Science.gov

Sample records for older wall rocks

  1. Artificial Rock Climbing Walls--Innovative Adventure Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attarian, Aram

    1989-01-01

    The history, advantages, and disadvantages of artificial rock climbing walls (used to instruct individuals in the sport of rock climbing) are discussed. Additional topics include designing an artificial wall, types of walls, various uses, and risk management. (IAH)

  2. Rock walls and stairs leading to amphitheater from North Oakwood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rock walls and stairs leading to amphitheater from North Oakwood Drive, near hospital (facility no. 515). - Hamilton Field, Rock Retaining Walls, Various locations in housing & hospital areas, Novato, Marin County, CA

  3. Detail of basaltic rock retaining walls just below top switchback. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of basaltic rock retaining walls just below top switchback. 500 ft long retaining wall at left, scale figure in distance, view south. - La Bajada Historic Trails and Roads, Approximately 1 mile East/Northeast of intersection of State Highway 16 and Indian Service Road 841, La Bajada, Santa Fe County, NM

  4. GENERAL VIEW OF DRYLAID ROCK CUTOFF WALLS ALONG NORTH EDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF DRY-LAID ROCK CUTOFF WALLS ALONG NORTH EDGE OF TUMALO RESERVOIR AND ADJACENT TO NORTH SIDE OF BULL CREEK DAM AND BRIDGE. LOOKING NORTHWEST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  5. A mechanism for high wall-rock velocities in rockbursts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGarr, A.

    1997-01-01

    Considerable evidence has been reported for wall-rock velocities during rockbursts in deep gold mines that are substantially greater than ground velocities associated with the primary seismic events. Whereas varied evidence suggests that slip across a fault at the source of an event generates nearby particle velocities of, at most, several m/s, numerous observations, in nearby damaged tunnels, for instance, imply wall-rock velocities of the order of 10 m/s and greater. The common observation of slab buckling or breakouts in the sidewalls of damaged excavations suggests that slab flexure may be the mechanism for causing high rock ejection velocities. Following its formation, a sidewall slab buckles, causing the flexure to increase until the stress generated by flexure reaches the limit 5 that can be supported by the sidewall rock. I assume here that S is the uniaxial compressive strength. Once the flexural stress exceeds S, presumably due to the additional load imposed by a nearby seismic event, the slab fractures and unflexes violently. The peak wall-rock velocity v thereby generated is given by v=(3 + 1-??2/2)1 2 S/?????E for rock of density ??, Young's modulus E, and Poisson's ratio ??. Typical values of these rock properties for the deep gold mines of South Africa yield v= 26 m/s and for especially strong quartzites encountered in these same mines, v> 50m/s. Even though this slab buckling process leads to remarkably high ejection velocities and violent damage in excavations, the energy released during this failure is only a tiny fraction of that released in the primary seismic event, typically of magnitude 2 or greater.

  6. 13. VIEW OF THE ROAD ABOVE THE DRYLAID ROCK WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF THE ROAD ABOVE THE DRY-LAID ROCK WALL (TY-3177-12 ON THE KINGS CANYON ROAD WHERE THE ROAD WILL BE GRADED AND BLADED. LOCATED AT MILEPOST 1.83 (ACCORDING TO THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE RECORD FOR SITE TY-3177). PHOTO IS TAKEN FROM THE NORTHERN END OF THE FEATURE, FACING DUE WEST (2700). - Kings Canyon Road, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  7. Experimental assessment of borehole wall drilling damage in basaltic rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1986-06-01

    Ring tension tests, permeability tests, and microscopic fracture studies have been performed to investigate the borehole damage induced at low confining pressure by three drilling techniques (diamond, percussion and rotary). Specimens are drilled with three hole sizes (38, 76, and 102 mm diameter) in Pomona basalt and Grande basaltic andesite. The damaged zone is characterized in terms of fractures and fracture patterns around the hole, and in terms of tensile strength reduction of the rock around the holes. Experimental results show that the thickness of the damaged zone around the hole ranges from 0.0 to 1.7 mm. A larger drill bit induces more wall damage than does a smaller one. Different drilling techniques show different damage characteristics (intensity and distribution). Damage characteristics are governed not only by drilling parameters (bit size, weight on bit, rotational speed, diamond radius, and energy), but also by properties of the rock. The weaker rock tends to show more intense damage than does the stronger one. Cracks within grains or cleavage fractures are predominant in slightly coarser grained rock (larger than 0.5 mm grain size) while intergranular cracks are predominant in very fine grained rock (smaller than 0.01 mm grain size). The damaged zones play no significant role in the flow path around a borehole plug.

  8. Rock wall fauna in a deep Newfoundland fiord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haedrich, Richard L.; Gagnon, Jean-Marc

    1991-08-01

    Research dives with PISCES IV in the Bay D'Espoir fiord system of southern Newfoundland revealed a rich and abundant fauna inhabiting the rock walls in the warm deep (790 m) central basin. The giant file clam Acesta excavata, otherwise unknown in the western North Atlantic, was in many places a dominant species. Species otherwise known from continental slope depths quite removed from the fiord included the anemone Actinauge sp., sponges, alcyonarians, the fish Phycis chesteri and Nezumia bairdii and the gooseneck barnacle Arcoscalpellum mitchellotianum. The food source for this abundant fauna is unknown. Nearby cold water basins are impoverished with respect to the fauna.

  9. Kimberlite Wall Rock Fragmentation: Venetia K08 Pipe Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, W.; Kurszlaukis, S.; Tait, M.; Dirks, P.

    2009-05-01

    Volcanic systems impose powerful disrupting forces on the country rock into which they intrude. The nature of the induced brittle deformation or fragmentation can be characteristic of the volcanic processes ongoing within the volcanic system, but are most typically partially removed or obscured by repeated, overprinting volcanic activity in mature pipes. Incompletely evolved pipes may therefore provide important evidence for the types and stages of wall rock fragmentation, and mechanical processes responsible for the fragmentation. Evidence for preserved stages of fragmentation is presented from a detailed study of the K08 pipe within the Cambrian Venetia kimberlite cluster, South Africa. This paper investigates the growth history of the K08 pipe and the mechanics of pipe development based on observations in the pit, drill core and thin sections, from geochemical analyses, particle size distribution analyses, and 3D modeling. Present open pit exposures of the K08 pipe comprise greater than 90% mega-breccia of country rock clasts (gneiss and schist) with <10% intruding, coherent kimberlite. Drill core shows that below about 225 m the CRB includes increasing quantities of kimberlite. The breccia clasts are angular, clast-supported with void or carbonate cement between the clasts. Average clast sizes define sub-horizontal layers tens of metres thick across the pipe. Structural and textural observations indicate the presence of zones of re-fragmentation or zones of brittle shearing. Breccia textural studies and fractal statistics on particle size distributions (PSD) is used to quantify sheared and non- sheared breccia zones. The calculated energy required to form the non-sheared breccia PSD implies an explosive early stage of fragmentation that pre-conditions the rock mass. The pre-conditioning would have been caused by explosions that are either phreatic or phreatomagmatic in nature. The explosions are likely to have been centered on a dyke, or pulses of preceding

  10. Why is there no Universal Law for Rock Wall Retreat?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krautblatter, Michael; Moore, Jeffrey

    2016-04-01

    Comparing studies of rock slope erosion and soil slope erosion, we find no governing equation similar to the universal soil loss equation for rock slopes. Rock masses in contact with the atmosphere are affected by a suite of physical, chemical and biological processes which degrade intact rock, creating new fractures and extending existing flaws. Complex feedbacks must be explored between changing slope boundary conditions, stress redistribution and fracturing, and weathering by external mechanisms. Rock slope systems are distinguished from soil slope systems by the fundamental nonlinear properties of rock masses. Rock masses represent discontinuous, inhomogeneous, anisotropic, and nonlinearly elastic materials, and contain a record of millions of years of thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes. The origin and evolution of rock mass strength over time can significantly affect bedrock erodibility and engineering performance, the study of which represents a major chance and challenge for the geoscience community. The imprint of THMC processes on rock properties begins with the geological genesis of rocks; however, a significant degree of material behaviour evolves coincidently with the exhumation and evolution of topography. Thus, fracture generation has been investigated as the result of the environmental stress history in geology and geomorphology, partly modulated by incision and topographic stress evolution. Resultant fracture patterns control the degree of discontinuity heterogeneity, anisotropy, and nonlinear mechanical behaviour over millions of years. Here we discuss important novel conceptual approaches to temporally and spatially decipher nonlinear effects on rock slope erosion including incision-related topographic stresses, rock fatigue, paraglacial and paracratering effects etc. and how they could contribute to a more uniform understanding of rockwall retreat.

  11. Quantitative geophysics in permafrost rock walls and their explanatory power for geomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krautblatter, M.; Dräbing, D.; Funk, D.; Kemna, A.

    2012-12-01

    An increasing number of rock falls has been reported for permafrost-affected rockwalls in the last two decades. The anticipation of the hazard induced by permafrost rock slope failure requires monitoring of thermal and hydrological regimes and geomechanical properties inside the rock mass and quantitative geophysics could provide certain information on all of them. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) in frozen rock walls could become a key method for such investigations since freezing and sub-freezing temperature changes induce significant and recognizable changes in resistivity. Testing temperature-resistivity T-ρ relationships from a double-digit number of low-porosity sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks from Alpine and Arctic permafrost rockwalls in the laboratory, we found evidence that exponential T-ρ paths developed by McGinnis et al. (1973) do not describe the resistivity behaviour of hard rocks undergoing freezing or melting correctly, as freezing occurs in confined space. We provide evidence that bilinear functions of unfrozen and frozen T-ρ paths offer a better approximation. Inferring reliable thermal state variables from ERT images requires a quantitative approach involving calibrated (T-ρ) relationships and an adequate resistance error description in the ERT inversion process, where the correct description of data errors and the right degree of data fitting are crucial issues. We also provide evidence that seismic refraction tomography is technically feasible to detect permafrost in low-porosity bedrock that constitutes steep rock walls. We have tested temperature - P-wave velocity functions of 22 decimeter-large metamorphic, magmatic and sedimentary low-porosity rock samples with a natural texture of numerous micro-fissures from alpine and arctic rock walls. The results show the significance of the ice-pressure-induced matrix velocity increase in low-porosity rocks while the velocity increase of the pore infill is negligible. Hence, the

  12. Interaction of thermal and mechanical processes in steep permafrost rock walls: A conceptual approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draebing, D.; Krautblatter, M.; Dikau, R.

    2014-12-01

    Degradation of permafrost rock wall decreases stability and can initiate rock slope instability of all magnitudes. Rock instability is controlled by the balance of shear forces and shear resistances. The sensitivity of slope stability to warming results from a complex interplay of shear forces and resistances. Conductive, convective and advective heat transport processes act to warm, degrade and thaw permafrost in rock walls. On a seasonal scale, snow cover changes are a poorly understood key control of the timing and extent of thawing and permafrost degradation. We identified two potential critical time windows where shear forces might exceed shear resistances of the rock. In early summer combined hydrostatic and cryostatic pressure can cause a peak in shear force exceeding high frozen shear resistance and in autumn fast increasing shear forces can exceed slower increasing shear resistance. On a multiannual system scale, shear resistances change from predominantly rock-mechanically to ice-mechanically controlled. Progressive rock bridge failure results in an increase of sensitivity to warming. Climate change alters snow cover and duration and, hereby, thermal and mechanical processes in the rock wall. Amplified thawing of permafrost will result in higher rock slope instability and rock fall activity. We present a holistic conceptual approach connecting thermal and mechanical processes, validate parts of the model with geophysical and kinematic data and develop future scenarios to enhance understanding on system scale.

  13. 4. VIEW OF A DRYLAID ROCK WALL (TY31772) ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF A DRY-LAID ROCK WALL (TY-3177-2) ON THE KINGS CANYON ROAD WHERE BLADING AND GRADING WILL OCCUR. LOCATED AT MILEPOST 0.07 (ACCORDING TO THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE RECORD FOR TY-3177). TAKEN FROM THE NORTH END OF THE WALL, FACING SOUTH 24ø WEST (214ø). - Kings Canyon Road, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  14. Rates of high altitude rock wall erosion: four years of laserscanning in the Mont Blanc massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravanel, L.; Deline, P.; Jaillet, S.

    2009-04-01

    Many rockfalls detach from steep high-Alpine rock walls, and were especially frequent during the hot summer of 2003 in the Alps. It is hypothesized that an observed increase of high mountain rock wall instability is related to permafrost changes. Nevertheless, because of a lack of systematic observations, magnitude and frequency of high mountain rock-slope instabilities remain poorly known up to now. As a part of the French-Italian PERMAdataROC project (2005-2008) and the EU-funded transalpine PermaNET project (2008-2011), we use the Terrestrial Laserscanning method for remote monitoring of geomorphological activity from the ground, focusing on seven steep high-Alpine rock walls (elevation: 3000-4500 m a.s.l.) affected by permafrost in the Mont-Blanc massif. Here we present the methodology to get high-resolution digital elevation models (DEM) of rock walls surveyed annually by laserscanning and to make diachronic comparisons of those DEM. This work has been carried out using a ground-based LiDAR Optech ILRIS-3D, working up to 800 m in the best conditions of surface reflectivity. We present the key results of this first quantification of high altitude rock wall instability, based on the first four years of measurement at Les Drus, Aiguille du Midi, Grand Flambeau, Aiguille d'Entrèves, Tour Ronde, Aiguille Blanche de Peuterey and Piliers de Freiney - Grand Pilier d'Angle. The main instabilities affected the West Face of Les Drus (546 m3 of rock detached between October 2005 and October 2006), the Tour Ronde East Face (536 m3 between 2005 and 2006, and 266 m3 between 2007 and 2008) and the close Freshfield ridge (448 m3 between 2006 and 2007). The high resolution of the DEM also allows performing remote geomechanical characterization of the rock faces. First results about survey of fractures will be also present.

  15. Comparisons of magnitude estimation scaling of rock music by children, young adults, and older people.

    PubMed

    Fucci, D; Kabler, H; Webster, D; McColl, D

    1999-12-01

    The present study concerned the perceptual processing of complex auditory stimuli in 10 children (M age = 8.1) as compared to 10 young adults (M age = 19.3) and 10 older adult subjects (M age = 54.2). The auditory stimulus used was 10 sec. of rock music (Led Zeppelin, 1969). All three groups provided numerical responses to nine intensities of the rock music stimulus (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 dB above threshold). Analysis showed that the children reported a wider range of numerical responses than both adult groups. The mean numerical responses for the children ranged from .54 to 54.24. For the young adults the range was .76 to 11.37, and for the older subjects it was 1.6 to 23.31. Results suggest that the children were not bound by the same set of rules as the adults with regard to magnitude estimation scaling of the loudness of the rock music stimulus. Their internal scaling mechanisms appeared to be more flexible and broader based than those of the adults who participated in this study. PMID:10710762

  16. 12. VIEW OF A DRYLAID ROCK WALL (TY317712) ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF A DRY-LAID ROCK WALL (TY-3177-12) ON THE KINGS CANYON ROAD WHERE THE ROAD WILL BE GRADED AND BLADED. LOCATED AT MILEPOST 1.83 (ACCORDING TO THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE RECORD FOR SITE TY-3177). PHOTO IS TAKEN FROM THE CENTER OF THE FEATURE, FACING NORTH 610 WEST (299) . - Kings Canyon Road, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  17. 17. VIEW OF DRYLAID ROCK WALL (TY317725) ON THE UPSLOPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF DRY-LAID ROCK WALL (TY-3177-25) ON THE UPSLOPE SIDE OF THE KINGS CANYON ROAD. LOCATED AT MILEPOST 2.45 (ACCORDING TO THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE RECORD FOR SITE TY-3177). PHOTO IS TAKEN FROM THE WEST SIDE OF THE FEATURE, FACING DUE EAST (90ø). - Kings Canyon Road, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  18. 15. VIEW OF A DRYLAID ROCK WALL (TY317713) ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF A DRY-LAID ROCK WALL (TY-3177-13) ON THE KINGS CANYON ROAD. LOCATED AT MILEPOST 2.2 (ACCORDING TO THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE RECORD FOR SITE TY-3177), FACING NORTH 48 EAST. - Kings Canyon Road, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  19. 11. VIEW OF A DRYLAID ROCK WALL (TY317712) ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF A DRY-LAID ROCK WALL (TY-3177-12) ON THE KINGS CANYON ROAD WHERE THE ROAD WILL BE GRADED AND BLADED. LOCATED AT MILEPOST 1.83 (ACCORDING TO THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE RECORD FOR SITE TY-3177). PHOTO IS TAKEN FROM THE CENTER OF THE FEATURE, FACING NORTH 47 EAST (47 ). - Kings Canyon Road, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  20. 16. VIEW OF DRYLAID ROCK WALL (TY317724) ON THE DOWNSLOPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF DRY-LAID ROCK WALL (TY-3177-24) ON THE DOWNSLOPE SIDE OF KINGS CANYON ROAD. LOCATED AT MILEPOST 2.45 (ACCORDING TO THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE RECORD FOR SITE TY-3177). PHOTO IS TAKEN FROM THE NORTH END OF THE FEATURE, FACING DUE WEST (2700). - Kings Canyon Road, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  1. Layering in the wall rock of Valles Marineris: intrusive and extrusive magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jean-Pierre; Paige, David A.; Manning, Craig E.

    2003-06-01

    High-resolution images of the walls exposed in Valles Marineris reveal variations in appearance and degree of layering indicating various lithologies comprise the Tharsis plateau. The layered wall rock has been proposed to result from effusive flood basalt volcanism or interbedded sediments and volcanics. We present observations of unlayered rock that indicate layering extends to a greater depth in the western half of Valles Marineris and is confined to the Tharsis plateau, a region of thickened, uplifted crust resulting from prolonged intrusive activity. Consistent with this view, we propose that the observed layering may be a manifestation of intrusive rocks resulting from crystal fractionation of intruded basaltic magmas. Terrestrial layered plutons provide analogs for comparison such as those of the North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP) a large igneous province associated with crustal rifting and exposures of thick sequences of layered flood basalts and intruded layered cumulates.

  2. Experimental Estimation Of Energy Damping During Free Rocking Of Unreinforced Masonry Walls. First Results

    SciTech Connect

    Sorrentino, Luigi; Masiani, Renato; Benedetti, Stefano

    2008-07-08

    This paper presents an ongoing experimental program on unreinforced masonry walls undergoing free rocking. Aim of the laboratory campaign is the estimation of kinetic energy damping exhibited by walls released with non-zero initial conditions of motion. Such energy damping is necessary for dynamic modelling of unreinforced masonry local mechanisms. After a brief review of the literature on this topic, the main features of the laboratory tests are presented. The program involves the experimental investigation of several parameters: 1) unit material (brick or tuff), 2) wall aspect ratio (ranging between 14.5 and 7.1), 3) restraint condition (two-sided or one-sided rocking), and 4) depth of the contact surface between facade and transverse walls (one-sided rocking only). All walls are single wythe and the mortar is pozzuolanic. The campaign is still in progress. However, it is possible to present the results on most of the mechanical properties of mortar and bricks. Moreover, a few time histories are reported, already indicating the need to correct some of the assumptions frequent in the literature.

  3. Acoustic and optical borehole-wall imaging for fractured-rock aquifer studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, J.H.; Johnson, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    Imaging with acoustic and optical televiewers results in continuous and oriented 360?? views of the borehole wall from which the character, relation, and orientation of lithologic and structural planar features can be defined for studies of fractured-rock aquifers. Fractures are more clearly defined under a wider range of conditions on acoustic images than on optical images including dark-colored rocks, cloudy borehole water, and coated borehole walls. However, optical images allow for the direct viewing of the character of and relation between lithology, fractures, foliation, and bedding. The most powerful approach is the combined application of acoustic and optical imaging with integrated interpretation. Imaging of the borehole wall provides information useful for the collection and interpretation of flowmeter and other geophysical logs, core samples, and hydraulic and water-quality data from packer testing and monitoring. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Wall-rock metasomatism of carbonaceous terrigenous rocks in the Lena gold district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusinov, V. L.; Rusinova, O. V.; Kryazhev, S. G.; Shchegol'Kov, Yu. V.; Alysheva, E. I.; Borisovsky, S. E.

    2008-02-01

    The Lena gold district is situated in the fold-and-shear belt of the southern framework of the Siberian Platform. The gold deposits are hosted in the Riphean-Vendian Khomolkho and Aunakit formations, revealing the strict control of ore mineralization by folding and shearing. The microstructure of metasomatically altered ore-bearing carbonaceous sedimentary rocks at the Sukhoi Log, Golets Vysochaishy, and Verninsky deposits (the latter includes the Pervenets vein zone) testifies to parallelism in the development of shearing, foliation, and ore-forming metasomatism. The local pressure gradients are marked by removal of silica from pressured zones into opened cleavage fractures and pockets. Two metasomatic stages are recognized: (1) early sodic metasomatism, which is characterized by the assemblage of magnesian siderite and paragonite, and (2) late potassic metasomatism, with formation of muscovite in association with sideroplesite and ankerite. The rocks altered at the early stage are distinguished by elevated Ni, Cr, and probably PGE contents. The second stage, close in age to the emplacement of Hercynian granitic plutons, was accompanied by the gain of chalcophile metals and deposition of the bulk of gold. In mineral composition, the metasomatic rocks are close to beresites, but the alteration differed in somewhat elevated alkalinity, so that microveinlets of albite and potassium feldspar occur in the ore zone together with muscovite. The ratio of modal muscovite to paragonite contents in orebodies is substantially higher than in the surrounding metasomatized rocks. This ratio directly depends on the degree of rock permeability and the intensity of the flow of ore-forming solutions. Carbonaceous matter (CM) in the ore zone underwent reworking and redeposition. CM is graphitized to a lesser extent than in the rocks affected by regional metamorphism. The spatial distribution of CM containing nitro and amino groups indicates more oxidizing conditions in the zone of

  5. Simulation of moisture in alpine rock walls during freeze-thaw events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnepfleitner, Harald; Rode, Matthias; Sass, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    Rock moisture distribution during freeze-thaw events is the key to understanding frost weathering and subsequent rockfall. Data on moisture levels of natural rock walls are scarce and difficult to measure. An innovative and cheap way to avoid these problems is the use of simulation calculations. Although they are an abstraction of the real system they are widely used in natural science. A novel way to simulate moisture in natural rock walls is the use of the software WUFI which has been developed to understand the moisture behavior in building materials. However, the enormous know-how behind these commercial applications has not been exploited for geomorphological research to date. Necessary input data for the simulation are climate data in hourly resolution (temperature, rainfall, wind, irradiation) and material properties (porosity, sorption and diffusivity parameters) of the prevailing rock. Two different regions were analysed, the Gesäuse (Johnsbachtal: 700 m, limestone and dolomite) and the Sonnblick (3000 m, gneiss and granite). We aimed at comparing the two regions in terms of general susceptibility to frost weathering, as well as the influence of aspect, inclination and rock parameters and the possible impact of climate change. The calculated 1D-moisture profiles and temporal progress of rock moisture - in combination with temperature data - allow to detect possible periods of active weathering and resulting rockfalls. These results were analyzed based on two different frost weathering theories, the "classical" frost shattering theory (requiring high number of freeze-thaw cycles and a pore saturation of 90%) and the segregation ice theory (requiring a long freezing period and a pore saturation threshold of approx. 60%). An additionally considered critical factor for both theories was the frost depth, namely the duration of the "frost cracking window" (between -3 and -10°C) at each site. The results shows that in both areas, north-facing rocks are

  6. Towards a better understanding of rock wall thermal regime and stability in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sæterdal Myhra, Kristin; Etzelmüller, Bernd

    2013-04-01

    Hazardous rock fall events caused by slope failure have drawn attention towards the physical processes that affect slope stability of rock walls. The stability of a slope is determined by the interplay between driving and resisting forces acting on the site. A typical scenario is a gravity driving force that is counteracted by friction and cohesion forces. The nature of these forces is dependent on a complex interaction between a range of factors, amongst them topography, rock mass quality and hydrology. Steep topography increases the gravitational driving force, while factors such as water pressure and discontinuities in the rock mass decrease the resisting forces. Hence, slope instabilities evolve in time and space and is dependent upon a range of factors influencing each other through feedback processes. During the past century, the number of slope failures in the European Alps have increased, leading to an increasing focus on degrading permafrost as a possible factor for slope failure. Degrading permafrost might influence both the driving shear stresses and the resisting shear forces in frozen rock faces, causing changes in the force balance of the bedrock. Though degrading permafrost is considered to have an impact on the stability of rock slopes, the physical processes behind the causality are not fully understood. For the Scandinavian mountains, a possible relationship between permafrost and rock slope stability is poorly investigated and understood. Many unstable rock faces have been mapped and some are surveyed, and in several locations temperature loggers monitor the ground thermal regime in steep slopes. It is evident that many unstable rock faces are situated in or close to the zone of mountain permafrost. This project tries to contribute to the understanding of rock wall stability with respect to the influence of ground thermal regime and changing climatic conditions. A first goal of this study is to gain a better understanding of the sensitivity of

  7. Method of measuring material properties of rock in the wall of a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Overmier, David K.

