Sample records for olive olea europea

  1. Conformation of oleuropein, the major bioactive compound of Olea europea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evangelos Gikas; Fotini N. Bazoti; Anthony Tsarbopoulos

    2007-01-01

    Oleuropein is the major bioactive component of Olea europea (the olive tree) and possesses strong antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic and anticancer properties whereas it has been shown to bind to endogenous peptides. Thus the understanding of its conformation is important and could shed some light into its mechanism of action. The aim of the current study was to

  2. Enzymatic hydrolysis of oleuropein from Olea europea (olive) leaf extract and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jiao-Jiao; Wang, Cheng-Zhang; Ye, Jian-Zhong; Tao, Ran; Zhang, Yu-Si

    2015-01-01

    Oleuropein (OE), the main polyphenol in olive leaf extract, is likely to decompose into hydroxytyrosol (HT) and elenolic acid under the action of light, acid, base, high temperature. In the enzymatic process, the content of OE in olive leaf extract and enzyme are key factors that affect the yield of HT. A selective enzyme was screened from among 10 enzymes with a high OE degradation rate. A single factor (pH, temperature, time, enzyme quantity) optimization process and a Box-Behnken design were studied for the enzymatic hydrolysis of 81.04% OE olive leaf extract. Additionally, enzymatic hydrolysis results with different substrates (38.6% and 81.04% OE) were compared and the DPPH antioxidant properties were also evaluated. The result showed that the performance of hydrolysis treatments was best using hemicellulase as a bio-catalyst, and the high purity of OE in olive extract was beneficial to biotransform OE into HT. The optimal enzymatic conditions for achieving a maximal yield of HT content obtained by the regression were as follows: pH 5, temperature 55 °C and enzyme quantity 55 mg. The experimental result was 11.31% ± 0.15%, and the degradation rate of OE was 98.54%. From the present investigation of the antioxidant activity determined by the DPPH method, the phenol content and radical scavenging effect were both decreased after enzymatic hydrolysis by hemicellulase. However, a high antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate extract enzymatic hydrolysate (IC50 = 41.82 ?g/mL) was demonstated. The results presented in this work suggested that hemicellulase has promising and attractive properties for industrial production of HT, and indicated that HT might be a valuable biological component for use in pharmaceutical products and functional foods. PMID:25679050

  3. ?-Tocopherol and fatty acids contents of some Tunisian table olives (Olea europea L.): Changes in their composition during ripening and processing.

    PubMed

    Sakouhi, Faouzi; Harrabi, Saoussem; Absalon, Cristelle; Sbei, Khaled; Boukhchina, Sadok; Kallel, Habib

    2008-06-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out on Tunisian olive-fruits of Meski, Sayali and Picholine cultivars. ?-Tocopherol and fatty acids (FA) contents were analyzed, during both ripening and processing, according to the Spanish style. The relationship between oil, unsaponifiable and ?-tocopherol contents was determined only during ripening. A genetic effect on FA composition was observed throughout the sampling periods. The highest oleic acid content was found in Sayali cultivar at green stage (78.5% of total FA). ?-Tocopherol was positively correlated with unsaturated FA content (R=0.71, p<0.05), and oil amount (R=0.984; R=0.976; R=0.952, p<0.05 for Picholine, Sayali and Meski, respectively), but it was not correlated with unsaponifiable matter. In processed olive-fruits, the results showed primarily, that processing according to the Spanish style is not restricted to green olive-fruits but can be successfully used in cherry olives with guaranteed quality and nutritional value of processed product (Meski and Picholine) related to FA content. Secondly, both ?-tocopherol and FA amounts decreased during processing for all cultivars. This decrease was cultivar dependent. It was more pronounced in the black fruit than in the green one for the same cultivar. During fermentation, pH variation showed the same profile in all cultivars. Final pH values at the end of fermentation depend on the concentration of free FA (acidity) in the brine. PMID:26065742

  4. Biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, in Israel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera oleae, the olive fruit fly (OFF), is a key pest of olives in most olive-growing countries in the Mediterranean basin and elsewhere. It significantly reduces yields and degrades the quality of the oil extracted from infested fruit. Olive growers have traditionally used systemic organopho...

  5. Germ line transformation of the olive fly Bactrocera oleae using a versatile transgenesis marker

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Koukidou; A. Klinakis; C. Reboulakis; L. Zagoraiou; N. Tavernarakis; I. Livadaras; A. Economopoulos; C. Savakis

    2006-01-01

    The olive fruit fly (olive fly) Bactrocera oleae (Dacus), recently introduced in North America, is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. The lack of an efficient gene transfer technology for olive fly has hampered molecular analysis, as well as development of genetic techniques for its control. We have developed a Minos -based transposon vector carrying a self- activating cassette

  6. Characterization of Libyan olive, olea europaea L., cultivars using morpholigical data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) consumption and production are important socially and economically in Libya. Olive cultivars that are adapted to local conditions produce olives that have high quality and quantities of oil. Many of the important Libyan olive cultivars were included in this research. One goa...

  7. Polyphenolic extracts from Olea europea L. protect against cytokine-induced ?-cell damage through maintenance of redox homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Cumao?lu, Ahmet; Ari, Nuray; Kartal, Murat; Karasu, Çimen

    2011-06-01

    Various pancreatic ?-cell stressors, including cytokines, are known to induce oxidative stress, resulting in apoptotic/necrotic cell death and inhibition of insulin secretion. Traditionally, olive leaves or fruits are used for treating diabetes, but the cellular mechanism(s) of their effects are not known. We examined the effects of Olea europea L. (olive) leaf and fruit extracts and their component oleuropein on cytokine-induced ?-cell toxicity. INS-1, an insulin-producing ?-cell line, was preincubated with or without increasing concentrations of olive leaf or fruit extract or oleuropein for 24?hr followed by exposure to a cytokine cocktail containing 0.15?ng/mL interleukin-1? (IL-1?), 1?ng/mL interferon-? (IFN-?), and 1?ng/mL tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) for 6?hr. The cytotoxicity was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) testing. Apoptosis was quantified by detecting acridine orange/ethidium bromide-stained condensed nuclei under a fluorescent microscope. The cells exposed to cytokines had a higher apoptotic rate, a decreased viability (MTT), and an increased caspase 3/7 activity. Both extracts and oleuropein partially increased the proportion of living cells and improved the viability of cells after cytokines. The protective effects of extracts on live cell viability were mediated through the suppression of caspase 3/7 activity. Oleuropein did not decrease the amount of both apoptotic and necrotic cells, whereas extracts significantly protected cells against cytokine-induced death. Cytokines led to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and inhibited glutathione level, superoxide dismutase activity, and insulin secretion in INS-1. Insulin secretion was almost completely protected by leaf extract, but was partially affected by fruit extract or oleuropein. Neither cytokines nor olive derivatives had a significant effect on cellular cytochrome c release and catalase activity. Moreover, the cells incubated with each extract or oleuropein showed a significant reduction in cytokine-induced ROS production and ameliorated abnormal antioxidant defense. The molecular mechanism by which olive polyphenols inhibit cytokine-mediated ?-cell toxicity appears to be involving the maintenance of redox homeostasis. PMID:21745095

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Erwinia oleae, a Bacterium Associated with Olive Knots Caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi

    PubMed Central

    Cortese, Chiara; Passos da Silva, Daniel; Venturi, Vittorio; Firrao, Giuseppe; Buonaurio, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Erwinia oleae is a nonpathogenic bacterial species isolated from olive knots caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi. Since the presence of E. oleae in the knots increases disease severity, interspecies interactions with the pathogen are hypothesized. Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of the E. oleae type strain. PMID:25502684

  9. Field characterization of olive ( Olea europaea L.) tree crown architecture using terrestrial laser scanning data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inian Moorthy; John R. Miller; Jose Antonio Jimenez Berni; Pablo Zarco-Tejada; Baoxin Hu; Jing Chen

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) instruments, there now exists a means of rapidly digitizing intricate structural details of vegetation canopies using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology. In this investigation, Intelligent Laser Ranging and Imaging System (ILRIS-3D) data was acquired of individual tree crowns at olive (Olea europaea L.) plantations in Córdoba, Spain. In addition to conventional

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLE On the origin of the invasive olives (Olea europaea

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Nadir

    was evidenced in Hawaii. Conversely, invasive populations of subsp. europaea did not display significant loss on the new ecosys- tems they invade (Sakai et al., 2001; Keane and Crawley, 2002). Invasive species haveORIGINAL ARTICLE On the origin of the invasive olives (Olea europaea L., Oleaceae) G Besnard1 , P

  11. Observation of eight ancient olive trees (Olea europaea L.) growing in the Garden of Gethsemane.

    PubMed

    Petruccelli, Raffaella; Giordano, Cristiana; Salvatici, Maria Cristina; Capozzoli, Laura; Ciaccheri, Leonardo; Pazzini, Massimo; Lain, Orietta; Testolin, Raffaele; Cimato, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    For thousands of years, olive trees (Olea europaea L.) have been a significant presence and a symbol in the Garden of Gethsemane, a place located at the foot of the Mount of Olives, Jerusalem, remembered for the agony of Jesus Christ before his arrest. This investigation comprises the first morphological and genetic characterization of eight olive trees in the Garden of Gethsemane. Pomological traits, morphometric, and ultrastructural observations as well as SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) analysis were performed to identify the olive trees. Statistical analyses were conducted to evaluate their morphological variability. The study revealed a low morphological variability and minimal dissimilarity among the olive trees. According to molecular analysis, these trees showed the same allelic profile at all microsatellite loci analyzed. Combining the results of the different analyses carried out in the frame of the present work, we could conclude that the eight olive trees of the Gethsemane Garden have been propagated from a single genotype. PMID:24841957

