The WAIS-R Digit Span subtests require oral presentation of digits. Older adults with hearing impairments may have reduced recall due to deficits in hearing. It is also possible that older adults' recall is influenced by recall superiority for auditory versus visual information (the auditory superiority effect). Auditory and visual versions of the Digits Forward and Backward tasks were administered to 30 younger adults (18-30 years) and 30 older adults (65-78 years). Although younger adults exhibited marginally better digit recall overall than older adults, all participants' scores were highest for the auditory presentation mode. PMID:18608691
Kemtes, Karen A; Allen, Daniel N
The WAIS–R Digit Span subtests require oral presentation of digits. Older adults with hearing impairments may have reduced recall due to deficits in hearing. It is also possible that older adults' recall is influenced by recall superiority for auditory versus visual information (the auditory superiority effect). Auditory and visual versions of the Digits Forward and Backward tasks were administered to
Karen A. Kemtes; Daniel N. Allen
This study examined commercials (N = 341) featuring older adult(s) shown on four U.S. TV networks (i.e., ABC, CBS, NBC, and FOX) to uncover the dominant value themes. Seven value themes (Cheng & Schweitzer, 1996; Mueller, 1992; Pollay, 1983) were...
Zhang, Yan Bing; Agard, Alyssa
In an effort to improve the quality of life for area senior citizens, De Anza College has established an older adult education program which combines adaptive physical education with holistic health care principles to instruct students in relaxation, nutrition, and physical activity. Classes are held in convalescent hospitals, retirement homes,…
Dance programs for older adults that encourage exercise and socializing are described in six articles. Program guidelines of the American Alliance Committee on Aging are explained, and other articles emphasize a movement education approach that may involve intergenerational contact. A dance program held in a worship setting is also discussed. (PP)
Pruett, Diane Milhan, Ed.; And Others
The highest rate of suicide in the nation is among persons 65 years of age and older. Of those suicides, 85 percent were males. In fact, the rate of suicides in late life is 7.7 times greater among males than females. Elderly white men are at the highest risk of suicide. The rate for Illinois is comparable to the national rate. In comparison to age groups, persons 70 years of age or older have the highest suicide rate (12 per 100,000), which is 2.0 times the rate for the 15 to 19 year age group. Older adults are disproportionately impacted by suicide. Nationally, they account for 15.9 percent of suicides; however, they only make
Action integration is the process through which actions performed on a stimulus and perceptual aspects of the stimulus become bound as a unitary object. This process appears to be controlled by the dopaminergic system in the prefrontal cortex, an area that is known to decrease in volume and dopamine functioning in older adults. Although the decline should lead to reduced action integration in older adults, we found equivalent integration in both young and older adults. This indicates that older adults may be able to compensate for their dopaminergic deficiencies by activating additional neural networks that are not used by young adults. PMID:20810199
Bloesch, Emily K.; Abrams, Richard A.
The decline in late-life disability prevalence in the United States was one of the most important developments in the well-being\\u000a of older Americans in the 1980s and 1990s, but there is no guarantee that it will continue into the future. We review the\\u000a past literature on trends in disability and other health indicators and then estimate the most recent trends
Linda G. Martin; Robert F. Schoeni; Patricia M. Andreski
The decline in late-life disability prevalence in the United States was one of the most important developments in the well-being of older Americans in the 1980s and 1990s, but there is no guarantee that it will continue into the future. We review the past literature on trends in disability and other health indicators and then estimate the most recent trends in biomarkers and limitations for both the population aged 65 and older and those aged 40 to 64, the future elderly. We then investigate the extent to which trends in education, smoking, and obesity can account for recent trends in limitations and discuss how these three factors might influence future prospects for late-life health. We find that improvements in the health of the older population generally have continued into the first decade of the twenty-first century. The recent increase in the proportion of the younger population needing help with activities of daily living is concerning, as is the doubling of obesity in the last few decades. However, the increase in obesity has recently paused, and favorable trends in education and smoking are encouraging. PMID:21302428
Martin, Linda G.; Schoeni, Robert F.; Andreski, Patricia M.
Outlines literature on suicide notes of older adults. Presents author's own lifespan research related to elderly, which indicated that long-term instability was critical in understanding suicide in elderly; that indirect expressions were much less frequently observed in notes of elderly than in those of younger adults; and that older males often…
Leenaars, Antoon A.
To inform the development of educational programming designed to teach providers appropriate methods of exercise prescription for older adults, the authors conducted a survey of 177 physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners (39% response rate). The survey was designed to better understand the prevalence of exercise prescriptions, attitudes, barriers, and educational needs of primary care practitioners toward older adults. Forty-seven
Jason A. Dauenhauer; Carol A. Podgorski; Jurgis Karuza
Hearing loss affects approximately one-third of adults 61 to 70 years of age and more than 80 percent of those older than 85 years. Men usually experience greater hearing loss and have earlier onset compared with women. The most common type is age-related hearing loss; however, many conditions can interfere with the conduction of sound vibrations to the inner ear and their conversion to electrical impulses for conduction to the brain. Screening for hearing loss is recommended in adults older than 50 to 60 years. Office screening tests include the whispered voice test and audioscopy. Older patients who admit to having difficulty hearing may be referred directly for audiometry. The history can identify risk factors for hearing loss, especially noise exposure and use of ototoxic medications. Examination of the auditory canal and tympanic membrane can identify causes of conductive hearing loss. Audiometric testing is required to confirm hearing loss. Adults presenting with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss should be referred for urgent assessment. Management of hearing loss is based on addressing underlying causes, especially obstructions (including cerumen) and ototoxic medications. Residual hearing should be optimized by use of hearing aids, assistive listening devices, and rehabilitation programs. Surgical implants are indicated for selected patients. Major barriers to improved hearing in older adults include lack of recognition of hearing loss; perception that hearing loss is a normal part of aging or is not amenable to treatment; and patient nonadherence with hearing aids because of stigma, cost, inconvenience, disappointing initial results, or other factors. PMID:22962895
Walling, Anne D; Dickson, Gretchen M
Anemia is a common, multifactorial condition among older adults. The World Health Organization (WHO) definition of anemia (hemoglobin concentration <12 g/dL in women and <13 g/dL in men) is most often used in epidemiologic studies of older adults. More than 10% of community-dwelling adults age 65 years and older has WHO-defined anemia. After age 50 years, prevalence of anemia increases with advancing age and exceeds 20% in those 85 years and older. In nursing homes, anemia is present in 48% to 63% of residents. Incidence of anemia in older adults is not well characterized. Among older adults with anemia, approximately one third have evidence of iron, folate, and/or vitamin B(12) deficiency, another third have renal insufficiency and/or chronic inflammation, and the remaining third have anemia that is unexplained. Several studies demonstrate that anemia is associated with poorer survival in older adults. This review details the distribution and consequences of anemia in older adults and identifies future epidemiologic research needs. PMID:18809090
Patel, Kushang V
... Tips Latest Research Getting More Help Related Topics Advance Directives Anxiety Choosing Wisely Choosing Wisely 2 Delirium Depression Diabetes Fecal Incontinence High Blood ... are physicians who have advanced training in the care of older adults, including ...
In the population of older adults, anxiety disorders are underdiagnosed and undertreated. Epidemiologic studies have generally\\u000a found that the prevalence of anxiety disorders declines with age. Recognition of anxiety disorders in older adults is, however,\\u000a complicated by several age-related factors including the presence of depression, cognitive impairment, and physical illness.\\u000a A variety of medications have been used to treat anxiety
Jeremy A. Sable; Dilip V. Jeste
Service learning has focused on elementary-secondary and higher education, but not older adults due to a lack of adult education program experience, resources, or interest. Programs such as Elderhostel, Senior Service Corps, Institutes for Learning in Retirement, and Life Options Centers show how elders can benefit from service learning. (Contains…
There is a paucity of research concerning the reading interests of older adults. However, what exists tends to support the conclusion that these adults do not enjoy science fiction books, depressing books, books that are frank about sex or contain violence, or books that have confusing plots or many characters. They have less need for vocational or professional reading materials
Rhonda L. Harvey; Donnie Dutton
Functional disability is common in older adults. It is often episodic and is associated with a high risk of subsequent health decline. The severity of disability is determined by physical impairments caused by underlying medical conditions, and by external factors such as social support, financial support, and the environment. When multiple health conditions are present, they often result in greater disability than expected because the patient’s ability to compensate for one problem may be affected by comorbid conditions. Evaluation of functional disability is most effective when the physician determines the course of the disability, associated symptoms, effects on specific activities, and coping mechanisms the patient uses to compensate for the functional problem. Underlying health conditions, impairments, and contextual factors (e.g., finances, social support) should be identified using validated screening tools. Interventions should focus on increasing the patient’s capacity to cope with task demands and reducing the demands of the task itself. Interventions for functional decline in older adults are almost always multifactorial because they must address multiple conditions, impairments, and contextual factors. PMID:24134046
Colon-Emeric, Cathleen S.; Whitson, Heather E.; Pavon, Juliessa; Hoenig, Helen
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a commonly diagnosed infection in older adults. Despite consensus guidelines developed to assist providers in diagnosing UTI, distinguishing symptomatic UTI from asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in older adults is problematic, as many older adults do not present with localized genitourinary symptoms. This article summarizes the recent literature and guidelines on the diagnosis and management of UTI and ASB in older adults. PMID:24484576
Rowe, Theresa Anne; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha
The authors' aim in the present study was to examine the effects of a brief forgiveness intervention for older adults. The psychoeducational group intervention consists of (a) established core components of previous forgiveness interventions and (b) additional components considering specific needs of older adults. Seventy-eight older adults (mean…
Allemand, Mathias; Steiner, Marianne; Hill, Patrick L.
Recognizing the increasing demand for older adults to work as child care employees, this manual presents the Generations Together model for training older adults at the community college level to work in child care settings. The manual describes the steps necessary to implement a community-college-based, older-adult child care employment training…
Ward, Christopher R.; Smith, Thomas B.
Depsite the widely recognized benefits of physical activity programs the fact remains that older adults continue to manitain sedentary lifestyles while increasnig the frequency of other health-related practices. Thus ther is a a vital need to detremine the factors that affects excercise adherence among the aging population. The authors address this topic by exploring exercise adherence theories and by recommending
Lisa Herbert; Michael L. Teague
Action integration is the process through which actions performed on a stimulus and perceptual aspects of the stimulus become bound as a unitary object. This process appears to be controlled by the dopaminergic system in the prefrontal cortex, an area that is known to decrease in volume and dopamine functioning in older adults. Although the…
Bloesch, Emily K.; Abrams, Richard A.
Societal myths argue against active expression of sexuality in older adults, but these prejudices are unfounded. Using a deconstructionist framework, this article addresses issues surrounding sexuality in older adults. Implications for clinical practice are given.
Falls are a major problem in older adults. Many falls occur because of stumbling. The aim of the present study is to investigate stumbling reactions of older adults and to compare them with young adults. While subjects walked on a treadmill, a rigid obstacle unexpectedly obstructed the forward sway of the foot. In general, older adults used the same movement strategies as young adults ("elevating" and "lowering"). The electromyographic responses were categorized according to latencies: short-latency (about 45 ms, RP1), medium-latency (about 80 ms, RP2), and long-latency responses (about 110 ms, RP3; about 160 ms, RP4). Latencies of RP1 responses increased by about 6 ms and of RP2 by 10-19 ms in older adults compared with the young. Amplitudes of RP1 were similar for both age groups, whereas amplitudes of RP2-RP4 could differ. In the early-swing elevating strategy (perturbed foot directly lifted over the obstacle) older adults showed smaller responses in ipsilateral upper-leg muscles (biceps femoris and rectus femoris). This was related to shorter swing durations, more shortened step distances, and more failures in clearing the obstacle. In parallel, RP4 activity in the contralateral biceps femoris was enhanced, possibly pointing to a higher demand for trunk stabilization. In the late-swing lowering strategy (foot placed on the treadmill before clearing the obstacle) older adults showed lower RP2-RP3 responses in most muscles measured. However, kinematic responses were similar to those of the young. It is concluded that the changes in muscular responses in older adults induce a greater risk of falling after tripping, especially in early swing. PMID:15615837
Schillings, A M; Mulder, Th; Duysens, J
Neuropsychological test performance in a cognitively intact sample of older Japanese American adults 1 1 Portions of this paper were originally presented at the Gerontological Society of America 51st annual meeting, November 20–24, 1998, Philadelphia, PA
The purpose of this paper was to present population-based data showing the effects of age on cognitive test performance in a sample of older Japanese American adults. In addition, the relative effects of education, gender, and primary spoken language were compared to effects that have been reported in the literature for majority culture older adults. Subjects included 201 non-demented Japanese
Susan M McCurry; Laura E Gibbons; Jay M Uomoto; Mary Lou Thompson; Amy B Graves; Steven D Edland; James Bowen; Wayne C McCormick; Eric B Larson
This paper uses the social cognitive theory model to review the literature on older adult gambling, and related personal and environment characteristics. Results show that lottery is the kind of gambling most frequently played by older adults, followed by casino games. Older adults take trips to casinos to socialize, find excitement, and win…
Purpose The goal of this study was to determine if older blind participants recognize time-compressed speech better than older sighted participants. Method Three groups of adults with normal hearing participated (n = 10/group): older sighted, older blind, and younger sighted listeners. Low-predictability sentences that were uncompressed (0% time compression ratio, TCR) and compressed at three rates (40%, 50%, and 60% TCR) were presented to listeners in quiet and noise. Results Older blind listeners recognized all time-compressed speech stimuli significantly better than older sighted listeners in quiet. In noise, the older blind adults recognized the uncompressed and 40% TCR speech stimuli better than the older sighted adults. Performance differences between the younger sighted adults and older blind adults were not observed. Conclusions The findings support the notion that older blind adults recognize time-compressed speech considerably better than older sighted adults in quiet and noise. Their performance levels are similar to those of younger adults, suggesting that age-related difficulty in understanding time-compressed speech is not an inevitable consequence of aging. Rather, frequent listening to speech at rapid rates, which was highly correlated with performance of the older blind adults, may be a useful technique to minimize age-related slowing in speech understanding. PMID:20689022
Gordon-Salant, Sandra; Friedman, Sarah A.
Abstract: Resistance training is widely,advocated,for older adults to alleviate the muscle,and strength loss that occurs with aging. While primary and secondary prevention of disability are often mentioned as benefits of strength training, the evidence for this is limited and inconclusive. Researchers have started to examine,another form of resistance train- ing that may,prove to be more,beneficial than strength training in terms
Michelle M. Porter
A point and click interface can present difficulties for older adults (particularly those with physical impairments) who may not easily be able to operate a standard input device such as a mouse or trackball. The use of gestural commands, via a multitouch touchscreen device, is an alternative and direct method of interacting with an application. This research investigates whether gestural
Reviews characteristics of the increasing number of older adults in the United States, examining the role of community colleges in providing the educational activities they need. Discusses common learning styles of adult students and suggests teaching strategies. Presents considerations for improving institutional outreach to older adults. (12…
Wenzel-Miller, Lori A.
The authors' aim in the present study was to examine the effects of a brief forgiveness intervention for older adults. The psychoeducational group intervention consists of (a) established core components of previous forgiveness interventions and (b) additional components considering specific needs of older adults. Seventy-eight older adults (mean age 70.1 years) were randomized to a treatment condition or a waiting-list control condition. The intervention reduced the levels of perceived actual transgression painfulness, transgression-related emotions and cognitions, and negative affect. These findings suggest the promise of forgiveness interventions for older adults that help participants clarify and deal with past, present, and future interpersonal transgressions. PMID:23438411
Allemand, Mathias; Steiner, Marianne; Hill, Patrick L
Purpose: Routinely, physical therapists use a variety of physical performance tests to determine functional status of older adults. Whereas many commonly used instruments have been evaluated for some aspects of reliability and valid- ity, few studies report typical performance for community liv- ing older adults, especially those who are 80 years and older and use an assistive ambulatory device. The
Michelle M. Lusardi; Geraldine L. Pellecchia
This article provides a review of the evidence supporting exercise as an effective treatment of depression in older adults. Depression is prevalent among older adults and is associated with significant morbidity, increased risk of mortality, and economic burden. Although effective treatments for depression exist (e.g., antidepressant medication, cognitive-behavioral therapy), the disorder remains inadequately treated for many older individuals. Recently, the
Krista A. Barbour; James A. Blumenthal
In this article, I discuss Paul W. Pruyser's view presented in his article "An Essay on Creativity" (Pruyser in Bull Menninger Clin 43:294-353, 1979) that creative persons manifest early childhood qualities of playfulness, curiosity, and pleasure seeking and that adaptation is itself a form of creativity. I then discuss his article "Creativity in Aging Persons" (Pruyser in Bull Menninger Clin 51:425-435, 1987) in which he presents his view that aging itself is a potentially creative process, that creativity among older adults is not limited to the talented few, and that older adulthood has several specific features that are conducive to creativity. Significant among these features are object loss (especially involving human relationships) and functional loss (due to the vicissitudes of aging). Noting his particular emphasis on object loss and its role in late-life creativity, I focus on functional loss, and I emphasize the importance of adaptation in sustaining the creativity of older adults who experience such loss. I illustrate this adaptation by considering well-known painters who in late life suffered visual problems common to older adults. I suggest that in adapting to their visual problems these artists drew on the early childhood qualities (playfulness, curiosity and pleasure seeking) that all creative persons possess and that they are therefore illustrative for other older adults who are experiencing functional losses. I conclude with Erik H. Erikson's (Toys and reasons: stages in the ritualization of experience, W. W. Norton, New York, 1977) and Paul W. Pruyser's (Pastor Psychol 35:120-131, 1986) reflections on the relationship between seeing and hoping. PMID:22706923
This paper uses the social cognitive theory model to review the literature on older adult gambling, and related personal and\\u000a environment characteristics. Results show that lottery is the kind of gambling most frequently played by older adults, followed\\u000a by casino games. Older adults take trips to casinos to socialize, find excitement, and win money. Although prevalence estimate\\u000a studies suggest that
The increasing older adult population has implications for the training and practice of counseling psychologists because of the field's avowed dedication to lifespan development. The present study examined the degree to which older adults were represented in articles in the "Journal of Counseling Psychology" and "The Counseling Psychologist" from…
Werth, James L., Jr.; Kopera-Frye, Karen; Blevins, Dean; Bossick, Brian
of Hurricane Katrina Six to Ten Months After Hurricane Katrina In disasters, older persons face accumulated.Readers shouldreviewtheProfile of Displaced Older Adult in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in Part Oneofthe Disaster setuphouseintheircurrentresidence.Showinga 2005calendar,weremindedstudyparticipantsthat Hurricane Katrina hit on August 29, 2005
Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore with minority older adults their experience in the Senior Exercise Self-Efficacy Pilot Program (SESEP) and establish what aspects of the SESEP helped the participants engage in exercise and what decreased their willingness to exercise. A total of 148 older adults from 12 Senior Centers participated. The majority of the participants were
Barbara Resnick; Amanda Vogel; Daria Luisi
Increases in both the age and the number of older adults in the United States will likely result in more people living with functional limitations and physical disabilities. The impact of this change in demographics will not only sig- nificantly impact older adult quality of life but may overwhelm existing health care services for this population. Resis- tance training with
Stephen P. Sayers
This study investigated variables contributing to older adults' information technology acceptance through a survey, which was used to find factors explaining and predicting older adults' information technology acceptance behaviors. Four factors, including needs satisfaction, perceived usability, support availability, and public acceptance, were…
Wang, Lin; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Salvendy, Gavriel
Results of a study to examine the recycling practices and needs of older adults (n=217) indicated that older adults do recycle traditional materials, but need accommodations for physical limitations. They report textile recycling as time consuming and difficult and used donations to religious organizations as their principal means of textile…
Domina, Tanya; Koch, Kathryn
This study examined sex-role typing in older adults' interpretations of young children's behavior. Participants were 48 older adults averaging 64.7 years of age. Videotapes were made of the play behavior of each of two toddlers, a female and a male matched in body type, hair length, dress (plain tee shirt and shorts), and in the activities in…
Forrest, Constance R.; Docherty, Edward M., Jr.
Notes characteristics of older adults at high risk for suicide (male, living alone, living in low-income transient urban area, depression). Provides converging perspectives on death and suicide from standpoints of external observer and older adult. Interprets statistical pattern and critiques current policy proposals for limiting society's…
Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…
Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon
\\u000a Optimizing medication adherence is a significant challenge for clinicians caring for older adults, particularly those with\\u000a multiple chronic health conditions. Nearly half of all adults aged 65 or older take five or more medications regularly; however,\\u000a adherence to chronic pharmacological therapies is often poor . Overall, 40% of older Medicare beneficiaries reported one\\u000a or more forms of medication non-adherence in
S. Nicole Hastings; Janine C. Kosmoski; Jason M. Moss
Using an integrative approach, this review highlights the benefits of resistance training toward improvements in functional status, health and quality of life among older adults. Sarcopenia (i.e. muscle atrophy) and loss of strength are known to occur with age. While its aetiology is poorly understood, the multifactorial sequelae of sarcopenia are well documented and present a major public health concern to our aging population, as both the quality of life and the likelihood of age-associated declines in health status are influenced. These age-related declines in health include decreased energy expenditure at rest and during exercise, and increased body fat and its accompanying increased dyslipidaemia and reduced insulin sensitivity. Quality of life is affected by reduced strength and endurance and increased difficulty in being physically active. Strength and muscle mass are increased following resistance training in older adults through a poorly understood series of events that appears to involve the recruitment of satellite cells to support hypertrophy of mature myofibres. Muscle quality (strength relative to muscle mass) also increases with resistance training in older adults possibly for a number of reasons, including increased ability to neurally activate motor units and increased high-energy phosphate availability. Resistance training in older adults also increases power, reduces the difficulty of performing daily tasks, enhances energy expenditure and body composition, and promotes participation in spontaneous physical activity. Impairment in strength development may result when aerobic training is added to resistance training but can be avoided with training limited to 3 days/week. PMID:15107011
Hunter, Gary R; McCarthy, John P; Bamman, Marcas M
of this country's history, most adults had an 8th grade education (National Center for Education Statistics, 1993). The majority of older adults displaced by Hur- ricane Katrina were Protestant. Widows made up almost one% (n = 4) Master's/Doctoral 9% (n = 10) Religion Protestant 65% (n = 80) Non-Protestant 33% (n = 40
Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa
Older adults sometimes show a “positivity effect” in memory, remembering proportionally more positive information than young adults. Using a modified Memory Characteristics, the present study examined whether emotional valence impacts the phenomenological qualities associated with young and older adults’ memories. Aging did not impact the effect of valence on the qualities of high-arousal memories. However, aging sometimes impacted subjective memory for detail of low-arousal memories: In Experiment 2, older adults reported remembering more thoughts, feelings, and temporal order details about positive low-arousal stimuli, while young adults’ ratings for those dimensions were higher for negative low-arousal stimuli. These findings suggest that valence most readily affects the qualities of young and older adults’ emotional memories when those memories are low in arousal. PMID:19468956
Mickley, Katherine R.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.
In the near future, the majority of patients with diabetes will be adults aged 65 or older. Unlike young adults with diabetes, elderly diabetic people may be affected by a variety of comorbid conditions such as depression, cognitive impairment, muscle weakness (sarcopenia), falls and fractures, and physical frailty. These geriatric syndromes should be considered in the establishment of treatment goals in older adults with diabetes. Although there are several guidelines for the management of diabetes, only a few are specifically designed for the elderly with diabetes. In this review, we present specific conditions of elderly diabetes which should be taken into account in the management of diabetes in older adults. We also present advantages and disadvantages of various glucose-lowering agents that should be considered when choosing a proper regimen for older adults with diabetes. PMID:23130317
Kim, Kyung Soo; Kim, Soo Kyung; Sung, Kyung Mi; Cho, Yong Wook
This article examines characteristics of older adult learners and discusses adult education theory and empowerment concepts, along with nutrition education and behavioral change strategies for older adult nutrition education programs. Design components for older adult nutrition education programs are presented. Educational and behavioral change strategies should be selected based on characteristics of the intended audience, including their nutrition needs, wants
Mary Meck Higgins; Mary Clarke Barkley
The present study used the German Aging Semantic Differential (ASD) to assess attitudes toward younger and older adults in a heterogeneous sample of n = 151 younger and n = 143 older adults. The questionnaire was administered in two versions, one referring to the evaluation of younger adults, the other to the evaluation of older adults.…
Gluth, Sebastian; Ebner, Natalie C.; Schmiedek, Florian
Physical fitness and recreation programs can be a deterrent to premature aging. State-funded physical activity programs for older adults in Illinois offer minimal benefits due to volunteer and untrained personnel. Results of this study are presented. (DF)
Heitmann, Helen M.
Suicide in older adults is a significant clinical concern. In this review of recent findings, we concentrate on the role of emotions and cognition in suicide risk and behavior in older adults. We discuss the epidemiology of suicide in older adults, integrate recent findings on non-psychotic major depression, schizophrenia and suicidal ideation, explore the relationship of emotion regulation with suicide, present recent advances on suicide in demented patients, and describe the latest developments on cognition and decision processes in suicide. PMID:25226883
Kiosses, Dimitris N; Szanto, Katalin; Alexopoulos, George S
Eye-tracking technology was employed to examine young and older adults' performance in the reading with distraction paradigm. Distracters of 1, 2, and 4 words that formed meaningful phrases were used. There were marked age ...
Kemper, Susan; McDowd, Joan; Metcalf, Kim; Liu, Chiung-Ju
Older adults are less likely to be using computers and less knowledgeable about Internet security than are younger users. The two groups do not differ on trust of Internet information. The younger group shows no age or gender differences. Within the older group, computer users are more trusting of Internet information, and along with those with…
Grimes, Galen A.; Hough, Michelle G.; Mazur, Elizabeth; Signorella, Margaret L.
Recent research has demonstrated benefits for older adults from training attentional control using a variable priority strategy, but the construct validity of the training task and the degree to which benefits of training transfer to other contexts are unclear. The goal of this study was to characterize baseline performance on the training task in a sample of 105 healthy older
The present study compared how varying task priorities affected young and older adults' language production. Both young and older adults responded to monetary incentives to vary their performance when simultaneously talking ...
Kemper, Susan; Schmalzried, RaLynn Cheri; Herman, Ruth; Mohankumar, Deepthi
Behavioral interventions based on operant principles are commonly attempted to manage agitation in older adults with dementia. The extent to which operant conditioning can occur in persons with particular dementias, however, is unclear. The present study involved use of a button-pressing task to evaluate the sensitivity of the responding of older…
Spira, Adam P.; Edelstein, Barry A.
Correlates of late presentation (LP) for HIV infection in Metropolitan France and French overseas departments (FODs) were assessed among HIV-infected patients recently diagnosed, using data from a large cross-sectional survey, representative of the French HIV-infected population, conducted in 2011. LP was defined as presentation with either clinical AIDS events within the calendar year of diagnosis or CD4 < 350/mm(3) and presentation with advanced disease (PAD) was defined as presentation with either clinical AIDS events or CD4 < 200/mm(3). Correlates of LP/PAD were assessed through logistic modelling, separately in Metropolitan France and FODs. In Metropolitan France, 47.7% of participants were late presenters and 29.3% presented with advanced disease. LP was more frequent among male and female migrants from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA; 58.5% and 56.4%) and non-African heterosexual males (61.8%) than among men who have sex with men (34.8%). In FODs, 53.2% of participants were late presenters and 36.8% presented with an advanced disease. LP was more frequent among men than women (60.6% vs. 45.3%) and among those with a lower level of education (56.6% vs. 47.5%). A consistent positive association was found in adjusted analyses between LP/PAD and increasing age at diagnosis among all subpopulations, in both settings. In Metropolitan France, among men who have sex with men, those self-declaring as bisexual were at higher risk of LP/PAD; among non-African heterosexual males and females, religiosity was associated with increased risk of LP/PAD; and among SSA migrants, those diagnosed within the year following their arrival in France were at higher risk of LP/PAD. Older age at diagnosis is a major risk factor for LP/PAD independently of any other socio-demographic characteristics. Promotion of HIV testing should be renewed to target each subgroup at risk while paying a particular attention to middle-aged or older adults whose attitudes and beliefs towards HIV/AIDS might prevent them from seeking testing. PMID:24731147
Wilson, Kayigan d'Almeida; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Aubrière, Cindy; Hamelin, Christine; Spire, Bruno; Lert, France
More than 2 million older adults identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT). The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the physical and mental health needs of LGBT older adults to sensitize nurses to the specific needs of this group. Nurses are in a prominent position to create health care environments that will meet the needs of this invisible, and often misunderstood, group of people. PMID:24066784
Jablonski, Rita A; Vance, David E; Beattie, Elizabeth
The present study investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive ageing. An extreme groups comparison design compared the performance of 24 young low-fitness adults, 24 young high-fitness adults, 24 older low-fitness adults and 24 older high-fitness adults on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. A series of ANCOVAs demonstrated that younger adults performed better than older adults on most cognitive tasks.
Rachel S. Newson; Eva B. Kemps
What Older Adults Need to Know About Money Development of this newspaper tabloid was supported-planning strategies Â· Decisions about the timing and location of one's retirement Â· Receipt, and possible taxation Jersey Coalition for Financial Education pro- duced a newspaper insert called Money...What Young Adults
Goodman, Robert M.