    1985-01-01

    To measure the modulus of elasticity of the rock in the wall of a borehole, a plug is cut in the borehole wall. The plug, its base attached to the surrounding rock, acts as a short column in response to applied forces. A loading piston is applied to the top of the plug and compression of the plug is measured as load is increased. Measurement of piston load and plug longitudinal deformation are made to determine the elastic modulus of the plug material. Poisson's ratio can be determined by simultaneous measurements of longitudinal and lateral deformation of the plug in response to loading. To determine shear modulus, the top of the plug is twisted while measurements are taken of torsional deformation.

  8. Method of measuring material properties of rock in the wall of a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Overmier, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    To measure the modulus of elasticity of the rock in the wall of a borehole, a plug is cut in the borehole wall. The plug, its base attached to the surrounding rock, acts as a short column in response to applied forces. A loading piston is applied to the top of the plug and compression of the plug is measured as load is increased. Measurements of piston load and plug longitudinal deformation are made to determine the elastic modulus of the plug material. Poisson's ratio can be determined by simultaneous measurements of longitudinal and lateral deformation of the plug in response to loading. To determine shear modulus, the top of the plug is twisted while measurements are taken of torsional deformation.

  9. Rock falls in high-alpine rock walls quantified by terrestrial lidar measurements: A case study in the Mont Blanc area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabatel, Antoine; Deline, Philip; Jaillet, Stéphane; Ravanel, Ludovic

    2008-05-01

    The global warming observed in recent decades and its future increase may affect permafrost distribution on high-mountain faces with consequences for their stability. In this paper, we show that rock falls from high-alpine rock walls can be computed with a decimetre-resolution using lidar measurements. A laser scanner was used to create point clouds and triangulated irregular network models on the east face of the Tour Ronde at 3792 m asl (Mont Blanc massif). Comparison of the models realised from measurements of July 2005 and July 2006 enabled quantification of rock falls with reduced uncertainty. The volume of rock fall reached a total of 536 m3 in the scanned area, which matches an erosion rate of 8.4 mm yr-1. This rate slightly higher to the ones reported in former studies enable to assume that this rock fall may be the consequence of the permafrost degradation in this rock face.

  10. Younger and older zircons from rocks of the oceanic lithosphere in the Central Atlantic and their geotectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skolotnev, S. G.; Bel'Tenev, V. E.; Lepekhina, E. N.; Ipat'eva, I. S.

    2010-11-01

    Local U-Pb dating of zircons separated from various rocks in the crest zone of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and Carter Seamount (Sierra Leone Rise) is performed. Younger zircons formed in situ in combination with older xenogenic zircons are revealed in enriched basalts, alkaline volcanic rocks, gabbroic rocks, and plagiogranites. Only older zircons are found in depleted basalts and peridotites. Older zircons are ubiquitous in the young oceanic lithosphere of the Central Atlantic. The age of the younger zircons from the crest zone of the MAR ranges from 0.38 to 11.26 Ma and progressively increases receding from the axial zone of the ridge. This fact provides additional evidence for spreading of the oceanic floor. The rate of half-spreading calculated from the age of the studied zircons is close to the rate of half-spreading estimated from magnetic anomalies. The age of the younger zircons from Carter Seamount (58 Ma) corresponds to the age of the volcanic edifice. Older zircons make up an age series from 53 to 3200 Ma. Clusters of zircons differing in age reveal quasiperiodicity of about 200 Ma, which approximately corresponds to the global tectonic epochs in the geological evolution of the Earth. Several age groups of older zircons combine grains close in morphology and geochemistry: (1) Neoproterozoic and Phanerozoic (53-700 Ma) prismatic grains with slightly resorbed faces, well-preserved or translucent oscillatory zoning, and geochemical features inherent to magmatic zircons; (2) prismatic grains dated at 1811 Ma with resorbed faces and edges, fragmentary or translucent zoning, and geochemical features inherent to magmatic zircons; (3) ovoid and highly resorbed prismatic grains with chaotic internal structure and metamorphic geochemical parameters; the peak of their ages is 1880 Ma. The performed study indicates that older xenogenic zircons from young rocks in the crest zone of the MAR were captured by melt or incorporated into refractory restite probably in the

  11. Numerical simulations examining the relationship between wall-roughness and fluid flow in rock fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, Dustin; Bromhal, Grant; Karpyn, Zuleima T.

    2010-07-01

    Understanding how fracture wall-roughness affects fluid flow is important when modeling many subsurface transport problems. Computed tomography scanning provides a unique view of rock fractures, allowing the measurement of fracture wall-roughness, without destroying the initial rock sample. For this computational fluid dynamics study, we used several different methods to obtain three-dimensional meshes of a computed tomography scanned fracture in Berea sandstone. These volumetric meshes had different wall-roughnesses, which we characterized using the Joint Roughness Coefficient and the fractal dimension of the fracture profiles. We then related these macroscopic roughness parameters to the effective flow through the fractures, as determined from Navier-Stokes numerical models. Thus, we used our fracture meshes to develop relationships between the observed roughness properties of the fracture geometries and flow parameters that are of importance for modeling flow through fractures in field scale models. Fractures with high Joint Roughness Coefficients and fractal dimensions were shown to exhibit tortuous flow paths, be poorly characterized by the mean geometric aperture, and have a fracture transmissivity 35 times smaller than the smoother modeled fracture flows.

  12. A custom acoustic emission monitoring system for harsh environments: application to freezing-induced damage in alpine rock-walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, L.; Beutel, J.; Gruber, S.; Hunziker, J.; Lim, R.; Weber, S.

    2012-06-01

    We present a custom acoustic emission (AE) monitoring system designed to perform long-term measurements on high-alpine rock-walls. AE monitoring is a common technique for characterizing damage evolution in solid materials. The system is based on a two-channel AE sensor node (AE-node) integrated into a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) customized for operation in harsh environments. This wireless architecture offers flexibility in the deployment of AE-nodes at any position of the rock-wall that needs to be monitored, within a range of a few hundred meters from a core station connected to the internet. The system achieves near real-time data delivery and allows the user to remotely control the AE detection threshold. In order to protect AE sensors and capture acoustic signals from specific depths of the rock-wall, a special casing was developed. The monitoring system is completed by two probes that measure rock temperature and liquid water content, both probes being also integrated into the WSN. We report a first deployment of the monitoring system on a rock-wall at Jungfraujoch, 3500 m a.s.l., Switzerland. While this first deployment of the monitoring system aims to support fundamental research on processes that damage rock under cold climate, the system could serve a number of other applications, including rock-fall hazard surveillance or structural monitoring of concrete structures.

  13. A custom acoustic emission monitoring system for harsh environments: application to freezing-induced damage in alpine rock walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, L.; Beutel, J.; Gruber, S.; Hunziker, J.; Lim, R.; Weber, S.

    2012-11-01

    We present a custom acoustic emission (AE) monitoring system designed to perform long-term measurements on high-alpine rock walls. AE monitoring is a common technique for characterizing damage evolution in solid materials. The system is based on a two-channel AE sensor node (AE-node) integrated into a wireless sensor network (WSN) customized for operation in harsh environments. This wireless architecture offers flexibility in the deployment of AE-nodes at any position of the rock wall that needs to be monitored, within a range of a few hundred meters from a core station connected to the internet. The system achieves near real-time data delivery and allows the user to remotely control the AE detection threshold. In order to protect AE sensors and capture acoustic signals from specific depths of the rock wall, a special casing was developed. The monitoring system is completed by two probes that measure rock temperature and liquid water content, both probes being also integrated into the WSN. We report a first deployment of the monitoring system on a rock wall at Jungfraujoch, 3500 m a.s.l., Switzerland. While this first deployment of the monitoring system aims to support fundamental research on processes that damage rock under cold climate, the system could serve a number of other applications, including rock fall hazard surveillance or structural monitoring of concrete structures.

  14. Semi-automatic analysis of rock fracture orientations from borehole wall images

    SciTech Connect

    Thapa, B.B.; Hughett, P.; Karasaki, K.

    1997-01-01

    The authors develop a semiautomatic method of identifying rock fractures and analyzing their orientations from digital images of borehole walls. This method is based on an algorithm related to the Hough transform which is modified to find sinusoidal rather than linear patterns. The algorithm uses the high-intensity contrast between the fracture aperture and the rock wall, as well as the sinusoidal trajectory defined by the intersection of the borehole and the fracture. The analysis rate of the algorithm itself is independent of fracture contrast and network complexity. The method has successfully identified fractures both in test cases containing several fractures in a noisy background and in real borehole images. The analysis rate was 0.3--1.2 minutes/m of input data, compared to an average of 12 minutes/m using an existing interactive method. An automatic version under development should open new possibilities for site characterization, such as real-time exploration and analysis of tunnel stability and support requirements as construction proceeds.

  15. Sulphide mineralization and wall-rock alteration in ophiolites and modern oceanic spreading centres

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koski, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Massive and stockwork Fe-Cu-Zn (Cyprus type) sulphide deposits in the upper parts of ophiolite complexes represent hydrothermal mineralization at ancient accretionary plate boundaries. These deposits are probable metallogenic analogues of the polymetallic sulphide deposits recently discovered along modern oceanic spreading centres. Genetic models for these deposits suggest that mineralization results from large-scale circulation of sea-water through basaltic basement along the tectonically active axis of spreading, a zone of high heat flow. The high geothermal gradient above 1 to 2 km deep magma chambers emplaced below the ridge axis drives the convective circulation cell. Cold oxidizing sea-water penetrating the crust on the ridge flanks becomes heated and evolves into a highly reduced somewhat acidic hydrothermal solvent during interaction with basaltic wall-rock. Depending on the temperature and water/rock ratio, this fluid is capable of leaching and transporting iron, manganese, and base metals; dissolved sea-water sulphate is reduced to sulphide. At the ridge axis, the buoyant hydrothermal fluid rises through permeable wall-rocks, and fluid flow may be focussed along deep-seated fractures related to extensional tectonic processes. Metal sulphides are precipitated along channelways as the ascending fluid undergoes adiabatic expansion and then further cooling during mixing with ambient sub-sea-floor water. Vigorous fluid flow results in venting of reduced fluid at the sea-floor/sea-water interface and deposition of massive sulphide. A comparison of sulphide mineralization and wall-rock alteration in ancient and modern spreading centre environments supports this genetic concept. Massive sulphide deposits in ophiolites generally occur in clusters of closely spaced (< 1-5 km) deposits. Individual deposits are a composite of syngenetic massive sulphide and underlying epigenetic stockwork-vein mineralization. The massive sulphide occurs as concordant tabular

  16. Simulation and field monitoring of moisture in alpine rock walls during freeze-thaw events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rode, Matthias; Sass, Oliver

    2013-04-01

    (high number of freeze-thaw cycles and 90% pore saturation) are achieved predominantly in spring and autumn and in north-facing rock walls. The time spent within the effective "frost cracking window" (-3 - -8°C) is also higher for north-facing sites.

  17. Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alice

    This science unit is designed for limited- and non-English speaking students in a Chinese bilingual education program. The unit covers rock material, classification, characteristics of types of rocks, and rock cycles. It is written in Chinese and simple English. At the end of the unit there is a list of main terms in both English and Chinese, and…

  18. Numerical Investigation of the Effect of the Location of Critical Rock Block Fracture on Crack Evolution in a Gob-side Filling Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuehua; Ju, Minghe; Yao, Qiangling; Zhou, Jian; Chong, Zhaohui

    2016-03-01

    Generation, propagation, and coalescence of the shear and tensile cracks in the gob-side filling wall are significantly affected by the location of the fracture of the critical rock block. The Universal Discrete Element Code software was used to investigate crack evolution characteristics in a gob-side filling wall and the parameter calibration process for various strata and the filling wall was clearly illustrated. The cracks in both the filling wall and the coal wall propagate inward in a V-shape pattern with dominant shear cracks generated initially. As the distance between the fracture and the filling wall decreases, the number of cracks in the filling wall decreases, and the stability of the filling wall gradually improves; thus, by splitting the roof rock at the optimal location, the filling wall can be maintained in a stable state. Additionally, we conducted a sensitivity analysis that demonstrated that the higher the coal seam strength, the fewer cracks occur in both the filling wall and the coal wall, and the less failure they experience. With the main roof fracturing into a cantilever structure, the higher the immediate roof strength, the fewer cracks are in the filling wall. With the critical rock block fracturing above the roadway, an optimal strength of the immediate roof can be found that will stabilize the filling wall. This study presents a theoretical investigation into stabilization of the filling wall, demonstrating the significance of pre-splitting the roof rock at a desirable location.

  19. Comparison of metasomatic reactions between a common CO2-rich vein fluid and diverse wall rocks: intensive variables, mass transfers, and Au mineralization at Alleghany, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The gold deposits at Alleghany, California, are typical of many epigenetic gold-bearing hydrothermal vein systems in metamorphic terranes worldwide. Detailed analyses of alteration halos in serpentinite, mafic amphibolite, and granite wall rocks at Alleghany indicate that widely contrasting deposit types, ranging from fuchsite-carbonate schists to pyrite-albitites, resulted when different wall rocks interacted with the same externally derived CO2-rich hydrothermal vein fluid. Patterns of element redistribution within halos and among lithologic units suggest a complex process involving fluid flow along vein fractures and diffusion (?? infiltration) normal to the veins. Wall rocks locally controlled both the directions and magnitudes of chemical fluxes across vein walls. -from Author

  20. Kimberlite wall-rock fragmentation processes: Venetia K08 pipe development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, W. P.; Kurszlaukis, S.; Tait, M.; Dirks, P.

    2011-10-01

    Current kimberlite pipe development models strongly advocate a downward growth process with the pipe cutting down onto its feeder dyke by means of volcanic explosions. Evidence is presented from the K08 kimberlite pipe in Venetia Mine, South Africa, which suggests that some pipes or sub-components of pipes develop upwards. The K08 pipe in pit exposure comprises >90 vol.% chaotic mega-breccia of country rock clasts (gneiss and schist) and <10 vol.% coherent kimberlite. Sub-horizontal breccia layers, tens of metres thick, are defined by lithic clast size variations and contain zones of shearing and secondary fragmentation. Textural studies of the breccias and fractal statistics on clast size distributions are used to characterize sheared and non-sheared breccia zones and to deduce a fragmentation mechanism. Breccia statistics are compared directly with the statistics of fragmented rock produced from mining processes in order to support interpretations. Results are consistent with an initial stage of brecciation formed by upward-moving collapse of an explosively pre-conditioned hanging wall into a sub-terranean volcanic excavation. Our analysis suggests that the pre-conditioning is most likely to have been caused by explosions, either phreatic or phreatomagmatic in nature, with a total energy output of 2.7 × 109 kJ (656 t of TNT). A second stage of fragmentation is interpreted as shearing of the breccia caused by multiple late kimberlite intrusions and possible bulk movement of material in the pipe conduit related to adjacent volcanism in the K02 pipe.

  1. Rock Climbing Robot for Exploration and Sample Acquisition at Lava Tubes, Steep Slopes, and Cliff Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parness, A.; Frost, M.; Boston, P.; Cutkosky, M.

    2012-06-01

    The rock climbing robot utilizes a unique technology, microspines, that enables gravity-independent access to some of the most interesting locations on the Martian surface. Inverted rock coring has also been demonstrated with this technology.

  2. Retrofit wall system for insulation and lead encasement in older multi-family housing.

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, R. L.

    1998-08-11

    This paper presents an approach to modernization or rehabilitation of buildings with uninsulated masonry walls that have lead-based paint hazards or deteriorated plaster walls. The approach provides a solution to lead contamination on the walls, increased energy efficiency and comfort improvements associated with better insulated building envelopes. The system sheaths or replaces damaged or contaminated walls with a tight, well-insulated, durable interior surface. The costs of this system are estimated to be less than those of other insulated wall systems. Modeling of the impact of this system shows significant improvement in energy performance. The energy savings over the life of this durable system contribute to significantly offset the often-times sizeable cost of lead hazard remediation.

  3. Paleoproterozoic rocks of central Colorado: Accreted arcs or extended older crust?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Barbara M.; Bickford, M. E.

    2001-11-01

    Paleoproterozoic (1770 1735 Ma) bimodal volcanic rocks in central Colorado have been considered to represent southward growth of Laurentia by arc accretion. Although the bimodality of these rocks suggests an extensional continental setting rather than continental or oceanic arcs, there has been little evidence for pre 1800 Ma crust south of the Wyoming craton other than the 1840 ± 1 Ma Elves Chasm pluton in the Upper Granite Gorge of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. We report SHRIMP U-Pb ages of inherited zircons from metarhyolites and plutons in central Colorado that are latest Archean earliest Proterozoic (2520 2000 Ma) and Trans-Hudson Penokean (1878 1814 Ma). Associated quartzites contain detrital zircons with mean ages of 1735 Ma, indicating only local derivation. A meta-arkose, however, contains detrital zircons of Trans-Hudson Penokean and Archean ages. We believe it likely that the 1900 1800 Ma Trans-Hudson Penokean orogens, including Archean enclaves, extended farther south and west than is currently thought, and were the source of the bimodal volcanic rocks and associated plutons during the period 1770 1700 Ma.

  4. Mass transfer during wall-rock alteration: An example from a quartz-graphite vein, Black Hills, South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbreath, K. C.; Duke, E. F.; Papike, J. J.; Laul, J. C.

    1988-07-01

    Mass transfer and fluid-rock interaction have been evaluated along two sample traverses in low-sillimanite grade quartz-mica schist adjacent to a synmetamorphic quartz-graphite vein in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota. In an ~ 17 cm halo between apparently unaltered schist and the vein contact is an outer zone of cryptic alteration and three inner zones of visible alteration. The cryptic zone consists of the original prograde metamorphic mineral assemblage (quartz + biotite ± muscovite + plagioclase + microcline) plus anomalously high amounts of tourmaline. The outermost visible zone contains abundant graphite. The second visible zone is defined by intensive bleaching of the schist. The innermost visible zone, immediately adjacent to the vein, is tourmaline + quartz + plagioclase + limonite + graphite. The vein is composed almost entirely of quartz, but also contains trace amounts of graphite. Mass balance calculations indicate that Al was essentially inert. The predominant chemical changes during wall-rock alteration were addition of B and C from the vein-forming fluid along with loss of K from the wall rocks, corresponding to precipitation of tourmaline and graphite, and the progressive destruction of microcline, biotite, and muscovite toward the vein. In addition, the elements V, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Sb, W, and Au were introduced into the country rock, whereas Si, Rb, Ba, and Cs were removed. On the basis of a constant Al reference frame, calculations indicate a net volume loss of 21-34% within one centimeter of the vein with little or no volume loss further from the vein. Fluid-rock interaction modeling suggests that between one and four equivalent masses of fluid interacted chemically with the most altered mineral assemblages. In addition, greater than one equivalent mass of reactive fluid penetrated to distances of at least 5 cm from the vein contact.

  5. Mass transfer during wall-rock alteration: An example from a quartz-graphite vein, Black Hills, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Galbreath, K.C.; Duke, E.F.; Papike, J.J. ); Laul, J.C. )

    1988-07-01

    Mass transfer and fluid-rock interaction have been evaluated along two sample traverses in low-sillimanite grade quartz-mica schist adjacent to a synmetamorphic quartz-graphite vein in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota. In an {approximately}17 cm halo between apparently unaltered schist and the vein contact is an outer zone of cryptic alteration and three inner zones of visible alteration. The cryptic zone consists of the original prograde metamorphic mineral assemblage plus anomalously high amounts of tourmaline. The outermost visible zone contains abundant graphite. The second visible zone is defined by intensive bleaching of the schist. The innermost visible zone, immediately adjacent to the vein, is tourmaline + quartz + plagioclase + limonite + graphite. The vein is composed almost entirely of quartz, but also contains trace amounts of graphite. Mass balance calculations indicate that Al was essentially inert. The predominant chemical changes during wall-rock alteration were addition of B and C from the vein-forming fluid along with loss of K from the wall rocks, corresponding to precipitation of tourmaline and graphite, and the progressive destruction of microcline, biotite, and muscovite toward the vein. In addition, the elements V, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Sb, W, and Au were introduced into the country rock, whereas Si, Rb, Ba, and Cs were removed. Fluid-rock interaction modeling suggests that between one and four equivalent masses of fluid interacted chemically with the most altered mineral assemblages. In addition, greater than one equivalent mass of reactive fluid penetrated to distances of at least 5 cm from the vein contact.

  6. Inquiry into the Efficacy of Interactive Word Walls with Older Adolescent Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vintinner, Jean Payne; Harmon, Janis; Wood, Karen; Stover, Katie

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the perceptions of five high school English teachers of the efficacy of interactive word walls in high school classrooms. Through data collected during interviews and professional reflective journals, as well as the review of student artifacts, this article presents the themes that emerged from effective classroom teachers.…

  7. Mechanical Characteristics of rocks cored from Hanging Wall of Chelungpu Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, C. Y.; Chen, C. W.; Hu, J. C.; Tsai, L. S.; Lin, M. L.; Jeng, F. S.

    2005-12-01

    Representatives mechanical parameters of the strata involved in fault movements are essentially needed when conducting numerical simulation of fault movements. To study the mechanical characteristic of the rocks, to conduct the subsequent numberical analyses, and to interpret the Chelungpu fault movements, this research systematically studied the mechanical properties of the rocks cored from the TCDP program. Accordingly, the samples sampled from the cores are subjected to a series of mechanical experiments, including stress-path controlled pure shear tests to study their physical properties as well as their strengths and deformability with elastic and plastic strained being distinguished. Meanwhile, temperature factor are also conducted so as to study its influence on the rocks. It was found that the rocks, with a depth ranging from 450 to 1300m, mainly comprise of silt stone, fossil-riched sandstone and sandstone, with a porosities of 2%, 6% and 15% and uniaxial compressive strengths of 67~73 MPa, 61~65 MPa and 8~11 MPa, respectively. Accordingly, we can find that the strength and deformation of rocks relate to their porosities. According to the pure shear path test results, it was also found that the behavior of the last two types rocks, including the non-linear elastic deformation, plastic strain locking and the elastic strain, was coupled with shear stress. As to the temperature , its influence on the rocks was found to be not significant. On the other hand, the experimental results indicate that the Drucker-Prager failure criteria can describe the failure envelope line of these three type rocks. The strength of these rocks is independent with stress-path. Finally, the constitutive parameters of these sandstones were obtained, which enables realistic prediction the deformational behavior of the rocks in the near future.

  8. Mount St. Augustine volcano fumarole wall rock alteration: mineralogy, zoning, composition and numerical models of its formation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getahun, Aberra; Reed, Mark H.; Symonds, Robert

    1996-05-01

    Intensely altered wall rock was collected from high-temperature (640 °C) and low-temperature (375 °C) vents at Augustine volcano in July 1989. The high-temperature altered rock exhibits distinct mineral zoning differentiated by color bands. In order of decreasing temperature, the color bands and their mineral assemblages are: (a) white to grey (tridymite-anhydrite); (b) pink to red (tridymite-hematite-Fe hydroxide-molysite (FeCl 3) with minor amounts of anhydrite and halite); and (c) dark green to green (anhydrite-halite-sylvite-tridymite with minor amounts of molysite, soda and potash alum, and other sodium and potassium sulfates). The alteration products around the low-temperature vents are dominantly cristobalite and amorphous silica with minor potash and soda alum, aphthitalite, alunogen and anhydrite. Compared to fresh 1986 Augustine lava, the altered rocks exhibit enrichments in silica, base metals, halogens and sulfur and show very strong depletions in Al in all alteration zones and in iron, alkali and alkaline earth elements in some of the alteration zones. To help understand the origins of the mineral assemblages in altered Augustine rocks, we applied the thermochemical modeling program, GASWORKS, in calculations of: (a) reaction of the 1987 and 1989 gases with wall rock at 640 and 375 °C; (b) cooling of the 1987 gas from 870 to 100 °C with and without mineral fractionation; (c) cooling of the 1989 gas from 757 to 100 °C with and without mineral fractionation; and (d) mixing of the 1987 and 1989 gases with air. The 640 °C gas-rock reaction produces an assemblage consisting of silicates (tridymite, albite, diopside, sanidine and andalusite), oxides (magnetite and hercynite) and sulfides (bornite, chalcocite, molybdenite and sphalerite). The 375 °C gas-rock reaction produces dominantly silicates (quartz, albite, andalusite, microcline, cordierite, anorthite and tremolite) and subordinate amounts of sulfides (pyrite, chalcocite and wurtzite), oxides

  9. The use of thick-walled hollow cylinder creep tests for evaluating flow criteria for rock salt

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, H.S.; Wawersik, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Finite element simulations of two laboratory creep tests on thick-walled hollow cylinders of rock salt are evaluated to determine if such bench-scale experiments can be used to establish applicability of either von Mises or Tresca stress measures and associated flow conditions. In the tests, the cylinders were loaded axially and pressurized both internally and externally to produce stress fields similar to those found around underground excavations in rock salt. Several different loading stages were used in each test. The simulations show that for each of two creep models studied, quite different deformations of the cylinders are predicted with the Mises and Tresca flow criteria, especially if friction between the cylinders and axial loading platens is ignored. When friction is included in the simulations, the differences in deformation are changed but are sill clearly distinguishable. 10 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Nd isotopic gradients in upper crustal magma chambers: Evidence for in situ magma-wall-rock interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, G.L.; Tegtmeyer, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    Multiple Nd isotopic analyses were obtained for one metaluminous and two peralkaline Tertiary rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs in the Great Basin to determine whether upper crustal silici magmas chemically evolve under closed- or open-system conditions. All the ash-flow tuffs analyzed show significant internal Nd isotopic variations. The largest variations occur within the peralkaline Double-H Mountains Tuff ({epsilon}{sub Nd} = +2.0 to +6.4) at the McDermitt volcanic field in north-central Nevada, and the smallest within the metaluminous Topopah Spring Tuff ({epsilon}{sub Nd} = {minus}10.6 to {minus}11.7) at the southwestern Nevada volcanic field. In all cases the isotopic variation are correlated with magmatic Nd contents, even though the Nd concentrations decreased roofward for the metaluminous rhyolite and increased for the peralkaline rhyolites. The consistent positive correlation between [Nd] and {epsilon}{sub Nd} provides strong evidence for in situ open-system addition of low {epsilon}{sub Nd} wall-rock material to the silicic magmas during their residence in the upper crust. The proportion of wall-rock Nd required to produce the isotopic zonations is small (1 to 15 mol%) for both the peralkaline and metaluminous rhyolites. All levels of the parental magmas sampled by the ash-flow tuffs, and not just magma occupying the roof zone, were open to wall-rock interaction. These results suggest that upper crustal silicic magma bodies evolve under open-system conditions and the effects of such processes should be addressed in models for their chemical differentiation.

