Sample records for oleander nerium oleander

  1. Toxicity in goats caused by oleander ( Nerium oleander)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Barbosa; J. D. Fontenele-Neto; B. Soto-Blanco

    2008-01-01

    Cases of poisoning by oleander (Nerium oleander) were observed in several species, except in goats. This study aimed to evaluate the pathological effects of oleander in goats. The experimental design used three goats per group: the control group, which did not receive oleander and the experimental group, which received leaves of oleander (50mg\\/kg\\/day) for six consecutive days. On the seventh

  2. Acute cattle intoxication from Nerium oleander pods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Soto-Blanco; J. D. Fontenele-Neto; D. M. Silva; P. F. C. C. Reis; J. E. Nóbrega

    2006-01-01

    Seven outbreaks of acute intoxication from oleander (Nerium oleander) in cattle were reported in Northeast of Brazil. A total of 92 cattle were poisoned by oleander in 7 different herds; 57\\u000a animals died (67% of affected cattle). All cases reported here occurred during dry season. Two of the outbreaks resulted from\\u000a offering oleander triturated and mixed with fodder. In the

  3. Osservazioni Sull'attività Cambiale Di Nerium Oleander L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olimpia Bucci

    1967-01-01

    Observation on the cambial activity in «Nerium oleander» L. — The cambial activity of «Nerium oleander» has been observed in three localities in Southern Italy: Bari and Lucera, where the oleander is cultivated, and Policoro, in the bed of the river Sinni, where the oleander is spontaneuos. The wood is of the diffuse-porous type. Growth rings corresponding to distinct periods

  4. Attività cambiale in Nerium oleander L. a Genova

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paola Gastaldo; Paola Profumo

    1976-01-01

    The cambial activity in Nerium oleander L. in Genoa. – The cambial activity in Nerium oleander L. is observed in order to compare the increasing rhythm of a specimen cultivated in Genoa with the rhythm of spontaneous and cultivated specimens growing in Puglia and Lucania, previously studied by other authors.In Genoa Nerium oleander, a strongly scleromorphus species, has a nearly

  5. Two cytotoxic pentacyclic triterpenoids from Nerium oleander

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bina Shaheen Siddiqui; Sabira Begum; Salimuzzaman Siddiqui; Wolf Lichter

    1995-01-01

    The isolation and structure elucidation of two novel cytotoxic pentacyclic triterpenoids cis-karenin (3?-hydroxy-28-Z-p-coumaroyloxy-urs-12-en-27-oic acid) and trans-karenin (3-?-hydroxy-28-E-p-coumaroyloxy-urs-12-en-27-oic acid) from the leaves of Nerium oleander is described.

  6. Triterpenoids from the leaves of Nerium oleander

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabira Begum; Razia Sultana; Bina S. Siddiqui

    1997-01-01

    Two new triterpenoids have been isolated from the fresh, uncrushed leaves of Nerium oleander and their structures elucidated as 3?,27-dihydroxy-urs-18-en-13,28-olide and 3?,22?,28-trihydroxy-25-nor-lup-1 (10),20(29)-dien-2-one. Elucidation of the structures was based on spectroscopic methods including one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR (COSY-45, NOESY and J-resolved).

  7. Experimental oleander (Nerium oleander) intoxication in broiler chickens (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Omidi, Arash; Razavizadeh, Alireza T; Movassaghi, Ahmad R; Aslani, Mohammad R

    2012-08-01

    Dried leaves of oleander were orally given at a single dose of 500 mg/kg body weight to 20 clinically healthy male chickens. Clinical signs of toxicosis began to appear about 1 h after receiving the oleander and included hypersalivation, vomiting, diarrhea, deep depression, and sudden death. Also, hyperemia in the combs and wattles was obviously seen. Electrocardiograms (ECG) were repeatedly recorded at 30 min intervals. ECGs findings included increasing the QRS duration in some birds and various kinds of arrhythmias. Bradycardia was the most frequently detected finding (30.43%). During necropsy, there were congestion and hemorrhages in the visceral organs particularly in heart, liver, kidney, and lung. Histopathology revealed myocardial cell necrosis with hyperemia and hemorrhage, severe diffuse pulmonary congestion and edema, severe renal congestion and hemorrhage with tubular necrosis, and coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes with hyperemia and hemorrhage. There were also congestion, mild epithelial necrosis and desquamation with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells in the proventriculus of all birds. There was also mild to moderate congestion in the intestines with scattered necrosis of surface enterocytes. The lack of information about the toxicity of oleanders in poultry was the main cause for this study. The results suggest that chickens appear to respond to oleander poisoning in a manner similar to other species. PMID:21576188

  8. Clinical and Pathological Aspects of Experimental Oleander ( Nerium oleander ) Toxicosis in Sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Aslani; A. R. Movassaghi; M. Mohri; A. Abbasian; M. Zarehpour

    2004-01-01

    Dried Nerium oleander leaves at single lethal dose of 110 mg\\/kg body weight were administered orally to six native male sheep.\\u000a Clinical signs of toxicosis in sheep began to appear about 30 min after receiving the oleander and included decrease of the\\u000a heart rate followed by cardiac pauses and tachyarrhythmias; ruminal atony, mild to moderate tympany, abdominal pain, polyuria\\u000a and

  9. [Chemical burns caused by the shrub nerium oleander].

    PubMed

    Bakkali, H; Ababou, M; Nassim Sabah, T; Moussaoui, A; Ennouhi, A; Fouadi, F Z; Siah, S; Ihrai, H

    2010-09-30

    Nerium Oleander is a shrub that grows naturally in the Mediterranean regions. In Morocco it is found in wet places. It is famous for its risk of systemic toxicity in cases of poisoning because of the presence of two alkaloids, especially oleandrine. The literature describes cases of local use of leaves of this plant against scabies, haemorrhoids, and boils. We report two cases of chemical burns of different gravity due to Nerium Oleander. This should lead to more widely diffused information for the general population and strict regulation of its marketing. PMID:21991211

  10. Bioactive cardenolides from the leaves of Nerium oleander

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabira Begum; Bina S Siddiqui; Razia Sultana; Atiya Zia; Amin Suria

    1999-01-01

    A bioactivity directed isolation of the methanolic extract of the fresh, uncrushed leaves of Nerium oleander showing a central nervous system (CNS) depressant effect in mice has been undertaken. As a result, four CNS depressant cardenolides including a new cardenolide, neridiginoside and three known constituents, nerizoside, neritaloside and odoroside-H, have been isolated which exhibited CNS depressant activity in mice at

  11. Application of extracts from the poisonous plant, Nerium Oleander L., as a wood preservative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osman Goktas; Ramazan Mammadov; M. Emin Duru; Ertan Ozen; A. Melda Colak

    The antifungal properties of poisonous plant extracts from oleanders (Nerium oleander L.) were determined when used as a wood preservative. The extract was prepared from oleanders leaves and flowers in 96% ethyl alcohol. The wood blocks of Turkish oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were impregnated with the extracts. The abilities of the extract to

  12. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration of Nerium oleander

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel Santos; Isabel Guimarães; Roberto Salema

    1994-01-01

    Leaf explants of Nerium oleander L. produced masses of callus when both an auxin and a cytokinin were included in the medium. Leaves cultured on the B5 medium of Gamborg et al. supplemented with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d; 9.05 µM) plus benzyladenine (BA; 4.4 µM) produced callus and profuse rhizogenesis was observed from callus developed from older leaves. On Murashige &

  13. Nerium oleander L. as a biomonitor of lead and other heavy metal pollution in Mediterranean environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Aksoy; M. A. Öztürk

    1997-01-01

    The leaves of Nerium oleander L. (oleander) were tested as a possible biomonitor of heavy metal pollution studied in Antalya along the Mediterranean Sea, Turkey. Fifty-three sites (urban roadside, urban, urban park, suburban andrural) in and around Antalya city were investigated. The concentration of Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu were determined in unwashed and washed leaves and soils. Differences between

  14. A novel antibacterial and cardiac steroid from the roots of Nerium oleander

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mostaqul Huq; A Jabbar; M. A Rashid; C. M Hasan

    1999-01-01

    The roots of Nerium oleander yielded a new cardenolide, 12?-hydroxy-5?-carda-8,14,16,20(22)-tetraenolide (2). Biological screening of the compound revealed antibacterial and digoxin-like cardiac activities.

  15. A review of the natural history, toxinology, diagnosis and clinical management of Nerium oleander (common oleander) and Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander) poisoning.

    PubMed

    Bandara, Veronika; Weinstein, Scott A; White, Julian; Eddleston, Michael

    2010-09-01

    Nerium oleander (common oleander) and Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander) are potentially lethal plants after ingestion. Poisoning by these plants is a common toxicological emergency in tropical and subtropical parts of the world and intentional self-harm using T. peruviana is prevalent in South Asian countries, especially India and Sri Lanka. All parts of these plants are toxic, and contain a variety of cardiac glycosides including neriifolin, thevetin A, thevetin B, and oleandrin. Ingestion of either oleander results in nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, dysrhythmias, and hyperkalemia. In most cases, clinical management of poisoning by either N. oleander or T. peruviana involves administration of activated charcoal and supportive care. Digoxin specific Fab fragments are an effective treatment of acute intoxication by either species. However, where limited economic resources restrict the use of such Fab fragments, treatment of severely poisoned patients is difficult. Data from case reports and clinical studies were reviewed to identify treatments supported by evidence for the management of poisoning by N. oleander and T. peruviana. PMID:20438743

  16. Exploring a natural MDR reversal agent: potential of medicinal food supplement Nerium oleander leaf distillate

    PubMed Central

    Kars, Meltem Demirel; Gündüz, Ufuk; Üney, Kamil; Ba?, Ahmet Levent

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the molecular effects of Nerium oleander leaf distillate on paclitaxel and vincristine resistant (MCF-7/Pac and MCF-7/Vinc) cells and sensitive (MCF-7/S) cell lines. Methods Nerium oleander (N. oleander) leaf extract was obtained by hydrodistillation method. The toxicological effects of N. oleander distillate, previously suggested as medicinal food supplement, on drug resistant cells were evaluated by XTT tests. MDR modulation potential of the plant material was evaluated by flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. Paclitaxel and vincristine were applied to the sublines in combination with N. oleander distillate. Results Fractional inhibitory indices show that N. oleander distillate did not increase the antiproliferative effects of anticancer drugs. N. oleander treatment in to MCF-7/Pac and MCF-7/Vinc did not inhibit P-gp activity and MDR1 gene expression level. Conclusions As a result it may be suggested that although N. oleander distillate has some medicinal effects as food supplement it may not be suitable as an MDR modulator for drug resistant breast cancer cells. PMID:23905023

  17. [A non-fatal Nerium oleander self-poisoning: case report and discussion].

    PubMed

    Hugues, T; Arnoult, M; Beau, N; Yaici, K; Mélandri, P; Saoudi, N; Gibelin, P

    2012-04-01

    Nerium oleander is potentially lethal plants after ingestion. We report a case of poisoning by these plants. Our patient complained of nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea. He had bradycardia during first twelve hours. He was discharge after 3 days. All parts of these plants are toxic and contain a variety of cardiac glycosides including oleandrin. In most cases, clinical management of poisoning by N. oleander involves administration of activated charcoal and supportive care. Digoxin specific Fab fragments are an effective treatment. PMID:21890104

  18. Hypolipidemic potential of flowers of Nerium oleander in high fat diet-fed Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Gayathri, Veeraraghavan; Ananthi, Subhash; Chandronitha, Chandranayagam; Sangeetha, Marimuthu Kannan; Vasanthi, Hannah R

    2011-07-01

    Nerium oleander Linn. (NO), an evergreen shrub, is used in folklore medicine as a cardiotonic and exhibits a wide spectrum of bioactivities. Herein, the hypolipidemic potential of the ethanolic extract of flowers of Nerium oleander (ENO) in a minimal dose was assessed. A high fat diet (HFD) resulted in a significant increase in cardiac lipids and lipoproteins and an increase in body weight gain. Simultaneous treatment with ENO significantly lowered the increase in body weight gain, lipid and lipoprotein levels, with a concomitant increase in HDL in the plasma and heart when compared to HFD-fed rats. Likewise, the activities of lipolytic enzymes were also upheld by the ENO treatment in the heart compared to HFD-fed rats. The above findings highlight the possible mechanism of N. oleander as a hypolipidemic agent in its use in folklore medicine as a cardiotonic. PMID:21726133

  19. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis of trace elements in Nerium oleander for pollution monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. F. O. de Jesus; S. M. Simabuco; M. J. dos Anjos; R. T. Lopes

    2000-01-01

    This works describes the use of synchrotron radiation fluorescence analysis as a technique for monitoring trace elements in bio-indicators for environmental pollution control. The analyses were performed on leaves of Nerium oleander collected in streets with different levels of traffic flow in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with one sample from a rural zone. The leaves were collected from adult trees

  20. Studies on the constituents of the leaves of Nerium oleander on behavior pattern in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atiya Zia; Bina S. Siddiqui; Sabira Begum; Salimuzzaman Siddiqui; Amin Suria

    1995-01-01

    Fresh, undried and uncrushed leaves of Nerium oleander were subjected to methanol extraction and bioassay directed fractionation. This led to the isolation of two purified fractions namely, B-1 and B-3. Fractions B-1 and B-3 were studied with respect to their actions on the central nervous system and behavior pattern in mice. Both fractions were found to produce reduction in locomotor

  1. Cytochemical localization of pectinase activity in laticifers of Nerium oleander L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Allen; C. L. Nessler

    1984-01-01

    Summary A method is described for the cytochemical localization of pectinase activity at the ultrastructural level. The procedure involves the use of Benedict's reagent to form an electron-dense copper precipitate when reacted with reducing sugars liberated from exogenously supplied pectin. Using this technique, pectinase activity was examined in the nonarticulated, branched laticifers ofNerium oleander. Electron opaque crystalline deposits indicating the

  2. Three new cardenolides from methanol extract of stems and twigs of Nerium oleander.

    PubMed

    Bai, Liming; Zhao, Ming; Toki, Asami; Sakai, Jun-ichi; Yang, Xiao-yang; Bai, Yuhua; Ando, Mariko; Hirose, Katsutoshi; Ando, Masayoshi

    2010-08-01

    Two new cardenolide monoglycosides, cardenolides B-1 (1) and B-2 (2) were isolated from Nerium oleander, together with oleagenin (3) which is the first isolated compound from natural sources. The structure of compounds 1-3 were established on the basis of their spectroscopic data. PMID:20686265

  3. Preliminary toxicity study on the individual and combined effects of Citrullus colocynthis and Nerium oleander in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Al-Yahya; A. H. AL-Farhan; S. E. I. Adam

    2000-01-01

    The toxicity of diet containing 10% of Citrullus colocynthis fruits or 10% of Nerium oleander leaves or their 1:1 mixture (5%+5%) for rats treated for 6 weeks was determined. Dullness, ruffled hair, decreased body weight gains and feed efficiency, and enterohepatonephropathy characterised treatment with C. colocynthis and N. oleander given alone. Diarrhoea was a prominent sign of C. colocynthis poisoning.

  4. Biotransformation of 5?H-pregnan-3?ol-20-one and cardenolides in cell suspension cultures of Nerium oleander L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dietrich H. Paper; Gerhard Franz

    1990-01-01

    In order to demonstrate enzyme activities playing a role in the biosynthesis of cardenolides and 2,6-dideoxysugars, 5ßH-pregnan-3ßol-20-one and cardenolides (digitoxigenin, oleandrigenin\\/L-oleandrose, oleandrin, neriifolin, digitoxigeninmonodigitoxoside and strospeside) were fed to cell suspension cultures of Nerium oleander L.. It could be shown that cell suspension cultures of Nerium oleander L. are able to oxidize, isomerize and glucosylate 5ßH-steroidaglycones at C-3. The respective

  5. Molecular, Biochemical and Physiological Characterization of Gibberellin Biosynthesis and Catabolism Genes from Nerium oleander

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susana Ubeda-Tomás; José L. García-Martínez; Isabel López-Díaz

    2006-01-01

    Genomic and cDNA clones encoding two gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidases (named NoGA20ox1 and -2) and three GA 2-oxidases (NoGA2ox1, -2, and -3) have been isolated and characterized from Nerium oleander L. (oleander), a plant of horticultural importance in the Mediterranean region. NoGA2ox2 and -3 transcripts were abundant in expanding leaves and flower buds, whereas NoGA20ox1, -2 and NoGA2ox1 transcripts were barely

  6. Complete atrioventricular block after self-ingestion of Nerium oleander for relief of hemorrhoidal complaints.

    PubMed

    Küçükdurmaz, Zekeriya; Karapinar, Hekim; Gül, Ibrahim; Yilmaz, Ahmet

    2012-03-01

    Nerium oleander is a plant native only in the Mediterranean region, but it can also be cultivated worldwide, particularly in warm areas. Biologically active oleander compounds may be used for therapeutic purposes. However, when used for self-medication, it may cause serious problems including death. We present a 30-year-old otherwise healthy man who developed complete atrioventricular block after taking a syrup of N. oleander leaves for self-medication to relive hemorrhoidal complaints. The patient was treated by oral administration of charcoal combined with sodium sulfate as well as electrolyte solutions and transient use of an external cardiac pacemaker. The atrioventricular block reverted to sinus rhythm in 30 hours and he was discharged in good hemodynamic status and general condition. PMID:22710590

  7. Effects of the sap of the common oleander Nerium indicum (Apocyanaceae) on male fertility and spermatogenesis in the oriental tobacco budworm Helicoverpa assulta (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seong Eun Jeong; Yun Lee; Jeong Hee Hwang; Douglas C. Knipple

    We investigated the effects of sap of the common oleander Nerium indicum (Apocyanaceae) on male fertility and spermatogenesis in the oriental tobacco budworm Helicoverpa assulta. We found that continuous feeding of oleander sap during the larval period significantly affects fertility in males but not in females. This effect was also induced by direct injection of oleander sap into the hemocoel

  8. Nerium oleander derived cardiac glycoside oleandrin is a novel inhibitor of HIV infectivity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shailbala; Shenoy, Sachin; Nehete, Pramod N; Yang, Peiying; Nehete, Bharti; Fontenot, Danielle; Yang, Guojun; Newman, Robert A; Sastry, K Jagannadha

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of Anvirzel™, an aqueous extract of Nerium oleander on HIV infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Oleandrin, the principle cardiac glycoside (CG) in Anvirzel™ has been shown to exhibit anti-cancer properties but its efficacy against HIV is unknown. Treatment with Anvirzel™ significantly reduced the infectivity of virus produced from infected cells without any change in the total amount of virus produced. This is in contrast to treatment with AZT, a potent inhibitor of HIV replication that has been shown to significantly reduce virus production. Relative to untreated cultures, virus in cultures treated with oleandrin had significantly reduced expression of the envelope protein gp120, the sole determinant of virus infectivity, suggesting a novel mechanism underlying the impaired infectivity. These results support the potential utility of the Nerium oleander aqueous extract, containing the CG oleandrin as a novel candidate anti-HIV therapeutic. PMID:23127567

  9. Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Nerium oleander L. Grown in North of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mohadjerani, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    IN THIS STUDY, WE HAVE EXAMINED THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS (INCLUDING WATER, METHANOL, WATER : methanol and acetone) of Nerium oleander L. grown in the north of Iran by employing various in-vitro assay, i.e. DPPH free radical scavenging, reducing power and total antioxidant capacity through the Mo (VI) reduction. The extracts showed different levels of efficacy in each assay in a dose-dependent manner. Methanolic and aqueous methanolic extracts with the highest amount of total phenolic (by using the Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent method), were the most potent antioxidant in all of the assays that were used. According to the results of present study, Nerium oleander L. flowers were found to serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants. PMID:24250545

  10. Characterisation of acyl-ACP desaturases from Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche and Nerium oleander L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per O Gummeson; Marit Lenman; Michael Lee; Surinder Singh; Sten Stymne

    2000-01-01

    The seed oil in Macadamia integrifolia contains about 30% palmitoleic acid (16:1?9) and Nerium oleander about 12% isoricinoleic acid (?9-hydroxy-18:1?12). It has been shown that palmitoleic acid can be produced by acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturases and it has also been shown that fatty acid hydroxylation can occur via direct substitution of a hydrogen atom. Therefore it seemed possible that

  11. Endophytic fungi from Nerium oleander L (Apocynaceae): main constituents and antioxidant activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wu-Yang Huang; Yi-Zhong Cai; Kevin D. Hyde; Harold Corke; Mei Sun

    2007-01-01

    Diverse endophytic fungi exist within plant aerial tissues, with a global estimate of up to a million undescribed species.\\u000a These endophytes constitute a rich bio-resource for exploration to discover new natural products. Here we investigate fungal\\u000a endophytes associated with a medicinal plant, Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae). A total of 42 endophytic fungal strains were isolated from the host plant. Total

  12. Response of Najdi sheep to oral administration of Citrullus colocynthis fruits, Nerium oleander leaves or their mixture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. I. Adam; M. A. Al-Yahya; A. H. Al-Farhan

    2001-01-01

    Susceptibility of sheep to oral administration of Citrullus colocynthis fruits, Nerium oleander leaves or their mixture is described in 12 sheep assigned as untreated controls, C. colocynthis-treated at 0.25g\\/kg\\/day, N. oleander-treated at 0.25g\\/kg and plant mixture-treated at 0.25g of C.colocynthis\\/kg plus 0.25g of N. oleander\\/kg. The daily use of 0.25g of C. colocynthis\\/kg for 42 days was not fatal to

  13. Acute cardiac toxicity of nerium oleander/indicum poisoning (kaner) poisoning.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ibraheem; Kant, Chandra; Sanwaria, Anil; Meena, Lokesh

    2010-10-01

    We present a case of oleander leaf extract poisoning manifested by vomiting, lightheadedness, and heart block. Practicing physicians should understand the potential lethal properties of oleander and its availability throughout the world. PMID:21577379

  14. Cardioprotective effect of Nerium oleander flower against isoproterenol-induced myocardial oxidative stress in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Gayathri, Veeraraghavan; Ananthi, Subhash; Chandronitha, Chandranayagam; Ramakrishnan, Ganapathy; Lakshmisundaram, Raman; Sundaram, Raman Lakshmi; Vasanthi, Hannah R

    2011-03-01

    Nerium oleander Linn (NOL) an evergreen shrub belonging to the Apocynaceae family has been reported to have a wide spectrum of bioactivities. In in vitro study, the free radical scavenging potential of the hydroethanolic extract of N oleander Linn (ENO) flower and its fractions (glycosidic and nonglycosidic) were studied using 2, 2(')-azino-di [3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulphonate] (ABTS(*+) ) and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) scavenging assay. ENO exhibited better radical scavenging activities than its fractions. Furthermore, the cardioprotective role of ENO (10, 30, 100 mg/kg, per oral [po]) was tested against isoproterenol-induced myocardial toxicity (ISO, 120 mg/kg per day, subcutaneously [sc], for 2 days at 48 hours interval) in experimental rats when compared to propranolol (5 mg/kg, po) which was the standard. Pretreatment with ENO (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) and propranolol for 2 weeks followed by ISO challenge in rats prevented the elevation of marker enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ?-glutamyl transferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK-MB and creatine phosphokinase [CPK]), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in plasma. In addition, pretreatment with ENO and propranolol significantly attenuated the lipid peroxidation by maintaining the levels of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and nonenzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione and nitrite), which was also confirmed histologically. Taken together, the current study indicates that the hydroalcoholic extract of N oleander Linn flowers aid in cardioprotection probably by improving the antioxidant defense system during experimental myocardial necrosis. PMID:21191138

  15. Stimulation of oleandrin production by combined Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation and fungal elicitation in Nerium oleander cell cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amany K. Ibrahim; Sherief Khalifa; Ishrak Khafagi; Diaa Youssef; Ikhlas Khan; Mostafa Mesbah

    2007-01-01

    Suspension cultures derived from Agrobacterium tumefaciens-transformed calli were established in Nerium oleander L. The presence of the bacterial T-DNA in the transformed calli was detected by the polymerase chain reaction as well as plant hormone autotrophy. The ability of the cultures to accumulate oleandrin was confirmed using high performance liquid chromatography. The effect of fungal elicitors prepared from Aspergillus niger

  16. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis of trace elements in Nerium oleander for pollution monitoring q

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. F. O. de Jesus; S. M. Simabucob U; M. J. dos Anjosc; R. T. Lopesa

    This works describes the use of synchrotron radiation fluorescence analysis as a technique for monitoring trace elements in bio-indicators for environmental pollution control. The analyses were performed on leaves of Nerium oleander collected in streets with different levels of traffic flow in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with one sample from a rural zone. The leaves were collected from adult trees

  17. A hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of Nerium oleander inhibits glycolysis and induces selective killing of lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Montaño, José Manuel; Burgos-Morón, Estefanía; Orta, Manuel Luis; Mateos, Santiago; López-Lázaro, Miguel

    2013-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that cardiac glycosides might be used for the treatment of cancer. The ornamental shrub Nerium oleander has been used in traditional medicine for treating several disorders including cancer, and extracts from the leaves of this plant have already entered phase I clinical trials. In this communication, we have prepared a hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of Nerium oleander (containing 4.75 ± 0.32 % of cardenolides) and have assessed its cytotoxic activity in A549 lung cancer cells vs. MRC5 nonmalignant lung fibroblasts. The results showed that the cytotoxicity of the Nerium oleander extract against the cancer cell line was significantly higher than that against the nonmalignant cell line, with a potency and selectivity similar to those of the anticancer drug cisplatin. Pretreatment of A549 cells with the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and catalase slightly prevented the cytotoxicity of the extract, therefore suggesting that the formation of reactive oxygen species participates in its cytotoxic activity but does not play a major role. Nerium oleander extract-induced cytotoxicity and DNA damage (gamma-H2AX focus formation) were slightly higher in cells lacking BRCA2 (deficient in homologous recombination repair) than in parental cells; this indicates that the induction of DNA damage may also play a role in the cytotoxicity of the extract. Nerium oleander extract induced a marked inhibition of glycolysis (glucose consumption and lactate production) in A549 cells, comparable to that of the glycolysis inhibitor dichloroacetate (currently in clinical development for cancer therapy). Because platinum compounds are widely used in the treatment of lung cancer, we tested the cytotoxicity of several combinations of cisplatin with the extract and found a moderate synergism when Nerium oleander extract was administered after cisplatin but a moderate antagonism when it was added before cisplatin. Our results suggest that extracts from Nerium oleander might induce anticancer effects in patients with lung cancer and support their possible advancement into phase II clinical trials for the treatment of this type of cancer. PMID:23824549

  18. Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis of trace elements in Nerium oleander for pollution monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jesus, E. F. O.; Simabuco, S. M.; dos Anjos, M. J.; Lopes, R. T.