Difficulty understanding speech in background noise, even with amplification to restore audibility, is a common problem for hearing-impaired individuals and is especially frequent in older adults. Despite the debilitating nature of the problem the cause is not yet completely clear. This review considers the role of spatial processing ability in understanding speech in noise, highlights the potential impact of disordered spatial processing, and attempts to establish if aging leads to reduced spatial processing ability. Evidence supporting and opposing the hypothesis that spatial processing is disordered among the aging population is presented. With a few notable exceptions, spatial processing ability was shown to be reduced in an older population in comparison to young adults, leading to poorer speech understanding in noise. However, it is argued that to conclude aging negatively effects spatial processing ability may be oversimplified or even premature given potentially confounding factors such as cognitive ability and hearing impairment. Further research is required to determine the effect of aging and hearing impairment on spatial processing and to investigate possible remediation options for spatial processing disorder. PMID:22072599
Hickson, Louise; Cameron, Sharon; Dillon, Harvey
The present study revealed that older adults recruit cognitive control processes to strengthen positive and diminish negative information in memory. In Experiment 1, older adults engaged in more elaborative processing when retrieving positive memories than they did when retrieving negative memories. In Experiment 2, older adults who did well on tasks involving cognitive control were more likely than those doing
Mara Mather; Marisa Knight
One of a series of literature reviews on nutrition education for older adults, this article emphasizes the importance of measuring a variety of outcomes when evaluating education programs. Types of outcomes and impacts and difficulties in evaluating programs are discussed. Current findings regarding older adult nutrition education evaluation are presented. A table summarizes sixteen reports of older adult nutrition education
Mary Meck Higgins; Mary Clarke Barkley
The present study examined attitudes and knowledge of 96 first year MSW social work students toward older adults using the Aging Semantic Differential (ASD) and the Facts on Aging Quiz II. Results suggest that the sample had limited previous contact with older adults and little knowledge about aging prior to admission. Students reported negative attitudes toward older adults on productivity,
Zvi D. Gellis; Susan Sherman; Frances Lawrance
The prevalence of depression and suicidal ideation among older adults is considered to be a major mental health concern among this age group. The present study investigated the human relatedness variables of marital status, social support resources and sense of belonging as predictors of depression and suicidal ideation in older adults. A community sample of 110 older adults (M age
R. K. Vanderhorst; S. McLaren
Due to the social isolation imposed by chronic illness and functional limitations, homebound older adults are more vulnerable to depression than their mobility-unimpaired peers. In this study, we compared 81 low-income homebound older adults, aged 60 and older, with their 130 ambulatory peers who attended senior centers, with respect to their depressive symptoms, depression risk and protective factors, and self-reported
Namkee G. Choi; Graham J. McDougall
Older adults continue to be sexually active in their later years. A range of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV have been reported among older adults. Risk factors for STIs in older populations include (a) normal sexual changes associated with aging (e.g., increased time to attain an erection, decreased vaginal lubrication, decreases in sexual hormones); (b) psychosocial changes (e.g., loss of partner or spouse and re-entering the dating scene); and (c) risky sexual behaviors, including no or infrequent use of condoms. Screening of adults for STIs should occur regardless of age based on guidelines such as those from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. As discussed in this article, nurses can use assessment guides and engage in interventions such as counseling and education with older adults to reduce STI risk or refer for treatment. Numerous online resources exist for both nurses and older adults to increase knowledge of STIs. PMID:24066789
Johnson, Beverly K
Computers and the Internet offer older adults opportunities and resources for independent living. However, many urban older adults do not use computers. This study examined the demographic, health, and social activities of urban older adults to determine variables that might predict the use and nonuse of computers in this population. A secondary data analysis was performed using the 2001 Detroit City-Wide Needs Assessment of Older Adults (n = 1410) data set. Logistic regression was used to explore potential differences in predictor variables between computer users and nonusers. Overall, computer users were younger (27%), had a higher level of education, were more likely to be employed, had an annual income greater than $20,000, and were healthier and more active than nonusers. They also were more likely to have memberships in community organizations and do volunteer work. Preferred computer activities included conducting Internet searches, playing games, writing, and communicating with family members and friends. The results suggest significant differences in demographic and health-related characteristics between computer users and nonusers among urban older adults. Although about a quarter of participants in this study used computers, the Digital Divide continues to exist in urban settings for scores of others. PMID:20182159
Cresci, M Kay; Yarandi, Hossein N; Morrell, Roger W
Using data from a national survey of adults in Taiwan, this study presents findings regarding older adults' reading practices with respect to newspapers, magazines, books, and Internet information. The study also identifies four reading profiles defined by the frequency and diversification of the material read: the nonreaders, the less diversified…
In 1999 we proposed a Modified Food Guide Pyramid for adults aged 70+ y. It has been extensively used in a variety of settings and formats to highlight the unique dietary challenges of older adults. We now propose a Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults in a format consistent with the MyPyramid graphic. It is not intended to substitute for MyPyramid, which is a multifunctional Internet-based program allowing for the calculation of individualized food-based dietary guidance and providing supplemental information on food choices and preparation. Pedagogic issues related to computer availability, Web access, and Internet literacy of older adults suggests a graphic version of MyPyramid is needed. Emphasized are whole grains and variety within the grains group; variety and nutrient density, with specific emphasis on different forms particularly suited to older adults' needs (e.g. frozen) in the vegetables and fruits groups; low-fat and non-fat forms of dairy products including reduced lactose alternatives in the milk group; low saturated fat and trans fat choices in the oils group; and low saturated fat and vegetable choices in the meat and beans group. Underlying themes stress nutrient- and fiber-rich foods within each group and food sources of nutrients rather than supplements. Fluid and physical activity icons serve as the foundation of MyPyramid for Older Adults. A flag to maintain an awareness of the potential need to consider supplemental forms of calcium, and vitamins D and B-12 is placed at the top of the pyramid. Discussed are newer concerns about potential overnutrition in the current food landscape available to older adults. PMID:18156396
Lichtenstein, Alice H; Rasmussen, Helen; Yu, Winifred W; Epstein, Susanna R; Russell, Robert M
Older Americans are at increased risk for malnutrition. Yet, health promotion efforts often fail to reach them. Studies suggest that existing channels (e.g., organized sites\\/systems such as churches, clubs, or schools) might be used to reach a hard-to-reach audience with information. Partners in Wellness: A Pilot Program Using a Holistic Approach to Improve the Nutritional Status of Older Adults at
Jacquelyn W. McClelland; Lucille B. Bearon; Angela M. Fraser; R. David Mustian; Susan Velazquez
In this study we will analyze the attitude of older adults to advertisements, differentiating between advertisements that contain rhetorical figures (trope ads) and those that do not (explicit ads). We will also study their attitude toward the brand advertised according to their degree of involvement with the product. In the course of the empirical research, a total of 183 personal surveys were carried out with people aged over 65 taking as reference 2 products with different prices and durabilities. Analysis of the results indicated that in products involving little economic effort, older adults showed the same attitude toward both trope and explicit advertisements. However, with products requiring greater economic effort, older adults showed differences in their attitudes to trope ads and to explicit ads depending on their degree of involvement with the product. These differences had a strong effect on their attitudes to the brands of the products analyzed. PMID:20503807
Estrada, M; Moliner, M A; Sánchez, J
\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The increasing prevalence of obese older adults is a major public health issue.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Obesity causes frailty in older adults by exacerbating the age-related decline in physical function.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Treatment plans for obese older adults should include lifestyle intervention such as weight loss, behavior modification and\\u000a exercise therapy to improve physical function, quality of life and medical complications associated
Dennis T. Villareal; Krupa Shah
Dry skin is a common problem in the older individual due to physiological changes of the aging process as well as chronic health conditions. Dry skin can worsen if management is inappropriate or lacking. Nursing management of dry skin in the elderly is comprehensive including applying topical products to replenish lipids and reduce water loss, maintaining or increasing fluid intake, limiting sun exposure, and reducing symptoms of chronic illnesses. PMID:21601313
Hurlow, Jennifer; Bliss, Donna Zimmaro
Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the population. With these changing demographics, mental health professionals will be seeing more older clients. Additionally, older adults are an underserved population in that most older adults in need of mental health services do not receive treatment. Thus, it is essential that treatments for…
Petkus, Andrew J.; Wetherell, Julie Loebach
Orthostatic hypotension (OH) in older adults with dementia is associated with increased confusion, dizziness, syncope, and falls. These problems may result in a negative, downward spiral accompanied by high morbidity and mortality. The literature supports that nonpharmacological interventions are effective in the reduction of symptoms and prevention of orthostasis. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to increase staff knowledge and skill in the assessment, documentation, and care of residents with OH in dementia care units within a continuing care retirement community. An in-service program using a protocol based on clinical practice guidelines was presented to RNs, licensed practical nurses, therapists, and unlicensed caregivers. Assessments, documentation of assessments, and interventions for residents with OH increased following the in-service program. As staff continue to apply their knowledge in care routines, it is expected that this evidence-based practice will reduce symptoms of OH and increase safety and quality of life within this specific population. PMID:24779368
Momeyer, Mary Alice
Heat waves are the cause of many preventable deaths around the world, especially among older adults and in countries with more temperate climates. In the present study, we examined the effects of age on whole-body heat loss and heat storage during passive exposure to environmental conditions representative of the upper temperature extremes experienced in Canada. Direct and indirect calorimetry measured whole-body evaporative heat loss and dry heat exchange, as well as the change in body heat content. Twelve younger (21 ± 3 years) and 12 older (65 ± 5 years) adults with similar body weight (younger: 72.0 ± 4.4 kg; older: 80.1 ± 4.2 kg) and body surface area (younger: 1.8 ± 0.1 m(2); older: 2.0 ± 0.1 m(2)) rested for 2 h in a hot-dry [36.5 °C, 20% relative humidity (RH)] or hot-humid (36.5 °C, 60% RH) environment. In both conditions, evaporative heat loss was not significantly different between groups (dry: p = 0.758; humid: p = 0.814). However, the rate of dry heat gain was significantly greater (by approx. 10 W) for older adults relative to younger adults during the hot-dry (p = 0.032) and hot-humid exposure (p = 0.019). Consequently, the cumulative change in body heat content after 2 h of rest was significantly greater in older adults in the hot-dry (older: 212 ± 25 kJ; younger: 131 ± 27 kJ, p = 0.018) as well as the hot-humid condition (older: 426 ± 37 kJ; younger: 317 ± 45 kJ, p = 0.037). These findings demonstrate that older individuals store more heat during short exposures to dry and humid heat, suggesting that they may experience increased levels of thermal strain in such conditions than people of younger age. PMID:24552369
Stapleton, Jill M; Larose, Joanie; Simpson, Christina; Flouris, Andreas D; Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P
Despite increased attention to understanding reading among adults, the reading processes and activities of older (i.e., elderly) adults remain relatively unknown. There are several existing research needs regarding older adults’ reading skills and activities. These include understanding the characteristics of avid older adult readers and how changes in cognitive skills associated with aging affect reading activities. Also, assessment issues related
M. Cecil Smith
As the world’s population ages, the elevated prevalence of insomnia in older adults is a growing concern. Insomnia is characterized by difficulty falling or remaining asleep, or by non-restorative sleep, and resultant daytime dysfunction. In addition to being at elevated risk for primary insomnia, older adults are at greater risk for comorbid insomnia, which results from, or occurs in conjunction with another medical or psychiatric condition. In this review, we discuss normal changes in sleep that accompany aging, circadian rhythm changes and other factors that can contribute to late-life insomnia, useful tools for the assessment of insomnia and related problems in older people, and both non-pharmacological and pharmacological strategies for the management of insomnia and optimization of sleep in later life. PMID:23746664
Wennberg, Alexandra M.; Canham, Sarah L.; Smith, Michael T.; Spira, Adam P.
Abstract The success of home telemedicine depends on end-user adoption, which has been slow despite rapid advances in technological development. This study focuses on an examination of significant factors that may predict the successful adoption of home telemedicine services (HTS) among older adults. Based on previous studies in the fields of remote patient monitoring, assisted living technologies, and consumer health information technology acceptance, eight factors were identified as a framework for qualitative testing. Twelve focus groups were conducted with an older population living in both urban and rural environments. The results reveal seven predictors that play an important role in perceptions of HTS: perceived usefulness, effort expectancy, social influence, perceived security, computer anxiety, facilitating conditions, and physicians' opinion. The results provide important insights in the field of older adults' acceptance of HTS, with guidelines for the strategic planning, developing, and marketing of HTS for the graying market. PMID:23931702
Brencic, Maja Makovec; Trkman, Peter; de Leonni Stanonik, Mateja
A thorough search of the literature revealed only nine articles published since 1993 that focused on nutrition education for older adults attending group classes and that measured outcomes. A table summarizes the reports, including the theoretical bases, descriptions of interventions, participants and comparison groups, program outcomes, methods of verification, and followup after interventions. Only three of the studies explicitly indicated
Mary Meck Higgins; Mary Clarke Barkley
Prevention of premature chronic diseases is an important component of healthy aging. Nutrition education can help to reduce the risk of premature chronic diseases in some older adults. Home delivered meals and congregate dining services assist vulnerable elderly persons by providing opportunities for nutritional and social support. Screening and assessment tools identify factors affecting nutritional health and can also provide
Magdalena Krondl; Patricia Coleman; Daisy Lau
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of a new model of health care designed to improve the quality of life and the efficiency of resource use for older adults with multimorbidity. Design and Methods: Guided Care enhances primary care by infusing the operative principles of seven chronic care innovations: disease management, self-management, case management, lifestyle
Cynthia M. Boyd; Chad Boult; Efrat Shadmi; Bruce Leff; Rosemarie Brager; Linda Dunbar; Jennifer L. Wolff; Stephen Wegener
Physical activity (exercise) serves primary, second- ary, and tertiary roles in the prevention of falls among older adults. In its primary role, physical activity can prevent the onset of pathology and system impairments that lead to disabil- ity and increased risk for falls. Slowing the progression of dis- ease and system impairments is its secondary role, while its tertiary role
Debra J. Rose
Relinquishing the privilege to drive is a difficult issue for older adults. To better understand factors that influence driving decisions and to identify approaches that could help ease the transition to a non-driving status, we conducted focus groups with elders who had recently stopped driving. Results demonstrate that the decision to stop driving is reluctantly made by elders on their
Geri Adler; Susan Rottunda
Older adult women age 55+ years (N = 549) were interviewed as part of a population-based epidemiological research study of lifetime experiences with physical and sexual assault and current mental health problems. Although overall rates of psychopathology were low, producing very small cells for comparison, women who reported experiencing physical…
Acierno, Ron; Lawyer, Steven R.; Rheingold, Alyssa; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.
As the population continues to age, social work practitioners and researchers will increasingly confront the needs of elders with alcohol use disorders. Alcohol abuse poses special risks for increased morbidity and mortality among older adults, contributing to the heightened use of medical resources and the related increase in medical costs. Although, the prevalence of alcohol use disorders in the elderly
Sherry M. Cummings; Brian Bride; Ann M. Rawlins-Shaw
In this study we will analyze the attitude of older adults to advertisements, differentiating between advertisements that contain rhetorical figures (trope ads) and those that do not (explicit ads). We will also study their attitude toward the brand advertised according to their degree of involvement with the product. In the course of the…
Estrada, M.; Moliner, M. A.; Sanchez, J.
Interviews with 17 older adults about learning needs and barriers resulted in a questionnaire completed by 160 elders. Most important needs were associated with transportation, health, and safety. Physical disabilities were the chief barrier. They felt most confident addressing health, safety, leisure, and transportation needs but not…
Purdie, Nola; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian
A survey of 157 older adult volunteers suggests that volunteering provides substantial benefits such as maintaining a sense of identity and self-esteem, meeting the need to belong to a group, and affording opportunities to undertake new learning challenges. Volunteer organizations should attempt to meet these needs as a way to retain volunteers.…
Battaglia, Anne Marie; Metzer, Jacques
Several studies have shown a heightened inflammatory state in frail older adults, marked by high serum levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein and an increased number of circulating leukocytes. Activation of monocytes and macrophages, marked by increased levels of neopterin, may contribute to chronic inflammation in the frail older adult. However, the reduced mononuclear cell response to lipopolysaccharide in vitro suggests the existence of defective activation pathways within the innate immune system possibly due to desensitization. Conversely, the expansion of CD8+ T cells, and specifically those expressing the CCR5 chemokine receptor, above and beyond the levels observed in senescence, points to the involvement of adaptive immune pathways. In line with these observations, frail older adults exhibit a reduced antibody response to pneumococcal and influenza vaccines. Collectively, these observations support the existence of a dysregulated immune system in frail older adults and highlight the need for strategies to improve its function. Abbreviations AIDS, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; CCL, CC-chemokine receptor ligand; CCR, CC-chemokine receptor; CHS, Cardiovascular Health Study; CMV, cytomegalovirus; GTP, guanosine trisphosphate; HAART, highly active anti-retroviral therapy; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; IDO, indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase; IL, interleukin; IFN, interferon; MACS, Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study; NH2PPP, dihydro-neopterin trisphosphate; Tc, T cytotoxic; TCR, T-cell receptor; TEMRA, T effector memory cells re-expressing CD45RA; Th, T helper; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; WHAS, Women’s Health and Aging Study PMID:24809027
Wang, George C.; Casolaro, Vincenzo
campuses free of charge. Auditors participate in class activities at the discretion of the instructor to determine openings for older adult auditor participation.* Auditors participate fully in classes with course requirements, and instruction rules for class participation. I understand I can be withdrawn
In this research, older adults (N = 150) hospitalized for major depression and their wife, husband, daughter, or son caregivers were interviewed. The primary purpose of the research was to evaluate the ability of caregiver background characteristics, patient illness characteristics, caregiver coping, and strategies for managing the patient at home to predict caregiver adjustment. Among the caregiver characteristics, being in
Gregory A. Hinrichsen
This qualitative study explores the international migration patterns and the family lives of older adults. Informants (N = 54) reported that they came to the United States to help out their grown children with housekeeping, child care, and domestic economizing. They described how they strategically navigated U.S. immigration laws choosing to…
We investigated comprehension of and adaptation to speech in an unfamiliar accent in older adults. Participants performed a speeded sentence verification task for accented sentences: one group upon auditory-only presentation, and the other group upon audiovisual presentation. Our questions were whether audiovisual presentation would facilitate adaptation to the novel accent, and which cognitive and linguistic measures would predict adaptation. Participants
Esther Janse; Patti Adank
Negative attitudes about aging have been widespread and films, television, radio, and print media may serve as an important source of socialization or reflect the current views of older adults. This study focused on examination of the frequency of depictions of older men and women in 765 advertisements appearing in Time and Newsweek national weekly news magazines, and on an analysis of their roles suggested in photographs depicting a total of 2,505 persons. These were collected over a one-year period and coded by three persons. Analysis indicated that older adults, especially older women, were not only presented infrequently but, when presented roles, were often passive or dependent as is consistent with social stereotypes. PMID:10672769
McConatha, J T; Schnell, F; McKenna, A
This policy brief looks at the financial burdens imposed on older Californians when adult children return home, often due to a crisis not of their own making, to live with their parents. The findings show that on average in California, the amount of money that older adults need in order to maintain a minimally decent standard of living while supporting one adult child in their home increases their expenses by a minimum of 50 percent. Low-income older adults are usually on fixed incomes, so helping an adult child can provide the child with a critical safety net but at the cost of the parents' own financial well-being. Policy approaches to assisting this vulnerable population of older adults include implementing reforms to increase Supplemental Security Income (SSI), improving the availability of affordable housing, assuring that all eligible nonelderly adults obtain health insurance through health care reform's expansion of Medi-Cal and subsidies, and increasing food assistance through SNAP and senior meal programs. PMID:24804354
Wallace, Steven P; Padilla-Frausto, D Imelda
\\u000a Online Personal Health Records (PHR) software has the potential to provide older adults with tools to better manage several\\u000a aspects of their health, including their use of medications. In spite of this potential, we still know little about how to\\u000a make PHRs accessible for older adults. We also know little about how to design PHRs in a way that will
Juan Pablo Hourcade; Elizabeth A. Chrischilles; Brian M. Gryzlak; Blake M. Hanson; Donald E. Dunbar; David A. Eichmann; Ryan R. Lorentzen
... Health Problems Nutrition Osteoporosis Stroke Related Documents PDF Living With Multiple Health Problems: What Older Adults Should Know Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Living With Multiple Health Problems: What Older Adults Should ...
, JKL). FIGURE 1: Measurement of Leg Blood Flow We measured leg blood flow using Doppler ultrasound (12 in a 12-week diet and exercise lifestyle intervention. Methods: We measured leg blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) and calculated blood flow shear rates at rest in middle-aged adults with pre-diabetes (n=16, 51
Gasch, Audrey P.
Interventions to improve the cognitive health of older adults are of critical importance. In the current study, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using a pill-based nutraceutical (NT-020) that contained a proprietary formulation of blueberry, carnosine, green tea, vitamin D3, and Biovin to evaluate the impact on changes in multiple domains of cognitive functioning. One hundred and five cognitively intact adults aged 65-85 years of age (M=73.6 years) were randomized to receive NT-020 (n=52) or a placebo (n=53). Participants were tested with a battery of cognitive performance tests that were classified into six broad domains--episodic memory, processing speed, verbal ability, working memory, executive functioning, and complex speed at baseline and 2 months later. The results indicated that persons taking NT-020 improved significantly on two measures of processing speed across the 2-month test period in contrast to persons on the placebo whose performance did not change. None of the other cognitive ability measures were related to intervention group. The results also indicated that the NT-020 was well tolerated by older adults, and the presence of adverse events or symptoms did not differ between the NT-020 and placebo groups. Overall, the results of the current study were promising and suggest the potential for interventions like these to improve the cognitive health of older adults. PMID:24134194
Small, Brent J; Rawson, Kerri S; Martin, Christina; Eisel, Sarah L; Sanberg, Cyndy D; McEvoy, Cathy L; Sanberg, Paul R; Shytle, R Douglas; Tan, Jun; Bickford, Paula C
This study investigated the influence of attentional and motor demands on motor overflow in 17 healthy young (18-35 years) and 17 older adults (60-80 years). Participants performed a finger pressing task by exerting either 33% or 66% of their maximal force output using their dominant or nondominant hand. Overflow was concurrently recorded in the passive hand. Attention was manipulated via a tactile stimulus presented to one or both hands for certain trials. Results showed that older adults exhibited greater overflow than young adults and that the effect of target force was exacerbated in older adults. Further, only older adult overflow was increased when tactile stimulation was directed to one or both hands. Increased overflow in older adults may result from bilateral cortical activation that is influenced by increased task demands. To perform comparatively to younger adults, older adults may compensate for age-related brain changes by recruiting an increased cortical network. PMID:18728998
Addamo, Patricia K; Farrow, Maree; Hoy, Kate E; Bradshaw, John L; Georgiou-Karistianis, Nellie
This study was conducted to determine the competencies needed to meet the individual needs of older adults when they choose independent living. The ob jectives were to determine the perceptions of 150 older adults, age 60 or over, and 251 home economists with regard to the levels of competencies needed by older adults for independent living in: (a) housing, (b)
Chloe D. Merrill; Carilyn K. Norris
Context: Identifying ways to meet the health care needs of older adults is important because their numbers are increasing and they often have more health care issues. High resilience level may be one factor that helps older adults adjust to the hardships associated with aging. Rural community-dwelling older adults often face unique challenges such…
Background: older adults can be limited in their performance of daily tasks due to an inadequate aerobic capacity. Aerobic capacity below minimum physiological thresholds required to maintain independence leaves older adults with little, or no, aerobic reserve. Objective: the aim of this study was to measure functional performance and aerobic reserve in older adults during the serial performance of daily
SCOTT W. ARNETT; J ENNIFER; H. LAITY; S UBODH K. AGRAWAL; M. ELAINE CRESS
Background: Previous research has described the success of an intervention aimed at improving older adults’ ability to regulate their learning. This metacognitive approach involves teaching older adults to allocate their study time more efficiently by testing themselves and restudying items that are less well learned. Objective: Although this type of memory intervention has shown promise, training older adults to test
Heather Bailey; John Dunlosky; Christopher Hertzog
Older adults' memories of events that occurred in adolescence and early adulthood are over-represented compared to other lifetime periods. Prior research on this reminiscence bump has focused on qualities of individual memories. The present study used a novel interview method to examine the potential role played by mental representations of extended lifetime periods. Older adults provided oral life stories, and they divided their transcribed narratives into "chapters". Participants' ages at chapter beginnings and endings showed pronounced reminiscence bumps. The results are consistent with the idea that personal episodes occurring near the boundaries of extended lifetime periods receive preferential processing that enhances long-term memory. PMID:24295374
Steiner, Kristina L; Pillemer, David B; Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Minigan, Andrew P
Upon completion of the chapter, the student will be able to:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Weigh the likelihood of benefit and harm when deciding whether to hospitalize an older adult.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a Anticipate hazards of hospitalization for older adults and take measures to prevent them.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different sites for post-acute care with patients and families.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 4. \\u000a \\u000a Understand the
Kenneth S. Boockvar
This descriptive, correlation study was designed to investigate the relationship between health and the social support that older adults (mean age of 79 years) exchanged within their informal social networks of family members and friends\\/neighbors. It was hypothesized that the changing family dynamics of the 1990s have created opportunity for friends\\/neighbors to take an increasingly active role in the informal
Janice Elaine Fries
Antipsychotic medications are widely used to manage psychotic and behavioral disorders in older adults, including primary\\u000a psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, and psychosis and behavioral disturbances associated with dementia. These two broad\\u000a diagnostic indications are associated with contrasting recommended treatment durations, with the former requiring indefinite\\u000a treatment across the life span. Antipsychotic drug dosing for schizophrenia is based primarily on
Chloe Leon; Philip Gerretsen; Hiroyuki Uchida; Takefumi Suzuki; Tarek Rajji; David C. Mamo
The present study examined age differences in the influence of 3 factors that previous research has shown to influence word-naming performance. The influence of word frequency, orthographic length, and orthographic neighborhood measures was examined using large-scale regression analyses on the naming latencies for 2,820 words. Thirty-one younger adults and 29 older adults named all of these words, and age differences
Daniel H. Spieler; David A. Balota
Antipsychotic medications are widely used to manage psychotic and behavioral disorders in older adults, including primary psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, and psychosis and behavioral disturbances associated with dementia. These two broad diagnostic indications are associated with contrasting recommended treatment durations, with the former requiring indefinite treatment across the life span. Antipsychotic drug dosing for schizophrenia is based primarily on studies of younger patients and thus may not apply to older adults. It is critically important to address the effects of aging on antipsychotic dosing given the recent emergence of data that suggest a critical role for age-related sensitivity to these drugs. Antipsychotic drugs are not only associated with somatic and neurological adverse effects but also increased all-cause mortality and sudden cardiac death in this vulnerable population. This review focuses on the sensitivity of older adults to adverse effects from antipsychotic medications and the current pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic explanatory models of susceptibility. Implications of recent research findings for individualized pharmacotherapy are discussed. PMID:20425307
Leon, Chloe; Gerretsen, Philip; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Takefumi; Rajji, Tarek; Mamo, David C
There is evidence from high quality studies to strongly support the positive association between increased levels of physical activity, exercise participation and improved health in older adults. Worldwide, around 3.2 million deaths per year are being attributed to inactivity. In industrialised countries where people are living longer lives, the levels of chronic health conditions are increasing and the levels of physical activity are declining. Key factors in improving health are exercising at a moderate-to-vigorous level for at least 5?days per week and including both aerobic and strengthening exercises. Few older adults achieve the level of physical activity or exercise that accompanies health improvements. A challenge for health professionals is to increase physical activity and exercise participation in older adults. Some success in this has been reported when physicians have given specific, detailed and localised information to their patients, but more high quality research is needed to continue to address this issue of non-participation in physical activity and exercise of a high enough level to ensure health benefits. PMID:24255119
Young and nondemented older adults completed a visual object continuous recognition memory task in which some stimuli (lures) were similar but not identical to previously presented objects. The lures were hypothesized to result in increased interference and increased pattern separation demand. To examine variability in object pattern separation…
Holden, Heather M.; Toner, Chelsea; Pirogovsky, Eva; Kirwan, C. Brock; Gilbert, Paul E.
The issues of rising numbers of disasters, overwhelming increases in number of older adults, and historically flawed evacuations present real challenges. During the next two decades, the number of American baby boomers, who turn 65, will increase by 40%. As evidenced by recent disasters, the imperfections and vulnerabilities of flawed evacuations…
Gray-Graves, Amy; Turner, Keith W.; Swan, James H.
The present paper, drawing from the perspective of social cognition, examines and evaluates an intervention based on social-cognitive perspective-taking on the reduction of stereotyping and prejudice in older adults. Data were collected in a sample of Spanish participants with a mean age of 63.2 years. The intervention, aimed at reducing prejudice…
Castillo, Jose-Luis Alvarez; Camara, Carmen Palmero; Eguizabal, Alfredo Jimenez
Designing Risk Communication for Older Adults Vaibhav Garg School of Informatics and Computing present the design of such videos for phishing and malware. We also report results of a pi- lot study General Terms Design, Human Factors, Security This material is based upon work supported, in part
Presents a study of the contrasting social attitudes toward older adults in three different social structures: the Caucasus region of the Soviet Union, a traditional society; Japan, transitional but retaining some traditional values; and the United States, with its obsolescence technology and youth-oriented culture. (MF)
Savage, Alicia P.
Despite longitudinal stability in subjective well-being across adulthood, many adults perceive self-related change. This study was aimed at identifying differential subjective change profiles in life satisfaction rated for the present, the past, and the future and to examine their associations with sociodemographic variables and changes in adaptive functioning. The authors addressed this aim using Midlife in the United States survey
Christina Röcke; Margie E. Lachman
The present experiment examined temporal discounting across 3 different age bands: adolescents, adults, and older adults (mean ages 14, 46, and 73 years, respectively). A computerized task was employed in which participants were asked to choose between larger rewards available at a specified time in the future--either 100 British Pounds or 1,000…
Whelan, Robert; McHugh, Louise A.
During recent decades, the concept of health promotion has become a legitimate part of health care because of the aging of the postwar baby boom generation. As this population ages, the potential strain on health care systems will increase because the greatest use of health care services occurs during the last years of life. In older adults there are many correctable health factors that can be assessed through screening protocols. Hypertension, cholesterol, hearing, vision, diabetes, and cancer screening are well integrated into health promotion programs; nutrition promotion programs are not as well integrated. Reluctance to develop health promotion programs for older adults exists because of a perception that they would not follow such plans or change their lifestyles. However, longitudinal studies have shown that health promotion activities extend the number of years of health in older people although the relationship weakens in older age. Changes in diet and exercise patterns are most effective in the prevention of nutrition-related conditions when they are instituted early in life, but positive effects can occur at any age. If nutritional interventions are instituted early, a substantial reduction in health care expenditures may result from a decrease in the incidence or the delayed onset of these conditions. Changes in behaviors (reducing salt and fat intake) were positively associated with a belief that consuming a healthful diet would contribute to better health. The use of a variety of adult education theories and models will enhance behavior changes that lead to more healthful habits and enable a health educator to be successful in effecting change. PMID:11730237
Background Physical activity promotes health in older adults but participation rates are low. Interactive video dance games can increase\\u000a activity in young persons but have not been designed for use with older adults. The purpose of this research was to evaluate\\u000a healthy older adults’ interest and participation in a dance game adapted for an older user.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Healthy older adults were recruited
Stephanie Studenski; S. Perera; E. Hile; V. Keller; J. Spadola-Bogard; J. Garcia
Purpose: This study tested a theoretical model of volunteering benefits and examined the mechanism through which volunteering benefits older adults. Design and Methods: This is a 2-wave study of 253 older adult volunteers serving in 10 volunteer programs. Older volunteers completed the mailed surveys in 2005 and 2006. Structural equation modeling…
Tang, Fengyan; Choi, Eunhee; Morrow-Howell, Nancy
A limited amount of literature has discussed older adults in formal education, especially their motivations to learn in higher education. This study aims to understand older adults' learning in the context of higher education. Specifically, this study argues that higher education can function as a stimulating learning environment that helps older…
Reading and television preferences of 58 adults over 65 and 39 younger adults were compared. More younger people watched entertainment programs. More older blacks than whites read religious materials and watched TV for news; more older whites read leisure materials and viewed entertainment. More older people disliked TV violence. Overall, most…
Scales, Alice M.
Study Objectives: To investigate the effects of post-learning sleep and sleep architecture on false memory in healthy older adults. Design: Balanced, crossover design. False memory was induced using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm and assessed following nocturnal sleep and following a period of daytime wakefulness. Post-learning sleep structure was evaluated using polysomnography (PSG). Setting: Sleep research laboratory. Participants: Fourteen healthy older adults from the Singapore-Longitudinal Aging Brain Study (mean age ± standard deviation = 66.6 ± 4.1 y; 7 males). Measurements and Results: At encoding, participants studied lists of words that were semantically related to non-presented critical lures. At retrieval, they made “remember”/“know” and “new” judgments. Compared to wakefulness, post-learning sleep was associated with reduced “remember” responses, but not “know” responses to critical lures. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the veridical recognition of studied words, false recognition of unrelated distractors, discriminability, or response bias between the sleep and the wake conditions. More post-learning slow wave sleep was associated with greater reduction in false memory. Conclusions: In healthy older adults, sleep facilitates the reduction in false memory without affecting veridical memory. This benefit correlates with the amount of slow wave sleep in the post-learning sleep episode. Citation: Lo JC; Sim SK; Chee MW. Sleep reduces false memory in healthy older adults. SLEEP 2014;37(4):665-671. PMID:24744453
Lo, June C.; Sim, Sam K. Y.; Chee, Michael W. L.
Diversity of neighborhood amenities may promote the mobility of older adults. A 2010 community-based sample of 510 adults aged ?65 years in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and geospatial data from the Esri Business Analyst database (Esri, Inc., Redlands, California) were used to assess associations of neighborhood amenity diversity with mobility. Neighborhoods were defined by census tract, and diversity of amenities was derived by using the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design's neighborhood development index (US Green Building Council, Washington, DC). Generalized estimating equations adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, and neighborhood characteristics were used to estimate differences in mobility score by tertile of amenity diversity. Analyses were stratified by participants' routine travel habits (stayed at home, stayed in home zip code, or traveled beyond home zip code). We found that for those who spent most of their time in their home neighborhoods, mobility scores (from the Life-Space Assessment, which ranges from 0 to 104 points) were 8.3 points higher (95% confidence interval: 0.1, 16.6) among those who lived in neighborhoods with the most amenity diversity compared with those who lived in neighborhoods with the least amenity diversity. No significant associations between amenity diversity and mobility were observed for those who did not leave home or who regularly traveled outside their neighborhoods. Neighborhoods with a high diversity of amenities may be important promoters of mobility in older adults who do not routinely travel outside their neighborhoods. PMID:23666814
Rosso, Andrea L.; Grubesic, Tony H.; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Tabb, Loni P.; Michael, Yvonne L.
Diversity of neighborhood amenities may promote the mobility of older adults. A 2010 community-based sample of 510 adults aged ?65 years in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and geospatial data from the Esri Business Analyst database (Esri, Inc., Redlands, California) were used to assess associations of neighborhood amenity diversity with mobility. Neighborhoods were defined by census tract, and diversity of amenities was derived by using the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design's neighborhood development index (US Green Building Council, Washington, DC). Generalized estimating equations adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, and neighborhood characteristics were used to estimate differences in mobility score by tertile of amenity diversity. Analyses were stratified by participants' routine travel habits (stayed at home, stayed in home zip code, or traveled beyond home zip code). We found that for those who spent most of their time in their home neighborhoods, mobility scores (from the Life-Space Assessment, which ranges from 0 to 104 points) were 8.3 points higher (95% confidence interval: 0.1, 16.6) among those who lived in neighborhoods with the most amenity diversity compared with those who lived in neighborhoods with the least amenity diversity. No significant associations between amenity diversity and mobility were observed for those who did not leave home or who regularly traveled outside their neighborhoods. Neighborhoods with a high diversity of amenities may be important promoters of mobility in older adults who do not routinely travel outside their neighborhoods. PMID:23666814
Rosso, Andrea L; Grubesic, Tony H; Auchincloss, Amy H; Tabb, Loni P; Michael, Yvonne L
Older adults who live alone are at risk for problems (e.g., falling, sudden illness). To maintain themselves safely at home they may benefit from planning to prevent problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an intervention designed to train family members or friends as to how to help older adults who were living alone make plans to maintain independence safely in their homes and to make behavioral and household changes to enhance safety. Support network members of 19 older adults randomly assigned to the intervention group were taught to use multiple segment vignettes to assist the older adults in creating plans for living safely. Older adults in the control group (n = 21) were asked to engage in an unstructured discussion about home safety with their network members. Older adults in the intervention group developed safer plans and made more household and behavioral changes than did control group adults. PMID:23329628
Ganong, Lawrence H; Coleman, Marilyn; Benson, Jacquelyn J; Snyder-Rivas, Linley A; Stowe, James D; Porter, Eileen J
As people age, they naturally experience sensory, perceptual, and cognitive changes. Many of these changes necessitate adaptations in designing programs for older adults. Choral singing is an activity that has many potential benefits for older adults, yet the rehearsal environment, presentation style, and content of material presented may need to…
Yinger, Olivia Swedberg
This work evaluated activity levels in a group of healthy older adults to establish a target activity level for adults of similar age after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). With the decreasing age of TJA patients, it is essential to have a reference for activity level in younger patients as activity level affects quality of life and implant design. 54 asymptomatic, healthy older adults with no clinical evidence of lower extremity OA participated. The main outcome measure, average daily step count, was measured using an accelerometer-based activity monitor. On average the group took 8813 ± 3611 steps per day, approximately 4000 more steps per day than has been previously reported in patients following total joint arthroplasty. The present work provides a reference for activity after joint arthroplasty which is relevant given the projected number of people under the age of 65 who will undergo joint arthroplasty in the coming years. PMID:23577274
Thorp, Laura E.; Orozco, Diego; Block, Joel A.; Sumner, Dale R.; Wimmer, Markus A.