  12. Molecular interactions between the olive and the fruit fly Bactrocera oleae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The fruit fly Bactrocera oleae is the primary biotic stressor of cultivated olives, causing direct and indirect damages that significantly reduce both the yield and the quality of olive oil. To study the olive-B. oleae interaction, we conducted transcriptomic and proteomic investigations of the molecular response of the drupe. The identifications of genes and proteins involved in the fruit response were performed using a Suppression Subtractive Hybridisation technique and a combined bi-dimensional electrophoresis/nanoLC-ESI-LIT-MS/MS approach, respectively. Results We identified 196 ESTs and 26 protein spots as differentially expressed in olives with larval feeding tunnels. A bioinformatic analysis of the identified non-redundant EST and protein collection indicated that different molecular processes were affected, such as stress response, phytohormone signalling, transcriptional control and primary metabolism, and that a considerable proportion of the ESTs could not be classified. The altered expression of 20 transcripts was also analysed by real-time PCR, and the most striking differences were further confirmed in the fruit of a different olive variety. We also cloned the full-length coding sequences of two genes, Oe-chitinase I and Oe-PR27, and showed that these are wound-inducible genes and activated by B. oleae punctures. Conclusions This study represents the first report that reveals the molecular players and signalling pathways involved in the interaction between the olive fruit and its most damaging biotic stressor. Drupe response is complex, involving genes and proteins involved in photosynthesis as well as in the production of ROS, the activation of different stress response pathways and the production of compounds involved in direct defence against phytophagous larvae. Among the latter, trypsin inhibitors should play a major role in drupe resistance reaction. PMID:22694925

  13. Cytoplasmic male sterility in the olive (Olea europaea L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Besnard; B. Khadari; P. Villemur; A. Bervillé

    2000-01-01

    The olive tree is usually hermaphrodite but self-incompatible. In the Western Mediterranean some cultivars are totally male-sterile.\\u000a Three different male-sterile phenotypes have been recognised. To infer the genetic basis of male sterility we studied its\\u000a inheritance and cytoplasmic diversity in wild (oleaster) and cultivated Mediterranean olive. In the cross Olivière×Arbequina, the male-sterile trait was maternally inherited and affected all progenies.

  14. Use of native woodlands and traditional olive groves by foraging bats on a Mediterranean island: consequences for conservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Davy; D. Russo; M. B. Fenton

    2007-01-01

    We recorded bat activity on Zakynthos island (Greece) to test the hypotheses that (1) olive (Olea europea) groves and native woodlands provide comparable foraging habitat for insectivorous bats, (2) lower foraging activity occurs in olive groves treated with insecticide chemicals. We acoustically sampled bat activity (passes per minute) in four wooded habitats (organic and non-organic olive groves, oak woodland (Quercus

  15. Seasonal pheromone trap catches of male Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northern California: asynchrony with host (olive tree) phenology?

    PubMed

    Villamil, Soledad C; Lewis, Edwin E; Zalom, Frank G

    2013-12-01

    Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae, Dacinae) is an oligophagous species that feeds only on cultivated olives (Olea europaea L.) and its close relatives. Synchrony of seasonal activity patterns of B. oleae, the olive fruit fly with its host's phenology is therefore expected. The objective of this study was to monitor the male olive fruit fly response to female sex pheromone in the field. White sticky traps were deployed year round for 3 yr in an olive orchard in Oroville, CA. They were checked periodically, and flies captured were counted and sexed. Although males were captured regularly, the numbers of females captured on pheromone traps were negligible. Food-baited traps and water-baited traps were deployed to show the presence of flies in the field. Our hypothesis that males would respond to pheromone when females were available and olive fruits were susceptible for oviposition was partially supported. There were two peaks of high male captures in pheromone traps: spring and fall. In spring, females were available and mature but few acceptable olives were available for oviposition (no new crop olives yet). In fall, females were present but many of the new crop olives were already infested. The food baited traps confirmed the presence of flies in the field even when very few were being captured in the pheromone-baited traps. Traps containing only water caught only two flies showing that water alone or the trap type in itself was not attractive to flies. PMID:24468560

  16. Volatile constituents of commercial imported and domestic black-ripe table olives (Olea europaea).

    PubMed

    Sansone-Land, Angelina; Takeoka, Gary R; Shoemaker, Charles F

    2014-04-15

    Volatile constituents of commercial black-ripe table olives (Olea europaea) from the United States, Spain, Egypt and Morocco were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Dynamic headspace sampling was used to isolate a variety of aldehydes, alcohols, esters, ketones, phenols, terpenes, norisoprenoids, and pyridines. Odour unit values, calculated from concentration and odour threshold data, indicate that the following compounds are major contributors to black-ripe table olive aroma: ?-damascenone, nonanal, (E)-dec-2-enal, 3-methylbutanal, ethyl benzoate, octanal, 2-methoxyphenol, 2-methylbutanal and 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol. Imported olives contained a variety of fermentation derived volatiles that were not detected in domestic olives. Constituents such as ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, oct-1-en-3-one, ethyl hexanoate, (Z)-hex-3-enyl acetate, hexyl acetate, ethyl cyclohexanecarboxylate, benzyl acetate and 4-ethylphenol contributed to the odour of imported olives but were not detected in domestic olives. PMID:24295708

  17. Reproductive biology of Olive ( Olea europaea L.) DOP Umbria cultivars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Reale; C. Sgromo; T. Bonofiglio; F. Orlandi; M. Fornaciari; F. Ferranti; B. Romano

    2006-01-01

    Olive trees have a plentiful bloom but a low percentage of normal fruit set. To improve fruit set, numerous investigations have sought to identify the obstacles that prevent full production. In this work, flower development in five DOP Umbria cultivars (Leccino, Frantoio, Moraiolo, Dolce Agogia and San Felice) was studied throughout different developmental phases, from before microsporogenesis and megasporogenesis to

  18. Field evaluation of the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma evanescens West. against the olive moth Prays oleae (Bern.) in Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Essam Agamy

    2010-01-01

    In Egypt, Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (TE) is extensively used in inundative releases against a number of lepidopterous pests of several crops. However,\\u000a the wasp had not been collected from olive groves. Field trials on the use of commercially available TE against the olive\\u000a moth, Prays oleae (Bern.) (OM) were carried out for three successive years (2002–2004). The objective of this

  19. Identification of new polymorphic regions and differentiation of cultivated olives (Olea europaea L.) through plastome sequence comparison

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The cultivated olive (Olea europaea L.) is the most agriculturally important species of the Oleaceae family. Although many studies have been performed on plastid polymorphisms to evaluate taxonomy, phylogeny and phylogeography of Olea subspecies, only few polymorphic regions discriminating among the agronomically and economically important olive cultivars have been identified. The objective of this study was to sequence the entire plastome of olive and analyze many potential polymorphic regions to develop new inter-cultivar genetic markers. Results The complete plastid genome of the olive cultivar Frantoio was determined by direct sequence analysis using universal and novel PCR primers designed to amplify all overlapping regions. The chloroplast genome of the olive has an organisation and gene order that is conserved among numerous Angiosperm species and do not contain any of the inversions, gene duplications, insertions, inverted repeat expansions and gene/intron losses that have been found in the chloroplast genomes of the genera Jasminum and Menodora, from the same family as Olea. The annotated sequence was used to evaluate the content of coding genes, the extent, and distribution of repeated and long dispersed sequences and the nucleotide composition pattern. These analyses provided essential information for structural, functional and comparative genomic studies in olive plastids. Furthermore, the alignment of the olive plastome sequence to those of other varieties and species identified 30 new organellar polymorphisms within the cultivated olive. Conclusions In addition to identifying mutations that may play a functional role in modifying the metabolism and adaptation of olive cultivars, the new chloroplast markers represent a valuable tool to assess the level of olive intercultivar plastome variation for use in population genetic analysis, phylogenesis, cultivar characterisation and DNA food tracking. PMID:20868482

  20. Olive Volatiles from Portuguese Cultivars Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana: Role in Oviposition Preference of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Cunha, Sara C.; Baptista, Paula; Pereira, José Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), a serious threat to the olive crop worldwide, displays ovipositon preference for some olive cultivars but the causes are still unclear. In the present work, three Portuguese olive cultivars with different susceptibilities to olive fly (Cobrançosa, Madural, and Verdeal Transmontana) were studied, aiming to determine if the olive volatiles are implicated in this interaction. Olive volatiles were assessed by SPME-GC-MS in the three cultivars during maturation process to observe possible correlations with olive fly infestation levels. Overall, 34 volatiles were identified in the olives, from 7 chemical classes (alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, ketones, sesquiterpenes, and terpenes). Generally, total volatile amounts decrease during maturation but toluene, the main compound, increased in all cultivars, particularly in those with higher susceptibility to olive fly. Sesquiterpenes also raised, mainly ?-copaene. Toluene and ?-copaene, recognized oviposition promoters to olive fly, were correlated with the infestation level of cvs. Madural and Verdeal Trasnmontana (intermediate and highly susceptible cultivars respectively), while no correlations were established with cv. Cobrançosa (less susceptible). No volatiles with inverse correlation were observed. Volatile composition of olives may be a decisive factor in the olive fly choice to oviposit and this could be the basis for the development of new control strategies for this pest. PMID:25985460

