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  1. Older Adults' Memory for Verbally Presented Medical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankoff, Sarah M.; Sandberg, Elisabeth Hollister

    2012-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that patients typically have difficulty remembering information presented during healthcare consultations. This study examined how older adults learn and remember verbally presented medical information. Healthy older adults were tested for recall in experimental and field settings. Participants viewed a five-minute…

  2. Asthma in the older adult: presentation, considerations and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Salvatore; Benfante, Alida; Scichilone, Nicola

    2015-12-01

    Asthma affects older adults to the same extent as children and adolescents. However, one is led to imagine that asthma prevalence decreases with aging and becomes a rare entity in the elderly. From a clinical perspective, this misconception has nontrivial consequences in that the recognition of the disease is delayed and the treatment postponed. The overall management of asthma in the elderly population is also complicated by specific features that the disease develops in the most advanced ages, and by the difficulties that the physician encounters when approaching the older asthmatic subjects. The current review article aims at describing the specific clinical presentations of asthma in the elderly and highlights the gaps and pitfalls in the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Relevant issues with regard to the clinical management of asthma in the elderly are also discussed. PMID:26358013

  3. Depression in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Fred; Onedera, Jill D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to address selected aspects of depression in older adults. Specifically, symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and interventions for depression in older adults are reviewed.

  4. Older Adults and Depression

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on Older Adults and Depression Older Adults and Depression Order a free hardcopy En Español Introduction Do ... If so, you may have depression. What is depression? Everyone feels down or sad sometimes, but these ...

  5. A REVIEW OF PRESENT EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS AVAILABLE TO OLDER ADULTS IN CALIFORNIA'S PUBLIC ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DEGABRIELE, EUGENE H.

    ADMINISTRATORS OF ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN ADULT SCHOOLS AND JUNIOR COLLEGES IN CALIFORNIA WERE SURVEYED IN MAY 1967 AS TO WAYS IN WHICH THEIR PROGRAMS WERE SERVING THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF ADULTS AGED 50 AND OVER. FINE ARTS, CRAFTS, HOMEMAKING, BUSINESS EDUCATION, AMERICANIZATION, CIVIC EDUCATION AND SPECIAL FIELDS, VOCATIONAL AND INDUSTRIAL…

  6. Adult Development and Learning of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    This summary of adult development covers a wide range of authors. Adult development is one way of understanding how the internal and external changes in our lives have an impact on learning. Of particular importance in this work are the developmental issues of older adults. I present various theories of adult development such as linear and…

  7. Dehydration in the Older Adult.

    PubMed

    Miller, Hayley J

    2015-09-01

    Dehydration affects 20% to 30% of older adults. It has a greater negative outcome in this population than in younger adults and increases mortality, morbidity, and disability. Dehydration is often caused by water deprivation in older adults, although excess water loss may also be a cause. Traditional markers for dehydration do not take into consideration many of the physiological differences present in older adults. Clinical assessment of dehydration in older adults poses different findings, yet is not always diagnostic. Treatment of dehydration should focus on prevention and early diagnosis before it negatively effects health and gives rise to comorbidities. The current article discusses what has most thoroughly been studied; the best strategies and assessment tools for evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of dehydration in older adults; and what needs to be researched further. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 41(9), 8-13.]. PMID:26375144

  8. Older Adults and Alcohol

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    ... adults who drink, including: Increased Sensitivity to Alcohol Aging can lower the body’s tolerance for alcohol. Older adults generally experience the effects of alcohol more quickly than when they were ...

  9. Reward-Related Decision Making in Older Adults: Relationship to Clinical Presentation of Depression

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Amanda R.; Alexopoulos, George S.; Yuen, Genevieve S.; Morimoto, Sarah Shizuko; Gunning, Faith M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Impairment in reward processes has been found in individuals with depression and in the aging population. The purpose of this study was twofold: 1. To use an affective neuroscience probe to identify abnormalities in reward-related decision making in late-life depression. 2. To examine the relationship of reward-related decision making abnormalities in depressed, older adults to the clinical expression of apathy in depression. We hypothesized that relative to elderly, healthy subjects, depressed, elderly patients would exhibit impaired decision making and that apathetic, depressed patients would show greater impairment in decision making than non-apathetic, depressed patients. Methods We used the Iowa Gambling Task to examine reward-related decision making in 60 non-demented, elderly patients with non-psychotic major depression and 36 elderly, psychiatrically healthy participants. Apathy was quantified using the Apathy Evaluation Scale. Of those with major depression, 18 individuals reported clinically significant apathy whereas 42 participants did not have apathy. Results Older adults with depression and healthy comparison participants did not differ in their performance on the IGT. However, apathetic, depressed older adults adopted an advantageous strategy and selected cards from the conservative decks compared to non-apathetic, depressed older adults. Non-apathetic, depressed patients showed a failure to adopt a conservative strategy and persisted in making risky decisions throughout the task. Conclusions This study indicates that apathy in older, depressed adults is associated with a conservative response style on a behavioral probe of the systems involved in reward-related decision making. This conservative response style may be the result of reduced sensitivity to rewards in apathetic individuals. PMID:25306937

  10. Yoga and Older Adults

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    ... My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Yoga and Older Adults Yoga is a mind and body practice that typically ... breathing exercises, and relaxation. Researchers are studying how yoga may help improve health and to learn more ...

  11. Presentation modality effect on false memories in younger and older adults: the use of an inference paradigm.

    PubMed

    Gras, Doriane; Tardieu, Hubert; Piolino, Pascale; Nicolas, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Classically, false memories are studied using the DRM paradigm (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995), involving use of words lists. The words of each list are linked to a critical word not presented. Participants create a false memory in recognising and/or recalling this critical word. In most cases older adults have more false memories than younger adults in this paradigm. To use less strategy-dependent material, we compared predictive inferences activated during text reading in young and healthy older participants. For example, in the sentence "The fragile porcelain vase was thrown against the wall" the predictive inference was that the vase is broken. After reading or hearing the texts, the participants had false memories in recalling and/or recognising the predictive inferences. Older adults had more false recognitions than younger adults when they read or heard the text. However, the difference did not reach significance with the cued recalled task. It is concluded that, in more ecological situations such as text reading, abilities in older adults can be preserved. PMID:21240751

  12. Older Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Jeffrey

    In an effort to improve the quality of life for area senior citizens, De Anza College has established an older adult education program which combines adaptive physical education with holistic health care principles to instruct students in relaxation, nutrition, and physical activity. Classes are held in convalescent hospitals, retirement homes,…

  13. Older Adults and Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... mental illnesses also carry an increased risk for suicide . Share Science News About Older Adults Antipsychotics Use Goes Up Among Elderly October 21, 2015 NIMH Hosts Twitter Chat on Depression and Older Adults December 11, ...

  14. Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Presents the American Psychological Association Guidelines for psychological practice with older adults. The present document is intended to assist psychologists in evaluating their own readiness for working clinically with older adults and in seeking and using appropriate education and training to increase their knowledge, skills, and experience…

  15. Recognition and decision to treat depression in older adults presenting at GP surgeries 

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Alison

    2010-11-26

    Objectives: The population, globally and nationally, is ageing and the numbers of those over the age of 65 is increasing. Given this increase in numbers, it is important that the physical and mental health needs of older ...

  16. Amyloid-beta imaging in older adults presenting to a memory clinic with subjective cognitive decline

    PubMed Central

    Snitz, Beth E.; Lopez, Oscar L.; McDade, Eric; Becker, James T.; Cohen, Ann D.; Price, Julie C.; Mathis, Chester A.; Klunk, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in otherwise normal aging may be identified via symptom inventories in a research setting (‘questionnaire-discovered complaints’) or via patients seeking evaluation / services in a clinical setting (‘presenting complainers’). Most studies of SCD and amyloid-beta (A?) imaging to date have used the former approach, with inconsistent results. Objective To test whether ‘presenting SCD’ participants in an academic memory clinic setting show increased brain A? deposition on imaging. Methods Fourteen patients (mean age 68.1, SD 4.0 years) diagnosed with subjective cognitive complaints with normal neuropsychological testing were recruited into a Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET study. Detailed self-report inventories and additional cognitive tests were administered. Results were compared to a reference cohort of cognitively normal (CN) volunteers from an independent neuroimaging study (mean age 73.6, SD 5.8 years) Results 57% (8/14) of SCD participants were PiB-positive by a sensitive, regionally-based definition, compared to 31% (26/84) of the CN cohort. SCD participants had significantly higher PiB retention (SUVR) than CN in three of six regions of interest: frontal cortex (p=.02), lateral temporal cortex (p=.02) and parietal cortex (p=.04). Findings were suggestive that deficits on verbal associative binding may be specific to A?-positive vs. A?-negative SCD. Conclusion Older participants with SCD presenting to a memory clinic have higher brain A? deposition compared to normal aging study volunteers unselected on complaints. Further study of presenting SCD are warranted to determine the prognostic significance of A? deposition in this context. PMID:26402082

  17. AIDS and the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allers, Christopher T.

    1990-01-01

    Older adults are finding themselves the neighbors of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients as well as the primary caregivers of infected adult children. Focuses on roles, issues, and conflicts older adults face in dealing with relatives or neighbors with AIDS. Case management and educational intervention strategies are also offered.…

  18. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  19. Clinical Interviewing with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohlman, Jan; Sirota, Karen Gainer; Papp, Laszlo A.; Staples, Alison M.; King, Arlene; Gorenstein, Ethan E.

    2012-01-01

    Over the next few decades the older adult population will increase dramatically, and prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders are also expected to increase in the elderly cohort. These demographic projections highlight the need for diagnostic instruments and methods that are specifically tailored to older adults. The current paper discusses the…

  20. Lead toxicity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Vig, E K; Hu, H

    2000-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that lead, even at relatively low levels of exposure, has the potential to harm not only the young and the occupationally-exposed, but also older people. Because they have been alive for a longer period of time, older adults have had more potential exposures to lead. They may have been exposed to lead while working in unregulated occupations, or they may have encountered more lead in the environment on a daily basis. Several large epidemiological studies have found that older people have higher blood and bone lead levels than younger adults. Additionally, sporadic clusters of acute lead exposure among older adults as a result of activities such as ceramic glaze hobby work and consumption of moonshine whiskey continue to be reported. After lead enters the body, it circulates in the blood reaching the soft tissues and bone. Researchers have learned that lead can hibernate within bone for decades. Although lead within bone is of uncertain toxicity to bone tissue, conditions of bone resorption, such as osteoporosis, can cause bone lead to reenter the bloodstream where it can then re-expose the soft tissue, and, potentially, exert delayed deleterious effects. Evidence is emerging that blood and bone lead levels, reflecting relatively modest exposures, are associated with hypertension, renal insufficiency, and cognitive impairment. Medical treatments that now exist to slow the rate of bone resorption may maintain lead within bones. On-going studies evaluating the relationship between body lead stores and both cognitive and renal impairment, as well as the potential modifying effect of bone resorption, will help determine whether bone resorption should be retarded specifically to preserve organ function. Physicians should be aware of potential past and present lead exposures among their older patients. Ongoing lead exposure should be prevented. In the future, treatment of osteoporosis may be undertaken not only to improve bone health but also to prevent mobilization of bone lead stores and subsequent toxicity. PMID:11083332

  1. Root Caries in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Dick; Hyde, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Older adults are retaining an increasing number of natural teeth, and nearly half of all individuals aged 75 and older have experienced root caries. Root caries is a major cause of tooth loss in older adults, and tooth loss is the most significant negative impact on oral health-related quality of life for the elderly. The need for improved preventive efforts and treatment strategies for this population is acute. PMID:26357814

  2. Factorial Validity of the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief-Present Scale among Bereaved Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futterman, Andrew; Holland, Jason M.; Brown, Patrick J.; Thompson, Larry W.; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    The Texas Revised Inventory of Grief-Present scale (TRIG-Present) is one of the most widely used grief measures; however, researchers have only empirically examined the validity and underlying factor structure of TRIG-Present scores in a few studies. Hence, in the present investigation, we sought to examine the factorial validity of the…

  3. The effects of presentation rate and retention interval on memory for items and associations in younger adults: a simulation of older adults' associative memory deficit.

    PubMed

    Brubaker, Matthew S; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    Older adults show an associative deficit in episodic memory compared to younger adults. Previous research suggests both strategic and automatic binding deficits contribute to older adults' poorer memory performance. Using behavioral manipulations designed to affect strategic and automatic binding of associations, three experiments attempted to simulate an associative deficit in younger adults. In these experiments participants learned face-scene pairs and then were given item and associative recognition memory tests. We manipulated the time allotted at encoding and retrieval to simulate strategic deficits, and the length of the retention interval to simulate automatic deficits. Results indicate that both manipulations separately contribute to a differential decline in associative memory, similar to the one shown by older adults, especially as reflected in the differential increase in false alarm rate in the associative memory test more than in the item memory test. Considerations of possible underlying brain mechanisms are discussed. PMID:23509862

  4. Underactive Bladder in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Yao-Chi; Plata, Mauricio; Lamb, Laura E; Chancellor, Michael B

    2015-11-01

    Overactive bladder is one of the most common bladder problems, but an estimated 20 million Americans have underactive bladder (UAB), which makes going to the bathroom difficult, increases the risk of urinary tract infections, and even leads to institutionalization. This article provides an overview of UAB in older adults, and discusses the prevalence, predisposing factors, cause, clinical investigations, and treatments. At present, there is no effective therapy for UAB. A great deal of work still needs to be done on understanding the pathogenesis and the development of effective therapies. PMID:26476113

  5. COPD: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z COPD Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... improve or maintain quality of life. Depression and COPD When your COPD symptoms eventually become severe enough ...

  6. Nutrition: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... each of the topics below to read more. Malnutrition and Dental Health in Older Adults : Trying to ... a heart disease risk factor, at healthy levels. Malnutrition, inability to absorb nutrients well, certain medications, kidney ...

  7. Osteoporosis: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fractures if needed annual flu shots. Protein-Calorie Malnutrition Many older adults living at home eat poorly. ... serious that a condition known as protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) develops. Sometimes, PCM occurs after a long ...

  8. Falls Among Older Adults: An Overview

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Important Facts about Falls Costs of Falls Hip Fractures Among Older Adults Older Adult Falls Programs Compendium ... often because of a head injury or hip fracture. 3 Each year at least 250,000 older ...

  9. Diagnosis and management of urinary tract infection in older adults.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Theresa Anne; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2014-03-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a commonly diagnosed infection in older adults. Despite consensus guidelines developed to assist providers in diagnosing UTI, distinguishing symptomatic UTI from asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in older adults is problematic, as many older adults do not present with localized genitourinary symptoms. This article summarizes the recent literature and guidelines on the diagnosis and management of UTI and ASB in older adults. PMID:24484576

  10. Sexuality in Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... feel good about yourself. As you age, your sexual health will change. But growing older doesn’t have ... life at any age. How does aging affect sexual health? Changes for women: As a woman approaches menopause, ...

  11. Depression - older adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... these steps do not help, medicines to treat depression and talk therapy often help. Doctors often prescribe lower doses of antidepressants to older people, and increase the dose more slowly ... depression at home, you should: Exercise regularly, if your ...

  12. Focused assessment in the care of the older adult.

    PubMed

    Gentleman, Bethany

    2014-03-01

    This article presents an overview of the focused subjective and objective assessment of the older adult for the critical care nurse. Discussion includes the distinguishing features inherent to older adults, and relevant evidence-based screening tools that the nurse can use in assessing the critically ill older adult. PMID:24484920

  13. Effects of a Forgiveness Intervention for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allemand, Mathias; Steiner, Marianne; Hill, Patrick L.

    2013-01-01

    The authors' aim in the present study was to examine the effects of a brief forgiveness intervention for older adults. The psychoeducational group intervention consists of (a) established core components of previous forgiveness interventions and (b) additional components considering specific needs of older adults. Seventy-eight older adults (mean…

  14. Weight Management in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gill, Lydia E; Bartels, Stephen J; Batsis, John A

    2015-09-01

    As the number of older adults increases rapidly, the national epidemic of obesity is also affecting our aging population. This is particularly concerning given the numerous health risks and increased costs associated with this condition. Weight management is extremely important for older adults given the risks associated with abdominal adiposity, which is a typical fat redistribution during aging, and the prevalence of comorbid conditions in this age group. However, approaches to weight loss must be considered critically given the dangers of sarcopenia (a condition that occurs when muscle mass and quality are lost), the increased risk of hip fracture with weight loss, and the association between reduced mortality and increased BMI in older adults. This overview highlights the challenges and implications of measuring adiposity in older adults and the dangers and benefits of weight loss in this population and provides an overview of the new Medicare Obesity Benefit. In addition, we provide a summary of outcomes from successful weight loss interventions for older adults and discuss implications for advancing clinical practice. PMID:26627496

  15. Visual object pattern separation varies in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Heather M.; Toner, Chelsea; Pirogovsky, Eva; Kirwan, C. Brock; Gilbert, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Young and nondemented older adults completed a visual object continuous recognition memory task in which some stimuli (lures) were similar but not identical to previously presented objects. The lures were hypothesized to result in increased interference and increased pattern separation demand. To examine variability in object pattern separation deficits, older adults were divided into impaired and unimpaired groups based on performance on a standardized serial list-learning task. Impaired older adults showed intact recognition memory, but were impaired relative to young and unimpaired older adults when identifying similar lure stimuli, demonstrating that object pattern separation varies in older adults. PMID:23774765

  16. Visuomotor Binding in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloesch, Emily K.; Abrams, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Action integration is the process through which actions performed on a stimulus and perceptual aspects of the stimulus become bound as a unitary object. This process appears to be controlled by the dopaminergic system in the prefrontal cortex, an area that is known to decrease in volume and dopamine functioning in older adults. Although the…

  17. Cancer Screening in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, Sarah A; Heflin, Mitchell T

    2016-02-01

    Cancer screening is an important tool for reducing morbidity and mortality in the elderly. In this article, performance characteristics of commonly used screening tests for colorectal, lung, prostate, breast, and cervical cancers are discussed. Guidelines are emphasized and key issues to consider in screening older adults are highlighted. PMID:26614858

  18. Adventure Programming for the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Alan

    1983-01-01

    Outdoor adventure education programs generally have not met the demands of older adults. Ways to attract older adults to these programs and to tailor activities to allay their fears and maximize their enjoyment are discussed. (PP)

  19. Older Adults and Gambling: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the social cognitive theory model to review the literature on older adult gambling, and related personal and environment characteristics. Results show that lottery is the kind of gambling most frequently played by older adults, followed by casino games. Older adults take trips to casinos to socialize, find excitement, and win…

  20. Nutrition Goals for Older Adults: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwath, Caroline C.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses specific goals of nutrition education for older adults and high-risk groups within the elderly population through review of three crucial areas: current knowledge of eating patterns, nutrient intake, and supplement use of older adults; existing information on multiple influences on eating habits of older adults; and potential benefits…

  1. Using informatics to capture older adults’ wellness

    PubMed Central

    Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire J.; Reeder, Blaine; Wilamowska, Katarzyna; Zaslavsky, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how informatics applications can support the assessment and visualization of older adults’ wellness. A theoretical framework is presented that informs the design of a technology enhanced screening platform for wellness. We highlight an ongoing pilot demonstration in an assisted living facility where a community room has been converted into a living laboratory for the use of diverse technologies (including a telehealth component to capture vital signs and customized questionnaires, a gait analysis component and cognitive assessment software) to assess the multiple aspects of wellness of older adults. Methods A demonstration project was introduced in an independent retirement community to validate our theoretical framework of informatics and wellness assessment for older adults. Subjects are being recruited to attend a community room and engage in the use of diverse technologies to assess cognitive performance, physiological and gait variables as well as psychometrics pertaining to social and spiritual components of wellness for a period of eight weeks. Data are integrated from various sources into one study database and different visualization approaches are pursued to efficiently display potential correlations between different parameters and capture overall trends of wellness. Results Preliminary findings indicate that older adults are willing to participate in technology-enhanced interventions and embrace different information technology applications given appropriate and customized training and hardware and software features that address potential functional limitations and inexperience with computers. Conclusion Informatics can advance health care for older adults and support a holistic assessment of older adults’ wellness. The described framework can support decision making, link formal and informal caregiving networks and identify early trends and patterns that if addressed could reduce adverse health events. PMID:21482182

  2. Community College Older Adult Program Development Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getskow, Veronica

    This guide provides information and suggestions for developing programs that meet the needs of older adults at community colleges. Recommended procedures are presented for the following stages of program development: (1) leadership influences, highlighting the process of hiring effective leaders, key leadership skills, and leaders'…

  3. Older Adults and Food Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Safety / Older Adults and Food Safety Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  4. Helping Older Adults Adjust to Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sink, Clay V.; D'Abrosca, Louis A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses some of the fears and anxieties of automation held by older adults. Teaching techniques that aid the older adult learning process are suggested. The article also contains an interview with Anna M. Tucker, director of the Rhode Island Department of Elderly Affairs, concerning the elder adult's fear of automation. (CT)

  5. Child's play: the creativity of older adults.

    PubMed

    Capps, Donald

    2012-09-01

    In this article, I discuss Paul W. Pruyser's view presented in his article "An Essay on Creativity" (Pruyser in Bull Menninger Clin 43:294-353, 1979) that creative persons manifest early childhood qualities of playfulness, curiosity, and pleasure seeking and that adaptation is itself a form of creativity. I then discuss his article "Creativity in Aging Persons" (Pruyser in Bull Menninger Clin 51:425-435, 1987) in which he presents his view that aging itself is a potentially creative process, that creativity among older adults is not limited to the talented few, and that older adulthood has several specific features that are conducive to creativity. Significant among these features are object loss (especially involving human relationships) and functional loss (due to the vicissitudes of aging). Noting his particular emphasis on object loss and its role in late-life creativity, I focus on functional loss, and I emphasize the importance of adaptation in sustaining the creativity of older adults who experience such loss. I illustrate this adaptation by considering well-known painters who in late life suffered visual problems common to older adults. I suggest that in adapting to their visual problems these artists drew on the early childhood qualities (playfulness, curiosity and pleasure seeking) that all creative persons possess and that they are therefore illustrative for other older adults who are experiencing functional losses. I conclude with Erik H. Erikson's (Toys and reasons: stages in the ritualization of experience, W. W. Norton, New York, 1977) and Paul W. Pruyser's (Pastor Psychol 35:120-131, 1986) reflections on the relationship between seeing and hoping. PMID:22706923

  6. Risk communication design for older adults Vaibhav Garg 1

    E-print Network

    Camp, L. Jean

    Risk communication design for older adults Vaibhav Garg 1 *, Lesa Lorenzen-Huber 2 , L. Jean Camp 1 present the design of narrative-driven risk communication videos that leverage physical analogies, older adults, risk communication INTRODUCTION As the baby boomers approach the age of retire- ment

  7. Older Adults Do Not Notice Their Names: A New Twist to a Classic Attention Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Kilb, Angela; Maddox, Geoffrey B.; Thomas, Jenna; Fine, Hope C.; Chen, Tina; Cowan, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Although working memory spans are, on average, lower for older adults than young adults, we demonstrate in 5 experiments a way in which older adults paradoxically resemble higher capacity young adults. Specifically, in a selective-listening task, older adults almost always failed to notice their names presented in an unattended channel. This is an…

  8. Design principles to accommodate older adults.

    PubMed

    Farage, Miranda A; Miller, Kenneth W; Ajayi, Funmi; Hutchins, Deborah

    2012-03-01

    The global population is aging. In many industrial countries, almost one in five people are over age 65. As people age, gradual changes ensue in vision, hearing, balance, coordination, and memory. Products, communication materials, and the physical environment must be thoughtfully designed to meet the needs of people of all ages. This article summarizes normal changes in sensory function, mobility, balance, memory, and attention that occur with age. It presents practical guidelines that allow design professionals to accommodate these changes and better meet the needs of older adults. Designing for older adults is inclusive design: it accommodates a range of physical and cognitive abilities and promotes simplicity, flexibility, and ease of use for people of any age. PMID:22980147

  9. Exploring Older Adults' Health Information Seeking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…

  10. Textile Recycling, Convenience, and the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domina, Tanya; Koch, Kathryn

    2001-01-01

    Results of a study to examine the recycling practices and needs of older adults (n=217) indicated that older adults do recycle traditional materials, but need accommodations for physical limitations. They report textile recycling as time consuming and difficult and used donations to religious organizations as their principal means of textile…

  11. Older Adults' Acceptance of Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated variables contributing to older adults' information technology acceptance through a survey, which was used to find factors explaining and predicting older adults' information technology acceptance behaviors. Four factors, including needs satisfaction, perceived usability, support availability, and public acceptance, were…

  12. Screening and evaluation tools for sleep disorders in older adults.

    PubMed

    Luyster, Faith S; Choi, JiYeon; Yeh, Chao-Hsing; Imes, Christopher C; Johansson, Ann E E; Chasens, Eileen R

    2015-11-01

    The negative effects of impaired sleep on physical and mental well-being in older adults have recently been recognized by health care professionals. However, researchers and clinicians may be unaware of reliable and valid screening and evaluation tools for evaluating sleep disorders in older adults. The purpose of this article is to present subjective and objective instruments that measure sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness, obstructive sleep apnea, insomnia and restless leg syndrome that are appropriate for use in adult and older adult patients. PMID:26608435

  13. Background: Pre-diabetes is present in nearly one third of the United States population and is most common in middle-aged and older adults. Older adults are known to exhibit turbulent

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    ABSTRACT Background: Pre-diabetes is present in nearly one third of the United States population that blood flow patterns would be improved in middle- aged adults with pre-diabetes after participation ultrasound) and calculated blood flow shear rates at rest in middle-aged adults with pre-diabetes (n=16, 51

  14. [Substance abuse in older adults].

    PubMed

    Bitar, Raoul; Dürsteler, Kenneth M; Rösner, Susanne; Grosshans, Martin; Herdener, Marcus; Mutschler, Jochen

    2014-09-01

    In respect of demographic change, the number of older patients with substance abuse and addiction is on the raise. In this review we present important clinical and therapeutic aspects of substance abuse and addiction in the elderly and focus on alcohol, benzodiazepines and opioids. Daily and risky alcohol consumption is common among older people. They also have an increased risk getting alcohol-related complications. For early detection, laboratory parameters and questionnaires such as the AUDIT-C are suitable. Therapeutically brief interventions have been proved successful. Also, abuse of benzodiazepines, especially low-dose addiction, is widespread among older persons, although often overlooked, and patients often do not recognize their addiction. The physician has to know the correct indication, adequate dosage and pharmacological interactions. A slow-dose reduction is recommended in case of addiction. Thanks to opioid substitution therapy, patients with an opioidaddiction can reach a higher age. Age influences the effects of the substitute, which may require an adjustment of the dosage. Treatment of elderly patients should be based on their needs and resources and is usually very effective. PMID:25183616

  15. Phenomenological Characteristics of Emotional Memories in Younger and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mickley, Katherine R.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Older adults sometimes show a “positivity effect” in memory, remembering proportionally more positive information than young adults. Using a modified Memory Characteristics, the present study examined whether emotional valence impacts the phenomenological qualities associated with young and older adults’ memories. Aging did not impact the effect of valence on the qualities of high-arousal memories. However, aging sometimes impacted subjective memory for detail of low-arousal memories: In Experiment 2, older adults reported remembering more thoughts, feelings, and temporal order details about positive low-arousal stimuli, while young adults’ ratings for those dimensions were higher for negative low-arousal stimuli. These findings suggest that valence most readily affects the qualities of young and older adults’ emotional memories when those memories are low in arousal. PMID:19468956

  16. Robotic Assistance During Ambulation by Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Judith; Engberg, Sandra; Montemerlo, Michael; Pineau, Joelle; Roy, Nicholas; Rogers, Joan; Thrun, Sebastian

    2002-01-01

    Some older adults require assistance with ambulation due to physical mobility limitations. Others lack the cognitive ability, either alone or in combination with physical impairment, to get where they need to go. Investigation of older adults' gait speed, social interaction, and responsiveness to a robot during ambulation is part of the Nursebot Project, a unique collaboration of health care professionals and technologists focused on developing a personal robotic assistant for frail elderly adults at home.

  17. Acute myeloid leukemia in older adults.

    PubMed

    Yanada, Masamitsu; Naoe, Tomoki

    2012-08-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is predominantly a disease of older adults, with a median age at diagnosis of over 65 years. AML in older adults differs biologically and clinically from that in younger ones, and is characterized by stronger intrinsic resistance and lower tolerance to chemotherapy. The effects of age on both patient- and disease-related factors result in a higher incidence of early death during chemotherapy, a lower rate of complete remission, and a reduced chance of long-term survival. Treatment options for older adults with AML include intensive chemotherapy, less-intensive chemotherapy, best supportive care, or enrolment in clinical trials. Given the heterogeneous nature of AML in older adults, therapeutic decisions need to be individualized after systematic assessment of disease biology and patient characteristics. Regardless of treatment, however, outcomes for older AML patients remain in general unsatisfactory. In contrast with the progress made for younger adults, the treatment of AML in older adults has not improved significantly in recent decades. Development of less toxic and more targeted agents may well provide treatment alternatives for a majority of these patients. The overall dismal outcome with currently available treatment approaches has encouraged older AML patients to participate in prospective clinical trials. PMID:22791510

  18. Suicide in Older Adults: The Role of Emotions and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Szanto, Katalin; Alexopoulos, George S.

    2014-01-01

    Suicide in older adults is a significant clinical concern. In this review of recent findings, we concentrate on the role of emotions and cognition in suicide risk and behavior in older adults. We discuss the epidemiology of suicide in older adults, integrate recent findings on non-psychotic major depression, schizophrenia and suicidal ideation, explore the relationship of emotion regulation with suicide, present recent advances on suicide in demented patients, and describe the latest developments on cognition and decision processes in suicide. PMID:25226883

  19. Dealing with Persistent Pain in Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pain Management Related Documents PDF Dealing with Persistent Pain in Later Life Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Dealing with Persistent Pain in Older Adults Tools and Tips Printer-friendly ...

  20. Heart Failure: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Heart Failure Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... or maintain quality of life. Urinary Incontinence and Heart Failure If you have heart failure, you may ...

  1. Preventing Traumatic Brain Injury in Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or seizures • Inability to wake up from sleep • Dilation of one or both pupils • Slurred speech • Weakness ... to get the right medical treatment Healing takes time. Older adults in good health tend to get ...

  2. Surgical site infections in older adults: epidemiology and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Young, Michael H; Washer, Laraine; Malani, Preeti N

    2008-01-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) represent a major source of morbidity and mortality among older adults. In this review we discuss the epidemiology and risk factors for SSIs among older adults. We also offer an overview of current treatment and management strategies for several common SSIs. Our comments focus on the following areas in order to illustrate issues of clinical importance in the older patient: (i) cardiac surgery; (ii) vascular grafts; (iii) total joint arthroplasty; (iv) breast surgery; and (v) spinal surgeries. Besides being common and relatively specific to older adults, several of these surgical procedures require the use of prosthetic materials or devices, which present unique treatment challenges in the context of infection. When an older adult does develop an SSI, it is critical for clinicians to establish an overall treatment goal for each patient. In the majority of patients, this will be either complete cure or remission followed by suppressive therapy. However, clinicians caring for older adults must consider not only the possibility of microbiological cure, but also balance the need to preserve functional status and overall quality of life. Infections associated with devices and prosthetic material can present unique treatment challenges. Treatment of significant infections often requires prolonged courses of parenteral and/or oral antimicrobial therapy, which can raise issues related to the safety and tolerability of antimicrobial agents, including higher rates of nephrotoxicity. Issues concerning overall functional status, nutritional reserve and medical co-morbidities must be taken into consideration when approaching SSIs in an older adult. PMID:18447404

  3. Employment and Older Adults. Overview: ERIC Fact Sheet No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudin, Bart

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the employment situation facing older adults. Statistics (Harris 1974 and 1979) are presented on the number of older Americans who are working, volunteering, or have an interest in working or volunteering; the attitudes of employers and employees about retirement and about working after age 65; and the…

  4. Older Students in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clennell, Stephanie, Ed.; And Others

    British students 60 years and older in 1985-86 were studied in order to learn about their age, sex, marital status, employment background, the subjects they study, their reasons for studying, how they study, and what they think about their studies. Considered by the researchers to be the largest survey of older students, the study involved 2,254…

  5. Electrophysiological entropy in younger adults, older controls and older cognitively declined adults.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Michael J; Kilmartin, Liam; Keane, Michael; Collins, Peter; Staff, Roger T; Kaiser, Jochen; Lai, Robert; Upton, Neil

    2012-03-22

    The current study examined electrophysiological entropy in younger adults, older adults, and older cognitively declined adults across four experimental conditions - eyes closed, eyes open, and during both encoding and recognition of words in a memory task. We hypothesised reduced entropy in older declined adults relative to both older controls and younger adults, with the largest group differences in entropy expected during the encoding and recognition phases of the experiment. We also hypothesised greater hemispheric asymmetry in younger adults compared with older controls and older declined adults. Results revealed significant increases in entropy from eyes closed to eyes open to task. Young adults showed higher entropy in the right relative to the left hemisphere in the temporal lobe and higher entropy in the left relative to the right hemisphere in the parietal lobe. Old cognitively declined adults showed no significant differences between right and left hemisphere entropy. There was a trend whereby older declined adults showed lower entropy than older controls in the frontal lobe, this difference being largest in the left hemisphere during the encoding phase of the experiment. Results indicate that measures of entropy are sensitive to information processing demands and that higher cognitive performance may not be a simple function of entropy level, but rather a combination of level and range, or differentiated range of entropy states across the brain. PMID:22342163

  6. Comprehension of Health-Related Written Materials by Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chiung-Ju; Kemper, Susan; Bovaird, James A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how Flesch Reading Ease and text cohesion affect older adults' comprehension of common health texts. All older adults benefited when high Flesh Reading Ease was combined with high cohesion. Older adults with small working memories had more difficulty understanding texts high in Flesch Reading Ease. Additionally, older adults

  7. Delirium: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of dementia in older people include: Alzheimer’s disease Vascular dementia Lewy body dementia Multi-infarct dementia (many tiny ... new illness are other common causes. Stroke or Vascular Dementia Sometimes people who suffer strokes develop delirium. This ...

  8. Evaluation of Verbal Behavior in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Amy C.; Fuqua, Wayne; Merritt, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 5% of older adults have a dementia diagnosis, and language deterioration is commonly associated with this disorder (Kempler, 2005). Several instruments have been developed to diagnose dementia and assess language capabilities of elderly adults. However, none of these instruments take a functional approach to language assessment as…

  9. Management of Colorectal Cancer in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Joleen M

    2016-02-01

    Treatment for colorectal cancer should not be based on age alone. Pooled analyses from clinical trials show that fit older adults are able to tolerate treatment well with similar efficacy as younger adults. When an older adult is considered for treatment, the clinical encounter must evaluate for deficits in physical and cognitive function, and assess comorbidities, medications, and the degree of social support, all which have may affect tolerance of treatment. Based on the degree of fitness of the patient, multiple alternatives to aggressive treatment regimens and strategies exist to minimize toxicity and preserve quality of life during treatment. PMID:26614863

  10. Guidelines for psychological practice with older adults.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    The "Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Older Adults" are intended to assist psychologists in evaluating their own readiness for working with older adults and in seeking and using appropriate education and training to increase their knowledge, skills, and experience relevant to this area of practice. The specific goals of these professional practice guidelines are to provide practitioners with (a) a frame of reference for engaging in clinical work with older adults and (b) basic information and further references in the areas of attitudes, general aspects of aging, clinical issues, assessment, intervention, consultation, professional issues, and continuing education and training relative to work with this group. The guidelines recognize and appreciate that there are numerous methods and pathways whereby psychologists may gain expertise and/or seek training in working with older adults. This document is designed to offer recommendations on those areas of awareness, knowledge, and clinical skills considered as applicable to this work, rather than prescribing specific training methods to be followed. The guidelines also recognize that some psychologists will specialize in the provision of services to older adults and may therefore seek more extensive training consistent with practicing within the formally recognized specialty of Professional Geropsychology (APA, 2010c). PMID:24446841

  11. Sexually transmitted infections and older adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Beverly K

    2013-11-01

    Older adults continue to be sexually active in their later years. A range of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV have been reported among older adults. Risk factors for STIs in older populations include (a) normal sexual changes associated with aging (e.g., increased time to attain an erection, decreased vaginal lubrication, decreases in sexual hormones); (b) psychosocial changes (e.g., loss of partner or spouse and re-entering the dating scene); and (c) risky sexual behaviors, including no or infrequent use of condoms. Screening of adults for STIs should occur regardless of age based on guidelines such as those from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. As discussed in this article, nurses can use assessment guides and engage in interventions such as counseling and education with older adults to reduce STI risk or refer for treatment. Numerous online resources exist for both nurses and older adults to increase knowledge of STIs. PMID:24066789

  12. Positive messaging promotes walking in older adults.

    PubMed

    Notthoff, Nanna; Carstensen, Laura L

    2014-06-01

    Walking is among the most cost-effective and accessible means of exercise. Mounting evidence suggests that walking may help to maintain physical and cognitive independence in old age by preventing a variety of health problems. However, older Americans fall far short of meeting the daily recommendations for walking. In 2 studies, we examined whether considering older adults' preferential attention to positive information may effectively enhance interventions aimed at promoting walking. In Study 1, we compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and neutral messages to encourage walking (as measured with pedometers). Older adults who were informed about the benefits of walking walked more than those who were informed about the negative consequences of failing to walk, whereas younger adults were unaffected by framing valence. In Study 2, we examined within-person change in walking in older adults in response to positively- or negatively-framed messages over a 28-day period. Once again, positively-framed messages more effectively promoted walking than negatively-framed messages, and the effect was sustained across the intervention period. Together, these studies suggest that consideration of age-related changes in preferences for positive and negative information may inform the design of effective interventions to promote healthy lifestyles. Future research is needed to examine the mechanisms underlying the greater effectiveness of positively- as opposed to negatively-framed messages and the generalizability of findings to other intervention targets and other subpopulations of older adults. PMID:24956001

  13. Positive messaging promotes walking in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Notthoff, Nanna; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    Walking is among the most cost-effective and accessible means of exercise. Mounting evidence suggests that walking may help to maintain physical and cognitive independence in old age by preventing a variety of health problems. However, older Americans fall far short of meeting the daily recommendations for walking. In two studies, we examined whether considering older adults’ preferential attention to positive information may effectively enhance interventions aimed at promoting walking. In Study 1, we compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and neutral messages to encourage walking (as measured with pedometers). Older adults who were informed about the benefits of walking walked more than those who were informed about the negative consequences of failing to walk, whereas younger adults were unaffected by framing valence. In Study 2, we examined within-person change in walking in older adults in response to positively- or negatively-framed messages over a 28-day period. Once again, positively-framed messages more effectively promoted walking than negatively-framed messages, and the effect was sustained across the intervention period. Together, these studies suggest that consideration of age-related changes in preferences for positive and negative information may inform the design of effective interventions to promote healthy lifestyles. Future research is needed to examine the mechanisms underlying the greater effectiveness of positively as opposed to negatively framed messages and the generalizability of findings to other intervention targets and other subpopulations of older adults. PMID:24956001

  14. Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, Alice H; Rasmussen, Helen; Yu, Winifred W; Epstein, Susanna R; Russell, Robert M

    2008-01-01

    In 1999 we proposed a Modified Food Guide Pyramid for adults aged 70+ y. It has been extensively used in a variety of settings and formats to highlight the unique dietary challenges of older adults. We now propose a Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults in a format consistent with the MyPyramid graphic. It is not intended to substitute for MyPyramid, which is a multifunctional Internet-based program allowing for the calculation of individualized food-based dietary guidance and providing supplemental information on food choices and preparation. Pedagogic issues related to computer availability, Web access, and Internet literacy of older adults suggests a graphic version of MyPyramid is needed. Emphasized are whole grains and variety within the grains group; variety and nutrient density, with specific emphasis on different forms particularly suited to older adults' needs (e.g. frozen) in the vegetables and fruits groups; low-fat and non-fat forms of dairy products including reduced lactose alternatives in the milk group; low saturated fat and trans fat choices in the oils group; and low saturated fat and vegetable choices in the meat and beans group. Underlying themes stress nutrient- and fiber-rich foods within each group and food sources of nutrients rather than supplements. Fluid and physical activity icons serve as the foundation of MyPyramid for Older Adults. A flag to maintain an awareness of the potential need to consider supplemental forms of calcium, and vitamins D and B-12 is placed at the top of the pyramid. Discussed are newer concerns about potential overnutrition in the current food landscape available to older adults. PMID:18156396

  15. Neuropsychological mechanisms of falls in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Chan, John S. Y.; Yan, Jin H.

    2014-01-01

    Falls, a common cause of injury among older adults, have become increasingly prevalent. As the world’s population ages, the increase in—and the prevalence of—falls among older people makes this a serious and compelling societal and healthcare issue. Physical weakness is a critical predictor in falling. While considerable research has examined this relationship, comprehensive reviews of neuropsychological predictors of falls have been lacking. In this paper, we examine and discuss current studies of the neuropsychological predictors of falls in older adults, as related to sporting and non-sporting contexts. By integrating the existing evidence, we propose that brain aging is an important precursor of the increased risk of falls in older adults. Brain aging disrupts the neural integrity of motor outputs and reduces neuropsychological abilities. Older adults may shift from unconscious movement control to more conscious or attentive motor control. Increased understanding of the causes of falls will afford opportunities to reduce their incidence, reduce consequent injuries, improve overall well-being and quality of life, and possibly to prolong life. PMID:24782761

  16. Atomoxetine Treatment for ADHD: Younger Adults Compared with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durell, Todd; Adler, Lenard; Wilens, Timothy; Paczkowski, Martin; Schuh, Kory

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant medication for treating child, adolescent, and adult ADHD. This meta-analysis compared the effects in younger and older adults. Method: A post hoc analysis was conducted using data from two double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Data from patients aged 18-25 years were compared with data from…

  17. The International Network for Older Adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Dianne

    1992-07-01

    Although funds were not available to bring members of the Older Adults Network to the World Assembly of Adult Education in January 1990, there was, among the delegates, considerable interest in the subject and several meetings were arranged. The thing that struck me most was not how different were our situations, coming as we did from every corner of the earth, but how many problems and concerns we had in common. With the second Network Newsletter, sent out in the spring of 1991, questionnaires asked for brief details of schemes which involved older people in projects that were, in some way, conservational. They could be involved in conserving language, mythology or history. They might be working to improve and save their environment. The aim is to establish a small but useful register of such projects in sufficient detail to encourage contact and replication by others. For this purpose, small grants are being made available from the money given by CIDA. Slowly but surely, the Older Adults Network is gathering information about positive actions being taken to ensure that older people, in all countries, have the skills and opportunities they need to continue as fully participating citizens. With the rapidly increasing number of older people in all our countries, this small beginning will, hopefully, be a foundation on which much important work will be done in the years to come.

  18. Older Adults' Perceptions of Home Telehealth Services

    PubMed Central

    Bren?i?, Maja Makovec; Trkman, Peter; de Leonni Stanonik, Mateja

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The success of home telemedicine depends on end-user adoption, which has been slow despite rapid advances in technological development. This study focuses on an examination of significant factors that may predict the successful adoption of home telemedicine services (HTS) among older adults. Based on previous studies in the fields of remote patient monitoring, assisted living technologies, and consumer health information technology acceptance, eight factors were identified as a framework for qualitative testing. Twelve focus groups were conducted with an older population living in both urban and rural environments. The results reveal seven predictors that play an important role in perceptions of HTS: perceived usefulness, effort expectancy, social influence, perceived security, computer anxiety, facilitating conditions, and physicians' opinion. The results provide important insights in the field of older adults' acceptance of HTS, with guidelines for the strategic planning, developing, and marketing of HTS for the graying market. PMID:23931702

  19. Transnational Older Adults and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treas, Judith

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the international migration patterns and the family lives of older adults. Informants (N = 54) reported that they came to the United States to help out their grown children with housekeeping, child care, and domestic economizing. They described how they strategically navigated U.S. immigration laws choosing to…

  20. Effective Teaching and Programming for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Hahn, Margaret; Riddell, Gail

    This booklet is intended as a guide for community educators on planning and teaching educational programs for older adults. Chapter 1, Getting Started, discusses the program plan which identifies the sponsoring agency, advisory committee, and ways of determining needs and interests. Chapter 2, Designing the Program, focuses on the participants,…

  1. Privacy Framework for Older Adults Vaibhav Garg

    E-print Network

    Connelly, Kay

    represent the views of the National Science Foundation. I. INTRODUCTION As the baby boomers approach the age living in place. Simultaneously, older adults have not been targeted by designers of security and privacy technologies, in part because of the lack of simple design heuristics. Assisted living and medical technologies

  2. Attitudes toward Advertisements of the Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, M.; Moliner, M. A.; Sanchez, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we will analyze the attitude of older adults to advertisements, differentiating between advertisements that contain rhetorical figures (trope ads) and those that do not (explicit ads). We will also study their attitude toward the brand advertised according to their degree of involvement with the product. In the course of the…

  3. AFFECTS OLDER ADULTS LEADING CAUSE OF

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    in the United States.1 1 in 5 people with diabetes has kidney disease and it's most common in older adults over. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). National Chronic Kidney Disease Fact Sheet: General Information and National Estimates on Chronic Kidney Disease in the United States, 2014. Atlanta, GA: US

  4. Current Psychopathology in Previously Assaulted Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acierno, Ron; Lawyer, Steven R.; Rheingold, Alyssa; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.

    2007-01-01

    Older adult women age 55+ years (N = 549) were interviewed as part of a population-based epidemiological research study of lifetime experiences with physical and sexual assault and current mental health problems. Although overall rates of psychopathology were low, producing very small cells for comparison, women who reported experiencing physical…

  5. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of dementia, in particular Alzheimer’s disease, is increasing with the expansion of the older adult population. In the absence of effective therapy, preventive approaches are essential to mitigate this public health problem. Blueberries contain polyphenolic compounds, most prominent...

  6. Older adults have difficulty in decoding sarcasm.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Louise H; Allen, Roy; Bull, Rebecca; Hering, Alexandra; Kliegel, Matthias; Channon, Shelley

    2015-12-01

    Younger and older adults differ in performance on a range of social-cognitive skills, with older adults having difficulties in decoding nonverbal cues to emotion and intentions. Such skills are likely to be important when deciding whether someone is being sarcastic. In the current study we investigated in a life span sample whether there are age-related differences in the interpretation of sarcastic statements. Using both video and verbal materials, 116 participants aged between 18 and 86 completed judgments about whether statements should be interpreted literally or sarcastically. For the verbal stories task, older adults were poorer at understanding sarcastic intent compared with younger and middle-aged participants, but there was no age difference in interpreting control stories. For the video task, older adults showed poorer understanding of sarcastic exchanges compared with younger and middle-aged counterparts, but there was no age difference in understanding the meaning of sincere interactions. For the videos task, the age differences were mediated by the ability to perceive facial expressions of emotion. Age effects could not be explained in terms of variance in working memory. These results indicate that increased age is associated with specific difficulties in using nonverbal and contextual cues to understand sarcastic intent. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26501728

  7. Older adults challenged financially when adult children move home.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Steven P; Padilla-Frausto, D Imelda

    2014-02-01

    This policy brief looks at the financial burdens imposed on older Californians when adult children return home, often due to a crisis not of their own making, to live with their parents. The findings show that on average in California, the amount of money that older adults need in order to maintain a minimally decent standard of living while supporting one adult child in their home increases their expenses by a minimum of 50 percent. Low-income older adults are usually on fixed incomes, so helping an adult child can provide the child with a critical safety net but at the cost of the parents' own financial well-being. Policy approaches to assisting this vulnerable population of older adults include implementing reforms to increase Supplemental Security Income (SSI), improving the availability of affordable housing, assuring that all eligible nonelderly adults obtain health insurance through health care reform's expansion of Medi-Cal and subsidies, and increasing food assistance through SNAP and senior meal programs. PMID:24804354

  8. Screening for Suicide Risk in Adolescents, Adults, and Older Adults in Primary Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Task Force Recommendations Screening for Suicide Risk in Adolescents, Adults, and Older Adults in Primary Care The ... recommendation statement on Screening for Suicide Risk in Adolescents, Adults, and Older Adults in Primary Care. This ...

  9. Eye-hand coordination strategies in older adults.

    PubMed

    Coats, Rachel; Fath, Aaron; Astill, Sarah; Wann, John

    2015-09-01

    Hand movement kinematics and eye-hand coordination are affected by aging. These age differences are exacerbated when task difficulty is increased, but the exact nature of these differences has yet to be established. We examined the performance of 12 older adults (mean age = 74) and 11 younger adults (mean age = 20) on a multi-phase prehension task. Participants had to reach for and pick up a target object with their preferred hand, place it in a tray, then reach for a second target object and place that in the same tray (baseline condition). On half the trials (stabilising condition) participants were required to hold the tray as still as possible just above the surface of the table with their non-preferred hand. Hand and eye movements were recorded. Older adults took longer to complete their overall movement but only in the stabilising condition [t(21) = 3.38 ; p < 0.01], largely due to an extended duration for the first submovement. They reached lower peak velocities and spent proportionally less time decelerating than the younger adults. Group differences were most apparent at the start of the movement and in the stabilising condition, suggesting both that older adults look more like their younger counterparts if given enough time, and that the added complexity of the stabilising task had a greater effect on the performance of the older adults than the young. Older adults adopted two different eye-hand coordination strategies, preferring to make an eye movement to the next target as soon as possible in some circumstances, or spending longer fixating the current target when accuracy requirements were high. Older adults appeared to employ an eye movement strategy that enabled them to benefit from visual feedback, presumably to aid hand movement control and improve task performance. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326840

  10. Concussion Recovery May Be Delayed in Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155007.html Concussion Recovery May Be Delayed in Older Adults Research ... HealthDay News) -- Older adults recover more slowly from concussion than younger patients, a small new study finds. " ...