  11. Wall rock-magma interactions in Etna, Italy, studied by U-Th disequilibrium and rare earth element systematics

    SciTech Connect

    Villemant, B. CNRS URA 196, Paris ); Michaud, V.; Metrich, N. )

    1993-03-01

    [sup 230]Th/[sup 238]U disequilibria have been studied in xenoliths and associated lavas of the 1892 and 1989 eruptions of Etna. Most xenoliths are out of secular equilibrium within 1 [sigma] errors and have lower [sup 230]Th/[sup 232]Th ratios than their host magmas. Siliceous and peraluminous xenoliths display large ranges of Th/U ratios for similar [sup 230]Th/[sup 232]Th values, which are interpreted in terms of Th isotopic rehomogenization. The siliceous xenoliths have also suffered thorium and uranium enrichments, which are best explained by chemical diffusion between xenolith melts and differentiated magmas. Estimates of thorium self-diffusivities and [sup 230]Th-[sup 238]U disequilibria give age constraints on these events corresponding to the last major volcanic event of Etna at 14 ka (formation of the elliptic crater caldera). These results suggest that magma storage in superficial and long-lived magma chambers favors the thorium isotopic homogenization of wall rocks by a thermal effect. Chemical diffusion of uranium and thorium and isotopic homogenization between siliceous melts of wall rocks and differentiated magmas may significantly modify the initial thorium isotopic compositions. Such contamination processes could explain the large variations of the [sup 230]Th/[sup 232]Th initial ratios of Etna magmas. 33 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Shallow subsurface temperature and moisture monitoring at rock walls during freeze thaw cycles in the Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rode, Matthias; Sass, Oliver

    2014-05-01

    The process of frost weathering as well as the contribution of further weathering processes (e.g. hydration, thermal fatigue) is poorly understood. For this purpose, different measuring systems were set up in two study areas (Dachstein massif - permafrost area (2700m asl, 47° 28' 32″ N, 13° 36' 23″ E) and Gesäuse mountains - non permafrost area (900m asl, 47° 35' 19″ N, 14° 39' 32″ E) located in Styria, Austria within the framework of the research project ROCKING ALPS (FWF-P2444). A key to understand frost weathering is to observe the rock temperature with several high resolution temperature sensors from the rock surface down to -20cm depth. The temperatures are measured hourly at north and south exposed rock walls since 2012 in the headwalls of the Dachstein glacier at the Koppenkarstein (built up of limestone) in about 2600m asl. Since 2013 the same measurement setup is installed in the lower Johnsbachtal (Gesäuse mountains, prevailing rock type is dolomite) in about 800m asl. To know the temperature is crucial to understand internal heat flow and transport and latent heat effects during freezing and thawing caused by night frost (lasting some hours), cold fronts (lasting some days) or winter frost of several weeks or months. At these study points we also have installed small-scale 2D-geoelectric survey lines, supplemented by moisture sensors. Moisture is determined by means of resistivity measurements which are difficult to calibrate, but provide good time series. Additional novel moisture sensors were developed which use the heat capacity of the surrounding rock as a proxy of water content. These sensors give point readings from a defined depth and are independent from soluble salt contents. First results from the Dachstein show that short term latent heat effects during the phase change have crucial influence on the moisture content. The moisture distribution and movements during temperature changes inside the rock are discussed upon the two main

  13. Forceful emplacement of the Eureka Valley-Joshua Flat-Beer Creek composite pluton into a structural basin in eastern California; internal structure and wall rock deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Sven; Law, Richard; de Saint Blanquat, Michel

    2013-11-01

    Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility parameters have been analyzed at 311 locations in the Eureka Valley-Joshua Flat-Beer Creek (EJB) pluton of eastern California. The large amount of data has allowed for the AMS parameters to be contoured using techniques that both reveal map-scale trends and emphasize small-scale differences. The contour maps suggest that magnetic susceptibility is dominantly controlled by composition of the magma but may also be affected by emplacement-related strain as the magma chamber inflated and forced the wall rocks outward. Pluton construction involved two major pulses of different composition magmas that were emplaced sequentially but with overlapping periods of crystallization. The magmas initially intruded as sill-like bodies into a structural basin. The magnetic foliation of the pluton cuts across internal magmatic contacts on the map scale and is parallel to local contacts between the pluton and surrounding metasedimentary wall rocks. The magnetic fabric is similar in orientation and symmetry to intense flattening strains recorded in the aureole rocks. The metasedimentary wall rocks have been shortened between 60 and 70% and this strain magnitude is approximately equal on the west, south, and east margins of the pluton. Strain in the wall rocks is dominantly flattening and concentrated into a narrow (1 km wide) inner aureole. Mapping of bedding/cleavage intersection lineations south of the pluton indicates that the magma made room for itself by translating the wall rocks outward and rotating the already inward dipping wall rocks of the structural basin to sub-vertical. Stretching of the inner aureole around an expanding magma chamber was responsible for the intense shortening. Limited data on the Marble Canyon pluton to the south of the EJB pluton indicates a very similar emplacement process.

  14. Mount St. Augustine volcano fumarole wall rock alteration: Mineralogy, zoning, composition and numerical models of its formation process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Getahun, A.; Reed, M.H.; Symonds, R.

    1996-01-01

    Intensely altered wall rock was collected from high-temperature (640??C) and low-temperature (375??C) vents at Augustine volcano in July 1989. The high-temperature altered rock exhibits distinct mineral zoning differentiated by color bands. In order of decreasing temperature, the color bands and their mineral assemblages are: (a) white to grey (tridymite-anhydrite); (b) pink to red (tridymite-hematite-Fe hydroxide-molysite (FeCl3) with minor amounts of anhydrite and halite); and (c) dark green to green (anhydrite-halite-sylvite-tridymite with minor amounts of molysite, soda and potash alum, and other sodium and potassium sulfates). The alteration products around the low-temperature vents are dominantly cristobalite and amorphous silica with minor potash and soda alum, aphthitalite, alunogen and anhydrite. Compared to fresh 1986 Augustine lava, the altered rocks exhibit enrichments in silica, base metals, halogens and sulfur and show very strong depletions in Al in all alteration zones and in iron, alkali and alkaline earth elements in some of the alteration zones. To help understand the origins of the mineral assemblages in altered Augustine rocks, we applied the thermochemical modeling program, GASWORKS, in calculations of: (a) reaction of the 1987 and 1989 gases with wall rock at 640 and 375??C; (b) cooling of the 1987 gas from 870 to 100??C with and without mineral fractionation; (c) cooling of the 1989 gas from 757 to 100??C with and without mineral fractionation; and (d) mixing of the 1987 and 1989 gases with air. The 640??C gas-rock reaction produces an assemblage consisting of silicates (tridymite, albite, diopside, sanidine and andalusite), oxides (magnetite and hercynite) and sulfides (bornite, chalcocite, molybdenite and sphalerite). The 375??C gas-rock reaction produces dominantly silicates (quartz, albite, andalusite, microcline, cordierite, anorthite and tremolite) and subordinate amounts of sulfides (pyrite, chalcocite and wurtzite), oxides (magnetite

  15. Earthquake Resilient Tall Reinforced Concrete Buildings at Near-Fault Sites Using Base Isolation and Rocking Core Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calugaru, Vladimir

    This dissertation pursues three main objectives: (1) to investigate the seismic response of tall reinforced concrete core wall buildings, designed following current building codes, subjected to pulse type near-fault ground motion, with special focus on the relation between the characteristics of the ground motion and the higher-modes of response; (2) to determine the characteristics of a base isolation system that results in nominally elastic response of the superstructure of a tall reinforced concrete core wall building at the maximum considered earthquake level of shaking; and (3) to demonstrate that the seismic performance, cost, and constructability of a base-isolated tall reinforced concrete core wall building can be significantly improved by incorporating a rocking core-wall in the design. First, this dissertation investigates the seismic response of tall cantilever wall buildings subjected to pulse type ground motion, with special focus on the relation between the characteristics of ground motion and the higher-modes of response. Buildings 10, 20, and 40 stories high were designed such that inelastic deformation was concentrated at a single flexural plastic hinge at their base. Using nonlinear response history analysis, the buildings were subjected to near-fault seismic ground motions as well as simple close-form pulses, which represented distinct pulses within the ground motions. Euler-Bernoulli beam models with lumped mass and lumped plasticity were used to model the buildings. Next, this dissertation investigates numerically the seismic response of six seismically base-isolated (BI) 20-story reinforced concrete buildings and compares their response to that of a fixed-base (FB) building with a similar structural system above ground. Located in Berkeley, California, 2 km from the Hayward fault, the buildings are designed with a core wall that provides most of the lateral force resistance above ground. For the BI buildings, the following are investigated

  16. Constraints on magma-wall rock thermal interaction during explosive eruptions from textural analysis of cored bombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sottili, G.; Taddeucci, J.; Palladino, D. M.

    2010-04-01

    Cored bombs, a kind of pyroclast consisting of a lithic core surrounded by a chilled shell of juvenile material, record the thermal interaction of magma with wall rocks. We performed textural analysis of cored bombs, solid-melt heat-transfer theoretical modelling, and high-temperature coating experiments to put temporal and intensity constraints on the thermal interaction of potassic magma feeder systems with carbonate wall rocks during explosive eruptions in the Quaternary, Colli Albani Volcanic District (Roman Province). It appears that the degree of thermal alteration of lithic cores records the duration of magma-core heat transfer, whereas the core/shell size ratio records the initial entrainment temperature of the lithic fragment. Both parameters appear to vary significantly with the eruptive style, magnitude and vent location. Specifically, small-scale (~ 0.1-1 km 3 DRE) hydromagmatic eruptions show magma-core heat-transfer durations of 0.1-10 s and entrainment temperatures in the range of 100-300 °C in the case of a monogenetic maar located in the Colli Albani peripheral area, while entrainment temperature is as high as to 800 °C for a polygenetic maar in a high-enthalpy geothermal system at the margins of the main Colli Albani magma chamber. A large-scale (~ 30 km 3 DRE) caldera-forming explosive event shows magma-core heat-transfer duration in the order of 10 2-10 3 s and temperature of 100-500 °C at the initial magma-wall rock contact. On these grounds, we derived the cooling rate of magmas as a function of the initial temperature, mass and size distribution of lithic clasts entrained. Magma cooling by lithic entrainment may have occurred on the same time-scale as that of eruptive pulses (seconds to hours), implying that lithic entrainment may effect changes in magma physico-chemical properties on a short time-scale and, consequently, affect eruptive conduit dynamics.

  17. Tail shortening with developing eddies in a rough-walled rock fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Yeo, In Wook; Lee, Kang-Kun; Detwiler, Russell L.

    2015-08-01

    Understanding fluid flow and solute transport in rough-walled fractures is important in many problems such as geological storage of CO2 and siting of radioactive waste repositories. The first microscopic observation of fluid flow and solute transport through a rough-walled fracture was made to assess the evolution of eddies and their effect on non-Fickian tailing. A noteworthy phenomenon was observed that as the eddy grew, the particles were initially caught in and swirled around within eddies, and then cast back into main flow channel, which reduced tailing. This differs from the conventional conceptual model, which presumes a distinct separation between mobile and immobile zones. Fluid flow and solute transport modeling within the 3-D fracture confirmed tail shortening due to mass transfer by advective paths between the eddies and the main flow channel, as opposed to previous 2-D numerical studies that showed increased tailing with growing eddies.

  18. Wall-rock argillic alteration and uranium mineralization of the northwestern Strel'tsovka caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, O. V.; Golovin, V. A.; Petrov, V. A.

    2010-02-01

    Alteration of rocks and localization of uranium mineralization in the northwestern Strel’tsovka caldera are exemplified in the Dal’nee deposit. In the main parameters of hydrothermal mineralization (temperature, pH, pressure, and composition of solution), the Dal’nee deposit differs from the deposits of the Strel’tsovka ore field located in the central part of the caldera. The localization of high-grade stratiform orebodies are interpreted in light of kinematic relations between steeply and gently dipping faults that formed in the tectonic setting of the NE-SW-trending, long-living, right-lateral, strike-slip faulting. The wide halos of argillic alteration and the structural control of uranium mineralization are caused by the fact that the deposit is located at the margin of the geological block, which has developed since the Late Triassic in a regime of extension (pull-apart) to form a depression, which is arranged en echelon relative to the main caldera and comparable to it in area. Currently, this depression is overlapped by sediments of the Sukhoi Urulyungui Basin. Such a structure markedly increases the probability of finding hidden uranium ores associated with low-temperature argillic alteration in the volcanosedimantary rocks and granitoid basement of the northwestern Strel’tsovka caldera.

  19. Origin of saline, neutral-pH, reduced epithermal waters by reaction of acidic magmatic gas condensates with wall rock

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, M.H. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Fluid inclusions in quartz and sphalerite of epithermal veins containing galena, sphalerite and chalcopyrite with silver sulfides and electrum commonly have salinities of 2 to 10 weight percent NaCl equivalent. Examples include Bohemia, OR, Comstock, NV, and Creede, CO. Salinities in such base metal-rich systems are apparently greater than those in gold-adularia, base metal-poor systems such as Sleeper, NV, Republic, WA, and Hishikare, Kyushu. Saline epithermal fluids are commonly assumed to have been derived from saline magmatic brines, from local host formations, as has been suggested for Creede, or from evaporative concentration (boiling) of more dilute meteoric ground water. Another possibility, which may be the most common origin, is reaction of wall rocks with magmatic gas condensates rich in HCl and sulfuric acid. A mixture of one part Augustine Volcanic gas condensate in 10 parts cold ground water has a pH of 0.7 and the dominant cation is H[sup +] by a factor of 10[sup 4]. Calculated reaction of this condensate mixture with andesite at 300 C to a water/rock ratio (w/r) of 4.6 yields an NaCl-dominated fluid with a total salinity of 2.1 wt %. and pH 3.7. Further reaction, to w/r 0.14 yields a fluid salinity of 2.6 wt % and pH of 5.7; this fluid is in equilibrium with a propylitic alteration assemblage. Aqueous sulfide accumulates during the rock reaction as sulfate is reduced to sulfide when ferrous iron is oxidized to ferric iron. Sulfide concentration in the latter fluid is 32 ppm, far exceeding sulfate concentration. In the overall reaction, hydrogen ion is exchanged for base cations (including base metals) and sulfate is reduced to sulfide.

  20. Activity concentration of natural radionuclides and radon and thoron exhalation rates in rocks used as decorative wall coverings in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Hosoda, Masahiro; Tabe, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, many dwellings have decorative wall coverings made from granite, andesite, tuff, gabbro, and marble. However, information regarding activity concentrations and radon (Rn) and thoron (Rn) exhalation rates for such rocks is very scarce. Therefore, samples of the granite, andesite, tuff, and marble that are used as wall coverings in Japan were collected from mining companies, and their activity concentrations and Rn and Rn exhalation rates were measured. Dose estimations for inhabitants living in houses built with these materials were also carried out. The activity concentration of natural radionuclides in all the materials was lower than the critical values described by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (10,000 Bq kg for K and 1,000 Bq kg for all other radionuclides of natural origin). The maximum values of Rn and Rn mass exhalation rates for the granite samples were 0.12 and 430 mBq kg s, and those for the area exhalation rates were 1.8 and 6300 mBq m s, respectively; these values are higher than those for other samples. The maximum value of effective doses to inhabitants was 0.68 mSv y, which is lower than the intervention exemption level (1 mSv y) given in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 82. PMID:23192085

  1. Evaluation of the removal of Strontium-90 from groundwater using a zeolite rich-rock permeable treatment wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seneca, S. M.; Rabideau, A. J.; Bandilla, K.

    2010-12-01

    Experimental and modeling studies are in progress to evaluate the long-term performance of a permeable treatment wall comprised of zeolite-rich rock for the removal of strontium-90 from groundwater. Multiple column tests were performed at the University at Buffalo and on-site West Valley Environmental Services; columns were supplied with synthetic groundwater referenced to anticipate field conditions and radioactive groundwater on-site WVES. The primary focus in this work is on quantifying the competitive ion exchange among five cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Sr2+); the data obtained from the column studies is used to support the robust estimation of zeolite cation exchange parameters. This research will produce a five-solute cation exchange model describing the removal efficiency of the zeolite, using the various column tests to calibrate and validate the geochemical transport model. The field-scale transport model provides flexibility to explore design parameters and potential variations in groundwater geochemistry to investigate the long-term performance of a full scale treatment wall at the Western New York nuclear facility.

  2. A comparison of multi-view 3D reconstruction of a rock wall using several cameras and a laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoeni, K.; Giacomini, A.; Murtagh, R.; Kniest, E.

    2014-06-01

    This work presents a comparative study between multi-view 3D reconstruction using various digital cameras and a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). Five different digital cameras were used in order to estimate the limits related to the camera type and to establish the minimum camera requirements to obtain comparable results to the ones of the TLS. The cameras used for this study range from commercial grade to professional grade and included a GoPro Hero 1080 (5 Mp), iPhone 4S (8 Mp), Panasonic Lumix LX5 (9.5 Mp), Panasonic Lumix ZS20 (14.1 Mp) and Canon EOS 7D (18 Mp). The TLS used for this work was a FARO Focus 3D laser scanner with a range accuracy of ±2 mm. The study area is a small rock wall of about 6 m height and 20 m length. The wall is partly smooth with some evident geological features, such as non-persistent joints and sharp edges. Eight control points were placed on the wall and their coordinates were measured by using a total station. These coordinates were then used to georeference all models. A similar number of images was acquired from a distance of between approximately 5 to 10 m, depending on field of view of each camera. The commercial software package PhotoScan was used to process the images, georeference and scale the models, and to generate the dense point clouds. Finally, the open-source package CloudCompare was used to assess the accuracy of the multi-view results. Each point cloud obtained from a specific camera was compared to the point cloud obtained with the TLS. The latter is taken as ground truth. The result is a coloured point cloud for each camera showing the deviation in relation to the TLS data. The main goal of this study is to quantify the quality of the multi-view 3D reconstruction results obtained with various cameras as objectively as possible and to evaluate its applicability to geotechnical problems.

  3. The influence of snow cover on thermal and mechanical processes in a permafrost-affected rock wall at Steintaelli, Valais, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draebing, Daniel; Krautblatter, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Degradation of permafrost rock wall causes instability due to changes in rock- and ice-mechanical as well hydraulic properties. Conductive, convective and advective thermal processes alter mechanical and hydraulic properties of rock walls (Draebing et al., in rev.). On a seasonal scale, snow cover is a poorly understood key control of timing and extent of thermal processes. We use (i) manual snow pole measurements to evaluate snow depth distribution, (ii) laboratory-calibrated time lapse Seismic Refraction Tomography (SRT) to quantify active-layer response and (iii) automatic continuous crackmeters to monitor mechanical response of a rock wall in the Steintaelli in August 2012 and 2013. In August 2012, the mean air temperature in the Steintaelli at 3100 m a.s.l. (6.4°C) was slightly lower than in the heat summer 2003 (7.4°C) and slightly higher than in 2013 (5.1°C). (i) Manual snow pole measurements show an up to 1.5 m thick snow cornice covered the crestline of the rockwall, south and north facing slopes were snow free, in 2012. In the following year, the snow cornice expands to thickness of 2-4 m and additional up to 2 m thick snow patches covered the less inclined parts of the north facing slope. (ii) The active-layer thawing was quantified by using SRT (Krautblatter & Draebing, 2013). In 2012, the active layer thawed to depths of 5-15 m. Snow isolation prevented or delayed thawing and active layer extended to depth of 0-5 m in 2013. Time-lapse SRT shows an overall annual cooling effect due to snow cover. (iii) Ten automatic crackmeters monitored fracture movements three-hourly between September 2012 and August 2013. During snow free periods temperature changes resulted in expansion and contraction of rocks and closing and dilation of fractures, respectively. Fracture dilation was observed during extreme low temperatures and zero curtain periods. During snow covered periods ice segregation resulted in fracture opening of 0.4-0.9 cm. Here we show for the first

  4. Rockfalls on steep rock walls in the Mont Blanc massif: a statistical approach for the 2007 and 2008 events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravanel, L.; Allignol, F.; Deline, P.; Ravello, M.

    2009-04-01

    It is hypothesized that climatic warming since 1980 increases rock wall instability in high mountains due to permafrost degradation. This is supported by the observation of ice in several rockfall scars. Due to a lack of systematic observations, magnitude and frequency of high mountain rock failures remain poorly known. As a part of the French-Italian PERMAdataROC project (2005-2008) and the EU-funded transalpine PermaNET project (2008-2011), we developed a present-day rockfall database. It contains information collected during systematic surveys carried out by local people (mountain guides, hut keepers, researchers). Although difficult to implement, this approach seems an efficient way to systematically record slope instability events of all sizes related to climate variations. The database compiles the characteristics (topography, volume, scar geometry, deposit) of the 44 and the 20 rockfalls observed in 2007 and 2008, respectively, in the Mont-Blanc massif (Swiss and Saint-Gervais sides excepted). For each event, scar elevation, slope angle and aspect of the affected slopes are issues from ArcGIS, using a 50 m digital elevation model (DEM) - enhanced to 10 m for affected areas - for the French side of the massif, and a 10 m DEM for the Italian side. Among the 64 documented rockfalls, 53 occurred at an altitude above 3000 m a.s.l (but none above 3900 m), on slopes with an angle mainly in the range 50-60°. Massive ice has been directly observed in 12 scars. The four largest rockfalls occurred on the steepest, Italian side at: Dent de Jetoula (at 2810 m a.s.l.; 15,000 m3) on August 2007, one of the lowest in altitude; Tour des Grandes Jorasses (at 3830 m; 10,000 m3) on September 2007; Aiguilles de Thoules (at 3450 m; 8,000 m3) on July 2008; and Tré-la-Tête (at 3470 m; 50,000 m3) on September 2008. Detailed results are presented, statistically analysed and normalized.