    2000-07-01

    This works describes the use of synchrotron radiation fluorescence analysis as a technique for monitoring trace elements in bio-indicators for environmental pollution control. The analyses were performed on leaves of Nerium oleander collected in streets with different levels of traffic flow in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with one sample from a rural zone. The leaves were collected from adult trees in December and April. The measurement was made with a white beam of synchrotron radiation calibrated with thin samples from MicroMatter. The results indicate that some metals such as Ti, V, Fe and Zn have major content in samples that were collected in places with a high traffic flow, even in the leaves that have been washed. The levels of Mn, Co, Cu and Ni did not show significant differences between the samples. The Pb level also did not vary significantly. This was expected because in Brazil gasoline without Pb has been used for many years. The results seem to indicate that the leaves from Nerium oleander absorb metals from the atmosphere and may be used as an environmental indicator.

  19. Untersuchungen über die Biosynthese der Cyclite, 17. Mitt.: Bildung vond-bornesit und Dambonit in Nerium oleander

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kindl; O. Hoffmann-Ostenhof

    1966-01-01

    Dambonit (1,3-Di-O-methyl-myo-inosit) entsteht inNerium oleander, wie durch Einbauversuche mit radioaktiv markiertemmyo-Inosit undd-Bornesit sowie durch Bestimmung der Zeitabhängigkeit der Bildung der Cyclite bei Assimilation von14CO2 nachgewiesen wurde, ausmyo-Inosit überd-Bornesit als Zwischenprodukt. Neben Dambonit finden sich in der Cyclitfraktion vonN. oleander auchd-Bornesit,myo-Inosit sowiel-Leucanthemit.myo-Inosit unterliegt in der Pflanze-besonders im Winter-einem sehr intensiven Stoffwechsel, der zu nichtzyklischen Verbindungen führt.

  20. Characterisation and bioactivity of oosporein produced by endophytic fungus Cochliobolus kusanoi isolated from Nerium oleander L.

    PubMed

    Alurappa, Ramesha; Bojegowda, Madhusudhan Reddy Muthukurpalya; Kumar, Vijith; Mallesh, Naveen Kumar; Chowdappa, Srinivas

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive compounds comprising secondary metabolites produced by endophytic fungi have wide applications in pharmacology and agriculture. Isolation, characterisation and evaluation of biological activities of secondary metabolites were carried out from Cochliobolus kusanoi an endophytic fungus of Nerium oleander L. The fungus was identified based on 18S rDNA sequence analysis. There are no reports available on the compounds of C.kusanoi hence, antimicrobial metabolite produced by this fungus was extracted and purified by fractionation using hexane, diethyl ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Out of all the solvent fractions, the methanol fraction exhibited better antimicrobial activity which was further purified and characterised as oosporein. Oosporein from C.kusanoi exhibited broad spectrum in vitro antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. The characterisation and antioxidant activity of oosporein from C. kusanoi are reported for the first time. PMID:24934634

  1. Atividade alelopática de Nerium Oleander L. e Dieffenbachia picta schott em sementes de Lactuca Sativa L. e Bidens pilosa L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clairomar Emílio; Flores Hoffmann; Luiz Augusto; Cristiane Freitas Bastos; Gabriel da Luz Wallau

    SUMMARY Aqueous extracts from green leaves of Nerium oleander L. and Dieffenbachia picta in concentrations of 0; 0,0625; 0,125 and 0,25 mg\\/mL were prepared with the objective of studying the allelopathic potential of these ornamental plant species on lettuce (test plant) and Bidens pilosa L seeds. The experiments were carried out in January of 2007, at the Genetic Laboratory of

  2. Photoinhibition of photosynthesis: effect on chlorophyll fluorescence at 77K in intact leaves and in chloroplast membranes of Nerium oleander

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen B. Powles; Olle Björkman

    1982-01-01

    The effect of exposing intact leaves and isolated chloroplast membranes of Nerium oleander L. to excessive light levels under otherwise favorable conditions was followed by measuring photosynthetic CO2 uptake, electron transport and low-temperature (77K=-196°C) fluorescence kinetics. Photoinhibition, as manifested by a reduced rate and photon (quantum) yield of photosynthesis and a reduced electron transport rate, was accompanied by marked changes

  3. Metal uptake and distribution in cultured seedlings of Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae) from the Río Tinto (Huelva, Spain).

    PubMed

    Franco, Alejandro; Rufo, Lourdes; Zuluaga, Javier; de la Fuente, Vicenta

    2013-10-01

    Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae) is a micro-nano phanerophyte that grows in the riverbanks of the Río Tinto basin (Southwest Iberian Peninsula). The waters and soils of the Río Tinto area are highly acidic and have high concentrations of heavy metals. In this environment, N. oleander naturally grows in both extreme acidic (EA) and less extreme acidic (LEA) water courses, excluding, and bioindicating certain metals. In this work, we compared and evaluated the accumulation preferences and capacities, the distribution and processes of biomineralization of metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Mg, Ca) in the first stages of growth of EA and LEA oleanders by means of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray analyzer analysis. Seeds from both environments were grown and treated with a self-made solution simulating the most extreme red waters from the Río Tinto. LEA plants drastically reduces the metal uptake at the beginning, but later reactivates the uptake reaching concentration values in the same range as the EA plants. The results showed high Mn, Zn and Mg concentrations, accumulation of Fe and Cu in plants from both environments, differing from the metal concentrations of field-grown oleanders. Iron bioformations with traces of other metals were present inside and over epidermal cells and inside vascular cells of stems and roots. They were absent of leaves. The accumulation properties of N. oleander in its early stages of development make it a species to take in consideration in phytoremediation processes but optimized conditions are needed to ensure enough biomass production. PMID:23892697

  4. Flavonoid and cardenolide glycosides and a pentacyclic triterpene from the leaves of Nerium oleander and evaluation of cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Bina Shaheen; Khatoon, Nasima; Begum, Sabira; Farooq, Ahsana Dar; Qamar, Kehkashan; Bhatti, Huma Aslam; Ali, Syed Kashif

    2012-05-01

    A pentacyclic triterpene, oleanderocioic acid, two flavonoidal glycosides, quercetin-5-O-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?6)]-?-D-glucopyranoside and kaempferol-5-O-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-D-glucopyranoside, and a cardenolide, oleandigoside, together with 11 known compounds, were isolated from the leaves of Nerium oleander. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. The growth inhibitory and cytotoxic activities of eight compounds were evaluated against the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line using a sulforhodamine B assay. Three compounds, oleandrin, odoroside A and B were further assayed using a panel of 57 human cancer cell lines. PMID:22281382

  5. Toxic effect of ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae) leaves against different developmental stages of Muscina stabulans (Diptera-Muscidae).

    PubMed

    el-Shazly, M M; Nassar, M I; el-Sherief, H A

    1996-08-01

    Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae) is evergreen shrubs widely used for ornamental purpose in mediterranean region. The present investigation, revealed for the first time the insecticidal effect of ethanolic extract from leaves of this plant against 2nd instar larvae of the medically important false stable fly Muscina stabulans (Diptera: Muscidae). LC50 of the extract was 113.66 ppm. This dose delayed larval and pupal duration suppressed oviposition and decreased adult longevity of the survivors. Morphogenic abnormalities were recorded and photographed in larval, pupal and adult stages, which were produced from treating 2nd instar larvae with different concentrations of the extract. PMID:8754654

  6. Nerium oleander indirect leaf photosynthesis and light harvesting reductions after clipping injury or Spodoptera eridania herbivory: high sensitivity to injury.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Kevin J

    2012-04-01

    Variable indirect photosynthetic rate (P(n)) responses occur on injured leaves after insect herbivory. It is important to understand factors that influence indirect P(n) reductions after injury. The current study examines the relationship between gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters with injury intensity (% single leaf tissue removal) from clipping or Spodoptera eridania Stoll (Noctuidae) herbivory on Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae). Two experiments showed intercellular [CO(2)] increases but P(n) and stomatal conductance reductions with increasing injury intensity, suggesting non-stomatal P(n) limitation. Also, P(n) recovery was incomplete at 3d post-injury. This is the first report of a negative exponential P(n) impairment function with leaf injury intensity to suggest high N. oleander leaf sensitivity to indirect P(n) impairment. Negative linear functions occurred between most other gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters with injury intensity. The degree of light harvesting impairment increased with injury intensity via lower (1) photochemical efficiency indicated lower energy transfer efficiency from reaction centers to PSII, (2) photochemical quenching indicated reaction center closure, and (3) electron transport rates indicated less energy traveling through PSII. Future studies can examine additional mechanisms (mesophyll conductance, carbon fixation, and cardenolide induction) to cause N. oleander indirect leaf P(n) reductions after injury. PMID:22325884

  7. New sightings of Glyphodes onychinalis (Guenée) (Pyraloidea: Crambidae: Spilomelinae), a recent arrival to the United States, and description of the larva reared on oleander (Nerium sp.) in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2007 and 2008, Don Sterba of Culver City, Los Angeles Co., observed the adults of Glyphodes onychinalis (Guenée), a non-native crambid, in large numbers. It was first reported new to the United States from Newport Beach, California in 2000 where it was reared from oleander (Nerium sp.). The la...

  8. LEAVES OF NERIUM OLEANDER L. AS BIOACCUMULATORS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAH) IN THE AIR OF PALERMO (ITALY): EXTRACTION AND GC-MS ANALYSIS, DISTRIBUTION AND SOURCES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loredana Culotta; Antonio Gianguzza; Santino Orecchio

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in the leaves of Nerium oleander L. an evergreen plant that occurs widely in both urban and rural areas, to monitor the degree of pollution in the urban area of Palermo (Italy) compared to remote areas. Twenty sites (urban roadside, urban, urban park, suburban and rural) in and around Palermo city were investigated.The purpose

  9. The composition and relationships between trace element levels in inhalable atmospheric particles (PM 10) and in leaves of Nerium oleander L. and Lantana camara L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Fernández Espinosa; S. Rossini Oliva

    2006-01-01

    In order to evaluate the composition of inhalable atmospheric particles and to study the relationship between trace element levels in PM10 and in leaves of two plant species, the amount of Ba, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ti and V were analysed in PM10 and in Nerium oleander L. and Lantana camara L. leaves from two sites in the city of

  10. Antidiabetic activity evaluation of glimepiride and Nerium oleander extract on insulin, glucose levels and some liver enzymes activities in experimental diabetic rat model.

    PubMed

    Mwafy, Saleh N; Yassin, Maged M

    2011-11-01

    The present study is aimed to assess the therapeutic potential of sulfonylurea drug glimepiride in comparison with Nerium oleander plant extract on insulin, glucose levels and some liver enzymes activities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Rats were rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of 50 mg kg(-1) body weight streptozotocin. Rats with serum glucose levels > 200 mg dL(-1) were subdivided into three sub-groups: the first sub-group were remained without treatment and considered as diabetics. The second and third subgroups were orally administered 0.1 mg kg(-1) body weight/day glimepiride and 250 mg kg(-1) body weight/day Nerium oleander, respectively for 4 weeks. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed hypoinsulinemia and hyperglycemia compared to controls. Strong negative correlation (r = -0.8) was found between serum insulin and glucose levels in diabetic rats. This correlation was +0.4 and -0.3 in glimepiride and Nerium olender-treated rats, respectively implying that glimepiride and plant extract improved insulin and glucose levels with the former was more efficient. The activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were significantly increased in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats compared to controls. Treatment of diabetic rats with glimepiride or Nerium oleander extract also improved liver enzymes activities. PMID:22514888

  11. Oleander toxicity: an examination of human and animal toxic exposures.

    PubMed

    Langford, S D; Boor, P J

    1996-05-01

    The oleander is an attractive and hardy shrub that thrives in tropical and subtropical regions. The common pink oleander, Nerium oleander, and the yellow oleander, Thevetia peruviana, are the principle oleander representatives of the family Apocynaceae. Oleanders contain within their tissues cardenolides that are capable of exerting positive inotropic effects on the hearts of animals and humans. The cardiotonic properties of oleanders have been exploited therapeutically and as an instrument of suicide since antiquity. The basis for the physiological action of the oleander cardenolides is similar to that of the classic digitalis glycosides, i.e. inhibition of plasmalemma Na+,K+ ATPase. Differences in toxicity and extracardiac effects exist between the oleander and digitalis cardenolides, however. Toxic exposures of humans and wildlife to oleander cardenolides occur with regularity throughout geographic regions where these plants grow. The human mortality associated with oleander ingestion is generally very low, even in cases of intentional consumption (suicide attempts). Experimental animal models have been successfully utilized to evaluate various treatment protocols designed to manage toxic oleander exposures. The data reviewed here indicate that small children and domestic livestock are at increased risk of oleander poisoning. Both experimental and established therapeutic measures involved in detoxification are discussed. PMID:8619248

  12. Unexpected double lethal oleander poisoning.

    PubMed

    Papi, Luigi; Luciani, Alessandro Bassi; Forni, David; Giusiani, Mario

    2012-03-01

    Nerium oleander is a very popular urban ornamental plant in Europe, but it is also extremely dangerous because it contains several types of glycosides, accidental ingestion of which can cause cardiac arrhythmias and even deaths. The rarity of such cases makes it difficult to think of oleander poisoning without evidences that suggest this possibility as the cause of the unexpected death. This report concerns the discovery of the bodies of 2 young people, a man and a woman, in a forest in conditions of extreme malnutrition. Medicolegal investigations showed neither pathologic nor traumatic causes of death, but the presence of vegetal remains in the stomach was noticed. A common toxicological analysis resulted negative, but the implementation of more detailed investigations showed the presence of digoxin in the blood of both cadavers, excluding the possibility of a pharmaceutical provenience of digoxin, this laboratory result was interpreted as evidence of ingestion of oleander, which contains oleandrine, the cross reaction of which with digoxin is widely described in the literature. Identification of the 2 subjects, which occurred after 4 years, strengthened the hypothesis of accidental poisoning by oleander because it was ascertained that the 2 young people were vegans--extreme vegetarians who reject the ingestion of foods of animal origin and live by eating only what they find in nature. PMID:21926903

  13. Injured and uninjured leaf photosynthetic responses after mechanical injury on Nerium oleander leaves, and Danaus plexippus herbivory on Asclepias curassavica leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin J. Delaney

    2008-01-01

    Insect herbivory has variable effects on plant physiology; so greater understanding is needed about how injury alters photosynthesis\\u000a on individual injured and uninjured leaves. Gas exchange and light-adapted leaf chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were\\u000a collected from uninjured and mechanical partial leaf defoliation in two experiments with Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae) leaves, and one experiment with Danaus plexippus herbivory on Asclepias curassavica (Asclepiadaceae)

  14. Dithiothreitol, an inhibitor of violaxanthin de-epoxidation, increases the susceptibility of leaves of Nerium oleander L. to photoinhibition of photosynthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Winter; Martina Kiiniger

    1989-01-01

    Leaves ofNerium oleander L. plants, which had been previously kept in a shaded glasshouse for at least two months, were fed 1 mM dithiothreitol (DTT)\\u000a through their petioles, either for 12h in darkness (overnight) or for 2h in low light (28 ?mol photons·m?2·s?1), in each case followed by a 3-h exposure to high light (1260 ?mol photons·m?2·s?1). During exposure to

  15. Evaluation of leaf aqueous extract and synthesized silver nanoparticles using Nerium oleander against Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Roni, Mathath; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2013-03-01

    Green nanoparticle synthesis has been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract and ecofriendly reducing and capping agents. The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using leaf extract of Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae) against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications. It was found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by the aqueous extract of the plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in water. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy analysis. The production of the AgNPs synthesized using leaf extract of N. oleander was evaluated through a UV-Vis spectrophotometer in a wavelength range of 200 to 700 nm. This revealed a peak at 440 nm in N. oleander leaf extracts, indicating the production of AgNPs. The FTIR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at 509.12 cm(-1) (C-H bend alkenes), 1,077.05 cm(-1) (C-O stretch alcohols), 1,600.63 cm(-1) (N-H bend amines), 2,736.49 and 2,479.04 cm(-1) (O-H stretch carboxylic acids), and 3,415.31 cm(-1) (N-H stretching due to amines group). An SEM micrograph showed 20-35-nm-size aggregates of spherical- and cubic-shaped nanoparticles. EDX showed the complete chemical composition of the synthesized nanoparticles of silver. Larvicidal activity of aqueous leaf extract of N. oleander and synthesized AgNPs was carried out against Anopheles stephensi, and the results showed that the highest larval mortality was found in the synthesized AgNPs against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi with the following values: LC(50) of instar larvae 20.60, 24.90, 28.22, and 33.99 ppm; LC(90) of instar larvae 41.62, 50.33, 57.78, and 68.41 ppm; and LC(50) and LC(90) of pupae 39.55 and 79.10 ppm, respectively. The aqueous leaf extract exhibited larval toxicity against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi with the following values: LC(50) of instar larvae 232.90, 273.71, 318.94, and 369.96 ppm; LC(90) of instar larvae 455.95, 563.10, 639.86, and 730.30 ppm; and LC(50) and LC(90) of pupae 426.01 and 805.13 ppm, respectively. The chi-square value was significant at p?oleander to synthesize silver nanoparticles is a rapid, environmentally safer, and greener approach for mosquito control. This could lead us to a new possibility in vector-control strategy. PMID:23239092

  16. The structure of a new cardenolide diglycoside and the biological activities of eleven cardenolide diglycosides from Nerium oleander.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Bai, Liming; Toki, Asami; Hasegawa, Ryo; Sakai, Jun-ichi; Hasegawa, Toshiaki; Ogura, Hirotsugu; Kataoka, Takao; Bai, Yuhua; Ando, Mariko; Hirose, Katsutoshi; Ando, Masayoshi

    2011-01-01

    A new cardenolide diglycoside (1) was isolated from Nerium oleander together with ten known cardenolide diglycosides 2-11. The structure of compound 1 was established on the basis of their spectroscopic data. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of compounds 1-11 was examined on the basis of inhibitory activity against the induction of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Compounds 2-5 were active at an IC(50) value of less than 0.8 µM. The cytotoxicity of compounds 1-11 was evaluated against three human cell lines normal human fibroblast cells (WI-38), malignant tumor cells induced from WI-38 (VA-13), and human liver tumor cells (HepG2). Compound 3 was active toward VA-13 cells, and compounds 2-5 were active toward HepG2 cells at IC(50) values of less than 1.3 µM. The multidrug resistance (MDR)-reversal activity of compounds 1-11 was evaluated on the basis of the amount of calcein in MDR human ovarian cancer 2780AD cells in the presence of each compound. Compounds 1 and 8 showed moderate effects on calcein accumulation. PMID:21372420

  17. Nerium oleander Distillate Improves Fat and Glucose Metabolism in High-Fat Diet-Fed Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Bas, Ahmet Levent; Demirci, Sule; Yazihan, Nuray; Uney, Kamil; Ermis Kaya, Ezgi

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (35?mg/kg bw) in all rats of five groups after being fed for 2 weeks high-fat diet. Type 2 diabetic Nerium-oleander- (NO-) administered groups received the NO distillate at a dose of 3.75, 37.5, and 375??g/0.5?mL of distilled water (NO-0.1, NO-1, NO-10, resp.); positive control group had 0.6?mg glibenclamide/kg bw/d by gavage daily for 12 weeks. Type 2 diabetic negative control group had no treatment. NO distillate administration reduced fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, atherogenic index, triglyceride-HDL ratio, insulin, and leptin levels. Improved beta cell function and HDL concentration were observed by NO usage. HDL percentage in total cholesterol of all NO groups was similar to healthy control. NO-10 distillate enhanced mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated-receptor- (PPAR-) ?, ?, and ? in adipose tissue and PPAR-?-? in liver. The findings from both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that the considerable beneficial effect of NO distillate administration at a dose of 375??g/0.5?mL of distilled water may offer new approaches to treatment strategies that target both fat and glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes. PMID:23251156

  18. The Nerium oleander aphid Aphis nerii is tolerant to a local isolate of Aphid lethal paralysis virus (ALPV).

    PubMed

    Dombrovsky, Aviv; Luria, Neta

    2013-04-01

    In a survey that was conducted during the year 2011, a local strain of Aphid lethal paralysis virus (ALPV) was identified and isolated from a wild population of Aphis nerii aphids living on Nerium oleander plants located in northern Israel. The new strain was tentatively named (ALPV-An). RNA extracted from the viral particles allowed the amplification and determination of the complete genome sequence. The virus genome is comprised of 9835 nucleotides. In a BLAST search analysis, the ALPV-An sequence showed 89 % nucleotide sequence identity with the whole genome of a South African ALPV and 96 and 94 % amino acid sequence identity with the ORF1 and ORF2 of that strain, respectively. In preliminary experiments, spray-applied, purified ALPV virions were highly pathogenic to the green peach aphid Myzus persicae; 95 % mortality was recorded 4 days post-infection. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential of ALPV for use as a biologic agent for some aphid control. Surprisingly, no visible ALPV pathogenic effects, such as morphological changes or paralysis, were observed in the A. nerii aphids infected with ALPV-An. The absence of clear ALPV symptoms in A. nerii led to the formulation of two hypotheses, which were partially examined in this study. The first hypothesis suggest that A. nerii is resistant or tolerant of ALPV, while the second hypothesis propose that ALPV-An may be a mild strain of ALPV. Currently, our results is in favor with the first hypothesis since ALPV-An is cryptic in A. nerii aphids and can be lethal for M. persicae aphids. PMID:23229204

  19. Change in Uptake, Transport and Accumulation of Ions in Nerium oleander (Rosebay) as Affected by Different Nitrogen Sources and Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Abdolzadeh, Ahmad; Shima, Kazuto; Lambers, Hans; Chiba, Kyozo

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims The source of nitrogen plays an important role in salt tolerance of plants. In this study, the effects of NaCl on net uptake, accumulation and transport of ions were investigated in Nerium oleander with ammonium or nitrate as the nitrogen source in order to analyse differences in uptake and cycling of ions within plants. Methods Plants were grown in a greenhouse in hydroponics under different salt treatments (control vs. 100 mm NaCl) with ammonium or nitrate as the nitrogen source, and changes in ion concentration in plants, xylem sap exuded from roots and stems, and phloem sap were determined. Key Results Plant weight, leaf area and photosynthetic rate showed a higher salt tolerance of nitrate-fed plants compared with that of ammonium-fed plants. The total amount of Na+ transported in the xylem in roots, accumulated in the shoot and retranslocated in the phloem of ammonium-fed plants under salt treatment was 1·8, 1·9 and 2·7 times more, respectively, than that of nitrate-treated plants. However, the amount of Na+ accumulated in roots in nitrate-fed plants was about 1·5 times higher than that in ammonium-fed plants. Similarly, Cl? transport via the xylem to the shoot and its retranslocation via the phloem (Cl? cycling) were far greater with ammonium treatment than with nitrate treatment under conditions of salinity. The uptake and accumulation of K+ in shoots decreased more due to salinity in ammonium-fed plants compared with nitrate-fed plants. In contrast, K+ cycling in shoots increased due to salinity, with higher rates in the ammonium-treated plants. Conclusions The faster growth of nitrate-fed plants under conditions of salinity was associated with a lower transport and accumulation of Na+ and Cl? in the shoot, whereas in ammonium-fed plants accumulation and cycling of Na+ and Cl? in shoots probably caused harmful effects and reduced growth of plants. PMID:18772147

  20. Electrocardiographic changes during inhalational oleander toxicity.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Meenakshisundaram, Ramachandran; Michaels, Andrew D; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian, Ponniah

    2011-01-01

    Inhalational oleander toxicity was considered in a family of 4 by history of exposure to smoke from burning oleander twigs. Electrocardiography revealed first- and second-degree atrioventricular block with digoxin-like ST-T-wave changes, suggestive of oleander toxicity in the absence of exposure to digoxin or other herbal medicines, and without systemic illness. Complete blood count, biometabolic profile, chest x-ray, and echocardiography did not reveal any abnormalities. Electrocardiographies normalized within 4 days when kept away from offending agents. Because oleander plant materials are used for burning, people are exposed to inhalational oleander toxicity. Hence, practitioners shall consider such poisonings in them. PMID:21397908

  1. Effect of Nerium oleander (N.O.) Leaves Extract on Serum hepcidin, Total Iron, and Infiltration of ED1 Positive Cells in Albino Rat

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Muddasir Hassan; Fatima, Sana; Naz, Naila; Malik, Ihtzaz A.