  11. Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults Tools and Tips Printer-friendly PDF Click here to see our other ... and neglect. According to the National Center on Elder Abuse, the number of older adults who are mistreated ...

  12. Visual Object Pattern Separation Deficits in Nondemented Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Chelsea K.; Pirogovsky, Eva; Kirwan, C. Brock; Gilbert, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Young and nondemented older adults were tested on a continuous recognition memory task requiring visual pattern separation. During the task, some objects were repeated across trials and some objects, referred to as lures, were presented that were similar to previously presented objects. The lures resulted in increased interference and an increased…

  13. Correlates of Functional Fitness in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Konopack, James F.; Marquez, David X.; Hu, Liang; Elavsky, Steriani; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Self-efficacy has been shown to be both an antecedent and determinant of behaviors such as physical activity and may explain variance in the performance of functional tasks among older adults. Purpose The objectives of the current study were: first, to identify potential latent factors of functional fitness (i.e., the ability to perform activities of daily living) among older adults; and second, to determine the extent to which self-efficacy contributed to the variance in functional fitness over and above other known correlates. Methods Older adults (n = 190, M age = 69.4 years) completed a functional fitness test battery, maximal graded exercise test, and demographics and self-efficacy questionnaires. Results Structural equation modeling supported two latent factors of functional fitness representing “Flexibility” and “Physical Power.” Further analyses indicated sex as the sole significant correlate of Flexibility. Greater Physical Power was associated with being male, younger, and having higher self-efficacy. Conclusions These results support the role of self-efficacy as a correlate of performance on functional tasks. Targeting flexibility and physical power to improve functional fitness among older men and women, respectively, warrants examination. PMID:19005931

  14. Chronic Eccentric Exercise and the Older Adult.

    PubMed

    Gluchowski, Ashley; Harris, Nigel; Dulson, Deborah; Cronin, John

    2015-10-01

    Eccentric exercise has gained increasing attention as a suitable and promising intervention to delay or mitigate the known physical and physiological declines associated with aging. Determining the relative efficacy of eccentric exercise when compared with the more conventionally prescribed traditional resistance exercise will support evidence-based prescribing for the aging population. Thus, original research studies incorporating chronic eccentric exercise interventions in the older adult population were included in this review. The effects of a range of eccentric exercise modalities on muscular strength, functional capacity, body composition, muscle architecture, markers of muscle damage, the immune system, cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and rating of perceived exertion were all reviewed as outcomes of particular interest in the older adult. Muscular strength was found to increase most consistently compared with results from traditional resistance exercise. Functional capacity and body composition showed significant improvements with eccentric endurance protocols, especially in older, frail or sedentary cohorts. Muscle damage was avoided with the gradual progression of novel eccentric exercise, while muscle damage from intense acute bouts was significantly attenuated with repeated sessions. Eccentric exercise causes little cardiovascular stress; thus, it may not generate the overload required to elicit cardiovascular adaptations. An anabolic state may be achievable following eccentric exercise, while improvements to insulin sensitivity have not been found. Finally, rating of perceived exertion during eccentric exercise was often significantly lower than during traditional resistance exercise. Overall, evidence supports the prescription of eccentric exercise for the majority of outcomes of interest in the diverse cohorts of the older adult population. PMID:26271519

  15. Resilience in Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Context: Identifying ways to meet the health care needs of older adults is important because their numbers are increasing and they often have more health care issues. High resilience level may be one factor that helps older adults adjust to the hardships associated with aging. Rural community-dwelling older adults often face unique challenges such…

  16. Older Adults and E-Learning: Opportunities and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Githens, Rod P.

    2007-01-01

    E-learning and distance education can play a role in helping older adults become integrated with the rest of society. As demographic and cultural changes affect the place of older adults in society, online learning programs become increasingly appealing to older adults. In this article, I discuss (1) the changing notion of work and learning in…

  17. Management of pain in older adults.

    PubMed

    Cavalieri, Thomas A

    2005-03-01

    The elderly are often untreated or undertreated for pain. Barriers to effective management include challenges to proper assessment of pain; underreporting on the part of patients; atypical manifestations of pain in the elderly; a need for increased appreciation of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes of aging; and misconceptions about tolerance and addiction to opioids. Physicians can effectively manage pain in the elderly by understanding different types of pain (nociceptive and neuropathic), and appropriate use of nonopioid, opioid, and adjuvant medications. Opioids have become more widely accepted for treating older adults who have persistent pain, but their use requires physicians have an understanding of prevention and management of side effects, opioid titration and withdrawal, and careful monitoring. Placebo use is unwarranted and unethical. Nonpharmacologic approaches to pain management are essential and include osteopathic manipulative treatment, cognitive behavioral therapy, exercise, and spiritual interventions. The holistic and interdisciplinary approach of osteopathic medicine offers an approach that can optimize effective pain management in older adults. PMID:18154193

  18. Sexuality and intimacy in older adults.

    PubMed

    Rheaume, Chris; Mitty, Ethel

    2008-01-01

    In most long-term care settings, staff members tend to view a resident's attempts at sexual expression as "problem" behavior. However, we are increasingly recognizing that interest in, and the right to, sexual expression exists throughout the life span and should be supported. Assisted living nurses need information and tools to adequately address residents' sexual health and to overcome the many barriers to intimacy in this population. This article briefly reviews age and illness-related changes in sexual function; describes the research regarding older adults' and their family's and caregivers' attitudes regarding sexuality and intimacy; discusses sexuality and residents with dementia; and reviews nursing assessment and educational interventions that support healthy sexuality among older adults. PMID:18929184

  19. Visual Object Pattern Separation Varies in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Heather M.; Toner, Chelsea; Pirogovsky, Eva; Kirwan, C. Brock; Gilbert, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Young and nondemented older adults completed a visual object continuous recognition memory task in which some stimuli (lures) were similar but not identical to previously presented objects. The lures were hypothesized to result in increased interference and increased pattern separation demand. To examine variability in object pattern separation…

  20. Prejudice Reduction in University Programs for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Jose-Luis Alvarez; Camara, Carmen Palmero; Eguizabal, Alfredo Jimenez

    2011-01-01

    The present paper, drawing from the perspective of social cognition, examines and evaluates an intervention based on social-cognitive perspective-taking on the reduction of stereotyping and prejudice in older adults. Data were collected in a sample of Spanish participants with a mean age of 63.2 years. The intervention, aimed at reducing prejudice…

  1. The Level of Willingness to Evacuate among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray-Graves, Amy; Turner, Keith W.; Swan, James H.

    2011-01-01

    The issues of rising numbers of disasters, overwhelming increases in number of older adults, and historically flawed evacuations present real challenges. During the next two decades, the number of American baby boomers, who turn 65, will increase by 40%. As evidenced by recent disasters, the imperfections and vulnerabilities of flawed evacuations…

  2. Small intestinal permeability in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Valentini, Luzia; Ramminger, Sara; Haas, Verena; Postrach, Elisa; Werich, Martina; Fischer, André; Koller, Michael; Swidsinski, Alexander; Bereswill, Stefan; Lochs, Herbert; Schulzke, Jörg?Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Abstract It is not yet clear whether intestinal mucosal permeability changes with advancing age in humans. This question is of high importance for drug and nutrition approaches for older adults. Our main objective was to answer the question if small intestinal barrier integrity deteriorates with healthy aging. We conducted a cross?sectional study including the pooled data of 215 nonsmoking healthy adults (93 female/122 male), 84 of whom were aged between 60 and 82 years. After a 12?h fast, all participants ingested 10 g of lactulose and 5 g of mannitol. Urine was collected for 5 h afterwards and analyzed for test sugars. The permeability index (PI = lactulose/mannitol) was used to assess small intestinal permeability. Low?grade inflammation defined by high?sensitivity C?reactive protein ?1 mL/L and kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate) were determined in the older age group. The PI was similar in older compared to younger adults (P =0.887). However, the urinary recovery of lactulose and mannitol was lower in the older adults and this change was neither associated with urinary volume nor glomerular filtration rate. The PI was not significantly correlated with low?grade inflammation or presence of noninsulin?dependent type 2 diabetes. However, it significantly deteriorated in the copresence of both conditions compared to low?grade inflammation alone (P =0.043) or type 2 diabetes alone (P =0.015). Small intestinal mucosal barrier does not deteriorate with age per se. But low?grade inflammation coupled with minor disease challenges, such as type 2 diabetes, can compromise the small intestinal barrier. PMID:24771689

  3. Dental Hygiene Students’ Perceptions of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R. Constance; Shockey, Alcinda Trickett; Long, D. Leann

    2015-01-01

    Geriatric education is an important component of the dental hygiene curriculum because, in it, students acquire skills and attitudes to help provide quality care to older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine if off-site exposure to nursing home residents with supervised oversight had the potential to improve dental hygiene students’ attitudes toward older adults. Senior dental hygiene students at one school completed a pre-nursing home experience questionnaire. A series of geriatric lectures and discussions, which included discussions about students’ anxieties of working with institutionalized older adults, were held prior to the nursing home experience. The students then participated in two supervised four-hour nursing home experiences, were debriefed after the experiences, and completed a second questionnaire. Of thirty-nine potential participants in the study, thirty-two took part in the pre-nursing home experience questionnaire (82.1 percent). They had a mean split Fabroni score of 34.2 (95 percent confidence interval: 32.2, 36.3). The thirty participants in the post-experience questionnaire (76.9 percent of total) had a mean split score of 32.7 (95 percent confidence interval: 30.1, 35.3). This study failed to reject the null hypothesis of no mean difference between the pre- and post-nursing home experience; however, the post-experience mean score was lower than the pre-nursing home experience mean score, indicating a more positive attitude toward older adults after the experience. PMID:25480277

  4. Chronic use of benzodiazepines among older adults.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Jussara Mendonça; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Loyola Filho, Antônio Ignácio de; Uchoa, Elizabeth; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the perception of and motivation for the chronic use of benzodiazepine among older adults. METHODS A qualitative study was conducted on 22 older adults living in Bambuí, MG, Southeastern Brazil, who were taking benzodiazepines and had the clinical and cognitive ability to respond to interview questions. The collected data were analyzed on the basis of the "signs, meanings, and actions" model. RESULTS The main reasons pointed out for the use of benzodiazepines were "nervousness", "sleep problems", and "worry" due to family and financial problems, everyday problems, and existential difficulties. None of the interviewees said that they used benzodiazepines in a dose higher than that recommended or had been warned by health professionals about any risks of their continuous use. Different strategies were used to obtain the prescription for the medication, and any physician would prescribe it, indicating that a bond was established with the drug and not with the health professional or healthcare service. Obtaining and consuming the medication turned into a crucial issue because benzodiazepine assumes the status of an essential food, which leads users to not think but sleep. It causes a feeling of relief from their problems such as awareness of human finitude and fragility, existential difficulties, and family problems. CONCLUSIONS Benzodiazepine assumes the characteristics of polyvalence among older adults, which extrapolate specific clinical indications, and of essentiality to deal with life's problems in old age. Although it relieves the "nerves", the chronic use of benzodiazepines buffers suffering and prevents older adults from going through the suffering. This shows important difficulties in the organization and planning of strategies that are necessary for minimizing the chronic use in this population. PMID:26039388

  5. Chronic use of benzodiazepines among older adults

    PubMed Central

    Alvarenga, Jussara Mendonça; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; de Loyola, Antônio Ignácio; Uchoa, Elizabeth; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the perception of and motivation for the chronic use of benzodiazepine among older adults. METHODS A qualitative study was conducted on 22 older adults living in Bambuí, MG, Southeastern Brazil, who were taking benzodiazepines and had the clinical and cognitive ability to respond to interview questions. The collected data were analyzed on the basis of the “signs, meanings, and actions” model. RESULTS The main reasons pointed out for the use of benzodiazepines were “nervousness”, “sleep problems”, and “worry” due to family and financial problems, everyday problems, and existential difficulties. None of the interviewees said that they used benzodiazepines in a dose higher than that recommended or had been warned by health professionals about any risks of their continuous use. Different strategies were used to obtain the prescription for the medication, and any physician would prescribe it, indicating that a bond was established with the drug and not with the health professional or healthcare service. Obtaining and consuming the medication turned into a crucial issue because benzodiazepine assumes the status of an essential food, which leads users to not think but sleep. It causes a feeling of relief from their problems such as awareness of human finitude and fragility, existential difficulties, and family problems. CONCLUSIONS Benzodiazepine assumes the characteristics of polyvalence among older adults, which extrapolate specific clinical indications, and of essentiality to deal with life’s problems in old age. Although it relieves the “nerves”, the chronic use of benzodiazepines buffers suffering and prevents older adults from going through the suffering. This shows important difficulties in the organization and planning of strategies that are necessary for minimizing the chronic use in this population. PMID:26039388

  6. Physical activity is medicine for older adults

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Denise

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence from high quality studies to strongly support the positive association between increased levels of physical activity, exercise participation and improved health in older adults. Worldwide, around 3.2 million deaths per year are being attributed to inactivity. In industrialised countries where people are living longer lives, the levels of chronic health conditions are increasing and the levels of physical activity are declining. Key factors in improving health are exercising at a moderate-to-vigorous level for at least 5?days per week and including both aerobic and strengthening exercises. Few older adults achieve the level of physical activity or exercise that accompanies health improvements. A challenge for health professionals is to increase physical activity and exercise participation in older adults. Some success in this has been reported when physicians have given specific, detailed and localised information to their patients, but more high quality research is needed to continue to address this issue of non-participation in physical activity and exercise of a high enough level to ensure health benefits. PMID:24255119

  7. Lexical attrition in younger and older bilingual adults.

    PubMed

    Goral, Mira; Libben, Gary; Obler, Loraine K; Jarema, Gonia; Ohayon, Keren

    2008-07-01

    Healthy monolingual older adults experience changes in their lexical abilities. Bilingual individuals immersed in an environment in which their second language is dominant experience lexical changes, or attrition, in their first language. Changes in lexical skills in the first language of older individuals who are bilinguals, therefore, can be attributed to the typical processes accompanying older age, the typical processes accompanying first-language attrition in bilingual contexts, or both. The challenge, then, in understanding how lexical skills change in bilingual older individuals, lies in dissociating these processes. This paper addresses the difficulty of teasing apart the effects of ageing and attrition in older bilinguals and proposes some solutions. It presents preliminary results from a study of lexical processing in bilingual younger and older individuals. Processing differences were found for the older bilingual participants in their first language (L1), but not in their second language (L2). It is concluded that the lexical behaviour found for older bilinguals in this study can be attributed to L1 attrition and not to processes of ageing. These findings are discussed in the context of previous reports concerning changes in lexical skills associated with typical ageing and those associated with bilingual L1 attrition. PMID:18568793

  8. Self-reported cognitive inconsistency in older adults.

    PubMed

    Vanderhill, Susan; Hultsch, David F; Hunter, Michael A; Strauss, Esther

    2010-01-01

    Insight into one's own cognitive abilities, or metacognition, has been widely studied in developmental psychology. Relevance to the clinician is high, as memory complaints in older adults show an association with impending dementia, even after controlling for likely confounds. Another candidate marker of impending dementia under study is inconsistency in cognitive performance over short time intervals. Although there has been a recent proliferation of studies of cognitive inconsistency in older adults, to date, no one has examined adults' self-perceptions of cognitive inconsistency. Ninety-four community-dwelling older adults (aged 70-91) were randomly selected from a parent longitudinal study of short-term inconsistency and long-term cognitive change in aging. Participants completed a novel 40-item self-report measure of everyday cognitive inconsistency, including parallel scales indexing perceived inconsistency 5 years ago and at present, yielding measures of past, present, and 5-year change in inconsistency. The questionnaire showed acceptable psychometric characteristics. The sample reported an increase in perceived inconsistency over time. Higher reported present inconsistency and greater 5-year increase in inconsistency were associated with noncognitive (e.g., older age, poorer ADLs, poorer health, higher depression), metacognitive (e.g., poorer self-rated memory) and neuropsychological (e.g., poorer performance and greater 5-year decline in global cognitive status, vocabulary, and memory) measures. Correlations between self-reported inconsistency and neuropsychological performance were attenuated, but largely persisted when self-rated memory and age were controlled. Observed relationships between self-reported inconsistency and measures of neuropsychological (including memory) status and decline suggest that self-perceived inconsistency may be an area of relevance in evaluating older adults for memory disorders. PMID:19851899

  9. Motor Asymmetry Reduction in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Przybyla, Andrzej; Haaland, Kathleen Y.; Bagesteiro, Leia B.; Sainburg, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    While cerebral lateralization has previously been well documented for many neurobehavioral functions, recent research has shown that as people age, formerly lateralized processes recruit more symmetric patterns of neural activity. Such findings provide the foundation for the model of hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults, or “HAROLD” (Cabeza, 2002). Previous studies that have measured reaction time and movement time have suggested that aging does not affect manual asymmetries. However, whether these findings can be extended to kinematic variables associated with motor coordination remains largely unknown. The purpose of the current study is to determine whether asymmetries in intralimb coordination are also reduced during the aging process. We examined multidirectional reaching in two different right handed age groups, a younger group from 20 to 40 years of age, and an older group, from 60–80 years of age. Measures of final position accuracy, precision, and trajectory linearity showed robust asymmetries between the left and right arm groups of young adults. However, the trajectories and accuracies of the older subjects were symmetric, such that our dependent measures were not significantly different between the right and left arm groups. Our findings extend the HAROLD model to motor behavior, suggesting that aging results in decrements in motor lateralization. PMID:21144883

  10. Asthma Is More Severe in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dweik, Raed A.; Comhair, Suzy A.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Moore, Wendy C.; Peters, Stephen P.; Busse, William W.; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Calhoun, William J.; Castro, Mario; Chung, K. Fan; Fitzpatrick, Anne; Israel, Elliot; Teague, W. Gerald; Wenzel, Sally E.; Love, Thomas E.; Gaston, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Severe asthma occurs more often in older adult patients. We hypothesized that the greater risk for severe asthma in older individuals is due to aging, and is independent of asthma duration. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of prospectively collected data from adult participants (N=1130; 454 with severe asthma) enrolled from 2002 – 2011 in the Severe Asthma Research Program. Results The association between age and the probability of severe asthma, which was performed by applying a Locally Weighted Scatterplot Smoother, revealed an inflection point at age 45 for risk of severe asthma. The probability of severe asthma increased with each year of life until 45 years and thereafter increased at a much slower rate. Asthma duration also increased the probability of severe asthma but had less effect than aging. After adjustment for most comorbidities of aging and for asthma duration using logistic regression, asthmatics older than 45 maintained the greater probability of severe asthma [OR: 2.73 (95 CI: 1.96; 3.81)]. After 45, the age-related risk of severe asthma continued to increase in men, but not in women. Conclusions Overall, the impact of age and asthma duration on risk for asthma severity in men and women is greatest over times of 18-45 years of age; age has a greater effect than asthma duration on risk of severe asthma. PMID:26200463

  11. Organizational Support and Volunteering Benefits for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Fengyan; Choi, Eunhee; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested a theoretical model of volunteering benefits and examined the mechanism through which volunteering benefits older adults. Design and Methods: This is a 2-wave study of 253 older adult volunteers serving in 10 volunteer programs. Older volunteers completed the mailed surveys in 2005 and 2006. Structural equation modeling…

  12. Sleep Reduces False Memory in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lo, June C.; Sim, Sam K. Y.; Chee, Michael W. L.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the effects of post-learning sleep and sleep architecture on false memory in healthy older adults. Design: Balanced, crossover design. False memory was induced using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm and assessed following nocturnal sleep and following a period of daytime wakefulness. Post-learning sleep structure was evaluated using polysomnography (PSG). Setting: Sleep research laboratory. Participants: Fourteen healthy older adults from the Singapore-Longitudinal Aging Brain Study (mean age ± standard deviation = 66.6 ± 4.1 y; 7 males). Measurements and Results: At encoding, participants studied lists of words that were semantically related to non-presented critical lures. At retrieval, they made “remember”/“know” and “new” judgments. Compared to wakefulness, post-learning sleep was associated with reduced “remember” responses, but not “know” responses to critical lures. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the veridical recognition of studied words, false recognition of unrelated distractors, discriminability, or response bias between the sleep and the wake conditions. More post-learning slow wave sleep was associated with greater reduction in false memory. Conclusions: In healthy older adults, sleep facilitates the reduction in false memory without affecting veridical memory. This benefit correlates with the amount of slow wave sleep in the post-learning sleep episode. Citation: Lo JC; Sim SK; Chee MW. Sleep reduces false memory in healthy older adults. SLEEP 2014;37(4):665-671. PMID:24744453

  13. Recognition of Rapid Speech by Blind and Sighted Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon-Salant, Sandra; Friedman, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether older blind participants recognize time-compressed speech better than older sighted participants. Method: Three groups of adults with normal hearing participated (n = 10/group): (a) older sighted, (b) older blind, and (c) younger sighted listeners. Low-predictability sentences that were uncompressed (0% time…

  14. Emotional memory for musical excerpts in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Irene; Dellacherie, Delphine; Samson, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009), but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008) or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013) may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24 h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24 h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and dementia. PMID:25814950

  15. Emotional memory for musical excerpts in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Irene; Dellacherie, Delphine; Samson, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009), but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008) or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013) may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24 h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24 h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and dementia. PMID:25814950

  16. Adapting Choral Singing Experiences for Older Adults: The Implications of Sensory, Perceptual, and Cognitive Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yinger, Olivia Swedberg

    2014-01-01

    As people age, they naturally experience sensory, perceptual, and cognitive changes. Many of these changes necessitate adaptations in designing programs for older adults. Choral singing is an activity that has many potential benefits for older adults, yet the rehearsal environment, presentation style, and content of material presented may need to…

  17. Activity Levels in Healthy Older Adults: Implications for Joint Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Thorp, Laura E.; Orozco, Diego; Block, Joel A.; Sumner, Dale R.; Wimmer, Markus A.

    2012-01-01

    This work evaluated activity levels in a group of healthy older adults to establish a target activity level for adults of similar age after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). With the decreasing age of TJA patients, it is essential to have a reference for activity level in younger patients as activity level affects quality of life and implant design. 54 asymptomatic, healthy older adults with no clinical evidence of lower extremity OA participated. The main outcome measure, average daily step count, was measured using an accelerometer-based activity monitor. On average the group took 8813 ± 3611 steps per day, approximately 4000 more steps per day than has been previously reported in patients following total joint arthroplasty. The present work provides a reference for activity after joint arthroplasty which is relevant given the projected number of people under the age of 65 who will undergo joint arthroplasty in the coming years. PMID:23577274

  18. Memory impairment in older adults’ diversionary thoughts

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Fátima; Resende, Flávia; Salomé Pinho, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The diversion paradigm was created in the context of explaining the effect of the instruction to forget some recently encoded material in the list-method of the directed forgetting paradigm. The current study of healthy older adults employed the diversion paradigm with two main goals: to determine whether thinking about an autobiographical memory interferes with the recall of recently encoded information and to explore whether the degree of forgetting depends on the temporal distance created by the diversionary thought. Ninety non-institutionalized Portuguese older adults (47 females and 43 males), aged 65–69 years, with education levels of between 3 and 6 years participated in this study. The exclusion criteria were as follows: presence of depressive symptomatology (assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale-30) and global cognitive deterioration (assessed with the Mini–Mental State Examination). Concerning the diversion paradigm, one group was instructed to think about an autobiographical event (remembering one’s childhood home or the last party that one had attended) after studying one word list (List 1) and before viewing the second word list (List 2). After a brief distraction task, the participant had to recall the words from both of the studied lists. In the control group, the procedure was the same, but the diversionary thought was substituted by a speed reading task. The obtained results showed the amnesic effect of diversionary thought but did not show a greater degree of forgetting when the autobiographical events in the diversionary thoughts were temporally more distant. Considering the practical implications of these results, this study alerts us to the importance of promoting strategies that enable older adults to better remember important information and effectively forget irrelevant information. PMID:26539106

  19. Memory impairment in older adults' diversionary thoughts.

    PubMed

    Alves, Fátima; Resende, Flávia; Salomé Pinho, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The diversion paradigm was created in the context of explaining the effect of the instruction to forget some recently encoded material in the list-method of the directed forgetting paradigm. The current study of healthy older adults employed the diversion paradigm with two main goals: to determine whether thinking about an autobiographical memory interferes with the recall of recently encoded information and to explore whether the degree of forgetting depends on the temporal distance created by the diversionary thought. Ninety non-institutionalized Portuguese older adults (47 females and 43 males), aged 65-69 years, with education levels of between 3 and 6 years participated in this study. The exclusion criteria were as follows: presence of depressive symptomatology (assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale-30) and global cognitive deterioration (assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination). Concerning the diversion paradigm, one group was instructed to think about an autobiographical event (remembering one's childhood home or the last party that one had attended) after studying one word list (List 1) and before viewing the second word list (List 2). After a brief distraction task, the participant had to recall the words from both of the studied lists. In the control group, the procedure was the same, but the diversionary thought was substituted by a speed reading task. The obtained results showed the amnesic effect of diversionary thought but did not show a greater degree of forgetting when the autobiographical events in the diversionary thoughts were temporally more distant. Considering the practical implications of these results, this study alerts us to the importance of promoting strategies that enable older adults to better remember important information and effectively forget irrelevant information. PMID:26539106

  20. Older Adults' Third Places and Perceived Social Connectedness 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Ji Hei

    2015-05-12

    The rapid growth of the older adult population and the preference for aging in place is a global phenomenon that will necessitate a reshaping of communities to reflect the older population’s perception and behavior. Social relationship and support...

  1. The hypercorrection effect in younger and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Eich, Teal S.; Stern, Yaakov; Metcalfe, Janet

    2012-01-01

    The hypercorrection effect, which refers to the finding that errors committed with high confidence are more likely to be corrected than are low confidence errors, has been replicated many times, and with both young adults and children. In the present study, we contrasted older with younger adults. Participants answered general-information questions, made confidence ratings about their answers, were given corrective feedback, and then were retested on questions that they had gotten wrong. While younger adults showed the hypercorrection effect, older adults, despite higher overall accuracy on the general-information questions and excellent basic metacognitive ability, showed a diminished hypercorrection effect. Indeed, the correspondence between their confidence in their errors and the probability of correction was not significantly greater than zero, showing, for the first time, that a particular participant population is selectively impaired on this error-correction task. These results potentially offer leverage both on the mechanisms underlying the hypercorrection effect and on reasons for older adults' memory impairments, as well as on memory functions that are spared. PMID:23241028

  2. Depression Literacy Among American Indian Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Roh, Soonhee; Brown-Rice, Kathleen; Pope, Natalie D; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Newland, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    Older American Indians experience high rates of depression and other psychological disorders, yet little research exist on the depression literacy of this group. Depression literacy is fundamental for individuals seeking help for depression in a timely and appropriate manner. In the present study the authors examine levels and predictors of knowledge of depression symptoms in a sample of rural older American Indians (N = 227) living in the Midwestern United States. Data from self-administered questionnaires indicate limited knowledge of depression and negative attitudes toward seeking help for mental health problems. Additional findings and implications for social work practice and policy are discussed. PMID:25924076

  3. Pedometer accuracy in slow walking older adults.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jessica B; Kr?, Katarina M; Mitchell, Emily A; Eng, Janice J; Noble, Jeremy W

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine pedometer accuracy during slow overground walking in older adults (Mean age = 63.6 years). A total of 18 participants (6 males, 12 females) wore 5 different brands of pedometers over 3 pre-set cadences that elicited walking speeds between 0.3 and 0.9 m/s and one self-selected cadence over 80 meters of indoor track. Pedometer accuracy decreased with slower walking speeds with mean percent errors across all devices combined of 56%, 40%, 19% and 9% at cadences of 50, 66, and 80 steps/min, and self selected cadence, respectively. Percent error ranged from 45.3% for Omron HJ105 to 66.9% for Yamax Digiwalker 200. Due to the high level of error across the slowest cadences of all 5 devices, the use of pedometers to monitor step counts in healthy older adults with slower gait speeds is problematic. Further research is required to develop pedometer mechanisms that accurately measure steps at slower walking speeds. PMID:24795762

  4. Older Adults are Highly Responsive to Recent Events During Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Worthy, Darrell A.; Otto, A. Ross; Doll, Bradley B.; Byrne, Kaileigh A.; Maddox, W. Todd

    2014-01-01

    Recent work suggests that older adults’ decision-making behavior is highly affected by recent events. In the present work younger and older adults performed a two-choice task where one option provided a larger average reward, but there was a large amount of noise around the mean reward for each option which led to sharp improvements or declines in rewards over trials. Older adults showed greater responsiveness to recent events than younger adults as evidenced by fits of Reinforcement Learning (RL) models. Older adults were particularly sensitive to recent negative events, which was evidenced by a strong tendency for older adults to switch to the other option following steep declines in reward. This tendency led to superior performance for older adults in one condition where heightened sensitivity to recent negative events was advantageous. These results extend prior work that has found an older adult bias toward negative feedback, and suggest that older adults engage in more abrupt switching in response to negative outcomes than younger adults. PMID:25580469

  5. Growth Curve Analysis of Ability Means and Variances in Measures of Fluid Intelligence of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko

    1997-01-01

    Growth curve analysis is applied to modeling test performance changes demonstrated by older adults following cognitive training or based on repeatedly presented fluid intelligence measures. Findings using data from a study by P. Bates and others (1986) provide evidence of plasticity in the fluid intelligence of older adults. (SLD)

  6. Confusion and the Older Adult. Module A-8. Block A. Basic Knowledge of the Aging Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest

    This instructional module on confusion and the older adult is one in a block of 10 modules designed to provide the human services worker who works with older adults with basic information regarding the aging process. An introduction provides an overview of the module content. A listing of general objectives follows. Three sections present

  7. Community-dwelling Adults Versus Older Adults: Psychopathology and the Continuum Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Lagana, Luciana; Tramutolo, C.; Boncori, L.; Cruciani, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Little empirical evidence is available on older adults regarding the existence of a continuum between “normal” personality traits and DSM-IV-TR Axes I and II disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Given the typical complexity of clinical presentations in advanced age, it is feasible to expect a dimensional conceptualization of psychopathology to apply to older adults. In this pilot investigation, we first tested age differences in psychopathology, upholding the view that older adults should be considered separately from younger individuals in research on psychopathology. Then, in support of the dimensional approach, we tested the hypothesized continuity between normality and psychopathology by verifying the fulfillment of two operational criteria of continuity. A non-clinical sample of 100 Italian respondents was divided into two groups (50 people per group, 25 women and 25 men), aged 25–64 and 65–84, respectively. The instruments used were a measure of normal personality, SFERAS (Boncori & Barruffi, 2004) and one of Axes I and II psychopathology, TALEIA-400A (Boncori, 2007). MANOVA analyses demonstrated a significant effect on both measures, with older adults achieving higher Axis I scores and higher scores on normal personality traits connected to anxiety. The continuum hypothesis was confirmed on older and younger adults through correlational analyses that verified the fulfillment of both continuity criteria. Our results show that Italian older adults differ significantly in psychopathology from younger individuals; however, contrary to findings from other countries, in a negative direction. The continuity results (although in need of replication with larger samples, utilizing statistical methods better suited for these analyses, such as taxometric procedures) offer preliminary support for the notion that the dimensional approach to psychopathology could work well in older age. PMID:25419037

  8. Practice of Adult Education--Older Adults, Tourism, and Learning in Yellowstone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a program of learning for older adults in a national park. Because of the growing trend of tourism among retirees this learning during leisure is gaining prominence. The paper brings together the concepts of aging, self-directed learning, and tourism and leisure. In addition this paper presents a…

  9. Depression in Older Adults in Primary Care: An Integrative Approach to Care.

    PubMed

    Lill, Sheila

    2015-09-01

    Depression in older adults is a problem often encountered in primary care. While depression is evident in all populations in the primary care setting, assessment and care are more complicated in the older adult due to factors such as comorbidities, clinical presentation, adverse drug effects and drug interactions, and psychosocial factors. Due to these complications, it is essential to incorporate both conventional and alternative methods in assessment and treatment. This article aims to define depression in older adults, present the epidemiology, discuss clinical presentation and screening, and offer an integrative approach to intervention, including both pharmacological and nonpharmacological methods. Providing holistic and integrative care to older adults diagnosed with depression in the primary care setting is essential to promote healing and recovery. This article aims to provide insight for nurses, nurse practitioners, and other providers regarding the holistic and integrative care of depression in older adults in the primary care setting. PMID:25673577

  10. Trust and trustworthiness in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Phoebe E; Slessor, Gillian; Rieger, Matthias; Rendell, Peter G; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Ruffman, Ted

    2015-12-01

    In a series of 1-shot economic trust games in which participants could make real monetary profits, but also risked losing money, 2 studies compared young and older adults' trust (amount invested with trustees) and trustworthiness (amount returned to investors by trustees). In Study 1, young (n = 35) and older (n = 32) participants acted as investors, and the age of simulated trustees (young, older) was manipulated. In Study 2, young (n = 61) and older (n = 67) participants acted in real life as both investors and trustees. They completed 2 face-to-face trust games with same- and other-age partners, and 3 anonymous trust games with same-, other-, and unknown-age partners. Study 1 found that young and older participants rate older trustees as appearing more trustworthy than young trustees, but neither group invest more with older than young trustees. Rather, older participants were more likely than young participants to invest money averaged across trustee age. In Study 2, there were no age-related differences in trust, but older adults were more trustworthy than young adults in anonymous games with same- and unknown-age partners. It was also found that young adults demonstrate greater reputational concerns than older adults by reciprocating more trust when face-to-face than anonymous. We discuss the complex influences of age on trust game investing and reciprocation, as well as the implications for older adults' wellbeing and financial security. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26389525

  11. Perceived Trajectories of Life Satisfaction Across Past, Present, and Future: Profiles and Correlates of Subjective Change in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Röcke, Christina; Lachman, Margie E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite longitudinal stability in subjective well-being across adulthood, many adults perceive self-related change. This study was aimed at identifying differential subjective change profiles in life satisfaction rated for the present, the past, and the future and to examine their associations with sociodemographic variables and changes in adaptive functioning. We addressed this aim using Midlife in the United States survey data from two measurement occasions (N=3631, T1-age: 24-75). Using cluster analysis, a ‘Continuous High,’ and an ‘Incremental’ subgroup were identified at both occasions. A third subgroup was labeled ‘Present Low’ at T1 and ‘Decremental’ at T2. Although the average pattern across individual variables suggested stability, up to 60% of individuals fit profiles depicting perceived change, and some individuals changed subgroup membership over time. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, subgroups differed in level and change in biopsychosocial measures of adaptive functioning, with sense of control and social relationship quality showing stronger associations than personality and physical health. Results indicate that a person-centered approach to assessing life satisfaction provides a rich and dynamic picture of individual differences in subjective well-being across the adult lifespan. PMID:19140654

  12. In The Best Interest Of The (Adult) Child: Ideas About Kinship Care Of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Tezra; Perry, Tam E.; Valeriani, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This article uses a qualitative, ethnographic approach to examine the experiences older adults and their kin, as the older adult engages in relocation. Studies looking at caregiving by kin for older adults highlight burdens for the adult child. This study offers a life course perspective on kinship care, analyzing older adults' decisions' to move. It was found that many older adults are strongly influenced by the desire to not be cared for by their kin as well as to select housing near their existing social network, which might exclude kin. In conclusion, policy implications are discussed. PMID:25278741

  13. Young and Older Adults' Gender Stereotype in Multitasking

    PubMed Central

    Strobach, Tilo; Woszidlo, Alesia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129) and older (n = 112) German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups). When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype's components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs. PMID:26733913

  14. Older Adults Make Less Advantageous Decisions than Younger Adults: Cognitive and Psychological Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; McGillivray, Shannon; Finn, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that older adults make less advantageous decisions than younger adults on the Iowa gambling task (IGT). Less advantageous decisions, as measured by the IGT, are characterized by choices that favor larger versus smaller immediate rewards, even though such choices may result in long-term negative consequences. The IGT, and measures of neuropsychological function, personality, and psychopathology were administered to 164 healthy adults 18–85 years of age. Older adults performed less advantageously on the IGT compared with younger adults. Additionally, a greater number of older adult’s IGT performances were classified as ‘impaired’ when compared to younger adults. Less advantageous decisions were associated with obsessive symptoms in older adults and with antisocial symptoms in younger adults. Performance on the IGT was positively associated with auditory working memory and psychomotor function in young adults, and in immediate memory in older adults. PMID:17445297

  15. Verbal expressive personality testing with older adults: 25+ years later.

    PubMed

    Panek, Paul E; Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Hayslip, Bert; Moske, Amanda Kay

    2013-01-01

    This review builds on those conducted over 25 years ago by Panek and Hayslip in examining the literature dealing with the use of verbal expressive techniques with older adults. Such findings based on the Rorschach Ink Blot Test, Holtzman Inkblot Technique, Hand Test, Sentence Completion methods, and the Thematic Apperception Test and kindred thematic apperceptive techniques are presented and evaluated regarding the evidence for age differences, differential diagnosis, extraneous individual differences in performance, and adequacy of normative data. Although available evidence appears to warrant the continued use of verbal expressive techniques with older adults, more adequately designed studies are necessary to fully support the potential of these assessment tools for decision making with this population: assisting in diagnosis, recommending the appropriateness of various living arrangements, facilitating supportive care choices, and aiding in treatment planning. PMID:23441570

  16. Dimensionality of Everyday Problem Solving in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Marsiske, Michael; Willis, Sherry L.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated individual differences in older adults' everyday problem-solving performance using 3 instruments. Past research, typically using only single measures, has yielded a multitude of findings regarding age effects in everyday problem solving. The present sample consisted of 111 older adults (44 men, 67 women) who ranged in age from 68 to 94 years. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that, within each of the 3 instruments, subscales representing particular content domains could be reliably identified. There was, however, little relation between the different instruments, and the measures also differed in their relation with chronological age. These results support the view that everyday problem-solving competence is a multidimensional construct, of which previous investigations may only have studied particular dimensions. PMID:7662186

  17. Data Sources Available for Modeling Environmental Exposures in Older Adults

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report, “Data Sources Available for Modeling Environmental Exposures in Older Adults,” focuses on information sources and data available for modeling environmental exposures in the older U.S. population, defined here to be people 60 years and older, with an emphasis on those...

  18. Quantification of postural stability in older adults using mobile technology.

    PubMed

    Ozinga, Sarah J; Alberts, Jay L

    2014-12-01

    Traditional biomechanical systems used to capture kinematic data have shown that declines in postural stability are frequently present in older adults and neurological populations. Recent advances in processor speed and measuring capabilities of on-board electronics within mobile devices present an opportunity to gather kinematic data and apply biomechanical analyses to potentially quantify postural stability. The aim of this project was to determine if the kinematic data gathered using a mobile device were of sufficient quantity and quality to characterize postural stability in older adults. Twelve healthy older adults completed six different balance conditions under altered surface, stance and vision. Simultaneous kinematic measurements were gathered from a three-dimensional motion analysis system and iPad during balance conditions. Correlation between the two systems was significant across balance conditions and outcome measures: peak-to-peak (r = 0.70-0.99), normalized path length (r = 0.64-0.98), root mean square (r = 0.73-0.99) of linear acceleration, 95 % volume (r = 0.96-0.99) of linear and angular acceleration and total power across different frequencies (r = 0.79-0.92). The mean absolute percentage error metric, used to evaluate time-series measurements point-by-point, indicated that when measuring linear and angular acceleration, the iPad tracked the motion analysis system with average error between 6 and 10 % of motion analysis measurements across all balance conditions. Collectively, similar accuracy with the iPad compared to motion capture suggests the sensors provide sufficient accuracy and quality for the quantification of postural stability in older adults. The objectivity, portability, and ease of use of this device make it ideal for use in clinical environments, which often lack biomechanical systems. PMID:25150554

  19. Memory training plus yoga for older adults.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Graham J; Vance, David E; Wayde, Ernest; Ford, Katy; Ross, Jeremiah

    2015-06-01

    Previous tests of the SeniorWISE intervention with community-residing older adults that were designed to improve affect and cognitive performance were successful and positively affected these outcomes. In this study, we tested whether adding yoga to the intervention would affect the outcomes. Using a quasiexperimental pre-post design, we delivered 12 hours of SeniorWISE memory training that included a 30-minute yoga component before each training session. The intervention was based on the four components of self-efficacy theory: enactive mastery experience, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiologic arousal. We recruited 133 older adults between the ages of 53 and 96 years from four retirement communities in Central Texas. Individuals were screened and tested and then attended training sessions two times a week over 4 weeks. A septuagenarian licensed psychologist taught the memory training, and a certified yoga instructor taught yoga. Eighty-three participants completed at least 9 hours (75%) of the training and completed the posttest. Those individuals who completed made significant gains in memory performance, instrumental activities of daily living, and memory self-efficacy and had fewer depressive symptoms. Thirteen individuals advanced from poor to normal memory performance, and seven improved from impaired to poor memory performance; thus, 20 individuals improved enough to advance to a higher functioning memory group. The findings from this study of a memory training intervention plus yoga training show that the benefits of multifactorial interventions had additive benefits. The combined treatments offer a unique model for brain health programs and the promotion of nonpharmacological treatment with the goals of maintaining healthy brain function and boosting brain plasticity. PMID:25943999

  20. Community-Dwelling Adults versus Older Adults: Psychopathology and the Continuum Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagana, Luciana; Tramutolo, Carmine; Boncori, Lucia; Cruciani, Anna Clara

    2012-01-01

    Little empirical evidence is available on older adults regarding the existence of a continuum between "normal" personality traits and DSM-IV-TR Axes I and II disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Given the typical complexity of clinical presentations in advanced age, it is feasible to expect a dimensional conceptualization of…

  1. Institutional Facilitation in Sustained Volunteering among Older Adult Volunteers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Fengyan; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Hong, Songiee

    2009-01-01

    As more nonprofit organizations rely on older adult volunteers to provide services, it is important to retain volunteers for an extended period of time to ensure service quality and the beneficial outcomes of volunteering. Nonprofit organizations are positioned to facilitate older adult volunteers' role performance. Based on an institutional…

  2. Therapeutic Uses of Music with Older Adults. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clair, Alicia Ann; Memmott, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    In this comprehensively updated second edition, written by Alicia Ann Clair and Jenny Memmott the extraordinary benefits of music therapy for older adults are detailed. "Therapeutic Uses of Music with Older Adults" not only examines these benefits but also clarifies the reasons that music is beneficial. This important book shows both informal and…

  3. Emotional Wellness Needs: Older Adults in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ, Randall

    2009-01-01

    The importance of emotional wellness for rural older adults is a topic of growing significance. Older adults, now the fastest growing United States population sector, have special wellness needs. By the year 2030, about 70 million people will be over the age of 65. A low or declining sense of control over one's life increases depression. Emotional…

  4. Medication Adherence in Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Elizabeth W.; Rung, Ariane L.; Leon, Kyla A.; Firestein, Catherine; Krousel-Wood, Marie

    2014-01-01

    To effectively address medication adherence and improve cardiovascular health among older adults, a deeper understanding is needed of the barriers that this age group faces and of approaches that would be most effective and feasible for improving adherence. We conducted a focus group study (n = 25) in a diverse population of older adults with…

  5. Health Literacy Programs for Older Adults: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Older adults make up the fastest growing age group in North America. This has demanded increased attention in supporting the health and well-being of this population and, in particular, the role of health information in promoting the health and well-being of older adults. Increased availability and accessibility of information as well as a greater…

  6. Older Adults as Home Visitors Modeling Parenting for Troubled Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arch, Shirley D.

    1978-01-01

    A program based on regular home visits by older adults to families of neglected or developmentally delayed children provides a model for parenting in the home, helps the children and gives the older adult visitors a satisfying role to play in society. (SE)

  7. Religious Patterns and Participation of Older Adults: A Sociological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Barbara

    1988-01-01

    Examines patterns of religious behavior and participation of older adults in five areas: social profile of religious participation; profile of patterns of religious behavior of elderly; effects of age, period, and cohort on socialization to religious practice; meaning and role of organized religion for older adults; and implications for future…

  8. Health-Related Variables and Functional Fitness among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkin, Linda D.; Haddock, Bryan L.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the functional fitness of a convenient sample of older adults (greater than 70 years), to examine correlations between functional fitness and several other health-related variables and to compare with criterion performance data as established by Rikli and Jones (2001). One hundred and seven community-dwelling older adults with…

  9. Dare to Dream: New Venture Incubator for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantman, Shira; Gimmon, Eli

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a project that aims to foster active aging through entrepreneurial activities among older adults. The project establishes the feasibility of implementing an intervention program that assimilates the concept and capabilities of entrepreneurship among older adults and supports them while launching new…

  10. Volunteerism, Health, and Civic Engagement among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Benjamin H.; Gillespie, Alayna A.

    2008-01-01

    In North America, 40-50 per cent of older adults are actively involved as formal volunteers in providing diverse health and human services. We review empirical studies concerning older adults' motivations for volunteering, as well as the health and morale benefits they derive from this expression of altruism. Knowledge of the exact nature and…

  11. Older Adults: What Every Paediatric Nurse Should Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barba, Beth Ellen; Tesh, Anita Starr; Cowen, Kay; Hancock, Debbie; Moore, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Older adults have always been important parts of children's lives, playing a variety of roles including grandparent, caregiver, friend, and neighbour. Grandparents also play a variety of roles in families. Often a child's first encounter with serious illness or death involves a grandparent or other older adult. Grandparents are also increasingly…

  12. Older Adults: Community College Students of the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Ford M.

    With a declining pool of youth to draw from, community colleges need to be concerned about what can be done to serve the needs of a burgeoning older adult population. Recent research on the educational needs of older adults reveals that they are interested in: (1) information on such personal business and financial topics as social security…

  13. An Exploration of Personality Traits in Older Adult Amateur Musicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffman, Don D.

