decisions, and the review of living wills and/or advance directives are essential in the decision-making process. After enteral nutrition is started, healthcare practitioners must carefully review the physician's orders and administer and monitor the resident's tolerance, checking for potential complications. PMID:24964789
Posthauer, Mary Ellen; Dorner, Becky; Friedrich, Elizabeth K
Objective While neuropathy is common in the elderly, nerve conduction (NC) reproducibility in older adults is not well-established. We sought to evaluate intraobserver reproducibility of peroneal motor NC measures in a diverse sample of older adults. Methods We measured peroneal motor NC amplitude and velocity in a subset of participants (mean age=82.9 ± 2.7, n=62, 50% female, 51.6% black, 35.5% DM) in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Using coefficients of variation (CVs), intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and Bland Altman Plots, we compared two sets of measurements taken by the same examiner hours apart on the same day. Results Low CVs (2.15–4.24%) and moderate to high ICCs (0.75–0.99) were observed. No systematic variation was found across measures. Despite small numbers in some subgroups, we found no differences in reproducibility by diabetes, race, or study site. Conclusion NC measures have moderate to high intraobsever reproducibility in older adults and are not affected by diabetes, race, or gender. Significance These data provide evidence to support use of these measures in aging research. PMID:23022036
Ward, Rachel E.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Vinik, Aaron I.; Zivkovic, Sasa A.; Njajou, Omer T.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Harris, Tamara B.; Newman, Anne B.; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.
The usability of a touch-panel interface was compared among young, middle-aged, and older adults. In addition, a performance model of a touch panel was developed so that pointing time could be predicted with higher accuracy. Moreover, the target location to which a participant could point most quickly was determined. The pointing time with a PC mouse was longer for the older adults than for the other age groups, whereas there were no significant differences in pointing time among the three age groups when a touch-panel interface was used. Pointing to the center of a square target led to the fastest pointing time among nine target locations. Based on these results, we offer some guidelines for the design of touch-panel interfaces and show implications for users of different age groups. Actual or potential applications of this research include designing touch-panel interfaces to make them accessible for older adults and predicting movement times when users operate such devices. PMID:16553065
Murata, Atsuo; Iwase, Hirokazu
Perceived autonomy refers to perceived personal self-governance, or rather that a person feels free from external constraint to determine his or her own actions and behaviors. This study examined perceived autonomy among community-dwelling older adults residing in New York City and West Japan. A cross-sectional design was adopted using self-reports from 340 older adults (n = 220 Japanese, n = 120 Americans) recruited from senior centers. Perceived autonomy was quantified with the Hertz Perceived Enactment of Autonomy Scale (HPEAS), which includes three subscales: voluntariness, individuality, and self-direction. Compared to American respondents, more Japanese respondents were male (67.7% vs. 40.8%), more likely to live with others (78% vs. 25.7%), reported lower perceived autonomy (86.9 vs. 109.5), and scored lower on all three subscales of the HPEAS. Despite significant differences in perceived autonomy, a sociocultural factor such as social support was identified as an important factor for older adults in both groups. PMID:24529389
Matsui, Miho; Capezuti, Elizabeth
OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between negative self-rated health and indicators of health, wellbeing and sociodemographic variables in older adults. METHODS Cross-sectional study that used data from a population-based health survey with a probability cluster sample that was carried out in Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil,, in 2008 and 2009. The participants were older adults (? 60 years) and the dependent variable was self-rated health, categorized as: excellent, very good, good, bad and very bad. The adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated by means of Poisson multiple regression. RESULTS The highest prevalences of bad/very bad self-rated health were observed in the individuals who never attended school, in those with lower level of schooling, with monthly per capita family income lower than one minimum salary. Individuals who scored five or more in the physical health indicator also had bad self-rated health, as well as those who scored five or more in the Self-Reporting Questionnaire 20 and those who did not refer feeling happiness all the time. CONCLUSIONS The independent effects of material life conditions, physical and mental health and subjective wellbeing, observed in self-rated health, suggest that older adults can benefit by health policies supported by a global and integrative view of old age. PMID:25372161
Borim, Flávia Silva Arbex; Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Francisco, Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo
Objectives. Discrepancy between self-report- and actigraphy-measured sleep, often considered an artifact of measurement error, has been well documented among insomnia patients. Sleep problems are common among older adults, and this discrepancy may represent meaningful sleep-related phenomenon, which could have clinical and research significance. Method. Sleep discrepancy was examined in 4 groups of older adults (N = 152, mean age = 71.93 years) based on sleep complaint versus no complaint and presence versus absence of insomnia symptoms. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory-second edition (BDI-II) and 14 nights of sleep diaries and actigraphy. Results. Controlling for covariates, group differences were found in the duration and frequency of discrepancy in sleep onset latency (SOLd) and wake after sleep onset (WASOd). Those with insomnia symptoms and complaints reported greater duration and frequency of WASOd than the other 3 groups. Quantities of SOLd and WASOd were related to BDI-II score and group status, indicating that sleep discrepancy has meaningful clinical correlates. Discussion. Discrepancy occurred across all groups but was pronounced among the group with both insomnia symptoms and complaints. This discrepancy may provide a means of quantifying and conceptualizing the transition from wake to sleep among older adults, particularly those with sleeping problems. PMID:23804432
The 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) examined three types of literacy--prose, document, and quantitative--among the entire older adult population and various subgroups thereof. Of the nationally representative sample of 26,091 adults interviewed during the NALS, 2,267 were aged 60-69, 1,005 were aged 70-79, and 442 were at least 80 years…
Brown, Helen; And Others