    2013-01-01

    To gain insight into the hepatohistological alterations in noninjured rat liver, Nerium oleander (N.O.) leaves extract was injected intramuscularly to induce an acute phase reaction (APR). Histopathological changes were studied after 3, 12, and 24?h time course of sterile muscle abscess. Tissue integrity and any infiltration of inflammatory cells in the liver were investigated by Hematoxylin and Eosin and ED1 peroxidase stainings. The administration of N.O. leaves extract (10?mL/kg) in H & E stained sections showed a general vacuolization of cytoplasm resulting loss of polarity with prominent nucleoli after 3?h of induction. At 12?h, eccentric nuclei were also observed in the sections. Marked infiltration of leucocytes with predominate macrophages was also found after 24?h as seen by ED1 positive staining. In the present study, a possible relationship between serum hepcidin and total iron level was also investigated in vivo. An early increase of hepcidin and total iron level (3?h) with a maximum at 12?h (P < 0.01; P < 0.001) was observed. These changes indicate that sterile muscle abscess may induce APR resulting in hepatic damage which is evident with the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the organ. PMID:24069586

  2. Effect of Nerium oleander (N.O.) leaves extract on serum hepcidin, total iron, and infiltration of ED1 positive cells in albino rat.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Muddasir Hassan; Fatima, Sana; Naz, Naila; Malik, Ihtzaz A; Sheikh, Nadeem

    2013-01-01

    To gain insight into the hepatohistological alterations in noninjured rat liver, Nerium oleander (N.O.) leaves extract was injected intramuscularly to induce an acute phase reaction (APR). Histopathological changes were studied after 3, 12, and 24 h time course of sterile muscle abscess. Tissue integrity and any infiltration of inflammatory cells in the liver were investigated by Hematoxylin and Eosin and ED1 peroxidase stainings. The administration of N.O. leaves extract (10 mL/kg) in H & E stained sections showed a general vacuolization of cytoplasm resulting loss of polarity with prominent nucleoli after 3 h of induction. At 12 h, eccentric nuclei were also observed in the sections. Marked infiltration of leucocytes with predominate macrophages was also found after 24 h as seen by ED1 positive staining. In the present study, a possible relationship between serum hepcidin and total iron level was also investigated in vivo. An early increase of hepcidin and total iron level (3 h) with a maximum at 12 h (P < 0.01; P < 0.001) was observed. These changes indicate that sterile muscle abscess may induce APR resulting in hepatic damage which is evident with the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the organ. PMID:24069586

  3. In vitro and in vivo neuroprotective activity of the cardiac glycoside oleandrin from Nerium oleander in brain slice-based stroke models.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Denise E; He, Dong Ning; Yang, Peiying; Johansen, Mary; Newman, Robert A; Lo, Donald C

    2011-11-01

    The principal active constituent of the botanical drug candidate PBI-05204, a supercritical CO(2) extract of Nerium oleander, is the cardiac glycoside oleandrin. PBI-05204 shows potent anticancer activity and is currently in phase I clinical trial as a treatment for patients with solid tumors. We have previously shown that neriifolin, which is structurally related to oleandrin, provides robust neuroprotection in brain slice and whole animal models of ischemic injury. However, neriifolin itself is not a suitable drug development candidate and the FDA-approved cardiac glycoside digoxin does not cross the blood-brain barrier. We report here that both oleandrin as well as the full PBI-05204 extract can also provide significant neuroprotection to neural tissues damaged by oxygen and glucose deprivation as occurs in ischemic stroke. Critically, we show that the neuroprotective activity of PBI-05204 is maintained for several hours of delay of administration after oxygen and glucose deprivation treatment. We provide evidence that the neuroprotective activity of PBI-05204 is mediated through oleandrin and/or other cardiac glycoside constituents, but that additional, non-cardiac glycoside components of PBI-05204 may also contribute to the observed neuroprotective activity. Finally, we show directly that both oleandrin and the protective activity of PBI-05204 are blood brain barrier penetrant in a novel model for in vivo neuroprotection. Together, these findings suggest clinical potential for PBI-05204 in the treatment of ischemic stroke and prevention of associated neuronal death. PMID:21950737

  4. The effect of urban ground cover on microclimate, growth and leaf gas exchange of oleander in Phoenix, Arizona

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin C. Mueller; Thomas A. Day

    2005-01-01

    We assessed how small patches of contrasting urban ground cover [mesiscape (turf), xeriscape (gravel), concrete, and asphalt] altered the microclimate and performance of adjacent oleander ( Nerium oleander L.) plants in Phoenix, Arizona during fall\\/winter (September–February) and spring\\/summer (March–September). Ground-cover and oleander canopy surface temperatures, canopy air temperatures and pot soil temperatures tended to be lowest in the mesiscape and

  5. The effect of urban ground cover on microclimate, growth and leaf gas exchange of oleander in Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Erin C.; Day, Thomas A.

    2005-03-01

    We assessed how small patches of contrasting urban ground cover [mesiscape (turf), xeriscape (gravel), concrete, and asphalt] altered the microclimate and performance of adjacent oleander (Nerium oleander L.) plants in Phoenix, Arizona during fall/winter (September February) and spring/summer (March September). Ground-cover and oleander canopy surface temperatures, canopy air temperatures and pot soil temperatures tended to be lowest in the mesiscape and highest in the asphalt and concrete. Canopy air vapor pressure deficits were lowest in the mesiscape and highest in the asphalt plot. Rates of net photosynthesis of all oleander plants were highest in October and May, and declined through mid-summer (June July), when rates tended to be highest in the cooler mesiscape, particularly when water was limiting. During fall/winter, oleanders in the mesiscape produced 20% less biomass, 13% less leaf area, and had 12% lower relative growth rates (RG) than those in the other ground covers. Lower nighttime temperatures in the mesiscape in December led to oleander frost damage. During spring/summer, oleanders in the mesiscape produced 11% more biomass, 16% more leaf area, and had 3% higher RG than those in the other cover types. The effects of urban ground cover on oleander performance were season-specific; while oleander growth was greatest in the mesiscape during spring/summer, it was lowest during fall/winter and these plants experienced frost damage. Because all oleander plants produced >10 times as much biomass during the spring/summer, on an annual basis oleanders in the mesiscape produced 5 11% more biomass than plants in the warmer ground covers.

  6. Specific detection and identification of Xylella fastidiosa strains causing oleander leaf scorch by polymerase chain reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A pair of PCR primers, QH-OLS05/QH-OLS08, was developed that is specific for strains of Xylella fastidiosa causing oleander leaf scorch. The primers were designed based on DNA sequence of a randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR product unique to oleander strains. The PCR assay using primer p...

  7. Rapid detection of oleander poisoning by Dimension Vista digoxin assay (Flex Reagent Cartridge).

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Amitava; Klein, Kimberley; Risin, Semyon A; Actor, Jeffrey K

    2011-01-01

    Oleander poisoning can be detected by digoxin immunoassays and for last two decades the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) has been used for rapid detection of oleander poisoning in clinical laboratories. Recently, Abbott Laboratories (Abbott Park, IL) discontinued this assay. Therefore, we explored the possibility of using another digoxin assay (Dimension Vista Flex Reagent Cartridge, Tina Quant, EMIT 2000 and old FPIA assay for comparison) for rapid detection of oleander poisoning. When aliquots of drug-free serum pools were supplemented with pure oleandrin or oleander extract, we observed the highest apparent digoxin values using Dimension Vista digoxin assay (Flex Reagent Cartridge). We also observed significant apparent digoxin values in vivo in sera of mice both 1 and 2 ?hr after feeding with oleander extract. When a serum pool prepared from patients taking digoxin was further supplemented with various amounts of oleander extract, the highest falsely elevated digoxin values were observed with Dimension Vista digoxin assay. Monitoring free digoxin using Dimension Vista digoxin assay (Flex Reagent Cartridge) did not eliminate this interference. Digibind neutralized digoxin-like factors of oleander extract and such effect can be monitored by observing significant reduction in apparent free digoxin levels in the presence of Digibind as measured in the protein-free ultrafiltrate using Dimension Vista digoxin assay (Flex Reagent Cartridge). PMID:21438002

  8. Ultrastructure and development of laticifers in Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae)

    E-print Network

    Stockstill, Barbara Layne

    1983-01-01

    : ~A1 \\ ' (8' ~ ', 1978), A. (911 dhhlb 8, 1988)) d 1 h Ebb bd: ~Eh bh h 1 (Marty, 1968), Ficus carica (Rachmilevitz and Fahn, 1982), F. elastica (Heinrich, 1970). The formation of the central vacuole in the nonarticu- lated, branched laticifers... formation in the nonazticulated branched latici- fers of ~Pa aver somnifezum (Nessler and Mahlbezg, 1977). Rachmilevitz and Fahn (1982) reported the presence of dilated ER in the nonarticu- lated, branched laticifers of Ficus cazica and its possible -ole...

  9. A TaqMan-based real time PCR assay for specific detection and quantification of Xylella fastidiosa strains causing bacterial leaf scorch in oleander

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay is developed for strains of X. fastidiosa causing oleander leaf scorch. The assay uses primers WG-OLS-F1 and WG-OLS-R1 and the fluorescent probe WG-OLS-P1, designed based on unique sequences present only in genomic sequence of oleander strain Ann1. The assay is spe...

  10. Eating seeds from the 'be still' tree, yet having lucky nut poisoning: a case of acute yellow oleander poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fentanes, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    A 25-year-old woman was evaluated and treated for ingestion of Thevetia peruviana seeds and flower petals-a natural digoxin cross reacting cardinolide-with intent to cause self-harm. The following case report provides the clinical presentation, treatment and management of acute yellow oleander poisoning. PMID:24898992

  11. A TaqMan-based real time PCR assay for specific detection and quantification of Xylella fastidiosa strains causing bacterial leaf scorch in oleander.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wei; Shao, Jonathan; Singh, Raghuwinder; Davis, Robert E; Zhao, Tingchang; Huang, Qi

    2013-02-15

    A TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay was developed for specific detection of strains of X. fastidiosa causing oleander leaf scorch. The assay uses primers WG-OLS-F1 and WG-OLS-R1 and the fluorescent probe WG-OLS-P1, designed based on unique sequences found only in the genome of oleander strain Ann1. The assay is specific, allowing detection of only oleander-infecting strains, not other strains of X. fastidiosa nor other plant-associated bacteria tested. The assay is also sensitive, with a detection limit of 10.4fg DNA of X. fastidiosa per reaction in vitro and in planta. The assay can also be applied to detect low numbers of X. fastidiosa in insect samples, or further developed into a multiplex real-time PCR assay to simultaneously detect and distinguish diverse strains of X. fastidiosa that may occupy the same hosts or insect vectors. Specific and sensitive detection and quantification of oleander strains of X. fastidiosa should be useful for disease diagnosis, epidemiological studies, management of oleander leaf scorch disease, and resistance screening for oleander shrubs. PMID:23165115

  12. Chemical defence in chewing and sucking insect herbivores: Plant-derived cardenolides in the monarch butterfly and oleander aphid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen B. Malcolm

    1990-01-01

    Summary Cardenolide sequestration by a hemimetabolous aphid and a holometabolous butterfly from the neotropical milkweed,Asclepias curassavica L., is compared. The oleander aphid,Aphis nerii B. de F., sequestered a similarly narrow range of cardenolide concentrations to the monarch butterfly,Danaus plexippus (L.), from the wide range of concentrations available in leaves of A.curassavica. However, A.nerii sequestered significantly less cardenolide (269 µg\\/0.1 g)

  13. Sex pheromone of the oleander scale, Aspidiotus nerii: Structural characterization and absolute configuration of an unusual functionalized cyclobutane

    PubMed Central

    Einhorn, Jacques; Guerrero, Angel; Ducrot, Paul-Henri; Boyer, François-Didier; Gieselmann, Mary; Roelofs, Wendell

    1998-01-01

    The sex pheromone emitted by the female oleander scale, Aspidiotus nerii (Homoptera, Diaspididae), has been isolated and characterized as (1R,2S)-cis-2-isopropenyl-1-(4?-methyl-4?-penten-1?-yl)cyclobutaneethanol acetate by using advanced MS and NMR spectroscopic methods, as well as a variety of microderivatization sequences. The structure has been confirmed by stereo- and enantioselective synthesis of the four possible stereoisomers. The absolute configuration has been determined by comparison of the activity of the cis (1S,2R) and (1R,2S) enantiomers with that exhibited by the natural material in greenhouse bioassays and field tests. The structure of this sesquiterpenoid pheromone is new in the coccids and in the pheromone field in general. PMID:9707567

  14. The toxicity of Nerium oleander in the monkey (Cebus apella): a pathologic study

    E-print Network

    Schwartz, William Lewis

    1970-01-01

    , friable, pale kidneys and swollen, pale and friable livers have been observed in 40, 56 poisoned cattle. ' Subarachnoid petechiae and pulmonary 40, 56 congestion have also been reported. ' The most frequent microscopic lesions include congestion...

  15. New polysaccharide from Nerium indicum protects neurons via stress kinase signaling pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Man-Shan Yu; Anita Yuk-Yee Wong; Kwok-Fai So; Ji-Nian Fang; Wai-Hung Yuen; Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang

    2007-01-01

    Most of the polysaccharides purified from Chinese medicinal herbs showed anti-tumor and immune-stimulating effects. However, little is known about their effects on neuroprotection. Our previous study has demonstrated that polysaccharides (J2, J3 and J4) isolated from the flowers of Nerium indicum (Oleander) exert partial protection in cortical neurons stressed by beta-amyloid (A?) peptides or deprivation of nutrition from serum. In

  16. Ecological stoichiometry of horticulture: consequences of pruning and irrigation for plant and soil chemistry David Bruce Lewis1, Linda B. Stabler2, and Chris Martin2

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    sage (Leucophyllum frutescens) and oleander (Nerium oleander) were treated with high vs. low irrigation. Horticultural activities effects C:N and C:P, but not in the same way. Oleander ­ Nerium oleander February 2002

  17. Flammability of some ornamental species in wildland-urban interfaces in Southeastern France: laboratory assessment at particle level.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    the longest (Pittosporum tobira, Nerium oleander). Species presenting high ignitability (Photinia fraseri, and species presenting lower ignitabilitywere characterised by high GHC (Pittosporum tobira, Nerium oleander

  18. Pharmacokinetics of digoxin cross-reacting substances in patients with acute yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) poisoning, including the effect of activated charcoal.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Darren M; Southcott, Emma; Potter, Julia M; Roberts, Michael S; Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A

    2008-01-01

    Intentional self-poisonings with seeds from the yellow oleander tree (Thevetia peruviana) are widely reported. Activated charcoal has been suggested to benefit patients with yellow oleander poisoning by reducing absorption and/or facilitating elimination. Two recent randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of activated charcoal reported conflicting outcomes in terms of mortality. The effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of Thevetia cardenolides has not been assessed. This information may be useful for determining whether further studies are necessary. Serial blood samples were obtained from patients enrolled in a RCT assessing the relative efficacy of single dose (SDAC) and multiple doses (MDAC) of activated charcoal compared to no activated charcoal (NoAC). The concentration of Thevetia cardenolides was estimated using a digoxin immunoassay. The effect of activated charcoal on cardenolide pharmacokinetics was compared between treatment groups using the AUC24, the 24h Mean Residence Time (MRT24), and regression lines obtained from serial concentration points adjusted for exposure. Erratic and prolonged absorption patterns were noted in each patient group. The apparent terminal half-life was highly variable, with a median time of 42.9h. There was a reduction in MRT24 and the apparent terminal half-life estimated from linear regression in patients administered activated charcoal compared to the control group (NoAC). This effect was approximately equal in patients administered MDAC or SDAC. Activated charcoal appears to favourably influence the pharmacokinetic profile of Thevetia cardenolides in patients with acute self-poisoning, which may have clinical benefits. Given the conflicting clinical outcomes noted in previous RCTs, this mechanistic data supports the need for further studies to determine whether a subgroup of patients (eg. those presenting soon after poisoning) will benefit from activated charcoal. PMID:17164695

  19. Nerium oleander indirect leaf photosynthesis and light harvesting reductions after clipping injury or Spodoptera eridania herbivory: High sensitivity to injury

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variable indirect photosynthetic rate (Pn) responses occur on injured leaves after insect herbivory. It is important to understand factors that influence indirect Pn reductions after injury. The current study examines the relationship between gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters wi...

  20. Plant Science Letters, 20 (1981) 191--194 191 Eisevier/North-Holland Scientific Publishers Ltd.

    E-print Network

    Govindjee

    , measured at 685 nm, decreased from a value of about 4--1 as Nerium oleander plants were water stressed potential of the leaves of Nerium oleander, A triplex triangularis and Tolmiea rnenziesii. These data

  1. Platinum and rhodium associated with the leaves of Nerium oleander L.; analytical method using voltammetry; assessment of air quality in the Palermo (Italy) area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santino Orecchio; Diana Amorello

    2010-01-01

    A rapid accumulation of the catalytic active noble metals in the environmental and biological matrices was observed and concern arose about potential environmental and health risks. The development of reliable analytic methods to measure very low Pt and Rh concentrations is required. The main purpose of this work was to develop a reliable method for the determination of Pt and

  2. Structural characterization of a pectic polysaccharide from Nerium indicum flowers.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qun; Liu, Xuan; Yao, Jian; Dong, Xiaotang; Ma, Chao; Xu, Yuxia; Fang, Jinian; Ding, Kan

    2010-08-01

    A polysaccharide fraction, J6, was isolated from the hot-water extract of flowers of oleander Nerium indicum Mill., using ethanol precipitation, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) complexing, anion-exchange chromatography and gel permeation chromatography. J6 was found to contain L-rhamnose, L-arabinose, D-galactose, and D-galacturonic acid, in the ratio of 10.1:49.8:30.1:10.0. Its structure was investigated by methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, partial acid hydrolysis, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopic methods. It was found that J6 is an RG-I type polysaccharide, which contains a rhamnogalacturonan backbone, with various branches attached to O-4 of L-rhamnose. The branches probably involve (1-->4)-beta-D-galactan, branched L-arabino-(1-->3)(1-->6)-beta-D-galactan, and (1-->5)-alpha-L-arabinan. J6 stimulated NO production of macrophage RAW264.7 cells in a preliminary test. PMID:20573364

  3. Urbanization and spatio-temporal patterns of flowering phenology of plants in the Phoenix metropolitan area

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    /Cercidium) and one non-indigenous plant (Nerium oleander) Chose sites from the 2000 CAP-LTER 200 point survey, mixed, and xeric), and (1) desert sites for Nerium 4-5 replicates for each Observe plants for first date in bloom, once a week for Nerium since it has a long blooming period Analyze intra-seasonal temporal

  4. Leaf morphology of four landscape taxa in response to irrigation volume and pruning frequency

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    , two shrub taxa (Leucophyllum frutescens var. green cloud, and Nerium oleander `Sister Agnes'), and two as the ratio of leaf dry mass to leaf area (LM/LA) RESULTS · SLM for Nerium was affected by an interaction of irrigation and pruning (P>F 0.0004) (Figure 2A) · Nerium shrubs pruned every 6 weeks showed large decreases

  5. The legacy of former drip-irrigation and pruning practices on two landscape shrubs: effects on growth and leaf morphology after two years

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    ) were measured on Nerium oleander `Sister Agnes' and Leucophyllum frutescens var. green cloud shrubs were estimated from size measurements by using geometric formula; Nerium was treated as an upright cylinder and Leucophyllum was treated as a truncated sphere (Mahkee, 2004). Results After two years, Nerium

  6. Epidemiology of intoxication of domestic animals by plants in Europe.

    PubMed

    Cortinovis, Cristina; Caloni, Francesca

    2013-08-01

    This review focuses on some of the most important poisonous plants in Europe and provides an overview of the poisoning episodes that have occurred in European countries. Poisoning of livestock and companion animals by plants is a relatively common occurrence. In Europe livestock and horses are commonly poisoned by Datura stramonium (Jimson weed), Senecio spp. (ragworts and groundsels), Quercus spp. (oak), Taxus baccata (European yew), Nerium oleander (oleander), Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern), Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) and Rhododendron spp. (rhododendrons and azaleas). Poisoning may occur when the fresh plant is ingested in pasture or when it contaminates hay or silage. In pets, the greatest majority of plant poisonings are the result of ingestion of house or garden plants, such as Cycas revoluta (Sago palm), Ricinus communis (castor bean), Allium spp., Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinsettia), Lilium spp., Convallaria majalis (Lily of the valley), Pyracantha spp. (firethorn), Rhododendron spp. (rhododendrons and azaleas), Melia azedarach (Chinaberry tree), Taxus baccata (European yew) and Nerium oleander (oleander). PMID:23570777

  7. Relationships between growing media fertility, percolate composition and fertigation strategy in peat-substitute substrates used for growing ornamental shrubs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O Marfà; F Lemaire; R Cáceres; F Giuffrida; V Guérin

    2002-01-01

    The composition of root-zone solution of container grown Viburnum tinus L. ‘Eve Price’, Nerium oleander L. ‘Émile Shaut’ and Euonymus japonicus Thunb. were studied in two different localities (France and Spain). The growing media assayed were binary mixtures prepared with Finnish sphagnum peat, the following peat-substitutes: cattle manure compost, forest waste compost, pine bark compost, yard compost and raw coir.

  8. Site Suitability Assessment for Irrigating Urban Landscapes with Water of Elevated Salinity in the Southwest. Consolidated Final Report. Part 1. Water Quality and Plant Tolerance

    E-print Network

    Miyamoto, S.

    (Nandina domestica ) ( Liriope muscari ) ( Ilex vomitoria ) ( Nerium oleander ) Pistachie Texas sage Af ghan pine Japanese boxwood (Pistacia spp. ) ( Leucophyllum sp. ) ( Pinus eldarica ) ( Buxus micropylla ) Vinca Pyracantha "Lady Banks" Mexican stone... pine (Vinca major ) ( Pyracantha sp. ) ( Rosa banksiae ) ( Pinus cembroides ) Grape Dwarf rosemary Euonymous (Vitus sp. ) ( Rosmarinus sp. ) ( Euonymus japonica ) Photinia, "Red Tip" Wax-leaf Ligustrum Indian hawthorne (Photinia fraseri...

  9. Antiviral Activity of Some Plant Extracts on the Replication of Autographa californica Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ömer ERTÜRK; Ali Osman BELDÜZ

    2000-01-01

    The effect of crude extracts, obtained from Aconitum nasutum, Daphne glomerata, Hypericum androsaemum, Laurus nobilis, Nerium oleander, Olea europaea, Prunus laurocerasus, Punica granatum, Rhododendron caucasicum, and Urtica dioica on the replication of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) grown in Spodoptera frugiperda cell culture were investigated by observing changes in cytophatic effects, progeny virus concentration and viral protein (polyhedrin) synthesis.

  10. The responses of stomata and leaf gas exchange to vapour pressure deficits and soil water content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil C. Turner; E.-D. Schulze; T. Gollan

    1984-01-01

    The responses of photosynthesis, transpiration and leaf conductance to changes in vapour pressure deficit were followed in well-watered plants of the herbaceous species, Helianthus annuus, Helianthus nuttallii, Pisum sativum and Vigna unguiculata, and in the woody species having either sclerophyllous leaves, Arbutus unedo, Nerium oleander and Pistacia vera, or mesomorphic leaves, Corylus avellana, Gossypium hirsutum and Prunus dulcis. When the

  11. Impact des produits de lessivage de feuilles mortes sur la teneur en oxygène de l'eau et sur la survie d'un gastéropode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chergui, H.; Haddy, L.; Markaoui, M.; Pattee, E.

    The impact of the leaching of oleander, Nerium oleander, and willow, Salix pedicellata, leaves on the aquatic environment was investigated in the laboratory. The leaves were collected on the banks of a Moroccan stream, leachate polyphenols were analysed, and leachate toxic effects on the dominant gastropod species of the stream were investigated. The following factors were considered: leaf species, dry or fresh state of the leaves, litter concentration, duration of leaching, temperature. Within the first 8-12 hrs of submersion, the litter of both species caused a great depletion of dissolved oxygen. Later, oxygen consumption decreased. Dry oleander leaves caused a greater drop in oxygen concentration than fresh oleander leaves. The opposite was observed in willow leaves, most clearly at 5 and 10°C. At higher temperatures (20 and 25°C), oxygen nearly totally disappeared under all conditions, leaving 0 to 2 mg.I -1 after 48 hours. Whether fresh or dry, oleander leaves always caused a greater oxygen depletion than willow leaves. Willow leaves contained more tannin-and non-tannin-polyphenols than oleander leaves, and their leaching released more of these compounds, especially in dry leaves. The leaching of both leaf species only had a toxic effect on the gastropods at the higher temperatures (20 and 25°C), thus suggesting that the toxic effect was mainly due to lack of oxygen in the water. At these temperatures, the toxic effect of dry leaves was greater than that of fresh leaves. Oleander proved more toxic than willow, presumably under the influence of both lack of oxygen and toxic heterosides.

  12. Applied clinical pharmacology and public health in rural Asia--preventing deaths from organophosphorus pesticide and yellow oleander poisoning.

    PubMed

    Eddleston, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Self-poisoning with pesticides or plants is a major clinical problem in rural Asia, killing several hundred thousand people every year. Over the last 17 years, our clinical toxicology and pharmacology group has carried out clinical studies in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka to improve treatment and reduce deaths. Studies have looked at the effectiveness of anti-digoxin Fab in cardiac glycoside plant poisoning, multiple dose activated charcoal in all poisoning, and pralidoxime in moderate toxicity organophosphorus insecticide poisoning. More recently, using a Haddon matrix as a guide, we have started conducting public health and animal studies to find strategies that may work outside of the hospital. Based on the 2009 GSK Research in Clinical Pharmacology prize lecture, this review shows the evolution of the group's research from a clinical pharmacology approach to one that studies possible interventions at multiple levels, including the patient, the community and government legislation. PMID:22943579

  13. Applied clinical pharmacology and public health in rural Asia – preventing deaths from organophosphorus pesticide and yellow oleander poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Eddleston, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Self-poisoning with pesticides or plants is a major clinical problem in rural Asia, killing several hundred thousand people every year. Over the last 17 years, our clinical toxicology and pharmacology group has carried out clinical studies in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka to improve treatment and reduce deaths. Studies have looked at the effectiveness of anti-digoxin Fab in cardiac glycoside plant poisoning, multiple dose activated charcoal in all poisoning, and pralidoxime in moderate toxicity organophosphorus insecticide poisoning. More recently, using a Haddon matrix as a guide, we have started conducting public health and animal studies to find strategies that may work outside of the hospital. Based on the 2009 GSK Research in Clinical Pharmacology prize lecture, this review shows the evolution of the group's research from a clinical pharmacology approach to one that studies possible interventions at multiple levels, including the patient, the community and government legislation. PMID:22943579

  14. Thermal emissivity of leaves from trees cultivated using processed wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Drakatos, P.A.; Kalavrouziotis, I.K.; Skuras, D.G.; Drakatos, S.P. [Univ. of Patras (Greece)

    1997-07-01

    Wastewater and sludge from wastewater treatment plans were discharged on experimental plantations of the species Nerium oleander, Eucalyptus sp. and Populus tremula. An emissiometer was used to measure the thermal emissitivity of the leaves of the different species. Comparison of thermal emissitivity between control and treatment leaves showed significant differences. There are clear indications that, land disposal of wastewater and sludge affects emissivity of different plant-species.