    2007-01-01

    The primary research question for the study was, "Will older adult amateur musicians' personality profiles reflect the traits found in professional musicians?" Participants (N = 58, ages 52 to 79) recruited from a New Horizons Institute "band camp" for older adult amateur musicians completed a musical background questionnaire and the Cattell…

  14. A characterization of pain in racially and ethnically diverse older adults: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lavin, Robert; Park, Juyoung

    2014-04-01

    This article presents a critical review of the influence of interracial and ethnic variation on pain prevalence, intensity, interference/function/disability, and treatment in older adults. A search of scientific databases published from 1900 to 2011, using key words associated with pain, geriatrics, and race/ethnicity, identified 180 articles, of which 27 empirical studies met the inclusion criteria. Of the retained articles, 17 reported that race/ethnicity was a statistically significant factor at p < .05. Minority older adults reported a higher prevalence of pain and higher pain intensity, and variable responses regarding function/disability compared with responses by non-Hispanic White older adults. Minority older adults were less likely to receive prescription pharmacologic treatments and surgery, and they were more likely to use complementary and alternative medicine treatments. There are interracial/ethnic differences in pain assessment and treatment interventions among older adults. PMID:24717736

  15. Policy implications of a literature review of bariatric surgery in older adults.

    PubMed

    Caceres, Billy A

    2014-09-01

    In the past decade, bariatric surgery has garnered attention as a treatment for obesity in older adults. Its increased popularity is a direct response to growing obesity rates in this segment of the population. Bariatric surgery among older adults has emerged as a contentious issue debated by federal and state governments, health care providers, and patients. It is important for geriatric nurses to comprehend the policy and health implications of bariatric surgery for older adults. The purpose of this paper is to (a) discuss the burden of growing obesity rates on the health of older adults, (b) present the results of a literature review of bariatric surgery outcomes in older adults, and (c) evaluate the policy implications of insurance coverage of bariatric procedures. PMID:25105356

  16. Cognitive benefits of computer games for older adults.

    PubMed

    Zelinski, Elizabeth M; Reyes, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a basis for the hypothesis that digital action games may produce cognitive benefits for older adults. First, a discussion of the relationship between cognitive and physical health shows the increasing weight given to the role of declines in cognition in the development of dependency in older adult population studies. Second, evidence that cognitive training produces 'far transfer' in elders is presented. The key issue is that one approach, known as extended practice training, has been successful in producing far transfer to memory and other processes. Its principles, which are consistent with those associated with positive brain plasticity effects, are identified. Those principles are then related to the mechanics of digital action games, which also have the important added feature of producing the experiences of presence, engagement, and flow, the subjective elements of game play that are likely to sustain interest and emotional investment in the skills practiced so that the play produces cognitive benefits. The specific cognitive abilities proposed to be improved by different types of game genres are outlined, and recent developments in game and interface design that may affect the willingness of older adults to play are described. PMID:25126043

  17. Potential Overtreatment of Older, Complex Adults With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Elbert S.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE In older adults with multiple serious comorbidities and functional limitations, the harms of intensive glycemic control likely exceed the benefits. OBJECTIVES To examine glycemic control levels among older adults with diabetes mellitus by health status and to estimate the prevalence of potential overtreatment of diabetes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cross-sectional analysis of the data on 1288 older adults (?65 years) with diabetes from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2001 through 2010 who had a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measurement. All analyses incorporated complex survey design to produce nationally representative estimates. EXPOSURES Health status categories: very complex/poor, based on difficulty with 2 or more activities of daily living or dialysis dependence; complex/intermediate, based on difficulty with 2 or more instrumental activities of daily living or presence of 3 or more chronic conditions; and relatively healthy if none of these were present. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Tight glycemic control (HbA1c level, <7%) and use of diabetes medications likely to result in hypoglycemia (insulin or sulfonylureas). RESULTS Of 1288 older adults with diabetes, 50.7%(95% CI, 46.6%–54.8%), representing 3.1 million (95% CI, 2.7–3.5), were relatively healthy, 28.1% (95% CI, 24.8%–31.5%), representing 1.7 million (95% CI, 1.4–2.0), had complex/intermediate health, and 21.2% (95% CI, 18.3%–24.4%), representing 1.3 million (95% CI, 1.1–1.5), had very complex/poor health. Overall, 61.5% (95% CI, 57.5%–65.3%), representing 3.8 million (95% CI, 3.4–4.2), had an HbA1c level of less than 7%; this proportion did not differ across health status categories (62.8% [95% CI, 56.9%–68.3%]) were relatively healthy, 63.0% (95% CI, 57.0%–68.6%) had complex/intermediate health, and 56.4% (95% CI, 49.7%–62.9%) had very complex/poor health (P = .26). Of the older adults with an HbA1c level of less than 7%, 54.9% (95% CI, 50.4%–59.3%) were treated with either insulin or sulfonylureas; this proportion was similar across health status categories. During the 10 study years, there were no significant changes in the proportion of older adults with an HbA1c level of less than 7% (P = .34), the proportion with an HbA1c level of less than 7% who had complex/intermediate or very complex/poor health (P = .27), or the proportion with an HbA1c level of less than 7% who were treated with insulin or sulfonylureas despite having complex/intermediate or very complex/poor health (P = .65). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Although the harms of intensive treatment likely exceed the benefits for older patients with complex/intermediate or very complex/poor health status, most of these adults reached tight glycemic targets between 2001 and 2010. Most of them were treated with insulin or sulfonylureas, which may lead to severe hypoglycemia. Our findings suggest that a substantial proportion of older adults with diabetes were potentially overtreated. PMID:26393851

  18. Project Roadmap: Reeducating Older Adults in Maintaining AIDS Prevention--A Secondary Intervention for Older HIV-Positive Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illa, Lourdes; Echenique, Marisa; Saint Jean, Gilbert; Bustamante-Avellaneda, Victoria; Metsch, Lisa; Mendez-Mulet, Luis; Eisdorfer, Carl; Sanchez-Martinez, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The number of older adults living with HIV/AIDS is larger than ever. Little is known about their sexual behaviors, although contrary to stereotypes, older adults desire and engage in sexual activity. Despite increased recognition of the need for prevention interventions targeting HIV-positive individuals, no secondary HIV prevention interventions…

  19. Trends in Kidney Transplant Outcomes in Older Adults Running Header: Kidney Transplant Outcomes in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A.; James, Nathan; Salter, Megan L.; Walston, Jeremy; Segev, Dorry L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Age limits for kidney transplantation (KT) have expanded significantly in recent years, yet outcomes in older recipients remain poorly understood. The goal of this study was to estimate relative mortality and death-censored graft loss by year of KT between 1990–2011. Design Cohort study. Setting All KT recipients in the United States as reported to the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR). Participants 30,207 KT recipients aged ?65 at the time of transplantation. Measurements Mortality and death-censored graft loss ascertained through center report, linkage to Social Security Death Master File, and linkage to Medicare. Results Older adults currently represent 18.4% of KT recipients, a 5-fold rise from 3.4% in 1990; similar increases were noted for both deceased (5.4-fold) and live donor (9.1-fold) transplants. Current recipients are not only older, but also more likely to be female, African American, have lengthier pre-transplant dialysis, have diabetes or hypertension, and receive marginal kidneys. Mortality for older deceased donor recipients between 2009–2011 was 57% lower (HR=0.43, 95%CI:0.33–0.56, P<0.001) than in 1990–1993; mortality for older live donor recipients was 50% lower (HR=0.50, 95%CI:0.36–0.68, P<0.001). Death-censored graft loss for older deceased donor recipients between 2009–2011 was 65% lower (HR=0.35, 95% CI:0.29–0.42, P<0.001) than in 1990–1993; death-censored graft loss for older live donor KT recipients was 59% lower (HR=0.41, 95%CI:0.24–0.70, P<0.001). Conclusion Despite a major increase in number of older adults transplanted, and an expanding window of transplant eligibility, mortality and graft loss have decreased substantially for this recipient population. These trends are important to understand, both for patient counseling as well as transplant referral. PMID:25439325

  20. Retrospective cues based on object features improve visual working memory performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Amanda L; Duarte, Audrey; Verhaeghen, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Research with younger adults has shown that retrospective cues can be used to orient top-down attention toward relevant items in working memory. We examined whether older adults could take advantage of these cues to improve memory performance. Younger and older adults were presented with visual arrays of five colored shapes; during maintenance, participants were presented either with an informative cue based on an object feature (here, object shape or color) that would be probed, or with an uninformative, neutral cue. Although older adults were less accurate overall, both age groups benefited from the presentation of an informative, feature-based cue relative to a neutral cue. Surprisingly, we also observed differences in the effectiveness of shape versus color cues and their effects upon post-cue memory load. These results suggest that older adults can use top-down attention to remove irrelevant items from visual working memory, provided that task-relevant features function as cues. PMID:26208404

  1. Current drug treatment of hyperlipidemia in older adults.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Dave L; Donohoe, Krista L; Ogbonna, Kelechi C; Barden, Sarah M

    2015-02-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) remains the leading cause of death, especially in older adults. Managing modifiable risk factors (e.g., hyperlipidemia, hypertension) remains the primary approach to prevent ASCVD events and ASCVD-related mortality. Statins are generally considered one of the most effective approaches to reduce ASCVD risk, especially for secondary prevention, yet remain underutilized in older adults. The evidence to support statin therapy in older adults is less robust than in their younger counterparts, especially in individuals aged 75 years and older. Recent lipid guidelines have raised this concern, yet statin therapy is recommended in 'at risk' older adults. Determining which older adults should receive statin therapy for primary prevention of ASCVD is challenging, as the currently available risk estimation tools are of limited use in those aged over 75 years. Furthermore, non-statin therapies have been de-emphasized in recent clinical practice guidelines and remain understudied in the older adult population. This is unfortunate given that older adults are less likely to tolerate moderate- to high-intensity statins. Non-statin therapies could be viable options in this population if more was understood about their ability to lower ASCVD risk and safety profiles. Nevertheless, lipid-lowering agents remain an integral component of the overall strategy to reduce atherogenic burden in older adults. Future research in this area should aim to enroll more older adults in clinical trials, determine the utility of ASCVD risk estimation for primary prevention, and investigate the role of non-statin therapies in this population. PMID:25637391

  2. Dietary energy density was associated with diet quality in Brazilian adults and older adults.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Aline; Pereira, Jaqueline Lopes; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo

    2016-02-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies present association of low dietary energy density with higher intake of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber, lower intake of fat, and better balance of macronutrients. The objective of this study was to verify the relationship between dietary energy density and diet quality measured by an index of diet quality. This study used data from 496 adults and 445 older adults of cross-sectional population-based survey from São Paulo conducted in 2008-2009, Brazil. Dietary intake data was assessed by two 24-h dietary recalls. Dietary energy density values were calculated based on foods only method. Dietary energy density and revised Brazilian Health Eating Index and its components, were estimated by usual intake using Multiple Source Method. The relationship between dietary energy density and the total revised Brazilian Health Eating Index and its components were assessed by Gaussian family log-link model for each age group. The analyses showed an inverse association between dietary energy density and total revised Brazilian Health Eating Index in adults (T2:? = 0.96, p < 0.001; T2:? = 0.86, p < 0.001) and older adults (T2:? = 0.96, p < 0.001; T2:? = 0.90, p < 0.001), and an inverse association between dietary energy density and nine of twelve revised Brazilian Health Eating Index components in adult and/or older adults groups. Dietary energy density was associated with diet quality in Brazilian adults and older adults regardless of sex, per capita household income, body mass index, physical activity level, current smoking habits status, alcohol beverage drinking status and usual energy intake (kilocalories) from beverages. PMID:26626824

  3. Humor and older adults: what makes them laugh?

    PubMed

    Kruse, Barbara G; Prazak, Mark

    2006-09-01

    Laughter, the physical response to perceived humor, has demonstrated positive effects on physical and psychological well-being. Studies that focus on effects of humor on health and well-being of older adults are scarce. No studies were found that examine what older adults find humorous. The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore the humor stimulus in a population of older adults. One hundred thirty (130) hospital auxiliary personnel aged 50 and older were asked the question What makes you laugh? Content analysis of responses revealed nine themes in two major categories, which were (a) people or animals and (b) situations or events. Children represented the largest category of people (30%), and telling jokes represented the largest category of situations or events (51%). Humor can be used by nurses as an effective therapeutic tool when caring for older adults if appropriate sources of humor are identified and applied. PMID:16880415

  4. Safety margins in older adults increase with improved control of a dynamic object

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, Christopher J.; Sternad, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Older adults face decreasing motor capabilities due to pervasive neuromuscular degradations. As a consequence, errors in movement control increase. Thus, older individuals should maintain larger safety margins than younger adults. While this has been shown for object manipulation tasks, several reports on whole-body activities, such as posture and locomotion, demonstrate age-related reductions in safety margins. This is despite increased costs for control errors, such as a fall. We posit that this paradox could be explained by the dynamic challenge presented by the body or also an external object, and that age-related reductions in safety margins are in part due to a decreased ability to control dynamics. To test this conjecture we used a virtual ball-in-cup task that had challenging dynamics, yet afforded an explicit rendering of the physics and safety margin. The hypotheses were: (1) When manipulating an object with challenging dynamics, older adults have smaller safety margins than younger adults. (2) Older adults increase their safety margins with practice. Nine young and 10 healthy older adults practiced moving the virtual ball-in-cup to a target location in exactly 2 s. The accuracy and precision of the timing error quantified skill, and the ball energy relative to an escape threshold quantified the safety margin. Compared to the young adults, older adults had increased timing errors, greater variability, and decreased safety margins. With practice, both young and older adults improved their ability to control the object with decreased timing errors and variability, and increased their safety margins. These results suggest that safety margins are related to the ability to control dynamics, and may explain why in tasks with simple dynamics older adults use adequate safety margins, but in more complex tasks, safety margins may be inadequate. Further, the results indicate that task-specific training may improve safety margins in older adults. PMID:25071566

  5. Adapting problem-solving therapy for depressed older adults in methadone maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Daniel; Morse, Jennifer Q; Reynolds, Charles F

    2011-03-01

    Late-life depression is prevalent in older adults who are dependent on opiates. Depressive disorders among opiate abusers have detrimental effects on their well-being and ability to refrain from illegal drugs. There are numerous barriers to the provision of appropriate mental health care to older adults receiving methadone maintenance treatment. This article focuses on problem-solving therapy (PST) and presents evidence that PST may be a promising nonpharmacological treatment for older methadone clients with comorbid depressive disorders that can be applied within the staffing and resource limits of methadone maintenance treatment facilities. The advantages of PST relative to other behavioral therapies for this population are based on evidence that PST is less cognitively demanding for an older adult population with mood and substance use disorders. A properly modified PST for an older adult substance-dependent population with subsyndromal or diagnosed depression may be a viable option for methadone maintenance programs with limited resources. PMID:21036509

  6. Management of Constipation in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mounsey, Anne; Raleigh, Meghan; Wilson, Anthony

    2015-09-15

    Chronic constipation is common in adults older than 60 years, and symptoms occur in up to 50% of nursing home residents. Primary constipation is also referred to as functional constipation. Secondary constipation is associated with chronic disease processes, medication use, and psychosocial issues. Fecal impaction should be treated with mineral oil or warm water enemas. Most patients are initially treated with lifestyle modifications, such as scheduled toileting after meals, increased fluid intake, and increased dietary fiber intake. Additional fiber intake in the form of polycarbophil, methylcellulose, or psyllium may improve symptoms. Fiber intake should be slowly increased over several weeks to decrease adverse effects. The next step in the treatment of constipation is the use of an osmotic laxative, such as polyethylene glycol, followed by a stool softener, such as docusate sodium, and then stimulant laxatives. Long-term use of magnesium-based laxatives should be avoided because of potential toxicity. If symptoms do not improve, a trial of linaclotide or lubiprostone may be appropriate, or the patient may be referred for further diagnostic evaluation. Peripherally acting mu-opioid antagonists are effective for opioid-induced constipation but are expensive. PMID:26371734

  7. Improving associative memory in older adults with unitization.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Fahad N; Fernandes, Myra; Hockley, William E

    2015-01-01

    We examined if unitization inherent preexperimentally could reduce the associative deficit in older adults. In Experiment 1, younger and older adults studied compound word (CW; e.g., store keeper) and noncompound word (NCW; e.g., needle birth) pairs. We found a reduction in the age-related associative deficit such that older but not younger adults showed a discrimination advantage for CW relative to NCW pairs on a yes-no associative recognition test. These results suggest that CW compared to NCW word pairs provide schematic support that older adults can use to improve their memory. In Experiment 2, reducing study time in younger adults decreased associative recognition performance, but did not produce a discrimination advantage for CW pairs. In Experiment 3, both older and younger adults showed a discrimination advantage for CW pairs on a two-alternative forced-choice recognition test, which encourages greater use of familiarity. These results suggest that test format influenced young adults' use of familiarity during associative recognition of unitized pairs, and that older adults rely more on familiarity than recollection for associative recognition. Unitization of preexperimental associations, as in CW pairs, can alleviate age-related associative deficits. PMID:25396267

  8. Priorities for Action in a Rural Older Adults Study

    PubMed Central

    Averill, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the findings from a recent study of older adults in the rural southwestern United States and discusses practice and research implications. The aim of the study was to analyze health disparities and strengths in the contexts of rurality, aging, a depressed economy, and limited health resources. Identified themes needing action included sustained access to prescriptions, transportation solutions for older adults in isolated communities, inadequate access to care, poor infrastructure and coordination of services, scarce assisted living and in-home care for frail older adults, and barriers related to culture, language, and economics. PMID:22929381

  9. A Bill of Rights for Hospitalized Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Mezey, Mathy D; Mitty, Ethel

    2011-03-01

    Acute-care hospitals have few structures, programs, or staff prepared to address the special needs of older adults. To address this issue, the Hartford Institute for Geriatric Nursing [including the Nurses Improving Care for Hospitalized Elders (NICHE) program] and the Coalition of Geriatric Nursing Organizations proposed language for a Bill of Rights for Hospitalized Older Adults. The Bill of Rights moves from general value statements to the specific knowledge, skills, and actions necessary to provide quality of care to older adults. The authors describe the development and testing of the Bill of Rights and suggest steps for its adoption and dissemination. PMID:21336039

  10. Diffusion of Technology: Frequency of Use for Younger and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Katherine E.; O’Brien, Marita A.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Charness, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Objectives When we think of technology-savvy consumers, older adults are typically not the first persons that come to mind. The common misconception is that older adults do not want to use or cannot use technology. But for an increasing number of older adults, this is not true (Pew Internet and American Life Project, 2003). Older adults do use technologies similar to their younger counterparts, but perhaps at different usage rates. Previous research has identified that there may be subgroups of older adults, “Silver Surfers”, whose adoption patterns mimic younger adults (Pew Internet and American Life Project, 2003). Much of the previous research on age-related differences in technology usage has only investigated usage broadly -- from a “used” or “not used” standpoint. The present study investigated age-related differences in overall usage of technologies, as well as frequency of technology usage (i.e., never, occasional, or frequent). Methods The data were gathered through a questionnaire from younger adults (N=430) and older adults (N=251) in three geographically separate and ethnically diverse areas of the United States. Results We found that younger adults use a greater breadth of technologies than older adults. However, age-related differences in usage and the frequency of use depend on the technology domain. Conclusion This paper presents technology usage and frequency data to highlight age-related differences and similarities. The results provide insights into older and younger adults’ technology-use patterns, which in turn provide a basis for expectations about knowledge differences. Designers and trainers can benefit from understanding experience and knowledge differences. PMID:22685360

  11. Older adults can suppress unwanted memories when given an appropriate strategy.

    PubMed

    Murray, Brendan D; Anderson, Michael C; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2015-03-01

    Memory suppression refers to the ability to exclude distracting memories from conscious awareness, and this ability can be assessed with the think/no-think paradigm. Recent research with older adults has provided evidence suggesting both intact and deficient memory suppression. The present studies seek to understand the conditions contributing to older adults' ability to suppress memories voluntarily. We report 2 experiments indicating that the specificity of the think/no-think task instructions contributes to older adults' suppression success: When older adults receive open-ended instructions that require them to develop a retrieval suppression strategy on their own, they show diminished memory suppression compared with younger adults. Conversely, when older adults receive focused instructions directing them to a strategy thought to better isolate inhibitory control, they show suppression-induced forgetting similar to that exhibited by younger adults. Younger adults demonstrate memory suppression regardless of the specificity of the instructions given, suggesting that the ability to select a successful suppression strategy spontaneously may be compromised in older adults. If so, this deficit may be associated with diminished control over unwanted memories in naturalistic settings if impeded strategy development reduces the successful deployment of inhibitory control. PMID:25602491

  12. Effects of Utterance Length and Vocal Loudness on Speech Breathing in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Jessica E.

    2008-01-01

    Age-related reductions in pulmonary elastic recoil and respiratory muscle strength can affect how older adults generate subglottal pressure required for speech production. The present study examined age-related changes in speech breathing by manipulating utterance length and loudness during a connected speech task (monologue). Twenty-three older adults and twenty-eight young adults produced a monologue at comfortable loudness and pitch and with multi-talker babble noise playing in the room to elicit louder speech. Dependent variables included sound pressure level, speech rate, and lung volume initiation, termination, and excursion. Older adults produced shorter utterances than young adults overall. Age-related effects were larger for longer utterances. Older adults demonstrated very different lung volume adjustments for loud speech than young adults. These results suggest that older adults have a more difficult time when the speech system is being taxed by both utterance length and loudness. The data were consistent with the hypothesis that both young and older adults use utterance length in premotor speech planning processes. PMID:18790093

  13. Stress Modulates Reinforcement Learning in Younger and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lighthall, Nichole R.; Gorlick, Marissa A.; Schoeke, Andrej; Frank, Michael J.; Mather, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Animal research and human neuroimaging studies indicate that stress increases dopamine levels in brain regions involved in reward processing and stress also appears to increase the attractiveness of addictive drugs. The current study tested the hypothesis that stress increases reward salience, leading to more effective learning about positive than negative outcomes in a probabilistic selection task. Changes to dopamine pathways with age raise the question of whether stress effects on incentive-based learning differ by age. Thus, the present study also examined whether effects of stress on reinforcement learning differed for younger (age 18–34) and older participants (age 65–85). Cold pressor stress was administered to half of the participants in each age group and salivary cortisol levels were used to confirm biophysiological response to cold stress. Following the manipulation, participants completed a probabilistic learning task involving positive and negative feedback. In both younger and older adults, stress enhanced learning about cues that predicted positive outcomes. In addition, during the initial learning phase, stress diminished sensitivity to recent feedback across age groups. These results indicate that stress affects reinforcement learning in both younger and older adults and suggests that stress exerts different effects on specific components of reinforcement learning depending on their neural underpinnings. PMID:22946523

  14. Olfactory Dysfunction Predicts 5-Year Mortality in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Jayant M.; Wroblewski, Kristen E.; Kern, David W.; Schumm, L. Philip; McClintock, Martha K.

    2014-01-01

    Prediction of mortality has focused on disease and frailty, although antecedent biomarkers may herald broad physiological decline. Olfaction, an ancestral chemical system, is a strong candidate biomarker because it is linked to diverse physiological processes. We sought to determine if olfactory dysfunction is a harbinger of 5-year mortality in the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project [NSHAP], a nationally representative sample of older U.S. adults. 3,005 community-dwelling adults aged 57–85 were studied in 2005–6 (Wave 1) and their mortality determined in 2010–11 (Wave 2). Olfactory dysfunction, determined objectively at Wave 1, was used to estimate the odds of 5-year, all cause mortality via logistic regression, controlling for demographics and health factors. Mortality for anosmic older adults was four times that of normosmic individuals while hyposmic individuals had intermediate mortality (p<0.001), a “dose-dependent” effect present across the age range. In a comprehensive model that included potential confounding factors, anosmic older adults had over three times the odds of death compared to normosmic individuals (OR, 3.37 [95%CI 2.04, 5.57]), higher than and independent of known leading causes of death, and did not result from the following mechanisms: nutrition, cognitive function, mental health, smoking and alcohol abuse or frailty. Olfactory function is thus one of the strongest predictors of 5-year mortality and may serve as a bellwether for slowed cellular regeneration or as a marker of cumulative toxic environmental exposures. This finding provides clues for pinpointing an underlying mechanism related to a fundamental component of the aging process. PMID:25271633

  15. The significance of low back pain in older adults.

    PubMed Central

    Fernbach, J. C.; Langer, F.; Gross, A. E.

    1976-01-01

    A retrospective study of the practice of an orthopedic surgeon at a university teaching hospital was done to evaluate the significance of low back pain in older adults. All 259 patients in a 3-year period 50 years of age and over whose presenting complaint was low back pain or sciatica or both were identified and classified by final diagnosis. A comparison was similarly identified and classified. Systemic disease, particularly cancer, was much more prevalent in the older group. It was demonstrated that a simple screening routine consisting of measuring the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and serum concentrations of alkaline phosphatase and calcium would identify all cases of unsuspected malignant disease--that is, at least one of the values would be abnormal in every case. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:136293

  16. Older and Wiser: Older Adults’ Episodic Word Memory Benefits from Sentence Study Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Matzen, Laura E.; Benjamin, Aaron S.

    2013-01-01

    A hallmark of adaptive cognition is the ability to modulate learning in response to the demands posed by different types of tests and different types of materials. Here we evaluate how older adults process words and sentences differently by examining patterns of memory errors. In two experiments, we explored younger and older adults’ sensitivity to lures on a recognition test following study of words in these two types of contexts. Among the studied words were compound words such as “blackmail” and “jailbird” that were related to conjunction lures (e.g. “blackbird”) and semantic lures (e.g. “criminal”). Participants engaged in a recognition test that included old items, conjunction lures, semantic lures, and unrelated new items. In both experiments, younger and older adults had the same general pattern of memory errors: more incorrect endorsements of semantic than conjunction lures following sentence study and more incorrect endorsements of conjunction than semantic lures following list study. The similar pattern reveals that older and younger adults responded to the constraints of the two different study contexts in similar ways. However, while younger and older adults showed similar levels of memory performance for the list study context, the sentence study context elicited superior memory performance in the older participants. It appears as though memory tasks that take advantage of greater expertise in older adults--in this case, greater experience with sentence processing--can reveal superior memory performance in the elderly. PMID:23834493

  17. Older adults can improve compensatory stepping with repeated postural perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Horak, Fay B.; Kamsma, Yvo P. T.; Peterson, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to respond quickly and accurately to an external perturbation with a stepping response is critical to avoid falls and this ability is impaired in older, compared to young adults. However, little is known about whether young and older adults improve compensatory stepping responses similarly with practice. This study compares the extent to which young and older adults can improve, retain, and generalize postural compensatory steps in response to external perturbations. Centre of mass displacement, step characteristics and lower leg muscle activation latencies were measured during one training session of compensatory stepping in response to large surface translations in 13 young and 12 older adults. Retention was tested 24 h later. Older adults decreased their center of mass displacements over repeated exposure to large surface translations in both the anterior and posterior directions and retained these improvements. In contrast, young adults only showed adaptation and retention of forward stepping responses. Neither group was able to generalize improvements in stepping responses across directions. These results suggest step training may be beneficial for older adults, however additional, multidirectional training may be necessary to facilitate generalization of postural stepping responses for any direction of a slip or trip. PMID:26539111

  18. Living with Multiple Health Problems: What Older Adults Should Know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Multiple Health Problems: What Older Adults Should Know Tools and Tips Printer-friendly PDF Click here to ... as spouses, family members, or friends—in the decision-making process. And you should always let your healthcare ...

  19. Falls among Older Adults: Public Health Impact and Prevention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Judy A.

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of the epidemiology of falls among older adults, describes current prevention strategies, and highlights key areas that need to be addressed, including risk assessments, exercise, and environmental changes. (Contains 50 references.) (JOW)

  20. Preventing Falls in Older Adults Who Live in Community Settings

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Live in Community Settings: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Summaries for Patients are a service provided ... Community-Dwelling Older Adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.” It is in the 7 August ...

  1. Older adult consumers of Texas public mental health services: 

    E-print Network

    Karlin, Bradley Eric

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge concerning the current utilization of mental health care by the nation's geriatric population is greatly lacking. Research conducted prior to and during the 1980s consistently found that older adults utilize mental health care...

  2. Quick Guide to Health Literacy and Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Prevention and Health Promotion Quick Guide to Health Literacy and Older Adults skip to content ODPHP Health ... Healthy People 2010 Health Communication Focus Area Health Literacy Improvement Consumer and Patient e-Health Resources Health ...

  3. Health Status and Health Literacy in Older Adults 

    E-print Network

    Fulton, Daphne Saxon

    2014-08-04

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between health literacy and the health status of older adults. The first section of the study consisted of a comprehensive literature review of prior research regarding cognitive, health, and behavioral...

  4. Patterns of Rumination by Young and Older Adults

    E-print Network

    Schmalzried, RaLynn Cheri

    2012-05-31

    A lot of attention has been given to the negative effects of both inhibitory deficits and rumination but little work has compared both: research on inhibitory deficits has focused on older adults whereas research on rumination has focused on young...

  5. Antimnemonic effects of schemas in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Badham, Stephen P; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Schema-consistent material that is aligned with an individual's knowledge and experience is typically more memorable than abstract material. This effect is often more extreme in older adults and schema use can alleviate age deficits in memory. In three experiments, young and older adults completed memory tasks where the availability of schematic information was manipulated. Specifying nonobvious relations between to-be-remembered word pairs paradoxically hindered memory (Experiment 1). Highlighting relations within mixed lists of related and unrelated word pairs had no effect on memory for those pairs (Experiment 2). This occurred even though related word pairs were recalled better than unrelated word pairs, particularly for older adults. Revealing a schematic context in a memory task with abstract image segments also hindered memory performance, particularly for older adults (Experiment 3). The data show that processing schematic information can come with costs that offset mnemonic benefits associated with schema-consistent stimuli. PMID:25980799

  6. Antimnemonic effects of schemas in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Badham, Stephen P.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Schema-consistent material that is aligned with an individual’s knowledge and experience is typically more memorable than abstract material. This effect is often more extreme in older adults and schema use can alleviate age deficits in memory. In three experiments, young and older adults completed memory tasks where the availability of schematic information was manipulated. Specifying nonobvious relations between to-be-remembered word pairs paradoxically hindered memory (Experiment 1). Highlighting relations within mixed lists of related and unrelated word pairs had no effect on memory for those pairs (Experiment 2). This occurred even though related word pairs were recalled better than unrelated word pairs, particularly for older adults. Revealing a schematic context in a memory task with abstract image segments also hindered memory performance, particularly for older adults (Experiment 3). The data show that processing schematic information can come with costs that offset mnemonic benefits associated with schema-consistent stimuli. PMID:25980799

  7. Medicines and You: A Guide for Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Medicines and You: A Guide for Older Adults Share ... What You Need to Know About Your Prescription Medicines The following questions will help you get the ...

  8. Older Adults and Alcohol: You Can Get Help

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Aging Older Adults and Alcohol: You Can Get Help What's inside Worried about a drinking problem? Learn ... special section on how friends and family can help . Family support can often make a big difference. ...

  9. Determinants of functional decline in community-dwelling older adults 

    E-print Network

    Fieo, Robert Anthony

    2011-06-29

    The overarching theme of this thesis is the prevention of progressive-type disability. Unlike catastrophic disability, progressive disability is gradual and more common in older adults. Because progressive disability can ...

  10. Hydrate for health: listening to older adults' need for information.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Mary H; Marquez, Celine S; Kline, Katherine V; Morris, Erin; Linares, Brenda; Carlson, Barbara W

    2014-10-01

    An interdisciplinary team of faculty and students developed the Hydrate for Health project to provide relevant and evidence-based information to community-dwelling older adults. Evidence-based factsheets on bladder health, nighttime urination, medication safety, and physical activity/exercise, as well as a fluid intake self-monitoring tool, were developed. Four focus groups were conducted and included older adults (N = 21) who participated in activities at two local senior centers to obtain their feedback about the relevance of the factsheets. Extensive revisions were required based on the feedback received. Older adults expressed a desire for pragmatic information (i.e., how to determine fluid sources from food, how to measure water, how to determine their own fluid needs). They also wanted information that could be easily incorporated into daily life. Nurses play a central role in listening to and incorporating older adults' voices into consumer education materials. PMID:25275782

  11. Stereotype threat can reduce older adults' memory errors

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Sarah J.; Mather, Mara

    2014-01-01

    Stereotype threat often incurs the cost of reducing the amount of information that older adults accurately recall. In the current research we tested whether stereotype threat can also benefit memory. According to the regulatory focus account of stereotype threat, threat induces a prevention focus in which people become concerned with avoiding errors of commission and are sensitive to the presence or absence of losses within their environment (Seibt & Förster, 2004). Because of this, we predicted that stereotype threat might reduce older adults' memory errors. Results were consistent with this prediction. Older adults under stereotype threat had lower intrusion rates during free-recall tests (Experiments 1 & 2). They also reduced their false alarms and adopted more conservative response criteria during a recognition test (Experiment 2). Thus, stereotype threat can decrease older adults' false memories, albeit at the cost of fewer veridical memories, as well. PMID:24131297

  12. Factors that influence exercise participation amoung older adults 

    E-print Network

    Murphey, Kristina Kile

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey adults age 60 and older to measure their levels of exercise self-efficacy, attitudes toward exercise and health, and perceived exercise control beliefs. Participants also defined other intrapersonal factors...

  13. Stereotype threat can reduce older adults' memory errors.

    PubMed

    Barber, Sarah J; Mather, Mara

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat often incurs the cost of reducing the amount of information that older adults accurately recall. In the current research, we tested whether stereotype threat can also benefit memory. According to the regulatory focus account of stereotype threat, threat induces a prevention focus in which people become concerned with avoiding errors of commission and are sensitive to the presence or absence of losses within their environment. Because of this, we predicted that stereotype threat might reduce older adults' memory errors. Results were consistent with this prediction. Older adults under stereotype threat had lower intrusion rates during free-recall tests (Experiments 1 and 2). They also reduced their false alarms and adopted more conservative response criteria during a recognition test (Experiment 2). Thus, stereotype threat can decrease older adults' false memories, albeit at the cost of fewer veridical memories, as well. PMID:24131297

  14. Profiles of Reminiscence among Older Adults: Perceived Stress, Life Attitudes, and Personality Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappeliez, Philippe; O'Rourke, Norm

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to identify subgroups of older participants on the basis of unique configurations of variables among functions of reminiscence, personality traits, life attitudes, and perceived stress by means of cluster analysis. Ninety-three older adults (M = 66.7 years of age) completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, the Life…

  15. Listeriosis Prevention for Older Adults: Effective Messages and Delivery Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Sheryl C.; Kosa, Katherine M.; Moore, Christina M.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Ten Eyck, Toby A.; Cowen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Individuals aged 60 years and older are at an increased risk for listeriosis and other foodborne illnesses. They can reduce their risk by following recommended food safety practices. A total of 8 focus groups were conducted to characterize older adults' food safety knowledge and practices, their impressions of educational materials on listeriosis…

  16. Medication Management Assessment for Older Adults in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orwig, Denise; Brandt, Nicole; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the Medication Management Instrument for Deficiencies in the Elderly (MedMaIDE) and to provide results of reliability and validity testing. Design and Methods: Participants were 50 older adults, aged 65 and older, who lived in the community, took at least one prescription medication, and were then…

  17. EVALUATING RISK IN OLDER ADULTS USING PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid growth in the number of older Americans has many implications for public health, including the need to better understand the risks posed by environmental exposures to older adults. An important element for evaluating risk is the understanding of the doses of environment...

  18. The Susceptibility of Older Adults to Environmental Hazards

    EPA Science Inventory

    This rapid growth in the number of older Americans has many implications for public health, including the need to better understand the health risks posed by environmental exposures to older adults. This paper describes the need to link environmental exposures, the processing of...

  19. Lexical Attrition in Younger and Older Bilingual Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goral, Mira; Libben, Gary; Obler, Loraine K.; Jarema, Gonia; Ohayon, Keren

    2008-01-01

    Healthy monolingual older adults experience changes in their lexical abilities. Bilingual individuals immersed in an environment in which their second language is dominant experience lexical changes, or attrition, in their first language. Changes in lexical skills in the first language of older individuals who are bilinguals, therefore, can be…

  20. Extended Workforce Participation of Older Adults: Issues and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Laura M.

    Demographic, social, and economic trends are pointing in the direction of increased work force participation for older adults. The four major forces responsible for change in work patterns are the changing work force, changing older people, economic forces, and social forces. These forces are mediated by social convention, especially the…

  1. Why do pictures, but not visual words, reduce older adults' false memories?

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebekah E; Hunt, R Reed; Dunlap, Kathryn R

    2015-09-01

    Prior work shows that false memories resulting from the study of associatively related lists are reduced for both young and older adults when the auditory presentation of study list words is accompanied by related pictures relative to when auditory word presentation is combined with visual presentation of the word. In contrast, young adults, but not older adults, show a reduction in false memories when presented with the visual word along with the auditory word relative to hearing the word only. In both cases of pictures relative to visual words and visual words relative to auditory words alone, the benefit of picture and visual words in reducing false memories has been explained in terms of monitoring for perceptual information. In our first experiment, we provide the first simultaneous comparison of all 3 study presentation modalities (auditory only, auditory plus visual word, and auditory plus picture). Young and older adults show a reduction in false memories in the auditory plus picture condition, but only young adults show a reduction in the visual word condition relative to the auditory only condition. A second experiment investigates whether older adults fail to show a reduction in false memory in the visual word condition because they do not encode perceptual information in the visual word condition. In addition, the second experiment provides evidence that the failure of older adults to show the benefits of visual word presentation is related to reduced cognitive resources. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26213799

  2. Delayed plastic responses to anodal tDCS in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Fujiyama, Hakuei; Hyde, Jane; Hinder, Mark R.; Kim, Seok-Jin; McCormack, Graeme H.; Vickers, James C.; Summers, Jeffery J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the abundance of research reporting the neurophysiological and behavioral effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in healthy young adults and clinical populations, the extent of potential neuroplastic changes induced by tDCS in healthy older adults is not well understood. The present study compared the extent and time course of anodal tDCS-induced plastic changes in primary motor cortex (M1) in young and older adults. Furthermore, as it has been suggested that neuroplasticity and associated learning depends on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene polymorphisms, we also assessed the impact of BDNF polymorphism on these effects. Corticospinal excitability was examined using transcranial magnetic stimulation before and following (0, 10, 20, 30 min) anodal tDCS (30 min, 1 mA) or sham in young and older adults. While the overall extent of increases in corticospinal excitability induced by anodal tDCS did not vary reliably between young and older adults, older adults exhibited a delayed response; the largest increase in corticospinal excitability occurred 30 min following stimulation for older adults, but immediately post-stimulation for the young group. BDNF genotype did not result in significant differences in the observed excitability increases for either age group. The present study suggests that tDCS-induced plastic changes are delayed as a result of healthy aging, but that the overall efficacy of the plasticity mechanism remains unaffected. PMID:24936185

  3. Older Adults and Substance-Related Disorders: Trends and Associated Costs

    PubMed Central

    Heberlein, Emily; Engel, Rafael J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study is to examine the changing service profile of older adults receiving substance abuse services over the past decade and the increased costs of treating this population. Design and Methods. Medicaid claims for mental health and substance abuse services data from a medium sized county in an eastern state were analyzed for individuals aged 50 years and older in calendar year 2000 or 2009. Univariate statistics are presented to describe the substance abuse and mental health services used by older adults in these two years. Results. The number of low-income older adults who accessed services for treatment and who had a substance-related diagnosis grew from 545 individuals in 2000 to 1,653 individuals in 2009. Costs for services utilized by older adults with a substance-related diagnosis rose by 358% from $2.1 million in 2000 to $9.5 million in 2009. Implications. The increase in the number of low-income older adults with a substance-related disorder and the concomitant rise in total spending for Medicaid reimbursed services indicate that local and state social service providers need to prepare for an older adult population who will need appropriate substance abuse prevention and treatment programs. PMID:25938120

  4. [The influence of pathogen threat on ageism in Japan: The role of living with older adults].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kunio; Tado'oka, Yoshika

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has suggested that Western European individuals exhibit negative attitudes toward older adults under pathogen threat. The present study investigated whether Japanese individuals exhibited ageism when pathogen threat was salient. Additionally, the study determined whether pathogen threat would have less of an impact on ageism among individuals with experience living with older adults. Study 1 showed that when pathogen threat was chronically and contextually salient, Japanese university students who had no experience living with older adults exhibited ageism, while those with such experience did not. Study 2 showed similar findings among Japanese nursing students. We argue that familiarity with older adults is essential for diminishing ageism in the event of a pathogen threat. PMID:26402955

  5. Optimizing the Benefits of Exercise on Physical Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Buford, Thomas W.; Anton, Stephen D.; Clark, David J.; Higgins, Torrance J.; Cooke, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    As the number of older adults continues to rise worldwide, the prevention of physical disability among seniors is an increasingly important public health priority. Physical exercise is among the best known methods of preventing disability, but accumulating evidence indicates that considerable variability exists in the responsiveness of older adults to standard training regimens. Accordingly, a need exists to develop tailored interventions to optimize the beneficial effects of exercise on the physical function of older adults at risk for becoming disabled. The present review summarizes the available literature related to the use of adjuvant or alternative strategies intended to enhance the efficacy of exercise in improving the physical function of older adults. Within this work, we also discuss potential future research directions in this area. PMID:24361365

  6. Optimizing the benefits of exercise on physical function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Buford, Thomas W; Anton, Stephen D; Clark, David J; Higgins, Torrance J; Cooke, Matthew B

    2014-06-01

    As the number of older adults continues to rise worldwide, the prevention of physical disability among seniors is an increasingly important public health priority. Physical exercise is among the best known methods of preventing disability, but accumulating evidence indicates that considerable variability exists in the responsiveness of older adults to standard training regimens. Accordingly, a need exists to develop tailored interventions to optimize the beneficial effects of exercise on the physical function of older adults at risk for becoming disabled. The present review summarizes the available literature related to the use of adjuvant or alternative strategies intended to enhance the efficacy of exercise in improving the physical function of older adults. Within this work, we also discuss potential future research directions in this area. PMID:24361365

  7. Diabetes self-care and the older adult.

    PubMed

    Weinger, Katie; Beverly, Elizabeth A; Smaldone, Arlene

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is highest in older adults, a population that is increasing. Diabetes self-care is complex with important recommendations for nutrition, physical activity, checking glucose levels, and taking medication. Older adults with diabetes have unique issues that impact self-care. As people age, their health status, support systems, physical and mental abilities, and nutritional requirements change. Furthermore, comorbidities, complications, and polypharmacy complicate diabetes self-care. Depression is also more common among the elderly and may lead to deterioration in self-care behaviors. Because of concerns about cognitive deficits and multiple comorbidities, adults older than 65 years are often excluded from research trials. Thus, little clinical evidence is available and the most appropriate treatment approaches and how to best support older patients' self-care efforts are unclear. This review summarizes the current literature, research findings, and expert and consensus recommendations with their rationales. PMID:24510969

  8. Emergency Department Utilization by Older Adults: a Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Lesley P.; Ackroyd-Stolarz, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    Background Emergency Departments (EDs) are playing an increasingly important role in the care of older adults. Characterizing ED usage will facilitate the planning for care delivery more suited to the complex health needs of this population. Methods In this retrospective cross-sectional study, administrative and clinical data were extracted from four study sites. Visits for patients aged 65 years or older were characterized using standard descriptive statistics. Results We analyzed 34,454 ED visits by older adults, accounting for 21.8% of the total ED visits for our study time period. Overall, 74.2% of patient visits were triaged as urgent or emergent. Almost half (49.8%) of visits involved diagnostic imaging, 62.1% involved lab work, and 30.8% involved consultation with hospital services. The most common ED diagnoses were symptom- or injury-related (25.0%, 17.1%. respectively). Length of stay increased with age group (Mann-Whitney U; p < .0001), as did the proportion of visits involving diagnostic testing and consultation (?2; p < .0001). Approximately 20% of older adults in our study population were admitted to hospital following their ED visit. Conclusions Older adults have distinct patterns of ED use. ED resource use intensity increases with age. These patterns may be used to target future interventions involving alternative care for older adults. PMID:25452824

  9. Domestic Robots for Older Adults: Attitudes, Preferences, and Potential.

    PubMed

    Smarr, Cory-Ann; Mitzner, Tracy L; Beer, Jenay M; Prakash, Akanksha; Chen, Tiffany L; Kemp, Charles C; Rogers, Wendy A

    2014-04-01

    The population of older adults in America is expected to reach an unprecedented level in the near future. Some of them have difficulties with performing daily tasks and caregivers may not be able to match pace with the increasing need for assistance. Robots, especially mobile manipulators, have the potential for assisting older adults with daily tasks enabling them to live independently in their homes. However, little is known about their views of robot assistance in the home. Twenty-one independently living older Americans (65-93 years old) were asked about their preferences for and attitudes toward robot assistance via a structured group interview and questionnaires. In the group interview, they generated a diverse set of 121 tasks they would want a robot to assist them with in their homes. These data, along with their questionnaire responses, suggest that the older adults were generally open to robot assistance but were discriminating in their acceptance of assistance for different tasks. They preferred robot assistance over human assistance for tasks related to chores, manipulating objects, and information management. In contrast, they preferred human assistance to robot assistance for tasks related to personal care and leisure activities. Our study provides insights into older adults' attitudes and preferences for robot assistance with everyday living tasks in the home which may inform the design of robots that will be more likely accepted by older adults. PMID:25152779

  10. Forearm vascular responses to mental stress in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Heffernan, Matthew J.; Patel, Hardikkumar M.; Muller, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Forearm vascular conductance (FVC) increases in response to mental stress (verbal mental arithmetic) in young people. However, the effect of healthy aging and mental stress on FVC is unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that FVC and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) would be attenuated in older adults compared to young adults. In 13 young (27 ± 1 year) and 11 older (62 ± 1 year) subjects, we quantified heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), FVC (Doppler ultrasound), and CVC (laser Doppler flowmetry) in response to a 3?min bout of mental stress in the supine posture. Changes from baseline were compared between groups and physiological variables were also correlated. Older adults had a blunted HR response to mental stress (? = 7 ± 2 vs. 14 ± 2 beats/min) but ?MAP was comparable between groups (? = 11 ± 2 mmHg vs. 9 ± 1). During the third minute of mental stress, the %?FVC (?2 ± 5 vs. 31 ± 12%) and %?CVC (2 ± 6 vs. 31 ± 15%) were both impaired in older adults compared to young subjects. There was no relationship between ?HR and %?CVC in either group, but there was a positive relationship between ?HR and %?FVC in both young subjects (R = 0.610, P < 0.027) and older subjects (R = 0.615, P < 0.044), such that larger tachycardia was associated with higher forearm vasodilation. These data indicate that older adults have impaired forearm vasodilation in response to mental stress. PMID:24744859

  11. Domestic Robots for Older Adults: Attitudes, Preferences, and Potential

    PubMed Central

    Mitzner, Tracy L.; Beer, Jenay M.; Prakash, Akanksha; Chen, Tiffany L.; Kemp, Charles C.; Rogers, Wendy A.

    2014-01-01

    The population of older adults in America is expected to reach an unprecedented level in the near future. Some of them have difficulties with performing daily tasks and caregivers may not be able to match pace with the increasing need for assistance. Robots, especially mobile manipulators, have the potential for assisting older adults with daily tasks enabling them to live independently in their homes. However, little is known about their views of robot assistance in the home. Twenty-one independently living older Americans (65–93 years old) were asked about their preferences for and attitudes toward robot assistance via a structured group interview and questionnaires. In the group interview, they generated a diverse set of 121 tasks they would want a robot to assist them with in their homes. These data, along with their questionnaire responses, suggest that the older adults were generally open to robot assistance but were discriminating in their acceptance of assistance for different tasks. They preferred robot assistance over human assistance for tasks related to chores, manipulating objects, and information management. In contrast, they preferred human assistance to robot assistance for tasks related to personal care and leisure activities. Our study provides insights into older adults' attitudes and preferences for robot assistance with everyday living tasks in the home which may inform the design of robots that will be more likely accepted by older adults. PMID:25152779

  12. Altered coronary vascular control during cold stress in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhaohui; Wilson, Thad E; Drew, Rachel C; Ettinger, Joshua; Monahan, Kevin D

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular-related mortality increases in the cold winter months, particularly in older adults. Previously, we reported that determinants of myocardial O(2) demand, such as the rate-pressure product, increase more in older adults compared with young adults during cold stress. The aim of the present study was to determine if aging influences the coronary hemodynamic response to cold stress in humans. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography was used to noninvasively measure peak coronary blood velocity in the left anterior descending artery before and during acute (20 min) whole body cold stress in 10 young adults (25 ± 1 yr) and 11 older healthy adults (65 ± 2 yr). Coronary vascular resistance (diastolic blood pressure/peak coronary blood velocity), coronary perfusion time fraction (coronary perfusion time/R-R interval), and left ventricular wall stress were calculated. We found that cooling (via a water-perfused suit) increased left ventricular wall stress, a primary determinant of myocardial O(2) consumption, in both young and older adults, although the magnitude of this increase was nearly twofold greater in older adults (change of 9.1 ± 3.5% vs. 17.6 ± 3.2%, P < 0.05, change from baseline in young and older adults and young vs. older adults). Despite the increased myocardial O(2) demand during cooling, coronary vasodilation (decreased coronary vascular resistance) occurred only in young adults (3.22 ± 0.23 to 2.85 ± 0.18 mmHg·cm(-1)·s(-1), P < 0.05) and not older adults (3.97 ± 0.24 to 3.79 ± 0.27 mmHg·cm(-1)·s(-1), P > 0.05). Consistent with a blunted coronary vascular response, absolute coronary perfusion time tended to decrease (P = 0.13) and coronary perfusion time fraction decreased (P < 0.05) during cooling in older adults but not young adults. Collectively, these data suggest that older adults demonstrate an altered coronary hemodynamic response to acute cold stress. PMID:22003058

  13. Screening for Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for cognitive impairment is getting older. Other risk factors include diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, tobacco use, alcohol use, depression, and diet and exercise. Mild cognitive impairment involves ...

  14. Falls Prevention: Unique to Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... difficulties. Optimizing Management of Congestive Heart Failure and COPD Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) Many older people develop ... watch for water retention. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common ...

  15. Creative Ageing? Selfhood, Temporality and the Older Adult Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabeti, Shari

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on a long-term ethnography of an adult creative writing class situated in a major urban art gallery in the United Kingdom. It takes the claims of one group of older adults--that creative writing made them "feel younger"--as the starting point for exploring this connection further. It places these claims broadly within…

  16. Cautiousness and Visual Selective Attention Performance of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panek, Paul E.; Rush, Michael C.