Because of the dearth of available partners, older women looking to date may have to relax their dating standards to find a dating partner, perhaps accepting a life situation that is not what they had hoped for. However older women may be reluctant to sacrifice an often recently-gained lifestyle free of caregiving obligations. Older men, on the other hand, have a large pool of potential dating partners and do not face the same dilemma. We compared Internet dating profiles for 100 older adults and 100 younger adults, and found that older adults (and especially older women) were more selective than younger adults when it came to the age, race, religion, income, and height of a prospective dating partner. However, older adults were willing to travel substantially farther than younger adults to meet the right partner. These findings paint a clear picture of older Internet daters as eager to meet the right person, but not desperate to meet just anyone. PMID:21391407
William, D McIntosh; Locker, Lawrence; Briley, Katherine; Ryan, Rebecca; Scott, Alison J
Since most working memory (WM) tasks used in dual-task (DT) postural paradigms include both storage and processing of information, it is difficult to determine the extent to which each of these contributes to interference with balance control. In the current study, a change-detection task (changes in colored squares between two presentation events) that estimates visual working memory capacity (VWMC) was paired with tasks of increasing postural demand (stance, perturbation) in young adults (YAs) and older adults (OAs) and performance compared between the two postural conditions and across the two populations. The change-detection task was selected as it requires storage of information without updating or manipulation; 34 YAs, 34 OAs, and five frail OAs were recruited. A significant reduction in VWMC occurred with increasing postural demand during the perturbation condition for both YAs (p < 0.01) and OAs (p < 0.001). VWMC was also significantly lower for OAs than YAs in the control condition (1.8 ± 0.7 vs. 2.8 ± 0.6) (p < 0.001). OAs showed a significant increase in the number of trials in which steps or rise to toes occurred during recovery between single-task (ST) and DT (p < 0.05; p < 0.05). OAs also showed a significant increase in normalized tibialis anterior amplitude (p < 0.001) following perturbations. YAs showed an increase in normalized area under the center of pressure trajectory and in AP forces (nAcopx1: p < 0.001; nFap1: p < 0.05) during the DT condition. PMID:24639065
Elaine Little, C; Woollacott, Marjorie
Two experiments investigated list-method directed forgetting with older and younger adults. Using standard directed forgetting instructions, significant forgetting was obtained with younger but not older adults. However, in Experiment 1 older adults showed forgetting with an experimenter-provided strategy that induced a mental context change—specifically, engaging in diversionary thought. Experiment 2 showed that age-related differences in directed forgetting occurred because older
Lili Sahakyan; Peter F. Delaney; Leilani B. Goodmon
Despite considerable research on depression in older adults, few studies have included individuals with personality disorders\\u000a or have used laboratory tasks to examine behavioral correlates of depression among older adults. This study used the Bechara\\u000a Gambling Task to examine the hypothesis that depressed older adults with co-morbid personality disorders (n = 59) would demonstrate greater aversion to risk, when compared with older
Alexander L. Chapman; Thomas R. Lynch; M. Zachary Rosenthal; Jennifer S. Cheavens; Moria J. Smoski; K. Ranga Rama Krishnan
As the world's population ages, there is an increasing need for community environments to support physical activity and social connections for older adults. This exploratory study sought to better understand older adults' usage and perceptions of community green spaces in Taipei, Taiwan, through direct observations of seven green spaces and nineteen structured interviews. Descriptive statistics from observations using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) confirm that older adults use Taipei's parks extensively. Our analyses of interviews support the following recommendations for age-friendly active living initiatives for older adults: make green spaces accessible to older adults; organize a variety of structured activities that appeal to older adults particularly in the morning; equip green spaces for age-appropriate physical activity; and, promote the health advantages of green spaces to older adults. PMID:24473116
Pleson, Eryn; Nieuwendyk, Laura M; Lee, Karen K; Chaddah, Anuradha; Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Schopflocher, Donald
As the world’s population ages, there is an increasing need for community environments to support physical activity and social connections for older adults. This exploratory study sought to better understand older adults’ usage and perceptions of community green spaces in Taipei, Taiwan, through direct observations of seven green spaces and nineteen structured interviews. Descriptive statistics from observations using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) confirm that older adults use Taipei’s parks extensively. Our analyses of interviews support the following recommendations for age-friendly active living initiatives for older adults: make green spaces accessible to older adults; organize a variety of structured activities that appeal to older adults particularly in the morning; equip green spaces for age-appropriate physical activity; and, promote the health advantages of green spaces to older adults. PMID:24473116
Pleson, Eryn; Nieuwendyk, Laura M.; Lee, Karen K.; Chaddah, Anuradha; Nykiforuk, Candace I. J.; Schopflocher, Donald
BACKGROUND: Most questionnaires used for physical activity (PA) surveillance have been developed for adults aged ?65 years. Given the health benefits of PA for older adults and the aging of the population, it is important to include adults aged 65+ years in PA surveillance. However, few studies have examined how well older adults understand PA surveillance questionnaires. This study aimed
Kristiann C Heesch; Jannique GZ van Uffelen; Robert L Hill; Wendy J Brown
We present an evaluation of a self-administered, biofeedback-aided, alertness training programme called the Alertness: Training for Focused Living (ATFL) Programme, which was developed as part of the Technology Research for Independent Living (TRIL) collaboration. We conducted two studies in order to evaluate the programme. A randomized controlled trial was, first of all, conducted with 40 older adults aged between 60 and 83. A series of five single case studies was then conducted to examine the suitability of the programme for use with people with more severe memory difficulties. In the randomized controlled trial, participants were assigned to the ATFL Programme or to a placebo programme. Aspects of participants' memory, attention and executive functioning were assessed via telephone prior to and following completion of the training programmes and at 1, 3, and 6-month follow-up sessions. Significant improvements in sustained attention and verbal fluency were noted in the ATFL group. The series of single case studies illustrated the importance of tailoring a programme to the needs and abilities of the clients in question. The potential benefits of the ATFL programme in terms of periodically boosting alertness and aiding executive functioning are discussed. PMID:24782764
Milewski-Lopez, Agnieszka; Greco, Eleonora; van den Berg, Flip; McAvinue, Laura P.; McGuire, Sarah; Robertson, Ian H.