  15. Assessment of airborne heavy metal pollution by aboveground plant parts.

    PubMed

    Rossini Oliva, S; Mingorance, M D

    2006-10-01

    Italian stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) and oleander (Nerium oleander L.) leaves, bark and wood samples were collected at different sites around an industrial area (Huelva, SW Spain) and compared with samples of the same species from a background site. Samples were analysed with respect to the following pollutants: Al, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe and Pb by ICP-AES. The suitability of different plant parts as biomonitors of pollution was investigated. In pine samples from the polluted sites the ratio of concentrations between bark and wood was high for Al, Ba, Cu and Fe, whereas no differences were found in samples from the unpolluted area. No differences were detected in oleander for the same ratio. In the oleander species, the ratio between leaves and wood concentration allowed to distinguish between control and polluted sites. The ratio of the concentration between leaves and wood was elevated for Al, Ba and Fe in pine samples from the polluted sites. The ratio of the concentration in bark or leaves to their concentration in wood might be useful to detect inorganic atmospheric pollutants. PMID:16624374

  16. Separation and Identification of Phenolic Acid and Flavonoids from Nerium indicum Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Vinayagam, A.; Sudha, P. N.

    2015-01-01

    Four major compounds were separated and identified from the methanol extracts of Nerium indicum flowers (Arali) using HPLC and mass spectral data. Through mass data, the chemical structures were elucidated as: trans5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (1), quercetin-3-O- rutinoside (2), luteolin-5-O-rutinoside (3) and luteolin-7-O-rutinoside (4). In addition, the cis isomers of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid in Nerium indicum flowers were confirmed by Mass, HPLC and UV. The structures of these compounds confirmed with the help of liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

  17. Pharmacological aspects of Nerium indicum Mill: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Dey, Priyankar; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar

    2014-07-01

    Phytomedicine is the oldest medical practice known to man. Since the dawn of mankind, various plant resources are used to cure different diseases and also for a long and healthy life. The ancient knowledge of plant based medicine has transferred from generations to generations and accumulated as ethnopharmacological knowledge among different ethnic groups. India is the spanning bed of traditional phytomedicinal system where Ayurveda was born out of the knowledge of traditional medicine. In various other countries of South-Eastern Asia, South America, and in Arabian countries, still today, a great number of people rely primarily on phytomedicines to cure diseases. In the complementary and alternative medicinal systems, Nerium indicum is one such plant which is famed for its therapeutic efficiency in different diseases globally. In the present time, when the pharmaceutical companies are concentrating more toward the plant based traditional medicines to avoid the side-effects and resistance against synthetic drugs, N. indicum has proved its efficiency in different disease models. Therefore, this review comprehensively covers the medicinal and pharmacological activities of different parts of the plant N. indicum. PMID:25125887

  18. Synthesis of oligosaccharide fragments of the rhamnogalacturonan of Nerium indicum.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuyong; Cao, Xin; Yu, Biao

    2013-08-01

    Three trisaccharides, one pentasaccharide, and one heptasaccharide, namely ?-D-GalA-(1?2)-?-L-Rha-(1?4)-?-D-GalA-OC3H7 (1), ?-L-Rha-(1?4)-?-D-GalA-(1?4)-?-D-GalA-OC3H7 (2), ?-D-GalA-(1?4)-?-D-GalA-(1?2)-?-L-Rha-OC3H7 (3), ?-D-GalA-(1?2)-?-L-Rha-(1?4)-?-D-GalA-(1?2)-?-L-Rha-(1?4)-?-D-GalA-OC3H7 (4), and ?-D-GalA-(1?2)-?-L-Rha-(1?4)-?-D-GalA-(1?2)-?-L-Rha-(1?4)-?-D-GalA-(1?2)-?-L-Rha-(1?4)-?-D-GalA-OC3H7 (5), which are relevant to the fragments of the rhamnogalacturonan of Nerium indicum, were concisely synthesized. The syntheses feature highly stereoselective formation of the ?-D-GalA-linkage with GalA N-phenyltrifluoroacetimidates as donors. PMID:23811084

  19. Pharmacological aspects of Nerium indicum Mill: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Priyankar; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Phytomedicine is the oldest medical practice known to man. Since the dawn of mankind, various plant resources are used to cure different diseases and also for a long and healthy life. The ancient knowledge of plant based medicine has transferred from generations to generations and accumulated as ethnopharmacological knowledge among different ethnic groups. India is the spanning bed of traditional phytomedicinal system where Ayurveda was born out of the knowledge of traditional medicine. In various other countries of South-Eastern Asia, South America, and in Arabian countries, still today, a great number of people rely primarily on phytomedicines to cure diseases. In the complementary and alternative medicinal systems, Nerium indicum is one such plant which is famed for its therapeutic efficiency in different diseases globally. In the present time, when the pharmaceutical companies are concentrating more toward the plant based traditional medicines to avoid the side-effects and resistance against synthetic drugs, N. indicum has proved its efficiency in different disease models. Therefore, this review comprehensively covers the medicinal and pharmacological activities of different parts of the plant N. indicum. PMID:25125887

  20. Les Brulures Chimiques Par Le Laurier Rose

    PubMed Central

    Bakkali, H.; Ababou, M.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Moussaoui, A.; Ennouhi, A.; Fouadi, F.Z.; Siah, S.; Ihrai, H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Le laurier rose ou Nerium oleander est un arbuste qui pousse naturellement dans les régions méditerranéennes. Au Maroc on le trouve dans les lieux humides. Il est réputé par ses risques de toxicité systémique en cas d'empoisonnement à cause de la présence de deux alcaloïdes, surtout l'oléandrine. La littérature illustre des cas d'utilisation locale des feuilles de cette plante contre la gale, les hémorroïdes et les furoncles. Nous rapportons deux cas de brûlures chimiques par le laurier rose de gravité différente. Cela doit aboutir à une information élargie de la population, ainsi qu'une réglementation stricte de sa commercialisation. PMID:21991211

  1. Detoxification of Nerium indicum roots based on Indian system of medicine: phytochemical and toxicity evaluations.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Aryamitra A; Vasu, Kamala K; Pancholi, Harit; Rajani, Mandapati; Nivsarkar, Manish A

    2011-01-01

    Indian system of medicine describes the usage of certain very toxic plant based drugs after performing a detoxification process (Shodhana samskara). Nerium indicum is traditionally used as a medicine though known to cause severe allergic symptoms, tachycardia and gastrointestinal effects leading to fatalities. In this study, the detoxification (shodhana) for Nerium indicum was scientifically validated based on phytochemical and toxicity profiles. Shodhana was performed according to traditional literature. HPTLC densitometric studies were performed for the pre- and post-shodhana powders followed by sub-acute toxicity evaluation in rats. Preparative TLC and LC-MS showed the reduction of oleandrin peak in the post-shodhana sample. Prominent features of cardiotoxicity including tachycardia were noted in the pre-shodhana Nerium treated animals along with mortality. However, no such toxicity was encountered in the post-shodhana Nerium treated animals. Hence, using the recommended detoxification (shodhana), the toxicity of an important medicinal plant was significantly nullified. Such studies provide a scientific support towards our traditional medicinal practices using modem analytical and experimental methodologies and may prove to be very useful in establishing standard scientific procedures for routine and safe use of traditional medicines. PMID:22125956

  2. Structural elucidation of a new arabinogalactan from the leaves of Nerium indicum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qun Dong; Ji-nian Fang

    2001-01-01

    A polysaccharide fraction, NIB-2, was obtained from the 3% aqueous sodium carbonate extract of Nerium indicum leaves using anion-exchange chromatography and gel-permeation chromatography. It was found to be composed of rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, in the ratios of 1.0:10.4:4.4, along with 4% of galacturonic acid. The results of methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, partial acid hydrolysis, pectinase treatment, and 13C and 1H

  3. Control of common freshwater predatory fish, Channa punctatus, through Nerium indicum leaf extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudhanshu Tiwari; Ajay Singh

    2003-01-01

    The diethyl ether, chloroform, acetone and methanol extract of Nerium indicum leaf were evaluated for their piscicidal activity against common freshwater air breathing predatory fish Channa punctatus. The rank of order of toxicity (LC50) of the leaf extract was, diethyl ether extract (17.34 mg\\/l)>acetone (40.01 mg\\/l)>chloroform (40.61 mg\\/l)>and methanol (106.37 mg\\/l). There was a significant negative correlation between LC50 values

  4. Flammability of Some Ornamental Species in Wildland-Urban Interfaces in Southeastern France: Laboratory Assessment at Particle Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganteaume, Anne; Jappiot, Marielle; Lampin, Corinne; Guijarro, Mercedes; Hernando, Carmen

    2013-08-01

    Assessment of the flammability of ornamental vegetation (particularly hedges) planted around houses is necessary in light of the increasing urbanization of the wildland-urban interfaces (WUIs) and the high fire occurrence in such areas. The structure and flammability of seven of the species most frequently planted as hedges in Provence (southeastern France) were studied at particle level. Spatial repartition of the different types of fuel particles within plants was assessed by means of the cube method. The leaf flammability was assessed using an epiradiator as a burning device, and measurements of foliar physical characteristics and gross heat of combustion (GHC) helped to explain the results of burning experiments. Co-inertia analysis revealed that species with thin leaves were quick to ignite ( Pyracantha coccinea, Phyllostachys sp.) and species with high leaf GHC burned the longest ( Pittosporum tobira, Nerium oleander). Species presenting high ignitability ( Photinia fraseri, Phyllostachys sp. and Pyracantha coccinea) were characterized by high foliar surface area-to-volume ratio, and species presenting lower ignitability were characterized by high GHC ( Pittosporum tobira, Nerium oleander, Cupressus sempervirens). Hierarchical cluster analysis of the flammability variables (ignition frequency, time-to-ignition and flaming duration) categorized the relative flammability of the seven species (including dead Cupressus sempervirens) in five clusters of species from poorly flammable ( Pittosporum tobira) to extremely flammable (dead Cupressus sempervirens).This study provides useful information for reducing fire risk in WUIs in the study area.

  5. Flammability of some ornamental species in wildland-urban interfaces in southeastern France: laboratory assessment at particle level.

    PubMed

    Ganteaume, Anne; Jappiot, Marielle; Lampin, Corinne; Guijarro, Mercedes; Hernando, Carmen

    2013-08-01

    Assessment of the flammability of ornamental vegetation (particularly hedges) planted around houses is necessary in light of the increasing urbanization of the wildland-urban interfaces (WUIs) and the high fire occurrence in such areas. The structure and flammability of seven of the species most frequently planted as hedges in Provence (southeastern France) were studied at particle level. Spatial repartition of the different types of fuel particles within plants was assessed by means of the cube method. The leaf flammability was assessed using an epiradiator as a burning device, and measurements of foliar physical characteristics and gross heat of combustion (GHC) helped to explain the results of burning experiments. Co-inertia analysis revealed that species with thin leaves were quick to ignite (Pyracantha coccinea, Phyllostachys sp.) and species with high leaf GHC burned the longest (Pittosporum tobira, Nerium oleander). Species presenting high ignitability (Photinia fraseri, Phyllostachys sp. and Pyracantha coccinea) were characterized by high foliar surface area-to-volume ratio, and species presenting lower ignitability were characterized by high GHC (Pittosporum tobira, Nerium oleander, Cupressus sempervirens). Hierarchical cluster analysis of the flammability variables (ignition frequency, time-to-ignition and flaming duration) categorized the relative flammability of the seven species (including dead Cupressus sempervirens) in five clusters of species from poorly flammable (Pittosporum tobira) to extremely flammable (dead Cupressus sempervirens).This study provides useful information for reducing fire risk in WUIs in the study area. PMID:23765042

  6. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity assessment of plants used as remedy in Turkish folk medicine.

    PubMed

    Erdemoglu, Nurgun; Küpeli, Esra; Ye?ilada, Erdem

    2003-11-01

    Ethanolic and aqueous extracts from seven plant species used in Turkish traditional medicine were evaluated for in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities; Helleborus orientalis Lam. roots and herbs, Juglans regia L. leaves, Laurocerasus officinalis Roemer leaves, Nerium oleander L. dried and fresh flowers and leaves, Rhododendron ponticum L. leaves, Rubus hirtus Walds. et Kit aerial parts and Rubus sanctus Schreber aerial parts and roots. All the plant extracts, except the aqueous extract of Rubus hirtus, were shown to possess significant antinociceptive activity in varying degrees against p-benzoquinone-induced abdominal contractions in mice. However, only the ethanolic extracts of Helleborus orientalis roots, Juglans regia leaves, Laurocerasus officinalis leaves, Nerium oleander dried and fresh flowers, and Rhododendron ponticum leaves exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model in mice without inducing any gastric damage. Results of the present study confirmed the folkloric claim that all the selected materials to possess potent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:14522443

  7. Alterations in blood electrolytes of a freshwater catfish Heteropneustes fossilis in response to treatment with a botanical pesticide, Nerium indicum leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Maniram; Kumar, Abhishek; Mishra, Diwakar; Srivastav, Sunil K; Srivastav, Ajai K

    2011-09-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the effects of Nerium indicum leaf extract on the blood electrolytes of Heteropneustes fossilis for short- and long term. Fish were subjected to Nerium indicum leaf extract for short term (11.27 mg/L i.e. 0.8 of 96 h LC??) and long term (2.81 mg/L i.e. 0.2 of 96 h LC??). Fish were killed on each time intervals from control and experimental (Nerium indicum) groups after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h in short-term exposure and after 7, 14, 21, and 28 days in long-term experiment. Blood samples were analyzed for calcium and inorganic phosphate levels. Acute exposure of Nerium indicum leaf extract caused a progressive decrease in the serum calcium levels after 48 h in fish H. fossilis, which persists till the close of the experiment (96 h). The serum inorganic phosphate levels remain unaffected till 48 h in the Nerium indicum leaf extract-exposed fish. After 72 and 96 h, the levels exhibit a decrease. Chronic Nerium indicum leaf extract treatment provoked a decrease in serum calcium levels at day 14. This decrease continues till 28 days. The serum phosphate level of the Nerium indicum leaf extract-treated fish decreases on day 14 and 21. However, on day 28, the levels become close to the normal values. We conclude that Nerium indicum leaf extract exposure alters the blood electrolytes of the fish, thus causing physiological disturbances which might affect seriously the normal vital functions, growth rate, reproduction, and their survival in nature. PMID:21127966

  8. Nerium indicum, a botanical pesticide affects ultimobranchial gland of the catfish Heteropneustes fossilis.

    PubMed

    Prasad, ManiRam; Kumar, Abhishek; Srivastav, Sunil Kumar; Srivastav, Ajai K

    2013-12-01

    Heteropneustes fossilis were subjected to 11.27 mg L(-1) (80% of 96 h LC50 ) and 2.81 mg L(-1) (20% of 96 h LC50 ) of Nerium indicum leaf extract for short-term and long-term, respectively. After sacrificing the fish, blood was collected on 24, 48, 72, and 96 h in short-term and after 7, 14, 21, and 28 days in long-term experiment and analyzed for plasma calcium levels. Also, ultimobranchial glands (UBG) were fixed on these intervals. Serum calcium levels of H. fossilis exhibited a decline after 48 h following exposure to Nerium indicum leaf extract. This decrease continued till the end of the experiment (96 h). Ultimobranchial cells exhibited a decrease in the cytoplasmic staining response after 72 h following the treatment. The nuclear volumes of these cells were slightly decreased. These changes were exaggerated after 96 h following the treatment. Chronically exposed fish exhibited a decline in serum calcium levels of H. fossilis on day 14. The level progressively declined till the end of the experiment. Up to day 14 following the treatment there was no change in the histological structure of UBG. A decrease in the nuclear volume of ultimobranchial cells was noticed on day 21. Moreover, the cytoplasm of these cells displayed weakstaining response. The nuclear volume of these cells recorded a further decrease following 28-day treatment. Also there was noticed vacuolization and degeneration at certain places. To the best of our knowledge, the effects of any botanical pesticides on fish UBG have not been reported yet. PMID:24591107

  9. New oligosaccharides prepared by acid hydrolysis of the polysaccharides from Nerium indicum Mill and their anti-angiogenesis activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ke Hu; Qin Liu; Shunchun Wang; Kan Ding

    2009-01-01

    To discover drug candidates with anti-angiogenesis activity for cancer therapeutics, three galactooligosaccharides (OJ1–OJ3) were prepared by acid hydrolysis of the polysaccharides from Nerium indicum Mill. Their structures were characterized using sugar analysis, methylation analysis, and both 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, complemented by mass spectrometry. They were hexasaccharide (OJ1), a pentasaccharide (OJ2), and an undecasaccharide (OJ3), which was a new

  10. PISCICIDAL ACTIVITY OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF NERIUM INDICUM LEAF AND THEIR BIOCHEMICAL STRESS RESPONSE ON FISH METABOLISM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudhanshu Tiwari; Ajay Singh

    Laboratory evaluations were made to asses the piscicidal activity of ethyl alcohol extract of Nerium indicum leaf against predatory fish Channa punctatus and their ultimate mode of action on fish metabolism. Toxicity experiments show there was significant negative correlation between LC values and exposure periods i.e. LC50 value decreased from 66.32 mg\\/L (24h) to 44.96 mg\\/L (96h). Biochemical studies show

  11. Assessing and ranking the flammability of some ornamental plant species to select firewise plants for landscaping in WUI (SE France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganteaume, A.; Jappiot, M.; Lampin, C.

    2012-04-01

    The increasing urbanization of Wildland-Urban Interfaces (WUI) as well as the high fire occurrence in these areas requires the assessment and the ranking of the flammability of the ornamental vegetation surrounding houses especially that planted in hedges. Thus, the flammability of seven species, among those most frequently planted in hedges in Provence (South-Eastern France), were studied at particle level and at dead surface fuel level (litters) under laboratory conditions. The flammability parameters (ignition frequency, time-to-ignition, flaming duration) of the very fine particles (live leaves and particles <2 mm in diameter) were measured using an epiradiator as burning device. The flammability parameters (ignition frequency, time-to-ignition, flaming duration and initial flame propagation) of the undisturbed litter samples were recorded during burning experiments performed on fire bench. Burning experiments using the epiradiator showed that live leaves of Phyllostachys sp., Photinia frasei and Prunus laurocerasus had the shortest time-to-ignition and the highest ignition frequency and flaming duration whereas Pittosporum tobira and Nerium oleander were the longest to ignite with a low frequency. Phyllostachys sp. and Nerium oleander litters were the shortest to ignite while Prunus laurocerasus litter had the lowest bulk density and long time-to-ignition, but high flame propagation. Photinia fraseri litter ignited frequently and had a high flame spread while Pittosporum tobira litter ignited the least frequently and for the shortest duration. Cupressus sempervirens litter had the highest bulk density and the longest flaming duration but the lowest flame propagation. Pyracantha coccinea litter was the longest to ignite and flame propagation was low but lasted a long time. Hierarchical cluster analysis performed on the flammability parameters of live leaves and of litters ranked the seven species in four distinct clusters from the most flammable (Prunus laurocerasus and Pyracantha coccinea) to the least flammable (Pittosporum tobira and Nerium oleander); the other species displaying two groups of intermediate flammabilities (Phyllostachys sp.- Photinia fraseri and Cupressus sempervirens ). The species with highly flammable characteristics should not be used in hedges planted in WUIs in South-Eastern France.

  12. Unexpectedly dangerous escargot stew: oleandrin poisoning through the alimentary chain.

    PubMed

    Gechtman, Cecilia; Guidugli, Federico; Marocchi, Alessandro; Masarin, Adriano; Zoppi, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    A female, aged 43 and a male, aged 66, experienced gastrointestinal and cardiovascular symptoms after a meal including snail stew. Twelve hours after the ingestion, they presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and cardiovascular symptoms typical of acute toxic digoxin ingestion and were hospitalized. The man's electrocardiogram was altered, and the woman's was normal. Serum digoxin levels, measured on a Roche COBAS Integra 800 with the Roche On-Line Digoxin reagent, were 1.14 and 1.00 nmol/L, respectively. Potassium levels were normal in both patients. The serum digoxin concentration decreased on the second day, and symptoms resolved on the third day with patients fully recovered (i.e., reversion to a normal sinus rhythm). Cardiac-glycoside-like intoxication symptoms follow the ingestion of leaves or flowers of Nerium oleander. The consumed snails were suspected to be responsible for the intoxication. In the homogenized snail tissue, the concentration expressed in digoxin equivalents was 0.282 nmol/g. The presence of oleandrin and oleandrigenin in the snails was confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, which was performed on a ionic-trap Finnigan LXQ instrument using an electrospray ionization interface. High-pressure liquid chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column with a gradient of methanol/water. An extract of oleander leaves was used as reference. PMID:17137529

  13. Strategies of heavy metal uptake by plants growing under industrial emissions.

    PubMed

    Mingorance, M D; Valdés, B; Oliva, S Rossini

    2007-05-01

    Total concentrations of Al, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Pb and Zn have been estimated in soil (A-horizon) and in leaves and stem samples of two Mediterranean species (Nerium oleander L. and Pinus pinea L.) growing in an industrial area in Spain (Huelva). Both species showed a different behaviour for the elements studied. Bark and leaves of both species acted as excluders of Al, Ba, Cr, Fe and Pb, N. oleander acted as indicator of Cu and Zn and, needles and bark of P. pinea behaved as accumulators of Cu. The enrichment ratio data indicated that Cu in soil and plant was enhanced with anthropogenic activities, with industrial activities being the primary contributor for Cu. All the other elements studied were controlled by natural source variations, but Pb could also be anthropogenically enhanced. Wood did not accumulate pollutants, with the translocation from bark being rather reduced. Uptake patterns of metals into foliage and bark tissues were more or less the same in both species for almost all the studied elements, which indicates that both plant parts could be indifferently used as biomonitors. PMID:17363057

  14. False positivity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase measurement in urine.

    PubMed

    Crivellenti, Leandro Zuccolotto; Mesa, Javier Sousa; Meirelles, Adriana Érica Wilkes Burton; Borin Crivellenti, Sofia; Mireya, Edna Gomes; Canola, Julio Carlos; Hatayde, Mário Roberto; Santana, Aureo Evangelista; Dantas, Márcio; Silva, Gyl Eanes Barros

    2014-05-01

    Although enzymuria tends to be associated to renal injury, there are no studies that have evaluated the presence of the enzyme gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) spectrophotometry in the urine using a non-nephrotoxic agent (Nerium oleander) in order to evaluate the possibility of false positive results. The urinary GGT/urinary creatinine concentration ratio (uGGT/uCr) of 10 healthy dogs was calculated and posteriorly confronted with data from clinical evaluation, hematological and serum biochemical profiles, creatinine clearance (CrC), urinalysis, urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPC), electrocardiogram, systemic blood pressure (SBP) and light and electron microscopy. The results for kidney histology, SBP, UPC and CrC were not significantly different in any of the time-points analyzed. However, uGGT/uCr was significantly higher when measured 4 hours and 24 hours after administration of N. oleander. The measurement of the urinary GGT enzyme, as performed in many studies, yielded false positive results in dogs poisoned by a non-nephrotoxic agent. PMID:24456228

  15. Oleandrin: A cardiac glycosides with potent cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; De, Tanmoy; Mishra, Amrita; Mishra, Arun K

    2013-07-01

    Cardiac glycosides are used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and arrhythmia. Current trend shows use of some cardiac glycosides in the treatment of proliferative diseases, which includes cancer. Nerium oleander L. is an important Chinese folk medicine having well proven cardio protective and cytotoxic effect. Oleandrin (a toxic cardiac glycoside of N. oleander L.) inhibits the activity of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B chain (NF-?B) in various cultured cell lines (U937, CaOV3, human epithelial cells and T cells) as well as it induces programmed cell death in PC3 cell line culture. The mechanism of action includes improved cellular export of fibroblast growth factor-2, induction of apoptosis through Fas gene expression in tumor cells, formation of superoxide radicals that cause tumor cell injury through mitochondrial disruption, inhibition of interleukin-8 that mediates tumorigenesis and induction of tumor cell autophagy. The present review focuses the applicability of oleandrin in cancer treatment and concerned future perspective in the area. PMID:24347921

  16. Do cancer cells in human and meristematic cells in plant exhibit similar responses toward plant extracts with cytotoxic activities?