    Older adults are significantly slower than young adults in the naming response in the Stroop Color Word Interference Test. Hypotheses attempting to explain this age-related difference in a perceptual-cognitive task have included orthogenic principle, response-competition, and cautiousness. This study examines whether there are any significant…

  17. Incidence of Dementia in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strydom, Andre; Chan, Trevor; King, Michael; Hassiotis, Angela; Livingston, Gill

    2013-01-01

    Dementia may be more common in older adults with intellectual disability (ID) than in the general population. The increased risk for Alzheimer's disease in people with Down syndrome (DS) is well established, but much less is known about dementia in adults with ID who do not have DS. We estimated incidence rates from a longitudinal study of…

  18. Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

    2009-01-01

    Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

  19. New Approaches to the Education of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mary Alice

    New approaches to the education of older adults can be identified through a review of the literature on the following topics: developmental perspectives (including generativity and integrity) and adult development, life span habits (as determined by longitudinal research), gender roles, reminiscence, cognitive, and need-based learning. One of the…

  20. Health Literacy, Social Support, and Health Status among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…

  1. Perceptions of Physical Activity by Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancey, Jonine M.; Clarke, Ann; Howat, Peter; Maycock, Bruce; Lee, Andy H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify issues and perceptions concerning physical activity in older adults. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Perth, Western Australia. Methods: Sixteen adults aged 65 to 74 years were interviewed in their own homes using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using a descriptive qualitative methodology.…

  2. Auditory Speech Recognition and Visual Text Recognition in Younger and Older Adults: Similarities and Differences between Modalities and the Effects of Presentation Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humes, Larry E.; Burk, Matthew H.; Coughlin, Maureen P.; Busey, Thomas A.; Strauser, Lauren E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine age-related differences in auditory speech recognition and visual text recognition performance for parallel sets of stimulus materials in the auditory and visual modalities. In addition, the effects of variation in rate of presentation of stimuli in each modality were investigated in each age group. Method: A mixed-model design…

  3. External distraction impairs categorization performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wais, Peter E.; Gazzaley, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The detrimental influence of distraction on memory and attention is well established, yet it is not as clear if irrelevant information impacts categorization abilities and if this impact changes in aging. We examined categorization with morphed prototype stimuli in both younger and older adults, using an adaptive staircase approach to assess participants' performance in conditions with and without visual distractors. Results showed that distraction did not affect younger adults, but produced a negative impact on older adults' categorization such that there was an interaction of age and distraction. These results suggest a relationship between the increased susceptibility to visual distraction in normal aging and impairment in categorization. PMID:25244485

  4. Trust in Physicians Among U.S. Chinese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Manrui; Dong, XinQi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Trust in physicians influences the health and well-being of older adults and is an important indicator to assess the quality of medical care. However, Asian aging populations are often underrepresented in studies of patient trust in physicians. This study aims to examine the level of trust in physicians among Chinese older adults in a community-dwelling Chinese aging population. Methods. Data were drawn from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly, a population-based survey of U.S. Chinese older adults in the Greater Chicago area. Guided by a community-based participatory research approach, a total of 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 and above were surveyed. An 11-item scale was used to measure participants’ trust in physicians. Results. On a scale of 11–55, the level of trust in physician among U.S. Chinese older adults was 42.0 (SD = 6.3). Items related to confidence in physicians’ knowledge and skills were most commonly endorsed, including trusting physicians’ judgment on medical care (84.8%), trusting physicians’ advice (84.2%), and trusting physicians’ words that something is so and must be true (81.2%). Younger age, male gender, higher educational level, fewer years of residing in the United States and in the community, poorer self-reported health status, and poorer quality of life were associated with lower level of trust in physicians. Conclusions. Trust in physician is commonly endorsed among U.S. Chinese older adults. However, future longitudinal studies are needed to improve our understanding of risk factors and outcomes associated with trust in physicians among U.S. Chinese older adults. PMID:25378448

  5. Cumulative exposure to traumatic events in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Ogle, Christin M.; Rubin, David C.; Siegler, Ilene C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present study examined the impact of cumulative trauma exposure on current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity in a nonclinical sample of adults in their 60s. The predictive utility of cumulative trauma exposure was compared to other known predictors of PTSD, including trauma severity, personality traits, social support, and event centrality. Method Community-dwelling adults (n = 2,515) from the crest of the Baby Boom generation completed the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire, the PTSD Checklist, the NEO Personality Inventory, the Centrality of Event Scale, and rated their current social support. Results Cumulative trauma exposure predicted greater PTSD symptom severity in hierarchical regression analyses consistent with a dose-response model. Neuroticism and event centrality also emerged as robust predictors of PTSD symptom severity. In contrast, the severity of individuals’ single most distressing life event, as measured by self-report ratings of the A1 PTSD diagnostic criterion, did not add explanatory variance to the model. Analyses concerning event categories revealed that cumulative exposure to childhood violence and adulthood physical assaults were most strongly associated with PTSD symptom severity in older adulthood. Moreover, cumulative self-oriented events accounted for a larger percentage of variance in symptom severity compared to events directed at others. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the cumulative impact of exposure to traumatic events throughout the life course contributes significantly to post-traumatic stress in older adulthood above and beyond other known predictors of PTSD. PMID:24011223

  6. Older and Younger Adults’ Accuracy in Discerning Health and Competence in Older and Younger Faces

    PubMed Central

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Franklin, Robert G.; Boshyan, Jasmine; Luevano, Victor; Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Milosavljevic, Bosiljka; Lachman, Margie E.

    2015-01-01

    We examined older and younger adults’ accuracy judging the health and competence of faces. Accuracy differed significantly from chance and varied with face age but not rater age. Health ratings were more accurate for older than younger faces, with the reverse for competence ratings. Accuracy was greater for low attractive younger faces, but not for low attractive older faces. Greater accuracy judging older faces’ health was paralleled by greater validity of attractiveness and looking older as predictors of their health. Greater accuracy judging younger faces’ competence was paralleled by greater validity of attractiveness and a positive expression as predictors of their competence. Although the ability to recognize variations in health and cognitive ability is preserved in older adulthood, the effects of face age on accuracy and the different effects of attractiveness across face age may alter social interactions across the life span. PMID:25244467

  7. Identification of environmental supports for healthy eating in older adults.

    PubMed

    Sylvie, Amanda K; Jiang, Qianzhi; Cohen, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Many environmental settings and influences can affect food choices and eating behaviors in the growing population of community-dwelling older adults. Using the Social Ecological model, an expert panel participated in online discussions and an Analytic Hierarchy Process survey to identify the most important and changeable environmental settings and enabling factors that promote healthy eating in older adults. Food stores were rated most important when considering accessibility and affordability. Congregate nutrition sites were important for social support along with supporting access and affordability of healthful foods and living accommodations. Senior housing, health care, and religious settings also contributed to the goal of promoting healthful eating in aging adults. Restaurants were rated of lower importance. Based on these results, it is recommended that community food policies include the nutritional needs of older adults by addressing food accessibility and affordability, social support, and living accommodations, with a focus on congregate nutrition sites, food stores, senior housing, health care, and religious organizations. PMID:23663214

  8. Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Anxiety Control Questionnaire among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerolimatos, Lindsay A.; Gould, Christine E.; Edelstein, Barry A.

    2012-01-01

    Among young adults and clinical populations, perceived inability to control internal and external events is associated with anxiety. At present, it is unclear what role perceived anxiety control plays in anxiety among older adults. The Anxiety Control Questionnaire (ACQ) was developed to assess one's perceived ability to cope with anxiety-related…

  9. Population Impact of Arthritis on Disability in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jing; Chang, Rowland W.; Dunlop, Dorothy D.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Disability threatens the independence of older adults and has large economic and societal costs. This article examines the population impact of arthritis on disability incidence among older Americans. Methods The present study used longitudinal data (1998–2000) from the Health and Retirement Study, a national probability sample of elderly Americans. Disability was defined by the inability to perform basic activities of daily living (ADL). A total of 7,758 participants ages ?65 years with no ADL disability at baseline were included in the analyses. Multiple logistic regression was used to measure the impact of baseline arthritis (self reported) on incidence of subsequent ADL disability after controlling for baseline differences in demographics, health factors, health behaviors, and medical access. Results Older adults who had baseline arthritis had a substantially higher incidence of ADL disability compared with those without arthritis (9.3% versus 4.5%). The strong relationship of arthritis and ADL disability was partially explained by demographic, health, behavioral, and medical access factors. However, even after adjusting for all other risk factors, arthritis remained as an independent and significant predictor for developing ADL disability (adjusted odds ratio 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.2–1.8). Almost 1 in every 4 new cases of ADL disability was due to arthritis (adjusted population attributable fraction: 23.7%). Conclusion The high frequency of incident ADL disability attributable to arthritis points to the importance of intervention programs that address the entire spectrum of health and functional problems in persons with arthritis to prevent disability. PMID:16583415

  10. Home: The place the older adult can not imagine living without

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rapidly aging populations with an increased desire to remain at home and changes in health policy that promote the transfer of health care from formal places, as hospitals and institutions, to the more informal setting of one's home support the need for further research that is designed specifically to understand the experience of home among older adults. Yet, little is known among health care providers about the older adult's experience of home. The aim of this study was to understand the experience of home as experienced by older adults living in a rural community in Sweden. Methods Hermeneutical interpretation, as developed by von Post and Eriksson and based on Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics, was used to interpret interviews with six older adults. The interpretation included a self examination of the researcher's experiences and prejudices and proceeded through several readings which integrated the text with the reader, allowed new questions to emerge, fused the horizons, summarized main and sub-themes and allowed a new understanding to emerge. Results Two main and six sub-themes emerged. Home was experienced as the place the older adult could not imagine living without but also as the place one might be forced to leave. The older adult's thoughts vacillated between the well known present and all its comforts and the unknown future with all its questions and fears, including the underlying threat of loosing one's home. Conclusions Home has become so integral to life itself and such an intimate part of the older adult's being that when older adults lose their home, they also loose the place closest to their heart, the place where they are at home and can maintain their identity, integrity and way of living. Additional effort needs to be made to understand the older adult's experience of home within home health care in order to minimize intrusion and maximize care. There is a need to more fully explore the older adult's experience with health care providers in the home and its impact on the older adult's sense of "being at home" and their health and overall well-being. PMID:21410994

  11. Bridging the digital divide in older adults: a study from an initiative to inform older adults about new technologies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ya-Huei; Damnée, Souad; Kerhervé, Hélène; Ware, Caitlin; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In a society where technology progresses at an exponential rate, older adults are often unaware of the existence of different kinds of information and communication technologies (ICTs). To bridge the gap, we launched a 2-year project, during which we conducted focus groups (FGs) with demonstrations of ICTs, allowing older adults to try them out and to share their opinions. This study aimed at investigating how participants perceived this kind of initiative and how they reacted to different kinds of ICTs. Patients and methods In total, 14 FGs were conducted with community-dwelling older adults, with a frequency of two FGs on the same topic once per trimester. Twenty-three older adults (four men and 19 women) attended at least one FG but only nearly half of them were regular attendants (ten participating in at least five sessions). Age of participants ranged from 63 years to 88 years, with a mean of 77.1 years. All of them had completed secondary education. The analyses of the data were performed according to inductive thematic analysis. Results Four overarching themes emerged from the analysis. The first concerned participants’ motivation for and assessment of the project. The second theme identified the underlying factors of the “digital divide” between the younger and the older generations. The third theme concerned the factors of technology adoption among older adults. The fourth one identified participants’ attitudes toward assistive ICTs, designed specifically for older adults (“gerontechnologies”). Discussions and conclusion This project encouraging older adults to be informed about different kinds of ICTs was positively rated. With regard to ICTs, participants perceived a digital divide. The underlying factors are generation/cohort effects, cognitive and physical decline related to aging, and negative attitudes toward technologies. However, more and more older adults adopt different kinds of ICTs in order to fit in with the society. Concerning assistive ICTs, they manifested a lack of perceived need and usefulness. Also, there was a negative image of end users of this kind of technologies. The so-called gerontechnologies specifically targeting older adults contain stigmatizing symbolism that might prevent them from adopting them. PMID:25624752

  12. Obesity, Intentional Weight Loss, and Physical Disability in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rejeski, W. Jack; Marsh, Anthony P.; Chmelo, Elizabeth; Rejeski, Jared J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary We examine obesity, intentional weight loss, and physical disability in older adults. Based on prospective epidemiological studies, BMI exhibits a curvilinear relationship with physical disability; there appears to be some protective effect associated with older adults being overweight. Whereas the greatest risk for physical disability occurs in older adults who are ?class II obesity, the effects of obesity on physical disability appears to be moderated by both sex and race. Obesity at age 30 constitutes a greater risk for disability later in life than when obesity develops at age 50 or later; however, physical activity may buffer the adverse effects obesity has on late life physical disability. Data from a limited number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) reinforce the important role that physical activity plays in weight loss programs for older adults. Furthermore, short-term studies have found that resistance training may be particularly beneficial in these programs since this mode of exercise attenuates the loss of fat-free mass during caloric restriction. Multi-year RCTs are needed to examine whether weight loss can alter the course of physical disablement in aging and to determine the long-term feasibility and effects of combining resistance exercise with weight loss in older adults. PMID:19922431

  13. Vitamin D recommendations for older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many randomized, controlled trials indicate that vitamin D will lower falls and fractures, so it was reasonable for Sanders et al. to hypothesize that a single annual 500,000 IU oral dose of vitamin D3 would be effective in reducing falls and fractures in older women with one or more risk factors fo...

  14. Worry in Older Community-Residing Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Kaye; Clemson, Lindy; Cant, Rosemary; Ke, Liang; Cumming, Robert G.; Kendig, Hal; Mathews, Mark

    2011-01-01

    With rising longevity, increasing numbers of older people are experiencing changes in their everyday family and social life, changes in their financial status, and a greater number of chronic conditions affecting their health. We took the opportunity to explore these relationships with worry in a group of volunteer community-living elderly (n =…

  15. Are Healthier Older Adults Choosing Managed Care?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Gail A.; Morrisey, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: We attempt to determine whether older workers and early retirees avoid managed care plans and to explore whether health plan choices are linked to the health status of workers or their spouses. Design and Methods: We use the responses of those born between 1931 and 1941 to the 1994 and 1998 waves of the Health and Retirement Survey. We…

  16. OLDER ADULTS: AN ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSCEPTIBLE POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The baby boom generation is quickly becoming the geriatric generation. The over-65 age bracket hit 13% of Americans in 1997, and is expected to reach 20% by 2030 accounting for 73 million Americans. World-wide the total number of older people (>60years) is expected to double from...

  17. HIV behavioural interventions targeted towards older adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing number of people living with HIV aged 50 years and older has been recognised around the world yet non-pharmacologic HIV behavioural and cognitive interventions specifically targeted to older adults are limited. Evidence is needed to guide the response to this affected group. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the available published literature in MEDLINE, Embase and the Education Resources Information Center. A search strategy was defined with high sensitivity but low specificity to identify behavioural interventions with outcomes in the areas of treatment adherence, HIV testing uptake, increased HIV knowledge and uptake of prevention measures. Data from relevant articles were extracted into excel. Results Twelve articles were identified all of which originated from the Americas. Eight of the interventions were conducted among older adults living with HIV and four for HIV-negative older adults. Five studies included control groups. Of the included studies, four focused on general knowledge of HIV, three emphasised mental health and coping, two focused on reduced sexual risk behaviour, two on physical status and one on referral for care. Only four of the studies were randomised controlled trials and seven – including all of the studies among HIV-negative older adults – did not include controls at all. A few of the studies conducted statistical testing on small samples of 16 or 11 older adults making inference based on the results difficult. The most relevant study demonstrated that using telephone-based interventions can reduce risky sexual behaviour among older adults with control reporting 3.24 times (95% CI 1.79-5.85) as many occasions of unprotected sex at follow-up as participants. Overall however, few of the articles are sufficiently rigorous to suggest broad replication or to be considered representative and applicable in other settings. Conclusions More evidence is needed on what interventions work among older adults to support prevention, adherence and testing. More methodological rigourised needed in the studies targeting older adults. Specifically, including control groups in all studies is needed as well as sufficient sample size to allow for statistical testing. Addition of specific bio-marker or validated behavioural or cognitive outcomes would also strengthen the studies. PMID:24884947

  18. In vivo evidence for neuroplasticity in older adults

    PubMed Central

    de Gobbi Porto, Fábio Henrique; Fox, Anne Murphy; Tusch, Erich Stephen; Sorond, Farzaneh; Mohammed, Abdul H; Daffner, Kirk R

    2015-01-01

    Neuroplasticity can be conceptualized as an intrinsic property of the brain that enables modification of function and structure in response to environmental demands. Neuroplastic strengthening of synapses is believed to serve as a critical mechanism underlying learning, memory, and other cognitive functions. Ex vivo work investigating neuroplasticity has been done on hippocampal slices using high frequency stimulation. However, in vivo neuroplasticity in humans has been difficult to demonstrate. Recently, a long-term potentiation-like phenomenon, a form of neuroplastic change, was identified in young adults by differences in visual evoked potentials (VEPs) that were measured before and after tetanic visual stimulation (TVS). The current study investigated whether neuroplastic changes in the visual pathway can persist in older adults. Seventeen healthy subjects, 65 years and older, were recruited from the community. Subjects had a mean age of 77.4 years, mean education of 17 years, mean MMSE of 29.1, and demonstrated normal performance on neuropsychological tests. 1Hz checkerboard stimulation, presented randomly to the right or left visual hemi-field, was followed by two minutes of 9Hz stimulation (TVS) to one hemi-field. After two minutes of rest, 1Hz stimulation was repeated. Temporospatial principal component analysis was used to identify the N1b component of the VEPs, at lateral occipital locations, in response to 1Hz stimulation pre- and post-TVS. Results showed that the amplitude of factors representing the early and late N1b component was substantially larger after tetanic stimulation. These findings indicate that high frequency visual stimulation can enhance the N1b in cognitively high functioning old adults, suggesting that neuroplastic changes in visual pathways can continue into late life. Future studies are needed to determine the extent to which this marker of neuroplasticity is sustained over a longer period of time, and is influenced by age, cognitive status, and neurodegenerative disease. PMID:25857946

  19. Motor Learning and Movement Performance: Older versus Younger Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Fatemeh; Abdollahi, Iraj; Mohseni Bandpei, Mohammad Ali; Zahiri, Nahid; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Motor skills play an important role during life span, and older adults need to learn or relearn these skills. The purpose of this study was to investigate how aging affects induction of improved movement performance by motor training. Methods: Serial Reaction Time Test (SRTT) was used to assess movement performance during 8 blocks of motor training. Participants were tested in two separate dates, 48 hours apart. First session included 8 blocks of training (blocks 1–8) and second session comprised 2 blocks (blocks 9, 10). Results: Analyses of data showed that reaction times in both online and offline learning were significantly shorter in older adults compared to younger adults (P<0.001). Young adults demonstrated both online and offline learning (P<0.001), but older adults only showed online learning (P<0.001) without offline learning (P=0.24). Discussion: The result of the current study provides evidence that the healthy older adults are able to improve their performance with practice and learn motor skill successfully in the form of online learning.

  20. Information about foregone rewards impedes dynamic decision-making in older adults.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jessica A; Worthy, Darrell A; Maddox, W Todd

    2016-01-01

    "Making an informed decision" implies that more information leads to better decisions, yet it may be the case that additional information biases decisions in a systematic and sometimes detrimental manner. In the present study, we examined the effect of additional information on older adults' decision-making using a task for which available rewards were dependent on the participant's recent pattern of choices. The optimal strategy was to forego the immediately rewarding option in favor of the option that yielded larger delayed reward. We found that providing information about true foregone rewards - the reward that would have been received had the participant chosen the other option - significantly reduced older adults' decision-making performance. However, false foregone rewards - foregone rewards manufactured to make the long-term option appear more immediately rewarding - led older adults to perform at a level equal to younger adults. We conclude that providing information about foregone rewards biases older adults toward immediate rewards at a greater rate than younger adults, leading to poorer older adult performance when immediate rewards and long-term rewards conflict, but intact performance when immediate rewards and long-term rewards appear to align. PMID:26033485

  1. Multidimensional Attitudes of Emergency Medicine Residents Toward Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Teresita M.; Chan, Shu B.; Hansoti, Bhakti

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The demands of our rapidly expanding older population strain many emergency departments (EDs), and older patients experience disproportionately high adverse health outcomes. Trainee attitude is key in improving care for older adults. There is negligible knowledge of baseline emergency medicine (EM) resident attitudes regarding elder patients. Awareness of baseline attitudes can serve to better structure training for improved care of older adults. The objective of the study is to identify baseline EM resident attitudes toward older adults using a validated attitude scale and multidimensional analysis. Methods Six EM residencies participated in a voluntary anonymous survey delivered in summer and fall 2009. We used factor analysis using the principal components method and Varimax rotation, to analyze attitude interdependence, translating the 21 survey questions into 6 independent dimensions. We adapted this survey from a validated instrument by the addition of 7 EM-specific questions to measures attitudes relevant to emergency care of elders and the training of EM residents in the geriatric competencies. Scoring was performed on a 5-point Likert scale. We compared factor scores using student t and ANOVA. Results 173 EM residents participated showing an overall positive attitude toward older adults, with a factor score of 3.79 (3.0 being a neutral score). Attitudes trended to more negative in successive post-graduate year (PGY) levels. Conclusion EM residents demonstrate an overall positive attitude towards the care of older adults. We noted a longitudinal hardening of attitude in social values, which are more negative in successive PGY-year levels. PMID:25035760

  2. Treatment of depression in older adults beyond fluoxetine

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Gabriela Arantes

    2015-01-01

    This review aimed to discuss the importance of the comprehensive treatment of depression among older adults in Brazil. The abuse of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, including fluoxetine hydrochloride, as antidepressants has been considered a serious public health problem, particularly among older adults. Despite the consensus on the need for a comprehensive treatment of depression in this population, Brazil is still unprepared. The interface between pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy is limited due to the lack of healthcare services, specialized professionals, and effective healthcare planning. Fluoxetine has been used among older adults as an all-purpose drug for the treatment of depressive disorders because of psychosocial adversities, lack of social support, and limited access to adequate healthcare services for the treatment of this disorder. Preparing health professionals is a sine qua non for the reversal of the age pyramid, but this is not happening yet. PMID:25830872

  3. Depressive Symptoms, Social Support, and Walking Among Hispanic Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Perrino, Tatiana; Brown, Scott C.; Huang, Shi; Brown, C. Hendricks; Gómez, Gianna Pérez; Pantin, Hilda; Szapocznik, José

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Depressive symptoms and physical inactivity are health risks among minority older adults. This study examined whether social support moderated the relationship of depressive symptoms to walking behavior among 217 community-dwelling, Hispanic older adults. Method Cross-sectional analyses were used to test whether different forms of social support interacted with depressive symptoms to affect both likelihood and amount of walking. Results Analyses showed a significant interaction between depressive symptoms and instrumental support related to the likelihood of walking and a marginally significant interaction between depressive symptoms and instrumental social support related to the amount of walking. Depressive symptoms were associated with a lower likelihood and lower amount of walking among participants receiving high levels of instrumental social support (e.g., help with chores) but not low instrumental support. Emotional and informational support did not moderate the depression to walking relationship. Conclusion Receiving too much instrumental support was related to sedentary behavior among depressed older adults. PMID:21508305

  4. Interactive resistance chair to promote strengthening exercise in older adults.

    PubMed

    Jeong, In Cheol; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We developed a strengthening exercise support system which can be remotely managed and clinically supervised via internet. Older adults may potentially benefit from such an exercise system however functionality of this system requires validation before commencement of field studies in older adults. The aim of this study was to introduce and assess validity of a prototype telerehabilitation system supporting computer-assisted home-based strengthening exercise. The system included a resistance chair with a set of movement and physiologic sensors. Real-time feedback on exercise performance was displayed on a touch screen dashboard. Personalized exercise parameters were managed by a rehabilitation team via a designated telerehabilitation site. Assessment of the system demonstrated sufficient validity in real-time identification of exercise performance and cardiovascular parameters. We concluded that the interactive resistance chair has a potential in promoting strengthening exercise and it is warranted for further evaluation in community dwelling older adults. PMID:25991131

  5. Nutritional Vulnerability in Older Adults: A Continuum of Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; McDonald, Shelley R.; Bales, Connie W.

    2015-01-01

    A nutritionally vulnerable older adult has a reduced physical reserve that limits the ability to mount a vigorous recovery in the face of an acute health threat or stressor. Often this vulnerability contributes to more medical complications, longer hospital stays, and increased likelihood of nursing home admission. We have characterized in this review the etiology of nutritional vulnerability across the continuum of the community, hospital, and long term care settings. Frail older adults may become less vulnerable with strong, consistent, and individualized nutritional care. Interventions for the vulnerable older adult must take their nutritional needs into account to optimize resiliency in the face of the acute and/or chronic health challenges they will surely face in their life course. PMID:26042189

  6. An innovative approach to recruiting homebound older adults.

    PubMed

    Crawford Shearer, Nelma B; Fleury, Julie D; Belyea, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Recruiting older adults to participate in intervention research is essential for advancing the science in this field. Developing a relevant recruitment plan responsive to the unique needs of the population before beginning a project is critical to the success of a research study. This article describes our experiences in the process of recruiting homebound older adults to test a community-based health empowerment intervention. In our study, the trust and partnership that existed between the research team and Community Action Agency facilitated the role of the home-delivered meal drivers as a trusted and untapped resource for study recruitment. Researchers can benefit from thinking creatively and developing meaningful partnerships when conducting research with older adults. PMID:20128539

  7. Barriers to treatment and culturally endorsed coping strategies among depressed African-American older adults

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Kyaien O.; Copeland, Valire Carr; Grote, Nancy K.; Rosen, Daniel; Albert, Steve; McMurray, Michelle L.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Brown, Charlotte; Koeske, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Objective Older adults are particularly vulnerable to the effects of depression, however, they are less likely to seek and engage in mental health treatment. African-American older adults are even less likely than their White counterparts to seek and engage in mental health treatment. This qualitative study examined the experience of being depressed among African-American elders and their perceptions of barriers confronted when contemplating seeking mental health services. In addition, we examined how coping strategies are utilized by African-American elders who choose not to seek professional mental health services. Method A total of 37 interviews were conducted with African-American elders endorsing at least mild symptoms of depression. Interviews were audiotaped and subsequently transcribed. Content analysis was utilized to analyze the qualitative data. Results Thematic analysis of the interviews with African-American older adults is presented within three areas: (1) Beliefs about Depression Among Older African-Americans: (2) Barriers to Seeking Treatment for Older African-Americans: and (3) Cultural Coping Strategies for Depressed African-American Older Adults. Conclusion Older African-Americans in this study identified a number of experiences living in the Black community that impacted their treatment seeking attitudes and behaviors. which led to identification and utilization of more culturally endorsed coping strategies to deal with their depression. Findings from this study provide a greater understanding of the stigma associated with having a mental illness and its influence on attitudes toward mental health services. PMID:21069603

  8. Neural Mechanisms of Reading Facial Emotions in Young and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ebner, Natalie C.; Johnson, Marcia K.; Fischer, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    The ability to read and appropriately respond to emotions in others is central for successful social interaction. Young and older adults are better at identifying positive than negative facial expressions and also expressions of young than older faces. Little, however, is known about the neural processes associated with reading different emotions, particularly in faces of different ages, in samples of young and older adults. During fMRI, young and older participants identified expressions in happy, neutral, and angry young and older faces. The results suggest a functional dissociation of ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) in reading facial emotions that is largely comparable in young and older adults: Both age groups showed greater vmPFC activity to happy compared to angry or neutral faces, which was positively correlated with expression identification for happy compared to angry faces. In contrast, both age groups showed greater activity in dmPFC to neutral or angry than happy faces which was negatively correlated with expression identification for neutral compared to happy faces. A similar region of dmPFC showed greater activity for older than young faces, but no brain-behavior correlations. Greater vmPFC activity in the present study may reflect greater affective processing involved in reading happy compared to neutral or angry faces. Greater dmPFC activity may reflect more cognitive control involved in decoding and/or regulating negative emotions associated with neutral or angry than happy, and older than young, faces. PMID:22798953

  9. Sexual Behavior of Older Adults Living with HIV in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Negin, Joel; Geddes, Louise; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Kuteesa, Monica; Karpiak, Stephen; Seeley, Janet

    2016-02-01

    Sexual behavior among older adults with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa has been understudied despite the burgeoning of this population. We examined sexual behavior among older adults living with HIV in Uganda. Participants were eligible for the study if they were 50 years of age or older and living with HIV. Quantitative data were collected through face-to-face interviews, including demographic characteristics, health, sexual behavior and function, and mental health. Of respondents, 42 were men and 59 women. More than one-quarter of these HIV-positive older adults were sexually active. A greater proportion of older HIV-positive men reported being sexually active compared to women (54 vs. 15 %). Among those who are sexually active, a majority never use condoms. Sixty-one percent of men regarded sex as at least somewhat important (42 %), while few women shared this opinion (20 %). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that odds of sexual activity in the past year were significantly increased by the availability of a partner (married/cohabitating), better physical functioning, and male gender. As more adults live longer with HIV, it is critical to understand their sexual behavior and related psychosocial variables in order to improve prevention efforts. PMID:26324184

  10. Older adults’ preferences for colorectal cancer-screening test attributes and test choice

    PubMed Central

    Kistler, Christine E; Hess, Thomas M; Howard, Kirsten; Pignone, Michael P; Crutchfield, Trisha M; Hawley, Sarah T; Brenner, Alison T; Ward, Kimberly T; Lewis, Carmen L

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding which attributes of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening tests drive older adults’ test preferences and choices may help improve decision making surrounding CRC screening in older adults. Materials and methods To explore older adults’ preferences for CRC-screening test attributes and screening tests, we conducted a survey with a discrete choice experiment (DCE), a directly selected preferred attribute question, and an unlabeled screening test-choice question in 116 cognitively intact adults aged 70–90 years, without a history of CRC or inflammatory bowel disease. Each participant answered ten discrete choice questions presenting two hypothetical tests comprised of four attributes: testing procedure, mortality reduction, test frequency, and complications. DCE responses were used to estimate each participant’s most important attribute and to simulate their preferred test among three existing CRC-screening tests. For each individual, we compared the DCE-derived attributes to directly selected attributes, and the DCE-derived preferred test to a directly selected unlabeled test. Results Older adults do not overwhelmingly value any one CRC-screening test attribute or prefer one type of CRC-screening test over other tests. However, small absolute DCE-derived preferences for the testing procedure attribute and for sigmoidoscopy-equivalent screening tests were revealed. Neither general health, functional, nor cognitive health status were associated with either an individual’s most important attribute or most preferred test choice. The DCE-derived most important attribute was associated with each participant’s directly selected unlabeled test choice. Conclusion Older adults’ preferences for CRC-screening tests are not easily predicted. Medical providers should actively explore older adults’ preferences for CRC screening, so that they can order a screening test that is concordant with their patients’ values. Effective interventions are needed to support complex decision making surrounding CRC screening in older adults. PMID:26203233

  11. Semantic and self-referential processing of positive and negative trait adjectives in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Glisky, Elizabeth L.; Marquine, Maria J.

    2008-01-01

    The beneficial effects of self-referential processing on memory have been demonstrated in numerous experiments with younger adults but have rarely been studied in older individuals. In the present study we tested young people, younger-older adults, and older-older adults in a self-reference paradigm, and compared self-referential processing to general semantic processing. Findings indicated that older adults over the age of 75 and those with below average episodic memory function showed a decreased benefit from both semantic and self-referential processing relative to a structural baseline condition. However, these effects appeared to be confined to the shared semantic processes for the two conditions, leaving the added advantage for self-referential processing unaffected These results suggest that reference to the self engages qualitatively different processes compared to general semantic processing. These processes seem relatively impervious to age and to declining memory and executive function, suggesting that they might provide a particularly useful way for older adults to improve their memories. PMID:18608973

  12. One size does not fit all: older adults benefit from redundant text in multimedia instruction

    PubMed Central

    Fenesi, Barbara; Vandermorris, Susan; Kim, Joseph A.; Shore, David I.; Heisz, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    The multimedia design of presentations typically ignores that younger and older adults have varying cognitive strengths and weaknesses. We examined whether differential instructional design may enhance learning in these populations. Younger and older participants viewed one of three computer-based presentations: Audio only (narration), Redundant (audio narration with redundant text), or Complementary (audio narration with non-redundant text and images). Younger participants learned better when audio narration was paired with relevant images compared to when audio narration was paired with redundant text. However, older participants learned best when audio narration was paired with redundant text. Younger adults, who presumably have a higher working memory capacity (WMC), appear to benefit more from complementary information that may drive deeper conceptual processing. In contrast, older adults learn better from presentations that support redundant coding across modalities, which may help mitigate the effects of age-related decline in WMC. Additionally, several misconceptions of design quality appeared across age groups: both younger and older participants positively rated less effective designs. Findings suggest that one-size does not fit all, with older adults requiring unique multimedia design tailored to their cognitive abilities for effective learning. PMID:26284000

  13. Experience of Discrimination Among U.S. Chinese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruijia; Simon, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Experiences of discrimination are detrimental to health and well-being. This study aimed to examine experiences of discrimination and responses to unfair treatment among community-dwelling U.S. Chinese older adults. Method. Guided by a community-based participatory research approach, 3,159 community-dwelling Chinese older adults aged 60 years and older in the Greater Chicago area were interviewed in person between 2011 and 2013. Results. Of the 3,159 participants interviewed, 58.9% were women and the mean age was 72.8 years. A total of 671 (21.3%) participants reported having experienced discrimination and 1,454 (48.2%) reported passive response to unfair treatment. Older adults living in Chicago’s Chinatown had the lowest prevalence of perceived discrimination compared with those living in other areas. Younger age, higher education, higher income, fewer children, more years in the United States, more years in the community, poorer health status, lower quality of life, and worsening health over the last year were associated with higher frequency of discrimination reported. Younger age, higher education, higher income, being married, living with more people, having fewer children, more years in the United States, and better health over the past year were associated with engaged responses to unfair treatment. Conclusion. U.S. Chinese older adults suffered considerable discrimination, but tended to have passive responses to unfair treatment. Future longitudinal studies are needed to improve our understanding of the risk factors and outcomes associated with discrimination among U.S. Chinese older adults. PMID:25326642

  14. Proactive effects of memory in young and older adults: the role of change recollection.

    PubMed

    Wahlheim, Christopher N

    2014-08-01

    Age-related deficits in episodic memory are sometimes attributed to older adults being more susceptible to proactive interference. These deficits have been explained by impaired abilities to inhibit competing information and to recollect target information. In the present article, I propose that a change recollection deficit also contributes to age differences in proactive interference. Change recollection occurs when individuals can remember how information changed across episodes, and this counteracts proactive interference by preserving the temporal order of information. Three experiments were conducted to determine whether older adults are less likely to counteract proactive interference by recollecting change. Paired-associate learning paradigms with two lists of word pairs included pairs that repeated across lists, pairs that only appeared in List 2 (control items), and pairs with cues that repeated and responses that changed across lists. Young and older adults' abilities to detect changed pairs in List 2 and to later recollect those changes at test were measured, along with cued recall of the List 2 responses and confidence in recall performance. Change recollection produced proactive facilitation in the recall of changed pairs, whereas the failure to recollect change resulted in proactive interference. Confidence judgments were sensitive to these effects. The critical finding was that older adults recollected change less than did young adults, and this partially explained older adults' greater susceptibility to proactive interference. These findings have theoretical implications, showing that a change recollection deficit contributes to age-related deficits in episodic memory. PMID:24710672

  15. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in U.S. older adults: findings from a nationally representative survey

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Kristin; Pietrzak, Robert H; El-Gabalawy, Renée; Mackenzie, Corey S; Sareen, Jitender

    2015-01-01

    Data on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in late life are lacking. The present study addresses this gap in the literature by examining the prevalence of the broadest range of psychiatric disorders in late life to date; comparing prevalences across older adult age groups using the largest sample of adults aged 85+; and exploring gender differences in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in late life. Using data from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, we examined the prevalence of past-year mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, and lifetime personality disorders in a nationally representative sample of 12,312 U.S. older adults. We stratified our analyses by gender and by older age groups: young-old (ages 55-64), middle-old (ages 65-74), old-old (ages 75-84), and oldest-old (ages 85+). The proportion of older adults who experienced any past-year anxiety disorder was 11.4%, while the prevalence of any past-year mood disorder was 6.8%. A total of 3.8% of older adults met criteria for any past-year substance use disorder, and 14.5% of older adults had one or more personality disorder. We observed a general pattern of decreasing rates of psychiatric disorders with increasing age. Women experienced higher rates of mood and anxiety disorders, while men had higher rates of substance use disorders and any personality disorder. Gender differences in rates of most psychiatric disorders decreased with increasing age. These data indicate that psychiatric disorders are prevalent among U.S. older adults, and support the importance of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of psychiatric disorders in this population. PMID:25655161

  16. When Distraction Holds Relevance: A Prospective Memory Benefit for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Joana S.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating to show that age-related increases in susceptibility to distracting information can benefit older more than young adults in several cognitive tasks. Here we focus on prospective memory (i.e., remembering to carry out future intentions) and examine the effect of presenting distracting information that is intention-related as a function of age. Young and older adults performed an ongoing 1-back working memory task to a rapid stream of pictures superimposed with to-be-ignored letter strings. Participants were additionally instructed to respond to target pictures (namely, animals) and, for half of the participants, some strings prior to the targets were intention-related words (i.e., animals). Results showed that presenting intention-related distracting information during the ongoing task was particularly advantageous for target detection in older compared to young adults. Moreover, a prospective memory benefit was observed even for older adults who showed no explicit memory for the target distracter words. We speculate that intention-related distracter information enhanced the accessibility of the prospective memory task and suggest that when distracting information holds relevance to intentions it can serve a compensatory role in prospective remembering in older adults. PMID:26067988

  17. When Distraction Holds Relevance: A Prospective Memory Benefit for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Joana S; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating to show that age-related increases in susceptibility to distracting information can benefit older more than young adults in several cognitive tasks. Here we focus on prospective memory (i.e., remembering to carry out future intentions) and examine the effect of presenting distracting information that is intention-related as a function of age. Young and older adults performed an ongoing 1-back working memory task to a rapid stream of pictures superimposed with to-be-ignored letter strings. Participants were additionally instructed to respond to target pictures (namely, animals) and, for half of the participants, some strings prior to the targets were intention-related words (i.e., animals). Results showed that presenting intention-related distracting information during the ongoing task was particularly advantageous for target detection in older compared to young adults. Moreover, a prospective memory benefit was observed even for older adults who showed no explicit memory for the target distracter words. We speculate that intention-related distracter information enhanced the accessibility of the prospective memory task and suggest that when distracting information holds relevance to intentions it can serve a compensatory role in prospective remembering in older adults. PMID:26067988

  18. The impact of chronic low back pain on older adults

    PubMed Central

    Rudy, Thomas E.; Weiner, Debra K.; Lieber, Susan J.; Slaboda, Jill; Boston, J. Robert

    2007-01-01

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is one of the most common, poorly understood, and potentially disabling chronic pain conditions from which older adults suffer. Many older adults remain quite functional despite CLBP, and because age-related comorbidities often exist independently of pain (e.g., medical illnesses, sleep disturbance, mobility difficulty), the unique impact of CLBP is unknown. We conducted this research to identify the multidimensional factors that distinguish independent community dwelling older adults with CLBP from those that are pain-free. Three hundred twenty cognitively intact participants (162 with ? moderate pain for ? 3 months, and 158 pain-free) underwent comprehensive assessment of pain severity, medical comorbidity (illnesses, body mass index, medications), severity of degenerative disc and facet disease, lumbar flexion, psychological constructs (self-efficacy, mood, overall mental health), and self-reported as well as performance-based physical function. Significant differences were ascertained for all 22 measures. Discriminant function analysis revealed that eight measures uniquely maximized the separation between the two groups (self-reported function with the Functional Status Index and the SF-36, performance-based function with repetitive trunk rotation and functional reach, mood with the Geriatric Depression Scale, comorbidity with the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale and BMI, and severity of degenerative disc disease). These results should help to guide investigators that perform studies of CLBP in older adults and practitioners that want an easily adaptable battery for use in clinical settings. PMID:17317008

  19. Alkaline diets favor lean tissue mass in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maintaining muscle mass in aging is important to prevent falls and fractures. The net acid load from diets that are rich in acidogenic protein and cereal grains relative to their content of alkalinogenic fruits and vegetables may contribute to reduced lean tissue mass in older adults. This analysis ...

  20. Alternating and Sequential Motion Rates in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, John E.; Cotton, Susan; Perry, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alternating motion rate (AMR) and sequential motion rate (SMR) are tests of articulatory diadochokinesis that are widely used in the evaluation of motor speech. However, there are no quality normative data available for adults aged 65 years and older. Aims: There were two aims: (1) to obtain a representative, normative dataset of…

  1. Older Korean-American Adults' Attitudes toward the Computer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Hyuckhoon

    2009-01-01

    This study seeks to gain a holistic understanding of how older Korean-American adults' socio-demographic factors affect their attitudes toward the computer. The research was guided by four main questions: (1) What do participants describe as the consequences of their using the computer? (2) What attitudes toward the computer do participants…

  2. Risk Factors for Excessive Sleepiness in Older Adults

    E-print Network

    Pennsylvania, University of

    of periodic limb movements, which are common in older adults, was not associated with sleepiness are other sleep disorders, such as periodic limb movement disorder, which is also common in the elderly16 of time in rapid eye movement sleep, pain at night at least three times per week, wheezing or whistling

  3. The Impact of Arthritis on Life Satisfaction of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burckhardt, Carol S.

    Poor health has been implicated as a suppressor of the life satisfaction of older adults. To clarify the contribution of arthritis to this process, functional disability, negative affect, pain, current severity of the disease, self-esteem, perception of general health, and internal health locus of control, were placed within a causal model as…

  4. Designing Risk Communication for Older Adults Vaibhav Garg

    E-print Network

    Connelly, Kay

    - ties, including managing their financial assets. Therefore, there is a need to develop risk a combination of misperception of risk, poor understanding of technology, and age related cognitive changesDesigning Risk Communication for Older Adults Vaibhav Garg School of Informatics and Computing

  5. Treatment of Depression and Suicide in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhar, Sunil S.; Brown, Gregory K.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) intervention for suicide prevention in older adults. Although many studies have found that CBT interventions are efficacious for reducing depressive symptoms in the elderly, researchers have yet to evaluate the efficacy of such interventions for preventing suicide or reducing suicide risk…

  6. Characteristics of Older Adults and the Aging: Some Comments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Cash J.; Cangemi, Joseph P.

    1978-01-01

    Asserting that both humanistic and manpower considerations dictate that we address the aging process, this article describes the characteristics of older adults and illustrates the way in which they may be allowed to remain productive. Maslow's "Need Hierarchy" and Thorndike's "Theory of Developmental Tasks" are applied to the aging process. (JC)

  7. Binaural Advantage for Younger and Older Adults with Normal Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubno, Judy R.; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.; Horwitz, Amy R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Three experiments measured benefit of spatial separation, benefit of binaural listening, and masking-level differences (MLDs) to assess age-related differences in binaural advantage. Method: Participants were younger and older adults with normal hearing through 4.0 kHz. Experiment 1 compared spatial benefit with and without head shadow.…

  8. Understanding Arthritis Promoting Healthy Lifestyles for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremethick, Mary Jane; Hogan, Patricia I.; Coleman, Barb; Adams, Kady

    2010-01-01

    One of the goals of "Healthy People 2010" is to decrease the incidence of limitation in physical activity due to arthritis. Physical education, recreation, and dance professionals can play an important role in meeting this objective by addressing barriers to physical activity and exercise in older adults with arthritis, and by successfully…

  9. Older Adults' Reports of Formal Care Hours and Administrative Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Steven M.; Brassard, Andrea B.; Simone, Bridget; Stern, Yaakov

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Personal assistance care is a Medicaid benefit in New York, but few data are available on its prevalence and contribution to home care. We examined these issues in a New York City sample by assessing older adults' reports of weekly home care hours and Medicaid billing records. Design and Methods: With help from New York City's Human…

  10. Volunteer Drivers: Their Contributions to Older Adults and to Themselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerschner, Helen; Rousseau, Marie-Helene

    2008-01-01

    In 2004 and 2005 the Beverly Foundation surveyed volunteer drivers in an effort to better understand how and why they support older adults. The sample comprised 714 volunteer drivers from 367 communities, representing 40 states, who responded to the survey. Their responses provided qualitative and quantitative information about who they are, why…

  11. Older Adults in Lifelong Learning: Participation and Successful Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane-Seale, Atlanta; Kops, Bill

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the participation of older adult learners in educational activities and successful aging. In partnership with seniors' organizations, focus-group interviews were conducted on seniors' involvement in learning and their perceptions of its influence on successful aging. Successful aging is defined in…

  12. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Lynda; LeBlanc, Melanie; Morin, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Insomnia is associated with significant morbidity and is often a persistent problem, particularly in older adults. It is important to attend to this complaint and not assume that it will remit spontaneously. In many cases, unfortunately, insomnia remains unrecognized and untreated, often because it is presumed that insomnia is an inevitable…

  13. The Design of Online Learning Communities for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Marti M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the creation of SeniorSage, an eight week facilitated online learning community for older adult volunteers in a Florida learning center. Discusses how members were prepared to participate in the community, explains the instructional design theory that guided the development of SeniorSage, and recommends future research. (Author/LRW)

  14. Involving Grandparents and Other Older Adults in the Preschool Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latimer, Deborah J.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the benefits derived from an intergenerational program in a child-care or preschool setting. Describes the planning and implementation of such a program, designed to foster a positive emotional relationship between grandparents, or other older adults as surrogate grandparents, and preschool children. (BB)

  15. Older Japanese Adults and Mobile Phones: An Applied Ethnographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hachiya, Kumiko

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research investigates the meaning of "keitai" (mobile phones) for older Japanese adults between the ages of 59 and 79. Participants' emails from keitai, handwritten daily logs, and audio and video recordings from meetings and interviews were collected during my stay of nearly seven months in one of the largest cities in Japan.…

  16. ASSOCIATION OF WEIGHT STATUS WITH DIETARY PATTERNS IN OLDER ADULTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary patterns and weight status are reported for 2 groups of community-living older adults, a rural Pennsylvania group and an urban Boston group. Diet patterns were defined by cluster analysis. Two major dietary patterns were identified for rural study participants and 4 major dietary patterns we...

  17. Instructional Videos for Supporting Older Adults Who Use Interactive Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gramss, Denise; Struve, Doreen

    2009-01-01

    The study reported in this paper investigated the usefulness of different instructions for guiding inexperienced older adults through interactive systems. It was designed to compare different media in relation to their social as well as their motivational impact on the elderly during the learning process. Precisely, the video was compared with…

  18. Bilateral Brain Regions Associated with Naming in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obler, Loraine K.; Rykhlevskaia, Elena; Schnyer, David; Clark-Cotton, Manuella R.; Spiro, Avron, III; Hyun, JungMoon; Kim, Dae-Shik; Goral, Mira; Albert, Martin L.

    2010-01-01

    To determine structural brain correlates of naming abilities in older adults, we tested 24 individuals aged 56-79 on two confrontation-naming tests (the Boston Naming Test (BNT) and the Action Naming Test (ANT)), then collected from these individuals structural Magnetic-Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data. Overall,…

  19. Digital Gaming Perspectives of Older Adults: Content vs. Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Hannah R.

    2013-01-01

    There were two objectives to this study: (a) to establish flow and (2) to establish whether computer game interaction or content was important to the older adult, using the Nintendo Wii and the Sony PlayStation 2 consoles. An earlier study had identified the sports genre as a preference, and three games (golf, tennis, and boxing) were selected…

  20. Older Adults Talk Technology: Technology Usage and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Mitzner, Tracy L.; Boron, Julie B.; Fausset, Cara Bailey; Adams, Anne E.; Charness, Neil; Czaja, Sara J.; Dijkstra, Katinka; Fisk, Arthur D.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Sharit, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Older adults (n = 113) participated in focus groups discussing their use of and attitudes about technology in the context of their home, work, and healthcare. Participants reported using a wide variety of technology items, particularly in their homes. Positive attitudes (i.e., likes) outnumbered negative attitudes (i.e., dislikes), suggesting that older adults perceive the benefits of technology use to outweigh the costs of such use. Positive attitudes were most frequently related to how the technology supported activities, enhanced convenience, and contained useful features. Negative attitudes were most frequently associated with technology creating inconveniences, unhelpful features, as well as security and reliability concerns. Given that older adults reported more positive than negative attitudes about the technologies they use, these results contradict stereotypes that older adults are afraid or unwilling to use technology. These findings also highlight the importance of perceived benefits of use and ease of use for models of technology acceptance. Emphasizing the benefits of technology in education and training programs may increase future technology adoption. PMID:20967133

  1. Cognitive Style Predictors of Affect Change in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacowitz, Derek M.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive styles are the lenses through which individuals habitually process information from their environment. In this study, we evaluated whether different cognitive style individual difference variables, such as explanatory style and dispositional optimism, could predict changes in affective state over time in community-dwelling older adults.…

  2. Physical Activity among Rural Older Adults with Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Bell, Ronny A.; Smith, Shannon L.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Wetmore-Arkader, Lindsay K.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This analysis describes physical activity levels and factors associated with physical activity in an ethnically diverse (African American, Native American, white) sample of rural older adults with diabetes. Method: Data were collected using a population-based, cross-sectional stratified random sample survey of 701 community-dwelling…

  3. Digital Skills Acquisition: Future Trends among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Brian K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify future trends and barriers that will either facilitate or impede the narrowing of the digital skills divide among older adults during the next 10 years. Methodology: To address the research questions, this study used a modified version of the Delphi process using a panel of experts who…

  4. Measuring Successful Aging in Southern Black Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troutman, Meredith; Nies, Mary A.; Bentley, Monica

    2011-01-01

    With the growing size of the population of aging Black individuals, it is important to understand successful aging in this group. This study, therefore, piloted the Successful Aging Inventory (SAI) with a convenience sample of Black older adults. Participants completed a demographic form, the SAI, Purpose in Life Test, Life Satisfaction…

  5. Attitudes toward Older Adults: A Reexamination of Two Major Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwasaki, Michiko; Jones, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to reexamine the psychometric properties of two major scales measuring attitudes toward older adults. The Kogan Attitudes Toward Old People Scale (Kogan OP Scale; Kogan, 1961b) was administered to a sample of 512 college students in Study One. The refined version (Polizzi & Millikin, 2002) of the Aging Semantic…

  6. Motivational Interviewing to Affect Behavioral Change in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Sherry M.; Cooper, R. Lyle; Cassie, Kim McClure

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews and assesses the existing research literature on the efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) to promote lifestyle changes and improve functioning among older adults confronting serious health challenges. A comprehensive literature review was conducted of intervention studies that tested the use of MI to achieve behavioral…

  7. Accelerated Longitudinal Decline of Aerobic Capacity in Healthy Older Adults

    E-print Network

    Morrell, Christopher H.