The hypercorrection effect, which refers to the finding that errors committed with high confidence are more likely to be corrected than are low confidence errors, has been replicated many times, and with both young adults and children. In the present study, we contrasted older with younger adults. Participants answered general-information questions, made confidence ratings about their answers, were given corrective feedback, and then were retested on questions that they had gotten wrong. While younger adults showed the hypercorrection effect, older adults, despite higher overall accuracy on the general-information questions and excellent basic metacognitive ability, showed a diminished hypercorrection effect. Indeed, the correspondence between their confidence in their errors and the probability of correction was not significantly greater than zero, showing, for the first time, that a particular participant population is selectively impaired on this error-correction task. These results potentially offer leverage both on the mechanisms underlying the hypercorrection effect and on reasons for older adults' memory impairments, as well as on memory functions that are spared. PMID:23241028
Eich, Teal S.; Stern, Yaakov; Metcalfe, Janet
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is predominantly a disease of older adults, with more than 50% of cases occurring in adults over 60 years of age. Treatment of AML in older adults is complicated not only by comorbidities that are common in this patient population, but also by the prevalence, in this age group, of forms of AML with a poor
This study analyzed the survey on adults administered by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008, and logistic regression analysis showed a close relationship between learning motivations of older adults. The finding revealed that the higher age or the lower education attainment of older adults, the lower their learning motivation. The…
Chang, Dian-Fu; Lin, Sung-Po
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a profile of sexual abuse cases among adults aged 60 and older receiving attention from Adult Protective Services units in Virginia over a 5-year period. Design and Methods: We used bivariate analysis to characterize older adults (n = 82) experiencing sexual abuse and the circumstances of the…
Teaster, Pamela B.; Roberto, Karen A.
Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the world population. Older adults are also at heightened risk of chronic conditions (such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer) and specific geriatric conditions (such as cognitive impairment, frailty, and falls). Research studies have examined the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and subsequent health outcomes and the correlates of fruit and vegetable intake in the U.S. population. However, relatively few studies have specifically examined health impacts and correlates of fruit and vegetable intake among older adults, who have unique biophysical and socioeconomic circumstances. Evidence is reviewed to (1) describe findings related to consumption and chronic, geriatric, and other health outcomes among older adults and (2) describe patterns in fruit and vegetable consumption among older adults and how these patterns vary within and among populations. This review addresses specific barriers faced by older adults in obtaining and consuming fruits and vegetables in community settings. Recommendations for practice and policy are discussed. PMID:23769545
Kadell, Andria R.
The prevalence of dementia is increasing with expansion of the older adult population. In the absence of effective therapy, preventive approaches are essential to address this public health problem. Blueberries contain polyphenolic compounds, most prominently anthocyanins, which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, anthocyanins have been associated with increased neuronal signaling in brain centers, mediating memory function as well as improved glucose disposal, benefits that would be expected to mitigate neurodegeneration. This study investigated the effects of daily consumption of wild blueberry juice in a sample of nine older adults with early memory changes. At 12 weeks, improved paired associate learning (p = 0.009) and word list recall (p = 0.04) were observed. In addition, there were trends suggesting reduced depressive symptoms (p = 0.08) and lower glucose levels (p = 0.10). We also compared the memory performances of the blueberry subjects with a demographically matched sample who consumed a berry placebo beverage in a companion trial of identical design and observed comparable results for paired associate learning. The findings of this preliminary study suggest that moderate-term blueberry supplementation can confer neurocognitive benefit and establish a basis for more comprehensive human trials to study preventive potential and neuronal mechanisms. PMID:20047325
Krikorian, Robert; Shidler, Marcelle D; Nash, Tiffany A; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Vinqvist-Tymchuk, Melinda R; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James A
Methods for determining appropriate content of older adult nutrition education intervention programs and strategies for effectively delivering nutrition messages to older learners are presented. Educators can determine the nutrition education needs and interests of their older learners by using results of food intake surveys and assessment screening tools, written surveys, interviews and group discussions. Findings of recent reports using these
Mary Meck Higgins; Mary Clarke Barkley
This study examined interview accounts from thirty-one Taiwanese older adults’ about their inter- and intra-generational communication experiences, and perceptions of today’s young and older people. Thematic analysis showed that Taiwanese older...
Zhang, Yan Bing; Lin, Mei-Chen
Despite longitudinal stability in subjective well-being across adulthood, many adults perceive self-related change. This study was aimed at identifying differential subjective change profiles in life satisfaction rated for the present, the past, and the future and to examine their associations with sociodemographic variables and changes in adaptive functioning. We addressed this aim using Midlife in the United States survey data from two measurement occasions (N=3631, T1-age: 24-75). Using cluster analysis, a ‘Continuous High,’ and an ‘Incremental’ subgroup were identified at both occasions. A third subgroup was labeled ‘Present Low’ at T1 and ‘Decremental’ at T2. Although the average pattern across individual variables suggested stability, up to 60% of individuals fit profiles depicting perceived change, and some individuals changed subgroup membership over time. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, subgroups differed in level and change in biopsychosocial measures of adaptive functioning, with sense of control and social relationship quality showing stronger associations than personality and physical health. Results indicate that a person-centered approach to assessing life satisfaction provides a rich and dynamic picture of individual differences in subjective well-being across the adult lifespan. PMID:19140654
Rocke, Christina; Lachman, Margie E.
The present study replicates our study of older adults' portrayal in Dutch television commercials conducted in 1993. The central question is whether older adults are being portrayed more visibly in Dutch television commercials and whether this portrayal has become more diverse compared to ten years ago. Based on a list of descriptions of all commercials broadcasted by public television channels in 2003 (N= 4767) 117 commercials featuring older adults were selected. By means of a quantitative content analysis it was examined whether and how older men and women are portrayed. It was concluded that although older adults are not more prevalent compared to ten years ago, their portrayal is more diverse with respect to their roles and the advertised products. Older adults were portrayed as more competent and less age-stereotypical in television commercials. PMID:17605283
van Selm, M; Westerhof, G J; de Vos, B
Little empirical evidence is available on older adults regarding the existence of a continuum between “normal” personality traits and DSM-IV-TR Axes I and II disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Given the typical complexity of clinical presentations in advanced age, it is feasible to expect a dimensional conceptualization of psychopathology to apply to older adults. In this pilot investigation, we first tested age differences in psychopathology, upholding the view that older adults should be considered separately from younger individuals in research on psychopathology. Then, in support of the dimensional approach, we tested the hypothesized continuity between normality and psychopathology by verifying the fulfillment of two operational criteria of continuity. A non-clinical sample of 100 Italian respondents was divided into two groups (50 people per group, 25 women and 25 men), aged 25–64 and 65–84, respectively. The instruments used were a measure of normal personality, SFERAS (Boncori & Barruffi, 2004) and one of Axes I and II psychopathology, TALEIA-400A (Boncori, 2007). MANOVA analyses demonstrated a significant effect on both measures, with older adults achieving higher Axis I scores and higher scores on normal personality traits connected to anxiety. The continuum hypothesis was confirmed on older and younger adults through correlational analyses that verified the fulfillment of both continuity criteria. Our results show that Italian older adults differ significantly in psychopathology from younger individuals; however, contrary to findings from other countries, in a negative direction. The continuity results (although in need of replication with larger samples, utilizing statistical methods better suited for these analyses, such as taxometric procedures) offer preliminary support for the notion that the dimensional approach to psychopathology could work well in older age.
Lagana, Luciana; Tramutolo, C.; Boncori, L.; Cruciani, A.C.
This demonstration presents a storytelling application specif- ically designed for older adults to share stories and thoughts. Studies claim that older adults commonly have diculties in engaging with on- line social networks (1), but increased social inclusion and sense of well- being has been observed in those who engage (2). While following a user-centered design approach, we have developed an
Tiago Boldt Sousa; Pedro Tenreiro; Paula Alexandra Silva; Eduarda Mendes Rodrigues
Perceptual, cognitive and motor deficits cause many older adults to have difficulty conducting pointing tasks on computers. Many strategies have been discussed in the HCI community to aid older adults and others in pointing tasks. We present a different approach in PointAssist, software that aids in pointing tasks by analyzing the characteristics of sub-movements, detecting when users have difficulty pointing,
Juan Pablo Hourcade; Christopher M. Nguyen; Keith B. Perry; Natalie L. Denburg
The purpose of this study was to evaluate an experiential learning project with BSW students to see if their perceptions of older adults have changed. The project consisted of an oral history project and presentation that matched BSW students with older adults from diverse ethnic backgrounds to gather their immigration narratives. The study used a…
Maschi, Tina; MacMillan, Thalia; Pardasani, Manoj; Lee, Ji Seon; Moreno, Claudia
The purpose of this study was to evaluate an experiential learning project with BSW students to see if their perceptions of older adults have changed. The project consisted of an oral history project and presentation that matched BSW students with older adults from diverse ethnic backgrounds to gather their immigration narratives. The study used a single group pretest posttest design
Tina Maschi; Thalia MacMillan; Manoj Pardasani; Ji Seon Lee; Claudia Moreno
Use of seal-like robot PARO in sensory group therapy for older adults with dementia Wan-Ling Chang--This work presents the preliminary results of an eight- week study of the seal-like robot PARO being used to interact with it. Keywords-PARO, socially assistive robot, robot therapy, dementia, older adults I
The purpose of this article is to present a program of learning for older adults in a national park. Because of the growing trend of tourism among retirees this learning during leisure is gaining prominence. The paper brings together the concepts of aging, self-directed learning, and tourism and leisure. In addition this paper presents a…
Roberson, Donald N., Jr.
There are a rising number of older adults; in the US alone nearly 20% of the population will be 65 or older by 2030. Chiropractic is one of the most frequently utilized types of complementary and alternative care by older adults, used by an estimated 5% of older adults in the U.S. annually. Chiropractic care involves many different types of interventions, including preventive strategies. This commentary by experts in the field of geriatrics, discusses the evidence for the use of spinal manipulative therapy, acupuncture, nutritional counseling and fall prevention strategies as delivered by doctors of chiropractic. Given the utilization of chiropractic services by the older adult, it is imperative that providers be familiar with the evidence for and the prudent use of different management strategies for older adults. PMID:22348431
The present paper, drawing from the perspective of social cognition, examines and evaluates an intervention based on social-cognitive perspective-taking on the reduction of stereotyping and prejudice in older adults. Data were collected in a sample of Spanish participants with a mean age of 63.2 years. The intervention, aimed at reducing prejudice and stereotyping, was based on mental imagery and tested
José-Luis Álvarez Castillo; Carmen Palmero Cámara; Alfredo Jiménez Eguizábal
This article uses a qualitative, ethnographic approach to examine the experiences older adults and their kin, as the older adult engages in relocation. Studies looking at caregiving by kin for older adults highlight burdens for the adult child. This study offers a life course perspective on kinship care, analyzing older adults' decisions' to move. It was found that many older adults are strongly influenced by the desire to not be cared for by their kin as well as to select housing near their existing social network, which might exclude kin. In conclusion, policy implications are discussed.
Jennings, Tezra; Perry, Tam E.; Valeriani, Julia
This study investigated individual differences in older adults' everyday problem-solving performance using 3 instruments. Past research, typically using only single measures, has yielded a multitude of findings regarding age effects in everyday problem solving. The present sample consisted of 111 older adults (44 men, 67 women) who ranged in age from 68 to 94 years. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that, within each of the 3 instruments, subscales representing particular content domains could be reliably identified. There was, however, little relation between the different instruments, and the measures also differed in their relation with chronological age. These results support the view that everyday problem-solving competence is a multidimensional construct, of which previous investigations may only have studied particular dimensions. PMID:7662186
Marsiske, Michael; Willis, Sherry L.
Within a communication predicament of aging and disability framework, this study examined the impact of two types of contextual variation on perceptions of older adult assertiveness within problematic service encounters. Young (N = 66) and older (N = 66) participants evaluated conversational scenarios in which a visually-impaired older woman…
Ryan, Ellen Bouchard; Anas, Ann P.; Mays, Heather
This study tested the hypotheses that older adults make less advantageous decisions than younger adults on the Iowa gambling task (IGT). Less advantageous decisions, as measured by the IGT, are characterized by choices that favor larger versus smaller immediate rewards, even though such choices may result in long-term negative consequences. The IGT, and measures of neuropsychological function, personality, and psychopathology were administered to 164 healthy adults 18–85 years of age. Older adults performed less advantageously on the IGT compared with younger adults. Additionally, a greater number of older adult’s IGT performances were classified as ‘impaired’ when compared to younger adults. Less advantageous decisions were associated with obsessive symptoms in older adults and with antisocial symptoms in younger adults. Performance on the IGT was positively associated with auditory working memory and psychomotor function in young adults, and in immediate memory in older adults. PMID:17445297
Fein, George; McGillivray, Shannon; Finn, Peter
Traditional biomechanical systems used to capture kinematic data have shown that declines in postural stability are frequently present in older adults and neurological populations. Recent advances in processor speed and measuring capabilities of on-board electronics within mobile devices present an opportunity to gather kinematic data and apply biomechanical analyses to potentially quantify postural stability. The aim of this project was to determine if the kinematic data gathered using a mobile device were of sufficient quantity and quality to characterize postural stability in older adults. Twelve healthy older adults completed six different balance conditions under altered surface, stance and vision. Simultaneous kinematic measurements were gathered from a three-dimensional motion analysis system and iPad during balance conditions. Correlation between the two systems was significant across balance conditions and outcome measures: peak-to-peak (r = 0.70-0.99), normalized path length (r = 0.64-0.98), root mean square (r = 0.73-0.99) of linear acceleration, 95 % volume (r = 0.96-0.99) of linear and angular acceleration and total power across different frequencies (r = 0.79-0.92). The mean absolute percentage error metric, used to evaluate time-series measurements point-by-point, indicated that when measuring linear and angular acceleration, the iPad tracked the motion analysis system with average error between 6 and 10 % of motion analysis measurements across all balance conditions. Collectively, similar accuracy with the iPad compared to motion capture suggests the sensors provide sufficient accuracy and quality for the quantification of postural stability in older adults. The objectivity, portability, and ease of use of this device make it ideal for use in clinical environments, which often lack biomechanical systems. PMID:25150554
Ozinga, Sarah J; Alberts, Jay L
Background: Age-related sensory and cognitive impairments have been related to functional performance in older adults. With regard to cognitive abilities, processing speed in particular may be strongly related to older adults’ abilities to perform everyday tasks. Identifying and comparing cognitive correlates of functional performance is particularly important in order to design interventions to promote independence and prevent functional disability. Objective:
Kimberly M. Wood; Jerri D. Edwards; Olivio J. Clay; Virginia G. Wadley; Daniel L. Roenker; Karlene K. Ball
Objective: Until recently, studies of balance abilities were conducted on nursing home residents or volunteers in a clinical laboratory setting. Little is known about balance abilities of older adults living independently in large urban cities or who represent different ethnic backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to describe balance abilities in these individuals.Subjects: Older adults (n = 251) ranging
Roberta A. Newton
Approximately 50% of older adults complain of difficulty sleeping. Poor sleep results in increased risk of significant morbidity and mortality. The decrements seen in the sleep of the older adult are often due to a decrease in the ability to get needed sleep. However, the decreased ability is less a function of age and more a function of other factors
Ariel B. Neikrug; Sonia Ancoli-Israel
This article reports progress in an ongoing research program examining older adults' decision-making competence (DMC). Using a theoretical framework that emphasizes the person–task fit in assessing DMC, the authors report the results of a study comparing older versus younger adults' decision performance on simple and complex tasks about health, finance, and nutrition. The authors hypothesized and found that increasing age
Melissa L. Finucane; C. K. Mertz; Paul Slovic; Elizabeth Scholze Schmidt
Part of an effort to expand and improve community college programs and services for older adults, this two-part report summarizes results from a national survey of older adult programs and provides an overview of current trends and their implications for action in community colleges. Following introductory sections, the report discusses a fall…
Doucette, Don; Ventura-Merkel, Catherine
This paper examines the medium of television as a means of education and outreach for older adults. It looks at positive and negative potentials of television. Particular attention is given to public television, cable television and videotapes. The viewing patterns, social and psychological functions of television, and the programming preferences of older adults are explored in terms of their relevance
J. Conrad Glass Jr; Judy L. Smith
With a declining pool of youth to draw from, community colleges need to be concerned about what can be done to serve the needs of a burgeoning older adult population. Recent research on the educational needs of older adults reveals that they are interested in: (1) information on such personal business and financial topics as social security…
Craig, Ford M.
This paper discusses the motivation for a Community Response Grid (CRG) to help older adults improve their capability for coping with emergency situations. We define and discuss the concept of a CRG, briefly review the limits of current emergency response systems, and identify usability and sociability guidelines for CRGs for older adults based on existing research. The paper ends with
Philip Fei Wu; Jenny Preece; Ben Shneiderman; Paul Jaeger; Yan Qu
This study investigated the effects of reading stories depicting older-adult characters on the attitudes of fourth-graders toward older adults. Attitudes were measured by means of a semantic-differential attitude scale constructed for this purpose. One hundred five students from five fourth-grade classes were randomly assigned to two experimental…
Fabiano, Emily S.
The purpose of this article is to describe a project that aims to foster active aging through entrepreneurial activities among older adults. The project establishes the feasibility of implementing an intervention program that assimilates the concept and capabilities of entrepreneurship among older adults and supports them while launching new…
Hantman, Shira; Gimmon, Eli
The assessment of anxiety disorders in late life is often hindered by the lack of measures specifically validated with older adults. Because anxiety manifestations may vary across age groups, it is important to design new instruments or validate existing measures with older adults. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) in a sample of 281
Charles M. Morin; Philippe Landreville; Cheryl Colecchi; Kathy McDonald; Jackie Stone; William Ling
Adults aged 65 to 69 made up the largest part of the substance abuse treatment population aged 65 or older, increasing from 56 percent of older adults in treatment in 1995 to 59 percent in 2005. In each year from 1995 to 2005, alcohol was the most frequen...
This study revisited the hypothesis that older adults lose some ability to efficiently control precision grip force. A previous study demonstrated such a decrement in older adults' performance in a vertical lift and support maneuver. This study employed a similar paradigm in which dynamic forces were applied with a simulated hand tool while measuring grip force and force applied with
Brian D. Lowe
In this comprehensively updated second edition, written by Alicia Ann Clair and Jenny Memmott the extraordinary benefits of music therapy for older adults are detailed. "Therapeutic Uses of Music with Older Adults" not only examines these benefits but also clarifies the reasons that music is beneficial. This important book shows both informal and…
Clair, Alicia Ann; Memmott, Jenny
Script analysis as a test of executive functions is presumed sensitive to cognitive changes seen with increasing age. Two studies evaluated if gender differences exist in performance on scripts for familiar and unfamiliar tasks in groups of cognitively intact older adults. In Study 1, 26 older adults completed male and female stereotypical…
Helmes, E.; Bush, J. D.; Pike, D. L.; Drake, D. G.
This study assesses the functional fitness of a convenient sample of older adults (greater than 70 years), to examine correlations between functional fitness and several other health-related variables and to compare with criterion performance data as established by Rikli and Jones (2001). One hundred and seven community-dwelling older adults with…
Wilkin, Linda D.; Haddock, Bryan L.
To effectively address medication adherence and improve cardiovascular health among older adults, a deeper understanding is needed of the barriers that this age group faces and of approaches that would be most effective and feasible for improving adherence. We conducted a focus group study (n = 25) in a diverse population of older adults with…
Holt, Elizabeth W.; Rung, Ariane L.; Leon, Kyla A.; Firestein, Catherine; Krousel-Wood, Marie
Older adults have the highest risk of death by suicide in the United States. Improving our understanding of the factors that lead to increased risk of suicide in older adults will greatly inform our ability to prevent suicide in this high-risk group. Two studies were conducted to test the effect of perceived burdensomeness, a component of the interpersonal-psychological theory of
Kelly C. Cukrowicz; Jennifer S. Cheavens; Kimberly A. Van Orden; R. Michael Ragain; Ronald L. Cook
Suicide is culturally patterned. A cultural perspective, however, is rarely used to examine suicidal behavior among dominant groups in industrialized countries. This study explored the culture of suicide in the U.S. Mountain West region. Specifically, it examined the perceived precipitants and protectors of older adult suicide in a Mountain West community with higher than national average rates of older adult
Bryan D. Stice; Silvia Sara Canetto
Research suggests that university students tend to hold negative attitudes about older adults. However, there is some evidence to suggest that these ageist attitudes can be challenged and changed through curricular intervention. The current study was designed to determine whether the "Activities of Older Adults" exercise as part of a…
Wurtele, Sandy K.; Maruyama, LaRae
Older adults are important from a public health standpoint as the number and proportion of elderly in our population is increasing. Further, this segment of the population is characterized by low physical activity involvement and suffers from hypokinetic diseases at high rates. Thus, health promoters should be aware of the types of PA that older adults engage in, and where
Timothy J. Bungum; Melva Thompson-Robinson
A predominate motivation theory used to predict exercise behavior is self-determination theory, which posits that motivation is driven by satisfaction of three basic psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. This study investigates the relationship between motivation, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and exercise in a sample of older adults. Significant differences were found between older adult exercisers and nonexercisers in intrinsic
Rena A. Kirkland; Nancy J. Karlin; Megan Babkes Stellino; Steven Pulos
This study examined stereotype traits of older adults elicited from 40 young (M age = 19.6), 40 middle-aged (M = 36.8), and 40 older Chinese adults (M = 64.7). Trait lists were compared across age groups and to traits reported by U.S. and Chinese...
Zhang, Yan Bing; Hummert, Mary Lee; Garstka, Teri A.
Little empirical evidence is available on older adults regarding the existence of a continuum between "normal" personality traits and DSM-IV-TR Axes I and II disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Given the typical complexity of clinical presentations in advanced age, it is feasible to expect a dimensional conceptualization of…
Lagana, Luciana; Tramutolo, Carmine; Boncori, Lucia; Cruciani, Anna Clara
This article presents a critical review of the influence of interracial and ethnic variation on pain prevalence, intensity, interference/function/disability, and treatment in older adults. A search of scientific databases published from 1900 to 2011, using key words associated with pain, geriatrics, and race/ethnicity, identified 180 articles, of which 27 empirical studies met the inclusion criteria. Of the retained articles, 17 reported that race/ethnicity was a statistically significant factor at p < .05. Minority older adults reported a higher prevalence of pain and higher pain intensity, and variable responses regarding function/disability compared with responses by non-Hispanic White older adults. Minority older adults were less likely to receive prescription pharmacologic treatments and surgery, and they were more likely to use complementary and alternative medicine treatments. There are interracial/ethnic differences in pain assessment and treatment interventions among older adults. PMID:24717736
Lavin, Robert; Park, Juyoung
Background The objectives of this study were to investigate older adults’ knowledge of prescription drug safety and interactions with alcohol, and to identify pharmacists’ willingness to disseminate prescription drug safety information to older adults. Methods The convenience sample consisted of 48 older adults aged 54–89 years who were recruited from a local pharmacy and who completed surveys addressing their alcohol consumption, understanding of alcohol and prescription drug interactions, and willingness to change habits regarding alcohol consumption and prescription drugs. To address pharmacist willingness, 90 pharmacists from local pharmacies volunteered and answered questions regarding their willingness to convey prescription drug safety information to older adults. Results Older adults reported low knowledge of alcohol and prescription drug safety, with women tending to be slightly more knowledgeable. More importantly, those who drank in the previous few months were less willing to talk to family and friends about how alcohol can have harmful interactions with prescription drugs, or to be an advocate for safe alcohol and prescription drug use than those who had not had a drink recently. Pharmacists reported that they were willing to convey prescription drug safety information to older adults via a variety of formats, including displaying or distributing a flyer, and directly administering a brief intervention. Conclusion In this study, older adults were found to have inadequate knowledge of prescription drug safety and interactions with alcohol, but pharmacists who regularly come in contact with older adults indicated that they were ready and willing to talk to older adults about prescription drug safety. Future research should focus on interventions whereby pharmacists disseminate prescription drug safety information to older adults in order to improve healthy prescription drug and alcohol behavior and reduce medical and health costs associated with interactions between alcohol and prescription drugs. PMID:23467625
Zanjani, Faika; Hoogland, Aasha I; Downer, Brian G
Many older adults walk with a cautious and impaired gait of unknown origin, however, the relationship between fear of falling and the observed gait changes is not well understood. To better understand the “cautious” gait of the elderly, we tested the hypothesis that temporal gait variability, putatively a marker of intrinsic walking unsteadiness, is increased among older adults with a
T. Herman; N. Giladi; T. Gurevich; J. M. Hausdorff
Running head: STEREOTYPE THREAT IN OLDER ADULTS 1 Stereotype threat can enhance, as well as impair, and Rico Velasco for research assistance and to Dr. Tom Hess for providing us with the stereotype threat for publication. #12;STEREOTYPE THREAT IN OLDER ADULTS 2 Abstract (150) Negative stereotypes about aging can
The number of older adults living with HIV/AIDS is larger than ever. Little is known about their sexual behaviors, although contrary to stereotypes, older adults desire and engage in sexual activity. Despite increased recognition of the need for prevention interventions targeting HIV-positive individuals, no secondary HIV prevention interventions…
Illa, Lourdes; Echenique, Marisa; Saint Jean, Gilbert; Bustamante-Avellaneda, Victoria; Metsch, Lisa; Mendez-Mulet, Luis; Eisdorfer, Carl; Sanchez-Martinez, Mario
Whereas older adults typically show declines in various cognitive processes, they also typically demonstrate greater interest in social relationships. Part of this increased focus on interpersonal relations may extend to morality, which by its very nature is concerned with social contracts, obligations, and the give-and-take among people. The authors tested whether in comparison to younger adults, older adults show increased activation and memory for morally charged information relative to nonmoral information. Three experiments examined older and younger adult comprehension and memory of moral content in stories. Participants read stories and were tested for surface form, textbase, and situation model recognition memory. In contrast to past studies that have not focused on moral content, in this study older adults had textbase memory for moral information equal to that of young adults, suggesting an enhanced attention to morally charged details. To examine online moral inference making, Experiment 2 used lexical decision probes. There was greater facilitation of moral inferences for older adults relative to younger adults, suggesting greater focus of processing on moral content. Experiment 3 explored methodological issues to resolve some discrepancies between the experiments, and replicated the basic findings. In general, older adults had enhanced memory for morally charged story events and, relative to younger adults, were more likely to draw moral inferences during comprehension. PMID:21800972
Narvaez, Darcia; Radvansky, Gabriel A; Lynchard, Nicholas A; Copeland, David E
In 1999 we proposed a Modified Food Guide Pyramid for adults aged 701 y. It has been extensively used in a variety of settings and formats to highlight the unique dietary challenges of older adults. We now propose a Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults in a format consistent with the MyPyramid graphic. It is not intended to substitute for MyPyramid,
Alice H. Lichtenstein; Helen Rasmussen; Winifred W. Yu; Susanna R. Epstein; Robert M. Russell
The present study expands upon the data available in the manual of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, by providing base rate data on Index discrepancies that are organized by general level of ability and include both age and education corrections. The data presented are based on the performances of a sample of 718 community dwelling older adults. These findings offer the possibility of increased sensitivity at detecting clinically significant differences that might not be identified when relying on base rate data from a greater age range. Similarly, these data highlight the mediating effects of the global level of cognitive functioning on discrepancy scores. PMID:16202560
Patton, Doyle E; Duff, Kevin; Schoenberg, Mike R; Mold, James; Scott, James G; Adams, Russell L
Aging may have an impact on the CA3 autoassociative network of the hippocampus, posited by computational models as supporting pattern completion. Twenty-five young (YAs) and 25 older adults (OAs) performed a spatial pattern completion task using a computerized navigational paradigm analogous to a rodent pattern completion task reliant on the CA3. Participants identified a previously seen goal location, and the availability of distal cues in the environment was manipulated such that 0, 2, or 4 cues were missing. Performance in both groups declined as a function of decreased cue availability. However, controlling for age differences in task performance during a pre-experimental baseline task, OAs performed equivalently to YAs when all cues were available, but worse than YAs as the number of cues decreased. These findings suggest spatial pattern completion may be impaired in OAs. We discuss these findings in the context of a growing body of literature suggesting age-related imbalances in pattern separation vs. pattern completion. PMID:23407761
Paleja, Meera; Spaniol, Julia
The present study examined the joint effects of repetition and response deadline on associative recognition in older adults.\\u000a Young and older adults studied lists of unrelated word pairs, half presented once (weak pairs) and half presented four times\\u000a (strong pairs). Test lists contained old (intact) pairs, pairs consisting of old words that had been studied with other partners\\u000a (rearranged lures),
Leah L. Light; Meredith M. Patterson; Christie Chung; Michael R. Healy
Late-life depression is prevalent in older adults who are dependent on opiates. Depressive disorders among opiate abusers have detrimental effects on their well-being and ability to refrain from illegal drugs. There are numerous barriers to the provision of appropriate mental health care to older adults receiving methadone maintenance treatment. This article focuses on problem-solving therapy (PST) and presents evidence that PST may be a promising nonpharmacological treatment for older methadone clients with comorbid depressive disorders that can be applied within the staffing and resource limits of methadone maintenance treatment facilities. The advantages of PST relative to other behavioral therapies for this population are based on evidence that PST is less cognitively demanding for an older adult population with mood and substance use disorders. A properly modified PST for an older adult substance-dependent population with subsyndromal or diagnosed depression may be a viable option for methadone maintenance programs with limited resources. PMID:21036509
Rosen, Daniel; Morse, Jennifer Q; Reynolds, Charles F
Late life depression is prevalent in older adults who are dependent on opiates. Depressive disorders among opiate abusers have detrimental effects on their well-being and ability to refrain from illegal drugs. There are numerous barriers to the provision of appropriate mental health care to older adults receiving methadone maintenance treatment. This article focuses on problem solving therapy (PST) and presents evidence that PST may be a promising non-pharmacological treatment for older methadone clients with comorbid depressive disorders that can be applied within the staffing and resource limits of methadone maintenance treatment facilities. The advantages of PST relative to other behavioral therapies for this population are based on evidence that PST is less cognitively demanding for an older adult population with mood and substance use disorders. A properly modified PST for an older adult substance dependent population with subsyndromal or diagnosed depression may be a viable option for methadone maintenance programs with limited resources. PMID:21036509
Rosen, Daniel; Morse, Jennifer Q; Reynolds, Charles F
There is increasing evidence of the importance of regular mental and physical exercise to maximize overall health and functioning in older adults. However, many individuals find that reduced strength or disabilities prevent them from participating in the kinds of exercise they enjoyed when they were younger. Music can provide the important benefits of both mental and physical stimulation to even frail older adults. Whether using Conductorcise for aerobic exercise, enjoying the communal experience of singing in a choir, or quietly reflecting on a music recording, music can serve as a healing art for older adults. PMID:18416271
Sorrell, Jeannette A; Sorrell, Jeanne M
This article reports the findings from a recent study of older adults in the rural southwestern United States and discusses practice and research implications. The aim of the study was to analyze health disparities and strengths in the contexts of rurality, aging, a depressed economy, and limited health resources. Identified themes needing action included sustained access to prescriptions, transportation solutions for older adults in isolated communities, inadequate access to care, poor infrastructure and coordination of services, scarce assisted living and in-home care for frail older adults, and barriers related to culture, language, and economics. PMID:22929381
Averill, Jennifer B.
Objectives. We examined the effect of age, income, and coverage on dental service utilization during 1996. Methods. We used data from the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Results. Edentulous and poorer older adults are less likely to have coverage and less likely to report a dental visit than dentate or wealthier older adults. Conclusions. These analyses help to describe the needs of older adults as they cope with diminishing resources as a consequence of retirement, including persons previously accustomed to accessing oral health services with dental insurance. PMID:15117697
Manski, Richard J.; Goodman, Harold S.; Reid, Britt C.; Macek, Mark D.
Prediction of mortality has focused on disease and frailty, although antecedent biomarkers may herald broad physiological decline. Olfaction, an ancestral chemical system, is a strong candidate biomarker because it is linked to diverse physiological processes. We sought to determine if olfactory dysfunction is a harbinger of 5-year mortality in the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project [NSHAP], a nationally representative sample of older U.S. adults. 3,005 community-dwelling adults aged 57–85 were studied in 2005–6 (Wave 1) and their mortality determined in 2010–11 (Wave 2). Olfactory dysfunction, determined objectively at Wave 1, was used to estimate the odds of 5-year, all cause mortality via logistic regression, controlling for demographics and health factors. Mortality for anosmic older adults was four times that of normosmic individuals while hyposmic individuals had intermediate mortality (p<0.001), a “dose-dependent” effect present across the age range. In a comprehensive model that included potential confounding factors, anosmic older adults had over three times the odds of death compared to normosmic individuals (OR, 3.37 [95%CI 2.04, 5.57]), higher than and independent of known leading causes of death, and did not result from the following mechanisms: nutrition, cognitive function, mental health, smoking and alcohol abuse or frailty. Olfactory function is thus one of the strongest predictors of 5-year mortality and may serve as a bellwether for slowed cellular regeneration or as a marker of cumulative toxic environmental exposures. This finding provides clues for pinpointing an underlying mechanism related to a fundamental component of the aging process. PMID:25271633
Pinto, Jayant M.; Wroblewski, Kristen E.; Kern, David W.; Schumm, L. Philip; McClintock, Martha K.
Objectives When we think of technology-savvy consumers, older adults are typically not the first persons that come to mind. The common misconception is that older adults do not want to use or cannot use technology. But for an increasing number of older adults, this is not true (Pew Internet and American Life Project, 2003). Older adults do use technologies similar to their younger counterparts, but perhaps at different usage rates. Previous research has identified that there may be subgroups of older adults, “Silver Surfers”, whose adoption patterns mimic younger adults (Pew Internet and American Life Project, 2003). Much of the previous research on age-related differences in technology usage has only investigated usage broadly -- from a “used” or “not used” standpoint. The present study investigated age-related differences in overall usage of technologies, as well as frequency of technology usage (i.e., never, occasional, or frequent). Methods The data were gathered through a questionnaire from younger adults (N=430) and older adults (N=251) in three geographically separate and ethnically diverse areas of the United States. Results We found that younger adults use a greater breadth of technologies than older adults. However, age-related differences in usage and the frequency of use depend on the technology domain. Conclusion This paper presents technology usage and frequency data to highlight age-related differences and similarities. The results provide insights into older and younger adults’ technology-use patterns, which in turn provide a basis for expectations about knowledge differences. Designers and trainers can benefit from understanding experience and knowledge differences. PMID:22685360
Olson, Katherine E.; O'Brien, Marita A.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Charness, Neil
Although older homeless adults have high rates of geriatric syndromes, risk factors for these syndromes are not known. We used multivariable regression models to estimate the association of subject characteristics with the total number of geriatric syndromes in 250 homeless adults aged 50 years and older. Geriatric syndromes included falls, cognitive impairment, frailty, major depression, sensory impairment, and urinary incontinence. A higher total number of geriatric syndromes was associated with having less than a high school education, medical comorbidities (diabetes and arthritis), alcohol and drug use problems, and difficulty performing one or more activities of daily living. Clinicians who care for older homeless patients with these characteristics should consider screening them for geriatric syndromes. Moreover, this study identifies potentially modifiable risk factors associated with the total number of geriatric syndromes in older homeless adults. This knowledge may provide targets for clinical interventions to improve the health of older homeless patients. PMID:23728022
Brown, Rebecca T; Kiely, Dan K; Bharel, Monica; Mitchell, Susan L
Attitudes toward adults aged 40-59 and 60-79 were measured for graduate students in adult education (31 men, 61 women). Attitudes toward older adults were positive but became less so as the age of referents increased. Gender bias toward women over 60 was apparent. Males' attitudes toward both groups of older females and the 60-79 group of males…
Robson-Funk, Bridget; Yopp, Martha C.; McMurtry, Jerry C.; Phillips-Miller, Dianne; Young, Margaret H.