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Noha S; Barakat, Hoda S; Elhallouty, Salwa; Salem, Dina

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of water extracts of Persea americana fruit, and of the leaves of Tabernamontana divericata, Nerium oleander and Annona cherimolia (positive control) on Vicia faba root cells. We had confirmed in our previously published data the cytotoxicity of these plant extracts on four human cancer cell lines: liver (HepG-2), lung (A549), colon (HT-29) and breast (MCF-7). Vicia faba roots were soaked in plant extracts at dilutions of 100, 1,250, 2,500, 5,000, 10,000, 20,000 ppm for 4 and 24 h. All treatments resulted in a significant reduction in the mitotic index in a dose dependant manner. Root cells treated with T. divericata, N. oleander and A. cherimolia exhibited a decrease in prophase cell percentage, increase in micronuclei and chromosomal abnormalities as concentration increased. The P. americana treatment showed the highest cytotoxic effect on cancer cells, prophase cell percentage increased linearly with the applied concentration and no micronuclei were detected. This study shows that root tip assay of beans can be used in initial screening for new plant extracts to validate their use as candidates for containing active cytotoxic agents against malignant cells. This will greatly help in exploring new plant extracts as drugs for cancer treatment. PMID:24705601

  17. Oleandrin: A cardiac glycosides with potent cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arvind; De, Tanmoy; Mishra, Amrita; Mishra, Arun K.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac glycosides are used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and arrhythmia. Current trend shows use of some cardiac glycosides in the treatment of proliferative diseases, which includes cancer. Nerium oleander L. is an important Chinese folk medicine having well proven cardio protective and cytotoxic effect. Oleandrin (a toxic cardiac glycoside of N. oleander L.) inhibits the activity of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B chain (NF-?B) in various cultured cell lines (U937, CaOV3, human epithelial cells and T cells) as well as it induces programmed cell death in PC3 cell line culture. The mechanism of action includes improved cellular export of fibroblast growth factor-2, induction of apoptosis through Fas gene expression in tumor cells, formation of superoxide radicals that cause tumor cell injury through mitochondrial disruption, inhibition of interleukin-8 that mediates tumorigenesis and induction of tumor cell autophagy. The present review focuses the applicability of oleandrin in cancer treatment and concerned future perspective in the area. PMID:24347921

  18. Combining experimental evolution and field population assays to study the evolution of host range breadth.

    PubMed

    Fellous, S; Angot, G; Orsucci, M; Migeon, A; Auger, P; Olivieri, I; Navajas, M

    2014-05-01

    Adapting to specific hosts often involves trade-offs that limit performance on other hosts. These constraints may either lead to narrow host ranges (i.e. specialists, able to exploit only one host type) or wide host ranges often leading to lower performance on each host (i.e. generalists). Here, we combined laboratory experiments on field populations with experimental evolution to investigate the impact of adaptation to the host on host range evolution and associated performance over this range. We used the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, a model organism for studies on the evolution of specialization. Field mite populations were sampled on three host plant species: tomato, citrus tree and rosebay (Nerium oleander). Testing these populations in the laboratory revealed that tomato populations of mites could exploit tomato only, citrus populations could exploit citrus and tomato whereas Nerium populations could exploit all three hosts. Besides, the wider niche ranges of citrus and Nerium populations came at the cost of low performance on their non-native hosts. Experimental lines selected to live on the same three host species exhibited similar patterns of host range and relative performance. This result suggests that adaptation to a new host species may lead to wider host ranges but at the expense of decreased performance on other hosts. We conclude that experimental evolution may reliably inform on evolution in the field. PMID:24689448

  19. Pontibacter rhizosphera sp. nov., isolated from rhizosphere soil of an Indian medicinal plant Nerium indicum.

    PubMed

    Raichand, Revti; Kaur, Ishwinder; Singh, Nitin Kumar; Mayilraj, Shanmugam

    2011-06-01

    A gram-negative, motile, straight to curved rod shaped, pink pigmented bacterium was isolated from a soil sample collected from the rhizosphere of an Indian medicinal plant, Nerium indicum (Chuvanna arali) and subjected to a detailed polyphasic taxonomic study. The strain, designated as IMTB-1969(T), matched with most of the phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties of the genus Pontibacter and represents a novel species. The major fatty acids of the strain were monounsaturated iso/anteiso branched C17 fatty acids (45.1%) and iso-C15:0 (16.5%). MK-7 was the predominant isoprenoid quinone. According to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain IMTB-1969(T) was indicated to belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes and further phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain IMTB-1969(T) belongs to the family Cytophagaceae and genus Pontibacter. The highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was with Pontibacter korlensis CCTCC AB 206081(T) (97.2%) and lower sequence similarity was observed with other species in the genus Pontibacter (95.9-94.0%). DNA-DNA relatedness study of the strain IMTB-1969(T) confirmed that it represents a novel species. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 52.2 (±0.5) mol%. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed the genotypic and phenotypic distinction of strain IMTB-1969(T) from its closest phylogenetic relatives. The strain IMTB-1969(T) should be classified as novel species of the genus Pontibacter, for which the name Pontibacter rhizosphera sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is IMTB-1969(T) (=MTCC 10673(T) = DSM 24399(T)). PMID:21409554

  20. Molluscicidal activity of cardiac glycosides from Nerium indicum against Pomacea canaliculata and its implications for the mechanisms of toxicity.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lingpeng; Wang, Wanxian; Dong, Xinjiao; Hu, Renyong; Nan, Xuyang

    2011-09-01

    Cardiac glycosides from fresh leaves of Nerium indicum were evaluated for its molluscicidal activity against Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail: GAS) under laboratory conditions. The results showed that LC(50) value of cardiac glycosides against GAS was time dependent and the LC(50) value at 96 h was as low as 3.71 mg/L, which was comparable with that of metaldehyde at 72 h (3.88 mg/L). These results indicate that cardiac glycosides could be an effective molluscicide against GAS. The toxicological mechanism of cardiac glucosides on GAS was also evaluated through changes of selected biochemical parameters, including cholinesterase (ChE) and esterase (EST) activities, glycogen and protein contents in hepatopancreas tissues of GAS. Exposure to sublethal concentrations of cardiac glycosides, GAS showed lower activities of EST isozyme in the later stages of the exposure period as well as drastically decreased glycogen content, although total protein content was not affected at the end of 24 and 48 h followed by a significant depletion at the end of 72 and 96 h. The initial increase followed by a decline of ChE activity was also observed during the experiment. These results suggest that cardiac glycosides seriously impair normal physiological metabolism, resulting in fatal alterations in major biochemical constituents of hepatopancreas tissues of P. canaliculata. PMID:21843803

  1. Effect of various growth hormone concentration and combination on callus induction, nature of callus and callogenic response of Nerium odorum.

    PubMed

    Rashmi, Runa; Trivedi, Maheshwar Prasad

    2014-03-01

    Nerium odorum, Linn. (Apocynaceae) is an important evergreen shrub. It is heat, salinity and drought tolerant. Plants with milky sap have medicinal value, mainly cardenolides, flavonoids and terpenes. It is used for wastewater purification and for restoration of riparian woodlands. In view of these facts, the study was conducted for micropropagation of N. odorum. Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with different concentrations (0.5-10.0 mg/l) of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and kinetin (Kin) were used singly and in combinations. Among all the growth hormones, 2,4-D was the best for callus induction (75% in stem and 79% in leaf) and in combination 2,4-D and BAP (78% in stem and 81% in leaf). The day of callus induction started from the 19th to the 37th day. This variation is due to the differences in culture conditions and the age of explants. The fresh and dry weight and moisture content showed good growth of callus, which is used in further studies of alkaloid production. Micropropagation of this plant allows the production of clones at a fast rate and in continuous manner. This work can lead to the development of an efficient protocol for callus induction and other issues. PMID:24407943

  2. Applicability of leachates originating from solid-waste landfills for irrigation in landfill restoration projects.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Reyhan; Zaimoglu, Zeynep; Sucu, M Yavuz; Budak, Fuat; Kekec, Secil

    2008-09-01

    Since, landfill areas are still the most widely used solid waste disposal method across the world, leachate generated from landfills should be given importance. Leachate of landfills exerts environmental risks mostly on surface and groundwater with its high pollutant content, which may cause unbearable water quality. This leads to the obligation for decontamination and remediation program to be taken into progress for the landfill area. Among a number of alternatives to cope with leachate, one is to employ the technology of phytoremediation. The main objective of this study was to determine the N accumulation ratios and the effects of landfill leachate in diluted proportions of chosen ratios (as 1/1, 1/2, 1/4, 0), on the growth and development of Cynodon dactylon, Stenotaphrum secundatum, Paspalum notatum, Pennisetum clandestinum, Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Nerium oleander, Pelargonium peltatum and Kochia scoparia species. In order to simulate the actual conditions of the landfill, soil covering the landfill is taken and used as medium for the trials. The study showed that S. secundatum, K. scoparia and N. oleander species had an impressive survival rate of 100%, being irrigated with pure leachate, while the others' survival rates were between 0 to 35% under the same conditions. As expected, application of leachate to the plants caused an increase in the accumulation of N, in the upper parts of all plants except P. peltatum. The highest N content increase was observed at S. Secundatum set, accumulating 3.70 times higher than its control set, whereas P. clandestinum value was 3.41 times of its control set. PMID:19295082

  3. Particle pollution - An environmental magnetism study using biocollectors located in northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sant'Ovaia, Helena; Lacerda, Maria João; Gomes, Celeste

    2012-12-01

    In this study the magnetic properties of tree leaves were measured in order to compare their capability to accumulate particles, to establish the relationship between magnetic properties and chemical data and to assess the particle pollution in selected locations in the cities of Braga, Porto, Valongo and Trancoso-Reboleiro, northern Portugal. In Porto, Braga and Valongo, leaves from the evergreen Nerium oleander were sampled each month during a year. N. oleander and deciduous Quercus spp. and Platanus spp. samples were collected in the same site in Porto, in order to determine the ability of these different leaves to accumulate particles. The leaves of deciduous Tilia spp. were collected in Porto and in a rural area (Trancoso-Reboleiro) so that a comparison could be established between them. The results indicated a contrast between the urban and the rural areas. The highest concentration of magnetic particles was found in the sampling site of Valongo and the lowest concentration in the sampling site of Trancoso-Reboleiro. In Porto, the results have shown that the Quercus leaves possessed the highest capability to accumulate particles even though it is a deciduous species. The IRM acquisition curves and the S-300 ratios found in the samples of the urban areas indicated the presence of magnetite-like structures. SIRM/? ratio revealed particles whose dimensions ranged between 5 ?m and 8 ?m in urban areas. The chemical elements copper and iron have a significant positive correlation with ? and SIRM, which highlights the use of magnetic properties as a proxy for the concentration of these metals in atmospheric dust. The magnetic properties were interpreted taking into consideration the rainfall peaks and then compared with the PM10 concentration levels monitored in an air quality station in Porto. Our data corroborated that magnetic properties provide a fast and inexpensive tool to evaluate long-term urban pollution from anthropogenic origin, especially heavy traffic.

  4. High Host Specificity in Encarsia diaspidicola (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), a Biological Control Candidate Against the White Peach Scale in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-introductory host specificity tests were performed with Encarsia diaspidicola, a biological control candidate against the invasive white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona. False oleander scale, P. cockerelli, coconut scale, Aspidiotus destructor, cycad scale, Aulacaspis yasumatsui, greenh...

  5. Journal of Chemical Ecology, Vol. 30, No. 3, March 2004 (C 2004) DENSITY-DEPENDENT REDUCTION AND INDUCTION

    E-print Network

    Malcolm, Stephen

    of the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus. The oleander aphid, Aphis nerii B. de F., is another widely distributed milkweed herbivore that, in contrast to monarch larvae, does not cause conspicuous host tissue

  6. California Red Scale and its Control in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas.

    E-print Network

    Clark, S. W. (Sherman Wood); Friend, W. H. (William Heartsill)

    1932-01-01

    " n (Moline) glish Ivy onymus (Fig. 9) ape ckberry rseweed (Leptilon danadense) Hibiscus mutabilis Jasmine humile Ligustrum japonicum Ligustrum lucidum Locust (Black) Locust (Honey) Mexican poinsetta Mulberry Oleander Palm Privet (Amur...

  7. Effect of cardiac glycosides from Nerium indicum on feeding rate, digestive enzymes activity and ultrastructural alterations of hepatopancreas in Pomacea canaliculata.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lingpeng; Qian, Xiaowei; Nan, Xuyang; Zhang, Yejian

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac glycosides from Nerium indicum showed potent molluscicide activity against Pomacea canaliculata (GAS), but the toxicological mechanism is still far less understood. Effects of sublethal treatments of cardiac glycosides on feeding rate, digestive enzymes and ultrastructural alterations of the hepatopancreas in GAS were evaluated in this study. Exposure of GAS to sublethal concentrations of cardiac glycosides resulted in a significant reduction of feeding rate of GAS. The amylase, cellulose and protease activity were increase significantly at the end of 24 h followed by significant inhibition after 48 h of exposure while lipase activity was not affected significantly at the end of 24 h followed by a significant inhibition after 48 h of exposure during experimental period. The main ultrastructural alterations of hepatopancreas observed in snails under cardiac glycosides treatment comprised disruption of nuclear membrane, increased vesiculation and dilatation of endoplasmic reticulum, and vacuolization and swelling of mitochondrial compared to the untreated GAS. These results, for the first time, provide systematic evidences showing that cardiac glycosides seriously impairs the hepatopancreas tissues of GAS, resulting in inhibition of digestive enzymes activity and feeding rate and cause GAS death in the end. PMID:24361644

  8. Ephedra alte (Joint Pine): An Invasive, Problematic Weedy Species in Forestry and Fruit Tree Orchards in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Qasem, Jamal R.

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008–2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  9. Testing a vapour-phase model of stomatal responses to humidity.

    PubMed

    Mott, Keith A; Peak, David

    2013-05-01

    This study tests two predictions from a recently proposed model for stomatal responses to humidity and temperature. The model is based on water potential equilibrium between the guard cells and the air at the bottom of the stomatal pore and contains three independent variables: gs(0), Z and ?. gs(0) is the value of stomatal conductance that would occur at saturating humidity and will vary among leaves and with CO2 and light. The value of Z is determined primarily by the resistance to heat transfer from the epidermis to the evaporating site and the value of ? is determined primarily by the resistance to water vapour diffusion from the evaporating site to the guard cells. This leads to the two predictions that were tested. Firstly, the values of Z and ? should be constant for leaves of a given species grown under given conditions, although gs(0) should vary among leaves and with light and CO2. And secondly, the ratio of Z to ? should be higher in leaves having their stomata in crypts because the distance for heat transfer is greater than that for water vapour diffusion. Data from three species, Nerium oleander, Pastinaca sativum and Xanthium strumarium support these two predictions. PMID:23072325

  10. Plant poisoning in domestic animals: epidemiological data from an Italian survey (2000-2011).

    PubMed

    Caloni, F; Cortinovis, C; Rivolta, M; Alonge, S; Davanzo, F

    2013-06-01

    An Italian epidemiological study based on the human Poison Control Centre of Milan (Centro Antiveleni di Milano (CAV)) data related to domestic animal poisoning by exposure to plants, was carried out in collaboration with the Veterinary Toxicology Section of the University of Milan. It encompasses a 12-year period, from the beginning of 2000 to the end of 2011. Calls related to toxic plants accounted for 5.7 per cent of total inquiries (2150) received by CAV. The dog was the most commonly poisoned species (61.8 per cent of calls) followed by the cat (26 per cent). Little information was recorded for other species. Most exposures (73.8 per cent) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in only 53.7 per cent of cases, and fatal poisoning accounted for 10.6 per cent of these cases. Glycoside, alkaloid, oxalate, toxalbumin, saponin, terpene and terpenoid-containing plants were recorded and found to be responsible for intoxication. Cycas revoluta, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Hydrangea macrophylla, Nerium oleander, Rhododendron species and Prunus species were the plants most frequently involved. Epidemiological data from this Italian survey provide useful information on animal exposure to plants and confirm the importance of plants as causative agents of animal poisoning. PMID:23716536

  11. Arthrobacter siccitolerans sp. nov., a highly desiccation-tolerant, xeroprotectant-producing strain isolated from dry soil

    PubMed Central

    SantaCruz-Calvo, L.; González-López, J.

    2013-01-01

    A novel desiccation-tolerant, xeroprotectant-producing bacterium, designated strain 4J27T, was isolated from a Nerium oleander rhizosphere subjected to seasonal drought in Granada, Spain. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing placed the isolate within the genus Arthrobacter, its closest relative being Arthrobacter phenanthrenivorans Shep3 DSM 18606T, with which it showed 99.23?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. DNA–DNA hybridization measurements showed less than 25?% relatedness between strain 4J27T and Arthrobacter phenanthrenivorans DSM 18606T. The DNA base composition of strain 4J27T was 65.3 mol%. The main fatty acids were anteiso C15?:?0, anteiso C17?:?0, C16?:?0 and iso C16?:?0 and the major menaquinone was MK-9 (H2). The peptidoglycan type was A3? with an l-Lys–l-Ser–l-Thr–l-Ala interpeptide bridge. The bacterium tested positive for catalase activity and negative for oxidase activity. Phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses indicated that the desiccation-tolerant strain 4J27T represents a novel species within the genus Arthrobacter, for which the name Arthrobacter siccitolerans is proposed. The type strain is 4J27T (?=?CECT 8257T?=?LMG 27359T). PMID:23771623

  12. Arthrobacter siccitolerans sp. nov., a highly desiccation-tolerant, xeroprotectant-producing strain isolated from dry soil.

    PubMed

    Santacruz-Calvo, L; González-López, J; Manzanera, M

    2013-11-01

    A novel desiccation-tolerant, xeroprotectant-producing bacterium, designated strain 4J27(T), was isolated from a Nerium oleander rhizosphere subjected to seasonal drought in Granada, Spain. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing placed the isolate within the genus Arthrobacter, its closest relative being Arthrobacter phenanthrenivorans Shep3 DSM 18606(T), with which it showed 99.23?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. DNA-DNA hybridization measurements showed less than 25?% relatedness between strain 4J27(T) and Arthrobacter phenanthrenivorans DSM 18606(T). The DNA base composition of strain 4J27(T) was 65.3 mol%. The main fatty acids were anteiso C15?:?0, anteiso C17?:?0, C16?:?0 and iso C16?:?0 and the major menaquinone was MK-9 (H2). The peptidoglycan type was A3? with an l-Lys-l-Ser-l-Thr-l-Ala interpeptide bridge. The bacterium tested positive for catalase activity and negative for oxidase activity. Phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses indicated that the desiccation-tolerant strain 4J27(T) represents a novel species within the genus Arthrobacter, for which the name Arthrobacter siccitolerans is proposed. The type strain is 4J27(T) (?=?CECT 8257(T)?=?LMG 27359(T)). PMID:23771623

  13. BDNF mediates neuroprotection against oxygen-glucose deprivation by the cardiac glycoside oleandrin.

    PubMed

    Van Kanegan, Michael J; He, Dong Ning; Dunn, Denise E; Yang, Peiying; Newman, Robert A; West, Anne E; Lo, Donald C

    2014-01-15

    We have previously shown that the botanical drug candidate PBI-05204, a supercritical CO2 extract of Nerium oleander, provides neuroprotection in both in vitro and in vivo brain slice-based models for focal ischemia (Dunn et al., 2011). Intriguingly, plasma levels of the neurotrophin BDNF were increased in patients treated with PBI-05204 in a phase I clinical trial (Bidyasar et al., 2009). We thus tested the hypothesis that neuroprotection provided by PBI-05204 to rat brain slices damaged by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) is mediated by BDNF. We found, in fact, that exogenous BDNF protein itself is sufficient to protect brain slices against OGD, whereas downstream activation of TrkB receptors for BDNF is necessary for neuroprotection provided by PBI-05204, using three independent methods. Finally, we provide evidence that oleandrin, the principal cardiac glycoside component of PBI-05204, can quantitatively account for regulation of BDNF at both the protein and transcriptional levels. Together, these findings support further investigation of cardiac glycosides in providing neuroprotection in the context of ischemic stroke. PMID:24431454

  14. [Selection and purification potential evaluation of woody plant in vertical flow constructed wetlands in the subtropical area].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Fu; Hao, Jun; Chen, Ming-Li; Zhu, Guang-Yu

    2014-02-01

    In order to solve the problem that wetland herbaceous plants tend to die during winter in subtropics areas, selection and purification potential evaluation experiments were carried out by introducing into the constructed wetlands 16 species of woody wetland plants. Cluster analysis was performed by including the morphological characteristics, physiological characteristics, as well as nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation of the woody wetland plants. The results indicated that there were significant differences among the tested woody plants in their survival rate, height increase, root length increase and vigor, Chlorophyll content, Superoxide dismutase, Malonaldehyde, Proline, Peroxidase, biomass, average concentration and accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus. Based on the established evaluation system, the tested plants were clustered into 3 groups. The plants in the 1st group possessing high purification potentials are Nerium oleander and Hibiscus syriacus. Those in the 2nd group possessing moderate purification potentials are Trachycarpus fortune, Llex latifolia Thunb., Gardenia jasminoides, Serissa foetida and Ilex crenatacv Convexa. And those in the 3rd group with low purification potentials are Jasminum udiflorum, Hedera helix, Ligustrum vicaryi, Ligustrum lucidum, Buxus sempervives, Murraya paniculata, Osmanthus fragrans, Mahoniafortune and Photinia serrulata. PMID:24812951

  15. Ephedra alte (joint pine): an invasive, problematic weedy species in forestry and fruit tree orchards in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Qasem, Jamal R

    2012-01-01

    A field survey was carried out to record plant species climbed by Ephedra alte in certain parts of Jordan during 2008-2010. Forty species of shrubs, ornamental, fruit, and forest trees belonging to 24 plant families suffered from the climbing habit of E. alte. Growth of host plants was adversely affected by E. alte growth that extended over their vegetation. In addition to its possible competition for water and nutrients, the extensive growth it forms over host species prevents photosynthesis, smothers growth and makes plants die underneath the extensive cover. However, E. alte did not climb all plant species, indicating a host preference range. Damaged fruit trees included Amygdalus communis, Citrus aurantifolia, Ficus carica, Olea europaea, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Punica granatum. Forestry species that were adversely affected included Acacia cyanophylla, Ceratonia siliqua, Crataegus azarolus, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halepensis, Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia palaestina, Quercus coccifera, Quercus infectoria, Retama raetam, Rhamnus palaestina, Rhus tripartita, and Zizyphus spina-christi. Woody ornamentals attacked were Ailanthus altissima, Hedera helix, Jasminum fruticans, Jasminum grandiflorum, Nerium oleander, and Pyracantha coccinea. Results indicated that E. alte is a strong competitive for light and can completely smother plants supporting its growth. A. communis, F. carica, R. palaestina, and C. azarolus were most frequently attacked. PMID:22645486

  16. BDNF Mediates Neuroprotection against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation by the Cardiac Glycoside Oleandrin

    PubMed Central

    Van Kanegan, Michael J.; He, Dong Ning; Dunn, Denise E.; Yang, Peiying; Newman, Robert A.; West, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that the botanical drug candidate PBI-05204, a supercritical CO2 extract of Nerium oleander, provides neuroprotection in both in vitro and in vivo brain slice-based models for focal ischemia (Dunn et al., 2011). Intriguingly, plasma levels of the neurotrophin BDNF were increased in patients treated with PBI-05204 in a phase I clinical trial (Bidyasar et al., 2009). We thus tested the hypothesis that neuroprotection provided by PBI-05204 to rat brain slices damaged by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) is mediated by BDNF. We found, in fact, that exogenous BDNF protein itself is sufficient to protect brain slices against OGD, whereas downstream activation of TrkB receptors for BDNF is necessary for neuroprotection provided by PBI-05204, using three independent methods. Finally, we provide evidence that oleandrin, the principal cardiac glycoside component of PBI-05204, can quantitatively account for regulation of BDNF at both the protein and transcriptional levels. Together, these findings support further investigation of cardiac glycosides in providing neuroprotection in the context of ischemic stroke. PMID:24431454

  17. In vitro antifugal activity of medicinal plant extract against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 the causal agent of tomato wilt.

    PubMed

    Isaac, G S; Abu-Tahon, M A

    2014-03-01

    Medicinal plant extracts of five plants; Adhatoda vasica, Eucalyptus globulus, Lantana camara, Nerium oleander and Ocimum basilicum collected from Cairo, Egypt were evaluated against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 in vitro conditions using water and certain organic solvents. The results revealed that cold distilled water extracts of O. basilicum and E. globulus were the most effective ones for inhibiting the growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Butanolic and ethanolic extracts of the tested plants inhibited the pathogen growth to a higher extent than water extracts. Butanolic extract of O. basilicum completely inhibited the growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici at concentrations 1.5 and 2.0% (v/v). Butanolic extracts (2.0%) of tested plants had a strong inhibitory effect on hydrolytic enzymes; ?-glucosidase, pectin lyase and protease of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. This study has confirmed that the application of plant extracts, especially from O. basilicum for controlling F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is environmentally safe, cost effective and does not disturb ecological balance. Investigations are in progress to test the efficacy of O. basilicum extract under in vivo conditions. PMID:24561899

  18. Caffeoylquinic acids in leaves of selected Apocynaceae species: Their isolation and content

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Siu Kuin; Lim, Yau Yan; Ling, Sui Kiong; Chan, Eric Wei Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Three compounds isolated from the methanol (MeOH) leaf extract of Vallaris glabra (Apocynaceae) were those of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs). This prompted a quantitative analysis of their contents in leaves of V. glabra in comparison with those of five other Apocynaceae species (Alstonia angustiloba, Dyera costulata, Kopsia fruticosa, Nerium oleander, and Plumeria obtusa), including flowers of Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle), the commercial source of chlorogenic acid (CGA). Materials and Methods: Compound were isolated by column chromatography, and identified by NMR and MS analyses. CQA content of leaf extracts was determined using reversed-phase HPLC. Results: From the MeOH leaf extract of V. glabra, 3-CQA, 4-CQA, and 5-CQA or CGA were isolated. Content of 5-CQA of V. glabra was two times higher than flowers of L. japonica, while 3-CQA and 4-CQA content was 16 times higher. Conclusion: With much higher CQA content than the commercial source, leaves of V. glabra can serve as a promising alternative source. PMID:24497746

  19. Zeaxanthin and the Induction and Relaxation Kinetics of the Dissipation of Excess Excitation Energy in Leaves in 2% O2, 0% CO21

    PubMed Central

    Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Winter, Klaus; Krüger, Almuth; Czygan, Franz-Christian

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between the carotenoid zeaxanthin, formed by violaxanthin de-epoxidation, and nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching (qNP) in the light was investigated in leaves of Glycine max during a transient from dark to light in 2% O2, 0% CO2 at 100 to 200 micromoles of photons per square meter per second. (a) Up to a qNP (which can vary between 0 and 1) of about 0.7, the zeaxanthin content of leaves was linearly correlated with qNP as well as with the rate constant for radiationless energy dissipation in the antenna chlorophyll (kD). Beyond this point, at very high degrees of fluorescence quenching, only kD was directly proportional to the zeaxanthin content. (b) The relationship between zeaxanthin and kD was quantitatively similar for the rapidly relaxing quenching induced in 2% O2, 0% CO2 at 200 micromoles of photons per square meter per second and for the sustained quenching induced by long-term exposure of Nerium oleander to drought in high light (B Demmig, K Winter, A Krüger, F-C Czygan [1988] Plant Physiol 87: 17-24). These findings suggest that the same dissipation process may be induced by very different treatments and that this particular dissipation process can have widely different relaxation kinetics. (c) A rapid induction of strong nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching within about 1 minute was observed exclusively in leaves which already contained a background level of zeaxanthin. PMID:16666893

  20. Plant Sources of Chinese Herbal Remedies: Laboratory Efficacy, Suppression of Meloidogyne javanica in Soil, and Phytotoxicity Assays

    PubMed Central

    Zasada, I. A.; Ferris, H.; Zheng, L.