Information on residential pesticide usage and behaviors that may influence pesticide exposure was collected in three population-based studies of older adults residing in the three Central California counties of Fresno, Kern, and Tulare. We present data from participants in the Study of Use of Products and Exposure Related Behaviors (SUPERB) study (N = 153) and from community controls ascertained in two Parkinson’s disease studies, the Parkinson’s Environment and Gene (PEG) study (N = 359) and The Center for Gene-Environment Studies in Parkinson’s Disease (CGEP; N = 297). All participants were interviewed by telephone to obtain information on recent and lifetime indoor and outdoor residential pesticide use. Interviews ascertained type of product used, frequency of use, and behaviors that may influence exposure to pesticides during and after application. Well over half of all participants reported ever using indoor and outdoor pesticides; yet frequency of pesticide use was relatively low, and appeared to increase slightly with age. Few participants engaged in behaviors to protect themselves or family members and limit exposure to pesticides during and after treatment, such as ventilating and cleaning treated areas, or using protective equipment during application. Our findings on frequency of use over lifetime and exposure related behaviors will inform future efforts to develop population pesticide exposure models and risk assessment. PMID:21909294
Armes, Mary N.; Liew, Zeyan; Wang, Anthony; Wu, Xiangmei; Bennett, Deborah H.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Ritz, Beate
Within a few sentences, listeners learn to understand severely degraded speech such as noise-vocoded speech. However, individuals vary in the amount of such perceptual learning and it is unclear what underlies these differences. The present study investigates whether perceptual learning in speech relates to statistical learning, as sensitivity to probabilistic information may aid identification of relevant cues in novel speech input. If statistical learning and perceptual learning (partly) draw on the same general mechanisms, then statistical learning in a non-auditory modality using non-linguistic sequences should predict adaptation to degraded speech. In the present study, 73 older adults (aged over 60 years) and 60 younger adults (aged between 18 and 30 years) performed a visual artificial grammar learning task and were presented with 60 meaningful noise-vocoded sentences in an auditory recall task. Within age groups, sentence recognition performance over exposure was analyzed as a function of statistical learning performance, and other variables that may predict learning (i.e., hearing, vocabulary, attention switching control, working memory, and processing speed). Younger and older adults showed similar amounts of perceptual learning, but only younger adults showed significant statistical learning. In older adults, improvement in understanding noise-vocoded speech was constrained by age. In younger adults, amount of adaptation was associated with lexical knowledge and with statistical learning ability. Thus, individual differences in general cognitive abilities explain listeners' variability in adapting to noise-vocoded speech. Results suggest that perceptual and statistical learning share mechanisms of implicit regularity detection, but that the ability to detect statistical regularities is impaired in older adults if visual sequences are presented quickly. PMID:25225475
Neger, Thordis M.; Rietveld, Toni; Janse, Esther
Objective To describe the performance of healthy older adults on common clinical vestibular tests. Patients Fifty community-dwelling older adults aged 70 and older, with mean age of 77.2 ± 6.1 years and range of 70 to 95 years. Intervention(s) Clinical vestibular tests, including spontaneous and head-shaking nystagmus, head impulse test (HIT), bucket test of subjective visual vertical, modified Romberg test (MRT), and Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI). Main Outcome Measure(s) Prevalence of abnormal vestibular tests and DHI score. Results We observed a 36% and 44% prevalence of abnormal right and left horizontal HIT, respectively. The bucket test was abnormal in 18% of participants; head-shaking nystagmus was present in 2%, and no participant had spontaneous nystagmus. Approximately 68% of participants had abnormal MRT. Abnormal horizontal HIT and MRT were significantly more prevalent among individuals age 80 years and older compared with those age 70 to 79 years (p < 0.05). Mean DHI score was 5.6 ± 11.2, consistent with no self-reported dizziness handicap. Conclusion This study documents the expected performance of normative older adults on vestibular tests commonly administered in the neurotology clinic. We observed a high prevalence of abnormalities on clinical vestibular testing in healthy older adults, although self-perceived dizziness handicap was low. Further studies using newly available clinical testing methods (e.g., video HIT) may identify finer gradations of vestibular function in older individuals and the levels of vestibular loss associated with functional impairment. PMID:24136315
Davalos-Bichara, Marcela; Agrawal, Yuri
Background and aims Many economic factors are associated with diet, yet the evidence is generally cross-sectional. Older people are considered especially vulnerable to poor diets from negative changes to varied economic factors. This review extends current knowledge on known correlates to decipher actual economic determinants of diet in older adults. Methods Eight bibliometric databases were searched between May and December 2012, supplemented by hand-searches, with no restrictions on publication date or country. Longitudinal studies, or reviews, were eligible when examining diet as a function of change in an economic factor in non-institutionalised adults ?60?years. Data were extracted using a standardised evidence table and quality assessed before narrative synthesis. Results We found nine original studies for inclusion, of which eight examined change from work to retirement and one evaluated a food price intervention. Designs were generally pre-post without controls and varying in follow-up. Studies reported mixed impact on food spending and/or food intake. Retirement was shown to both reduce and have no impact on food spending and to have either positive and negative, or positive and no impact on food intake. Subgroup differences were observed, especially between men and women. Conclusions Despite ample research on economic correlates of older adults' diets, little is still known about actual economic determinants of diet in this population. Studies of retirement suggest divergent effects in some but not all older people. Robust high-quality longitudinal studies to decipher economic drivers of diet must be prioritised in research and policy as firm conclusions remain elusive. PMID:23761410
Conklin, Annalijn I; Maguire, Eva R; Monsivais, Pablo