\\u000a The prevalence of obesity is increasing across all age cohorts including individuals aged 65 years and older. The purposes\\u000a of this chapter are to provide an overview of the prevalence of obesity in older individuals, to review the adverse and beneficial\\u000a health impacts of obesity as we age, and to provide treatment recommendations for obesity among older adults. Three cases
Kristen H. Sorocco; Reginald Labossiere; Karen M. Ross
Gambling participation rates among older adults (65+ years) have been increasing in recent years. Very few studies have compared\\u000a older and younger gamblers on gambling motivation and problem gambling. This study compared 41 male and 63 female older gamblers\\u000a (66–87 years; median 73) to 20 male and 85 female younger gamblers (17–34 years; median 20) in New Zealand on gambling involvement,\\u000a gambling
Older adults participate in education to fulfil coping, expressive, contributive, influence, and transcendence needs. Learning can promote sustained mental functioning and increase self-efficacy and social support. (Contains 15 references.) (SK)
Mehrotra, Chandra M.
The eye movements of young and older adults were tracked as they read sentences varying in syntactic complexity. In Experiment 1, cleft object and object relative clause sentences were more difficult to process than cleft subject and subject...
Kemper, Susan; Liu, Chiung-Ju
Stereotype threat often incurs the cost of reducing the amount of information that older adults accurately recall. In the current research we tested whether stereotype threat can also benefit memory. According to the regulatory focus account of stereotype threat, threat induces a prevention focus in which people become concerned with avoiding errors of commission and are sensitive to the presence or absence of losses within their environment (Seibt & Förster, 2004). Because of this, we predicted that stereotype threat might reduce older adults' memory errors. Results were consistent with this prediction. Older adults under stereotype threat had lower intrusion rates during free-recall tests (Experiments 1 & 2). They also reduced their false alarms and adopted more conservative response criteria during a recognition test (Experiment 2). Thus, stereotype threat can decrease older adults' false memories, albeit at the cost of fewer veridical memories, as well. PMID:24131297
Barber, Sarah J.; Mather, Mara
A lot of attention has been given to the negative effects of both inhibitory deficits and rumination but little work has compared both: research on inhibitory deficits has focused on older adults whereas research on ...
Schmalzried, RaLynn Cheri
Provides an overview of the epidemiology of falls among older adults, describes current prevention strategies, and highlights key areas that need to be addressed, including risk assessments, exercise, and environmental changes. (Contains 50 references.) (JOW)
Stevens, Judy A.
ABSTRACT. Bean JF, Vora A, Frontera WR. Benefits of exercise for community-dwelling older adults. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004;85(Suppl 3):S31-42. This focused review highlights the benefits of exercise and
Ariana Vor; Ariana Vora; Walter R. Frontera
conducted pilot stud- ies with a convenience sample of 12 older adults (8 female and 4 male). Six may improve comprehension as well as address other concerns of aging, e.g. attention and memory. While
Camp, L. Jean
This article illustrates how old bicycle inner tubes, wire coat hangers, stockings, panty hose, and milk dispenser bladders can be used as part of an exercise program for older adults. Specific exercises and activities are suggested. (MT)
Corbin, David E.; Metal-Corbin, Josie
Communication and interpersonal effectiveness skills training can help older adults adapt to aging. Skills include expressing feelings in "I" statements, reflecting, validating self and others, and giving and receiving positive feedback. (SK)
... gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Share Compartir Making Physical Activity a Part of an Older Adult's Life When it comes to getting the physical activity you need each week, it's important to pick ...
Our everyday environment is filled with irrelevant and potentially distracting information. Recent research has shown that during retrieval people tend to look away from distraction or close their eyes and that averting one's gaze benefits retrieval. We examined the extent to which there are age-related differences in the benefits of gaze aversion and whether the benefits of gaze aversion extend to encoding. Relative to looking at complex stimuli, closing the eyes and looking at simple stimuli produced reliable improvements in memory for both younger and older adults at both encoding and retrieval. Contrary to the expectation that older adults have general inhibitory deficits, the benefits of gaze aversion were similar for younger and older adults at both encoding and retrieval. These results are consistent with the view that older adults have spared inhibitory functioning for distraction appearing in fixed locations. PMID:11773225
Einstein, Gilles O; Earles, Julie L; Collins, Heather M
Individuals aged 60 years and older are at an increased risk for listeriosis and other foodborne illnesses. They can reduce their risk by following recommended food safety practices. A total of 8 focus groups were conducted to characterize older adults' food safety knowledge and practices, their impressions of educational materials on listeriosis prevention, barriers to adopting the recommended practices, and
Sheryl C. Cates; Katherine M. Kosa; Christina M. Moore; Lee-Ann Jaykus; Toby A. Ten Eyck; Peter Cowen
Older adults, defined as those aged 65 or older, are rapidly becoming the largest group of individuals in the United States. As this population steadily increases, so will the demand for adequate and appropriate mental health care. Counselors need to be prepared to meet this increasing demand by understanding efficacious ways to conceptualize and…
Lewis, Mary Miller
Might some older persons experienced as difficult by their health care providers be exhibiting signs of maladaptive personality functioning? Personality disorder may be a more significant problem among treatment-seeking older adults than was previously believed. Psychologists seeking to assess personality disorder must confront several challenges, including their own beliefs regarding personality and aging, criteria sets of uncertain validity for the
Richard A. Zweig
This study explores how cohabitation differs for older and younger adults, drawing on data from 966 cohabitors in each of the first 2 waves of the National Survey of Families and Households. Older cohabitors report significantly higher levels of relationship quality and stability than younger cohabitors, although they are less likely to have plans…
King, Valarie; Scott, Mindy E.
Older adult inmates have grown both in proportion and in number due to the confluence of a number of factors. This aging of the prison population has created a host of policy and practice issues that encompass justice considerations, cost containment issues, and biopsychosocial care needs. The older prisoner's physical, social, and psychological…
Snyder, Cindy; van Wormer, Katherine; Chadha, Janice; Jaggers, Jeremiah W.
We investigated relationships between physical exercise and the cognitive abilities of older adults. We hypothesized that the performance of vigorous exercisers would be superior to that of sedentary individuals on measures of reasoning, working memory, and reaction time. We gave a series of cognitive tasks to 62 older men and women who exercised vigorously and 62 sedentary men and women.
Louise Clarkson-Smith; Alan A. Hartley
Individuals aged 60 years and older are at an increased risk for listeriosis and other foodborne illnesses. They can reduce their risk by following recommended food safety practices. A total of 8 focus groups were conducted to characterize older adults' food safety knowledge and practices, their impressions of educational materials on listeriosis…
Cates, Sheryl C.; Kosa, Katherine M.; Moore, Christina M.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Ten Eyck, Toby A.; Cowen, Peter
Medical advances and lifestyle changes have resulted in older adults living longer and healthier lives. Nevertheless, older adulthood, as other life stages, requires change in work, family, and health. Self-directed learning (SDL) is one way of negotiating these transitions. The purpose of this study was to understand this process of learning.…
Roberson, Donald N., Jr.; Merriam, Sharan B.
Objective: This study aimed to (a) identify factors that motivate or prevent older Australians from exercising; (b) determine how these factors differ as a function of age, gender, and exercise level; and (c) examine how they relate to intentions to exercise in the future. Method: In all, 217 older adults (aged 63 to 86) completed a questionnaire in their own
Rachel S. Newson; Eva B. Kemps
This rapid growth in the number of older Americans has many implications for public health, including the need to better understand the health risks posed by environmental exposures to older adults. This paper describes the need to link environmental exposures, the processing of...
An ex post facto analysis of a secondary dataset examined relationships between physical frailty, depression, and the self-perceived domains of health status and quality-of-life in older adults. The randomized sample included 992 community-dwelling, chronically ill, and functionally impaired adults age 65 and older who received care from a Southern California Kaiser Permanente medical center between 1998 and 2002. Physical frailty
Anticholinergic and sedative medications are commonly used in older adults and are associated with adverse clinical outcomes. The Drug Burden Index was developed to measure the cumulative exposure to these medications in older adults and its impact on physical and cognitive function. This narrative review discusses the research and clinical applications of the Drug Burden Index, and its advantages and limitations, compared with other pharmacologically developed measures of high-risk prescribing.
Kouladjian, Lisa; Gnjidic, Danijela; Chen, Timothy F; Mangoni, Arduino A; Hilmer, Sarah N
\\u000a Japanese society has many problems with regard to the aging population. This paper discusses safety changes in personal transportation\\u000a for older adults. According to the statistics, the risk of traffic accidents among older adults is extremely high. In order\\u000a to achieve traffic safety, it is important to address declining sensory and cognitive functions. We discuss three business\\u000a opportunities aimed at
Japanese society has many problems regarding the aging population. This paper discusses safety changes in personal transportation\\u000a for older adults. According to the statistics, the risk of traffic accidents among older adults is extremely high. In order\\u000a to achieve traffic safety, it is important to address declining sensory and cognitive functions. We discuss three business\\u000a chances aimed at reducing traffic
By 2020, an estimated 4.4 million older adults will require substance abuse treatment compared to 1.7 million in 2000–01. This study examined the availability of special services for older adults, adoption of recommended treatment approaches, and organizational characteristics of centers that offer special services. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews with administrators and\\/or clinical directors from a nationally representative sample
Tanja C. Rothrauff; Amanda J. Abraham; Brian E. Bride; Paul M. Roman
Context Exercise is associated with mortality benefits but simply expending energy through any activity in an individual's free-living environment may confer survival ad- vantages. Objective To determine whether free-living activity energy expenditure is associ- ated with all-cause mortality among older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants Free-living activity energy expenditure was assessed in 302 high-functioning, community-dwelling older adults (aged 70-82 years).
Todd M. Manini; James E. Everhart; Kushang V. Patel; Dale A. Schoeller; Lisa H. Colbert; Marjolein Visser; Frances Tylavsky; Douglas C. Bauer; Bret H. Goodpaster; Tamara B. Harris
The goal of the present study was to identify subgroups of older participants on the basis of unique configurations of variables among functions of reminiscence, personality traits, life attitudes, and perceived stress by means of cluster analysis. Ninety-three older adults (M = 66.7 years of age) completed the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, the Life…
Cappeliez, Philippe; O'Rourke, Norm
Background. The association between total serum cholesterol and health outcomes among older adults is controversial. The objective of the present study was to determine within a cohort of acutely hospitalized disabled elderly patients whether total cholesterol predicts recovery from disability in basic activities of daily living (ADL). Methods. Patients (3150) 65 years old or older admitted to 81 acute care
Graziano Onder; Stefano Volpato; Rosa Liperoti; Carola D'Arco; Cinzia Maraldi; Renato Fellin; Roberto Bernabei; Francesco Landi
Objective To determine whether death ideation in late life is associated with markers of elevated risk for suicide, or reflects normal psychological processes in later life. Design/Setting Population based cross sectional study in Gothenburg, Sweden. Participants The sample consists of 345 men and women aged 85 (born 1901-02) and living in Gothenburg, Sweden. Main Outcome Measures The Paykel Scale measured the most severe level of suicidality over an individual’s lifetime. Other key measures were severity of depression and anxiety and frequency of death/suicidal ideation over the previous month. Results Latent class analysis revealed distinct groups of older adults who reported recent death ideation. Recent death ideation did not occur apart from other risk factors for suicide; instead individuals reporting recent death ideation also reported either 1) recent high levels of depression and anxiety, or 2) more distant histories of serious suicidal ideation (indicative of worst point severity of suicidal ideation)—both of which elevate risk for eventual suicide. Conclusions Our results indicate a heterogeneous presentation of older adults who report death ideation, with some presenting with acute distress and suicidal thoughts, and others presenting with low distress but histories of serious suicidal ideation. The presence of death ideation is associated with markers of increased risk for suicide, including “worst point” active suicidal ideation. PMID:23567393
Van Orden, Kimberly A.; Simning, Adam; Conwell, Yeates; Marlow, Tom; Skoog, Ingmar; Waern, Margda
Despite the abundance of research reporting the neurophysiological and behavioral effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in healthy young adults and clinical populations, the extent of potential neuroplastic changes induced by tDCS in healthy older adults is not well understood. The present study compared the extent and time course of anodal tDCS-induced plastic changes in primary motor cortex (M1) in young and older adults. Furthermore, as it has been suggested that neuroplasticity and associated learning depends on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene polymorphisms, we also assessed the impact of BDNF polymorphism on these effects. Corticospinal excitability was examined using transcranial magnetic stimulation before and following (0, 10, 20, 30 min) anodal tDCS (30 min, 1 mA) or sham in young and older adults. While the overall extent of increases in corticospinal excitability induced by anodal tDCS did not vary reliably between young and older adults, older adults exhibited a delayed response; the largest increase in corticospinal excitability occurred 30 min following stimulation for older adults, but immediately post-stimulation for the young group. BDNF genotype did not result in significant differences in the observed excitability increases for either age group. The present study suggests that tDCS-induced plastic changes are delayed as a result of healthy aging, but that the overall efficacy of the plasticity mechanism remains unaffected. PMID:24936185
Fujiyama, Hakuei; Hyde, Jane; Hinder, Mark R.; Kim, Seok-Jin; McCormack, Graeme H.; Vickers, James C.; Summers, Jeffery J.
Theory of mind (ToM), or the ability to understand mental states, is a fundamental aspect of social cognition. Previous research has documented marked advances in ToM in preschoolers, and declines in ToM in older-aged adults. In the present study, younger (n = 37), middle-aged (n = 20), and older (n = 37) adults completed a continuous false belief task measuring ToM. Middle-aged and older adults exhibited
Daniel M. Bernstein; Wendy Loken Thornton; Jessica A. Sommerville
The aim of the present study was to examine associations between the presence of diabetes mellitus and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among older adults. Using data from 37,054 adults aged 50 years or older who participated in the 2001 BRFSS, we examined the independent association between diabetes and four measures of HRQOL developed by the U.S. Centers for Disease
David W Brown; Lina S Balluz; Wayne H Giles; Gloria L Beckles; David G Moriarty; Earl S Ford; Ali H Mokdad
Aims: The objective of the present work was to identify factors associated with diet quality in non-frail older adults measured with the Food Frequency Index (FFI). Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, data from a qualitative 28-item food-frequency questionnaire was used to calculate the FFI in a sample of 444 adults aged 55 years and older living in Vienna, Austria. Results:
Heinz Freisling; Ibrahim Elmadfa
Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as "facial trustworthiness."In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Todorov, 2008; Engell et al., 2010). Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that older adults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Calder et al., 2003; Firestone et al., 2007; Ruffman et al., 2008; Chaby and Narme, 2009). Based on Todorov';s theory and the fact that older adults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004) reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment), from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: young adults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and older adults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness. PMID:24046755
Ethier-Majcher, Catherine; Joubert, Sven; Gosselin, Frédéric
intervention Â· Organized health workshops relevant to older adults (e.g., healthful nutrition, howPhysical activity to prevent disability and frailty in older adults - The LIFE Study Marco Pahor and the loss of function in older adults The effects of physical activity on fat within muscle in older adults
Wisconsin at Madison, University of
frequency appears to be a factor in successful speech-in-noise perception in older adults. GivenA Neural Basis of Speech-in-Noise Perception in Older Adults Samira Anderson,1,2 Alexandra Parbery-in-noise perception in older adults. Hearing loss, the third most common chronic condition in older adults, is most
Using the Internet is an important aspect of leisure among older adults, and satisfaction with Internet usage may be conducive to the well-being of older adults. This study explored via questionnaires the relationship between older adults' leisure satisfaction and their affinity for the Internet. A total of 103 older adults were recruited from a local aging agency in a Midwestern
Jinmoo Heo; Junhyoung Kim; Young-Shin Won
A fundamental objective of the National Strategy for Suicide Prevention is the prevention of suicide in older adults, especially elderly males, because these individuals are at higher risk for suicide than any other age group. Furthermore, they are the fastest growing segment of the population. The suicide rates for older Caucasian men are particularly high. Because nurses play an important role in the identification of persons at risk for suicide, it is important that they be cognizant of the complex risk factors involved in late life suicide. Toward that end, we review the prevalence of suicidal behaviors in older adults and discuss risk factors that contribute to completed suicide in these individuals. Lastly, we discuss the role of nurses in the identification of older adults at risk for suicidal behavior so that life-saving treatment measures can be implemented. PMID:16546935
Garand, Linda; Mitchell, Ann M.; Dietrick, Ann; Hijjawi, Sophia P.; Pan, Di
While most older adults have thought about their future care needs, few have discussed their preferences with family members. We interviewed older persons (24), adult children (24), health professionals (23), and representatives of stakeholder associations (3) to understand their views and experiences on later life care (LLC) planning conversations, in terms of (a) their respective roles, and (b) barriers and facilitators that should be taken into account when having these conversations. Roles described included that of information user (older persons), information seeker (family members), and information provider (health care providers). The study identified practical and emotional considerations relevant to LLC planning conversations. This study found strong support for planning for LLC before the need arises, as well as important potential benefits for older adults, family members, and health professionals. There is interest in, and need for, resources to guide families in LLC planning. PMID:24652903
Stolee, Paul; Zaza, Christine; Sharratt, Michael T
Abstract Forearm vascular conductance (FVC) increases in response to mental stress (verbal mental arithmetic) in young people. However, the effect of healthy aging and mental stress on FVC is unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that FVC and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) would be attenuated in older adults compared to young adults. In 13 young (27 ± 1 year) and 11 older (62 ± 1 year) subjects, we quantified heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), FVC (Doppler ultrasound), and CVC (laser Doppler flowmetry) in response to a 3?min bout of mental stress in the supine posture. Changes from baseline were compared between groups and physiological variables were also correlated. Older adults had a blunted HR response to mental stress (? = 7 ± 2 vs. 14 ± 2 beats/min) but ?MAP was comparable between groups (? = 11 ± 2 mmHg vs. 9 ± 1). During the third minute of mental stress, the %?FVC (?2 ± 5 vs. 31 ± 12%) and %?CVC (2 ± 6 vs. 31 ± 15%) were both impaired in older adults compared to young subjects. There was no relationship between ?HR and %?CVC in either group, but there was a positive relationship between ?HR and %?FVC in both young subjects (R = 0.610, P < 0.027) and older subjects (R = 0.615, P < 0.044), such that larger tachycardia was associated with higher forearm vasodilation. These data indicate that older adults have impaired forearm vasodilation in response to mental stress. PMID:24744859
Heffernan, Matthew J.; Patel, Hardikkumar M.; Muller, Matthew D.
Background Emergency Departments (EDs) are playing an increasingly important role in the care of older adults. Characterizing ED usage will facilitate the planning for care delivery more suited to the complex health needs of this population. Methods In this retrospective cross-sectional study, administrative and clinical data were extracted from four study sites. Visits for patients aged 65 years or older were characterized using standard descriptive statistics. Results We analyzed 34,454 ED visits by older adults, accounting for 21.8% of the total ED visits for our study time period. Overall, 74.2% of patient visits were triaged as urgent or emergent. Almost half (49.8%) of visits involved diagnostic imaging, 62.1% involved lab work, and 30.8% involved consultation with hospital services. The most common ED diagnoses were symptom- or injury-related (25.0%, 17.1%. respectively). Length of stay increased with age group (Mann-Whitney U; p < .0001), as did the proportion of visits involving diagnostic testing and consultation (?2; p < .0001). Approximately 20% of older adults in our study population were admitted to hospital following their ED visit. Conclusions Older adults have distinct patterns of ED use. ED resource use intensity increases with age. These patterns may be used to target future interventions involving alternative care for older adults.
Latham, Lesley P.; Ackroyd-Stolarz, Stacy
Criminal suspects with distinctive facial features, such as tattoos or bruising, may stand out in a police lineup. To prevent suspects from being unfairly identified on the basis of their distinctive feature, the police often manipulate lineup images to ensure that all of the members appear similar. Recent research shows that replicating a distinctive feature across lineup members enhances eyewitness identification performance, relative to removing that feature on the target. In line with this finding, the present study demonstrated that with young adults (n = 60; mean age = 20), replication resulted in more target identifications than did removal in target-present lineups and that replication did not impair performance, relative to removal, in target-absent lineups. Older adults (n = 90; mean age = 74) performed significantly worse than young adults, identifying fewer targets and more foils; moreover, older adults showed a minimal benefit from replication over removal. This pattern is consistent with the associative deficit hypothesis of aging, such that older adults form weaker links between faces and their distinctive features. Although replication did not produce much benefit over removal for older adults, it was not detrimental to their performance. Therefore, the results suggest that replication may not be as beneficial to older adults as it is to young adults and demonstrate a new practical implication of age-related associative deficits in memory. PMID:23150053
Badham, Stephen P; Wade, Kimberley A; Watts, Hannah J E; Woods, Natalie G; Maylor, Elizabeth A
There is strong experimental evidence to indicate that regular exercise can prevent disease, decrease the risk of falling, reduce physical disability, improve sleep, and enhance mood and general well being. Despite these benefits, approximately 50% of sedentary adults who start an exercise program stop within the first six months of involvement. To help older adults initiate and adhere to a
The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather than buffering the negative effect of low health
Shoou-Yih D. Lee; Ahsan M. Arozullah; Young Ik Cho; Kathleen Crittenden; Daniel Vicencio
Four language sample measures as well as measures of vocabulary, verbal fluency, and memory span were obtained from a sample of young adults and a sample of older adults. Factor analysis was used to analyze the structure of the vocabulary, fluency, and span measures for each age group. Then an \\
Susan Kemper; Aaron Sumner
This guide describes intergenerational programs and provides ideas for initiating and implementing informal and formal interaction between youth and senior adults. Intergenerational programs can help dispel negative stereotypes that youth and older adults may have about each other. Successful programs provide rewarding experiences for both…
The research reported in this study concerns older adults from Australia who voluntarily chose to learn the craft of woodturning. The paper examines the literature of adult learning under the themes of presage factors, the learning environment, instructional methods, and techniques for facilitators. The paper then reports on the analysis of two…
Delahaye, Brian L.; Ehrich, Lisa C.
Dementia may be more common in older adults with intellectual disability (ID) than in the general population. The increased risk for Alzheimer's disease in people with Down syndrome (DS) is well established, but much less is known about dementia in adults with ID who do not have DS. We estimated incidence rates from a longitudinal study of…
Strydom, Andre; Chan, Trevor; King, Michael; Hassiotis, Angela; Livingston, Gill
Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…
Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois
Although exercise is an established component in the management of many chronic diseases associated with aging, activity levels tend to progressively decline with increasing age. Given the growing proportion of older adults, these suboptimal levels of physical activity represent an increasing public health problem. The predicators of adherence elucidated in younger adults are unreliable in elderly populations. Age-specific barriers and
Karen A. Schutzer; B. Sue Graves
IntroductionMotor-vehicle crashes kill roughly 4,500 American adults over the age of 75 annually. Among younger adults, one behavioral factor consistently linked to risky driving is personality, but this predictor has been overshadowed by research on cognitive, perceptual, and motor processes among older drivers.
David C. Schwebel; Karlene K. Ball; Joan Severson; Benjamin K. Barton; Matthew Rizzo; Sarah M. Viamonte
This article provides an overview of physical activity and its association with function, disability, and quality of life (QOL) outcomes among older adults. The rationale and the associated onset of chronic disease conditions that influence function, disability, and QOL is embedded in the "Graying of America". The literature reviewed in this article yielded 3 general conclusions: (1) there is an alarming rate of physical inactivity among older adults, particularly those aging with a disability; (2) there is strong evidence for the beneficial effects of physical activity on impairment, function, and health-related aspects of QOL among older adults, but there is less conclusive evidence for positive effects of physical activity on disability and global QOL; and (3) there is emerging support for self-efficacy as a mediator of the association between physical activity and disability, and QOL outcomes in older adults. Researchers should consider designing and testing programs that incorporate strategies for enhancing self-efficacy along with the promotion of physical activity as a means of preventing disablement and improving QOL among older adults. Such work will go a long way in identifying practical approaches that can be applied for improving the later years of life and is critical because many Americans will soon be affected by the aging of adults in the United States. PMID:20494278
Motl, Robert W; McAuley, Edward
Objectives/Hypothesis To identify treatable risk factors for aspiration in older adults—particularly those associated with sarcopenia – we examined tongue composition. We hypothesized that 1) isometric and swallowing posterior tongue strength would positively correlate with posterior tongue adiposity, and 2) healthy older adults who aspirate would have greater tongue adiposity than healthy older adults who did not aspirate. Study Design Prospective Methods Participants were 40 healthy adults, comprised of 20 aspirators (Mean age = 78 years) and 20 non-aspirators (Mean age = 81 years), as identified via flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Measures of maximal isometric posterior tongue strength and posterior swallowing tongue strength were acquired via tongue manometry. An index of posterior tongue adiposity was acquired via computed tomography for a 1 cm region of interest. Result(s) Posterior tongue adiposity was correlated with posterior tongue isometric (r = .32, p = 0.05) but not swallowing pressures (p > 0.05) as examined with separate partial correlation analyses. Tongue adiposity did not significantly differ as a function of age, gender, or aspiration status (p > 0.05). Conclusion(s) Lower posterior isometric tongue strength was associated with greater posterior tongue adiposity. However, aspiration in healthy older adults was not affected by posterior tongue adiposity. This finding offers insight into the roles of tongue composition and strength in healthy older adults. PMID:22522371
Butler, Susan G.; Lintzenich, Catherine Rees; Leng, Xiaoyan; Stuart, Andrew; Feng, Xin; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.
Many environmental settings and influences can affect food choices and eating behaviors in the growing population of community-dwelling older adults. Using the Social Ecological model, an expert panel participated in online discussions and an Analytic Hierarchy Process survey to identify the most important and changeable environmental settings and enabling factors that promote healthy eating in older adults. Food stores were rated most important when considering accessibility and affordability. Congregate nutrition sites were important for social support along with supporting access and affordability of healthful foods and living accommodations. Senior housing, health care, and religious settings also contributed to the goal of promoting healthful eating in aging adults. Restaurants were rated of lower importance. Based on these results, it is recommended that community food policies include the nutritional needs of older adults by addressing food accessibility and affordability, social support, and living accommodations, with a focus on congregate nutrition sites, food stores, senior housing, health care, and religious organizations. PMID:23663214
Sylvie, Amanda K; Jiang, Qianzhi; Cohen, Nancy
. Kemper et al. (1989) reported that the mean number of clauses per utterance (MCU), a general measure of the complexity of adults language, is positively correlated with the adults backward digit span using the WAIS-R subtest (Wechsler, 1981..., respectively, and .78 and .81 for reading rate and reading comprehension, respectively, for 50 older adults, each tested on two occasions approximately 1 week apart. WAIS-R Vocabulary test. An oral response version of the vocabulary subtest of the WAIS...
Kemper, Susan; Sumner, Aaron
Recent studies suggest that older human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults are at particular risk for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), including dementia. Deficits in attention/working memory are posited to play a central role in the development of HAND among older adults. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible protective benefits of spontaneous strategy use during a visual working memory task in 46 older and 42 younger adults infected with HIV. Results revealed a significant interaction between age and strategy use, with older adults who used a meta-cognitive strategy demonstrating superior working memory performance versus non-strategy users. This effect was not observed in the younger HIV-infected sample and was not better explained by possible confounding factors, such as education, comorbid medical conditions, or HIV disease severity. Within the older group, strategy use was associated with better executive functions and higher estimated verbal intelligence. Findings from this study suggest that working memory declines in older HIV-infected adults are moderated by the use of higher-level mnemonic strategies and may inform cognitive neurorehabilitation efforts to improve cognitive and everyday functioning outcomes in older persons living with HIV infection. PMID:20876195
Woods, Steven Paul; Weber, Erica; Cameron, Marizela V.; Dawson, Matthew S.; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Bondi, Mark W.; Grant, Igor
Older adults, compared to younger adults, are more likely to attend to pleasant situations and avoid unpleasant ones. Yet, it is unclear whether such a phenomenon may be generalized to musical emotions. In this study, we investigated whether there is an age-related difference in how musical emotions are experienced and how positive and negative music influences attention performances in a target identification task. Thirty-one young and twenty-eight older adults were presented with 40 musical excerpts conveying happiness, peacefulness, sadness, and threat. While listening to music, participants were asked to rate their feelings and monitor each excerpt for the occurrence of an auditory target. Compared to younger adults, older adults reported experiencing weaker emotional activation when listening to threatening music and showed higher level of liking for happy music. Correct reaction times (RTs) for target identification were longer for threatening than for happy music in older adults but not in younger adults. This suggests that older adults benefit from a positive musical context and can regulate emotion elicited by negative music by decreasing attention towards it (and therefore towards the auditory target). PMID:24871301
Vieillard, Sandrine; Bigand, Emmanuel
Objective: to examine the plasticity of motor performance in old age. Older adults were instructed and trained in a juggling task and their performances were compared, first, within the group of older adults and, second, with the performances of children, youths and younger adults. Subjects: older adults, children, youths and younger adults (n = 1,206, range 6-89 years). Methods: participants
CLAUDIA VOELCKER-REHAGE; KLAUS WILLIMCZIK
Among young adults and clinical populations, perceived inability to control internal and external events is associated with anxiety. At present, it is unclear what role perceived anxiety control plays in anxiety among older adults. The Anxiety Control Questionnaire (ACQ) was developed to assess one's perceived ability to cope with anxiety-related…
Gerolimatos, Lindsay A.; Gould, Christine E.; Edelstein, Barry A.
Purpose: We attempt to determine whether older workers and early retirees avoid managed care plans and to explore whether health plan choices are linked to the health status of workers or their spouses. Design and Methods: We use the responses of those born between 1931 and 1941 to the 1994 and 1998 waves of the Health and Retirement Survey. We…
Jensen, Gail A.; Morrisey, Michael A.
The baby boom generation is quickly becoming the geriatric generation. The over-65 age bracket hit 13% of Americans in 1997, and is expected to reach 20% by 2030 accounting for 73 million Americans. World-wide the total number of older people (>60years) is expected to double from...
Faces are inherently dynamic stimuli. However, face perception in younger adults appears to be mediated by the ability to extract structural cues from static images and a benefit of motion is inconsistent. In contrast, static face processing is poorer and more image-dependent in older adults. We therefore compared the role of facial motion in younger and older adults to assess whether motion can enhance perception when static cues are insufficient. In our studies, older and younger adults learned faces presented in motion or in a sequence of static images, containing rigid (viewpoint) or nonrigid (expression) changes. Immediately following learning, participants matched a static test image to the learned face which varied by viewpoint (Experiment 1) or expression (Experiment 2) and was either learned or novel. First, we found an age effect with better face matching performance in younger than in older adults. However, we observed face matching performance improved in the older adult group, across changes in viewpoint and expression, when faces were learned in motion relative to static presentation. There was no benefit for facial (nonrigid) motion when the task involved matching inverted faces (Experiment 3), suggesting that the ability to use dynamic face information for the purpose of recognition reflects motion encoding which is specific to upright faces. Our results suggest that ageing may offer a unique insight into how dynamic cues support face processing, which may not be readily observed in younger adults' performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25328999
Maguinness, Corrina; Newell, Fiona N
In this study we focus on a new program in Cuba, university studies for older adults or seniors. Specifically, we look at the Special Municipality of the Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth) in the context of the larger policy of "universalization of higher education.? We provide information about Cuban perspectives on adult education, discuss the "workshop? as an important mode of educational work, and present information on both the preparation of those who teach older adults and the training of "facilitators? in the workshop mode. This contribution also presents student evaluations, as well as a critique of the program.
Rangel Long, Clara Lig; Proenza Sanchez, Antonia Zenaida
Background The increasing number of people living with HIV aged 50 years and older has been recognised around the world yet non-pharmacologic HIV behavioural and cognitive interventions specifically targeted to older adults are limited. Evidence is needed to guide the response to this affected group. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the available published literature in MEDLINE, Embase and the Education Resources Information Center. A search strategy was defined with high sensitivity but low specificity to identify behavioural interventions with outcomes in the areas of treatment adherence, HIV testing uptake, increased HIV knowledge and uptake of prevention measures. Data from relevant articles were extracted into excel. Results Twelve articles were identified all of which originated from the Americas. Eight of the interventions were conducted among older adults living with HIV and four for HIV-negative older adults. Five studies included control groups. Of the included studies, four focused on general knowledge of HIV, three emphasised mental health and coping, two focused on reduced sexual risk behaviour, two on physical status and one on referral for care. Only four of the studies were randomised controlled trials and seven – including all of the studies among HIV-negative older adults – did not include controls at all. A few of the studies conducted statistical testing on small samples of 16 or 11 older adults making inference based on the results difficult. The most relevant study demonstrated that using telephone-based interventions can reduce risky sexual behaviour among older adults with control reporting 3.24 times (95% CI 1.79-5.85) as many occasions of unprotected sex at follow-up as participants. Overall however, few of the articles are sufficiently rigorous to suggest broad replication or to be considered representative and applicable in other settings. Conclusions More evidence is needed on what interventions work among older adults to support prevention, adherence and testing. More methodological rigourised needed in the studies targeting older adults. Specifically, including control groups in all studies is needed as well as sufficient sample size to allow for statistical testing. Addition of specific bio-marker or validated behavioural or cognitive outcomes would also strengthen the studies. PMID:24884947
Although the number of older people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) has increased substantially, few studies have focused on older PLWHA in developing countries. Based on a sample of 866 rural PLWHA in Henan, Anhui and Yunnan provinces in China, this study compares the characteristics of PLWHA aged 50 or older (n=185) with younger PLWHA (n=681). Most of the older PLWHA were female (n=112), illiterate, married and at the clinical stage of HIV. Over 90% of older people with HIV/AIDS lived in Henan and Anhui provinces. The severe epidemic in Henan and Anhui provinces was caused by commercial blood and plasma donation. Older PLWHA were less educated, received less social support and were more likely to live alone than younger PLWHA. The results underline the importance of developing programs and policy initiatives targeted at older people infected with HIV/AIDS. The policy and program recommendations include using a gender sensitive strategy, designing specific AIDS education and prevention programs suitable for low-literacy older adults and social support interventions for older PLWHA. PMID:24454590
Zhang, Yurong; Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Anne Mitchell, Christine; Zhang, Xiulan
The impact of tuberculosis (TB) on older adults in Southern Africa is rarely emphasised. The case notification rate in 2004 among the elderly in Soweto was 262 per 100?000 population. The elderly comprised 5.8% of adults and 1.6% of adults notified. Among 110 elderly patients studied, 50% had pulmonary TB, 37% had extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) and 13% had both. A predisposing disease occurred in 46%. TB was microbiologically proven in 77%. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status was known for 25 (23%) patients, with 10 (9% of the cohort) being HIV-infected. HIV-infected adults had more EPTB, anaemia and hyponatraemia. Older adults in Soweto bear a high burden of TB. PMID:25216836
Karstaedt, A S; Bolhaar, M
Recent research suggests that older adults may gain significant mental health benefits from health resources made available through emerging modern technologies, especially because this population is becoming more Internet savvy. Technology-enhanced interventions for older adults have been shown to be helpful not only for general wellness activities (i.e., exercise), but also to specifically enhance mental health. This article focuses on two types of interventions for mental health: (a) cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression and anxiety and (b) assistive technology for individuals with dementia. Nurses should reevaluate their assumptions that older adults fear technology and explore whether different types of modern technology might be effective in enhancing mental health for these clients. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 52(9), 17-20.]. PMID:25062353
Cangelosi, Pamela R; Sorrell, Jeanne M
Called dotage in Korea, dementia is primarily characterized by cognitive impairments. Secondary manifestations include mental-emotional problems, including depression. This study was designed to examine the effects of an integrated dementia intervention for Korean older adults. The intervention is composed of cognitive stimulation training, exercise, music, art, and horticultural therapy. Participants included 38 older adults with mild dementia. Twenty were assigned to the experimental group and 18 to the control group. Participants in the experimental group attended 18 program sessions. Significant differences were found postintervention between the two groups in measures of cognitive function, depression levels, and mental-emotional health. The findings indicate that this integrated dementia intervention can be applied to help older adults with mild dementia. PMID:21053789
Kang, Hee-Young; Bae, Yeong-Suk; Kim, Eun-Hee; Lee, Kap-Soon; Chae, Myeong-Jeong; Ju, Ree-Aie
Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) use is a significant worldwide public health problem. Community-dwelling older adults are susceptible to the negative outcomes associated with the use of PIMs. A database search (January 1991-June 2013) produced 19 prospective correlational and 10 intervention studies. The current state of the science reveals that conceptual clarity is lacking regarding the use of PIMs. The prevalence of PIM use is well documented in an abundance of descriptive studies. However, researchers have not examined an intervention's effects on health outcomes in community-dwelling older adults. Although independent older adults can acquire PIMs outside of a provider, current interventions aim to change the behavior of the prescribing physician and pharmacist. Nurses need to collaborate with other disciplines in PIM use research. Priority needs are to design interventions that reduce the use of PIMs and negative health outcomes. PMID:24530281
Shade, Marcia Y; Berger, Ann M; Chaperon, Claudia
Generativity is a concept first introduced by Erik Erikson as a part of his psychosocial theory which outlines eight stages of development in the human life. Generativity versus stagnation is the main developmental concern of middle adulthood; however, generativity is also recognized as an important theme in the lives of older adults. Building on the work of Erikson, McAdams and de St. Aubin (1992) developed a model explaining the generative process. The aims of this article are: (a) to explore the relationship between generativity and older adults as it appears in research literature; and (b) to examine McAdam's model and use it to explain the role of generativity in older adults who share life stories with gerontology students through an oral history project. PMID:22950351
Ehlman, Katie; Ligon, Mary
Pathological gambling is becoming an increasing problem in today's culture, particularly because opportunities and inducements to gamble abound. This article describes symptoms, consequences, and comorbidities experienced by pathological gamblers. Gambling pathology is often invisible because pathological gamblers seldom disclose gambling problems to their primary care provider. Thus, nurses will benefit from knowledge of the physical and emotional signs of the disorder. A two-question assessment tool, the Lie/Bet Questionnaire, is useful in helping nurses identify pathological gamblers. Interventions and treatment options, including group therapy and environmental modification, are also discussed. As always, education concerning problems and consequences of pathological gambling is a first step. Because research has indicated that visits to casinos by older adults have doubled since 1975, the authors use an example of an older adult to clarify the issues. Although the article's content is applicable to clients across the life span, it has particular significance for older adults. PMID:21598867
Kerber, Cindy Sullivan; Schlenker, Emily; Hickey, Kari
The proliferation of state lotteries and casinos has led to an increased participation in gambling and its associated problems. Older retired adults have more opportunities to gamble and available funds than other demographic groups. For these reasons, older adults may constitute a special risk group for pathological gambling. Because substance misuse, mood, anxiety, and personality disorders are common in problem and pathological gamblers, we sought to examine rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders in 40 older adults with lifetime pathological gambling using structured assessments of known reliability. The results indicate a high level of psychiatric comorbidity in this population including depression, alcohol dependence, panic, and generalized anxiety disorders, as well as obsessive compulsive and avoidant personality disorders. Implications of these findings for psychiatric nurses are discussed. PMID:18770105
Kerber, Cindy Sullivan; Black, Donald W; Buckwalter, Kathleen
Background Depressive symptoms, apathy, and fatigue are common symptoms among medically ill older adults and patients with advanced disease, and are associated with morbidity and mortality. Methylphenidate has been used to treat these symptoms because of its rapid effect. Objective To review the literature regarding the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate to treat depressive symptoms, apathy, and fatigue in medically ill older adults and in palliative care. Methods English-language articles presenting systematic reviews, clinical trials, or case series describing use of methylphenidate to treat depressive symptoms, fatigue, or apathy in medically ill older adults or in palliative care were identified. The keywords “methylphenidate” and either “depressive”, “depression”, “fatigue”, or “apathy” were used to search the Cochrane Database, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts. Included articles addressed depressive symptoms, apathy, or fatigue in 1) older adults (generally age 65 years or older), particularly those with comorbid medical illness; 2) adult patients receiving palliative care; and 3) adults with other chronic illnesses. We excluded articles regarding 1) treatment of depression in healthy young adults; 2) treatment of bipolar disorder or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; and 3) treatment of narcolepsy, chronic fatigue syndrome and related disorders. Results 19 controlled trials of methylphenidate in medically ill older adults or in palliative care were identified. Unfortunately, their conflicting results, small size, and poor methodologic quality limit our ability to draw inferences regarding the efficacy of methylphenidate, although the evidence of its safety is stronger. The available evidence suggests possible effectiveness of methylphenidate for depressive symptoms, fatigue, apathy, and cognitive slowing in various medically ill populations. Conclusions In the absence of definitive evidence of effectiveness, trials of low-dose methylphenidate in medically ill adults suffering from depression, apathy, or fatigue with monitoring for response and adverse effects are appropriate. PMID:19281939
Hardy, Susan E.
Our aging population is growing in size and diversity. To integrate different views on aging and make explicit the role of\\u000a culture as a contextual factor, we modified Knight’s (Psychotherapy with older adults, 2004) Contextual, Cohort-based, Maturity,\\u000a Specific Challenge (CCMSC) model of psychotherapy with older adults into the Contextual Adult Lifespan Theory for Adapting\\u000a Psychotherapy (CALTAP). This article describes various
Bob G. Knight; Cecilia Y. M. Poon
This study aimed to clarify what pleasurable recreational activities older adults like to participate in, and to investigate the relationship between those activities and quality of life (QOL). Questionnaires were delivered to older residents (65 years and above) in a Japanese rural area. The residents' background information, the amount of pleasure for various activities, and the QOL were surveyed. The QOL was evaluated by the revised Philadelphia Geriatric Center (PGC) morale scale. The amount of pleasure taken in a majority of the activities, such as conversation with family or neighbors showed a significant association with the happiness score, but only a few activities showed significant association between the revised PGC morale scale and the amount of pleasure. The multiple regression analyses indicated that the amount of pleasure in exercise, the difficulty in managing finances, and amount of pleasure taken in watching TV were significant variables for predicting the happiness score. The results indicated that the amount of pleasure older adults experienced when engaging in activities such as conversation with family or neighbors showed significant association with the older adults' happiness. These results may be helpful in understanding contributions of various activities to the perception of pleasure in older adults. PMID:16368155
Onishi, Joji; Masuda, Yuichiro; Suzuki, Yusuke; Gotoh, Tadao; Kawamura, Takashi; Iguchi, Akihisa
Schizophrenia affects people of all age groups. Treatment plans for older adults with schizophrenia must consider the effects of age on the course of the illness as well as on the response to antipsychotics and to psychosocial interventions. Positive symptoms of schizophrenia tend to become less severe, substance abuse becomes less common, and mental health functioning often improves. Hospitalizations are more likely to be due to physical problems rather than psychotic relapses. Physical comorbidity is a rule, however, and older age is a risk factor for most side effects of antipsychotics, including metabolic syndrome and movement disorders. We recently reported high rates of adverse events and medication discontinuation along with limited effectiveness of commonly used atypical antipsychotics in older adults. Psychosocial interventions such as cognitive behavioral social skills training are efficacious in improving functioning in older adults with schizophrenia. In formulating treatment plans for this population, a balanced approach combining cautious antipsychotic medication use with psychosocial interventions is recommended. Antipsychotic medications should generally be used in lower doses in older adults. Close monitoring for side effects and effectiveness of the medications and a watchful eye on their risk:benefit ratio are critical. In a minority of patients it may be possible to discontinue medications. Sustained remission of schizophrenia after decades of illness is not rare, especially in persons who receive appropriate treatment and psychosocial support-there can be light at the end of a long tunnel. PMID:23552180
Jeste, Dilip V; Maglione, Jeanne E
The authors examined the neural correlates of emotion processing and how they relate to individual differences in optimism among older adults. Brain response during processing of fearful faces was measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging in 16 older adults and was correlated with level of optimism. Greater optimism was associated with reduced activation in the fusiform gyrus and frontal regions, which may reflect decreased salience of negative emotional information or better emotion regulation among optimistic individuals. Relationships persisted after taking into account cortical thickness, amygdala volume, and resting perfusion. Findings have potential implications for the promotion of successful aging. PMID:24275797
Bangen, Katherine J; Bergheim, Marianne; Kaup, Allison R; Mirzakhanian, Heline; Wierenga, Christina E; Jeste, Dilip V; Eyler, Lisa T
This article presents a qualitative study following a 6-month Taiji (T'ai Chi)/Qigong (Ch'i Kung) intervention for older adults. The researchers conducted in-depth interviews of eight selected participants who elected to continue practicing Taiji after the intervention ended, in order to explore their subjective experiences of Taiji's effects and their motivations for continuing to practice. We created a Layers Model to capture the significance and meaning of the multidimensionality of their reported experiences. Participants not only reported simple benefits along five dimensions of experience (physical, mental, emotional, social and spiritual) but also described complex multidimensional experiences. Overall findings indicate that participants derived a very wide variety of perceived benefits, the most meaningful being a felt sense of body-mind-spirit integration. Our results support the important role of qualitative studies in researching the effects of Taiji and Qigong. PMID:21773028
Yang, Yang; DeCelle, Sharon; Reed, Mike; Rosengren, Karl; Schlagal, Robert; Greene, Jennifer
The beneficial effects of self-referential processing on memory have been demonstrated in numerous experiments with younger adults but have rarely been studied in older individuals. In the present study we tested young people, younger-older adults, and older-older adults in a self-reference paradigm, and compared self-referential processing to general semantic processing. Findings indicated that older adults over the age of 75 and those with below average episodic memory function showed a decreased benefit from both semantic and self-referential processing relative to a structural baseline condition. However, these effects appeared to be confined to the shared semantic processes for the two conditions, leaving the added advantage for self-referential processing unaffected These results suggest that reference to the self engages qualitatively different processes compared to general semantic processing. These processes seem relatively impervious to age and to declining memory and executive function, suggesting that they might provide a particularly useful way for older adults to improve their memories. PMID:18608973
Glisky, Elizabeth L; Marquine, Maria J
Background Sarcopenic indices are used to estimate loss of skeletal lean mass and function, and to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in older adults. It is believed that older women and men with lower skeletal lean mass will be weaker and have more functional limitations. Purpose 1) To classify community-dwelling older adults using two common sarcopenic indices: appendicular lean mass/height2 (ALM/ht2) and skeletal muscle index (SMI), and 2) to determine each indices value as indicators of lower extremity strength and physical function. Methods The sample consisted of 154 community-dwelling older adults (111 women, 43 men; mean age=82.4 SD=3.6 years; mean BMI=25.8 SD=4.4 kg/m2). Each underwent whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to assess lean mass. The 9-item modified physical performance test (PPT) and s elf-selected walking speed were used to evaluate function. Lower extremity strength was measured bilaterally using isokinetic dynamometry. Results The ALM/ht2 index classified 75 participants (49%) as sarcopenic (SP) and 79 (51%) as non-sarcopenic (NSP). The SMI classified 129 participants (84%) as SP and 25 (16%) as NSP. There were no differences in functional measures between groups by gender using either index after classification. The ALM/ht2 index was more strongly correlated with peak torque of all lower extremity muscle groups (r=.276–.487) compared with the SMI (r=.103–.344). There was no relationship between either sarcopenic index and physical function. Discussion There were marked differences in how two sarcopenic indices classified community-dwelling older adults. Lower extremity strength was lower in older women classified as sarcopenic compared to non-sarcopenic using the ALM/ht2 index, but LE strength was not different in older men. However, no lower extremity strength differences were observed between sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic men or women using the SMI classification. Neither sarcopenic index uniformly identified community-dwelling older adults with functional or strength deficits. Conclusions Detection of strength deficits using sarcopenic indices alone may be gender-specific, and may not reflect strength or functional decline in community-dwelling men 80 years of age or older. Given associations between lower extremity strength and physical function, strength measures remain a better predictor of physical performance than sarcopenic indices for community-dwelling older men and women. PMID:22166895
Merriwether, Ericka N.; Host, Helen H.; Sinacore, David R.
The ability to correctly estimate time is important for many daily activities, such as cooking and driving. This study investigated the stability time estimation in healthy older adults and compared them to healthy younger adults. Participants were tested and retested across the duration of 1 year. Using a prospective paradigm, verbal estimates were provided for intervals of 10, 25, 45, and 60 seconds. Although the older adults demonstrated a greater magnitude of error in their time estimates than younger adults, their time estimates remained stable across the 1-year duration. This suggests that instability in time estimates across two time points is unlikely to account for the discrepant task findings in the aging and verbal time estimation literature. PMID:25265680
Anderson, Jonathan W; Rueda, Alicia; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a pain syndrome characterized by dysregulation of pain-processing mechanisms. FM may arise de novo or evolve following nervous system sensitization after an identifiable triggering event or related to a peripheral pain generator such as osteoarthritis. Although the focus symptom of FM is generalized body pain, patients may also experience sleep and mood disturbance, fatigue, and other somatic symptoms leading to the concept of a polysymptomatic condition. In view of prevalent other comorbidities in older patients, FM may be overlooked and management may be neglected, thereby contributing to poor well-being. Pertinent to the older patient is to ensure that the diagnosis of FM is correct and that other conditions are not misdiagnosed as FM. Whereever possible, treatment strategies should emphasize non-pharmacologic interventions that encompass healthy lifestyle habits, with attention to adequate physical activity in particular. Drug treatments should be tailored to the individual needs of the patient, with knowledge that they may offer only a modest effect, but with caution to ensure that adverse effects do not overshadow therapeutic effects. PMID:25227451
Fitzcharles, Mary-Ann; Ste-Marie, Peter A; Shir, Yoram; Lussier, David
Although existing literature addresses adults' motivation to learn, and some specifically focuses on older adults, it is now recognized that older adults are more heterogeneous and complex than other age groups. Therefore, this study seeks to provide an alternative theoretical framework to investigate motivation to learn for older adult learners…
Lin, Yi-Yin; Sandmann, Lorilee R.
Examines the role of closeness in mediating young adults' stereotypes of older adults. Notes that young adults (college students less than 25 years old) consistently rate their closest grandparent more positively on exhibiting stereotypic behaviors and communicative ability than they do their least close grandparent. Concludes that although…
Pecchioni, Loretta L.; Croghan, Jon M.
Walking barefoot or in socks is common for ambulating indoors and has been reported to be associated with increased risk of falls and related injuries in the elderly. This study sought to determine if gait patterns differed between these two conditions for young and older adults. A motion analysis system was used to record and calculate the stride characteristics and motion of the body's center of mass (COM) of 21 young and 20 older adults. For the walking tasks, the participants walked on a smooth floor surface at their preferred speed either barefoot or in socks in a random order. The socks were commercially available and commonly used. The results demonstrated that while walking in socks, compared with walking barefoot, older adults adopted a more cautious gait pattern including decreased walking speed and shortened stride length as well as reduced COM minimal velocity during the single limb support phase. Young adults, however, did not demonstrate significant changes. These findings suggest that walking with socks might present a greater balance threat for older adults. Clinically, safety precautions about walking in socks should be considered to be given to older adults, especially those with balance deficits. PMID:22867560
Tsai, Yi-Ju; Lin, Sang-I
To investigate which neural correlates are associated with successful working memory performance, fMRI was recorded in healthy younger and older adults during performance on an n-back task with varying task demands. To identify functional networks supporting working memory processes, we used independent component analysis (ICA) decomposition of the fMRI data. Compared to younger adults, older adults showed a larger neural (BOLD) response in the more complex (2-back) than in the baseline (0-back) task condition, in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and in the right fronto-parietal network (FPN). Our results indicated that a higher BOLD response in the VLPFC was associated with increased performance accuracy in older adults, in both the baseline and the more complex task condition. This ‘BOLD-performance’ relationship suggests that the neural correlates linked with successful performance in the older adults are not uniquely related to specific working memory processes present in the complex but not in the baseline task condition. Furthermore, the selective presence of this relationship in older but not in younger adults suggests that increased neural activity in the VLPFC serves a compensatory role in the aging brain which benefits task performance in the elderly. PMID:24911016
Saliasi, Emi; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M.; Maurits, Natasha M.
Many U.S. states rely on older adults to self-regulate their driving and determine when driving is no longer a safe option. However, the relationship of older adults’ self-rated driving in terms of actual driving competency outcomes is unclear. The current study investigates self-rated driving in terms of (1) systematic differences between older adults with high (good/excellent) versus low (poor/fair/average) self-ratings, and (2) the predictive nature of self-rated driving to adverse driving outcomes in older drivers (n=350; mean age 73.9, SD=5.25, range 65–91). Adverse driving outcomes included self-reported incidences of (1) being pulled over by the police, (2) receiving a citation, (3) receiving a recommendation to cease or limit driving, (4) crashes, and (5) state-reported crashes. Results found that older drivers with low self-ratings reported more medical conditions, less driving frequency, and had been given more suggestions to stop/limit their driving; there were no other significant differences between low and high self-raters. Logistic regression revealed older drivers were more likely to have a state-reported crash and receive a suggestion to stop or limit driving. Men were more likely to report all adverse driving outcomes except for receiving a suggestion to stop or limit driving. Regarding self-rated driving, older adults with high ratings were 66% less likely (OR=0.34, 95% CI=0.14–0.85) to have received suggestions to limit or stop driving after accounting for demographics, health and driving frequency. Self-ratings were not predictive of other driving outcomes (being pulled over by the police, receiving a citation, self-reported crashes, or state-reported crashes, ps>.05). Most older drivers (85.14%) rated themselves as either good or excellent drivers regardless of their actual previous citation or crash rates. Self-rated driving is likely not related to actual driving proficiency as indicated by previous crash involvement in older adults. Suggestions from other individuals to limit or cease driving may be more influential on self-ratings. PMID:22664719
Ross, Lesley A.; Dodson, Joan; Edwards, Jerri D.; Ackerman, Michelle L.; Ball, Karlene
Although previous studies have demonstrated that the hippocampus plays a role in pain processing, the role of hippocampal subfields is uncertain. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between hippocampal subfield volumes and chronic pain in nondemented older adults. The study sample included 86 community-residing adults age 70 or older who were free of dementia and recruited from the Einstein Aging Study. Chronic pain was defined as pain over the last 3 months, that was moderate or severe (minimum rating of 4 out of 10) most, or all of the time. Hippocampal subfield volumes were estimated using FreeSurfer software. We modeled the association between chronic pain and hippocampal and subfield volume using linear regression. The sample had a mean age of 80 and was 58% female. Chronic pain, present in 55% of the sample, was associated with smaller right and total hippocampal volumes, particularly in women, after adjusting for age, education, and intracranial volume (eTICV). In addition, in women, volume was significantly reduced in participants with chronic pain in right CA2-3 (?=-0.35, p=0.010), right CA4-DG (?=-0.35, p=0.011), left presubiculum (?=-0.29, p=0.030), and left fimbria (?=-0.30, p=0.023). In men, chronic pain was not associated with the volume of any of the hippocampal subfield volumes. Chronic pain in women is associated with a reduction in the volume of right hippocampus and also selected hippocampal subfields. Future studies should clarify the mechanisms underlying the association between regional hippocampal volumes and chronic pain, particularly in women. PMID:24878607
Ezzati, Ali; Zimmerman, Molly E; Katz, Mindy J; Sundermann, Erin E; Smith, Jeremy L; Lipton, Michael L; Lipton, Richard B
We investigated relationships between physical exercise and the cognitive abilities of older adults. We hypothesized that the performance of vigorous exercisers would be superior to that of sedentary individuals on measures of reasoning, working memory, and reaction time. We gave a series of cognitive tasks to 62 older men and women who exercised vigorously and 62 sedentary men and women. Multivariate and univariate analyses of variance, with age and education as covariates, indicated that the performance of the exercisers was significantly better on measures of reasoning, working memory, and reaction time. Between-group differences persisted when vocabulary, on which the performance of exercisers was superior, was used as a third covariate. Subsequent analyses showed that neither self-rated health, medical conditions, nor medications contributed to the differences between exercise groups. Results suggest that the possible contribution of physical exercise to individual differences in cognition among older adults should be further investigated. PMID:2789745
Clarkson-Smith, L; Hartley, A A
Objectives To investigate whether biological markers of health differ among older adults with visual impairment compared to those with\\u000a normal vision.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design We use data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2006) to investigate clinically defined at-risk\\u000a levels for 10 biological markers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting Survey participants were non-institutionalized.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Participants Nationally representative (U.S.) sample of older adults age 65 and older, categorized as having
B. A. Steinman; S. Vasunilashorn
The Social Vulnerability Scale (SVS), an informant-report of social vulnerability for older adults, was piloted in a sample of 167 undergraduate students (63 male, 104 female) from the University of Queensland. Participants aged 18 - 53 (M ¼ 25.53 years, SD ¼ 7.83 years) completed the SVS by rating a relative or friend aged ? 50 years (M ¼ 71.65
DONNA M. PINSKER; Valerie Stone; Nancy Pachana; Stephen Greenspan
OBJECTIVE To understand the job function of caregivers of older adults and contribute to the debate on the consolidation of this professional practice. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES This is a descriptive, qualitative, and exploratory study. Four focal group sessions were performed in 2011 with 11 elderly companions, formal caregivers of older adults in the Programa Acompanhante de Idosos (Program for Caregivers of Older Adults), Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. These sessions, guided by a semi-structured script, were audio-recorded and fully transcribed. Data were analyzed using the Content Analysis technique, Thematic Modality. RESULTS In view of considering the caregivers of older adults as a new category of workers, it was difficult to define their duties. The elderly companions themselves as well as the care receivers, their families, and the professionals that comprised the team were unclear about their duties. The professional practice of these formal caregivers has been built on the basis of constant discussions and negotiations among them and other team members in Programa Acompanhante de Idosos during daily work. This was achieved via a recognition process of their job functions and by setting apart other workers' exclusive responsibilities. CONCLUSIONS The delimitation of specific job functions for elderly companions is currently one of the greatest challenges faced by these workers to develop and consolidate their professional role as well as improve Programa Acompanhante de Idosos. PMID:25372163
Batista, Marina Picazzio Perez; Barros, Juliana de Oliveira; Almeida, Maria Helena Morgani de; Mângia, Elisabete Ferreira; Lancman, Selma
It is estimated that 1 in 10 adults aged 65 years and older have been diagnosed with dementia, which is associated with numerous behavioral excesses and deficits. Despite the publication of a special section of the "Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis" ("JABA") on behavioral gerontology (Iwata, 1986), there continues to be a paucity of…
Trahan, Maranda A.; Kahng, SungWoo; Fisher, Alyssa B.; Hausman, Nicole L.
To help motivate older adults to initiate and adhere to an exercise program, a seven-step approach was developed: education about benefits, screening, goal setting, exposure to exercise, exposure to role models, verbal encouragement from credible sources, and reinforcement and rewards. (Contains 65 references.) (SK)
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a chronic medical problem commonly found in older adults. Management of CHF ideally should combine lifestyle modifications and medication management. Exercise prescriptions and encouraging patients with CHF to exercise can have a significant impact on management of symptoms as well as exacerbation of further disease. The recommended exercise program should ideally incorporate 10 to 15
Background. Frailty is a common risk factor for morbidity and mortality in elderly persons. Recent evidence links frailty to activation of coagulation and inflammatory pathways. We aimed to determine whether frailty in community- dwelling older adults is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Methods. We conducted a prospective cohort study in four U.S. communities involving 4859 participants 65 years
Aaron R. Folsom; Lori L. Boland; Mary Cushman; Susan R. Heckbert; Wayne D. Rosamond; Jeremy D. Walston
Enabling Health Literacy for Older Adults Through Anamorphic Perspective Robert Ball Department@sfasu.edu ABSTRACT The US Institute of Medicine defines health literacy as "the degree to which individuals have, bedridden 1. INTRODUCTION The US Institute of Medicine defines health literacy as "the degree to which
Somatosensory information is critical to balance control and fall prevention in older adults. Recently, it has been shown that low- level input noise (electrical or mechanical) can enhance the sensi- tivity of the human somatosensory system. In this study, we tested the e¡ect of low-level electrical noise, applied at the knee, on bal- ance control in 13 healthy elderly volunteers.
Denise C. Gravelle; Carrie A. Laughton; Neel T. Dhruv; Kunal D. Katdare; James B. Niemi; Lewis A. Lipsitz; James J. Collins
This qualitative study investigated what factors influenced older adults to start and continue to exercise in a senior gym. Eight individuals, ages 65–81, were interviewed. The interviews were analyzed by manifest content analysis. Exercising at their own pace and finding peers, competent staff, and accessible machines were all positive factors for continuing to exercise in a senior gym. Initially, training
Ammis Lübcke; Cathrin Martin; Karin Hellström
A systematic review and meta-analysis of memory training research was conducted to characterize the effect of memory strategies on memory performance among cognitively intact, community-dwelling older adults, and to identify characteristics of individuals and of programs associated with improved memory. The review identified 402 publications, of which 35 studies met criteria for inclusion. The overall effect size estimate, representing the
Alden L. Gross; Jeanine M. Parisi; Adam P. Spira; Alexandra M. Kueider; Jean Y. Ko; Jane S. Saczynski; Quincy M. Samus; George W. Rebok
This student activity book and reference book, which are part of a family and consumer sciences education series focusing on a broad range of employment opportunities, are intended for use in 1- and 2- programs preparing Texas high school students for employment in occupations related to providing services for older adults. The reference book…
Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Curriculum Center for Family and Consumer Sciences.
We investigated interrelationships between the predisposition toward approaching experiences in a mindful and creative way, participation in specific activities, and cognition among older adults. Participants were administered a battery measuring cognition (i.e., working memory, processing speed, divergent thinking, inductive reasoning, visuo-spatial processing), activity level, and the predisposition towards mental engagement (Need for Cognition, Mindfulness, and Openness to Experience). Results indicated
Jeanine M. Parisi; Elizabeth A. L. Stine-Morrow; Soo Rim Noh; Daniel G. Morrow
This study seeks to gain a holistic understanding of how older Korean-American adults' socio-demographic factors affect their attitudes toward the computer. The research was guided by four main questions: (1) What do participants describe as the consequences of their using the computer? (2) What attitudes toward the computer do participants…
Background: Alternating motion rate (AMR) and sequential motion rate (SMR) are tests of articulatory diadochokinesis that are widely used in the evaluation of motor speech. However, there are no quality normative data available for adults aged 65 years and older. Aims: There were two aims: (1) to obtain a representative, normative dataset of…
Pierce, John E.; Cotton, Susan; Perry, Alison
There is growing evidence that psychosocial treatments incorporating behavioral intervention strategies can be effective in the treatment of depression in older adults with cognitive impairment. However, less work with such cases has focused on the use of cognitive interventions in tandem with these behavioral intervention strategies. This case…
Coon, David W.; Thompson, Larry W.; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores
The growing number of older adults in America will result in an increasing demand for psychotherapists familiar with their psychological needs. To treat this population in an ethical manner, practitioners need to be aware of the unique characteristics of the aging process, especially in regards to age-related vulnerabilities, such as cognitive decline. Unfortunately, recent research has shown that those currently
Many older adults use walkers to improve their stability and safety while walking. We have developed a robotically augmented walker to reduce fall risk and confusion, and to increase walker convenience and enjoyment. Using a modified version of the CARMEN navigation software suite (11), the walker is capable of parking itself and returning to the user when signaled by remote
Jared Glover; David Holstius; Michael Manojlovich; Keirsten Montgomery; Aaron Powers; Jack Wu; Sara Kiesler; Judith Matthews; Sebastian Thrun
Two major demographic trends underscore the importance of considering technology adoption by older adults: the aging of the population and rapid dissemination of technology within most societal contexts. In the past decade, developments in computer and information technologies have occurred at an unprecedented rate and technology has become an integral component of work, education, healthcare, communication and entertainment. At the
Sara J. Czaja
The study reported in this paper investigated the usefulness of different instructions for guiding inexperienced older adults through interactive systems. It was designed to compare different media in relation to their social as well as their motivational impact on the elderly during the learning process. Precisely, the video was compared with…
Gramss, Denise; Struve, Doreen
A survey of 782 older adults participating in "active outdoor" Elderhostel programs found the following important motivations for participating: being in a natural environment, being physically active, learning about outdoor skills and the environment, and being with people with similar interests. Recommendations are offered for program design and…
We investigated associations between suicide ideation and a set of potential risk and resiliency factors in a heterogeneous sample of 107 older adults (mean age = 81.5 years, SD = 7.7 years; range, 67 to 98 years; 76% female) recruited in community, residential, and healthcare settings. Participants completed the Geriatric Suicide Ideation Scale (GSIS; Heisel & Flett, 2006) and measures
Marnin J. Heisel; Gordon L. Flett
This study examined diverse older adults' (n = 396, ages 50+) views about how to stay mentally sharp. We conducted 42 focus groups in four languages at nine United States locations using a standardized discussion guide and methods. The groups represented African Americans, American Indians, Chinese Americans, Latinos, Whites other than Latinos,…
Friedman, Daniela B.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Laditka, James N.; Wu, Bei; Liu, Rui; Price, Anna E.; Tseng, Winston; Corwin, Sara J.; Ivey, Susan L.; Hunter, Rebecca; Sharkey, Joseph R.
OLDER ADULTS' USE OF COMPUTERS: A SURVEY Joy Goodman Department of Computing Science University of Glasgow GLASGOW G12 8QQ UK email@example.com Audrey Syme Division of Applied Computing University of Dundee DUNDEE DD1 4HN UK firstname.lastname@example.org Roos Eisma Division of Applied Computing University
The motivations and benefits of educational travel among individuals aged 55 years old and over were examined in this study. A total of 136 older adults enrolled in Elderhostel programs participated in this study and reported their perceived benefits and motivations for engaging in educational travel experiences. Correlation analyses were used to…
Ahn, Young-Joo; Janke, Megan C.
This article reviews and assesses the existing research literature on the efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) to promote lifestyle changes and improve functioning among older adults confronting serious health challenges. A comprehensive literature review was conducted of intervention studies that tested the use of MI to achieve behavioral…
Cummings, Sherry M.; Cooper, R. Lyle; Cassie, Kim McClure
This document provides a step-by-step description of the planning and implementation of a two day consumer concerns conference for older adults held at Palomar Community College (California). The bulk of the document is made up of practical discussions of such planning phases as facility selection and decoration, conference publicity, snack and…
The impact of the global aging of the population on social, economic, political, and health care institutions is unequaled. Parallel to this, evolving developments in technology promise opportunities for sales and product development to support positive aging. Older adults are excited to utilize technologies that they perceive as practical.…
Huber, Lesa; Watson, Carol
Thiazolidinedione Use and Bone Loss in Older Diabetic Adults Ann V. Schwartz, Deborah E. Sellmeyer. Cummings, for the Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study Department of Epidemiology; Department of Epidemiology (E.S.S., S.W.P.), Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh
Abraham, Nader G.