    2002-01-01

    Extracts of Chinese herbal medicines from plants representing 13 families were tested for their ability to suppress plant-parasitic nematodes. Effective concentration (EC50 and EC90) levels for 18 of the extracts were determined in laboratory assays with Meloidogyne javanica juveniles and all stages of Pratylenchus vulnus. Efficacy of 17 extracts was tested against M. javanica in soil. Generally, EC50 and EC90 values determined in the laboratory were useful indicators for application rates in the soil. Extracts tested from plants in the Liliaceae reduced galling of tomato by M. javanica and were not phytotoxic. Similarly, isothiocyanate-yielding plants in the Brassicaceae suppressed root galling without phytotoxicity. Other plant extracts, including those from Azadirachta indica, Nerium oleander, and Hedera helix, suppressed root galling but were phytotoxic at the higher concentrations tested. Many of these plant sources have been tested elsewhere. Inconsistency in results across studies points to the need for identification of active components and for determination of concentration levels of these components when plant residues or extracts are applied to soil. PMID:19265919

  1. Contribution to the knowledge of the veterinary science and of the ethnobotany in Calabria region (Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Passalacqua, Nicodemo G; De Fine, Giuseppe; Guarrera, Paolo Maria

    2006-01-01

    Background A series of preliminary research projects on plants used in Calabria (Southern Italy) in veterinary science and in other ethno-botanical fields (minor nourishment, domestic and handicraft sector) was carried out in the last twenty years. From the ethno-botanical point of view, Calabria is one of the most interesting region, since in the ancient times it was subject to the dominant cultures of several people (Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Normans etc.). Until some decades ago the road network was poorly developed and villages were isolated, so that the culture of the "subsistence" and some archaic customs were kept. Methods Data were collected by means of "open" interviews to farmers, shepherds and housewives in the last twenty years. More than 100 informants were interviewed, mostly over 50 years old. Plants were identified by local informants through gathering in the area or through examination of the fresh plants collected by the researchers. The collected data were compared with pharmacobotanical papers mainly of southern Italy and with other studies, in order to highlight novelties or concordances of uses. Results The use of 62 taxa distributed into 34 families are described. Among these, 8 are or were employed in veterinary science, 8 as anti-parasitic agents, 19 in minor nourishment, 5 as seasoning, 38 for other uses. Some toxic species for cattle are also mentioned. Conclusion Among the major findings: the use of Helleborus bocconei for bronchitis of bovines and of Scrophularia canina for lameness in veterinary science; Nerium oleander and Urginea maritima as anti-parasitic agents; Epilobium angustifolium, Centaurea napifolia L. and C. sphaerocephala L. in minor nourishment. PMID:17156472

  2. Application of optical spectroscopic techniques for disease diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Anushree

    Optical spectroscopy, a truly non-invasive tool for remote diagnostics, is capable of providing valuable information on the structure and function of molecules. However, most spectroscopic techniques suffer from drawbacks, which limit their application. As a part of my dissertation work, I have developed theoretical and experimental methods to address the above mentioned issues. I have successfully applied these methods for monitoring the physical, chemical and biochemical parameters of biomolecules involved in some specific life threatening diseases like lead poisoning and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). I presented optical studies of melanosomes, which are one of the vital organelles in the human eye, also known to be responsible for a disease called age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a condition of advanced degeneration which causes progressive blindness. I used Raman spectroscopy, to first chemically identify the composition of melanosome, and then monitor the changes in its functional and chemical behavior due to long term exposure to visible light. The above study, apart from explaining the role of melanosomes in AMD, also sets the threshold power for lasers used in surgeries and other clinical applications. In the second part of my dissertation, a battery of spectroscopic techniques was successfully applied to explore the different binding sites of lead ions with the most abundant carrier protein molecule in our circulatory system, human serum albumin. I applied optical spectroscopic tools for ultrasensitive detection of heavy metal ions in solution which can also be used for lead detection at a very early stage of lead poisoning. Apart from this, I used Raman microspectroscopy to study the chemical alteration occurring inside a prostate cancer cell as a result of a treatment with a low concentrated aqueous extract of a prospective drug, Nerium Oleander. The experimental methods used in this study has tremendous potential for clinical application and will gain widespread acceptance within next few years from bench to bedside as an inexpensive and non-invasive tool compared to the other technologies.

  3. Copper, zinc and lead biogeochemistry in aquatic and land plants from the Iberian Pyrite Belt (Portugal) and north of Morocco mining areas.

    PubMed

    Durães, Nuno; Bobos, Iuliu; Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Dekayir, Abdelilah

    2015-02-01

    The ability of aquatic (Juncus effusus L., Scirpus holoschoenus L., Thypha latifolia L. and Juncus sp.) and land (Cistus ladanifer L., Erica andevalensis C.-R., Nerium oleander L., Isatis tinctoria L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Cynodon dactylon L. and Hordeum murinum L.) plants from Portugal (Aljustrel, Lousal and São Domingos) and Morocco (Tighza and Zeida) mining areas to uptake, translocate and tolerate heavy metals (Cu, Zn and Pb) was evaluated. The soils (rhizosphere) of the first mining area are characterized by high acidity conditions (pH 2-5), whereas from the second area, by alkaline conditions (pH 7.0-8.5). Physicochemical parameters and mineralogy of the rhizosphere were determined from both areas. Chemical analysis of plants and the rhizosphere was carried out by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry. The sequential chemical extraction procedure was applied for rhizosphere samples collected from both mining areas. In the acid conditions, the aquatic plants show a high capacity for Zn bioaccumulation and translocation and less for Pb, reflecting the following metal mobility sequence: Zn?>?Cu?>?Pb. Kaolinite detected in the roots by infrared spectroscopy (IR) contributed to metal fixation (i.e. Cu), reducing its translocation to the aerial parts. Lead identified in the roots of land plants (e.g. E. andevalensis) was probably adsorbed by C-H functional groups identified by IR, being easily translocated to the aerial parts. It was found that aquatic plants are more efficient for phytostabilization than bioaccumulation. Lead is more bioavailable in the rhizosphere from Morocco mining areas due to scarcity of minerals with high adsorption ability, being absorbed and translocated by both aquatic and land plants. PMID:25167810

  4. Decontamination and functional reclamation of dredged brackish sediments.

    PubMed

    Doni, S; Macci, C; Peruzzi, E; Iannelli, R; Ceccanti, B; Masciandaro, G

    2013-07-01

    The continuous stream of sediments, dredged from harbors and waterways for keeping shipping traffic efficiency, is a considerable ongoing problem recognized worldwide. This problem gets worse as most of the sediments dredged from commercial ports and waterways turn out to be polluted by a wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants. In this study, phytoremediation was explored as a sustainable reclamation technology for turning slightly-polluted brackish dredged sediments into a matrix feasible for productive use. To test this possibility, a phytoremediation experimentation was carried out in containers of about 0.7 m(3) each, filled with brackish dredged sediments contaminated by heavy metals and hydrocarbons. The sediments were pre-conditioned by adding an agronomic soil (30 % v/v) to improve their clayey granulometric composition, and by topping the mixture with high quality compost (4 kg m(-2)) to favour the initial adaptation of the selected vegetal species. The following plant treatments were tested: (1) Paspalum vaginatum, (2) Phragmites australis, (3) Spartium junceum + P. vaginatum, (4) Nerium oleander + P. vaginatum, (5) Tamarix gallica + P. vaginatum, and (6) unplanted control. Eighteen months after the beginning of the experimentation, all the plant species were found in healthy condition and well developed. Throughout the whole experiment, the monitored biological parameters (total microbial population and dehydrogenase activity) were generally observed as constantly increasing in all the planted sediments more than in the control, pointing out an improvement of the chemico-physical conditions of both microorganisms and plants. The concentration decrease of organic and inorganic contaminants (>35 and 20 %, respectively) in the treatments with plants, particularly in the T. gallica + P. vaginatum, confirmed the importance of the root-microorganism interaction in activating the decontamination processes. Finally, the healthy state of the plants and the sediment characteristics, approaching those of an uncontaminated natural soil (technosoil), indicated the efficiency and success of this technology for brackish sediments reclamation. PMID:23183938

  5. Mistletoes and mutant albino shoots on woody plants as mineral nutrient traps

    PubMed Central

    Lo Gullo, M. A.; Glatzel, G.; Devkota, M.; Raimondo, F.; Trifilò, P.; Richter, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Potassium, sulphur and zinc contents of mistletoe leaves are generally higher than in their hosts. This is attributed to the fact that chemical elements which are cycled between xylem and phloem in the process of phloem loading of sugars are trapped in the mistletoe, because these parasites do not feed their hosts. Here it is hypothesized that mutant albino shoots on otherwise green plants should behave similarly, because they lack photosynthesis and thus cannot recycle elements involved in sugar loading. Methods The mineral nutrition of the mistletoe Scurrula elata was compared with that of albino shoots on Citrus sinensis and Nerium oleander. The potential for selective nutrient uptake by the mistletoe was studied by comparing element contents of host leaves on infected and uninfected branches and by manipulation of the haustorium–shoot ratio in mistletoes. Phloem anatomy of albino leaves was compared with that of green leaves. Key Results Both mistletoes and albino leaves had higher contents of potassium, sulphur and zinc than hosts or green leaves, respectively. Hypothetical discrimination of nutrient elements during the uptake by the haustorium is not supported by our data. Anatomical studies of albino leaves showed characteristics of release phloem. Conclusions Both albino shoots and mistletoes are traps for elements normally recycled between xylem and phloem, because retranslocation of phloem mobile elements into the mother plant or the host is low or absent. It can be assumed that the lack of photosynthetic activity in albino shoots and thus of sugars needed in phloem loading is responsible for the accumulation of elements. The absence of phloem loading is reflected in phloem anatomy of these abnormal shoots. In mistletoes the evolution of a parasitic lifestyle has obviously eliminated substantial feeding of the host with photosynthates produced by the mistletoe. PMID:22442343

  6. Collective Defense of Aphis nerii and Uroleucon hypochoeridis (Homoptera, Aphididae) against Natural Enemies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Hartbauer; Mark Briffa

    2010-01-01

    The prevalent way aphids accomplish colony defense against natural enemies is a mutualistic relationship with ants or the occurrence of a specialised soldier caste typcial for eusocial aphids, or even both. Despite a group-living life style of those aphid species lacking these defense lines, communal defense against natural predators has not yet been observed there. Individuals of Aphis nerii (Oleander

  7. CORRELATION OF STYLET ACTIVITIES BY THE GLASSY-WINGED SHARPSHOOTER, HOMALODISCA COAGULATA (SAY), WITH ELECTRICAL PENETRATION GRAPH (EPG) WAVEFORMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glassy-winged sharpshooer (GWSS), Homalodisca coagulata (Say), is an efficient vector of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), the causal bacterium of Pierce’s disease, and leaf scorch in almond and oleander. Acquisition and inoculation of Xf occur sometime during the process of stylet penetration into the pla...

  8. Asymmetry of plant-mediated interactions between specialist aphids and caterpillars on two milkweeds

    E-print Network

    Agrawal, Anurag

    , we tested reciprocal impacts between co-occurring specialist herbivores from two feed- ing guilds, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA Summary 1. Plant-mediated interactions between co-occurring herbivores play, monarch caterpillars Danaus plexippus and oleander aphids Aphis nerii, on two co- occurring and closely

  9. A comparison of inorganic and organic surface mulches on rates of soil respiration

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    · Composted ponderosa pine residue (PPR), 3/4" minus screened, applied to four plots · Chipped urban tree the canopy of N. oleander. Rs measurements were made with a LI-6000 soil respiration chamber attached to a LI and organic mulches differentially affect urban landscape soil temperatures in arid climates. Accordingly

  10. Applied Animal Nutrition LA Tech University

    E-print Network

    Selmic, Sandra

    Applied Animal Nutrition ANSC 405 LA Tech University Ruston, LA 71270 LA Tech University Feeding and important phone num- bers in an airtight container. Emergency Preparedness By Carol Bonner Proper nutrition Azaleas Chrysanthemums Marigolds Daffodils Ferns Oleanders #12;Proper nutrition for all life stages

  11. Characterization of Xylella fastidiosa lipopolysaccharide and its role in key steps of the disease cycle in grapevine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is the causal agent of Pierce’s Disease of grapevine (PD), and also colonizes and causes disease in other crops such as almond, citrus, and oleander. While all identified Xf isolates belong to the same species, some isolates can cause disease in one host, but not another. T...

  12. A study of the currents of the outer shelf and upper slope from a decade of shipboard ADCP observations in the Middle Atlantic Bight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles N. Flagg; Maureen Dunn; Dong-Ping Wang; H. Thomas Rossby; Robert L. Benway

    2006-01-01

    Since 1992, upper ocean ADCP current data between New York and Bermuda have been gathered from the container ship Oleander to identify long-term changes in the shelf, slope, Gulf Stream and Sargasso Sea. Temperature and surface salinity data have been been collected along this route since 1978 by NOAA\\/NMFRC. The first ten years of ADCP data from which the effects

  13. (2-Chloroethyl)-trimethylammonium Chloride inhibits Gametogenesis in Locusts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Carlisle; Peggy E. Ellis; L. J. McVeigh

    1968-01-01

    THE plant growth retardant (2-chloroethyl)-trimethyl-ammonium chloride (CCC, `Cycocel') has been shown to reduce the longevity and fecundity of aphids. Van Emden1 grew brussels sprouts in soil to which CCC had been added; Tahori, Halevy and Zeidler2 used cut oleander leaves with their petioles standing in a solution, while Bhalla and Robinson3 added 0.5 to 2.0 per cent of CCC to

  14. Comparative analyses of the complete genome sequences of Pierce's disease and citrus variegated chlorosis strains of Xylella fastidiosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Van Sluys; M. C. de Oliveira; C. B. Monteiro-Vitorello; Felipe Rodrigues da Silva

    2003-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-dwelling, insect-transmitted, gamma-proteobacterium that causes diseases in many plants, including grapevine, citrus, periwinkle, almond, oleander, and coffee. X. fastidiosa has an unusu- ally broad host range, has an extensive geographical distribution throughout the American continent, and induces diverse disease phenotypes. Previous molecular analyses indicated three distinct groups of X. fastidiosa isolates that were expected to be

  15. Diurnal variation in probability of death following self-poisoning in Sri Lanka—evidence for chronotoxicity in humans

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Chris; Gunnell, David; Mohamed, Fahim; Eddleston, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background The absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of medicines are partly controlled by transporters and enzymes with diurnal variation in expression. Dose timing may be important for maximizing therapeutic and minimizing adverse effects. However, outcome data for such an effect in humans are sparse, and chronotherapeutics is consequently less practised. We examined a large prospective Sri Lankan cohort of patients with acute poisoning to seek evidence of diurnal variation in the probability of survival. Methods In all, 14?840 patients admitted to hospital after yellow oleander (Cascabela thevetia) seed or pesticide [organophosphorus (OP), carbamate, paraquat, glyphosate] self-poisoning were investigated for variation in survival according to time of ingestion. Results We found strong evidence that the outcome of oleander poisoning was associated with time of ingestion (P?oleander poisoning was over 50% lower following evening ingestion (risk ratio?=?0.40, 95% confidence interval 0.26–0.62). Variation in dose across the day was not responsible. Conclusions We have shown for the first time that timing of poison ingestion affects survival in humans. This evidence for chronotoxicity suggests chronotherapeutics should be given greater attention in drug development and clinical practice. PMID:23179303

  16. Potent ?-amylase inhibitory activity of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Indian medicinal plants used in the Ayurvedic traditional system to treat diabetes are a valuable source of novel anti-diabetic agents. Pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. In this study, seventeen Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for ?-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on PPA (porcine pancreatic ?-amylase). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the lead extracts was performed in order to determine the probable constituents. Methods Analysis of the 126 extracts, obtained from 17 plants (Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., Adansonia digitata L., Allium sativum L., Casia fistula L., Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don., Cinnamomum verum Persl., Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt., Linum usitatisumum L., Mangifera indica L., Morus alba L., Nerium oleander L., Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Piper nigrum L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers., Trigonella foenum-graceum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc.) for PPA inhibition was initially performed qualitatively by starch-iodine colour assay. The lead extracts were further quantified with respect to PPA inhibition using the chromogenic DNSA (3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid) method. Phytochemical constituents of the extracts exhibiting? 50% inhibition were analysed qualitatively as well as by GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry). Results Of the 126 extracts obtained from 17 plants, 17 extracts exhibited PPA inhibitory potential to varying degrees (10%-60.5%) while 4 extracts showed low inhibition (< 10%). However, strong porcine pancreatic amylase inhibitory activity (> 50%) was obtained with 3 isopropanol extracts. All these 3 extracts exhibited concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, viz., seeds of Linum usitatisumum (540 ?gml-1), leaves of Morus alba (1440 ?gml-1) and Ocimum tenuiflorum (8.9 ?gml-1). Acarbose as the standard inhibitor exhibited an IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration)value of 10.2 ?gml-1. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids with the major phytoconstituents being identified by GC-MS. Conclusions This study endorses the use of these plants for further studies to determine their potential for type 2 diabetes management. Results suggests that extracts of Linum usitatisumum, Morus alba and Ocimum tenuiflorum act effectively as PPA inhibitors leading to a reduction in starch hydrolysis and hence eventually to lowered glucose levels. PMID:21251279

  17. Fungal Planet description sheets: 214-280.

    PubMed

    Crous, P W; Shivas, R G; Quaedvlieg, W; van der Bank, M; Zhang, Y; Summerell, B A; Guarro, J; Wingfield, M J; Wood, A R; Alfenas, A C; Braun, U; Cano-Lira, J F; García, D; Marin-Felix, Y; Alvarado, P; Andrade, J P; Armengol, J; Assefa, A; den Breeÿen, A; Camele, I; Cheewangkoon, R; De Souza, J T; Duong, T A; Esteve-Raventós, F; Fournier, J; Frisullo, S; García-Jiménez, J; Gardiennet, A; Gené, J; Hernández-Restrepo, M; Hirooka, Y; Hospenthal, D R; King, A; Lechat, C; Lombard, L; Mang, S M; Marbach, P A S; Marincowitz, S; Marin-Felix, Y; Montaño-Mata, N J; Moreno, G; Perez, C A; Pérez Sierra, A M; Robertson, J L; Roux, J; Rubio, E; Schumacher, R K; Stchigel, A M; Sutton, D A; Tan, Y P; Thompson, E H; van der Linde, E; Walker, A K; Walker, D M; Wickes, B L; Wong, P T W; Groenewald, J Z

    2014-06-01

    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Cercosporella dolichandrae from Dolichandra unguiscati, Seiridium podocarpi from Podocarpus latifolius, Pseudocercospora parapseudarthriae from Pseudarthria hookeri, Neodevriesia coryneliae from Corynelia uberata on leaves of Afrocarpus falcatus, Ramichloridium eucleae from Euclea undulata and Stachybotrys aloeticola from Aloe sp. (South Africa), as novel member of the Stachybotriaceae fam. nov. Several species were also described from Zambia, and these include Chaetomella zambiensis on unknown Fabaceae, Schizoparme pseudogranati from Terminalia stuhlmannii, Diaporthe isoberliniae from Isoberlinia angolensis, Peyronellaea combreti from Combretum mossambiciensis, Zasmidium rothmanniae and Phaeococcomyces rothmanniae from Rothmannia engleriana, Diaporthe vangueriae from Vangueria infausta and Diaporthe parapterocarpi from Pterocarpus brenanii. Novel species from the Netherlands include: Stagonospora trichophoricola, Keissleriella trichophoricola and Dinemasporium trichophoricola from Trichophorum cespitosum, Phaeosphaeria poae, Keissleriella poagena, Phaeosphaeria poagena, Parastagonospora poagena and Pyrenochaetopsis poae from Poa sp., Septoriella oudemansii from Phragmites australis and Dendryphion europaeum from Hedera helix (Germany) and Heracleum sphondylium (the Netherlands). Novel species from Australia include: Anungitea eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus leaf litter, Beltraniopsis neolitseae and Acrodontium neolitseae from Neolitsea australiensis, Beltraniella endiandrae from Endiandra introrsa, Phaeophleospora parsoniae from Parsonia straminea, Penicillifer martinii from Cynodon dactylon, Ochroconis macrozamiae from Macrozamia leaf litter, Triposporium cycadicola, Circinotrichum cycadis, Cladosporium cycadicola and Acrocalymma cycadis from Cycas spp. Furthermore, Vermiculariopsiella dichapetali is described from Dichapetalum rhodesicum (Botswana), Ophiognomonia acadiensis from Picea rubens (Canada), Setophoma vernoniae from Vernonia polyanthes and Penicillium restingae from soil (Brazil), Pseudolachnella guaviyunis from Myrcianthes pungens (Uruguay) and Pseudocercospora neriicola from Nerium oleander (Italy). Novelties from Spain include: Dendryphiella eucalyptorum from Eucalyptus globulus, Conioscypha minutispora from dead wood, Diplogelasinospora moalensis and Pseudoneurospora canariensis from soil and Inocybe lanatopurpurea from reforested woodland of Pinus spp. Novelties from France include: Kellermania triseptata from Agave angustifolia, Zetiasplozna acaciae from Acacia melanoxylon, Pyrenochaeta pinicola from Pinus sp. and Pseudonectria rusci from Ruscus aculeatus. New species from China include: Dematiocladium celtidicola from Celtis bungeana, Beltrania pseudorhombica, Chaetopsina beijingensis and Toxicocladosporium pini from Pinus spp. and Setophaeosphaeria badalingensis from Hemerocallis fulva. Novel genera of Ascomycetes include Alfaria from Cyperus esculentus (Spain), Rinaldiella from a contaminated human lesion (Georgia), Hyalocladosporiella from Tectona grandis (Brazil), Pseudoacremonium from Saccharum spontaneum and Melnikomyces from leaf litter (Vietnam), Annellosympodiella from Juniperus procera (Ethiopia), Neoceratosperma from Eucalyptus leaves (Thailand), Ramopenidiella from Cycas calcicola (Australia), Cephalotrichiella from air in the Netherlands, Neocamarosporium from Mesembryanthemum sp. and Acervuloseptoria from Ziziphus mucronata (South Africa) and Setophaeosphaeria from Hemerocallis fulva (China). Several novel combinations are also introduced, namely for Phaeosphaeria setosa as Setophaeosphaeria setosa, Phoma heteroderae as Peyronellaea heteroderae and Phyllosticta maydis as Peyronellaea maydis. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa. PMID:25264390

  18. Effect of medicinal and aromatic plants on rumen fermentation, protozoa population and methanogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bhatta, R; Baruah, L; Saravanan, M; Suresh, K P; Sampath, K T

    2013-06-01

    The potential of tannins from 21 medicinal and aromatic plant leaves as antimethanogenic additives in ruminant feeds was investigated. The effect of tannin from these leaves on rumen fermentation parameters, protozoa population and methanogenesis was studied by incubating the samples [200?mg dry matter (DM)] without and with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 (400?mg DM) as a tannin binder during 24-h incubation in the in vitro Hohenheim gas method. Based on the methane percentage estimated in the total gas produced, methane production in millilitre was calculated [methane volume (ml)?=?methane %?×?total gas produced (ml) in 24?h]. In the samples, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre (g/kg DM) ranged from 113 to 172 and from 352 to 444 respectively. The total phenol (TP; g/kg DM) content was highest in Terminalia chebula (274) followed by Hemigraphis colorata (71) and Sapindus laurifolia (51) respectively. In the remaining samples, it was <43?g/kg DM. Activity of tannins, as represented by the increase in gas volume on addition of PEG, ranged from 0 to 133%, with the highest being recorded in T. chebula. The per cent increase in methane on PEG addition was 0 for Ammi majus, Aristolochia indica, Cascabela thevetia, Ipomea nil and Lantana camara, illustrating that tannins present in these samples had no effect on methane concentration. The PEG addition increased the total protozoa count by >50% in A. indica and C. thevetica. One of the important findings of our study was that of the 21 samples screened, Entodinia population increased in 12 with PEG as compared to 7 where Holotricha increased, indicating higher susceptibility of Entodinia to tannin. There was no increase in the protozoa population with PEG when incubating Cardiospermum halicacabum, Clerodendrum inerme, Dioscorea floribunda, Nerium oleander and Selastras paniculatus, which strongly suggested that methane suppression recorded in these samples was not because of a defaunating effect of their tannins per se. The fermentation pattern reflected increased total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) concentration from 0 to 28.3% with PEG addition among the leaves. Our results confirmed further observations that methanogenesis in vitro is not essentially related to density of protozoa population. Secondly, medicinal and aromatic plants such as C. inerme, Gymnema sylvestre and Sapindus laurifolia containing tannins appear to have a potential to suppress in vitro methanogenesis. PMID:22385477

  19. High-resolution melting analysis as a powerful tool to discriminate and genotype Pseudomonas savastanoi pathovars and strains.

    PubMed

    Gori, Andrea; Cerboneschi, Matteo; Tegli, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas savastanoi is a serious pathogen of Olive, Oleander, Ash, and several other Oleaceae. Its epiphytic or endophytic presence in asymptomatic plants is crucial for the spread of Olive and Oleander knot disease, as already ascertained for P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi (Psv) on Olive and for pv. nerii (Psn) on Oleander, while no information is available for pv. fraxini (Psf) on Ash. Nothing is known yet about the distribution on the different host plants and the real host range of these pathovars in nature, although cross-infections were observed following artificial inoculations. A multiplex Real-Time PCR assay was recently developed to simultaneously and quantitatively discriminate in vitro and in planta these P. savastanoi pathovars, for routine culture confirmation and for epidemiological and diagnostical studies. Here an innovative High-Resolution Melting Analysis (HRMA)-based assay was set up to unequivocally discriminate Psv, Psn and Psf, according to several single nucleotide polymorphisms found in their Type Three Secretion System clusters. The genetic distances among 56 P. savastanoi strains belonging to these pathovars were also evaluated, confirming and refining data previously obtained by fAFLP. To our knowledge, this is the first time that HRMA is applied to a bacterial plant pathogen, and one of the few multiplex HRMA-based assays developed so far. This protocol provides a rapid, sensitive, specific tool to differentiate and detect Psv, Psn and Psf strains, also in vivo and against other related bacteria, with lower costs than conventional multiplex Real-Time PCR. Its application is particularly suitable for sanitary certification programs for P. savastanoi, aimed at avoiding the spreading of this phytopathogen through asymptomatic plants. PMID:22295075

  20. Vector transmission studies of Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus (MDMV) with the yellow sugar-cane aphid, Sipha flava (Forbes)

    E-print Network

    Su, Shu-Hua

    1972-01-01

    ~bh'* h' H 1 R d. ~Ahis gosslt2ii Glov. ~H * 1 1'h ~Ath t h R'* H Carolinaia ~c eri Ainslie ~N* R t H 1* 8. Green sowthistle aphid ~AH h * bt D* tl d 9. Oleander and milk- weed aphid ~A his nerii Boyer de Fonscolombe 10. Brown ambrosia... t V' by h b tk- d ht tl Phtd (~D ambrosiae Thos. ) . Plant Dis. Reptr. 48:636-639. 73. Zummo, N. and L. J. Charpentier. 1965. Vector-virus relation- ship of Sugarcane Mosaic Virus: Transmission of Sugarcane Mosaic V by h D I I phtd, ~hh I t h tdf...