  1. Cardiac and Vascular Synergic Protective Effect of Olea europea L. Leaves and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Flower Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Micucci, Matteo; Malaguti, Marco; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Aldini, Rita; Angeletti, Andrea; Chiarini, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta; Hrelia, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the cardiovascular effects of an Olea europea L. leaf extract (OEE), of a Hibiscus sabdariffa L. flower extract (HSE), and of their 13?:?2?w/w mixture in order to assess their cardiac and vascular activity. Both extracts were fully characterized in their bioactive compounds by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The study was performed using primary vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effect of the extracts and their mixture and isolated guinea-pig left and right atria and aorta to evaluate the inotropic and chronotropic activities and vasorelaxant properties. In cultured HUVECs, OEE and HSE reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and improved cell viability, following oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner. OEE and HSE exerted negative inotropic and vasorelaxant effects without any chronotropic property. Interestingly, the mixture exerted higher cytoprotective effects and antioxidant activities. Moreover, the mixture exerted an inotropic effect similar to each single extract, while it revealed an intrinsic negative chronotropic activity different from the single extract; its relaxant activity was higher than that of each single extract. In conclusion OEE and HSE mixture has a good potential for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical application, thanks to the synergistic effects of the single phytochemicals. PMID:26180582

  2. In vitro propagation of olive (Olea europaea L.) by nodal segmentation of elongated shoots.

    PubMed

    Lambardi, Maurizio; Ozudogru, Elif Aylin; Roncasaglia, Romano

    2013-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.), long-living, ever-green fruit tree of the Old World, has been part of a traditional landscape in the Mediterranean area for centuries. Both the fruits consumed after processing and the oil extracted from the fruits are among the main components of the Mediterranean diet, widely used for salads and cooking, as well as for preserving other food. Documentations show that the ancient use of this beautiful tree also includes lamp fuel production, wool treatment, soap production, medicine, and cosmetics. However, unlike the majority of the fruit species, olive propagation is still a laborious practice. As regards traditional propagation, rooting of cuttings and grafting stem segments onto rootstocks are possible, former being achieved only when the cuttings are collected in specific periods (spring or beginning of autumn), and latter only when skilled grafters are available. In both the cases, performance of the cultivars varies considerably. The regeneration of whole plants from ovules, on the other hand, is used only occasionally. Micropropagation of olive is not easy mainly due to explant oxidation, difficulties in explant disinfection, and labor-oriented establishment of in vitro shoot cultures. However today, the progress in micropropagation technology has made available the complete protocols for several Mediterranean cultivars. This chapter describes a micropropagation protocol based on the segmentation of nodal segments obtained from elongated shoots. PMID:23179688

  3. Soil fluoride spiking effects on olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali).

    PubMed

    Zouari, M; Ben Ahmed, C; Fourati, R; Delmail, D; Ben Rouina, B; Labrousse, P; Ben Abdallah, F

    2014-10-01

    A pot experiment under open air conditions was carried out to investigate the uptake, accumulation and toxicity effects of fluoride in olive trees (Olea europaea L.) grown in a soil spiked with inorganic sodium fluoride (NaF). Six different levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100mM NaF) of soil spiking were applied through NaF to irrigation water. At the end of the experiment, total fluoride content in soil was 20 and 1770mgFkg(-1) soil in control and 100mM NaF treatments, respectively. The comparative distribution of fluoride partitioning among the different olive tree parts showed that the roots accumulated the most fluoride and olive fruits were minimally affected by soil NaF spiking as they had the lowest fluoride content. In fact, total fluoride concentration varied between 12 and 1070µgFg(-1) in roots, between 9 and 570µgFg(-1) in shoots, between 12 and 290µgFg(-1) in leaves, and between 10 and 29µgFg(-1) in fruits, respectively for control and 100mM NaF treatments. Indeed, the fluoride accumulation pattern showed the following distribution: roots>shoots>leaves>fruits. On the other hand, fluoride toxicity symptoms such as leaf necrosis and leaf drop appeared only in highly spiked soils (60, 80 and 100mM NaF). PMID:25042248

  4. Human absorption and metabolism of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol ingested as olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract.

    PubMed

    de Bock, Martin; Thorstensen, Eric B; Derraik, José G B; Henderson, Harold V; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2013-11-01

    Phenolic compounds derived from the olive plant (Olea europaea L.), particularly hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, have many beneficial effects in vitro. Olive leaves are the richest source of olive phenolic compounds, and olive leaf extract (OLE) is now a popular nutraceutical taken either as liquid or capsules. To quantify the bioavailability and metabolism of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol when taken as OLE, nine volunteers (five males) aged 42.8 ± 7.4 years were randomized to receive either capsulated or liquid OLE as a single lower (51.1 mg oleuropein, 9.7 mg hydroxytyrosol) or higher (76.6 mg oleuropein, 14.5 mg hydroxytyrosol) dose, and then the opposite strength (but same formulation) a week later. Plasma and urine samples were collected at fixed intervals for 24 h post-ingestion. Phenolic content was analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Conjugated metabolites of hydroxytyrosol were the primary metabolites recovered in plasma and urine after OLE ingestion. Peak oleuropein concentrations in plasma were greater following ingestion of liquid than capsule preparations (0.47 versus 2.74 ng/mL; p = 0.004), but no such effect was observed for peak concentrations of conjugated (sulfated and glucuronidated) hydroxytyrosol (p = 0.94). However, the latter peak was reached earlier with liquid preparation (93 versus 64 min; p = 0.031). There was a gender effect on the bioavailability of phenolic compounds, with males displaying greater plasma area under the curve for conjugated hydroxytyrosol (11,600 versus 2550 ng/mL; p = 0.048). All conjugated hydroxytyrosol metabolites were recovered in the urine within 8 h. There was wide inter-individual variation. OLE effectively delivers oleuropein and hydroxytrosol metabolites to plasma in humans. PMID:23766098

  5. Effects of salinity and N on the growth, photosynthesis and N status of olive ( Olea europaea L.) trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Tabatabaei

    2006-01-01

    The effects of NaCl salinity and N on the growth, ion concentrations and photosynthesis (Pn) in three olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars (Mission, Manzanillo and Zard) were investigated. The experiment was conducted with four NaCl levels (0, 50, 100, and 150mM) factorially combined with three N levels (100, 200, 300mgl?1) as NH4NO3 by adding to the half strength of Hoagland

  6. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive tree (Olea europaea L.) with a focus on the Mediterranean Basin: a review.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nadine; Chapuis, Elodie; Tavoillot, Johannes; Mateille, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea ssp. europaea.) is one of the most ancient cultivated trees. It is an emblematic species owing to its ecological, economic and cultural importance, especially in the Mediterranean Basin. Plant-parasitic nematodes are major damaging pests on olive trees, mainly in nurseries. They significantly contribute to economic losses in the top-ten olive-producing countries in the world. However, the damages they induce in orchards and nurseries are specifically documented only in a few countries. This review aims to update knowledge about the olive-nematode pathosystem by: (1) updating the list of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive trees; (2) analysing their diversity (taxonomic level, trophic groups, dominance of taxa), which allowed us (i) to assess the richness observed in each country, and (ii) to exhibit and describe the most important taxa able to induce damages on olive trees such as: Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Xiphinema, Tylenchulus, Rotylenchulus, Heterodera (distribution especially in the Mediterranean Basin, pathogenicity and reactions of olive trees); (3) describing some management strategies focusing on alternative control methods; (4) suggesting new approaches for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes based on the management of the diversity of their communities, which are structured by several environmental factors such as olive diversity (due to domestication of wild olive in the past, and to breeding now), cropping systems (from traditional to high-density orchards), irrigation, and terroirs. PMID:25103828

  7. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, and their cross-species amplification in the Tephritidae family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonios A Augustinos; Elias E Stratikopoulos; Eleni Drosopoulou; Evdoxia G Kakani; Penelope Mavragani-Tsipidou; Antigone Zacharopoulou; Kostas D Mathiopoulos

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Tephritidae family of insects includes the most important agricultural pests of fruits and vegetables, belonging mainly to four genera (Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Anastrepha and Rhagoletis). The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major pest of the olive fruit. Currently, its control is based on chemical insecticides. Environmentally friendlier methods have been attempted in the past (Sterile Insect Technique),

  8. Forensic Botany: Potential Usefulness of Microsatellite-based Genotyping of Croatian Olive (Olea europaea L.) in Forensic Casework

    PubMed Central

    Štambuk, Snježana; Sutlovi?, Davorka; Bakari?, Pavle; Petri?evi?, Sandra; An?elinovi?, Šimun

    2007-01-01

    Aim To assess genotyping with microsatellite-based markers of the olive (Olea europaea L.) for potential application of olive as legal case evidence, with regard to the degree of variability within the Croatian olive genomic pool and to the effectiveness of the chosen set of microsatellite-based markers in revealing olive divergence. Methods The total of 44 autochthonous Croatian olive specimens were subjected to genotyping with 16 previously described and developed microsatellite-based markers. According to previous morphological analyses, 44 specimens were classified into 30 cultivars with the exception of an additional, previously unassigned specimen. Results Genotyping of 44 specimens distinguished a total of 44 different genotype profiles by 16 microsatellite-based loci. Average expected heterozigosity amounted to 0.758, which points to significant diversity of Croatian olives. Conclusion Croatian olive genotyping showed strong varietal discrimination up to the single tree and considerable potential application of olive as evidence in investigation of crime, accident, and suicide circumstances. PMID:17696311