OBJECTIVE To analyze the temporal evolution of the hospitalization of older adults due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions according to their structure, magnitude and causes. METHODS Cross-sectional study based on data from the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified Health System and from the Primary Care Information System, referring to people aged 60 to 74 years living in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Souhteastern Brazil. The proportion and rate of hospitalizations due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions were calculated, both the global rate and, according to diagnoses, the most prevalent ones. The coverage of the Family Health Strategy and the number of medical consultations attended by older adults in primary care were estimated. To analyze the indicators’ impact on hospitalizations, a linear correlation test was used. RESULTS We found an intense reduction in hospitalizations due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions for all causes and age groups. Heart failure, cerebrovascular diseases and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases concentrated 50.0% of the hospitalizations. Adults older than 69 years had a higher risk of hospitalization due to one of these causes. We observed a higher risk of hospitalization among men. A negative correlation was found between the hospitalizations and the indicators of access to primary care. CONCLUSIONS Primary healthcare in the state of Rio de Janeiro has been significantly impacting the hospital morbidity of the older population. Studies of hospitalizations due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions can aid the identification of the main causes that are sensitive to the intervention of the health services, in order to indicate which actions are more effective to reduce hospitalizations and to increase the population’s quality of life. PMID:25372173
Marques, Aline Pinto; Montilla, Dalia Elena Romero; de Almeida, Wanessa da Silva; de Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares
The trend among older adults in the United States is to "age in place" instead of opting for institutionalization. To maintain older adults with chronic conditions in their homes and to improve health after hospitalization, comprehensive social, health, and nutrition services are essential. Quality of dietary intake is crucial and yet often underestimated. Calorie needs decrease with age while nutrient needs remain the same, even increasing for some nutrients. This poses difficulties for individuals with functional disabilities who are unable to shop and cook due to physical or mental limitations or on a limited budget. The Older American Act home-delivered meal (HDM) program offers at least 1 healthy meal per day, 5 or more days per week, and targets individuals homebound due to illness, disability, or social isolation and those with greatest economic or social need. This review summarizes the available literature on the relationship between HDM and health outcomes. The HDM program is difficult to evaluate because of the multifactorial effect on health status. However, national surveys and smaller studies show that it is well targeted, efficient, and well liked; provides quality food to needy individuals; and helps individuals remain living independently. Studies show that HDMs improve dietary intake, with greater health benefits when more meals reach the neediest individuals. HDMs also decrease institutionalization of older adults and resulting healthcare expenditures. However, funding has not kept up with increased demand for this program. More studies with improved designs may provide more information supporting the program's impact on nutrition status and decreased health expenditures. PMID:25030738
Sahyoun, Nadine R; Vaudin, Anna
Older adults may benefit from using technology in their everyday lives. However, adults over 65 may need more training than their younger counterparts given they have had less experience with technology. In this study, 113 adults between the ages of 65 and 85 participated in focus group interviews discussing their training needs and preferences for technology items used in the home. Participants expressed an interest in receiving additional training, particularly for specific tasks. Participants also discussed preferences for various characteristics of training, such as who should conduct the training and for their preferred method of training. One of the most frequently discussed preferences was for self-training using text materials, such as a manual. PMID:25309139
Mitzner, Tracy L.; Fausset, Cara Bailey; Boron, Julie B.; Adams, Anne E.; Dijkstra, Katinka; Lee, Chin Chin; Rogers, Wendy A.; Fisk, Arthur D.
Older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults face unique issues that can impede their well-being. Although many advances have helped address these issues, there is a need for education efforts that raise awareness of service providers about these issues. This study explores evaluation data of training panels provided by older LGBT adults and the views of training participants on issues faced by the older LGBT community after attending the panels. Participants were 605 students and professionals from over 34 education and communication settings. Implications for trainings on participants and older LGBT trainers are discussed. PMID:23905835
Rogers, Anissa; Rebbe, Rebecca; Gardella, Chanel; Worlein, Mary; Chamberlin, Mya
The extent to which the age-related decline in regional brain glucose uptake also applies to other important brain fuels is presently unknown. Ketones are the brain's major alternative fuel to glucose, so we developed a dual tracer positron emission tomography protocol to quantify and compare regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose and the ketone, acetoacetate. Twenty healthy young adults (mean age, 26 years) and 24 healthy older adults (mean age, 74 years) were studied. In comparison with younger adults, older adults had 8 ± 6% (mean ± SD) lower cerebral metabolic rates for glucose in gray matter as a whole (p = 0.035), specifically in several frontal, temporal, and subcortical regions, as well as in the cingulate and insula (p ? 0.01, false discovery rate correction). The effect of age on cerebral metabolic rates for acetoacetate in gray matter did not reach significance (p = 0.11). Rate constants (min(-1)) of glucose (Kg) and acetoacetate (Ka) were significantly lower (-11 ± 6%; [p = 0.005], and -19 ± 5%; [p = 0.006], respectively) in older adults compared with younger adults. There were differential effects of age on Kg and Ka as seen by significant interaction effects in the caudate (p = 0.030) and post-central gyrus (p = 0.023). The acetoacetate index, which expresses the scaled residuals of the voxel-wise linear regression of glucose on ketone uptake, identifies regions taking up higher or lower amounts of acetoacetate relative to glucose. The acetoacetate index was higher in the caudate of young adults when compared with older adults (p ? 0.05 false discovery rate correction). This study provides new information about glucose and ketone metabolism in the human brain and a comparison of the extent to which their regional use changes during normal aging. PMID:24388785