    Accelerated Longitudinal Decline of Aerobic Capacity in Healthy Older Adults Jerome L. Fleg, MD is dependent largely on the maintenance of sufficient aerobic capacity and strength to perform daily activities. Although peak aerobic capacity is widely recognized to decline with age, its rate of decline has been

  8. Formal caregivers of older adults: reflection about their practice

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Marina Picazzio Perez; Barros, Juliana de Oliveira; de Almeida, Maria Helena Morgani; Mângia, Elisabete Ferreira; Lancman, Selma

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the job function of caregivers of older adults and contribute to the debate on the consolidation of this professional practice. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES This is a descriptive, qualitative, and exploratory study. Four focal group sessions were performed in 2011 with 11 elderly companions, formal caregivers of older adults in the Programa Acompanhante de Idosos (Program for Caregivers of Older Adults), Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. These sessions, guided by a semi-structured script, were audio-recorded and fully transcribed. Data were analyzed using the Content Analysis technique, Thematic Modality. RESULTS In view of considering the caregivers of older adults as a new category of workers, it was difficult to define their duties. The elderly companions themselves as well as the care receivers, their families, and the professionals that comprised the team were unclear about their duties. The professional practice of these formal caregivers has been built on the basis of constant discussions and negotiations among them and other team members in Programa Acompanhante de Idosos during daily work. This was achieved via a recognition process of their job functions and by setting apart other workers’ exclusive responsibilities. CONCLUSIONS The delimitation of specific job functions for elderly companions is currently one of the greatest challenges faced by these workers to develop and consolidate their professional role as well as improve Programa Acompanhante de Idosos. PMID:25372163

  9. Hyphens for Disambiguating Phrases: Effectiveness for Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anema, Inge; Obler, Loraine K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hyphens that disambiguate phrasing in ambiguous sentences influence reading rate and reading comprehension for younger and older adults. Moreover, as working memory (WM) has been implicated in age-related changes in sentence comprehension for both auditory and written materials, we asked if it…

  10. Technology: Education and Training Needs of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Lesa; Watson, Carol

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the global aging of the population on social, economic, political, and health care institutions is unequaled. Parallel to this, evolving developments in technology promise opportunities for sales and product development to support positive aging. Older adults are excited to utilize technologies that they perceive as practical.…

  11. Participation in Learning and Wellbeing among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to identify the effects of participation in learning on the subjective wellbeing of older adults. Data were from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a large-scale, nationally representative survey of those aged 50 and above. The survey contains several wellbeing measures and information on three…

  12. Ethnically Diverse Older Adults' Beliefs about Staying Mentally Sharp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Daniela B.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Laditka, James N.; Wu, Bei; Liu, Rui; Price, Anna E.; Tseng, Winston; Corwin, Sara J.; Ivey, Susan L.; Hunter, Rebecca; Sharkey, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined diverse older adults' (n = 396, ages 50+) views about how to stay mentally sharp. We conducted 42 focus groups in four languages at nine United States locations using a standardized discussion guide and methods. The groups represented African Americans, American Indians, Chinese Americans, Latinos, Whites other than Latinos,…

  13. Negative emotional outcomes impair older adults' reversal learning

    E-print Network

    Mather, Mara

    does not, with a reversal at some point in which face yields points. The current study examined age: Reversal learning; Aging; Emotion; Reward; Feedback. Learning to update information in a rapidly changingNegative emotional outcomes impair older adults' reversal learning Kaoru Nashiro1 , Mara Mather1

  14. Effective pain management of older adult hospice patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Scott A

    2013-05-01

    Pain is subjective and a unique and individual experience. For those involved in the care of hospice patients, pain management can be challenging and is not always effectively managed. This case study explores an older adult cancer patient's pain experience at the end of her life with implementation of pain management strategies from hospice. PMID:23652974

  15. Motivations and Benefits of the Travel Experiences of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Young-Joo; Janke, Megan C.

    2011-01-01

    The motivations and benefits of educational travel among individuals aged 55 years old and over were examined in this study. A total of 136 older adults enrolled in Elderhostel programs participated in this study and reported their perceived benefits and motivations for engaging in educational travel experiences. Correlation analyses were used to…

  16. Diurnal Patterns and Correlates of Older Adults’ Sedentary Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Van Holle, Veerle; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Owen, Neville; Deforche, Benedicte

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Insights into the diurnal patterns of sedentary behavior and the identification of subgroups that are at increased risk for engaging in high levels of sedentary behavior are needed to inform potential interventions for reducing older adults’ sedentary time. Therefore, we examined the diurnal patterns and sociodemographic correlates of older adults’ sedentary behavior(s). Methods Stratified cluster sampling was used to recruit 508 non-institutionalized Belgian older adults (? 65 years). Morning, afternoon, evening and total sedentary time was assessed objectively using accelerometers. Specific sedentary behaviors, total sitting time and sociodemographic attributes were assessed using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results Participants self-reported a median of 475 (Q1-Q3 = 383–599) minutes/day of total sitting time and they accumulated a mean of 580 ± 98 minutes/day of accelerometer-derived sedentary time. Sedentary time was lowest during the morning and highest during the evening. Older participants were as sedentary as younger participants during the evening, but they were more sedentary during daytime. Compared to married participants, widowers were more sedentary during daytime. Younger participants (< 75 years), men and the higher educated were more likely to engage in (high levels of) sitting while driving a car and using the computer. Those with tertiary education viewed 29% and 22% minutes/day less television compared to those with primary or secondary education, respectively. Older participants accumulated 35 sedentary minutes/day more than did younger participants and men accumulated 32 sedentary minutes/day more than did women. Conclusion These findings highlight diurnal variations and potential opportunities to tailor approaches to reducing sedentary time for subgroups of the older adult population. PMID:26244676

  17. Pharmacological management of behavioral and psychiatric symptoms in older adults with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Eady, Nicole; Courtenay, Ken; Strydom, André

    2015-02-01

    Given medical and social advances, the life expectancy of individuals with intellectual disability (ID) has increased dramatically, leading to a generation of older individuals with such disabilities. This review focuses on the pharmacological treatment of behavioral and psychiatric symptoms and disorders in older adults with ID. Older adults with ID often present with medical co-morbidities and mental health issues. Medication management of behavioral and psychiatric problems is complicated by a higher risk for adverse events, lack of decision-making capacity, and complex care networks. Some studies have shown that individuals with ID and co-morbid mental disorders are undertreated in comparison with those with similar disorders in the general population, resulting in poorer outcomes. However, older adults with ID are also at risk of polypharmacy, and older age is a risk factor for development of side effects. A general principle is that medication treatment for psychiatric disorders in older individuals with ID should be started at low dosages and increased cautiously while monitoring response and side effects. The use of psychotropic drugs for older individuals with ID and behavioral problems remains controversial, particularly in those with dementia. PMID:25573538

  18. Listening to Older Adult Parents of Adult Children with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Judith R.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses qualitative research and narrative analysis to examine the experience of women age 55 and older who are parents caring for adult children with mental illness. Knowledge about the conflicts of older parents with dependent children is underdeveloped. In this study, analysis of women's stories about parenting in later life reveal…

  19. Occupational therapy use by older adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Pergolotti, Mackenzi; Cutchin, Malcolm P; Weinberger, Morris; Meyer, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Occupational therapy may significantly improve cancer survivors' ability to participate in activities, thereby improving quality of life. Little is known, however, about the use of occupational therapy services by adults with cancer. The objective of this study was to understand what shapes patterns of occupational therapy use to help improve service delivery. We examined older (age >65 yr) adults diagnosed with breast, prostate, lung, or melanoma (skin) cancer between 2004 and 2007 (N = 27,131) using North Carolina Central Cancer Registry data linked to Medicare billing claims. Survivors who used occupational therapy within 1 yr before their cancer diagnosis were more likely to use occupational therapy after diagnosis but also experienced the highest levels of comorbidities. Survivors with Stage 4 cancers or lung cancer were less likely to use occupational therapy. These findings suggest possible disparities in utilization of occupational therapy by older adults with cancer. PMID:25184473

  20. Somatic complaints in older adults: aging process or symptoms of depression 

    E-print Network

    Gentry, Ruth Anne

    2013-02-22

    This study examined the efficacy of somatic symptoms on a new measure of depression designed specifically for older adults. Resent research has shown somatic symptoms to be accurate predictors of depression in older adults, yet they have been...

  1. Interactive programs with preschool children bring smiles and conversation to older adults: time-sampling study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Keeping older adults healthy and active is an emerging challenge of an aging society. Despite the importance of personal relationships to their health and well-being, changes in family structure have resulted in a lower frequency of intergenerational interactions. Limited studies have been conducted to compare different interaction style of intergenerational interaction. The present study aimed to compare the changes in visual attention, facial expression, engagement/behaviour, and intergenerational conversation in older adults brought about by a performance-based intergenerational (IG) program and a social-oriented IG program to determine a desirable interaction style for older adults. Methods The subjects of this study were 25 older adults who participated in intergenerational programs with preschool children aged 5 to 6 years at an adult day care centre in Tokyo. We used time sampling to perform a structured observation study. The 25 older participants of intergenerational programs were divided into two groups based on their interaction style: performance-based IG program (children sing songs and dance) and social-oriented IG program (older adults and children play games together). Based on the 5-minute video observation, we compared changes in visual attention, facial expression, engagement/behaviour, and intergenerational conversation between the performance-based and social-oriented IG programs. Results Constructive behaviour and intergenerational conversation were significantly higher in the social-oriented IG programming group than the performance-based IG programming group (p<0.001). No significant differences were observed in frequency of smiles, however, when weighted smiling rate was used, smiles were significantly more frequently observed in the social-oriented IG programming group than the performance-based IG programming (p<0.05). The visual attention occurred between the generations was significantly higher in the performance-based IG programming group than the social-oriented IG programming group (p<0.05). Conclusions Intergenerational programs with preschool children brought smiles and conversation to older adults. The social-oriented IG program allowed older adults to play more roles than the performance-based IG program. The intergenerational programs provide opportunities to fulfil basic human needs and reintegrate older adults into society. Further development of such beneficial programs is warranted. Trial registration UMIN-CTR clinical Trial: UMIN000010439 PMID:24138601

  2. Structural brain correlates of associative memory in older adults.

    PubMed

    Becker, Nina; Laukka, Erika J; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Bäckman, Lars; Brehmer, Yvonne

    2015-09-01

    Associative memory involves binding two or more items into a coherent memory episode. Relative to memory for single items, associative memory declines greatly in aging. However, older individuals vary substantially in their ability to memorize associative information. Although functional studies link associative memory to the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and prefrontal cortex (PFC), little is known about how volumetric differences in MTL and PFC might contribute to individual differences in associative memory. We investigated regional gray-matter volumes related to individual differences in associative memory in a sample of healthy older adults (n=54; age=60years). To differentiate item from associative memory, participants intentionally learned face-scene picture pairs before performing a recognition task that included single faces, scenes, and face-scene pairs. Gray-matter volumes were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry region-of-interest (ROI) analyses. To examine volumetric differences specifically for associative memory, item memory was controlled for in the analyses. Behavioral results revealed large variability in associative memory that mainly originated from differences in false-alarm rates. Moreover, associative memory was independent of individuals' ability to remember single items. Older adults with better associative memory showed larger gray-matter volumes primarily in regions of the left and right lateral PFC. These findings provide evidence for the importance of PFC in intentional learning of associations, likely because of its involvement in organizational and strategic processes that distinguish older adults with good from those with poor associative memory. PMID:26054875

  3. Are the memories of older adults positively biased?

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Myra; Ross, Michael; Wiegand, Melanie; Schryer, Emily

    2008-06-01

    There is disagreement in the literature about whether a "positivity effect" in memory performance exists in older adults. To assess the generalizability of the effect, the authors examined memory for autobiographical, picture, and word information in a group of younger (17-29 years old) and older (60-84 years old) adults. For the autobiographical memory task, the authors asked participants to produce 4 positive, 4 negative, and 4 neutral recent autobiographical memories and to recall these a week later. For the picture and word tasks, participants studied photos or words of different valences (positive, negative, neutral) and later remembered them on a free-recall test. The authors found significant correlations in memory performance, across task material, for recall of both positive and neutral valence autobiographical events, pictures, and words. When the authors examined accurate memories, they failed to find consistent evidence, across the different types of material, of a positivity effect in either age group. However, the false memory findings offer more consistent support for a positivity effect in older adults. During recall of all 3 types of material, older participants recalled more false positive than false negative memories. PMID:18573004

  4. Older adult drivers living in residential care facilities

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Hillary D.; Ginde, Adit A.; Betz, Marian E.

    2015-01-01

    Residential care facilities (RCF) provide assistance to older adults who cannot live independently, but it is unclear whether these residents have retired from driving. Here, we characterize older adults living in RCFs who still drive from a national cross-sectional survey of residents (2010 National Survey of Residential Care Facilities), representing ~733,000 adults living in RCFs such as assisted living facilities and personal care homes. Key resident characteristics were health, function, mobility and community activity indicators, which could be associated with increased driving risk. Of 8,087 residents, 4.5% (95%CI=3.9-5.1) were current drivers. Many drivers were older than 80 years (74%, 95%CI=67-79), in very good health (31%, 95%CI=25-38) or good health (35%, 95%CI=29-42), and had a median of two medical conditions. Most were independent with activities of daily living, though some needed assistance with walking and used gait devices. Given these results, RCF staff and healthcare providers need a heightened awareness of factors associated with driving risk to promote safety of older drivers and provide resources for likely transition to other transportation. PMID:26366125

  5. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in older adults hospitalized for fall injury?

    PubMed Central

    Jayasinghe, Nimali; Sparks, Martha A.; Kato, Kaori; Wyka, Katarzyna; Wilbur, Kaitlyn; Chiaramonte, Gabrielle; Barie, Philip S.; Lachs, Mark S.; O'Dell, Michael; Evans, Arthur; Bruce, Martha L.; Difede, JoAnn

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although unintentional falls may pose a threat of death or injury, few studies have investigated their psychological impact on older adults. This study sought to gather data on early posttraumatic stress symptoms in older adults in the hospital setting after a fall. Method Participants in this study were 100 adults age 65 years or older admitted to a large urban hospital in New York City because of a fall. Men and women were represented approximately equally in the sample; most were interviewed within days of the fall event. The study's bedside interview included the Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Scale, which inquires about the presence and severity of 17 trauma-related symptoms. Results Twenty-seven participants reported substantial posttraumatic stress symptoms (moderate or higher severity). Exploratory bivariate analyses suggested an association between posttraumatic stress symptom severity and female gender, lower level of education, unemployment, number of medical conditions, and back/chest injury. Conclusions A significant percentage of older patients hospitalized after a fall suffer substantial posttraumatic stress. Future investigations are needed to assess the association between the psychiatric impact of a fall and short-term inpatient outcomes as well as longer-term functional outcomes. PMID:25213226

  6. Gender and Friendship Norms Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Felmlee, Diane; Muraco, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined same- and cross-gender friendship norms in a sample of 135 adults (average age 73 years). Participants evaluated a friend’s behavior, quantitatively and qualitatively, in vignettes in which the friend’s gender was experimentally manipulated. Gender often significantly, though modestly, influenced normative evaluations. Women frequently had higher expectations of friends than men and placed a greater emphasis on intimacy. Women were more disapproving of violations of friendship rules, such as betraying a confidence, paying a surprise visit, and failing to stand up for a friend in public. However, both men and women were less approving of a man than a woman who greets another friend with a kiss or who requests to stay overnight. Respondents’ open-ended comments reflected positive attitudes regarding cross-gender friendships. Most findings demonstrated that men and women across a wide age range held similar cultural norms for close ties, norms of trust, commitment, and respect. PMID:20473364

  7. Visuomotor Correction is a Robust Contributor to Force Variability During Index Finger Abduction by Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Brian L.; Hitchcock, Leah N.; Welsh, Seth J.; Paxton, Roger J.; Feldman-Kothe, Caitlin E.

    2015-01-01

    We examined aging-related differences in the contribution of visuomotor correction to force fluctuations during index finger abduction via the analysis of two datasets from similar subjects. Study (1) Young (N = 27, 23 ± 8 years) and older adults (N = 14, 72 ± 9 years) underwent assessment of maximum voluntary contraction force (MVC) and force steadiness during constant-force (CF) index finger abduction (2.5, 30, 65% MVC). For each trial, visual feedback of the force (VIS) was provided for 8–10 s and removed for 8–10 s (NOVIS). Visual gain of the force feedback at 2.5% MVC was high; 12- and 26-fold greater than the 30 and 65% MVC targets. Mean force, standard deviation (SD) of force, and coefficient of variation (CV) of force was calculated for detrended (<0.5 Hz drift removed) VIS and NOVIS data segments. Study (2) A similar group of 14 older adults performed discrete, randomly-ordered VIS or NOVIS trials at low target forces (1–3% MVC) and high visual gain. Study (1) For young adults the CV of force was similar between VIS and NOVIS for the 2.5% (4.8 vs. 4.3%), 30% (3.2 vs. 3.2%) and 65% (3.5 vs. 4.2%) target forces. In contrast, for older adults the CV of force was greater for VIS than NOVIS for 2.5% MVC (6.6 vs. 4.2%, p < 0.001), but not for the 30% (2.4 vs. 2.4%) and 65% (3.1 vs. 3.3%) target forces. At 2.5% MVC, the increase in CV of force for VIS compared with NOVIS was significantly greater (age × visual condition p = 0.008) for older than young adults. Study (2) Similarly, for older adults performing discrete, randomly ordered trials the CV of force was greater for VIS than NOVIS (6.04 vs. 3.81%, p = 0.01). When visual force feedback was a dominant source of information at low forces, normalized force variability was ~58% greater for older adults, but only 11% greater for young adults. The significant effect of visual feedback for older adults was not dependent on the order of presentation of visual conditions. The results indicate that impaired processing of visuomotor information underlies the greater motor variability observed in older adults during lab-based isometric contractions of a hand muscle. PMID:26696881

  8. The Association of Serum Leptin with Mortality in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Tamara B.; Hsueh, Wen-Chi; Hue, Trisha; Leak, Tennille S.; Li, Rongling; Mehta, Mira; Vaisse, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Objective Elevated levels of serum leptin are associated with increased adiposity and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Both cytokines and body adiposity have been shown to predict cardiovascular events and mortality. The primary objective of the present study is to explore the associations between serum leptin and all-cause mortality and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) over a span of 10 years, controlling for body adiposity and proinflammatory cytokines. Methods The Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) study is a prospective cohort of 3,075 older adults aged 70 to 79 years. This analysis includes 2,919 men and women with complete serum leptin and vital status data. Data on all-cause mortality and incident cardiovascular events (including Coronary Heart Disease and Congestive Heart Failure) were collected over 10 years of follow-up (mean 8.4 years). Results Women with leptin in quartile 2 and 3 were at lower risk of all-cause mortality, and those with leptin in quartile 2 were at lower risk of mortality from CVD as compared to women with lowest leptin values when adjusted for age, race, site, years of education, alcohol use, smoking, and physical activity. When these associations were additionally adjusted for body fat, C-reactive protein and pro-inflammatory cytokines, women with leptin values in quartile 3 were at lower risk of all-cause mortality and women with leptin in quartile 2 and 3 were at lower risk of mortality from CVD than women with lowest leptin values. These associations were not significant among men after adjusting for body fat and cytokines. Conclusions The present study suggests that moderately elevated concentrations of serum leptin are independently associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality and CVD-related mortality among older women. Among men, serum leptin is not associated with reduced risk of all-cause and CVD mortality after controlling for body fat and cytokines. PMID:26473487

  9. Use of seal-like robot PARO in sensory group therapy for older adults with dementia

    E-print Network

    Sabanovic, Selma

    of using PARO as a tool for sensory therapy with older adults in the US. Multi-sensory behavior therapyUse of seal-like robot PARO in sensory group therapy for older adults with dementia Wan-Ling Chang in a sensory therapy activity in a local nursing home. Participants were older adults with different levels

  10. An Information Needs Profile of Israeli Older Adults, regarding the Law and Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getz, Irith; Weissman, Gabriella

    2010-01-01

    Based on Nicholas' framework for assessing information needs, this research aims to construct a profile of both Israeli older adults and their information needs regarding laws and social services. Data were collected by questionnaires answered by 200 older adults, born in Europe, Asia and Africa, who attended social clubs for older adults. The…

  11. Understanding Older Adults' Perceptions of Internet Use: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Robert; Spears, Jeffrey; Luptak, Marilyn; Wilby, Frances

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined factors related to older adults' perceptions of Internet use. Three hundred ninety five older adults participated in the study. The factor analysis revealed four factors perceived by older adults as critical to their Internet use: social connection, self-efficacy, the need to seek financial information, and the need to…

  12. Copyright 2007 Psychonomic Society, Inc. 606 Conventional wisdom tells us that older adults are for-

    E-print Network

    McDermott, Kathleen

    reduce an older adult's ability to avoid false memories. A corollary of this idea is that older adults-related changes in frontal functioning the primary, or sole, cause of age-related increases in false memories are more susceptible to false memory than older adults with higher frontal functioning. Specifically, low

  13. Bounded Rationality, Emotions and Older Adult Decision Making: Not so Fast and yet so Frugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanoch, Yaniv; Wood, Stacey; Rice, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Herbert Simon's work on bounded rationality has had little impact on researchers studying older adults' decision making. This omission is surprising, as human constraints on computation and memory are exacerbated in older adults. The study of older adults' decision-making processes could benefit from employing a bounded rationality perspective,…

  14. Appreciating the Predicament of Housebound Older Adults with Arthritis: Portrait of a Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nour, Kareen; Laforest, Sophie; Gignac, Monique; Gauvin, Lise

    2005-01-01

    This paper draws a socio-demographic, physical, psychosocial, and behavioural profile of housebound older adults with arthritis and compares older adults with rheumatoid arthritis to those with osteoarthritis. Data from 125 housebound older adults with osteoarthritis (65%) or rheumatoid arthritis (35%) were compared to published samples and to…

  15. An Intergenerational E-Mail Pal Project on Attitudes of College Students toward Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Carla A.

    2011-01-01

    Intergenerational interactions have demonstrated some success at improving attitudes of college students toward older adults. This quasiexperimental study involved undergraduate college students paired with older adults for a six-week e-mail exchange. Student attitudes toward older adults were measured pre- and posttest with Polizzi's revised…

  16. Socioemotional selectivity in older adults: Evidence from the subjective experience of angry memories.

    PubMed

    Uzer, Tugba; Gulgoz, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have compared the phenomenological properties of younger and older adults' memories for emotional events. Some studies suggest that younger adults remember negative information more vividly than positive information whereas other studies suggest that positive emotion yields phenomenologically richer memories than negative emotion for both younger and older adults. One problem with previous studies is a tendency to treat emotion as a dichotomous variable. In contrast, emotional richness demands inclusion of assessments beyond just a positive and negative dimension (e.g., assessing specific emotions like anger, fear and happiness). The present study investigated different properties of autobiographical remembering as a function of discrete emotions and age. Thirty-two younger and thirty-one older adults participated by recalling recent and remote memories associated with six emotional categories and completed the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire for each. Results demonstrated that older adults' angry memories received lower ratings on some phenomenological properties than other emotional memories whereas younger adults' angry memories did not show this same pattern. These results are discussed within the context of socioemotional selectivity theory. PMID:25029295

  17. Effects of Task Instruction on Autobiographical Memory Specificity in Young and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Rubin, David C.; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2013-01-01

    Older adults tend to retrieve autobiographical information that is overly general (i.e. not restricted to a single event, termed the overgenerality effect) relative to young adults’ specific memories. A vast majority of studies that have reported overgenerality effects explicitly instruct participants to retrieve specific memories, thereby requiring participants to maintain task goals, inhibit inappropriate responses, and control their memory search. Since these processes are impaired in healthy aging, it is important to determine whether such task instructions influence the magnitude of the overgenerality effect in older adults. In the current study, participants retrieved autobiographical memories during presentation of musical clips. Task instructions were manipulated to separate age-related differences in the specificity of underlying memory representations from age-related differences in following task instructions. Whereas young adults modulated memory specificity based on task demands, older adults did not. These findings suggest that reported rates of overgenerality in older adults’ memories may include age-related differences in memory representation, as well as differences in task compliance. Such findings provide a better understanding of the underlying cognitive mechanisms involved in age-related changes in autobiographical memory and may also be valuable for future research examining effects of overgeneral memory on general well-being. PMID:23915176

  18. Future thinking improves prospective memory performance and plan enactment in older adults.

    PubMed

    Altgassen, Mareike; Rendell, Peter G; Bernhard, Anka; Henry, Julie D; Bailey, Phoebe E; Phillips, Louise H; Kliegel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Efficient intention formation might improve prospective memory by reducing the need for resource-demanding strategic processes during the delayed performance interval. The present study set out to test this assumption and provides the first empirical assessment of whether imagining a future action improves prospective memory performance equivalently at different stages of the adult lifespan. Thus, younger (n = 40) and older (n = 40) adults were asked to complete the Dresden Breakfast Task, which required them to prepare breakfast in accordance with a set of rules and time restrictions. All participants began by generating a plan for later enactment; however, after making this plan, half of the participants were required to imagine themselves completing the task in the future (future thinking condition), while the other half received standard instructions (control condition). As expected, overall younger adults outperformed older adults. Moreover, both older and younger adults benefited equally from future thinking instructions, as reflected in a higher proportion of prospective memory responses and more accurate plan execution. Thus, for both younger and older adults, imagining the specific visual-spatial context in which an intention will later be executed may serve as an easy-to-implement strategy that enhances prospective memory function in everyday life. PMID:25191929

  19. Human Centred Design Considerations for Connected Health Devices for the Older Adult

    PubMed Central

    Harte, Richard P.; Glynn, Liam G.; Broderick, Barry J.; Rodriguez-Molinero, Alejandro; Baker, Paul M. A.; McGuiness, Bernadette; O’Sullivan, Leonard; Diaz, Marta; Quinlan, Leo R.; ÓLaighin, Gearóid

    2014-01-01

    Connected health devices are generally designed for unsupervised use, by non-healthcare professionals, facilitating independent control of the individuals own healthcare. Older adults are major users of such devices and are a population significantly increasing in size. This group presents challenges due to the wide spectrum of capabilities and attitudes towards technology. The fit between capabilities of the user and demands of the device can be optimised in a process called Human Centred Design. Here we review examples of some connected health devices chosen by random selection, assess older adult known capabilities and attitudes and finally make analytical recommendations for design approaches and design specifications. PMID:25563225

  20. Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance and Multiple Myeloma in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Guerard, Emily J; Tuchman, Sascha A

    2016-02-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) are plasma cell disorders of aging. The landscape of the diagnosis and management of MM and MGUS are rapidly changing. This article provides an updated understanding of the clinical presentation, evaluation, diagnosis, and management of older adults with MM and MGUS. Because most oncology providers are not formally trained in geriatric medicine, geriatricians play a key role in providing oncologists with a broader understanding of patient health status in the hope of improving outcomes for older adults with MM. PMID:26614868

  1. Disrupted cortico-cerebellar connectivity in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Jessica A.; Peltier, Scott J.; Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Jaeggi, Susanne M.; Buschkuehl, Martin; Fling, Brett W.; Kwak, Youngbin; Jonides, John; Monk, Christopher S.; Seidler, Rachael D.

    2013-01-01

    Healthy aging is marked by declines in a variety of cognitive and motor abilities. A better understanding of the aging brain may aid in elucidating the neural substrates of these behavioral effects. Investigations of resting state functional brain connectivity have provided insights into pathology, and to some degree, healthy aging. Given the role of the cerebellum in both motor and cognitive behaviors, as well as its known volumetric declines with age, investigating cerebellar networks may shed light on the neural bases of age-related functional declines. We mapped the resting state networks of the lobules of the right hemisphere and the vermis of the cerebellum in a group of healthy older adults and compared them to those of young adults. We report disrupted cortico-cerebellar resting state network connectivity in older adults. These results remain even when controlling for cerebellar volume, signal-to-noise ratio, and signal-to-fluctuation noise ratio. Specifically, there was consistent disruption of cerebellar connectivity with both the striatum and the medial temporal lobe. Associations between connectivity strength and both sensorimotor and cognitive task performance indicate that cerebellar engagement with the default mode network and striatal pathways is associated with better performance for older adults. These results extend our understanding of the resting state networks of the aging brain to include cortico-cerebellar networks, and indicate that age differences in network connectivity strength are important for behavior. PMID:23792980

  2. Are Total and Domain-Specific Sedentary Time Associated with Overweight in Older Taiwanese Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Ming-Chun; Liao, Yung; Chang, Shao-Hsi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the associations between total and domain-specific sedentary time with the risk of overweight in older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted by administering computer-assisted telephone interviews to 1046 Taiwanese older adults (aged ?65 years) residing in two regions in Taiwan in 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to examine the associations between self-reported total and six domain-specific sedentary times and body mass index status (calculating by self-reported height and weight) by using logistic regression analyses. The results showed that compared with older women in the lowest quartile of the total sedentary time, those in the highest quartile were 1.87 (95% CI: 1.10–3.21) times more likely to be overweight, after adjustment for potential confounders. The total sedentary time was stratified into six specific domains, and only watching television more than 2 h per day was positively associated with overweight (OR, 1.55; 95% CI: 1.08–2.25) in older women, whereas no other sedentary time domains were associated with the risk of overweight. No significant associations were observed in older men. Further studies using prospective designs are required to confirm the presently observed effects of total and domain-specific sedentary behavior on the health of older adults. PMID:26473902

  3. Improving the Evidence Base for Treating Older Adults With Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology Statement.

    PubMed

    Hurria, Arti; Levit, Laura A; Dale, William; Mohile, Supriya G; Muss, Hyman B; Fehrenbacher, Louis; Magnuson, Allison; Lichtman, Stuart M; Bruinooge, Suanna S; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Tew, William P; Postow, Michael A; Cohen, Harvey J

    2015-11-10

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) convened a subcommittee to develop recommendations on improving the evidence base for treating older adults with cancer in response to a critical need identified by the Institute of Medicine. Older adults experience the majority of cancer diagnoses and deaths and make up the majority of cancer survivors. Older adults are also the fastest growing segment of the US population. However, the evidence base for treating this population is sparse, because older adults are underrepresented in clinical trials, and trials designed specifically for older adults are rare. The result is that clinicians have less evidence on how to treat older adults, who represent the majority of patients with cancer. Clinicians and patients are forced to extrapolate from trials conducted in younger, healthier populations when developing treatment plans. This has created a dearth of knowledge regarding the risk of toxicity in the average older patient and about key end points of importance to older adults. ASCO makes five recommendations to improve evidence generation in this population: (1) Use clinical trials to improve the evidence base for treating older adults with cancer, (2) leverage research designs and infrastructure for generating evidence on older adults with cancer, (3) increase US Food and Drug Administration authority to incentivize and require research involving older adults with cancer, (4) increase clinicians' recruitment of older adults with cancer to clinical trials, and (5) use journal policies to improve researchers' reporting on the age distribution and health risk profiles of research participants. PMID:26195697

  4. Telepsychiatry for Neurocognitive Testing in Older Rural Latino Adults.

    PubMed

    Vahia, Ipsit V; Ng, Bernardo; Camacho, Alvaro; Cardenas, Veronica; Cherner, Mariana; Depp, Colin A; Palmer, Barton W; Jeste, Dilip V; Agha, Zia

    2015-07-01

    As the population of older Latinos in the U.S. increases, availability of culturally adapted geriatric psychiatry services is becoming a growing concern. This issue is exacerbated for rural Latino populations. In this study, we assessed whether neurocognitive assessment via telepsychiatry (TP) using a Spanish-language battery would be comparable to in-person (IP) testing using the same battery in a sample of Spanish-speaking older adults in a rural setting. Patients (N = 22) received IP and TP testing 2 weeks apart. The order of IP and TP test administrations in individual subjects was determined randomly. Comparison of scores indicated that there were no significant differences between IP and TP test performance though both groups scored non-significantly higher at the second visit. This study demonstrates feasibility and utility of neurocognitive testing in Spanish using TP among older rural Latinos. PMID:25708655

  5. Polypharmacy in the HIV-infected older adult population

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Lauren J; Luque, Amneris E; Shah, Krupa

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among people older than 50 years is increasing. Older HIV-infected patients are particularly at risk for polypharmacy because they often have multiple comorbidities that require pharmacotherapy. Overall, there is not much known with respect to both the impact of aging on medication use in HIV-infected individuals, and the potential for interactions with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and coadministered medications and its clinical consequences. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of polypharmacy with a focus on its impact on the HIV-infected older adult population and to also provide some clinical considerations in this high-risk population. PMID:23818773

  6. Circulating HIV DNA Correlates With Neurocognitive Impairment in Older HIV-infected Adults on Suppressive ART.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Michelli Faria de; Murrel, Ben; Pérez-Santiago, Josué; Vargas, Milenka; Ellis, Ronald J; Letendre, Scott; Grant, Igor; Smith, Davey M; Woods, Steven Paul; Gianella, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Older HIV-infected adults have a higher risk of neurocognitive impairment, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the associations between levels of HIV DNA in peripheral blood, soluble markers of inflammation and cellular trafficking in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neurocognitive functioning among 18 younger (22-40 years) and 26 older (50-71 years) HIV-infected subjects, who were administered a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Older HIV-infected individuals presented higher levels of inflammation in CSF and blood compared to younger individuals, but no difference was observed in HIV DNA levels. Among older participants, higher HIV DNA levels were significantly associated with more severe neurocognitive impairment (p?=?0.005), particularly in the Executive Functions domain (p?=?0.004). No association was observed between HIV DNA and neurocognition among younger individuals. Despite significantly increased inflammation observed in the older group, none of the inflammatory markers were associated with neurocognitive impairment among older HIV+ individuals (p?>?0.05). Our study supports the involvement of peripheral HIV DNA reservoir in the pathogenesis of neurocognitive disorder during suppressive ART. Correlates of neurocognitive impairment might differ between younger and older adults, suggesting that future treatment and prevention strategies for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders likely need to be tailored based on age. PMID:26603568

  7. Circulating HIV DNA Correlates With Neurocognitive Impairment in Older HIV-infected Adults on Suppressive ART

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Michelli Faria de; Murrel, Ben; Pérez-Santiago, Josué; Vargas, Milenka; Ellis, Ronald J.; Letendre, Scott; Grant, Igor; Smith, Davey M.; Woods, Steven Paul; Gianella, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Older HIV-infected adults have a higher risk of neurocognitive impairment, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the associations between levels of HIV DNA in peripheral blood, soluble markers of inflammation and cellular trafficking in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neurocognitive functioning among 18 younger (22–40 years) and 26 older (50–71 years) HIV-infected subjects, who were administered a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Older HIV-infected individuals presented higher levels of inflammation in CSF and blood compared to younger individuals, but no difference was observed in HIV DNA levels. Among older participants, higher HIV DNA levels were significantly associated with more severe neurocognitive impairment (p?=?0.005), particularly in the Executive Functions domain (p?=?0.004). No association was observed between HIV DNA and neurocognition among younger individuals. Despite significantly increased inflammation observed in the older group, none of the inflammatory markers were associated with neurocognitive impairment among older HIV+ individuals (p?>?0.05). Our study supports the involvement of peripheral HIV DNA reservoir in the pathogenesis of neurocognitive disorder during suppressive ART. Correlates of neurocognitive impairment might differ between younger and older adults, suggesting that future treatment and prevention strategies for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders likely need to be tailored based on age. PMID:26603568

  8. Phase-shifting response to light in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Jae; Benloucif, Susan; Reid, Kathryn Jean; Weintraub, Sandra; Kennedy, Nancy; Wolfe, Lisa F; Zee, Phyllis C

    2014-01-01

    Abstract?Age-related changes in circadian rhythms may contribute to the sleep disruption observed in older adults. A reduction in responsiveness to photic stimuli in the circadian timing system has been hypothesized as a possible reason for the advanced circadian phase in older adults. This project compared phase-shifting responses to 2 h of broad-spectrum white light at moderate and high intensities in younger and older adults. Subjects included 29 healthy young (25.1 ± 4.1 years; male to female ratio: 8: 21) and 16 healthy older (66.5 ± 6.0 years; male to female ratio: 5: 11) subjects, who participated in two 4-night and 3-day laboratory stays, separated by at least 3 weeks. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three different time-points, 8 h before (?8), 3 h before (?3) or 3 h after (+3) the core body temperature minimum (CBTmin) measured on the baseline night. For each condition, subjects were exposed in a randomized order to 2 h light pulses of two intensities (2000 lux and 8000 lux) during the two different laboratory stays. Phase shifts were analysed according to the time of melatonin midpoint on the nights before and after light exposure. Older subjects in this study showed an earlier baseline phase and lower amplitude of melatonin rhythm compared to younger subjects, but there was no evidence of age-related changes in the magnitude or direction of phase shifts of melatonin midpoint in response to 2 h of light at either 2000 lux or 8000 lux. These results indicate that the acute phase-shifting response to moderate- or high-intensity broad spectrum light is not significantly affected by age. PMID:24144880

  9. Expressive suppression and enhancement during music-elicited emotions in younger and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Vieillard, Sandrine; Harm, Jonathan; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    When presented with emotional visual scenes, older adults have been found to be equally capable to regulate emotion expression as younger adults, corroborating the view that emotion regulation skills are maintained or even improved in later adulthood. However, the possibility that gaze direction might help achieve an emotion control goal has not been taken into account, raising the question whether the effortful processing of expressive regulation is really spared from the general age-related decline. Since it does not allow perceptual attention to be redirected away from the emotional source, music provides a useful way to address this question. In the present study, affective, behavioral, and physiological consequences of free expression of emotion, expressive suppression and expressive enhancement were measured in 31 younger and 30 older adults while they listened to positive and negative musical excerpts. The main results indicated that compared to younger adults, older adults reported experiencing less emotional intensity in response to negative music during the free expression of emotion condition. No age difference was found in the ability to amplify or reduce emotional expressions. However, an age-related decline in the ability to reduce the intensity of emotional state and an age-related increase in physiological reactivity were found when participants were instructed to suppress negative expression. Taken together, the current data support previous findings suggesting an age-related change in response to music. They also corroborate the observation that older adults are as efficient as younger adults at controlling behavioral expression. But most importantly, they suggest that when faced with auditory sources of negative emotion, older age does not always confer a better ability to regulate emotions. PMID:25741278

  10. Expressive suppression and enhancement during music-elicited emotions in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Vieillard, Sandrine; Harm, Jonathan; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    When presented with emotional visual scenes, older adults have been found to be equally capable to regulate emotion expression as younger adults, corroborating the view that emotion regulation skills are maintained or even improved in later adulthood. However, the possibility that gaze direction might help achieve an emotion control goal has not been taken into account, raising the question whether the effortful processing of expressive regulation is really spared from the general age-related decline. Since it does not allow perceptual attention to be redirected away from the emotional source, music provides a useful way to address this question. In the present study, affective, behavioral, and physiological consequences of free expression of emotion, expressive suppression and expressive enhancement were measured in 31 younger and 30 older adults while they listened to positive and negative musical excerpts. The main results indicated that compared to younger adults, older adults reported experiencing less emotional intensity in response to negative music during the free expression of emotion condition. No age difference was found in the ability to amplify or reduce emotional expressions. However, an age-related decline in the ability to reduce the intensity of emotional state and an age-related increase in physiological reactivity were found when participants were instructed to suppress negative expression. Taken together, the current data support previous findings suggesting an age-related change in response to music. They also corroborate the observation that older adults are as efficient as younger adults at controlling behavioral expression. But most importantly, they suggest that when faced with auditory sources of negative emotion, older age does not always confer a better ability to regulate emotions. PMID:25741278

  11. Structured exercise in older adults with limited functional ability.

    PubMed

    Fahlman, Mariane M; Topp, Robert; McNevin, Nancy; Morgan, Amy L; Boardley, Debra J

    2007-06-01

    The authors of this study examined the effects of a 16-week exercise program designed to increase aerobic capacity, muscular strength, and muscular endurance in older adults who reported and exhibited limited functional ability. Participants were randomly assigned to either an exercise (n=39) or a control (n=34) group. Dependent variables tested included measures of fitness (aerobic exercise capacity and isokinetic strength testing of the legs and arms) and measures of functional capacity (time to and off the floor, stair test, chair stand, and bicep curl). At the end of the program, there were significant differences between the exercise and control groups in arm strength, chair stand, and biceps curl. The results of this study indicate functionally limited older adults who maintain a structured exercise program for 16 weeks exhibit increased functional ability. PMID:17598625

  12. Electropalatography for Older Children and Adults with Residual Speech Errors.

    PubMed

    Gibbon, Fiona; Lee, Alice

    2015-11-01

    Most residual speech errors (RSEs) involve abnormal positioning or movement of the tongue. However, it is not possible under normal circumstances to view directly the actions of the tongue during production of these distorted articulations. The visually inaccessible location of the tongue can often make precise diagnosis difficult in cases of RSEs, and intervention can be a particular challenge for clinicians when speech errors persist in older children and adults. Electropalatography (EPG) is a technique that can provide objective and clinically relevant data about details of tongue articulation during speech. Furthermore, biofeedback with EPG offers the possibility of an effective intervention for RSEs. This tutorial provides an overview of EPG and describes how the technique can contribute to our knowledge and treatment of abnormal tongue-palate contact in older children and adults with RSEs. An illustrative case study of a child with RSEs affecting fricatives and affricates is included. PMID:26458202

  13. [Clinical features of sleep disorders in older adults].

    PubMed

    Chiba, Shigeru; Tamura, Yoshiyuki

    2015-06-01

    There are three major neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the sleep-waking cycle: the sleep system, the waking system, and the system that determines sleep-waking timing. Sleep dlisorders of older adults seem to be caused by functional or organic changes in one or more of the three systems, and are roughly classified into two categories: (i) normal age-related, and (ii) pathological. The former includes decreased amplitude and advanced phase of circadian rhythms (body temperature, melatonin secretion, and sleep-waking), as well as reduced sleep duration, sleep fragmentation, and a decrease of slow-wave sleep in sleep architecture. Pathological sleep disorders include medical and psychiatric diseases (e.g., lifestyle-related diseases, dementia, delirium, and depression) and primary age-related sleep disorders (e.g., REM sleep behavior disorder and periodic limb move- ment disorders). This mini-review delineates the clinical features of sleep disorders in older adults. PMID:26065118

  14. Sodium-Reduction Strategies for Meals Prepared for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Losby, Jan L.; Patel, Deesha; Schuldt, June; Hunt, Glynnis S.; Stracuzzi, Jeanne C.; Johnston, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    This article describes lessons learned from implementing sodium-reduction strategies in programs that provide meals to older adults in 2 New York counties, with one county replicating the approaches of the other. The implemented sodium-reduction strategies were product substitutions, recipe modifications, and cooking from scratch. Both counties were able to achieve modest sodium reductions in prepared meals. Lessons learned to implement sodium reduction strategies include the following: (1) identifying partners with shared experience and common goals; (2) engaging experts; (3) understanding the complexity of the meals system for older adults; (4) conducting sodium nutrient analysis; (5) making gradual and voluntary reductions to sodium content; and (6) working toward sustainable sodium reduction. PMID:24322812

  15. Prehabilitation interventions for older adults: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Halloway, Shannon; Buchholz, Susan Weber; Wilbur, JoEllen; Schoeny, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Prehabilitation aims to increase physical activity and improve physical fitness prior to elective surgery to improve postoperative outcomes. This integrative review examined the effect of prehabilitation randomized clinical trial (RCT) interventions on physical activity behavior and physical fitness in older adults. Seven studies met the search criteria. In two studies, effect sizes from baseline to the preoperative period exceeded d = .2, specifically in physical activity and in the physical-fitness dimensions of strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, and flexibility. For the effect sizes between baseline and the postoperative period, five studies had positive effects greater than d = .2 in strength, flexibility, balance, and speed. This review demonstrated that prehabilitation continues to be important to physical activity and physical-fitness research because it may improve physical-fitness measures and have implications for multiple dimensions of health in older adults. PMID:25255975

  16. Optimism and Planning for Future Care Needs among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sörensen, Silvia; Hirsch, Jameson K.; Lyness, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with an increase in need for assistance. Preparation for future care (PFC) is related to improved coping ability as well as better mental and physical health outcomes among older adults. We examined the association of optimism with components of PFC among older adults. We also explored race differences in the relationship between optimism and PFC. In Study 1, multiple regression showed that optimism was positively related to concrete planning. In Study 2, optimism was related to gathering information. An exploratory analysis combining the samples yielded a race interaction: For Whites higher optimism, but for Blacks lower optimism was associated with more planning. High optimism may be a barrier to future planning in certain social and cultural contexts. PMID:26045699

  17. Older adults’ engagement with a video game training program

    PubMed Central

    Belchior, Patrícia; Marsiske, Michael; Sisco, Shannon; Yam, Anna; Mann, William

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The current study investigated older adults’ level of engagement with a video game training program. Engagement was measured using the concept of Flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975). Methods Forty-five older adults were randomized to receive practice with an action game (Medal of Honor), a puzzle-like game (Tetris), or a gold-standard Useful Field of View (UFOV) training program. Results Both Medal of Honor and Tetris participants reported significantly higher Flow ratings at the conclusion, relative to the onset of training. Discussion Participants are more engaged in games that can be adjusted to their skill levels and that provide incremental levels of difficulty. This finding was consistent with the Flow theory (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975) PMID:23504652

  18. Sodium-reduction strategies for meals prepared for older adults.

    PubMed

    Losby, Jan L; Patel, Deesha; Schuldt, June; Hunt, Glynnis S; Stracuzzi, Jeanne C; Johnston, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This article describes lessons learned from implementing sodium-reduction strategies in programs that provide meals to older adults in 2 New York counties, with one county replicating the approaches of the other. The implemented sodium-reduction strategies were product substitutions, recipe modifications, and cooking from scratch. Both counties were able to achieve modest sodium reductions in prepared meals. Lessons learned to implement sodium reduction strategies include the following: (1) identifying partners with shared experience and common goals; (2) engaging experts; (3) understanding the complexity of the meals system for older adults; (4) conducting sodium nutrient analysis; (5) making gradual and voluntary reductions to sodium content; and (6) working toward sustainable sodium reduction. PMID:24322812

  19. Effects of a music therapy strategy on depressed older adults.

    PubMed

    Hanser, S B; Thompson, L W

    1994-11-01

    A music-facilitated psychoeducational strategy was developed as a cost-effective and accessible intervention for older adults experiencing symptoms of depression, distress, and anxiety. Thirty older adults who had been diagnosed with major or minor depressive disorder were randomly assigned to one of three 8-week conditions: (1) a home-based program where participants learned music listening stress reduction techniques at weekly home visits by a music therapist; (2) a self-administered program where participants applied these same techniques with moderate therapist intervention (a weekly telephone call); or (3) a wait list control. Participants in both music conditions performed significantly better than the controls on standardized tests of depression, distress, self-esteem, and mood. These improvements were clinically significant and maintained over a 9-month follow-up period. The potential for this type of intervention with homebound elders and others who have limited access to services is discussed. PMID:7963281

  20. Older adults place lower value on choice relative to young adults.

    PubMed

    Mikels, Joseph A; Reed, Andrew E; Simon, Kosali I

    2009-06-01

    Choice is highly valued in modern society, from the supermarket to the hospital; however, it remains unknown whether older and younger adults place the same value on increased choice. The current investigation tested whether 53 older (M age = 75.44 years) versus 53 younger adults (M age = 19.58 years) placed lower value on increased choice by examining the monetary amounts they were willing to pay for increased prescription drug coverage options--important given the recently implemented Medicare prescription drug program. Results indicate that older adults placed lower value on increasing choice sets relative to younger adults, who placed progressively higher value on increasingly larger choice sets. These results are discussed regarding their implications for theory and policy. PMID:19357074

  1. Older Adults Place Lower Value on Choice Relative to Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Andrew E.; Simon, Kosali I.

    2009-01-01

    Choice is highly valued in modern society, from the supermarket to the hospital; however, it remains unknown whether older and younger adults place the same value on increased choice. The current investigation tested whether 53 older (M age = 75.44 years) versus 53 younger adults (M age = 19.58 years) placed lower value on increased choice by examining the monetary amounts they were willing to pay for increased prescription drug coverage options—important given the recently implemented Medicare prescription drug program. Results indicate that older adults placed lower value on increasing choice sets relative to younger adults, who placed progressively higher value on increasingly larger choice sets. These results are discussed regarding their implications for theory and policy. PMID:19357074

  2. Management of community-acquired pneumonia in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Simonetti, Antonella F.; Viasus, Diego; Garcia-Vidal, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an increasing problem among the elderly. Multiple factors related to ageing, such as comorbidities, nutritional status and swallowing dysfunction have been implicated in the increased incidence of CAP in the older population. Moreover, mortality in patients with CAP rises dramatically with increasing age. Streptococcus pneumoniae is still the most common pathogen among the elderly, although CAP may also be caused by drug-resistant microorganisms and aspiration pneumonia. Furthermore, in the elderly CAP has a different clinical presentation, often lacking the typical acute symptoms observed in younger adults, due to the lower local and systemic inflammatory response. Several independent prognostic factors for mortality in the elderly have been identified, including factors related to pneumonia severity, inadequate response to infection, and low functional status. CAP scores and biomarkers have lower prognostic value in the elderly, and so there is a need to find new scales or to set new cut-off points for current scores in this population. Adherence to the current guidelines for CAP has a significant beneficial impact on clinical outcomes in elderly patients. Particular attention should also be paid to nutritional status, fluid administration, functional status, and comorbidity stabilizing therapy in this group of frail patients. This article presents an up-to-date review of the main aspects of CAP in elderly patients, including epidemiology, causative organisms, clinical features, and prognosis, and assesses key points for best practices for the management of the disease. PMID:25165554

  3. Factors associated with low adherence to medication in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Thumé, Elaine; Facchini, Luiz Augusto; de França, Giovanny Vinícius Araújo; Mengue, Sotero Serrate

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess factors associated with low adherence to pharmacotherapy in older adults. METHODS Cross-sectional population-based study, with a representative sample of 1,593 individuals aged 60 or older, living in the urban area of Bagé, RS, Southern Brazil, in 2008. A multiple stage sampling model was used. The data were collected through individual household interviews. The analyses of the association between low adherence regarding pharmacotherapy, measured using the Brief Medication Questionnaire (BMQ), and demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, health, assistance and prescription factors were carried out applying Poisson regression model to assess crude and adjusted prevalence ratios, their respective 95% confidence intervals and p-value (Wald test). RESULTS Around 78.0% of individuals reported have taken at least one medication in the seven days prior to the interview. Of these, approximately one third (28.7%) were considered to have low adherence to the treatment. The factors significantly associated to low adherence to treatment were: age (65 to 74 years old), not having health insurance, having to purchase (totally or partially) their own medicines, having three or more morbidities, having functional disabilities and using three or more medicines. CONCLUSIONS The increased use of medicines by older adults, because of the high prevalence of non-communicable diseases in this group, and the access to the treatment need to be considered by health care professionals regarding fostering adherence to treatment, which increases therapeutic solutions and quality of life among older people. PMID:24626547

  4. The Role of Shifting, Updating, and Inhibition in Prospective Memory Performance in Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnitzspahn, Katharina M.; Stahl, Christoph; Zeintl, Melanie; Kaller, Christoph P.; Kliegel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Prospective memory performance shows a decline in late adulthood. The present article examines the role of 3 main executive function facets (i.e., shifting, updating, and inhibition) as possible developmental mechanisms associated with these age effects. One hundred seventy-five young and 110 older adults performed a battery of cognitive tests…

  5. Waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors among rural older adults: gender differences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Overweight and obese patients present with a greater risk for CVD. The purpose of this study was to explore how weight status relates to cardiovascular risk factor in older adults in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (114 male, 158 female mean age 78. 5). Anthropometric and health data, along with a f...