  9. Metabarcoding Analysis of Fungal Diversity in the Phyllosphere and Carposphere of Olive (Olea europaea)

    PubMed Central

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Li Destri Nicosia, Maria Giulia; Cacciola, Santa Olga; Droby, Samir; Schena, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    The fungal diversity associated with leaves, flowers and fruits of olive (Olea europaea) was investigated in different phenological stages (May, June, October and December) using an implemented metabarcoding approach. It consisted of the 454 pyrosequencing of the fungal ITS2 region and the subsequent phylogenetic analysis of relevant genera along with validated reference sequences. Most sequences were identified up to the species level or were associated with a restricted number of related taxa enabling supported speculations regarding their biological role. Analyses revealed a rich fungal community with 195 different OTUs. Ascomycota was the dominating phyla representing 93.6% of the total number of detected sequences followed by unidentified fungi (3.6%) and Basidiomycota (2.8%). A higher level of diversity was revealed for leaves compared to flowers and fruits. Among plant pathogens the genus Colletotrichum represented by three species (C. godetiae syn. C. clavatum, C. acutatum s.s and C. karstii) was the most abundant on ripe fruits but it was also detected in other organs. Pseudocercospora cladosporioides was detected with a high frequency in all leaf samples and to a less extent in ripe fruits. A much lower relative frequency was revealed for Spilocaea oleagina and for other putative pathogens including Fusarium spp., Neofusicoccum spp., and Alternaria spp. Among non-pathogen taxa, Aureobasidium pullulans, the species complex of Cladosporium cladosporioides and Devriesia spp. were the most represented. This study highlights the existence of a complex fungal consortium including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on olive productions. PMID:26132745

  10. Isolation of a hydroxytyrosol-rich extract from olive leaves ( Olea Europaea L.) and evaluation of its antioxidant properties and bioactivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonella De Leonardis; Alessandra Aretini; Gabriele Alfano; Vincenzo Macciola; Giancarlo Ranalli

    2008-01-01

    In this research, a phenol extract of high hydroxytyrosol (OLPE) content was obtained from olive leaves (Olea europaea L.), and subsequently tested under different contexts. The method used to obtain the OLPE basically involved two steps: the\\u000a use of strongly-acid aqueous steam, generated from 10% HCl (v\\/v) at 100°C, to directly hydrolyse the native complex phenols\\u000a from integral olive leaves,

  11. Ants as predators of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma cacoeciae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) applied for biological control of the olive moth, Prays oleae (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) in Portugal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Pereira; A. Bento; J. E. Cabanas; L. M. Torres; A. Herz; S. A. Hassan

    2004-01-01

    The detrimental effect of predators on Trichogramma cacoeciae March. releases to control the olive moth, Prays oleae Bern., in the Trás-os-Montes region (Northeast of Portugal), was evaluated during three releases against the flower generation of the pest in 2002. At 1 and 3 h and at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after each release, 30 Trichogramma releasing cards were

  12. Olive Fruit Fly (Bactrocera oleae) Population Dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean: Influence of Exogenous Uncertainty on a Monophagous Frugivorous Insect

    PubMed Central

    Ordano, Mariano; Engelhard, Izhar; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Nemny-Lavy, Esther; Blum, Moshe; Yasin, Sami; Lensky, Itamar M.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.; Nestel, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite of the economic importance of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the large amount of biological and ecological studies on the insect, the factors driving its population dynamics (i.e., population persistence and regulation) had not been analytically investigated until the present study. Specifically, our study investigated the autoregressive process of the olive fly populations, and the joint role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors molding the population dynamics of the insect. Accounting for endogenous dynamics and the influences of exogenous factors such as olive grove temperature, the North Atlantic Oscillation and the presence of potential host fruit, we modeled olive fly populations in five locations in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Our models indicate that the rate of population change is mainly shaped by first and higher order non-monotonic, endogenous dynamics (i.e., density-dependent population feedback). The olive grove temperature was the main exogenous driver, while the North Atlantic Oscillation and fruit availability acted as significant exogenous factors in one of the five populations. Seasonal influences were also relevant for three of the populations. In spite of exogenous effects, the rate of population change was fairly stable along time. We propose that a special reproductive mechanism, such as reproductive quiescence, allows populations of monophagous fruit flies such as the olive fly to remain stable. Further, we discuss how weather factors could impinge constraints on the population dynamics at the local level. Particularly, local temperature dynamics could provide forecasting cues for management guidelines. Jointly, our results advocate for establishing monitoring programs and for a major focus of research on the relationship between life history traits and populations dynamics. PMID:26010332

  13. Olive Fruit Fly (Bactrocera oleae) Population Dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean: Influence of Exogenous Uncertainty on a Monophagous Frugivorous Insect.

    PubMed

    Ordano, Mariano; Engelhard, Izhar; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Nemny-Lavy, Esther; Blum, Moshe; Yasin, Sami; Lensky, Itamar M; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Nestel, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite of the economic importance of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the large amount of biological and ecological studies on the insect, the factors driving its population dynamics (i.e., population persistence and regulation) had not been analytically investigated until the present study. Specifically, our study investigated the autoregressive process of the olive fly populations, and the joint role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors molding the population dynamics of the insect. Accounting for endogenous dynamics and the influences of exogenous factors such as olive grove temperature, the North Atlantic Oscillation and the presence of potential host fruit, we modeled olive fly populations in five locations in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Our models indicate that the rate of population change is mainly shaped by first and higher order non-monotonic, endogenous dynamics (i.e., density-dependent population feedback). The olive grove temperature was the main exogenous driver, while the North Atlantic Oscillation and fruit availability acted as significant exogenous factors in one of the five populations. Seasonal influences were also relevant for three of the populations. In spite of exogenous effects, the rate of population change was fairly stable along time. We propose that a special reproductive mechanism, such as reproductive quiescence, allows populations of monophagous fruit flies such as the olive fly to remain stable. Further, we discuss how weather factors could impinge constraints on the population dynamics at the local level. Particularly, local temperature dynamics could provide forecasting cues for management guidelines. Jointly, our results advocate for establishing monitoring programs and for a major focus of research on the relationship between life history traits and populations dynamics. PMID:26010332

  14. Direct chemical profiling of olive (Olea europaea) fruit epicuticular waxes by direct electrospray-ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vichi, Stefania; Cortés-Francisco, Nuria; Romero, Agustí; Caixach, Josep

    2015-03-01

    In the present paper, an electrospray ionization (ESI)-Orbitrap method is proposed for the direct chemical profiling of epicuticular wax (EW) from Olea europaea fruit. It constitutes a rapid and efficient tool suitable for a wide-ranging screening of a large number of samples. In a few minutes, the method provides a comprehensive characterization of total EW extracts, based on the molecular formula of their components. Accurate mass measurements are obtained by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry, and compositional restrictions are set on the basis of the information available from previous studies of olive EW. By alternating positive and negative ESI modes within the same analysis, complementary results are obtained and a wide range of chemical species is covered. This provides a detailed compositional overview that otherwise would only be available by applying multiple analytical techniques. PMID:25800192

  15. Environmental and seasonal influence on virgin olive ( Olea europaea L.) oil volatiles in northern Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debora Tura; Osvaldo Failla; Daniele Bassi; Stefano Pedò; Arnaldo Serraiocco

    2009-01-01

    The flavor profile of extra virgin olive oil is an important quality factor to differentiate the market opportunities and to increase the value of Protected Designation of Origin products. The volatile compounds and sensory notes of ‘Casaliva’ and ‘Leccino’ olive oils from 16 olive orchards near lake Garda, northern Italy, were analyzed for three years. Results showed that in this

  16. Construction of Core Collections Suitable for Association Mapping to Optimize Use of Mediterranean Olive (Olea europaea L.) Genetic Resources

    PubMed Central

    El Bakkali, Ahmed; Haouane, Hicham; Moukhli, Abdelmajid; Costes, Evelyne; Van Damme, Patrick; Khadari, Bouchaib

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic characterisation of germplasm collections is a decisive step towards association mapping analyses, but it is particularly expensive and tedious for woody perennial plant species. Characterisation could be more efficient if focused on a reasonably sized subset of accessions, or so-called core collection (CC), reflecting the geographic origin and variability of the germplasm. The questions that arise concern the sample size to use and genetic parameters that should be optimized in a core collection to make it suitable for association mapping. Here we investigated these questions in olive (Olea europaea L.), a perennial fruit species. By testing different sampling methods and sizes in a worldwide olive germplasm bank (OWGB Marrakech, Morocco) containing 502 unique genotypes characterized by nuclear and plastid loci, a two-step sampling method was proposed. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index was found to be the best criterion to be maximized in the first step using the Core Hunter program. A primary core collection of 50 entries (CC50) was defined that captured more than 80% of the diversity. This latter was subsequently used as a kernel with the Mstrat program to capture the remaining diversity. 200 core collections of 94 entries (CC94) were thus built for flexibility in the choice of varieties to be studied. Most entries of both core collections (CC50 and CC94) were revealed to be unrelated due to the low kinship coefficient, whereas a genetic structure spanning the eastern and western/central Mediterranean regions was noted. Linkage disequilibrium was observed in CC94 which was mainly explained by a genetic structure effect as noted for OWGB Marrakech. Since they reflect the geographic origin and diversity of olive germplasm and are of reasonable size, both core collections will be of major interest to develop long-term association studies and thus enhance genomic selection in olive species. PMID:23667437

  17. Meloidogyne lusitanica n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), a Root-knot Nematode Parasitizing Olive Tree (Olea europaea L.).