Nugent, Scott; Tremblay, Sebastien; Chen, Kewei W; Ayutyanont, Napatkamon; Roontiva, Auttawut; Castellano, Christian-Alexandre; Fortier, Melanie; Roy, Maggie; Courchesne-Loyer, Alexandre; Bocti, Christian; Lepage, Martin; Turcotte, Eric; Fulop, Tamas; Reiman, Eric M; Cunnane, Stephen C
Objectives: Current treatments for osteoarthritis (OA) continue to leave those burdened by the condition with pain and disability which affects physical and psychological well-being. The present study examines other psychosocial factors, such as dispositional personality and social relationships, in order to investigate their influence on the well-being of 160 older adults with OA (80% women).Method: Older adults were recruited for
Tana Luger; Kelly A. Cotter; Aurora M. Sherman
Background. Training cessation among older adults is associated with the loss of functional ability. However, exercise programs undertaken prior to activity cessation may offer functional protection. In the present study, the residual effects of muscle power or muscle strength training were investigated following extended detraining and subsequent retraining. Methods. Thirty-eight healthy independent older adults (65-84 years) entered a 24-week detraining
Tim R. Henwood; Dennis R. Taaffe
Background\\/Objectives:Previous research investigating the impact of glucose ingestion and\\/or improvements in glucose regulation has found selective cognitive facilitation on episodic memory tasks in successful ageing and dementia. The present study aimed to extend this research to mild cognitive impairment (MCI).Subjects\\/Methods:In a repeated-measures design, 24 older adults with and 24 older adults without MCI performed a battery of memory and attention
L M Riby; A Marriott; R Bullock; J Hancock; J Smallwood; J McLaughlin
Background. This review identifies the content of virtual visits in community nursing services to older adults and explores the manner in which service users and the nurses use virtual visits. Design. An integrative literature review. Method. Data collection comprised a literature search in three databases: Cinahl, Medline, and PubMed. In addition, a manual search of reference lists and expert consultation were performed. A total of 12 articles met the inclusion criteria. The articles were reviewed in terms of study characteristics, service content and utilization, and patient and health care provider experience. Results. Our review shows that in most studies the service is delivered on a daily basis and in combination with in-person visits. The findings suggest that older home-dwelling patients can benefit from virtual visits in terms of enhanced social inclusion and medication compliance. Service users and their nurses found virtual visits satisfactory and suitable for care delivery in home care to the elderly. Evidence for cost-saving benefits of virtual visits was not found. Conclusions. The findings can inform the planning of virtual visits in home health care as a complementary service to in-person visits, in order to meet the increasingly complex needs of older adults living at home. PMID:25506616
Husebø, Anne Marie Lunde
No study has been conducted to evaluate the influences of age differences on specific moods for risk taking tendencies. This study examined the patterns of risk taking tendencies among younger and older persons in 3 transient affective states: positive, neutral, and negative moods. By means of viewing happy, neutral, or sad movie clips, participants were induced to the respective mood. Risk taking tendencies were measured with decision tasks modified from the Choice Dilemmas Questionnaire (N. Kogan & M. A. Wallach, 1964). Consistent with the affect infusion model (J. P. Forgas, 1995), risk taking tendency was greater for those individuals who were in a happy mood than for those who were in a sad mood, for both young and older participants. However, an asymmetrical effect of positive and negative mood on risk taking tendency was identified among both the young and older participants, but in opposite directions. These results are consistent with the predictions of the negativity bias and the positivity effect found in young and older adults, respectively, and are interpreted via information processing and motivation effects of mood on the decision maker. PMID:17563186
Chou, Kee-Lee; Lee, Tatia M C; Ho, Andy H Y
The objective of the current study was to evaluate empirically positive side effects of a job-related training program on older adults' self-esteem, depression, and social networks. A total of 70 older adults participated in the study after completing the Older Paraprofessional Training Program developed and provided by the Continuing Education…
Lee, Minhong; Choi, Jae-Sung
As the U.S. population ages, counselors must begin structuring their interactions to meet the unique needs of older adults, especially in the area of crisis intervention. The purposes of this article are to draw attention to the rapidly growing, often disregarded older population and to introduce the Crisis Model for Older Adults (CM-OA), an…
Jungers, Christin M.; Slagel, Leslie
Purpose: This U.K. study explored how older adults with depression (treated and untreated) and the general older population conceptualize depression. A multicultural approach was used that incorporated the perspectives of Black Caribbean, South Asian, and White British older adults. The study sought to explore and compare beliefs about the nature…
Lawrence, Vanessa; Murray, Joanna; Banerjee, Sube; Turner, Sara; Sangha, Kuljeet; Byng, Richard; Bhurgra, Dinesh; Huxley, Peter; Tylee, Andre; Macdonald, Alastair
The effects of aerobic exercise training in a sample of 85 older adults were investigated. Ss were assigned randomly to either an aerobic exercise group, a nonaerobic exercise (yoga) group, or a waiting-list control group. Following 16 weeks of the group-specific protocol, all of the older Ss received 16 weeks of aerobic exercise training. The older adults demonstrated a significant
David J. Madden; James A. Blumenthal; Philip A. Allen; Charles F. Emery
This article discusses the themes that emerged from qualitative research exploring the meaning that Chinese older adults find in their learning experiences in Hong Kong. In-depth interviewing was used to solicit information from older learners taking courses in elderly centers or units. Four themes were identified: (a) older adults as learners,…
An extensive body of research has examined connections between older adults' social worlds and health and well-being, particularly for community-dwelling older adults. Yet, little is known about the social worlds of older ...
Leedahl, Skye N.