  6. Gender Differences in Predictors of Mental Health among Older Adults in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Lee, Jungui

    2011-01-01

    As aging is occurring at a rate never before seen in South Korea, the present study examines the predictors of mental health in a nationally representative sample of older adults (n = 4,155), drawn from Wave I of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging. Findings show that sociodemographic factors, chronic health conditions, level of cognition, and…

  7. A Guide To Setting Up a Creative Art Experiences Program for Older Adults with Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlan, Jane E.

    This guide is intended to help agencies serving older adults with mental retardation and other developmental disabilities in setting up a relatively inexpensive creative art program. The first section presents a rationale for creative art experiences for this population and then provides specific information on program development, including…

  8. "Not" May Not Be Too Difficult: The Effects of Negation on Older Adults' Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolin, Sara J.; Abrams, Lise

    2009-01-01

    The present research investigated the effects of negation on young and older adults' comprehension of sentences. Participants read sentences, named probe words, answered comprehension questions, and completed the operation-span test. Negation adversely affected comprehension in both age groups such that probe word naming times were marginally…

  9. Long-Term Impact of Fit and Strong! On Older Adults with Osteoarthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Susan L.; Seymour, Rachel B.; Campbell, Richard T.; Huber, Gail; Pollak, Naomi; Sharma, Leena; Desai, Pankaja

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We present final outcomes from the multiple-component Fit and Strong! intervention for older adults with lower extremity osteoarthritis. Design and Methods: A randomized controlled trial compared the effects of this exercise and behavior-change program followed by home-based reinforcement (n = 115) with a wait list control (n = 100) at 2,…

  10. A Placebo-Controlled Test of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Insomnia in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybarczyk, Bruce; Stepanski, Edward; Fogg, Louis; Lopez, Martita; Barry, Paulette; Davis, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    The present study tested cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia in older adults with osteoarthritis, coronary artery disease, or pulmonary disease. Ninety-two participants (mean age = 69 years) were randomly assigned to classroom CBT or stress management and wellness (SMW) training, which served as a placebo condition. Compared with SMW,…

  11. Promoting Community Wellbeing: The Case for Lifelong Learning for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan B.; Kee, Youngwha

    2014-01-01

    Community wellbeing is a function of many factors working in concert to promote an optimal quality of life for all members of a community. It is argued here that the promotion of lifelong learning among older adults can significantly contribute to community wellbeing. The aging society is a worldwide phenomenon presenting both opportunities and…

  12. Hippocampal neurochemistry, neuromorphometry, and verbal memory in nondemented older adults

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, M.E.; Pan, J.W.; Hetherington, H.P.; Katz, M.J.; Verghese, J.; Buschke, H.; Derby, C.A.; Lipton, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Characterization of the behavioral correlates of neuromorphometry and neurochemistry in older adults has important implications for an improved understanding of the aging process. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that a measure of hippocampal neuronal metabolism was associated with verbal memory in nondemented older adults after controlling for hippocampal volume. Methods 4-T MRI, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS), and neuropsychological assessment were conducted in 48 older adults (23 women; mean age 81 years). Average hippocampal N-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratios (NAA/Cr) and hippocampal volumes were obtained. Neuropsychological evaluation included tests of verbal memory (Buschke and Grober Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test–Immediate Recall [FCSRT-IR], Wechsler Memory Scale–Revised Logical Memory subtest) and attention and executive function (Trail Making Test Parts A and B). Results Linear regression analysis indicated that after adjusting for age, hippocampal NAA/Cr was a significant predictor of FCSRT-IR performance (? = 0.38, p = 0.01, R 2 = 0.21). Hippocampal volume was also a significant predictor of FCSRT-IR performance after adjusting for age and midsagittal area (? = 0.47, p = 0.01, R 2 = 0.24). In a combined model, hippocampal NAA/Cr (? = 0.33, p = 0.03) and volume (? = 0.35, p = 0.03) were independent predictors of FCSRT-IR performance, accounting for 30% of the variance in memory. Conclusions These findings indicate that nondemented older adults with smaller hippocampal volumes and lower levels of hippocampal N-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratio metabolites perform more poorly on a test of verbal memory. The integrity of both the structure and metabolism of the hippocampus may underlie verbal memory function in nondemented elderly. PMID:18367703

  13. Epidemiology and Public Health Concerns of CKD in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Fung, Enrica; Kurella Tamura, Manjula

    2016-01-01

    CKD is increasingly common in older adults. Estimating the glomerular filtration rate can be challenging in this population, with sarcopenia affecting the accuracy of various formulae. Competing risks of death influence the risk of progression to end-stage kidney disease. In managing CKD in this population, one must take into consideration other comorbidities including assessment of geriatric syndromes. More research is still needed to guide medical management in this heterogeneous population. PMID:26709057

  14. Anemia and risk of dementia in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Chang Hyung; Falvey, Cherie; Harris, Tamara B.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Ferrucci, Luigi; Metti, Andrea L.; Patel, Kushang V.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether anemia is associated with incident dementia in older adults. Methods: We studied 2,552 older adults (mean age 76.1 years; 38.9% black; 51.8% female) participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study and free of dementia at baseline. We defined anemia using WHO criteria (hemoglobin concentration <13 g/dL for men and <12 g/dL for women). Dementia diagnosis was determined by dementia medication use, hospital records, or a change in Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) score of more than 1.5 SD from mean. Discrete time Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to examine the hazard for developing dementia associated with anemia. Results: Of 2,552 participants, 392 (15.4%) older adults had anemia at baseline. Over 11 years of follow-up, 455 (17.8%) participants developed dementia. In the unadjusted model, those with baseline anemia had an increased risk of dementia (23% vs 17%, hazard ratio = 1.64; 95% confidence interval 1.30, 2.07) compared to those without anemia. The association remained significant after adjusting for demographics, APOE ?4, baseline 3MS score, comorbidities, and renal function. Additional adjustment for other anemia measures (mean corpuscular volume, red cell distribution width), erythropoietin, and C-reactive protein did not appreciably change the results. There was no interaction by sex and race on risk of developing dementia. Conclusion: Among older adults, anemia is associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. Findings suggest that further study of anemia as a risk factor for dementia and a target for intervention for cognitive health is warranted. PMID:23902706

  15. Negative Social Interactions and Incident Hypertension Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sneed, Rodlescia S.; Cohen, Sheldon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if negative social interactions are prospectively associated with hypertension among older adults. Methods This is a secondary analysis of data from the 2006 and 2010 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, a survey of community-dwelling older adults (age >50). Total average negative social interactions were assessed at baseline by averaging the frequency of negative interactions across four domains (partner, children, other family, friends). Blood pressure was measured at both waves. Individuals were considered to have hypertension if they reported use of antihypertensive medications, had measured average resting systolic blood pressure ? 140 mmHg, or measured average resting diastolic blood pressure ?90 mmHg. Analyses excluded those hypertensive at baseline and controlled for demographics, personality, positive social interactions, and baseline health. Results Twenty-nine percent of participants developed hypertension over the four-year follow-up. Each one-unit increase in the total average negative social interaction score was associated with a 38% increased odds of developing hypertension. Sex moderated the association between total average negative social interactions and hypertension, with effects observed among women but not men. The association of total average negative interactions and hypertension in women was attributable primarily to interactions with friends, but also to negative interactions with family and partners. Age also moderated the association between total average negative social interactions and hypertension, with effects observed among those ages 51–64, but not those ages ?65. Conclusion In this sample of older adults, negative social interactions were associated with increased hypertension risk in women and the youngest older adults. PMID:24884909

  16. Mall walking. An effective mental health intervention for older adults.

    PubMed

    Travis, S S; Duncan, H H; McAuley, W J

    1996-08-01

    1. Traditional goals of health promotion and disease prevention are actually secondary factors in many walkers' motivations for mall-walking activity. 2. The routine of mall walking and the social relationships they form keep older adults going back to the mall. 3. Successful mall-walking program directors are beginning to understand the need to emphasize the social benefits of participating in a mall-walking group as much, if not more than, the health benefits of regular exercise. PMID:8856603

  17. Management of Type 1 Diabetes in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dhaliwal, Ruban; Weinstock, Ruth S.

    2014-01-01

    In Brief Older adults with type 1 diabetes are at high risk for severe hypoglycemia and may have serious comorbid conditions. Problems with cognition, mobility, dexterity, vision, hearing, depression, and chronic pain interfere with the ability to follow complex insulin regimens. With the development of geriatric syndromes, unpredictable eating, and frailty, treatment regimens must be modified with the goal of minimizing hypoglycemia and severe hyperglycemia and maximizing quality of life. PMID:26246751

  18. Correlates of Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults with Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jones, LaRita C; Clay, Olivio J; Ovalle, Fernando; Cherrington, Andrea; Crowe, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Investigators examined correlates of depressive symptoms within a sample of older adults with diabetes. Participants completed a structured telephone interview with measures including depressive symptoms, health conditions, cognitive function, and diabetes distress. Correlations and hierarchical linear regression models were utilized to examine bivariate and covariate-adjusted correlates of depressive symptoms. The sample included 246 community-dwelling adults with diabetes (?65 years old). In bivariate analyses, African Americans, individuals with specific health issues (neuropathy, stroke, respiratory issues, arthritis, and cardiac issues), and those with higher levels of diabetes distress reported more depressive symptoms. Older age, higher education, more income, and better cognitive function were inversely associated with depressive symptoms. In the final covariate-adjusted regression model, stroke (B = .22, p < .001), cognitive function (B = -.14, p < .01), and higher levels of diabetes-related distress (B = .49, p < .001) each were uniquely associated with more depressive symptoms. Diabetes distress partially mediated the associations between cardiac issues and depressive symptoms and between cognitive function and depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that interventions targeted at helping older adults manage their diabetes-related distress and reducing the likelihood of experiencing additional health complications may reduce depressive symptoms within this population. PMID:26682235

  19. Autonomous Unobtrusive Detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Taati, Babak; Mihailidis, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The current diagnosis process of dementia is resulting in a high-percentage of cases with delayed detection. To address this problem, in this paper we explore the feasibility of autonomously detecting mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in the older adult population. We implement a signal processing approach equipped with a machine learning paradigm to process and analyze real world data acquired using home-based unobtrusive sensing technologies. Using the sensor and clinical data pertaining to 97 subjects, acquired over an average period of 3 years, a number of measures associated with the subjects' walking speeds and general activity in the home were calculated. Different time spans of these measures were used to generate feature vectors to train and test two machine learning algorithms namely support vector machines and random forests. We were able to autonomously detect MCI in older adults with an area under the ROC curve of 0.97 and an area under the precision-recall curve of 0.93 using a time window of 24 weeks. This work is of great significance since it can potentially assist in the early detection of cognitive impairment in older adults. PMID:25585407

  20. New perspectives for motivating better decisions in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Strough, JoNell; de Bruin, Wändi Bruine; Peters, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making competence in later adulthood is affected by declines in cognitive skills, and age-related changes in affect and experience can sometimes compensate. However, recent findings suggest that age-related changes in motivation also affect the extent to which adults draw from experience, affect, and deliberative skills when making decisions. To date, relatively little attention has been given to strategies for addressing age-related changes in motivation to promote better decisions in older adults. To address this limitation, we draw from diverse literatures to suggest promising intervention strategies for motivating older recipients’ motivation to make better decisions. We start by reviewing the life-span developmental literature, which suggests that older adults’ motivation to put effort into decisions depends on the perceived personal relevance of decisions as well as their self-efficacy (i.e., confidence in applying their ability and knowledge). Next, we discuss two approaches from the health intervention design literature, the mental models approach and the patient activation approach, which aim to improve motivation for decision making by improving personal relevance or by building self-efficacy or confidence to use new information and skills. Using examples from these literatures, we discuss how to construct interventions to motivate good decisions in later adulthood. PMID:26157398

  1. Findings on Advance Care Plans among Cognitively Impaired Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Jeznach, Anna; Tuokko, Holly Anna; Garcia-Barrera, Mauricio A; Stajduhar, Kelli

    2015-06-01

    Cognitively impaired and cognitively intact older adults seemingly differ regarding engagement in aspects of advance care plans (ACPs). Through informant reports in the Canadian Study on Health and Aging, we examined differences between deceased cognitively impaired and intact older adults in components of ACPs: (1) discussions/arrangements for end-of-life care; (2) creation of legal documents; and in ACP outcomes, (3) location of death; and (4) dying in accordance with wishes. Cognitively impaired older adults were more likely to have made arrangements for a substitute decision-maker (OR = 1.90) and to have created legal documents (OR = 2.64 for health care preferences, OR = 2.00 for naming a decision-maker). They were less likely to have discussed preferences for end-of-life care (OR = 0.62). These findings suggest that ACPs differ for cognitively impaired persons, indicating a need for further investigation. This is a step towards understanding this complex process in a particularly vulnerable population. PMID:25727566

  2. Dimensions of self-rated health in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Borim, Flávia Silva Arbex; Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Francisco, Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between negative self-rated health and indicators of health, wellbeing and sociodemographic variables in older adults. METHODS Cross-sectional study that used data from a population-based health survey with a probability cluster sample that was carried out in Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil,, in 2008 and 2009. The participants were older adults (? 60 years) and the dependent variable was self-rated health, categorized as: excellent, very good, good, bad and very bad. The adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated by means of Poisson multiple regression. RESULTS The highest prevalences of bad/very bad self-rated health were observed in the individuals who never attended school, in those with lower level of schooling, with monthly per capita family income lower than one minimum salary. Individuals who scored five or more in the physical health indicator also had bad self-rated health, as well as those who scored five or more in the Self-Reporting Questionnaire 20 and those who did not refer feeling happiness all the time. CONCLUSIONS The independent effects of material life conditions, physical and mental health and subjective wellbeing, observed in self-rated health, suggest that older adults can benefit by health policies supported by a global and integrative view of old age. PMID:25372161

  3. Relationship between perceptual learning in speech and statistical learning in younger and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Neger, Thordis M.; Rietveld, Toni; Janse, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Within a few sentences, listeners learn to understand severely degraded speech such as noise-vocoded speech. However, individuals vary in the amount of such perceptual learning and it is unclear what underlies these differences. The present study investigates whether perceptual learning in speech relates to statistical learning, as sensitivity to probabilistic information may aid identification of relevant cues in novel speech input. If statistical learning and perceptual learning (partly) draw on the same general mechanisms, then statistical learning in a non-auditory modality using non-linguistic sequences should predict adaptation to degraded speech. In the present study, 73 older adults (aged over 60 years) and 60 younger adults (aged between 18 and 30 years) performed a visual artificial grammar learning task and were presented with 60 meaningful noise-vocoded sentences in an auditory recall task. Within age groups, sentence recognition performance over exposure was analyzed as a function of statistical learning performance, and other variables that may predict learning (i.e., hearing, vocabulary, attention switching control, working memory, and processing speed). Younger and older adults showed similar amounts of perceptual learning, but only younger adults showed significant statistical learning. In older adults, improvement in understanding noise-vocoded speech was constrained by age. In younger adults, amount of adaptation was associated with lexical knowledge and with statistical learning ability. Thus, individual differences in general cognitive abilities explain listeners' variability in adapting to noise-vocoded speech. Results suggest that perceptual and statistical learning share mechanisms of implicit regularity detection, but that the ability to detect statistical regularities is impaired in older adults if visual sequences are presented quickly. PMID:25225475

  4. Catatonia in Older Adult Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    White, Megan; Maxwell, Edward; Milteer, Warren E.; de Leon, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Catatonia has been described in children with intellectual disabilities (IDs). These are the first three published cases of catatonia in adults older than 50 years of age with IDs. They were followed using the KANNER scale and, in one case, creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) monitoring. Case 1 is a 67-year-old Caucasian who probably had been having intermittent episodes of undiagnosed catatonia withdrawal for many years. His episodes of agitation and withdrawal behavior responded to lorazepam up to 8?mg/day. Case 2 is a 63-year-old Caucasian male who had probably had undiagnosed catatonic episodes since age 25. An agitation episode that rated 88 on Part 2 of the KANNER scale ended within minutes after he received 1?mg of intramuscular lorazepam. He had no symptom relapses for 4 years after getting stable oral lorazepam doses (3–8.5?mg/day). Case 3 is a 55-year-old African-American male with severe ID and bradycardia (with a pacemaker). He had been “institutionalized” since age 22 and his undiagnosed catatonic episodes appeared to have been intermittently present for at least the last ten years. As he became tolerant and experienced symptom relapse, oral lorazepam was slowly increased (1.5–18?mg/day). Electroconvulsive therapy was ruled out due to his pacemaker. PMID:26495148

  5. An evaluation of alertness training for older adults

    PubMed Central

    Milewski-Lopez, Agnieszka; Greco, Eleonora; van den Berg, Flip; McAvinue, Laura P.; McGuire, Sarah; Robertson, Ian H.

    2014-01-01

    We present an evaluation of a self-administered, biofeedback-aided, alertness training programme called the Alertness: Training for Focused Living (ATFL) Programme, which was developed as part of the Technology Research for Independent Living (TRIL) collaboration. We conducted two studies in order to evaluate the programme. A randomized controlled trial was, first of all, conducted with 40 older adults aged between 60 and 83. A series of five single case studies was then conducted to examine the suitability of the programme for use with people with more severe memory difficulties. In the randomized controlled trial, participants were assigned to the ATFL Programme or to a placebo programme. Aspects of participants' memory, attention and executive functioning were assessed via telephone prior to and following completion of the training programmes and at 1, 3, and 6-month follow-up sessions. Significant improvements in sustained attention and verbal fluency were noted in the ATFL group. The series of single case studies illustrated the importance of tailoring a programme to the needs and abilities of the clients in question. The potential benefits of the ATFL programme in terms of periodically boosting alertness and aiding executive functioning are discussed. PMID:24782764

  6. Catatonia in Older Adult Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities.

    PubMed

    White, Megan; Maxwell, Edward; Milteer, Warren E; de Leon, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Catatonia has been described in children with intellectual disabilities (IDs). These are the first three published cases of catatonia in adults older than 50 years of age with IDs. They were followed using the KANNER scale and, in one case, creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) monitoring. Case 1 is a 67-year-old Caucasian who probably had been having intermittent episodes of undiagnosed catatonia withdrawal for many years. His episodes of agitation and withdrawal behavior responded to lorazepam up to 8?mg/day. Case 2 is a 63-year-old Caucasian male who had probably had undiagnosed catatonic episodes since age 25. An agitation episode that rated 88 on Part 2 of the KANNER scale ended within minutes after he received 1?mg of intramuscular lorazepam. He had no symptom relapses for 4 years after getting stable oral lorazepam doses (3-8.5?mg/day). Case 3 is a 55-year-old African-American male with severe ID and bradycardia (with a pacemaker). He had been "institutionalized" since age 22 and his undiagnosed catatonic episodes appeared to have been intermittently present for at least the last ten years. As he became tolerant and experienced symptom relapse, oral lorazepam was slowly increased (1.5-18?mg/day). Electroconvulsive therapy was ruled out due to his pacemaker. PMID:26495148

  7. Home-Delivered Meals and Nutrition Status Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Sahyoun, Nadine R; Vaudin, Anna

    2014-06-01

    The trend among older adults in the United States is to "age in place" instead of opting for institutionalization. To maintain older adults with chronic conditions in their homes and to improve health after hospitalization, comprehensive social, health, and nutrition services are essential. Quality of dietary intake is crucial and yet often underestimated. Calorie needs decrease with age while nutrient needs remain the same, even increasing for some nutrients. This poses difficulties for individuals with functional disabilities who are unable to shop and cook due to physical or mental limitations or on a limited budget. The Older American Act home-delivered meal (HDM) program offers at least 1 healthy meal per day, 5 or more days per week, and targets individuals homebound due to illness, disability, or social isolation and those with greatest economic or social need. This review summarizes the available literature on the relationship between HDM and health outcomes. The HDM program is difficult to evaluate because of the multifactorial effect on health status. However, national surveys and smaller studies show that it is well targeted, efficient, and well liked; provides quality food to needy individuals; and helps individuals remain living independently. Studies show that HDMs improve dietary intake, with greater health benefits when more meals reach the neediest individuals. HDMs also decrease institutionalization of older adults and resulting healthcare expenditures. However, funding has not kept up with increased demand for this program. More studies with improved designs may provide more information supporting the program's impact on nutrition status and decreased health expenditures. PMID:25030738

  8. Hospitalization of older adults due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Aline Pinto; Montilla, Dalia Elena Romero; de Almeida, Wanessa da Silva; de Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the temporal evolution of the hospitalization of older adults due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions according to their structure, magnitude and causes. METHODS Cross-sectional study based on data from the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified Health System and from the Primary Care Information System, referring to people aged 60 to 74 years living in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Souhteastern Brazil. The proportion and rate of hospitalizations due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions were calculated, both the global rate and, according to diagnoses, the most prevalent ones. The coverage of the Family Health Strategy and the number of medical consultations attended by older adults in primary care were estimated. To analyze the indicators’ impact on hospitalizations, a linear correlation test was used. RESULTS We found an intense reduction in hospitalizations due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions for all causes and age groups. Heart failure, cerebrovascular diseases and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases concentrated 50.0% of the hospitalizations. Adults older than 69 years had a higher risk of hospitalization due to one of these causes. We observed a higher risk of hospitalization among men. A negative correlation was found between the hospitalizations and the indicators of access to primary care. CONCLUSIONS Primary healthcare in the state of Rio de Janeiro has been significantly impacting the hospital morbidity of the older population. Studies of hospitalizations due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions can aid the identification of the main causes that are sensitive to the intervention of the health services, in order to indicate which actions are more effective to reduce hospitalizations and to increase the population’s quality of life. PMID:25372173

  9. Economic determinants of diet in older adults: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Maguire, Eva R; Monsivais, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Many economic factors are associated with diet, yet the evidence is generally cross-sectional. Older people are considered especially vulnerable to poor diets from negative changes to varied economic factors. This review extends current knowledge on known correlates to decipher actual economic determinants of diet in older adults. Methods Eight bibliometric databases were searched between May and December 2012, supplemented by hand-searches, with no restrictions on publication date or country. Longitudinal studies, or reviews, were eligible when examining diet as a function of change in an economic factor in non-institutionalised adults ?60?years. Data were extracted using a standardised evidence table and quality assessed before narrative synthesis. Results We found nine original studies for inclusion, of which eight examined change from work to retirement and one evaluated a food price intervention. Designs were generally pre-post without controls and varying in follow-up. Studies reported mixed impact on food spending and/or food intake. Retirement was shown to both reduce and have no impact on food spending and to have either positive and negative, or positive and no impact on food intake. Subgroup differences were observed, especially between men and women. Conclusions Despite ample research on economic correlates of older adults' diets, little is still known about actual economic determinants of diet in this population. Studies of retirement suggest divergent effects in some but not all older people. Robust high-quality longitudinal studies to decipher economic drivers of diet must be prioritised in research and policy as firm conclusions remain elusive. PMID:23761410

  10. Association of leukocyte telomere length with fatigue in nondisabled older adults.

    PubMed

    Bendix, Laila; Thinggaard, Mikael; Kimura, Masayuki; Aviv, Abraham; Christensen, Kaare; Osler, Merete; Avlund, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Fatigue is often present in older adults with no identified underlying cause. The accruing burden of oxidative stress and inflammation might be underlying factors of fatigue. We therefore hypothesized that leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is relatively short in older adults who experience fatigue. Materials and Methods. We assessed 439 older nondisabled Danish twins. LTL was measured using Southern blots of terminal restriction fragments. Fatigue was measured by the Mob-T Scale based on questions on whether the respondents felt fatigued after performing six mobility items. Results. LTL was significantly associated with fatigue (P = 0.023), showing an increase of 0.038?kb/fatigue score unit. Aging-related diseases and mental health did not explain the association, while lifestyle factors slightly attenuated the estimates. Conclusion. Our results support an association between LTL and fatigue. Further studies are required to confirm this finding and the link of LTL with oxidative stress/inflammation over the life course. PMID:24693429

  11. Transfer of computer-based training to simulated driving in older adults.

    PubMed

    Cassavaugh, Nicholas D; Kramer, Arthur F

    2009-09-01

    As the population of many industrialized countries ages, the number of older drivers on the roads increases. Statistics show that older drivers are at increased risk for involvement in fatal accidents. One explanation for this is the cognitive and motor declines associated with the aging process. As we age, performance on attention, memory and motor control tasks, three important components of driving, declines. In the present study we examined the relationship between performance on component cognitive tasks and the influence of training on these tasks on the simulated driving performance of older adults. More specifically, we assessed performance on and trained older adults on single and dual tasks of attention, working memory and manual control. Regression analyses demonstrated that performance on the single and dual cognitive tasks and improvements in these computer-based tasks with training were predictive of improvements in driving simulator performance across the course of the study. These data suggest that relatively simple single and dual computer-based tasks and modest amounts of training on these tasks can improve driving performance in older adults, thereby extending functional independence. PMID:19268912

  12. Evidence for the acquisition of dual-task coordination skills in older adults.

    PubMed

    Strobach, Tilo; Frensch, Peter; Müller, Hermann; Schubert, Torsten

    2015-09-01

    Practicing two simultaneously presented tasks in dual-task situations results in improved dual-task performance, in both younger and older adults. Recent findings with younger adults demonstrated that this improvement is attributable in part to improved task coordination skills acquired through practice. However, it is unclear whether practice also improves older adults' skills at dual-task coordination. To clarify this, the present study examined the acquisition of task coordination skills, reflecting one specific mechanism of practice-dependent improvement in dual-task performance for this particular age group. This examination was based on two assumptions, namely, that (1) these skills are acquired during practice of the tasks presented simultaneously (dual-task situations), but not during the separate practice of the two tasks (single-task situations), and (2), rather than being dependent on the specific properties of practiced tasks, these skills are transferable to new dual-task situations. In the context of dual-task situations with well-structured reaction-time tasks, the results indeed revealed improved dual-task performance following dual-task practice, as compared to single-task practice, in both the practiced dual-task and new dual-task (transfer) situations. These findings are consistent with the notion that, similar to younger adults, acquired task coordination skills represent one practice-related mechanism that contributes to improved dual-task performance in the age group of older adults. PMID:26231939

  13. Screening hospitalized injured older adults for cognitive impairment and pre-injury functional impairment.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Cathy A

    2013-08-01

    Cognitive and functional impairments are leading predictors of poor outcomes among older adults, yet few hospitals collect these variables for injured older adults (IOAs). In this prospective descriptive study, we sought to determine the feasibility of screening IOAs for cognitive and pre-injury functional impairment; and to examine the prevalence of impairment at two acute care hospitals, using the Mini-Cog or Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCDE), and Vulnerable Elder Survey (VES-13). Eighty patients were screened. Demographics included: mean age 78.7; female gender 83%; falls 89%. Cognitive impairment was present in 36 (44%) patients, and pre-injury functional impairment was present in 62 (78%) patients. Screening respondents included: patients: 53 (66%); adult children: 18 (23%); spouses: 5 (6%), and other 4 (5%). A combination of brief screening instruments for use with IOAs or surrogates is useful for capturing important variables for risk adjustment and care management. PMID:23639524

  14. Home Remedy Use Among African American and White Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Home remedy use is an often overlooked component of health self-management, with a rich tradition, particularly among African Americans and others who have experienced limited access to medical care or discrimination by the health care system. Home remedies can potentially interfere with biomedical treatments. This study documented the use of home remedies among older rural adults, and compared use by ethnicity (African American and white) and gender. A purposeful sample of 62 community-dwelling adults ages 65+ from rural North Carolina was selected. Each completed an in-depth interview, which probed current use of home remedies, including food and non-food remedies, and the symptoms or conditions for use. Systematic, computer-assisted analysis was used to identify usage patterns. Five food and five non-food remedies were used by a large proportion of older adults. African American elders reported greater use than white elders; women reported more use for a greater number of symptoms than men. Non-food remedies included long-available, over-the-counter remedies (e.g., Epsom salts) for which “off-label” uses were reported. Use focused on alleviating common digestive, respiratory, skin, and musculoskeletal symptoms. Some were used for chronic conditions in lieu of prescription medications. Home remedy use continues to be a common feature of the health self-management of older adults, particularly among African Americans, though at lower levels than previously reported. While some use is likely helpful or benign, other use has the potential to interfere with medical management of disease. Health care providers should be aware of the use of remedies by their patients. PMID:26543255

  15. Comprehension of Internet-based numeric cancer information by older adults.

    PubMed

    Donelle, Lorie; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Gatobu, Sospeter; Arocha, Jose F

    2009-12-01

    Competency in health numeracy is essential in understanding risk about disease susceptibility and the consequences of disease treatment. Both health literacy and skill in using the Internet to obtain health information are lower among older compared with younger adults. Presentation format of health information has been shown to influence comprehension. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of information formatting (text and graphic) on older adults' comprehension of Internet-based numeric cancer risk information. This cross-sectional study involved a convenience sample of adults, aged 50 years and older from diverse ethnic and educational backgrounds. Cancer risk information, obtained from a Canadian Cancer Society web page, was presented as text, graphics or as a combination of text and graphics formats. Comprehension of the information was assessed by six questions focused on basic numeracy skill and ability to perform simple calculations and operations. A three-item general context numeracy and an eight-item health context numeracy instrument were used to describe health numeracy skills of participants. The six-item Newest Vital Sign (NVS) test was used to assess prose and numeric health literacy. There was no statistically significant effect of presentation format on participants' comprehension of the cancer information. Participants' comprehension of basic health numeracy information was positively correlated with education (p < or = 0.05) and income (p < or = 0.01) whereas comprehension of information that assessed calculation and operations numeracy skill was positively correlated only with income (p < or = 0.05). Health literacy skill and income explained a significant proportion of the variance in overall comprehension of Internet-based cancer risk information (R(2) = 0.414, p < or = 0.01) in this sample of older adults. Format of numeric risk information was not a significant factor in the comprehension of cancer risk information in this group of ethnically diverse, older adults. However, comprehension of the information was related to health literacy skill and income. PMID:19919298

  16. White matter predictors of cognitive functioning in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Irene B.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Provenzano, Frank A.; Louie, Karmen S.; Wasserman, Ben T.; Griffith, Erica Y.; Hector, Josina T.; Allocco, Elizabeth; Brickman, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have applied multiple imaging modalities to examine cognitive correlates of white matter. We examined the utility of T2-weighted MRI-derived white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and diffusion tensor imaging-derived fractional anisotropy (FA) to predict cognitive functioning among older adults. Methods Quantitative MRI and neuropsychological evaluations were performed in 112 older participants from an ongoing study of the genetics of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in African Americans. Regional WMH volumes and FA were measured in multiple regions of interest. We examined the association of regional WMH and an FA summary score with cognitive test performance. Differences in WMH and FA were compared across diagnostic groups (i.e., normal controls, mild cognitive impairment, and probable AD). Results Increased WMH volume in frontal lobes was associated with poorer delayed memory performance. FA did not emerge as a significant predictor of cognition. White matter hyperintensity volume in the frontal and parietal lobes was increased in MCI participants and more so in AD patients relative to controls. Discussion These results highlight the importance of regionally-distributed small vessel cerebrovascular disease in memory performance and AD among African American older adults. White matter microstructural changes, quantified with DTI, appear to play a lesser role in our sample. PMID:22390883

  17. ANXIETY AND ITS CORRELATES AMONG OLDER ADULTS ACCESSING AGING SERVICES

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Thomas M.; Simning, Adam; He, Hua; Conwell, Yeates

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess the characteristics of anxiety in aging services network (ASN) clients. Methods Interviews were conducted as part of an academic-community partnership for studying the mental health needs of community-dwelling older adults. Participants consisted of ASN clients in Monroe County, NY, that were aged 60 years and older and received an in-home assessment for care management services. The Goldberg Anxiety Scale screened for anxiety symptoms, and instruments covering the domains of associated mental health, physical health and disability, social support, negative life events, and other areas relevant to delivery of aging services were administered. Results Of 378 subjects enrolled, 27% had clinically significant levels of anxiety. In bivariate analyses anxiety was associated with having a current major depressive episode (MDE), five or more medical conditions, pain, younger age, less income, and negative life events. After controlling for MDE in multivariate analyses, medical conditions, pain, negative life events, and younger age were significant correlates of anxiety in ASN clients. Conclusions Anxiety was common among ASN clients who received in-home care management services. These anxious clients suffered from a combination of mental, medical, and social issues that suggests the need for multidisciplinary care. Because aging services providers work with their clients to ameliorate conditions that are highly correlated with anxiety, the ASN represents a promising venue for detecting, managing, and preventing anxiety among older adults. PMID:20066684

  18. Virtual Visits in Home Health Care for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Husebø, Anne Marie Lunde

    2014-01-01

    Background. This review identifies the content of virtual visits in community nursing services to older adults and explores the manner in which service users and the nurses use virtual visits. Design. An integrative literature review. Method. Data collection comprised a literature search in three databases: Cinahl, Medline, and PubMed. In addition, a manual search of reference lists and expert consultation were performed. A total of 12 articles met the inclusion criteria. The articles were reviewed in terms of study characteristics, service content and utilization, and patient and health care provider experience. Results. Our review shows that in most studies the service is delivered on a daily basis and in combination with in-person visits. The findings suggest that older home-dwelling patients can benefit from virtual visits in terms of enhanced social inclusion and medication compliance. Service users and their nurses found virtual visits satisfactory and suitable for care delivery in home care to the elderly. Evidence for cost-saving benefits of virtual visits was not found. Conclusions. The findings can inform the planning of virtual visits in home health care as a complementary service to in-person visits, in order to meet the increasingly complex needs of older adults living at home. PMID:25506616

  19. Amphetamine modulates brain signal variability and working memory in younger and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Douglas D.; Nagel, Irene E.; Preuschhof, Claudia; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Marchner, Janina; Wiegert, Steffen; Jungehülsing, Gerhard J.; Nyberg, Lars; Villringer, Arno; Li, Shu-Chen; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Bäckman, Lars; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2015-01-01

    Better-performing younger adults typically express greater brain signal variability relative to older, poorer performers. Mechanisms for age and performance-graded differences in brain dynamics have, however, not yet been uncovered. Given the age-related decline of the dopamine (DA) system in normal cognitive aging, DA neuromodulation is one plausible mechanism. Hence, agents that boost systemic DA [such as d-amphetamine (AMPH)] may help to restore deficient signal variability levels. Furthermore, despite the standard practice of counterbalancing drug session order (AMPH first vs. placebo first), it remains understudied how AMPH may interact with practice effects, possibly influencing whether DA up-regulation is functional. We examined the effects of AMPH on functional-MRI–based blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal variability (SDBOLD) in younger and older adults during a working memory task (letter n-back). Older adults expressed lower brain signal variability at placebo, but met or exceeded young adult SDBOLD levels in the presence of AMPH. Drug session order greatly moderated change–change relations between AMPH-driven SDBOLD and reaction time means (RTmean) and SDs (RTSD). Older adults who received AMPH in the first session tended to improve in RTmean and RTSD when SDBOLD was boosted on AMPH, whereas younger and older adults who received AMPH in the second session showed either a performance improvement when SDBOLD decreased (for RTmean) or no effect at all (for RTSD). The present findings support the hypothesis that age differences in brain signal variability reflect aging-induced changes in dopaminergic neuromodulation. The observed interactions among AMPH, age, and session order highlight the state- and practice-dependent neurochemical basis of human brain dynamics. PMID:26034283

  20. The Social Outcomes of Older Adult Learning in Taiwan: Evaluation Framework and Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Hui

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the social outcomes of older adult learning in Taiwan. In light of our society's aging population structure, the task of establishing evaluation framework and indicators for the social outcomes of learning (SOL) as applied to older adults is urgent. In order to construct evaluation indicators for older

  1. Wheelchair Use among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Prevalence and Risk Factors in a National Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Philippa; Colantonio, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Older adults are the largest group of wheelchair users yet there are no peer-reviewed studies on the national profile of older wheelchair users in Canada. We investigated the characteristics of wheelchair users in a national sample of community-dwelling older adults from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA-2). Questions on the use of…

  2. Positive Side Effects of a Job-Related Training Program for Older Adults in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Minhong; Choi, Jae-Sung

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate empirically positive side effects of a job-related training program on older adults' self-esteem, depression, and social networks. A total of 70 older adults participated in the study after completing the Older Paraprofessional Training Program developed and provided by the Continuing Education…

  3. Concepts and Causation of Depression: A Cross-Cultural Study of the Beliefs of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Vanessa; Murray, Joanna; Banerjee, Sube; Turner, Sara; Sangha, Kuljeet; Byng, Richard; Bhurgra, Dinesh; Huxley, Peter; Tylee, Andre; Macdonald, Alastair

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This U.K. study explored how older adults with depression (treated and untreated) and the general older population conceptualize depression. A multicultural approach was used that incorporated the perspectives of Black Caribbean, South Asian, and White British older adults. The study sought to explore and compare beliefs about the nature…

  4. Social Relationships, Leisure Activity, and Health in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Po-Ju; Wray, Linda; Lin, Yeqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although the link between enhanced social relationships and better health has generally been well established, few studies have examined the role of leisure activity in this link. This study examined how leisure influences the link between social relationships and health in older age. Methods Using data from the 2006 and 2010 waves of the nationally representative U.S. Health and Retirement Study and structural equation modelling analyses, we examined data on 2,965 older participants to determine if leisure activities mediated the link between social relationships and health in 2010, controlling for race, education level, and health in 2006. Results The results demonstrated that leisure activities mediate the link between social relationships and health in these age groups. Perceptions of positive social relationships were associated with greater involvement in leisure activities, and greater involvement in leisure activities was associated with better health in older age. Discussion & Conclusions The contribution of leisure to health in these age groups is receiving increasing attention, and the results of this study add to the literature on this topic, by identifying the mediating effect of leisure activity on the link between social relationships and health. Future studies aimed at increasing leisure activity may contribute to improved health outcomes in older adults. PMID:24884905

  5. Visually guided targeting enhances bilateral force variability in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Kenway, Leanne C; Bisset, Leanne M; Kavanagh, Justin J

    2016-01-01

    This study observed the effect of visual feedback on between-limb force variability relationships in young and older adults. Abduction force was examined in healthy young (n = 15, 25 ± 4 years) and older adults (n = 18, 71 ± 6 years) during simultaneous isometric contractions of both index fingers. Target forces ranged from 5% to 30% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), where force variability and first dorsal interosseus activity were measured while (1) subjects viewed visual targets for both index fingers, (2) a visual target was provided for the dominant index finger only, and (3) visual targets were removed for both index fingers during bilateral isometric contractions. When subjects were provided with bilateral visual feedback during simultaneous contractions at low forces (5% and 10% MVC), older adults produced greater force variability than younger subjects (p = 0.002). However, when bilateral visual feedback was removed, age-related differences in variability were no longer present. Between-limb force variability differences existed at higher force outputs (20% and 30% MVC) when visual feedback was removed for the nondominant limb during bilateral isometric index finger abduction (p = 0.002). The control of bilateral force variability is compromised in older adults when visuomotor processes are engaged. However, age-related differences in force variability are abolished when no task-related visual feedback is available, and isometric contractions are based on internally guided feedback. PMID:26521134

  6. American Geriatrics Society 2015 Updated Beers Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    The 2015 American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Beers Criteria are presented. Like the 2012 AGS Beers Criteria, they include lists of potentially inappropriate medications to be avoided in older adults. New to the criteria are lists of select drugs that should be avoided or have their dose adjusted based on the individual's kidney function and select drug-drug interactions documented to be associated with harms in older adults. The specific aim was to have a 13-member interdisciplinary panel of experts in geriatric care and pharmacotherapy update the 2012 AGS Beers Criteria using a modified Delphi method to systematically review and grade the evidence and reach a consensus on each existing and new criterion. The process followed an evidence-based approach using Institute of Medicine standards. The 2015 AGS Beers Criteria are applicable to all older adults with the exclusion of those in palliative and hospice care. Careful application of the criteria by health professionals, consumers, payors, and health systems should lead to closer monitoring of drug use in older adults. PMID:26446832

  7. Cohort comparisons: emotional well-being among adolescents and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Ibrahim, Rahimah

    2014-01-01

    Background There are several negative stereotypes about older adults that have negatively influenced people’s attitude about aging. The present study compared emotional well-being between older adults and adolescents. Methods Data for this study came from 1,403 community-dwelling elderly persons and 1,190 secondary school students and were obtained from two national cross-sectional surveys. Emotional well-being was measured using the World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index. Data analysis was conducted using a multivariate analysis of covariance with SPSS software version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). Results Elderly people significantly scored higher levels of emotional well-being (mean, 62.3; standard deviation, 22.55) than younger people (mean, 57.9; standard deviation, 18.46; t, 5.32; P?0.001). The findings from the multivariate analysis of covariance revealed a significant difference between older adults and younger people in emotional well-being [F(3, 2587)=120.21; P?0.001; ?2=0.122] after controlling for sex. Conclusion Contrary to negative stereotypes about aging, our findings show a higher level of emotional well-being among older adults compared with younger people. PMID:24872683

  8. What you know can influence what you are going to know (especially for older adults).

    PubMed

    Badham, Stephen P; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2015-02-01

    Stimuli related to an individual's knowledge/experience are often more memorable than abstract stimuli, particularly for older adults. This has been found when material that is congruent with knowledge is contrasted with material that is incongruent with knowledge, but there is little research on a possible graded effect of congruency. The present study manipulated the degree of congruency of study material with participants' knowledge. Young and older participants associated two famous names to nonfamous faces, where the similarity between the nonfamous faces and the real famous individuals varied. These associations were incrementally easier to remember as the name-face combinations became more congruent with prior knowledge, demonstrating a graded congruency effect, as opposed to an effect based simply on the presence or absence of associations to prior knowledge. Older adults tended to show greater susceptibility to the effect than young adults, with a significant age difference for extreme stimuli, in line with previous literature showing that schematic support in memory tasks particularly benefits older adults. PMID:24920526

  9. The Effect of the Presence of Others on Caloric Intake in Homebound Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Locher, Julie L.; Robinson, Caroline O.; Roth, David L.; Ritchie, Christine S.; Burgio, Kathryn L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Undernutrition in homebound older adults is a significant problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the presence of others, both within the household and during meals, on caloric intake in homebound older adults. Methods In-depth interviews and three 24-hour dietary recalls were obtained from 50 older adults who were receiving home health services. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize participants, and hierarchical linear modeling was performed to evaluate predictors of caloric intake per meal. Results Participants’ mean age was 77. Females composed 65% and African Americans composed 42% of the sample. Analyses are based on 553 meal observations. The majority (84%) of participants consumed all meals for each of the 3 days of data collection; however, they consumed an average of only 1305 calories per day. Hierarchical linear modeling analysis indicated that persons who had others present during meals consumed an average of 114.0 calories more per meal than those who ate alone (p = .009) and that women consumed 76.7 fewer calories per meal than did men (p = .045). The presence of others within the household had no effect on caloric intake. Conclusion This research suggests that a simple and inexpensive way to increase caloric intake in homebound older adults is to make arrangements for family members or caregivers to eat with them. PMID:16339337

  10. Applying Erikson’s Wisdom to Self-Management Practices of Older Adults: Findings from Two Field Studies

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Tam E.; Hassevoort, Luke; Ruggiano, Nicole; Shtompel, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    According to Erik Erikson’s theory on the stages of human development, achieving wisdom later in life involves revisiting previous crises and renewing psychosocial accomplishments. However, few studies have used Erikson’s theory as a framework for examining how older adults self-manage physical and mental health changes that commonly occur later in life. This paper presents findings from two qualitative studies that demonstrate how older adults apply wisdom in new domains. Specifically, it was found that older adults (1) reasserted autonomy by initiating creative problem solving; and 2) applied skills gained from productive activities earlier in life to new health-related problems that arise later in life. These findings highlight the importance of engaging older adults to repurpose their life skills, and thus reapply wisdom to new areas of their lives. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:25651571

  11. Impact of Physical Activity on the Self-Perceived Quality of Life in Non-Frail Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Svantesson, Ulla; Jones, Janelle; Wolbert, Kristin; Alricsson, Marie

    2015-01-01

    As the population of older adults increases, healthy aging has become a global public health issue. Physical activity can help older adults reclaim or maintain a healthy aging process. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between physical activity, physical performance, quality of life and cognition in non-frail adults aged 65 and older. English articles in peer-reviewed journals about healthy, non-frail adults aged 65 and older were included in the present review. Additionally, articles were obtained from reviewing the reference lists of the aforementioned articles. Research proves an overwhelmingly positive correlation between physical activity and the reduction of preventable chronic illnesses, lower healthcare costs, improved cognition, improved muscle function, decreased fear of falling, and thereby, inevitably, an increased self-perceived quality of life. There is research evidence on healthy aging and the effect of physical activity, which could be of importance in a public health perspective. PMID:26124903

  12. Impact of Physical Activity on the Self-Perceived Quality of Life in Non-Frail Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Svantesson, Ulla; Jones, Janelle; Wolbert, Kristin; Alricsson, Marie

    2015-08-01

    As the population of older adults increases, healthy aging has become a global public health issue. Physical activity can help older adults reclaim or maintain a healthy aging process. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between physical activity, physical performance, quality of life and cognition in non-frail adults aged 65 and older. English articles in peer-reviewed journals about healthy, non-frail adults aged 65 and older were included in the present review. Additionally, articles were obtained from reviewing the reference lists of the aforementioned articles. Research proves an overwhelmingly positive correlation between physical activity and the reduction of preventable chronic illnesses, lower healthcare costs, improved cognition, improved muscle function, decreased fear of falling, and thereby, inevitably, an increased self-perceived quality of life. There is research evidence on healthy aging and the effect of physical activity, which could be of importance in a public health perspective. PMID:26124903

  13. Neighborhood Eating and Activity Advocacy Teams (NEAAT): engaging older adults in policy activities to improve food and physical environments.