  5. Preliminary results of thermal conductivity and elastic wave velocity measurements of various rock samples collected from outcrops in hanging wall of the Alpine Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, W.; Tadai, O.; Shigematsu, N.; Nishikawa, O.; Mori, H.; Townend, J.; Capova, L.; Saito, S.; Kinoshita, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Alpine Fault is a mature active fault zone likely to rupture in the near future and DFDP aims to measure physical and chemical conditions within the fault. DFDP-2B borehole was drilled into hanging wall of the Alpine Fault. Downhole temperature measurements carried out in DFDP-2B borehole showed that the geothermal gradient in the hanging wall of the fault is very high, likely reaching to 130-150 °C/km (Sutherland et al., 2015 AGU Fall Meeting). To explain this abnormal feature, the determination of thermal properties of all the rock types in the hanging wall of the Alpine Fault is essential. To measure thermal properties and elastic wave velocities, we collected six typical rock block samples from outcrops in Stony creek and Gaunt creek. These include ultramylonite, mylonite, muscovite schist, garnet amphibolite, protomylonite and schist, which are representative of the hanging wall of the Alpine Fault. Their wet bulk densities are 2.7 - 2.8 g/cm3, and porosities are 1.4 - 3.0%. We prepared a pair of 4 cm cube specimens of each rock type with one flat plane parallel to the foliation. First, we measured thermal conductivity by the transient plane heat source (hot disc) method in a bulk mode, i.e. to deal with the rock as an isotropic material. However, several samples have clearly visible foliation and are likely to be anisotropic. Thus, the data measured in bulk mode provided an average value of the rocks in the range of approximately 2.4 - 3.2 W/mK. The next step will be to measure thermal conductivity in an anisotropic mode. We also measured P wave velocity (Vp) using the same samples, but in two directions, i.e. parallel and perpendicular to the foliation, respectively. Our preliminary results suggested that Vp is anisotropic in all the six rocks. Generally, Vp parallel to foliation is higher than that in the perpendicular direction. Vp in the parallel direction ranged in 5.5 - 6.0 km/s, whereas in the perpendicular direction it was 4.4 - 5.5 km/s. We

  6. Immobilization of uranium in biofilm microorganisms exposed to groundwater seeps over granitic rock tunnel walls in Olkiluoto, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk-Bärsch, Evelyn; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Pedersen, Karsten; Arnold, Thuro; Bok, Frank; Steudtner, Robin; Lehtinen, Anne; Brendler, Vinzenz

    2012-11-01

    In an underground rock characterization facility, the ONKALO tunnel in Finland, massive 5-10-mm thick biofilms were observed attached to tunnel walls where groundwater was seeping from bedrock fractures at a depth of 70 m. In laboratory experiments performed in a flow cell with detached biofilms to study the effect of uranium on the biofilm, uranium was added to the circulating groundwater (CGW) obtained from the fracture feeding the biofilm. The final uranium concentration in the CGW was adjusted to 4.25 × 10-5 M, in the range expected from a leaking spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canister in a future underground repository. The effects were investigated using microelectrodes to measure pH and Eh, time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS), energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM), and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) studies and thermodynamic calculations were utilized as well. The results indicated that the studied biofilms constituted their own microenvironments, which differed significantly from that of the CGW. A pH of 5.37 was recorded inside the biofilm, approximately 3.5 units lower than the pH observed in the CGW, due to sulfide oxidation to sulfuric acid in the biofilm. Similarly, the Eh of +73 mV inside the biofilm was approximately 420 mV lower than the Eh measured in the CGW. Adding uranium increased the pH in the biofilm to 7.27 and reduced the Eh to -164 mV. The changes of Eh and pH influenced the bioavailability of uranium, since microbial metabolic processes are sensitive to metals and their speciation. EF-TEM investigations indicated that uranium in the biofilm was immobilized intracellularly in microorganisms by the formation of metabolically mediated uranyl phosphate, similar to needle-shaped autunite (Ca[UO2]2[PO4]2·2-6H2O) or meta-autunite (Ca[UO2]2[PO4]2·10-12H2O). In contrast, TRLFS studies of the contaminated CGW identified aqueous uranium carbonate species, likely (Ca2UO2[CO3]3), formed due to the high

  7. A step towards temperature-referenced ERT: Laboratory-calibrated ERT of seasonal changes in permafrost rock walls at the Zugspitze (German/Austrian Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krautblatter, M.; Verleysdonk, S.; Flores-Orozco, A.; Kemna, A.

    2009-04-01

    High-resolution ERT with 127 electrodes and on average 1550 datum points was conducted in a 276 m long gallery along the permafrost-affected north face of the Zugspitze in 2800 m a.s.l. in Februray, May, June, July, August, September and October 2007. Inversion was performed in a 8400 finite element grid with adjusted boundary conditions. To receive quantitatively reliable ERT values, we fitted a smoothness-constrained Occam's inversion to an empirically measured normal-reciprocal error model. Water-saturated dolomised Wetterstein limestone was measured in the laboratory to freeze at 30 (±3) kohmm at -0.5 (±0.1) °C, independent of initial or refreezing paths. Resistivity of unfrozen limestones increases by less than 104 ohmm/°C. According to laboratory values, temperature referencing of ERT below -0.5 °C could be described by p [in kohmm] = 19 - 19.3 (±2.1) * t [in C°] with an R² of 0.99. A comparison of the absolute ERT plots and monthly changes is consistent with the temporal changes of air temperature and rock temperature data. Maximum resistivity changes (30 kohmm ≈ lab analogue +1.5°C warming) in depths up to 27 m occur coincidently to maximum measured cleftwater flow in May. Differences in snow coverage seem to dominate the general distribution of permafrost and the timing of thaw in the rock wall transect. Refreezing from the rock wall starts in September is apparent in both, resistivity changes and expansion of the high-resistivity body. Error-controlled inversion and temperature calibration in the laboratory present the first approach towards quantitative temperature-referenced ERT in permafrost rocks.

  8. Textures, paragenesis and wall-rock alteration of lode-gold deposits in the Charters Towers district, north Queensland: implications for the conditions of ore formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreuzer, Oliver P.

    2006-01-01

    Ore deposits of the Charters Towers Goldfield (CTGF) are mainly hosted by fault-fill veins. Extensional (˜8% of all veins) and stockwork-like (˜3%) veins are less common and of little economic significance. Crosscutting relationships and published structural and geochronological data indicate a Late Silurian to Early Devonian timing of gold mineralization, coincident with regional shortening (D4) and I-type magmatism. Paragenetic relationships, which are uniform in veins everywhere within the CTGF, suggest that vein formation commenced with the deposition of large volumes of buck quartz (stage I), followed by buck and comb quartz, and significant pyrite and arsenopyrite precipitation (stage II). Gold was introduced during stage III, after earlier sphalerite and coincident with galena and chalcopyrite. Narrow, discontinuous calcite veins of stage IV mark the waning of gold-related hydrothermal activity or a later unrelated episode. Ore zones within the veins are everywhere composed of comb and/or gray quartz, calcite and/or ankerite and bands or clusters of fractured pyrite that are spatially associated with galena, sphalerite or chalcopyrite. Low-grade or barren vein sections, on the other hand, are mainly composed of milky buck quartz with little evidence for modification, overprinting or interaction with later fluids. Gold-related hydrothermal wall-rock alteration is symmetrically zoned, displaying proximal sericite-ankerite and distal epidote-chlorite-hematite assemblages that may be taken to imply wall-rock interaction with near neutral fluids (pH 5-6). Isocon plots assuming immobile Al, P, Ti, Y and Zr consistently indicate As, K, Pb, S and Zn enrichment and Na, Si and Sr depletion in altered wall-rock specimens relative to the least altered rocks. Alteration assemblages, quartz textures, fault rocks and published fluid inclusion and stable isotope data imply that the veins were formed under conditions of episodic fluid overpressuring (˜0.9-3.8 kbar), at a

  9. Initial Melting and wall-rock flux-melting of a wet multi-component mantle and its implications for the formation of MORB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, J. P.; Hasenclever, J.

    2013-12-01

    We explore several simple scenarios for wet melting of a heterogeneous multi- component mantle. In our melting formulation the mantle is viewed as a mixture consisting of a heterogeneously depleted peridotite matrix with embedded veins of fertile peridotite and/or geochemically enriched pyroxenite. These lithological units differ in their mineral composition but are assumed to have diffusively equilibrated both their water/hydrogen content and temperature over the hundreds of millions to billions of years prior to entering a melting region. During the melting process, however, only thermal but not chemical (water) equilibrium is assumed between the lithologies, which is a reasonable assumption for veins with thicknesses on the order of few tens to few hundreds of meters, a thermal diffusivity of 10^-6 m^2/s and a diffusivity of hydrogen of less than 3*10^-9 m^2/s. The thermodynamic formulation of the multi-component melting process, during which all components have to share thermal energy, is based on Phipps Morgan (2001). The wet melting parameterization by Katz et al. (2003) has been included in the thermodynamic formulation by modifying its solidus-depletion-dependence and treating water partitioning during melting as partitioning of a trace element with a D-value like that of Ce. Usually, fractional melting with a small trapped melt fraction is assumed. We will mostly discuss results from 1-D model calculations, which represent the idealized decompression of a multi-component mantle rising underneath a mid-ocean ridge. Melt-migration is assumed to occur as vertical ascent within each column. We have also extended the formulation to examine the effects of rising melts on 'flux-melting' the wall-rock through which they migrate. We are still testing to see if this mechanism can be the reason why ridge melts almost always have major element chemistries in equilibrium with a peridotitic mantle, while the incompatible trace elements in EMORB reflect the influence of

  10. Rockfall source characterization at high rock walls in complex geological settings by photogrammetry, structural analysis and DFN techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliardi, Federico; Riva, Federico; Galletti, Laura; Zanchi, Andrea; Crosta, Giovanni B.

    2016-04-01

    Rockfall quantitative risk analysis in areas impended by high, subvertical cliffs remains a challenge, due to the difficult definition of potential rockfall sources, event magnitude scenarios and related probabilities. For this reasons, rockfall analyses traditionally focus on modelling the runout component of rockfall processes, whereas rock-fall source identification, mapping and characterization (block size distribution and susceptibility) are over-simplified in most practical applications, especially when structurally complex rock masses are involved. We integrated field and remote survey and rock mass modelling techniques to characterize rock masses and detect rockfall source in complex geo-structural settings. We focused on a test site located at Valmadrera, near Lecco (Southern Alps, Italy), where cliffs up to 600 m high impend on a narrow strip of Lake Como shore. The massive carbonates forming the cliff (Dolomia Principale Fm), normally characterized by brittle structural associations due to their high strength and stiffness, are here involved in an ENE-trending, S-verging kilometre-scale syncline. Brittle mechanisms associated to folding strongly controlled the nature of discontinuities (bedding slip, strike-slip faults, tensile fractures) and their attributes (spacing and size), as well as the spatial variability of bedding attitude and fracture intensity, with individual block sizes up to 15 m3. We carried out a high-resolution terrestrial photogrammetric survey from distances ranging from 1500 m (11 camera stations from the opposite lake shore, 265 pictures) to 150 m (28 camera stations along N-S directed boat routes, 200 pictures), using RTK GNSS measurements for camera station geo-referencing. Data processing by Structure-from-Motion techniques resulted in detailed long-range (1500 m) and medium-range (150 to 800 m) point clouds covering the entire slope with maximum surface point densities exceeding 50 pts/m2. Point clouds allowed a detailed

  11. Thermal characteristics of permafrost in the steep alpine rock walls of the Aiguille du Midi (Mont Blanc Massif, 3842 m a.s.l)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnin, F.; Deline, P.; Ravanel, L.; Noetzli, J.; Pogliotti, P.

    2015-01-01

    Permafrost and related thermo-hydro-mechanical processes are thought to influence high alpine rock wall stability, but a lack of field measurements means that the characteristics and processes of rock wall permafrost are poorly understood. To help remedy this situation, in 2005 work began to install a monitoring system at the Aiguille du Midi (3842 m a.s.l). This paper presents temperature records from nine surface sensors (eight years of records) and three 10 m deep boreholes (4 years of records), installed at locations with different surface and bedrock characteristics. In line with previous studies, our temperature data analyses showed that: micro-meteorology controls the surface temperature, active layer thicknesses are directly related to aspect and ranged from <2 m to nearly 6 m, and that thin accumulations of snow and open fractures are cooling factors. Thermal profiles empirically demonstrated the coexistence within a single rock peak of warm and cold permafrost (about -1.5 to -4.5 °C at 10 m depth) and the resulting lateral heat fluxes. Our results also extended current knowledge of the effect of snow, in that we found similar thermo-insulation effects as reported for gentle mountain areas. Thick snow warms shaded areas, and may reduce active layer refreezing in winter and delay its thawing in summer. However, thick snow thermo-insulation has little effect compared to the high albedo of snow which leads to cooler conditions at the rock surface in areas exposed to the sun. A consistent inflection in the thermal profiles reflected the cooling effect of an open fracture in the bedrock, which appeared to act as a thermal cutoff in the sub-surface thermal regime. Our field data are the first to be obtained from an Alpine permafrost site where borehole temperatures are below -4 °C, and represent a first step towards the development of strategies to investigate poorly known aspects in steep bedrock permafrost such as the effects of snow cover and fractures.

  12. The significance of geological and zircon age data derived from the wall rocks of the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone, NW Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żelaźniewicz, Andrzej; Hòa, Trần Trọng; Larionov, Alexander N.

    2013-09-01

    This paper offers new evidence on whether the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone of NW Vietnam is part of a suture zone between two continental blocks (the IndoChina Block and the South China Block) or whether it is itself of intracontinental origin, developed within the South China margin. To help clarify the role that the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone plays in South China tectonic reconstructions, we gathered new whole-rock geochemistry, structural field data, and zircon U-Pb (SHRIMP) ages from granites, rhyodacites, and migmatites that occur within geological units adjacent to both the SW and NE sides of the Red River Fault Zone, a segment of the larger shear zone. The new zircon ages show that both walls of the Red River Fault Zone contain metamorphic and intraplate A-type granitoid rocks of Late Permian-Early Triassic age (263-240 Ma) and are of Indosinian origin. In the SW wall, the Fan Si Pan complex is a Neoproterozoic basement of metagranites and metasediments that was intruded by Late Permian (˜260 Ma), peralkaline, A-type granites and by subalkaline, A-type, biotite granite of Eocene age (˜35 Ma), containing xenoliths of gneissified Permian granitoids. The two intrusive episodes were separated by regional tectonic deformations occurring within a transpressional regime of a NW/W-vergent thrusting with a left-lateral oblique component, that was associated with greenschist to amphibolite facies metamorphism, presumably also of Eocene age (˜50-35 Ma), and that may have been related to the left-lateral movement on the Ailao Shan-Red River Shear Zone. In the NE wall, the Lo Gam complex is a Neoproterozoic basement (˜767 Ma) that was repeatedly subjected to tectonothermal activity throughout the Palaeozoic (at ˜450-420 Ma, ˜350 Ma, ˜265 Ma), ending in the Early Triassic (˜248 Ma). There was no thermal overprint during the Cenozoic. In this wall, a significant part of the Permo-Triassic thermotectonism was ductile shearing that was concentrated along

  13. Geology, glacier retreat and permafrost degradation as controlling factors of slope instabilities in a high-mountain rock wall: the Monte Rosa east face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, L.; Kääb, A.; Huggel, C.; Noetzli, J.

    2006-09-01

    The Monte Rosa east face, Italian Alps, is one of the highest flanks in the Alps (2200-4500 m a.s.l.). Steep hanging glaciers and permafrost cover large parts of the wall. Since the end of the Little Ice Age (about 1850), the hanging glaciers and firn fields have retreated continuously. During recent decades, the ice cover of the Monte Rosa east face experienced an accelerated and drastic loss in extent. Some glaciers have completely disappeared. New slope instabilities and detachment zones of gravitational mass movements developed and enhanced rock fall and debris flow activity was observed. This study is based on multidisciplinary investigations and shows that most of the detachment zones of rock fall and debris flows are located in areas, where the surface ice disappeared only recently. Furthermore, most of these detachment zones are located in permafrost zones, for the most part close to the modelled and estimated lower boundary of the regional permafrost distribution. In the view of ongoing or even enhanced atmospheric warming and associated changes it is therefore very likely that the slope instabilities in the Monte Rosa east face will continue to represent a critical hazard source.

  14. High morphogenic activity in the permafrost-affected rock walls of the Mont Blanc massif during the 2015 summer heat wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravanel, Ludovic; Magnin, Florence; Deline, Philip

    2016-04-01

    In order to test the geomorphological hypothesis on the link between permafrost degradation and rock wall destabilisation, we survey all the rockfalls that occur in the central part of the Mont-Blanc massif using a network of observers since 2007. 511 rockfalls (100 < V < 45,000 m3) have been documented, year 2015 included. Between 2007 and 2014, the average number of destabilizations was 44 (from 17 in 2014 with a cold summer to 72 in 2009 with a relatively hot summer). In 2015, 160 events were recorded i.e. 4 times more than the annual average of the previous years. That makes the year 2015 similar to 2003 that was characterized by its summer heatwave triggering 152 rockfalls in the area currently covered by the network of observers, as shown by the analysis of a SPOT-5 image. Observations of 2015 are discussed and crossed with a statistical model of the Mean Annual Rock Surface Temperature (MARST) for the 1961-1990 period, implemented on a 4-m-resolution DEM of the Mont Blanc massif, and temperature measurements in three 10-m-deep boreholes at the Aiguille du Midi (3842 m a.s.l.), where the summer 2015 active layers have been the thickest since the start of measurements in 2009 (e.g. 3.6 m in the NE face against 2.9 m in average during the previous years). Before 2015, 90 % of the inventoried rockfalls occurred in areas where MARST is in the range -5 to 1°C, whereas only 50 % of the whole rock wall area above 2000 m a.s.l. covers this temperature range. With an air 0°C isotherm which sometimes exceeded the summit of Mont Blanc (4809 m a.s.l.) during the 2015 Summer, conditions were particularly unfavorable for mountaineering. Numerous rescues were carried out to climbers technically blocked by uncommon conditions or injured by rockfalls. On the normal route to the summit of Mont Blanc, two administrative closures of the Goûter hut (3835 m a.s.l.) were necessary to prevent climbers from the huge risk of rockfalls in the access couloir, known for its rockfall

  15. Silicic Melt Generation, Segregation, and Injection by Dolerite Partial Melting of Granitic Wall Rock, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hersum, T. G.; Simon, A. C.; Marsh, B. D.

    2005-12-01

    Numerous, long (100's m), thin (< 30 cm), interconnected fine-grained granitic dikes cut Ferrar dolerite sills in the McMurdo Dry Valleys. The source of at least one dike is completely exposed at the upper contact of the Basement Sill and granite country rock. The dike emanates from a thin (5 cm) melt sheet separating chilled dolerite from partially melted granite. Residual interstitial granophyric melt decreases away from the contact from 55% to zero within a distance of < 20 m. Higher than expected dolerite contact temperatures of 900-950°C calculated using two-pyroxene thermometry suggest that the dolerite feeder acted as an open conduit for sustained flux of magma. As a consequence of this flow, the contact temperature was pinned above the `dry' granite minimum, the most restrictive condition necessary to generate granitic melt. Although closed-system partial melting of granite clearly occurred beyond 50 cm from the dolerite chilled margin, compositional moment balances on the feldspar ternary between the orthoclase-enriched melt sheet and granite dike whole-rock compositions are reconciled by melts segregated from increasingly orthoclase-depleted partially melted granite at 12.3 cm and closer to the dolerite chilled margin. Melting models and mass balance calculations predict a range of between 48 to 83% maximum volumes of segregated granitic melt, but these are only estimates as the samples are not exclusively residuum. If granitic melt segregation occurs by viscous compaction of the restitic crystal matrix, then, employing commonly used properties, the compaction length scale is ~3 m. This is an upper bound as the compaction model assumes constant melt fraction, but the result is nevertheless only an order of magnitude larger than the distance over which the partially melted granite has a composition that differs from unmelted granite. Contraction attending cessation of doleritic magma flow and dolerite solidification likely generated deviatoric stresses

  16. Phylogenetic diversity of bacteria associated with Paleolithic paintings and surrounding rock walls in two Spanish caves (Llonín and La Garma).

    PubMed

    Schabereiter-Gurtner, Claudia; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Piñar, Guadalupe; Lubitz, Werner; Rölleke, Sabine

    2004-02-01

    Bacterial diversity in caves is still rarely investigated using culture-independent techniques. In the present study, bacterial communities on Paleolithic paintings and surrounding rock walls in two Spanish caves (Llonín and La Garma) were analyzed, using 16S rDNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis community fingerprinting and phylogenetic analyses without prior cultivation. Results revealed complex bacterial communities consisting of a high number of novel 16S rDNA sequence types and indicated a high biodiversity of lithotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria. Identified bacteria were related to already cultured bacteria (39 clones) and to environmental 16S rDNA clones (46 clones). The nearest phylogenetic relatives were members of the Proteobacteria (41.1%), of the Acidobacterium division (16.5%), Actinobacteria (20%), Firmicutes (10.6%), of the Cytophaga/Flexibacter/Bacteroides division (5.9%), Nitrospira group (3.5%), green non-sulfur bacteria (1.2%), and candidate WS3 division (1.2%). Thirteen of these clones were most closely related to those obtained from the previous studies on Tito Bustillo Cave. The comparison of the present data with the data obtained previously from Altamira and Tito Bustillo Caves revealed similarities in the bacterial community components, especially in the high abundance of the Acidobacteria and Rhizobiaceae, and in the presence of bacteria related to ammonia and sulfur oxidizers. PMID:19712338

  17. Uinta Arch Project: investigations of uranium potential in Precambrian X and older metasedimentary rocks in the Unita and Wasatch ranges, Utah and Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Graff, P.J.; Sears, J.W.; Holden, G.S.

    1980-06-01

    This study is part of the United States Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program to understand the geologic setting, amount, and availability of uranium resources within the boundaries of the United States. The systematic study of Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerates and areas that may contain such conglomerates is an integral part of DOE's resource evaluation program, because deposits of world-wide importance occur in such terrains in Canada and South Africa, and because terrains similar to those producing uranium from quartz-pebble conglomerates exist elsewhere in the United States. Because of the ready availability of Tertiary sandstone and Colorado Plateau-type uranium deposits, large areas of Precambrian rocks in the US have not been fully assessed for uranium potential. Thus, the Uinta Arch Project was undertaken to assess the favorability of Precambrian metasedimentary rocks in northern Utah for deposits of uranium in Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerates. Rocks of interest to this study are the thick, clastic sequences within the Uinta Arch that are considered to be of Early Proterozoic age. The Uinta Arch area is known to contain rocks which generally fit the lithologic characteristics that are understood to limit the occurrence of Precambrian fossil placers. However, detailed geology of these rocks and their exact fit to the model described for uraniferous conglomerates was not known. The primary goal of the Uinta Arch Project was to determine how well these Precambrian rocks resemble known deposits and to describe the favorability of placer uranium deposits.

  18. Thermal characteristics of permafrost in the steep alpine rock walls of the Aiguille du Midi (Mont Blanc Massif, 3842 m a.s.l.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnin, F.; Deline, P.; Ravanel, L.; Noetzli, J.; Pogliotti, P.

    2014-06-01

    Permafrost and related thermo-hydro-mechanical processes are regarded as crucial factors in rock wall stability in high alpine areas, but a lack of field measurements means that the characteristics of such locations and the processes to which they are subjected are poorly understood. To help remedy this situation, in 2005 work began to install a monitoring system at the Aiguille du Midi (3842 m a.s.l.). This paper presents temperature records from nine surface sensors (eight years of records) and three 10 m-deep boreholes (four years of records), installed at locations with different surface and bedrock characteristics. Annual and seasonal offsets between mean surface temperatures and air temperatures suggest that snow cover and slope aspect are also important factors governing bedrock surface temperatures in steep terrain. Snow-free sensors revealed additional effects of microtopography and micrometeorology. Active layer thicknesses ranged from < 2 m to nearly 6 m, depending on sun-exposure and interannual variations in atmospheric conditions. Warm and cold permafrost (about -1.5 °C to -4.5 °C at 10 m-depth) coexists within the Aiguille du Midi, resulting in high lateral heat fluxes. A temperature inflection associated with a fracture provided evidence of non-conductive processes, most notably cooling due to air ventilation and some intermittent and local warming. Our field data, the first to be obtained from an Alpine permafrost site where temperatures are below -4 °C, confirm the results of previous studies of permafrost in steep bedrock slopes and highlight the importance of factors such as snow cover and fracturing.

  19. A test of the viability of fluid-wall rock interaction mechanisms for changes in opaque phase assemblage in metasedimentary rocks in the Kambalda-St. Ives goldfield, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Katy A.

    2010-02-01

    Transitions from pyrrhotite-magnetite- to pyrite-magnetite- and pyrite-hematite-bearing assemblages in metasedimentary rocks in the Kambalda-St. Ives goldfield have been shown to be spatially associated with economic gold grades. Fluid mixing, fluid-rock interaction and phase separation have been proposed previously as causes for this association. Textural, mineralogical and isotopic evidence is reviewed, and thermodynamic calculations are used to investigate the mineralogical consequences of progressive fluid-rock interaction in interflow metasediments. Fluid-rock interactions in response to fluid infiltration and/or bulk composition variation are plausible mechanisms for production of the observed features.

  20. Bulk densities and porosities of Cenozoic and Cretaceous basin-filling strata and Cretaceous and older basement rocks, Los Angeles Basin, California, determined from measurements of core samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, L.A.; McCulloh, T.H.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes and provides a digital data file of selected bulk properties of subsurface rocks sampled in and around Los Angeles basin, California. Selected properties include measured dry bulk density (range 0.78 to 3.01 g/cm3), measured or estimated grain (matrix) density, calculated water saturated bulk density (range 1.47 to 3.01 g/cm3), calculated total porosity (range 0 to 69 porosity percent), geologic age, and lithology. Most of the rocks are conventional core samples taken from wells drilled by the petroleum industry. A small percentage of the core samples are from shallow borings. Rocks studied range in age from pre-Cambrian (?) to Recent and include sedimentary (98.8%), and volcanic, metamorphic and intrusive (1.2%) samples. Core samples studied were taken from measured drillhole depths that range from 35 to 20,234 ft (11 to 6,167 m). Version 1.0 of the data base (dated June 1998) contains information for 7378 samples from 234 wells, including two redrilled wells. This report/data base can be accessed on U. S. Geological Survey servers at http://geopubs.wr.usgs.gov/open-file/of98-788. Periodic additions to the on-line data base will be provided as new data is gathered.