The number of older individuals with cancer is increasing exponentially, mandating that oncologists contemplate more comprehensive and multidisciplinary approaches to treatment of this cohort. Recruitment of assessment instruments validated in older patients can be invaluable for guiding treatment and decision-making by both patients and providers, and can arguably contribute to improving outcomes and health-related quality of life. The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment is one such validated instrument that can be used by oncologists to assess patient readiness and appropriateness for prescribed cancer therapy. As a multidisciplinary diagnostic and treatment process, it comprises functional status, cognitive status, social support, and advance care preferences, and is an ideal instrument for evaluating complex older individuals. It is well established that many older individuals with cancer travel with multiple comorbid illnesses, including cognitive impairment, and when presented with a cancer diagnosis struggle to choose from multiple treatment options. In addition to the complete medical history, the ability of patients to decide on a course of therapy in concert with their oncologist is critically important. Alternatively, many oncologists are conflicted as to whether true informed consent for treatment can be obtained from many older patients. Having a roadmap to decision-making capacity is therefore an inescapable imperative in geriatric oncology, because careful attention must be directed at identifying older patients with cancer who might benefit from these assessments and the individualized treatment plans that emerge. PMID:24453297
McKoy, June M; Burhenn, Peggy S; Browner, Ilene S; Loeser, Kari L; Tulas, Katrina M; Oden, Megan R; Rupper, Randall W
Individuals can be simultaneously categorized into multiple social groups (e.g., racial, gender, age), and stereotypes about one social group may conflict with another. Two such conflicting stereotype sets are those associated with older adults (e.g., frail, kind) and with Black people (e.g., violent, hostile). Recent research shows that young adult perceivers evaluate elderly Black men more positively than young Black men, suggesting that components of the elderly stereotype moderate the influence of conflicting Black stereotypes (Kang & Chasteen, 2009). The current research begins to examine whether this pattern of perceiving multiply-categorizable individuals is maintained among older adults or altered, perhaps due to aging-related cognitive and motivational changes. In three studies using different targets and evaluative tasks, both young and older participants showed evidence of an interplay between Black and elderly stereotypes, such that they perceived elderly Black targets more positively than young Black targets. A similar pattern was observed when assessing emotion change (Study 1), making ratings of warmth and power in the past, present, and future (Study 2), and when directly comparing young and old Black and White targets on traits related to warmth and power (Study 3). The absence of age differences suggests that evaluation of multiply-categorizable targets follows comparable underlying patterns of stereotype activation and inhibition in younger and older adults. PMID:25244468
Kang, Sonia K; Chasteen, Alison L; Cadieux, Jonathan; Cary, Lindsey A; Syeda, Maisha
Background There are several negative stereotypes about older adults that have negatively influenced people’s attitude about aging. The present study compared emotional well-being between older adults and adolescents. Methods Data for this study came from 1,403 community-dwelling elderly persons and 1,190 secondary school students and were obtained from two national cross-sectional surveys. Emotional well-being was measured using the World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index. Data analysis was conducted using a multivariate analysis of covariance with SPSS software version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). Results Elderly people significantly scored higher levels of emotional well-being (mean, 62.3; standard deviation, 22.55) than younger people (mean, 57.9; standard deviation, 18.46; t, 5.32; P?0.001). The findings from the multivariate analysis of covariance revealed a significant difference between older adults and younger people in emotional well-being [F(3, 2587)=120.21; P?0.001; ?2=0.122] after controlling for sex. Conclusion Contrary to negative stereotypes about aging, our findings show a higher level of emotional well-being among older adults compared with younger people. PMID:24872683
Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Ibrahim, Rahimah
This special issue of the American Journal of Occupational Therapy includes summaries from a systematic evidence-based literature review of occupational therapy and driving and community mobility for older adults. Since the previous review on this topic in 2008, the cohort of 78 million baby boomers began turning 65 in January 2011. As a group, this cohort is more likely to have longer life expectancy, stay in the workforce longer, and age in place in the community. Is the occupational therapy profession ready for the potential demand for driving rehabilitation services from this generation of older drivers who grew up with the automobile and are dependent on it for access to and participation in their communities? PMID:25397759
According to Erik Erikson’s theory on the stages of human development, achieving wisdom later in life involves revisiting previous crises and renewing psychosocial accomplishments. However, few studies have used Erikson’s theory as a framework for examining how older adults self-manage physical and mental health changes that commonly occur later in life. This paper presents findings from two qualitative studies that demonstrate how older adults apply wisdom in new domains. Specifically, it was found that older adults (1) reasserted autonomy by initiating creative problem solving; and 2) applied skills gained from productive activities earlier in life to new health-related problems that arise later in life. These findings highlight the importance of engaging older adults to repurpose their life skills, and thus reapply wisdom to new areas of their lives. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:25651571
Perry, Tam E.; Hassevoort, Luke; Ruggiano, Nicole; Shtompel, Natalia
In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective attention at encoding on conceptual object priming (Experiment 1) and old–new recognition memory (Experiment 2) tasks in young and older adults. The procedures of both experiments included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. At encoding, the picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, were presented to the left and to the right of fixation. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to attend to the picture outline of a certain color and to classify the object as natural or artificial. After a short delay, participants performed a natural/artificial speeded conceptual classification task with repeated attended, repeated unattended, and new pictures. In Experiment 2, participants at encoding memorized the attended pictures and classify them as natural or artificial. After the encoding phase, they performed an old–new recognition memory task. Consistent with previous findings with perceptual priming tasks, we found that conceptual object priming, like explicit memory, required attention at encoding. Significant priming was obtained in both age groups, but only for those pictures that were attended at encoding. Although older adults were slower than young adults, both groups showed facilitation for attended pictures. In line with previous studies, young adults had better recognition memory than older adults. PMID:25628588
Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia
Understanding age-related decline in gait stability and the role of alterations in brain structure is crucial. Here, we studied the relationship between white matter microstructural organization using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and advanced gait stability measures in 15 healthy young adults (range 18–30 years) and 25 healthy older adults (range 62–82 years). Among the different gait stability measures, only stride time and the maximum Lyapunov exponent (which quantifies how well participants are able to attenuate small perturbations) were found to decline with age. White matter microstructural organization (FA) was lower throughout the brain in older adults. We found a strong correlation between FA in the left anterior thalamic radiation and left corticospinal tract on the one hand, and step width and safety margin (indicative of how close participants are to falling over) on the other. These findings suggest that white matter FA in tracts connecting subcortical and prefrontal areas is associated with the implementation of an effective stabilization strategy during gait. PMID:24959139
Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Van Impe, Annouchka; Duysens, Jacques; Swinnen, Stephan P.