    PubMed

    Buman, Matthew P; Winter, Sandra J; Baker, Cathleen; Hekler, Eric B; Otten, Jennifer J; King, Abby C

    2012-06-01

    Local food and physical activity environments are known to impact health, and older adults are generally more vulnerable to health-related environmental impacts due to poorer physical function and mobility impairments. There is a need to develop cost-conscious, community-focused strategies that impact local food and physical activity environment policies. Engaging older adult community residents in assessment and advocacy activities is one avenue to address this need. We describe the Neighborhood Eating and Activity Advocacy Team project, a community-based participatory project in low-income communal housing settings in San Mateo County, CA, as one method for engaging older adults in food and physical activity environment and policy change. Methods and strategies used by the "community action teams" to generate relevant neighborhood environmental data, build coalitions, prioritize complex issues, and advocate for change are presented. Advocacy groups are feasible among older adults to improve food and physical activity environments. PMID:24073118

  14. Selective attention affects conceptual object priming and recognition: a study with young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective attention at encoding on conceptual object priming (Experiment 1) and old–new recognition memory (Experiment 2) tasks in young and older adults. The procedures of both experiments included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. At encoding, the picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, were presented to the left and to the right of fixation. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to attend to the picture outline of a certain color and to classify the object as natural or artificial. After a short delay, participants performed a natural/artificial speeded conceptual classification task with repeated attended, repeated unattended, and new pictures. In Experiment 2, participants at encoding memorized the attended pictures and classify them as natural or artificial. After the encoding phase, they performed an old–new recognition memory task. Consistent with previous findings with perceptual priming tasks, we found that conceptual object priming, like explicit memory, required attention at encoding. Significant priming was obtained in both age groups, but only for those pictures that were attended at encoding. Although older adults were slower than young adults, both groups showed facilitation for attended pictures. In line with previous studies, young adults had better recognition memory than older adults. PMID:25628588

  15. Count me in: response to sexual orientation measures among older adults.

    PubMed

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Kim, Hyun-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Health disparities exist among sexual minority older adults. Yet, health and aging surveys rarely include sexual orientation measures and when they do, they often exclude older adults from being asked about sexual orientation. This is the first population-based study to assess item nonresponse to sexual orientation measures by age and change over time. We compare response rates and examine time trends in response patterns using adjusted logistic regressions. Among adults aged 65 and older, the nonresponse rate on sexual orientation is lower than income. While older adults show higher nonresponse rates on sexual orientation than younger adults, the nonresponse rates have significantly decreased over time. By 2010, only 1.23% of older adults responded don't know/not sure, with 1.55% refusing to answer sexual orientation questions. Decisions to not ask sexual orientation among older adults must be reconsidered, given documented health disparities and rapidly changing social trends in the understanding of diverse sexualities. PMID:25651579

  16. TOT phenomena: Gesture production in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Theocharopoulou, Foteini; Cocks, Naomi; Pring, Timothy; Dipper, Lucy T

    2015-06-01

    This study explored age-related changes in gesture to better understand the relationship between gesture and word retrieval from memory. The frequency of gestures during tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states highlights this relationship. There is a lack of evidence describing the form and content of iconic gestures arising spontaneously in such TOT states and a parallel gap addressing age-related variations. In this study, TOT states were induced in 45 participants from 2 age groups (older and younger adults) using a pseudoword paradigm. The type and frequency of gestures produced was recorded during 2 experimental conditions (single-word retrieval and narrative task). We found that both groups experienced a high number of TOT states, during which they gestured. Iconic co-TOT gestures were more common than noniconic gestures. Although there was no age effect on the type of gestures produced, there was a significant, task-specific age difference in the amount of gesturing. That is, younger adults gestured more in the narrative task, whereas older adults generated more gestures in the single-word-retrieval task. Task-specific age differences suggest that there are age-related differences in terms of the cognitive operations involved in TOT gesture production. PMID:25961875

  17. Older adults’ attitudes toward noncompetent subjects participating in Alzheimers research

    PubMed Central

    Karlawish, Jason; Rubright, Jonathan; Casarett, David; Cary, Mark; TenHave, Thomas; Sankar, Pamela

    2008-01-01

    Objective Since research that enrolls noncompetent patients with Alzheimers disease and does not present potential benefit to subjects is the source of substantial ethical controversy, we assessed willingness to have a proxy for research decision making, and, for each of two Alzheimers disease biomarker studies (minimal risk blood draw and a greater than minimal risk blood draw and lumbar puncture), willingness to grant an advance consent, and willingness to grant a proxy leeway over advance consent. Methods Face to face survey of 538 persons 65 and over who resided in the Southeastern Pennsylvania region Results The majority 83% (445/538) granted advance consent to a blood draw study and nearly half to a blood draw plus lumbar puncture 259 (48%). Most persons (96%) were willing to identify a proxy for research decision making and most were willing to grant their proxy leeway over their advance consent: blood draw 434 (81%), and 375 (70%) blood draw plus lumbar puncture. Combining the preferences for advance consent and leeway, the proportion who would permit being enrolled in the blood draw and spinal fluid sample studies were, respectively, 92% (497/538) and 75% (404/538). Multi-variate models showed that willingness to be enrolled in research was most strongly associated with a favorable attitude about biomedical research. Conclusions Older adults generally support enrolling noncompetent persons with Alzheimers disease into research that does not present a benefit to subjects. Willingness to grant their proxy leeway over advance consent and a favorable attitude about biomedical research substantially explain this willingness. PMID:18923066

  18. Social capital and health among older adults in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about social capital and health among older adults in South Africa. This study investigates the association between social capital and several health variables, namely: self-rated health, depressive symptoms, cognitive functioning and physical inactivity, among older South Africans. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a national probability sample of 3840 individuals aged 50 years or older who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE wave 1) in 2008 in South Africa. Measures included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, cognitive functioning and physical activity. Social capital was assessed with six components, namely: marital status, social action, sociability, trust and solidarity, safety, and civic engagement. Results The social capital assessment revealed that 56% of the respondents were married or cohabiting, 45% reported low (0) social action, 42% reported medium (2–3) sociability, 43% reported high (2) trust and solidarity, 50% reported high (2–4) civic engagement and 42% reported medium (6) psychological resources. In multivariate analysis, self-reported good health was associated with younger age, having secondary education and higher social capital (being married or cohabiting, high trust and solidarity and greater psychological resources). Depressive symptoms were associated with lower social capital (not being married or cohabiting, lack of high trust and solidarity and low psychological resources). Better cognitive functioning was associated with younger age, higher educational level, greater wealth and higher social capital (being married or cohabiting, high trust and solidarity, lack of safety, higher civic engagement and greater psychological resources). Physical inactivity was associated with older age and lower social capital (lower social action, lack of safety, lower civic engagement and poorer psychological resources). Conclusions Given the basis of these findings on cross sectional data and subsequent limitation, it was found that these study findings mimic the findings of many European and American studies. Social capital among the elderly generation in South Africa is imperative for better health. PMID:24073666

  19. Risk Factors for Aspiration Pneumonia in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Toshie; Teramoto, Shinji; Tamiya, Nanako; Okochi, Jiro; Hizawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds Aspiration pneumonia is a dominant form of community-acquired and healthcare-associated pneumonia, and a leading cause of death among ageing populations. However, the risk factors for developing aspiration pneumonia in older adults have not been fully evaluated. The purpose of the present study was to determine the risk factors for aspiration pneumonia among the elderly. Methodology and Principal Findings We conducted an observational study using data from a nationwide survey of geriatric medical and nursing center in Japan. The study subjects included 9930 patients (median age: 86 years, women: 76%) who were divided into two groups: those who had experienced an episode of aspiration pneumonia in the previous 3 months and those who had not. Data on demographics, clinical status, activities of daily living (ADL), and major illnesses were compared between subjects with and without aspiration pneumonia. Two hundred and fifty-nine subjects (2.6% of the total sample) were in the aspiration pneumonia group. In the univariate analysis, older age was not found to be a risk factor for aspiration pneumonia, but the following were: sputum suctioning (odds ratio [OR] = 17.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 13.16–22.62, p < 0.001), daily oxygen therapy (OR = 8.29, 95% CI: 4.39–15.65), feeding support dependency (OR = 8.10, 95% CI: 6.27–10.48, p < 0.001), and urinary catheterization (OR = 4.08, 95% CI: 2.81–5.91, p < 0.001). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the risk factors associated with aspiration pneumonia after propensity-adjustment (258 subjects each) were sputum suctioning (OR = 3.276, 95% CI: 1.910–5.619), deterioration of swallowing function in the past 3 months (OR = 3.584, 95% CI: 1.948–6.952), dehydration (OR = 8.019, 95% CI: 2.720–23.643), and dementia (OR = 1.618, 95% CI: 1.031–2.539). Conclusion The risk factors for aspiration pneumonia were sputum suctioning, deterioration of swallowing function, dehydration, and dementia. These results could help improve clinical management for preventing repetitive aspiration pneumonia. PMID:26444916

  20. Depression and Psychosocial Risk Factors among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Theng, Yin-Leng; Foo, Schubert

    2015-12-01

    Depression is the most common mental and emotional disorder that emerges in the late stages of life. It is closely associated with poor health, disability, mortality, and suicide. The study examines the risk factors of depression in late life, especially the psychosocial factors, among a sample comprising 162 community-dwelling Singaporean adults aged 65 years and above. An interview-based structured survey was conducted in multiple senior activity centers located in different parts of Singapore. Results from the hierarchical regression analysis show that 32.9 % of the variance in geriatric depression can be explained by the three psychosocial factors, among which loneliness, perceived social support, and the emotional regulation component of resilience are significantly associated with depression in older adults. Large-scale studies should be conducted to confirm the findings of the present study, and to further examine the predictive effects of these psychosocial factors on depression among older adults. PMID:26428668

  1. Relationship between Auditory and Cognitive Abilities in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sheft, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective was to evaluate the association of peripheral and central hearing abilities with cognitive function in older adults. Methods Recruited from epidemiological studies of aging and cognition at the Rush Alzheimer’s Disease Center, participants were a community-dwelling cohort of older adults (range 63–98 years) without diagnosis of dementia. The cohort contained roughly equal numbers of Black (n=61) and White (n=63) subjects with groups similar in terms of age, gender, and years of education. Auditory abilities were measured with pure-tone audiometry, speech-in-noise perception, and discrimination thresholds for both static and dynamic spectral patterns. Cognitive performance was evaluated with a 12-test battery assessing episodic, semantic, and working memory, perceptual speed, and visuospatial abilities. Results Among the auditory measures, only the static and dynamic spectral-pattern discrimination thresholds were associated with cognitive performance in a regression model that included the demographic covariates race, age, gender, and years of education. Subsequent analysis indicated substantial shared variance among the covariates race and both measures of spectral-pattern discrimination in accounting for cognitive performance. Among cognitive measures, working memory and visuospatial abilities showed the strongest interrelationship to spectral-pattern discrimination performance. Conclusions For a cohort of older adults without diagnosis of dementia, neither hearing thresholds nor speech-in-noise ability showed significant association with a summary measure of global cognition. In contrast, the two auditory metrics of spectral-pattern discrimination ability significantly contributed to a regression model prediction of cognitive performance, demonstrating association of central auditory ability to cognitive status using auditory metrics that avoided the confounding effect of speech materials. PMID:26237423

  2. White Matter Integrity in Physically Fit Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, B.Y.; Gundapuneedi, T.; Khan, M.A.; Diaz-Arrastia, R.; Levine, B.D.; Lu, H.; Huang, H.; Zhang, R.

    2013-01-01

    Background White matter (WM) integrity declines with normal aging. Physical activity may attenuate age-related WM integrity changes and improve cognitive function. This study examined brain WM integrity in Masters athletes who have engaged in life-long aerobic exercise training. We tested the hypothesis that life-long aerobic training is associated with improved brain WM integrity in older adults. Methods Ten Masters athletes (3 females, age=72.2±5.3yrs, endurance training>15yrs) and 10 sedentary older adults similar in age and educational level (2 females, age=74.5±4.3yrs) participated. MRI fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images were acquired to assess white matter hyper intensities (WMH) volume. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed to evaluate the WM microstructural integrity with a DTI-derived metric, fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD). Results After normalization to whole-brain volume, Masters athletes showed an 83% reduction in deep WMH volume relative to their sedentary counterparts (0.05 ± 0.05% vs. 0.29 ± 0.29%, p<0.05). In addition, we found an inverse relationship between aerobic fitness (VO2max) and deep WMH volume (r=?0.78, p<0.001). Using TBSS, Masters athletes showed higher FA values in the right superior corona radiata (SCR), both sides of superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFO), and left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). In addition, Masters athletes also showed lower MD values in the left posterior thalamic radiation (PTR) and left cingulum hippocampus. Conclusions These findings suggest that life-long exercise is associated with reduced WMH and may preserve WM fiber microstructural integrity related to motor control and coordination in older adults. PMID:23769914

  3. Psychosocial Distress and Stroke Risk in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Kimberly M.; Clark, Cari J.; Lewis, Tené T.; Aggarwal, Neelum T.; Beck, Todd; Guo, Hongfei; Lunos, Scott; Brearley, Ann; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Evans, Denis A.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association of psychosocial distress with risk of stroke mortality and incident stroke in older adults. Methods Data were from the Chicago Health and Aging Project, a longitudinal population-based study conducted in three contiguous neighborhoods on the south side of Chicago, Illinois. Participants were community-dwelling black and non-Hispanic white adults, age 65 and older (N=4,120 for stroke mortality; N=2,649 for incident stroke). Psychosocial distress was an analytically-derived composite measure of depressive symptoms, perceived stress, neuroticism, and life dissatisfaction. Cox proportional hazards models examined the association of distress with stroke mortality and incident stroke over 6 years of follow-up. Results 151 stroke deaths and 452 incident strokes were identified. Adjusting for age, race, and sex, the hazard ratio (HR) for each 1-SD increase in distress was 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.28–1.70) for stroke mortality and 1.18 (95% CI, 1.07–1.30) for incident stroke. Associations were reduced following adjustment for stroke risk factors and remained significant for stroke mortality (HR=1.29; 95% CI=1.10–1.52) but not for incident stroke (HR=1.09; 95% CI=0.98–1.21). Secondary analyses of stroke subtypes showed that distress was strongly related to incident hemorrhagic strokes (HR=1.70; 95% CI=1.28–2.25) but not ischemic strokes (HR=1.02; 95% CI=0.91–1.15) in fully adjusted models. Conclusions Increasing levels of psychosocial distress are related to excess risk of both fatal and nonfatal stroke in older black and white adults. Additional research is needed to examine pathways linking psychosocial distress to cerebrovascular disease risk. PMID:23238864

  4. Oral Health Self-Care Behaviors of Rural Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Chen, Haiying; Savoca, Margaret R.; Kohrman, Teresa; Quandt, Sara A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives This analysis describes the dental self-care behaviors used by a multi-ethnic sample of older adults, and it delineates the associations of self-care behaviors with personal characteristics and oral health problems. Methods A cross-sectional comprehensive oral health survey conducted with a random, multi-ethnic (African American, American Indian, white) sample of 635 community-dwelling rural adults aged 60 years and older was completed in two rural southern counties. Results Rural older adults engage in a variety of self-care behaviors, including the use of Over-the-Counter (OTC) Medicine (12.1%), OTC Dental Products (84.3%), Salt (51.0%), Prayer (6.1%), and Complementary Therapies (18.2%). Some gender and ethnic class differences are apparent, with greater use by women of OTC Medicine and Salt, and greater use by African Americans and American Indians of OTC Medicine and OTC Dental Products. Use of dental self-care behaviors appears to be driven by need. Those reporting oral pain, bleeding gums, and dry mouth have a greater odds of engaging in most of the dental self-care behaviors, including use of complementary therapies. Conclusions The major factor leading to the use of self-care behaviors is need. Although oral pain does increase the use of self-care behaviors, so do bleeding gums and dry mouth. Research and practice should address self-care behaviors used for oral health problems in addition to pain. Investigators should expand analysis of dental self-care behavior and the relationship of self-care behavior to the use of professional services. Further research also should explore the use of complementary therapies in dental self-care. PMID:19486460

  5. Typography manipulations can affect priming of word stem completion in older and younger adults.

    PubMed

    Gibson, J M; Brooks, J O; Friedman, L; Yesavage, J A

    1993-12-01

    The experiments reported here investigated whether changes of typography affected priming of word stem completion performance in older and younger adults. Across all experiments, the typeface in which a word appeared at presentation either did or did not match that of its 3-letter stem at test. In Experiment 1, no significant evidence of a typography effect was found when words were presented with a sentence judgment or letter judgment task. However, subsequent experiments revealed that, in both older and younger adults, only words presented with a syllable judgment task gave rise to the typography effect (Experiments 2-4). Specifically, performance was greater, when the presentation and test typeface matched than when they did not. Experiment 5, which used stem-cued recall, did not reveal a difference between syllable and letter judgment tasks. These findings highlight the complex nature of word stem completion performance. PMID:8292277

  6. Physiologic Field Triage Criteria for Identifying Seriously Injured Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Newgard, Craig D.; Richardson, Derek; Holmes, James F.; Rea, Thomas D.; Hsia, Renee Y.; Mann, N. Clay; Staudenmayer, Kristan; Barton, Erik D.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Haukoos, Jason S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ability of out-of-hospital physiologic measures to predict serious injury for field triage purposes among older adults and potentially reduce the under-triage of seriously injured elders to non-trauma hospitals. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study involving injured adults 55 years and older transported by 94 emergency medical services (EMS) agencies to 122 hospitals (trauma and non-trauma) in 7 regions of the western United States from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2008. We evaluated initial out-of-hospital Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, systolic blood pressure (SBP), respiratory rate, heart rate, shock index (SBP ÷ heart rate), out-of-hospital procedures, mechanism of injury, and patient demographics. The primary outcome was “serious injury,” defined as Injury Severity Score (ISS) ? 16, as a measure of trauma center need. We used multivariable regression models, fractional polynomials and binary recursive partitioning to evaluate appropriate physiologic cut-points and the value of different physiologic triage criteria. Results A total of 44,890 injured older adults were evaluated and transported by EMS, of whom 2,328 (5.2%) had ISS ? 16. Nonlinear associations existed between all physiologic measures and ISS ? 16 (unadjusted and adjusted p ? 0.001 for all,), except for heart rate (adjusted p = 0.48). Revised physiologic triage criteria included GCS score ? 14; respiratory rate < 10 or > 24 breaths per minute or assisted ventilation; and SBP < 110 or > 200 mmHg. Compared to current triage practices, the revised criteria would increase triage sensitivity from 78.6 to 86.3% (difference 7.7%, 95% CI 6.1–9.6%), reduce specificity from 75.5 to 60.7% (difference 14.8%, 95% CI 14.3–15.3%), and increase the proportion of patients without serious injuries transported to major trauma centers by 60%. Conclusions Existing out-of-hospital physiologic triage criteria could be revised to better identify seriously injured older adults at the expense of increasing over-triage to major trauma centers. PMID:24933614

  7. Pain Assessment in Hospitalized Older Adults With Dementia and Delirium

    PubMed Central

    Paulson, Christina May; Monroe, Todd; Mion, Lorraine C.

    2015-01-01

    Pain can have negative effects leading to prolonged hospital stays. Determining the presence of uncontrolled and untreated pain in patients with cognitive impairments such as delirium, dementia, and delirium superimposed on dementia (DSD) is challenging. One tool commonly suggested for use in assessment of pain in older adults with cognitive impairment is the Pain Assessment In Advanced Dementia (PAINAD) scale. Proper use of the PAINAD scale as part of a comprehensive pain management plan can help reduce the likelihood of a patient experiencing unrecognized and untreated pain. Using an individual example, this article illustrates best practices in pain assessment and management for a woman experiencing DSD during an acute hospitalization. PMID:24800815

  8. Consider the Source: Adolescents and Adults Similarly Follow Older Adult Advice More than Peer Advice

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Gloria A.; Dellarco, Danielle V.; Casey, B. J.; Hartley, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals learn which of their actions are likely to be rewarded through trial and error. This form of learning is critical for adapting to new situations, which adolescents frequently encounter. Adolescents are also greatly influenced by their peers. The current study tested the extent to which adolescents rely on peer advice to guide their actions. Adolescent and young adult participants completed a probabilistic learning task in which they chose between four pairs of stimuli with different reinforcement probabilities, with one stimulus in each pair more frequently rewarded. Participants received advice about two of these pairs, once from a similarly aged peer and once from an older adult. Crucially, this advice was inaccurate, enabling the dissociation between experience-based and instruction-based learning. Adolescents and adults learned equally well from experience and no age group difference was evident in the overall influence of advice on choices. Surprisingly, when considering the source of advice, there was no evident influence of peer advice on adolescent choices. However, both adolescents and adults were biased toward choosing the stimulus recommended by the older adult. Contrary to conventional wisdom, these data suggest that adolescents may prioritize the advice of older adults over that of peers in certain decision-making contexts. PMID:26030134

  9. Experience Corps: A dual trial to promote the health of older adults and children's academic success

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Linda P.; Carlson, Michelle C.; McGill, Sylvia; Seeman, Teresa; Xue, Qian-Li; Frick, Kevin; Tan, Erwin; Tanner, Elizabeth K.; Barron, Jeremy; Frangakis, Constantine; Piferi, Rachel; Martinez, Iveris; Gruenewald, Tara; Martin, Barbara K.; Berry-Vaughn, Laprisha; Stewart, John; Dickersin, Kay; Willging, Paul R.; Rebok, George W.

    2014-01-01

    Background As the population ages, older adults are seeking meaningful, and impactful, post-retirement roles. As a society, improving the health of people throughout longer lives is a major public health goal. This paper presents the design and rationale for an effectiveness trial of Experience Corps™, an intervention created to address both these needs. This trial evaluates (1) whether senior volunteer roles within Experience Corps™ beneficially impact children's academic achievement and classroom behavior in public elementary schools and (2) impact on the health of volunteers. Methods Dual evaluations of (1) an intention-to-treat trial randomizing eligible adults 60 and older to volunteer service in Experience Corps™, or to a control arm of usual volunteering opportunities, and (2) a comparison of eligible public elementary schools receiving Experience Corps™ to matched, eligible control schools in a 1:1 control:intervention school ratio. Outcomes For older adults, the primary outcome is decreased disability in mobility and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL). Secondary outcomes are decreased frailty, falls, and memory loss; slowed loss of strength, balance, walking speed, cortical plasticity, and executive function; objective performance of IADLs; and increased social and psychological engagement. For children, primary outcomes are improved reading achievement and classroom behavior in Kindergarten through the 3rd grade; secondary outcomes are improvements in school climate, teacher morale and retention, and teacher perceptions of older adults. Summary This trial incorporates principles and practices of community-based participatory research and evaluates the dual benefit of a single intervention, versus usual opportunities, for two generations: older adults and children. PMID:23680986

  10. Cognitive speed of processing training in older adults with visual impairments

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Amanda F.; O’Connor, Melissa L.; Edwards, Jerri D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether older adults with vision impairment differentially benefit from cognitive speed of processing training (SPT) relative to healthy older adults. Methods Secondary data analyses were conducted from a randomised trial on the effects of SPT among older adults. The effects of vision impairment as indicated by (1) near visual acuity, (2) contrast sensitivity, (3) self-reported cataracts and (4) self-reported other eye conditions (e.g., glaucoma, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, optic neuritis, and retinopathy) among participants randomised to either SPT or a social- and computer-contact control group was assessed. The primary outcome was Useful Field of View Test (UFOV) performance. Results Mixed repeated-measures ancovas demonstrated that those randomized to SPT experienced greater baseline to post-test improvements in UFOV performance relative to controls (p’s < 0.001), regardless of impairments in near visual acuity, contrast sensitivity or presence of cataracts. Those with other eye conditions significantly benefitted from training (p = 0.044), but to a lesser degree than those without such conditions. Covariates included age and baseline measures of balance and depressive symptoms, which were significantly correlated with baseline UFOV performance. Conclusions Among a community-based sample of older adults with and without visual impairment and eye disease, the SPT intervention was effective in enhancing participants’ UFOV performance. The analyses presented here indicate the potential for SPT to enhance UFOV performance among a community-based sample of older adults with visual impairment and potentially for some with self-reported eye disease; further research to explore this area is warranted, particularly to determine the effects of eye diseases on SPT benefits. PMID:25160890

  11. Goal-setting, self-efficacy, and memory performance in older and younger adults.

    PubMed

    West, R L; Thorn, R M

    2001-01-01

    Research in field and laboratory settings has shown that goals lead to improved self-efficacy and performance, especially when individuals also receive positive feedback. The present study extended goal-setting theory to examine self-set goals and feedback in relation to younger and older adults' memory performance and self-efficacy. Following a baseline recall trial, participants completed three shopping list recall trials. Half of the participants were instructed to set goals for the three experimental trials, and half in each goal condition received performance feedback after each trial. Young adults' self-efficacy, clustering, and recall exceeded that of older adults. Goal setting increased self-efficacy for younger but not older adults, and it did not affect performance. Younger adults and participants in the feedback condition increased their goals across trials, as did participants for whom feedback indicated success. These data provide a first look at the motivational impact of feedback and self-set recall goals in memory aging. Additional study is needed to understand the interactive effects of type of feedback, memory task difficulty, and type of goal setting at different ages. PMID:11205529

  12. The Role of Healthcare Providers and Caregivers in Educating Older Adults about Foodborne Illness Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlgenant, Kelly C.; Cates, Sheryl C.; Godwin, Sandria L.; Speller-Henderson, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Adults aged 60 or older are more likely than younger adults to experience severe complications or even death as a result of foodborne infections. This study investigated which specific groups of healthcare providers or other caregivers are most receptive to providing food safety information to older adults. Telephone-based focus groups were…

  13. Where Would You Turn for Help? Older Adults' Awareness of Community Support Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, M.; Ploeg, J.; Tindale, J.; Hutchison, B.; Brazil, K.; Akhtar-Danesh, N.; Quinlan, M.; Lillie, J.; Plenderleith, J. Millen; Boos, L.

    2008-01-01

    Previous findings on older adults' awareness of community support services (CSSs) have been inconsistent and marred by acquiescence or over-claiming bias. To address this issue, this study used a series of 12 vignettes to describe common situations faced by older adults for which CSSs might be appropriate. In telephone interviews, 1,152 adults

  14. Sleep modulates word-pair learning but not motor sequence learning in healthy older adults

    E-print Network

    Jacobs, Lucia

    Sleep modulates word-pair learning but not motor sequence learning in healthy older adults Jessica Sleep benefits memory across a range of tasks for young adults. However, remarkably little is known of the role of sleep on memory for healthy older adults. We used 2 tasks, 1 assaying motor skill learning

  15. Muscle performance and physical function are associated with voluntary rate of neuromuscular activation in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Participants were recruited to three experimental groups: middle-aged healthy adults (MH), older healthy adults (OH), and older adults with mobility limitations (OML). OH and OML were primarily differentiated by performance on the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Muscle performance (accele...

  16. The Effects of Pure Pair Repetition on Younger and Older Adults' Associative Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilb, Angela; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Although aging causes relatively minor impairment in recognition memory for components, older adults' ability to remember associations between components is typically significantly compromised, relative to that of younger adults. This pattern could be associated with older adults' relatively intact familiarity, which helps preserve component…

  17. Underlying Consumer-Valuing Structures of Baby Boomers as Older Adults in Community Colleges: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palazesi, Louis Mark; Bower, Beverly L.; Schwartz, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a grounded theory that fills in gaps in the higher education literature on the concept of educational consumer value and perceptions that support consumer value. Specifically, this study focuses on the learning experiences of Baby Boomers (40-60 year old adults) as older adult students attending community…

  18. Predictors of CBT Outcome in Older Adults with GAD

    PubMed Central

    Hundt, Natalie E.; Amspoker, Amber B.; Kraus-Schuman, Cynthia; Cully, Jeffrey A.; Rhoades, Howard; Kunik, Mark E.; Stanley, Melinda A.

    2014-01-01

    The current study is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of CBT for late-life GAD (Stanley et al., 2014) which provided an opportunity to examine predictors of outcome among those who received CBT. Participants were 150 older adults who were randomized to receive 10 sessions of CBT. Completer analyses found that homework completion, number of sessions attended, lower worry severity, lower depression severity, and recruitment site predicted 6-month worry outcome on the PSWQ-A, whereas homework completion, credibility of the therapy, lower anxiety severity, and site predicted better 6-month anxiety outcome on the STAI-T. In intent-to-treat multivariate analyses, however, only initial worry and anxiety severity, site, and number of sessions completed predicted treatment outcome. These results are largely consistent with predictors of outcome in younger adults and suggest that lower initial symptom severity and variables consistent with greater engagement in treatment predict outcome. PMID:25445074

  19. Older adults learn less, but still reduce metabolic cost, during motor adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Helen J.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to learn new movements and dynamics is important for maintaining independence with advancing age. Age-related sensorimotor changes and increased muscle coactivation likely alter the trial-and-error-based process of adapting to new movement demands (motor adaptation). Here, we asked, to what extent is motor adaptation to novel dynamics maintained in older adults (?65 yr)? We hypothesized that older adults would adapt to the novel dynamics less well than young adults. Because older adults often use muscle coactivation, we expected older adults to use greater muscle coactivation during motor adaptation than young adults. Nevertheless, we predicted that older adults would reduce muscle activity and metabolic cost with motor adaptation, similar to young adults. Seated older (n = 11, 73.8 ± 5.6 yr) and young (n = 15, 23.8 ± 4.7 yr) adults made targeted reaching movements while grasping a robotic arm. We measured their metabolic rate continuously via expired gas analysis. A force field was used to add novel dynamics. Older adults had greater movement deviations and compensated for just 65% of the novel dynamics compared with 84% in young adults. As expected, older adults used greater muscle coactivation than young adults. Last, older adults reduced muscle activity with motor adaptation and had consistent reductions in metabolic cost later during motor adaptation, similar to young adults. These results suggest that despite increased muscle coactivation, older adults can adapt to the novel dynamics, albeit less accurately. These results also suggest that reductions in metabolic cost may be a fundamental feature of motor adaptation. PMID:24133222

  20. Neural responses to monetary incentives in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Spaniol, Julia; Bowen, Holly J; Wegier, Pete; Grady, Cheryl

    2015-07-01

    Reward anticipation is associated with activity in the dopaminergic midbrain as well as the ventral striatum, amygdala, and medial prefrontal cortex. Dopaminergic neuromodulation declines with age, suggesting that incentive processing should also undergo age-related change. However, the literature is mixed, perhaps reflecting variation in the degree to which tasks made demands on learning and memory. Furthermore, the emphasis has been on the reward network, with few studies addressing reward-related activations in other brain regions. In the current study, 16 younger adults (mean age: 25.4) and 15 older adults (mean age: 69.0) underwent fMRI while completing a monetary incentive delay task. This task allowed the separate assessment of responses to gain and loss incentive cues while minimizing memory demands. We assessed incentive-related activations using mean-centered Partial Least Squares, a data-driven multivariate technique optimal for identifying spatiotemporal whole-brain activation patterns associated with variation in task conditions. The analyses yielded two significant latent variables representing distinct incentive-related activation patterns. The first pattern showed robust activation of the reward network and was not modulated by age. The second pattern, peaking ~10s after cue onset, showed reduced deactivation of default-network regions, and increased activation of prefrontal cognitive-control regions in older adults, compared with younger adults. Neither pattern was modulated by incentive valence. Overall, these findings suggest that aging may not affect primary motivational signaling in the reward network, but may rather be associated with alterations in incentive-driven modulation of cortical networks that influence multiple cognitive domains. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Memory & Aging. PMID:25305570

  1. Abstracts of Papers Presented to the National Seminar on Adult Education Research (Toronto, February 9-11, 1969).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syracuse Univ., NY. ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Education.

    Abstracts are presented of 34 papers on adult education research. They cover adult dropouts, age differences in learning, older adults, motivation and orientations of adults, interpersonal relationships; adult educators, change agents, and leaders in Cooperative Extension; teacher training and multimedia instruction; diffusion of innovation,…

  2. Spatial representations in older adults are not modified by action: Evidence from tool use.

    PubMed

    Costello, Matthew C; Bloesch, Emily K; Davoli, Christopher C; Panting, Nicholas D; Abrams, Richard A; Brockmole, James R

    2015-09-01

    Theories of embodied perception hold that the visual system is calibrated by both the body schema and the action system, allowing for adaptive action-perception responses. One example of embodied perception involves the effects of tool use on distance perception, in which wielding a tool with the intention to act upon a target appears to bring that object closer. This tool-based spatial compression (i.e., tool-use effect) has been studied exclusively with younger adults, but it is unknown whether the phenomenon exists with older adults. In this study, we examined the effects of tool use on distance perception in younger and older adults in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, younger and older adults estimated the distances of targets just beyond peripersonal space while either wielding a tool or pointing with the hand. Younger adults, but not older adults, estimated targets to be closer after reaching with a tool. In Experiment 2, younger and older adults estimated the distance to remote targets while using either a baton or a laser pointer. Younger adults displayed spatial compression with the laser pointer compared to the baton, although older adults did not. Taken together, these findings indicate a generalized absence of the tool-use effect in older adults during distance estimation, suggesting that the visuomotor system of older adults does not remap from peripersonal to extrapersonal spatial representations during tool use. PMID:26052886

  3. Correlates of disability in depressed older adults with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gildengers, Ariel; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Bialko, Christopher; Cassidy, Kristin A.; Dines, Philipp; Emanuel, James; Al Jurdi, Rayan K.; Gyulai, Laszlo; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Young, Robert C.; Sajatovic, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Aims To identify clinical factors associated with disability in depressed older adults with bipolar disorder (BPD) receiving lamotrigine. Methods Secondary analysis of a multi-site, 12-week, open-label, uncontrolled study of addon lamotrigine in 57 adults 60 years and older with BD I or II depression. Measures included the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics (CIRS-G), Dementia Rating Scale (DRS), and WHO-Disability Assessment Scale II (WHO-DAS II). Results Medical comorbidiy in this group of elders was substantial, with roughly 60% of subjects having disorders of the vascular, musculoskeletal/integument, and endodrine/metabolic/breast systems. We found significant relationships among mood (MADRS), medical comorbidity (CIRS-G), cognition (DRS), and disability (WHO-DAS II). More severe BPD depression, more medical comorbidity and more impaired cognition were all associated with lower functioning in BPD elders. Conclusions Our findings fit the paradigm shift that has been occurring in BPD, supporting the notion that BPD is not solely an illness of mood but that it affects multiple domains impacting overall functioning. PMID:24358446

  4. Correlates of disability in depressed older adults with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Gildengers, Ariel; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Bialko, Christopher; Cassidy, Kristin A; Dines, Philipp; Emanuel, James; Al Jurdi, Rayan K; Gyulai, Laszlo; Mulsant, Benoit H; Young, Robert C; Sajatovic, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Aims To identify clinical factors associated with disability in depressed older adults with bipolar disorder (BPD) receiving lamotrigine. Methods Secondary analysis of a multi-site, 12-week, open-label, uncontrolled study of addon lamotrigine in 57 adults 60 years and older with BD I or II depression. Measures included the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics (CIRS-G), Dementia Rating Scale (DRS), and WHO-Disability Assessment Scale II (WHO-DAS II). Results Medical comorbidiy in this group of elders was substantial, with roughly 60% of subjects having disorders of the vascular, musculoskeletal/integument, and endodrine/metabolic/breast systems. We found significant relationships among mood (MADRS), medical comorbidity (CIRS-G), cognition (DRS), and disability (WHO-DAS II). More severe BPD depression, more medical comorbidity and more impaired cognition were all associated with lower functioning in BPD elders. Conclusions Our findings fit the paradigm shift that has been occurring in BPD, supporting the notion that BPD is not solely an illness of mood but that it affects multiple domains impacting overall functioning. PMID:24358446

  5. Older Adults’ Perception of Chronic Illness Management in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Minah; Kim, Jaiyong; Bae, Sang-Soo; Choi, Yong-Jun; Shin, Dong-Soo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Despite the recent emphasis on a patient-centered chronic care model, few studies have investigated its use in older adults in South Korea. We explored how older Korean adults perceive and cope with their chronic illness. Methods: We conducted focus group interviews in Seoul, Korea in January 2010. Focus groups were formed by disease type (hypertension and type 2 diabetes) and gender using purposive sampling. Inclusion criteria were patients aged 60 and over who had been diagnosed with diabetes or hypertension and received care at a community health center for at least six months prior to participation. Interview data were analyzed through descriptive content analysis. Results: Among personal factors, most participants felt overwhelmed when they received their diagnosis. However, with time and control of their acute symptoms using medication, their worry diminished and participants tended to denying being identified as a patient or sick person. Among socio-familial factors, participants reported experiencing stigma with their chronic illness and feeling it was a symbol of weakness. Instead of modifying their lifestyles, which might interfere with their social relationships, they resorted to only following their medicine regime prescribed by their doctor. Participants also reported feeling that their doctor only prescribed medications and acted in an authoritative and threatening manner to induce and reinforce participants’ compliance with treatment. Conclusions: For successful patient-centered management of chronic illnesses, supportive environments that include family, friends, and healthcare providers should be established. PMID:25139170

  6. Recessions, Job Loss, and Mortality Among Older US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Beckfield, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed how recessions and job loss jointly shape mortality risks among older US adults. Methods. We used data for 50 states from the Health and Retirement Study and selected individuals who were employed at ages 45 to 66 years during 1992 to 2011. We assessed whether job loss affects mortality risks, whether recessions moderate the effect of job loss on mortality, and whether individuals who do and do not experience job loss are differentially affected by recessions. Results. Compared with individuals not experiencing job loss, mortality risks among individuals losing their job in a recession were strongly elevated (hazard ratio?=?1.6; 95% confidence interval?=?1.1, 2.3). Job loss during normal times or booms is not associated with mortality. For employed workers, we found a reduction in mortality risks if local labor market conditions were depressed, but this result was not consistent across different model specifications. Conclusions. Recessions increase mortality risks among older US adults who experience job loss. Health professionals and policymakers should target resources to this group during recessions. Future research should clarify which health conditions are affected by job loss during recessions and whether access to health care following job loss moderates this relation. PMID:25211731

  7. The Impact of Disordered Gambling Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kerber, Cindy; Adelman-Mullally, Theresa; Kim, MyoungJin; Astroth, Kim Schafer

    2015-10-01

    The current study is a secondary analysis that describes the mental, social, and economic health impacts of disordered gambling in older adults recovering from pathological gambling. The study sought to answer the following research questions: (a) What are the problem behaviors in the mental, social, and economic health dimensions?; and (b) What is the association between mental, social, and economic health impact dimensions and the South Oaks Gambling Screen score? The study population comprised a convenience sample of 40 older adults recovering from pathological gambling in the Midwestern United States. Participants were originally recruited from Gamblers Anonymous(®) meetings and gambling treatment centers. Significant findings for the current study population were: gambling causing depression, being fired from a job due to gambling, and still paying off gambling debt. Nurses should evaluate effects of disordered gambling, assess for disordered gambling, and include a financial assessment in routine care of this patient population. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 53(10), 41-47.]. PMID:26489103

  8. Determinants of Hearing Aid Acquisition in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Wiley, Terry L.; Klein, Barbara E.?K.; Klein, Ronald; Tweed, Ted S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We determined factors associated with hearing aid acquisition in older adults. Methods. We conducted a population-based, prospective study that used information from 3 examinations performed on study participants as part of the Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (1993–2005). We included participants (n?=?718; mean age?=?70.5 years) who exhibited hearing loss at baseline or the first follow-up and had no prior history of hearing aid use. We defined hearing loss as a pure tone threshold average (PTA) at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kilohertz in the better ear of greater than 25 decibels Hearing Level. Results. The 10-year cumulative incidence of hearing aid acquisition was 35.7%. Associated factors included education (college graduate vs all others: hazard ratio [HR]?=?2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.5, 4.1), self-perception of hearing (poor vs good or better: HR?=?2.5; 95% CI?=?1.3, 5.0), score on a perceived hearing handicap inventory (+?1 difference: HR?=?1.1; 95% CI?=?1.0, 1.1), and PTA (+?5 dB difference: HR?=?1.4; 95% CI?=?1.2, 1.6). Conclusions. The low rate of hearing aid ownership among older adults is a problem that still needs to be addressed. PMID:21680930

  9. Developing programs for older adults in a faith community.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Georgine M

    2006-11-01

    I have worked in all areas of nursing, from staff and head nurse positions to faculty and administrative positions, but my work as a parish nurse, particularly with our community of older adults, is one of the most challenging and rewarding areas of nursing practice I have ever experienced. Recently, one of our independent older adult parishioners, Marge, suddenly had a marked decrease in her ability to function, which was precipitated by two trips to the hospital and surgery. She went from living independently to living in a skilled care unit, no longer able to walk or perform activities of daily living without assistance. I had known Marge for only 2 years. When she became ill, I visited her weekly during the last 4 months of her life, as she had no family in the area. During my visit one evening as I helped Marge get ready for bed, she left me with a very poignant memory. After sharing some hair-raising stories about her care at this facility, she said, "Georgine, you're my best friend. You're the only one I can tell these things to and I know you understand." PMID:17128675

  10. Executive function and bilingualism in young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kousaie, Shanna; Sheppard, Christine; Lemieux, Maude; Monetta, Laura; Taler, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that being bilingual results in advantages on executive control processes and disadvantages on language tasks relative to monolinguals. Furthermore, the executive function advantage is thought to be larger in older than younger adults, suggesting that bilingualism may buffer against age-related changes in executive function. However, there are potential confounds in some of the previous research, as well as inconsistencies in the literature. The goal of the current investigation was to examine the presence of a bilingual advantage in executive control and a bilingual disadvantage on language tasks in the same sample of young and older monolingual anglophones, monolingual francophones, and French/English bilinguals. Participants completed a series of executive function tasks, including a Stroop task, a Simon task, a sustained attention to response task (SART), the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST), and the digit span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and language tasks, including the Boston Naming Test (BNT), and category and letter fluency. The results do not demonstrate an unequivocal advantage for bilinguals on executive function tasks and raise questions about the reliability, robustness and/or specificity of previous findings. The results also did not demonstrate a disadvantage for bilinguals on language tasks. Rather, they suggest that there may be an influence of the language environment. It is concluded that additional research is required to fully characterize any language group differences in both executive function and language tasks. PMID:25120442

  11. Functional Status and Social Contact Among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Pavela, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    This article tests whether functional status is associated with likelihood of social contact among older adults. Data come from the Second Longitudinal Study on Aging, a longitudinal nationally representative sample of 9,447 noninstitutionalized individuals aged 70 and over at baseline in 1995. Functional status is measured using an index of activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Social contact is measured by asking respondents whether they had gotten together socially or talked on the phone with friends/neighbors or family in the past 2 weeks. Greater number of functional limitations is associated with a decreased likelihood of social contact at follow-up via the phone with friends (odd ratio [OR] = 0.94, p < .01) and family (OR = 0.96, p < .01), and a decreased likelihood of getting together with friends (OR = 0.93, p < .01) and family (OR = 0.97, p < .01). Results indicate that functional limitations have a broad impact on self-reported social contact among older adults. PMID:25651594

  12. Access to continued-use medication among older adults, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Karynna Pimentel; Brito, Alexandre dos Santos; Rodrigues, Claudia Soares; Luiz, Ronir Raggio

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence and associated access factors for all continued-use prescription drugs and the ways in which they can be obtained. METHODS Data was obtained from the 2008 Household National Survey. The sample comprised 27,333 individuals above 60 years who reported that they used continued-use prescription drugs. A descriptive analysis and binary and multiple multinomial logistic regressions were performed. RESULTS 86.0% of the older adults had access to all the medication they needed, and among them, 50.7% purchased said medication. Those who obtained medication from the public health system were younger (60-64 years), did not have health insurance plans, and belonged to the lower income groups. It is remarkable that 14.0% of the subjects still had no access to any continued-use medication, and for those with more than four chronic diseases, this amount reached 22.0%. Those with a greater number of chronic diseases ran a higher risk of not having access to all the medication they needed. CONCLUSIONS There are some groups of older adults with an increased risk of not obtaining all the medication they need and of purchasing it. The results of this study are expected to contribute to guide programs and plans for access to medication in Brazil. PMID:25741646

  13. Relationship between BMI and physical performance among older adults.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Raiana Souza; da Silva Coqueiro, Raildo; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; Pinheiro, Paloma Andrade; Fernandes, Marcos Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and physical performance in community-dwelling older adults. This was a descriptive and association study, based on secondary data derived from a population-based epidemiological research involving 316 older adults. The BMI was thus classified: <22.0 kg/m(2), underweight; 22.0 ? BMI ? 27.0 kg/m(2), adequate; >27.0 kg/m(2), overweight. Physical performance was assessed based on "chair stand", "pick up a pen" and walking tests. Associations between BMI and performance at each test were tested by Cox regression for survival analysis with multiple modeling adjusted by gender and age, adopting a significance level of 5% (? = 0.05). Individuals with underweight (?adjusted = 0.64; p = 0.004), performed poorly in the "chair stand" test when compared to individuals with adequate weight. The BMI was a predictor of good physical function, with underweight being more of a limiting factor than overweight. PMID:23993659

  14. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rashedi, Vahid; Rezaei, Mohammad; Gharib, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mild cognitive impairment can be considered as an intermediate clinical state between normal cognitive aging and mild dementia. Elderly people with this impairment represent an at-risk group for the development of dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and its relationship with socio-demographic variables. Methods In this analytical-descriptive study, 212 subjects admitted to Hamadan’s day care centers were selected through simple random sampling method. To gather the data, MMSE was used as well as a questionnaire containing demographic variables. Data analysis was completed through SPSS-16. Results The sample consisted of 17.9% male, 59.4% of whom were married. According to the results, 96 cases (45.3%) suffered from mild (MMSE?22), 110 cases (51.9%) from moderate (11?MMSE?21) and 6 cases (2.8%) from severe cognitive disorder (MMSE?10). As findings revealed, factors such as age (Pv = 0.005, r = -0.491) and schooling (Pv < 0.001) are of significant relationship with MMSE score. Discussion Prevalence of cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults was of normal range. Hence, familial relations and social support can decrease mental status disorder. PMID:25436081

  15. Daily Symptom Management Practices for Arthritis Used by Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Lang, Wei; Altizer, Kathryn; Bell, Ronny A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This article describes the daily self-management practices of older adults with arthritis and examines the association of symptom experience with the use of self-management behaviors. Method 197 African American and White participants completed a baseline interview and six sets of three follow-up daily-diary interviews at monthly intervals. Results Arthritis was reported by 63.5%. Arthritis self-management reported included complementary therapies, over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription medications, foods or beverages, and home remedies. Odds of implementing these self-care practices were greater on days with joint pain, swelling, and stiffness. Although, 78.0% and 72.4% of all participants reported staying in bed or cutting back on activities in response to joint symptoms, these self-management activities were not associated with having arthritis. Conclusions Focusing on daily responses to symptoms demonstrates that older adults actively manage arthritis symptoms using a wide variety of measures, including complementary therapies. PMID:22173224

  16. Brain network activity in monolingual and bilingual older adults.

    PubMed

    Grady, Cheryl L; Luk, Gigi; Craik, Fergus I M; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Bilingual older adults typically have better performance on tasks of executive control (EC) than do their monolingual peers, but differences in brain activity due to language experience are not well understood. Based on studies showing a relation between the dynamic range of brain network activity and performance on EC tasks, we hypothesized that life-long bilingual older adults would show increased functional connectivity relative to monolinguals in networks related to EC. We assessed intrinsic functional connectivity and modulation of activity in task vs. fixation periods in two brain networks that are active when EC is engaged, the frontoparietal control network (FPC) and the salience network (SLN). We also examined the default mode network (DMN), which influences behavior through reduced activity during tasks. We found stronger intrinsic functional connectivity in the FPC and DMN in bilinguals than in monolinguals. Although there were no group differences in the modulation of activity across tasks and fixation, bilinguals showed stronger correlations than monolinguals between intrinsic connectivity in the FPC and task-related increases of activity in prefrontal and parietal regions. This bilingual difference in network connectivity suggests that language experience begun in childhood and continued throughout adulthood influences brain networks in ways that may provide benefits in later life. PMID:25445783

  17. Sleep In Older Adults: Normative Changes, Sleep Disorders, and Treatment Options

    PubMed Central

    Gooneratne, Nalaka S.; Vitiello, Michael V.

    2014-01-01

    1 Synopsis Sleep disorders are common in older adults: Approximately 5% of older adults meet criteria for clinically significant insomnia disorders and 20% for sleep apnea syndromes. When considering insomnia symptoms, it is important to distinguish age-appropriate changes in sleep from clinically significant insomnia, with the latter distinguished by the presence of significant daytime symptoms such as fatigue. Evaluation with a sleep diary and screening for comorbid conditions, especially mood disorders, is essential. Non-pharmacologic therapies, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia, can be highly effective and have sustained benefit. A broad range of pharmacologic therapies are also available but can have unwanted psychomotor effects. If left untreated, insomnia can be associated with increased risk of depression and significant impairments in quality of life. In regards to sleep apnea, a high index of suspicion is crucial for effective diagnosis because symptoms commonly noted in younger patients, such as obesity or loud snoring, may not be present in older patients. Diagnosis and management is fairly similar across age groups, except that a more nuanced approach to weight loss is warranted in older adults. The increasing use of home-based portable polysomnography and auto-titrating positive-airway pressure therapy can reduce barriers to treatment. PMID:25037297

  18. Overcoming Recruitment Barriers in Urban Older Adults Residing in Congregate Living Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Simning, Adam; van Wijngaarden, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Participation of minority older adults in mental health research has been limited by mistrust, transportation difficulties, lack of knowledge, and insufficient community partnership. We describe strategies utilized to overcome these recruitment barriers. Methods. Our target population included 553 public housing residents of older adult high-rise buildings in Rochester, NY. We had a two-stage cross-sectional study: Stage 1 was a health survey for all residents and Stage 2 was a psychiatric interview of English-speaking residents aged 60 years and older. Recruitment occurred through mailings, onsite activities, and resident referrals. Results. Stage 1 had 358 participants (64.7% response) and Stage 2 had 190 (61.6% target population response), with higher participation among African Americans. We found some strategies effective for overcoming recruitment barriers. First, we partnered with a community agency and organized onsite educational activities to improve residents' trust. Second, the study occurred entirely onsite, which facilitated participation of functionally impaired residents. Third, onsite activities allowed the residents to learn about the study and complete surveys in person. Fourth, we provided immediate incentives that resulted in many study referrals. Conclusions. Although recruitment of minority older adults presents unique challenges, a multifaceted community-tailored approach mitigated several recruitment barriers in this mental health study. PMID:26106598

  19. Lifecourse socioeconomic circumstances and multimorbidity among older adults

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many older adults manage multiple chronic conditions (i.e. multimorbidity); and many of these chronic conditions share common risk factors such as low socioeconomic status (SES) in adulthood and low SES across the lifecourse. To better capture socioeconomic condition in childhood, recent research in lifecourse epidemiology has broadened the notion of SES to include the experience of specific hardships. In this study we investigate the association among childhood financial hardship, lifetime earnings, and multimorbidity. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 7,305 participants age 50 and older from the 2004 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) who also gave permission for their HRS records to be linked to their Social Security Records in the United States. Zero-inflated Poisson regression models were used to simultaneously model the likelihood of the absence of morbidity and the expected number of chronic conditions. Results Childhood financial hardship and lifetime earnings were not associated with the absence of morbidity. However, childhood financial hardship was associated with an 8% higher number of chronic conditions; and, an increase in lifetime earnings, operationalized as average annual earnings during young and middle adulthood, was associated with a 5% lower number of chronic conditions reported. We also found a significant interaction between childhood financial hardship and lifetime earnings on multimorbidity. Conclusions This study shows that childhood financial hardship and lifetime earnings are associated with multimorbidity, but not associated with the absence of morbidity. Lifetime earnings modified the association between childhood financial hardship and multimorbidity suggesting that this association is differentially influential depending on earnings across young and middle adulthood. Further research is needed to elucidate lifecourse socioeconomic pathways associated with the absence of morbidity and the presence of multimorbidity among older adults. PMID:21569558

  20. Lack of Endogenous Modulation but Enhanced Decay of Prolonged Heat Pain in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; King, Christopher D.; Wong, Fong; Fillingim, Roger B.; Mauderli, Andre P.