  1. View of Highway 140 west of Arch Rock. Note stone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Highway 140 west of Arch Rock. Note stone wall at right and formed concrete wall at center. Looking north-northwest - All Year Highway, Between Arch Rock & Yosemite Valley, El Portal, Mariposa County, CA

  2. Tithonium Chasma's Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-565, 5 December 2003

    Exposures of light-toned, layered, sedimentary rocks are common in the deep troughs of the Valles Marineris system. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example from western Tithonium Chasma. The banding seen here is an eroded expression of layered rock. Sedimentary rocks can be composed of (1) the detritus of older, eroded and weathered rocks, (2) grains produced by explosive volcanism (tephra, also known as volcanic ash), or (3) minerals that were chemically precipitated out of a body of liquid such as water. These outcrops are located near 4.8oS, 89.7oW. The image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated from the lower left.

  3. Talking Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Dale; Corley, Brenda

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the ways that rocks can be used to enhance children's creativity and their interest in science. Suggests the creation of a dramatic production involving rocks. Includes basic information on sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks. (TW)

  4. The mineral chemistry of hydrothermally altered and metamorphosed wall-rocks at the Stollberg Fe-Pb-Zn-Mn(-Ag) deposit, Bergslagen, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripa, M.

    1994-06-01

    The c. 1.9 Ga old Stollberg sulphide and Mnrich skarn iron ores and sulphide ores in Bergslagen, south-central Sweden are hosted by hydrothermally altered and metamorphosed felsic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks. The ores are underlain by comformable alteration zones characterized by albite-gedrite-quartz and biotite-muscovite-plagioclase-K-feldspar-quartz +/- garnet assemblages. The present mineralogies are interpreted as medium-grade metamorphic equivalents to the original alteration mineral assemblages. PT-conditions during prograde regional metamorphism are semiquantatively determined to be 510 to 560 °C at approximately 3 kbar. With increasing modal content of gedrite and biotite in the alteration zones, the Mg/Fe ratios and XMg's in octahedral positions of these minerals also increase. In the gedrite-bearing strata, whole-rock Mg/Fe ratios remain constant, whereas in the biotite-rich unit the wholerock Mg/Fe trend is parallel to that of the biotites. The trends in the metamorphic mineral composition are interpreted to be a product of original changes in fluid composition during the evolution of a sub-seafloor hydrothermal system. During the initial stage of alteration, Fe-Mn-rich fluids altered the rocks, and during a later stage, the fluids became more Mg-rich, possibly due to entrainment of fresh seawater, and the alteration zones became relatively more Mg-rich. Sulphide precipitation was contemperaneous with Mg metasomatism, suggesting base metal precipitation was a function of the mixing of cool seawater with hydrothermal fluid. It is proposed that early hydrothermal alteration was associated with the deposition of areally extensive Fe-oxide formation, and that Mg metasomatism defines a second stage of hydrothermal activity during which sulphide mineralization overprinted the earlier formed Fe-oxide deposit.

  5. Rock Slope Stability Evaluation in a Steep-Walled Canyon: Application to Elevator Construction in the Yunlong River Valley, Enshi, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Lili; Chai, Bo; Yin, Kunlong

    2015-09-01

    A passenger elevator is to be built on a nearly vertical slope in the National Geological Park in Enshi, Hubei province, China. Three steps comprise the construction: excavating the slope toe for the elevator platform, building the elevator on the platform, and affixing the elevator to the slope using anchors. To evaluate the rock slope stability in the elevator area and the safety of the elevator construction, we applied three techniques: qualitative analysis, formula calculation, and numerical simulation methods, based on field investigation and parameter selection, and considering both wet and dry conditions, pre- and post-construction. Qualitative stability factors for sliding and falling were calculated using the limit equilibrium method; the results show that the slope as a whole is stable, with a few unstable blocks, notably block BT1. Formula-based stability factors were calculated for four sections on block BT1, revealing the following: anchors will decrease the stability of certain rock pieces; the lowest average stability factor after anchoring will be K f = 1.36 in wet conditions; block BT1 should be reinforced during elevator construction, up to a first-class slope stability factor of K f = 1.40; and the slope as a whole is stable. Numerical simulation using FLAC3D indicated that the stress distribution will reach equilibrium for all steps before and after construction, and that the factor of safety (FOS) is within the general slope safety range (FOS > 1.05). We suggest that unstable pieces in block BT1 be reinforced during construction to a first-class slope safety range (FOS > 1.3), and that deformation monitoring on the slope surface be implemented.

  6. Older Drivers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Affects Driving Tips for Safe Driving Making Your Vehicle Safe Regulations Affecting Older Drivers When Driving Skills ... Like drivers of any age, they use their vehicles to go shopping, do errands, and visit the ...

  7. 8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT THAT SHOWS THE TRENCHING AND 1960 PIPELINE CORRIDOR BETWEEN THE WALL SEGMENTS, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

  8. Opportunity at the Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity took images during the rover's 285th martian day (Nov. 11, 2004) that are combined into this panorama. Opportunity had reached the base of 'Burns Cliff,' a portion of the inner wall of 'Endurance Crater.' This view shows rock layers in the wall, with a portion of Opportunity's solar array visible at the bottom right.

  9. Electromagnetic emissions during rock blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keefe, S. G.; Thiel, D. V.

    1991-05-01

    Radio emissions during quarry blasting have been recorded in the audio frequency band. Three distinct mechanisms are suggested to explain the observed results; rock fracture at the time of the explosion, charged rocks discharging on impact with the pit floor and micro-fracture of the remaining rock wall due to pressure adjustment of the bench behind the blast. The last mechanism was evident by a train of discrete impulses recorded for up to one minute after the blast. It is assumed that during this time the rock behind the blast was subjected to a significant change in pressure. This may be related to ELF observations during earthquakes.

  10. Three classes of Martian rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this portion of the 360-degree color gallery pan, looking to the northeast, the colors have been exaggerated to highlight the differences between rocks and soils. Visible are the downwind sides of rocks, not exposed to wind scouring like Barnacle Bill (which faces upwind). There is a close correspondence between the shapes and colors of the rocks. Three general classes of rocks are recognized: large rounded rocks with weathered coatings, small gray angular rocks lacking weathered coatings, and flat white rocks. The large rounded rocks in the distance, marked by the red arrows, are comparable to Yogi. Spectral properties show that these rocks have a highly weathered coating in addition to a distinctive shape. A second population of smaller, angular rocks (blue arrows) in the foreground have unweathered surfaces even on the downwind side, except where covered on their tops by drift. These are comparable to Barnacle Bill. They may have been emplaced at the site relatively recently, perhaps as ejecta from an impact crater, so they have not had time to weather as extensively as the larger older rocks. The third kind of rock (white arrows) is white and flat, and includes Scooby Doo in the foreground and a large deposit in the background called Baker's Bank. The age of the white rock relative to the other two classes is still being debated. One representative rock of each class (Yogi, Barnacle Bill, and Scooby Doo) has been measured by the rover.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  11. Rock Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  12. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  13. Collecting Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Rachel M.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in rock collecting with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. Following a section examining the nature and formation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, the booklet gives suggestions for starting a rock collection and using…

  14. Deformation in the hanging wall of Cretaceous HP rocks (Austroalpine Ötztal-Stubai Complex, European Eastern Alps): constraints on timing, conditions and kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habler, Gerlinde; Thöni, Martin; Grasemann, Bernhard; Sölva, Helmuth; Cotza, Gianluca

    2010-05-01

    The position and nature of the tectonic boundary between the Cretaceous eclogite facies metamorphic Texel Complex (Sölva et al. 2005, TC) and the Ötztal-Stubai Complex sensu stricto (OSC) with predominantly pre-Cretaceous tectonometamorphic imprint remained a matter of discussion (Fügenschuh et al. 2009). Sölva et al (2005) described the Cretaceous Schneeberg Normal Fault Zone (SNFZ) as the major tectonic boundary between the exhuming TC and the OSC, where the major portion of ductile deformation was partitioned into the rheologically weak Schneeberg/Monteneve Unit (SMU). In contrast, other authors proposed a model of a coherent vertical crustal section in the southern OSC (Schmid and Haas 1989), which was rotated and exhumed by erosion due to Oligocene large scale refolding (Fügenschuh et al. 2009). Here, new Rb-Sr data of muscovite and biotite from para- and orthogneisses from the Ferwalltal and Timmelsjoch areas (Austria/Italy) were correlated with mineral chemical and structural data in order to constrain the age and kinematics of the predominant deformational imprint in the OSC representing the hanging wall of the SNFZ. In the Ferwalltal the undisturbed OSC/SMU boundary is exposed. Above that boundary an amphibolite facies mylonitic foliation (Sc1) represented by the compositional layering of coarse grained Qtz, Bt and dynamically recrystallized Pl interferes with an overprinting mylonitic foliation (Sc2) with spatially heterogeneous intensity. Sc1-planes were syn-tectonically overgrown by euhedral Grt with single phase continuous prograde chemical zoning and Bt-porphyroblasts. Dc2 postdated garnet growth and caused the formation of SCC' fabrics in Bt-Pl gneisses. Still Qtz recrystallized dynamically, whereas Ms and Bt newly crystallized during Dc2. In the study area, the lithological boundaries in the OSC mainly are subparallel to the predominant foliation Sc1. These planes dip with 45-50° to the NW-NNW and show a WNW-plunging stretching lineation (LSc1

  15. Geohydrology and simulation of steady-state flow conditions in regional aquifer systems in Cretaceous and older rocks underlying Kansas, Nebraska, and parts of Arkansas, Colorado, Missouri, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signor, D.C.; Helgesen, J.O.; Jorgensen, D.G.; Leonard, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    Three regional aquifers systems are the basis for describing the geohydrology of bedrock aquifers in the central United States. The Great Plains aquifer system, composed of Lower Cretaceous sandstone, generally contains brackish water (1,000 to 10,000 milligrams per liter dissolved solids); the Western Interior Plains aquifer system of lower Paleozoic rocks contains saline water and is laterally adjacent to the freshwater-bearing Ozark Plateaus aquifer system composed of rocks of the same age.

  16. 'Earhart' Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock informally named 'Earhart' on the lower slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' The rock was named after the pilot Amelia Earhart. Like 'Escher' and other rocks dotting the bottom of Endurance, scientists believe fractures in Earhart could have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Rover team members do not have plans to investigate Earhart in detail because it is located across potentially hazardous sandy terrain. This image was taken on sol 219 (Sept. 4) by the rover's panoramic camera, using its 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters.

  17. Science Rocks!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestwich, Dorothy; Sumrall, Joseph; Chessin, Debby A.

    2010-01-01

    It all began one Monday morning. Raymond could not wait to come to large group. In his hand, he held a chunk of white granite he had found. "Look at my beautiful rock!" he cried. The rock was passed around and examined by each student. "I wonder how rocks are made?" wondered one student. "Where do they come from?" asked another. At this moment, a…

  18. Rock flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matveyev, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    Rock flows are defined as forms of spontaneous mass movements, commonly found in mountainous countries, which have been studied very little. The article considers formations known as rock rivers, rock flows, boulder flows, boulder stria, gravel flows, rock seas, and rubble seas. It describes their genesis as seen from their morphological characteristics and presents a classification of these forms. This classification is based on the difference in the genesis of the rubbly matter and characterizes these forms of mass movement according to their source, drainage, and deposit areas.

  19. Innovative Composite Wall System for Sheathing Masonry Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Robert L.; Cavallo, James

    1997-09-25

    Existing Housing - Much of the older multifamily housing stock in the United States includes units in structures with uninsulated masonry walls. Included in this stock are two- and three-story walk-up apartments, larger apartment complexes, and public housing (both high- rise and townhouse). This older multifamily housing has seen years of heavy use that may have left the plaster wall marred or damaged. Long- term building settlement or movement may have cracked the plaster, sometimes severely. Moisture from invented kitchens and baths may have caused condensation on uninsulated exterior walls. At best this condensation has left stains on the paint or wallpaper. At worst it has supported mold and mildew growth, fouling the air and creating unhealthy living conditions. Deteriorating plaster and flaking paint also result from wet walls. The presence of flaking, lead-based paint in older (pre-1978) housing is a major public health concern. Children can suffer permanent mental handicaps and psychological disorders if they are subjected to elevated levels of lead, while adults can suffer hypertension and other maladies. Studies have found that, in some urban communities with older housing stocks, over 35% of children tested have elevated blood lead levels (Hastings, et al.: 1997). Nationally, nearly 22% of black, non-hispanic children living in pre-1946 housing were found to have elevated levels of lead in their blood (MWWR Article: February 21,1997). The deterioration of many of these walls is to the point that lead can freely enter the living space.

  20. 'Tetl' Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image, taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during the rover's trek through the 'Columbia Hills' at 'Gusev Crater,' shows the horizontally layered rock dubbed 'Tetl.' Scientists hope to investigate this rock in more detail, aiming to determine whether the rock's layering is volcanic or sedimentary in origin. If for some reason this particular rock is not favorably positioned for grinding and examination by the toolbox of instruments on the rover's robotic arm, Spirit will be within short reach of another similar rock, dubbed 'Coba.' Spirit took this image on its 264th martian day, or sol (Sept. 29, 2004). This is a false-color composite image generated from the panoramic camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters.

  1. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  2. Terby's Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    27 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock outcrops in northern Terby Crater. Terby is located along the north edge of Hellas Planitia. The sedimentary rocks might have been deposited in a greater, Hellas-filling sea -- or not. Today, the rocks are partly covered by dark-toned sediment and debris.

    Location near: 27.2oS, 285.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  3. Rock Garden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This false color composite image of the Rock Garden shows the rocks 'Shark' and 'Half Dome' at upper left and middle, respectively. Between these two large rocks is a smaller rock (about 0.20 m wide, 0.10 m high, and 6.33 m from the Lander) that was observed close-up with the Sojourner rover (see PIA00989).

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  4. 11. VIEW, LOOKING WESTNORTHWEST, SHOWING STRUCTURAL BREACH IN WALL CAUSED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST, SHOWING STRUCTURAL BREACH IN WALL CAUSED BY MARSHY CONDITIONS. SORTED AND ASSEMBLED NATIVE BASALT COBBLES USED FOR BUILDING MATERIAL APPEAR IN BACKGROUND - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

  5. Older People and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many older people believe that HIV only affects younger people Most older people get little training in ... diseases among older people, as they do for younger people. Physicians may not diagnose HIV infection in ...

  6. Pyroclastic Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahood, Gail A.

    Most of the advances in volcanology during the past 20 years have concerned the recognition, interpretation, and mode of emplacement of pyroclastic rocks. The literature on pyroclastic rocks is widely scattered, in part because the field draws from sedimentology, igneous petrology, physics, and fluid mechanics, and there have been few review papers on the topic. Fisher and Schmincke have done the discipline of volcanology and all field-oriented geologists a great service in assembling material from a wide range of sources in this comprehensive treatment of pyroclastic rocks. With its introduction to the petrology of magmas involved in explosive eruptions in chapter 2 and a complete treatment of magma rheology and the behavior of dissolved and exsolving magmatic volatiles in chapter 3, they lay sufficient groundwork that anyone with a rudimentary knowledge of geology can understand the book.

  7. Classic Rock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beem, Edgar Allen

    2004-01-01

    While "early college" programs designed for high-school-age students are beginning to proliferate nationwide, a small New England school has been successfully educating teens for nearly four decades. In this article, the author features Simon's Rock, a small liberal arts college located in the Great Barrington, Massachusetts, that has been…

  8. 12. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photograph of a photograph in possession of Rock Island Arsenal Historical Office. WEST WING. AN OVERHEAD POWER SHAFT IS SHOWN ALONG EACH WALL, BELT-CONNECTED TO A ROW OF BILLINGS & SPENCER DROP HAMMERS USED IN FORGING PARTS FOR 1903 MODEL SPRINGFIELD RIFLE. ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED 1905. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 64, Rodman Avenue between Second & Third Streets, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  9. Poohbear Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image, taken by Sojourner's front right camera, was taken when the rover was next to Poohbear (rock at left) and Piglet (not seen) as it looked out toward Mermaid Dune. The textures differ from the foreground soil containing a sorted mix of small rocks, fines and clods, from the area a bit ahead of the rover where the surface is covered with a bright drift material. Soil experiments where the rover wheels dug in the soil revealed that the cloudy material exists underneath the drift.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  10. Meridiani Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the complex surfaces of some of the light- and intermediate-toned sedimentary rock exposed by erosion in eastern Sinus Meridiani. Similar rocks occur at the Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity, site, but they are largely covered by windblown sand and granules. The dark feature with a rayed pattern is the product of a meteor impact.

    Location near: 0.8oN, 355.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  11. Terby's Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    25 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock outcrops in the crater, Terby. The crater is located on the north rim of Hellas Basin. If one could visit the rocks in Terby, one might learn from them whether they formed in a body of water. It is possible, for example, that Terby was a bay in a larger, Hellas-wide sea.

    Location near: 27.9oS, 285.7oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  12. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  13. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    14 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of the famous 'White Rock' feature in Pollack Crater in the Sinus Sabaeus region of Mars. The light-toned rock is not really white, but its light tone caught the eye of Mars geologists as far back as 1972, when it was first spotted in images acquired by Mariner 9. The light-toned materials are probably the remains of a suite of layered sediments that once spread completely across the interior of Pollack Crater. Dark materials in this image include sand dunes and large ripples.

    Location near: 8.1oS, 335.1oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  14. Wonderful Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Jim

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author emphasizes the importance of "working" walls in children's programs. Children's programs need "working" walls (and ceilings and floors) which can be put to use for communication, display, storage, and activity space. The furnishings also work, or don't work, for the program in another sense: in aggregate, they serve as…

  15. 2012 Problem 10: Rocking Bottle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yaohua; Gao, Wenli; Wang, Sihui; Zhou, Huijun

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the motion of a bottle partly filled with water is investigated. Two stages of motion showing different kinetic properties, named as "moving stage" and "rocking stage", can be clearly identified in the experiment. In the moving stage, the bottle moves forward with a short period vibration, while in the rocking stage, the bottle oscillates with a significantly longer period around a certain spot. Theoretical and numerical methods are employed to explain these phenomena. By simplifying the system into a rigid body model, it is found that in the moving stage, classical mechanical method gives results that fit our experiment well. And the rocking stage is thought to be the result of the asymmetric torque generated by the gravity of a liquid layer adhered to the inside wall of the bottle.

  16. Depression in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Fred; Onedera, Jill D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to address selected aspects of depression in older adults. Specifically, symptoms, risk factors, diagnosis, and interventions for depression in older adults are reviewed.

  17. Violence against older women.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Domestic abuse is widespread and indiscriminate. Older women living with domestic abuse experience a number of health-related concerns and significant mental health issues. Research suggests that the needs of older women experiencing domestic abuse are not being met by existing services. This article examines the issues that older women face as a result of abusive relationships and the barriers to seeking help. Research suggests that a stepped approach, tailored to suit older women's needs, could be beneficial. PMID:27384810

  18. Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    6 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows outcrops of sedimentary rocks in a crater located just north of the Sinus Meridiani region. Perhaps the crater was once the site of a martian lake.

    Location near: 2.9oN, 359.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  19. Thermal Inertia of Rocks and Rock Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Jakosky, B. M.; Mellon, M. T.

    2001-01-01

    The effective thermal inertia of rock populations on Mars and Earth is derived from a model of effective inertia versus rock diameter. Results allow a parameterization of the effective rock inertia versus rock abundance and bulk and fine component inertia. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Rock Driller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    The next series of planetary exploration missions require a method of extracting rock and soil core samples. Therefore a prototype ultrasonic core driller (UTCD) was developed to meet the constraints of Small Bodies Exploration and Mars Sample Return Missions. The constraints in the design are size, weight, power, and axial loading. The ultrasonic transducer requires a relatively low axial load, which is one of the reasons this technology was chosen. The ultrasonic generator breadboard section can be contained within the 5x5x3 limits and weighs less than two pounds. Based on results attained the objectives for the first phase were achieved. A number of transducer probes were made and tested. One version only drills, and the other will actually provide a small core from a rock. Because of a more efficient transducer/probe, it will run at very low power (less than 5 Watts) and still drill/core. The prototype generator was built to allow for variation of all the performance-effecting elements of the transducer/probe/end effector, i.e., pulse, duty cycle, frequency, etc. The heart of the circuitry is what will be converted to a surface mounted board for the next phase, after all the parameters have been optimized and the microprocessor feedback can be installed.

  1. Uranium-bearing coal and carbonaceous rocks in the Fall Creek area, Bonneville County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vine, James D.; Moore, George Winfred

    1952-01-01

    Uraniferous coal, carbonaceous shale, and carbonaceous limestone occur in the Bear River formation of Early Cretaceous age at the Fall Creek prospect, in the Fall Creek area, Bonneville County, Idaho. The uranium compounds are believed to have been derived from mildly radioactive silicic volcanic rocks of Tertiary age that rest unconformably on all older rocks and once overlay the Bear River formation and its coal. Meteoric water, percolating downward through the silicic volcanic rocks and into the older rocks along joints and faults, is believed to have brought the uranium compounds into contact with the coal and carbonaceous rocks in which the uranium was absorbed.

  2. Wall Turbulence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanratty, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)

  3. 53. VIEW OF ROCK FOUNDATIONS AIR CLEANED FOR MONOLITHS 1722, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. VIEW OF ROCK FOUNDATIONS AIR CLEANED FOR MONOLITHS 17-22, INTERMEDIATE WALL, LOOKING NORTH Photograph No. 12840. September 10, 1948 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 27, Granite City, Madison County, IL

  4. Investigation of blast-induced fracture in rock mass using reversed vertical seismic profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, D. H.; Wu, Y. K.

    2001-10-01

    The rock mass on quarry and pit wall surfaces is usually fractured during production blasting. Quantitative investigations of the fractured zones are needed for stabilization of the rock walls. In this study, the principle of reversed vertical seismic profiling (RVSP) was applied. A set of seismic geophones were arranged on the horizontal bench surface and seismic signals were generated along the vertical rock wall using a free-swinging hammer. The travel times of seismic rays were recorded and the P-wave velocities of the rock mass were analyzed using the Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT). A series of site tests have been carried out on the rock walls at a granite quarry that are characterized by fractures. The fracture depth at various locations on the wall surface is thereby determined. The results indicate that RVSP provides an easy and reliable method to quantitatively evaluate the blasting-induced fractures in the rock mass.

  5. A Rock Encyclopedia That Includes Rock Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laznicka, Peter

    1981-01-01

    Described is a rock encyclopedia combining rock sample sets and encyclopedic word and picture entries which can be used as a realistic information resource for independent study or as a part of a course. (JT)

  6. 'Stucco' Walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This projected mosaic image, taken by the microscopic imager, an instrument located on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows the partial clotting or cement-like properties of the sand-sized grains within the trench wall. The area in this image measures approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) wide and 5 centimeters (2 inches) tall.(This image also appears as an inset on a separate image from the rover's navigation camera, showing the location of this particular spot within the trench wall.)

  7. Wall Covering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The attractive wall covering shown below is one of 132 styles in the Mirror Magic II line offered by The General Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio. The material is metallized plastic fabric, a spinoff from space programs. Wall coverings are one of many consumer applications of aluminized plastic film technology developed for NASA by a firm later bought by King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Massachusetts, which now produces the material. The original NASA use was in the Echo 1 passive communications satellite, a "space baloon" made of aluminized mylar; the high reflectivity of the metallized coating enabled relay of communications signals from one Earth station to another by "bouncing" them off the satellite. The reflectivity feature also made the material an extremely efficient insulator and it was subsequently widely used in the Apollo program for such purposes as temperature control of spacecraft components and insulation of tanks for fuels that must be maintained at very low temperatures. I Used as a wall covering, the aluminized material offers extra insulation, reflects light and I resists cracking. In addition to General Tire, King-Seeley also supplies wall covering material to Columbus Coated Fabrics Division of Borden, Incorporated, Columbus, Ohio, among others.