    PubMed

    de O Abrantes, I M; de A Santos, M S

    1991-04-01

    A root-knot nematode from Portugal, Meloidogyne lusitanica n. sp., is described and illustrated from specimens obtained from olive trees (Olea europaea L.). Females of the new species have a characteristic perineal pattern with medium to high trapezoidal dorsal arch with distinct punctuations in the tail terminus area. The excretory pore is located posterior to the stylet, about 1.5-2.5 stylet lengths from the anterior end. The stylet is 17.1 mum long with pear-shaped knobs. Males have a rounded, posteriorly sloping head cap and head region not annulated. The robust stylet, 24.5 mu long, has large, elongate knobs. Mean length of the second-stage juveniles is 449.5 mum, stylet length 14.2 mum, and tail length 44.1 mum. Scanning electron microscope observations provide further details of perineal patterns and head and stylet morphology of females, males, and second-stage juveniles. Meloidogyne lusitanica n. sp. did not reproduce on any of the differential hosts used to separate the four most common Meloidogyne species. The common name "olive root-knot nematode" is proposed for M. lusitanica n. sp. PMID:19283115

  18. Genome-wide identification of alternate bearing-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) in olive (Olea europaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alternate bearing is a widespread phenomenon among crop plants, defined as the tendency of certain fruit trees to produce a high-yield crop one year ("on-year"), followed by a low-yield or even no crop the following year ("off-year"). Several factors may affect the balance between such developmental phase-transition processes. Among them are the microRNA (miRNA), being gene-expression regulators that have been found to be involved as key determinants in several physiological processes. Results Six olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Ayvalik variety) small RNA libraries were constructed from fruits (ripe and unripe) and leaves (”on year” and ”off year” leaves in July and in November, respectively) and sequenced by high-throughput Illumina sequencing. The RNA was retrotranscribed and sequenced using the high-throughput Illumina platform. Bioinformatics analyses of 93,526,915 reads identified 135 conserved miRNA, belonging to 22 miRNA families in the olive. In addition, 38 putative novel miRNAs were discovered in the datasets. Expression of olive tree miRNAs varied greatly among the six libraries, indicating the contribution of diverse miRNA in balancing between reproductive and vegetative phases. Predicted targets of miRNA were categorized into 108 process ontology groups with significance abundance. Among those, potential alternate bearing-associated processes were found, such as development, hormone-mediated signaling and organ morphogenesis. The KEGG analyses revealed that the miRNA-targeted genes are involved in seven main pathways, belonging to carbohydrate metabolism and hormone signal-transduction pathways. Conclusion A comprehensive study on olive miRNA related to alternate bearing was performed. Regulation of miRNA under different developmental phases and tissues indicated that control of nutrition and hormone, together with flowering processes had a noteworthy impact on the olive tree alternate bearing. Our results also provide significant data on the miRNA-fruit development interaction and advance perspectives in the miRNA profile of the olive tree. PMID:23320600

  19. Production of glucose and bioactive aglycone by chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis of purified oleuropein from Olea Europea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renato Capasso; Antonio Evidente; Carla Visca; Liloana Gianfreda; Michele Maremonti; GUIDO GRECO JR

    1997-01-01

    Pure-grade oleuropein, a bitter, hypotensive, phenolic glucoside, was obtained from organic extracts of olive plant leaves\\u000a by two Chromatographic steps. The purified compound was characterized by spectroscopic NMR and FAB-MS methods. The glucoside\\u000a underwent chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis. Aglycone was characterized by spectroscopic methods (1H-NMR and FAB-MS). Glucose was measured by enzymatic methods. The enzymatic hydrolysis of oleuropein was carried

  20. Feasibility of NIR Spectroscopy to detect olive fruit infested by Bactrocera oleae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly infestation is a significant problem for the milling process. In most cases, damage from insects is ‘hidden’, i.e. not visually detectable on the fruit surface. Consequently, traditional visual sorting techniques are generally inadequate for the detection and removal of olives with i...

  1. A lipoxygenase with dual positional specificity is expressed in olives ( Olea europaea L.) during ripening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia Palmieri-Thiers; Stéphane Canaan; Virginie Brunini; Vannina Lorenzi; Félix Tomi; Jean-Luc Desseyn; Ulrike Garscha; Ernst H. Oliw; Liliane Berti; Jacques Maury

    2009-01-01

    Plant lipoxygenases (LOXs) are a class of widespread dioxygenases catalysing the hydroperoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Although multiple isoforms of LOX have been detected in a wide range of plants, their physiological roles remain to be clarified. With the aim to clarify the occurrence of LOXs in olives and their contribution to the elaboration of the olive oil aroma, we

  2. Olea Europea-derived phenolic products attenuate antinociceptive morphine tolerance: an innovative strategic approach to treat cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Muscoli, C; Lauro, F; Dagostino, C; D'Agostino, C; Ilari, S; Giancotti, L A; Gliozzi, M; Costa, N; Carresi, C; Musolino, V; Casale, F; Ventrice, D; Oliverio, M; Oliverio, E; Palma, E; Nisticò, S; Nistico', S; Procopio, A; Rizzo, M; Mollace, V

    2014-01-01

    Morphine and related opioid drugs are currently the major drugs for severe pain. Their clinical utility is limited in the management of severe cancer pain due to the rapid development of tolerance. Restoring opioid efficacy is therefore of great clinical importance. A great body of evidence suggests the key role of free radicals and posttranslational modulation in the development of tolerance to the analgesic activity of morphine. Epidemiological studies have shown a relationship between the Mediterranean diet and a reduced incidence of pathologies such as coronary heart disease and cancer. A central hallmark of this diet is the high consumption of virgin olive oil as the main source of fat which contains antioxidant components in the non-saponifiable fraction, including phenolic compounds absent in seed oils. Here, we show that in a rodent model of opiate tolerance, removal of the free radicals with phenolic compounds of olive oil such as hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein reinstates the analgesic action of morphine. Chronic injection of morphine in mice led to the development of tolerance and this was associated with increased nitrotyrosin and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation together with nitration and deactivation of MnSOD in the spinal cord. Removal of free radicals by hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein blocked morphine tolerance by inhibiting nitration and MDA formation and replacing the MnSOD activity. The phenolic fraction of virgin olive oil exerts antioxidant activities in vivo and free radicals generation occurring during chronic morphine administration play a crucial role in the development of opioid tolerance. Our data suggest novel therapeutic approach in the management of chronic cancer pain, in particular for those patients who require long-term opioid treatment for pain relief without development of tolerance. PMID:24750796

  3. A lipoxygenase with dual positional specificity is expressed in olives (Olea europaea L.) during ripening.

    PubMed

    Palmieri-Thiers, Cynthia; Canaan, Stéphane; Brunini, Virginie; Lorenzi, Vannina; Tomi, Félix; Desseyn, Jean-Luc; Garscha, Ulrike; Oliw, Ernst H; Berti, Liliane; Maury, Jacques

    2009-05-01

    Plant lipoxygenases (LOXs) are a class of widespread dioxygenases catalysing the hydroperoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Although multiple isoforms of LOX have been detected in a wide range of plants, their physiological roles remain to be clarified. With the aim to clarify the occurrence of LOXs in olives and their contribution to the elaboration of the olive oil aroma, we cloned and characterized the first cDNA of the LOX isoform which is expressed during olive development. The open reading frame encodes a polypeptide of 864 amino acids. This olive LOX is a type-1 LOX which shows a high degree of identity at the peptide level towards hazelnut (77.3%), tobacco (76.3%) and almond (75.5%) LOXs. The recombinant enzyme shows a dual positional specificity, as it forms both 9- and 13-hydroperoxide of linoleic acid in a 2:1 ratio, and would be defined as 9/13-LOX. Although a LOX activity was detected throughout the olive development, the 9/13-LOX is mainly expressed at late developmental stages. Our data suggest that there are at least two Lox genes expressed in black olives, and that the 9/13-LOX is associated with the ripening and senescence processes. However, due to its dual positional specificity and its expression pattern, its contribution to the elaboration of the olive oil aroma might be considered. PMID:19268561

  4. Genetic Biodiversity of Italian Olives (Olea europaea) Germplasm Analyzed by SSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Vendramin, Giuseppe Giovanni; Chiappetta, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    The olive is an important fruit species cultivated for oil and table olives in Italy and the Mediterranean basin. The conservation of cultivated plants in ex situ collections is essential for the optimal management and use of their genetic resources. The largest ex situ olive germplasm collection consists of approximately 500 Italian olive varieties and corresponding to 85% of the total Italian olive germplasm is maintained at the Consiglio per la Ricerca e sperimentazione per l'Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per l'Olivicoltura e l'Industria Olearia (CRA-OLI), in Italy. In this work, eleven preselected nuclear microsatellite markers were used to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flows with the aim of assembling a core collection. The dendrogram obtained utilizing the unweighted pair group method highlights the presence of homonymy and synonymy in olive tree datasets analyzed in this study. 439 different unique genotype profiles were obtained with this combination of 11 loci nSSR, representing 89.8% of the varieties analyzed. The remaining 10.2% comprises different variety pairs in which both accessions are genetically indistinguishable. Clustering analysis performed using BAPS software detected seven groups in Italian olive germplasm and gene flows were determined among identified clusters. We proposed an Italian core collection of 23 olive varieties capturing all detected alleles at microsatellites. The information collected in this study regarding the CRA-OLI ex situ collection can be used for breeding programs, for germplasm conservation, and for optimizing a strategy for the management of olive gene pools. PMID:24723801

  5. Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. ssp. europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Besnard, G; Bervillé, A