Background Little is known about social capital and health among older adults in South Africa. This study investigates the association between social capital and several health variables, namely: self-rated health, depressive symptoms, cognitive functioning and physical inactivity, among older South Africans. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a national probability sample of 3840 individuals aged 50 years or older who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE wave 1) in 2008 in South Africa. Measures included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, cognitive functioning and physical activity. Social capital was assessed with six components, namely: marital status, social action, sociability, trust and solidarity, safety, and civic engagement. Results The social capital assessment revealed that 56% of the respondents were married or cohabiting, 45% reported low (0) social action, 42% reported medium (2–3) sociability, 43% reported high (2) trust and solidarity, 50% reported high (2–4) civic engagement and 42% reported medium (6) psychological resources. In multivariate analysis, self-reported good health was associated with younger age, having secondary education and higher social capital (being married or cohabiting, high trust and solidarity and greater psychological resources). Depressive symptoms were associated with lower social capital (not being married or cohabiting, lack of high trust and solidarity and low psychological resources). Better cognitive functioning was associated with younger age, higher educational level, greater wealth and higher social capital (being married or cohabiting, high trust and solidarity, lack of safety, higher civic engagement and greater psychological resources). Physical inactivity was associated with older age and lower social capital (lower social action, lack of safety, lower civic engagement and poorer psychological resources). Conclusions Given the basis of these findings on cross sectional data and subsequent limitation, it was found that these study findings mimic the findings of many European and American studies. Social capital among the elderly generation in South Africa is imperative for better health. PMID:24073666
This quasiexperimental two-group pilot study tested an intervention aimed at educating older adults in rural communities about the appropriate use of nondrug treatments for pain. Earlier data reveal that older adults use significantly less nonpharmacologic modalities than their younger counterparts, and that pain self-treatment is prevalent in rural areas. Individuals aged ?60 years who experienced pain in the preceding 2 weeks were recruited from rural Midwestern communities through the use of flyers and information sessions at hospitals, churches, and community organizations. Upon enrollment, participants selected a date for an educational session, which was randomized to the experimental or control condition. All participants (n = 53) completed a series of questionnaires (Brief Pain Inventory, Symptom Distress Scale, Perceived Control Scale) at the initial educational session (T1) and at a two-week follow-up session (T2). Participants in the control and experimental groups attended a 30-minute educational session on safe use of over-the-counter medications; the experimental group also received an additional 30-minute session on safe and effective use of heat, cold, and relaxation breathing. Hot and cold packs and relaxation breathing instruction were provided for use over the 2-week period. There was a significant increase in the use of all nondrug treatments and a decrease in pain-related distress and current pain scores in the experimental group compared with the control group. This study informs nurses and other health care providers on the value of education for use of nondrug therapies in conjunction with pharmacologic pain management among rural older adults. PMID:21620309
Fouladbakhsh, Judith M; Szczesny, Susan; Jenuwine, Elisabeth S; Vallerand, April H
Objectives This analysis describes the dental self-care behaviors used by a multi-ethnic sample of older adults, and it delineates the associations of self-care behaviors with personal characteristics and oral health problems. Methods A cross-sectional comprehensive oral health survey conducted with a random, multi-ethnic (African American, American Indian, white) sample of 635 community-dwelling rural adults aged 60 years and older was completed in two rural southern counties. Results Rural older adults engage in a variety of self-care behaviors, including the use of Over-the-Counter (OTC) Medicine (12.1%), OTC Dental Products (84.3%), Salt (51.0%), Prayer (6.1%), and Complementary Therapies (18.2%). Some gender and ethnic class differences are apparent, with greater use by women of OTC Medicine and Salt, and greater use by African Americans and American Indians of OTC Medicine and OTC Dental Products. Use of dental self-care behaviors appears to be driven by need. Those reporting oral pain, bleeding gums, and dry mouth have a greater odds of engaging in most of the dental self-care behaviors, including use of complementary therapies. Conclusions The major factor leading to the use of self-care behaviors is need. Although oral pain does increase the use of self-care behaviors, so do bleeding gums and dry mouth. Research and practice should address self-care behaviors used for oral health problems in addition to pain. Investigators should expand analysis of dental self-care behavior and the relationship of self-care behavior to the use of professional services. Further research also should explore the use of complementary therapies in dental self-care. PMID:19486460
Arcury, Thomas A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Chen, Haiying; Savoca, Margaret R.; Kohrman, Teresa; Quandt, Sara A.