  8. Wall Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinley, Connie Q.

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article, an art teacher at Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado, describes how her experience teaching in a new school presented an exciting visual challenge for an art teacher--monotonous brick walls just waiting for decoration. This school experienced only minimal instances of graffiti, but as an art teacher, she did…

  9. From Cave Walls to Clay Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Julie

    2004-01-01

    About 15,000 BC, the bison and other animals roamed the land and cave people, in their spare time, found colorful, chalky rocks with which to play. Over the course of time, they found that the chalky rocks would rub off on the cave walls, thus cave paintings and the pursuit of art was born. This article describes one fourth-grade classroom's…

  10. Sport for Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    The following papers were prepared for a seminar on sport for older people: (1) "Gerontological Aspects of Physical Exercise" (Eino Heikkinen); (2) "Sporting Activities in the Individual Life from the View of Older Persons" (Henning Allmer); (3) "Reasons Why Decision-Makers Should Urge Old People to Practise Physical and Sporting Activities"…

  11. Building a barrier wall through boulders

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, D.R.; Mann, M.J. ); Tulett, R.C. )

    1994-10-01

    When the Occidental Chemical Co., Niagara Falls, N.Y., set out to remediate and contain wastes and ground water at its upstate New York site, they found that part of the proposed cutoff wall would be located in land reclaimed from the Niagara River. The fill was rock blasted out for a tunnel years ago, and the presence of boulders rule out conventional barrier-wall construction techniques. Occidental's first approach to containment had been a conventional soil-bentonite wall. Because of the area's geography and the location of the wastes, a portion of the wall had to be aligned along the riverbank. The company wanted to separate the plant area from the river, and decided to extend the barrier to the concrete headwall for intakes at the nearby Robert Moses Niagara Power Plant. This meant about 2,000 ft of the barrier wall would run through shot-rock fill placed during construction of the powerplant in the 1960s. Conduits for that plant were constructed by blasting rock to form open-cut tunnels several miles long. Some of the resulting shot rock was placed along the riverbank, extending the shoreline about 200 ft into the river near the now-contaminated site. The Rober Moses Parkway, a four-land highway, was constructed on the reclaimed land about 100 ft from the new shoreline.

  12. Rollerjaw Rock Crusher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Gregory; Brown, Kyle; Fuerstenau, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The rollerjaw rock crusher melds the concepts of jaw crushing and roll crushing long employed in the mining and rock-crushing industries. Rollerjaw rock crushers have been proposed for inclusion in geological exploration missions on Mars, where they would be used to pulverize rock samples into powders in the tens of micrometer particle size range required for analysis by scientific instruments.

  13. Numerical study of rock blasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanov, Yu. P.; Bakeev, R. A.; Yudin, A. S.; Kuznetsova, N. S.

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents numerical simulation results on fracture of a concrete block due to dynamic explosive loads applied to the walls of a blast hole. Considered in the study is the influence of the pulse shape and rock properties on the pattern of irreversible deformation and cracking. It is found that a fractured zone bounded by a plastically deformed contour always arises around the explosion site. Comparison of elastoplastic deformation and fracture induced in the concrete block by explosion pulses of different durations and amplitudes shows that shorter pulses with higher amplitudes and steeper rise times provide a higher blasting efficiency.

  14. MEASURING AND MODELING DISINFECTION WALL DEMAND IN METALLIC PIPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field test procedure was developed and implemented in Detroit to estimate chlorine loss due to wall demand in older 6" (152 mm) and 8" (203 mm) diameter, unlined cast iron pipes. The test results produced extremely high wall reaction rate coefficients that increased significan...

  15. Yoga and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Yoga and Older Adults Yoga is a mind and body practice that typically ... breathing exercises, and relaxation. Researchers are studying how yoga may help improve health and to learn more ...

  16. Older People and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... common than they were before the use of anti-HIV drugs. It is difficult to know what is causing mental problems in older people with HIV. Is it normal aging, or is it HIV disease? Research studies have ...

  17. Sexuality in Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... for your partner. It also benefits your physical health by reducing stress and making you feel good about yourself. As you age, your sexual health will change. But growing older doesn’t have ...

  18. Medication for older patients.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    A growing body of literature documents multiple morbidities and multiple medication use among older people with intellectual disabilities. In Ireland in 2012, 8.6% of all medication-related adverse events were reported from the disability sector. PMID:27581916

  19. Older Adults and Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Older Adults and Drinking Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Generally, ... liver problems, osteoporosis, memory problems, and mood disorders. Drinking and Medications Many medications, such as the ones ...

  20. The older adult driver.

    PubMed

    Carr, D B

    2000-01-01

    More adults aged 65 and older will be driving in the next few decades. Many older drivers are safe behind the wheel and do not need intensive testing for license renewal. Others, however, have physiologic or cognitive impairments that can affect their mobility and driving safety. When an older patient's driving competency is questioned, a comprehensive, step-by-step assessment is recommended. Many diseases that impair driving ability can be detected and treated effectively by family physicians. Physicians should take an active role in assessing and reducing the risk for injury in a motor vehicle and, when possible, prevent or delay driving cessation in their patients. Referral to other health care professionals, such as an occupational or physical therapist, may be helpful for evaluation and treatment. When an older patient is no longer permitted or able to drive, the physician should counsel the patient about using alternative methods of transportation. PMID:10643955

  1. Diabetes in older people.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Katie

    2015-10-01

    The management of diabetes in older people is often challenging and poorly researched. The prevalence of cognitive impairment, chronic kidney disease and other co-existing comorbidities increase with age and have a significant impact on glycaemic control targets and treatment options. This conference examined current clinical practice, highlighted differences in the management of diabetes in the older person and suggested potential areas of future research. PMID:26430187

  2. Cooling wall

    SciTech Connect

    Nosenko, V.I.

    1995-07-01

    Protecting the shells of blast furnaces is being resolved by installing cast iron cooling plates. The cooling plates become non-operational in three to five years. The problem is that defects occur in manufacturing the cooling plates. With increased volume and intensity of work placed on blast furnaces, heat on the cast iron cooling plates reduces their reliability that limits the interim repair period of blast furnaces. Scientists and engineers from the Ukraine studied this problem for several years, developing a new method of cooling the blast furnace shaft called the cooling wall. Traditional cast iron plates were replaced by a screen of steel tubes, with the area between the tubes filled with fireproof concrete. Before placing the newly developed furnace shaft into operation, considerable work was completed such as theoretical calculations, design, research of temperature fields and tension. Continual testing over many years confirms the value of this research in operating blast furnaces. The cooling wall works with water cooling as well as vapor cooling and is operating in 14 blast furnaces in the Ukraine and two in Russia, and has operated for as long as 14 years.

  3. Double-wall tubing for oil recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, L. H.; Carroll, W. F.; Jaffee, L. D.; Stimpson, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    Insulated double-wall tubing designed for steam injection oil recovery makes process more economical and allows deeper extension of wells. Higher quality wet steam is delivered through tubing to oil deposits with significant reductions in heat loss to surrounding rock allowing greater exploitation of previously unworkable reservoirs.

  4. Learning Opportunities for Older People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKeracher, Dorothy

    1980-01-01

    The author summarizes a conference on learning opportunities for older people by discussing six issues: (1) perspectives of older people and service providers; (2) categorization of older learners; (3) learning needs of older people; (4) participation rates; (5) government policies; and (6) curriculum concerns. (SK)

  5. Oral health for older people.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Compared with previous generations, more older people have retained some or all of their teeth, but more than 40% of community-dwelling older people aged 75 and over have unmet oral health needs. However, the importance of oral health can be undervalued by healthcare professionals and older people. Three studies relating to oral health for older people are summarised. PMID:27573957

  6. Rocks and Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on rocks and minerals, including the unique characteristics of each. Teaching activities on rock-hunting and identification, mineral configurations, mystery minerals, and growing crystals are provided. Reproducible worksheets are included for two of the activities. (TW)

  7. Theory of wing rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, C.-H.; Lan, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Wing rock is one type of lateral-directional instabilities at high angles of attack. To predict wing rock characteristics and to design airplanes to avoid wing rock, parameters affecting wing rock characteristics must be known. A new nonlinear aerodynamic model is developed to investigate the main aerodynamic nonlinearities causing wing rock. In the present theory, the Beecham-Titchener asymptotic method is used to derive expressions for the limit-cycle amplitude and frequency of wing rock from nonlinear flight dynamics equations. The resulting expressions are capable of explaining the existence of wing rock for all types of aircraft. Wing rock is developed by negative or weakly positive roll damping, and sustained by nonlinear aerodynamic roll damping. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is obtained.

  8. Rocks in Our Pockets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Donna; Kuhlman, Wilma

    2005-01-01

    To introduce students to rocks and their characteristics, teacher can begin rock units with the activities described in this article. Students need the ability to make simple observations using their senses and simple tools.

  9. The Rock Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)

  10. Active control of underground stresses through rock pressurization

    SciTech Connect

    Vandergrift, T.L.

    1995-06-01

    To significantly increase the stability of underground excavations while exploiting the full advantages of confined rock strength, methods must be developed to actively control the distribution of stresses near the excavation. This US Bureau of Mines study examines theoretical and practical aspects of rock pressurization, an active stress control concept that induces compressive stress in the wall rock through repeated hydraulic fracturing with a settable fluid. Numerical analyses performed by incorporating the rock pressurization concept into a variety of boundary-element models indicate that rock pressurization has the potential to improve underground excavation stability in three ways: (1) by relocating stress concentrations away from the weak opening surface to stronger, confined wall rock; (2) by inducing additional stresses in a biaxial stress field to reduce the difference between the principal stress components near the surface of the opening, and (3) by counteracting the tensile stresses induced in the rock around internally loaded openings. Practical aspects of the rock pressurization concept were investigated through a series of hydraulic fracturing experiments. The use of sulfur as a settable fluid for hydraulic fracturing was demonstrated, although problems related to sulfur viscosity suggest that other molten materials, such as wax, may be better suited to practical field application of the rock pressurization concept.

  11. Principles of rock deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolas, A.

    1987-01-01

    This text focuses on the recent achievements in the analysis of rock deformation. It gives an analytical presentation of the essential structures in terms of kinetic and dynamic interpretation. The physical properties underlying the interpretation of rock structures are exposed in simple terms. Emphasized in the book are: the role of fluids in rock fracturing; the kinematic analysis of magnetic flow structures; the application of crystalline plasticity to the kinematic and dynamic analysis of the large deformation imprinted in many metamorphic rocks.

  12. My Pet Rock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Adam; Kramp, Robyne; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Many teachers and students have experienced the classic pet rock experiment in conjunction with a geology unit. A teacher has students bring in a "pet" rock found outside of school, and the students run geologic tests on the rock. The tests include determining relative hardness using Mohs scale, checking for magnetization, and assessing luster.…

  13. 68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET 4; MAY, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. Deprescribing in older people.

    PubMed

    Page, Amy Theresa; Potter, Kathleen; Clifford, Rhonda; Etherton-Beer, Christopher

    2016-09-01

    Older people with chronic disease have great potential to benefit from their medications but are also at high risk of harm from their medications. The use of medications is particularly important for symptom control and disease progression in older people. Under-treatment means older people can miss out on the potential benefits of useful medications, while over-treatment (polypharmacy) puts them at increased risk of harm. Deprescribing attempts to balance the potential for benefit and harm by systematically withdrawing inappropriate medications with the goal of managing polypharmacy and improving outcomes. The evidence base for deprescribing in older people is growing. Studies to reduce polypharmacy have used a range of methods. Most evidence for deprescribing relates to the withdrawal of specific medications, and evidence supports attempts to deprescribe potentially inappropriate medicines (such as long-term benzodiazepines). There is also evidence that polypharmacy can be reduced by withdrawing specific medications using individualised interventions. More work is needed to identify the sub-groups of older people who may most benefit from deprescribing and the best approaches to undertaking the deprescribing interventions. PMID:27451330

  15. Rock-fall potential in the Yosemite Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Morrissey, M.M.; Iovine, Giulio; Godt, Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    We used two methods of estimating rock-fall potential in the Yosemite Valley, California based on (1) physical evidence of previous rock-fall travel, in which the potential extends to the base of the talus, and (2) theoretical potential energy considerations, in which the potential can extend beyond the base of the talus, herein referred to as the rock-fall shadow. Rock falls in the valley commonly range in size from individual boulders of less than 1 m3 to moderate-sized falls with volumes of about 100,000 m3. Larger rock falls exceeding 100,000 m3, referred to as rock avalanches, are considered to be much less likely to occur based on the relatively few prehistoric rock-fall avalanche deposits in the Yosemite Valley. Because the valley has steep walls and is relatively narrow, there are no areas that are absolutely safe from large rock avalanches. The map shows areas of rock-fall potential, but does not predict when or how frequently a rock fall will occur. Consequently, neither the hazard in terms of probability of a rock fall at any specific location, nor the risk to people or facilities to such events can be assessed from this map.

  16. Microcracks in lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, G.

    1979-01-01

    Lunar samples contain abundant open microcracks that have closure characteristics completely unlike any shocked terrestrial rock; however, the microcracks present in the lunar rocks before the rocks reached the surface of the moon were likely similar to the microcracks in the shocked terrestrial rocks. Because the microcracks present in the lunar rocks in situ inside the moon were different, radically different, from the microcracks present today in returned lunar samples, any property that is sensitive to microcracks measured on the returned lunar samples is inappropriate for predicting that property as a function of depth in the moon. Therefore, many data that have been measured already on lunar samples simply do not apply to rocks in situ inside the moon. A plausible mechanism with which to account for the difference in microcrack characteristics of lunar samples on the surface of the moon and the microcrack characteristics of lunar rock in situ inside the moon is thermal cycling during residence on the moon's surface.

  17. Kilbuck terrane: Oldest known rocks in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Box, S.E. ); Moll-Stalcup, E.J.; Wooden, J.L. ); Bradshaw, J.Y. )

    1990-12-01

    The Kilbuck terrane in southwestern Alaska is a narrow, thin crustal sliver or flake of amphibolite facies orthogneiss. The igneous protolith of this gneiss was a suite of subduction-related plutonic rocks. U-Pb data on zircons from trondhjemitic and granitic samples yield upper-intercept (igneous) ages of 2,070 {plus minus}16 and 2,040 {plus minus}74 Ma, respectively. Nd isotope data from these rocks suggest that a diorite-tonalite-trondhjemite suite ({epsilon}{sub Nd}(T) = +2.1 to +2.7; T is time of crystallization) evolved from partial melts of depleted mantle with no discernible contamination by older crust, whereas a coeval granitic pluton ({epsilon}{sub Nd}(T) = {minus}5.7) contains a significant component derived from Archean crust. Orthogneisses with similar age and Nd isotope characteristics are found in the Idono complex 250 km to the north. Early Proterozoic rocks are unknown elsewhere in Alaska. However, Phanerozoic plutons cutting several continental terranes in Alaska (southern Brooks Range and Ruby, Seward, and Yukon-Tanana terranes) have Nd isotope compositions indicative of Early Proterozoic (or older) crustal components that could be correlative with rocks of the Kilbuck terrane. Rocks with similar igneous ages in cratonal North America are rare, and those few that are known have Nd isotope compositions distinct from those of the Kilbuck terrane. Conversely, provinces with Nd model ages of 2.0-2.1 Ga are characterized by extensive 1.8 Ga or younger plutonism, which is unknown in the Kilbuck terrane. At present the case for a North American parentage of the Kilbuck terrane is not compelling. The possibility that the Kilbuck terrane was displaced from provinces of similar age in other cratons (e.g., Australian, Baltic, Guiana, and west African shields), or from the poorly dated Siberian craton, cannot be excluded.

  18. My Big Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espinosa, Paul S.

    2002-01-01

    It was June and I was in Yosemite National Park in California, 2,000-feet off the ground. I was climbing El Capitan, a majestic 3,000-foot high, mile-wide granite monolith--one of the most sought after and spectacular rock climbs in the world. After three days of climbing on its sheer face, and having completed the most difficult part of the route, my partner and I were heading down. A thunderstorm lasting all night and into the morning had soaked our tiny perch and all our worldly possessions. We began rappelling down the vertical wall by sliding to the ends of two 50meter ropes tied together and looped through a set of fixed rings bolted into the rock. At the end of the ropes was another rappel station consisting of a set of rings, placed by previous climbers for retreating parties, which we used to anchor ourselves to the rock face. We then pulled the ropes down from the rings above, threaded the ones in front of our noses and started down another rope length. Everything we brought up for our five-day climb to the summit we had to bring back down with us: ropes, climbing gear of every sort, sleeping bags, extra clothes, food, water, and other essentials. All this we either stuffed into a haul bag (an oversized reinforced duffel bag) or slung over our shoulders. The retreat was slow and methodical, akin to a train backing down a mountain, giving me ample time to think. My situation made me think about my work, mostly, about all the projects I have managed, or been involved in managing. As a NASA project manager, I have worked on a number of successful projects. I have also been involved in a number of projects I never saw the end of. I thought about all the projects I transferred off of for other opportunities, projects that were in full stride and ran out of funding, and ones put on the shelf because they would not meet a flight date. Oh yes, I have had many success, to be sure, or I would have burned out years ago. Lessons from both the successful and not

  19. Dance for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruett, Diane Milhan, Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Dance programs for older adults that encourage exercise and socializing are described in six articles. Program guidelines of the American Alliance Committee on Aging are explained, and other articles emphasize a movement education approach that may involve intergenerational contact. A dance program held in a worship setting is also discussed. (PP)

  20. Bereavement in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, James P.

    1994-01-01

    Factors that place older adults at risk for problems associated with the bereavement process are identified and discussed. Provides guidelines for distinguishing between normal bereavement depression and clinical depression, discusses the impact of different types of loss, describes three types of intervention, and explores countertransference.…

  1. Discharging older patients.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Significant numbers of older people with dementia use general hospital services, and ensuring the safe and appropriate discharge home of patients with poor cognition, impaired judgement, misperception or reduced risk awareness is complex and challenging for many healthcare professionals. PMID:27615354

  2. Older Workers: Research Readings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Tabatha, Ed.; Beddie, Francesca, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    One of the challenges facing Australia is the ageing of the population. Of major concern, especially to government, is that the dependency ratio--a measure of the burden that economically active persons carry by supporting dependent persons--will increase significantly unless older people keep working or immigration is used to change the…

  3. The Older Language Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleppegrell, Mary

    Research on adult learning shows that there is no decline in ability to learn as people get older, that except for minor considerations such as hearing and vision loss, the age of the adult learner is not a major factor in language acquisition, and that the context in which adults learn is the major influence on their ability to acquire a new…

  4. Updating Older Fume Hoods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, G. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Provides information on updating older fume hoods. Areas addressed include: (1) adjustment of the hood's back baffle; (2) hood air leakage; (3) light level; (4) hood location in relation to room traffic and room air; and (5) establishing and maintaining hood performance. (JN)

  5. Divorce and Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Frances

    Divorce can have traumatic financial and emotional effects on midlife and older women who have fulfilled cultural expectations by becoming homemakers or accepting low-level, dead-end employment because the husband had the "real" career. This "gray paper" therefore addresses the adverse legal consequences of the rise of no-fault marital dissolution…

  6. Older Women and Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferraro, Geraldine A.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the socioeconomic causes of the disproportionate level of poverty found among women aged 65 and over. Reasons why Social Security programs are essential for maintaining minimal standards of living for many older women are presented. Specific proposals for bringing about change are included. (AM)

  7. Business and Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This study updates a 1985 study which examined the perceptions, policies, and practices of American business regarding older workers, and placed them in the context of larger economic, demographic, and social trends shaping the business climate. The new survey was conducted in July 1989 among a random sample of 400 companies, with 100 each in 4…

  8. Depression in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Amy; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Gatz, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Depression is less prevalent among older adults than among younger adults but can have serious consequences. Over half of cases represent a first onset in later life. Although suicide rates in the elderly are declining, they are still higher than in younger adults and more closely associated with depression. Depressed older adults are less likely to endorse affective symptoms and more likely to display cognitive changes, somatic symptoms, and loss of interest than are younger adults. Risk factors leading to the development of late life depression likely comprise complex interactions among genetic vulnerabilities, cognitive diathesis, age-associated neurobiological changes, and stressful events. Insomnia is an often overlooked risk factor for late life depression. We suggest that a common pathway to depression in older adults, regardless of which predisposing risks are most prominent, may be curtailment of daily activities. Accompanying self-critical thinking may exacerbate and maintain a depressed state. Offsetting the increasing prevalence of certain risk factors in late life are age-related increases in psychological resilience. Other protective factors include higher education and socioeconomic status, engagement in valued activities, and religious or spiritual involvement. Treatments including behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive bibliotherapy, problem-solving therapy, brief psychodynamic therapy, and life review/reminiscence therapy are effective but too infrequently used with older adults. Preventive interventions including education for individuals with chronic illness, behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving skills training, group support, and life review have also received support. PMID:19327033

  9. A prospective study of rock climbing injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, J P; McNaughton, G W; Grant, P T

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the rate, causes, and nature of rock climbing injuries presenting to an accident and emergency (A&E) department. METHODS: Patients presenting with rock climbing injuries to an urban A&E department were studied prospectively for one year. RESULTS: 19 rock climbers presented during the year, at a rate of one per 2774 A&E attendances. Fourteen climbers were injured on outdoor cliffs and five on the local indoor climbing wall, where the safety mats were noted to be in poor condition. Eighteen climbers had been injured during falls, 17 hitting the ground. Twelve of these climbers sustained fractures, four of which were missed on initial attendance. The remaining climber sustained the characteristic A2 pulley finger injury, which was treated conservatively with a good result. CONCLUSIONS: The risks of rock climbing in Britain would be reduced if lead climbers arranged protection at earlier stages of climbs. Sports centres with climbing walls should regularly inspect and repair their safety equipment. It is important for staff in A&E departments to appreciate the large forces involved in any climbing fall, in order that significant injuries are not missed. Those treating injured climbers should also be aware of the specific injuries to which elite climbers are predisposed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8799601

  10. Search for underground openings for in situ test facilities in crystalline rock

    SciTech Connect

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Strisower, B.; Corrigan, D.J.; Graf, A.N.; O'Brien, M.T.; Pratt, H.; Board, M.; Hustrulid, W.

    1980-01-01

    With a few exceptions, crystalline rocks in this study were limited to plutonic rocks and medium to high-grade metamorphic rocks. Nearly 1700 underground mines, possibly occurring in crystalline rock, were initially identified. Application of criteria resulted in the identification of 60 potential sites. Within this number, 26 mines and 4 civil works were identified as having potential in that they fulfilled the criteria. Thirty other mines may have similar potential. Most of the mines identified are near the contact between a pluton and older sedimentary, volcanic and metamorphic rocks. However, some mines and the civil works are well within plutonic or metamorphic rock masses. Civil works, notably underground galleries associated with pumped storage hydroelectric facilities, are generally located in tectonically stable regions, in relatively homogeneous crystalline rock bodies. A program is recommended which would identify one or more sites where a concordance exists between geologic setting, company amenability, accessibility and facilities to conduct in situ tests in crystalline rock.

  11. Hearing Loss and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home » Health Info » Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Hearing Loss and Older Adults On this page: What is ... about hearing loss and older adults? What is hearing loss? Hearing loss is a sudden or gradual decrease ...

  12. The Rock Physics Handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavko, Gary; Mukerji, Tapan; Dvorkin, Jack

    2003-10-01

    The Rock Physics Handbook conveniently brings together the theoretical and empirical relations that form the foundations of rock physics, with particular emphasis on seismic properties. It also includes commonly used models and relations for electrical and dielectric rock properties. Seventy-six articles concisely summarize a wide range of topics, including wave propagation, AVO-AVOZ, effective media, poroelasticity, pore fluid flow and diffusion. The book contains overviews of dispersion mechanisms, fluid substitution, and Vp-Vs relations. Useful empirical results on reservoir rocks and sediments, granular media, tables of mineral data, and an atlas of reservoir rock properties complete the text. This distillation of an otherwise scattered and eclectic mass of knowledge is presented in a form that can be immediately applied to solve real problems. Geophysics professionals, researchers and students as well as petroleum engineers, well log analysts, and environmental geoscientists will value The Rock Physics Handbook as a unique resource.

  13. Friction of rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byerlee, J.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental results in the published literature show that at low normal stress the shear stress required to slide one rock over another varies widely between experiments. This is because at low stress rock friction is strongly dependent on surface roughness. At high normal stress that effect is diminished and the friction is nearly independent of rock type. If the sliding surfaces are separated by gouge composed of Montmorillonite or vermiculite the friction can be very low. ?? 1978 Birkha??user Verlag.