    2000-02-01

    A study of nuclear and cytoplasmic genetic diversity of cultivated olive, oleaster and other taxa belonging to the complex O. europaea was performed. Nuclear DNA polymorphism (RAPDs) in oleaster displays a gradient between the east and west of the Mediterranean Basin. In cultivars, the gradient is less visible owing to their diffusion and selection. Furthermore, three mitotypes (ME1, MOM and MCK) were detected in both cultivated olive and oleaster. A fourth mitotype, ME2, was unique to some cultivars. The preponderant mitotype, ME1, marks the Near Eastern origin of olive in oleaster. In the west of the Mediterranean, another mitotype, MOM, was found in most oleaster. and a few cultivars. The third, MCK, was found in a few oleaster from the west and in cultivars originating in Kabylie and Languedoc. We argue that MCK marks an ancestral Mediterranean population. The mitotypes mark independent cultivated olive origins which were not detected with DNA nuclear diversity. PMID:10763436

  6. Variability of Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds in a Segregating Progeny from a Single Cross in Olea europaea L. and Sensory and Nutritional Quality Implications

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Ana G.; León, Lorenzo; Pascual, Mar; Romero-Segura, Carmen; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; de la Rosa, Raúl; Sanz, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Virgin olive oil phenolic compounds are responsible for its nutritional and sensory quality. The synthesis of phenolic compounds occurs when enzymes and substrates meet as olive fruit is crushed during the industrial process to obtain the oil. The genetic variability of the major phenolic compounds of virgin olive oil was studied in a progeny of the cross of Picual x Arbequina olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.). They belong to four different groups: compounds that included tyrosol or hydroxytyrosol in their molecules, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Data of phenolics in the oils showed that the progeny displayed a large degree of variability, widely transgressing the genitor levels. This high variability can be of interest on breeding programs. Thus, multivariate analysis allowed to identify genotypes within the progeny particularly interesting in terms of phenolic composition and deduced organoleptic and nutritional quality. The present study has demonstrated that it is possible to obtain enough degree of variability with a single cross of olive cultivars for compounds related to the nutritional and organoleptic properties of virgin olive oil. PMID:24651694

  7. Towards a molecular strategy for improving harvesting of olives ( Olea europaea L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Ferrante; Donald A. Hunter; Michael S. Reid

    2004-01-01

    Mature olive fruit that produced barely detectable levels of ethylene produced much greater quantities when they were briefly dipped in a solution containing 2mM 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the immediate precursor of ethylene. A single 10s dip resulted in a transient increase in ethylene production that peaked 1 day after the application. When the fruits were dipped daily, their ethylene production

  8. Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7, an indigenous root endophyte from olive (Olea europaea L.) and effective biocontrol agent against Verticillium dahliae

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7 is a native endophyte of olive roots. Previous studies have shown this motile, Gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium is an effective biocontrol agent against the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae, the causal agent of one of the most devastating diseases for olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivation. Here, we announce and describe the complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7 consisting of a circular chromosome of 6,136,735 bp that encodes 5,567 protein-coding genes and 88 RNA-only encoding genes. Genome analysis revealed genes predicting factors such as secretion systems, siderophores, detoxifying compounds or volatile components. Further analysis of the genome sequence of PICF7 will help in gaining insights into biocontrol and endophytism. PMID:25685259

  9. Characterization of a caleosin expressed during olive (Olea europaea L.) pollen ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The olive tree is an oil-storing species, with pollen being the second most active site in storage lipid biosynthesis. Caleosins are proteins involved in storage lipid mobilization during seed germination. Despite the existence of different lipidic structures in the anther, there are no data regarding the presence of caleosins in this organ to date. The purpose of the present work was to characterize a caleosin expressed in the olive anther over different key stages of pollen ontogeny, as a first approach to unravel its biological function in reproduction. Results A 30 kDa caleosin was identified in the anther tissues by Western blot analysis. Using fluorescence and transmission electron microscopic immunolocalization methods, the protein was first localized in the tapetal cells at the free microspore stage. Caleosins were released to the anther locule and further deposited onto the sculptures of the pollen exine. As anthers developed, tapetal cells showed the presence of structures constituted by caleosin-containing lipid droplets closely packed and enclosed by ER-derived cisternae and vesicles. After tapetal cells lost their integrity, the caleosin-containing remnants of the tapetum filled the cavities of the mature pollen exine, forming the pollen coat. In developing microspores, this caleosin was initially detected on the exine sculptures. During pollen maturation, caleosin levels progressively increased in the vegetative cell, concurrently with the number of oil bodies. The olive pollen caleosin was able to bind calcium in vitro. Moreover, PEGylation experiments supported the structural conformation model suggested for caleosins from seed oil bodies. Conclusions In the olive anther, a caleosin is expressed in both the tapetal and germ line cells, with its synthesis independently regulated. The pollen oil body-associated caleosin is synthesized by the vegetative cell, whereas the protein located on the pollen exine and its coating has a sporophytic origin. The biological significance of the caleosin in the reproductive process in species possessing lipid-storing pollen might depend on its subcellular emplacement. The pollen inner caleosin may be involved in OB biogenesis during pollen maturation. The protein located on the outside might rather play a function in pollen-stigma interaction during pollen hydration and germination. PMID:21884593

  10. Effects of inert dust on olive ( Olea europaea L.) leaf physiological parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George D. Nanos; Ilias F. Ilias

    2007-01-01

    Background  Cement factories are major pollutants for the surrounding areas. Inert dust deposition has been found to affect photosynthesis,\\u000a stomatal functioning and productivity. Very few studies have been conducted on the effects of cement kiln dust on the physiology\\u000a of perennial fruit crops. Our goal was to study some cement dust effects on olive leaf physiology.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Cement kiln dust has been

  11. Peroxynitrite mediates programmed cell death both in papillar cells and in self-incompatible pollen in the olive (Olea europaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Irene; Romero-Puertas, María C.; Rodríguez-Serrano, María; Sandalio, Luisa M.; Olmedilla, Adela

    2012-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) has been found to be induced after pollination both in papillar cells and in self-incompatible pollen in the olive (Olea europaea L.). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) are known to be produced in the pistil and pollen during pollination but their contribution to PCD has so far remained elusive. The possible role of ROS and NO was investigated in olive pollen–pistil interaction during free and controlled pollination and it was found that bidirectional interaction appears to exist between the pollen and the stigma, which seems to regulate ROS and NO production. Biochemical evidence strongly suggesting that both O2?? and NO are essential for triggering PCD in self-incompatibility processes was also obtained. It was observed for the first time that peroxynitrite, a powerful oxidizing and nitrating agent generated during a rapid reaction between O2?? and NO, is produced during pollination and that this is related to an increase in protein nitration which, in turn, is strongly associated with PCD. It may be concluded that peroxynitrite mediates PCD during pollen–pistil interaction in Olea europaea L. both in self-incompatible pollen and papillar cells. PMID:22140239

  12. LTR retrotransposon dynamics in the evolution of the olive (Olea europaea) genome

    PubMed Central

    Barghini, Elena; Natali, Lucia; Giordani, Tommaso; Cossu, Rosa Maria; Scalabrin, Simone; Cattonaro, Federica; Šimková, Hana; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Morgante, Michele; Cavallini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Improved knowledge of genome composition, especially of its repetitive component, generates important information for both theoretical and applied research. The olive repetitive component is made up of two main classes of sequences: tandem repeats and retrotransposons (REs). In this study, we provide characterization of a sample of 254 unique full-length long terminal repeat (LTR) REs. In the sample, Ty1-Copia elements were more numerous than Ty3-Gypsy elements. Mapping a large set of Illumina whole-genome shotgun reads onto the identified retroelement set revealed that Gypsy elements are more redundant than Copia elements. The insertion time of intact retroelements was estimated based on sister LTR’s divergence. Although some elements inserted relatively recently, the mean insertion age of the isolated retroelements is around 18 million yrs. Gypsy and Copia retroelements showed different waves of transposition, with Gypsy elements especially active between 10 and 25 million yrs ago and nearly inactive in the last 7 million yrs. The occurrence of numerous solo-LTRs related to isolated full-length retroelements was ascertained for two Gypsy elements and one Copia element. Overall, the results reported in this study show that RE activity (both retrotransposition and DNA loss) has impacted the olive genome structure in more ancient times than in other angiosperms. PMID:25428895

  13. Secoiridoid type of antiallergic substances in olive waste materials of three Japanese varieties of Olea europaea.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akihiko; Shinozaki, Noboru; Tamura, Hirotoshi

    2014-08-01

    2-Hydroxy-3-ethylidene-5-(methoxycarbonyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran-4-acetic acid 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl ester (3,4-DHPEA-EA) is a kind of secoiridoid first found in three Japanese olive pomaces: Mission, Lucca, and Manzanillo. These varieties showed high activity of 3,4-DHPEA-EA as an antiallergic active substance with IC50 at 33.5 ± 0.6 ?g/mL. Because 3,4-DHPEA-EA was the most abundant among the active substances in the pomaces and the activity of 3,4-DHPEA-EA was greater than that of hydroxytyrosol and elenolic acid, 3,4-DHPEA-EA, which has the ester linkage of hydroxytyrosol and elenolic acid, should be essential for antiallergic activity. Although a trace amount (1.04 mg/kg) of luteolin in the pomace showed the highest antiallergic activity with IC50 at 0.752 ± 0.1 ?g/mL, we concluded that the entire antiallergic effect derives from the abundance of 3,4-DHPEA-EA, especially in the green olive pomace of the Mission variety in October, which showed the highest level of 3,4-DHPEA-EA (5033 ± 118 mg/kg). Therefore, the Mission variety had the most effective antiallergy property. PMID:25029390