Although most clinical guidelines for older adults allow for one drink a day in persons without a history of alcoholism, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease, alcohol may contribute to fatal injury in the elderly. Using two national surveys, this case–control study determined the associations between drinking history and fatal injuries from falls, motor vehicle crashes and suicides. We performed a case–control
Gary S. Sorock; Li-Hui Chen; Sheila R. Gonzalgo; Susan P. Baker
With the growing size of the population of aging Black individuals, it is important to understand successful aging in this group. This study, therefore, piloted the Successful Aging Inventory (SAI) with a convenience sample of Black older adults. Participants completed a demographic form, the SAI, Purpose in Life Test, Life Satisfaction Inventory-A, Mastery Scale, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression
Meredith Troutman; Mary A. Nies; Monica Bentley
The purpose of this study is to determine the level of public library service given to those over age 64 in the seven Ohio counties which make up the Northeastern Ohio Library Association (NOLA). Based on a survey of the 34 public libraries in NOLA, this study of older adult services may be used as a basis for setting performance goals and…
Fegen, Darlene A.
Purpose: Three experiments measured benefit of spatial separation, benefit of binaural listening, and masking-level differences (MLDs) to assess age-related differences in binaural advantage. Method: Participants were younger and older adults with normal hearing through 4.0 kHz. Experiment 1 compared spatial benefit with and without head shadow.…
Dubno, Judy R.; Ahlstrom, Jayne B.; Horwitz, Amy R.
Commercial publication of large?print books, as a field of publishing, dates only to 1964. Public libraries are the major purchasers of these large?print books which fill a need for the visually impaired of all ages. Older adults, however, are the major users. In the past, publishing decisions and library purchasing decisions have often been based on supposed reading interest preferences
Judith Lee Palmer
This study examined Master's in Social Work students' (N = 304) interest in working with older adults following the use of case studies to infuse aging content into the foundation social work curriculum. Faculty members were provided with extensive materials to support their use of the cases with aging content in class. Compared to an earlier study, students were significantly more interested
Irene A. Gutheil; Janna C. Heyman; Roslyn H. Chernesky
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify future trends and barriers that will either facilitate or impede the narrowing of the digital skills divide among older adults during the next 10 years. Methodology: To address the research questions, this study used a modified version of the Delphi process using a panel of experts who…
Gilliam, Brian K.
The objective of this research was to identify the effects of participation in learning on the subjective wellbeing of older adults. Data were from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a large-scale, nationally representative survey of those aged 50 and above. The survey contains several wellbeing measures and information on three…
Purpose Squatting activities may be used, within exercise programs, to preserve physical function in older adults. This study characterized the lower-extremity peak joint angles, peak moments, powers, work, impulse, and muscle recruitment patterns (electromyographic; EMG) associated with two types of squatting activities in elders. Methods Twenty-two healthy, older adults (ages 70–85) performed three trials each of: 1) a squat to a self-selected depth (normal squat; SQ) and 2) a squat onto a chair with a standardized height of 43.8 cm (chair squat; CSQ). Descending and ascending phase joint kinematics and kinetics were obtained using a motion analysis system and inverse dynamics techniques. Results were averaged across the three trials. A 2 × 2 (activity × phase) ANOVA with repeated measures was used to examine the biomechanical differences among the two activities and phases. EMG temporal characteristics were qualitatively examined. Results CSQ generated greater hip flexion angles, peak moments, power, and work, whereas SQ generated greater knee and ankle flexion angles, peak moments, power, and work. SQ generated a greater knee extensor impulse, a greater plantar flexor impulse and a greater total support impulse. The EMG temporal patterns were consistent with the kinetic data. Conclusions The results suggest that, with older adults, CSQ places greater demand on the hip extensors, whereas SQ places greater demand on the knee extensors and ankle plantar flexors. Clinicians may use these discriminate findings to more effectively target specific lower-extremity muscle groups when prescribing exercise for older adults. PMID:12673148
FLANAGAN, SEAN; SALEM, GEORGE J.; WANG, MAN-YING; SANKER, SERENA E.; GREENDALE, GAIL A.
It was hypothesized that there would be a high prevalence of nutrition related problems in older adults in personal care homes (21 homes, 80 residents, 79 ± 9 years of age, 86% Caucasian, 11% Black, 2% Hispanic). All homes were licensed and had 2 to 15 residents. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric indices, the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and feeding
M. A. Johnson; M. E. Quinn; E. L. Andress; M. Mahadevan; M. Ramesh
This study compared samples of rural (n = 107) and urban older adults (n = 126), to explore differences in their attitudes toward mental health and mental health services. The moderating role that personality may play in accounting for rural versus urban differences in these variables was also explored. Each person completed a multidimensional measure of mental health attitudes and
Bert Hayslip JR; Robert J. Maiden; Nova L. Thomison; Jeff R. Temple
This qualitative research investigates the meaning of "keitai" (mobile phones) for older Japanese adults between the ages of 59 and 79. Participants' emails from keitai, handwritten daily logs, and audio and video recordings from meetings and interviews were collected during my stay of nearly seven months in one of the largest cities in Japan.…
Thoughts about the self in the future, called possible selves, are an important component of the current identity of individuals. This study specifically focused on possible selves in the domain of memory and cognition. Both older and younger groups spontaneously reported possible selves in the cognitive domain, e.g., “learning a new skill,” but younger adults did not spontaneously mention any
Alissa Dark-Freudeman; Robin L. West; Kristen M. Viverito
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between cognitive processes and medication adherence among community-dwelling older adults. Ninety-five participants (M = 78 years) completed a battery of cognitive assessments including measures of executive function, working memory, cued recall, and recognition memory. Medication adherence was examined over 8 weeks for one prescribed medicine by use of an electronic
Kathleen Insel; Daniel Morrow; Barbara Brewer; Aurelio Figueredo
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between older adults' religiosity, sense of meaning in life, and health behavior. Three dimensions of religiosity were assessed: religious orientation (intrinsic and extrinsic), sanctification of the body, and relationship with God. Five health behaviors were measured: smoking, exercise, taking responsibility for one's own health, nutritious eating, and stress management. In
Kristin J. Homan; Chris J. Boyatzis
As Western populations age, the burden of associated chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer will increase dramatically. In the United States in the next 50 years, it is projected that the percentage of adults with type 2 diabetes will exceed 30%, with the vast majority older than 65 years. It is therefore important to determine the best
Andrea R. Josse; Shirin Panahi; Amin Esfahani; Lawrence A. Leiter; David J. A. Jenkins; Cyril W. C. Kendall
Insomnia is associated with significant morbidity and is often a persistent problem, particularly in older adults. It is important to attend to this complaint and not assume that it will remit spontaneously. In many cases, unfortunately, insomnia remains unrecognized and untreated, often because it is presumed that insomnia is an inevitable…
Belanger, Lynda; LeBlanc, Melanie; Morin, Charles M.
Background: Identification of risk factors for the loss of meaning in life among older adults is needed. In this article, we test hypotheses derived from the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide concerning the role of perceptions that one is a burden on others as a risk factor for lower meaning in life.Methods: A prospective design was used to examine the temporal
Kimberly A. Van Orden; Patricia M. Bamonti; Deborah A. King; Paul R. Duberstein
This directory is designed to help its users locate colleges and universities in the United States that offer physical fitness programs for older adults. The directory's annotations include: program area, scope of activities comprising the program, target population, duration of program, and special comments. The focus of the listed programs is on…
This article uses qualitative research and narrative analysis to examine the experience of women age 55 and older who are parents caring for adult children with mental illness. Knowledge about the conflicts of older parents with dependent children is underdeveloped. In this study, analysis of women's stories about parenting in later life reveal…
Smith, Judith R.
Older adults are expected and frequently found to report less control than younger adults. In this study, we decompose this negative relationship between age and sense of control using nested multivariable linear regression models that serially introduce sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic factors, health status, and subjective religiosity and religious beliefs in a sample of 1,051 older adults attending the general medicine clinics of a major medical center. The results indicate that the effect of age is suppressed in the bivariable model. In the final multivariable model, educational attainment has the largest relative effect (i.e., beta; .253), followed by age (-.210), mental health (.174), subjective religiosity (.113), being an African American (-.100), perceived health (.082), and being Catholic (.068). Future research should focus on the inflection point in the relationship between age and the sense of control that apparently occurs at about 50 years of age. PMID:8673651
Wolinsky, F D; Stump, T E
Occupational therapy may significantly improve cancer survivors’ ability to participate in activities, thereby improving quality of life. Little is known, however, about the use of occupational therapy services by adults with cancer. The objective of this study was to understand what shapes patterns of occupational therapy use to help improve service delivery. We examined older (age >65 yr) adults diagnosed with breast, prostate, lung, or melanoma (skin) cancer between 2004 and 2007 (N = 27,131) using North Carolina Central Cancer Registry data linked to Medicare billing claims. Survivors who used occupational therapy within 1 yr before their cancer diagnosis were more likely to use occupational therapy after diagnosis but also experienced the highest levels of comorbidities. Survivors with Stage 4 cancers or lung cancer were less likely to use occupational therapy. These findings suggest possible disparities in utilization of occupational therapy by older adults with cancer. PMID:25184473
Pergolotti, Mackenzi; Cutchin, Malcolm P.; Weinberger, Morris; Meyer, Anne-Marie
The detrimental influence of distraction on memory and attention is well established, yet it is not as clear whether irrelevant information impacts categorization abilities and whether this impact changes in aging. We examined categorization with morphed prototype stimuli in both younger and older adults, using an adaptive staircase approach to assess participants' performance in conditions with and without visual distractors. Results showed that distraction did not affect younger adults, but produced a negative impact on older adults' categorization such that there was an interaction of age and distraction. These results suggest a relationship between the increased susceptibility to visual distraction in normal aging and impairment in categorization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25244485
Wais, Peter E; Gazzaley, Adam
The purpose of the present research was to explore the role of stereotype threat as a mediator of older people's memory performance under different instructional sets. In three studies, younger and older participants completed a memory test that was either framed as a memorization or as an impression formation task. Across these studies, memory performance was greater for younger than
Alison L. Chasteen; Sudipa Bhattacharyya; Michelle Horhota; Raymond Tam; Lynn Hasher
The present study explored attitudes toward feminism in 245 U.S. college students and their older relatives. Participants\\u000a completed a scale of attitudes towards feminism, political orientation, a religiosity measure, and a demographic questionnaire.\\u000a Results indicated that older adults were more conservative than younger adults on their attitudes towards feminism, religiosity,\\u000a and political orientation measures. In the young adult sample, attitudes
Kathryn E. Fitzpatrick Bettencourt; Tammi Vacha-Haase; Zinta S. Byrne
The social consequences of appealing to age to excuse memory failure were examined in 2 vignette-based studies. In Study 1, 75 older (M = 72 years) and 78 young (M = 22 years) adults evaluated forgetful older targets in their 70s who used their age, lack of ability, lack of effort, or the situation to explain forgetting. In Study 2, 105 older (M = 72 years) and 105 young participants (M = 19 years) evaluated forgetful targets with no specific age given in 4 excuse conditions (age, ability, situation, and no excuse). In support of the prediction of positive consequences, age excuses were rated as more believable than situation in both studies and more believable and socially fluent than effort in Study 1. In support of predictions of negative consequences, both groups in Study 2 rated target persons who used an age excuse to be much older than their peers and, along with ability excuse users, as eliciting more worry and frustration than the others. Moreover, young adults showed additional sensitivity to the negative aspects of age excuses in terms of worry and frustration in Study 1 and anticipated repeat forgetting in Study 2. These results suggest that although age excuses may relieve socially awkward situations, this strategy reinforces negative age stereotyping of the older forgetter. PMID:11983737
Ryan, Ellen Bouchard; Bieman-Copland, Sherrie; See, Sheree T Kwong; Ellis, Carolyn H; Anas, Ann P
Nearly all older adults experience social losses, which can disrupt their social support networks and impair their quality of life. Events such as retirement, an inability to drive, death of a spouse and/or close life-long friends, or moving to an elder care facility may negatively affect the quality of older adults' social support networks. Low levels of perceived social support are associated with increased depression, impaired immune functioning and reduced life expectancy. Moreover, social interactions can be cognitively stimulating and may help older adults preserve their cognitive abilities. In the present study, institutionalized older adults were exposed to either a cognitive enhancement programme designed to enhance social networks or a control group. Measures of perceived social support and loneliness were administered before and after a 3-month, group-based intervention. There was a significant interaction between group and time. Those who did not participate in the intervention experienced a decrease in perceived social support and an increase in perceived loneliness. Participants in the intervention group stayed the same on the above measures. Helping older adults increase or maintain the quality of their social networks may lead to enhanced cognitive functioning, decreased depression and improved quality of life. Recommendations to help assisted living facilities, nursing homes, retirement communities and senior centres develop social and cognitive interventions are provided. PMID:18074259
Winningham, R G; Pike, N L
Impairments in the ability to recollect specific details of personally experienced events are one of the main cognitive changes associated with aging. Cognitive training can improve older adults’ recollection. However, little is currently known regarding the neural correlates of these training-related changes in recollection. Prior research suggests that the hippocampus plays a central role in supporting recollection in young and older adults, and that age-related changes in hippocampal function may lead to age-related changes in recollection. The present study investigated whether cognitive training-related increases in older adults’ recollection are associated with changes in their hippocampal activity during memory retrieval. Older adults’ hippocampal activity during retrieval was examined before and after they were trained to use semantic encoding strategies to intentionally encode words. Training-related changes in recollection were positively correlated with training-related changes in activity for old words in the hippocampus bilaterally. Positive correlations were also found between training-related changes in activity in prefrontal and left lateral temporal regions associated with self-initiated semantic strategy use during encoding and training-related changes in right hippocampal activity associated with recollection during retrieval. These results suggest that cognitive training-related improvements in older adults’ recollection can be supported by changes in their hippocampal activity during retrieval. They also suggest that age differences in cognitive processes engaged during encoding are a significant contributor to age differences in recollection during retrieval. PMID:22728150
Kirchhoff, Brenda A.; Anderson, Benjamin A.; Smith, Staci E.; Barch, Deanna M.; Jacoby, Larry L.
The authors examined same- and cross-gender friendship norms in a sample of 135 adults (average age 73 years). Participants evaluated a friend’s behavior, quantitatively and qualitatively, in vignettes in which the friend’s gender was experimentally manipulated. Gender often significantly, though modestly, influenced normative evaluations. Women frequently had higher expectations of friends than men and placed a greater emphasis on intimacy. Women were more disapproving of violations of friendship rules, such as betraying a confidence, paying a surprise visit, and failing to stand up for a friend in public. However, both men and women were less approving of a man than a woman who greets another friend with a kiss or who requests to stay overnight. Respondents’ open-ended comments reflected positive attitudes regarding cross-gender friendships. Most findings demonstrated that men and women across a wide age range held similar cultural norms for close ties, norms of trust, commitment, and respect. PMID:20473364
Felmlee, Diane; Muraco, Anna
With the spread of gambling in its many forms across the American landscape the question arises as to how senior citizens have been effected. This study examines data on gambling behavior and related attitudes gathered from a random sample of community residents in jurisdictions that had recently allowed casinos to open. Comparisons are made between senior and younger adults regarding their gambling behaviors. Though the results suggest that casino gambling is not a major threat to the elderly it is noted that more extensive research needs to be done to assess the individual and social costs and benefits, if any, associated with large numbers of the elderly regularly participating in gambling as a social activity. PMID:12623728
Grant Stitt, B; Giacopassi, David; Nichols, Mark
Background Keeping older adults healthy and active is an emerging challenge of an aging society. Despite the importance of personal relationships to their health and well-being, changes in family structure have resulted in a lower frequency of intergenerational interactions. Limited studies have been conducted to compare different interaction style of intergenerational interaction. The present study aimed to compare the changes in visual attention, facial expression, engagement/behaviour, and intergenerational conversation in older adults brought about by a performance-based intergenerational (IG) program and a social-oriented IG program to determine a desirable interaction style for older adults. Methods The subjects of this study were 25 older adults who participated in intergenerational programs with preschool children aged 5 to 6 years at an adult day care centre in Tokyo. We used time sampling to perform a structured observation study. The 25 older participants of intergenerational programs were divided into two groups based on their interaction style: performance-based IG program (children sing songs and dance) and social-oriented IG program (older adults and children play games together). Based on the 5-minute video observation, we compared changes in visual attention, facial expression, engagement/behaviour, and intergenerational conversation between the performance-based and social-oriented IG programs. Results Constructive behaviour and intergenerational conversation were significantly higher in the social-oriented IG programming group than the performance-based IG programming group (p<0.001). No significant differences were observed in frequency of smiles, however, when weighted smiling rate was used, smiles were significantly more frequently observed in the social-oriented IG programming group than the performance-based IG programming (p<0.05). The visual attention occurred between the generations was significantly higher in the performance-based IG programming group than the social-oriented IG programming group (p<0.05). Conclusions Intergenerational programs with preschool children brought smiles and conversation to older adults. The social-oriented IG program allowed older adults to play more roles than the performance-based IG program. The intergenerational programs provide opportunities to fulfil basic human needs and reintegrate older adults into society. Further development of such beneficial programs is warranted. Trial registration UMIN-CTR clinical Trial: UMIN000010439 PMID:24138601
This study examined correlates of susceptibility to scams in 639 community-dwelling older adults without dementia from a cohort study of aging. Regression models adjusted for age, sex, education, and income were used to examine associations between susceptibility to scams, measured by a five-item self-report measure, and a number of potential correlates. Susceptibility was positively associated with age and negatively associated with income, cognition, psychological well-being, social support, and literacy. Fully adjusted models indicated that older age and lower levels of cognitive function, decreased psychological well-being, and lower literacy in particular may be markers of susceptibility to financial victimization in old age. PMID:24499279
James, Bryan D; Boyle, Patricia A; Bennett, David A
Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was used to examine gender differences and depression in elderly Taiwanese Americans. There is a paucity of health-related research focused on Asian Americans. This is especially true in the area of mental health. Depression, the most common psychiatric illness in older adults, is under-diagnosed in Asian Americans. A convenience sample of 100 elderly Taiwanese Americans, 47 women and 53 men, was used. Women were older, had higher depressions cores, more physical illness, poorer sleep scores, and less physical activity. Regression analysis indicated that 25% of the variance in depression scores was explained by sleep quality and physical activity. PMID:16615710
Suen, Lee-jen W; Morris, Diana Lynn
This study examined whether (a) older adults are wiser than college students, (b) college-educated older adults are wiser\\u000a than current college students, and (c) wise older adults show evidence of personal growth. Using a sample of 477 undergraduate\\u000a college students and 178 older adults (age 52+), results showed that college students tended to score as high on the self-administered\\u000a three-dimensional
Low health literacy is common among Medicare recipients and affects their understanding of complex medication regimens. Interventions are needed to improve medication use among older adults, while addressing low health literacy. Community-dwelling older adults in this study were enrolled in an inner-city adult day center. They completed a baseline measure of health literacy, medication self-efficacy, and medication adherence. They were provided with a personalized, illustrated daily medication schedule (PictureRx™). Six weeks later, their medication self-efficacy and adherence were assessed. Among the 20 participants in this pilot project, 70% had high likelihood of limited health literacy and took an average of 13.2 prescription medications. Both self-efficacy and medication adherence increased significantly after provision of the PictureRx cards (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively). Al participants rated the PictureRx cards as very helpful in terms of helping them remember the medication’s purpose and dosing. Illustrated daily medication schedules improve medication self-efficacy and adherence among at-risk, community-dwelling older adults. PMID:22587641
Martin, Delinda; Kripalani, Sunil; DuPapau, V.J.
The aim of the present study was to investigate neuropsychological performance in an untried trauma sample of older adults displaced during childhood at the end of World War II (WWII) with and without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as transgenerational effects of trauma and PTSD on their offspring. Displaced older adults with (n=20) and without PTSD (n=24) and nondisplaced healthy individuals (n=11) as well as one of their respective offspring were assessed with a large battery of cognitive tests (primarily targeting memory functioning). No evidence for deficits in neuropsychological performance was found in the aging group of displaced people with PTSD. Moreover, no group difference emerged in the offspring groups. Findings may be interpreted as first evidence for a rather resilient PTSD group of older adults that is available for assessment 60 years after displacement. PMID:23896354
Jelinek, Lena; Wittekind, Charlotte E; Moritz, Steffen; Kellner, Michael; Muhtz, Christoph
Sleep problems, prevalent among older adults, are associated with poor outcomes and high healthcare costs. In 2008, rest and sleep became its own area of occupation in the AOTA Occupational Therapy Practice Framework. This scoping review examined a broad context of sleep research in order to highlight efficacious interventions for older adults that fall within the occupational therapy scope of practice and present an agenda for research and practice. Four sleep intervention areas clearly aligned with the Practice Framework, including cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, physical activity, and multi-component interventions. Occupational therapy is primed to address sleep problems by targeting the context and environment, performance patterns, and limited engagement in evening activities that may contribute to poor sleep. Occupational therapy researchers and clinicians need to work collaboratively to establish the evidence-base for occupation-centered sleep interventions in order to improve the health and quality of life of the older adult. PMID:24844879
Leland, Natalie E.; Marcione, Nicole; Niemiec, Stacey L. Schepens; Don Fogelberg, Kaivalya Kelkar
BACKGROUND Little is known about complementary medication use among older adults with cancer, particularly those undergoing chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of complementary medication use and to identify factors associated with its use among older adults with cancer. METHODS The prevalence of complementary medication use (defined as herbal agents, minerals, or other dietary supplements excluding vitamins) was evaluated in a cohort of adults aged ?65 years who were about to start chemotherapy for their cancer. The association between complementary medication use and patient characteristics (sociodemographics; comorbidity; functional, nutritional, psychological, and cognitive status); medication use (number of medications and concurrent vitamin use); and cancer characteristics (type and stage) was analyzed. RESULTS The cohort included 545 patients [mean age 73 years (range 65–91); 52% female] with cancer (61% Stage IV). Seventeen percent (N=93) of these patients reported using ?1 complementary medications [mean number of complementary medications among users was 2 (range 1–10)]. Complementary medication use was associated with: 1) earlier cancer stage, with 29% of those with stages I–II vs. 17% with III–IV (OR=2.05, 95% CI:1.21–3.49); and 2) less impairment with instrumental activities of daily living (OR=1.39, 95% CI:1.12–1.73). CONCLUSIONS Complementary medication use was reported by 17% of older adults with cancer and was more common among those with less advanced disease (receiving adjuvant potentially curative treatment) and higher functional status. Further studies are needed to determine the association between complementary medication use and cancer outcomes among older adults. PMID:22359348
Maggiore, Ronald J; Gross, Cary P; Togawa, Kayo; Tew, William P; Mohile, Supriya G; Owusu, Cynthia; Klepin, Heidi D; Lichtman, Stuart M; Gajra, Ajeet; Ramani, Rupal; Katheria, Vani; Klapper, Shira M; Hansen, Kurt; Hurria, Arti
Purpose: Balance instability and falling are not well docu- mented in homebound older adults.This study examined bal- ance, falls, and related variables in older adults primarily confined to their homes. Subjects: Thirty older adults between the ages of 66 and 99 years participated. Fifteen were classified as fallers and 15 classified as nonfallers. Methods: Subjects were assessed on the Berg
Sabrina E. Trader; Roberta A. Newton; Ronita L. Cromwell
Multiple Dimensions of Balance are Adversely A ected in Older Adults with Fibromyalgia Table 1 this important question with a group of older adults with FM. The Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) Scale was originally designed to evaluate the multiple dimensions of balance in independently functioning older adults
de Lijser, Peter
Background. Older adults are likely to experience delayed rates of wound healing, impaired neuroendocrine responsiveness, and increased daily stress. Exercise activity has been shown to have a positive effect on physiological functioning and psychological functioning among older adults. This study evaluated the effect of a 3-month exercise program on wound healing, neuroendocrine function, and perceived stress among healthy older adults.
Charles F. Emery; Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser; Ronald Glaser; William B. Malarkey; David J. Frid
Background: Although walking is the most commonly reported physical activity by older adults, there is a paucity of data determining the relationship between objectively determined walking behavior and glucose dynamics in older adults. Objective: This study was designed to investigate the relationship between objectively determined walking behavior and glucose control in a multiethnic sample of older adults. Methods: Data were
Ann M. Swartz; Scott J. Strath; Nora E. Miller; Susan E. Cashin; Linda J. Cieslik
dimensions of balance in both static and dynamic environments and is intended to identify older adults who-Dwelling Older Adults Kimary L.Farrar,M.S.1 and Debra J.Rose,PhD.2 Â· Southern California University of Health years.Â¹ Falls are the number one cause of injury-related deaths among older adults and result in medical
de Lijser, Peter
Media reports frequently depict older adults as victims of deception. The public perceives these stories as particularly salient because older adults are seen as fragile victims taken advantage of because of trusting behaviors. This developmental investigation of deception detection examines older and younger adults interacting in 2 contexts, prison and the \\
Gary D. Bond; Laura A. Thompson; Daniel M. Malloy
Background. Undernutrition in homebound older adults is a significant problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the presence of others, both within the household and during meals, on caloric intake in homebound older adults. Methods. In-depth interviews and three 24-hour dietary recalls were obtained from 50 older adults who were receiving home health services. Descriptive
Julie L. Locher; Caroline O. Robinson; David L. Roth; Christine S. Ritchie; Kathryn L. Burgio
LEARNING OUTCOME: To understand that a nutrition handout, with no accompanying dietary counseling, produced no behavior changes in the dietary habits of healthy older adults.The effects of a nutrition handout (with no dietary counseling provided) on dietary intake in older adults was studied. The research subjects included 18 older adults (14 females and 4 males) from rural western Pennsylvania, with
M. J. Leeds; J. M. Gaudi
In order to determine the actual and perceived needs of undereducated older adults, a study was conducted: (1) to determine and compare the perceived educational needs of older adults using a sample of older individuals, adult basic education (ABE) teachers, and nutrition site directors; and (2) to compare the primary identified educational needs…
Courtenay, Bradley C.; And Others
This article describes how Web 2.0 technologies may facilitate journaling and related inquiry methods among older adults. Benefits and limitations of journaling are summarized as well as computer skills of older adults. We then describe how Web 2.0 technologies can enhance journaling among older adults by diminishing feelings of isolation,…
Shepherd, Craig E.; Aagard, Steven
Ageist attitudes toward older adults have been recognized as barriers to recruiting and training competent social workers. This article provides a systematic review of the literature that focused on social workers' and social work students' attitudes toward older adults and working with older adults. The authors sought empirical studies…
Wang, Donna; Chonody, Jill
Internet use has been growing exponentially, and older adults are one of the fastest growing online user groups. Due to the various physiological and psychosocial changes associated with aging, older adults are prone to social isolation. The Internet and e-mail may serve as a new source of support for older adults by connecting them with friends and family members, as
Eun Shim Nahm; Barbara Resnick; Mary Etta Mills
wheelchairs, however, have been tested with cognitively-impaired older adults. Thus, performance and usabilityINTELLIGENT WHEELCHAIRS FOR COGNITIVELY-IMPAIRED OLDER ADULTS IN LONG-TERM CARE: A REVIEW Pooja Cognitively-impaired older adults in long-term care (LTC) facilities are often excluded from powered
Mackworth, Alan K.
While aerobic exercise has been linked to improved performance on cognitive tasks of executive functioning among older adults, not all older adults can avail themselves of such exercise due to physical limitations. In this study, community-dwelling older adults were evaluated on tasks of executive functioning before and after a month-long strengthening, nonaerobic exercise program. A total of 16 participants who
Cay Anderson-Hanley; Joseph P. Nimon; Sarah C. Westen
Based on a synthesis of the literature on time of day and physical fitness effects on cognition, the current study examined whether physical activity moderated time-of-day differences in older adults' performance on a working memory task. Sedentary older adults' working memory performance declined significantly from morning to evening, whereas more active older adults performed similarly across the day. This interaction
Julie M. Bugg; Edward L. DeLosh; Benjamin A. Clegg
Based on Nicholas' framework for assessing information needs, this research aims to construct a profile of both Israeli older adults and their information needs regarding laws and social services. Data were collected by questionnaires answered by 200 older adults, born in Europe, Asia and Africa, who attended social clubs for older adults. The…
Getz, Irith; Weissman, Gabriella
Declines in various cognitive abilities, particularly executive control functions, are observed in older adults. An important goal of cognitive training is to slow or reverse these age-related declines. However, opinion is divided in the literature regarding whether cognitive training can engender transfer to a variety of cognitive skills in older adults. In the current study, the authors trained older adults
Chandramallika Basak; Walter R. Boot; Michelle W. Voss; Arthur F. Kramer
Purpose: Older adults watch more television than younger people do. Television's role in mental health has been described in the general population, but less is known about how older adults think of tele- vision in the context of depression. Design and Methods: Using a semistructured interview created to help clinicians understand how older adults concep- tualize depression diagnosis and treatment,
Giang T. Nguyen; Marsha N. Wittink; Genevra F. Murray; Frances K. Barg
Decreased food and beverage consumption among older adults can lead to inadequate intakes of energy and numerous micronutrients. Although older adults are prone to having inadequate diets, little research attention has been directed at their dietary behaviors, such as snacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between snacking frequency and older adults' daily intakes of vitamins,
Claire A. Zizza; Dilbur D. Arsiwalla; Kathy Jo Ellison
Musculoskeletal pain is common, frequently under-reported, and inadequately treated in the older adult. The objective of this article is to review the management of musculoskeletal pain syndromes in older adults emphasising the potential role of opioid agents in carefully selected patients. Systematic analysis of the relevant literature was done. Even in cognitively impaired patients, assessment of musculoskeletal pain is mandatory. An algorithm for musculoskeletal pain is presented emphasising a stepwise pharmacological approach in combination with an array of non-pharmacological therapies. Comorbid conditions may limit therapeutic choices, particularly in the elderly. Repeated assessment of pain levels as well as functional status is critical for optimal pain management. PMID:14654573
Podichetty, V; Mazanec, D; Biscup, R
Arthritis is highly prevalent and is the leading cause of disability among older adults in the United States owing to the aging of the population and increases in the prevalence of risk factors (e.g., obesity). Arthritis will play a large role in the health-related quality of life, functional independence, and disability of older adults in the upcoming decades. We have emphasized the role of the public health system in reducing the impact of this large and growing public health problem, and we have presented priority public health actions. PMID:22390506
Helmick, Charles G.; Brady, Teresa J.
Efficient intention formation might improve prospective memory by reducing the need for resource-demanding strategic processes during the delayed performance interval. The present study set out to test this assumption and provides the first empirical assessment of whether imagining a future action improves prospective memory performance equivalently at different stages of the adult lifespan. Thus, younger (n?=?40) and older (n?=?40) adults were asked to complete the Dresden Breakfast Task, which required them to prepare breakfast in accordance with a set of rules and time restrictions. All participants began by generating a plan for later enactment; however, after making this plan, half of the participants were required to imagine themselves completing the task in the future (future thinking condition), while the other half received standard instructions (control condition). As expected, overall younger adults outperformed older adults. Moreover, both older and younger adults benefited equally from future thinking instructions, as reflected in a higher proportion of prospective memory responses and more accurate plan execution. Thus, for both younger and older adults, imagining the specific visual-spatial context in which an intention will later be executed may serve as an easy-to-implement strategy that enhances prospective memory function in everyday life. PMID:25191929
Altgassen, Mareike; Rendell, Peter G; Bernhard, Anka; Henry, Julie D; Bailey, Phoebe E; Phillips, Louise H; Kliegel, Matthias
The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among people older than 50 years is increasing. Older HIV-infected patients are particularly at risk for polypharmacy because they often have multiple comorbidities that require pharmacotherapy. Overall, there is not much known with respect to both the impact of aging on medication use in HIV-infected individuals, and the potential for interactions with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and coadministered medications and its clinical consequences. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of polypharmacy with a focus on its impact on the HIV-infected older adult population and to also provide some clinical considerations in this high-risk population. PMID:23818773
Gleason, Lauren J; Luque, Amneris E; Shah, Krupa
Despite commonly held assumptions, growing older does not necessarily result in disturbed or unsatisfying sleep. There is no reason to assume, a priori, that the sleep of an older adult is necessarily problematic; in fact, many high-functioning older adults are satisfied with their sleep. When the various factors that can disrupt sleep—poor health, primary sleep disorders, poor sleep-hygiene practices (e.g.,
Michael V. Vitiello
The association among race, neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES), and chronic pain has not been well examined in older people. Clinical data was obtained from older adults (>50 years old) presenting to a tertiary care pain center. The relative roles of race and neighborhood SES on the chronic pain experienced in older black and white adults were assessed. Older blacks experienced more affective pain, pain-related disability and mood disorder symptoms than older whites. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed previously hypothesized factors for the McGill Pain Questionnaire pain dimensions and the Pain Disability Index. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses also identified factors in the Brief Symptom Inventory and neighborhood SES. Structural equation modeling showed black race was associated with lower neighborhood SES and also with increased affective pain, obligatory disability and mood disorders mediationally through neighborhood SES. It was indirectly associated with increased sensory and miscellaneous pain, and voluntary disability through low neighborhood SES. Racial interaction examination showed that neighborhood SES had the same relationship to outcomes by race. We found increasing neighborhood SES is associated with decreasing negative chronic pain outcomes for older blacks and whites. Our data provide evidence that both race and neighborhood SES are important factors to consider when examining the chronic pain experience among older Americans. PMID:17987920
Fuentes, Molly; Hart-Johnson, Tamera; Green, Carmen R.