  14. How To Train Older Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    Because of the aging of the labor force and legislation designed to keep older workers on the job, employers will have to deal with increasing numbers of older workers. For this transition to be as smooth as possible, employers must first overcome age-related stereotypes that have taken hold since the 1930s. Dealing with older workers involves two…

  15. Literacy Proficiency of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Kamp, Max; Boudard, Emmanuel

    2003-01-01

    As a supplement to the International Adult Literacy Survey, the Netherlands devoted special attention to the literacy proficiency of older adults. A close look at the literacy skills of older adults and their use in daily life is relevant because demographic developments, individualisation, the position of older employees in the labour market and…

  16. Hydraulic conductivity of rock fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.W.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1994-10-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada contains numerous geological units that are highly fractured. A clear understanding of the hydraulic conductivity of fractures has been identified as an important scientific problem that must be addressed during the site characterization process. The problem of the flow of a single-phase fluid through a rough-walled rock fracture is discussed within the context of rigorous fluid mechanics. The derivation of the cubic law is given as the solution to the Navier-Stokes equations for flow between smooth, parallel plates, the only fracture geometry that is amenable to exact treatment. The various geometric and kinetic conditions that are necessary in order for the Navier-Stokes equations to be replaced by the more tractable lubrication or Hele-Shaw equations are studied and quantified. Various analytical and numerical results are reviewed pertaining to the problem of relating the effective hydraulic aperture to the statistics of the aperture distribution. These studies all lead to the conclusion that the effective hydraulic aperture is always less than the mean aperture, by a factor that depends on the ratio of the mean value of the aperture to its standard deviation. The tortuosity effect caused by regions where the rock walls are in contact with each other is studied using the Hele-Shaw equations, leading to a simple correction factor that depends on the area fraction occupied by the contact regions. Finally, the predicted hydraulic apertures are compared to measured values for eight data sets from the literature for which aperture and conductivity data were available on the same fracture. It is found that reasonably accurate predictions of hydraulic conductivity can be made based solely on the first two moments of the aperture distribution function, and the proportion of contact area. 68 refs.

  17. Opaque rock fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Abhijit, B.; Molinaroli, E.; Olsen, J.

    1987-05-01

    The authors describe a new, rare, but petrogenetically significant variety of rock fragments from Holocene detrital sediments. Approximately 50% of the opaque heavy mineral concentrates from Holocene siliciclastic sands are polymineralic-Fe-Ti oxide particles, i.e., they are opaque rock fragments. About 40% to 70% of these rock fragments show intergrowth of hm + il, mt + il, and mt + hm +/- il. Modal analysis of 23,282 opaque particles in 117 polished thin sections of granitic and metamorphic parent rocks and their daughter sands from semi-arid and humid climates show the following relative abundances. The data show that opaque rock fragments are more common in sands from igneous source rocks and that hm + il fragments are more durable. They assume that equilibrium conditions existed in parent rocks during the growth of these paired minerals, and that the Ti/Fe ratio did not change during oxidation of mt to hm. Geothermometric determinations using electron probe microanalysis of opaque rock fragments in sand samples from Lake Erie and the Adriatic Sea suggest that these rock fragments may have equilibrated at approximately 900/sup 0/ and 525/sup 0/C, respectively.

  18. Bounce Rock Dimple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This panoramic camera image shows the hole drilled by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's rock abrasion tool into the rock dubbed 'Bounce' on Sol 65 of the rover's journey. The tool drilled about 7 millimeters (0.3 inches) into the rock and generated small piles of 'tailings' or rock dust around the central hole, which is about 4.5 centimeters (1.7 inches) across. The image from sol 66 of the mission was acquired using the panoramic camera's 430 nanometer filter.

  19. Hungry for Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit hazard identification camera shows the rover's perspective just before its first post-egress drive on Mars. On Sunday, the 15th martian day, or sol, of Spirit's journey, engineers drove Spirit approximately 3 meters (10 feet) toward its first rock target, a football-sized, mountain-shaped rock called Adirondack (not pictured). In the foreground of this image are 'Sashimi' and 'Sushi' - two rocks that scientists considered investigating first. Ultimately, these rocks were not chosen because their rough and dusty surfaces are ill-suited for grinding.

  20. Rhinitis in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nyenhuis, Sharmilee; Mathur, Sameer K.

    2013-01-01

    Rhinitis symptoms of rhinorrhea, congestion, sneezing, nasal/ocular pruritis, and postnasal drainage can significantly affect the quality of life for older adults. As the US population ages, it will be increasingly important for healthcare providers to effectively diagnose and manage rhinitis. Rhinitis is categorized broadly into allergic rhinitis and non-allergic rhinitis. Environmental changes and avoidance measures are a primary means of intervention. In addition, there are several topical therapies (nasal sprays) that can be effective for symptom control. PMID:23389558

  1. Opportunity at the Wall (3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2

    The navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity took images during the rover's 285th martian day (Nov. 11, 2004) that are combined into this stereo panorama. Opportunity had reached the base of 'Burns Cliff,' a portion of the inner wall of 'Endurance Crater.' This view shows rock layers in the wall, with a portion of Opportunity's solar array visible at the bottom right.

    Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

  2. Obesity Prevention in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella Lucia; Sukumar, Deeptha; Milliron, Brandy-Joe

    2016-06-01

    The number of older adults living in the USA, 65 years of age and older, has been steadily increasing. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010, indicate that more than one-third of older adults, 65 years of age and older, were obese. With the increased rate of obesity in older adults, the purpose of this paper is to present research on different methods to prevent or manage obesity in older adults, namely dietary interventions, physical activity interventions, and a combination of dietary and physical activity interventions. In addition, research on community assistance programs in the prevention of obesity with aging will be discussed. Finally, data on federal programs for older adults will also be presented. PMID:27107762

  3. Rock and Roll at the Apollo 17 Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2016-06-01

    Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan and Harrison H. (Jack) Schmitt collected 243 pounds (110 kg) of rock and regolith samples during 22 hours working on the lunar surface during the Apollo 17 mission in December 1972, while Astronaut Ronald Evans orbited in the command module. The field observations, audio descriptions, and photographs coupled with orbital data and detailed, laboratory analyses of Apollo samples provided unprecedented information about the Moon and its geologic history. The Apollo samples continue to inspire new questions and answers about the Moon. Debra Hurwitz and David Kring (Lunar and Planetary Institute and NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute; Hurwitz now at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center) were particularly interested in solving the mystery of where the boulders came from at the base of the North Massif (station 6) and at the base of the South Massif (station 2) from which Apollo 17 astronauts collected samples of impact melt breccias. The breccias were unequivocally formed by impact processes, but forty years of analyses had not yet determined unambiguously which impact event was responsible. Was it the basin-forming event of the landing site's neighbor Serenitatis (possibly Nectarian age); the larger, nearby Imbrium basin (Imbrian age and one of the last large basins to form); a combination of these impacts or an impact event older or younger than all of the above. Tracking down the origin of the boulders would ideally unravel details of the formation age of the breccias and, ultimately, help with the historical record of basin formation on the Moon. Hurwitz and Kring verified the boulders rolled down from massif walls - Apollo 17 impact melt breccias originated in massif material, not from the Sculptured Hills, an overlying geologic unit. But the relative geologic context is easier to explain than the absolute age, at least until some discrepancies are resolved in existing Ar-Ar and U-Pb radiometric ages of the Apollo 17

  4. Session: Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

  5. Welcome to Rock Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varelas, Maria; Benhart, Jeaneen

    2004-01-01

    At the beginning of the school year, the authors, a first-grade teacher and a teacher educator, worked together to "spice up" the first-grade science curriculum. The teacher had taught the unit Rocks, Sand, and Soil several times, conducting hands-on explorations and using books to help students learn about properties of rocks, but she felt the…

  6. Rock Cycle Roulette.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  7. Layered Rocks in Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    19 June 2004 Exposures of layered, sedimentary rock are common on Mars. From the rock outcrops examined by the Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity, in Meridiani Planum to the sequence in Gale Crater's central mound that is twice the thickness of of the sedimentary rocks exposed by Arizona's Grand Canyon, Mars presents a world of sediment to study. This unusual example, imaged by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), shows eroded layer outcrops in a crater in Terra Tyrrhena near 15.4oS, 270.5oW. Sedimentary rocks provide a record of past climates and events. Perhaps someday the story told by the rocks in this image will be known via careful field work. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the left.

  8. Wind tunnel wall interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Perry A.; Mineck, Raymond E.; Barnwell, Richard W.; Kemp, William B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    About a decade ago, interest in alleviating wind tunnel wall interference was renewed by advances in computational aerodynamics, concepts of adaptive test section walls, and plans for high Reynolds number transonic test facilities. Selection of NASA Langley cryogenic concept for the National Transonic Facility (NTF) tended to focus the renewed wall interference efforts. A brief overview and current status of some Langley sponsored transonic wind tunnel wall interference research are presented. Included are continuing efforts in basic wall flow studies, wall interference assessment/correction procedures, and adaptive wall technology.

  9. Wall surveyor project report

    SciTech Connect

    Mullenhoff, D.J.; Johnston, B.C.; Azevedo, S.G.

    1996-02-22

    A report is made on the demonstration of a first-generation Wall Surveyor that is capable of surveying the interior and thickness of a stone, brick, or cement wall. LLNL`s Micropower Impulse Radar is used, based on emitting and detecting very low amplitude and short microwave impulses (MIR rangefinder). Six test walls were used. While the demonstrator MIR Wall Surveyor is not fieldable yet, it has successfully scanned the test walls and produced real-time images identifying the walls. It is planned to optimize and package the evaluation wall surveyor into a hand held unit.

  10. Rock-fall hazards in the Yosemite Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Morrissey, M.M.; Iovine, Giulio; Godt, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    This report with map shows the areas of highest rock-fall hazard in four selected parts of Yosemite Valley, California, defined by the National Park Service. Two specific levels of hazard are recognized and identified from rock falls ranging in size from individual boulders to moderate-sized events with volumes of 100,000 m3. These different levels of hazard are associated with areas within the base of the talus (red line in Plate 1) and those normally beyond the base of the talus which we refer to as the rock-fall shadow (yellow line in Plate 1). Rock falls of even greater size, exceeding 100,000 m3, referred to as rock avalanches, are a potential hazard, but the extent of this hazard is not easily defined. Rock avalanches are considered to be much less likely to occur because of the relatively few prehistoric rock-fall avalanche deposits that have been recognized in the Yosemite Valley. With the configuration of the steep valley walls and the relatively narrow valley, it should be noted that there are no absolutely safe or zero probability areas from large rock avalanches. This study has shown in map form where rock-fall hazard exists and has given general indication of the expected frequency of these events; however, the study does not quantify the probability at any specific location, nor evaluate the risk to people or facilities to such events.

  11. Thermoluminesence Properties and Ages along the Stony Creek, Hanging Wall of Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, O.; Theeraporn, C.; Takashima, I.; Shigematsu, N.; Little, T. A.; Boulton, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Alpine Fault, New Zealand is an oblique slip thrust with significantly high slip rate, and its dip-slip component causes the rapid uplift of the Southern Alps and the extremely high geothermal gradient in it. Thermoluminescence (TL) dating is a method using the phenomenon that energy accumulated in the crystal from radiation of surrounding radioactive elements is reemitted in the form of light when heating the minerals. This method covers a wide range of age from 1,000 to 1,000,000 years, and has relatively low reset temperature for the accumulation of radiation dose. Therefore, TL dating is a feasible geochronometry for the reconstruction of the thermal history of the area with very high uplifting rate. In order to determine uplifting rates and their distribution in the Southern Alps adjacent to the Alpine fault, ten rock samples were collected for TL dating in the distance 1 km from main fault plane along the Stony Creek. All the samples commonly include quartz veins which are folded tightly or in isoclinal form parallel to the foliations. TL dating was performed using quartz grains separated from host rock. A widely ranging TL ages are obtained from the hanging wall of the fault. The rocks within 600m from present shear zone yield ages ranging from 55.2 ka to 88.8 ka, showing older ages with distance from shear zone. Within 600 m to 900 m from the fault, relatively younger ages, 54.7 to 34.4 ka are obtained. Assuming the thermal gradient of 10 °C /100 m and exhumation rate of 10 m / kyr, the zeroing depth and temperature of TL signals is estimated from 350 to 900 m and from 45 to 100 °C, respectively. The range of TL ages is very large amounted to 50,000 years in the narrow zone. This may be responsible for the variety of TL zeroing temperatures in the hanging wall rocks rather than disturbance of thermal structure and/or inhomogeneity of uplifting rate in this area. Annealing tests are necessary to clarify the real properties of TL for each sample tested.

  12. Rock Magnetism: Successes and Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Louis Néel once proposed making ships "invisible" (i.e., magnetically undetectable) by giving them a permanent or remanent magnetism that would cancel the signal induced by the Earth's magnetic field. Like much of rock magnetism, this borders on the magical. Rocks possess a magnetic memory that verges on the phenomenal. An adequate magnetic lifetime for your credit card is until its expiry date and one must avoid exposure to magnetic fields and heat. But a rock's magnetic memory is forever, and the recipe for that durability includes, for igneous and metamorphic rocks, exposure to ancient fields while hot - near the Curie temperature in fact. The thermal remanent magnetism (TRM) thus produced is largely immune to later field changes at lower temperatures although luckily a fraction - a partial TRM overprint - does record later heating events, e.g., burial during major orogenies. When we lift the veil and look closely, on a microscale or nanoscale, it is perplexing to understand why paleomagnetism works so well when rocks seemingly contain so few of Néel's ideal recorders: single-domain grains with tightly coupled atomic spins. In larger grains with multiple domains, the walls between neighbouring domains move readily, like dislocations in crystals, enlarging some domains at the expense of others. This mutability makes any magnetic memory of multi-domain grains suspect. But around the threshold between single-domain and multi-domain structures - a specific grain size that varies widely from one magnetic mineral to another - there are recent predictions and observations of novel structures, including linked magnetic moments of nearby grains and interfacial moments of exsolved phases, that could go some way towards explaining why single-domain-like behaviour is so widespread. Many magnetic properties show an almost continuous variation with grain size, quite unlike the expected discontinuity at the single-domain threshold. Among these is initial susceptibility which

  13. If walls could talk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braam, J.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The plant cell wall is very complex, both in structure and function. The wall components and the mechanical properties of the wall have been implicated in conveying information that is important for morphogenesis. Proteoglycans, fragments of polysaccharides and the structural integrity of the wall may relay signals that influence cellular differentiation and growth control. Furthering our knowledge of cell wall structure and function is likely to have a profound impact on our understanding of how plant cells communicate with the extracellular environment.

  14. Thermal Performance of Uninsulated and Partially Filled Wall Cavities: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ridouane, E. H.; Bianchi, M.

    2011-08-01

    Low-rise, wood-framed homes are the most common type of residential structures in the United States. Wood wall construction supports roofs efficiently and provides a stable frame for attaching interior and exterior wall coverings. Wall cavities are prevalent and increase thermal resistance, particularly when they are filled with insulating material. This paper describes detailed computational fluid dynamics modeling to evaluate the thermal performance of uninsulated or partially filled wall cavities and accounts for conduction through framing, convection, and radiation. Parameters are ambient outdoor temperature, cavity surface emissivity, cavity aspect ratio, and insulation height. Understanding the thermal performance of uninsulated or partially insulated wall cavities is essential for conserving energy in residential buildings. The results can serve as input for building energy simulation tools such as DOE2 and EnergyPlus for modeling the temperature dependent energy performance of new and older homes with uninsulated or partially insulated walls.

  15. Our World: The Rock Cycle

    NASA Video Gallery

    Find out how rocks brought to Earth by the Apollo astronauts have helped NASA learn more about the rock cycle. Compare igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks found on Earth to three types of ro...

  16. Tuberculosis in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Shobita

    2016-08-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the world's most lethal infectious diseases. Preventive and control strategies among other high-risk groups, such as the elderly population, continues to be a challenge. Clinical features of TB in older adults may be atypical and confused with age-related diseases. Diagnosis and management of TB in the elderly person can be difficult; treatment can be associated with adverse drug reactions. This article reviews the current global epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, management, and prevention of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in community-dwelling and institutionalized aging adults. PMID:27394018

  17. Resilience among older women.

    PubMed

    Wagnild, G; Young, H M

    1990-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to identify and describe characteristics of successfully adjusted older women. The participants reported a recent major loss and were considered successfully adjusted as evidenced by social involvement in a senior center, a mid level to high level of morale and self-report. Using a grounded theory approach, five underlying themes were identified: equanimity, self-reliance, existential aloneness, perseverance and meaningfulness. These themes are thought to constitute resilience. Lateral grounding of the concept resilience is accomplished by comparison with philosophical writings of Frankl, Bettelheim, Frank, May and von Witzleben. Resilience is important in late life as a component of successful psychosocial adjustment. PMID:2292448

  18. Space Weathering of Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. On the Moon, rocks make up only a very small percentage of the exposed surface and areas where rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions we find in remote sensing data. However, our studies of weathered Ap 17 rocks 76015 and 76237 show that significant amounts of weathering products can build up on rock surfaces. Because rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain, and thus record a longer history of exposure, we can study these products to gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative impo!1ance of various weathering components on the Moon. In contrast to the lunar case, on small asteroids, like Itokowa, rocks make up a large fraction of the exposed surface. Results from the Hayabusa spacecraft at Itokowa suggest that while the low gravity does not allow for the development of a mature regolith, weathering patinas can and do develop on rock surfaces, in fact, the rocky surfaces were seen to be darker and appear spectrally more weathered than regions with finer materials. To explore how weathering of asteroidal rocks may differ from lunar, a set of ordinary chondrite meteorites (H, L, and LL) which have been subjected to artificial space weathering by nanopulse laser were examined by TEM. NpFe(sup 0) bearing glasses were ubiquitous in both the naturally-weathered lunar and the artificially-weathered meteorite samples.

  19. The interplay of predefined rock mechanics and permafrost forcing in a steep alpine rock crest (Steintaelli, Mattertal, Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halla, Christian; Krautblatter, Michael; Draebing, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Freeze-thaw-processes in the active layer and degrading permafrost change ice and hydraulic pressures as well as rock- and ice-mechanical properties in rock masses which can cause instabilities. The characterization of the rock mass was determined by the geological strength index and a detailed discontinuity analysis along scanlines where the active layer reached depths of 5-15m (August 2012). Rock mass deformations and accordingly the divergence and convergence of deep reaching fractures were measured along 18 extensometer transects with various lengths from 2 to 27m. (1) The Geological Strength Index provided rock mechanical parameters which indicate stable conditions on the slope scale. The friction angle of the rock mass (44°) is higher than the mean slope inclination (37°). (2) The discontinuity analysis provided six joint sets, their geometries and mechanical properties. High roughness coefficients and wall strengths of the joints result in high total friction angles (>43°) and stable conditions on the block scale. However, the locations of several joints with wide apertures, ice fillings and joints influenced by snowmelt of the cornice at the crest are used as indicators for freeze-thaw related rock mass deformations. (3) The rock mass deformation rates during late summer (2012) are multiple times (>3) higher than deformation rates for several years (2008-2012). Furthermore, the direction of deformation changes between divergence and convergence over time. Both aspects indicate that seasonal and annual changes affect the rock mass deformations. We conclude, that rock mass deformation cannot be explained solely by rock mechanical parameters without freeze-thaw and permafrost influence. The higher deformation rates during the thaw season in late summer and the heterogeneity of deformation directions indicate that seasonal and annual changes of ice- and hydraulic pressures in discontinuities affect instabilities at the Steintaelli crestline. Here we show the

  20. Detached rock evaluation device

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A rock detachment evaluation device (10) having an energy transducer unit 1) for sensing vibrations imparted to a subject rock (172) for converting the sensed vibrations into electrical signals, a low band pass filter unit (12) for receiving the electrical signal and transmitting only a low frequency segment thereof, a high band pass filter unit (13) for receiving the electrical signals and for transmitting only a high frequency segment thereof, a comparison unit (14) for receiving the low frequency and high frequency signals and for determining the difference in power between the signals, and a display unit (16) for displaying indicia of the difference, which provides a quantitative measure of rock detachment.

  1. Dirty Rotten Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows a collection of rocks (upper right) at Gusev Crater that have captured the attention of scientists for their resemblance to rotting loaves of bread. The insides of the rocks appear to have been eroded, while their outer rinds remain more intact. These outer rinds are reminiscent of those found on rocks at Meridiani Planum's 'Eagle Crater.' This image was captured on sol 158 (June 13, 2004).

  2. Weird 'Endurance' Rock Ahead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a bizarre, lumpy rock dubbed 'Wopmay' on the inner slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists say the rock's unusual texture is unlike any others observed so far at Meridiani Planum. Wopmay measures approximately 1 meter (3.3 feet) across. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera on sol 195 (Aug. 11, 2004). Opportunity will likely travel to this or a similar rock in coming sols for a closer look at the alien surface.

  3. Rock Garden Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image mosaic of part of the 'Rock Garden' was taken by the Sojourner rover's left front camera on Sol 71 (September 14). The rock 'Shark' is at left center and 'Half Dome' is at right. Fine-scale textures on the rocks are clearly seen. Broken crust-like material is visible at bottom center.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  4. The Application of Gpr To The Estimation of Rock Fall Hazard To Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roch, K.-H.; Chwatal, W.; Brückl, E.

    The old town of Salzburg (Austria) belongs to the world cultural heritage. Several historic buildings are situated at the toe of steep rock walls and are threatened by con- siderable hazard of rock fall. The rock wall of the "Mönchsberg" (consisting of con- glomerate) in the old town of Salzburg was investigated by GPR (ground penetrating radar) along 39 profiles, covering an area of 3500m2, in order to detect discontinuities relevant for the development of rock falls. The topography of the rock wall was accu- rately mapped by photogrammetric methods. In fact a coherent discontinuity with an extent of about 350m2 was found. This discontinuity was correlated with a bulge of the rock wall. The results of repeated measurements in this area after one and a half year were of essential significance. It could be shown that no substantial variation in the extent of the discontinuity occurred. Some variation was detected in the dielec- tric contrast, probably due to seasonal variation of moisture. Altogether the results demonstrate GPR is an appropriate method for supervising rock walls, especially in urban environments.

  5. Origin of Zircon in Ophiolitic Mantle Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P. T.; Yang, J.; Schmitt, A. K.; Li, J.; Ma, C.

    2011-12-01

    Zircon xenocrysts in ultramafic rocks are typically interpreted as grains picked up by intrusion of mantle rocks into crustal sequences and are taken as evidence of underlying continental crust. However, ultramafic rocks of the Luobusa and Dongqiao ophiolites of Tibet and the Semail ophiolite of Oman contain rounded zircon grains that are much older than the ophiolites themselves. In the Tibetan ophiolites the zircon is accompanied by diamonds, moissanite, corundum, coesite, kyanite, garnet and rutile and numerous highly reduced phases, including PGE and base-metal alloys and native elements. The zircon grains range from 20 to 300 μm across, and are mostly well rounded with very complex internal structures. A few grains are euhedral to subhedral and have concentric zoning suggesting an igneous origin. Many of the grains contain low-pressure inclusions of quartz, rutile, orthoclase, mica, ilmenite and apatite. 206Pb/238U SIMS dates for the Luobusa zircons range from 549±19 to 1657±58 Ma, whereas those for the Dongqiao ophiolites range from 484±49 to 2515±276 Ma. These ages are much older than the host ophiolites (~126 Ma and 147 Ma, respectively). Sixteen dates on zircons from the Semail ophiolite range in age from 84±4 to 1386±48 Ma. Four of these grains are euhedral to subhedral and have late Cretaceous ages essentially the same as the host ophiolite (92±4 to 99±5 Ma), but most are much older. The one younger age of 84 Ma probably reflects slight Pb loss. Many grains in all three ophiolites have distinct cores surrounded by much younger rims, which are still older than the host ophiolites. All of the studied zircons have REE and trace element compositions characteristic of continental crustal grains. Because ophiolites are tectonically emplaced slices of oceanic lithosphere, the possibility of crustal contamination during formation is highly unlikely. Thus, the old zircons in these ophiolites are interpreted as crustal xenocrysts, introduced into the

  6. Assessment of older drivers.

    PubMed

    Reuben, D B

    1993-05-01

    As concern increases about the safety of the aging driver, it is clear that the principal goal of assessment is to identify the unsafe driver and provide effective medical and rehabilitative services to enable the resumption of safe driving. When adequate restorative therapy is not possible, it is necessary to restrict or revoke the privilege of driving. Assessment also can reassure the safe older driver that he or she can continue operating a motor vehicle without restrictions. The process of assessing the older driver is best accomplished through the collaboration of health professionals and governmental agencies. The former identify and treat, if possible, medical conditions that may pose threats to safe driving; the latter establish guidelines of competency for driving tasks. These roles are complementary, although the settings and methods for these assessments are different. Moreover, the responsibilities of the physician and other health care professionals extend beyond the decision regarding driving and must consider the individual needs for driving, as well as the ramifications associated with its cessation. PMID:8504391

  7. Nocturia in older men.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, Boris; Bosch, J L H Ruud

    2012-01-01

    Nocturia is a common and bothersome symptom that impacts on sleep-quality and quality of life. Nocturia often has a multi-factorial etiology which makes thorough assessment of the complaint indispensable. This review summarizes the definition of nocturia, its epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathophysiology, diagnostics, and treatment options with special reference to older men. Nocturia is defined as a nocturnal voiding frequency of two or more, based on impact on quality of life. It is very prevalent in older men. Apart from the negative effects of sleep-disruption, it may be a risk-factor for hip fractures and increased mortality. Most common causes are: nocturnal polyuria, 24-h polyuria, overactive bladder (sometimes due to BPH) and sleep disturbance. A clear understanding of the etiology in the individual patient is indispensable when addressing the various possible causes and co-morbidities. Most important tool for this is the frequency-volume chart, but also patient history, physical examination and serum analysis. For treatment, lifestyle adjustments are often helpful. Medical therapy with 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, alpha-blockers, a combination of the two, or anti-muscarinics, has a limited effect. Most important medical option is desmopressin (arginine vasopressin analogue); however, treatment with this drug is limited to men under 65 years mainly due to the risk of hyponatraemia. PMID:22079871

  8. 5. VIEW OF UPPER NOTTINGHAM TAILING PILES LOOKING TOWARDS ROCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPPER NOTTINGHAM TAILING PILES LOOKING TOWARDS ROCK WALL VISIBLE ON SLOPE JUST RIGHT OF CENTER. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Upper Nottingham Mine, West face of Florida Mountain, head of Jacobs Gulch, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  9. Oblique view of the northeast side, note the lava rock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of the northeast side, note the lava rock stem wall below the windows of the shed-roof addition, view facing west - U.S. Marine Corps Base Hawaii, Kaneohe Bay, Golf Course Equipment & Repair Shop, Reeves & Moffett Roads, Kaneohe, Honolulu County, HI

  10. Pulse-echo probe of rock permeability near oil wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narasimhan, K. Y.; Parthasarathy, S. P.