  14. Control mechanisms operating for lipid biosynthesis differ in oil-palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and olive (Olea europaea L.) callus cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Ramli, Umi S; Baker, Darren S; Quant, Patti A; Harwood, John L

    2002-01-01

    As a prelude to detailed flux control analysis of lipid synthesis in plants, we have examined the latter in tissue cultures from two important oil crops, olive (Olea europaea L.) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Temperature was used to manipulate the overall rate of lipid formation in order to characterize and validate the system to be used for analysis. With [1-14C]acetate as a precursor, an increase in temperature from 20 to 30 degrees C produced nearly a doubling of total lipid labelling. This increase in total lipids did not change the radioactivity in the intermediate acyl-(acyl carrier protein) or acyl-CoA pools, indicating that metabolism of these pools did not exert any significant constraint for overall synthesis. In contrast, there were some differences in the proportional labelling of fatty acids and of lipid classes at the two temperatures. The higher temperature caused a decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acid labelling and an increase in the proportion of triacylglycerol labelling in both calli. The intermediate diacylglycerol was increased in olive, but not in oil palm. Overall the data indicate the suitability of olive and oil-palm cultures for the study of lipid synthesis and indicate that de novo fatty acid synthesis may exert more flux control than complex lipid assembly. In olive, diacylglycerol acyltransferase may exert significant flux control when lipid synthesis is rapid. PMID:12023881

  15. Radical-scavenging compounds from olive tree (Olea europaea L.) wood.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bonilla, Mercedes; Salido, Sofía; van Beek, Teris A; Altarejos, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to complete knowledge on the chemical composition and radical-scavenging activity of olive tree wood. Two new monoterpene glycosides, (-)-oleuropeic acid 6'-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl ester (6a) and (-)-perillic acid 1'-O-?-D-primeverosyl ester (8), together with the known compounds (-)-oleuropeic acid (1), (-)-olivil (2), the aldehydic form of oleuropein aglycone (3), (+)-1-hydroxypinoresinol 1-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (4), (-)-oleuropeic acid 1'-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl ester (5), (-)-oleuropeic acid 6'-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl ester (6b), and (-)-olivil 4-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (7) were isolated from an ethyl acetate extract. The radical scavengers found (2-4 and 7) were detected and isolated with the help of the online HPLC-DAD-DPPH/ABTS technique. Compounds 2-4 and 7 displayed a higher antioxidative effect against the free radical DPPH than the reference BHT and lower than hydroxytyrosol, whereas compounds 1, 5, 6a, 6b, and 8 showed no activity. PMID:24328093

  16. Olive (Olea europaea L.) Leaf Polyphenols Improve Insulin Sensitivity in Middle-Aged Overweight Men: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    de Bock, Martin; Derraik, José G. B.; Brennan, Christine M.; Biggs, Janene B.; Morgan, Philip E.; Hodgkinson, Steven C.; Hofman, Paul L.; Cutfield, Wayne S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Olive plant leaves (Olea europaea L.) have been used for centuries in folk medicine to treat diabetes, but there are very limited data examining the effects of olive polyphenols on glucose homeostasis in humans. Objective To assess the effects of supplementation with olive leaf polyphenols (51.1 mg oleuropein, 9.7 mg hydroxytyrosol per day) on insulin action and cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged overweight men. Design Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in New Zealand. 46 participants (aged 46.4±5.5 years and BMI 28.0±2.0 kg/m2) were randomized to receive capsules with olive leaf extract (OLE) or placebo for 12 weeks, crossing over to other treatment after a 6-week washout. Primary outcome was insulin sensitivity (Matsuda method). Secondary outcomes included glucose and insulin profiles, cytokines, lipid profile, body composition, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, and carotid intima-media thickness. Results Treatment evaluations were based on the intention-to-treat principle. All participants took >96% of prescribed capsules. OLE supplementation was associated with a 15% improvement in insulin sensitivity (p?=?0.024) compared to placebo. There was also a 28% improvement in pancreatic ?-cell responsiveness (p?=?0.013). OLE supplementation also led to increased fasting interleukin-6 (p?=?0.014), IGFBP-1 (p?=?0.024), and IGFBP-2 (p?=?0.015) concentrations. There were however, no effects on interleukin-8, TNF-?, ultra-sensitive CRP, lipid profile, ambulatory blood pressure, body composition, carotid intima-media thickness, or liver function. Conclusions Supplementation with olive leaf polyphenols for 12 weeks significantly improved insulin sensitivity and pancreatic ?-cell secretory capacity in overweight middle-aged men at risk of developing the metabolic syndrome. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry #336317. PMID:23516412

  17. Olea europaea chemicals repellent toDacus oleae females.

    PubMed

    Lo Scalzo, R; Scarpati, M L; Verzegnassi, B; Vita, G

    1994-08-01

    The egg dispersion strategy of the olive fruit flyDacus oleae, which is dependent on chemicals from the fruit, was investigated. In particular, the exact role ofo-diphenolic compounds, such as the typical olive glucosides, oleuropein and demethyloleuropein, and their derivatives was clarified. It appears that the strong chemotactile repulsive effect exerted by the water fraction of crushed olives is due mainly to (E)-2-hexenal. Several compounds, such as?-3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol and other oleuropein derivatives, which exert a strong chemotactile repulsion, were newly identified or confirmed either in fresh olive juice or in olive mill waste water. This result confirms that the small droplets of olive juice, regurgitated just after egg laying by theD. oleae female all around the oviposition hole, actually prevent other females from ovipositing on the same fruit. PMID:24242710

  18. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestication of olive fruit, Olea europaea L., produced a better host for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), than wild olives, but fruit domestication reduced natural enemy efficiency. Important factors for selection of natural enemies for control of olive fruit fly include climate matchi...

  19. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) or Olea europaea (olive) leaves on oxidative stability of rabbit meat fortified with n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Trebušak, Tina; Levart, Alenka; Salobir, Janez; Pirman, Tatjana

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) or Olea europaea (olive tree) leaves on oxidative stability of rabbit meat fortified with n-3 fatty acids. Forty-eight slovenska kunka (SIKA) rabbits were divided into four homogeneous groups. The control group (CONT-) received diet with 6% palm fat; other groups received diet with 6% linseed oil and were either unsupplemented (CONT+) or supplemented with 1% of G. lucidum (REISHI) or O. europaea leaves (OLIVE). Rabbits were slaughtered and fatty acid composition, concentration of vitamin E and malondialdehyde (MDA) in back muscle were analyzed. The results showed that linseed oil addition improved fatty acid composition by increasing polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) proportion, decreasing proportion of saturated fatty acid (SFA) and reducing n-6/n-3 ratio in rabbit meat. Groups that were supplemented with linseed oil had lower content of ?-tocopherol and higher content of ?-tocopherol, compared to the CONT- group. The addition of potential antioxidants did not effectively prevent oxidation of rabbit meat. PMID:24334050

  20. Effect of different leaf-to-fruit ratios on photosynthesis and fruit growth in olive ( Olea europaea L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Proietti; L. Nasini; F. Famiani

    2006-01-01

    The influence of different leaf-to-fruit (l-t-f) ratios on leaf net photosynthetic rate (P\\u000a N) and fruit characteristics in Olea europaea L. cv. Frantoio was evaluated in 2001 and 2002. In both years, at the end of June, at the end of July, and in mid-September\\u000a (first, second, and third time of treatment, respectively), defoliation or fruit thinning were performed to

  1. Effect of black oxidising table olive process on the cell wall polysaccharides of olive pulp ( Olea europaea L. var. Negrinha do Douro)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel Mafra; António S. Barros; Manuel A. Coimbra

    2006-01-01

    Olive fruits of Negrinha do Douro variety were sampled after the three main steps of black oxidising processing: storage in brine, lye treatment and thermal treatment (final product). The analysis of cell wall polysaccharides showed that brine storage increased the amount of pectic polysaccharides, glucuronoxylans and cellulose in olive fruit. Those increases suggest the biosynthesis of new polysaccharides during the

  2. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels.

    PubMed

    Cayan, H; Erener, G

    2015-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets. PMID:25656181

  3. Inhibition of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced PC12 cell apoptosis by olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract is performed by its main component oleuropein.