  1. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-8286.2004.00854.x Blackwell Publishing, Ltd. PRIMER NOTE Microsatellite DNA markers for Lysiphlebus testaceipes

    E-print Network

    Xavier Fauvergue; Cédric Tentelier; Gwenaëlle Genson; Philippe Audiot; Thomas Guillemaud; Réjane Streiff

    2004-01-01

    Microsatellite loci were isolated from the aphid parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Ten loci were obtained from an enriched partial genomic library. Genetic diversity was analysed at seven of these loci and two natural populations, one on oleander and one on citrus. The observed number of alleles ranged from one to 17, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.37 to 0.82. In both populations, no departure from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium was detected except for one locus. The differentiation between the two populations was characterized by an F

  2. Stinging Caterpillars and Caterpillars of Ornamental Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    This tutorial is part of a series of entomological tutorials and covers the general biology and ecology of many caterpillar taxa. The tutorial has 100 questions (50 in each of 2 tutorials); incorrect answers lead to additional information describing the correct answers. Requires Windows. MAC is not supported. This tutorial covers saddleback caterpillar, puss caterpillar, io moth caterpillar, hag caterpillar, buck moth caterpillar, spiny oak-slug caterpillar, flannel moth caterpillar, azalea caterpillar, bagworm caterpillar, eastern tent caterpillar, fall webworm caterpillar, oleander caterpillar, cabbage palm caterpillar, palm leafskeletionizer caterpillar, and tussock moth caterpillar. The cost for the tutorial CD is $15.

  3. Characterization of cell lines developed from the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata (hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shizuo G. Kamita; Zung N. Do; Aman I. Samra; James R. Hagler; Bruce D. Hammock

    2005-01-01

    Summary  Four continuous cell lines were established from the embryos of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata (Say), an economically important insect vector of bacterial pathogens of grape, almond citrus, oleander, and other agricultural\\u000a and ornamental plantings. The cell lines were designated GWSS-Z10, GWSS-Z15, GWSS-G3, and GWSS-LH. The GWSS-Z10, GWSS-Z15,\\u000a and GWSS-G3 lines were cultured in Ex-Cell 401 medium supplemented with 10%

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF CELL LINES DEVELOPED FROM THE GLASSY-WINGED SHARPSHOOTER, HOMALODISCA COAGULATA (HEMIPTERA: CICADELLIDAE)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHIZUO G. KAMITA; ZUNG N. DO; AMAN I. SAMRA; JAMES R. HAGLER; BRUCE D. HAMMOCK

    2005-01-01

    SUMMARY Four continuous cell lines were established from the embryos of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata (Say), an economically important insect vector of bacterial pathogens of grape, almond, citrus, oleander, and other agri- cultural and ornamental plantings. The cell lines were designated GWSS-Z10, GWSS-Z15, GWSS-G3, and GWSS-LH. The GWSS-Z10, GWSS-Z15, and GWSS-G3 lines were cultured in Ex-Cell 401 medium supplemented

  5. Aphids indirectly increase virulence and transmission potential of a monarch butterfly parasite by reducing defensive chemistry of a shared food plant.

    PubMed

    de Roode, Jacobus C; Rarick, Rachel M; Mongue, Andrew J; Gerardo, Nicole M; Hunter, Mark D

    2011-05-01

    Parasites and hosts live in communities consisting of many interacting species, but few studies have examined how communities affect parasite virulence and transmission. We studied a food web consisting of two species of milkweed, two milkweed herbivores (monarch butterfly and oleander aphid) and a monarch butterfly-specific parasite. We found that the presence of aphids increased the virulence and transmission potential of the monarch butterfly's parasite on one milkweed species. These increases were associated with aphid-induced decreases in the defensive chemicals of milkweed plants. Our experiment suggests that aphids can indirectly increase the virulence and transmission potential of monarch butterfly parasites, probably by altering the chemical composition of a shared food plant. These results indicate that species that are far removed from host-parasite interactions can alter such interactions through cascading indirect effects in the food web. As such, indirect effects within ecological communities may drive the dynamics and evolution of parasites. PMID:21375682

  6. [Severe poisoning by plants used for traditional medicine in Mayotte].

    PubMed

    Durasnel, P; Vanhuffel, L; Blondé, R; Lion, F; Galas, T; Mousset-Hovaere, M; Balaÿ, I; Viscardi, G; Valyi, L

    2014-12-01

    The authors describe three cases of severe accidental poisoning by plants used as part of a traditional treatment in Mayotte. The established, or suspected, toxicity of Thevetia peruviana (Yellow oleander), Cinchona pubescens (Red quinine-tree), Melia azaderach (Persian lilac, also called china berry) and Azadirachta indica (Neem), is discussed. The clinical presentation is cardiac (atrioventricular block) and well known for Thevetia and Cinchona intoxications. Neurological signs and multi-organ failure are found for Azadirachta and Melia. The identification of the plants is never easy, nor is the evidence of their accountability. In the three cases reported, no other cause than the traditional treatment has been found to explain the clinical presentation. The outcome was favorable in all cases. The authors emphasize the difficulties to investigate these accidents, the poor medical knowledge of these practices in tropical areas, and in Mayotte particularly. The need for cooperation with local botanists, familiar with traditional medicine, is also underlined. PMID:25301110

  7. [Intoxications with plants].

    PubMed

    Kupper, Jacqueline; Reichert, Cornelia

    2009-05-01

    Ingestions of plants rarely lead to life-threatening intoxications. Highly toxic plants, which can cause death, are monkshood (Aconitum sp.), yew (Taxus sp.) and autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale). Lethal ingestions of monkshood and yew are usually suicides, intoxications with autumn crocus are mostly accidental ingestions of the leaves mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Severe intoxications can occur with plants of the nightshade family like deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), angel's trumpet (Datura suaveolens) or jimsonweed (Datura stramonium). These plants are ingested for their psychoactive effects. Ingestion of plant material by children most often only causes minor symptoms or no symptoms at all, as children usually do not eat great quantities of the plants. They are especially attracted by the colorful berries. There are plants with mostly cardiovascular effects like monkshood, yew and Digitalis sp. Some of the most dangerous plants belong to this group. Plants of the nightshade family cause an anticholinergic syndrome. With golden chain (Laburnum anagyroides), castor bean (Ricinus communis) and raw beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) we see severe gastrointestinal effects. Autumn crocus contains a cell toxin, colchicine, which leads to multiorgan failure. Different plants are irritative or even caustic to the skin. Treatment is usually symptomatic. Activated charcoal is administered within one hour after ingestion (1 g/kg). Endoscopic removal of plant material can be considered with ingestions of great quantities of highly toxic plants. Administration of repeated doses of charcoal (1-2 g/h every 2-4 hours) may be effective in case of oleander poisoning. There exist only two antidotes: Anti-digoxin Fab fragments can be used with cardenolide glycoside-containing plants (Digitalis sp., Oleander). Physostigmine is the antidote for severe anticholinergic symptoms of the CNS. Antibodies against colchicine, having been developed in France, are not available at the moment. PMID:19401984

  8. [Effect of plant glycosides on resistance and capacitance vessels].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, H D

    1984-01-01

    In the anaesthetized cat, SCOA ( Miroton ), a product which contains extracts from Scilla , Convallaria , Oleander and Adonis , displays not only its well-known positive inotropic effect but has also constrictor effects on veins when applied in intravenous doses of 21.5-100 GPU /kg ( GPU = guinea-pig units, i.e. cardiotoxic equivalents related to 1 g body weight of guinea-pigs). The latter effect differs in that it is somewhat more prolonged. With intraduodenal administration the doses required to achieve equal peak effects as with intravenous injection are about 4 times larger and this suggests a relatively good enteral availability in the cat. SCOA constricts not only veins but also arteries. However, this latter effect is comparatively small and occurs only after intraarterial infusion of high doses (9.1 and 91 GPU /min, respectively).--The cardiac glycosides contained in the drug product primarily account for its vasoactive qualities. The venous constrictor effect correlates with the guinea-pig units. In qualitative respects, the pure glycosides cymarin , convallatoxin , proscillaridin , and scillaren exert equal effects. There is, however, evidence that the correlation between the effect on veins and on the heart differs for the glycosides tested. Based on equal guinea-pig units, the adonis extract, for instance, acts on capacitance vessels about twice as much as scilla , oleander and convallaria extracts. Cymarin , too, has a stronger effect on veins than would be expected from its cardiotoxic effect. The action on arteries and veins are based on different mechanism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6540100

  9. Draft sequencing and comparative genomics of Xylella fastidiosa strains reveal novel biological insights.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Anamitra; Stilwagen, Stephanie; Reznik, Gary; Feil, Helene; Feil, William S; Anderson, Iain; Bernal, Axel; D'Souza, Mark; Ivanova, Natalia; Kapatral, Vinayak; Larsen, Niels; Los, Tamara; Lykidis, Athanasios; Selkov, Eugene; Walunas, Theresa L; Purcell, Alexander; Edwards, Rob A; Hawkins, Trevor; Haselkorn, Robert; Overbeek, Ross; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Predki, Paul F

    2002-10-01

    Draft sequencing is a rapid and efficient method for determining the near-complete sequence of microbial genomes. Here we report a comparative analysis of one complete and two draft genome sequences of the phytopathogenic bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa, which causes serious disease in plants, including citrus, almond, and oleander. We present highlights of an in silico analysis based on a comparison of reconstructions of core biological subsystems. Cellular pathway reconstructions have been used to identify a small number of genes, which are likely to reside within the draft genomes but are not captured in the draft assembly. These represented only a small fraction of all genes and were predominantly large and small ribosomal subunit protein components. By using this approach, some of the inherent limitations of draft sequence can be significantly reduced. Despite the incomplete nature of the draft genomes, it is possible to identify several phage-related genes, which appear to be absent from the draft genomes and not the result of insufficient sequence sampling. This region may therefore identify potential host-specific functions. Based on this first functional reconstruction of a phytopathogenic microbe, we spotlight an unusual respiration machinery as a potential target for biological control. We also predicted and developed a new defined growth medium for Xylella. PMID:12368248

  10. Acute plant poisoning and antitoxin antibodies.

    PubMed

    Eddleston, Michael; Persson, Hans

    2003-01-01

    Plant poisoning is normally a problem of young children who unintentionally ingest small quantities of toxic plants with little resulting morbidity and few deaths. In some regions of the world, however, plant poisonings are important clinical problems causing much morbidity and mortality. While deaths do occur after unintentional poisoning with plants such as Atractylis gummifera (bird-lime or blue thistle) and Blighia sapida (ackee tree), the majority of deaths globally occur following intentional self-poisoning with plants such as Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander) and Cerbera manghas (pink-eyed cerbera or sea mango). Antitoxins developed against colchicine and cardiac glycosides would be useful for plant poisonings--anti-digoxin Fab fragments have been shown to be highly effective in T. peruviana poisoning. Unfortunately, their great cost limits their use in the developing world where they would make a major difference in patient management. Therapy for some other plant poisonings might also benefit from the development of antitoxins. However, until issues of cost and supply are worked out, plant antitoxins are going to remain a dream in many of the areas where they are now urgently required. PMID:12807314

  11. Functional evidence for physiological mechanisms to circumvent neurotoxicity of cardenolides in an adapted and a non-adapted hawk-moth species.

    PubMed

    Petschenka, Georg; Pick, Christian; Wagschal, Vera; Dobler, Susanne

    2013-05-22

    Because cardenolides specifically inhibit the Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, insects feeding on cardenolide-containing plants need to circumvent this toxic effect. Some insects such as the monarch butterfly rely on target site insensitivity, yet other cardenolide-adapted lepidopterans such as the oleander hawk-moth, Daphnis nerii, possess highly sensitive Na(+)K(+)-ATPases. Nevertheless, larvae of this species and the related Manduca sexta are insensitive to injected cardenolides. By radioactive-binding assays with nerve cords of both species, we demonstrate that the perineurium surrounding the nervous tissue functions as a diffusion barrier for a polar cardenolide (ouabain). By contrast, for non-polar cardenolides such as digoxin an active efflux carrier limits the access to the nerve cord. This barrier can be abolished by metabolic inhibitors and by verapamil, a specific inhibitor of P-glycoproteins (PGPs). This supports that a PGP-like transporter is involved in the active cardenolide-barrier of the perineurium. Tissue specific RT-PCR demonstrated expression of three PGP-like genes in hornworm nerve cords, and immunohistochemistry further corroborated PGP expression in the perineurium. Our results thus suggest that the lepidopteran perineurium serves as a diffusion barrier for polar cardenolides and provides an active barrier for non-polar cardenolides. This may explain the high in vivo resistance to cardenolides observed in some lepidopteran larvae, despite their highly sensitive Na(+)K(+)-ATPases. PMID:23516239

  12. Functional evidence for physiological mechanisms to circumvent neurotoxicity of cardenolides in an adapted and a non-adapted hawk-moth species

    PubMed Central

    Petschenka, Georg; Pick, Christian; Wagschal, Vera; Dobler, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Because cardenolides specifically inhibit the Na+K+-ATPase, insects feeding on cardenolide-containing plants need to circumvent this toxic effect. Some insects such as the monarch butterfly rely on target site insensitivity, yet other cardenolide-adapted lepidopterans such as the oleander hawk-moth, Daphnis nerii, possess highly sensitive Na+K+-ATPases. Nevertheless, larvae of this species and the related Manduca sexta are insensitive to injected cardenolides. By radioactive-binding assays with nerve cords of both species, we demonstrate that the perineurium surrounding the nervous tissue functions as a diffusion barrier for a polar cardenolide (ouabain). By contrast, for non-polar cardenolides such as digoxin an active efflux carrier limits the access to the nerve cord. This barrier can be abolished by metabolic inhibitors and by verapamil, a specific inhibitor of P-glycoproteins (PGPs). This supports that a PGP-like transporter is involved in the active cardenolide-barrier of the perineurium. Tissue specific RT-PCR demonstrated expression of three PGP-like genes in hornworm nerve cords, and immunohistochemistry further corroborated PGP expression in the perineurium. Our results thus suggest that the lepidopteran perineurium serves as a diffusion barrier for polar cardenolides and provides an active barrier for non-polar cardenolides. This may explain the high in vivo resistance to cardenolides observed in some lepidopteran larvae, despite their highly sensitive Na+K+-ATPases. PMID:23516239

  13. Summer pheasant's eye (Adonis aestivalis) poisoning in three horses.

    PubMed

    Woods, L W; Filigenzi, M S; Booth, M C; Rodger, L D; Arnold, J S; Puschner, B

    2004-05-01

    Three horses died as a result of eating grass hay containing summer pheasant's eye (Adonis aestivalis L.), a plant containing cardenolides similar to oleander and foxglove. A 9-year-old thoroughbred gelding, a 20-year-old appaloosa gelding, and a 5-year-old quarter horse gelding initially presented with signs of colic 24-48 hours after first exposure to the hay. Gastrointestinal gaseous distension was the primary finding on clinical examination of all three horses. Two horses became moribund and were euthanatized 1 day after first showing clinical signs, and the third horse was euthanatized after 4 days of medical therapy. Endocardial hemorrhage and gaseous distension of the gastrointestinal tract were the only necropsy findings in the first two horses. On microscopic examination, both horses had scattered foci of mild, acute myocardial necrosis and neutrophilic inflammation associated with endocardial and epicardial hemorrhage. The third horse that survived for 4 days had multifocal to coalescing, irregular foci of acute, subacute, and chronic myocardial degeneration and necrosis. A. aestivalis (pheasant's eye, summer adonis) was identified in the hay. Strophanthidin, the aglycone of several cardenolides present in Adonis spp., was detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry in gastrointestinal contents from all three horses. Although Adonis spp. contain cardiac glycosides, cardiac lesions have not previously been described in livestock associated with consumption of adonis, and this is the first report of adonis toxicosis in North America. PMID:15133169

  14. Acute Plant Poisoning and Antitoxin Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Eddleston, Michael; Persson, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Plant poisoning is normally a problem of young children who unintentionally ingest small quantities of toxic plants with little resulting morbidity and few deaths. In some regions of the world, however, plants are important clinical problems causing much morbidity and mortality. While deaths do occur after unintentional poisoning with plants such as Atractylis gummifera (bird-lime or blue thistle) and Blighia sapida (ackee tree), the majority of deaths globally occur following intentional self-poisoning with plants such as Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander) and Cerbera manghas (pink-eyed cerbera or sea mango). Antitoxins developed against colchicine and cardiac glycosides would be useful for plant poisonings - anti-digoxin Fab fragments have been shown to be highly effective in T. peruviana poisoning. Unfortunately, their great cost limits their use in the developing world where they would make a major difference in patient management. Therapy for some other plant poisonings might also benefit from the development of antitoxins. However, until issues of cost and supply are worked out, plant anti-toxins are going to remain a dream in many of the areas where they are now urgently required. PMID:12807314

  15. [Pseudo-(venocuran-)lupus--a minor episode in the history of medicine].

    PubMed

    Wälli, F; Grob, P J; Müller-Schoop, J

    1981-09-19

    Pseudolupus is a syndrome characterized by recurrent fever arthralgia, myalgia, involvement of lung and heart, high sedimentation rate, leukocytosis and lymphopenia. The diagnosis is established by the presence of circulating antimitochondrial antibodies. In 1975 it was found that the disease was due to prolonged treatment with Venocuran, a drug against venous disorders composed of phenopyrazone (pyrazolone derivative), horse-chestnut extract, and Miroton (glycosides extracted from white squill [Urginea maritima], convallaria, oleander and adonis). The drug was then withdrawn. No new cases have come to our attention since then. 15 patients with severe pseudolupus known to us in 1975 have now been followed up. In 6 of the patients all symptoms disappeared within weeks or a few months after withdrawal of the drug. However, the other 9 patients had at least 1 and often 2--3 relapses in the following months to years. In some patients, symptoms remained as long as 4--5 years. Antimitochondrial antibodies persisted in 4 patients for more than 3 years and in 1 patient are still detectable now. The pathomechanism of pseudolupus has not been elucidated. PMID:7280640

  16. The Complex Biogeography of the Plant Pathogen Xylella fastidiosa: Genetic Evidence of Introductions and Subspecific Introgression in Central America

    PubMed Central

    Nunney, Leonard; Ortiz, Beatriz; Russell, Stephanie A.; Ruiz Sánchez, Rebeca; Stouthamer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen with a history of economically damaging introductions of subspecies to regions where its other subspecies are native. Genetic evidence is presented demonstrating the introduction of two new taxa into Central America and their introgression into the native subspecies, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa. The data are from 10 genetic outliers detected by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of isolates from Costa Rica. Six (five from oleander, one from coffee) defined a new sequence type (ST53) that carried alleles at six of the eight loci sequenced (five of the seven MLST loci) diagnostic of the South American subspecies Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca which causes two economically damaging plant diseases, citrus variegated chlorosis and coffee leaf scorch. The two remaining loci of ST53 carried alleles from what appears to be a new South American form of X. fastidiosa. Four isolates, classified as X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa, showed a low level of introgression of non-native DNA. One grapevine isolate showed introgression of an allele from X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca while the other three (from citrus and coffee) showed introgression of an allele with similar ancestry to the alleles of unknown origin in ST53. The presence of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca in Central America is troubling given its disease potential, and establishes another route for the introduction of this economically damaging subspecies into the US or elsewhere, a threat potentially compounded by the presence of a previously unknown form of X. fastidiosa. PMID:25379725

  17. The complex biogeography of the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa: genetic evidence of introductions and Subspecific introgression in Central America.

    PubMed

    Nunney, Leonard; Ortiz, Beatriz; Russell, Stephanie A; Ruiz Sánchez, Rebeca; Stouthamer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen with a history of economically damaging introductions of subspecies to regions where its other subspecies are native. Genetic evidence is presented demonstrating the introduction of two new taxa into Central America and their introgression into the native subspecies, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa. The data are from 10 genetic outliers detected by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of isolates from Costa Rica. Six (five from oleander, one from coffee) defined a new sequence type (ST53) that carried alleles at six of the eight loci sequenced (five of the seven MLST loci) diagnostic of the South American subspecies Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca which causes two economically damaging plant diseases, citrus variegated chlorosis and coffee leaf scorch. The two remaining loci of ST53 carried alleles from what appears to be a new South American form of X. fastidiosa. Four isolates, classified as X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa, showed a low level of introgression of non-native DNA. One grapevine isolate showed introgression of an allele from X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca while the other three (from citrus and coffee) showed introgression of an allele with similar ancestry to the alleles of unknown origin in ST53. The presence of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca in Central America is troubling given its disease potential, and establishes another route for the introduction of this economically damaging subspecies into the US or elsewhere, a threat potentially compounded by the presence of a previously unknown form of X. fastidiosa. PMID:25379725

  18. Photo by N. McIntyre Photo by N. McIntyre

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    % Nerium 5% Results: Arthropod Communities versus Plant Taxa Plant Taxa Sampled Excluding Dominant Taxa including Larrea and Prosopis. * The least abundant arthropod communities were collected off of Nerium Larrea Ambrosia Citrus Nerium Prosopis mean total#ofindividauls Miridae Psyllidae Cicadellidae Hemiptera

  19. Pruning effects on root length density, root biomass, and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in two shrubs in a simulated xeric landscaped yard

    E-print Network

    Hall, Sharon J.

    planted with six Leucophyllum frutescens I. M. Johnst. `Green CloudTM' (Texas sage) plants and six Nerium sample and three Nerium samples were discarded due to irrigation problems. Roots were washed free planted with six Leucophyllum frutescens I. M. Johnst. `Green CloudTM' (Texas sage) plants and six Nerium

  20. Comparison of neurological healthcare oriented educational resources for patients on the internet.

    PubMed

    Punia, Vineet; Dagar, Anjali; Agarwal, Nitin; He, Wenzhuan; Hillen, Machteld

    2014-12-01

    The internet has become a major contributor to health literacy promotion. The average American reads at 7th-8th grade level and it is recommended to write patient education materials at or below 6th grade reading level. We tried to assess the level of literacy required to read and understand online patient education materials (OPEM) for neurological diseases from various internet resources. We then compared those to an assumed reference OPEM source, namely the patient education brochures from the American Academy of Neurology (AAN), the world's largest professional association of neurologists. Disease specific patient education brochures were downloaded from the AAN website. OPEM for these diseases were also accessed from other common online sources determined using a predefined criterion. All OPEM were converted to Microsoft Word (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA, USA) and their reading level was analyzed using Readability Studio Professional Edition version 2012.1 (Oleander Software, Vandalia, OH, USA). Descriptive analysis and analysis of variance were used to compare reading levels of OPEM from different resources. Medline Plus, Mayo clinic and Wikipedia qualified for OPEM analysis. All OPEM from these resources, including the AAN, were written above the recommended 6th grade reading level. They were also found to be "fairly difficult", "difficult" or "confusing" on the Flesch Reading Ease scale. AAN OPEM on average needed lower reading level, with Wikipedia OPEM being significantly (p<0.01) more difficult to read compared to the other three resources. OPEM on neurological diseases are being written at a level of reading complexity higher than the average American and the recommended reading levels. This may be undermining the utility of these resources. PMID:25194822

  1. Formation of Stylet Sheaths in ?ere (in air) from Eight Species of Phytophagous Hemipterans from Six Families (Suborders: Auchenorrhyncha and Sternorrhyncha)

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, J. Kent; Luzio, Gary A.; Ammar, El-Desouky; Hunter, Wayne B.; Hall, David G.; Shatters Jr, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Stylet sheath formation is a common feature among phytophagous hemipterans. These sheaths are considered essential to promote a successful feeding event. Stylet sheath compositions are largely unknown and their mode of solidification remains to be elucidated. This report demonstrates the formation and solidification of in ?ere (in air) produced stylet sheaths by six hemipteran families: Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae, Asian citrus psyllid), Aphis nerii (Aphididae, oleander/milkweed aphid), Toxoptera citricida (Aphididae, brown citrus aphid), Aphis gossypii (Aphididae, cotton melon aphid), Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Aleyrodidae, whitefly), Homalodisca vitripennis (Cicadellidae, glassy-winged sharpshooter), Ferrisia virgata (Pseudococcidae, striped mealybug), and Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Coccidae, pyriform scale). Examination of in ?ere produced stylet sheaths by confocal and scanning electron microscopy shows a common morphology of an initial flange laid down on the surface of the membrane followed by continuous hollow core structures with sequentially stacked hardened bulbous droplets. Single and multi-branched sheaths were common, whereas mealybug and scale insects typically produced multi-branched sheaths. Micrographs of the in ?ere formed flanges indicate flange sealing upon stylet bundle extraction in D. citri and the aphids, while the B. tabaci whitefly and H. vitripennis glassy-winged sharpshooter flanges remain unsealed. Structural similarity of in ?ere sheaths are apparent in stylet sheaths formed in planta, in artificial diets, or in water. The use of ‘Solvy’, a dissolvable membrane, for intact stylet sheath isolation is reported. These observations illustrate for the first time this mode of stylet sheath synthesis adding to the understanding of stylet sheath formation in phytophagous hemipterans and providing tools for future use in structural and compositional analysis. PMID:23638086

  2. Using pilot test data to refine an alternative cover design in northern California.

    PubMed

    Smesrud, Jason K; Benson, Craig H; Albright, William H; Richards, James H; Wright, Shannon; Israel, Tim; Goodrich, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Two instrumented test sections were constructed in summer 1999 at the Kiefer Landfill near Sacramento, California to test the hydraulic performance of two proposed alternative final covers. Both test sections simulated monolithic evapotranspiration (ET) designs that differed primarily in thickness. Both were seeded with a mix of two perennial and one annual grass species. Oleander seedlings were also planted in the thicker test section. Detailed hydrologic performance monitoring of the covers was conducted from 1999 through 2005, The thicker test section met the performance criterion (average percolation of <3 mm/y). The thinner test section transmitted considerably more percolation (average of 55 mm/y). Both test sections were decommissioned in summer 2005 to investigate changes in soil hydraulic properties, geomorphology, and vegetation and to collect data to support a revised design. Field data from hydrologic monitoring and the decommissioning study were subsequently included in a hydrologic modeling study to estimate the performance of an optimized cover system for full-scale application. The decommissioning study showed that properties of the soils changed over the monitoring period (saturated hydraulic conductivity and water holding capacity increased, density decreased) and that the perennial grasses and shrubs intended for the cover were out-competed by annual species with shallower roots and lesser capacity for water uptake. Of these changes, reduced ET from the shallow-rooted annual vegetation is believed to be the primary cause for the high percolation rate from the thinner test section. Hydrologic modeling suggests that the target hydraulic performance can be achieved using an ET cover with similar thickness to the thin test section if perennial vegetation species observed in surrounding grasslands can be established. This finding underscores the importance of establishing and maintaining the appropriate vegetation on ET covers in this climate. PMID:22574382

  3. Patterns of hospital transfer for self-poisoned patients in rural Sri Lanka: implications for estimating the incidence of self-poisoning in the developing world.