Inflammatory conditions likely to benefit from fish oil therapy are prevalent in older adults however acceptability in this group is uncertain. This study aimed to assess the palatability of a range of liquid fish oil concentrations, the frequency and extent of side effects, and to summarise any effects on adherence to fish oil therapy in older adults. One hundred patients (>=60 years) completed a randomised, single-blind palatability study, conducted in two parts. In part one, 50 subjects, blinded to random sample order, consumed multiple liquid fish oil samples (2x10%, 40% and 100%). In part two, 50 subjects tasted one concentration, or 100% extra light olive oil (control). Pleasantness of taste was scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Side effects were recorded 24-hr post-tasting. Results of part one showed that 9/50 participants reported increasingly unpleasant taste with increasing fish oil concentration. 14/50 reported unpleasant taste for 100% fish oil vs 7/50 for 10%. 14/50 reported side effects which would not affect compliance with therapy. For part two, 1/12 reported unpleasant taste for 100% vs 0/13 for 10% fish oil or control. 4/50 reported side effects and 2/4 indicated these would prevent ongoing fish oil therapy. The authors conclude that taste itself is not a deterrent to fish oil therapy. Furthermore, reported adverse effects may not be a true reaction to fish oil, or dissuade patients from compliance. Liquid fish oil supplements are acceptable to older adults, therefore should be investigated as a therapy for geriatric conditions. PMID:21669585
Yaxley, Alison; Miller, Michelle D; Fraser, Robert J; Cobiac, Lynne; Crotty, Maria
The objective of this study was to measure the anticholinergic activity (AA) of medications commonly used by older adults. A radioreceptor assay was used to investigate the AA of 107 medications. Six clinically relevant concentrations were assessed for each medication. Rodent forebrain and striatum homogenate was used with tritiated quinuclidinyl benzilate. Drug-free serum was added to medication and atropine standard-curve samples. For medications that showed detectable AA, average steady-state peak plasma and serum concentrations (C(max)) in older adults were used to estimate relationships between in vitro dose and AA. All results are reported in pmol/mL of atropine equivalents. At typical doses administered to older adults, amitriptyline, atropine, clozapine, dicyclomine, doxepin, L-hyoscyamine, thioridazine, and tolterodine demonstrated AA exceeding 15 pmol/mL. Chlorpromazine, diphenhydramine, nortriptyline, olanzapine, oxybutynin, and paroxetine had AA values of 5 to 15 pmol/mL. Citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, lithium, mirtazapine, quetiapine, ranitidine, and temazepam had values less than 5 pmol/mL. Amoxicillin, celecoxib, cephalexin, diazepam, digoxin, diphenoxylate, donepezil, duloxetine, fentanyl, furosemide, hydrocodone, lansoprazole, levofloxacin, metformin, phenytoin, propoxyphene, and topiramate demonstrated AA only at the highest concentrations tested (patients with above-average C(max) values, who receive higher doses, or are frail may show AA). The remainder of the medications investigated did not demonstrate any AA at the concentrations examined. Psychotropic medications were particularly likely to demonstrate AA. Each of the drug classifications investigated (e.g., antipsychotic, cardiovascular) had at least one medication that demonstrated AA at therapeutic doses. Clinicians can use this information when choosing between equally efficacious medications, as well as in assessing overall anticholinergic burden. PMID:18510583
Chew, Marci L; Mulsant, Benoit H; Pollock, Bruce G; Lehman, Mark E; Greenspan, Andrew; Mahmoud, Ramy A; Kirshner, Margaret A; Sorisio, Denise A; Bies, Robert R; Gharabawi, Georges
Pain can have negative effects leading to prolonged hospital stays. Determining the presence of uncontrolled and untreated pain in patients with cognitive impairments such as delirium, dementia, and delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD) is challenging. One tool commonly suggested for use in assessment of pain in older adults with cognitive impairment is the Pain Assessment In Advanced Dementia (PAINAD) scale. Proper use of the PAINAD scale as part of a comprehensive pain management plan can help reduce the likelihood of a patient experiencing unrecognized and untreated pain. Using an individual example, this article illustrates best practices in pain assessment and management for a woman experiencing DSD during an acute hospitalization. PMID:24800815
Paulson, Christina May; Monroe, Todd; Mion, Lorraine C
Objective To evaluate the ability of out-of-hospital physiologic measures to predict serious injury for field triage purposes among older adults and potentially reduce the under-triage of seriously injured elders to non-trauma hospitals. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study involving injured adults 55 years and older transported by 94 emergency medical services (EMS) agencies to 122 hospitals (trauma and non-trauma) in 7 regions of the western United States from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2008. We evaluated initial out-of-hospital Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, systolic blood pressure (SBP), respiratory rate, heart rate, shock index (SBP ÷ heart rate), out-of-hospital procedures, mechanism of injury, and patient demographics. The primary outcome was “serious injury,” defined as Injury Severity Score (ISS) ? 16, as a measure of trauma center need. We used multivariable regression models, fractional polynomials and binary recursive partitioning to evaluate appropriate physiologic cut-points and the value of different physiologic triage criteria. Results A total of 44,890 injured older adults were evaluated and transported by EMS, of whom 2,328 (5.2%) had ISS ? 16. Nonlinear associations existed between all physiologic measures and ISS ? 16 (unadjusted and adjusted p ? 0.001 for all,), except for heart rate (adjusted p = 0.48). Revised physiologic triage criteria included GCS score ? 14; respiratory rate < 10 or > 24 breaths per minute or assisted ventilation; and SBP < 110 or > 200 mmHg. Compared to current triage practices, the revised criteria would increase triage sensitivity from 78.6 to 86.3% (difference 7.7%, 95% CI 6.1–9.6%), reduce specificity from 75.5 to 60.7% (difference 14.8%, 95% CI 14.3–15.3%), and increase the proportion of patients without serious injuries transported to major trauma centers by 60%. Conclusions Existing out-of-hospital physiologic triage criteria could be revised to better identify seriously injured older adults at the expense of increasing over-triage to major trauma centers. PMID:24933614
Newgard, Craig D.; Richardson, Derek; Holmes, James F.; Rea, Thomas D.; Hsia, Renee Y.; Mann, N. Clay; Staudenmayer, Kristan; Barton, Erik D.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Haukoos, Jason S.
The experiments reported here investigated whether changes of typography affected priming of word stem completion performance in older and younger adults. Across all experiments, the typeface in which a word appeared at presentation either did or did not match that of its 3-letter stem at test. In Experiment 1, no significant evidence of a typography effect was found when words were presented with a sentence judgment or letter judgment task. However, subsequent experiments revealed that, in both older and younger adults, only words presented with a syllable judgment task gave rise to the typography effect (Experiments 2-4). Specifically, performance was greater, when the presentation and test typeface matched than when they did not. Experiment 5, which used stem-cued recall, did not reveal a difference between syllable and letter judgment tasks. These findings highlight the complex nature of word stem completion performance. PMID:8292277
Gibson, J M; Brooks, J O; Friedman, L; Yesavage, J A
Background As the population ages, older adults are seeking meaningful, and impactful, post-retirement roles. As a society, improving the health of people throughout longer lives is a major public health goal. This paper presents the design and rationale for an effectiveness trial of Experience Corps™, an intervention created to address both these needs. This trial evaluates (1) whether senior volunteer roles within Experience Corps™ beneficially impact children's academic achievement and classroom behavior in public elementary schools and (2) impact on the health of volunteers. Methods Dual evaluations of (1) an intention-to-treat trial randomizing eligible