The purpose of this study was to quantify the cardiovascular responses and enjoyment of one trial of electronic exercise gaming (EG) (Nintendo(®) Wii(™) Tennis) in healthy, older adults (mean age = 81 [SD = 4 years]). Findings indicate that 15 minutes of EG moderately increased heart rate (p < 0.001), blood pressure (p < 0.001), and perceived exertion (p < 0.0001) compared to resting levels. This corresponded to achieving 64% of age-predicted maximum heart rate. No differences were observed for the cardiovascular responses to EG between genders, but participants taking beta-blocker drugs showed an attenuated response (p < 0.05). All participants completed EG tennis without excessive fatigue, with 86% of participants enjoying the experience. There were only a few cases of EG-related arrhythmias (n = 2) and post-exercise muscle soreness (n = 3). These results suggest that Nintendo Wii Tennis EG technology represents an enjoyable, moderate intensity physical activity for healthy, older adults. PMID:23855328
Fachko, Michael J; Xiao, Canhau; Bowles, Kathryn H; Robinson, Keith M; Libonati, Joseph R
There is strong evidence that regular physical activity reduces risk of cardiovascular disease. Building on the evidence review for the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, this article summarizes the recommended amounts and types of physical activity for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in older adults. Key guidelines are largely based on current understanding of the dose-response relationship between amount of physical activity and risk of chronic disease. In part due to the preventive effects on cardiovascular disease, physical activity has beneficial effects on functional limitations and health-related quality of life in older adults. Gaps in research on physical activity and cardiovascular health are discussed, with an emphasis on the need for research on how sedentary time affects risk of cardiovascular disease and other chronic illnesses. PMID:19944266
Buchner, David M
This study examined pain experiences and treatment for older adults in long-term care or rehabilitation settings 3 week after surgical repair of a hip fracture. Pain report and pain treatment for cognitively intact residents were compared with cognitively impaired residents. Two thirds of all participants reported pain. Most rated pain as slight or mild in severity. Pain report was similar for cognitively impaired and intact participants. Pain was reported as severe or worse by 17% of the residents. Nursing care plans documented comfort as a goal for fewer than half the participants. Almost 40% (n = 23) of the participants were receiving no pain medication 3 weeks postoperatively, five of these rated their pain as moderate or severe. Pain documentation, including effective non-pharmacological treatments, needs to be improved for cognitively impaired and intact older adults who are recovering from hip fracture surgery. PMID:12219551
Feldt, Karen S; Finch, Michael
A music-facilitated psychoeducational strategy was developed as a cost-effective and accessible intervention for older adults experiencing symptoms of depression, distress, and anxiety. Thirty older adults who had been diagnosed with major or minor depressive disorder were randomly assigned to one of three 8-week conditions: (1) a home-based program where participants learned music listening stress reduction techniques at weekly home visits by a music therapist; (2) a self-administered program where participants applied these same techniques with moderate therapist intervention (a weekly telephone call); or (3) a wait list control. Participants in both music conditions performed significantly better than the controls on standardized tests of depression, distress, self-esteem, and mood. These improvements were clinically significant and maintained over a 9-month follow-up period. The potential for this type of intervention with homebound elders and others who have limited access to services is discussed. PMID:7963281
Hanser, S B; Thompson, L W
The authors examined whether resistance training has an effect on working memory span. Participants included 210 community-residing older adults with at least one disability from the Strong for Life program, a randomized controlled trial that examined the effects of home-based resistance exercise. Memory was assessed with the WAIS backward digit span at baseline and 3 and 6 months into the intervention. Although there were no differences between the experimental treatment and control groups in average levels of memory change, within the treatment group change in resistance level during the intervention was a significant predictor of memory change, controlling for age, education, sex, and disability level. The results suggest that strength training can benefit memory among older adults, especially when using higher resistance levels. PMID:16648652
Lachman, Margie E; Neupert, Shevaun D; Bertrand, Rosanna; Jette, Alan M
\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a An ecological perspective is a useful conceptual framework that takes into account multiple levels of influence that affect\\u000a eating behavior of older adults.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Eating behavior of older adults is influenced simultaneously by intrapersonal (i.e., individual characteristics), interpersonal\\u000a (i.e., interpersonal processes and primary groups), institutional (i.e., norms and structures), community (i.e., social networks\\u000a and norms), and public policy factors
Julie L. Locher; Joseph R. Sharkey
Subjective memory ratings provide information that is distinct from objective memory performance, and there is a need for reliable and valid metamemory measures. The Multifactorial Memory Questionnaire (MMQ), developed to assess separate dimensions of memory ratings that are applicable to clinical assessment and intervention, includes scales of Contentment (i.e., affect regarding one's memory), Ability (i.e., self-appraisal of one's memory capabilities), and Strategy (i.e., reported frequency of memory strategy use). Among a group of 115 older adults, analyses revealed excellent content validity, factorial validity, test-retest and intratest reliability, convergent and discriminant construct validity, and independence from demographic variables. The psychometric strengths of the MMQ, together with descriptive statistics provided for healthy older adults, make this questionnaire useful in both clinical and research settings. PMID:11773220
Troyer, Angela K; Rich, Jill B
This is the second year that editors of the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society have been gracious enough to allow us to compile the latest literature regarding medication misadventures (i.e., medication errors and adverse drug events) for its readers. As noted in some recent well written comprehensive reviews, medication errors due to suboptimal drug use continues to be very common in older adults.1–3 We believe that it is important to summarize this literature in a single place because it is very difficult to compile using standard literature search techniques as they often miss key studies. We hope you find these articles informative and useful in the conduct of high quality clinical research and care of older adults. PMID:25333528
Hanlon, Joseph T.; Semla, Todd P.; Schmader, Kenneth E.
For nurses interested in keeping up to date with developments in geriatric treatment, this set of resources created by expert practitioners will be quite a find. The entire site was developed as part of the Nurse Competence in Aging initiative created by the American Nurses Association. Here, visitors can read over twenty-five two-page assessment tools that include such helpful titles as Ã¢ÂÂAssessing Nutrition in Older AdultsÃ¢ÂÂ, Ã¢ÂÂPredicting Pressure Ulcer RiskÃ¢ÂÂ, and Ã¢ÂÂImmunizations for the Older AdultÃ¢ÂÂ. Written in clear and direct language, these resources will also be of assistance for nursing educators and those who are responsible for professional development workshops. It is also worth mentioning that these short tools are designed as screening tools, and are not for diagnosis.
Gambling participation rates among older adults (65+ years) have been increasing in recent years. Very few studies have compared older and younger gamblers on gambling motivation and problem gambling. This study compared 41 male and 63 female older gamblers (66-87 years; median 73) to 20 male and 85 female younger gamblers (17-34 years; median 20) in New Zealand on gambling involvement, gambling motives and number of gambling related problems in the previous 12 months. The questionnaire included the Gambling Motivation Scale (GMS) and the Revised South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS-R) of current problem gambling. There were between-group age differences but no significant gender or gender by age interaction effects. While older adults had significantly lower scores on all the measures, except they gambled more frequently, for both groups frequency of gambling, number of activities, largest amount spent in a single session and all motives were correlated with SOGS-R scores. Preferences for electronic gaming machines and bingo were related to SOGS-R scores for both age groups. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that after statistically controlling for age, gambling involvement and other motives, tension release uniquely predicted SOGS-R scores. For both age groups, increasing severity of problem gambling is more likely to be associated with releasing tension than with winning money or seeking sensation. PMID:18273695
The purpose of this paper was to present population-based data showing the effects of age on cognitive test performance in a sample of older Japanese American adults. In addition, the relative effects of education, gender, and primary spoken language were compared to effects that have been reported in the literature for majority culture older adults. Subjects included 201 non-demented Japanese American adults age 70 and older currently enrolled in the Kame Project, a prospective study of aging and dementia in King County, WA. Cognitive tests included the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological assessment battery, WAIS-R Digit Span and Digit Symbol subtests, Trail Making Test, Purdue Pegboard, and Finger Tapping. Older age was associated with significantly (p<0.05) lower scores on all tests; less than high school education was associated with lower scores on all tests except Digit Span, Finger Tapping, and the Purdue Pegboard. Women and English-speaking participants scored higher than men and Japanese speakers on various tests of memory, attention, and visuomotor ability. These data reinforce the importance of using appropriately corrected norms when interpreting results of cognitive screening tests with minority culture older adults. PMID:14590159
McCurry, S M; Gibbons, L E; Uomoto, J M; Thompson, M L; Graves, A B; Edland, S D; Bowen, J; McCormick, W C; Larson, E B
Thirty-seven older adults (14 male, 23 female) who experienced the 1997 Red River Flood were tested at three times following the flood (1997,1998, 2000) on measures of self-rated health, numbers of medications taken, depression (GDS-SF), and vocabulary ability (WAIS-R). Several 2 (gender) X 3 (time of measurement) ANOVAs revealed few main or interactions effects, providing some support for the inoculation
F. Richard Ferraro
Objective: To determine whether anemia is associated with incident dementia in older adults. Methods: We studied 2,552 older adults (mean age 76.1 years; 38.9% black; 51.8% female) participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study and free of dementia at baseline. We defined anemia using WHO criteria (hemoglobin concentration <13 g/dL for men and <12 g/dL for women). Dementia diagnosis was determined by dementia medication use, hospital records, or a change in Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) score of more than 1.5 SD from mean. Discrete time Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to examine the hazard for developing dementia associated with anemia. Results: Of 2,552 participants, 392 (15.4%) older adults had anemia at baseline. Over 11 years of follow-up, 455 (17.8%) participants developed dementia. In the unadjusted model, those with baseline anemia had an increased risk of dementia (23% vs 17%, hazard ratio = 1.64; 95% confidence interval 1.30, 2.07) compared to those without anemia. The association remained significant after adjusting for demographics, APOE ?4, baseline 3MS score, comorbidities, and renal function. Additional adjustment for other anemia measures (mean corpuscular volume, red cell distribution width), erythropoietin, and C-reactive protein did not appreciably change the results. There was no interaction by sex and race on risk of developing dementia. Conclusion: Among older adults, anemia is associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. Findings suggest that further study of anemia as a risk factor for dementia and a target for intervention for cognitive health is warranted. PMID:23902706
Hong, Chang Hyung; Falvey, Cherie; Harris, Tamara B.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Ferrucci, Luigi; Metti, Andrea L.; Patel, Kushang V.
The relationship between cognitive functioning and a performance-based measure of everyday problem-solving, the Everyday Problems Test (EPT), thought to index instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), was examined in 291 community-dwelling non-demented older adults. Performance on the EPT was found to vary according to age, cognitive status, and education. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, after adjusting for demographic and health
Catherine L. Burton; Esther Strauss; David F. Hultsch; Michael A. Hunter
In this chapter, we review the psychological needs and service provisions for older adults with an intellectual disability\\u000a (ID). The reader will be directed toward research that identifies an increasing longevity, concomitant increases in aging-related\\u000a morbidities, and psychosocial factors. Specific aging-related conditions will be discussed, along with their impact on functional\\u000a status and mental health, including a discussion of the
James P. Acquilano; Philip W. Davidson; Matthew P. Janicki
We examined gender differences in frequency and socio-demographic predictors of spousal, non-spousal family, and friendship bereavement events among community-dwelling older adults using data from the UAB Study of Aging. Analysis involved a 30-month observation period of 893 subjects. There were significant differences between women and men for all types of loss. Significant differences were also found in the sociodemographic predictors
Beverly Rosa Williams; Patricia Sawyer Baker; Richard M. Allman; Jeffrey M. Roseman
Objectives: This research aims to investigate the characteristics of autobiographical retrieval in a group of older depressed adults compared with a control group of the same age.Method: The sample was recruited from local primary care services. All participants were administered a demographic questionnaire and completed the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; Lobo, A., Ezquerra, J., Gómez-Burgada, F., Sala, J.M., & Seva-Díaz,
Jorge Javier Ricarte; José Miguel Latorre; Laura Ros; Beatriz Navarro; María José Aguilar; Juan Pedro Serrano
\\u000a Rheumatic diseases and their resultant musculoskeletal and cardiopulmonary impairments are primary conditions limiting activity\\u000a and function in older adults. Certain rheumatologic conditions such as polymyalgia rheumatica, degenerative spinal stenosis,\\u000a and osteoporosis occur later in life. Other conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis (OA), and ankylosing spondylitis\\u000a manifest at younger ages but their clinical manifestations may exacerbate with advancing age and
Maura Daly Iversen; Madhuri K. Kale
Abstract Limited data are available regarding adults age ?50 at initial HIV diagnosis. Improved understanding of this group is critical in designing interventions to facilitate earlier diagnosis and linkage to HIV care. We characterize individuals newly diagnosed with HIV, particularly those ?50 years old, and examine the relationship between age and late diagnosis defined as concurrent HIV and AIDS diagnoses. This is a retrospective study of individuals newly diagnosed with HIV from 2006-2011 at an academic medical center in New York City. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to evaluate the effect of age, gender, race/ethnicity, risk factor, and prior medical visits on late diagnosis. Adults age ?50 comprised 21.3% of all newly diagnosed individuals. Among these older adults, 70.0% were diagnosed as inpatients and 68.9% concurrent with AIDS, compared to 41.7% and 38.9% of younger adults, respectively. On adjusted analyses, age ?50 (OR 3.13, 95% CI 1.63, 5.98) and injection drug use (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.31, 14.75) were positively associated with late diagnosis, whereas female gender was negatively associated with late diagnosis (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.28, 0.98). Our data suggest that HIV testing efforts targeting older adults are essential to address the unmet needs of this population, including implementation of HIV screening guidelines in primary care settings. PMID:25211596
Ellman, Tanya M; Sexton, Mary Elizabeth; Warshafsky, Daniel; Sobieszczyk, Magdalena E; Morrison, Ellen A B
OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between negative self-rated health and indicators of health, wellbeing and sociodemographic variables in older adults. METHODS Cross-sectional study that used data from a population-based health survey with a probability cluster sample that was carried out in Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil,, in 2008 and 2009. The participants were older adults (? 60 years) and the dependent variable was self-rated health, categorized as: excellent, very good, good, bad and very bad. The adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated by means of Poisson multiple regression. RESULTS The highest prevalences of bad/very bad self-rated health were observed in the individuals who never attended school, in those with lower level of schooling, with monthly per capita family income lower than one minimum salary. Individuals who scored five or more in the physical health indicator also had bad self-rated health, as well as those who scored five or more in the Self-Reporting Questionnaire 20 and those who did not refer feeling happiness all the time. CONCLUSIONS The independent effects of material life conditions, physical and mental health and subjective wellbeing, observed in self-rated health, suggest that older adults can benefit by health policies supported by a global and integrative view of old age. PMID:25372161
Borim, Flávia Silva Arbex; Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Francisco, Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo
Objectives. Discrepancy between self-report- and actigraphy-measured sleep, often considered an artifact of measurement error, has been well documented among insomnia patients. Sleep problems are common among older adults, and this discrepancy may represent meaningful sleep-related phenomenon, which could have clinical and research significance. Method. Sleep discrepancy was examined in 4 groups of older adults (N = 152, mean age = 71.93 years) based on sleep complaint versus no complaint and presence versus absence of insomnia symptoms. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory-second edition (BDI-II) and 14 nights of sleep diaries and actigraphy. Results. Controlling for covariates, group differences were found in the duration and frequency of discrepancy in sleep onset latency (SOLd) and wake after sleep onset (WASOd). Those with insomnia symptoms and complaints reported greater duration and frequency of WASOd than the other 3 groups. Quantities of SOLd and WASOd were related to BDI-II score and group status, indicating that sleep discrepancy has meaningful clinical correlates. Discussion. Discrepancy occurred across all groups but was pronounced among the group with both insomnia symptoms and complaints. This discrepancy may provide a means of quantifying and conceptualizing the transition from wake to sleep among older adults, particularly those with sleeping problems. PMID:23804432
Perceived autonomy refers to perceived personal self-governance, or rather that a person feels free from external constraint to determine his or her own actions and behaviors. This study examined perceived autonomy among community-dwelling older adults residing in New York City and West Japan. A cross-sectional design was adopted using self-reports from 340 older adults (n = 220 Japanese, n = 120 Americans) recruited from senior centers. Perceived autonomy was quantified with the Hertz Perceived Enactment of Autonomy Scale (HPEAS), which includes three subscales: voluntariness, individuality, and self-direction. Compared to American respondents, more Japanese respondents were male (67.7% vs. 40.8%), more likely to live with others (78% vs. 25.7%), reported lower perceived autonomy (86.9 vs. 109.5), and scored lower on all three subscales of the HPEAS. Despite significant differences in perceived autonomy, a sociocultural factor such as social support was identified as an important factor for older adults in both groups. PMID:24529389
Matsui, Miho; Capezuti, Elizabeth
Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine a profile for predicting attrition among older adults involved in a 12-month exercise program. Methods The parent study was a single-blinded randomized controlled trial. The study took place between 2006 and 2009 within a university setting. Older adults (N = 179) completed baseline assessments of functional performance and psychosocial measures. Participants who relinquished their consent to participate were considered “dropouts” and those remaining were classified as “completers.” Results A discriminant function analysis differentiated dropouts (n = 35) from completers (n = 144) at likelihood much better than chance (72% accurate overall) across four measures: frequency of forgetting, barriers self-efficacy scale, balance, and stair performance. Study dropouts exhibited a higher frequency of forgetting, lower efficacy for overcoming barriers to exercise, poorer single leg balance, and longer times to walk down stairs. Conclusions The results provide an initial validation of a profile for discriminating between “dropouts” and “completers,” one that may have considerable utility for screening older adults prior to study entry. PMID:23412942
Mullen, Sean P.; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; Mailey, Emily L.; Szabo, Amanda N.; Gothe, Neha P.; Olson, Erin A.; Fanning, Jason; Kramer, Arthur; McAuley, Edward
The purpose of this study was to determine a profile for predicting attrition among older adults involved in a 12-month exercise program. The parent study was a single-blinded randomized controlled trial. The study took place between 2006 and 2009 within a university setting. Older adults (N?=?179) completed baseline assessments of functional performance and psychosocial measures. Participants who were randomized, elected to receive treatment, and did not complete the exercise program were considered "dropouts" (n?=?35). Those who completed the program (n?=?144) were classified as "completers." A latent profile analysis revealed two distinct patterns of memory complaints, self-efficacy to overcome barriers to exercise, balance performance, and stair performance. Dropouts were nearly twice as likely to be members of the profile that exhibited a higher degree of memory complaints, lower self-efficacy for overcoming exercise barriers, poorer single leg balance, and longer times to walk down stairs. The results provide an initial validation of a profile for discriminating between "dropouts" and "completers," one that may have considerable utility for screening older adults prior to study entry. PMID:23412942
Mullen, Sean P; Wójcicki, Thomas R; Mailey, Emily L; Szabo, Amanda N; Gothe, Neha P; Olson, Erin A; Fanning, Jason; Kramer, Arthur; McAuley, Edward
A significant number of senior citizens (aged 65+) spend their leisure time in gambling casinos in this country. For some older adults eager for a stimulating social outlet, casino gambling can become a virulent and destructive addiction. While prevalence studies have examined the incidence of problem gambling in other age groups, little attention has been paid to the impact of casino gambling on older adults. This study investigated the prevalence of casino gambling as a social activity for active senior citizens (aged 65+). Activity directors from residential and assisted-care facilities as well as from senior and retirement centers completed mailed surveys of eleven different types of social activities available to older adults. Results of the survey of activity directors found bingo the most highly frequented on-location-type social activity and casino gambling the most highly frequented day-trip-type social activity for 6,957 active senior citizens represented in the activity directors' survey. On average, 16 percent of the senior citizens were reported by the activity directors to have taken part in facility-sponsored trips to the casino on at least a once-a-month basis. In addition, the casinos themselves had offered additional gambling day-trips to 66 percent of the facilities, which were accepted in 58 percent of the cases. These findings suggest the need for greater awareness of the impact casino gambling may have on senior citizens in this country. PMID:11310572
McNeilly, D P; Burke, W J
The proliferation of lotteries and casinos has led to increased participation in gambling. Older adults who have opportunities to gamble may be vulnerable to gambling problems, and incarcerated older adults may be the most vulnerable. Furthermore, research has linked decreased health to gambling problems. This study compared perceived health and gambling problems among 43 incarcerated older adults from two county jails in the midwestern United States. Results from the South Oaks Gambling Screen indicated 48.83% of the sample scored in the problem or pathological range. Short Form-36 results were compared with U.S. norms for ages 55 to 64 and showed significantly lower perceived health scores on Role-Physical, Bodily Pain, Mental Health, Social Functioning, and Role-Emotional subscales. The problem and pathological gamblers showed significantly lower social functioning than the recreational gamblers. Assessment of health conditions and gambling behaviors is important for quantifying current and anticipated burdens of these conditions on correctional health care systems and the community. PMID:22801820
Kerber, Cindy H; Hickey, Kari L; Astroth, Kim M; Kim, MyoungJin
The purpose of this sourcebook is to provide information about health promotion program planning, activities, and resources to people planning wellness programs for older adults. The materials are divided into two parts: background information and resources. The Wallingford Wellness Project is presented as an example of a comprehensive health…
FallCreek, Stephanie; Mettler, Molly
Older adults represent a growing segment of the population with the highest suicide rate and an increasing need of counseling services for major depression and dysthymia. The present study examined the literature with the purpose of identifying research addressing psychosocial treatments of depression in later life. A summary of treatments…
Zalaquett, Carlos P.; Stens, Andrea N.
The expansion of the social computing environment as a new basis for socioeconomic activities could enhance the quality of life of older adults, but also it could make the problem of digital divide more serious. In this study, the research directions and agenda of social computing for an aging society are presented, which have two major directions: basic study and
Yong Gu Ji; Junho Choi; Jee Yeon Lee; Kwanghee Han; Jinwoo Kim; In-Kwon Lee
The relationship between food intake patterns and obesity remains unclear. The objective of the present review was to evaluate the current body of literature on food intake patterns of older adults and their associations with weight status, including obesity and waist circumference. Eleven observational studies were identified and reviewed. Diets characterized by more favorable dietary scores or indices were generally
Pao Ying Hsiao; Gordon L. Jensen; Terryl J. Hartman; Diane C. Mitchell; Sharon M. Nickols-Richardson; Donna L. Coffman
The present study tested cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia in older adults with osteoarthritis, coronary artery disease, or pulmonary disease. Ninety-two participants (mean age = 69 years) were randomly assigned to classroom CBT or stress management and wellness (SMW) training, which served as a placebo condition. Compared with SMW,…
Rybarczyk, Bruce; Stepanski, Edward; Fogg, Louis; Lopez, Martita; Barry, Paulette; Davis, Andrew
This guide is intended to help agencies serving older adults with mental retardation and other developmental disabilities in setting up a relatively inexpensive creative art program. The first section presents a rationale for creative art experiences for this population and then provides specific information on program development, including…
Harlan, Jane E.
This article discusses and describes how to use film as a creative, powerful, and effective technique for teaching social work with older adults at both the undergraduate and graduate levels of education. An analysis of student responses about the effectiveness of this teaching pedagogy is presented. The findings support the idea of using film as…
Ello, Linda M.
Mistreatment of older adults is commonplace. These individuals are subjected to abuse, financial exploitation, and neglect. The authors present an overview of the literature concerning mistreatment, with an emphasis on clinical, ethical, and legal considerations. Methods are proposed for prevention, including counselor education, advocacy, and…
Forman, Julia M.; McBride, Rebecca G.
Community wellbeing is a function of many factors working in concert to promote an optimal quality of life for all members of a community. It is argued here that the promotion of lifelong learning among older adults can significantly contribute to community wellbeing. The aging society is a worldwide phenomenon presenting both opportunities and…
Merriam, Sharan B.; Kee, Youngwha
Volunteering is viewed as an empowerment process whereby older adults actively participate in the community and improve their well-being and health. Yet little is known about racial differences in volunteering, and even less in terms of perceived benefits from volunteering as a means of empowerment. The present study addresses this research gap by…
Tang, Fengyan; Copeland, Valire Carr; Wexler, Sandra
Many older listeners report difficulties in understanding speech in noisy situations. Working memory and other cognitive skills may modulate older listeners' ability to use context information to alleviate the effects of noise on spoken-word recognition. In the present study, we investigated whether verbal working memory predicts older adults' ability to immediately use context information in the recognition of words embedded in sentences, presented in different listening conditions. In a phoneme-monitoring task, older adults were asked to detect as fast and as accurately as possible target phonemes in sentences spoken by a target speaker. Target speech was presented without noise, with fluctuating speech-shaped noise, or with competing speech from a single distractor speaker. The gradient measure of contextual probability (derived from a separate offline rating study) affected the speed of recognition. Contextual facilitation was modulated by older listeners' verbal working memory (measured with a backward digit span task) and age across listening conditions. Working memory and age, as well as hearing loss, were also the most consistent predictors of overall listening performance. Older listeners' immediate benefit from context in spoken-word recognition thus relates to their ability to keep and update a semantic representation of the sentence content in working memory. PMID:24443921
Janse, Esther; Jesse, Alexandra
Disasters may disproportionately impact older adults due to sensory deficits, diminished social support networks, financial limitations, and displacement from familiar environments. During and shortly after a disaster, older adults' mental health needs may be overlooked for varied reasons, including concerns about stigma and lack of information about available services. Law can protect the mental health of older adults in disaster and non-disaster circumstances, but it sometimes may frustrate efforts to address older adults' mental health concerns. This article analyzes three areas - Medicare services, staffing shortages, and continuity of prescription medications - in which the law has the potential to promote the mental health of older adults during disasters. PMID:23590748
Rutkow, Lainie; Vernick, Jon S; Spira, Adam P; Barnett, Daniel J
The 1992 National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) examined three types of literacy--prose, document, and quantitative--among the entire older adult population and various subgroups thereof. Of the nationally representative sample of 26,091 adults interviewed during the NALS, 2,267 were aged 60-69, 1,005 were aged 70-79, and 442 were at least 80 years…
Brown, Helen; And Others
Because of the dearth of available partners, older women looking to date may have to relax their dating standards to find a dating partner, perhaps accepting a life situation that is not what they had hoped for. However older women may be reluctant to sacrifice an often recently-gained lifestyle free of caregiving obligations. Older men, on the other hand, have a large pool of potential dating partners and do not face the same dilemma. We compared Internet dating profiles for 100 older adults and 100 younger adults, and found that older adults (and especially older women) were more selective than younger adults when it came to the age, race, religion, income, and height of a prospective dating partner. However, older adults were willing to travel substantially farther than younger adults to meet the right partner. These findings paint a clear picture of older Internet daters as eager to meet the right person, but not desperate to meet just anyone. PMID:21391407
William, D McIntosh; Locker, Lawrence; Briley, Katherine; Ryan, Rebecca; Scott, Alison J
Research has shown that reminders of mortality lead people to engage in defenses to minimize the anxiety such thoughts could arouse. In accord with this notion, younger adults reminded of mortality engage in behaviors aimed at denying vulnerability to death. However, little is known about the effects of mortality reminders on older adults. The present study examined the effect of reminders of death on older adults' subjective life expectancy. Mortality reminders did not significantly impact the life expectancy estimates of old-old adults. Reminders of death did however lead to shorter life expectancy estimates among young-old participants low in neuroticism but longer life expectancy estimates among young-old participants high in neuroticism, suggesting that this group was most defensive in response to reminders of death. PMID:21151516
Maxfield, Molly; Solomon, Sheldon; Pyszczynski, Tom; Greenberg, Jeff
Aging is typically related to changes in brain and cognition, but the aging process is heterogeneous and differs between individuals. Recent research has started investigating the influence of cognitive and physical training on cognitive performance, functional brain activity, and brain structure in old age. The functional relevance of neural changes and the interactions among these changes following interventions is still a matter of debate. Here we selectively review research on structural and functional brain correlates of training-induced performance changes in healthy older adults and present exemplary longitudinal intervention studies sorted by the type of training applied (i.e., strategy-based training, process-specific training, and physical exercise). Although many training studies have been conducted recently, within each task domain, the number of studies that used comparable methods and techniques to assess behavioral and neural changes is limited. We suggest that future studies should include a multimodal approach to enhance the understanding of the relation between different levels of brain changes in aging and those changes that result from training. Investigating inter-individual differences in intervention-induced behavioral and neuronal changes would provide more information about who would benefit from a specific intervention and why. In addition, a more systematic examination of the time course of training-related structural and functional changes would improve the current level of knowledge about how learning is implemented in the brain and facilitate our understanding of contradictory results. PMID:25261907
Brehmer, Yvonne; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Wenger, Elisabeth; Lövdén, Martin
Age provides opportunity not only for a person to grow spiritually, but also for people to enlarge their understandings of the world about them, including God, and connect them to previous learnings and life-experiences. In older age, learning is not merely an affirmation of what has been, but a re-creation of the self in relation to everything that surrounds the
The aim of this study was to assess age-related differences between young and older adults in auditory abilities and to investigate the relationship between auditory abilities and basic mechanisms of cognition in older adults. Although there is a certain consensus that the participant’s sensitivity to the absolute intensity of sounds (such as that measured via pure tone audiometry) explains his/her cognitive performance, there is not yet much evidence that the participant’s auditory ability (i.e., the whole supra-threshold processing of sounds) explains his/her cognitive performance. Twenty-eight young adults (age <35), 26 young–old adults (65 í age í 75), and 28 old–old adults (age >75) were presented with a set of tasks estimating several auditory abilities (i.e., frequency discrimination, intensity discrimination, duration discrimination, timbre discrimination, gap detection, amplitude modulation detection, and the absolute threshold for a 1 kHz pure tone) and the participant’s working memory, cognitive inhibition, and processing speed. Results showed an age-related decline in both auditory and cognitive performance. Moreover, regression analyses showed that a subset of the auditory abilities (i.e., the ability to discriminate frequency, duration, timbre, and the ability to detect amplitude modulation) explained a significant part of the variance observed in the processing speed of older adults. Overall, the present results highlight the relationship between auditory abilities and basic mechanisms of cognition. PMID:24115932
Grassi, Massimo; Borella, Erika
Background Previous questionnaires targeting older adults’ sedentary time have underestimated total sedentary time, possibly by not including all relevant specific sedentary behaviors. The current study aimed to investigate the criterion validity and test-retest reliability of a new questionnaire assessing a comprehensive set of sedentary behaviors. Additionally, we examined whether the criterion validity of the questionnaire differed according to age, gender and educational level. Methods A sample of home-dwelling Belgian older adults (>64 years, n?=?508) completed a newly-developed questionnaire assessing twelve specific sedentary behaviors and wore an accelerometer for seven consecutive days as criterion measure. A subsample (n?=?28) completed the questionnaire a second time to examine test-retest reliability. Data collection occurred between September 2010 and October 2012. Results Correlational analyses examining self-reported total sitting time and accelerometer-derived sedentary time yielded a Spearman’s ? of 0.30. Using the Bland-Altman regression procedure, self-reported total sitting time underestimated accelerometer-derived sedentary time by -82 minutes/day for a participant with an average level of sedentary time (539 minutes/day). Corresponding 95% limits of agreement were wide (-364, 200 minutes/day). Better, but still not ideal, validity findings were observed in the younger, male and tertiary-educated subgroups. Acceptable test-retest reliability (ICC?>?0.70) was found for total sitting time, TV viewing, computer use, and driving a car. Conclusion Validity for older adults’ self-reported total sitting time against accelerometer-derived sedentary time was not strong, but comparable to previous studies. However, underestimation of total sedentary time was lower compared to previous studies, possibly explained by the inclusion of additional specific sedentary behaviors. Further research is needed to develop self-report tools and objective criterion measures that accurately measure engagement in (specific) sedentary behavior(s) among different subgroups of the older population. PMID:25042423
Objective To describe the performance of healthy older adults on common clinical vestibular tests. Patients Fifty community-dwelling older adults aged 70 and older, with mean age of 77.2 ± 6.1 years and range of 70 to 95 years. Intervention(s) Clinical vestibular tests, including spontaneous and head-shaking nystagmus, head impulse test (HIT), bucket test of subjective visual vertical, modified Romberg test (MRT), and Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI). Main Outcome Measure(s) Prevalence of abnormal vestibular tests and DHI score. Results We observed a 36% and 44% prevalence of abnormal right and left horizontal HIT, respectively. The bucket test was abnormal in 18% of participants; head-shaking nystagmus was present in 2%, and no participant had spontaneous nystagmus. Approximately 68% of participants had abnormal MRT. Abnormal horizontal HIT and MRT were significantly more prevalent among individuals age 80 years and older compared with those age 70 to 79 years (p < 0.05). Mean DHI score was 5.6 ± 11.2, consistent with no self-reported dizziness handicap. Conclusion This study documents the expected performance of normative older adults on vestibular tests commonly administered in the neurotology clinic. We observed a high prevalence of abnormalities on clinical vestibular testing in healthy older adults, although self-perceived dizziness handicap was low. Further studies using newly available clinical testing methods (e.g., video HIT) may identify finer gradations of vestibular function in older individuals and the levels of vestibular loss associated with functional impairment. PMID:24136315
Davalos-Bichara, Marcela; Agrawal, Yuri
HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at https://villanova.gosignmeup.com/dev_students.asp?action=browse&main=Nursing+Journals&misc=564. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Hydrate for Health: Listening to Older Adults' Need for Information" found on pages 24-30, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until September 30, 2016. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Explain how physiological and behavioral processes related to hydration affect the health of community-dwelling older adults. 2. Discuss the process of designing educational materials about hydration to incorporate the priorities and concerns of older adults. DISCLOSURE STATEMENT Neither the planners nor the authors have any confiicts of interest to disclose. An interdisciplinary team of faculty and students developed the Hydrate for Health project to provide relevant and evidence-based information to community-dwelling older adults. Evidence-based factsheets on bladder health, nighttime urination, medication safety, and physical activity/exercise, as well as a fluid intake self-monitoring tool, were developed. Four focus groups were conducted and included older adults (N = 21) who participated in activities at two local senior centers to obtain their feedback about the relevance of the factsheets. Extensive revisions were required based on the feedback received. Older adults expressed a desire for pragmatic information (i.e., how to determine fluid sources from food, how to measure water, how to determine their own fluid needs). They also wanted information that could be easily incorporated into daily life. Nurses play a central role in listening to and incorporating older adults' voices into consumer education materials. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 40(10), 24-30.]. PMID:25275782
Palmer, Mary H; Marquez, Celine S; Kline, Katherine V; Morris, Erin; Linares, Brenda; Carlson, Barbara W
Within a few sentences, listeners learn to understand severely degraded speech such as noise-vocoded speech. However, individuals vary in the amount of such perceptual learning and it is unclear what underlies these differences. The present study investigates whether perceptual learning in speech relates to statistical learning, as sensitivity to probabilistic information may aid identification of relevant cues in novel speech input. If statistical learning and perceptual learning (partly) draw on the same general mechanisms, then statistical learning in a non-auditory modality using non-linguistic sequences should predict adaptation to degraded speech. In the present study, 73 older adults (aged over 60 years) and 60 younger adults (aged between 18 and 30 years) performed a visual artificial grammar learning task and were presented with 60 meaningful noise-vocoded sentences in an auditory recall task. Within age groups, sentence recognition performance over exposure was analyzed as a function of statistical learning performance, and other variables that may predict learning (i.e., hearing, vocabulary, attention switching control, working memory, and processing speed). Younger and older adults showed similar amounts of perceptual learning, but only younger adults showed significant statistical learning. In older adults, improvement in understanding noise-vocoded speech was constrained by age. In younger adults, amount of adaptation was associated with lexical knowledge and with statistical learning ability. Thus, individual differences in general cognitive abilities explain listeners' variability in adapting to noise-vocoded speech. Results suggest that perceptual and statistical learning share mechanisms of implicit regularity detection, but that the ability to detect statistical regularities is impaired in older adults if visual sequences are presented quickly.
Neger, Thordis M.; Rietveld, Toni; Janse, Esther
The present study was an examination of how exposure to print affects sentence processing and memory in older readers. A sample of older adults (N?=?139; Mean age = 72) completed a battery of cognitive and linguistic tests and read a series of sentences for recall. Word-by-word reading times were recorded and generalized linear mixed effects models were used to estimate
Brennan R. Payne; Xuefei Gao; Soo Rim Noh; Carolyn J. Anderson; Elizabeth A. L. Stine-Morrow
The present study was an examination of how exposure to print affects sentence processing and memory in older readers. A sample of older adults (N?=?139; Mean age = 72) completed a battery of cognitive and linguistic tests and read a series of sentences for recall. Word-by-word reading times were recorded and generalized linear mixed effects models were used to estimate
Brennan R. Payne; Xuefei Gao; Soo Rim Noh; Carolyn J. Anderson; Elizabeth A. L. Stine-Morrow
Older adults may benefit from using technology in their everyday lives. However, adults over 65 may need more training than their younger counterparts given they have had less experience with technology. In this study, 113 adults between the ages of 65 and 85 participated in focus group interviews discussing their training needs and preferences for technology items used in the home. Participants expressed an interest in receiving additional training, particularly for specific tasks. Participants also discussed preferences for various characteristics of training, such as who should conduct the training and for their preferred method of training. One of the most frequently discussed preferences was for self-training using text materials, such as a manual. PMID:25309139
Mitzner, Tracy L.; Fausset, Cara Bailey; Boron, Julie B.; Adams, Anne E.; Dijkstra, Katinka; Lee, Chin Chin; Rogers, Wendy A.; Fisk, Arthur D.
Older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults face unique issues that can impede their well-being. Although many advances have helped address these issues, there is a need for education efforts that raise awareness of service providers about these issues. This study explores evaluation data of training panels provided by older LGBT adults and the views of training participants on issues faced by the older LGBT community after attending the panels. Participants were 605 students and professionals from over 34 education and communication settings. Implications for trainings on participants and older LGBT trainers are discussed. PMID:23905835
Rogers, Anissa; Rebbe, Rebecca; Gardella, Chanel; Worlein, Mary; Chamberlin, Mya
Purpose Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss among Americans over the age of 65. Currently, no effective treatment can reverse the central vision loss associated with most AMD. Digital image-processing techniques have been developed to improve image visibility for peripheral vision; however, both the selection and efficacy of such methods are limited. Progress has been difficult for two reasons: the exact nature of image enhancement that might benefit peripheral vision is not well understood, and efficient methods for testing such techniques have been elusive. The current study aims to develop both an effective image-enhancement technique for peripheral vision and an efficient means for validating the technique. Methods We used a novel contour detection algorithm to locate shape-defining edges in images based on natural-image statistics. We then enhanced the scene by locally boosting the luminance contrast along such contours. Using a gaze-contingent display, we simulated central visual field loss in normally-sighted young (ages 18–30) and older adults (ages 58–88). Visual search performance was measured as a function of contour enhancement strength ("Original" (unenhanced), "Medium", and "High"). For preference task, a separate group of subjects judged which image in a pair "would lead to better search performance". Results We found that while contour enhancement had no significant effect on search time and accuracy in young adults, Medium enhancement resulted in significantly shorter search time in older adults (~13% reduction relative to Original). Both age groups preferred images with Medium enhancement over Original (2 to 7 times). Furthermore, across age groups, image content types and enhancement strengths, there was a robust correlation between preference and performance. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate a beneficial role of contour enhancement in peripheral vision for older adults. Our findings further suggest that task-specific preference judgments can be an efficient surrogate for performance testing. PMID:22885784
Kwon, MiYoung; Ramachandra, Chaithanya; Satgunam, PremNandhini; Mel, Bartlett W.; Peli, Eli; Tjan, Bosco S.
Background Few studies have applied multiple imaging modalities to examine cognitive correlates of white matter. We examined the utility of T2-weighted MRI-derived white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and diffusion tensor imaging-derived fractional anisotropy (FA) to predict cognitive functioning among older adults. Methods Quantitative MRI and neuropsychological evaluations were performed in 112 older participants from an ongoing study of the genetics of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in African Americans. Regional WMH volumes and FA were measured in multiple regions of interest. We examined the association of regional WMH and an FA summary score with cognitive test performance. Differences in WMH and FA were compared across diagnostic groups (i.e., normal controls, mild cognitive impairment, and probable AD). Results Increased WMH volume in frontal lobes was associated with poorer delayed memory performance. FA did not emerge as a significant predictor of cognition. White matter hyperintensity volume in the frontal and parietal lobes was increased in MCI participants and more so in AD patients relative to controls. Discussion These results highlight the importance of regionally-distributed small vessel cerebrovascular disease in memory performance and AD among African American older adults. White matter microstructural changes, quantified with DTI, appear to play a lesser role in our sample. PMID:22390883
Meier, Irene B.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Provenzano, Frank A.; Louie, Karmen S.; Wasserman, Ben T.; Griffith, Erica Y.; Hector, Josina T.; Allocco, Elizabeth; Brickman, Adam M.
Purpose Blood glucose symptom recognition and the interpretation of how one feels with regard to low or high glucose can impact how diabetes is self-managed. Understanding interpretation of symptoms related to diabetes and ultimate glucose regulation can be challenging. Healthcare providers can develop strategies to improve care by listening to individuals describe their symptoms in the context of everyday life. Methods The perspectives of older rural adults were assessed through individual in-depth interviews conducted among 75 African American, American Indian, and white individuals. The study design included a sample balanced with regard to sex, ethnicity, and educational attainment. The Self-Regulatory Model of Illness and the concept that people construct their own Common Sense Models of health were utilized in this study. Results There were four dominant themes of symptoms described that were related to blood glucose. These categories included sensations, lightheadedness, energy level, and eyesight changes. Participants described symptoms they experienced at perceived levels of both high and low blood glucose. Results suggest that older adults were unable to distinguish whether their symptoms occurred because of high or low blood glucose. Conclusions Education that incorporates methods to help older individuals differentiate blood glucose levels related to diabetes symptoms could help improve self-management. PMID:21415287
Kirk, Julienne K.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Chapman, Christine; Arcury, Thomas A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Ip, Edward H.; Quandt, Sara A.
The extent to which the age-related decline in regional brain glucose uptake also applies to other important brain fuels is presently unknown. Ketones are the brain's major alternative fuel to glucose, so we developed a dual tracer positron emission tomography protocol to quantify and compare regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose and the ketone, acetoacetate. Twenty healthy young adults (mean age, 26 years) and 24 healthy older adults (mean age, 74 years) were studied. In comparison with younger adults, older adults had 8 ± 6% (mean ± SD) lower cerebral metabolic rates for glucose in gray matter as a whole (p = 0.035), specifically in several frontal, temporal, and subcortical regions, as well as in the cingulate and insula (p ? 0.01, false discovery rate correction). The effect of age on cerebral metabolic rates for acetoacetate in gray matter did not reach significance (p = 0.11). Rate constants (min(-1)) of glucose (Kg) and acetoacetate (Ka) were significantly lower (-11 ± 6%; [p = 0.005], and -19 ± 5%; [p = 0.006], respectively) in older adults compared with younger adults. There were differential effects of age on Kg and Ka as seen by significant interaction effects in the caudate (p = 0.030) and post-central gyrus (p = 0.023). The acetoacetate index, which expresses the scaled residuals of the voxel-wise linear regression of glucose on ketone uptake, identifies regions taking up higher or lower amounts of acetoacetate relative to glucose. The acetoacetate index was higher in the caudate of young adults when compared with older adults (p ? 0.05 false discovery rate correction). This study provides new information about glucose and ketone metabolism in the human brain and a comparison of the extent to which their regional use changes during normal aging. PMID:24388785
Nugent, Scott; Tremblay, Sebastien; Chen, Kewei W; Ayutyanont, Napatkamon; Roontiva, Auttawut; Castellano, Christian-Alexandre; Fortier, Melanie; Roy, Maggie; Courchesne-Loyer, Alexandre; Bocti, Christian; Lepage, Martin; Turcotte, Eric; Fulop, Tamas; Reiman, Eric M; Cunnane, Stephen C
Adults aged 60 years and older are more likely than younger adults to experience complications, hospitalization, and death because of food-borne infections. Recognizing this risk, we conducted a nationally representative survey (n = 1,140) to characterize older adults’ food safety knowledge, attitudes, and practices as well as the demographic characteristics of older adults with risky food handling practices. The survey was conducted
Sheryl C. Cates; Katherine M. Kosa; Shawn Karns; Sandria L. Godwin; Leslie Speller-Henderson; Robert Harrison; F. Ann Draughon
Background. Training cessation among older adults is associated with the loss of functional ability. However, exercise programs undertaken prior to activity cessation may offer functional protection. In the present study, the residual effects of muscle power or muscle strength training were investigated following extended detraining and subsequent retraining. Methods. Thirty-eight healthy independent older adults (65-84 years) entered a 24-week detraining
Tim R. Henwood; Dennis R. Taaffe
The aging population is a worldwide challenge. Understanding how older adults have been portrayed would provide a foundation on which future scholarship can build. This study assesses and critiques the assumptions underlying the portrayal of older adults and their learning in adult education journals from 1980 to 2006. On reviewing 93 articles in…
Chen, Li-Kuang; Kim, Young Sek; Moon, Paul; Merriam, Sharan B.
S omatosensory feedback is an important component of the balance control system. Older adults that improve sensorimotor function in older adults and patients with sensory deficits. Recently, it has been predispose individuals to falls, which are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality among older per
Collins, James J.
Surveys of Internet use and psychological well-being completed by 178 young and 218 older adults found differences on dimensions of well-being. All younger and 18% of older adults used the Internet. There was no significant correlation between Internet use and well-being. Older Internet users had higher incomes and educational attainment and…
Chen, Yiwei; Persson, Anna
As the U.S. population ages, counselors must begin structuring their interactions to meet the unique needs of older adults, especially in the area of crisis intervention. The purposes of this article are to draw attention to the rapidly growing, often disregarded older population and to introduce the Crisis Model for Older Adults (CM-OA), an…
Jungers, Christin M.; Slagel, Leslie
Purpose: This U.K. study explored how older adults with depression (treated and untreated) and the general older population conceptualize depression. A multicultural approach was used that incorporated the perspectives of Black Caribbean, South Asian, and White British older adults. The study sought to explore and compare beliefs about the nature…
Lawrence, Vanessa; Murray, Joanna; Banerjee, Sube; Turner, Sara; Sangha, Kuljeet; Byng, Richard; Bhurgra, Dinesh; Huxley, Peter; Tylee, Andre; Macdonald, Alastair
The objective of the current study was to evaluate empirically positive side effects of a job-related training program on older adults' self-esteem, depression, and social networks. A total of 70 older adults participated in the study after completing the Older Paraprofessional Training Program developed and provided by the Continuing Education…
Lee, Minhong; Choi, Jae-Sung
The risk for both arterial and venous thrombosis increases with age. Despite the increasing burden of strokes related to atrial fibrillation (AF) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) among older adults, the use of anticoagulant therapy is limited in this population due to the parallel increase in risk of serious hemorrhage. Understanding the risks and their underlying mechanisms would help to mitigate adverse events and improve persistence with these life-saving therapies. The objectives of this review are to: (1) elucidate the age-related physiologic changes that render this high risk subgroup susceptible to hemorrhage, (2) identify mutable risk factors and hazards contributing to an increased bleeding risk in older individuals, and (3) discuss interventions to optimize anticoagulation therapy in this population. PMID:25184500
Ko, Darae; Hylek, Elaine M
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important cause of hospitalisation and of medication deregistration. In old age, susceptibility to DILI is affected by changes in physiology and increased interindividual variability, compounded by an increased prevalence of disease and the frailty syndrome. While dose-related or predictable DILI reactions are often detected in preclinical trials, the occurrence of rare hypersensitivity or idiosyncratic reactions cannot be reliably predicted from preclinical studies or even by clinical trials. The limited participation of older adults in clinical trials means that the susceptibility of this population to DILI is largely unknown. Vigilance during clinical trials and postmarketing surveillance must be universally practised. A systematic approach should be taken to determine not only which medicines are hepatotoxic and should be removed from the market, but also the hepatotoxicity risks from marketed drugs to consumers with different characteristics, many of whom are older people. PMID:25083196
Mitchell, Sarah J.
This special issue of the American Journal of Occupational Therapy includes summaries from a systematic evidence-based literature review of occupational therapy and driving and community mobility for older adults. Since the previous review on this topic in 2008, the cohort of 78 million baby boomers began turning 65 in January 2011. As a group, this cohort is more likely to have longer life expectancy, stay in the workforce longer, and age in place in the community. Is the occupational therapy profession ready for the potential demand for driving rehabilitation services from this generation of older drivers who grew up with the automobile and are dependent on it for access to and participation in their communities? PMID:25397759
Individuals can be simultaneously categorized into multiple social groups (e.g., racial, gender, age), and stereotypes about one social group may conflict with another. Two such conflicting stereotype sets are those associated with older adults (e.g., frail, kind) and with Black people (e.g., violent, hostile). Recent research shows that young adult perceivers evaluate elderly Black men more positively than young Black men, suggesting that components of the elderly stereotype moderate the influence of conflicting Black stereotypes (Kang & Chasteen, 2009). The current research begins to examine whether this pattern of perceiving multiply-categorizable individuals is maintained among older adults or altered, perhaps due to aging-related cognitive and motivational changes. In three studies using different targets and evaluative tasks, both young and older participants showed evidence of an interplay between Black and elderly stereotypes, such that they perceived elderly Black targets more positively than young Black targets. A similar pattern was observed when assessing emotion change (Study 1), making ratings of warmth and power in the past, present, and future (Study 2), and when directly comparing young and old Black and White targets on traits related to warmth and power (Study 3). The absence of age differences suggests that evaluation of multiply-categorizable targets follows comparable underlying patterns of stereotype activation and inhibition in younger and older adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25244468
Kang, Sonia K; Chasteen, Alison L; Cadieux, Jonathan; Cary, Lindsey A; Syeda, Maisha
Objectives. To estimate the prevalence and determinants of fall-related injuries in the previous year among adults aged 60 years or older in Ecuador. Methods. The prevalence of fall-related injuries was estimated using cross-sectional data from the first national survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging study. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between participants' demographic characteristics and fall-related injuries. Results. Of 5,227 participants with a mean age of 72.6 years, 11.4% (95% CI, 10.3%–12.7%) reported a fall-related injury in Ecuador, representing an estimated 136,000 adults aged 60 years or older. Fall-related injuries were more frequently reported among older adults residing in the most urbanized and populated provinces of the country. After controlling for potential confounders, self-reported race as Indigenous (OR 2.2; 95% CI, 2.11–2.31), drinking alcohol regularly (OR 2.54; 95% CI, 2.46–2.63), subjects with greater number of comorbid conditions (OR 2.03; 95% CI, 1.97–2.08), and urinary incontinence (OR 1.83; 95% CI, 1.79–1.87) were factors independently associated with increased odds of sustaining fall-related injuries. Conclusions. Fall-related injuries represent a considerable burden for older adults in Ecuador. The present findings may assist public health authorities to implement fall prevention programs among subjects at higher risk for this type of injury. PMID:25371674
Orces, Carlos H.
Aging results in a loss of sensory function, and the effects of hearing impairment can be especially devastating due to reduced communication ability. Older adults with hearing loss report that speech, especially in noisy backgrounds, is uncomfortably loud yet unclear. Hearing loss results in an unbalanced neural representation of speech: the slowly-varying envelope is enhanced, dominating representation in the auditory pathway and perceptual salience at the cost of the rapidly-varying fine structure. We hypothesized that older adults with hearing loss can be trained to compensate for these changes in central auditory processing through directed attention to behaviorally-relevant speech sounds. To that end, we evaluated the effects of auditory-cognitive training in older adults (ages 55–79) with normal hearing and hearing loss. After training, the auditory training group with hearing loss experienced a reduction in the neural representation of the speech envelope presented in noise, approaching levels observed in normal hearing older adults. No changes were noted in the control group. Importantly, changes in speech processing were accompanied by improvements in speech perception. Thus, central processing deficits associated with hearing loss may be partially remediated with training, resulting in real-life benefits for everyday communication. PMID:24348347
Anderson, Samira; White-Schwoch, Travis; Choi, Hee Jae; Kraus, Nina
Understanding age-related decline in gait stability and the role of alterations in brain structure is crucial. Here, we studied the relationship between white matter microstructural organization using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and advanced gait stability measures in 15 healthy young adults (range 18–30 years) and 25 healthy older adults (range 62–82 years). Among the different gait stability measures, only stride time and the maximum Lyapunov exponent (which quantifies how well participants are able to attenuate small perturbations) were found to decline with age. White matter microstructural organization (FA) was lower throughout the brain in older adults. We found a strong correlation between FA in the left anterior thalamic radiation and left corticospinal tract on the one hand, and step width and safety margin (indicative of how close participants are to falling over) on the other. These findings suggest that white matter FA in tracts connecting subcortical and prefrontal areas is associated with the implementation of an effective stabilization strategy during gait. PMID:24959139
Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Van Impe, Annouchka; Duysens, Jacques; Swinnen, Stephan P.
Understanding age-related decline in gait stability and the role of alterations in brain structure is crucial. Here, we studied the relationship between white matter microstructural organization using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and advanced gait stability measures in 15 healthy young adults (range 18-30 years) and 25 healthy older adults (range 62-82 years). Among the different gait stability measures, only stride time and the maximum Lyapunov exponent (which quantifies how well participants are able to attenuate small perturbations) were found to decline with age. White matter microstructural organization (FA) was lower throughout the brain in older adults. We found a strong correlation between FA in the left anterior thalamic radiation and left corticospinal tract on the one hand, and step width and safety margin (indicative of how close participants are to falling over) on the other. These findings suggest that white matter FA in tracts connecting subcortical and prefrontal areas is associated with the implementation of an effective stabilization strategy during gait. PMID:24959139
Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Van Impe, Annouchka; Duysens, Jacques; Swinnen, Stephan P
Background Environmental and physiological conditions make older adults more likely to lose synchronization to their local time and experience sleep disturbances. A regular, 24-hour light/dark cycle promotes synchronization. It is now well established that the circadian system is maximally sensitive to short-wavelength (blue) light. The purpose of the present study was to measure dose effectiveness (amounts and durations) of short-wavelength (blue) light for stimulating the circadian systems of older adults. We investigated the impact of six corneal irradiances (0.7 to 72 ?W/cm2) of 470-nm light on nocturnal melatonin production. Nine participants, each over 50 years of age completed a within-subjects study. Each week, participants were exposed to one of the six irradiances of 470-nm light for 90 minutes. Findings A two-factor (6 corneal irradiances × 10 exposure durations), within-subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted using the melatonin suppression levels. The ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of corneal irradiance (F5, 30 = 9.131, p < 0.0001), a significant main effect of exposure duration (F9, 54 = 5.731, p < 0.0001), and a significant interaction between these two variables (F45,270 = 1.927, p < 0.001). Post hoc t-tests revealed that corneal irradiances as low as 2 ?W/cm2 reliably suppressed melatonin after 90-minute exposure whereas 0.7 ?W/cm2 did not. Conclusions Sleep disorders are common and a serious problem for millions of older adults. The present results showed that comfortable, precise and effective doses of light can be prescribed to older adults to reliably stimulate the circadian system that presumably would promote entrainment and, thus, regular sleep. Field studies on the impact of short-wavelength-light doses on sleep efficiency in older adults should be performed. PMID:21902824
Background Acquired brain injury (ABI), which includes traumatic (TBI) and non-traumatic brain injury (nTBI), is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The objective of this study was to examine the trends, characteristics, cause of brain injury, and discharge destination of hospitalized older adults aged 65 years and older with an ABI diagnosis in a population with universal access to hospital care. The profile of characteristics of patients with TBI and nTBI causes of injury was also compared. Methods A population based retrospective cohort study design with healthcare administrative databases was used. Data on acute care admissions were obtained from the Discharge Abstract Database and patients were identified using the International Classification of Diseases – Version 10 codes for Ontario, Canada from April 1, 2003 to March 31, 2010. Older adults were examined in three age groups – 65 to 74, 75 to 84, and 85+ years. Results From 2003/04 to 2009/10, there were 14,518 episodes of acute care associated with a TBI code and 51, 233 episodes with a nTBI code. Overall, the rate of hospitalized TBI and nTBI episodes increased with older age groups. From 2007/08 to 2009/10, the percentage of patients that stayed in acute care for 12 days or more and the percentage of patients with delayed discharge from acute care increased with age. The most common cause of TBI was falls while the most common type of nTBI was brain tumours. The percentage of patients discharged to long term care and complex continuing care increased with age and the percentage discharged home decreased with age. In-hospital mortality also increased with age. Older adults with TBI and nTBI differed significantly in demographic and clinical characteristics and discharge destination from acute care. Conclusions This study showed an increased rate of acute care admissions for both TBI and nTBI with age. It also provided additional support for falls prevention strategies to prevent injury leading to cognitive disability with costly human and economic consequences. Implications for increased numbers of people with ABI are discussed. PMID:24060144
Abstract Objective. To evaluate the ability of out-of-hospital physiologic measures to predict serious injury for field triage purposes among older adults and potentially reduce the undertriage of seriously injured elders to non-trauma hospitals. Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study involving injured adults 55 years and older transported by 94 emergency medical services (EMS) agencies to 122 hospitals (trauma and non-trauma) in 7 regions of the western United States from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2008. We evaluated initial out-of-hospital Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, systolic blood pressure (SBP), respiratory rate, heart rate, shock index (SBP ÷ heart rate), out-of-hospital procedures, mechanism of injury, and patient demographics. The primary outcome was "serious injury," defined as Injury Severity Score (ISS) ? 16, as a measure of trauma center need. We used multivariable regression models, fractional polynomials and binary recursive partitioning to evaluate appropriate physiologic cut-points and the value of different physiologic triage criteria. Results. A total of 44,890 injured older adults were evaluated and transported by EMS, of whom 2,328 (5.2%) had ISS ? 16. Nonlinear associations existed between all physiologic measures and ISS ? 16 (unadjusted and adjusted p ? 0.001 for all,), except for heart rate (adjusted p = 0.48). Revised physiologic triage criteria included GCS score ? 14; respiratory rate < 10 or > 24 breaths per minute or assisted ventilation; and SBP < 110 or > 200 mmHg. Compared to current triage practices, the revised criteria would increase triage sensitivity from 78.6 to 86.3% (difference 7.7%, 95% CI 6.1-9.6%), reduce specificity from 75.5 to 60.7% (difference 14.8%, 95% CI 14.3-15.3%), and increase the proportion of patients without serious injuries transported to major trauma centers by 60%. Conclusions. Existing out-of-hospital physiologic triage criteria could be revised to better identify seriously injured older adults at the expense of increasing overtriage to major trauma centers. PMID:24933614
Newgard, Craig D; Richardson, Derek; Holmes, James F; Rea, Thomas D; Hsia, Renee Y; Mann, N Clay; Staudenmayer, Kristan; Barton, Erik D; Bulger, Eileen M; Haukoos, Jason S; The Western Emergency Services Translational Research Network Westrn Investigators
Objectives The purpose of this paper is to identify: motivations and perceived barriers associated with food choices made by homebound\\u000a older adults; whether motivations and perceived barriers vary according to social demographic characteristics; and whether\\u000a motivations and perceived barriers are associated with dietary quality.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design This was an observational study using standard interview methods where participants were administered a questionnaire and\\u000a completed
Julie L. Locher; C. S. Ritchie; D. L. Roth; B. Sen; K. S. Vickers; L. I. Vailas
Objectives The purpose of this paper is to identify: motivations and perceived barriers associated with food choices made by homebound\\u000a older adults; whether motivations and perceived barriers vary according to social demographic characteristics; and whether\\u000a motivations and perceived barriers are associated with dietary quality.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design This was an observational study using standard interview methods where participants were administered a questionnaire and\\u000a completed
Julie L. Locher; C. S. Ritchie; D. L. Roth; B. Sen; K. S. Vickers; L. I. Vailas
therapeutic change has long been ubiquitous in the inental health community. This enduring perception of therapeutic nihilism was first advanced by none other than the father of psychology, Sigrnund Freud, who proclaimed that older adults (defined by Freud... as age 50 or over) are no longer cognitively equipped to benefit from psychotherapy. In 1905, Freud declared: [O]n the one hand, near or above the age of 50 the elasticity of the mental processes, on which the treatment depends, is as a rule lacking...
Karlin, Bradley Eric
of older people in advertising, and the ways in which this is associated with older adults' place in society. This article is organized around three central themes: an overview of the major theoretical perspectives surrounding advertising and ageing...
Zhang, Yan Bing; Harwood, Jake; Williams, Angie; Ylä nne-McEwen, Virpi; Wadleigh, Paul Mark
A literature on young adults reports that morning-type individuals, or “larks,” report higher levels of positive affect compared with evening-type individuals, or “owls” (Clark, Watson, & Leeka, 1989; Hasler et al., 2010). Morning types are relatively rare among young adults but frequent among older adults (May & Hasher, 1998; Mecacci et al., 1986), and here we report on the association between chronotype and affect in a large sample of healthy younger and older adults. Overall, older adults reported higher levels of positive affect than younger adults, with both younger and older morning types reporting higher levels of positive affect and subjective health than age mates who scored lower on morningness. Morningness partially mediated the association between age and positive affect, suggesting that greater morningness tendencies among older adults may contribute to their improved well-being relative to younger adults. PMID:22309732
Biss, Renee K.; Hasher, Lynn
Age-related cognitive decline is a main predictor of disability among elderly people, and with the continued expansion of the aging population and the increase in life expectancy, the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment and dementia represented by Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder of older adults, have increased. Recent epidemiological and observational studies suggest a relationship exists between lifestyle factors, including nutrition and diet, and cognitive function in aging adults. It is also suggested that malnutrition and nutrient deficiencies are associated with cognitive decline in patients with dementia. There are a variety of nutritional factors, including nutritional status and dietary patterns, that might be associated with cognitive function, and specific micronutrients and dietary components have been suggested to have an association with cognitive function as well. Based on these findings and evidence, evaluation of nutritional state, as well as nutritional intervention, might be able to play a role in the management and prevention of dementia. PMID:24650061
Background As the population ages, older adults are seeking meaningful, and impactful, post-retirement roles. As a society, improving the health of people throughout longer lives is a major public health goal. This paper presents the design and rationale for an effectiveness trial of Experience Corps™, an intervention created to address both these needs. This trial evaluates (1) whether senior volunteer roles within Experience Corps™ beneficially impact children's academic achievement and classroom behavior in public elementary schools and (2) impact on the health of volunteers. Methods Dual evaluations of (1) an intention-to-treat trial randomizing eligible adults 60 and older to volunteer service in Experience Corps™, or to a control arm of usual volunteering opportunities, and (2) a comparison of eligible public elementary schools receiving Experience Corps™ to matched, eligible control schools in a 1:1 control:intervention school ratio. Outcomes For older adults, the primary outcome is decreased disability in mobility and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL). Secondary outcomes are decreased frailty, falls, and memory loss; slowed loss of strength, balance, walking speed, cortical plasticity, and executive function; objective performance of IADLs; and increased social and psychological engagement. For children, primary outcomes are improved reading achievement and classroom behavior in Kindergarten through the 3rd grade; secondary outcomes are improvements in school climate, teacher morale and retention, and teacher perceptions of older adults. Summary This trial incorporates principles and practices of community-based participatory research and evaluates the dual benefit of a single intervention, versus usual opportunities, for two generations: older adults and children. PMID:23680986
Fried, Linda P.; Carlson, Michelle C.; McGill, Sylvia; Seeman, Teresa; Xue, Qian-Li; Frick, Kevin; Tan, Erwin; Tanner, Elizabeth K.; Barron, Jeremy; Frangakis, Constantine; Piferi, Rachel; Martinez, Iveris; Gruenewald, Tara; Martin, Barbara K.; Berry-Vaughn, Laprisha; Stewart, John; Dickersin, Kay; Willging, Paul R.; Rebok, George W.
The primary objective of this study was to assess the lingual kinematic strategies used by younger and older adults to increase rate of speech. It was hypothesised that the strategies used by the older adults would differ from the young adults either as a direct result of, or in response to a need to compensate for, age-related changes in the…
Goozee, Justine V.; Stephenson, Dayna K.; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Darnell, Ross E.; Lapointe, Leonard L.
In recent years, some researchers have examined motor learning in older adults. Some of these studies have specifically looked at the effectiveness of different manipulations of extrinsic feedback, or knowledge of results (KR). Given that many motor tasks may already be more challenging for older adults compared to younger adults, making KR more…
Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; Wally, Raquel; Borges, Thiago
In this study 505 undereducated older adults were interviewed about educational needs using a schedule requesting demographic information, open?ended questions and a checklist of 45 types of educational needs falling into six categories. Simultaneously, 95 nutrition site directors and 83 adult basic education teachers responded to an instrument including the same educational needs questions. Results indicate that older adults with
Bradley C. Courtenay; Marietta P. Suhart; Douglas McConatha; Robert T. Stevenson
Adults aged 60 or older are more likely than younger adults to experience severe complications or even death as a result of foodborne infections. This study investigated which specific groups of healthcare providers or other caregivers are most receptive to providing food safety information to older adults. Telephone-based focus groups were conducted with health care providers and caregivers to determine
Kelly C. Wohlgenant; Sheryl C. Cates; Sandria L. Godwin; Leslie Speller-Henderson
As the population of older adults increases, the field of adult education needs to respond accordingly. The study reported in this paper examined motivations for learning among older adults actively engaged in formal lifelong learning. One hundred eighty-nine members of a Learning in Retirement institute were surveyed using Boshier's Education Participation Scale. Cognitive interest appeared to be the strongest motivator
Ahjin Kim; Sharan B. Merriam
The paper assesses whether the needs of people with schizophrenia over 65 years differ from those of younger adults with the diagnosis. It reviews studies comparing older and younger adults and older adults with schizophrenia and non-clinical or clinical controls on measures of psychosocial functioning. It also considers how psychological interventions can be best designed to cater for the specific needs
Katherine Berry; Christine Barrowclough
Background: The general consensus that cognitive abilities decline with advancing age is supported by several studies that have reported that older adults perform more poorly on multiple tests of cognitive performance as compared to younger adults. To date, preventive measures against this cognitive decline have been mainly focused on dietary, physical, and lifestyle behaviors which could allow older adults to
Ravi Prakash; Priyanka Rastogi; Indu Dubey; Priyadarshee Abhishek; Suprakash Chaudhury; Brent J. Small
Background: The general consensus that cognitive abilities decline with advancing age is supported by several studies that have reported that older adults perform more poorly on multiple tests of cognitive performance as compared to younger adults. To date, preventive measures against this cognitive decline have been mainly focused on dietary, physical, and lifestyle behaviors which could allow older adults to
Ravi Prakash; Priyanka Rastogi; Indu Dubey; Priyadarshee Abhishek; Suprakash Chaudhury; Brent J. Small
Sleep modulates word-pair learning but not motor sequence learning in healthy older adults Jessica Sleep benefits memory across a range of tasks for young adults. However, remarkably little is known of the role of sleep on memory for healthy older adults. We used 2 tasks, 1 assaying motor skill learning
This study examined performance measures and eye movements associated with complex arithmetic strategies in young and older adults. Participants added pairs of three-digit numbers using two different strategies, under choice and no-choice conditions. Older adults made more errors but were not significantly slower than young adults, and response times and errors showed no interaction between age and the number of
Heather J. Green; Patrick Lemaire; Stéphane Dufau
Adults aged 60 or older are more likely than younger adults to experience severe complications or even death as a result of foodborne infections. This study investigated which specific groups of healthcare providers or other caregivers are most receptive to providing food safety information to older adults. Telephone-based focus groups were…
Wohlgenant, Kelly C.; Cates, Sheryl C.; Godwin, Sandria L.; Speller-Henderson, Leslie
An increase in postural sway is one of the risk factors that have been linked to an increased incidence of falls in the older adult population. Researchers have shown that peripheral sensation is crucial in maintaining a static posture for adults of all ages. It has been reported that older adults have decreased tactile sensation of the plantar surface of
Ann L. Livengood
Eighty-two younger and older adults participated in a two-part study of the decoding of emotion through body movements and gestures. In the first part, younger and older adults identified emotions depicted in brief videotaped displays of young adult actors portraying emotional situations. In each display, the actors were silent and their faces were electronically blurred in order to isolate the
Joann Montepare; Elissa Koff; Deborah Zaitchik; Marilyn Albert
Approximately 5% of older adults