    PubMed Central

    Eddleston, Michael; Sudarshan, K.; Senthilkumaran, M.; Reginald, K.; Karalliedde, Lakshman; Senarathna, Lalith; de Silva, Dhammika; Rezvi Sheriff, M. H.; Buckley, Nick A.; Gunnell, David

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Most data on self-poisoning in rural Asia have come from secondary hospitals. We aimed to: assess how transfers from primary to secondary hospitals affected estimates of case-fatality ratio (CFR); determine whether there was referral bias according to gender or poison; and estimate the annual incidence of all self-poisoning, and of fatal self-poisoning, in a rural developing-world setting. METHODS: Self-poisoning patients admitted to Anuradhapura General Hospital, Sri Lanka, were reviewed on admission from 1 July to 31 December 2002. We audited medical notes of self-poisoning patients admitted to 17 of the 34 surrounding peripheral hospitals for the same period. FINDINGS: A total of 742 patients were admitted with self-poisoning to the secondary hospital; 81 died (CFR 10.9%). 483 patients were admitted to 17 surrounding peripheral hospitals. Six patients (1.2%) died in peripheral hospitals, 249 were discharged home, and 228 were transferred to the secondary hospital. There was no effect of gender or age on likelihood of transfer; however, patients who had ingested oleander or paraquat were more likely to be transferred than were patients who had taken organophosphorus pesticides or other poisons. Estimated annual incidences of self-poisoning and fatal self-poisoning were 363 and 27 per 100,000 population, respectively, with an overall CFR of 7.4% (95% confidence interval 6.0-9.0). CONCLUSION: Fifty per cent of patients admitted to peripheral hospitals were discharged home, showing that CFRs based on secondary hospital data are inflated. However, while incidence of self-poisoning is similar to that in England, fatal self-poisoning is three times more common in Sri Lanka than fatal self-harm by all methods in England. Population based data are essential for making international comparisons of case fatality and incidence, and for assessing public health interventions. PMID:16628300

  4. Formation of Stylet Sheaths in ?ere (in air) from eight species of phytophagous hemipterans from six families (Suborders: Auchenorrhyncha and Sternorrhyncha).

    PubMed

    Morgan, J Kent; Luzio, Gary A; Ammar, El-Desouky; Hunter, Wayne B; Hall, David G; Shatters, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    Stylet sheath formation is a common feature among phytophagous hemipterans. These sheaths are considered essential to promote a successful feeding event. Stylet sheath compositions are largely unknown and their mode of solidification remains to be elucidated. This report demonstrates the formation and solidification of in ?ere (in air) produced stylet sheaths by six hemipteran families: Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae, Asian citrus psyllid), Aphis nerii (Aphididae, oleander/milkweed aphid), Toxoptera citricida (Aphididae, brown citrus aphid), Aphis gossypii (Aphididae, cotton melon aphid), Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Aleyrodidae, whitefly), Homalodisca vitripennis (Cicadellidae, glassy-winged sharpshooter), Ferrisia virgata (Pseudococcidae, striped mealybug), and Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Coccidae, pyriform scale). Examination of in ?ere produced stylet sheaths by confocal and scanning electron microscopy shows a common morphology of an initial flange laid down on the surface of the membrane followed by continuous hollow core structures with sequentially stacked hardened bulbous droplets. Single and multi-branched sheaths were common, whereas mealybug and scale insects typically produced multi-branched sheaths. Micrographs of the in ?ere formed flanges indicate flange sealing upon stylet bundle extraction in D. citri and the aphids, while the B. tabaci whitefly and H. vitripennis glassy-winged sharpshooter flanges remain unsealed. Structural similarity of in ?ere sheaths are apparent in stylet sheaths formed in planta, in artificial diets, or in water. The use of 'Solvy', a dissolvable membrane, for intact stylet sheath isolation is reported. These observations illustrate for the first time this mode of stylet sheath synthesis adding to the understanding of stylet sheath formation in phytophagous hemipterans and providing tools for future use in structural and compositional analysis. PMID:23638086

  5. Multilocus sequence type system for the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa and relative contributions of recombination and point mutation to clonal diversity.

    PubMed

    Scally, Mark; Schuenzel, Erin L; Stouthamer, Richard; Nunney, Leonard

    2005-12-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) identifies and groups bacterial strains based on DNA sequence data from (typically) seven housekeeping genes. MLST has also been employed to estimate the relative contributions of recombination and point mutation to clonal divergence. We applied MLST to the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa using an initial set of sequences for 10 loci (9.3 kb) of 25 strains from five different host plants, grapevine (PD strains), oleander (OLS strains), oak (OAK strains), almond (ALS strains), and peach (PP strains). An eBURST analysis identified six clonal complexes using the grouping criterion that each member must be identical to at least one other member at 7 or more of the 10 loci. These clonal complexes corresponded to previously identified phylogenetic clades; clonal complex 1 (CC1) (all PD strains plus two ALS strains) and CC2 (OLS strains) defined the X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa and X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi clades, while CC3 (ALS strains), CC4 (OAK strains), and CC5 (PP strains) were subclades of X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex. CC6 (ALS strains) identified an X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex-like group characterized by a high frequency of intersubspecific recombination. Compared to the recombination rate in other bacterial species, the recombination rate in X. fastidiosa is relatively low. Recombination between different alleles was estimated to give rise to 76% of the nucleotide changes and 31% of the allelic changes observed. The housekeeping loci holC, nuoL, leuA, gltT, cysG, petC, and lacF were chosen to form the basis of a public database for typing X. fastidiosa (www.mlst.net). These loci identified the same six clonal complexes using the strain grouping criterion of identity at five or more loci with at least one other member. PMID:16332839

  6. A study of the currents of the outer shelf and upper slope from a decade of shipboard ADCP observations in the Middle Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flagg, Charles N.; Dunn, Maureen; Wang, Dong-Ping; Rossby, H. Thomas; Benway, Robert L.

    2006-06-01

    Since 1992, upper ocean ADCP current data between New York and Bermuda have been gathered from the container ship Oleander to identify long-term changes in the shelf, slope, Gulf Stream and Sargasso Sea. Temperature and surface salinity data have been been collected along this route since 1978 by NOAA/NMFRC. The first ten years of ADCP data from which the effects of warm ring have been removed are used to describe processes within the shelfbreak frontal sub-region. The Eulerian mean velocity structure shows an along-isobath shelfbreak jet with maximum speeds of O(0.15 m s-1) offshore of which is a ˜30 km wide relatively quiescent region. There is also an offshore slope current 40 to 50 km wide extending vertically to 300 m, with similar velocities as those found in the shelfbreak jet. The mean shelfbreak jet transport is 0.4 Sv while the slope current adds another 2.5 Sv. Maximum shelfbreak transport occurs in the fall and winter while the slope current reaches its maximum during the spring. In stream coordinates, the shelfbreak jet has maximum speeds of 0.35 m s-1, a width of ˜30 km and a vertical decay scale of ˜50 m. The maximum Rossby number within the jet, defined by ?dU/dy?max/f, is about 0.2. Significant interannual fluctuations occur in upper ocean temperature, salinity and currents, some of which appear related to changes in the NAO index. Seasonal changes in the slope current appear to be related to seasonal changes in the wind stress curl over the slope sea.

  7. A review on phytochemical, pharmacological, and pharmacognostical profile of Wrightia tinctoria: Adulterant of kurchi

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Rajani

    2014-01-01

    Wrightia tinctoria R. Br. belongs to family Apocynaceae commonly called as Sweet Indrajao, Pala Indigo Plant, Dyer's Oleander. “Jaundice curative tree” in south India. Sweet Indrajao is a small, deciduous tree with a light gray, scaly smooth bark. Native to India and Burma, Wrightia is named after a Scottish physician and botanist William Wright (1740-1827). Sweet Indrajao is called dhudi (Hindi) because of its preservative nature. The juice of the tender leaves is used efficaciously in jaundice. Crushed fresh leaves when filled in the cavity of decayed tooth relieve toothache. In Siddha system of medicine, it is used for psoriasis and other skin diseases. Oil 777 prepared out of the fresh leaves of the plant has been assigned to analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-pyretic activities and to be effective in the treatment of psoriasis. The plant is reported to contain presence of flavanoid, glycoflavones-iso-orientin, and phenolic acids. The various chemical constituents isolated from various parts of the plant are reported as 3,4-Seco-lup-20 (29)-en-3-oic acid, lupeol, stigmasterol and campetosterol, Indigotin, indirubin, tryptanthrin, isatin, anthranillate and rutin Triacontanol, Wrightial, cycloartenone, cycloeucalenol, ?-amyrin, Alpha-Amyrin, and ?-sitosterol, 14?-methylzymosterol. Four uncommon sterols, desmosterol, clerosterol, 24-methylene-25-methylcholesterol, and 24-dehydropollinastanol, were isolated and identified in addition to several more common phytosterols. The Triterpinoids components of the leaves and pods of Wrightia tinctoria also isolated. This article intends to provide an overview of the chemical constituents present in various parts of the plants and their pharmacological actions and pharmacognostical evaluation. PMID:24600194

  8. Antibacterial activity of certain plant extracts against bacterial wilt of tomato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. M. Abo-Elyousr; M. R. Asran

    2009-01-01

    Five isolates of Ralstonia solanacearum were isolated from a naturally wilted root of tomato plants grown in Assiut governorate. The antibacterial activity of extract of Datura, Garlic and Nerium were tested in controlling R. solanacearum in vitro and in vivo. Garlic exhibited the strongest antibacterial activity against bacterial wilt in vitro and in vivo followed by Datura and then Nerium.

  9. Passive Microwave Measurements of Salinity: The Gulf Stream Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Koblinsky, C.; Haken, M.; Howden, S.; Bingham, F.; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Passive microwave sensors at L-band (1.4 GHz) operating from aircraft have demonstrated that salinity can be measured with sufficient accuracy (I psu) to be scientifically meaningful in coastal waters. However, measuring salinity in the open ocean presents unresolved issues largely because of the much greater accuracy (approximately 0.2 psu) required of global maps to be scientifically viable. The development of a satellite microwave instrument to make global measurements of SSS (Sea Surface Salinity) is the focus of a joint JPL/GSFC/NASA ocean research program called Aquarius. In the summer of 1999 a series of measurements called, The Gulf Stream Experiment, were conducted as part of research at the Goddard Space Flight Center to test the potential for passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in the open ocean. The measurements consisted of airborne microwave instruments together with ships and drifters for surface truth. The study area was a 200 km by 100 km rectangle about 250 km east of Delaware Bay between the continental shelf waters and north wall of the Gulf Stream. The primary passive instruments were the ESTAR radiometer (L-band, H-pol) and the SLFMR radiometer (L-band, V-pol). In addition, the instruments on the aircraft included a C-band radiometer (ACMR), an ocean wave scatterometer (ROWS) and an infrared radiometer (for surface temperature). These instruments were mounted on the NASA P-3 Orion aircraft. Sea surface measurements consisted of thermosalinograph data provided by the R/V Cape Henlopen and the MN Oleander, and data from salinity and temperature sensors on three surface drifters deployed from the R/V Cape Henlopen. The primary experiment period was August 26-September 2, 1999. During this period the salinity field within the study area consisted of a gradient on the order of 2-3 psu in the vicinity of the shelf break and a warm core ring with a gradient of 1-2 psu. Detailed maps were made with the airborne sensors on August 28 and 29 and on September 2 flights were made over the surface drifters to look for effects due to a change in surface roughness resulting from the passage of Hurricane Dennis. Results show a good agreement between the microwave measurements and ship measurements of salinity. The features of the brightness temperature maps correspond well with the features of the salinity field measured by the ship and drifters and a preliminary retrieval of salinity compares well with the ship data.

  10. Salinity Measurements During the Gulf Stream Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Koblinsky, C.; Howden, S.; Goodberlet, M.

    2000-01-01

    The salinity of the open ocean is important for understanding ocean circulation, for understanding energy exchange with the atmosphere and for improving models to predict weather and climate. Passive microwave sensors at L-band (1.4 GHz) operating from aircraft have demonstrated that salinity can be measured with sufficient accuracy (1 psu) to be scientifically meaningful in coastal waters. However, measuring salinity in the open ocean presents unresolved issues largely because of the much greater accuracy (approx. 0.1 psu) required to be scientifically viable. In the summer of 1999 a series of measurements called, The Gulf Stream Experiment, were conducted as part of research at the Goddard Space Flight Center to test the potential for passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in the open ocean. The measurements consisted of a compliment of airborne microwave instruments (radiometers and scatterometer) and ships and drifters for surface truth. The study area was a 200 km by 100 km rectangle about 250 km east of Delaware Bay between the continental shelf waters and north wall of the Gulf Stream. The primary passive instruments were the ESTAR radiometer (L-band, H-pol) and the SLFMR radiometer (L-band, V-pol). In addition, the compliment of instruments on the aircraft included a C-band radiometer (ACMR), an ocean wave scatterometer (ROWS) and an infrared radiometer. A GPS backscatter experiment was also part of the package. These instruments were mounted on the NASA P-3 Orion aircraft. Surface salinity measurements were provided by the RN Cape Henlopen and MN Oleander (thermosalinographs) plus salinity and temperature sensors on three surface drifters deployed from the RN Cape Henopen. The primary experiment period was August 26-September 2, 1999. During this period the salinity field within the study area consisted of a gradient on the order of 2-3 psu in the vicinity of the shelf break and a warm core ring with a gradient of 1-2 psu. Detailed maps were made with the airborne sensors on August 28 and 29 and on September 2 flights were made over the surface drifters to look for effects due to a change in surface roughness resulting from the passage of Hurricane Dennis. Preliminary results show a good agreement between the microwave measurements and ship measurements of salinity. The features of the brightness temperature maps correspond well with the features of the salinity field measured by the ship and drifters and a preliminary retrieval of salinity compares well with the ship data.

  11. Evaluation of soil biodesinfestation with crop and garden residues in the control of root-knot nematodes populations.

    PubMed

    López-Cepero, J; Piedra Buena, A; Díez-Rojo, M A; Regalado, R; Brito, E; Hernández, Z; Figueredo, M; Almendros, G; Bello, A

    2007-01-01

    Fresh crop and garden residues were applied both under laboratory conditions and in commercial greenhouse in order to asses their effect on soil nematodes populations and soil fertility. In the laboratory experiments, dosages of 5 to 20 g of cabbage residues, chicken manure, cabbage residues+chicken manure, grass+chicken manure, as well as leaves and stems of orange tree, pine tree, oleander, olive tree, palm tree and boxwood were mixed with 500 g soil having root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) and soil moisture was adjusted at field capacity. A control treatment without residues was also included. The mixtures were kept into plastic bags, with four replications, and the bags were incubated for four weeks at 30 degrees C, when nematological and soil fertility analyses were carried out. In general, all these materials significantly (P < 0.05) reduced M. incognita populations and increased saprophagous nematodes, with slight effects on soil fertility except for the K increase with residues application. Tomato plants susceptible to M. incognita were planted in pots with 300 cm3 of the treated soils and kept for five weeks in a growth chamber (24 +/- 1 degrees C, 14 hours light), when root galling indices were evaluated. Most materials applied reduced root galling indices as regards to the control. In the greenhouse experiment, cabbage residues, cabbage residues+chicken manure, grass+chicken manure and grass+cabbage residues were applied to the soil and covered with a polyethylene sheet for 5 weeks. A cabbage residues:chicken manure treatment and a control (not-amended) treatment, without polyethylene, were also included. At the end of the experiment, the nematological analysis showed that all materials successfully controlled M. incognita populations, reaching 86-100% mortality with organic amendments vs. 6% for the control. After the greenhouse biodesinfestation experiment, a tomato crop was grown for one month, when root galling indices were determined. All materials significantly reduced this value from 4.75 in the control to 1.0-2.25 with the organic amendments, except for the cabbage residues+chicken manure treatment without polyethylene (index = 4.0). Our results show that fresh crop and garden residues successfully reduced M. incognita populations and root galling indices when applied with polyethylene covers, having good potential to be considered in integrated management programs. PMID:18399508

  12. Chemical constituents and energy content of some latex bearing plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Kalita; C. N Saikia

    2004-01-01

    The latex bearing plants Plumeria alba, Calotropis procera, Euphorbia nerrifolia, Nerium indicum and Mimusops elengi were evaluated as potential renewable sources of energy and chemicals. Plant parts (leaf, stem, bark) and also whole plants were analyzed for elemental composition, oil, polyphenol, hydrocarbons, crude protein, ?-cellulose, lignin and ash. The dry biomass yields were between 4.47 and 13.74 kg\\/plant. The carbon

  13. Phytochemical Analysis of Methanolic Extracts of Leaves of Some Medicinal Plants

    E-print Network

    Sudipa Nag; Anirban Paul; Rituparna Dutta

    Abstract- The present investigation deals with the phytochemical studies of leaves of different medicinal plants like Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall ex Nees of the family Acanthaceae, Bauhinia acuminata Linn. of the family Caesalpiniaceae, Clerodendrum indicum (Linn.) O. Kuntze syn. C. siphonanthus R. Br. of the family Verbenaceae, Nerium odorum Soland. of the family Apocynaceae and Sida humilis Cav. Syn. S. veronicaefolia Lam., syn. S. cordata (Burm. f.) Borss. of the family Malvaceae. Methanolic (90%) extracts of leaf powders have been screened for qualitative determination of different secondary metabolites like starch, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, reducing sugars, amino acids and lignins by specific chemical color reaction tests.

  14. Effect of single and binary combinations of plant-derived molluscicides on reproduction and survival of the snail Achatina fulica.

    PubMed

    Rao, I G; Singh, D K

    2000-11-01

    The effects of sublethal treatments (20% and 60% of LC(50)/24 h) with plant-derived molluscicides on the reproduction of the giant African snail Achatina fulica were studied. Azadirachta indica oil, Cedrus deodara oil, Allium sativum bulb powder, and Nerium indicum bark powder singly and binary combinations on reproduction and survival of A. fulica were investigated. Repeated treatment occurred on day 0, day 15, and day 30. These plant-derived molluscicides significantly reduced fecundity, egg viability, and survival of A. fulica within 15 days. Discontinuation of the treatments after day 30 did not lead to a recovery trend in the next 30 days. Day 0 sublethal treatment of all the molluscicides caused a maximum reduction in protein, amino acid, DNA, RNA, and phospholipid levels and simultaneous increase in lipid peroxidation in the ovotestis of treated A. fulica. It is believed that sublethal exposure of these molluscicides on snail reproduction is a complex process, involving more than one factor in reducing the reproductive capacity of A. fulica. PMID:11031309

  15. Minor and trace elemental determination in the Indian herbal and other medicinal preparations.

    PubMed

    Samudralwar, D L; Garg, A N

    1996-08-01

    Medicinal plants described in the Indian "Ayurvedic" literature viz. Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), Gulvel (Tinospora cardifolia), bitter Neem (Azadirachta indica), Kanher (Nerium Andicum), Vekhand (Acorus calamus), and Peacock's feather (ash) were analyzed for minor and trace elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The samples and the standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA and IAEA, Vienna were irradiated for 5 min, 1 h, 5 h, and 10 h with thermal neutrons at a flux of 10(12)-10(13) n cm-2 s-1 in APSARA and CIRUS reactor at BARC, Bombay. High resolution gamma ray spectrometry was performed using a 45 cm3 HPGe detector and a 4096 MCA system. Concentrations of 13 elements were determined. Zinc, manganese, and sodium were significantly higher in Tulsi leaves while zinc is higher in Neem leaves. Peacock's feathers were found to be rich in manganese, iron, copper, and zinc. A high concentration of mercury was also found in the peacock's feather ash. The therapeutic significance in restoring ionic balance is discussed. PMID:8886311

  16. [Effects of artificial vegetation on the spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture and salt in coastal saline land of Chongming Dongtan, Shanghai].

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Cai, Yong-li; Ran, Wen-rui; Zhao, Xiao-lei

    2013-08-01

    By the methods of classical statistics and geostatistics, this paper studied the spatial heterogeneity of surface soil (0-20 cm layer) moisture and salt contents under three kinds of artificial vegetation in coastal salt land in Chongming Dongtan of Shanghai. The soil moisture content in different plots was in order of Cynodon dactylon > Taxodium distichum > Nerium indicum, and the coefficient of variation was 13.9%, 13.4% and 12.9%, respectively. The soil electric conductivity was in the order of N. indicum > C. dactylon > T. distichum, and the coefficient of variation was 79.2%, 55.4% and 15. 9%, respectively. Both the soil moisture content and the salt content were in moderate variation. The theoretical models of variogram for the soil moisture and salt contents in different plots varied, among which, the soil electric conductivity fitted better, with R2 between 0.97 and 0.99. When the artificial vegetation varied from N. indicum to T. distichum and then to C. dactylon, the spatial heterogeneity of soil moisture content changed from weak to strong, in which, the variability was random under N. indicum. When the vegetation varied from C. dactylon to T. distichum and to N. indicum, the spatial heterogeneity of soil electric conductivity changed from moderate to strong. Under different vegetations, the soil electric conductivity was mostly in positive correlation, whereas the soil moisture content was in negative correlation. The spatial pattern of soil moisture and salt contents under T. distichum was in striped distribution, that under C. dactylon was in large plaque and continuous distribution, whereas under N. indicum, the spatial pattern of soil moisture content was in small breaking plaque distribution, and that of soil salt content was in striped distribution. PMID:24380332

  17. Chinese herbs and herbal extracts for neuroprotection of dopaminergic neurons and potential therapeutic treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Wei; Wang, Yan-Qin; Wei, Li-Chun; Shi, Mei; Chan, Ying-Shing

    2007-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common and debilitating degenerative disease resulting from massive degenerative loss of dopamine neurons, particularly in the substantia nigra. The most classic therapy for PD is levodopa administration, but the efficacy of levodopa treatment declines as the disease progresses. The neuroprotective strategies to rescue nigral dopamine neurons from progressive death are currently being explored, and among them, the Chinese herbs and herbal extracts have shown potential clinical benefit in attenuating the progression of PD in human beings. Growing studies have indicated that a range of Chinese herbs or herbal extracts such as green tea polyphenols or catechins, panax ginseng and ginsenoside, ginkgo biloba and EGb 761, polygonum, triptolide from tripterygium wilfordii hook, polysaccharides from the flowers of nerium indicum, oil from ganoderma lucidum spores, huperzine and stepholidine are able to attenuate degeneration of dopamine neurons and sympotoms caused by the neurotoxins 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) in vitro and in vivo conditions. In addition, accumulating data have suggested that Chinese herbs or herbal extracts may promote neuronal survival and neurite growth, and facilitate functional recovery of brain injures by invoking distinct mechanisms that are related to their neuroprotective roles as the antioxidants, dopamine transporter inhibitor, monoamine oxidase inhibitor, free radical scavengers, chelators of harmful metal ions, modulating cell survival genes and signaling, anti-apoptosis activity, and even improving brain blood circulation. New pharmaceutical strategies against PD will hopefully be discovered by understanding the various active entities and valuable combinations that contribute to the biological effects of Chinese herbs and herbal extracts. PMID:17691984

  18. [Pb, Zn accumulation and nutrient uptake of 15 plant species grown in abandoned mine tailings].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiang; Chen, Yi-Tai; Wang, Shu-Feng; Li, Jiang-Chuan

    2012-06-01

    Vegetation restoration field test was carried out in the abandoned lead-zinc tailings for 3 years. The study showed that accumulation of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and nutrient uptake differed with plant species and organs, heavy metals, and planting time. Pb was mainly accumulated in tree roots, and its content distribution in tree organs was generally in the order of roots > leaves > stems. But Zn concentrations in leaves of several tree species were higher than those in roots and stems. Within the tested 15 species, Cercis Canadensis had the highest concentrations of Pb and Zn in roots (1 803 and 2120 mg x kg(-1), respectively). Rhus chinensis had the highest Pb concentration in stems and leaves (280 and 546 mg x kg(-1), respectively) and Zn concentration (1 507 mg x kg(-1)) in leaves. Zn concentration in stems and leaves of Salix matsudana (729 and 1 153 mg x kg(-1), respectively) were the highest. Among the tested 15 species, TF values for Pb of Liquidambar formosana, Medicago sativa, and for Zn of Salix matsudana, Rhus chinensis, Medicago sativa were higher than 1. BCF values for Pb were all lower than 0.17, while that for Zn were all lower than 0.44. The N contents in nitrogen-fixing plants, P contents in Rhus typhina and Ailanthus altissima, and K content in Nerium indicum were significantly higher than those in other plants. With the increase of planting time, concentrations of heavy metal in plant body increased significantly; however the inverse trend were observed in nutritional element content. The species have higher metal accumulation capacity, such as Rhus chinensis, Salix matsudana and those nitrogen-fixing plants have higher tolerance to metal contamination and nutrient deficiency, such as Amorpha fruticosa, Medicago sativa, Lespedeza cuneata, and Alnus cremastogyne, they were suitable as the phytostabilizers in abandoned mine tailings. PMID:22946191