    1978-01-01

    Processing method involves sequential insonifications of borehole wall at number of different frequencies. Return signals are normalized in amplitude, and root-mean-square (rms) value of each signal is determined. Values can be processed to yield information on size and number density of microfractures at various depths in rock matrix by using averaging methods developed for pulse-echo technique.

  11. Fluidized wall for protecting fusion chamber walls

    SciTech Connect

    Maniscalco, J.A.; Meier, W.R.

    1982-08-17

    Apparatus for protecting the inner wall of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. Produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized wall similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithiumceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.

  12. Gastrointestinal care for older people.

    PubMed

    Tremayne, Penny; Harrison, Penny

    2016-07-01

    This article discusses gastrointestinal (GI) healthcare in older people. It outlines the physiological changes that occur in the GI tract as a result of ageing, and discusses common GI disorders in older people. These GI disorders include dysphagia, gastrointestinal reflux disease, colorectal cancer, diverticular disease, constipation and anaemia. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the factors that may influence gastrointestinal health in older people, including nutrition, hydration and alcohol use, which are important considerations when delivering person-centred care. PMID:27380703

  13. Root Caries in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Dick; Hyde, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Older adults are retaining an increasing number of natural teeth, and nearly half of all individuals aged 75 and older have experienced root caries. Root caries is a major cause of tooth loss in older adults, and tooth loss is the most significant negative impact on oral health-related quality of life for the elderly. The need for improved preventive efforts and treatment strategies for this population is acute. PMID:26357814

  14. Healthy aging for older women.

    PubMed

    Young, Heather M; Cochrane, Barbara B

    2004-03-01

    Healthy aging is a multifaceted phenomenon, incorporating biological and psychosocial developmental factors. The population of older women is diverse in health, function, social context, and age. Health promotion strategies, therefore, should be customized accordingly to optimize the health of the varied subgroups of older women, according to their health trajectory and personal preferences. Research and evaluation of approaches to promote health among these subgroups is an important next step in understanding and influencing the health of older women. PMID:15062732

  15. Our World: Lunar Rock

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn about NASA'€™s Lunar Sample Laboratory Facility at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. See how NASA protects these precious moon rocks brought to Earth by the Apollo astronauts. Explore t...

  16. East Candor Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    24 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a thick, massive outcrop of light-toned rock exposed within eastern Candor Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Dark, windblown sand has banked against the lower outcrop slopes. Outcrops such as this in the Valles Marineris chasms have been known since Mariner 9 images were obtained in 1972. However, the debate as to whether these represent sedimentary or igneous rocks has not been settled within the Mars science community. In either case, they have the physical properties of sedimentary rock (that is, they are formed of fine-grained materials), but some igneous rocks made up of volcanic ash may also exhibit these properties. This image is located near 7.8oS, 65.3oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  17. Focus on the Rock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewell, John

    1994-01-01

    Describes historical accounts of the manipulation and importance of the Earth and its mineral resources. A foldout, "Out of the Rock," provides a collection of activities and information that helps make integration of the aforementioned concepts easy. (ZWH)

  18. Terby's Layered Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    14 March 2004 Layered rock outcrops are common all across Mars, and the Mars rover, Opportunity, has recently investigated some layered rocks in Meridiani Planum. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layered sedimentary rocks in northern Terby Crater, located just north of the giant Hellas Basin near 27.5oS, 285.8oW. Hundreds of layers are exposed in a deposit several kilometers thick within Terby. A history of events that shaped the northern Hellas region is recorded in these rocks, just waiting for a person or robot to investigate. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  19. Ancient Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-469, 31 August 2003

    The terraced area in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image is an outcropping of ancient, sedimentary rock. It occurs in a crater in western Arabia Terra near 10.8oN, 4.5oW. Sedimentary rocks provide a record of past environments on Mars. Field work will likely be required to begin to get a good understanding of the nature of the record these rocks contain. Their generally uniform thickness and repeated character suggests that deposition of fine sediment in this crater was episodic, if not cyclic. These rocks might be indicators of an ancient lake, or they might have been deposited from grains settling out of an earlier, thicker, martian atmosphere. This image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated from the lower left.

  20. Layered Rock Ahead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Now that solar conjunction is over so that communication between Earth and Mars is no longer blocked by the Sun, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit is continuing its trek through the 'Columbia Hills' in Gusev Crater. Straight ahead, in the foreground of this image, is a horizontally layered rock dubbed 'Tetl,' which scientists hope to investigate. Layering can be either volcanic or sedimentary in origin; researchers aim to determine which of these processes created this rock. If for some reason this particular rock is not favorably positioned for grinding and examination by the toolbox of instruments on the rover's robotic arm, Spirit will be within short reach of another similar rock, dubbed 'Coba,' just to the right, toward the middle of this image. Spirit took this image with its navigation camera on its 263rd martian day, or sol (Sept. 28, 2004).

  1. Broken Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    18 May 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows broken-up blocks of sedimentary rock in western Candor Chasma. There are several locations in western Candor that exhibit this pattern of broken rock. The manner in which these landforms were created is unknown; it is possible that there was a landslide or a meteoritic impact that broke up the materials. One attribute that is known: in some of these cases, it seems that the rock was broken and then buried by later sedimentary rocks, before later being exhumed so that they can be seen from orbit today.

    Location near: 6.9oS, 75.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  2. Rock in Its Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCluskey, Thomas

    1969-01-01

    A discussion of the following musical elements of rock: rhythm, melody, harmony, and form. A impromptu analysis made at a session of the Youth Music Symposium, July 25, 1969. Remarks transcribed from tape. (Author/AP)

  3. Getting older can be exhausting.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Rohit; Ford, Mandy L; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis is a disease that affects primarily the aged. Although mortality is higher in both older septic patients and aged septic mice, the mechanisms underlying decreased survival in older hosts are incompletely understood. New work by Inoue and colleagues demonstrates persistent inflammation and T-cell exhaustion in older septic patients and aged septic mice. The clinical significance of these findings is manifested not only in increased mortality but also in a marked difference in secondary infections in older patients as long as a month following ICU admission. PMID:25184737

  4. Addressing violence against older women.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Domestic abuse is widespread and indiscriminate, causing health-related concerns and mental health issues in older women. Research suggests their needs are not met by existing services. This article examines physical and mental health issues faced by older women as a result of abusive relationships, and the barriers that exist to seeking help. Healthcare professionals can facilitate therapeutic engagement of older women living with domestic abuse. Refuges and related interventions are limited, but developing a stepped approach, tailored to older women's needs, could help. PMID:27369732

  5. Rock slope stability

    SciTech Connect

    Kliche, C.A.

    1999-07-01

    Whether you're involved in surface mine design, surface mine production, construction, education, or regulation, this is an important new book for your library. It describes the basic rock slope failure modes and methods of analysis--both kinematic and kinetic techniques. Chapters include geotechnical and geomechanical analysis techniques, hydrology, rock slope stabilization techniques, and geotechnical instrumentation and monitoring. Numerous examples, drawings and photos enhance the text.

  6. Petrology of metamorphic rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Suk, M.

    1983-01-01

    ''Petrology of Metamorphic Rocks'' reviews Central European opinions about the origin and formation of metamorphic rocks and their genetic systems, confronting the works of such distinguished European scientists as Rosenbusch, Becke, Niggli, Sander, Eskola, Barth and others with present-day knowledge and the results of Soviet and American investigations. The initial chapters discuss the processes that give rise to metamorphic rocks, and the main differences between regional metamorphism and other types of alterations, the emphasis being laid on the material characteristic of the processes of metamorphism, metasomatism and ultrametamorphism. Further chapters give a brief characterization of research methods, together with a detailed genetic classification based on the division of primary rocks into igneous rocks, sediments and ore materials. The effects of metamorphic alterations and those of the properties of the primary rocks are analyzed on the basis of examples taken chiefly from the Bohemian Massif, the West Carpathians, other parts of the European Variscides, from the crystalline Scandinavian Shelf in Norway and Finland, and from the Alps. Typical examples are documented by a number of charts, photographs and petrographical - particularly petrochemical - data.

  7. Weathering of rock 'Ginger'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    One of the more unusual rocks at the site is Ginger, located southeast of the lander. Parts of it have the reddest color of any material in view, whereas its rounded lobes are gray and relatively unweathered. These color differences are brought out in the inset, enhanced at the upper right. In the false color image at the lower right, the shape of the visible-wavelength spectrum (related to the abundance of weathered ferric iron minerals) is indicated by the hue of the rocks. Blue indicates relatively unweathered rocks. Typical soils and drift, which are heavily weathered, are shown in green and flesh tones. The very red color in the creases in the rock surface correspond to a crust of ferric minerals. The origin of the rock is uncertain; the ferric crust may have grown underneath the rock, or it may cement pebbles together into a conglomerate. Ginger will be a target of future super-resolution studies to better constrain its origin.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  8. Feelings of Gratitude Toward God Among Older Whites, Older African Americans, and Older Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Neal

    2011-01-01

    The first goal of this study is to see if social relationships in the church influence feelings of gratitude toward God. The second goal is to assess the impact of race and ethnicity on this relationship. The data support the following hypotheses: (1) older people who go to church more often tend to receive more spiritual support from fellow church members; (2) older adults who receive more spiritual support at church will derive a deeper understanding of themselves and others; (3) older people who develop greater insight into themselves and others will derive a greater sense of religious meaning in life; and (4) older adults who develop a deeper sense of religious meaning in life will feel more grateful to God. The results also indicate that the study model explains how feelings of gratitude toward God arise among older blacks and whites, but not older Mexican Americans. PMID:23543840

  9. Halogenation of microcapsule walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, T. R.; Schaab, C. K.; Scott, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Procedure for halogenation of confining walls of both gelatin and gelatin-phenolic resin capsules is similar to that used for microencapsulation. Ten percent halogen content renders capsule wall nonburning; any higher content enhances flame-retardant properties of selected internal phase material. Halogenation decreases permeability of wall material to encapsulated materials.

  10. The Lamportian cell wall

    SciTech Connect

    Keiliszewski, M.; Lamport, D. )

    1991-05-01

    The Lamportian Warp-Weft hypothesis suggests a cellulose-extensin interpenetrating network where extensin mechanically couples the load-bearing cellulose microfibrils in a wall matrix that is best described as a microcomposite. This model is based on data gathered from the extensin-rich walls of tomato and sycamore cell suspension culture, wherein extensin precursors are insolubilized into the wall by undefined crosslinks. The authors recent work with cell walls isolated from intact tissue as well as walls from suspension cultured cells of the graminaceous monocots maize and rice, the non-graminaceous monocot asparagus, the primitive herbaceous dicot sugar beet, and the gymnosperm Douglas Fir indicate that although extensins are ubiquitous to all plant species examined, they are not the major structural protein component of most walls examined. Amino acid analyses of intact and HF-treated walls shows a major component neither an HRGP, nor directly comparable to the glycine-rich wall proteins such as those associated with seed coat walls or the 67 mole% glycine-rich proteins cloned from petunia and soybean. Clearly, structural wall protein alternatives to extensin exist and any cell wall model must take that into account. If we assume that extracellular matrices are a priori network structures, then new Hypless' structural proteins in the maize cell wall raise questions about the sort of network these proteins create: the kinds of crosslinks involved; how they are formed; and the roles played by the small amounts of HRGPs.

  11. Pollack Crater's White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image of White Rock in Pollack crater was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on February 3, 2007 at 1750 UTC (12:50 p.m. EST), near 8 degrees south latitude, 25 degrees east longitude. The CRISM image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is roughly 20 kilometers (12 miles) long and 10 kilometers (6 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    First imaged by the Mariner 9 spacecraft in 1972, the enigmatic group of wind-eroded ridges known as White Rock has been the subject of many subsequent investigations. White Rock is located on the floor of Pollack Crater in the Sinus Sabaeus region of Mars. It measures some 15 by 18 kilometers (9 by 11 miles) and was named for its light-colored appearance. In contrast-enhanced images, the feature's higher albedo or reflectivity compared with the darker material on the floor of the crater makes it appear white. In reality, White Rock has a dull, reddish color more akin to Martian dust. This higher albedo as well as its location in a topographic low suggested to some researchers that White Rock may be an eroded remnant of an ancient lake deposit. As water in a desert lake on Earth evaporates, it leaves behind white-colored salts that it leached or dissolved out of the surrounding terrain. These salt deposits may include carbonates, sulfates, and chlorides.

    In 2001, the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor measured White Rock and found no obvious signature of carbonates or sulfates, or any other indication that White Rock holds evaporite minerals. Instead, it found Martian dust.

    CRISM's challenge was to obtain greater detail of White Rock's mineralogical composition and how it formed. The instrument operates at a different wavelength range than TES, giving it greater sensitivity to carbonate, sulfate and phyllosilicate (clay-like) minerals. It also

  12. Robotic Ankle for Omnidirectional Rock Anchors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew; Thatte, Nitish

    2013-01-01

    Future robotic exploration of near-Earth asteroids and the vertical and inverted rock walls of lava caves and cliff faces on Mars and other planetary bodies would require a method of gripping their rocky surfaces to allow mobility without gravitational assistance. In order to successfully navigate this terrain and drill for samples, the grippers must be able to produce anchoring forces in excess of 100 N. Additionally, the grippers must be able to support the inertial forces of a moving robot, as well gravitational forces for demonstrations on Earth. One possible solution would be to use microspine arrays to anchor to rock surfaces and provide the necessary load-bearing abilities for robotic exploration of asteroids. Microspine arrays comprise dozens of small steel hooks supported on individual suspensions. When these arrays are dragged along a rock surface, the steel hooks engage with asperities and holes on the surface. The suspensions allow for individual hooks to engage with asperities while the remaining hooks continue to drag along the surface. This ensures that the maximum possible number of hooks engage with the surface, thereby increasing the load-bearing abilities of the gripper. Using the microspine array grippers described above as the end-effectors of a robot would allow it to traverse terrain previously unreachable by traditional wheeled robots. Furthermore, microspine-gripping robots that can perch on cliffs or rocky walls could enable a new class of persistent surveillance devices for military applications. In order to interface these microspine grippers with a legged robot, an ankle is needed that can robotically actuate the gripper, as well as allow it to conform to the large-scale irregularities in the rock. The anchor serves three main purposes: deploy and release the anchor, conform to roughness or misalignment with the surface, and cancel out any moments about the anchor that could cause unintentional detachment. The ankle design contains a

  13. Core-log integration for rock mechanics using borehole breakouts and rock strength experiments: Recent results from plate subduction margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, S.; Lin, W.

    2014-12-01

    Core-log integration has been applied for rock mechanics studies in scientific ocean drilling since 2007 in plate subduction margins such as Nankai Trough, Costa Rica margin, and Japan Trench. State of stress in subduction wedge is essential for controlling dynamics of plate boundary fault. One of the common methods to estimate stress state is analysis of borehole breakouts (drilling induced borehole wall compressive failures) recorded in borehole image logs to determine the maximum horizontal principal stress orientation. Borehole breakouts can also yield possible range of stress magnitude based on a rock compressive strength criterion. In this study, we constrained the stress magnitudes based on two different rock failure criteria, the Mohr-Coulomb (MC) criteria and the modified Wiebols-Cook (mWC) criteria. As the MC criterion is the same as that under unconfined compression state, only one rock parameter, unconfined compressive strength (UCS) is needed to constrain stress magnitudes. The mWC criterion needs the UCS, Poisson's ratio and internal frictional coefficient determined by triaxial compression experiments to take the intermediate principal stress effects on rock strength into consideration. We conducted various strength experiments on samples taken during IODP Expeditions 334/344 (Costa Rica Seismogenesis Project) to evaluate reliable method to estimate stress magnitudes. Our results show that the effects of the intermediate principal stress on the rock compressive failure occurred on a borehole wall is not negligible.

  14. Kilbuck terrane: oldest known rocks in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Box, S.E.; Moll-Stalcup, E. J.; Wooden, J.L.; Bradshaw, J.Y.

    1990-01-01

    The Kilbuck terrane in southwestern Alaska is a narrow, thin crustal sliver or flake of amphibolite facies orthogneiss. The igneous protolith of this gneiss was a suite of subduction-related plutonic rocks. U-Pb data on zircons from trondhjemitic and granitic samples yield upper-intercept (igneous) ages of 2070 ?? 16 and 2040 ?? 74 Ma, respectively. Nd isotope data from these rocks suggest that a diorite-tonalite-trondhjemite suite (??Nd[T] = +2.1 to +2.7; T is time of crystallization) evolved from partial melts of depleted mantle with no discernible contamination by older crust, whereas a coeval granitic pluton (??Nd[T] = -5.7) contains a significant component derived from Archean crust. Orthogneisses with similar age and Nd isotope characteristics are found in the Idono complex 250 km to the north. Early Proterozoic rocks are unknown elsewhere in Alaska. The possibility that the Kilbuck terrane was displaced from provinces of similar age in other cratons (e.g., Australian, Baltic, Guiana, and west African shields), or from the poorly dated Siberian craton, cannot be excluded. -from Authors

  15. PBF Reactor Building (PER620). Camera faces south along west wall. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Reactor Building (PER-620). Camera faces south along west wall. Gap between native lava rock and concrete basement walls is being backfilled and compacted. Wire mesh protects workers from falling rock. Note penetrations for piping that will carry secondary coolant water to Cooling Tower. Photographer: Holmes. Date: June 15, 1967. INEEL negative no. 67-3665 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  16. Counseling Needs of Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jane E.

    The Older Person's Counseling Needs (OPCN) Survey is used as an instrument to assess counseling needs of older persons in relation to their major life concerns. Four key areas of concern have been identified. These include personal, interpersonal, activity, and environmental concerns. These four areas have been subdivided to achieve 27 basic…

  17. Quitting Smoking for Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Related Topics Alcohol Use and Older Adults COPD Lung Cancer The information in this topic was provided by the National Cancer Institute Topic last reviewed: June 2014 For an enhanced version of this page please turn Javascript on. Quitting Smoking for Older ...

  18. Education and Today's Older Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N.

    New perspectives need to be gained on the roles of older adults and older workers in the new millenium. Because today's adult is healthier, policies concerning social security, retirement, and work need to be changed. There is a need for acceptance of various types of aging. Rather than mandating specific retirement, the individual should have…

  19. AIDS and the Older Adult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allers, Christopher T.

    1990-01-01

    Older adults are finding themselves the neighbors of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients as well as the primary caregivers of infected adult children. Focuses on roles, issues, and conflicts older adults face in dealing with relatives or neighbors with AIDS. Case management and educational intervention strategies are also offered.…

  20. Rural Education for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, Vivian W.

    2008-01-01

    Meeting the learning needs of older adults in rural areas is a critical and growing concern for adult and continuing education. This chapter addresses learning in a rural context for older adults by examining several constructs. These include the definitions of "rural," the issues of the learners' ages, and the various structures and purposes…

  1. Marketing to Older American Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Barbara; Stephens, Nancy

    1986-01-01

    Examined older adults as a potential market for American businesses. Data indicate that in terms of size and income, senior citizens comprise a substantial buying group. Their buying styles, product and service needs, and shopping behavior vary from younger adults and within the older adult population. Strategies for successful marketing are…

  2. Older Students in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clennell, Stephanie, Ed.; And Others

    British students 60 years and older in 1985-86 were studied in order to learn about their age, sex, marital status, employment background, the subjects they study, their reasons for studying, how they study, and what they think about their studies. Considered by the researchers to be the largest survey of older students, the study involved 2,254…

  3. Ganges Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    24 May 2004 Mariner 9 images acquired in 1972 first revealed a large, light-toned, layered mound in Ganges Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a higher-resolution view of these rocks than was achieved by Mariner 9 or Viking, and higher than can be obtained by Mars Odyssey or Mars Express. The image, with a resolution of about 3.7 meters (12 feet) per pixel, shows eroded layered rock outcrops in Ganges Chasma. These rocks record a history of events that occurred either in Ganges Chasma, or in the rocks brought to the surface by the opening of Ganges Chasma. Either way, the story they might tell could be as fascinating and unprecedented as the story told by sedimentary rocks investigated this year in Meridiani Planum by the Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover ... no one knows. The image is located near 7.3oS, 48.8oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. The picture is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  4. Fluidized wall for protecting fusion chamber walls

    SciTech Connect

    Maniscalco, James A.; Meier, Wayne R.

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for protecting the inner wall of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized wall similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithium-ceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.

  5. The Arkansas Aging Initiative: An Innovative Approach for Addressing the Health of Older Rural Arkansans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beverly, Claudia J.; McAtee, Robin E.; Chernoff, Ronni; Davis, Gwynn V.; Jones, Susan K.; Lipschitz, David A.

    2007-01-01

    The Donald W. Reynolds Institute on Aging at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences in Little Rock is addressing one of the most pressing policy issues facing the United States: how to care for the burgeoning number of older adults. In 2001, the Institute created the Arkansas Aging Initiative, which established seven satellite centers on…

  6. Wall of fundamental constants

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.; Peloso, Marco; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-02-15

    We consider the signatures of a domain wall produced in the spontaneous symmetry breaking involving a dilatonlike scalar field coupled to electromagnetism. Domains on either side of the wall exhibit slight differences in their respective values of the fine-structure constant, {alpha}. If such a wall is present within our Hubble volume, absorption spectra at large redshifts may or may not provide a variation in {alpha} relative to the terrestrial value, depending on our relative position with respect to the wall. This wall could resolve the contradiction between claims of a variation of {alpha} based on Keck/Hires data and of the constancy of {alpha} based on Very Large Telescope data. We derive the properties of the wall and the parameters of the underlying microscopic model required to reproduce the possible spatial variation of {alpha}. We discuss the constraints on the existence of the low-energy domain wall and describe its observational implications concerning the variation of the fundamental constants.

  7. Modelling Rock Blasting Considering Explosion Gas Penetration Using Discontinuous Deformation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Youjun; Yang, Jun; Ma, Guowei; Chen, Pengwan

    2011-07-01

    Explosion gas plays an important role in rock mass fragmentation and cast in rock blasting. In this technical note, the discontinuous deformation analysis method is extended for bench rock blasting by coupling the rock mass failure process and the penetration effect of the explosion gas based on a generalized artificial joint concept to model rock mass fracturing. By tracking the blast chamber evolution dynamically, instant explosion gas pressure is derived from the blast chamber volume using a simple polytropic gas pressure equation of state and loaded on the blast chamber wall. A bench blasting example is carried out. The blast chamber volume and pressure time histories are obtained. The rock failure and movement process in bench rock blasting is reproduced and analysed.

  8. Faulted Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    27 June 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the layered, sedimentary rock outcrops that occur in a crater located at 8oN, 7oW, in western Arabia Terra. Dark layers and dark sand have enhanced the contrast of this scene. In the upper half of the image, one can see numerous lines that off-set the layers. These lines are faults along which the rocks have broken and moved. The regularity of layer thickness and erosional expression are taken as evidence that the crater in which these rocks occur might once have been a lake. The image covers an area about 1.9 km (1.2 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  9. Ladon Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    6 June 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered, sedimentary rocks exposed by the fluids that carved the Ladon Valles system in the Erythraeum region of Mars. These rocks are so ancient that their sediments were deposited, cemented to form rock, and then eroded by the water (or other liquid) that carved Ladon Valles, so far back in Martian history that such liquids could still flow on the planet's surface.

    Location near: 20.8oS, 30.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  10. Eos Chaos Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    11 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered rock outcrops in Eos Chaos, located near the east end of the Valles Marineris trough system. The outcrops occur in the form of a distinct, circular butte (upper half of image) and a high slope (lower half of image). The rocks might be sedimentary rocks, similar to those found elsewhere exposed in the Valles Marineris system and the chaotic terrain to the east of the region.

    Location near: 12.9oS, 49.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer