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1

RELIGIOUS EDUCATION OF OLDER ADULTS: A PRESENT AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines critically the present state of religious education for older adults and finds it inadequate, because it does not provide for making collective meaning through sustained conversation. Such a conversation is not supported by curricular for older adults or by the present foci of attention in religious institutions. In American culture, the particular distinctiveness of old age is

Henry C. Simmons

1988-01-01

2

Older Adults' Memory for Verbally Presented Medical Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research demonstrates that patients typically have difficulty remembering information presented during healthcare consultations. This study examined how older adults learn and remember verbally presented medical information. Healthy older adults were tested for recall in experimental and field settings. Participants viewed a five-minute…

Bankoff, Sarah M.; Sandberg, Elisabeth Hollister

2012-01-01

3

Health, functioning, and disability in older adults-present status and future implications.  

PubMed

Ageing is a dynamic process, and trends in the health status of older adults aged at least 60 years vary over time because of several factors. We examined reported trends in morbidity and mortality in older adults during the past two decades to identify patterns of ageing across the world. We showed some evidence for compression of morbidity (ie, a reduced amount of time spent in worse health), in four types of studies: 1) of good quality based on assessment criteria scores; 2) those in which a disability-related or impairment-related measure of morbidity was used; 3) longitudinal studies; or 4) studies undertaken in the USA and other high-income countries. Many studies, however, reported contrasting evidence (ie, for an expansion of morbidity), but with different methods, these measures are not directly comparable. Expansion of morbidity was more common when trends in chronic disease prevalence were studied. Our secondary analysis of data from longitudinal ageing surveys presents similar results. However, patterns of limitations in functioning vary substantially between countries and within countries over time, with no discernible explanation. Data from low-income countries are very sparse, and efforts to obtain information about the health of older adults in less-developed regions of the world are urgently needed. We especially need studies that focus on refining measurements of health, functioning, and disability in older people, with a core set of domains of functioning, that investigate the effects of these evolving patterns on the health-care system and their economic implications. PMID:25468158

Chatterji, Somnath; Byles, Julie; Cutler, David; Seeman, Teresa; Verdes, Emese

2014-11-01

4

Enhancing older adults' eyewitness memory for present and future events with the Self-Administered Interview.  

PubMed

Older adults' memory reports are often less complete and accurate than those by younger adults. The current study assessed the suitability of the Self-Administered Interview (SAI) as retrieval support for older eyewitnesses, and examines whether experience with the SAI leads to improved performance on subsequent events where the SAI is not used. Participants recalled an event with the SAI or free recall instructions. After 1 week, all participants watched a second event and freely recalled its content. SAI participants reported more correct details for the initial event, and a "transfer" of the initial recall advantage to the second event was observed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25365694

Gawrylowicz, Julie; Memon, Amina; Scoboria, Alan; Hope, Lorraine; Gabbert, Fiona

2014-12-01

5

Older Adults and Alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

... Get Help Heath and Aging Older Adults and Alcohol: You Can Get Help What's inside Worried about a drinking problem? Learn about the effects of alcohol on health and get needed support. Read this ...

6

Sexuality in Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... time touching, kissing, and enjoying each other’s company. Practice safe sex. Older adults are still at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Ask your partner about his or her sexual history, and share yours. Consider getting tested for ...

7

Cancer in Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... and handling), call 888-273-3508 or order materials online. Aging and Cancer This section provides an overview of cancer in older adults, including the role of aging in cancer and the unique challenges faced by older people with cancer. Español Care ...

8

Depression in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Depression is less prevalent among older adults than among younger adults but can have serious consequences. Over half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and more closely associated with depression. Depressed older adults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are younger adults. Risk factors leading to the development of late life depression likely comprise complex interactions among genetic vulnerabilities, cognitive diathesis, age-associated neurobiological changes, and stressful events. Insomnia is an often overlooked risk factor for late life depression. We suggest that a common pathway to depression in older adults, regardless of which predisposing risks are most prominent, may be curtailment of daily activities. Accompanying self-critical thinking may exacerbate and maintain a depressed state. Offsetting the increasing prevalence of certain risk factors in late life are age-related increases in psychological resilience. Other protective factors include higher education and socioeconomic status, engagement in valued activities, and religious or spiritual involvement. Treatments including behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive bibliotherapy, problem-solving therapy, brief psychodynamic therapy, and life review/reminiscence therapy are effective but too infrequently used with older adults. Preventive interventions including education for individuals with chronic illness, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving skills training, group support, and life review have also received support. PMID:19327033

Fiske, Amy; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Gatz, Margaret

2010-01-01

9

Dementia: Unique to Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Dementia Unique to Older Adults This section provides information ... Managing Additional Health Problems in Older Adults with Dementia Dementia is rare in adults younger than 60. ...

10

Substance abuse among older adults.  

PubMed

Although the myth that older adults do not use mood-altering substances persists, evidence suggests that substance use among older adults has been underidentified for decades. The baby boom generation is unique in its exposure to, attitudes toward, and prevalence of substance use-causing projected rates of substance use to increase over the next twenty years. Given their unique biological vulnerabilities and life stage, older adults who misuse substances require special attention. Prevalence rates of substance use and misuse among older adults, methods of screening and assessment unique to older adults, and treatment options for older adults are reviewed. PMID:25037298

Kuerbis, Alexis; Sacco, Paul; Blazer, Dan G; Moore, Alison A

2014-08-01

11

Dance for Older Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dance programs for older adults that encourage exercise and socializing are described in six articles. Program guidelines of the American Alliance Committee on Aging are explained, and other articles emphasize a movement education approach that may involve intergenerational contact. A dance program held in a worship setting is also discussed. (PP)

Pruett, Diane Milhan, Ed.; And Others

1983-01-01

12

Older Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to improve the quality of life for area senior citizens, De Anza College has established an older adult education program which combines adaptive physical education with holistic health care principles to instruct students in relaxation, nutrition, and physical activity. Classes are held in convalescent hospitals, retirement homes,…

Forman, Jeffrey

13

Guidelines for Psychological Practice With Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the American Psychological Association Guidelines for psychological practice with older adults. The present document is intended to assist psychologists in evaluating their own readiness for working clinically with older adults and in seeking and using appropriate education and training to increase their knowledge, skills, and experience…

American Psychologist, 2004

2004-01-01

14

Day Centers for Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a relatively new service concept which addresses the care of the frail older adult, Day Centers offer a rare opportunity for the partnership of local parishes and service agencies. In typical local parishes, there is a vast increase in the number of frail older adults as- well as the number of their care-giving families. Day Centers offer an opportunity

Joanne Negstad; Roger Arnholt

1987-01-01

15

Utilizing PowerPoint Presentation to Promote Fall Prevention among Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluated a PowerPoint home safety (PPHS) presentation in enhancing awareness, knowledge and behavior change among senior center attendees in southern Illinois. Twelve centers were utilized as data collection sites in a pretest-posttest control group design. Through stratified randomization, centers were placed into categories (high,…

McCrary-Quarles, Audrey R.

2008-01-01

16

Older Adults and Mental Health  

MedlinePLUS

... is a normal consequence of these problems — an attitude often shared by patients themselves. These factors together ... also carry an increased risk for suicide . Share Science News About Older Adults NIMH Hosts Twitter Chat ...

17

Computer acceptance of older adults.  

PubMed

Even though computers play a massive role in everyday life of modern societies, older adults, and especially older women, are less likely to use a computer, and they perform fewer activities on it than younger adults. To get a better understanding of the factors affecting older adults' intention towards and usage of computers, the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology (UTAUT) was applied as part of a more extensive study with 52 users and non-users of computers, ranging in age from 50 to 90 years. The model covers various aspects of computer usage in old age via four key constructs, namely performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influences, and facilitating conditions, as well as the variables gender, age, experience, and voluntariness it. Interestingly, next to performance expectancy, facilitating conditions showed the strongest correlation with use as well as with intention. Effort expectancy showed no significant correlation with the intention of older adults to use a computer. PMID:22317258

Nägle, Sibylle; Schmidt, Ludger

2012-01-01

18

Hip Fractures among Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Fractures among Older Adults Falls in Nursing Homes Data & Statistics Cost of Fall Injuries Publications & Resources Preventing Falls: What Works. A CDC Compendium of Effective Community–based Interventions ...

19

Diagnosis and management of urinary tract infection in older adults.  

PubMed

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a commonly diagnosed infection in older adults. Despite consensus guidelines developed to assist providers in diagnosing UTI, distinguishing symptomatic UTI from asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in older adults is problematic, as many older adults do not present with localized genitourinary symptoms. This article summarizes the recent literature and guidelines on the diagnosis and management of UTI and ASB in older adults. PMID:24484576

Rowe, Theresa Anne; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

2014-03-01

20

HIV & AIDS in older adults.  

PubMed

Many Americans mistakenly believe that older adults are not at risk for HIV/AIDS. Older people do not perceive themselves to be at risk for HIV infection, either. In reality, approximately 10% of AIDS cases are among people older than 50. Many health care providers lack an awareness of the risk of HIV/AIDS in the elderly population, and as a result, many older people with these conditions are misdiagnosed with other ailments. Major manifestations of HIV/AIDS in elderly adults include Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, herpes zoster, tuberculosis, cytomegalovirus, oral thrush, Mycobacterium avium complex, and HIV dementia. Elderly HIV-positive women have special health concerns, such as cervical cancer. Nurses and nurse practitioners can heighten their colleagues' awareness of the existence of HIV/AIDS in the elderly population and educate their older patients on HIV/AIDS. Furthermore, information about sexuality and sexual practices of older adults should be incorporated into all health science curricula. Additional research is needed to determine the extent of the problem and how health care providers can best serve their older patients' needs. PMID:10703354

Wooten-Bielski, K

1999-01-01

21

Older adults coping with vision loss.  

PubMed

Age-related vision loss is one of the most commonly cited disabling impairments of adult life. Stressors presented by vision loss can create barriers, threatening the well-being of the individual. This qualitative study of 30 older adults (65 to 95 years of age) investigated vision loss and coping strategies. All participants experienced unexpected sight loss during their adult years. The Adaptation to Age-Related Vision Loss (AVL) Scale was used in this study to examine psychosocial adaptation to vision impairment. The coping strategies of vision impairment were assessed by collecting self-reported reflections toward vision loss and how the change impacted the participant's life. Given the correct balance of support, confidence, and acceptance, older adults can confront the existing barriers and focus on the ability to optimize function with vision loss. Health care service providers and practitioners can provide needed assistance and a helpful guide to assist older adults in successfully coping with vision impairment. PMID:20845173

Weber, Joseph A; Wong, Karen B

2010-07-01

22

Smoking and Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... 4872). February 2010 Sources: 1 Rimer BK, Orleans CT, Keintz MK, Cristinzio S, & Fleisher L. The older smoker: status, challenges and opportunities for intervention. Chest. 1990; 97:547-53. 2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National ...

23

Urinary tract infection in older adults  

PubMed Central

Urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria are common in older adults. Unlike in younger adults, distinguishing symptomatic urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria is problematic, as older adults, particularly those living in long-term care facilities, are less likely to present with localized genitourinary symptoms. Consensus guidelines have been published to assist clinicians with diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection; however, a single evidence-based approach to diagnosis of urinary tract infection does not exist. In the absence of a gold standard definition of urinary tract infection that clinicians agree upon, overtreatment with antibiotics for suspected urinary tract infection remains a significant problem, and leads to a variety of negative consequences including the development of multidrug-resistant organisms. Future studies improving the diagnostic accuracy of urinary tract infections are needed. This review will cover the prevalence, diagnosis and diagnostic challenges, management, and prevention of urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in older adults. PMID:24391677

Rowe, Theresa A; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

2013-01-01

24

Visuomotor Binding in Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Action integration is the process through which actions performed on a stimulus and perceptual aspects of the stimulus become bound as a unitary object. This process appears to be controlled by the dopaminergic system in the prefrontal cortex, an area that is known to decrease in volume and dopamine functioning in older adults. Although the…

Bloesch, Emily K.; Abrams, Richard A.

2010-01-01

25

Depression Among Older Adults with Diabetes Mellitus.  

PubMed

Older adults with Diabetes Mellitus (DM) experience greater risk for comorbid depression compared to those who do not have DM. Undetected, untreated or under-treated depression impinges an individual's ability to manage their DM successfully, hinders their adherence to treatment regime, and undermines provider-patient relationships. Thus, in the context of caring for older adults with DM, comorbid depression presents special challenges and opportunities for clinicians. In this article, we summarize the clinical presentation of late-life depression, potential mechanisms of comorbidity of depression and DM, importance of depression in the successful management of DM, and available best practice models for depression treatment. PMID:25453305

Park, Mijung; Reynolds, Charles F

2015-02-01

26

Increasing proportion of AIDS diagnoses among older adults in Italy.  

PubMed

We evaluated the impact of AIDS among older persons in Italy and compared these cases with cases among younger persons. The data source was Italy's National AIDS Registry. We considered adults diagnosed with AIDS between 1982 and 2005. Older adults were defined as those aged 50 years or older at diagnosis. Of the total adult cases, 8.8% were among older adults. This proportion increased over time, from 4.9% in 1982-1990 to 15.9% in 2000-2005. Among older adults, the most represented exposure category (80.8%) was sexual intercourse (heterosexual and homosexual). At AIDS diagnosis, older adults, compared to younger adults, had a higher risk of developing AIDS dementia complex or wasting syndrome, and of presenting multiple AIDS-defining illnesses. A significantly lower proportion of older adults were undergoing antiretroviral therapy, compared to younger adults. Among older adults, 67.2% were late testers, compared to 32.8% of younger adults. Most of the older adults acquired the infection through sexual contact; approximately two thirds of them were diagnosed late (i.e., first HIV-positive test 6 months or less before AIDS diagnosis); and only one fourth were undergoing antiretroviral therapy at diagnosis. These observations stress the need to more seriously consider the possibility of HIV infection among older individuals and to collect more detailed information on their sexual behavior. PMID:18435593

Longo, Benedetta; Camoni, Laura; Boros, Stefano; Suligoi, Barbara

2008-05-01

27

Older Adults and Gambling: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses the social cognitive theory model to review the literature on older adult gambling, and related personal and environment characteristics. Results show that lottery is the kind of gambling most frequently played by older adults, followed by casino games. Older adults take trips to casinos to socialize, find excitement, and win…

Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai

2012-01-01

28

Nutrition Goals for Older Adults: A Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses specific goals of nutrition education for older adults and high-risk groups within the elderly population through review of three crucial areas: current knowledge of eating patterns, nutrient intake, and supplement use of older adults; existing information on multiple influences on eating habits of older adults; and potential benefits…

Horwath, Caroline C.

1991-01-01

29

Cochlear Implantation in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Cochlear implants allow individuals with severe-to-profound hearing loss access to sound and spoken language. The number of older adults in the United States who are potential candidates for cochlear implantation is approximately 150,000 and will continue to increase with the aging of the population. Should cochlear implantation (CI) be routinely recommended for these older adults, and do these individuals benefit from CI? We reviewed our 12 year experience with cochlear implantation in adults ?60 years (n = 445) at Johns Hopkins to investigate the impact of CI on speech understanding and to identify factors associated with speech performance. Complete data on speech outcomes at baseline and 1 year post-CI were available for 83 individuals. Our results demonstrate that cochlear implantation in adults ?60 years consistently improved speech understanding scores with a mean increase of 60. 0% (S. D. 24. 1) on HINT sentences in quiet . The magnitude of the gain in speech scores was negatively associated with age at implantation such that for every increasing year of age at CI the gain in speech scores was 1. 3 percentage points less (95% CI: 0. 6 – 1. 9) after adjusting for age at hearing loss onset. Conversely, individuals with higher pre-CI speech scores (HINT scores between 40–60%) had significantly greater post-CI speech scores by a mean of 10. 0 percentage points (95% CI: 0. 4 – 19. 6) than those with lower pre-CI speech scores (HINT <40%) after adjusting for age at CI and age at hearing loss onset. These results suggest that older adult CI candidates who are younger at implantation and with higher preoperative speech scores obtain the highest speech understanding scores after cochlear implantation with possible implications for current Medicare policy. Finally, we provide an extended discussion of the epidemiology and impact of hearing loss in older adults. Future research of CI in older adults should expand beyond simple speech outcomes to take into account the broad cognitive, social, and physical functioning outcomes that are likely detrimentally impacted by hearing loss and may be mitigated by cochlear implantation. PMID:22932787

Lin, Frank R.; Chien, Wade W.; Li, Lingsheng; Niparko, John K.; Francis, Howard W.

2012-01-01

30

Influenza Vaccine Responses in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

The most profound consequences of immune senescence with respect to public health are the increased susceptibility to influenza and loss of efficacy of the current split-virus influenza vaccines in older adults, which are otherwise very effective in younger populations. Influenza infection is associated with high rates of complicated illness including pneumonia, heart attacks and strokes in the 65+ population. Changes in both innate and adaptive immune function not only converge in the reduced response to vaccination and protection against influenza, but present significant challenges to new vaccine development. In older adults, the goal of vaccination is more realistically targeted to providing clinical protection against disease rather sterilizing immunity. Correlates of clinical protection may not be measured using standard techniques such as antibody titres to predict vaccine efficacy. Further, antibody responses to vaccination as a correlate of protection may fail to detect important changes in cellular immunity and enhanced vaccine-mediated protection against influenza illness in older people. This article will discuss the impact of influenza in older adults, immunologic targets for improved efficacy of the vaccines, and alternative correlates of clinical protection against influenza that are needed for more effective translation of novel vaccination strategies to improved protection against influenza in older adults. PMID:21055484

McElhaney, Janet E.

2010-01-01

31

Widespread Pain in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The differential diagnosis of widespread pain in older adults is broad, with fibromyaglia syndrome (FMS) leading the list.\\u000a While the exact pathogenesis of FMS is not clear, recent studies suggest that abnormal pain processing and central sensitization\\u000a contribute to the development of chronic muscle pain and tender points. Precise diagnosis of FMS requires a targeted history\\u000a and physical examination. A

Cheryl D. Bernstein; Jordan F. Karp; Debra K. Weiner

32

Older Adults and Food Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Safety / Older Adults and Food Safety Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

33

Screening for Elder Abuse in Hospitalized Older Adults With Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevention of elder abuse is important as current estimates show the world's population of adults over age 65 will triple with an associated rise in the number of older adults who are diagnosed with dementia. Many older adults with dementia are hospitalized for psychiatric treatment, thus presenting an opportunity for elder abuse screening. Which instrument is most suitable for

Leslie D. Pisani; Christine A. Walsh

2012-01-01

34

disaster series for older adults Profile of Displaced Older  

E-print Network

of Hurricane Katrina Profile of Displaced Older Adults Following Hurricane Katrina, around 73% of deaths in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. In Part One of this series, we describe a group of older adults who evacuated to Baton Rouge and the surrounding areas. Reflecting on their lives six to ten months after

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

35

Functional Performance in Community Living Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Routinely, physical therapists use a variety of physical performance tests to determine functional status of older adults. Whereas many commonly used instruments have been evaluated for some aspects of reliability and valid- ity, few studies report typical performance for community liv- ing older adults, especially those who are 80 years and older and use an assistive ambulatory device. The

Michelle M. Lusardi; Geraldine L. Pellecchia

36

The Level of Willingness to Evacuate Among Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issues of rising numbers of disasters, overwhelming increases in number of older adults, and historically flawed evacuations present real challenges. During the next two decades, the number of American baby boomers, who turn 65, will increase by 40%. As evidenced by recent disasters, the imperfections and vulnerabilities of flawed evacuations for older adults are still present. This study examined

Amy Gray-Graves; Keith W. Turner; James H. Swan

2011-01-01

37

Child's play: the creativity of older adults.  

PubMed

In this article, I discuss Paul W. Pruyser's view presented in his article "An Essay on Creativity" (Pruyser in Bull Menninger Clin 43:294-353, 1979) that creative persons manifest early childhood qualities of playfulness, curiosity, and pleasure seeking and that adaptation is itself a form of creativity. I then discuss his article "Creativity in Aging Persons" (Pruyser in Bull Menninger Clin 51:425-435, 1987) in which he presents his view that aging itself is a potentially creative process, that creativity among older adults is not limited to the talented few, and that older adulthood has several specific features that are conducive to creativity. Significant among these features are object loss (especially involving human relationships) and functional loss (due to the vicissitudes of aging). Noting his particular emphasis on object loss and its role in late-life creativity, I focus on functional loss, and I emphasize the importance of adaptation in sustaining the creativity of older adults who experience such loss. I illustrate this adaptation by considering well-known painters who in late life suffered visual problems common to older adults. I suggest that in adapting to their visual problems these artists drew on the early childhood qualities (playfulness, curiosity and pleasure seeking) that all creative persons possess and that they are therefore illustrative for other older adults who are experiencing functional losses. I conclude with Erik H. Erikson's (Toys and reasons: stages in the ritualization of experience, W. W. Norton, New York, 1977) and Paul W. Pruyser's (Pastor Psychol 35:120-131, 1986) reflections on the relationship between seeing and hoping. PMID:22706923

Capps, Donald

2012-09-01

38

Impact of Health Conditions on Food Intakes Among Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even well older adults may experience a range of age-related physiological changes and chronic health conditions and may become increasingly sedentary—key factors that could affect appetite and hunger and lead to changes in diet composition. The present article reviews recent literature on the impact of prevalent health conditions on dietary choice. Research shows some evidence that older adults make positive

Bryna Shatenstein

2008-01-01

39

Impact of Arts Participation on Health Outcomes for Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to present findings from a literature review on the documented health benefits of arts programs for older adults. A systematic literature review was conducted to examine research publications on participatory arts programs for older adults and their reported impact on health outcomes. A total of 2,205 articles were found. Of these, 11 were eligible

Melissa Castora-Binkley; Linda Noelker; Thomas Prohaska; William Satariano

2010-01-01

40

Senior Health: Older Adults and Newer Technology  

MedlinePLUS

... Medical Director Senior Health: Older Adults and Newer Technology Volume 15 · Issue 6 · November/December 2005 Text ... adults who struggle to stand and walk. New technology includes knee units, shock-absorbing pylons, and other ...

41

disaster series for older adults Coping by Displaced Older  

E-print Network

of Hurricane Katrina Six to Ten Months After Hurricane Katrina In disasters, older persons face accumulated.Readers shouldreviewtheProfile of Displaced Older Adult in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in Part Oneofthe Disaster setuphouseintheircurrentresidence.Showinga 2005calendar,weremindedstudyparticipantsthat Hurricane Katrina hit on August 29, 2005

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

42

Sexual functioning in older adults.  

PubMed

This article reviews recent medical and social science literature on sexual functioning in older adults. We provide a broad definition of sexual functioning that includes a range of solo and partnered forms of sexual expression. We identify four determinants of sexual functioning: biologic, psychological, social context (including culture), and interactions of these with each other. Recent literature on the impact of aging and physical health documents some decline in frequency of sexual activity. Interest continues in the role of hormones in male and female sexual functioning. Recent research highlights the role of the social context, especially the presence of a sexual partner and the relationship with that partner, in sexual activity. We discuss variations in sexual functioning by life course events, gender, and race and ethnicity. Relevant results from the Global Study of Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors; Male Attitudes Regarding Sexual Health Survey; and the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project are also reviewed. PMID:19187702

DeLamater, John; Karraker, Amelia

2009-02-01

43

Textile Recycling, Convenience, and the Older Adult.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a study to examine the recycling practices and needs of older adults (n=217) indicated that older adults do recycle traditional materials, but need accommodations for physical limitations. They report textile recycling as time consuming and difficult and used donations to religious organizations as their principal means of textile…

Domina, Tanya; Koch, Kathryn

2001-01-01

44

Older Adults' Acceptance of Information Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated variables contributing to older adults' information technology acceptance through a survey, which was used to find factors explaining and predicting older adults' information technology acceptance behaviors. Four factors, including needs satisfaction, perceived usability, support availability, and public acceptance, were…

Wang, Lin; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick; Salvendy, Gavriel

2011-01-01

45

Scoping review report: obesity in older adults.  

PubMed

Obesity is associated with an increased risk for early death, heart disease and stroke, disability and several other comorbidities. Although there is concern about the potential burden on health-care services with the aging demographic and the increasing trend of obesity prevalence in older adults, evidence on which to base management strategies is conflicting for various reasons. The analytic framework for this review is based on a scoping review methodology, and was conducted to examine what is known about the diagnosis, treatment and management of obesity in older adults. A total of 492 relevant research articles were identified using PubMed, Scirus, EBSCO, Clinicaltrials.gov, Cochrane Reviews and Google Scholar. The findings of this review indicate that the current WHO (World Health Organization)-recommended body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio obesity thresholds for the general adult population may not be appropriate for older adults. Alternatively, weight change or physical fitness may be more useful measures of mortality and health risk in obese older adults. Furthermore, although obesity in older adults is associated with several disorders that increase functional disability, epidemiological evidence suggests that obesity is protective against mortality in seniors. Consequently, the trend toward increasing prevalence of obesity in older adults will lead to an increase in unhealthy life years and health-care costs. The findings from this review also suggest that treatment strategies for obese older adults should focus on maintaining body weight and improving physical fitness and function rather than weight loss, and that a combination of aerobic and resistance exercise appears to be the most effective strategy. In conclusion, this review demonstrates the need for more research to clarify the definition of obesity in older adults, to establish criteria for evaluating when to treat older adults for obesity, and to develop effective treatment strategies focused on functional outcomes in obese older adults. PMID:22410960

Decaria, J E; Sharp, C; Petrella, R J

2012-09-01

46

Special Considerations of Adherence in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Optimizing medication adherence is a significant challenge for clinicians caring for older adults, particularly those with\\u000a multiple chronic health conditions. Nearly half of all adults aged 65 or older take five or more medications regularly; however,\\u000a adherence to chronic pharmacological therapies is often poor [1]. Overall, 40% of older Medicare beneficiaries reported one\\u000a or more forms of medication non-adherence in

S. Nicole Hastings; Janine C. Kosmoski; Jason M. Moss

47

[Substance abuse in older adults].  

PubMed

In respect of demographic change, the number of older patients with substance abuse and addiction is on the raise. In this review we present important clinical and therapeutic aspects of substance abuse and addiction in the elderly and focus on alcohol, benzodiazepines and opioids. Daily and risky alcohol consumption is common among older people. They also have an increased risk getting alcohol-related complications. For early detection, laboratory parameters and questionnaires such as the AUDIT-C are suitable. Therapeutically brief interventions have been proved successful. Also, abuse of benzodiazepines, especially low-dose addiction, is widespread among older persons, although often overlooked, and patients often do not recognize their addiction. The physician has to know the correct indication, adequate dosage and pharmacological interactions. A slow-dose reduction is recommended in case of addiction. Thanks to opioid substitution therapy, patients with an opioidaddiction can reach a higher age. Age influences the effects of the substitute, which may require an adjustment of the dosage. Treatment of elderly patients should be based on their needs and resources and is usually very effective. PMID:25183616

Bitar, Raoul; Dürsteler, Kenneth M; Rösner, Susanne; Grosshans, Martin; Herdener, Marcus; Mutschler, Jochen

2014-09-01

48

Semantic and self-referential processing of positive and negative trait adjectives in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beneficial effects of self-referential processing on memory have been demonstrated in numerous experiments with younger adults but have rarely been studied in older individuals. In the present study we tested young people, younger-older adults, and older-older adults in a self-reference paradigm, and compared self-referential processing to general semantic processing. Findings indicated that older adults over the age of 75

Elizabeth L. Glisky; Maria J. Marquine

2009-01-01

49

Hypersexuality among cognitively impaired older adults.  

PubMed

Hypersexuality, also referred to in the literature as sexually inappropriate behavior and sexual disinhibition, involves persistent, uninhibited sexual behaviors directed at oneself or at others. For older adults, the literature generally attributes the behavior to biochemical or physiological changes that accompany cognitive impairment-specifically, dementia. Although less common than other behavioral issues, such as aggression and agitation, hypersexuality presents complex logistical and ethical problems for caregivers. This article reviews the current literature on hypersexual behavior. Assessment essentials as well as nonpharmacological and pharmacological treatment approaches are discussed, identifying the need for standardization as well as caregiver education and training. PMID:19665665

Wallace, Meredith; Safer, Meredith

2009-01-01

50

Four Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Four Medication Safety Tips for Older Adults Search the ... of the normal aging process.” Read on for four important tips. back to top Take Medicine as ...

51

Falls Among Older Adults: An Overview  

MedlinePLUS

... Fractures among Older Adults Falls in Nursing Homes Data & Statistics Cost of Fall Injuries Publications & Resources Preventing Falls: What Works. A CDC Compendium of Effective Community–based Interventions ...

52

Illicit Drug Use among Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Use among Adults Aged 50 or Older, by gender: 2007 to 2009 * Difference between the estimates for males and females is ... Aged 50 or Older, by Age group and gender: 2007 to 2009 * Difference between the estimates for males and females is ...

53

Operant Conditioning in Older Adults with Alzheimer's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behavioral interventions based on operant principles are commonly attempted to manage agitation in older adults with dementia. The extent to which operant conditioning can occur in persons with particular dementias, however, is unclear. The present study involved use of a button-pressing task to evaluate the sensitivity of the responding of older

Spira, Adam P.; Edelstein, Barry A.

2007-01-01

54

Case Presentation of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy With an Older Adult With Major Depressive Disorder Comorbid With Multiple Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a detailed single-case presentation of a 70-year-old Caucasian, married woman suffering from multiple sclerosis and significant chronic depression. Her presentation was complicated by traumatic events during childhood and a recent decline in physical abilities due to multiple sclerosis. Cognitive behavioral therapy was used and excellent outcomes were achieved. This article describes how cognitive behavioral therapy was effectively adapted

Dichelle Wong; Ken Laidlaw

2012-01-01

55

The invisible elderly: lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender older adults.  

PubMed

More than 2 million older adults identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT). The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the physical and mental health needs of LGBT older adults to sensitize nurses to the specific needs of this group. Nurses are in a prominent position to create health care environments that will meet the needs of this invisible, and often misunderstood, group of people. PMID:24066784

Jablonski, Rita A; Vance, David E; Beattie, Elizabeth

2013-11-01

56

Characteristics of Older Adult Problem Gamblers Calling a Gambling Helpline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Few investigations have characterized groups of older adults with gambling problems, and published reports are currently limited by small samples of older adult problem gamblers. Gambling helplines represent a widespread mechanism for assisting problem gamblers to move into treatment settings. Given data from older adult problem gamblers in treatment, we hypothesized that older as compared with younger adult problem gamblers

Marc N. Potenza; Marvin A. Steinberg; Ran Wu; Bruce J. Rounsaville; Stephanie S. O’Malley

2006-01-01

57

Preventing Malnutrition in Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

... Accessed October 29, 2010 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Senior health: How to detect and prevent malnutrition.. Accessed October 29, 2010 National Resource Center on Nutrition, Physical Activity and Aging. Malnutrition and Older Americans. Accessed ...

58

Group therapy in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group therapy is a well-established therapeutic modality for older individuals often conducted in combination with individual\\u000a psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. Group leaders must be aware of age-specific factors when working with older cohorts, including\\u000a the presence of cognitive impairment, physical disability, and loss of independence. A limited number of outcome studies have\\u000a found that various forms of group therapy in late

Marc Agronin

2009-01-01

59

First Year Graduate Social Work Students' Knowledge of and attitude Toward Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined attitudes and knowledge of 96 first year MSW social work students toward older adults using the Aging Semantic Differential (ASD) and the Facts on Aging Quiz II. Results suggest that the sample had limited previous contact with older adults and little knowledge about aging prior to admission. Students reported negative attitudes toward older adults on productivity,

Zvi D. Gellis; Susan Sherman; Frances Lawrance

2003-01-01

60

Emotional Stroop Performance in Older Adults: Effects of Habitual Worry  

PubMed Central

Objective In clinically anxious individuals, selective attention to negative cues in the environment may perpetuate a vicious cycle of emotional dysfunction. However, very little is known regarding the role of negative attentional bias in anxious older adults. There is evidence that in older adults without clinical anxiety, the opposite bias (toward positive, and away from negative, emotional material) is present. We explored how these age-related changes in emotional processing interact with anxiety. Method Sixty older adults (age 60+) completed the emotional Stroop (eStroop) task, a widely used measure of attentional bias which requires rapid identification of the color in which neutral and emotional words are printed. Participants were stratified into high-, mid-, and low-worry groups on the basis of a self-report measure, the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Results The high-worry group exhibited a bias towards threat-related words, while the low- and mid-worry groups showed a bias away from threat-related words. By contrast, the low- and mid-worry groups showed a bias towards positive words, potentially consistent with an established positivity effect in older adults; while the high-worry group showed a bias away from positive items. Conclusion Older adults who worry frequently exhibit a pattern of eStroop performance that is broadly consistent with the younger adult literature, suggesting that selective attention towards threat-related information may be seen as a relevant factor in older, as in younger, anxiety. PMID:21941169

Price, Rebecca B.; Siegle, Greg; Mohlman, Jan

2011-01-01

61

Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults.  

PubMed

In 1999 we proposed a Modified Food Guide Pyramid for adults aged 70+ y. It has been extensively used in a variety of settings and formats to highlight the unique dietary challenges of older adults. We now propose a Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults in a format consistent with the MyPyramid graphic. It is not intended to substitute for MyPyramid, which is a multifunctional Internet-based program allowing for the calculation of individualized food-based dietary guidance and providing supplemental information on food choices and preparation. Pedagogic issues related to computer availability, Web access, and Internet literacy of older adults suggests a graphic version of MyPyramid is needed. Emphasized are whole grains and variety within the grains group; variety and nutrient density, with specific emphasis on different forms particularly suited to older adults' needs (e.g. frozen) in the vegetables and fruits groups; low-fat and non-fat forms of dairy products including reduced lactose alternatives in the milk group; low saturated fat and trans fat choices in the oils group; and low saturated fat and vegetable choices in the meat and beans group. Underlying themes stress nutrient- and fiber-rich foods within each group and food sources of nutrients rather than supplements. Fluid and physical activity icons serve as the foundation of MyPyramid for Older Adults. A flag to maintain an awareness of the potential need to consider supplemental forms of calcium, and vitamins D and B-12 is placed at the top of the pyramid. Discussed are newer concerns about potential overnutrition in the current food landscape available to older adults. PMID:18156396

Lichtenstein, Alice H; Rasmussen, Helen; Yu, Winifred W; Epstein, Susanna R; Russell, Robert M

2008-01-01

62

Purposeful Visits for Hospitalized Older Adults.  

PubMed

Hospitalization can be an isolating and stressful experience for older adults who find themselves cut off from normal routines and social support systems. The Purposeful Visitation Program (PVP) provided structured interactions for hospitalized geriatric patients using volunteers trained to elicit discussion about recreation and leisure. The goal of the program was to improve patients' orientation, level of calmness, and mood through guided cognitively stimulating interactions. Between January and July 2010, seven volunteers were trained and provided the program to 98 older adults on a geriatric inpatient hospital unit of a large academic medical center. Ninety-nine percent of patients reported enjoying their volunteer visit, and 96% thought other patients would also benefit. Volunteers and staff observed improvements, primarily in patient mood, after visits. PVP represents a cost-effective method of providing structured, individualized, and stimulating social interactions for older adults in a hospital setting. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, xx(xx): xx-xx.]. PMID:25486113

Mramor, Bill; Hagman, Jan; Ford, Deborah; Oman, Kathleen S; Cumbler, Ethan

2014-12-10

63

On the time course of attentional focusing in older adults.  

PubMed

Many sensory and cognitive changes accompany normal ageing, including changes to visual attention. Several studies have investigated age-related changes in the control of attention to specific locations (spatial orienting), but it is unknown whether control over the distribution or breadth of attention (spatial focus) also changes with age. In the present study, we employed a dual-stream attentional blink task and assessed changes to the spatial distribution of attention through the joint consequences of temporal lag and spatial separation on second-target accuracy. Experiment 1 compared the rate at which attention narrows in younger (mean age 22.6, SD 4.25) and older (mean age 66.8, SD 4.36) adults. The results showed that whereas young adults can narrow attention to one stream within 133 ms, older adults were unable to do the same within this time period. Experiment 2 showed that older adults can narrow their attention to one stream when given more time (266 ms). Experiment 3 confirmed that age-related changes in retinal illuminance did not account for delayed attentional narrowing in older adults. Considered together, these experiments demonstrate that older adults can narrow their attentional focus, but that they are delayed in initiating this process compared to younger adults. This finding adds to previously reported reductions in attentional dynamics, deficits in inhibitory processes, and reductions in posterior parietal cortex function that accompany normal ageing. PMID:24337971

Jefferies, Lisa N; Roggeveen, Alexa B; Enns, James T; Bennett, Patrick J; Sekuler, Allison B; Di Lollo, Vincent

2015-01-01

64

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy With Older Adults: Rationale and Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the population. With these changing demographics, mental health professionals will be seeing more older clients. Additionally, older adults are an underserved population in that most older adults in need of mental health services do not receive treatment. Thus, it is essential that treatments for mental and behavioral health problems are empirically supported

Andrew J. Petkus; Julie Loebach Wetherell

65

Risk communication design for older adults Vaibhav Garg 1  

E-print Network

@indiana.edu) Purpose Older adults are more susceptible to fraud offline than younger adults. As they increasingly use by people over 65 years of age5 . By 2020 older adults will own one-third of all publicly held stocks in America. Older adults are, however, highly suscepti- ble to scams and financial fraud. According

Camp, L. Jean

66

Integrating care for older adults with cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

The number of older adults with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders is expected to triple over the next 50 years. While we may be on the cusp of important therapeutic advances, such advances will not alter the disease course for millions of persons already affected. Hoping for technology to spare the health care system from the need to care for older adults with dementia is no longer tenable. Most older adults with dementia will receive their medical care in the primary care setting and this setting is not prepared to provide for the complex care needs of these vulnerable elders. With an increasing emphasis on earlier diagnosis of dementia, primary care in particular will come under increasing strain from this new care responsibility. While primary care may remain the hub of care for older adults, it cannot and should not be the whole of care. We need to design and test new models of care that integrate the larger health care system including medical care as well as community and family resources. The purpose of this paper to describe the current health care infrastructure with an emphasis on the role of primary care in providing care for older adults with dementia. We summarize recent innovative models of care seeking to provide an integrated and coordinated system of care for older adults with dementia. We present the case for a more aggressive agenda to improving our system of care for older adults with dementia through greater training, integration, and collaboration of care providers. This requires investments in the design and testing of an improved infrastructure for care that matches our national investment in the search for cure. PMID:19689236

Callahan, Christopher M; Boustani, Malaz; Sachs, Greg A; Hendrie, Hugh C

2009-08-01

67

Older Adults' Perceptions of Home Telehealth Services  

PubMed Central

Abstract The success of home telemedicine depends on end-user adoption, which has been slow despite rapid advances in technological development. This study focuses on an examination of significant factors that may predict the successful adoption of home telemedicine services (HTS) among older adults. Based on previous studies in the fields of remote patient monitoring, assisted living technologies, and consumer health information technology acceptance, eight factors were identified as a framework for qualitative testing. Twelve focus groups were conducted with an older population living in both urban and rural environments. The results reveal seven predictors that play an important role in perceptions of HTS: perceived usefulness, effort expectancy, social influence, perceived security, computer anxiety, facilitating conditions, and physicians' opinion. The results provide important insights in the field of older adults' acceptance of HTS, with guidelines for the strategic planning, developing, and marketing of HTS for the graying market. PMID:23931702

Bren?i?, Maja Makovec; Trkman, Peter; de Leonni Stanonik, Mateja

2013-01-01

68

Preventing falls among older adults: No \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical activity (exercise) serves primary, second- ary, and tertiary roles in the prevention of falls among older adults. In its primary role, physical activity can prevent the onset of pathology and system impairments that lead to disabil- ity and increased risk for falls. Slowing the progression of dis- ease and system impairments is its secondary role, while its tertiary role

Debra J. Rose

2008-01-01

69

Mobility in Older Adults: A Comprehensive Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mobility is fundamental to active aging and is intimately linked to health status and quality of life. Although there is widespread acceptance regarding the importance of mobility in older adults, there have been few attempts to comprehensively portray mobility, and research has to a large extent been discipline specific. In this article, a new…

Webber, Sandra C.; Porter, Michelle M.; Menec, Verena H.

2010-01-01

70

Groups with Relatives of Dependent Older Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses work with small groups of care-taking relatives of frail, dependent older adults. Considers repetitive themes of concern expressed by the caregivers and their dependent relatives and some of the changes in attitudes and approaches of participants during and after the groups' experiences. (Author)

Hartford, Margaret E.; Parsons, Rebecca

1982-01-01

71

LIPID PROFILES OF RURAL OLDER ADULTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Age is an independent, non-modifiable risk factor for CVD, the leading cause of death in the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine total cholesterol and lipoprotein sub-fractions in relation to statin use and ATPIII guidelines in a sample of older adults, n=278. 161f and 117m. Fa...

72

Immunologic Changes in Frail Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Several studies have shown a heightened inflammatory state in frail older adults, marked by high serum levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein and an increased number of circulating leukocytes. Activation of monocytes and macrophages, marked by increased levels of neopterin, may contribute to chronic inflammation in the frail older adult. However, the reduced mononuclear cell response to lipopolysaccharide in vitro suggests the existence of defective activation pathways within the innate immune system possibly due to desensitization. Conversely, the expansion of CD8+ T cells, and specifically those expressing the CCR5 chemokine receptor, above and beyond the levels observed in senescence, points to the involvement of adaptive immune pathways. In line with these observations, frail older adults exhibit a reduced antibody response to pneumococcal and influenza vaccines. Collectively, these observations support the existence of a dysregulated immune system in frail older adults and highlight the need for strategies to improve its function. Abbreviations AIDS, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; CCL, CC-chemokine receptor ligand; CCR, CC-chemokine receptor; CHS, Cardiovascular Health Study; CMV, cytomegalovirus; GTP, guanosine trisphosphate; HAART, highly active anti-retroviral therapy; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; IDO, indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase; IL, interleukin; IFN, interferon; MACS, Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study; NH2PPP, dihydro-neopterin trisphosphate; Tc, T cytotoxic; TCR, T-cell receptor; TEMRA, T effector memory cells re-expressing CD45RA; Th, T helper; TNF, tumor necrosis factor; WHAS, Women’s Health and Aging Study PMID:24809027

Wang, George C.; Casolaro, Vincenzo

2014-01-01

73

Current Psychopathology in Previously Assaulted Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Older adult women age 55+ years (N = 549) were interviewed as part of a population-based epidemiological research study of lifetime experiences with physical and sexual assault and current mental health problems. Although overall rates of psychopathology were low, producing very small cells for comparison, women who reported experiencing physical…

Acierno, Ron; Lawyer, Steven R.; Rheingold, Alyssa; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.

2007-01-01

74

Endurance of Undergraduate Attitudes toward Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cross-sectional study assessed undergraduate attitudes toward older adults and attitude endurance 3 to 18 months after aging coursework. Survey respondents included 349 students who took an aging elective and 430 comparison students. Aging-elective students indicated more positive attitudes than comparison students. Attitudes did not vary…

Funderburk, Brooke; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Storms, Lene Levy; Solomon, David H.

2006-01-01

75

Caribbean Students' Attitudes toward Older Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey indicated that Caribbean college students (n=201) had largely neutral attitudes toward older adults. Those who had close relationships with elders had more positive attitudes. Social work students were more positive than sociology, psychology, or English majors. Ethnicity was not a factor. (SK)

Prudent, Ella S.; Tan, P. Philip

2002-01-01

76

A Nutritional Questionnaire for Older Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a questionnaire assessing nutritional knowledge and eating behaviors of older adults. The questionnaire consists of six sections: demographic and personal information, food resources, food consumption patterns, dietary practices related to health, activity patterns, and nutritional knowledge. Study results demonstrating the…

Fanelli, Marie T.; Abernethy, Marilyn M.

1986-01-01

77

Alcohol Abuse Treatment for Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the population continues to age, social work practitioners and researchers will increasingly confront the needs of elders with alcohol use disorders. Alcohol abuse poses special risks for increased morbidity and mortality among older adults, contributing to the heightened use of medical resources and the related increase in medical costs. Although, the prevalence of alcohol use disorders in the elderly

Sherry M. Cummings; Brian Bride; Ann M. Rawlins-Shaw

2006-01-01

78

Blueberry supplementation improves memory in older adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The prevalence of dementia, in particular Alzheimer’s disease, is increasing with the expansion of the older adult population. In the absence of effective therapy, preventive approaches are essential to mitigate this public health problem. Blueberries contain polyphenolic compounds, most prominent...

79

Services for Older Adults: Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide contains materials for a course that provides occupationally specific training designed to develop knowledge and skills for employment in the area of services for older adults. Contents include an introduction, the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) covered; sample course outlines; instructional strategies organized…

Mumme, Debbie

80

Liver transplantation in older adults.  

PubMed

Liver transplantation is the only definitive treatment therapy for end-stage liver disease. In the United States, approximately 15% of annual liver transplant recipients are 65 or older. The most common postoperative complications are infection, acute graft rejection, and acute renal failure. To prevent complications, recipients are treated with immunosuppressive medications and anti-infective agents. The long-term complications of liver transplantation are a consequence of long-term use of immunosuppressive medications and recurrence of the original disease in the liver. Nurses play a critical role in supporting and educating recipients and their primary support persons about post-transplant follow-up care, including laboratory test schedules, medication management, and infection prevention. Strict compliance with follow-up care provides the greatest possibility of avoiding complications or organ rejection. PMID:25105357

Hansen, Lissi

2014-09-01

81

Evaluation of Verbal Behavior in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Approximately 5% of older adults have a dementia diagnosis, and language deterioration is commonly associated with this disorder (Kempler, 2005). Several instruments have been developed to diagnose dementia and assess language capabilities of elderly adults. However, none of these instruments take a functional approach to language assessment as described by Skinner (1957). The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a function-based assessment for language deficits of older adults. Thirty-one participants were categorized into a control group (n ?=? 15) and a dementia group (n ?=? 16) based on their score on the Dementia Rating Scale-2. Individuals with dementia performed significantly worse on the tact assessment than those without dementia. Participants from both groups performed better on measures of tacts than intraverbals or mands, even though topographically identical responses were required in these assessments. The data provide support for Skinner's conceptualization of functionally independent verbal operants. PMID:23814369

Gross, Amy C.; Fuqua, R. Wayne; Merritt, Todd A.

2013-01-01

82

Evaluation of verbal behavior in older adults.  

PubMed

Approximately 5% of older adults have a dementia diagnosis, and language deterioration is commonly associated with this disorder (Kempler, 2005). Several instruments have been developed to diagnose dementia and assess language capabilities of elderly adults. However, none of these instruments take a functional approach to language assessment as described by Skinner (1957). The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a function-based assessment for language deficits of older adults. Thirty-one participants were categorized into a control group (n ?=? 15) and a dementia group (n ?=? 16) based on their score on the Dementia Rating Scale-2. Individuals with dementia performed significantly worse on the tact assessment than those without dementia. Participants from both groups performed better on measures of tacts than intraverbals or mands, even though topographically identical responses were required in these assessments. The data provide support for Skinner's conceptualization of functionally independent verbal operants. PMID:23814369

Gross, Amy C; Fuqua, R Wayne; Merritt, Todd A

2013-01-01

83

Light therapy for insomnia in older adults.  

PubMed

Exposure to bright light suppresses the production of melatonin and contributes to the regulation of the circadian rhythm. Because of environmental and medical conditions, older adults are less likely than younger adults to receive the prolonged, high intensity, daily bright light needed to promote a satisfactory sleep-wake cycle. The best available evidence for bright light therapy is in the management of seasonal affective disorder, which is relatively infrequent in the elderly population. For older adults with chronic insomnia, dementia, and nonseasonal depression, there is no consensus on the optimum treatment protocol for bright light therapy. However, in addition to sleep improvement, bright light therapy may be used to reduce unwanted behavioral and cognitive symptoms associated with dementia and depression in the elderly. PMID:18035237

Gammack, Julie K

2008-02-01

84

Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults Tools and Tips Printer-friendly PDF Click here to see our other ... and neglect. According to the National Center on Elder Abuse, the number of older adults who are mistreated ...

85

Predictors of hoarding severity in older adults with hoarding disorder.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Background: The recent addition of hoarding disorder (HD) to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders, 5th edition, has highlighted the dearth of information about the demographic, sociologic, and medical predictors of HD severity, particularly in older adults. Although there have been several previous studies examining the characteristics of older adults with HD, and one investigation of psychiatric correlates of hoarding symptom severity in non-clinical older adults, there has been little investigation about which characteristics predict hoarding symptom severity in older adults with HD. Methods: Participants were 71 older adults who were enrolled for one of the two studies of HD at the VA San Diego Healthcare System between January 2010 and January 2014. Results: There were multiple differences in the predictive ability of patient characteristics between the more cognition-related symptoms of HD and the more concrete measure of clutter, including gender-based differences and anxiety severity. Further, married participants were more likely to report lower hoarding severity, and there was no significant relationship between hoarding severity and intervention attempts or hoarding and reported falls in the past three years. Conclusions: Multiple predictive factors have been presented, which may result in further studies to investigate possible predictive differences in cognition and clutter symptoms of HD. Future studies should examine the possibility of the predictive factors also identified to be moderators of treatment outcomes. PMID:25115688

Ayers, Catherine R; Dozier, Mary E

2014-08-13

86

Falls Risk and Simulated Driving Performance in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Declines in executive function and dual-task performance have been related to falls in older adults, and recent research suggests that older adults at risk for falls also show impairments on real-world tasks, such as crossing a street. The present study examined whether falls risk was associated with driving performance in a high-fidelity simulator. Participants were classified as high or low falls risk using the Physiological Profile Assessment and completed a number of challenging simulated driving assessments in which they responded quickly to unexpected events. High falls risk drivers had slower response times (~2.1 seconds) to unexpected events compared to low falls risk drivers (~1.7 seconds). Furthermore, when asked to perform a concurrent cognitive task while driving, high falls risk drivers showed greater costs to secondary task performance than did low falls risk drivers, and low falls risk older adults also outperformed high falls risk older adults on a computer-based measure of dual-task performance. Our results suggest that attentional differences between high and low falls risk older adults extend to simulated driving performance. PMID:23509627

Gaspar, John G.; Neider, Mark B.; Kramer, Arthur F.

2013-01-01

87

Reviewing and Critiquing Computer Learning and Usage among Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By searching the keywords of "older adult" and "computer" in ERIC, Academic Search Premier, and PsycINFO, this study reviewed 70 studies published after 1990 that address older adults' computer learning and usage. This study revealed 5 prominent themes among reviewed literature: (a) motivations and barriers of older adults' usage of computers, (b)…

Kim, Young Sek

2008-01-01

88

Neural Processes Supporting Young and Older Adults' Emotional Memories  

E-print Network

are associated with self-referential processing, these results suggest that older adults' mnemonic boostNeural Processes Supporting Young and Older Adults' Emotional Memories Elizabeth A. Kensinger1 the neural processes supporting young (ages 18­35) and older (ages 62­79) adults' successful encoding

Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

89

Resilience in Rural Community-Dwelling Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Identifying ways to meet the health care needs of older adults is important because their numbers are increasing and they often have more health care issues. High resilience level may be one factor that helps older adults adjust to the hardships associated with aging. Rural community-dwelling older adults often face unique challenges such…

Wells, Margaret

2009-01-01

90

Alcohol Use Screening and Assessment for Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

WHY: While as many as 60% of older persons abstain from alcohol use, drinking problems are the largest category of substance abuse problems in older adults. Alcohol consumption is associated with high morbidity and mortality in middle age adults and the vulnerability of older adults to the effects of alcohol, alone and in combination with multiple co-morbidities, increases the risk

Madeline A. Naegle

2007-01-01

91

Religion and Spirituality as Defined by Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory qualitative study examined the intrinsic definitions of spirituality and religion across three different religious or ethnic groups of older adults – Jewish, African American Protestants and Caucasian Protestants. The study explores how older adults from these various backgrounds self-identify with the terms religion and spirituality. Because both African-Americans and Jewish older adults are underrepresented in the research on

Harriet L. Cohen; Cecilia L. Thomas; Celia Williamson

2008-01-01

92

Vitamin nutrition in older adults.  

PubMed

Proper vitamin nutrition is essential for all people but especially for elderly persons, because they are at higher risk for deficiency than younger adults. A review of the clinical effects of vitamin deficiency shows how easily deficiency can masquerade as other morbidities, such as skin, neurologic, and gait abnormalities. Given the numerous readily available forms and sources of supplementation, their low cost, and their rather limited potential for harm, the goal of good vitamin nutrition for the elderly is easily attainable. To be successful in this goal, physicians must look for patients at risk and for those with features of frank vitamin deficiency. Laboratory testing is most helpful with respect to vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. Given the great value of clinical assessment, the low cost of vitamins, and the higher cost of laboratory testing, the authors do not recommend testing before instituting multivitamin use or extra supplementation with individual vitamins unless the diagnosis of deficiency is in question or the use of supplementation would put the patient at risk. The authors' general recommendations are * one multivitamin daily * extra vitamin E for patients with cardiovascular risk factors or Alzheimer's dementia * extra vitamin D for patients with known osteoporosis, osteoporosis risk factors, or strong risk factors for vitamin D deficiency * extra folate for patients with cardiovascular risk factors (especially smokers) and alcoholics * extra thiamine for alcoholics. PMID:12608503

Johnson, Karin A; Bernard, Marie A; Funderburg, Karen

2002-11-01

93

Characteristics of Lifelong Physically Active Older Adults.  

PubMed

Most adults in developed countries fail to accrue enough regular physical activity to prevent or decrease the impact of chronic diseases associated with aging. I conducted semistructured interviews with 16 purposely selected older adults ranging in age from 53 to 70 years to explore the practices of successful lifelong adherents to physical activity. I used an interpretive descriptive approach to data analysis. My findings suggest that both social and competitive motivations were important during early adulthood, although for many participants the latter were more likely to endure over time. Based on these findings, I recommend that programmers be aware of the potential for older participants to be less fulfilled by social motivations as they become more experienced exercisers. PMID:25294347

Chatfield, Sheryl L

2014-10-01

94

Multimorbidity in older adults with intellectual disabilities.  

PubMed

Multimorbidity may be related to the supposed early aging of people with intellectual disabilities (ID). This group may suffer more often from multimorbidity, because of ID-related physical health conditions, unhealthy lifestyle and metabolic effects of antipsychotic drug use. Multimorbidity has been defined as two or more chronic conditions. Data on chronic conditions have been collected through physical assessment, questionnaires, and medical files. Prevalence, associated factors and clusters of multimorbidity have been studied in 1047 older adults (? 50 years) with ID. Multimorbidity was prevalent in 79.8% and associated with age and severe/profound ID. Four or more conditions were prevalent in 46.8% and associated with age, severe/profound ID and Down syndrome. Factor analyses did not reveal a model for disease-clusters with good fit. Multimorbidity is highly prevalent in older adults with ID. Multimorbidity should receive more attention in research and clinical practice for targeted pro-active prevention and treatment. PMID:24529858

Hermans, Heidi; Evenhuis, Heleen M

2014-04-01

95

Sexuality and intimacy in older adults.  

PubMed

In most long-term care settings, staff members tend to view a resident's attempts at sexual expression as "problem" behavior. However, we are increasingly recognizing that interest in, and the right to, sexual expression exists throughout the life span and should be supported. Assisted living nurses need information and tools to adequately address residents' sexual health and to overcome the many barriers to intimacy in this population. This article briefly reviews age and illness-related changes in sexual function; describes the research regarding older adults' and their family's and caregivers' attitudes regarding sexuality and intimacy; discusses sexuality and residents with dementia; and reviews nursing assessment and educational interventions that support healthy sexuality among older adults. PMID:18929184

Rheaume, Chris; Mitty, Ethel

2008-01-01

96

THE OLDER ADULT DRIVER WITH COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT  

PubMed Central

Although automobiles remain the transportation of choice for older adults, late life cognitive impairment and dementia often impair the ability to drive safely. There is, however, no commonly utilized method of assessing dementia severity in relation to driving, no consensus on the assessment of older drivers with cognitive impairment, and no gold standard for determining driving fitness. Yet, clinicians are called upon by patients, their families, other health professionals, and often the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) to assess their patients' fitness-to-drive and to make recommendations about driving privileges. Using the case of Mr W, we describe the challenges of driving with cognitive impairment for both the patient and caregiver, summarize the literature on dementia and driving, discuss evidenced-based assessment of fitness-to-drive, and address important ethical and legal issues. We describe the role of physician assessment, referral to neuropsychology, functional screens, dementia severity tools, driving evaluation clinics, and DMV referrals that may assist with evaluation. Finally, we discuss mobility counseling (eg, exploration of transportation alternatives) since health professionals need to address this important issue for older adults who lose the ability to drive. The application of a comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach to the older driver with cognitive impairment will have the best opportunity to enhance our patients' social connectedness and quality of life, while meeting their psychological and medical needs and maintaining personal and public safety. PMID:20424254

Carr, David B.; Ott, Brian R.

2010-01-01

97

Health and well-being profiles of older European adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to identify health and well-being typologies among a sample of older European adults.\\u000a Further, we examined various demographic, social, and health behaviour characteristics that were used to discriminate between\\u000a such groups. The participants were 1,381 community-dwelling adults aged 65 years and above (M age = 73.65; SD = 7.77) from six European Union (EU) countries who completed self-reported

Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani; Vassilis Barkoukis; Caterina Grano; Fabio Lucidi; Magnus Lindwall; Jarmo Liukkonen; Lennart Raudsepp; William Young

2011-01-01

98

Small intestinal permeability in older adults  

PubMed Central

Abstract It is not yet clear whether intestinal mucosal permeability changes with advancing age in humans. This question is of high importance for drug and nutrition approaches for older adults. Our main objective was to answer the question if small intestinal barrier integrity deteriorates with healthy aging. We conducted a cross?sectional study including the pooled data of 215 nonsmoking healthy adults (93 female/122 male), 84 of whom were aged between 60 and 82 years. After a 12?h fast, all participants ingested 10 g of lactulose and 5 g of mannitol. Urine was collected for 5 h afterwards and analyzed for test sugars. The permeability index (PI = lactulose/mannitol) was used to assess small intestinal permeability. Low?grade inflammation defined by high?sensitivity C?reactive protein ?1 mL/L and kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate) were determined in the older age group. The PI was similar in older compared to younger adults (P =0.887). However, the urinary recovery of lactulose and mannitol was lower in the older adults and this change was neither associated with urinary volume nor glomerular filtration rate. The PI was not significantly correlated with low?grade inflammation or presence of noninsulin?dependent type 2 diabetes. However, it significantly deteriorated in the copresence of both conditions compared to low?grade inflammation alone (P =0.043) or type 2 diabetes alone (P =0.015). Small intestinal mucosal barrier does not deteriorate with age per se. But low?grade inflammation coupled with minor disease challenges, such as type 2 diabetes, can compromise the small intestinal barrier. PMID:24771689

Valentini, Luzia; Ramminger, Sara; Haas, Verena; Postrach, Elisa; Werich, Martina; Fischer, André; Koller, Michael; Swidsinski, Alexander; Bereswill, Stefan; Lochs, Herbert; Schulzke, Jörg?Dieter

2014-01-01

99

Chronic use of benzodiazepines among older adults  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To analyze the perception of and motivation for the chronic use of benzodiazepine among older adults. METHODS A qualitative study was conducted on 22 older adults living in Bambuí, MG, Southeastern Brazil, who were taking benzodiazepines and had the clinical and cognitive ability to respond to interview questions. The collected data were analyzed on the basis of the “signs, meanings, and actions” model. RESULTS The main reasons pointed out for the use of benzodiazepines were “nervousness”, “sleep problems”, and “worry” due to family and financial problems, everyday problems, and existential difficulties. None of the interviewees said that they used benzodiazepines in a dose higher than that recommended or had been warned by health professionals about any risks of their continuous use. Different strategies were used to obtain the prescription for the medication, and any physician would prescribe it, indicating that a bond was established with the drug and not with the health professional or healthcare service. Obtaining and consuming the medication turned into a crucial issue because benzodiazepine assumes the status of an essential food, which leads users to not think but sleep. It causes a feeling of relief from their problems such as awareness of human finitude and fragility, existential difficulties, and family problems. CONCLUSIONS Benzodiazepine assumes the characteristics of polyvalence among older adults, which extrapolate specific clinical indications, and of essentiality to deal with life’s problems in old age. Although it relieves the “nerves”, the chronic use of benzodiazepines buffers suffering and prevents older adults from going through the suffering. This shows important difficulties in the organization and planning of strategies that are necessary for minimizing the chronic use in this population.

Alvarenga, Jussara Mendonça; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; de Loyola, Antônio Ignácio; Uchoa, Elizabeth; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

2014-01-01

100

Representational Momentum in Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Humans have a tendency to perceive motion even in static images that simply "imply" movement. This tendency is so strong that our memory for actions depicted in static images is distorted in the direction of implied motion--a phenomenon known as representational momentum (RM). In the present study, we created an RM display depicting a pattern of…

Piotrowski, Andrea S.; Jakobson, Lorna S.

2011-01-01

101

Societal Role Perceptions of Older Adults: Three Contrasting Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a study of the contrasting social attitudes toward older adults in three different social structures: the Caucasus region of the Soviet Union, a traditional society; Japan, transitional but retaining some traditional values; and the United States, with its obsolescence technology and youth-oriented culture. (MF)

Savage, Alicia P.

1978-01-01

102

Prejudice Reduction in University Programs for Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper, drawing from the perspective of social cognition, examines and evaluates an intervention based on social-cognitive perspective-taking on the reduction of stereotyping and prejudice in older adults. Data were collected in a sample of Spanish participants with a mean age of 63.2 years. The intervention, aimed at reducing prejudice…

Castillo, Jose-Luis Alvarez; Camara, Carmen Palmero; Eguizabal, Alfredo Jimenez

2011-01-01

103

Effects of animacy on processing relative clauses in older and younger adults.  

PubMed

Sentences with object relative clauses are more difficult to process than sentences with subject relative clauses, but the processing penalty associated with object relatives is greater when the sentential subject is an animate than when it is an inanimate noun. The present study tested the hypothesis that older adults are more sensitive to this type of semantic constraint than younger adults. Older and younger adults (n?=?28 per group) participated in a self-paced listening study. The critical sentences contained subject and object relative clauses and had animate or inanimate subjects. Both older and younger adults had longer listening times for critical segments in object than in subject relative clause in both animacy conditions. Critically, the animacy manipulation disrupted older adults more than younger adults. These results are consistent with the claim that older adults rely on experience-based expectations to a greater extent than younger adults. PMID:25191828

DeDe, Gayle

2015-03-01

104

Complementary Therapy Use Among Older Rural Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective Explore use, cost, and satisfaction with the quality and effectiveness of complementary therapy among older rural adults. Design Descriptive survey. Sample A random sample of 325 older adults from rural communities throughout Montana and North Dakota. Measurements Participants were interviewed by telephone. Results Only 57 participants (17.5%) had used complementary providers and most sought this care for chronic problems, heard about providers through word-of-mouth information, and were satisfied with the care. A total of 35.7% (116) used self-directed complementary practices and most used these practices for health promotion, heard about them through informal sources, and found them to be at least somewhat helpful. Of the 325 participants, 45.2% (147) used some form of complementary care, e.g., providers, self-directed practices, or both. Participants used as much complementary care as is found in national studies. Most spent relatively little out-of-pocket for complementary care. Conclusions Understanding the health care choices that older rural residents make, including complementary health care, is paramount for a comprehensive approach to meeting their health care needs. PMID:16150013

Shreffler-Grant, Jean; Weinert, Clarann; Nichols, Elizabeth; Ide, Bette

2006-01-01

105

Interactive video dance games for healthy older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Physical activity promotes health in older adults but participation rates are low. Interactive video dance games can increase\\u000a activity in young persons but have not been designed for use with older adults. The purpose of this research was to evaluate\\u000a healthy older adults’ interest and participation in a dance game adapted for an older user.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Healthy older adults were recruited

Stephanie Studenski; S. Perera; E. Hile; V. Keller; J. Spadola-Bogard; J. Garcia

2010-01-01

106

Attitudes of Older Adults toward a Computer Training Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many older adult have an interest in learning to use computers. The study reported in this article examined whether older adults' attitudes toward computers can be influenced by direct, customized computer training. Thirty older participants who registered for introductory computer courses offered at a SeniorNet computer lab completed the…

Segrist, Kathleen A.

2004-01-01

107

The Capacity to Consent to Research among Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to develop and validate an assessment tool for research consent competence in older participants. A four-item instrument was developed to assess the capacity of the older adults to consent to research. Data were obtained from 203 nursing home residents from two facilities and 201 community-dwelling older adults in a…

Lee, Minhong

2010-01-01

108

Sleep Reduces False Memory in Healthy Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To investigate the effects of post-learning sleep and sleep architecture on false memory in healthy older adults. Design: Balanced, crossover design. False memory was induced using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm and assessed following nocturnal sleep and following a period of daytime wakefulness. Post-learning sleep structure was evaluated using polysomnography (PSG). Setting: Sleep research laboratory. Participants: Fourteen healthy older adults from the Singapore-Longitudinal Aging Brain Study (mean age ± standard deviation = 66.6 ± 4.1 y; 7 males). Measurements and Results: At encoding, participants studied lists of words that were semantically related to non-presented critical lures. At retrieval, they made “remember”/“know” and “new” judgments. Compared to wakefulness, post-learning sleep was associated with reduced “remember” responses, but not “know” responses to critical lures. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the veridical recognition of studied words, false recognition of unrelated distractors, discriminability, or response bias between the sleep and the wake conditions. More post-learning slow wave sleep was associated with greater reduction in false memory. Conclusions: In healthy older adults, sleep facilitates the reduction in false memory without affecting veridical memory. This benefit correlates with the amount of slow wave sleep in the post-learning sleep episode. Citation: Lo JC; Sim SK; Chee MW. Sleep reduces false memory in healthy older adults. SLEEP 2014;37(4):665-671. PMID:24744453

Lo, June C.; Sim, Sam K. Y.; Chee, Michael W. L.

2014-01-01

109

Neighborhood Amenities and Mobility in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Diversity of neighborhood amenities may promote the mobility of older adults. A 2010 community-based sample of 510 adults aged ?65 years in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and geospatial data from the Esri Business Analyst database (Esri, Inc., Redlands, California) were used to assess associations of neighborhood amenity diversity with mobility. Neighborhoods were defined by census tract, and diversity of amenities was derived by using the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design's neighborhood development index (US Green Building Council, Washington, DC). Generalized estimating equations adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, and neighborhood characteristics were used to estimate differences in mobility score by tertile of amenity diversity. Analyses were stratified by participants' routine travel habits (stayed at home, stayed in home zip code, or traveled beyond home zip code). We found that for those who spent most of their time in their home neighborhoods, mobility scores (from the Life-Space Assessment, which ranges from 0 to 104 points) were 8.3 points higher (95% confidence interval: 0.1, 16.6) among those who lived in neighborhoods with the most amenity diversity compared with those who lived in neighborhoods with the least amenity diversity. No significant associations between amenity diversity and mobility were observed for those who did not leave home or who regularly traveled outside their neighborhoods. Neighborhoods with a high diversity of amenities may be important promoters of mobility in older adults who do not routinely travel outside their neighborhoods. PMID:23666814

Rosso, Andrea L.; Grubesic, Tony H.; Auchincloss, Amy H.; Tabb, Loni P.; Michael, Yvonne L.

2013-01-01

110

Spatial navigation in young versus older adults  

PubMed Central

Older age is associated with changes in the brain, including the medial temporal lobe, which may result in mild spatial navigation deficits, especially in allocentric navigation. The aim of the study was to characterize the profile of real-space allocentric (world-centered, hippocampus-dependent) and egocentric (body-centered, parietal lobe dependent) navigation and learning in young vs. older adults, and to assess a possible influence of gender. We recruited healthy participants without cognitive deficits on standard neuropsychological testing, white matter lesions or pronounced hippocampal atrophy: 24 young participants (18–26 years old) and 44 older participants stratified as participants 60–70 years old (n = 24) and participants 71–84 years old (n = 20). All underwent spatial navigation testing in the real-space human analog of the Morris Water Maze, which has the advantage of assessing separately allocentric and egocentric navigation and learning. Of the eight consecutive trials, trials 2–8 were used to reduce bias by a rebound effect (more dramatic changes in performance between trials 1 and 2 relative to subsequent trials). The participants who were 71–84 years old (p < 0.001), but not those 60–70 years old, showed deficits in allocentric navigation compared to the young participants. There were no differences in egocentric navigation. All three groups showed spatial learning effect (p’ s ? 0.01). There were no gender differences in spatial navigation and learning. Linear regression limited to older participants showed linear (? = 0.30, p = 0.045) and quadratic (? = 0.30, p = 0.046) effect of age on allocentric navigation. There was no effect of age on egocentric navigation. These results demonstrate that navigation deficits in older age may be limited to allocentric navigation, whereas egocentric navigation and learning may remain preserved. This specific pattern of spatial navigation impairment may help differentiate normal aging from prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24391585

Gazova, Ivana; Laczó, Jan; Rubinova, Eva; Mokrisova, Ivana; Hyncicova, Eva; Andel, Ross; Vyhnalek, Martin; Sheardova, Katerina; Coulson, Elizabeth J.; Hort, Jakub

2013-01-01

111

Recognition of dementia in hospitalized older adults.  

PubMed

Many hospital patients with dementia have no documented dementia diagnosis. In some cases, this is because they have never been diagnosed. Recognition of Dementia in Hospitalized Older Adults proposes several approaches that hospital nurses can use to increase recognition of dementia. This article describes the Try This approaches, how to implement them, and how to incorporate them into a hospital's current admission procedures. For a free online video demonstrating the use of these approaches, go to http://links.lww.com/A216. PMID:18156858

Maslow, Katie; Mezey, Mathy

2008-01-01

112

Perceptions of Older Adults: The Voices of Eldercare Employees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eldercare employees (73 women, 15 men) at rural and urban facilities in Australia responded to two open-ended questions related to perceptions of older adults. On average, employees assisted 62 adults per week, working at the facility for 19 years. Participants identified the following characteristics of an "independent older adult:" someone who…

Tailor, Megha; Zaturenskaya, Mariya; Iwamasa, Gayle Y.; Ferrari, Joseph R.

2007-01-01

113

Personality Disorders and Coping Among Anxious Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the interrelationships among anxiety, personality disorders, and coping strategies in anxious older adults n = 28; age range = 55–89; mean = 66.0, nonanxious older adults n = 100, age range = 55–79, mean = 64.6 , and anxious younger adults n = 132; age range = 17–30; mean = 20.2. Younger participants were college students and

Frederick L. Coolidge; Daniel L. Segal; Julie N. Hook; Sharon Stewart

2000-01-01

114

Designing Risk Communication for Older Adults Vaibhav Garg  

E-print Network

connelly@indiana.edu ABSTRACT Older adults are more susceptible to fraud than younger adults offline of risks. We developed narrative-driven risk communication videos that address online fraud. These videos-third of all publicly held stocks in Amer- ica. Older adults are, however, highly susceptible to scams

Connelly, Kay

115

Fruit and vegetable intake among older adults: a scoping review  

PubMed Central

Older adults are the fastest growing segment of the world population. Older adults are also at heightened risk of chronic conditions (such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer) and specific geriatric conditions (such as cognitive impairment, frailty, and falls). Research studies have examined the relationship between fruit and vegetable intake and subsequent health outcomes and the correlates of fruit and vegetable intake in the U.S. population. However, relatively few studies have specifically examined health impacts and correlates of fruit and vegetable intake among older adults, who have unique biophysical and socioeconomic circumstances. Evidence is reviewed to (1) describe findings related to consumption and chronic, geriatric, and other health outcomes among older adults and (2) describe patterns in fruit and vegetable consumption among older adults and how these patterns vary within and among populations. This review addresses specific barriers faced by older adults in obtaining and consuming fruits and vegetables in community settings. Recommendations for practice and policy are discussed. PMID:23769545

Kadell, Andria R.

2013-01-01

116

Training attentional control in older adults.  

PubMed

Recent research has demonstrated benefits for older adults from training attentional control using a variable priority strategy, but the construct validity of the training task and the degree to which benefits of training transfer to other contexts are unclear. The goal of this study was to characterize baseline performance on the training task in a sample of 105 healthy older adults and to test for transfer of training in a subset (n?=?21). Training gains after 5 days and extent of transfer was compared to another subset (n?=?20) that served as a control group. Baseline performance on the training task was characterized by a two-factor model of working memory and processing speed. Processing speed correlated with the training task. Training gains in speed and accuracy were reliable and robust (ps <.001, ?(2)?=?.57 to .90). Transfer to an analogous task was observed (ps <.05, ?(2)?=?.10 to .17). The beneficial effect of training did not translate to improved performance on related measures of processing speed. This study highlights the robust effect of training and transfer to a similar context using a variable priority training task. Although processing speed is an important aspect of the training task, training benefit is either related to an untested aspect of the training task or transfer of training is limited to the training context. PMID:21728889

Mackay-Brandt, Anna

2011-07-01

117

Older Adults are Highly Responsive to Recent Events During Decision-Making  

PubMed Central

Recent work suggests that older adults’ decision-making behavior is highly affected by recent events. In the present work younger and older adults performed a two-choice task where one option provided a larger average reward, but there was a large amount of noise around the mean reward for each option which led to sharp improvements or declines in rewards over trials. Older adults showed greater responsiveness to recent events than younger adults as evidenced by fits of Reinforcement Learning (RL) models. Older adults were particularly sensitive to recent negative events, which was evidenced by a strong tendency for older adults to switch to the other option following steep declines in reward. This tendency led to superior performance for older adults in one condition where heightened sensitivity to recent negative events was advantageous. These results extend prior work that has found an older adult bias toward negative feedback, and suggest that older adults engage in more abrupt switching in response to negative outcomes than younger adults. PMID:25580469

Worthy, Darrell A.; Otto, A. Ross; Doll, Bradley B.; Byrne, Kaileigh A.; Maddox, W. Todd

2014-01-01

118

Correlates of, and barriers to, internet use among older adults.  

PubMed

Older adults constitute the group with the greatest increase in Internet usage in the past decade; however, usage varies greatly within this population. Services to older adults require a current understanding of Internet-use trends. This study utilized a quantitative survey method to examine correlates of, and barriers to, current Internet use in a demographically diverse county in Southern California. Findings indicate that the presence of a computer at home, a job requiring computer use, age, education, and ethnicity are important factors in predicting Internet use in older adults. Implications for social work practice with older adults is discussed. PMID:24941050

Chang, Janet; McAllister, Carolyn; McCaslin, Rosemary

2015-01-01

119

Desiring to be in touch in a changing communications landscape: attitudes of older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers an exploration of the attitudes of older adults to keeping in touch with people who are important to them. We present findings from three focus groups with people from 55 to 81 years of age. Themes emerging from the findings suggest that older adults view the act of keeping in touch as being worthy of time and

Siân E. Lindley; Richard H. R. Harper; Abigail Sellen

2009-01-01

120

Moving Stories: Evaluation of a BSW Oral History Project with Older Adults with Diverse Immigration Histories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to evaluate an experiential learning project with BSW students to see if their perceptions of older adults have changed. The project consisted of an oral history project and presentation that matched BSW students with older adults from diverse ethnic backgrounds to gather their immigration narratives. The study used a…

Maschi, Tina; MacMillan, Thalia; Pardasani, Manoj; Lee, Ji Seon; Moreno, Claudia

2012-01-01

121

Integrated data visualisation: an approach to capture older adults’ wellness  

PubMed Central

Informatics tools can help support the health and independence of older adults. In this paper, we present an approach towards integrating health-monitoring data and describe several techniques for the assessment and visualisation of integrated health and well-being of older adults. We present three different visualisation techniques to provide distinct alternatives towards display of the same information, focusing on reducing the cognitive load of data interpretation. We demonstrate the feasibility of integrating health-monitoring information into a comprehensive measure of wellness, while also highlighting the challenges of designing visual displays targeted at multiple user groups. These visual displays of wellness can be incorporated into personal health records and can be an effective support for informed decision-making. PMID:23079025

Wilamowska, Katarzyna; Demiris, George; Thompson, Hilaire

2013-01-01

122

Practice of Adult Education--Older Adults, Tourism, and Learning in Yellowstone  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to present a program of learning for older adults in a national park. Because of the growing trend of tourism among retirees this learning during leisure is gaining prominence. The paper brings together the concepts of aging, self-directed learning, and tourism and leisure. In addition this paper presents a…

Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

2005-01-01

123

Young Adults' Implicit and Explicit Attitudes towards the Sexuality of Older Adults.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Sexual interest and capacity can extend far into later life and result in many positive health outcomes. Yet there is little support for sexual expression in later life, particularly among young adults. This study assessed and compared young adults' explicit and implicit attitudes towards older adult sexuality. A sample of 120 participants (18-24 years; 58% female) completed a self-report (explicit) measure and a series of Implicit Association Tests capturing attitudes towards sexuality among older adults. Despite reporting positive explicit attitudes, young people revealed an implicit bias against the sexual lives of older adults. In particular, young adults demonstrated implicit biases favouring general, as compared to sexual, activities and young adults as compared to older adults. Moreover, the bias favouring general activities was amplified with regard to older adults as compared to younger adults. Our findings challenge the validity of research relying on self-reports of attitudes about older adult sexuality. PMID:25050559

Thompson, Ashley E; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Byers, E Sandra; Shaughnessy, Krystelle

2014-07-22

124

Acquired Inhibitors: A Special Case of Bleeding in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

This literature review is intended to familiarize physicians and healthcare providers of older adults with the potential causes of acute bleeding in older adults and to review diagnostic approaches that can produce prompt identification of acute bleeding and facilitate timely treatment. Adverse events from anticoagulant treatment and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and aspirin use and abuse are among the most common causes of bleeding in older adults. Diagnoses infrequently considered—mild congenital hemophilia, acquired hemophilia, von Willebrand disease, and platelet dysfunction—can contribute to acute bleeding in older adults. The approach to management of bleeding varies. Management of acute bleeding in older adults can be challenging because these patients often have chronic comorbidity and have been prescribed long-term concomitant medications that can complicate diagnosis and treatment. Prompt recognition of acquired hemophilia, referral to an expert hematologist, and timely initiation of treatment could improve outcome in older patients who experience bleeding episodes resulting from this condition. PMID:23243422

Stefanacci, Richard G.

2012-01-01

125

Assertiveness by Older Adults with Visual Impairment: Context Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within a communication predicament of aging and disability framework, this study examined the impact of two types of contextual variation on perceptions of older adult assertiveness within problematic service encounters. Young (N = 66) and older (N = 66) participants evaluated conversational scenarios in which a visually-impaired older woman…

Ryan, Ellen Bouchard; Anas, Ann P.; Mays, Heather

2008-01-01

126

Data Sources Available for Modeling Environmental Exposures in Older Adults  

EPA Science Inventory

This report, ?Data Sources Available for Modeling Environmental Exposures in Older Adults,? focuses on information sources and data available for modeling environmental exposures in the older U.S. population, defined here to be people 60 years and older, with an emphasis on those...

127

Alcohol misuse among older adult public housing residents.  

PubMed

Low-income older adults living in public housing are at heightened risk for substance misuse. This study identified the prevalence of alcohol misuse among older public housing residents (n = 187) and explored predictors of problem drinking. Including weekly drinking levels and binge drinking, 23% of the sample engaged in problem drinking behaviors. Logistic regression analysis revealed that race, gender, employment status, years smoking, and illegal drug use were significant predictors of problem drinking. No residents were receiving substance abuse treatment. As the number of older adults increase, training social workers to assess and treat alcohol misuse in older adults is critical. PMID:23767794

Cummings, Sherry M; Cooper, R Lyle; Johnson, Catherine

2013-01-01

128

Health-Related Variables and Functional Fitness among Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assesses the functional fitness of a convenient sample of older adults (greater than 70 years), to examine correlations between functional fitness and several other health-related variables and to compare with criterion performance data as established by Rikli and Jones (2001). One hundred and seven community-dwelling older adults with…

Wilkin, Linda D.; Haddock, Bryan L.

2010-01-01

129

The effectiveness of tailoring falls prevention education for older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Falls in older adults are a major public health concern and education has been proposed as a means of reducing falls in older adults. While falls education is commonly utilized in clinical practice, little research is available on its effectiveness as a falls prevention measure or addressing details of the education that contribute to its effectiveness. This study's purpose

Stacey L Schepens

2009-01-01

130

Emotional Wellness Needs: Older Adults in Rural Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of emotional wellness for rural older adults is a topic of growing significance. Older adults, now the fastest growing United States population sector, have special wellness needs. By the year 2030, about 70 million people will be over the age of 65. A low or declining sense of control over one's life increases depression. Emotional…

Russ, Randall

2009-01-01

131

Effects of Reading Stories on Children's Attitudes toward Older Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of reading stories depicting older-adult characters on the attitudes of fourth-graders toward older adults. Attitudes were measured by means of a semantic-differential attitude scale constructed for this purpose. One hundred five students from five fourth-grade classes were randomly assigned to two experimental…

Fabiano, Emily S.

132

An Exploration of Personality Traits in Older Adult Amateur Musicians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary research question for the study was, "Will older adult amateur musicians' personality profiles reflect the traits found in professional musicians?" Participants (N = 58, ages 52 to 79) recruited from a New Horizons Institute "band camp" for older adult amateur musicians completed a musical background questionnaire and the Cattell…

Coffman, Don D.

2007-01-01

133

The Family Life Education Needs of Midlife and Older Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a life course perspective, reports the findings from a needs assessment for midlife and older adults regarding family life education. A sample of 264 adults aged 50 and older indicated interest in 29 family life education topics. The highest rated topics were nutrition and health, fitness and exercise, and positive aspects of aging.…

Ballard, Sharon M.; Morris Michael Lane

2003-01-01

134

Cognitive Learning Applied to Older Adult Learners and Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses the needs of older adults learning computer skills and the place of technology, especially the computer, in enhancing their lives. A model is discussed that illuminates the process used by older adults to learn computer skills. The model may be used to analyze and provide specific aid for common difficulties of the aged.…

Chaffin, Amy J.; Harlow, Steven D.

2005-01-01

135

Therapeutic Uses of Music with Older Adults. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this comprehensively updated second edition, written by Alicia Ann Clair and Jenny Memmott the extraordinary benefits of music therapy for older adults are detailed. "Therapeutic Uses of Music with Older Adults" not only examines these benefits but also clarifies the reasons that music is beneficial. This important book shows both informal and…

Clair, Alicia Ann; Memmott, Jenny

2008-01-01

136

Physical Activity Programs and Behavior Counseling in Older Adult Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical activity offers one of the greatest opportunities for people to extend years of active independent life and reduce functional limitations. The purpose of this paper is to identify key practices for promoting physical activity in older adults, with a focus on older adults with chronic disease or low fitness and those with low levels of physical activity. Key practices

M. Elaine Cress; David M. Buchner; Georgia Thomas Prohaska

137

Preventing Falls in Older Adults Who Live in Community Settings  

MedlinePLUS

Preventing Falls in Older Adults Who Live in Community Settings: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Summaries for Patients ... medicine. The full report is titled “Prevention of Falls in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: U.S. Preventive Services ...

138

The oral health of older adults with dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dementia has become a key issue in aged care. It is estimated that 167,000 Australians had dementia in 2002, leading to dementia being a major cause of disease burden. This publication reports on an investigation of the oral health status of community-dwelling older dentate adults in Adelaide, South Australia with and without dementia. Older adults with dementia had higher levels

JM Chalmers; KD Carter; AJ Spencer

139

Volunteerism, Health, and Civic Engagement among Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In North America, 40-50 per cent of older adults are actively involved as formal volunteers in providing diverse health and human services. We review empirical studies concerning older adults' motivations for volunteering, as well as the health and morale benefits they derive from this expression of altruism. Knowledge of the exact nature and…

Gottlieb, Benjamin H.; Gillespie, Alayna A.

2008-01-01

140

Health Literacy Programs for Older Adults: A Systematic Literature Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Older adults make up the fastest growing age group in North America. This has demanded increased attention in supporting the health and well-being of this population and, in particular, the role of health information in promoting the health and well-being of older adults. Increased availability and accessibility of information as well as a greater…

Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

2012-01-01

141

Self-Report Measure of Psychological Abuse of Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study tested key psychometric properties of the Older Adult Psychological Abuse Measure (OAPAM), one self-report scale of the Older Adult Mistreatment Assessment (OAMA). Design and Methods: Items and theory were developed in a prior concept mapping study. Subsequently, the measures were administered to 226 substantiated clients by 22…

Conrad, Kendon J.; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W.; Langley, Kate; Anetzberger, Georgia J.

2011-01-01

142

Older Adults: Community College Students of the 1990s.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With a declining pool of youth to draw from, community colleges need to be concerned about what can be done to serve the needs of a burgeoning older adult population. Recent research on the educational needs of older adults reveals that they are interested in: (1) information on such personal business and financial topics as social security…

Craig, Ford M.

143

The effects of varying task priorities on language production by young and older adults  

PubMed Central

The present study compared how varying task priorities affected young and older adults’ language production. Both young and older adults responded to monetary incentives to vary their performance when simultaneously talking and tracking a pursuit rotor. Tracking performance improved when they were rewarded for tracking and declined when they were rewarded for talking. Both young and older adults also spoke more slowly when rewarded for tracking and more rapidly when rewarded for talking. Young produced less complex sentences when rewarded for tracking and produced more complex sentences when rewarded for talking. However, older adults did not vary their grammatical complexity as a function of monetary incentives. These results are consistent with prior studies suggesting that older adults use a simplified speech register in response to dual task demands. PMID:21424957

Kemper, Susan; Schmalzried, RaLynn; Herman, Ruth; Mohankumar, Deepthi

2009-01-01

144

Cognitive benefits of computer games for older adults.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to develop a basis for the hypothesis that digital action games may produce cognitive benefits for older adults. First, a discussion of the relationship between cognitive and physical health shows the increasing weight given to the role of declines in cognition in the development of dependency in older adult population studies. Second, evidence that cognitive training produces 'far transfer' in elders is presented. The key issue is that one approach, known as extended practice training, has been successful in producing far transfer to memory and other processes. Its principles, which are consistent with those associated with positive brain plasticity effects, are identified. Those principles are then related to the mechanics of digital action games, which also have the important added feature of producing the experiences of presence, engagement, and flow, the subjective elements of game play that are likely to sustain interest and emotional investment in the skills practiced so that the play produces cognitive benefits. The specific cognitive abilities proposed to be improved by different types of game genres are outlined, and recent developments in game and interface design that may affect the willingness of older adults to play are described. PMID:25126043

Zelinski, Elizabeth M; Reyes, Ricardo

2009-01-01

145

Cognitive benefits of computer games for older adults  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this paper is to develop a basis for the hypothesis that digital action games may produce cognitive benefits for older adults. First, a discussion of the relationship between cognitive and physical health shows the increasing weight given to the role of declines in cognition in the development of dependency in older adult population studies. Second, evidence that cognitive training produces ‘far transfer’ in elders is presented. The key issue is that one approach, known as extended practice training, has been successful in producing far transfer to memory and other processes. Its principles, which are consistent with those associated with positive brain plasticity effects, are identified. Those principles are then related to the mechanics of digital action games, which also have the important added feature of producing the experiences of presence, engagement, and flow, the subjective elements of game play that are likely to sustain interest and emotional investment in the skills practiced so that the play produces cognitive benefits. The specific cognitive abilities proposed to be improved by different types of game genres are outlined, and recent developments in game and interface design that may affect the willingness of older adults to play are described. PMID:25126043

Zelinski, Elizabeth M.; Reyes, Ricardo

2010-01-01

146

Alcohol and prescription drug safety in older adults  

PubMed Central

Background The objectives of this study were to investigate older adults’ knowledge of prescription drug safety and interactions with alcohol, and to identify pharmacists’ willingness to disseminate prescription drug safety information to older adults. Methods The convenience sample consisted of 48 older adults aged 54–89 years who were recruited from a local pharmacy and who completed surveys addressing their alcohol consumption, understanding of alcohol and prescription drug interactions, and willingness to change habits regarding alcohol consumption and prescription drugs. To address pharmacist willingness, 90 pharmacists from local pharmacies volunteered and answered questions regarding their willingness to convey prescription drug safety information to older adults. Results Older adults reported low knowledge of alcohol and prescription drug safety, with women tending to be slightly more knowledgeable. More importantly, those who drank in the previous few months were less willing to talk to family and friends about how alcohol can have harmful interactions with prescription drugs, or to be an advocate for safe alcohol and prescription drug use than those who had not had a drink recently. Pharmacists reported that they were willing to convey prescription drug safety information to older adults via a variety of formats, including displaying or distributing a flyer, and directly administering a brief intervention. Conclusion In this study, older adults were found to have inadequate knowledge of prescription drug safety and interactions with alcohol, but pharmacists who regularly come in contact with older adults indicated that they were ready and willing to talk to older adults about prescription drug safety. Future research should focus on interventions whereby pharmacists disseminate prescription drug safety information to older adults in order to improve healthy prescription drug and alcohol behavior and reduce medical and health costs associated with interactions between alcohol and prescription drugs. PMID:23467625

Zanjani, Faika; Hoogland, Aasha I; Downer, Brian G

2013-01-01

147

Gait instability and fractal dynamics of older adults with a “cautious” gait: why do certain older adults walk fearfully?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many older adults walk with a cautious and impaired gait of unknown origin, however, the relationship between fear of falling and the observed gait changes is not well understood. To better understand the “cautious” gait of the elderly, we tested the hypothesis that temporal gait variability, putatively a marker of intrinsic walking unsteadiness, is increased among older adults with a

T. Herman; N. Giladi; T. Gurevich; J. M. Hausdorff

2005-01-01

148

Intra- versus intermodal integration in young and older adults  

PubMed Central

The ability to integrate information across sensory channels is critical for both within- and between-modality speech processing. The present study evaluated the hypothesis that inter- and intramodal integration abilities are related, in young and older adults. Further, the investigation asked if intramodal integration (auditory+auditory), and intermodal integration (auditory+visual) resist changes as a function of either aging or the presence of hearing loss. Three groups of adults (young with normal hearing, older with normal hearing, and older with hearing loss) were asked to identify words in sentence context. Intramodal integration ability was assessed by presenting disjoint passbands of speech (550–750 and 1650–2250 Hz) to either ear. Integration was indexed by factoring monotic from dichotic scores to control for potential hearing- or age-related influences on absolute performance. Intermodal integration ability was assessed by presenting the auditory and visual signals. Integration was indexed by a measure based on probabilistic models of auditory-visual integration, termed integration enhancement. Results suggested that both types of integration ability are largely resistant to changes with age and hearing loss. In addition, intra- and intermodal integration were shown to be not correlated. As measured here, these findings suggest that there is not a common mechanism that accounts for both inter- and intramodal integration performance. PMID:18529201

Spehar, Brent P.; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Sommers, Mitchell S.

2008-01-01

149

Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1999 we proposed a Modified Food Guide Pyramid for adults aged 701 y. It has been extensively used in a variety of settings and formats to highlight the unique dietary challenges of older adults. We now propose a Modified MyPyramid for Older Adults in a format consistent with the MyPyramid graphic. It is not intended to substitute for MyPyramid,

Alice H. Lichtenstein; Helen Rasmussen; Winifred W. Yu; Susanna R. Epstein; Robert M. Russell

150

Functional Language Networks in Sedentary and Physically Active Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified consistent age-related changes during various cognitive tasks, such that older individuals display more positive and less negative task-related activity than young adults. Recently, evidence shows that chronic physical exercise may alter aging-related changes in brain activity; however, the effect of exercise has not been studied for the neural substrates of language function. Additionally, the potential mechanisms by which aging alters neural recruitment remain understudied. To address these points, the present study enrolled elderly adults who were either sedentary or physically active to characterize the neural correlates of language function during semantic fluency between these groups in comparison to a young adult sample. Participants underwent fMRI during semantic fluency and transcranial magnetic stimulation to collect the ipsilateral silent period, a measure of interhemispheric inhibition. Results indicated that sedentary older adults displayed reductions in negative task-related activity compared to the active old group in areas of the attention network. Longer interhemispheric inhibition was associated with more negative task-related activity in the right and left posterior perisylvian cortex, suggesting that sedentary aging may result in losses in task facilitatory cortical inhibition. However, these losses may be mitigated by regular engagement in physical exercise. PMID:23458438

Zlatar, Zvinka Z.; Towler, Stephen; McGregor, Keith M.; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Bauer, Andrew; Phan, Stephanie; Cohen, Matthew; Marsiske, Michael; Manini, Todd M.; Crosson, Bruce

2013-01-01

151

Safety margins in older adults increase with improved control of a dynamic object.  

PubMed

Older adults face decreasing motor capabilities due to pervasive neuromuscular degradations. As a consequence, errors in movement control increase. Thus, older individuals should maintain larger safety margins than younger adults. While this has been shown for object manipulation tasks, several reports on whole-body activities, such as posture and locomotion, demonstrate age-related reductions in safety margins. This is despite increased costs for control errors, such as a fall. We posit that this paradox could be explained by the dynamic challenge presented by the body or also an external object, and that age-related reductions in safety margins are in part due to a decreased ability to control dynamics. To test this conjecture we used a virtual ball-in-cup task that had challenging dynamics, yet afforded an explicit rendering of the physics and safety margin. The hypotheses were: (1) When manipulating an object with challenging dynamics, older adults have smaller safety margins than younger adults. (2) Older adults increase their safety margins with practice. Nine young and 10 healthy older adults practiced moving the virtual ball-in-cup to a target location in exactly 2 s. The accuracy and precision of the timing error quantified skill, and the ball energy relative to an escape threshold quantified the safety margin. Compared to the young adults, older adults had increased timing errors, greater variability, and decreased safety margins. With practice, both young and older adults improved their ability to control the object with decreased timing errors and variability, and increased their safety margins. These results suggest that safety margins are related to the ability to control dynamics, and may explain why in tasks with simple dynamics older adults use adequate safety margins, but in more complex tasks, safety margins may be inadequate. Further, the results indicate that task-specific training may improve safety margins in older adults. PMID:25071566

Hasson, Christopher J; Sternad, Dagmar

2014-01-01

152

Safety margins in older adults increase with improved control of a dynamic object  

PubMed Central

Older adults face decreasing motor capabilities due to pervasive neuromuscular degradations. As a consequence, errors in movement control increase. Thus, older individuals should maintain larger safety margins than younger adults. While this has been shown for object manipulation tasks, several reports on whole-body activities, such as posture and locomotion, demonstrate age-related reductions in safety margins. This is despite increased costs for control errors, such as a fall. We posit that this paradox could be explained by the dynamic challenge presented by the body or also an external object, and that age-related reductions in safety margins are in part due to a decreased ability to control dynamics. To test this conjecture we used a virtual ball-in-cup task that had challenging dynamics, yet afforded an explicit rendering of the physics and safety margin. The hypotheses were: (1) When manipulating an object with challenging dynamics, older adults have smaller safety margins than younger adults. (2) Older adults increase their safety margins with practice. Nine young and 10 healthy older adults practiced moving the virtual ball-in-cup to a target location in exactly 2 s. The accuracy and precision of the timing error quantified skill, and the ball energy relative to an escape threshold quantified the safety margin. Compared to the young adults, older adults had increased timing errors, greater variability, and decreased safety margins. With practice, both young and older adults improved their ability to control the object with decreased timing errors and variability, and increased their safety margins. These results suggest that safety margins are related to the ability to control dynamics, and may explain why in tasks with simple dynamics older adults use adequate safety margins, but in more complex tasks, safety margins may be inadequate. Further, the results indicate that task-specific training may improve safety margins in older adults. PMID:25071566

Hasson, Christopher J.; Sternad, Dagmar

2014-01-01

153

Predisability And Gait Patterns In Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Presence of performance inconsistency during repeated assessments of gait may reflect underlying subclinical disease, and help shed light on the earliest stages of disablement. We studied inter-session fluctuations on three selected gait measures (velocity, stride length, and stride length variability) during normal pace walking as well as during a cognitively demanding ‘walking while talking’ condition using a repeated measurement burst design (six sessions within a 2-week period) in 71 nondisabled and nondemented community residing older adults, 40 with predisability (does activities of daily living unassisted but with difficulty). Subjects with predisability had slower gait velocity and shorter stride length on both the normal and walking while talking conditions at baseline compared to nondisabled subjects. However, there was no significant pattern of fluctuations across the six sessions on the three selected gait variables comparing the two groups during normal walking as well as on the walking while talking conditions. Our findings support consistency of gait measurements during the earliest stages of disability. PMID:21050762

Verghese, Joe; Xue, Xiaonan

2010-01-01

154

Priorities for Action in a Rural Older Adults Study  

PubMed Central

This article reports the findings from a recent study of older adults in the rural southwestern United States and discusses practice and research implications. The aim of the study was to analyze health disparities and strengths in the contexts of rurality, aging, a depressed economy, and limited health resources. Identified themes needing action included sustained access to prescriptions, transportation solutions for older adults in isolated communities, inadequate access to care, poor infrastructure and coordination of services, scarce assisted living and in-home care for frail older adults, and barriers related to culture, language, and economics. PMID:22929381

Averill, Jennifer B.

2013-01-01

155

Multisegment Foot Kinematics During Walking in Younger and Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Currently, age-related changes in foot mechanics are poorly understood. A greater understanding of the natural changes in foot motion is needed to improve our understanding of pathological foot conditions. Methods The purpose of this study was to compare multisegment foot kinematic data during gait in younger and older individuals. Eleven (N = 11) adult male participants between the ages of 18 - 30 years (younger group; mean ± SD: 24.6 ± 3.0 years) and eleven (N = 11) adults aged 55 years or older (older group; mean ± SD: 65.0 ± 4.2 years) were recruited for the study. The foot was modeled as a four-segment rigid body model. Three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic gait parameters were recorded using an 8-camera Vicon MCam motion capture system and two Kistler force plates. A MANOVA was used to test for significant differences in mean temporal-spatial data, mean ranges of motion, and mean peak joint angle data between age groups. Results No significant differences (P > 0.05) were found between the two age groups for any of the gait parameters. The results of the present study suggest that individuals aged 65.0 ± 4.2 years have foot mechanics that are comparable to younger walkers. Conclusions As such, any deviations in motion at this age may be indicative of an underlying disease or disorder. PMID:22870173

Legault-Moore, Dominique; Chester, Victoria L.; de Vries, Gwyneth

2012-01-01

156

Older Adults’ Perspectives on Successful Aging: Qualitative Interviews  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Lay perceptions of “successful aging” are important for understanding this multifaceted construct and developing ways to assist older adults to age well. The purpose of this qualitative study was to obtain older adults’ individual perspectives on what constitutes successful aging, along with their views regarding activities and interventions to enhance its likelihood. METHODS Qualitative interviews were conducted with 22 community-dwelling adults over age 60. Participants were recruited from retirement communities, a low-income senior housing complex, and a continued learning center in San Diego County. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a “Coding Consensus, Co-occurrence, and Comparison” grounded theory framework. RESULTS The mean age of participants was 80 years (range: 64 to 96), with 59% being women. Two primary themes were identified as key to successful aging - i.e., self-acceptance/self-contentment (with sub-themes of realistic self-appraisal, a review of one’s life, and focusing on the present) and engagement with life/self-growth (with sub-themes of novel pursuits, giving to others, social interactions, and positive attitude). A balance between these two constructs appeared critical. A need for interventions that address support systems and personally tailored information to make informed decisions and enhance coping strategies were also emphasized. CONCLUSIONS Older adults viewed successful aging as a balance between self-acceptance and self-contentedness on one hand and engagement with life and self-growth in later life on the other. This perspective supports the concept of wisdom as a major contributor to successful aging. Interventions to enhance successful aging may include those that promote productive and social engagement along with effective coping strategies. PMID:20593536

Reichstadt, Jennifer; Sengupta, Geetika; Depp, Colin A.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Jeste, Dilip V.

2010-01-01

157

Olfactory Dysfunction Predicts 5-Year Mortality in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Prediction of mortality has focused on disease and frailty, although antecedent biomarkers may herald broad physiological decline. Olfaction, an ancestral chemical system, is a strong candidate biomarker because it is linked to diverse physiological processes. We sought to determine if olfactory dysfunction is a harbinger of 5-year mortality in the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project [NSHAP], a nationally representative sample of older U.S. adults. 3,005 community-dwelling adults aged 57–85 were studied in 2005–6 (Wave 1) and their mortality determined in 2010–11 (Wave 2). Olfactory dysfunction, determined objectively at Wave 1, was used to estimate the odds of 5-year, all cause mortality via logistic regression, controlling for demographics and health factors. Mortality for anosmic older adults was four times that of normosmic individuals while hyposmic individuals had intermediate mortality (p<0.001), a “dose-dependent” effect present across the age range. In a comprehensive model that included potential confounding factors, anosmic older adults had over three times the odds of death compared to normosmic individuals (OR, 3.37 [95%CI 2.04, 5.57]), higher than and independent of known leading causes of death, and did not result from the following mechanisms: nutrition, cognitive function, mental health, smoking and alcohol abuse or frailty. Olfactory function is thus one of the strongest predictors of 5-year mortality and may serve as a bellwether for slowed cellular regeneration or as a marker of cumulative toxic environmental exposures. This finding provides clues for pinpointing an underlying mechanism related to a fundamental component of the aging process. PMID:25271633

Pinto, Jayant M.; Wroblewski, Kristen E.; Kern, David W.; Schumm, L. Philip; McClintock, Martha K.

2014-01-01

158

Betting on memory leads to metacognitive improvement by younger and older adults.  

PubMed

The present study examined how younger and older adults choose to selectively remember important information. Participants studied words paired with point values, and "bet" on whether they could later recall each word. If they bet on and recalled the word, they received the points, but if they failed to recall it, they lost those points. Participants (especially older adults) initially bet on more words than they later recalled, but greatly improved with task experience. The incorporation of rewards and penalties associated with metacognitive predictions, and multiple study-test trials, revealed that both younger and older adults can learn to maximize performance. PMID:21417541

McGillivray, Shannon; Castel, Alan D

2011-03-01

159

Factors associated with geriatric syndromes in older homeless adults.  

PubMed

Although older homeless adults have high rates of geriatric syndromes, risk factors for these syndromes are not known. We used multivariable regression models to estimate the association of subject characteristics with the total number of geriatric syndromes in 250 homeless adults aged 50 years and older. Geriatric syndromes included falls, cognitive impairment, frailty, major depression, sensory impairment, and urinary incontinence. A higher total number of geriatric syndromes was associated with having less than a high school education, medical comorbidities (diabetes and arthritis), alcohol and drug use problems, and difficulty performing one or more activities of daily living. Clinicians who care for older homeless patients with these characteristics should consider screening them for geriatric syndromes. Moreover, this study identifies potentially modifiable risk factors associated with the total number of geriatric syndromes in older homeless adults. This knowledge may provide targets for clinical interventions to improve the health of older homeless patients. PMID:23728022

Brown, Rebecca T; Kiely, Dan K; Bharel, Monica; Mitchell, Susan L

2013-05-01

160

Patterns of Rumination by Young and Older Adults  

E-print Network

A lot of attention has been given to the negative effects of both inhibitory deficits and rumination but little work has compared both: research on inhibitory deficits has focused on older adults whereas research on rumination has focused on young...

Schmalzried, RaLynn Cheri

2012-05-31

161

Exercises for Older Adults, Using Free and Inexpensive Equipment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article illustrates how old bicycle inner tubes, wire coat hangers, stockings, panty hose, and milk dispenser bladders can be used as part of an exercise program for older adults. Specific exercises and activities are suggested. (MT)

Corbin, David E.; Metal-Corbin, Josie

1986-01-01

162

Falls among Older Adults: Public Health Impact and Prevention Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of the epidemiology of falls among older adults, describes current prevention strategies, and highlights key areas that need to be addressed, including risk assessments, exercise, and environmental changes. (Contains 50 references.) (JOW)

Stevens, Judy A.

2003-01-01

163

Making Physical Activity a Part of an Older Adult's Life  

MedlinePLUS

... Physical Activity a Part of an Older Adult's Life When it comes to getting the physical activity ... Regular physical activity can improve your quality of life and even reduce your risk of developing other ...

164

Eye movements of young and older adults during reading  

E-print Network

The eye movements of young and older adults were tracked as they read sentences varying in syntactic complexity. In Experiment 1, cleft object and object relative clause sentences were more difficult to process than cleft subject and subject...

Kemper, Susan; Liu, Chiung-Ju

2007-03-01

165

Stereotype threat can reduce older adults' memory errors  

PubMed Central

Stereotype threat often incurs the cost of reducing the amount of information that older adults accurately recall. In the current research we tested whether stereotype threat can also benefit memory. According to the regulatory focus account of stereotype threat, threat induces a prevention focus in which people become concerned with avoiding errors of commission and are sensitive to the presence or absence of losses within their environment (Seibt & Förster, 2004). Because of this, we predicted that stereotype threat might reduce older adults' memory errors. Results were consistent with this prediction. Older adults under stereotype threat had lower intrusion rates during free-recall tests (Experiments 1 & 2). They also reduced their false alarms and adopted more conservative response criteria during a recognition test (Experiment 2). Thus, stereotype threat can decrease older adults' false memories, albeit at the cost of fewer veridical memories, as well. PMID:24131297

Barber, Sarah J.; Mather, Mara

2014-01-01

166

Spin exercise improves semantic fluency in previously sedentary older adults.  

PubMed

Studies suggest improvements of neurocognitive function among older adults who undergo aerobic exercise training. This study sought to examine the impact of an aerobic exercise intervention on verbal fluency in sedentary older adults. Twenty community-dwelling older adults were recruited and enrolled in either a spin exercise group or a control condition. Participants were evaluated with an estimated V02max test and on measures of letter, category, and switching verbal fluency both before and after a 12-week intervention period. Spin exercise resulted in a significant improvement in category (semantic) verbal fluency when compared with the control group (15% vs. 2% increase, respectively; P = .001). Spin exercise also resulted in a significant improvement in estimated V02max (P = .005). Also important, the spin exercise group demonstrated a high level of adherence (mean adherence = 82.5%). Spin exercise can be an effective mode of aerobic exercise to improve semantic fluency in previously sedentary older adults. PMID:24425525

Nocera, Joe R; McGregor, Keith M; Hass, Chris J; Crosson, Bruce

2015-01-01

167

Upregulation of cognitive control networks in older adults' speech comprehension.  

PubMed

Speech comprehension abilities decline with age and with age-related hearing loss, but it is unclear how this decline expresses in terms of central neural mechanisms. The current study examined neural speech processing in a group of older adults (aged 56-77, n = 16, with varying degrees of sensorineural hearing loss), and compared them to a cohort of young adults (aged 22-31, n = 30, self-reported normal hearing). In a functional MRI experiment, listeners heard and repeated back degraded sentences (4-band vocoded, where the temporal envelope of the acoustic signal is preserved, while the spectral information is substantially degraded). Behaviorally, older adults adapted to degraded speech at the same rate as young listeners, although their overall comprehension of degraded speech was lower. Neurally, both older and young adults relied on the left anterior insula for degraded more than clear speech perception. However, anterior insula engagement in older adults was dependent on hearing acuity. Young adults additionally employed the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Interestingly, this age group × degradation interaction was driven by a reduced dynamic range in older adults who displayed elevated levels of ACC activity for both degraded and clear speech, consistent with a persistent upregulation in cognitive control irrespective of task difficulty. For correct speech comprehension, older adults relied on the middle frontal gyrus in addition to a core speech comprehension network recruited by younger adults suggestive of a compensatory mechanism. Taken together, the results indicate that older adults increasingly recruit cognitive control networks, even under optimal listening conditions, at the expense of these systems' dynamic range. PMID:24399939

Erb, Julia; Obleser, Jonas

2013-01-01

168

Older Adult Inmates: The Challenge for Social Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Older adult inmates have grown both in proportion and in number due to the confluence of a number of factors. This aging of the prison population has created a host of policy and practice issues that encompass justice considerations, cost containment issues, and biopsychosocial care needs. The older prisoner's physical, social, and psychological…

Snyder, Cindy; van Wormer, Katherine; Chadha, Janice; Jaggers, Jeremiah W.

2009-01-01

169

Perceived stress and everyday memory complaints among older adult women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory complaints among older adults are often influenced by depression and anxiety, but the association of stress to memory complaints has received little attention. We examined the associations of perceived stress, life events, and activity level to everyday memory complaints among healthy older women, while controlling for the influence of depression and anxiety. Participants (N=54) completed self-report questionnaires on memory

Guy G. Potter; Marilyn Hartman; Taeh Ward

2009-01-01

170

Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in older adults with diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus exerts a strong effect on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk into older age (beyond ages 70-74 years). This effect is particularly noticeable with regard to coronary artery disease and cerebral microvascular disease. Thus, diabetes mellitus in older adults deserves the same careful medical attention as it does in middle age. PMID:25453299

Barzilay, Joshua I; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Kizer, Jorge R

2015-02-01

171

The Susceptibility of Older Adults to Environmental Hazards  

EPA Science Inventory

This rapid growth in the number of older Americans has many implications for public health, including the need to better understand the health risks posed by environmental exposures to older adults. This paper describes the need to link environmental exposures, the processing of...

172

Illusory recollection in older adults and younger adults under divided attention.  

PubMed

The authors investigated the effect of divided attention, study-list repetition, and age on recollection and familiarity. Older and younger adults under full attention and younger adults under divided attention at study viewed word lists highly associated with a single unstudied word (critical lure) once or three times, and subsequently performed a remember-know recognition test. Younger adults made fewer false remember responses to critical lures from repeated study lists, whereas younger adults under divided attention and older adults both showed an increase with repetition. Findings suggest older adults' susceptibility to illusory memories is related to a deficit in available attention during encoding. PMID:19290753

Skinner, Erin I; Fernandes, Myra A

2009-03-01

173

The association between sleep duration and obesity in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Reduced sleep has been reported to predict obesity in children and young adults. However, studies based on self-report have been unable to identify an association in older populations. In this study, the cross-sectional associations between sleep duration measured objectively and measures of weight and body composition were assessed in two cohorts of older adults.Methods:Wrist actigraphy was performed for a mean

S R Patel; T Blackwell; S Redline; S Ancoli-Israel; J A Cauley; T A Hillier; C E Lewis; E S Orwoll; M L Stefanick; B C Taylor; K Yaffe; K L Stone

2008-01-01

174

Drug Burden Index in older adults: theoretical and practical issues  

PubMed Central

Anticholinergic and sedative medications are commonly used in older adults and are associated with adverse clinical outcomes. The Drug Burden Index was developed to measure the cumulative exposure to these medications in older adults and its impact on physical and cognitive function. This narrative review discusses the research and clinical applications of the Drug Burden Index, and its advantages and limitations, compared with other pharmacologically developed measures of high-risk prescribing. PMID:25246778

Kouladjian, Lisa; Gnjidic, Danijela; Chen, Timothy F; Mangoni, Arduino A; Hilmer, Sarah N

2014-01-01

175

Encounters with Katrina: Dynamics of Older Adults’ Social Support Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hurricane Katrina forced the evacuation of thousands of people from the storm-ravaged Gulf Coast. Storm-displaced older adults\\u000a faced many challenges during the evacuation process and in the months that followed. In this chapter we examine the dynamics\\u000a of displaced older adults’ social networks during the evacuation and post-Katrina events. We begin with a brief review of\\u000a the literature on social

Karen A. Roberto; Yoshinori Kamo; Tammy Henderson

176

Diet quality and older adults – special considerations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The demographic shift occurring in both developed and developing countries is towards an older population. For example, the U.S. population over the age of 65 years grew from 3.1 million in 1900 to 35.0 million in 2000. During that same time period individuals aged 85 years and older increased by ...

177

Working memory predicts semantic comprehension in dichotic listening in older adults.  

PubMed

Older adults have difficulty understanding spoken language in the presence of competing voices. Everyday social situations involving multiple simultaneous talkers may become increasingly challenging in later life due to changes in the ability to focus attention. This study examined whether individual differences in cognitive function predict older adults' ability to access sentence-level meanings in competing speech using a dichotic priming paradigm. Older listeners showed faster responses to words that matched the meaning of spoken sentences presented to the left or right ear, relative to a neutral baseline. However, older adults were more vulnerable than younger adults to interference from competing speech when the competing signal was presented to the right ear. This pattern of performance was strongly correlated with a non-auditory working memory measure, suggesting that cognitive factors play a key role in semantic comprehension in competing speech in healthy aging. PMID:24955886

James, Philip J; Krishnan, Saloni; Aydelott, Jennifer

2014-10-01

178

Delayed plastic responses to anodal tDCS in older adults  

PubMed Central

Despite the abundance of research reporting the neurophysiological and behavioral effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in healthy young adults and clinical populations, the extent of potential neuroplastic changes induced by tDCS in healthy older adults is not well understood. The present study compared the extent and time course of anodal tDCS-induced plastic changes in primary motor cortex (M1) in young and older adults. Furthermore, as it has been suggested that neuroplasticity and associated learning depends on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene polymorphisms, we also assessed the impact of BDNF polymorphism on these effects. Corticospinal excitability was examined using transcranial magnetic stimulation before and following (0, 10, 20, 30 min) anodal tDCS (30 min, 1 mA) or sham in young and older adults. While the overall extent of increases in corticospinal excitability induced by anodal tDCS did not vary reliably between young and older adults, older adults exhibited a delayed response; the largest increase in corticospinal excitability occurred 30 min following stimulation for older adults, but immediately post-stimulation for the young group. BDNF genotype did not result in significant differences in the observed excitability increases for either age group. The present study suggests that tDCS-induced plastic changes are delayed as a result of healthy aging, but that the overall efficacy of the plasticity mechanism remains unaffected. PMID:24936185

Fujiyama, Hakuei; Hyde, Jane; Hinder, Mark R.; Kim, Seok-Jin; McCormack, Graeme H.; Vickers, James C.; Summers, Jeffery J.

2014-01-01

179

Theory of Mind Through the Ages: Older and Middle-Aged Adults Exhibit More Errors Than Do Younger Adults on a Continuous False Belief Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theory of mind (ToM), or the ability to understand mental states, is a fundamental aspect of social cognition. Previous research has documented marked advances in ToM in preschoolers, and declines in ToM in older-aged adults. In the present study, younger (n = 37), middle-aged (n = 20), and older (n = 37) adults completed a continuous false belief task measuring ToM. Middle-aged and older adults exhibited

Daniel M. Bernstein; Wendy Loken Thornton; Jessica A. Sommerville

2011-01-01

180

Social support and life satisfaction among Hong Kong Chinese older adults: family first?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Family members and friends are important for the psychological well being of older adults. The present study examined the\\u000a relative contribution of these two sources of support to life satisfaction among Chinese older adults living in Hong Kong.\\u000a The moderating role of familism, which represents the commitment of family members to the family, was also examined. One hundred\\u000a and eight

Gladys T. Y. Yeung; Helene H. Fung

2007-01-01

181

NIHSeniorHealth Health Information for Older Adults  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Institute on Aging (NIA) and the National Library of Medicine recently launched NIHSeniorHealth.gov, a website developed from NIA research on older adults, cognitive aging, and computer usage. This easy-to-use website "makes aging-related health information easily accessible for adults 60 and older" and serves as "a useful tool for family members and friends who are seeking online health information for their older relatives." Topics covered include Alzheimer's disease, arthritis, exercising for older adults, and more. The website offers several options for enhancing usability, including a virtual voice that reads all text aloud. Visitors may also watch video clips (captions available), take short quizzes, or follow links to MEDLINEplus websites for more detailed information.

182

The pharmacist's role in preventing medication errors in older adults.  

PubMed

Approximately 1.5 million medication errors occur each year in the United States. Older adults may be at increased risk for these errors as a result of a variety of contributing factors such as inappropriate medication use, polymorbidity, and complexities in managing dosage adjustments for geriatric patients. Pharmacists, as trained medication experts, are uniquely poised to lead efforts to prevent, detect, and resolve medications errors. As the American population continues to age, future pharmacists are likely to play an even greater role in promoting safe and effective medication use in older adults. In this paper, we highlight common settings for medication errors in older individuals, explore tools and solutions for error prevention, and outline the unique role that pharmacists have in preventing medication errors in older adults. PMID:25521659

Kasbekar, Rupal; Maples, Meghan; Bernacchi, Ann; Duong, Linh; Oramasionwu, Christine U

2014-12-01

183

Diabetes self-care and the older adult.  

PubMed

The prevalence of diabetes is highest in older adults, a population that is increasing. Diabetes self-care is complex with important recommendations for nutrition, physical activity, checking glucose levels, and taking medication. Older adults with diabetes have unique issues that impact self-care. As people age, their health status, support systems, physical and mental abilities, and nutritional requirements change. Furthermore, comorbidities, complications, and polypharmacy complicate diabetes self-care. Depression is also more common among the elderly and may lead to deterioration in self-care behaviors. Because of concerns about cognitive deficits and multiple comorbidities, adults older than 65 years are often excluded from research trials. Thus, little clinical evidence is available and the most appropriate treatment approaches and how to best support older patients' self-care efforts are unclear. This review summarizes the current literature, research findings, and expert and consensus recommendations with their rationales. PMID:24510969

Weinger, Katie; Beverly, Elizabeth A; Smaldone, Arlene

2014-10-01

184

Older adults' perceptions of physical activity: a qualitative study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore older adults' perceptions of participation in physical activity (PA) as it impacts productive ageing and informs occupational therapy (OT) practice. In this phenomenological study, 15 community-dwelling older adults were recruited using purposive and snowball sampling at community locations. Data collection methods included two interviews and an observation. The primary finding was that older adults continue individual patterns of meaningful PA across their lifespan when they have support to adapt to age-associated limitations, with a gradual decline in intensity during older years. Although this study's qualitative methodology limits broad generalizability, the findings provide applicability when situated in the context of community-living older adults interested in health maintenance through PA participation. OT practitioners have an important role with community-dwelling older adults to impact productive ageing by designing and promoting meaningful PA with adaptations that address unique, age-associated concerns. There is a need for further experimental research taking an occupational performance and health perspective to enhance the contribution of OT for this population's health-related quality of life through meaningful PA. PMID:24302685

Janssen, Sclinda L; Stube, Jan E

2014-06-01

185

Forearm vascular responses to mental stress in healthy older adults  

PubMed Central

Abstract Forearm vascular conductance (FVC) increases in response to mental stress (verbal mental arithmetic) in young people. However, the effect of healthy aging and mental stress on FVC is unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that FVC and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) would be attenuated in older adults compared to young adults. In 13 young (27 ± 1 year) and 11 older (62 ± 1 year) subjects, we quantified heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), FVC (Doppler ultrasound), and CVC (laser Doppler flowmetry) in response to a 3?min bout of mental stress in the supine posture. Changes from baseline were compared between groups and physiological variables were also correlated. Older adults had a blunted HR response to mental stress (? = 7 ± 2 vs. 14 ± 2 beats/min) but ?MAP was comparable between groups (? = 11 ± 2 mmHg vs. 9 ± 1). During the third minute of mental stress, the %?FVC (?2 ± 5 vs. 31 ± 12%) and %?CVC (2 ± 6 vs. 31 ± 15%) were both impaired in older adults compared to young subjects. There was no relationship between ?HR and %?CVC in either group, but there was a positive relationship between ?HR and %?FVC in both young subjects (R = 0.610, P < 0.027) and older subjects (R = 0.615, P < 0.044), such that larger tachycardia was associated with higher forearm vasodilation. These data indicate that older adults have impaired forearm vasodilation in response to mental stress. PMID:24744859

Heffernan, Matthew J.; Patel, Hardikkumar M.; Muller, Matthew D.

2013-01-01

186

Domestic Robots for Older Adults: Attitudes, Preferences, and Potential.  

PubMed

The population of older adults in America is expected to reach an unprecedented level in the near future. Some of them have difficulties with performing daily tasks and caregivers may not be able to match pace with the increasing need for assistance. Robots, especially mobile manipulators, have the potential for assisting older adults with daily tasks enabling them to live independently in their homes. However, little is known about their views of robot assistance in the home. Twenty-one independently living older Americans (65-93 years old) were asked about their preferences for and attitudes toward robot assistance via a structured group interview and questionnaires. In the group interview, they generated a diverse set of 121 tasks they would want a robot to assist them with in their homes. These data, along with their questionnaire responses, suggest that the older adults were generally open to robot assistance but were discriminating in their acceptance of assistance for different tasks. They preferred robot assistance over human assistance for tasks related to chores, manipulating objects, and information management. In contrast, they preferred human assistance to robot assistance for tasks related to personal care and leisure activities. Our study provides insights into older adults' attitudes and preferences for robot assistance with everyday living tasks in the home which may inform the design of robots that will be more likely accepted by older adults. PMID:25152779

Smarr, Cory-Ann; Mitzner, Tracy L; Beer, Jenay M; Prakash, Akanksha; Chen, Tiffany L; Kemp, Charles C; Rogers, Wendy A

2014-04-01

187

Interventions to Prevent Falls Among Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Falls consistently rank among the most serious problems facing older persons and cause a tremendous amount of morbidity, mortality,\\u000a and disability (Brown, 1999; Nevitt, 1997; Robbins et al., 1989; Rubenstein, Josephson, & Robbins, 1994; Tinetti, Williams,\\u000a & Mayewski, 1986). At least a third of community-dwelling people aged 65 years and older fall each year (Centers for Disease\\u000a Control and Prevention

Laurence Z. Rubenstein; Judy A. Stevens; Vicky Scott

188

Activity-related energy expenditure in older adults: a call for more research.  

PubMed

The purposes of this article were to 1) provide an overview of the science of physical activity-related energy expenditure in older adults (?65 yr), 2) offer suggestions for future research and guidelines for how scientists should be reporting their results in this area, and 3) present strategies for making these data more accessible to the layperson. This article was meant to serve as a preliminary blueprint for future empirical work in the area of energy expenditure in older adults and translational efforts to make these data useful and accurate for older adults. This document was based upon deliberations of experts involved in the Strategic Health Initiative on Aging Committee of the American College of Sports Medicine. The article was designed to reach a broad audience who might not be familiar with the complexities of assessing energy expenditure, especially in older adults. PMID:24714651

Hall, Katherine S; Morey, Miriam C; Dutta, Chhanda; Manini, Todd M; Weltman, Arthur L; Nelson, Miriam E; Morgan, Amy L; Senior, Jane G; Seyffarth, Chris; Buchner, David M

2014-12-01

189

Preliminary evaluation of a video-based intervention for older adult victims of violence.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated a brief, video-based intervention for older adults designed to: provide psychological education regarding common reactions to crime; offer information about healthy coping strategies to manage crime-related symptomatology; and increase awareness of effective safety planning strategies. Following reporting to police, 116 older adult crime victims were randomly assigned to receive either standard advocate-based services plus the video-based intervention or standard advocate services alone. Results indicated that older adult victims assigned to the video condition and assessed later that day exhibited greater awareness of crime-related symptoms, healthy coping strategies, and safety planning strategies than did the older adult victims assigned to standard practice of care. However, despite knowledge gains, and in contrast to our predictions, no differences on measures of anxiety or depression were evident between the treatment conditions at 6-week follow up. PMID:15730073

Acierno, Ron; Rheingold, Alyssa A; Resnick, Heidi S; Stark-Riemer, Wendy

2004-12-01

190

Incidence of Dementia in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dementia may be more common in older adults with intellectual disability (ID) than in the general population. The increased risk for Alzheimer's disease in people with Down syndrome (DS) is well established, but much less is known about dementia in adults with ID who do not have DS. We estimated incidence rates from a longitudinal study of…

Strydom, Andre; Chan, Trevor; King, Michael; Hassiotis, Angela; Livingston, Gill

2013-01-01

191

Story Processing Ability in Cognitively Healthy Younger and Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among measures of comprehension and production for stories depicted in wordless pictures books and measures of memory and attention for 2 age groups. Method: Sixty cognitively healthy adults participated. They consisted of two groups--young adults (20-29 years of age) and older

Wright, Heather Harris; Capilouto, Gilson J.; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Fergadiotis, Gerasimos

2011-01-01

192

Perceptions of Physical Activity by Older Adults: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To identify issues and perceptions concerning physical activity in older adults. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: Perth, Western Australia. Methods: Sixteen adults aged 65 to 74 years were interviewed in their own homes using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were analysed using a descriptive qualitative methodology.…

Jancey, Jonine M.; Clarke, Ann; Howat, Peter; Maycock, Bruce; Lee, Andy H.

2009-01-01

193

Approximate Quantification in Young, Healthy Older Adults', and Alzheimer Patients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…

Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois

2009-01-01

194

Behavioral Factors Contributing to Older Adults Falling in Public Places.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of behavior patterns, actions, and habits that contribute to older adults falling in public places identified such factors as lack of familiarity, health, overexertion, environmental influences/hazards, eyesight and mobility behaviors, and pace. Prevention interventions should employ strategies that actively engage adults in critical…

Clemson, Lindy; Manor, Debra; Fitzgerald, Maureen H.

2003-01-01

195

Health Literacy, Social Support, and Health Status among Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examines whether social support interacts with health literacy in affecting the health status of older adults. Health literacy is assessed using the short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Social support is measured with the Medical Outcome Study social support scale. Results show, unexpectedly, that rather…

Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Arozullah, Ahsan M.; Cho, Young Ik; Crittenden, Kathleen; Vicencio, Daniel

2009-01-01

196

Cumulative exposure to traumatic events in older adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives The present study examined the impact of cumulative trauma exposure on current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity in a nonclinical sample of adults in their 60s. The predictive utility of cumulative trauma exposure was compared to other known predictors of PTSD, including trauma severity, personality traits, social support, and event centrality. Method Community-dwelling adults (n = 2,515) from the crest of the Baby Boom generation completed the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire, the PTSD Checklist, the NEO Personality Inventory, the Centrality of Event Scale, and rated their current social support. Results Cumulative trauma exposure predicted greater PTSD symptom severity in hierarchical regression analyses consistent with a dose-response model. Neuroticism and event centrality also emerged as robust predictors of PTSD symptom severity. In contrast, the severity of individuals’ single most distressing life event, as measured by self-report ratings of the A1 PTSD diagnostic criterion, did not add explanatory variance to the model. Analyses concerning event categories revealed that cumulative exposure to childhood violence and adulthood physical assaults were most strongly associated with PTSD symptom severity in older adulthood. Moreover, cumulative self-oriented events accounted for a larger percentage of variance in symptom severity compared to events directed at others. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the cumulative impact of exposure to traumatic events throughout the life course contributes significantly to post-traumatic stress in older adulthood above and beyond other known predictors of PTSD. PMID:24011223

Ogle, Christin M.; Rubin, David C.; Siegler, Ilene C.

2014-01-01

197

Civic Engagement for Older Adults With Functional Limitations: Piloting an Intervention for Adult Day Health Participants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Past research has demonstrated the importance of civic engagement for older adults, yet previous studies have not focused specifically on the potential benefits of civic engagement for older adults with functional limitations. This pilot study explored the feasibility and effectiveness of an intervention designed to promote civic…

Dabelko-Schoeny, Holly; Anderson, Keith A.; Spinks, Katie

2010-01-01

198

The acute effects of glucose ingestion on attentional control in fasting healthy older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Glucose enhancing effects have been observed in older adults mainly for episodic memory, but have been under-investigated\\u000a for attentional functions, which are very sensitive to aging.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  The present study examined the acute effects of glucose ingestion on different attentional tasks in fasting healthy older\\u000a adults.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In a between-subjects design, 44 participants (60 years and older) were randomly assigned to a glucose

Christine Gagnon; Carol E. Greenwood; Louis Bherer

2010-01-01

199

Bridging the digital divide in older adults: a study from an initiative to inform older adults about new technologies  

PubMed Central

Purpose In a society where technology progresses at an exponential rate, older adults are often unaware of the existence of different kinds of information and communication technologies (ICTs). To bridge the gap, we launched a 2-year project, during which we conducted focus groups (FGs) with demonstrations of ICTs, allowing older adults to try them out and to share their opinions. This study aimed at investigating how participants perceived this kind of initiative and how they reacted to different kinds of ICTs. Patients and methods In total, 14 FGs were conducted with community-dwelling older adults, with a frequency of two FGs on the same topic once per trimester. Twenty-three older adults (four men and 19 women) attended at least one FG but only nearly half of them were regular attendants (ten participating in at least five sessions). Age of participants ranged from 63 years to 88 years, with a mean of 77.1 years. All of them had completed secondary education. The analyses of the data were performed according to inductive thematic analysis. Results Four overarching themes emerged from the analysis. The first concerned participants’ motivation for and assessment of the project. The second theme identified the underlying factors of the “digital divide” between the younger and the older generations. The third theme concerned the factors of technology adoption among older adults. The fourth one identified participants’ attitudes toward assistive ICTs, designed specifically for older adults (“gerontechnologies”). Discussions and conclusion This project encouraging older adults to be informed about different kinds of ICTs was positively rated. With regard to ICTs, participants perceived a digital divide. The underlying factors are generation/cohort effects, cognitive and physical decline related to aging, and negative attitudes toward technologies. However, more and more older adults adopt different kinds of ICTs in order to fit in with the society. Concerning assistive ICTs, they manifested a lack of perceived need and usefulness. Also, there was a negative image of end users of this kind of technologies. The so-called gerontechnologies specifically targeting older adults contain stigmatizing symbolism that might prevent them from adopting them.

Wu, Ya-Huei; Damnée, Souad; Kerhervé, Hélène; Ware, Caitlin; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

2015-01-01

200

Savoring, resilience, and psychological well-being in older adults.  

PubMed

Objectives: Guided by Fredrickson's broaden and build theory of positive emotions and Zautra's dynamic model of affect, the current study examines the relation between savoring positive experiences (i.e., the ability to notice and regulate positive feelings) and psychological well-being for older adults with higher and lower levels of resilience. Method: A sample of 164 (74% female) older adults living in a large metropolitan area participated in this study. Participants were recruited from a continuing care retirement community and community centers in the surrounding area. Participants completed a survey measuring savoring, resilience, happiness, depression, and satisfaction with life. Results: In older adults, greater ability to savor positive experiences and higher resilience both predicted greater happiness, lower depression, and greater satisfaction with life (i.e., greater psychological well-being). Savoring is associated with positive outcomes for people with higher and lower levels of resilience. However, the relationship between savoring and psychological well-being is stronger for people with lower resilience. Conclusion: These findings have implications for the development of positive psychological interventions to enhance resilience and well-being in older adults. From a practical standpoint, adaptable interventions to enhance savoring and boost positive emotions in older adults may improve well-being and resilience to life's stressors. PMID:25471325

Smith, Jennifer L; Hollinger-Smith, Linda

2014-12-01

201

Recruitment and Retention of Older Adults in Aging Research  

PubMed Central

Older adults continue to be underrepresented in clinical research despite their burgeoning population in the United States and worldwide. Physicians often propose treatment plans for older adults based on data from studies involving primarily younger, more-functional, healthier participants. Major barriers to recruitment of older adults in aging research relate to their substantial health problems, social and cultural barriers, and potentially impaired capacity to provide informed consent. Institutionalized older adults offer another layer of complexity that requires cooperation from the institutions to participate in research activities. This paper provides study recruitment and retention techniques and strategies to address concerns and overcome barriers to older adult participation in clinical research. Key approaches include early in-depth planning; minimizing exclusion criteria; securing cooperation from all interested parties; using advisory boards, timely screening, identification, and approach of eligible patients; carefully reviewing the benefit:risk ratio to be sure it is appropriate; and employing strategies to ensure successful retention across the continuum of care. Targeting specific strategies to the condition, site, and population of interest and anticipating potential problems and promptly employing predeveloped contingency plans are keys to effective recruitment and retention. PMID:19093934

Mody, Lona; Miller, Douglas K.; McGloin, Joanne M.; Div, M; Freeman, Marcie; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Magaziner, Jay; Studenski, Stephanie

2009-01-01

202

Does yoga engender fitness in older adults? A critical review.  

PubMed

Interest in yoga is growing, especially among older adults. This review critically summarizes the current literature to investigate whether physical fitness and function benefits are engendered through the practice of yoga in older adults. A comprehensive search yielded 507 studies; 10 studies with 544 participants (69.6 ± 6.3 yr, 71% female) were included. Large variability in yoga styles and measurement outcomes make it challenging to interpret results across studies. Studies reported moderate improvements for gait (ES = 0.54, 0.80), balance (ES = 0.25-1.61), upper/lower body flexibility (ES = 0.25, 0.70), lower body strength (ES = 0.51), and weight loss (ES = 0.73, 0.99).Yoga may engender improvements in some components of fitness in older adults. However, more evidence is needed to determine its effectiveness as an alternative exercise to promote fitness in older adults. Further investigation into yoga as an exercise activity for older adults is warranted. PMID:21285476

Roland, Kaitlyn P; Jakobi, Jennifer M; Jones, Gareth R

2011-01-01

203

Motion facilitates face perception across changes in viewpoint and expression in older adults.  

PubMed

Faces are inherently dynamic stimuli. However, face perception in younger adults appears to be mediated by the ability to extract structural cues from static images and a benefit of motion is inconsistent. In contrast, static face processing is poorer and more image-dependent in older adults. We therefore compared the role of facial motion in younger and older adults to assess whether motion can enhance perception when static cues are insufficient. In our studies, older and younger adults learned faces presented in motion or in a sequence of static images, containing rigid (viewpoint) or nonrigid (expression) changes. Immediately following learning, participants matched a static test image to the learned face which varied by viewpoint (Experiment 1) or expression (Experiment 2) and was either learned or novel. First, we found an age effect with better face matching performance in younger than in older adults. However, we observed face matching performance improved in the older adult group, across changes in viewpoint and expression, when faces were learned in motion relative to static presentation. There was no benefit for facial (nonrigid) motion when the task involved matching inverted faces (Experiment 3), suggesting that the ability to use dynamic face information for the purpose of recognition reflects motion encoding which is specific to upright faces. Our results suggest that ageing may offer a unique insight into how dynamic cues support face processing, which may not be readily observed in younger adults' performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25328999

Maguinness, Corrina; Newell, Fiona N

2014-12-01

204

Understanding physical health of older adults with schizophrenia: building and eroding trust.  

PubMed

Adults with schizophrenia are living longer, and data suggest they face health care disparities contributing to poor physical health. This article presents findings from a study that explored the understanding of physical health among older adults with schizophrenia. One goal was to understand factors that influence experienced health care disparities. This grounded theory study used semi-structured interviews and participant observation and was conducted among 28 older adults with schizophrenia living in a variety of settings. Trust evolved as a dynamic process that was built with factors of respect, caring, advocacy, and consistency and eroded through factors of disrespect, not being heard, lack of time and provider inaction, and stigmatization. When trust is given and received between providers, the health care system, and the older adult with schizophrenia, the adult's physical health outcomes may improve and health care disparities may decline. These findings provide insights to promote optimal physical health outcomes. PMID:19928709

Leutwyler, Heather C; Wallhagen, Margaret I

2010-05-01

205

OLDER ADULTS: AN ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSCEPTIBLE POPULATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The baby boom generation is quickly becoming the geriatric generation. The over-65 age bracket hit 13% of Americans in 1997, and is expected to reach 20% by 2030 accounting for 73 million Americans. World-wide the total number of older people (>60years) is expected to double from...

206

Worry in Older Community-Residing Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With rising longevity, increasing numbers of older people are experiencing changes in their everyday family and social life, changes in their financial status, and a greater number of chronic conditions affecting their health. We took the opportunity to explore these relationships with worry in a group of volunteer community-living elderly (n =…

Brock, Kaye; Clemson, Lindy; Cant, Rosemary; Ke, Liang; Cumming, Robert G.; Kendig, Hal; Mathews, Mark

2011-01-01

207

HIV behavioural interventions targeted towards older adults: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing number of people living with HIV aged 50 years and older has been recognised around the world yet non-pharmacologic HIV behavioural and cognitive interventions specifically targeted to older adults are limited. Evidence is needed to guide the response to this affected group. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the available published literature in MEDLINE, Embase and the Education Resources Information Center. A search strategy was defined with high sensitivity but low specificity to identify behavioural interventions with outcomes in the areas of treatment adherence, HIV testing uptake, increased HIV knowledge and uptake of prevention measures. Data from relevant articles were extracted into excel. Results Twelve articles were identified all of which originated from the Americas. Eight of the interventions were conducted among older adults living with HIV and four for HIV-negative older adults. Five studies included control groups. Of the included studies, four focused on general knowledge of HIV, three emphasised mental health and coping, two focused on reduced sexual risk behaviour, two on physical status and one on referral for care. Only four of the studies were randomised controlled trials and seven – including all of the studies among HIV-negative older adults – did not include controls at all. A few of the studies conducted statistical testing on small samples of 16 or 11 older adults making inference based on the results difficult. The most relevant study demonstrated that using telephone-based interventions can reduce risky sexual behaviour among older adults with control reporting 3.24 times (95% CI 1.79-5.85) as many occasions of unprotected sex at follow-up as participants. Overall however, few of the articles are sufficiently rigorous to suggest broad replication or to be considered representative and applicable in other settings. Conclusions More evidence is needed on what interventions work among older adults to support prevention, adherence and testing. More methodological rigourised needed in the studies targeting older adults. Specifically, including control groups in all studies is needed as well as sufficient sample size to allow for statistical testing. Addition of specific bio-marker or validated behavioural or cognitive outcomes would also strengthen the studies. PMID:24884947

2014-01-01

208

Older Adults with HIV/AIDS in Rural China  

PubMed Central

Although the number of older people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) has increased substantially, few studies have focused on older PLWHA in developing countries. Based on a sample of 866 rural PLWHA in Henan, Anhui and Yunnan provinces in China, this study compares the characteristics of PLWHA aged 50 or older (n=185) with younger PLWHA (n=681). Most of the older PLWHA were female (n=112), illiterate, married and at the clinical stage of HIV. Over 90% of older people with HIV/AIDS lived in Henan and Anhui provinces. The severe epidemic in Henan and Anhui provinces was caused by commercial blood and plasma donation. Older PLWHA were less educated, received less social support and were more likely to live alone than younger PLWHA. The results underline the importance of developing programs and policy initiatives targeted at older people infected with HIV/AIDS. The policy and program recommendations include using a gender sensitive strategy, designing specific AIDS education and prevention programs suitable for low-literacy older adults and social support interventions for older PLWHA. PMID:24454590

Zhang, Yurong; Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Anne Mitchell, Christine; Zhang, Xiulan

2013-01-01

209

Tuberculosis in older adults in Soweto, South Africa.  

PubMed

The impact of tuberculosis (TB) on older adults in Southern Africa is rarely emphasised. The case notification rate in 2004 among the elderly in Soweto was 262 per 100?000 population. The elderly comprised 5.8% of adults and 1.6% of adults notified. Among 110 elderly patients studied, 50% had pulmonary TB, 37% had extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) and 13% had both. A predisposing disease occurred in 46%. TB was microbiologically proven in 77%. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status was known for 25 (23%) patients, with 10 (9% of the cohort) being HIV-infected. HIV-infected adults had more EPTB, anaemia and hyponatraemia. Older adults in Soweto bear a high burden of TB. PMID:25216836

Karstaedt, A S; Bolhaar, M

2014-10-01

210

Differences in active commuting among younger and older adults.  

PubMed

The demonstrated health benefits of active commuting (AC) and low participation rates among older adults indicate a need to examine the socioecological correlates of AC by age category. An online survey of employed U.S. adults examined AC participation and individual, employment-related, community, and environmental variables. Participants were dichotomized by age (younger: 18-49 yr; n = 638, 64% and older: ? 50 yr; n = 359, 36%). Logistic-regression analyses examined differences in AC correlates by age. Older adults were less likely to be active commuters (13.4%) than younger adults (27.9%; p < .001) For older adults, analyses yielded a Nagelkerke R2 = .76, with perceived behavioral control, behavioral beliefs, household cars, and walking distance as predictors. Analyses for younger adults resulted in a Nagelkerke R2 = .79, with perceived behavioral control, coworker normative beliefs, parking problems at work, greater employer and community support for AC, and bad weather as predictors. Findings suggest age should be considered when examining and targeting AC behaviors. PMID:23689245

Bopp, Melissa; Der Ananian, Cheryl; Campbell, Matthew E

2014-04-01

211

Volunteerism of older adults in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study sought to provide a better understanding of the factors that motivate older consumers to engage in volunteering\\u000a activities in the United States. Using Socioemotional Selectivity theory (SST) as a guide, we examined the influence of age,\\u000a physical health status, life satisfaction, subjective well-being, and materialism on the older adults’ volunteerism. We also\\u000a examined the effects of education

Yujie Wei; Naveen Donthu; Kenneth L. Bernhardt

212

Physically active older adults display alterations in gait initiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of age-related changes in motor behaviour is important when considering the design of training programs for fall-prevention in the elderly. Gait initiation is a phase of walking during which falls are often provoked and this study compares strategies employed by healthy older and young adults during gait initiation. Twenty-nine older, physically active subjects (65–79 years) and 28 younger

Marketta Henriksson; Helga Hirschfeld

2005-01-01

213

Working Memory Capacity for Spoken Sentences Decreases with Adult Aging: Recall of Fewer, but not Smaller Chunks in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Previous studies show that older adults have poorer immediate recall for language but the reason is unknown. Older adults may recall fewer chunks from working memory, or may have difficulty binding words together to form multi-unit chunks. We examined these two hypotheses by presenting 4 types of spoken sentences for immediate free recall, differing in the number and length of chunks per trial: 4 short, simple sentences; 8 such sentences; 4 compound sentences, each incorporating two meaningful, short sentences; and 4 random word lists, each under a sentence-like intonation. Older adults recalled words from (accessed) fewer clauses than young adults, but there was no aging deficit in the degree of completion of clauses that were accessed. An age-related decline in working memory capacity measured in chunks appears to account for deficits in memory for spoken language. PMID:18671167

Gilchrist, Amanda L.; Cowan, Nelson; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe

2008-01-01

214

Neuroanatomical Characteristics and Speech Perception in Noise in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives Previous research has attributed older adult’s difficulty with perceiving speech in noise to peripheral hearing loss. Recent studies have suggested a more complex picture, however, and implicate the central nervous system in sensation and sensory deficits. This study examines the relationship between the neuroanatomical structure of cognitive regions and the ability to perceive speech in noise in older adults. In particular, the neuroanatomical characteristics of the left ventral and dorsal prefrontal cortex are considered relative to standard measures of hearing in noise. Design The participants were fifteen older and fourteen younger right-handed native speakers of American English who had no neurological deficits and scored better than normal on standardized cognitive tests. We measured the participants’ peripheral hearing ability as well as their ability to perceive speech in noise using standardized tests. Anatomical magnetic resonance images were taken and analyzed to extract regional volumes and thicknesses of several key neuroanatomical structures. Results The results showed that younger adults had better hearing sensitivity and better speech perception in noise ability than older adults. For the older adults only, the volume of the left pars triangularis and the cortical thickness of the left superior frontal gyrus were significant predictors of performance on the speech-in-noise test. Discussion These findings suggest that, in addition to peripheral structures, the central nervous system also contributes to the ability to perceive speech in noise. In older adults, a decline in the volume and cortical thickness of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during aging can therefore be a factor in a declining ability to perceive speech in a naturalistic environment. Our study shows a link between anatomy of PFC and speech perception in older adults. These findings are consistent with the decline-compensation hypothesis, which states that a decline in sensory processing due to cognitive aging can be accompanied by an increase in the recruitment of more general cognitive areas as a means of compensation. We found that a larger PFC volume may compensate for declining peripheral hearing. Clinically, recognizing the contribution of the cerebral cortex expands treatment possibilities for hearing loss in older adults beyond peripheral hearing aids to include strategies for improving cognitive function. We conclude by considering several mechanisms by which the PFC may facilitate speech perception in noise including inhibitory control, attention, cross-modal compensation, and phonological working memory, though no definitive conclusion can be drawn. PMID:20588117

Wong, Patrick C. M.; Ettlinger, Marc; Sheppard, John P.; Gunasekera, Geshri M.; Dhar, Sumitrajit

2010-01-01

215

Multidimensional Attitudes of Emergency Medicine Residents Toward Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction The demands of our rapidly expanding older population strain many emergency departments (EDs), and older patients experience disproportionately high adverse health outcomes. Trainee attitude is key in improving care for older adults. There is negligible knowledge of baseline emergency medicine (EM) resident attitudes regarding elder patients. Awareness of baseline attitudes can serve to better structure training for improved care of older adults. The objective of the study is to identify baseline EM resident attitudes toward older adults using a validated attitude scale and multidimensional analysis. Methods Six EM residencies participated in a voluntary anonymous survey delivered in summer and fall 2009. We used factor analysis using the principal components method and Varimax rotation, to analyze attitude interdependence, translating the 21 survey questions into 6 independent dimensions. We adapted this survey from a validated instrument by the addition of 7 EM-specific questions to measures attitudes relevant to emergency care of elders and the training of EM residents in the geriatric competencies. Scoring was performed on a 5-point Likert scale. We compared factor scores using student t and ANOVA. Results 173 EM residents participated showing an overall positive attitude toward older adults, with a factor score of 3.79 (3.0 being a neutral score). Attitudes trended to more negative in successive post-graduate year (PGY) levels. Conclusion EM residents demonstrate an overall positive attitude towards the care of older adults. We noted a longitudinal hardening of attitude in social values, which are more negative in successive PGY-year levels. PMID:25035760

Hogan, Teresita M.; Chan, Shu B.; Hansoti, Bhakti

2014-01-01

216

Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures in the older adult.  

PubMed

Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are classified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, as a functional neurological symptom disorder. This disorder is often misdiagnosed as epilepsy, with the consequence that older adults may have been treated for years for epilepsy before they learn their seizures are non-epileptic. Video electroencephalography monitoring, which is the standardized approach for ruling out epilepsy, is often performed in a specialized epilepsy monitoring unit where the patient lies in bed 24 hours per day waiting for a seizure to be recorded. The immobility, loss of independence, and anxiety that occurs during the monitoring process can be difficult for older adults. It is important for all nurses to be aware of PNES and to be sensitive to the unique needs of older adults who are experiencing these seizures. PMID:24815758

Yates, Erica

2014-05-01

217

Role modeling clinical judgment for an unfolding older adult simulation.  

PubMed

Nurse educators must foster development of clinical judgment in students to help them provide the best care for the increasing population of older adult patients. This article reports qualitative findings from a mixed-methods study that focused on clinical judgment in the simulated perioperative care of an older adult. The sample was composed of treatment and control groups of prelicensure students (N = 275) at five sites. The treatment group watched a video of an expert nurse role model caring for a patient similar to the simulation patient, whereas the control group did not watch the video. Four weeks after simulation, participants cared for real-life, older adult perioperative patients. After the simulated and real-life care experiences, participants completed questionnaires related to clinical judgment dimensions. These two data sets revealed rich findings about the students' simulation learning, affirming the value of expert role models. Transferability of simulation learning to practice was also explored. PMID:24716674

Lasater, Kathie; Johnson, Elizabeth A; Ravert, Patricia; Rink, Doris

2014-05-01

218

Factors associated with sexuality in later life: An exploratory study in a group of Greek married older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to investigate factors associated with sexual interest and behaviors in married older adults. The study recruited older adults from the Open Protection Centers for Elderly. A 30-items questionnaire addressing sexuality, emotional and physical intimacy, demographics, and background data was constructed. Dichotomous responses were used for intimacy and sexuality items. Data were analyzed using Chi-square tests, Pearson's

S. Papaharitou; E. Nakopoulou; P. Kirana; G. Giaglis; M. Moraitou; D. Hatzichristou

2008-01-01

219

Patterns and Predictors of Mental Health Service Use and Mental Illness Among Older and Younger Adults in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined patterns of serious mental illness (SMI), specific mental health syndromes, and service use among older (65+) and younger (18–64) adults throughout the United States, and the extent to which various factors predict SMI and the use and magnitude of mental health treatment. Despite recent developments designed to improve mental healthcare access and treatment for older adults,

Bradley E. Karlin; Michael Duffy; David H. Gleaves

2008-01-01

220

Portuguese nurses' knowledge of and attitudes toward hospitalized older adults.  

PubMed

Portugal is impacted by the rapid growth of the aging population, which has significant implications for its health care system. However, nurses have received little education focusing on the unique and complex care needs of older adults. This gap in the nurses' education has an enormous impact in their knowledge and attitudes and affects the quality of nursing care provided to older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1068 Portuguese nurses in five hospitals (northern and central region) with the following purposes: (i) explore the knowledge and attitudes of nurses about four common geriatric syndromes (pressure ulcer, incontinence, restraint use and sleep disturbance) in Portuguese hospitals; and (ii) evaluate the influence of demographic, professional and nurses' perception about hospital educational support, geriatric knowledge, and burden of caring for older adults upon geriatric nursing knowledge and attitudes. The mean knowledge and attitudes scores were 0.41 ± 0.15 and 0.40 ± 0.21, respectively (the maximum score was 1). Knowledge of nurses in Portuguese hospitals about the four geriatric syndromes (pressure ulcers, sleep disturbance, urinary incontinence and restraint use) was found inadequate. The nurses' attitudes towards caring for hospitalized older adults were generally negative. Nurses who work in academic hospitals demonstrated significantly more knowledge than nurses in hospital centers. The attitudes of nurses were significantly associated with the hospital and unit type, region, hospital educational support, staff knowledge, and perceived burden of caring for older adults. The study findings support the need for improving nurses' knowledge and attitudes towards hospitalized older adults and implementing evidence-based guidelines in their practice. PMID:24628017

de Almeida Tavares, João Paulo; Silva, Alcione Leite da; Sá-Couto, Pedro; Boltz, Marie; Capezuti, Elizabeth

2015-03-01

221

CT Pulmonary Findings in Healthy Older Adult Aspirators versus Nonaspirators  

PubMed Central

Objectives/Hypothesis In previous studies, we consistently found that approximately 30% of asymptomatic healthy older adults silently aspirated liquids during a flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES), and that their aspiration status was stable for the following year. However, no studies have systematically evaluated effects of silent aspiration on lung parenchyma and airways. We used computed tomography (CT) to compare lungs of healthy older adult aspirators versus nonaspirators. We hypothesized that CT images would show pulmonary differences in healthy older adult aspirators versus nonaspirators. Study Design Prospective study. Methods Fifty healthy older adults (25 aspirators and 25 nonaspirators) who participated in a previous FEES were randomly selected. CT scans were performed; on inspiration, lung views were taken at 1.25 mm and 2.5 mm windows; on expiration, lung views were taken at 2.5 mm. CT scans were reviewed by radiologists blinded to group assignment. Outcomes included bronchiectasis, bronchiolectasis, bronchial wall thickening, parenchymal band, fibrosis, air trapping, intraluminal airway debris, and tree-in-bud pattern. Results Chi-square analyses between aspirators and nonaspirators found no statistically significant differences between aspirators and nonaspirators for any outcomes (p > 0.05). Logistic regression analyses adjusted for smoking did not change the results. Conclusion(s) There were no differences in pulmonary CT findings between healthy older adult aspirators and nonaspirators. This study adds to the evidence that some aspiration may be within the range of normal for older adults, or at least does not contribute to a change in pulmonary appearance on CT images. PMID:23832617

Butler, Susan G.; Clark, Hollins; Baginski, Scott G.; Todd, J. Tee; Lintzenich, Catherine; Leng, Xiaoyan

2013-01-01

222

Barriers to treatment and culturally endorsed coping strategies among depressed African-American older adults  

PubMed Central

Objective Older adults are particularly vulnerable to the effects of depression, however, they are less likely to seek and engage in mental health treatment. African-American older adults are even less likely than their White counterparts to seek and engage in mental health treatment. This qualitative study examined the experience of being depressed among African-American elders and their perceptions of barriers confronted when contemplating seeking mental health services. In addition, we examined how coping strategies are utilized by African-American elders who choose not to seek professional mental health services. Method A total of 37 interviews were conducted with African-American elders endorsing at least mild symptoms of depression. Interviews were audiotaped and subsequently transcribed. Content analysis was utilized to analyze the qualitative data. Results Thematic analysis of the interviews with African-American older adults is presented within three areas: (1) Beliefs about Depression Among Older African-Americans: (2) Barriers to Seeking Treatment for Older African-Americans: and (3) Cultural Coping Strategies for Depressed African-American Older Adults. Conclusion Older African-Americans in this study identified a number of experiences living in the Black community that impacted their treatment seeking attitudes and behaviors. which led to identification and utilization of more culturally endorsed coping strategies to deal with their depression. Findings from this study provide a greater understanding of the stigma associated with having a mental illness and its influence on attitudes toward mental health services. PMID:21069603

Conner, Kyaien O.; Copeland, Valire Carr; Grote, Nancy K.; Rosen, Daniel; Albert, Steve; McMurray, Michelle L.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Brown, Charlotte; Koeske, Gary

2011-01-01

223

'Gerodesign': safe and comfortable living spaces for older adults.  

PubMed

"Gerodesign" is the planning of living spaces specifically for older adults. It involves careful consideration of the safety and comfort needs of this population, while incorporating enough flexibility to permit personal preferences. Architecture, space planning, flooring, furniture, utilities, appliances, lighting, color, and accessories may be successfully combined to satisfy practical and aesthetic needs. The physician who is aware of these principles can serve as a resource for patients and their families as home living spaces are designed and modified for the comfort and safety of the older adult. PMID:7959075

Cannava, E

1994-11-01

224

Ecological Relevance Determines Task Priority in Older Adults' Multitasking.  

PubMed

Objectives.Multitasking is a challenging aspect of human behavior, especially if the concurrently performed tasks are different in nature. Several studies demonstrated pronounced performance decrements (dual-task costs) in older adults for combinations of cognitive and motor tasks. However, patterns of costs among component tasks differed across studies and reasons for participants' resource allocation strategies remained elusive.Method.We investigated young and older adults' multitasking of a working memory task and two sensorimotor tasks, one with low (finger force control) and one with high ecological relevance (postural control). The tasks were performed in single-, dual-, and triple-task contexts. PMID:24149518

Doumas, Michail; Krampe, Ralf Th

2013-10-22

225

Why should older adults receive the shingles vaccine?  

PubMed

This article seeks to educate health care providers in understanding the need for immunization of older adults with the new herpes zoster vaccine, Zostavax(®). Herpes zoster (shingles) is a painful and disabling condition that can result in significant morbidity, loss of productivity, and decrease in quality of life. Herpes zoster is a reactivation of the varicella zoster virus, the same virus that causes chicken pox. Anyone who has had chickenpox can get shingles. Evidence found in the literature demonstrates that the vaccine prevents shingles in approximately half of adults 60 and older. PMID:20506935

Harkness, Turna Laneigh

2010-10-01

226

Subjective Experiences of Older Adults Practicing Taiji and Qigong  

PubMed Central

This article presents a qualitative study following a 6-month Taiji (T'ai Chi)/Qigong (Ch'i Kung) intervention for older adults. The researchers conducted in-depth interviews of eight selected participants who elected to continue practicing Taiji after the intervention ended, in order to explore their subjective experiences of Taiji's effects and their motivations for continuing to practice. We created a Layers Model to capture the significance and meaning of the multidimensionality of their reported experiences. Participants not only reported simple benefits along five dimensions of experience (physical, mental, emotional, social and spiritual) but also described complex multidimensional experiences. Overall findings indicate that participants derived a very wide variety of perceived benefits, the most meaningful being a felt sense of body-mind-spirit integration. Our results support the important role of qualitative studies in researching the effects of Taiji and Qigong. PMID:21773028

Yang, Yang; DeCelle, Sharon; Reed, Mike; Rosengren, Karl; Schlagal, Robert; Greene, Jennifer

2011-01-01

227

Semantic and self-referential processing of positive and negative trait adjectives in older adults  

PubMed Central

The beneficial effects of self-referential processing on memory have been demonstrated in numerous experiments with younger adults but have rarely been studied in older individuals. In the present study we tested young people, younger-older adults, and older-older adults in a self-reference paradigm, and compared self-referential processing to general semantic processing. Findings indicated that older adults over the age of 75 and those with below average episodic memory function showed a decreased benefit from both semantic and self-referential processing relative to a structural baseline condition. However, these effects appeared to be confined to the shared semantic processes for the two conditions, leaving the added advantage for self-referential processing unaffected These results suggest that reference to the self engages qualitatively different processes compared to general semantic processing. These processes seem relatively impervious to age and to declining memory and executive function, suggesting that they might provide a particularly useful way for older adults to improve their memories. PMID:18608973

Glisky, Elizabeth L.; Marquine, Maria J.

2008-01-01

228

Quality of life among Norwegian older adults: focus group results.  

PubMed

Fundamental to the nursing profession is understanding what issues are important to quality of life (QoL) for older adults. The aim of this study was to explore issues of importance to older adults and to compare findings with Lawton's theoretical QoL conceptualization. Five focus groups were conducted with healthy and hospitalized adults and health professionals. Many valued aspects of human existence were found to affect QoL, and results lend empirical support to many of the themes appearing under Lawton's four sectors. Results indicate the need for multidimensional assessments of QoL among older adults related to health, psychological, personal competency, social, environmental, and spiritual indicators. Issues related to time use, happiness, cognitive functioning, self-concept, coping with change, social functioning, self-determination, altruistic activity, living conditions, security, and technological aids should also be considered in future assessments of QoL. Research is needed to explore the relevancy of these issues in future assessments of QoL among older adults. PMID:20415359

Kalfoss, Mary

2010-04-01

229

Eye movements of young and older adults while reading with distraction.  

PubMed

The authors used eye-tracking technology to examine young and older adults' online performance in the reading in distraction paradigm. Participants read target sentences and answered comprehension questions following each sentence. In some sentences, single-word distracters were presented in either italic or red font. Distracters could be related or unrelated to the target text. Online measures, including probability of fixation, fixation duration, and number of fixations to distracting text, revealed no age differences in text processing. However, young adults did have an advantage over older adults in overall reading time and text comprehension. These results provide no support for an inhibition deficit account of age differences in the reading in distraction paradigm, but are consistent with J. Dywan and W. E. Murphy's (1996) suggestion that older adults are less able than the young to distinguish target and distracter information held in working memory. PMID:16594789

Kemper, Susan; McDowd, Joan; Kramer, Art

2006-03-01

230

The structure of verbal abilities in young and older adults  

E-print Network

large pool of candidate words (Bryan, Luszcz, & Crawford, 1997). Hence, verbal fluency may be limited by processing efficiency for older adults but by lexical knowledge for young adults, resulting in a different configuration of verbal abilities... version: http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/dspace/. 8 different words recalled within the time limit that met the criteria for each category. Repetitions and proper names were excluded. Bryan et al. (1997) report alternate-form reliability for initial...

Kemper, Susan; Sumner, Aaron

2001-06-01

231

Neurological gait abnormalities and risk of falls in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

To estimate the validity of neurological gait evaluations in predicting falls in older adults. We studied 632 adults age 70\\u000a and over (mean age 80.6 years, 62% women) enrolled in the Einstein Aging Study whose walking patterns were evaluated by study\\u000a clinicians using a clinical gait rating scale. Association of neurological gaits and six subtypes (hemiparetic, frontal, Parkinsonian,\\u000a unsteady, neuropathic, and

Joe Verghese; Anne F. Ambrose; Richard B. Lipton; Cuiling Wang

2010-01-01

232

Management of fibromyalgia in older adults.  

PubMed

Fibromyalgia (FM) is a pain syndrome characterized by dysregulation of pain-processing mechanisms. FM may arise de novo or evolve following nervous system sensitization after an identifiable triggering event or related to a peripheral pain generator such as osteoarthritis. Although the focus symptom of FM is generalized body pain, patients may also experience sleep and mood disturbance, fatigue, and other somatic symptoms leading to the concept of a polysymptomatic condition. In view of prevalent other comorbidities in older patients, FM may be overlooked and management may be neglected, thereby contributing to poor well-being. Pertinent to the older patient is to ensure that the diagnosis of FM is correct and that other conditions are not misdiagnosed as FM. Whereever possible, treatment strategies should emphasize non-pharmacologic interventions that encompass healthy lifestyle habits, with attention to adequate physical activity in particular. Drug treatments should be tailored to the individual needs of the patient, with knowledge that they may offer only a modest effect, but with caution to ensure that adverse effects do not overshadow therapeutic effects. PMID:25227451

Fitzcharles, Mary-Ann; Ste-Marie, Peter A; Shir, Yoram; Lussier, David

2014-10-01

233

Depressive symptoms in institutionalized older adults  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms among institutionalized elderly individuals and to analyze factors associated with this condition. METHODS This was a cross-sectional study involving 462 individuals aged 60 or older, residents in long stay institutions in four Brazilian municipalities. The dependent variable was assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Poisson’s regression was used to evaluate associations with co-variables. We investigated which variables were most relevant in terms of presence of depressive symptoms within the studied context through factor analysis. RESULTS Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 48.7%. The variables associated with depressive symptoms were: regular/bad/very bad self-rated health; comorbidities; hospitalizations; and lack of friends in the institution. Five components accounted for 49.2% of total variance of the sample: functioning, social support, sensory deficiency, institutionalization and health conditions. In the factor analysis, functionality and social support were the components which explained a large part of observed variance. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of depressive symptoms, with significant variation in distribution, was observed. Such results emphasize the importance of health conditions and functioning for institutionalized older individuals developing depression. They also point to the importance of providing opportunities for interaction among institutionalized individuals. PMID:24897042

Santiago, Lívia Maria; Mattos, Inês Echenique

2014-01-01

234

Differences in foot kinematics between young and older adults during walking.  

PubMed

Our understanding of age-related changes to foot function during walking has mainly been based on plantar pressure measurements, with little information on differences in foot kinematics between young and older adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in foot kinematics between young and older adults during walking using a multi-segment foot model. Joint kinematics of the foot and ankle for 20 young (mean age 23.2 years, standard deviation (SD) 3.0) and 20 older adults (mean age 73.2 years, SD 5.1) were quantified during walking with a 12 camera Vicon motion analysis system using a five segment kinematic model. Differences in kinematics were compared between older adults and young adults (preferred and slow walking speeds) using Student's t-tests or if indicated, Mann-Whitney U tests. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) for the differences were also computed. The older adults had a less plantarflexed calcaneus at toe-off (-9.6° vs. -16.1°, d = 1.0, p = <0.001), a smaller sagittal plane range of motion (ROM) of the midfoot (11.9° vs. 14.8°, d = 1.3, p = <0.001) and smaller coronal plane ROM of the metatarsus (3.2° vs. 4.3°, d = 1.1, p = 0.006) compared to the young adults. Walking speed did not influence these differences, as they remained present when groups walked at comparable speeds. The findings of this study indicate that independent of walking speed, older adults exhibit significant differences in foot kinematics compared to younger adults, characterised by less propulsion and reduced mobility of multiple foot segments. PMID:24183676

Arnold, John B; Mackintosh, Shylie; Jones, Sara; Thewlis, Dominic

2014-02-01

235

Evidence for the use of rotational optic flow cues for locomotor steering in healthy older adults.  

PubMed

Optic flow is a powerful visual cue for the control of locomotion. Considerable research has focused on how healthy young people use and perceive optic flow. However, little is known on how older adults use this type of visual motion to control walking. The purpose of this study is to investigate the ability of young and older adults to adjust their physical walking trajectory in response to a rotation of the optic flow presented in a virtual environment. Ten healthy young adults (mean age 23.49 ± 4.72 yr) and 10 healthy older adults (mean age 76.22 ± 3.11 yr) participated in the study. Subjects were instructed to walk straight in a virtual environment viewed within a head-mounted display unit as they walked overground for 5 m, while the focus of expansion was gradually rotated to the left or the right by 40°. All subjects responded with a similar strategy by rotating their head and body in the direction away from the orientation of the perturbation. The younger subjects achieved almost complete corrections and had very small net heading errors. In contrast, the older adults had delayed and smaller reorientations, particularly in the head, thus showing significantly larger heading errors compared with younger subjects. We conclude that older adults retain the ability to use optic flow to control their walking trajectory, although smaller, delayed head rotations and larger heading errors may indicate an age-dependent effect on sensorimotor coordination. PMID:21653718

Berard, Jessica R; Fung, Joyce; Lamontagne, Anouk

2011-09-01

236

Neural Correlates Associated with Successful Working Memory Performance in Older Adults as Revealed by Spatial ICA  

PubMed Central

To investigate which neural correlates are associated with successful working memory performance, fMRI was recorded in healthy younger and older adults during performance on an n-back task with varying task demands. To identify functional networks supporting working memory processes, we used independent component analysis (ICA) decomposition of the fMRI data. Compared to younger adults, older adults showed a larger neural (BOLD) response in the more complex (2-back) than in the baseline (0-back) task condition, in the ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and in the right fronto-parietal network (FPN). Our results indicated that a higher BOLD response in the VLPFC was associated with increased performance accuracy in older adults, in both the baseline and the more complex task condition. This ‘BOLD-performance’ relationship suggests that the neural correlates linked with successful performance in the older adults are not uniquely related to specific working memory processes present in the complex but not in the baseline task condition. Furthermore, the selective presence of this relationship in older but not in younger adults suggests that increased neural activity in the VLPFC serves a compensatory role in the aging brain which benefits task performance in the elderly. PMID:24911016

Saliasi, Emi; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M.; Maurits, Natasha M.

2014-01-01

237

The Impact of an Older Adult's Death on the Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The death of an older adult member in a family can have a significant impact on family functioning, and clinicians often find themselves in unfamiliar territory when treating bereaved family members. Psychologists' conception of the grief process has changed a great deal over recent years in combination with a new emphasis on the context in which an individual's grief is

Norman Abeles; Tara L. Victor; Lisa Delano-Wood

2004-01-01

238

Alcohol-drinking history and fatal injury in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although most clinical guidelines for older adults allow for one drink a day in persons without a history of alcoholism, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease, alcohol may contribute to fatal injury in the elderly. Using two national surveys, this case–control study determined the associations between drinking history and fatal injuries from falls, motor vehicle crashes and suicides. We performed a case–control

Gary S. Sorock; Li-Hui Chen; Sheila R. Gonzalgo; Susan P. Baker

2006-01-01

239

THE USE OF GROUPS IN DAY CENTERS FOR OLDER ADULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes groups currently used as the treatment of choice in a day center for older adults. It utilizes a framework of four group categories that have been developed and adapted to serve the needs of the impaired elderly population in a rehabilitalion orientated day center. The author supports the use of groups as \\

Nora Stabler

1982-01-01

240

Bilateral Brain Regions Associated with Naming in Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine structural brain correlates of naming abilities in older adults, we tested 24 individuals aged 56-79 on two confrontation-naming tests (the Boston Naming Test (BNT) and the Action Naming Test (ANT)), then collected from these individuals structural Magnetic-Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data. Overall,…

Obler, Loraine K.; Rykhlevskaia, Elena; Schnyer, David; Clark-Cotton, Manuella R.; Spiro, Avron, III; Hyun, JungMoon; Kim, Dae-Shik; Goral, Mira; Albert, Martin L.

2010-01-01

241

Perceived Benefits of VFW Post Participation for Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Older adults, as active members of the Veterans of Foreign Wars (VFW), describe multiple benefits of participation in the organization to their overall well-being. This qualitative study examined the perspectives of 20 active participants of a VFW Post and its Ladies Auxiliary. Findings indicate that, for the study participants, the VFW serves as a primary source of cross-generational influence, emotional

Skye N. Leedahl; Terry L. Koenig; David J. Ekerdt

2011-01-01

242

Memory training interventions for older adults: A meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic review and meta-analysis of memory training research was conducted to characterize the effect of memory strategies on memory performance among cognitively intact, community-dwelling older adults, and to identify characteristics of individuals and of programs associated with improved memory. The review identified 402 publications, of which 35 studies met criteria for inclusion. The overall effect size estimate, representing the

Alden L. Gross; Jeanine M. Parisi; Adam P. Spira; Alexandra M. Kueider; Jean Y. Ko; Jane S. Saczynski; Quincy M. Samus; George W. Rebok

2012-01-01

243

Physical activity is related to timing performance in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical activity has been linked to better cognitive function in older adults, especially for executive control processes. Researchers have suggested that temporal processing of durations less than 1 second is automatic and engages motor processes, while timing of longer durations engages executive processes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a higher level of physical activity is associated

Amanda N. Szabo; Ashley S. Bangert; Patricia A. Reuter-Lorenz; Rachael D. Seidler

2012-01-01

244

Volunteer Drivers: Their Contributions to Older Adults and to Themselves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2004 and 2005 the Beverly Foundation surveyed volunteer drivers in an effort to better understand how and why they support older adults. The sample comprised 714 volunteer drivers from 367 communities, representing 40 states, who responded to the survey. Their responses provided qualitative and quantitative information about who they are, why…

Kerschner, Helen; Rousseau, Marie-Helene

2008-01-01

245

Ethnically Diverse Older Adults' Beliefs about Staying Mentally Sharp  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined diverse older adults' (n = 396, ages 50+) views about how to stay mentally sharp. We conducted 42 focus groups in four languages at nine United States locations using a standardized discussion guide and methods. The groups represented African Americans, American Indians, Chinese Americans, Latinos, Whites other than Latinos,…

Friedman, Daniela B.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Laditka, James N.; Wu, Bei; Liu, Rui; Price, Anna E.; Tseng, Winston; Corwin, Sara J.; Ivey, Susan L.; Hunter, Rebecca; Sharkey, Joseph R.

2011-01-01

246

Olfactory stimuli and enhanced postural stability in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ameliorating postural instability is an important component of geriatric health care. The effect of olfactory stimuli (lavender and black pepper oils) on postural control in 17 older adults (78±6 years old) who had no apparent neurological deficits was studied. Measurements of center of pressure (CoP) trajectories were done with subjects standing quietly on a force plate. Control measurements were compared

Shannon Freeman; Satoru Ebihara; Takae Ebihara; Kaijun Niu; Masahiro Kohzuki; Hiroyuki Arai; James P. Butler

2009-01-01

247

Older Adults in Lifelong Learning: Participation and Successful Aging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the relationship between the participation of older adult learners in educational activities and successful aging. In partnership with seniors' organizations, focus-group interviews were conducted on seniors' involvement in learning and their perceptions of its influence on successful aging. Successful aging is defined in…

Sloane-Seale, Atlanta; Kops, Bill

2008-01-01

248

Examining Health Information–Seeking Behaviors of Older Adults  

PubMed Central

This study aims to examine which resources older adults utilize for their health information needs, how trustworthy and reliable they find these resources, and the difficulties they face in obtaining health-related information. A 41-item survey designed to understand the information-seeking characteristics of older adults was developed and distributed to retirement communities. Some items were taken from the Health Information National Trends Survey. Of 1520 surveys, 403 were returned completed (26.6%). Respondents’ mean age was 77.65 years. Average scores indicated respondents trusted particular sources of health information in the following order (highest to lowest): health care providers, pharmacists, friends and relatives, retirement community staff, newspapers, the Internet, television, and the radio. In conclusion, older adults have a greater amount of trust in a person with whom they are able to actively discuss their health as opposed to a nonliving source, which they have to access or manipulate, such as the Internet. Efforts must be made to help older adults better navigate and utilize the Internet and recognize dependable online sources so that they may increase their trust in its use, thereby increasing satisfaction with their own ability to seek and use sources of health information. PMID:23974574

CHAUDHURI, SHOMIR; LE, THAI; WHITE, CATHY; THOMPSON, HILAIRE; DEMIRIS, GEORGE

2014-01-01

249

Attitudes toward Older Adults: A Reexamination of Two Major Scales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies were conducted to reexamine the psychometric properties of two major scales measuring attitudes toward older adults. The Kogan Attitudes Toward Old People Scale (Kogan OP Scale; Kogan, 1961b) was administered to a sample of 512 college students in Study One. The refined version (Polizzi & Millikin, 2002) of the Aging Semantic…

Iwasaki, Michiko; Jones, James A.

2008-01-01

250

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Insomnia is associated with significant morbidity and is often a persistent problem, particularly in older adults. It is important to attend to this complaint and not assume that it will remit spontaneously. In many cases, unfortunately, insomnia remains unrecognized and untreated, often because it is presumed that insomnia is an inevitable…

Belanger, Lynda; LeBlanc, Melanie; Morin, Charles M.

2012-01-01

251

Civic Engagement and Older Adults: A Critical Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aging of the baby boom generation, together with research that links volunteerism and positive health outcomes in later life, has contributed to a burgeoning of interest in initiatives and programs promoting civic engagement among older adults. Although useful in potentially expanding role options in later life, this growing attention also…

Martinson, Marty; Minkler, Meredith

2006-01-01

252

ORIGINAL RESEARCH Startle evoked movement is delayed in older adults  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL RESEARCH Startle evoked movement is delayed in older adults: implications for brainstem Keywords Aging, brainstem, startle. Correspondence Claire F. Honeycutt, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago the brainstem. Since the brainstem plays a critical role in motor control throughout the whole body, having

Perreault, Eric J.

253

Treatment of Depression and Suicide in Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) intervention for suicide prevention in older adults. Although many studies have found that CBT interventions are efficacious for reducing depressive symptoms in the elderly, researchers have yet to evaluate the efficacy of such interventions for preventing suicide or reducing suicide risk…

Bhar, Sunil S.; Brown, Gregory K.

2012-01-01

254

Psychological Resilience to Suicide Ideation Among Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated associations between suicide ideation and a set of potential risk and resiliency factors in a heterogeneous sample of 107 older adults (mean age = 81.5 years, SD = 7.7 years; range, 67 to 98 years; 76% female) recruited in community, residential, and healthcare settings. Participants completed the Geriatric Suicide Ideation Scale (GSIS; Heisel & Flett, 2006) and measures

Marnin J. Heisel; Gordon L. Flett

2008-01-01

255

Examining health information-seeking behaviors of older adults.  

PubMed

This study aims to examine which resources older adults utilize for their health information needs, how trustworthy and reliable they find these resources, and the difficulties they face in obtaining health-related information. A 41-item survey designed to understand the information-seeking characteristics of older adults was developed and distributed to retirement communities. Some items were taken from the Health Information National Trends Survey. Of 1520 surveys, 403 were returned completed (26.6%). Respondents' mean age was 77.65 years. Average scores indicated respondents trusted particular sources of health information in the following order (highest to lowest): health care providers, pharmacists, friends and relatives, retirement community staff, newspapers, the Internet, television, and the radio. In conclusion, older adults have a greater amount of trust in a person with whom they are able to actively discuss their health as opposed to a nonliving source, which they have to access or manipulate, such as the Internet. Efforts must be made to help older adults better navigate and utilize the Internet and recognize dependable online sources so that they may increase their trust in its use, thereby increasing satisfaction with their own ability to seek and use sources of health information. PMID:23974574

Chaudhuri, Shomir; Le, Thai; White, Cathy; Thompson, Hilaire; Demiris, George

2013-11-01

256

Technology: Education and Training Needs of Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of the global aging of the population on social, economic, political, and health care institutions is unequaled. Parallel to this, evolving developments in technology promise opportunities for sales and product development to support positive aging. Older adults are excited to utilize technologies that they perceive as practical.…

Huber, Lesa; Watson, Carol

2014-01-01

257

Formal caregivers of older adults: reflection about their practice  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To understand the job function of caregivers of older adults and contribute to the debate on the consolidation of this professional practice. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES This is a descriptive, qualitative, and exploratory study. Four focal group sessions were performed in 2011 with 11 elderly companions, formal caregivers of older adults in the Programa Acompanhante de Idosos (Program for Caregivers of Older Adults), Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. These sessions, guided by a semi-structured script, were audio-recorded and fully transcribed. Data were analyzed using the Content Analysis technique, Thematic Modality. RESULTS In view of considering the caregivers of older adults as a new category of workers, it was difficult to define their duties. The elderly companions themselves as well as the care receivers, their families, and the professionals that comprised the team were unclear about their duties. The professional practice of these formal caregivers has been built on the basis of constant discussions and negotiations among them and other team members in Programa Acompanhante de Idosos during daily work. This was achieved via a recognition process of their job functions and by setting apart other workers’ exclusive responsibilities. CONCLUSIONS The delimitation of specific job functions for elderly companions is currently one of the greatest challenges faced by these workers to develop and consolidate their professional role as well as improve Programa Acompanhante de Idosos. PMID:25372163

Batista, Marina Picazzio Perez; Barros, Juliana de Oliveira; de Almeida, Maria Helena Morgani; Mângia, Elisabete Ferreira; Lancman, Selma

2014-01-01

258

Quantitative gait disturbances in older adults with cognitive impairments.  

PubMed

Gait is a complex motor task, initiated and governed by different areas of the brain. Studies have shown a clear association between gait and cognition. Impairments in both gait and cognition are prevalent in older adults. Older adults with gait impairment have an increased risk of developing cognitive impairments. Those with cognitive impairment often have gait impairments and more falls than cognitively healthy older adults. Recent studies have shown that quantitative gait analysis, particularly performed during dual task conditions, can detect gait deficits that cannot yet be seen by the naked eye, even to a trained specialist. Some studies have shown that such gait disturbances were measurable years before mild cognitive impairment or dementia or walking difficulties were clinically manifest. Quantitative gait analysis can provide early detection of gait and cognitive impairments as well as fall risk. Future quantitative gait studies may help distinguish dementia subtypes in early stages of the diseases. Early detection of gait and cognitive impairments would provide a better understanding of disease pathophysiology and progression. Early detection also allows the timely implementation of interventions with the ultimate goal of improving or maintaining mobility and functional independence for as long as possible. Quantitative gait analysis should be viewed as a clinical tool to aid diagnoses and treatment planning. This review examines the current literature on quantitatively measured gait impairment in older adults with mild cognitive impairment or a dementia subtype. PMID:24050167

Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Kressig, Reto W

2014-01-01

259

ASSOCIATION OF WEIGHT STATUS WITH DIETARY PATTERNS IN OLDER ADULTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dietary patterns and weight status are reported for 2 groups of community-living older adults, a rural Pennsylvania group and an urban Boston group. Diet patterns were defined by cluster analysis. Two major dietary patterns were identified for rural study participants and 4 major dietary patterns we...

260

Characteristics of Older Adults and the Aging: Some Comments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserting that both humanistic and manpower considerations dictate that we address the aging process, this article describes the characteristics of older adults and illustrates the way in which they may be allowed to remain productive. Maslow's "Need Hierarchy" and Thorndike's "Theory of Developmental Tasks" are applied to the aging process. (JC)

Kowalski, Cash J.; Cangemi, Joseph P.

1978-01-01

261

Fluad®-MF59®-Adjuvanted Influenza Vaccine in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Influenza directly or indirectly contributes to the four leading causes of global mortality, at rates that are highest in older adults. As the proportion of older adults in the Korean population is greater than in most other countries, influenza prevention is a greater public health priority in Korea than elsewhere. Conventional inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) is less immunogenic and efficacious (-50%) in older than in young adults, but adjuvanting the vaccine with oil-in-water emulsion MF59® increases immunogenicity, resulting in comparatively higher levels of hemagglutination inhibition antibodies and greater protection against all influenza, as well as cases requiring hospitalization. A recent observational study demonstrated that the adjuvanted vaccine protected older adults against influenza in a year when nonadjuvanted IIV was ineffective. In another multiyear study, the adjuvanted vaccine was estimated to be 25% more effective in preventing pneumonia and influenza hospitalizations compared to nonadjuvanted vaccine. Although MF59-adjuvanted vaccine is transiently more reactogenic than nonadjuvanted vaccine, there is no evidence that it increases risks for serious adverse events, including those with an autoimmune etiology. Experience thus far indicates a favorable balance of benefit to risk for MF59. This may reflect the adjuvant's mechanism of action in which the squalene oil emulsion increases antibody responses to co-administered antigen without acting more generally as an immunopotentiator. PMID:24265964

2013-01-01

262

Lay Meanings of Health among Rural Older Adults in Appalachia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Self-perceptions of health vary depending on one's social and cultural context. Rural residents have been characterized as having a distinct culture, and health differences by residence have been well documented. While there is evidence of poor health among rural older adults, little research has examined how they perceive and define…

Goins, R. Turner; Spencer, S. Melinda; Williams, Kimberly

2011-01-01

263

Participatory Action Research with Older Adults: Key Principles in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Although participatory action research (PAR) is increasingly viewed as an important complement to traditional investigator-driven research, relatively little PAR has taken place in which older adults have been prominent partners. This article provides a review of the literature on PAR in gerontology, highlighting key studies and their…

Blair, Thomas; Minkler, Meredith

2009-01-01

264

Self-Reported Cognitive Inconsistency in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insight into one's own cognitive abilities, or metacognition, has been widely studied in developmental psychology. Relevance to the clinician is high, as memory complaints in older adults show an association with impending dementia, even after controlling for likely confounds. Another candidate marker of impending dementia under study is inconsistency in cognitive performance over short time intervals. Although there has been

Susan Vanderhill; David F. Hultsch; Michael A. Hunter; Esther Strauss

2010-01-01

265

Reasons for Older Adult Participation in University Programs in Spain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the reasons expressed by older adults for attending a university program in Barcelona (Spain). Results were based on the responses of 36 elders to questions from a semistructured interview. These were (a) reasons for joining a university course and (b) factors that prevent enrolling in that course. Participants mentioned more…

Villar, Feliciano; Triado, Carme; Pinazo, Sacramento; Celdran, Montserrat; Sole, Carme

2010-01-01

266

The Design of Online Learning Communities for Older Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the creation of SeniorSage, an eight week facilitated online learning community for older adult volunteers in a Florida learning center. Discusses how members were prepared to participate in the community, explains the instructional design theory that guided the development of SeniorSage, and recommends future research. (Author/LRW)

Snyder, Marti M.

2002-01-01

267

The Social Connectedness of Older Adults: A National Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

For decades, scholars have wrestled with the assumption that old age is characterized by social isolation. However, there has been no systematic, nationally representative evaluation of this possibility in terms of social network connectedness. In this article, we develop a profile of older adults' social integration with respect to nine dimensions of interpersonal networks and voluntary associations. We use new

Benjamin Cornwell; Edward O. Laumann; L. Philip Schumm

2008-01-01

268

Participation in Learning and Wellbeing among Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this research was to identify the effects of participation in learning on the subjective wellbeing of older adults. Data were from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a large-scale, nationally representative survey of those aged 50 and above. The survey contains several wellbeing measures and information on three…

Jenkins, Andrew

2011-01-01

269

Development of an exercise expert system for older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop a com- puterized exercise expert system (CEES) that creates tailored exercise plans for older adults. A panel of experts was selected in the areas of medicine, exercise physiology, health promo- tion, exercise psychology, and gerontology. The experts com- municated with the principal investigator and the project members by mail, email, telephone, and

Lisa Wynn Boyette; Adrienne Lloyd; Stephanie Manuel; James Edward Boyette; Katharina V. Echt

270

Older Adults, Gerontologists, and Newspaper Reporting: Educational Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of the knowledge explosion in the field of gerontology and the increased coverage of the field in the popular press, a study was conducted to determine how accurate older adults and gerontologists think newspaper stories about aging are. A convenience sample of 95 persons in the midwest over 65 years old--similar to national demographic…

Meredith, William H.; Rowe, George P.

271

Measuring Successful Aging in Southern Black Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the growing size of the population of aging Black individuals, it is important to understand successful aging in this group. This study, therefore, piloted the Successful Aging Inventory (SAI) with a convenience sample of Black older adults. Participants completed a demographic form, the SAI, Purpose in Life Test, Life Satisfaction…

Troutman, Meredith; Nies, Mary A.; Bentley, Monica

2011-01-01

272

Neuropsychological Predictors of Driving Errors in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify neuropsychological factors associated with driving errors in older adults. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting Neuropsychological assessment laboratory and an instrumented vehicle on a 35-mile route on urban and rural roads. Participants One hundred eleven older adult drivers (ages 65-89 years; mean age 72.3 years) and 80 middle-aged drivers (age 40 to 64 years; mean age 57.2 years). Measurements Explanatory variables included age, neuropsychological measures (cognitive, visual, and motor), and a composite cognitive score (COGSTAT). The outcome variable was the safety error count, as classified by video review using a standardized taxonomy. Results Older drivers committed an average of 35.8 safety errors/drive (SD=12.8), compared to an average of 28.8 (SD=9.8) for middle-age drivers (P<0.001). Among older drivers, there was an increase of 2.6 errors per drive observed for each five-year age increase (P=0.026). After adjustment for age, education, and gender, COGSTAT was a significant predictor of safety errors in older drivers (P=0.005), with approximately a 10% increase in safety errors observed for a 10% decrease in cognitive function. Individual significant predictors of increased safety errors in older drivers included poorer scores on Complex Figure Test-Copy, Complex Figure Test-Recall, Block Design, Near Visual Acuity, and the Grooved Pegboard task. Conclusion Driving errors in older adults tend to increase, even in the absence of neurological diagnoses. Some of this increase can be explained by age-related decline in cognitive abilities, vision, and motor skills. Changes in visuospatial and visuomotor abilities appear to be particularly associated with unsafe driving in old age. PMID:20487082

Dawson, Jeffrey D; Uc, Ergun Y.; Anderson, Steven W.; Johnson, Amy M.; Rizzo, Matthew

2011-01-01

273

Perceptions of a Community-Based Yoga Intervention for Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-reported effects of yoga among older adults in an independent-living retirement community are presented. Weekly 60-minute beginner Iyengar yoga classes tailored to individual functional levels using props were conducted. Classes included stretching, flexibility, endurance, balance, and relaxation. Pre- and postintervention perceptions by focus-group discussions and key informant interviews were conducted at baseline, 12 weeks, and 1 year. Twelve older persons

Neela K. Patel; Sreedhara Akkihebbalu; Sara E. Espinoza; Laura K. Chiodo

2011-01-01

274

Taiwanese older adults’ perceptions of aging and communication with peers and young adults  

E-print Network

’s achievement. Analysis also revealed some of the Taiwanese older adults’ major perceptions of young people (e.g., less respectful towards elders) and their peers (e.g., losing status in the family). The discursive strategies used in constructing...

Zhang, Yan Bing; Lin, Mei-Chen

2008-01-01

275

Examining barriers to self-reporting of elder physical abuse in community-dwelling older adults.  

PubMed

One out of 10 older adults experiences elder abuse in their lifetime, though less than one third of these cases ever get reported. The purpose of this study was to describe older adults' perceptions of physical abuse (PA) as a type of elder abuse including reasons why they may or may not self-report. An author developed vignette scale was used to present three types of PA and three barriers to reporting for each of three living situations. Older adults (n = 76) rated perceptions of whether or not the situation is abusive, likelihood of reporting and likelihood of reporting when presented with each of three barriers. The study participants had a consistent perception of PA; however the barriers affected their likelihood of reporting, which varied across types and situations. The results provide further evidence that reporting abuse is multifactorial and have implications for educational interventions. PMID:24341952

Ziminski Pickering, Carolyn E; Rempusheski, Veronica F

2014-01-01

276

How Feelings of Stereotype Threat Influence Older Adults' Memory Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present research was to explore the role of stereotype threat as a mediator of older people's memory performance under different instructional sets. In three studies, younger and older participants completed a memory test that was either framed as a memorization or as an impression formation task. Across these studies, memory performance was greater for younger than

Alison L. Chasteen; Sudipa Bhattacharyya; Michelle Horhota; Raymond Tam; Lynn Hasher

2005-01-01

277

Intraindividual Variability in HIV Infection: Evidence for Greater Neurocognitive Dispersion in Older HIV Seropositive Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Both the prevalence and incidence of HIV infection among older adults are on the rise. Older adults are at increased risk of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, which have historically been characterized as an inconsistent or \\

Erin E. Morgan; Steven Paul Woods; Lisa Delano-Wood; Mark W. Bondi; Igor Grant

2011-01-01

278

Body Mass Index and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults: A Cross-Lagged Panel Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background There are conflicting results about the association between body mass index (BMI) and depressive symptoms in older adults. The present study examined the relationship between weight and depressive symptoms over time in older adults in South Korea. Methods We used data from three waves of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging and ran a series of cross-lagged panel models to test the reciprocal relationship between depressive symptoms and obesity in older Korean adults. We assumed a temporally stable relationship between depressive symptoms and obesity and, thus imposed equality constraints over time. Results After controlling for the effect of depressive symptoms two years prior, underweight older adults had a higher depressive symptom score than those of normal weight. When controlling for obesity status from two years prior, older adults with higher levels of depressive symptoms were more likely to be underweight and less likely to be overweight than normal weight. The same patterns were observed in data from 2006 to 2008 and from 2008 to 2010. Conclusions These results show that there is a correlation between depressive symptoms and weight status. In middle-aged and elderly Asian populations, depression can lead to weight loss rather than obesity, and underweight may develop depressive symptoms. PMID:25501372

Kim, Jinseok; Noh, Jin-Won; Park, Jumin; Kwon, Young Dae

2014-01-01

279

Gender and Friendship Norms Among Older Adults  

PubMed Central

The authors examined same- and cross-gender friendship norms in a sample of 135 adults (average age 73 years). Participants evaluated a friend’s behavior, quantitatively and qualitatively, in vignettes in which the friend’s gender was experimentally manipulated. Gender often significantly, though modestly, influenced normative evaluations. Women frequently had higher expectations of friends than men and placed a greater emphasis on intimacy. Women were more disapproving of violations of friendship rules, such as betraying a confidence, paying a surprise visit, and failing to stand up for a friend in public. However, both men and women were less approving of a man than a woman who greets another friend with a kiss or who requests to stay overnight. Respondents’ open-ended comments reflected positive attitudes regarding cross-gender friendships. Most findings demonstrated that men and women across a wide age range held similar cultural norms for close ties, norms of trust, commitment, and respect. PMID:20473364

Felmlee, Diane; Muraco, Anna

2010-01-01

280

The ADOPT Model: Accelerating Diffusion of Proven Technologies for Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing older adult population faces unprecedented health challenges. Home and community-based technologies have proven\\u000a to be an effective way of helping older adults improve health outcomes and maintain independence. However, such technologies\\u000a are currently not widely used by older adults for health purposes. Nor have they been widely adopted by the providers serving\\u000a older adults; to date, successful health

Ange Wang; Lynn Redington; Valerie Steinmetz; David Lindeman

2011-01-01

281

Rational suicide among older adults: a cause for concern?  

PubMed

Society is collectively having to examine questions it has never had to face before and nurses are frequently confronted with the difficult issue of whether suicide can or should be a rational choice for older adults. They may be faced with the question of whether an older person should ever be restrained from suicide. Arguments for and against rational suicide are highlighted and the author makes the case for a rational approach to the affirmation of life, rather than its rejection, even to the very end. PMID:8494398

Moore, S L

1993-04-01

282

Phase-shifting response to light in older adults  

PubMed Central

Key points Ageing is characterized by changes in circadian rhythms. Reduced light exposure or reduced responsiveness to light in older adults may contribute to age-related circadian changes. We hypothesized that the aged circadian clock would exhibit a decreased response to light at a lower intensity (2000 lux) but not to light at a higher intensity (8000 lux). Here, we assessed phase-shifting responses to 2 h of broad-spectrum white light at two different intensities in 29 healthy younger and 16 healthy older subjects. Older subjects had a significantly earlier phase and lower amplitude of melatonin rhythm compared with younger subjects. There was no evidence of age-related changes in the magnitude or direction of phase shifts of melatonin midpoint in response to 2 h of broad-spectrum white light at either 2000 lux or 8000 lux; this indicates that the acute phase-shifting response to light is not significantly affected by age. Abstract?Age-related changes in circadian rhythms may contribute to the sleep disruption observed in older adults. A reduction in responsiveness to photic stimuli in the circadian timing system has been hypothesized as a possible reason for the advanced circadian phase in older adults. This project compared phase-shifting responses to 2 h of broad-spectrum white light at moderate and high intensities in younger and older adults. Subjects included 29 healthy young (25.1 ± 4.1 years; male to female ratio: 8: 21) and 16 healthy older (66.5 ± 6.0 years; male to female ratio: 5: 11) subjects, who participated in two 4-night and 3-day laboratory stays, separated by at least 3 weeks. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three different time-points, 8 h before (?8), 3 h before (?3) or 3 h after (+3) the core body temperature minimum (CBTmin) measured on the baseline night. For each condition, subjects were exposed in a randomized order to 2 h light pulses of two intensities (2000 lux and 8000 lux) during the two different laboratory stays. Phase shifts were analysed according to the time of melatonin midpoint on the nights before and after light exposure. Older subjects in this study showed an earlier baseline phase and lower amplitude of melatonin rhythm compared to younger subjects, but there was no evidence of age-related changes in the magnitude or direction of phase shifts of melatonin midpoint in response to 2 h of light at either 2000 lux or 8000 lux. These results indicate that the acute phase-shifting response to moderate- or high-intensity broad spectrum light is not significantly affected by age. PMID:24144880

Kim, Seong Jae; Benloucif, Susan; Reid, Kathryn Jean; Weintraub, Sandra; Kennedy, Nancy; Wolfe, Lisa F; Zee, Phyllis C

2014-01-01

283

Correlates of Susceptibility to Scams in Older Adults Without Dementia  

PubMed Central

This study examined correlates of susceptibility to scams in 639 community-dwelling older adults without dementia from a cohort study of aging. Regression models adjusted for age, sex, education, and income were used to examine associations between susceptibility to scams, measured by 5-item self-report measure, and a number of potential correlates. Susceptibility was positively associated with age and negatively associated with income, cognition, psychological well being, social support, and literacy. Fully adjusted models indicated that older age and lower levels of cognitive function, decreased psychological well-being, and lower literacy in particular may be markers of susceptibility to financial victimization in old age. PMID:24499279

James, Bryan D.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Bennett, David A.

2013-01-01

284

Considerations for physicians caring for older adults with periodontal disease.  

PubMed

Periodontal disease is a generic term encompassing a variety of inflammatory conditions affecting the supporting tissues of the teeth. Periodontitis is inflammation associated with net resorption of supporting alveolar bone and periodontal ligament. Gingivitis is inflammation limited to the covering gingival tissues and does not directly lead to tooth mobility or loss. Periodontal diseases are very prevalent. Because the bone and ligament resorption are essentially irreversible, accumulated tissue damage of periodontitis is reflected in a prevalence and severity that increase with age. Periodontitis is not caused by aging per se but by a complex host-parasite relationship in which specific pathogens among the subgingival microbiota not only injure tissues directly but stimulate a cascade of inflammatory mediators to damage host tissues. Analytic epidemiology has identified several risk indicators for advanced periodontitis in older adults. These are microbiologic (prevalence of certain anaerobes in the microbiota), behavioral (tobacco smoking and infrequent professional dental care), medical (older age, preexisting and generalized periodontitis, gingival bleeding), and social (financial worries). Periodontitis in older adults is treated by reducing the impact of these risk indicators. The infections are controlled by combinations of debridement, antimicrobial agents, and surgical procedures as indicated. Medically well older adults can be treated similarly to younger adults. Management of periodontal conditions can be complicated for patients who are medically compromised. Communication between physicians and dental personnel is often required to ascertain the medical history and list of medications taken by older patients. Many of the medications prescribed for medical problems associated with aging impact on treatment choices for managing periodontitis. Moreover, periodontists frequently prescribe analgesics, antibiotics, and anti-inflammatory agents that might interact with others among the numerous drugs taken by older patients. Older adults with cognitive or physical disabilities have special needs for individualized hygiene instruction and implements. Periodontal health promotion and improving access to periodontal care for the elderly are challenges, because dental services are most often in the private sector and dental insurance does not often apply after retirement. Because they grew up in an era in which tooth loss due to "gum" diseases was considered inevitable, their current motivation toward regular preventive care must be improved by removing barriers and impediments to care. In addition to life-threatening medical conditions, frail individuals institutionalized in collective living centers face compounded problems concerning the provision of adequate, not even optimal, dental care. Their periodontal health often deteriorates rapidly after institutionalization, and in some instances it can possibly predispose to aspiration pneumonia or other disseminated infections.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1504948

Ellen, R P

1992-08-01

285

Restorative integral support (RIS) for older adults experiencing co-occurring disorders.  

PubMed

The restorative integral support (RIS) model is a whole person response that assists people to overcome adversity. The adverse childhood experiences (ACE) Study conducted by Kaiser Permanente and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention shows the association between stressors in childhood and multiple later-life health and social problems. Older adults experiencing co-occurring disorders are an under-served and vulnerable population where gaps in both practice models and research to inform effective service provision exist. The current empirical case study presents Senior Hope as one social service agency employing RIS to intervene on the linkage between ACEs and co-occurring disorders to assist older adults. RIS usefully articulates the way in which Senior Hope is developing ACE-informed programs that mobilize resilience and recovery to help older adults achieve positive mental health outcomes. Implementation and research on the RIS model is recommended to enhance services for groups with ACE characteristics. PMID:22844693

Larkin, Heather; MacFarland, Nicole S

2012-01-01

286

What is occupational therapy’s role in addressing sleep problems among older adults?  

PubMed Central

Sleep problems, prevalent among older adults, are associated with poor outcomes and high healthcare costs. In 2008, rest and sleep became its own area of occupation in the AOTA Occupational Therapy Practice Framework. This scoping review examined a broad context of sleep research in order to highlight efficacious interventions for older adults that fall within the occupational therapy scope of practice and present an agenda for research and practice. Four sleep intervention areas clearly aligned with the Practice Framework, including cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, physical activity, and multi-component interventions. Occupational therapy is primed to address sleep problems by targeting the context and environment, performance patterns, and limited engagement in evening activities that may contribute to poor sleep. Occupational therapy researchers and clinicians need to work collaboratively to establish the evidence-base for occupation-centered sleep interventions in order to improve the health and quality of life of the older adult. PMID:24844879

Leland, Natalie E.; Marcione, Nicole; Niemiec, Stacey L. Schepens; Don Fogelberg, Kaivalya Kelkar

2014-01-01

287

Glucose Control and Walking in a Multiethnic Sample of Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although walking is the most commonly reported physical activity by older adults, there is a paucity of data determining the relationship between objectively determined walking behavior and glucose dynamics in older adults. Objective: This study was designed to investigate the relationship between objectively determined walking behavior and glucose control in a multiethnic sample of older adults. Methods: Data were

Ann M. Swartz; Scott J. Strath; Nora E. Miller; Susan E. Cashin; Linda J. Cieslik

2007-01-01

288

More than Just a Communication Medium: What Older Adults Say about Television and Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Older adults watch more television than younger people do. Television's role in mental health has been described in the general population, but less is known about how older adults think of television in the context of depression. Design and Methods: Using a semistructured interview created to help clinicians understand how older adults

Nguyen, Giang T.; Wittink, Marsha N.; Murray, Genevra F.; Barg, Frances K.

2008-01-01

289

Physical Activity Moderates Time-of-Day Differences in Older Adults' Working Memory Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a synthesis of the literature on time of day and physical fitness effects on cognition, the current study examined whether physical activity moderated time-of-day differences in older adults' performance on a working memory task. Sedentary older adults' working memory performance declined significantly from morning to evening, whereas more active older adults performed similarly across the day. This interaction

Julie M. Bugg; Edward L. DeLosh; Benjamin A. Clegg

2006-01-01

290

Cognitive health benefits of strengthening exercise for community-dwelling older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

While aerobic exercise has been linked to improved performance on cognitive tasks of executive functioning among older adults, not all older adults can avail themselves of such exercise due to physical limitations. In this study, community-dwelling older adults were evaluated on tasks of executive functioning before and after a month-long strengthening, nonaerobic exercise program. A total of 16 participants who

Cay Anderson-Hanley; Joseph P. Nimon; Sarah C. Westen

2010-01-01

291

The Effect of the Presence of Others on Caloric Intake in Homebound Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Undernutrition in homebound older adults is a significant problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the presence of others, both within the household and during meals, on caloric intake in homebound older adults. Methods. In-depth interviews and three 24-hour dietary recalls were obtained from 50 older adults who were receiving home health services. Descriptive

Julie L. Locher; Caroline O. Robinson; David L. Roth; Christine S. Ritchie; Kathryn L. Burgio

2005-01-01

292

Computer use by older adults: A multi-disciplinary review Nicole Wagner, Khaled Hassanein *, Milena Head  

E-print Network

Review Computer use by older adults: A multi-disciplinary review Nicole Wagner, Khaled Hassanein f o Article history: Available online 22 April 2010 Keywords: Older adults Aging Computer use of computer and Internet users. In many cases, older adults are the fastest growing computer and Internet user

Hitchcock, Adam P.

293

Specialty Nursing Association Global Vision Statement on Care of Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unparalleled increase in the older-adult population impacts every aspect of health care delivery in the United States. With the total number of people aged 65 and over expected to represent approximately 20% of the U.S. population by 2030, older adults require a nurse workforce equipped to meet their growing and specific health care needs. Older adults constitute the largest

Mathy Mezey

2010-01-01

294

Bounded Rationality, Emotions and Older Adult Decision Making: Not so Fast and yet so Frugal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Herbert Simon's work on bounded rationality has had little impact on researchers studying older adults' decision making. This omission is surprising, as human constraints on computation and memory are exacerbated in older adults. The study of older adults' decision-making processes could benefit from employing a bounded rationality perspective,…

Hanoch, Yaniv; Wood, Stacey; Rice, Thomas

2007-01-01

295

Does a Nutrition Handout cause Behavior Changes on the Dietary Intake of Older Adults?  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To understand that a nutrition handout, with no accompanying dietary counseling, produced no behavior changes in the dietary habits of healthy older adults.The effects of a nutrition handout (with no dietary counseling provided) on dietary intake in older adults was studied. The research subjects included 18 older adults (14 females and 4 males) from rural western Pennsylvania, with

M. J. Leeds; J. M. Gaudi

1996-01-01

296

Journal Writing with Web 2.0 Tools: A Vision for Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how Web 2.0 technologies may facilitate journaling and related inquiry methods among older adults. Benefits and limitations of journaling are summarized as well as computer skills of older adults. We then describe how Web 2.0 technologies can enhance journaling among older adults by diminishing feelings of isolation,…

Shepherd, Craig E.; Aagard, Steven

2011-01-01

297

Exercise Accelerates Wound Healing Among Healthy Older Adults: A Preliminary Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Older adults are likely to experience delayed rates of wound healing, impaired neuroendocrine responsiveness, and increased daily stress. Exercise activity has been shown to have a positive effect on physiological functioning and psychological functioning among older adults. This study evaluated the effect of a 3-month exercise program on wound healing, neuroendocrine function, and perceived stress among healthy older adults.

Charles F. Emery; Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser; Ronald Glaser; William B. Malarkey; David J. Frid

2005-01-01

298

Future thinking improves prospective memory performance and plan enactment in older adults.  

PubMed

Efficient intention formation might improve prospective memory by reducing the need for resource-demanding strategic processes during the delayed performance interval. The present study set out to test this assumption and provides the first empirical assessment of whether imagining a future action improves prospective memory performance equivalently at different stages of the adult lifespan. Thus, younger (n?=?40) and older (n?=?40) adults were asked to complete the Dresden Breakfast Task, which required them to prepare breakfast in accordance with a set of rules and time restrictions. All participants began by generating a plan for later enactment; however, after making this plan, half of the participants were required to imagine themselves completing the task in the future (future thinking condition), while the other half received standard instructions (control condition). As expected, overall younger adults outperformed older adults. Moreover, both older and younger adults benefited equally from future thinking instructions, as reflected in a higher proportion of prospective memory responses and more accurate plan execution. Thus, for both younger and older adults, imagining the specific visual-spatial context in which an intention will later be executed may serve as an easy-to-implement strategy that enhances prospective memory function in everyday life. PMID:25191929

Altgassen, Mareike; Rendell, Peter G; Bernhard, Anka; Henry, Julie D; Bailey, Phoebe E; Phillips, Louise H; Kliegel, Matthias

2015-01-01

299

Oral health in a convenience sample of Chinese older adults living in Melbourne, Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  To present data on the dental and periodontal status of a convenience sample of 101 ambulant China-born older adults who now\\u000a live in Melbourne. These older adults participated in a study to assess the prevalence of specific oral diseases.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Participants were interviewed in Cantonese using a structured questionnaire and received an oral examination to assess dental\\u000a and periodontal status using

Rodrigo Mariño; Mike Morgan; Asuman Kiyak; Eli Schwarz; Syed Naqvi

300

The Effect of a Music Therapy Intergenerational Program on Children and Older Adults' intergenerational Interactions, Cross-Age Attitudes, and Older Adults' Psychosocial Well-Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of participation in an intergenerational music therapy program on cross-age interactions and cross-age attitudes of elementary-age children and older adults. A secondary purpose was to examine the effect of participation in an intergenerational music therapy program on older adults’ psychosocial well-being. Older adults and elementary-age children served as participants (N

Melita Jean Belgrave

2009-01-01

301

Measurement of Psychological Hardiness in Older Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings are presented on the psychometric properties of a short psychological hardiness measure using subjects predominantly aged over 60 years. The sample of 223 participants was administered the hardiness questionnaire and other instruments twice, with a one-year test-retest interval. Results are presented and discussed. (Author/CT)

McNeil, Kevin; And Others

1986-01-01

302

Polypharmacy in the HIV-infected older adult population  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among people older than 50 years is increasing. Older HIV-infected patients are particularly at risk for polypharmacy because they often have multiple comorbidities that require pharmacotherapy. Overall, there is not much known with respect to both the impact of aging on medication use in HIV-infected individuals, and the potential for interactions with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and coadministered medications and its clinical consequences. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of polypharmacy with a focus on its impact on the HIV-infected older adult population and to also provide some clinical considerations in this high-risk population. PMID:23818773

Gleason, Lauren J; Luque, Amneris E; Shah, Krupa

2013-01-01

303

Unequal social engagement for older adults: constraints on choice.  

PubMed

Although some studies have confirmed positive associations between social engagement and well-being in later life, this study aimed to understand why some seniors cannot be engaged. The authors analyzed the lived experiences of 89 seniors in three rural communities in Canada, from semi-structured interviews and using the constant comparison method. Five factors make choices for social engagement in later life unequal among older adults who differ by gender, class, age, and health status. Profound engagement in care work, compulsory altruism, personal resources, objectively perceived and subjectively available engagement opportunities, and ageist barriers around paid work constrain choices for seniors who lack privilege in the context of a market economy, particularly for low-income older women. To avoid stigmatizing vulnerable older persons, societal barriers to meaningful activities must be addressed - for example, through provision of income security or by reversing inter- and intragenerational ageism in access to the labor market. PMID:22373781

Rozanova, Julia; Keating, Norah; Eales, Jacquie

2012-03-01

304

Prehabilitation interventions for older adults: an integrative review.  

PubMed

Prehabilitation aims to increase physical activity and improve physical fitness prior to elective surgery to improve postoperative outcomes. This integrative review examined the effect of prehabilitation randomized clinical trial (RCT) interventions on physical activity behavior and physical fitness in older adults. Seven studies met the search criteria. In two studies, effect sizes from baseline to the preoperative period exceeded d = .2, specifically in physical activity and in the physical-fitness dimensions of strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, and flexibility. For the effect sizes between baseline and the postoperative period, five studies had positive effects greater than d = .2 in strength, flexibility, balance, and speed. This review demonstrated that prehabilitation continues to be important to physical activity and physical-fitness research because it may improve physical-fitness measures and have implications for multiple dimensions of health in older adults. PMID:25255975

Halloway, Shannon; Buchholz, Susan Weber; Wilbur, JoEllen; Schoeny, Michael E

2015-01-01

305

The internet and locus of control in older adults.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To investigate how training older adults to find medical information using the Internet affects their locus of control. METHODS: Quantitative methods were utilized. Specifically, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control survey was distributed at the onset of each seminar and again at the conclusion. RESULTS: Paired t-tests revealed that the subjects did not change their locus of control regarding their health beliefs over the period of the seminar. However, there was statistical significance with regard to eight specific questions. CONCLUSION: Subjects scored high on their level of internal locus of control coming into the study. The majority of subjects had already learned to use the computer, owned a home computer, and had access to the Internet, but had not used the Internet to search for healthcare information. The challenge continues to be reaching those older adults who have not encountered the computer and the Internet. PMID:12463794

Campbell, Robert J.; Harris, Kimberly D.; Wabby, James

2002-01-01

306

Geriatric Nursing Resources for Care of Older Adults: Assessment Tools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For nurses interested in keeping up to date with developments in geriatric treatment, this set of resources created by expert practitioners will be quite a find. The entire site was developed as part of the Nurse Competence in Aging initiative created by the American Nurses Association. Here, visitors can read over twenty-five two-page assessment tools that include such helpful titles as âÂÂAssessing Nutrition in Older AdultsâÂÂ, âÂÂPredicting Pressure Ulcer RiskâÂÂ, and âÂÂImmunizations for the Older AdultâÂÂ. Written in clear and direct language, these resources will also be of assistance for nursing educators and those who are responsible for professional development workshops. It is also worth mentioning that these short tools are designed as screening tools, and are not for diagnosis.

307

Neighbourhood deprivation and physical activity in UK older adults.  

PubMed

The benefits of regular physical activity for older adults are now well-established but this group remain the least active sector of the population. In this paper, the association between levels of neighbourhood deprivation and physical activity was assessed. A sample of 125 males with a mean age of 77.5 (±5.6) years, and 115 females with a mean age of age 78.6 (±8.6) underwent 7-day accelerometry, a physical performance battery, and completed a daily journeys log. Univariate associations between physical activity parameters and level of deprivation of neighbourhood were extinguished in regression models controlling for age, gender, and level of educational attainment. Age, gender, educational attainment, body mass index, physical function, and frequency of journeys from the home explained between 50% and 54% of variance in activity parameters. These results suggest the importance of strategies to help older adults maintain physical function, healthy weight, and remain active in their communities. PMID:21292536

Fox, K R; Hillsdon, M; Sharp, D; Cooper, A R; Coulson, J C; Davis, M; Harris, R; McKenna, J; Narici, M; Stathi, A; Thompson, J L

2011-03-01

308

Demographic Profile of Older Adults Using Wheeled Mobility Devices  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of wheeled mobility devices differed with respect to age, gender, residential setting, and health-related factors among older adults. A total of 723 adults ageing 60 and older are representing three cohorts, from nursing homes, the Center for Assistive Technology, and the wheelchair registry from the Human Engineering Research Laboratories. Wheeled mobility devices were classified into three main groups: manual wheelchairs, power wheelchairs, and scooters. Our results found factors including age, gender, diagnosis, and living settings to be associated with differences in use of manual versus powered mobility devices. Differences in use were also noted for subtypes of manual (depot, standard, and customized) and powered (scooter, standard, and customized) mobility devices, on demographic, living arrangements, and health-related factors. Consideration of demographic, health-related, and environmental factors during the prescription process may help clinicians identify the most appropriate mobility device for the user. PMID:21748007

Karmarkar, Amol M.; Dicianno, Brad E.; Cooper, Rosemarie; Collins, Diane M.; Matthews, Judith T.; Koontz, Alicia; Teodorski, Emily E.; Cooper, Rory A.

2011-01-01

309

Living arrangements of older adults in Lebanon: correlates of living with married children.  

PubMed

Rapid increases in the proportion of older adults in the population present major challenges to policy-makers worldwide. Using a nationally representative sample from the PAPFAM survey in Lebanon, this study examined the living arrangements of older adults (aged > or = 65 years), and their correlates, with a focus on co-residence with married children. Of 1774 older adults 17.1% co-resided with their married children: 28.1% of the 559 unmarried (widowed/divorced/single) and 11.3% of the 1071 married older adults. Among both the married and unmarried, the likelihood of co-residence was significantly lower in regions outside the capital and decreased with increasing socioeconomic status. Among the unmarried elderly, co-residence with a married child was also significantly associated with increasing age and availability of sons, as well as presence of a vascular disorder and speech problems. While solitary living has traditionally been the focus for policy-makers, older people living with a married child may also be a vulnerable group. PMID:24684101

Shideed, O; Sibai, A; Tohme, R

2013-12-01

310

Facilitators and barriers to physical activity as perceived by older adults with intellectual disability.  

PubMed

Older people with intellectual disability (ID) are characterized by low physical activity (PA) levels. PA is important for reducing health risks and maintaining adequate fitness levels for performing activities of daily living. The aim of this study was to explore preferences of older adults with ID for specific physical activities, and to gain insight into facilitators and barriers to engaging into PA. Fourteen in-depth interviews and four focus groups were undertaken, with a total of 40 older adults with mild and moderate ID included in the analysis. NVivo software was used for analysing the transcribed verbatim interviews. In total, 30 codes for facilitators and barriers were identified. Themes concerning facilitators to PA were enjoyment, support from others, social contact and friendship, reward, familiarity, and routine of activities. Themes concerning barriers to PA were health and physiological factors, lack of self-confidence, lack of skills, lack of support, transportation problems, costs, and lack of appropriate PA options and materials. The results of the present study suggest that older adults with ID may benefit from specific PA programs, adapted to their individual needs and limitations. Results can be used for developing feasible health promotion programs for older adults with ID. PMID:24937743

van Schijndel-Speet, Marieke; Evenhuis, Heleen M; van Wijck, Ruud; van Empelen, Pepijn; Echteld, Michael A

2014-06-01

311

Factors that influence dental students' attitudes about older adults.  

PubMed

Our study considered dental students' general attitudes towards older persons using the Aging Semantic Differential. The influence of age, gender, cohort, education, and academic exposure on general attitudes towards older adults was evaluated using a total of 328 dental students across all four years of academic standing. Students were assessed in the fall and spring semesters. The results showed differential responding on the four subscales, with slight positive ratings on the autonomy, acceptability, and integrity subscales and a slight negative rating for instrumentality. Females expressed more negative attitudes than their male counterparts, with no age differences. There was also no significant impact from a specific, didactic educational component offered to the fourth-year students. However, the fourth-year students were the only group to show positive changes across the full academic year. The results suggest that general attitudes can be changed, but didactic (classroom) forms of education alone are insufficient to meaningfully modify students' perceptions of the elderly. Exposure to older adults in a clinical setting appears to be a critical element, as the fourth-year students received much greater exposure to older patients and more intensified interface with their mentors. PMID:19126770

Nochajski, Thomas H; Waldrop, Deborah P; Davis, Elaine L; Fabiano, Jude A; Goldberg, Louis J

2009-01-01

312

Factors associated with low adherence to medication in older adults  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To assess factors associated with low adherence to pharmacotherapy in older adults. METHODS Cross-sectional population-based study, with a representative sample of 1,593 individuals aged 60 or older, living in the urban area of Bagé, RS, Southern Brazil, in 2008. A multiple stage sampling model was used. The data were collected through individual household interviews. The analyses of the association between low adherence regarding pharmacotherapy, measured using the Brief Medication Questionnaire (BMQ), and demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, health, assistance and prescription factors were carried out applying Poisson regression model to assess crude and adjusted prevalence ratios, their respective 95% confidence intervals and p-value (Wald test). RESULTS Around 78.0% of individuals reported have taken at least one medication in the seven days prior to the interview. Of these, approximately one third (28.7%) were considered to have low adherence to the treatment. The factors significantly associated to low adherence to treatment were: age (65 to 74 years old), not having health insurance, having to purchase (totally or partially) their own medicines, having three or more morbidities, having functional disabilities and using three or more medicines. CONCLUSIONS The increased use of medicines by older adults, because of the high prevalence of non-communicable diseases in this group, and the access to the treatment need to be considered by health care professionals regarding fostering adherence to treatment, which increases therapeutic solutions and quality of life among older people. PMID:24626547

Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Thumé, Elaine; Facchini, Luiz Augusto; de França, Giovanny Vinícius Araújo; Mengue, Sotero Serrate

2013-01-01

313

Management of community-acquired pneumonia in older adults  

PubMed Central

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an increasing problem among the elderly. Multiple factors related to ageing, such as comorbidities, nutritional status and swallowing dysfunction have been implicated in the increased incidence of CAP in the older population. Moreover, mortality in patients with CAP rises dramatically with increasing age. Streptococcus pneumoniae is still the most common pathogen among the elderly, although CAP may also be caused by drug-resistant microorganisms and aspiration pneumonia. Furthermore, in the elderly CAP has a different clinical presentation, often lacking the typical acute symptoms observed in younger adults, due to the lower local and systemic inflammatory response. Several independent prognostic factors for mortality in the elderly have been identified, including factors related to pneumonia severity, inadequate response to infection, and low functional status. CAP scores and biomarkers have lower prognostic value in the elderly, and so there is a need to find new scales or to set new cut-off points for current scores in this population. Adherence to the current guidelines for CAP has a significant beneficial impact on clinical outcomes in elderly patients. Particular attention should also be paid to nutritional status, fluid administration, functional status, and comorbidity stabilizing therapy in this group of frail patients. This article presents an up-to-date review of the main aspects of CAP in elderly patients, including epidemiology, causative organisms, clinical features, and prognosis, and assesses key points for best practices for the management of the disease. PMID:25165554

Simonetti, Antonella F.; Viasus, Diego; Garcia-Vidal, Carolina

2014-01-01

314

Balance, Muscle Strength, and Fear of Falling in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined balance ability, lower-extremity muscle strength, fear of falling and their inter-relationships in 40 community-dwelling older adults (>65 years). Subjects who self-identified either as being fearful offalling or not (no concern) were screened to exclude those with known risk factors for falling. Limits of stability, maximal isometric strength, gait speed, and fear of falling were contrasted between groups

Susan M. Binda; Elsie G. Culham; Brenda Brouwer

2003-01-01

315

Physical Therapy Management of Select Rheumatic Conditions in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Rheumatic diseases and their resultant musculoskeletal and cardiopulmonary impairments are primary conditions limiting activity\\u000a and function in older adults. Certain rheumatologic conditions such as polymyalgia rheumatica, degenerative spinal stenosis,\\u000a and osteoporosis occur later in life. Other conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis (OA), and ankylosing spondylitis\\u000a manifest at younger ages but their clinical manifestations may exacerbate with advancing age and

Maura Daly Iversen; Madhuri K. Kale

316

Oxidative stress in older adults: effects of physical fitness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute exercise results in transient change in redox balance. High concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can lead\\u000a to oxidative damage to macromolecules. However, moderate periodic increases in ROS, such as experienced with habitual exercise,\\u000a may activate signal transduction pathways which stimulate increases in endogenous antioxidant systems. This study tested the\\u000a hypothesis that physically fit older adults would have less

Tinna Traustadóttir; Sean S. Davies; Yali Su; Leena Choi; Holly M. Brown-Borg; L. Jackson Roberts II; S. Mitchell Harman

317

Psychological Resilience in Older Adults Following the 1997 Flood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-seven older adults (14 male, 23 female) who experienced the 1997 Red River Flood were tested at three times following the flood (1997,1998, 2000) on measures of self-rated health, numbers of medications taken, depression (GDS-SF), and vocabulary ability (WAIS-R). Several 2 (gender) X 3 (time of measurement) ANOVAs revealed few main or interactions effects, providing some support for the inoculation

F. Richard Ferraro

2003-01-01

318

Intentional non-adherence to medications by older adults.  

PubMed

'The extent to which an individual's medication-taking behaviour and/or execution of lifestyle changes, corresponds with agreed recommendations from a healthcare provider', is a highly complex behaviour, defined as adherence. However, intentional non-adherence is regularly observed and results in negative outcomes for patients along with increased healthcare provision costs. Whilst this is a consistent issue amongst adults of all ages, the burden of chronic disease is greatest amongst older adults. As a result, the absolute prevalence of intentional non-adherence is increased in this population. This non-systematic review of intentional non-adherence to medication highlights the extent of the problem amongst older adults. It notes that age, per se, is not a contributory factor in intentionally non-adherent behaviours. Moreover, it describes the difference in methodology required to identify such behaviours in contrast to reports of non-adherence in general: the use of focus groups, semi-structured, one-to-one interviews and questionnaires as opposed to pill counts, electronic medication monitors and analysis of prescription refill rates. Using Leventhal's Common-Sense Model of Self-Regulation, it emphasizes six key factors that may contribute to intentional non-adherence amongst older adults: illness beliefs, the perceived risks (e.g. dependence, adverse effects), benefits and necessity of potential treatments, the patient-practitioner relationship, inter-current physical and mental illnesses, financial constraints and pharmaceutical/pharmacological issues (poly-pharmacy/regimen complexity). It describes the current evidence for each of these aspects and notes the paucity of data validating Leventhal's model in this regard. It also reports on interventions that may address these issues and explicitly acknowledges the lack of evidence-based interventions available to healthcare practitioners. As a result, it highlights five key areas that require urgent research amongst older adults: (1) the overlap between intentional and unintentional non-adherence, particularly amongst those who may be frail or isolated; (2) the potential correlation between symptomatic benefit and intentional vs. unintentional non-adherence to medication; (3) an evaluation of the source of prescribing (i.e. a long-standing provider vs. an acute episode of care) and the patient-prescriber relationship as determinants of intentional and unintentional non-adherence; (4) the decision-making processes leading to selective intentional non-adherence amongst older adults with multiple medical problems; and (5) the development and evaluation of interventions designed to reduce intentional non-adherence, specifically addressing each of the aspects listed above. PMID:24566876

Mukhtar, Omar; Weinman, John; Jackson, Stephen H D

2014-03-01

319

Health system costs of falls of older adults in Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the health system costs associated with falls in older adults who had attended an emergency department (ED) in Western Australia. The data relating to the ED presentations and hospital admissions were obtained from population-based hospital adminis- trative records for 2001-2002. The type of other health services (eg, outpatient, medical, commu- nity, ancillary

Delia Hendrie; Sonja E Hall; Gina Arena; Matthew Legge

2004-01-01

320

Waist circumference and cardiovascular risk factors among rural older adults: gender differences  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Overweight and obese patients present with a greater risk for CVD. The purpose of this study was to explore how weight status relates to cardiovascular risk factor in older adults in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (114 male, 158 female mean age 78. 5). Anthropometric and health data, along with a f...

321

Gender Differences in Predictors of Mental Health among Older Adults in South Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As aging is occurring at a rate never before seen in South Korea, the present study examines the predictors of mental health in a nationally representative sample of older adults (n = 4,155), drawn from Wave I of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Aging. Findings show that sociodemographic factors, chronic health conditions, level of cognition, and…

Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Lee, Jungui

2011-01-01

322

Long-Term Impact of Fit and Strong! On Older Adults with Osteoarthritis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: We present final outcomes from the multiple-component Fit and Strong! intervention for older adults with lower extremity osteoarthritis. Design and Methods: A randomized controlled trial compared the effects of this exercise and behavior-change program followed by home-based reinforcement (n = 115) with a wait list control (n = 100) at 2,…

Hughes, Susan L.; Seymour, Rachel B.; Campbell, Richard T.; Huber, Gail; Pollak, Naomi; Sharma, Leena; Desai, Pankaja

2006-01-01

323

Gerontology Content in MSW Curricula and Student Attitudes toward Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The unprecedented growth in the nation's older adult population has called attention to the increasing need for geriatric social workers. However, research suggests that social work students hold ageist attitudes that prevent many from pursuing careers in gerontology. The present study sought to identify student perceptions of gerontology content…

Olson, Mark D.

2007-01-01

324

Self-Regulation, Self-Efficacy and Health Behavior Change in Older Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of self-regulation models: theory of planned behavior, protection motivation theory, health belief model, action control theory, transtheoretical model of behavior change, health action process, and precaution adoption process. Applies models to health behavior change in older adults with cardiovascular disease or diabetes.…

Purdie, Nola; McCrindle, Andrea

2002-01-01

325

Counselors' Role in Preventing Abuse of Older Adults: Clinical, Ethical, and Legal Considerations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mistreatment of older adults is commonplace. These individuals are subjected to abuse, financial exploitation, and neglect. The authors present an overview of the literature concerning mistreatment, with an emphasis on clinical, ethical, and legal considerations. Methods are proposed for prevention, including counselor education, advocacy, and…

Forman, Julia M.; McBride, Rebecca G.

2010-01-01

326

A Placebo-Controlled Test of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Insomnia in Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study tested cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia in older adults with osteoarthritis, coronary artery disease, or pulmonary disease. Ninety-two participants (mean age = 69 years) were randomly assigned to classroom CBT or stress management and wellness (SMW) training, which served as a placebo condition. Compared with SMW,…

Rybarczyk, Bruce; Stepanski, Edward; Fogg, Louis; Lopez, Martita; Barry, Paulette; Davis, Andrew

2005-01-01

327

A Healthy Old Age: A Sourcebook for Health Promotion with Older Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this sourcebook is to provide information about health promotion program planning, activities, and resources to people planning wellness programs for older adults. The materials are divided into two parts: background information and resources. The Wallingford Wellness Project is presented as an example of a comprehensive health…

FallCreek, Stephanie; Mettler, Molly

328

Health Care Providers' Knowledge About HIV Induced Dementia Among Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, forty health care providers (physicians, psychologists, and nurses) responded to a questionnaire designed to assess their knowledge of HIV Associated Dementia Complex (HADC) among older adults. Consistent with expectation, these clinicians did not maintain accurate knowledge of HIV and HADC base rates, modes of transmission, and treatment options. Potential dangers of an inaccurate diagnosis of HADC,

Jennifer L. Hillman

1998-01-01

329

Living in an older adult community: a pharmacy student's experience.  

PubMed

Interacting with older adults is a daily practice for pharmacists. It is important to understand how medications affect their wellbeing, but there are many other factors that affect quality of life. To truly understand some of the challenges facing older adults, Emily Anastasia, a sixth-year pharmacy student at the University of Rhode Island, moved into South Bay Retirement Living, a senior living community, for an eight-day immersion experience as a special project within one of her advanced pharmacy practice experience rotations. During her stay, she did not attend classes nor leave the facility unless on the South Bay bus with the other assisted living residents. She lived with a 92-year-old roommate, developed close friendships with many of the residents, and kept a detailed journal of her experience. The purpose of this reflection is to share her experience and recognize lifestyle as well as social and physical environment as factors in understanding the aging process. Immersing a pharmacy student within an assisted living community provides a unique opportunity to observe and appreciate characteristics of older adults that cannot be learned within a classroom setting. PMID:24322960

Anastasia, Emily; Estus, Erica

2013-12-01

330

Dimensions of self-rated health in older adults  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To analyze the association between negative self-rated health and indicators of health, wellbeing and sociodemographic variables in older adults. METHODS Cross-sectional study that used data from a population-based health survey with a probability cluster sample that was carried out in Campinas, SP, Southeastern Brazil,, in 2008 and 2009. The participants were older adults (? 60 years) and the dependent variable was self-rated health, categorized as: excellent, very good, good, bad and very bad. The adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated by means of Poisson multiple regression. RESULTS The highest prevalences of bad/very bad self-rated health were observed in the individuals who never attended school, in those with lower level of schooling, with monthly per capita family income lower than one minimum salary. Individuals who scored five or more in the physical health indicator also had bad self-rated health, as well as those who scored five or more in the Self-Reporting Questionnaire 20 and those who did not refer feeling happiness all the time. CONCLUSIONS The independent effects of material life conditions, physical and mental health and subjective wellbeing, observed in self-rated health, suggest that older adults can benefit by health policies supported by a global and integrative view of old age. PMID:25372161

Borim, Flávia Silva Arbex; Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Francisco, Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo

2014-01-01

331

American geriatrics society abstracted clinical practice guideline for postoperative delirium in older adults.  

PubMed

The abstracted set of recommendations presented here provides essential guidance both on the prevention of postoperative delirium in older patients at risk of delirium and on the treatment of older surgical patients with delirium, and is based on the 2014 American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Guideline. The full version of the guideline, American Geriatrics Society Clinical Practice Guideline for Postoperative Delirium in Older Adults is available at the website of the AGS. The overall aims of the study were twofold: first, to present nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions that should be implemented perioperatively for the prevention of postoperative delirium in older adults; and second, to present nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions that should be implemented perioperatively for the treatment of postoperative delirium in older adults. Prevention recommendations focused on primary prevention (i.e., preventing delirium before it occurs) in patients who are at risk for postoperative delirium (e.g., those identified as moderate-to-high risk based on previous risk stratification models such as the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines, Delirium: Diagnosis, Prevention and Management. Clinical Guideline 103; London (UK): 2010 July 29). For management of delirium, the goals of this guideline are to decrease delirium severity and duration, ensure patient safety and improve outcomes. PMID:25495432

2015-01-01

332

Working memory affects older adults' use of context in spoken-word recognition.  

PubMed

Many older listeners report difficulties in understanding speech in noisy situations. Working memory and other cognitive skills may modulate older listeners' ability to use context information to alleviate the effects of noise on spoken-word recognition. In the present study, we investigated whether verbal working memory predicts older adults' ability to immediately use context information in the recognition of words embedded in sentences, presented in different listening conditions. In a phoneme-monitoring task, older adults were asked to detect as fast and as accurately as possible target phonemes in sentences spoken by a target speaker. Target speech was presented without noise, with fluctuating speech-shaped noise, or with competing speech from a single distractor speaker. The gradient measure of contextual probability (derived from a separate offline rating study) affected the speed of recognition. Contextual facilitation was modulated by older listeners' verbal working memory (measured with a backward digit span task) and age across listening conditions. Working memory and age, as well as hearing loss, were also the most consistent predictors of overall listening performance. Older listeners' immediate benefit from context in spoken-word recognition thus relates to their ability to keep and update a semantic representation of the sentence content in working memory. PMID:24443921

Janse, Esther; Jesse, Alexandra

2014-01-01

333

Risk Aversion Among Depressed Older Adults with Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite considerable research on depression in older adults, few studies have included individuals with personality disorders\\u000a or have used laboratory tasks to examine behavioral correlates of depression among older adults. This study used the Bechara\\u000a Gambling Task to examine the hypothesis that depressed older adults with co-morbid personality disorders (n = 59) would demonstrate greater aversion to risk, when compared with older

Alexander L. Chapman; Thomas R. Lynch; M. Zachary Rosenthal; Jennifer S. Cheavens; Moria J. Smoski; K. Ranga Rama Krishnan

2007-01-01

334

An evaluation of alertness training for older adults  

PubMed Central

We present an evaluation of a self-administered, biofeedback-aided, alertness training programme called the Alertness: Training for Focused Living (ATFL) Programme, which was developed as part of the Technology Research for Independent Living (TRIL) collaboration. We conducted two studies in order to evaluate the programme. A randomized controlled trial was, first of all, conducted with 40 older adults aged between 60 and 83. A series of five single case studies was then conducted to examine the suitability of the programme for use with people with more severe memory difficulties. In the randomized controlled trial, participants were assigned to the ATFL Programme or to a placebo programme. Aspects of participants' memory, attention and executive functioning were assessed via telephone prior to and following completion of the training programmes and at 1, 3, and 6-month follow-up sessions. Significant improvements in sustained attention and verbal fluency were noted in the ATFL group. The series of single case studies illustrated the importance of tailoring a programme to the needs and abilities of the clients in question. The potential benefits of the ATFL programme in terms of periodically boosting alertness and aiding executive functioning are discussed. PMID:24782764

Milewski-Lopez, Agnieszka; Greco, Eleonora; van den Berg, Flip; McAvinue, Laura P.; McGuire, Sarah; Robertson, Ian H.

2014-01-01

335

An evaluation of alertness training for older adults.  

PubMed

We present an evaluation of a self-administered, biofeedback-aided, alertness training programme called the Alertness: Training for Focused Living (ATFL) Programme, which was developed as part of the Technology Research for Independent Living (TRIL) collaboration. We conducted two studies in order to evaluate the programme. A randomized controlled trial was, first of all, conducted with 40 older adults aged between 60 and 83. A series of five single case studies was then conducted to examine the suitability of the programme for use with people with more severe memory difficulties. In the randomized controlled trial, participants were assigned to the ATFL Programme or to a placebo programme. Aspects of participants' memory, attention and executive functioning were assessed via telephone prior to and following completion of the training programmes and at 1, 3, and 6-month follow-up sessions. Significant improvements in sustained attention and verbal fluency were noted in the ATFL group. The series of single case studies illustrated the importance of tailoring a programme to the needs and abilities of the clients in question. The potential benefits of the ATFL programme in terms of periodically boosting alertness and aiding executive functioning are discussed. PMID:24782764

Milewski-Lopez, Agnieszka; Greco, Eleonora; van den Berg, Flip; McAvinue, Laura P; McGuire, Sarah; Robertson, Ian H

2014-01-01

336

Residential Pesticide Usage in Older Adults Residing in Central California  

PubMed Central

Information on residential pesticide usage and behaviors that may influence pesticide exposure was collected in three population-based studies of older adults residing in the three Central California counties of Fresno, Kern, and Tulare. We present data from participants in the Study of Use of Products and Exposure Related Behaviors (SUPERB) study (N = 153) and from community controls ascertained in two Parkinson’s disease studies, the Parkinson’s Environment and Gene (PEG) study (N = 359) and The Center for Gene-Environment Studies in Parkinson’s Disease (CGEP; N = 297). All participants were interviewed by telephone to obtain information on recent and lifetime indoor and outdoor residential pesticide use. Interviews ascertained type of product used, frequency of use, and behaviors that may influence exposure to pesticides during and after application. Well over half of all participants reported ever using indoor and outdoor pesticides; yet frequency of pesticide use was relatively low, and appeared to increase slightly with age. Few participants engaged in behaviors to protect themselves or family members and limit exposure to pesticides during and after treatment, such as ventilating and cleaning treated areas, or using protective equipment during application. Our findings on frequency of use over lifetime and exposure related behaviors will inform future efforts to develop population pesticide exposure models and risk assessment. PMID:21909294

Armes, Mary N.; Liew, Zeyan; Wang, Anthony; Wu, Xiangmei; Bennett, Deborah H.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Ritz, Beate

2011-01-01

337

The role of auditory abilities in basic mechanisms of cognition in older adults  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to assess age-related differences between young and older adults in auditory abilities and to investigate the relationship between auditory abilities and basic mechanisms of cognition in older adults. Although there is a certain consensus that the participant’s sensitivity to the absolute intensity of sounds (such as that measured via pure tone audiometry) explains his/her cognitive performance, there is not yet much evidence that the participant’s auditory ability (i.e., the whole supra-threshold processing of sounds) explains his/her cognitive performance. Twenty-eight young adults (age <35), 26 young–old adults (65 í age í 75), and 28 old–old adults (age >75) were presented with a set of tasks estimating several auditory abilities (i.e., frequency discrimination, intensity discrimination, duration discrimination, timbre discrimination, gap detection, amplitude modulation detection, and the absolute threshold for a 1 kHz pure tone) and the participant’s working memory, cognitive inhibition, and processing speed. Results showed an age-related decline in both auditory and cognitive performance. Moreover, regression analyses showed that a subset of the auditory abilities (i.e., the ability to discriminate frequency, duration, timbre, and the ability to detect amplitude modulation) explained a significant part of the variance observed in the processing speed of older adults. Overall, the present results highlight the relationship between auditory abilities and basic mechanisms of cognition. PMID:24115932

Grassi, Massimo; Borella, Erika

2013-01-01

338

Normative Results of Healthy Older Adults on Standard Clinical Vestibular Tests  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the performance of healthy older adults on common clinical vestibular tests. Patients Fifty community-dwelling older adults aged 70 and older, with mean age of 77.2 ± 6.1 years and range of 70 to 95 years. Intervention(s) Clinical vestibular tests, including spontaneous and head-shaking nystagmus, head impulse test (HIT), bucket test of subjective visual vertical, modified Romberg test (MRT), and Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI). Main Outcome Measure(s) Prevalence of abnormal vestibular tests and DHI score. Results We observed a 36% and 44% prevalence of abnormal right and left horizontal HIT, respectively. The bucket test was abnormal in 18% of participants; head-shaking nystagmus was present in 2%, and no participant had spontaneous nystagmus. Approximately 68% of participants had abnormal MRT. Abnormal horizontal HIT and MRT were significantly more prevalent among individuals age 80 years and older compared with those age 70 to 79 years (p < 0.05). Mean DHI score was 5.6 ± 11.2, consistent with no self-reported dizziness handicap. Conclusion This study documents the expected performance of normative older adults on vestibular tests commonly administered in the neurotology clinic. We observed a high prevalence of abnormalities on clinical vestibular testing in healthy older adults, although self-perceived dizziness handicap was low. Further studies using newly available clinical testing methods (e.g., video HIT) may identify finer gradations of vestibular function in older individuals and the levels of vestibular loss associated with functional impairment. PMID:24136315

Davalos-Bichara, Marcela; Agrawal, Yuri

2014-01-01

339

Relationship between perceptual learning in speech and statistical learning in younger and older adults  

PubMed Central

Within a few sentences, listeners learn to understand severely degraded speech such as noise-vocoded speech. However, individuals vary in the amount of such perceptual learning and it is unclear what underlies these differences. The present study investigates whether perceptual learning in speech relates to statistical learning, as sensitivity to probabilistic information may aid identification of relevant cues in novel speech input. If statistical learning and perceptual learning (partly) draw on the same general mechanisms, then statistical learning in a non-auditory modality using non-linguistic sequences should predict adaptation to degraded speech. In the present study, 73 older adults (aged over 60 years) and 60 younger adults (aged between 18 and 30 years) performed a visual artificial grammar learning task and were presented with 60 meaningful noise-vocoded sentences in an auditory recall task. Within age groups, sentence recognition performance over exposure was analyzed as a function of statistical learning performance, and other variables that may predict learning (i.e., hearing, vocabulary, attention switching control, working memory, and processing speed). Younger and older adults showed similar amounts of perceptual learning, but only younger adults showed significant statistical learning. In older adults, improvement in understanding noise-vocoded speech was constrained by age. In younger adults, amount of adaptation was associated with lexical knowledge and with statistical learning ability. Thus, individual differences in general cognitive abilities explain listeners' variability in adapting to noise-vocoded speech. Results suggest that perceptual and statistical learning share mechanisms of implicit regularity detection, but that the ability to detect statistical regularities is impaired in older adults if visual sequences are presented quickly. PMID:25225475

Neger, Thordis M.; Rietveld, Toni; Janse, Esther

2014-01-01

340

Older adults’ reporting of specific sedentary behaviors: validity and reliability  

PubMed Central

Background Previous questionnaires targeting older adults’ sedentary time have underestimated total sedentary time, possibly by not including all relevant specific sedentary behaviors. The current study aimed to investigate the criterion validity and test-retest reliability of a new questionnaire assessing a comprehensive set of sedentary behaviors. Additionally, we examined whether the criterion validity of the questionnaire differed according to age, gender and educational level. Methods A sample of home-dwelling Belgian older adults (>64 years, n?=?508) completed a newly-developed questionnaire assessing twelve specific sedentary behaviors and wore an accelerometer for seven consecutive days as criterion measure. A subsample (n?=?28) completed the questionnaire a second time to examine test-retest reliability. Data collection occurred between September 2010 and October 2012. Results Correlational analyses examining self-reported total sitting time and accelerometer-derived sedentary time yielded a Spearman’s ? of 0.30. Using the Bland-Altman regression procedure, self-reported total sitting time underestimated accelerometer-derived sedentary time by -82 minutes/day for a participant with an average level of sedentary time (539 minutes/day). Corresponding 95% limits of agreement were wide (-364, 200 minutes/day). Better, but still not ideal, validity findings were observed in the younger, male and tertiary-educated subgroups. Acceptable test-retest reliability (ICC?>?0.70) was found for total sitting time, TV viewing, computer use, and driving a car. Conclusion Validity for older adults’ self-reported total sitting time against accelerometer-derived sedentary time was not strong, but comparable to previous studies. However, underestimation of total sedentary time was lower compared to previous studies, possibly explained by the inclusion of additional specific sedentary behaviors. Further research is needed to develop self-report tools and objective criterion measures that accurately measure engagement in (specific) sedentary behavior(s) among different subgroups of the older population. PMID:25042423

2014-01-01

341

Hospitalization of older adults due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To analyze the temporal evolution of the hospitalization of older adults due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions according to their structure, magnitude and causes. METHODS Cross-sectional study based on data from the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified Health System and from the Primary Care Information System, referring to people aged 60 to 74 years living in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Souhteastern Brazil. The proportion and rate of hospitalizations due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions were calculated, both the global rate and, according to diagnoses, the most prevalent ones. The coverage of the Family Health Strategy and the number of medical consultations attended by older adults in primary care were estimated. To analyze the indicators’ impact on hospitalizations, a linear correlation test was used. RESULTS We found an intense reduction in hospitalizations due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions for all causes and age groups. Heart failure, cerebrovascular diseases and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases concentrated 50.0% of the hospitalizations. Adults older than 69 years had a higher risk of hospitalization due to one of these causes. We observed a higher risk of hospitalization among men. A negative correlation was found between the hospitalizations and the indicators of access to primary care. CONCLUSIONS Primary healthcare in the state of Rio de Janeiro has been significantly impacting the hospital morbidity of the older population. Studies of hospitalizations due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions can aid the identification of the main causes that are sensitive to the intervention of the health services, in order to indicate which actions are more effective to reduce hospitalizations and to increase the population’s quality of life. PMID:25372173

Marques, Aline Pinto; Montilla, Dalia Elena Romero; de Almeida, Wanessa da Silva; de Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares

2014-01-01

342

A comparison of medication management between older and younger adults living with HIV.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to examine differences in medication management between older and younger adults living with HIV and to examine the relationship between age and cognitive ability, depressive symptoms, and self-efficacy on medication management. This research utilized a descriptive-correlational, cross-sectional design to compare medication management between older and younger adults living with HIV and to describe differences in predictive factors of cognition, depressive symptoms, and self-efficacy on medication management. Results indicated that both older and younger adults had poor medication management skills and high rates of mild cognitive impairment. While older adults performed worse on the medication management test than younger adults, the results were not statistically significant. In both older and younger adults, cognitive ability and depressive symptoms were predictors of medication management, with cognitive ability being the strongest predictor for both groups. Cognitive ability was a stronger predictor for older adults than for younger adults. PMID:24560358

Frain, Judy; Barton-Burke, Margaret; Bachman, Jean; King, Marilyn D; Klebert, Michael; Hsueh, Kuei-Hsiang; Frain, Michael

2014-01-01

343

Screening for Elder Mistreatment among Older Adults Seeking Legal Assistance Services  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The aging population is a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Isolation, limited autonomy, and declining physical and mental health render many older adults vulnerable to elder mistreatment (EM). The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of EM among a sample of older adults using legal assistance services in Atlanta, Georgia. Methods: Researchers administered surveys to consenting older adults (aged 60+) in 5 metro Atlanta community centers that hosted legal assistance information sessions as part of the Elderly Legal Assistance Program. The surveys screened for risk factors and prevalence of EM risk using valid and reliable measures and included additional questions regarding demographics characteristics and healthcare use behaviors. Results: Surveys were completed by 112 participants. Findings reveal that 32 (28.6%) respondents met the criteria for elder abuse / neglect risk; 17 (15.2%) respondents met criteria for depression; and 105 (93.7%) had visited a healthcare provider during the past 6 months. Conclusion: The rates of EM risk in this sample were higher than those previously reported in research. Findings support continued examination of unique risks that may be present among older adults who may be possibly facing legal issues. Additionally, the reported frequency of healthcare visits among participants reveals a promising opportunity to examine development of a more widespread EM screening approach to be conducted in non-emergency settings. Interdisciplinary collaboration is required to inform screening approaches that account for complexities that EM cases present. PMID:23930143

Strasser, Sheryl M.; Smith, Megan; Weaver, Scott; Zheng, Shimin; Cao, Yan

2013-01-01

344

HIV testing among clients in high HIV prevalence venues: disparities between older and younger adults.  

PubMed

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends routine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing of every client presenting for services in venues where HIV prevalence is high. Because older adults (aged ?50 years) have particularly poor prognosis if they receive their diagnosis late in the course of HIV disease, any screening provided to younger adults in these venues should also be provided to older adults. We examined aging-related disparities in recent (past 12 months) and ever HIV testing in a probability sample of at-risk adults (N = 1238) seeking services in needle exchange sites, sexually transmitted disease clinics, and Latino community clinics that provide HIV testing. Using multiple logistic regression with generalized estimating equations, we estimated associations between age category (<50 years vs. ?50 years) and each HIV testing outcome. Even after controlling for covariates such as recent injection drug use, older adults had 40% lower odds than younger adults did of having tested in the past 12 months (odds ratio [OR] = 0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.40-0.90) or ever (OR = 0.6; 95% CI = 0.40-0.90). Aging-related disparities in HIV testing exist among clients of these high HIV prevalence venues and may contribute to known aging-related disparities in late diagnosis of HIV infection and poor long-term prognosis. PMID:25303208

Ford, Chandra L; Lee, Sung-Jae; Wallace, Steven P; Nakazono, Terry; Newman, Peter A; Cunningham, William E

2015-02-01

345

Wheelchair Use among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Prevalence and Risk Factors in a National Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Older adults are the largest group of wheelchair users yet there are no peer-reviewed studies on the national profile of older wheelchair users in Canada. We investigated the characteristics of wheelchair users in a national sample of community-dwelling older adults from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA-2). Questions on the use of…

Clarke, Philippa; Colantonio, Angela

2005-01-01

346

Concepts and Causation of Depression: A Cross-Cultural Study of the Beliefs of Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This U.K. study explored how older adults with depression (treated and untreated) and the general older population conceptualize depression. A multicultural approach was used that incorporated the perspectives of Black Caribbean, South Asian, and White British older adults. The study sought to explore and compare beliefs about the nature…

Lawrence, Vanessa; Murray, Joanna; Banerjee, Sube; Turner, Sara; Sangha, Kuljeet; Byng, Richard; Bhurgra, Dinesh; Huxley, Peter; Tylee, Andre; Macdonald, Alastair

2006-01-01

347

Assessing cognitive function and capacity in older adults with cancer.  

PubMed

The number of older individuals with cancer is increasing exponentially, mandating that oncologists contemplate more comprehensive and multidisciplinary approaches to treatment of this cohort. Recruitment of assessment instruments validated in older patients can be invaluable for guiding treatment and decision-making by both patients and providers, and can arguably contribute to improving outcomes and health-related quality of life. The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment is one such validated instrument that can be used by oncologists to assess patient readiness and appropriateness for prescribed cancer therapy. As a multidisciplinary diagnostic and treatment process, it comprises functional status, cognitive status, social support, and advance care preferences, and is an ideal instrument for evaluating complex older individuals. It is well established that many older individuals with cancer travel with multiple comorbid illnesses, including cognitive impairment, and when presented with a cancer diagnosis struggle to choose from multiple treatment options. In addition to the complete medical history, the ability of patients to decide on a course of therapy in concert with their oncologist is critically important. Alternatively, many oncologists are conflicted as to whether true informed consent for treatment can be obtained from many older patients. Having a roadmap to decision-making capacity is therefore an inescapable imperative in geriatric oncology, because careful attention must be directed at identifying older patients with cancer who might benefit from these assessments and the individualized treatment plans that emerge. PMID:24453297

McKoy, June M; Burhenn, Peggy S; Browner, Ilene S; Loeser, Kari L; Tulas, Katrina M; Oden, Megan R; Rupper, Randall W

2014-01-01

348

Planning and task management in older adults: cooking breakfast.  

PubMed

The article describes a simulated "cooking breakfast" task in which participants must remember to start and stop cooking five foods so that all the foods are "ready" at the same time. In between starting and stopping operations, the participants also carried out a "table-setting" task as a filler activity. The breakfast task yields various measures of multitasking and executive control. Groups of younger and older adults performed the task; half of the participants in each group were bilinguals and the other half were monolinguals. The results showed substantial age-related decrements in most measures of executive control. Additionally, older bilinguals showed some advantages in task management over their monolingual peers. PMID:17225505

Craik, Fergus I M; Bialystok, Ellen

2006-09-01

349

Occupational therapy and driving and community mobility for older adults.  

PubMed

This special issue of the American Journal of Occupational Therapy includes summaries from a systematic evidence-based literature review of occupational therapy and driving and community mobility for older adults. Since the previous review on this topic in 2008, the cohort of 78 million baby boomers began turning 65 in January 2011. As a group, this cohort is more likely to have longer life expectancy, stay in the workforce longer, and age in place in the community. Is the occupational therapy profession ready for the potential demand for driving rehabilitation services from this generation of older drivers who grew up with the automobile and are dependent on it for access to and participation in their communities? PMID:25397759

Golisz, Kathleen

2014-01-01

350

Predictors of longitudinal changes in older adults' physical activity engagement.  

PubMed

The study aimed to investigate factors influencing older adults' physical activity engagement over time. The authors analyzed 3 waves of data from a sample of Israelis age 75-94 (Wave 1 n = 1,369, Wave 2 n = 687, Wave 3 n = 154). Findings indicated that physical activity engagement declined longitudinally. Logistic regressions showed that female gender, older age, and taking more medications were significant risk factors for stopping exercise at Wave 2 in those physically active at Wave 1. In addition, higher functional and cognitive status predicted initiating exercise at Wave 2 in those who did not exercise at Wave 1. By clarifying the influence of personal characteristics on physical activity engagement in the Israeli old-old, this study sets the stage for future investigation and intervention, stressing the importance of targeting at-risk populations, accommodating risk factors, and addressing both the initiation and the maintenance of exercise in the face of barriers. PMID:20440027

Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Shmotkin, Dov; Goldberg, Shira

2010-04-01

351

Cohort comparisons: emotional well-being among adolescents and older adults  

PubMed Central

Background There are several negative stereotypes about older adults that have negatively influenced people’s attitude about aging. The present study compared emotional well-being between older adults and adolescents. Methods Data for this study came from 1,403 community-dwelling elderly persons and 1,190 secondary school students and were obtained from two national cross-sectional surveys. Emotional well-being was measured using the World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index. Data analysis was conducted using a multivariate analysis of covariance with SPSS software version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). Results Elderly people significantly scored higher levels of emotional well-being (mean, 62.3; standard deviation, 22.55) than younger people (mean, 57.9; standard deviation, 18.46; t, 5.32; P?0.001). The findings from the multivariate analysis of covariance revealed a significant difference between older adults and younger people in emotional well-being [F(3, 2587)=120.21; P?0.001; ?2=0.122] after controlling for sex. Conclusion Contrary to negative stereotypes about aging, our findings show a higher level of emotional well-being among older adults compared with younger people. PMID:24872683

Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Ibrahim, Rahimah

2014-01-01

352

Prevalence and Determinants of Fall-Related Injuries among Older Adults in Ecuador  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To estimate the prevalence and determinants of fall-related injuries in the previous year among adults aged 60 years or older in Ecuador. Methods. The prevalence of fall-related injuries was estimated using cross-sectional data from the first national survey of Health, Wellbeing, and Aging study. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between participants' demographic characteristics and fall-related injuries. Results. Of 5,227 participants with a mean age of 72.6 years, 11.4% (95% CI, 10.3%–12.7%) reported a fall-related injury in Ecuador, representing an estimated 136,000 adults aged 60 years or older. Fall-related injuries were more frequently reported among older adults residing in the most urbanized and populated provinces of the country. After controlling for potential confounders, self-reported race as Indigenous (OR 2.2; 95% CI, 2.11–2.31), drinking alcohol regularly (OR 2.54; 95% CI, 2.46–2.63), subjects with greater number of comorbid conditions (OR 2.03; 95% CI, 1.97–2.08), and urinary incontinence (OR 1.83; 95% CI, 1.79–1.87) were factors independently associated with increased odds of sustaining fall-related injuries. Conclusions. Fall-related injuries represent a considerable burden for older adults in Ecuador. The present findings may assist public health authorities to implement fall prevention programs among subjects at higher risk for this type of injury. PMID:25371674

Orces, Carlos H.

2014-01-01

353

Comparing young and older adults' perceptions of conflicting stereotypes and multiply-categorizable individuals.  

PubMed

Individuals can be simultaneously categorized into multiple social groups (e.g., racial, gender, age), and stereotypes about one social group may conflict with another. Two such conflicting stereotype sets are those associated with older adults (e.g., frail, kind) and with Black people (e.g., violent, hostile). Recent research shows that young adult perceivers evaluate elderly Black men more positively than young Black men, suggesting that components of the elderly stereotype moderate the influence of conflicting Black stereotypes (Kang & Chasteen, 2009). The current research begins to examine whether this pattern of perceiving multiply-categorizable individuals is maintained among older adults or altered, perhaps due to aging-related cognitive and motivational changes. In three studies using different targets and evaluative tasks, both young and older participants showed evidence of an interplay between Black and elderly stereotypes, such that they perceived elderly Black targets more positively than young Black targets. A similar pattern was observed when assessing emotion change (Study 1), making ratings of warmth and power in the past, present, and future (Study 2), and when directly comparing young and old Black and White targets on traits related to warmth and power (Study 3). The absence of age differences suggests that evaluation of multiply-categorizable targets follows comparable underlying patterns of stereotype activation and inhibition in younger and older adults. PMID:25244468

Kang, Sonia K; Chasteen, Alison L; Cadieux, Jonathan; Cary, Lindsey A; Syeda, Maisha

2014-09-01

354

White matter microstructural organization and gait stability in older adults  

PubMed Central

Understanding age-related decline in gait stability and the role of alterations in brain structure is crucial. Here, we studied the relationship between white matter microstructural organization using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and advanced gait stability measures in 15 healthy young adults (range 18–30 years) and 25 healthy older adults (range 62–82 years). Among the different gait stability measures, only stride time and the maximum Lyapunov exponent (which quantifies how well participants are able to attenuate small perturbations) were found to decline with age. White matter microstructural organization (FA) was lower throughout the brain in older adults. We found a strong correlation between FA in the left anterior thalamic radiation and left corticospinal tract on the one hand, and step width and safety margin (indicative of how close participants are to falling over) on the other. These findings suggest that white matter FA in tracts connecting subcortical and prefrontal areas is associated with the implementation of an effective stabilization strategy during gait. PMID:24959139

Bruijn, Sjoerd M.; Van Impe, Annouchka; Duysens, Jacques; Swinnen, Stephan P.

2014-01-01

355

Multimorbidity, disability, and mortality in community-dwelling older adults  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To describe factors associated with multimorbidity in community-dwelling older adults; to determine if a simple measure of multimorbidity predicts death over 5 years; and to assess if any effect of multimorbidity on mortality is independent of key covariates. Design Analysis of an existing population-based cohort study. Cox proportional hazards models were constructed for time to death. Setting Manitoba. Participants A total of 1751 community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older were interviewed and followed for 5 years. Main outcome measures Age, sex, marital status, living arrangement, education, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score, and the Older Americans Resource and Services Multidimensional Functional Assessment Questionnaire score were recorded for each participant. Multimorbidity was defined based on a simple list of common health complaints and diseases, followed by an open-ended question about other problems. These were summed and the scores ranged from 0 to 16. Death and time of death were determined during the 5-year interval by death certificate, administrative data, or proxy report. Results Multimorbidity was more prevalent in women; older age groups; and those with lower educational levels, lower MMSE scores, more depressive symptoms, and higher levels of disability. Multimorbidity was a predictor of mortality in unadjusted models (hazard ratio 1.09, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.12). In models adjusting for age, sex, education, marital status, living arrangement, and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and MMSE scores, this effect persisted (hazard ratio 1.04, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.08). However, after adjusting for functional status, the effect of multimorbidity was no longer significant. Conclusion Multimorbidity predicts 5-year mortality but the effect might be mediated by disability. PMID:24829022

St John, Philip D.; Tyas, Suzanne L.; Menec, Verena; Tate, Robert

2014-01-01

356

Increases in generative concern among older adults following reminders of mortality.  

PubMed

According to terror management theory, people are motivated to protect themselves from the potential for anxiety resulting from awareness of mortality. It was hypothesized that increased concern for future generations, and the symbolic immortality this produces, may be particularly important to older adults when awareness of their mortality is increased. In two studies, older and younger adults' generative concern was examined following mortality or control primes. As hypothesized, older adults' generative concern and preference for pro-social over pro-self generativity were greater following reminders of mortality, whereas neither effect was observed among younger adults. For both studies, age differences were only observed when mortality salience was heightened; older and younger adults' generative concern did not differ in control conditions. Results provide support for the hypothesis that younger and older adults differ in their responses to increased awareness of mortality and suggest that older adults respond to death reminders by adopting a more pro-social generative orientation. PMID:25508848

Maxfield, Molly; Greenberg, Jeff; Pyszczynski, Tom; Weise, David R; Kosloff, Spee; Soenke, Melissa; Abeyta, Andrew A; Blatter, Jamin

2014-01-01

357

Increases in generative concern among older adults following reminders of mortality.  

PubMed

According to terror management theory, people are motivated to protect themselves from the potential for anxiety resulting from awareness of mortality. It was hypothesized that increased concern for future generations, and the symbolic immortality this produces, may be particularly important to older adults when awareness of their mortality is increased. In two studies, older and younger adults' generative concern was examined following mortality or control primes. As hypothesized, older adults' generative concern and preference for pro-social over pro-self generativity were greater following reminders of mortality, whereas neither effect was observed among younger adults. For both studies, age differences were only observed when mortality salience was heightened; older and younger adults' generative concern did not differ in control conditions. Results provide support for the hypothesis that younger and older adults differ in their responses to increased awareness of mortality and suggest that older adults respond to death reminders by adopting a more pro-social generative orientation. PMID:25486717

Maxfield, Molly; Greenberg, Jeff; Pyszczynski, Tom; Weise, David R; Kosloff, Spee; Soenke, Melissa; Abeyta, Andrew A; Blatter, Jamin

2014-01-01

358

The role of switching, inhibition and working memory in older adults' performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test.  

PubMed

The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) is considered a typical executive test. However, several interesting questions are still open as to the specific executive processes underlying this task. In the present study, we explored how local and global switching, inhibition and working memory, assessed through the Number-Letter, the Stop Signal and the Reading Span tasks, relate to older adults' performance in the WCST. Results showed that older adults' performance variability in the number of perseverative errors was predicted by the local switch component of the Number-Letter task. Results also showed age-related differences in inhibition, working memory and global switching, while local switching resulted largely spared in aging. This study provides evidence that switching abilities may contribute to performance of older adults in the WCST. It also provides initial evidence suggesting that switching processes, associated with local switch costs, are involved in performance on the WCST, at least in older adults. PMID:19105052

Gamboz, Nadia; Borella, Erika; Brandimonte, Maria A

2009-05-01

359

Willingness of older Korean-American adults to use hospice.  

PubMed

Responding to an urgent need for more research on end-of-life concerns of racial and ethnic minorities, the present study explored predictors of willingness of older Korean-American adults (N=675) to use hospice. Guided by Andersen's behavioral health model, the study considered predisposing factors (age, sex, marital status, education), potential health needs (chronic conditions, functional disability), and enabling factors (health insurance, acculturation, prior awareness of hospice). Nearly three-quarters of the sample answered yes to the following statement and question, "Hospice is a program that helps people who are dying by making them feel comfortable and free of pain when they can no longer be cured of their disease. If you needed hospice services, would you use them?" A greater willingness was observed in younger persons (odds ratio (OR)=0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.93-0.98) and those with higher levels of education (OR=1.67, 95% CI=1.12-2.48), more chronic conditions (OR=1.23, 95% CI=1.05-1.44), health insurance (OR=0.59, 95% CI=0.37-0.94), higher levels of acculturation (OR=1.07, 95% CI=1.03-1.10), and prior awareness of hospice (OR=4.43, 95% CI=2.85-6.90). The present study highlights the role of prior awareness in shaping individuals' attitudes toward services, calling attention to a need for community education and outreach programs for racial and ethnic minorities, with specific emphasis on dissemination of information and greater awareness of hospice services. PMID:20374409

Jang, Yuri; Chiriboga, David A; Allen, Jessica Y; Kwak, Jung; Haley, William E

2010-02-01

360

Selective attention affects conceptual object priming and recognition: a study with young and older adults  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective attention at encoding on conceptual object priming (Experiment 1) and old–new recognition memory (Experiment 2) tasks in young and older adults. The procedures of both experiments included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. At encoding, the picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, were presented to the left and to the right of fixation. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to attend to the picture outline of a certain color and to classify the object as natural or artificial. After a short delay, participants performed a natural/artificial speeded conceptual classification task with repeated attended, repeated unattended, and new pictures. In Experiment 2, participants at encoding memorized the attended pictures and classify them as natural or artificial. After the encoding phase, they performed an old–new recognition memory task. Consistent with previous findings with perceptual priming tasks, we found that conceptual object priming, like explicit memory, required attention at encoding. Significant priming was obtained in both age groups, but only for those pictures that were attended at encoding. Although older adults were slower than young adults, both groups showed facilitation for attended pictures. In line with previous studies, young adults had better recognition memory than older adults.

Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia

2015-01-01

361

Physical Function and Disability in Older Adults with Diabetes.  

PubMed

Functional decline and physical disability are an important clinical and public health problem in older adults because they are associated with loss of independence, nursing home admission, and mortality. Several impairments and comorbidities related to or associated with diabetes are potential disabling conditions that could account for the excess risk of disability. But in most studies, no single condition explains this association. Accelerated loss of muscle strength is a potential mediator in the disabling effect of diabetes. Because some diabetes-related comorbidities are potential modifiable risk factors, preventing and reducing the excess risk of disability associated with diabetes needs further study. PMID:25453301

de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Volpato, Stefano

2015-02-01

362

Determinants of social participation of visually impaired older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To assess determinants of social participation among visually impaired older adults.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This cross-sectional study included visually impaired persons (?55 years; n = 173) who were referred to a low-vision rehabilitation center. Determinants (i.e., sociodemographic, physical, social and\\u000a psychological factors, and personal values) of participation were identified in four domains of participation: (1) domestic\\u000a life; (2) interpersonal interactions and relationships; (3) major life areas;

Manna A. AlmaSijrike; Sijrike F. Van der Mei; Johan W. Groothoff; Theo P. B. M. Suurmeijer

363

Far transfer in cognitive training of older adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose This article reviews the literature on far transfer effects in training of older adults. Methods Adapting a taxonomy of transfer developed by Barnett and Ceci (2002), to rehabilitation or enhancement of existing cognitive skills; results of studies assessing transfer effects from training of memory, reasoning, UFOV, dual task performance, and complex training are classified. Results Comparisons of the transfer outcomes of both strategy training and extended practice approaches suggest that far transfer has been observed. Conclusions Outcomes for strategy studies training memory have had less success than extended practice studies in obtaining far transfer. Reasons for this are discussed, as are suggestions for improved assessment of transfer outcomes. PMID:19847070

Zelinski, Elizabeth M.

2014-01-01

364

Obstructive sleep apnea and type 2 diabetes in older adults.  

PubMed

Both obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and type 2 diabetes mellitus are commonly seen in older adults. Over the last decade, there has been increasing recognition that OSA is highly prevalent in persons with type 2 diabetes and related metabolic conditions such as insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Intermittent hypoxemia and recurrent arousals in OSA trigger a repertoire of pathophysiological events, which can in turn alter glucose homeostasis and possibly increase the risk for type 2 diabetes. Conversely, there is evidence that type 2 diabetes may alter the progression and expression of sleep-disordered breathing. PMID:25453306

Moon, Karoline; Punjabi, Naresh M; Aurora, R Nisha

2015-02-01

365

Where Would You Turn for Help? Older Adults' Awareness of Community Support Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous findings on older adults' awareness of community support services (CSSs) have been inconsistent and marred by acquiescence or over-claiming bias. To address this issue, this study used a series of 12 vignettes to describe common situations faced by older adults for which CSSs might be appropriate. In telephone interviews, 1,152 adults

Denton, M.; Ploeg, J.; Tindale, J.; Hutchison, B.; Brazil, K.; Akhtar-Danesh, N.; Quinlan, M.; Lillie, J.; Plenderleith, J. Millen; Boos, L.

2008-01-01

366

The needs of older adults with schizophrenia Implications for psychological interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper assesses whether the needs of people with schizophrenia over 65 years differ from those of younger adults with the diagnosis. It reviews studies comparing older and younger adults and older adults with schizophrenia and non-clinical or clinical controls on measures of psychosocial functioning. It also considers how psychological interventions can be best designed to cater for the specific needs

Katherine Berry; Christine Barrowclough

2009-01-01

367

Identifying Psychological, Physiological, and Environmental Barriers and Facilitators to Exercise Among Older Low Income Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known regarding barriers and facilitators to exercise among older adults in general, and low income and minority older adults in particular. This report summarizes the results of four focus group sessions with low income adults aged 55–70: one session each with African-American males and females, and White males and females. None of the participants was exercising at the

Daniel O. Clark

1999-01-01

368

Training older adults to work as psychiatric case management aides.  

PubMed

Adults who were age 55 and over were trained to work as case management aides for individuals with serious and persistent mental illness. The training program was a cooperative effort of several state, academic, and private agencies in the New Orleans area, including the department of psychiatry at a state university medical center, the State Office of Mental Health, a consortium of colleges and universities providing educational opportunities for older adults, and the American Association of Retired Persons. The program curriculum included ten weeks of classroom instruction and a four-month field practicum. Of the 14 participants in the initial group of trainees, 13 sought and received employment as case aides. At follow-up three months after employment, supervisors of the case aides rated their job performance as excellent. PMID:8132188

Simon, P M; Morse, E V; Speier, T; Osofsky, H J

1993-12-01

369

Predictors of CBT outcome in older adults with GAD.  

PubMed

The current study is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of CBT for late-life GAD (Stanley et al., 2014) which provided an opportunity to examine predictors of outcome among those who received CBT. Participants were 150 older adults who were randomized to receive 10 sessions of CBT. Completer analyses found that homework completion, number of sessions attended, lower worry severity, lower depression severity, and recruitment site predicted 6-month worry outcome on the PSWQ-A, whereas homework completion, credibility of the therapy, lower anxiety severity, and site predicted 6-month anxiety outcome on the STAI-T. In intent-to-treat multivariate analyses, however, only initial worry and anxiety severity, site, and number of sessions completed predicted treatment outcome. These results are largely consistent with predictors of outcome in younger adults and suggest that lower initial symptom severity and variables consistent with greater engagement in treatment predict outcome. PMID:25445074

Hundt, Natalie E; Amspoker, Amber B; Kraus-Schuman, Cynthia; Cully, Jeffrey A; Rhoades, Howard; Kunik, Mark E; Stanley, Melinda A

2014-12-01

370

Variations in processing resources and resistance to false memories in younger and older adults.  

PubMed

The influence of available processing resources on the resistance to false memories (FMs) for lists of semantically related items associated with a non-presented critical lure was examined in younger and older adults. Reducing the available resources at encoding in younger adults (Experiments 1 and 2) led to a performance similar to that of older adults (i.e., higher rates of FMs in addition to reduced rates of correct recall). However, increasing the available resources (Experiments 2 and 3) led to improvements in the rates of correct recall in both age groups and decreased the probability of FMs in younger adults, although warnings had to be added in older adults to obtain similar effects on FMs. Parallel influences on a post-recall test asking participants to report items that they had thought of but did not recall were also found. The influence of available cognitive resources for memory accuracy is also discussed with respect to activation-monitoring (e.g., McDermott & Watson, 2001) and fuzzy-trace (e.g., Brainerd & Reyna, 2002) accounts of age-related increased in false memories. PMID:16829487

Dehon, Hedwige

2006-08-01

371

Action Prediction in Younger versus Older Adults: Neural Correlates of Motor Familiarity  

PubMed Central

Generating predictions during action observation is essential for efficient navigation through our social environment. With age, the sensitivity in action prediction declines. In younger adults, the action observation network (AON), consisting of premotor, parietal and occipitotemporal cortices, has been implicated in transforming executed and observed actions into a common code. Much less is known about age-related changes in the neural representation of observed actions. Using fMRI, the present study measured brain activity in younger and older adults during the prediction of temporarily occluded actions (figure skating elements and simple movement exercises). All participants were highly familiar with the movement exercises whereas only some participants were experienced figure skaters. With respect to the AON, the results confirm that this network was preferentially engaged for the more familiar movement exercises. Compared to younger adults, older adults recruited visual regions to perform the task and, additionally, the hippocampus and caudate when the observed actions were familiar to them. Thus, instead of effectively exploiting the sensorimotor matching properties of the AON, older adults seemed to rely predominantly on the visual dynamics of the observed actions to perform the task. Our data further suggest that the caudate played an important role during the prediction of the less familiar figure skating elements in better-performing groups. Together, these findings show that action prediction engages a distributed network in the brain, which is modulated by the content of the observed actions and the age and experience of the observer. PMID:23704980

Diersch, Nadine; Mueller, Karsten; Cross, Emily S.; Stadler, Waltraud; Rieger, Martina; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone

2013-01-01

372

Action prediction in younger versus older adults: neural correlates of motor familiarity.  

PubMed

Generating predictions during action observation is essential for efficient navigation through our social environment. With age, the sensitivity in action prediction declines. In younger adults, the action observation network (AON), consisting of premotor, parietal and occipitotemporal cortices, has been implicated in transforming executed and observed actions into a common code. Much less is known about age-related changes in the neural representation of observed actions. Using fMRI, the present study measured brain activity in younger and older adults during the prediction of temporarily occluded actions (figure skating elements and simple movement exercises). All participants were highly familiar with the movement exercises whereas only some participants were experienced figure skaters. With respect to the AON, the results confirm that this network was preferentially engaged for the more familiar movement exercises. Compared to younger adults, older adults recruited visual regions to perform the task and, additionally, the hippocampus and caudate when the observed actions were familiar to them. Thus, instead of effectively exploiting the sensorimotor matching properties of the AON, older adults seemed to rely predominantly on the visual dynamics of the observed actions to perform the task. Our data further suggest that the caudate played an important role during the prediction of the less familiar figure skating elements in better-performing groups. Together, these findings show that action prediction engages a distributed network in the brain, which is modulated by the content of the observed actions and the age and experience of the observer. PMID:23704980

Diersch, Nadine; Mueller, Karsten; Cross, Emily S; Stadler, Waltraud; Rieger, Martina; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone

2013-01-01

373

Older adults learn less, but still reduce metabolic cost, during motor adaptation  

PubMed Central

The ability to learn new movements and dynamics is important for maintaining independence with advancing age. Age-related sensorimotor changes and increased muscle coactivation likely alter the trial-and-error-based process of adapting to new movement demands (motor adaptation). Here, we asked, to what extent is motor adaptation to novel dynamics maintained in older adults (?65 yr)? We hypothesized that older adults would adapt to the novel dynamics less well than young adults. Because older adults often use muscle coactivation, we expected older adults to use greater muscle coactivation during motor adaptation than young adults. Nevertheless, we predicted that older adults would reduce muscle activity and metabolic cost with motor adaptation, similar to young adults. Seated older (n = 11, 73.8 ± 5.6 yr) and young (n = 15, 23.8 ± 4.7 yr) adults made targeted reaching movements while grasping a robotic arm. We measured their metabolic rate continuously via expired gas analysis. A force field was used to add novel dynamics. Older adults had greater movement deviations and compensated for just 65% of the novel dynamics compared with 84% in young adults. As expected, older adults used greater muscle coactivation than young adults. Last, older adults reduced muscle activity with motor adaptation and had consistent reductions in metabolic cost later during motor adaptation, similar to young adults. These results suggest that despite increased muscle coactivation, older adults can adapt to the novel dynamics, albeit less accurately. These results also suggest that reductions in metabolic cost may be a fundamental feature of motor adaptation. PMID:24133222

Huang, Helen J.

2013-01-01

374

Role of dried blood spots in health and disease diagnosis in older adults.  

PubMed

Older adults represent a substantial number of the world population, which is set to grow considerably in the coming years. The health challenges faced by the older adults are unique. Several age-related changes in them make phlebotomy difficult. Application of dried blood has been demonstrated to be useful in the other similarly vulnerable population, the neonates. Similar approach of standardization and demonstration of use of dried blood spots (DBS) for analytes of interest in older adult population would be highly appreciated. There are very few reports of use of DBS in older adults. There are several potential areas of interest for older adults in which DBS assays are available but have not been applied for screening in them. This review describes a brief general overview of DBS, its advantages and disadvantages and potential use in disease diagnosis in older adults. PMID:25529881

Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Tarik, Mohamad; Abraham, Ransi Ann

2014-12-01

375

Memory for medication side effects in younger and older adults: The role of subjective and objective importance.  

PubMed

Older adults often experience memory impairments, but sometimes they can use selective processing and schematic support to remember important information. In the present experiments, we investigated the degrees to which younger and healthy older adults remembered medication side effects that were subjectively or objectively important to remember. Participants studied a list of common side effects and rated how negative these effects would be if they were to experience them, and they were then given a free recall test. In Experiment 1, the severity of the side effects ranged from mild (e.g., itching) to severe (e.g., stroke), and in Experiment 2, certain side effects were indicated as being critical to remember (i.e., "contact your doctor if you experience this"). We observed no age differences in terms of free recall of the side effects, and older adults remembered more severe side effects than mild effects. However, older adults were less likely to recognize the critical side effects on a later recognition test, relative to younger adults. These findings suggest that older adults can selectively remember medication side effects but have difficulty identifying familiar but potentially critical side effects, and this has implications for monitoring medication use in older age. PMID:25331278

Friedman, Michael C; McGillivray, Shannon; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D

2014-10-21

376

Correlates of disability in depressed older adults with bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

Aims To identify clinical factors associated with disability in depressed older adults with bipolar disorder (BPD) receiving lamotrigine. Methods Secondary analysis of a multi-site, 12-week, open-label, uncontrolled study of addon lamotrigine in 57 adults 60 years and older with BD I or II depression. Measures included the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics (CIRS-G), Dementia Rating Scale (DRS), and WHO-Disability Assessment Scale II (WHO-DAS II). Results Medical comorbidiy in this group of elders was substantial, with roughly 60% of subjects having disorders of the vascular, musculoskeletal/integument, and endodrine/metabolic/breast systems. We found significant relationships among mood (MADRS), medical comorbidity (CIRS-G), cognition (DRS), and disability (WHO-DAS II). More severe BPD depression, more medical comorbidity and more impaired cognition were all associated with lower functioning in BPD elders. Conclusions Our findings fit the paradigm shift that has been occurring in BPD, supporting the notion that BPD is not solely an illness of mood but that it affects multiple domains impacting overall functioning. PMID:24358446

Gildengers, Ariel; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Bialko, Christopher; Cassidy, Kristin A.; Dines, Philipp; Emanuel, James; Al Jurdi, Rayan K.; Gyulai, Laszlo; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Young, Robert C.; Sajatovic, Martha

2013-01-01

377

Alerting, orienting, and executive attention in older adults  

PubMed Central

The Attention Network Test (ANT) assesses alerting, orienting, and executive attention. The current study was designed to achieve three main objectives. First, we determined the reliability, effects, and interactions of attention networks in a relatively large cohort of non-demented older adults (n = 184). Second, in the context of this aged cohort, we examined the effect of chronological age on attention networks. Third, the effect of blood pressure on ANT performance was evaluated. Results revealed high-reliability for the ANT as a whole, and for specific cue and flanker types. We found significant main effects for the three attention networks as well as diminished alerting but enhanced orienting effects during conflict resolution trials. Furthermore, increased chronological age and low blood pressure were both associated with significantly worse performance on the executive attention network. These findings are consistent with executive function decline in older adults and the plausible effect of reduced blood flow to the frontal lobes on individual differences in attention demanding tasks. PMID:20663241

Mahoney, Jeannette R.; Verghese, Joe; Goldin, Yelena; Lipton, Richard; Holtzer, Roee

2011-01-01

378

Executive function and bilingualism in young and older adults  

PubMed Central

Research suggests that being bilingual results in advantages on executive control processes and disadvantages on language tasks relative to monolinguals. Furthermore, the executive function advantage is thought to be larger in older than younger adults, suggesting that bilingualism may buffer against age-related changes in executive function. However, there are potential confounds in some of the previous research, as well as inconsistencies in the literature. The goal of the current investigation was to examine the presence of a bilingual advantage in executive control and a bilingual disadvantage on language tasks in the same sample of young and older monolingual anglophones, monolingual francophones, and French/English bilinguals. Participants completed a series of executive function tasks, including a Stroop task, a Simon task, a sustained attention to response task (SART), the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST), and the digit span subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and language tasks, including the Boston Naming Test (BNT), and category and letter fluency. The results do not demonstrate an unequivocal advantage for bilinguals on executive function tasks and raise questions about the reliability, robustness and/or specificity of previous findings. The results also did not demonstrate a disadvantage for bilinguals on language tasks. Rather, they suggest that there may be an influence of the language environment. It is concluded that additional research is required to fully characterize any language group differences in both executive function and language tasks. PMID:25120442

Kousaie, Shanna; Sheppard, Christine; Lemieux, Maude; Monetta, Laura; Taler, Vanessa

2014-01-01

379

Older Adults’ Perception of Chronic Illness Management in South Korea  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Despite the recent emphasis on a patient-centered chronic care model, few studies have investigated its use in older adults in South Korea. We explored how older Korean adults perceive and cope with their chronic illness. Methods: We conducted focus group interviews in Seoul, Korea in January 2010. Focus groups were formed by disease type (hypertension and type 2 diabetes) and gender using purposive sampling. Inclusion criteria were patients aged 60 and over who had been diagnosed with diabetes or hypertension and received care at a community health center for at least six months prior to participation. Interview data were analyzed through descriptive content analysis. Results: Among personal factors, most participants felt overwhelmed when they received their diagnosis. However, with time and control of their acute symptoms using medication, their worry diminished and participants tended to denying being identified as a patient or sick person. Among socio-familial factors, participants reported experiencing stigma with their chronic illness and feeling it was a symbol of weakness. Instead of modifying their lifestyles, which might interfere with their social relationships, they resorted to only following their medicine regime prescribed by their doctor. Participants also reported feeling that their doctor only prescribed medications and acted in an authoritative and threatening manner to induce and reinforce participants’ compliance with treatment. Conclusions: For successful patient-centered management of chronic illnesses, supportive environments that include family, friends, and healthcare providers should be established. PMID:25139170

Kang, Minah; Kim, Jaiyong; Bae, Sang-Soo; Choi, Yong-Jun; Shin, Dong-Soo

2014-01-01

380

Alcohol consumption by older adults in central and southern Japan.  

PubMed

This study ascertained the level of alcohol intake and alcoholic beverages consumed by Japanese older adults. Persons aged 55 to 75 years residing in central and southern Japan were recruited and interviewed face-to-face on their habitual alcohol consumption. Among the 577 (359 men and 218 women) participants from 10 districts/prefectures, 60.5% (75.5% for men and 35.7% for women) regularly drank alcoholic beverages on at least a monthly basis. Beer was the most preferred beverage (45.2%), followed by shochu (19.8%) and sake (16.1%). The mean alcohol consumption was 22.2 g/day (95% confidence interval 19.3-25.2) overall, but drinkers had a much higher mean intake of 36.6 g/day (95% CI 32.4-40.8). Moreover, it is alarming that 25.5% of male drinkers were heavy drinkers consuming more than 60 g of alcohol on average per day. Alcohol control measures should be developed to curtail the excessive drinking by older adults. PMID:19190001

Hirayama, Fumi; Lee, Andy H; Binns, Colin W; Okumura, Chikako; Yamamoto, Sokatsu

2009-04-01

381

Investigating tooth loss and associated factors among older Taiwanese adults.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate factors associated with tooth loss in older Taiwanese adults with different numbers of remaining teeth. This study evaluated oral health status and tooth loss among 2286 adults aged over 65. Subjects were classified according to number of teeth (Group 1 <20 teeth vs. Group 2 ?20 teeth). Tooth loss and oral health data were collected from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), compared between groups and analyzed by multivariate modeling. Group 1 subjects were older and had more partial dentures. Tooth loss was associated with self-limited food choices due to oral health status, and malnutrition. Tooth loss in Group 2 subjects was significantly associated with lower mental status. Tooth loss may predict cognitive status (odds ratio (OR) 1.30) and physical-disability (OR 1.79). Our results suggested that tooth loss was associated with age, more partial dentures, self-limited food choices, malnutrition, and lower mental and cognitive status and physical disability. PMID:24568967

Wang, Tze-Fang; Chen, Ying-Yu; Liou, Yiing-Mei; Chou, Chyuan

2014-01-01

382

Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment in Community-Dwelling Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction Mild cognitive impairment can be considered as an intermediate clinical state between normal cognitive aging and mild dementia. Elderly people with this impairment represent an at-risk group for the development of dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and its relationship with socio-demographic variables. Methods In this analytical-descriptive study, 212 subjects admitted to Hamadan’s day care centers were selected through simple random sampling method. To gather the data, MMSE was used as well as a questionnaire containing demographic variables. Data analysis was completed through SPSS-16. Results The sample consisted of 17.9% male, 59.4% of whom were married. According to the results, 96 cases (45.3%) suffered from mild (MMSE?22), 110 cases (51.9%) from moderate (11?MMSE?21) and 6 cases (2.8%) from severe cognitive disorder (MMSE?10). As findings revealed, factors such as age (Pv = 0.005, r = -0.491) and schooling (Pv < 0.001) are of significant relationship with MMSE score. Discussion Prevalence of cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults was of normal range. Hence, familial relations and social support can decrease mental status disorder. PMID:25436081

Rashedi, Vahid; Rezaei, Mohammad; Gharib, Masoud

2014-01-01

383

Perceived Discrimination and Blood Pressure in Older African American and White Adults  

PubMed Central

Background The current study was designed to examine the cross-sectional association between perceived discrimination and blood pressure (BP) in a sample of older African American and white adults. We hypothesized that perceived discrimination would be associated with higher levels of BP and that this association would be stronger for older African Americans compared with whites. Methods Participants were 4,694 (60% African American, 60% women) community-dwelling older adults. Perceived discrimination and other relevant risk factors were assessed via interview, and BP was measured using standard sphygmomanometers. Multivariate linear regression models were conducted to test associations among race, perceived discrimination, and BP. Results In models adjusted for age, sex, race, and education, perceived discrimination was not associated with higher levels of systolic blood pressure (p = .10) but was associated with higher levels of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (p = .01). Further analyses revealed that the association between perceived discrimination and DBP was present in older African Americans (p = .0003) but not whites (p = .46). Results persisted after adjusting for relevant risk factors. Conclusions Findings suggest that discrimination may be a unique risk factor for elevated DBP in older African Americans. Because these findings are cross-sectional, additional research is needed to determine whether the observed associations persist over time. PMID:19429703

Barnes, Lisa L.; Bienias, Julia L.; Lackland, Daniel T.; Evans, Denis A.; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.

2009-01-01

384

Factors associated with falls among older adults living in institutions  

PubMed Central

Background Falls have enormous impact in older adults. Yet, there is insufficient evidence regarding the effectiveness of preventive interventions in this setting. The objectives were to measure the frequency of falls and associated factors among older people living institutions. Methods Data were obtained from a survey on a probabilistic sample of residents aged ?65 years, drawn in 1998-99 from institutions of Madrid (Spain). Residents, their caregivers, and facility physicians were interviewed. Fall rates were computed based on the number of physician-reported falls in the preceding 30 days. Adjusted rate ratios were computed using negative binomial regression models, including age, sex, cognitive status, functional dependence, number of diseases, and polypharmacy. Results The final sample comprised 733 residents. The fall rate was 2.4 falls per person-year (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04-2.82). The strongest risk factor was number of diseases, with an adjusted rate ratio (RR) of 1.32 (95% CI, 1.17-1.50) for each additional diagnosis. Other variables associated with falls were: urinary incontinence (RR?=?2.56 [95% CI, 1.32-4.94]); antidepressant use (RR?=?2.32 [95% CI, 1.22-4.40]); arrhythmias (RR?=?2.00 [95% CI, 1.05-3.81]); and polypharmacy (RR?=?1.07 [95% CI, 0.95-1.21], for each additional medication). The attributable fraction for number of diseases (with reference to those with???1 condition) was 84% (95% CI, 45-95%). Conclusions Number of diseases was the main risk factor for falls in this population of institutionalized older adults. Other variables associated with falls, probably more amenable to preventive action, were urinary incontinence, antidepressants, arrhythmias, and polypharmacy. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/3916151157277337 PMID:23320746

2013-01-01

385

Depression and associated factors in older adults in South Africa  

PubMed Central

Background and objective Late-life depression is an important public health problem because of its devastating consequences. The study aims to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of self-reported symptom-based depression in a national sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE wave 1) in 2008. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional study with a probability sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements as well as questions on depression symptoms in the past 12 months. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to assess the association of socio-demographic factors, health variables, and depression. Results The overall prevalence of symptom-based depression in the past 12 months was 4.0%. In multivariable analysis, functional disability, lack of quality of life, and chronic conditions (angina, asthma, arthritis, and nocturnal sleep problems) were associated with self-reported depression symptoms in the past 12 months. Conclusions Self-reported depression in older South Africans seems to be a public health problem calling for appropriate interventions to reduce occurrence. Factors identified to be associated with depression, including functional disability, lack of quality of life, and chronic conditions (angina, asthma, arthritis, and nocturnal sleep problems), can be used to guide interventions. The identified protective and risk factors can help in formulating public health care policies to improve quality of life among older adults. PMID:23336621

Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

2013-01-01

386

Cascade iatrogenesis: factors leading to the development of adverse events in hospitalized older adults.  

PubMed

Older adults are at particular risk for injuries associated with hospitalization and the rate of adverse events increases significantly with age. The purpose of this paper is to review factors associated with the development of adverse events in hospitalized older adults, especially those factors that contribute to cascade iatrogenesis. Cascade iatrogenesis is the serial development of multiple medical complications that can be set in motion by a seemingly innocuous first event [Rothschild, J.M., Bates, D.W., Leape, L.L., 2000. Preventable medical injuries in older patients. Archieves of Internal Medicine 160 (October), 2717-2728]. Research has examined how patient characteristics may lead to cascade iatrogenesis, but existing conceptual models and research have not considered the role of nursing care. Using the outcome postoperative respiratory failure as an example, we expand on existing knowledge about factors associated with older adults' risk for developing this complication by presenting a conceptual model of events that may trigger the initial cascade and the nursing care variables that may prevent or mitigate these risks. We believe that this model will help guide research in this area and enable clinicians to identify systemic failures and develop targeted interventions to prevent their occurrence. PMID:19643409

Thornlow, Deirdre K; Anderson, Ruth; Oddone, Eugene

2009-11-01

387

New directions for the study of incarcerated older adults: using social capital theory.  

PubMed

As the population of older adults continues to rise, so, too, does the population of older adults in prison. The body of literature on older adults in corrections is scant, particularly with regard to health and social functioning. Past studies of aging inmates primarily focus on health care and related costs. The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) outline and synthesize the research on older adults living in prison; and (b) propose a framework for future research and intervention development based on social capital theory. Recommendations for social work practice, programs, and research are discussed. PMID:24893276

Jang, Eunyoung; Canada, Kelli E

2014-01-01

388

Barriers and facilitators of Hispanic older adult mental health service utilization in the USA.  

PubMed

Mental health providers in the USA encounter the challenge and opportunity to engage the rapidly growing population of Hispanic older adults in evidence-based mental health treatments. This population underutilizes mental health services, despite comparable or slightly higher rates of mental illness compared with non-Hispanic White older adults. This review identified barriers and facilitators of mental health service use by Hispanic older adults in the USA to identify practice, policy, and research implications. Hispanic older adults face multiple compounding barriers to mental health service use. Issues related to identification of needs, availability of services, accessibility of services, and acceptability of mental healthcare treatment are discussed. PMID:25398071

Guzman, Erin De; Woods-Giscombe, Cheryl L; Beeber, Linda S

2015-01-01

389

Lack of Endogenous Modulation but Enhanced Decay of Prolonged Heat Pain in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

This study supports the hypothesis that healthy older adults exhibit decreased endogenous pain inhibition compared to younger healthy controls. Twenty-two older adults (56–77 years of age) and 27 controls ages 20–49 participated in five experimental sessions following a training session. Each experimental session consisted of five 60-second trials in which the experimental heat stimulus was presented to the thenar eminence of the left palm with or without a conditioning stimulus (cold-water immersion of the foot). The temperature for the palm (44–49°C) and foot (8–16°C) were customized for each subject. The intensity of experimental pain produced by the contact thermode was continuously measured during the 60-second trial with an electronic visual analogue scale. No significant associations were found between subjects rating of concentration and the overall inhibitory effect. Older subjects failed to demonstrate conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and showed facilitation in the trials using painful concurrent immersion of the foot. A novel aspect of the study was that we recorded “pain offset” (i.e., after sensations) and found that ratings for the older sample decreased at a slower rate than observed for the group of younger adults suggesting increased central sensitization among the older sample. Decrements in CPM could contribute to the greater prevalence of pain in older age. Since a number of neurotransmitter systems are involved in pain modulation, it is possible age-related differences in CPM are due to functional changes in these systems in a number of areas within the neuroaxis. PMID:20546997

Riley, Joseph L.; King, Christopher D.; Wong, Fong; Fillingim, Roger B.; Mauderli, Andre P.

2013-01-01

390

Lack of endogenous modulation and reduced decay of prolonged heat pain in older adults.  

PubMed

This study supports the hypothesis that healthy older adults exhibit decreased endogenous pain inhibition compared to younger healthy controls. Twenty-two older adults (56-77years of age) and 27 controls aged 20-49 participated in five experimental sessions following a training session. Each experimental session consisted of five 60-s trials in which the experimental heat stimulus was presented to the thenar eminence of the left palm with or without a conditioning stimulus (cold-water immersion of the foot). The temperature for the palm (44-49 degrees C) and foot (8-16 degrees C) was customized for each subject. The intensity of experimental pain produced by the contact thermode was continuously measured during the 60-s trial with an electronic visual analogue scale. No significant associations were found between subjects rating of concentration and the overall inhibitory effect. Older subjects failed to demonstrate conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and showed facilitation in the trials using painful concurrent immersion of the foot. A novel aspect of the study was that we recorded "pain offset" (i.e., after-sensations) and found that ratings for the older sample decreased at a slower rate than observed for the group of younger adults suggesting increased central sensitization among the older sample. Decrements in CPM could contribute to the greater prevalence of pain in older age. Since a number of neurotransmitter systems are involved in pain modulation, it is possible age-related differences in CPM are due to functional changes in these systems in a number of areas within the neuroaxis. PMID:20546997

Riley, Joseph L; King, Christopher D; Wong, Fong; Fillingim, Roger B; Mauderli, Andre P

2010-07-01

391

Hypoalbuminaemia and incident heart failure in older adults  

PubMed Central

Aims To test the hypothesis that baseline hypoalbuminaemia is associated with incident heart failure (HF) in community-dwelling older adults. Methods and results Of the 5795 community-dwelling adults aged ?65 years in the Cardiovascular Health Study, 5450 were free of centrally adjudicated prevalent HF at baseline, and also had data on baseline serum albumin. Of these, 599 (11%) had hypoalbuminaemia, defined as baseline serum albumin levels ?3.5 mg/dL. Propensity scores for hypoalbuminaemia were calculated for each patient and used to assemble a matched cohort of 582 pairs of participants with and without hypoalbuminaemia, who were well balanced on 58 baseline characteristics. Using Cox regression models, we estimated the association of hypoalbuminaemia with centrally adjudicated incident HF during 9.6 years of median follow-up. Matched participants had a mean (±SD) age of 74 (±6) years, 62% were women, and 16% were African Americans. Incident HF occurred in 25 and 20% of matched participants with and without hypoalbuminaemia, respectively [hazard ratio when hypoalbuminaemia was compared with normoalbuminaemia, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–1.85; P = 0.020]. Pre-match unadjusted, multivariable-adjusted, and propensity-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for incident HF associated with hypoalbuminaemia were 1.33 (1.12–1.58; P = 0.001), 1.33 (1.11–1.60; P = 0.002), and 1.25 (1.04–1.50; P= 0.016), respectively. The combined endpoint of incident HF or all-cause mortality occurred in 59 and 50% of matched participants with and without hypoalbuminaemia, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.11–1.61; P= 0.002). Conclusions Among community-dwelling older adults without HF, baseline hypoalbuminaemia was associated with increased risk of incident HF during 10 years of follow-up. PMID:21807662

Filippatos, Gerasimos S.; Desai, Ravi V.; Ahmed, Mustafa I.; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Love, Thomas E.; Aban, Inmaculada B.; Iskandrian, Ami E.; Konstam, Marvin A.; Ahmed, Ali

2011-01-01

392

Functional compensation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex improves memory-dependent decisions in older adults.  

PubMed

Everyday consumer choices frequently involve memory, as when we retrieve information about consumer products when making purchasing decisions. In this context, poor memory may affect decision quality, particularly in individuals with memory decline, such as older adults. However, age differences in choice behavior may be reduced if older adults can recruit additional neural resources that support task performance. Although such functional compensation is well documented in other cognitive domains, it is presently unclear whether it can support memory-guided decision making and, if so, which brain regions play a role in compensation. The current study engaged younger and older humans in a memory-dependent choice task in which pairs of consumer products from a popular online-shopping site were evaluated with different delays between the first and second product. Using functional imaging (fMRI), we found that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) supports compensation as defined by three a priori criteria: (1) increased vmPFC activation was observed in older versus younger adults; (2) age-related increases in vmPFC activity were associated with increased retrieval demands; and (3) increased vmPFC activity was positively associated with performance in older adults-evidence of successful compensation. Extending these results, we observed evidence for compensation in connectivity between vmPFC and the dorsolateral PFC during memory-dependent choice. In contrast, we found no evidence for age differences in value-related processing or age-related compensation for choices without delayed retrieval. Together, these results converge on the conclusion that age-related decline in memory-dependent choice performance can be minimized via functional compensation in vmPFC. PMID:25411493

Lighthall, Nichole R; Huettel, Scott A; Cabeza, Roberto

2014-11-19

393

Inequitable access to health services for older adults with diabetes: potential solutions on a state level.  

PubMed

Diabetes is a serious global public health challenge. The cost for health services for diabetes care has increased 41% over the past 5 years. Despite escalating health expenditure, the United States continues to have higher rates of diabetes than many other developed countries. There is a need for health care reform in the United States not only in reducing health care costs but also in improving the quality of preventative care. This study presents the testing of a multilevel model investigating variables on the individual and state levels to develop a better understanding of the most important contextual pathways that can lead to providing older adults (50+) with type 2 diabetes with the recommended preventative quality care they require. The model was tested using a three-level repeated cross-sectional design with data from various existing data sources, using a national sample of 181,870 individuals aged 50 years and older. Results showed that differences in state health care systems contributed to inequitable access. Specifically, in a state where there was a higher percentage of adults 65 and older coupled with a shortage of health care professionals, the likelihood of receiving the recommended preventative quality care decreased. Also, older adults living in states with a higher percentage of people with diagnosed diabetes but with a lower-than-average annual per capita health care expenditure fared worse in receiving quality preventative care. Last, older adults in wealthy states with higher percentages of uninsured people had the lowest odds of receiving quality preventative care. Health care reform, similar to what is currently promoted by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, is recommended to improve the performance of all health care systems in all states. PMID:25299060

Faul, Anna C; Yankeelov, Pamela A; McCord, Laneshia R

2015-01-01

394

Cognitive and Neural Effects of Semantic Encoding Strategy Training in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Prior research suggests that older adults are less likely than young adults to use effective learning strategies during intentional encoding. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated whether training older adults to use semantic encoding strategies can increase their self-initiated use of these strategies and improve their recognition memory. The effects of training on older adults' brain activity during intentional encoding were also examined. Training increased older adults' self-initiated semantic encoding strategy use and eliminated pretraining age differences in recognition memory following intentional encoding. Training also increased older adults' brain activity in the medial superior frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and left caudate during intentional encoding. In addition, older adults' training-related changes in recognition memory were strongly correlated with training-related changes in brain activity in prefrontal and left lateral temporal regions associated with semantic processing and self-initiated verbal encoding strategy use in young adults. These neuroimaging results demonstrate that semantic encoding strategy training can alter older adults' brain activity patterns during intentional encoding and suggest that young and older adults may use the same network of brain regions to support self-initiated use of verbal encoding strategies. PMID:21709173

Anderson, B. A.; Barch, D. M.; Jacoby, L. L.

2012-01-01

395

Adiposity measures predict olfactory processing speed in older adult carriers of the Apolipoprotein E ?4 allele  

PubMed Central

Objective The current study investigated the relationship between adiposity and P3 latency. Methods Fifty-one adults in two age groups (18-25 and 65+) participated. Odor stimuli were delivered via olfactometer as participants focused on a computer screen. Each stimulus was followed by presentation on the screen of four odor identification choices. Participants attempted identification by button press. Olfactory event-related potentials (OERPs) were recorded. BMI and waist circumference were measured as indicators of adiposity. Results In bivarate analyses with all participants included, positive correlations for P3 latency with both BMI and waist circumference were observed, indicating that as adiposity increased latencies also increased. When each age group was separately examined, correlations between adiposity measures and latency remained statistically significant for older adults. Furthermore, ApoE ?4 allele status was examined. Latencies remained positively correlated with adiposity in older adult ?4 carriers; but not in non-carriers. Conclusions This study indicates that adiposity predicts olfactory processing speed in older adults, specifically in ?4 carriers. Significance The results suggest that olfactory processing speed may be a useful measure for detecting and following the effects of adiposity on brain integrity and cognitive function in those at genetic risk for AD. PMID:22055839

Zamora, R.; Bartholow, J.; Green, E.; Morgan, C.D.; Murphy, C.

2012-01-01

396

Mediator-Based Encoding Strategies in Source Monitoring in Young and Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research has examined the contribution of mediator-based encoding strategies (interactive imagery and sentence generation) to individual (particularly age-related) differences in associative memory exclusively in the paired-associates paradigm. In the present study, we examined young and older adults' mediator-based strategy use on source-monitoring tasks. Participants spontaneously used mediator-based strategies to encode about 30% to 40% of word–source pairs and were

Beatrice G. Kuhlmann; Dayna R. Touron

2012-01-01

397

A Placebo-Controlled Test of cognitive–Behavioral Therapy for Comorbid Insomnia in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study tested cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia in older adults with osteoarthritis, coronary artery disease, or pulmonary disease. Ninety-two participants (mean age = 69 years) were randomly assigned to classroom CBT or stress management and wellness (SMW) training, which served as a placebo condition. Compared with SMW, CBT participants had larger improvements on 8 out of 10 self-report

Bruce Rybarczyk; Edward Stepanski; Louis Fogg; Martita Lopez; Paulette Barry; Andrew Davis

2005-01-01

398

Effects of Maximal Isometric and Isokinetic Resistance Training on Strength and Functional Mobility in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The aim of the present study was to compare the changes in voluntary strength (isometric, concentric, and eccentric) and functional mobility in response to maximal isokinetic eccentric-only resistance training to those elicited by maximal isometric-only or maximal isokinetic concentric-only resistance training in older adults. Methods. Twelve women (73 6 7 years) and 18 men (73 6 5 years) completed

T. Brock Symons; Anthony A. Vandervoort; Charles L. Rice; Tom J. Overend; Greg D. Marsh

2005-01-01

399

Assessing the Impacts of Community-Based Health Care Policies and Programs for Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a framework for evaluating long-term care policies and programs to determine how well community-based programs benefit the older adult population. Equity, accessibility, quality, and efficiency are identified as core criteria for implementing and evaluating long-term care policy. Special problems with conducting process and\\/or outcome evaluation of community-based programs are noted, and findings of evaluation research on community-based

Thomas T. H. Wan; Kenneth F. Ferraro

1991-01-01

400

The effects of reminiscence on psychological well-being in older adults: A meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness of reminiscence on psychological well-being across different target groups and treatment modalities. Fifteen controlled outcome studies were included. An overall effect size of 0.54 was found, indicating a moderate influence of reminiscence on life-satisfaction and emotional well-being in older adults. Life-review was found to have significantly greater effect

Ernst Bohlmeijer; Marte Roemer; Pim Cuijpers; Filip Smit

2007-01-01

401

Comparisons of magnitude estimation scaling of rock music by children, young adults, and older people.  

PubMed

The present study concerned the perceptual processing of complex auditory stimuli in 10 children (M age = 8.1) as compared to 10 young adults (M age = 19.3) and 10 older adult subjects (M age = 54.2). The auditory stimulus used was 10 sec. of rock music (Led Zeppelin, 1969). All three groups provided numerical responses to nine intensities of the rock music stimulus (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 dB above threshold). Analysis showed that the children reported a wider range of numerical responses than both adult groups. The mean numerical responses for the children ranged from .54 to 54.24. For the young adults the range was .76 to 11.37, and for the older subjects it was 1.6 to 23.31. Results suggest that the children were not bound by the same set of rules as the adults with regard to magnitude estimation scaling of the loudness of the rock music stimulus. Their internal scaling mechanisms appeared to be more flexible and broader based than those of the adults who participated in this study. PMID:10710762

Fucci, D; Kabler, H; Webster, D; McColl, D

1999-12-01

402

Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home  

PubMed Central

Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving. PMID:23304507

Pearce, Alan J.; Adair, Brooke; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E.

2012-01-01

403

Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment for Sleep Apnea in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Daytime sleepiness and sleep disordered breathing are increased in older compared to middle-aged adults. The cognitive and cardiovascular sequelae associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have significant implications for the older adult who may already be suffering from chronic illness. Most of the evidence supporting the utilization of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for the treatment of OSA has been generated from studies employing samples consisting predominately of middle-aged adults. To examine the efficacy of CPAP for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in older adults with an emphasis on adherence and related treatment outcomes, this paper reviews findings from clinical trials including older individuals as well as those specifically targeting this population. These studies have demonstrated that following CPAP therapy, older adults have increased alertness, improved neurobehavioral outcomes in cognitive processing, memory, and executive function, decreased sleep disruption from nocturia and a positive effect on factors affecting cardiac function, including vascular resistance, platelet coagulability and other aspects of cardiovascular health. Physiological differences in respiratory structure and function between younger and older adults of similar disease severity are believed to result in older individuals requiring titration at lower CPAP levels. Once initiated, CPAP treatment is tolerated by older adults, including those with Alzheimer’s disease. Patterns of adherence in older individuals are consistent with that of middle-aged adults. PMID:17275370

Weaver, Terri E; Chasens, Eileen

2007-01-01

404

Can older people remember medication reminders presented using synthetic speech?  

PubMed

Reminders are often part of interventions to help older people adhere to complicated medication regimes. Computer-generated (synthetic) speech is ideal for tailoring reminders to different medication regimes. Since synthetic speech may be less intelligible than human speech, in particular under difficult listening conditions, we assessed how well older people can recall synthetic speech reminders for medications. 44 participants aged 50-80 with no cognitive impairment recalled reminders for one or four medications after a short distraction. We varied background noise, speech quality, and message design. Reminders were presented using a human voice and two synthetic voices. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Reminder recall was satisfactory if reminders were restricted to one familiar medication, regardless of the voice used. Repeating medication names supported recall of lists of medications. We conclude that spoken reminders should build on familiar information and be integrated with other adherence support measures. PMID:25080534

Wolters, Maria K; Johnson, Christine; Campbell, Pauline E; DePlacido, Christine G; McKinstry, Brian

2015-01-01

405

Interindividual differences in attentional control profiles among younger and older adults.  

PubMed

This study aimed at characterizing the individual variability in three attentional control functions (shifting, inhibition, and updating), among 75 older and 75 younger adults. It also examined the intellectual and health variables associated with different cognitive profiles. Cluster analyses identified three separate attentional control profiles for both age groups, but the patterns of variability were strikingly different. Younger adults' profiles were characterized by homogeneous performance across domains and differed only in their overall level of performance. In contrast, older adults' profiles were characterized by uneven levels of performance across domains and inhibition stood out as critical in distinguishing between profiles. One subgroup of older adults had poor inhibition and more adverse lifestyle characteristics and appeared more cognitively vulnerable. In conclusion, subgroups of younger and older adults with different attentional control profiles can be identified, but the expression of variability changes with age as older adults' profiles become more heterogeneous. PMID:24922080

Sylvain-Roy, Stéphanie; Belleville, Sylvie

2015-05-01

406

So You Think You Look Young? Matching Older Adults' Subjective Ages with Age Estimations Provided by Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perceived age plays an important role in the context of age identity and social interactions. To examine how accurate individuals are in estimating how old they look and how old others are, younger, middle-aged, and older adults rated photographs of older target persons (for whom we had information about objective and subjective age) in terms of…

Kotter-Gruhn, Dana; Hess, Thomas M.

2012-01-01

407

Genetics of Microstructure of the Corpus Callosum in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

The current study sought to examine the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on corpus callosum (CC) microstructure in a community sample of older adult twins. Analyses were undertaken in 284 healthy older twins (66% female; 79 MZ and 63 DZ pairs) from the Older Australian Twins Study. The average age of the sample was 69.82 (SD?=?4.76) years. Brain imaging scans were collected and DTI measures were estimated for the whole CC as well as its five subregions. Parcellation of the CC was performed using Analyze. In addition, white matter lesion (WMLs) burden was estimated. Heritability and genetic correlation analyses were undertaken using the SOLAR software package. Age, sex, scanner, handedness and blood pressure were considered as covariates. Heritability (h2) analysis for the DTI metrics of whole CC, indicated significant h2 for fractional anisotropy (FA) (h2?=?0.56; p?=?2.89×10?10), mean diffusivity (MD) (h2?=?0.52; p?=?0.30×10?6), radial diffusivity (RD) (h2?=?0.49; p?=?0.2×10?6) and axial diffusivity (AD) (h2?=?0.37; p?=?8.15×10?5). We also performed bivariate genetic correlation analyses between (i) whole CC DTI measures and (ii) whole CC DTI measures with total brain WML burden. Across the DTI measures for the whole CC, MD and RD shared 84% of the common genetic variance, followed by MD- AD (77%), FA - RD (52%), RD - AD (37%) and FA – MD (11%). For total WMLs, significant genetic correlations indicated that there was 19% shared common genetic variance with whole CC MD, followed by CC RD (17%), CC AD (16%) and CC FA (5%). Our findings suggest that the CC microstructure is under moderate genetic control. There was also evidence of shared genetic factors between the CC DTI measures. In contrast, there was less shared genetic variance between WMLs and the CC DTI metrics, suggesting fewer common genetic variants. PMID:25514436

Kanchibhotla, Sri C.; Mather, Karen A.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Zhuang, Lin; Schofield, Peter R.; Kwok, John B. J.; Ames, David; Wright, Margaret J.; Trollor, Julian N.; Wen, Wei; Sachdev, Perminder S.

2014-01-01

408

Medication misadventures in older adults: literature from 2013.  

PubMed

The objective of this paper is to review articles published in 2013 examining drug-related problems in the elderly and comment on their potential impact on clinical practice. To identify articles, we did a systematic search of the English-language literature restricted to those aged 65 + from January 2013 to December 2013 using Medline and Google Scholar and a combination of the following search terms: drug-related problems, medication-related problems, medication errors, suboptimal prescribing, inappropriate prescribing, underutilization, polypharmacy, medication monitoring, medication dispensing, medication administration, medication adherence, adverse drug events, and adverse drug withdrawal events. A manual search of major general medicine and clinical pharmacology journals was also conducted to identify additional articles. A total of 51 articles were identified of which 20 were chosen to highlight. Three were annotated and critiqued and the additional 17 articles were summarized in an appendix. One article reported the results of a randomized controlled trial that showed that a pharmacist intervention successfully reduced suboptimal prescribing in older hospital patients. Another paper from this group previously reported data from the same study showing that the intervention also reduced medication related readmissions to the hospital. An observational study compared the use of two thiazide diuretics in older outpatients. They found that chlorthalidone was more likely to cause hypokalemia than hydrochlorothiazide. Finally, in a randomized controlled trial a pharmacist intervention resulted in the reduction of anticholinergic burden but did result in an improvement in cognition. These studies highlight that medication errors and adverse drug events continue to be important issues for health care professionals caring for older adults. PMID:25333528

Hanlon, Joseph T; Semla, Todd P; Schmader, Kenneth E

2014-10-01

409

Medication regimens of frail older adults after discharge from home healthcare.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the number and types of discrepancy errors present after discharge from home healthcare in older adults at risk for medication management problems following an episode of home healthcare. More than half of the 414 participants had at least one medication discrepancy error (53.2%, n = 219) with the participant's omission of a prescribed medication (n = 118, 30.17%) occurring most frequently. The results of this study support the need for home healthcare clinicians to perform frequent assessments of medication regimens to ensure that the older adults are aware of the regimen they are prescribed, and have systems in place to support them in managing their medications. PMID:25268528

Lancaster, Rachelle; Marek, Karen Dorman; Bub, Linda Denison; Stetzer, Frank

2014-10-01

410

Implications of tobacco smoking on the oral health of older adults.  

PubMed

Cigarette smoking is the foremost health risk issue affecting individuals of all age groups globally. It specifically influences the geriatric population as a result of chronic exposure to toxins. Its role in various systemic and oral diseases including cancer, premalignant lesions, periodontitis, tooth loss, dental caries and implant failures is well established. Smoking causes immuno-inflammatory imbalances resulting in increased oxidative stress in the body. The latter hastens the immunosenescence and inflammaging process, which increases the susceptibility to infections. Thus, implementation of smoking cessation programs among older adults is imperative to prevent the development and progression of oral and systemic diseases. The present review focuses on smoking-associated oral health problems in older adults, and the steps required for cessation of the habit. PMID:24697929

Agnihotri, Rupali; Gaur, Sumit

2014-07-01

411

Use of Complementary Therapies for Health Promotion Among Older Adults  

PubMed Central

This article describes the types of complementary therapies used by older adults for health promotion, and delineates the predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with their use. One-hundred ninety-five African American and White participants (age 65+) completed a baseline interview and up to six sets of three daily follow-up interviews at monthly intervals. Complementary therapies for health promotion included home remedies, specific foods or beverages, herbs, supplements, vitamins, over-the-counter (OTC) medicine, prayer, exercise, and being active. Although gender, ethnicity, education, and trust in doctors were associated with the use of complementary therapies for health promotion, health information seeking was the predisposing factor most often associated. The enabling factors were also associated with their use. Health information seeking, which reflects a wellness lifestyle, had the most consistent associations with complementary therapy use for health promotion. This health self-management for health promotion may have positive effects on future medical expenditures. PMID:24652893

Arcury, Thomas A.; Nguyen, Ha T.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Bell, Ronny A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Lang, Wei; Quandt, Sara A.

2014-01-01

412

Transportation Difficulty of Black and White Rural Older Adults  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to understand self-reported transportation difficulty among rural older adults. We used data from the UAB Study of Aging (255 Black and 259 White), community-dwelling participants residing in rural areas. We examined the relationship of predisposing characteristics, enabling resources, and measures of need for care with self-reports of transportation difficulty. Blacks reported having more transportation difficulty than Whites (24.7% vs. 11.6%; p ? .05). When we introduced other variables, race differences disappeared, but there was a race by income interaction with transportation difficulty. Whites with lower incomes were more likely to have transportation difficulty than Whites with higher incomes. When data from Blacks and Whites were analyzed separately, income was the only variable associated with transportation difficulty among Whites. Among Blacks, income was not related to transportation difficulty but several variables other than income (age, gender, marital status, MMSE scores and depression) were. PMID:22068835

Park, Nan Sook; Roff, Lucinda L.; Sun, Fei; Parker, Michael W.; Klemmack, David L.; Sawyer, Patricia; Allman, Richard M.

2009-01-01

413

Characteristics of self-reported memory compensation in older adults.  

PubMed

Self-reported efforts to compensate for memory impairments in everyday life were examined. In seven scales, the Memory Compensation Questionnaire (MCQ) measures five mechanisms of memory compensation, as well as motivation to compensate and awareness of need to compensate. The MCQ was administered twice, at a 3-year interval, to a large sample of healthy older adults (aged initially 55-85 years) from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. Concurrent analyses (n = 854) revealed an excellent set of psychometric properties for the MCQ and its scales. Two-wave longitudinal analyses (n = 629) revealed overall short-term stability of compensatory strategy use. Although all groups reported a similar pattern of relative frequencies of compensatory mechanism use, select qualifications of age and gender were detected. Applications of the MCQ to investigate awareness, motivation, and implementation of compensatory memory strategies in various populations are discussed. PMID:11778642

Dixon, R A; de Frias, C M; Bäckman, L

2001-10-01

414

Interpersonal Effects of Suffering in Older Adult Caregiving Relationships  

PubMed Central

Examining the interpersonal effects of suffering in the context of family caregiving is an important step to a broader understanding of how exposure to suffering affects humans. In this review article, we first describe existing evidence that being exposed to the suffering of a care recipient (conceptualized as psychological distress, physical symptoms, and existential/spiritual distress) directly influences caregivers’ emotional experiences. Drawing from past theory and research, we propose that caregivers experience similar, complementary, and/or defensive emotions in response to care recipient suffering through mechanisms such as cognitive empathy, mimicry, and conditioned learning, placing caregivers at risk for psychological and physical morbidity. We then describe how gender, relationship closeness, caregiving efficacy, and individual differences in emotion regulation moderate these processes. Finally, we provide directions for future research to deepen our understanding of interpersonal phenomena among older adults, and we discuss implications for clinical interventions to alleviate the suffering of both caregivers and care recipients. PMID:19739924

Monin, Joan K.; Schulz, Richard

2009-01-01

415

Auditory Training: Evidence for Neural Plasticity in Older Adults.  

PubMed

Improvements in digital amplification, cochlear implants, and other innovations have extended the potential for improving hearing function; yet, there remains a need for further hearing improvement in challenging listening situations, such as when trying to understand speech in noise or when listening to music. Here, we review evidence from animal and human models of plasticity in the brain's ability to process speech and other meaningful stimuli. We considered studies targeting populations of younger through older adults, emphasizing studies that have employed randomized controlled designs and have made connections between neural and behavioral changes. Overall results indicate that the brain remains malleable through older adulthood, provided that treatment algorithms have been modified to allow for changes in learning with age. Improvements in speech-in-noise perception and cognition function accompany neural changes in auditory processing. The training-related improvements noted across studies support the need to consider auditory training strategies in the management of individuals who express concerns about hearing in difficult listening situations. Given evidence from studies engaging the brain's reward centers, future research should consider how these centers can be naturally activated during training. PMID:25485037

Anderson, Samira; Kraus, Nina

2013-05-01

416

The Benefits and Costs of Repeated Testing on the Learning of Face-Name Pairs in Healthy Older Adults  

PubMed Central

The present experiments compared the benefits of repeated testing and repeated study on cued-recall of unfamiliar face-name pairs in healthy middle-age and older adults. We extended Karpicke and Roediger’s (2008) paradigm to compare the effects of repeated study vs. repeated testing after each face-name pair was correctly recalled once. The results from Experiment 1, which provided no feedback during the acquisition phase, yielded a cross-over interaction: middle-age adults showed the expected benefit of repeated testing, whereas older adults produced a benefit of repeated study. When participants were given feedback in Experiment 2, both middle-age and older adults benefited from repeated testing. We suggest that for face-name pairs, feedback may be particularly important for individuals who have relatively poor memory to produce benefits from repeated testing. PMID:20718541

Tse, Chi-Shing; Balota, David A.; Roediger, Henry L.

2010-01-01

417

Apolipoprotein E and kidney function in older adults  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies suggest that the ?4 and ?2 alleles of apolipoprotein E (APOE) may be associated with decreased and increased risks of CKD, respectively, but there are limited data in older adults. We evaluated the associations of apolipoprotein E alleles with kidney function among older adults in the cardiovascular health study (CHS). Methods Caucasian participants had APOE allelic analysis and serum creatinine and cystatin C measured at baseline (n = 3,844 for cross sectional analysis) and in follow up (n = 3,226 for longitudinal analysis). APOE variation was evaluated as an additive model with number of ?2, ?3 and ?4 alleles. GFR was estimated using the CKD epidemiology equation (eGFRcreat) and the cystatin C demographic equation (eGFRcys). The primary outcome was CKD defined by eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. The secondary outcome was rapid progression defined by annual loss of eGFR > 3 ml/min/1.73 m2. Results Mean eGFRcreat was 72 ml/min/1.73 m2 (25% CKD). Compared with the ?3 allele, the APOE ?4 allele was associated with reduced risk of CKD by eGFRcreat: unadjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79 (0.67 – 0.93) per allele, fully adjusted OR (95% CI) 0.80 (0.68 – 0.96) per allele. Results were consistent using eGFRcys. There was no association of the ?2 allele with CKD or between the apolipoprotein E gene with rapid progression. Conclusions The apolipoprotein ?4 allele was associated with lower odds of CKD in elderly Caucasian individuals. Future research should confirm these findings in other races and explore mechanisms to explain these results. PMID:22874105

Seshasai, Rebecca Kurnik; Katz, Ronit; de Boer, Ian H.; Siscovick, David; Shlipak, Michael G.; Rifkin, Dena E.; Sarnak, Mark J.

2013-01-01

418

Identifying training modalities to improve multitasking in older adults.  

PubMed

Studies that have measured the effects of attentional training have relied on a range of training formats, which may vary in their efficacy. In particular, it is unclear whether programs that practice dual-tasking are more effective in improving divided attention than programs focusing on flexible allocation priority training. The aims of this study were as follows: (1) to compare the efficacy of different types of attentional training formats and (2) to assess transfer to distal measures. Forty-two healthy older adults were randomly assigned to one of three training groups. In the SINGLE training condition, participants practiced a visual detection and an alphanumeric equation task in isolation. In the FIXED training condition, participants practiced both tasks simultaneously with equal attention allocated to each. In the VARIABLE training condition, participants varied the attentional priority allocated to each task. After training, all participants improved their performance on the alphanumeric equation task when performed individually, including those in the SINGLE training condition. Participants in the FIXED training condition improved their divided attention, but only the participants in the VARIABLE training condition showed a greater capacity to vary their attentional priorities according to the instructions. Regarding transfer, all groups improved their performance on the 2-back condition, but only the VARIABLE and FIXED conditions resulted in better performance on the 1-back condition. Overall, the study supports the notion that attentional control capacities in older adults are plastic and can be improved with appropriate training and that the type of training determines its impact on divided attention. PMID:25073453

Bier, Bianca; de Boysson, Chloé; Belleville, Sylvie

2014-01-01

419

Correlation of Symptoms to Function in Older Adults with Comorbidity  

PubMed Central

Objectives To (1) describe the relationship between symptom scores and mobility function measures, (2) assess whether symptom scores and disease scores are similarly associated with mobility function, and (3) identify clusters of symptoms that are most strongly associated with functional status in older adults Design Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from three cohorts Setting Academic medical center Participants 195 community-dwelling subjects with poor flexibility or cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness cohort), 211 female retirement community residents with vertebral fractures (VF cohort), and 61 subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD cohort) Measurements 20-item self-reported symptom scale, 17-item self-reported disease scale, Short Form 36 (SF-36) Physical Functioning Scale, 5-item Nagi Disability scale, 10-meter walk time, supine to stand time Results Symptom scores correlated with mobility function measures (Spearman correlation coefficients range from 0.222 to 0.509) at least as strongly as, if not more strongly than did disease scores. Symptom scores remained associated with functional outcomes after controlling for disease score and demographic variables. Adding symptom scores to models that contained disease scores significantly increased the association with functional outcomes. In the fitness cohort, muscle weakness was the most explanatory single symptom, associated with an average decrease of 17.8 points on the Physical Functioning Scale. A model that included only muscle weakness, pain, and shortness of breath accounted for 21.2% of the variability in the Physical Functioning Score. Conclusion Symptoms represent useful indicators of disability burden in older adults and are promising targets for interventions to improve function in complex patients. PMID:19392960

Whitson, Heather E; Sanders, Linda L; Pieper, Carl F; Morey, Miriam C; Oddone, Eugene Z; Gold, Deborah T; Cohen, Harvey Jay

2009-01-01

420

Exercise and Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers in Cognitively Normal Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective In addition to the increasingly recognized role of physical exercise in maintaining cognition, exercise may influence Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology as transgenic mouse studies show lowered levels of AD pathology in exercise groups. The objective of this study was to elucidate the association between exercise and AD pathology in humans using Pittsburgh Compound B (PIB), amyloid-? (A?)42, tau, and phosphorylated tau (ptau)181 biomarkers. Methods Sixty-nine older adults (17 males, 52 females) aged 55–88 were recruited and confirmed to be cognitively normal. A questionnaire on physical exercise levels over the last decade was administered to all. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected from 56 participants, and amyloid imaging with PIB was performed on 54 participants. Results Participants were classified based on biomarker levels. Those with elevated PIB (p=.030), tau (p=.040) and ptau181 ((p=.044) had significantly lower exercise with a non-significant trend for lower A?42 (p=.135) to be associated with less exercise. Results were similar for PIB after controlling for covariates; tau (p=.115) and ptau181 (p=.123) differences were reduced to non-significant trends. Additional analyses also demonstrated that active individuals who met the exercise guidelines set by the American Heart Association (AHA) had significantly lower PIB binding and higher A?42 levels with and without controlling for covariates (PIB: p=.006 and p=.001; A?42: p=.042 and p=.046). Lastly, the associations between exercise engagement and PIB levels were more prominent in APOE epsilon 4 non-carriers. Interpretation Collectively, these results are supportive of an association between exercise engagement and AD biomarkers in cognitively normal older adults. PMID:20818789

Liang, Kelvin Y.; Mintun, Mark A.; Fagan, Anne M.; Goate, Alison M.; Bugg, Julie M.; Holtzman, David M.; Morris, John C.; Head, Denise

2010-01-01

421

Trunk kinematics and fall risk of older adults: Translating biomechanical results to the clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews some of our experiences over nearly 15 years of trying to determine modifiable factors that contribute to the high incidence of fall by older adults. As part of our approach, we have subjected healthy young and older adults to very large postural disturbances during locomotion, in the form of trips and slips, to which rapid compensatory responses

Mark D. Grabiner; Stephanie Donovan; Mary Lou Bareither; Jane R. Marone; Karrie Hamstra-Wright; Strawberry Gatts; Karen L. Troy

2008-01-01

422

DSM5 Research: Assessing the Mental Health Needs of Older Adults from Diverse Ethnic Backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes current trends and limitations in the design of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) with a focus on its application to older adults from diverse ethnic backgrounds. An analysis of 54 articles published between 2001 and 2011 in 4 social science databases that discussed DSM and its applicability to assessing ethnically diverse older adults'

Alexis Lee Rose; Monit Cheung

2012-01-01

423

Does Expressive Writing Reduce Stress and Improve Health for Family Caregivers of Older Adults?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: We examined whether written emotional disclosure reduces stress and improves health outcomes for family caregivers of physically frail and cognitively impaired older adults, as it has been shown to do for certain student and clinical populations. Design and Methods: Primary caregivers of older adults attending a day program were randomly…

Mackenzie, Corey S.; Wiprzycka, Ursula J.; Hasher, Lynn; Goldstein, David

2007-01-01

424

Working Memory Training and Transfer in Older Adults: Effects of Age, Baseline Performance, and Training Gains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent studies suggest that working memory training may benefit older adults; however, findings regarding training and transfer effects are mixed. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of a process-based training intervention in a diverse sample of older adults and explored possible moderators of training and transfer effects. For…

Zinke, Katharina; Zeintl, Melanie; Rose, Nathan S.; Putzmann, Julia; Pydde, Andrea; Kliegel, Matthias

2014-01-01

425

Memory Training for Older Adults with Low Education: Mental Images versus Categorization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aimed to describe the benefits of memory training for older adults with low education. Twenty-nine healthy older adults with zero to two years of formal education participated. Sixteen participants received training based on categorization (categorization group = CATG) and 13 received training based on mental images (imagery…

da Silva, Henrique Salmazo; Yassuda, Monica Sanches

2009-01-01

426

The Management of Sexualized Transference and Countertransference With Older Adult Patients: Implications for Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a variety of reasons, psychologists are beginning to see an increasing number of older adults in their practice. However, the sexualized transference and countertransference sometimes encountered with older adult patients can foster therapeutic impasse and resistance in treatment among both novice and experienced therapists. Societal taboos and therapy within the context of institutional settings (e.g., nursing homes) can make

Jennifer Hillman; George Stricker

2001-01-01

427

Perceptions of Biopsychosocial Services Needs among Older Adults with Severe Mental Illness: Met and Unmet Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to identify the psychiatric, physical, and social services needs experienced by older adults with severe mental illness (SMI) and to examine factors influencing their experience of need and service provision adequacy. Seventy-five older adults with SMI were recruited from a community mental health center to participate in the…

Cummings, Sherry M.; Cassie, Kimberly McClure

2008-01-01

428

An Investigation of the Relationship between Health Literacy and Social Communication Skills in Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine connections between health literacy and social communication skills in older adults, a population that experiences chronic health conditions but is reported to have low health literacy and declines in communication skills. Sixty-three older adults were administered the "Social Communication" subtest of the…

Hester, Eva Jackson

2009-01-01

429

Older Adults and Community-Based Technological Literacy Programs: Barriers & Benefits to Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we begin by briefly reviewing some of the national statistics on older adults and computer usage, statistics that led each of us to volunteer as teachers to develop technological literacy programs for older adults at local community centers. Because we recognize that all literacies are developed and used by specific people in…

McKee, Heidi; Blair, Kristine

2006-01-01

430

The Effect of Implicit Stereotypes on the Physical Performance of Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore how stereotypes affect physical performance in older adults. During Experiment 1, older adults were primed with objects representing aging stereotypes to determine whether these objects can activate stereotypes of aging. Results from the first part of this study provide evidence that certain material…

Moriello, Gabriele; Cotter, J. James; Shook, Nathalie; Dodd-McCue, Diane; Welleford, E. Ayn

2013-01-01

431

Dental students' attitudes about older adults: do type and amount of contact make a difference?  

PubMed

This study was an extension of a previous study that considered dental student attitudes about older adults. In the current study, the association of student interactions with older adults, in both the dental school clinic and daily life, with their attitudes about this group was evaluated using the Aging Semantic Differential. A total of 311 dental students across all four years of academic standing were included in the study. The results showed that students' interactions with older adults outside the clinic did not relate to positive attitudes; however, even after controlling for the age of the student and the frequency, type of individual, and context of interactions with older adults outside the dental clinic, the number of older adult patients seen in the clinic showed a significant positive relationship with attitudes towards older adults. These results reinforce the conclusions drawn in a previous study that dental students' general attitudes about older adults may be changed, but that it is the exposure to older adults in a clinical setting that seems to be more critical in shaping these attitudes. PMID:22012776

Nochajski, Thomas H; Davis, Elaine L; Waldrop, Deborah P; Fabiano, Jude A; Goldberg, Louis J

2011-10-01

432

Reducing Student Bias against Older Adults through the Use of Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Human services educators must address the issue of students' bias toward older adults to encourage interest and meet the growing need for professionals in the field. The use of literature can challenge students' preconceptions of older adults while innovative teaching methods can guide their development of more tolerant views and introduce them to…

Tice, Carolyn J.; Harnek Hall, Diane M.; Miller, Shari E.

2010-01-01

433

Evaluation of a Peer-Led, Low-Intensity Physical Activity Program for Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Physical inactivity is a primary contributor to decreasing functional physical fitness and increasing chronic disease in older adults. Purpose: This study assessed the health-related benefits of ExerStart for Lay Leaders, a 20-week, community based, peer-led, low-impact exercise program for older adults. ExerStart focuses on aerobic…

Werner, Danilea; Teufel, James; Brown, Stephen L.

2014-01-01

434

Transformational government and improving services for older adults through the DIADEM assistive technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Transformational government has been on the European agenda for several years. However, progress towards transforming public services for older adults with age-related cognitive impairments has been very limited. While socioeconomic factors associated with the older adult community which can hinder their usage of governments' online services, partly explain such slow progress, the paper argues that inability of current

Senaka Fernando; Arthur Money; Tony Elliman; Lorna Lines

2010-01-01

435

Volunteering among Older Spanish Adults: Does the Type of Organization Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study in Spain explored three aspects of older adult volunteering (motivations, satisfaction, and perceptions of benefits and drawbacks) and examines to what extent these aspects are influenced by the type of organization and other factors (sociodemographic variables and level of volunteering). The sample consisted of 88 older adults

Celdran, Montserrat; Villar, Feliciano

2007-01-01

436

Involving Older Adults as Co-Researchers in Social Work Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the contribution of older adults as co-researchers to the evaluation of a gerontological social work course. The evaluation was conducted at an Israeli college as part of a collaborative project with a United Kingdom university. Here, we follow the older adults who are service users through their transition to the role of…

Gutman, Carolyn; Hantman, Shira; Ben-Oz, Miriam; Criden, Wendy; Anghel, Roxana; Ramon, Shula

2014-01-01

437

Barriers to treatment and culturally endorsed coping strategies among depressed African-American older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Older adults are particularly vulnerable to the effects of depression, however, they are less likely to seek and engage in mental health treatment. African-American older adults are even less likely than their White counterparts to seek and engage in mental health treatment. This qualitative study examined the experience of being depressed among African-American elders and their perceptions of barriers

Kyaien O. Conner; Valire Carr Copeland; Nancy K. Grote; Daniel Rosen; Steve Albert; Michelle L. McMurray; Charles F. Reynolds; Charlotte Brown; Gary Koeske

2010-01-01

438

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Experience regarding HIV/AIDS among Older Adult Inner-City Latinos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although Latinos, now the largest minority group in the U.S., comprise 13% of the population, they represent 18% of all new HIV and AIDS cases. This disproportionate representation also appears among older adult Latinos. Semi-structured interviews with 45 inner-city Spanish speaking older adult Latinos provide new data regarding HIV/AIDS among…

Hillman, Jennifer

2008-01-01

439

Cognitive Ability as a Resource for Everyday Functioning among Older Adults Who Are Visually Impaired  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a study that investigated the role of cognitive resources in the everyday functioning of 121 older adults who were visually impaired and 150 sighted older adults, with a mean age of 82 years. Cognitive performance and everyday functioning were most strongly related in the group who were visually impaired. The authors…

Heyl, Vera; Wahl, Hans-Werner

2010-01-01

440

Insightful Learning of Life's Lessons with Older Adult Guests in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An intergenerational initiative was developed and implemented to enhance gerontology in the first course of the practice sequence. Seventeen students met with older adults (ages 82-98) in the classroom and at an assisted living facility. The evaluation of this older adult infusion project was conducted through two questionnaires and by the review…

Velez Ortiz, Daniel; Cross, Suzanne L.; Day, Angelique

2012-01-01

441

A positivity effect in autobiographical memory, but not phonemic fluency, in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate whether processing fluency or cognitive control processes underlie aging-related positivity effects in memory, we compared retrieval of words on a fluency task, and of events on an autobiographical task, in younger and older adults. No positivity effect in word output was found on the fluency task, though older adults output more neutral words. For our autobiographical task, participants

Jennifer C. Tomaszczyk; Myra A. Fernandes

2012-01-01

442

Do Alternative Names Block Young and Older Adults' Retrieval of Proper Names?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates whether tip of the tongue experiences (TOTs) are caused by a more accessible word which blocks retrieval of the target word, especially for older adults. In a ''competitor priming'' paradigm, young and older adults produced the name of a famous character (e.g., Eliza Doolittle) in response to a question and subsequently named…

Cross, Emily S.; Burke, Deborah M.

2004-01-01

443

Best practices for physical activity programs and behavior counseling in older adult populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical activity offers one of the greatest opportunities for people to extend years of active independent life and reduce functional limitations. The purpose of this paper is to identify key practices for promoting physical activity in older adults, with a focus on older adults with chronic disease or low fitness and those with low levels of physical activity. Key practices

M. E. Cress; D. M. Buchner; T. Prohaska; J. Rimmer; M. Brown; C. Macera; L. DePietro; W. Chodzko-Zajko

2006-01-01

444

A Music Therapy Strategy for Depressed Older Adults in the Community  

Microsoft Academic Search

A music therapy strategy for depressed older adults involves eight music-listening programs facilitated by a music therapist for use in the home environment. Body relaxation, imagery, stimulation, and sleep enhancement are included in these programs that use music to cue relaxation and positive thinking. Four case studies describing successful application of this approach to older adults with depression and\\/or anxiety

Suzanne B. Hanser

1990-01-01

445

How Older Adults Make Decisions regarding Smart Technology: An Ethnographic Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparatively little research has been conducted regarding the smart technology needs of the older adult population despite the proliferation of smart technology prototypes. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived smart technology needs of older adults with mobility impairments while using an ethnographic research approach to…

Davenport, Rick D.; Mann, William; Lutz, Barbara

2012-01-01

446

Personal Strength and Finding Meaning in Conjugally Bereaved Older Adults: A Four-Year Prospective Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to identify the patterns and mechanisms of the development of personal strength of bereaved older adults over a 4-year period after spousal death. The findings showed that while bereaved older adults, on average, experienced a moderate level of personal strength at 6 months post-spousal death with a slight increase over a 4-year period, there was a

Su Hyun Kim; Diane Kjervik; Michael Belyea; Eun Sook Choi

2011-01-01

447

Using Speech Sounds To Enhance Occupational Performance in Young and Older Adults.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared the effect of vocalization on the daily motor performance of 13 young and 13 older adults. Results suggest that vocalization improves motor performance. The study design has clinical potential that may be used for facilitating task-related motor performance of older adults. (Contains 45 references.) (JOW)

Maitra, K. K.; Curry, D.; Gamble, C.; Martin, M.; Phelps, J.; Santisteban, M. E.; Slattery, E.; Thomas, J.; Telage, K. M.

2003-01-01

448

Dangerous wandering: Elopements of older adults with dementia from long-term care facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wandering is a commonly observed behavior among older adults with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other types of dementia. When wandering around becomes wandering away, older adults with dementia are at high risk of injury. This exploratory, qualitative study described the circumstances, environmental risks, and injuries sustained in 62 elopements from long-term care facilities by elderly residents with dementia. Content analysis

Myra A. Aud

2004-01-01

449

Implementation of Health Promotion in the Older Adults in Bangkok, Thailand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective strategies that bring health promotion messages to older adults in a developing country are needed. To evaluate the impact of various education media upon changes in knowledge and health behavior, a double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted involving 1,268 older adults in a southwest Bangkok suburb. Group teaching…

Assantachai, Prasert; Bunnag, Chaweewan; Piya-Anant, Manee; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

2006-01-01

450

Maladaptive and Compulsive Behavior in Prader-Willi Syndrome: New Insights from Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although maladaptive and compulsive behaviors are increasingly well-described in young persons with Prader-Willi syndrome, it is unclear how these problems manifest in older adults with this syndrome. In Part I, I compared maladaptive and compulsive behaviors in 45 older adults with Prader-Willi syndrome (ages 30 to 50 years) to 195 children,…

Dykens, Elisabeth M.

2004-01-01

451

Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Older Adults: Practical Guidelines for Adapting Therapy Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to be an effective approach for a wide range of problems affecting older adults. While a variety of empirical and clinical papers have examined modifications to the content and delivery of CBT to enhance its efficacy with older adults, changes to the structure of therapy with this population have not been as widely

David L. Secker; Nikolaos Kazantzis; Nancy A. Pachana

2004-01-01

452

Factors Affecting Burnout when Caring for Older Adults Needing Long Term Care Services in Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to address factors related to caregiver burnout as a result of caring for an older adult with a chronic disease. Characteristics of care recipients and caregivers as well as social support were included to identify the relationships with caregiver burnout. The analysis was based on a sample of 334 older adults and…

Won, Seojin; Song, Inuk

2012-01-01

453

Effects of an Enhanced Discharge Planning Intervention for Hospitalized Older Adults: A Randomized Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose of the Study: To identify needs encountered by older adult patients after hospital discharge and assess the impact of a telephone transitional care intervention on stress, health care utilization, readmissions, and mortality. Design and Methods: Older adult inpatients who met criteria for risk of post-discharge complications were…

Altfeld, Susan J.; Shier, Gayle E.; Rooney, Madeleine; Johnson, Tricia J.; Golden, Robyn L.; Karavolos, Kelly; Avery, Elizabeth; Nandi, Vijay; Perry, Anthony J.

2013-01-01

454

Circadian Sleep-Wake Rhythm of Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The circadian sleep-wake rhythm changes with aging, resulting in a more fragmented sleep-wake pattern. In individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), brain structures regulating the sleep-wake rhythm might be affected. The aims of this study were to compare the sleep-wake rhythm of older adults with ID to that of older adults in the general…

Maaskant, Marijke; van de Wouw, Ellen; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Echteld, Michael A.

2013-01-01

455

Adult Education in Sweden: Possibilities for the Middle Aged and Older People.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Older adults in Sweden lack access to funding for education and training, a gap partly filled by popular education. Study circles, one form of popular education, enable older adults to learn and adapt to the challenges of global society. They promote humanistic rather than economic goals of education. (SK)

Thang, Per-Olof; Warvik, Gun-Britt

2000-01-01

456

Access to oral care --- A systematic review of a continuing public health issue among older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral health is essential for the general well being of the individual and collectively for the health of the population. Oral health can be maintained by routine dental care and visits to dental professionals, but accessing professional dental care may be a continuing difficulty in vulnerable older adult population. Many older adults are not frequent users of dental care, though

Elizabeth Ninan

2011-01-01

457

Older Adult Participation in Health Promotion Programs: Perspectives of Facility Administrators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administrators of older adult-centered facilities must identify barriers to the planning and implementation of health promotion programs. In this qualitative research those barriers were identified through in-depth interviews with administrators of older adult-centered facilities. As identified by administrators, the predominant barriers to the…

Wright, Tim; Hyner, Gerald C.

2011-01-01

458

Nutrition Education among Low-Income Older Adults: A Randomized Intervention Trial in Congregate Nutrition Sites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutritional well-being among older adults is critical for maintaining health, increasing longevity, and decreasing the impact of chronic illness. However, few well-controlled studies have examined nutritional behavior change among low-income older adults. A prospective, controlled, randomized design examined a five session nutrition education…

Mitchell, Roger E.; Ash, Sarah L.; McClelland, Jacquelyn W.

2006-01-01

459

Successful and Unsuccessful Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a condition that was once thought to rarely occur in older adults. Subsequently, treatment of OCD in the elderly has received very limited attention. However, recent epidemiological studies have highlighted the prevalence of this disorder in late life and, thus, focus has turned to comprehensive treatment for this population. This article describes two older adults

Cheryl N. Carmin; Pamela S. Wiegartz

2000-01-01

460