    2013-01-01

    This study supports the hypothesis that healthy older adults exhibit decreased endogenous pain inhibition compared to younger healthy controls. Twenty-two older adults (56–77 years of age) and 27 controls ages 20–49 participated in five experimental sessions following a training session. Each experimental session consisted of five 60-second trials in which the experimental heat stimulus was presented to the thenar eminence of the left palm with or without a conditioning stimulus (cold-water immersion of the foot). The temperature for the palm (44–49°C) and foot (8–16°C) were customized for each subject. The intensity of experimental pain produced by the contact thermode was continuously measured during the 60-second trial with an electronic visual analogue scale. No significant associations were found between subjects rating of concentration and the overall inhibitory effect. Older subjects failed to demonstrate conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and showed facilitation in the trials using painful concurrent immersion of the foot. A novel aspect of the study was that we recorded “pain offset” (i.e., after sensations) and found that ratings for the older sample decreased at a slower rate than observed for the group of younger adults suggesting increased central sensitization among the older sample. Decrements in CPM could contribute to the greater prevalence of pain in older age. Since a number of neurotransmitter systems are involved in pain modulation, it is possible age-related differences in CPM are due to functional changes in these systems in a number of areas within the neuroaxis. PMID:20546997

  1. The 6-Month Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSS) Among Older Adults: Validity and Reliability of the PTSS Scale

    PubMed Central

    Préville, Michel; Lamoureux-Lamarche, Catherine; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Grenier, Sébastien; Potvin, Olivier; Quesnel, Louise; Gontijo-Guerra, Samantha; Mechakra-Tahiri, Samia Djemaa; Berbiche, Djamal

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To document the 6-month prevalence of posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSS) in the older adult population and the validity of a PTSS Scale in an epidemiologic setting. Method: Data came from the Enquête sur la santé des aînés et l’utilisation des services de santé (ESA Services Study) conducted during 2012–2013 using a probability sample of older adults seeking medical services in primary health clinics. Results: Results showed that a first-order PTSS measurement model consisting of 3 indicators—the number of lifetime traumatic events, the frequency of reactions and symptoms of distress associated with the traumatic events, and the presence of consequences on the social functioning—was plausible. Reliability of the PTSS was 0.82. According to the PTSS, 11.1% of the older adult patients presented with PTSS, but only 21.7% of them reported an impact of their symptoms on their social functioning. The prevalence of older adults meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria for full posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) reached 1.8%, and 1.8% of older adults reached criteria for partial PTSD. Our results also showed that women were more at risk to report PTSS than men and that older adults aged 75 years and older were less likely to report these symptoms than those aged between 65 and 74 years. Conclusions: PTSS is a common mental health problem among adults aged 65 and older and seeking health services in the general medical sector. PMID:25565688

  2. Functional Compensation in the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Improves Memory-Dependent Decisions in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Huettel, Scott A.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Everyday consumer choices frequently involve memory, as when we retrieve information about consumer products when making purchasing decisions. In this context, poor memory may affect decision quality, particularly in individuals with memory decline, such as older adults. However, age differences in choice behavior may be reduced if older adults can recruit additional neural resources that support task performance. Although such functional compensation is well documented in other cognitive domains, it is presently unclear whether it can support memory-guided decision making and, if so, which brain regions play a role in compensation. The current study engaged younger and older humans in a memory-dependent choice task in which pairs of consumer products from a popular online-shopping site were evaluated with different delays between the first and second product. Using functional imaging (fMRI), we found that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) supports compensation as defined by three a priori criteria: (1) increased vmPFC activation was observed in older versus younger adults; (2) age-related increases in vmPFC activity were associated with increased retrieval demands; and (3) increased vmPFC activity was positively associated with performance in older adults—evidence of successful compensation. Extending these results, we observed evidence for compensation in connectivity between vmPFC and the dorsolateral PFC during memory-dependent choice. In contrast, we found no evidence for age differences in value-related processing or age-related compensation for choices without delayed retrieval. Together, these results converge on the conclusion that age-related decline in memory-dependent choice performance can be minimized via functional compensation in vmPFC. PMID:25411493

  3. Inequitable access to health services for older adults with diabetes: potential solutions on a state level.

    PubMed

    Faul, Anna C; Yankeelov, Pamela A; McCord, Laneshia R

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious global public health challenge. The cost for health services for diabetes care has increased 41% over the past 5 years. Despite escalating health expenditure, the United States continues to have higher rates of diabetes than many other developed countries. There is a need for health care reform in the United States not only in reducing health care costs but also in improving the quality of preventative care. This study presents the testing of a multilevel model investigating variables on the individual and state levels to develop a better understanding of the most important contextual pathways that can lead to providing older adults (50+) with type 2 diabetes with the recommended preventative quality care they require. The model was tested using a three-level repeated cross-sectional design with data from various existing data sources, using a national sample of 181,870 individuals aged 50 years and older. Results showed that differences in state health care systems contributed to inequitable access. Specifically, in a state where there was a higher percentage of adults 65 and older coupled with a shortage of health care professionals, the likelihood of receiving the recommended preventative quality care decreased. Also, older adults living in states with a higher percentage of people with diagnosed diabetes but with a lower-than-average annual per capita health care expenditure fared worse in receiving quality preventative care. Last, older adults in wealthy states with higher percentages of uninsured people had the lowest odds of receiving quality preventative care. Health care reform, similar to what is currently promoted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, is recommended to improve the performance of all health care systems in all states. PMID:25299060

  4. Functional compensation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex improves memory-dependent decisions in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lighthall, Nichole R; Huettel, Scott A; Cabeza, Roberto

    2014-11-19

    Everyday consumer choices frequently involve memory, as when we retrieve information about consumer products when making purchasing decisions. In this context, poor memory may affect decision quality, particularly in individuals with memory decline, such as older adults. However, age differences in choice behavior may be reduced if older adults can recruit additional neural resources that support task performance. Although such functional compensation is well documented in other cognitive domains, it is presently unclear whether it can support memory-guided decision making and, if so, which brain regions play a role in compensation. The current study engaged younger and older humans in a memory-dependent choice task in which pairs of consumer products from a popular online-shopping site were evaluated with different delays between the first and second product. Using functional imaging (fMRI), we found that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) supports compensation as defined by three a priori criteria: (1) increased vmPFC activation was observed in older versus younger adults; (2) age-related increases in vmPFC activity were associated with increased retrieval demands; and (3) increased vmPFC activity was positively associated with performance in older adults-evidence of successful compensation. Extending these results, we observed evidence for compensation in connectivity between vmPFC and the dorsolateral PFC during memory-dependent choice. In contrast, we found no evidence for age differences in value-related processing or age-related compensation for choices without delayed retrieval. Together, these results converge on the conclusion that age-related decline in memory-dependent choice performance can be minimized via functional compensation in vmPFC. PMID:25411493

  5. Current Practices and Opportunities in a Resident Clinic Regarding the Care of Older Adults with Multimorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Schoenborn, Nancy L.; Boyd, Cynthia M.; McNabney, Matthew; Ray, Anushree; Cayea, Danelle

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Multimorbidity (?2 chronic conditions) affects more than half of all older adults. The American Geriatrics Society developed and published guiding principles for the care of older adults with multimorbidity in 2012. Improved clinician training in caring for older adults with multimorbidity is needed, but it is not clear what opportunities arise within clinical encounters to apply the guiding principles or how clinicians at all stages of training currently practice in this area. This project aimed to characterize current practice and opportunities for improvement in an internal medicine residency clinic regarding the care of older adults with multimorbidity. DESIGN Qualitative content analysis of audio-recorded clinic visits. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS Thirty clinic visits between 21 internal medicine residents and 30 of their primary care patients aged 65 and older with two or more chronic conditions were audio-recorded. Patients’ mean age was 73.6, and they had on average 3.7 chronic conditions and took 12.6 medications. MEASUREMENTS Transcripts of the audio-recorded visit discussions were analyzed using standard techniques of qualitative content analysis to describe the content and frequency of discussions in the clinic visits related to the five guiding principles: patient preferences, interpreting the evidence, prognosis, clinical feasibility, and optimizing therapies. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS All visits except one included discussions that were thematically related to at least one guiding principle, suggesting regular opportunities to apply the guiding principles in primary care encounters with internal medicine residents. Discussions related to some guiding principles occurred much more frequently than others. Patients presented a number of opportunities to incorporate the guiding principles that the residents missed, suggesting target areas for future educational interventions. PMID:26200347

  6. Policy Implications of a Literature Review of Cardiovascular Disease in Uninsured Immigrant Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Sadarangani, Tina R

    2015-06-01

    The number of older adults emigrating to the United States is expected to quadruple by 2050. The health of immigrant older adults is complicated by the limited options for low-cost health insurance available to this population. Welfare reform has limited new immigrants' access to public assistance programs, such as Medicaid; and low-cost private insurance options rarely exist for individuals older than 65, even with the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). Uninsured immigrant older adults have been found to forgo preventive care due to cost and are among the leading users of emergency departments for preventable complications of chronic disease, primarily cardiovascular disease (CVD). A review of the literature found that insurance coverage has a significant impact on CVD risk among immigrant older adults. The current article discusses the implications of welfare reform initiatives and the shortcomings of the PPACA in addressing the health care needs of immigrant older adults. PMID:25912238

  7. Predictors of the new criteria for probable PTSD among older adults.

    PubMed

    Palgi, Yuval

    2015-12-30

    The definition of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) changed in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5) and it is yet unclear how these changes affect the diagnosis of PTSD among older adults. The present study examined the contribution of demographic characteristics, functioning status, health related factors, as well as exposure to rocket attacks to prediction of probable PTSD in older adults. Three-hundred and thirty-nine community-dwelling adults (age range 50-90; M=65.44, SD=9.77) were sampled through random dialing to Jewish residents in the south of Israel. Participants completed a phone-questionnaire that collected background information and reports of relevant symptoms. Analyses showed that self-rated health, incidence of depression episodes, and exposure to rocket attacks predicted the DSM-5 definition of PTSD as well as the subscale of negative alternations in cognition and mood. The current study delineates the unique set of predictors of probable PTSD in older adults, with an emphasis on negative alternations in cognition and mood. Greater attention to unique predictors of PTSD in the second half of life is called for. PMID:26586141

  8. Adiposity measures predict olfactory processing speed in older adult carriers of the Apolipoprotein E ?4 allele

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, R.; Bartholow, J.; Green, E.; Morgan, C.D.; Murphy, C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The current study investigated the relationship between adiposity and P3 latency. Methods Fifty-one adults in two age groups (18-25 and 65+) participated. Odor stimuli were delivered via olfactometer as participants focused on a computer screen. Each stimulus was followed by presentation on the screen of four odor identification choices. Participants attempted identification by button press. Olfactory event-related potentials (OERPs) were recorded. BMI and waist circumference were measured as indicators of adiposity. Results In bivarate analyses with all participants included, positive correlations for P3 latency with both BMI and waist circumference were observed, indicating that as adiposity increased latencies also increased. When each age group was separately examined, correlations between adiposity measures and latency remained statistically significant for older adults. Furthermore, ApoE ?4 allele status was examined. Latencies remained positively correlated with adiposity in older adult ?4 carriers; but not in non-carriers. Conclusions This study indicates that adiposity predicts olfactory processing speed in older adults, specifically in ?4 carriers. Significance The results suggest that olfactory processing speed may be a useful measure for detecting and following the effects of adiposity on brain integrity and cognitive function in those at genetic risk for AD. PMID:22055839

  9. Association Between Adiposity in Midlife and Older Age and Risk of Diabetes in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, Mary L.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Luchsinger, Jose A.; Ix, Joachim H.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Newman, Anne B.; de Boer, Ian H.; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Siscovick, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Context Adiposity is a well-recognized risk factor for type 2 diabetes among young and middle-aged adults, but the relationship between body composition and type 2 diabetes is not well described among older adults. Objective To examine the relationship between adiposity, changes in adiposity, and risk of incident type 2 diabetes in adults 65 years of age and older. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective cohort study (1989-2007) of 4193 men and women 65 years of age and older in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Measures of adiposity were derived from anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance data at baseline and anthropometry repeated 3 years later. Main Outcome Measure Incident diabetes was ascertained based on use of antidiabetic medication or a fasting glucose level of 126 mg/dL or greater. Results Over median follow-up of 12.4 years (range, 0.9-17.8 years), 339 cases of incident diabetes were ascertained (7.1/1000 person-years). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of type 2 diabetes for participants in the highest quintile of baseline measures compared with those in the lowest was 4.3 (95% CI, 2.9-6.5) for body mass index (BMI [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared]), 3.0 (95% CI, 2.0-4.3) for BMI at 50 years of age, 4.2 (95% CI, 2.8-6.4) for weight, 4.0 (95% CI, 2.6-6.0) for fat mass, 4.2 (95% CI, 2.8-6.2) for waist circumference, 2.4 (95% CI, 1.6-3.5) for waist-hip ratio, and 3.8 (95% CI, 2.6-5.5) for waist-height ratio. However, when stratified by age, participants 75 years of age and older had HRs approximately half as large as those 65 to 74 years of age. Compared with weight-stable participants (±2 kg), those who gained the most weight from 50 years of age to baseline (?9 kg), and from baseline to the third follow-up visit (?6 kg), had HRs for type 2 diabetes of 2.8 (95% CI, 1.9-4.3) and 2.0 (95% CI, 1.1-3.7), respectively. Participants with a greater than 10-cm increase in waist size from baseline to the third follow-up visit had an HR of type 2 diabetes of 1.7 (95% CI, 1.1-2.8) compared with those who gained or lost 2 cm or less. Conclusion Among older adults, overall and central adiposity, and weight gain during middle age and after the age of 65 years are associated with risk of diabetes. PMID:20571017

  10. Changes and events over life course: a comparative study between groups of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Luípa Michele; Silva, Antônia Oliveira; Tura, Luiz Fernando Rangel; Moreira, Maria Adelaide Silva Paredes; Nogueira, Jordana Almeida; Cavalli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the changes which had occurred over the last year in the life of older adults, as well as the values attributed to these changes. METHOD: this is a multicentric, cross-sectional study, of the inquiry type, undertaken in three cities of the Brazilian Northeast, investigating two distinct groups of older adults. RESULTS: among the 236 older adults interviewed, it was observed that 30.0% reported health as the main change in their life course in the last year, this category being the most significant response among the older adults aged between 80 and 84 years old (37.7%). Changes in the family were mentioned by 11.5% of the older adults; death (9.6%) and alterations in routine activities (9.6%). In relation to the value attributed to these changes, it was ascertained that for 64.7% of the older adults aged between 65 and 69 years old, these changes were positive. In the older group, 49.4% of the older adults believe that their changes were related to losses. CONCLUSION: the knowledge of the changes mentioned, the value attributed to these changes, and the self-evaluation of health provide information which assists in formulating actions which are more specific to the real needs of these age groups. They also provide the health professionals with a better understanding of how some experiences are experienced in the life trajectories of these older adults. PMID:25806625

  11. Preservation of memory-based automaticity in reading for older adults.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Katherine A; Touron, Dayna R

    2015-12-01

    Concerning age-related effects on cognitive skill acquisition, the modal finding is that older adults do not benefit from practice to the same extent as younger adults in tasks that afford a shift from slower algorithmic processing to faster memory-based processing. In contrast, Rawson and Touron (2009) demonstrated a relatively rapid shift to memory-based processing in the context of a reading task. The current research extended beyond this initial study to provide more definitive evidence for relative preservation of memory-based automaticity in reading tasks for older adults. Younger and older adults read short stories containing unfamiliar noun phrases (e.g., skunk mud) followed by disambiguating information indicating the combination's meaning (either the normatively dominant meaning or an alternative subordinate meaning). Stories were repeated across practice blocks, and then the noun phrases were presented in novel sentence frames in a transfer task. Both age groups shifted from computation to retrieval after relatively few practice trials (as evidenced by convergence of reading times for dominant and subordinate items). Most important, both age groups showed strong evidence for memory-based processing of the noun phrases in the transfer task. In contrast, older adults showed minimal shifting to retrieval in an alphabet arithmetic task, indicating that the preservation of memory-based automaticity in reading was task-specific. Discussion focuses on important implications for theories of memory-based automaticity in general and for specific theoretical accounts of age effects on memory-based automaticity, as well as fruitful directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26302027

  12. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Alan J.; Adair, Brooke; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E.

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving. PMID:23304507

  13. Self-regulated learning in younger and older adults: does aging affect metacognitive control?

    PubMed

    Price, Jodi; Hertzog, Christopher; Dunlosky, John

    2010-05-01

    Two experiments examined whether younger and older adults' self-regulated study (item selection and study time) conformed to the region of proximal learning (RPL) model when studying normatively easy, medium, and difficult vocabulary pairs. Experiment 2 manipulated the value of recalling different pairs and provided learning goals for words recalled and points earned. Younger and older adults in both experiments selected items for study in an easy-to-difficult order, indicating the RPL model applies to older adults' self-regulated study. Individuals allocated more time to difficult items, but prioritized easier items when given less time or point values favoring difficult items. Older adults studied more items for longer but realized lower recall than did younger adults. Older adults' lower memory self-efficacy and perceived control correlated with their greater item restudy and avoidance of difficult items with high point values. Results are discussed in terms of RPL and agenda-based regulation models. PMID:19866382

  14. Lifelong education for older adults in Malta: Current trends and future visions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formosa, Marvin

    2012-04-01

    With European demographic developments causing a decline of the available workforce in the foreseeable future and the unsustainability of dominant pay-as-you-go pension systems (where contributions from the current workforce sustain pensioners), governments need to come up with strategies to deal with this upcoming challenge and to adjust their policies. Based on a study carried out between September 2009 and May 2010, this article evaluates the policies guiding late-life education in Malta, as well as the local plethora of learning opportunities for older adult education, and participation rates. The Maltese government is committed to supporting the inclusion of older persons (aged 60+) in lifelong education policies and programmes, to the extent that local studies have uncovered a recent rise in the overall participation of older adults in formal, non-formal and informal areas of learning. While the present and future prospects for late-life education in Malta seem promising, a critical scrutiny of present ideologies and trends finds the field to be no more than seductive rhetoric. Though the coordination of late-life education in Malta does result in various social benefits to older learners and Maltese society in general, it also occurs within five intersecting lines of inequality - namely an economic rationale, elitism, gender bias, the urban-rural divide and third ageism. This article ends by proposing policy recommendations for the future of late-life education.

  15. Barriers to physical activity in older adults in Germany: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Data on barriers to physical activity in older adults in Germany are scarce. The aim of this study was to analyse barriers to physical activity in a cohort of older adults, allowing comparisons between men and women, and age groups. Methods 1,937 older adults with a median age of 77 (range 72-93) years (53.3% female) took part in the 7-year follow-up telephone interviews of the getABI cohort. Participants who stated that they did not get enough physical activity were surveyed with respect to barriers to physical activity. Barriers were analysed for all respondents, as well as by sex and age group for cases with complete data. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate differences between sexes and age groups. The level of significance (alpha < 0.05) was adjusted for multiple testing according to Bonferroni (p < .004). Results 1,607 (83.0%) participants stated that they were sufficiently physically active. 286 participants rated their physical activity as insufficient and responded to questions on barriers to physical activity completely. The three most frequently cited barriers were poor health (57.7%), lack of company (43.0%), and lack of interest (36.7%). Lack of opportunities for sports or leisure activities (30.3% vs. 15.6%), and lack of transport (29.0% vs. 7.1%) were more frequently stated by female respondents than male respondents. These differences between men and women were significant (p = .003; p < .001) after adjustment for respondents' age. Analyses by age groups revealed that poor health was more frequently considered a barrier to physical activity by participants aged 80+ years compared to the younger age group (71.1% vs. 51.5%). This age-dependent difference was significant (p = .002) irrespective of the participants' sex. Conclusions The present study provides relevant data on barriers to physical activity in older adults. By revealing appreciable differences between men and women, and age groups, this study has implications for efforts to increase older adults' physical activity. Promotion and intervention strategies should consider the barriers and tailor measures to the specific needs of older adults in order to reduce their constraints to physical activity. PMID:22047024

  16. Methodology for the systematic reviews on occupational therapy interventions for older adults with low vision.

    PubMed

    Arbesman, Marian; Lieberman, Deborah; Berlanstein, Debra R

    2013-01-01

    Systematic reviews of the literature relevant to older adults with low vision are important to the practice of occupational therapy. This article describes the four questions that served as the focus for the systematic reviews of the effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions for older adults with low vision. We describe the background for the reviews; the process followed for each question, including search terms and search strategy; the databases searched; and the methods used to summarize and critically appraise the literature. In addition, we present the final number of articles included in each systematic review; a summary of the results, strengths, and limitations of the findings; and implications for practice, education, and research. PMID:23597684

  17. Psychosocial issues in older adults' adjustment to vision loss: findings from qualitative interviews and focus groups.

    PubMed

    Teitelman, Jodi; Copolillo, Al

    2005-01-01

    Although more therapists are responding to the increasing need for visual rehabilitation services for older adults, little is reported in the literature about the emotional experience of vision loss, especially in the words of persons with low vision themselves. This paper reports findings from a qualitative inquiry involving focus groups and in-depth interviews with 15 older adults using or considering using low vision assistive devices (Copolillo & Teitelman, 2005). Although the study's original intent was to focus primarily on decisions about LVAD use, psychological and social implications of vision loss emerged spontaneously as a dominant area of concern for participants. From an analysis of 154 codes derived from transcripted data, three themes related to psychosocial experience were generated: (a) Emotional Challenges, (b) Negative Emotional Outcomes, and (c) Indicators of Emotional Adaptation. In this article, individual components of the themes are described using illustrative quotes, and potential practice implications for therapists are presented. PMID:16124207

  18. ReadySteady: App for Accelerometer-based Activity Monitoring and Wellness-Motivation Feedback System for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Vankipuram, Mithra; McMahon, Siobhan; Fleury, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Increased physical activity and exercise have been found to reduce falls and decrease mortality and age-related morbidity in older adults. However, a large percentage of this population fail to achieve the necessary levels of activity needed to support health living. In this work, we present a mobile app developed on the iOS platform that monitors activity levels using accelerometry. The data captured by the sensor is utilized to provide real-time motivational feedback to enable reinforcement of positive behaviors in older adults. Pilot experiments (conducted with younger adults) performed to assess validity of activity measurement showed that system accurately measures sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous activities in a controlled lab setting. Pilot tests (conducted with older adults) in the user setting showed that while the app is adept at capturing gross body activity (such as sitting, walking and jogging), additional sensors may be required to capture activities involving the extremities. PMID:23304368

  19. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Responses during Aquatic Exercise in Water at Different Temperatures in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergamin, Marco; Ermolao, Andrea; Matten, Sonia; Sieverdes, John C.; Zaccaria, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological responses during upper-body aquatic exercises in older adults with different pool temperatures. Method: Eleven older men (aged 65 years and older) underwent 2 identical aquatic exercise sessions that consisted of 3 upper-body exercises using progressive intensities (30, 35, and 40…

  20. An Examination of Instructors' Perceptions of Older Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levaque, Susan F.

    2012-01-01

    The number of U.S. citizens ages 65 years and older is steadily increasing, and members of this cohort are redefining what it means to be an older adult. As members of the Baby Boom generation reach older adulthood, many of them are seeking educational opportunities to help them to meet their needs and desires as lifelong learners. Several factors…

  1. Older Adults' Perceptions of Physical Activity and Cognitive Health: Implications for Health Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Anna E.; Corwin, Sara J.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Montgomery, Kara M.

    2011-01-01

    Messages promoting physical activity (PA) to maintain cognitive health (CH) may increase PA and enhance CH among older persons. This study examined older adults' perceptions of PA and CH. We conducted 10 focus groups with irregularly active older Black and White women and men (N = 55), ages 65 to 74 in South Carolina. Constant comparison methods…

  2. Life Satisfaction of Older Adults in Hong Kong: The Role of Social Support from Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lou, Vivian W. Q.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the life satisfaction of older adults and the social support from grandchildren in Hong Kong. Two hundred and fifteen older people (from the ages of 64 to 101, mean age 79.3), whose youngest grandchild was aged 12 or older, were recruited from elderly service agencies to participate in the study.…

  3. Genetics of Microstructure of the Corpus Callosum in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kanchibhotla, Sri C.; Mather, Karen A.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Zhuang, Lin; Schofield, Peter R.; Kwok, John B. J.; Ames, David; Wright, Margaret J.; Trollor, Julian N.; Wen, Wei; Sachdev, Perminder S.

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought to examine the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on corpus callosum (CC) microstructure in a community sample of older adult twins. Analyses were undertaken in 284 healthy older twins (66% female; 79 MZ and 63 DZ pairs) from the Older Australian Twins Study. The average age of the sample was 69.82 (SD?=?4.76) years. Brain imaging scans were collected and DTI measures were estimated for the whole CC as well as its five subregions. Parcellation of the CC was performed using Analyze. In addition, white matter lesion (WMLs) burden was estimated. Heritability and genetic correlation analyses were undertaken using the SOLAR software package. Age, sex, scanner, handedness and blood pressure were considered as covariates. Heritability (h2) analysis for the DTI metrics of whole CC, indicated significant h2 for fractional anisotropy (FA) (h2?=?0.56; p?=?2.89×10?10), mean diffusivity (MD) (h2?=?0.52; p?=?0.30×10?6), radial diffusivity (RD) (h2?=?0.49; p?=?0.2×10?6) and axial diffusivity (AD) (h2?=?0.37; p?=?8.15×10?5). We also performed bivariate genetic correlation analyses between (i) whole CC DTI measures and (ii) whole CC DTI measures with total brain WML burden. Across the DTI measures for the whole CC, MD and RD shared 84% of the common genetic variance, followed by MD- AD (77%), FA - RD (52%), RD - AD (37%) and FA – MD (11%). For total WMLs, significant genetic correlations indicated that there was 19% shared common genetic variance with whole CC MD, followed by CC RD (17%), CC AD (16%) and CC FA (5%). Our findings suggest that the CC microstructure is under moderate genetic control. There was also evidence of shared genetic factors between the CC DTI measures. In contrast, there was less shared genetic variance between WMLs and the CC DTI metrics, suggesting fewer common genetic variants. PMID:25514436

  4. Hand test characteristics of dual diagnosed mentally retarded older adults.

    PubMed

    Panek, P E; Wagner, E E

    1993-10-01

    The projective Hand Test (Wagner, 1962/1983) was administered to 17 older adults with a dual diagnosis (mental retardation existing concurrently with some form of mental illness) residing in a Midwestern institution for the mentally retarded. Each of these individuals was matched with another resident in the same institution with a single diagnosis of mental retardation on the variables of age, sex, and level of mental retardation to determine differences between the groups on the Hand Test. The dual diagnosis group gave significantly more bizarre (BIZ) responses, whereas the single diagnosis group gave more descriptive (DES) responses. It was contended that these two variables accurately reflect the essential difference between dual and single diagnosed mentally retarded individuals. PMID:8229637

  5. Interpersonal Effects of Suffering in Older Adult Caregiving Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Monin, Joan K.; Schulz, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Examining the interpersonal effects of suffering in the context of family caregiving is an important step to a broader understanding of how exposure to suffering affects humans. In this review article, we first describe existing evidence that being exposed to the suffering of a care recipient (conceptualized as psychological distress, physical symptoms, and existential/spiritual distress) directly influences caregivers’ emotional experiences. Drawing from past theory and research, we propose that caregivers experience similar, complementary, and/or defensive emotions in response to care recipient suffering through mechanisms such as cognitive empathy, mimicry, and conditioned learning, placing caregivers at risk for psychological and physical morbidity. We then describe how gender, relationship closeness, caregiving efficacy, and individual differences in emotion regulation moderate these processes. Finally, we provide directions for future research to deepen our understanding of interpersonal phenomena among older adults, and we discuss implications for clinical interventions to alleviate the suffering of both caregivers and care recipients. PMID:19739924

  6. Exercise, Sedentary Pastimes, and Cognitive Performance in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Susanne Inez; Sammel, Mary Dupuis; Harel, Brian Tal; Schembri, Adrian; Policastro, Christopher; Bogner, Hillary R.; Negash, Selamawit; Arnold, Steven Edward

    2015-01-01

    Background Moderately vigorous physical activity (MVPA) provides a protective affect against cognitive decline and cardiovascular risk factors. Less is known about sedentary pastimes or non exercise physical activity (NEPA) and cognitive performance. Method 125 healthy adults 65 or older with no clinical evidence of cognitive impairment were enrolled. The CogState computerized neurocognitive battery was administered. Leisure activities were measured using the Community Health Activity Program for Seniors (CHAMPS). Results Sedentary pastimes were associated with executive dysfunction (P = 0.01); MVPA with high memory scores (P = 0.05) and NEPA with improved working memory (P = 0.05). Only sedentary pastimes and executive dysfunction retained significance after correction for multiple comparisons. Smoking and alcohol confounded the association of memory with sedentary pastimes and MVPA. Conclusions Study highlights: negative impact of sedentary pastimes on executive function, need for additional investigation of sedentary behavior, NEPA, the impact of addictions upon activity in late life. PMID:25100746

  7. Use of Complementary Therapies for Health Promotion Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Nguyen, Ha T.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Bell, Ronny A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Lang, Wei; Quandt, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the types of complementary therapies used by older adults for health promotion, and delineates the predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with their use. One-hundred ninety-five African American and White participants (age 65+) completed a baseline interview and up to six sets of three daily follow-up interviews at monthly intervals. Complementary therapies for health promotion included home remedies, specific foods or beverages, herbs, supplements, vitamins, over-the-counter (OTC) medicine, prayer, exercise, and being active. Although gender, ethnicity, education, and trust in doctors were associated with the use of complementary therapies for health promotion, health information seeking was the predisposing factor most often associated. The enabling factors were also associated with their use. Health information seeking, which reflects a wellness lifestyle, had the most consistent associations with complementary therapy use for health promotion. This health self-management for health promotion may have positive effects on future medical expenditures. PMID:24652893

  8. Suicide and Death Ideation in Older Adults Obtaining Aging Services

    PubMed Central

    O'Riley, Alisa A.; Van Orden, Kimberly A.; He, Hua; Richardson, Thomas M.; Podgorski, Carol; Conwell, Yeates

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the frequency and correlates of death and suicide ideation in older adults accessing aging services Design Cross-sectional Setting Data for this study were collected via in-home interviews. Participants ASN care management clients aged 60 years and older (N = 377) were recruited for this study. Measurement The PHQ-9 and the Paykel Suicide Scale were used to assess death and suicide ideation. Correlates of death and suicide ideation were also examined. Results Fourteen percent of subjects endorsed current death or suicide ideation, 27.9% of subjects endorsed death ideation in the past year, and 9.3% of subjects endorsed suicide ideation in the last year. Current death and suicide ideation were associated with greater depressive symptoms. As compared with individuals without ideation, individuals with death ideation demonstrated higher levels of depressive symptoms, more medical conditions, and lower social support. Individuals with suicide ideation demonstrated higher depressive and anxiety symptoms and less perceived social support. Finally, as compared with individuals with death ideation, individuals with suicide ideation demonstrated higher depressive and anxiety symptoms and more alcohol misuse. Conclusions Death and suicide ideation are common among ASN clients. There were both differences and similarities between correlates of death and suicide ideation. ASN providers are uniquely situated to address many of the correlates of suicide ideation identified in this study; however, in order to effectively manage suicide ideation in an ASN setting, links to primary and mental health care providers are necessary. PMID:23602307

  9. Auditory Training: Evidence for Neural Plasticity in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Samira; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Improvements in digital amplification, cochlear implants, and other innovations have extended the potential for improving hearing function; yet, there remains a need for further hearing improvement in challenging listening situations, such as when trying to understand speech in noise or when listening to music. Here, we review evidence from animal and human models of plasticity in the brain’s ability to process speech and other meaningful stimuli. We considered studies targeting populations of younger through older adults, emphasizing studies that have employed randomized controlled designs and have made connections between neural and behavioral changes. Overall results indicate that the brain remains malleable through older adulthood, provided that treatment algorithms have been modified to allow for changes in learning with age. Improvements in speech-in-noise perception and cognition function accompany neural changes in auditory processing. The training-related improvements noted across studies support the need to consider auditory training strategies in the management of individuals who express concerns about hearing in difficult listening situations. Given evidence from studies engaging the brain’s reward centers, future research should consider how these centers can be naturally activated during training. PMID:25485037

  10. Risk Factors for Functional Decline in Older Adults with Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Dorothy D.; Semanik, Pamela; Song, Jing; Manheim, Larry M.; Shih, Vivian; Chang, Rowland W.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. Functional limitation is a major driver of medical costs. This study evaluates the prevalence of functional limitation among adults with arthritis, the frequency of functional decline over two years, and investigates factors amenable to public health intervention that predict functional decline. Methods. Longitudinal data (1998–2000) from a cohort of 5715 adults 65 years or older with arthritis from a national probability sample are analyzed. Function was defined from ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and basic ADL tasks. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) from multiple logistic regression estimated the association between functional decline with comorbid conditions, health behaviors, and economic factors. Results. Overall, 19.7% of this cohort had functional limitation at baseline, including 12.9% with ADL limitations. Over the subsequent two years, function declined in 13.6% of those at risk. Functional decline was most frequent among older women (15.0%) and minorities with arthritis (18.0% Hispanics, 18.7% African Americans). Lack of regular vigorous physical activity (RVPA), the most prevalent risk factor (65%), almost doubled the odds of functional decline (AOR=1.9 95% CI =1.5, 2.4) controlling for all risk factors. If all subjects engaged in RVPA, the expected functional decline could be reduced as much as 36%. Other significant predictors included cognitive impairment, depressive symptoms, diabetes, physical limitations, no alcohol use, stroke, and vision impairment. Conclusions. Lack of RVPA is a potentially modifiable risk factor, which could substantially reduce functional decline and associated health care costs. Prevention/intervention programs should include RVPA, weight maintenance, and medical intervention for health needs. PMID:15818691

  11. Depression and Its Correlates Among Older Adults Accessing Aging Services

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Thomas M.; Friedman, Bruce; Podgorski, Carol; Knox, Kerry; Fisher, Susan; He, Hua; Conwell, Yeates

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To define the prevalence and correlates of depression among older adults receiving assessments by nonmedical community-based care managers at the point of entry to care and thus prior to provision of aging services. Our long-term goal is to inform development of collaborative care models for late life depression that incorporate Aging Services Providers. Methods Aging Services Provider Network (ASPN) clients receiving in-home assessments were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition module for affective disorders and measures of depression symptom severity, alcohol use, physical health, functional status, social support, stressful life events, and religiosity. Engagement in mental healthcare was documented. Results Subjects (N = 378) were primarily white (84%) and women (69%) with household incomes under $1,750/month (62%). Half lived alone (48%). Their mean age was 77 years. Thirty-one percent had clinically significant depressive symptoms and 27% met criteria for a current major depressive episode, of which 61% were being treated with medication and 25% by a mental health provider. Nearly half (47%) had experienced one or more episodes of major depression during their lives. Disability, number of medical conditions, number and severity of recent stressful life events, low social support, and low religiosity were independently associated with current major depression. Conclusion Depressive illness was common among this sample of ASPN clients. Because ASPN care managers have expertise in managing many of the problems correlated with depression, they may play a significant role in identifying, preventing, and collaborating in the treatment of depressive illnesses among community-dwelling older adults. PMID:22434017

  12. Older adults report moderately more detailed autobiographical memories

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Robert S.; Mainetti, Matteo; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

    2015-01-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) is an essential component of the human mind. Although the([A-z]+) amount and types of subjective detail (content) that compose AMs constitute important dimensions of recall, age-related changes in memory content are not well characterized. Previously, we introduced the Cue-Recalled Autobiographical Memory test (CRAM; see http://cramtest.info), an instrument that collects subjective reports of AM content, and applied it to college-aged subjects. CRAM elicits AMs using naturalistic word-cues. Subsequently, subjects date each cued AM to a life period and count the number of remembered details from specified categories (features), e.g., temporal detail, spatial detail, persons, objects, and emotions. The current work applies CRAM to a broad range of individuals (18–78 years old) to quantify the effects of age on AM content. Subject age showed a moderately positive effect on AM content: older compared with younger adults reported ?16% more details (?25 vs. ?21 in typical AMs). This age-related increase in memory content was similarly observed for remote and recent AMs, although content declined with the age of the event among all subjects. In general, the distribution of details across features was largely consistent among younger and older adults. However, certain types of details, i.e., those related to objects and sequences of events, contributed more to the age effect on content. Altogether, this work identifies a moderate age-related feature-specific alteration in the way life events are subjectively recalled, among an otherwise stable retrieval profile. PMID:26042064

  13. Farm-related fatal injury of young and older adults in Australia, 1989-1992.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rebecca J; Franklin, Richard C; Driscoll, Timothy R; Fragar, Lyn J

    2002-08-01

    This paper describes the types of, and circumstances surrounding, unintentional farm-related fatal injuries involving young and older adults in Australia. Information was obtained from an inspection of coronial files for the period 1989-1992. Around 14% of all farm-related fatalities in Australia during 1989-1992 were of young adults aged 15-24 years and approximately one-quarter were of older adults aged > or = 55 years. Young adults were commonly fatally injured in motor vehicle incidents and in incidents involving firearms. Tractors were the most common agent involved in fatal incidents involving older adults. Intervention measures to prevent fatalities of older adults in agriculture should focus on the safe use of tractors, while for young adults it appears prevention efforts should centre around safe use of firearms and operation of motor vehicles on the farm. Ways to overcome barriers to the use of injury prevention measures in rural Australia should be further explored. PMID:12121411

  14. Microrna profiling analysis of differences between the melanoma of young adults and older adults

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study represents the first attempt to perform a profiling analysis of the intergenerational differences in the microRNAs (miRNAs) of primary cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms in young adult and older age groups. The data emphasize the importance of these master regulators in the transcriptional machinery of melanocytic neoplasms and suggest that differential levels of expressions of these miRs may contribute to differences in phenotypic and pathologic presentation of melanocytic neoplasms at different ages. Methods An exploratory miRNA analysis of 666 miRs by low density microRNA arrays was conducted on formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissues (FFPE) from 10 older adults and 10 young adults including conventional melanoma and melanocytic neoplasms of uncertain biological significance. Age-matched benign melanocytic nevi were used as controls. Results Primary melanoma in patients greater than 60 years old was characterized by the increased expression of miRs regulating TLR-MyD88-NF-kappaB pathway (hsa-miR-199a), RAS/RAB22A pathway (hsa-miR-204); growth differentiation and migration (hsa-miR337), epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) (let-7b, hsa-miR-10b/10b*), invasion and metastasis (hsa-miR-10b/10b*), hsa-miR-30a/e*, hsa-miR-29c*; cellular matrix components (hsa-miR-29c*); invasion-cytokinesis (hsa-miR-99b*) compared to melanoma of younger patients. MiR-211 was dramatically downregulated compared to nevi controls, decreased with increasing age and was among the miRs linked to metastatic processes. Melanoma in young adult patients had increased expression of hsa-miR-449a and decreased expression of hsa-miR-146b, hsa-miR-214*. MiR-30a* in clinical stages I-II adult and pediatric melanoma could predict classification of melanoma tissue in the two extremes of age groups. Although the number of cases is small, positive lymph node status in the two age groups was characterized by the statistically significant expression of hsa-miR-30a* and hsa-miR-204 (F-test, p-value < 0.001). Conclusions Our findings, although preliminary, support the notion that the differential biology of melanoma at the extremes of age is driven, in part, by deregulation of microRNA expression and by fine tuning of miRs that are already known to regulate cell cycle, inflammation, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT)/stroma and more specifically genes known to be altered in melanoma. Our analysis reveals that miR expression differences create unique patterns of frequently affected biological processes that clearly distinguish old age from young age melanomas. This is a novel characterization of the miRnomes of melanocytic neoplasms at two extremes of age and identifies potential diagnostic and clinico-pathologic biomarkers that may serve as novel miR-based targeted modalities in melanoma diagnosis and treatment. PMID:20302635

  15. Childlessness, Parenthood, and Depressive Symptoms among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bures, Regina M.; Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya; Loree, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has examined whether parenthood is associated with higher levels of well-being among older adults, but definitions of parental status have varied. The authors examine links between parental status and depressive symptoms among older adults, comparing biological and social definitions of parenthood. The study finds few differences…

  16. Counseling Older Adults with Dementia Who Are Dealing with Death: Innovative Interventions for Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mary Miller; Trzinski, Amy L.

    2006-01-01

    As individuals age, they deal with an increasing number of emotional, physical, and environmental losses. One loss older adults encounter is their own and others' deaths. Older adults with dementia may face greater difficulty in understanding and dealing with death-related issues because of cognitive and memory changes. Little literature exists to…

  17. Predicting Trainee Ageism Using Knowledge, Anxiety, Compassion, and Contact with Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Stefanie S.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing proportion of older adults in the population, ageism is prevalent and can facilitate discriminatory behavior, even in healthcare settings. This study used multiple regression to investigate the relationship between knowledge of aging, aging anxiety, and degree of older adult contact with ageism in undergraduates training for…

  18. The Digital Health Divide: Evaluating Online Health Information Access and Use among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Amanda K.; Bernhardt, Jay M.; Dodd, Virginia; Vollrath, Morgan W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Innovations in health information technology (HIT) provide opportunities to reduce health care spending, improve quality of care, and improve health outcomes for older adults. However, concerns relating to older adults' limited access and use of HIT, including use of the Internet for health information, fuel the digital health divide…

  19. Nutrition Education among Low-Income Older Adults: A Randomized Intervention Trial in Congregate Nutrition Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Roger E.; Ash, Sarah L.; McClelland, Jacquelyn W.

    2006-01-01

    Nutritional well-being among older adults is critical for maintaining health, increasing longevity, and decreasing the impact of chronic illness. However, few well-controlled studies have examined nutritional behavior change among low-income older adults. A prospective, controlled, randomized design examined a five session nutrition education…

  20. Personal Strength and Finding Meaning in Conjugally Bereaved Older Adults: A Four-Year Prospective Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Su Hyun; Kjervik, Diane; Belyea, Michael; Choi, Eun Sook

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to identify the patterns and mechanisms of the development of personal strength of bereaved older adults over a 4-year period after spousal death. The findings showed that while bereaved older adults, on average, experienced a moderate level of personal strength at 6 months post-spousal death with a slight increase over a…

  1. Factors Affecting Burnout when Caring for Older Adults Needing Long Term Care Services in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Won, Seojin; Song, Inuk

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to address factors related to caregiver burnout as a result of caring for an older adult with a chronic disease. Characteristics of care recipients and caregivers as well as social support were included to identify the relationships with caregiver burnout. The analysis was based on a sample of 334 older adults and…

  2. Insightful Learning of Life's Lessons with Older Adult Guests in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez Ortiz, Daniel; Cross, Suzanne L.; Day, Angelique

    2012-01-01

    An intergenerational initiative was developed and implemented to enhance gerontology in the first course of the practice sequence. Seventeen students met with older adults (ages 82-98) in the classroom and at an assisted living facility. The evaluation of this older adult infusion project was conducted through two questionnaires and by the review…

  3. Memory Training for Older Adults with Low Education: Mental Images versus Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Silva, Henrique Salmazo; Yassuda, Monica Sanches

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the benefits of memory training for older adults with low education. Twenty-nine healthy older adults with zero to two years of formal education participated. Sixteen participants received training based on categorization (categorization group = CATG) and 13 received training based on mental images (imagery…

  4. Implementation of Health Promotion in the Older Adults in Bangkok, Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assantachai, Prasert; Bunnag, Chaweewan; Piya-Anant, Manee; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2006-01-01

    Effective strategies that bring health promotion messages to older adults in a developing country are needed. To evaluate the impact of various education media upon changes in knowledge and health behavior, a double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted involving 1,268 older adults in a southwest Bangkok suburb. Group teaching…

  5. How Older Adults Make Decisions regarding Smart Technology: An Ethnographic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Rick D.; Mann, William; Lutz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Comparatively little research has been conducted regarding the smart technology needs of the older adult population despite the proliferation of smart technology prototypes. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived smart technology needs of older adults with mobility impairments while using an ethnographic research approach to…

  6. Circadian Sleep-Wake Rhythm of Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maaskant, Marijke; van de Wouw, Ellen; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Echteld, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    The circadian sleep-wake rhythm changes with aging, resulting in a more fragmented sleep-wake pattern. In individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), brain structures regulating the sleep-wake rhythm might be affected. The aims of this study were to compare the sleep-wake rhythm of older adults with ID to that of older adults in the general…

  7. Do Alternative Names Block Young and Older Adults' Retrieval of Proper Names?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Emily S.; Burke, Deborah M.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluates whether tip of the tongue experiences (TOTs) are caused by a more accessible word which blocks retrieval of the target word, especially for older adults. In a ''competitor priming'' paradigm, young and older adults produced the name of a famous character (e.g., Eliza Doolittle) in response to a question and subsequently named…

  8. Evaluating Websites for Older Adults: Adherence to "Senior-Friendly" Guidelines and End-User Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, T. A.; Chaparro, B. S.; Halcomb, C. G.

    2008-01-01

    Older adults in the US are the fastest-growing demographic, and also the largest-growing group of internet users. The aim of this research was to evaluate websites designed for older adults in terms of (1) how well they adhere to "senior-friendly" guidelines and (2) overall ease of use and satisfaction. In Experiment I, 40 websites designed for…

  9. Informing the Development of Educational Programs to Support Older Adults in Retiring from Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryanton, Olive; Weeks, Lori E.

    2014-01-01

    It is clear that while transition from being a driver to being a non-driver is an important, and often negative, event in the life of older adults, there is little support available to help older adults through this transition. This study focuses on increasing our understanding of issues about driving cessation and to inform the development of…

  10. Benefits, Motivations, and Barriers Related to Environmental Volunteerism for Older Adults: Developing a Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushway, Lori J.; Dickinson, Janis L.; Stedman, Richard C.; Wagenet, Linda P.; Weinstein, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Interest in civic engagement focused on the natural environment has grown dramatically, as has the population of older adults. Our article explores the potential for increased environmental volunteerism among older adults to enrich the lives of volunteers while benefitting the community and environmental quality. Curiously, this convergence has…

  11. An Investigation of the Relationship between Health Literacy and Social Communication Skills in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Eva Jackson

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine connections between health literacy and social communication skills in older adults, a population that experiences chronic health conditions but is reported to have low health literacy and declines in communication skills. Sixty-three older adults were administered the "Social Communication" subtest of the…

  12. Purposeful Social Media as Support Platform Communication Frameworks for Older Adults Requiring Care

    E-print Network

    Arnott, John

    . Keywords-Social networking sites; telecare; older adults; social media; privacy I. INTRODUCTION At the endPurposeful Social Media as Support Platform Communication Frameworks for Older Adults Requiring to develop social media that help carers stay in touch with patients and provide support when needed while

  13. Maladaptive and Compulsive Behavior in Prader-Willi Syndrome: New Insights from Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2004-01-01

    Although maladaptive and compulsive behaviors are increasingly well-described in young persons with Prader-Willi syndrome, it is unclear how these problems manifest in older adults with this syndrome. In Part I, I compared maladaptive and compulsive behaviors in 45 older adults with Prader-Willi syndrome (ages 30 to 50 years) to 195 children,…

  14. Working Memory Training and Transfer in Older Adults: Effects of Age, Baseline Performance, and Training Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinke, Katharina; Zeintl, Melanie; Rose, Nathan S.; Putzmann, Julia; Pydde, Andrea; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that working memory training may benefit older adults; however, findings regarding training and transfer effects are mixed. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of a process-based training intervention in a diverse sample of older adults and explored possible moderators of training and transfer effects. For…

  15. Understanding Older Adults' Physical Activity Behavior: A Multi-Theoretical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grodesky, Janene M.; Kosma, Maria; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2006-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a health issue with serious consequences for older adults. Investigating physical activity promotion within a multi-theoretical approach may increase the predictive strength of physical activity determinants and facilitate the development and implementation of effective interventions for older adults. This article examines…

  16. Characterisation of User-Defined Health Status in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, J. M.; Marsden, L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Older adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) have an excess disease burden that standard health assessments are designed to detect. Older adults with ID have a broader concept of health with dimensions of well being in addition to absence of disease in line with the World Health Organization's health definition. We sought to…

  17. Characteristics of Physical Activity Programs for Older Adults: Results of a Multisite Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Susan L.; Williams, Barbara; Molina, Lourdes C.; Bayles, Constance; Bryant, Lucinda L.; Harris, Jeffrey R.; Hunter, Rebecca; Ivey, Susan; Watkins, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Although increased participation in physical activity by older adults is a major public health goal, little is known about the supply and use of physical activity programs in the United States. Design and Methods: Seven academic centers in diverse geographic areas surveyed physical activity programs for older adults. Five sites conducted…

  18. Effects of an Enhanced Discharge Planning Intervention for Hospitalized Older Adults: A Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altfeld, Susan J.; Shier, Gayle E.; Rooney, Madeleine; Johnson, Tricia J.; Golden, Robyn L.; Karavolos, Kelly; Avery, Elizabeth; Nandi, Vijay; Perry, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: To identify needs encountered by older adult patients after hospital discharge and assess the impact of a telephone transitional care intervention on stress, health care utilization, readmissions, and mortality. Design and Methods: Older adult inpatients who met criteria for risk of post-discharge complications were…

  19. Measuring impact of ICTs on Quality of Life of Older Adults

    E-print Network

    Connelly, Kay

    of life, maintains access to social support networks and reduces health care complaints and costsMeasuring impact of ICTs on Quality of Life of Older Adults Kay Connelly School of Informatics and Computing Indiana University RQ1: Does the technology impact the quality of life of older adults? RQ1

  20. Hearing Aid-Induced Plasticity in the Auditory System of Older Adults: Evidence from Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavie, Limor; Banai, Karen; Karni, Avi; Attias, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We tested whether using hearing aids can improve unaided performance in speech perception tasks in older adults with hearing impairment. Method: Unaided performance was evaluated in dichotic listening and speech-­in-­noise tests in 47 older adults with hearing impairment; 36 participants in 3 study groups were tested before hearing aid…