    PubMed

    Pasban-Aliabadi, Hamzeh; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Sheibani, Vahid; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Mehdizadeh, Anahita; Yaghoobi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2013-04-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is the most common progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive death of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Most neurodegenerative disease treatments are, at present, palliative. However, some natural herbal products have been shown to rescue neurons from death and apoptosis in some of neurodegenerative diseases. Not only Olea europaea L. olive oil, but also the leaves of this plant have been used for medical purposes. Olive leaf extract (OLE) is being used by people as a drink across the world and as an integral ingredient in their desire to maintain and improve their health. Here, we investigated the effects of OLE and its main phenolic component oleuropein on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced toxicity in rat adrenal pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells as an in vitro model of PD. Cell damage was induced by 150??M 6-OHDA. The cell survival rate was examined by MTT assay. Generation of intra-cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was studied using fluorescence spectrophotometry. Immunoblotting and DNA analysis were also employed to determine the levels of biochemical markers of apoptosis in the cells. The data showed that 6-OHDA could decrease the viability of the cells. In addition, intra-cellular ROS, activated caspase 3, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, as well as DNA fragmentation were significantly increased in 6-OHDA-treated cells. Incubation of cells with OLE (400 and 600??g/mL) and oleuropein (20 and 25??g/mL) could decrease cell damage and reduce biochemical markers of cell death. The results suggest that OLE and oleuropein have anti-oxidant protective effects against 6-OHDA-induced PC12 cell damage. The protective effects of OLE and oleuropein are correlative with their anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic properties and suggest their therapeutic potential in the treatment of PD. PMID:23394606

  4. Olive oil biophenols and women's health.

    PubMed

    Fistoni?, Ivan; Situm, Mirna; Bulat, Vedrana; Harapin, Mario; Fistoni?, Nikola; Verbanac, Donatella

    2012-02-01

    Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates from the Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein) it contains. They provide an exceptional antioxidative activity, removing harmful compounds from the body. Oxidants are essential in the genesis of many diseases and conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, Alzheimer disease, and premenstrual syndrome. Oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, has demonstrated a significant effect in the prevention of malignant diseases such as colon cancer and breast cancer. Biophenols from olive oil successfully suppress the synthesis of LDL, a protein that is crucial in the development of cardiovascular disease, by reducing blood pressure and the development of atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, there is strong evidence of the antimicrobic effect of the biphenols from olive oil that successfully destroy colonies of microorganisms which may cause respiratory tract, intestinal, and genital tract infections. PMID:22634935

  5. Effect of Tea (Camellia sinensis) and Olive (Olea europaea L.) Leaves Extracts on Male Mice Exposed to Diazinon

    PubMed Central

    Al-Attar, Atef M.; Abu Zeid, Isam M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination in male mice intoxicated with a sublethal concentration of diazinon. Exposure of mice to 6.5?mg/kg body weight of diazinon for seven weeks resulted in statistical increases of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, while the value of serum total protein was declined. Treating diazinon-intoxicated mice with tea and olive leaves extracts or their combination significantly attenuated the severe alterations in these hematobiochemical parameters. Moreover, the results indicated that the supplementation with combination of tea and olive leaves extracts led to more attenuation effect against diazinon toxicity. Additionally, these new findings suggest that the effect of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination against toxicity of diazinon may be due to antioxidant properties of their chemical constituents. Finally, the present study indicated that the extracts of tea and olive leaves and their combination can be considered as promising therapeutic agents against hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and metabolic disorders induced by diazinon and maybe by other toxicants and pathogenic factors. PMID:23691503

  6. Physical and chemical changes during the maturation of Gordal Sevillana olives ( Olea europaea L., cv. Gordal Sevillana).

    PubMed

    Menz, Garry; Vriesekoop, Frank

    2010-04-28

    A series of physical and chemical changes occur as olives mature on the tree, and these changes are important for the production of oil and table olives. The aim of this study was to increase the understanding of the maturation process of Gordal Sevillana olives, to optimize harvest timing, and to determine the most appropriate harvesting and post-harvesting processing methods. During maturation, the olive size, flesh/pit ratio, and oil content increased, with a maximum oil content of 72 g kg(-1) (wet weight). Changes in the fatty acid composition are reported. Levels of both total sugars and total phenolic compounds slightly decreased over the maturation period; however, we observed that these compounds were continually being synthesized until full black maturity. The optimal harvest time for the production of Gordal Sevillana as Spanish-style green olives occurred immediately prior to the color change from green to turning color, at which point the sugar levels and flesh/pit ratio were at maximum levels. PMID:20355715

  7. Antioxidant activity and chemical components as potential anticancer agents in the olive leaf (Olea europaea L. cv Leccino.) decoction.

    PubMed

    De Marino, Simona; Festa, Carmen; Zollo, Franco; Nini, Antonella; Antenucci, Lina; Raimo, Gennaro; Iorizzi, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that a reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases is correlated with a regular consumption of fruits and vegetable, many of which are rich in polyphenols. The additive and synergistic effect of phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables may reduce chronic diseases related to oxidative stress in human body. Olea europaea L. leaf are rich in phenolic components, which have been proposed to play a role in cancer prevention. The purpose of this study was to identify the main components in the Olea europaea L. leaf (cv. Leccino) preserved during the decoction preparation, in order to delineate the antioxidant activities of the crude extracts and its isolated compounds by using different in vitro assays including DPPH radicalscavenging capacity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory effect and the ability to delay the linoleic acid peroxidation process (ALP). The aqueous decoction was partitioned obtaining four extracts and the n-butanol extract showed the highest antioxidant activity and the highest total phenolic content. Phytochemical investigation leads to the isolation of thirteen secondary metabolites including simple phenolics, flavonoids, secoiridoids whose structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR) and spectrometric techniques. A significant free radical scavenging effect against DPPH has been evidenced in fraxamoside (1) (EC50 62.6 µM) and taxifolin (5) (EC50 50.0 µM), isolated for the first time from the water decoction. The most active compound in the TAC evaluation, was the 3,4 dihydro-phenyl glycol (8) (0.90 caffeic acid equiv.) while taxifolin and fraxamoside resulted as the most efficient inhibitors of XO activity (IC50 2.7 and 5.2 µM, respectively). Secoxyloganin (4), oleuropein (2) and tyrosol (6) showed the highest ALP activity. This study adds to the growing body of data supporting the bioactivities of phytochemicals and their potential impact on human health. PMID:25102361

  8. Susceptibility of Olive Fruit in Relation to Olive Fruit Fly Development and Ovipositional Period in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), females oviposited their first and last eggs in olive fruit, Olea europaea L., when females were 6 and 90 d-old, respectively. The highest mean numbers of eggs per day in 10 olive fruit (55) were oviposited by 28 d-old females, and peak egg production occ...

  9. Molecular characterization of three common olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars in Palestine, using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers

    PubMed Central

    Obaid, Ramiz; Abu-Qaoud, Hassan; Arafeh, Rami

    2014-01-01

    Eight accessions of olive trees from three common varieties in Palestine, Nabali Baladi, Nabali Mohassan and Surri, were genetically evaluated using five simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 17 alleles from 5 loci were observed in which 15 (88.2%) were polymorphic and 2 (11.8%) were monomorphic. An average of 3.4 alleles per locus was found ranging from 2.0 alleles with the primers GAPU-103 and DCA-9 to 5.0 alleles with U9932 and DCA-16. The smallest amplicon size observed was 50 bp with the primer DCA-16, whereas the largest one (450 bp) with the primer U9932. Cluster analysis with the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) showed three clusters: a cluster with four accessions from the ‘Nabali Baladi’ cultivar, another cluster with three accessions that represents the ‘Nabali Mohassen’ cultivar and finally the ‘Surri’ cultivar. The similarity coefficient for the eight olive tree samples ranged from a maximum of 100% between two accessions from Nabali Baladi and also in two other samples from Nabali Mohassan, to a minimum similarity coefficient (0.315) between the Surri and two Nabali Baladi accessions. The results in this investigation clearly highlight the genetic dissimilarity between the three main olive cultivars that have been misidentified and mixed up in the past, based on conventional morphological characters. PMID:26019564

  10. Antithrombotic effect of repeated doses of the ethanolic extract of local olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Dub, Abdallah M; Dugani, Aisha M

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of thromboembolic diseases is increasing, and they are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Mediterranean diet is known for its high content of olive products, especially olive oil, which has known cardiovascular health benefits, including those on blood pressure, cholesterol level, and thrombogenesis. All previous animal and clinical studies investigating the beneficial antithrombotic effects of olives have focused on olive oil and a few on olive leaves (OLEs). In this study, the ethanolic extract of OLE was evaluated for its antithrombotic activity in the rabbit model of thrombosis induced by ligature of the vena cava and intravenous administration of tissue thromboplastin. Pre-treatment with 100 or 200 mg/kg per day of the ethanolic extract for 8 weeks significantly prolonged the prothrombin time (PT) in comparison to the control group (12.10 ± 0.35 sec and 14.38 ± 0.29 sec vs. 10.8 ± 0.32 sec, p < 0.05 and 0.001, respectively). In comparison to the control group, the same doses had no statistically significant effect on thrombus weight (16.85 ± 0.67 mg, 16.32 ± 0.35 mg, and 17.81 ± 0.75 mg; p = 0.18 and 0.06) or on activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) (19.17 ± 0.33 sec, 19.12 ± 0.73 sec, and 18.97 ± 0.41 sec; p = 0.36 and 0.43, respectively). One important finding in this study concerns thrombus morphology. In the extract treatment groups, the thrombus was filament-like and did not adhere to blood vessel walls, whereas in the control group the thrombus was thick and almost completely occluded the vein. Therefore, these results suggest that OLE ethanolic extract can modify the extrinsic coagulation pathway as evidenced by the prolongation of PT and changes in thrombus morphology, enough to justify further research to evaluate its possible antithrombotic effects. PMID:23702352

  11. Comparison of phenological, aerobiological and melissopalynological patterns of Olea europaea

    E-print Network

    Comparison of phenological, aerobiological and melissopalynological patterns of Olea europaea Maria. This study compared aerobiological, melissopalynological and flowering phenological data obtained from olive as an alternative method to airborne pollen to record the flowering phenological phases and to provide accurate

  12. Effect of agronomical practices on carpology, fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties, in olive (Olea europaea L.).

    PubMed

    Rosati, Adolfo; Cafiero, Caterina; Paoletti, Andrea; Alfei, Barbara; Caporali, Silvia; Casciani, Lorena; Valentini, Massimiliano

    2014-09-15

    We examined whether some agronomical practices (i.e. organic vs. conventional) affect olive fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties. Fruit characteristics (i.e. fresh and dry weight of pulp and pit, oil content on a fresh and dry weight basis) did not differ. Oil chemical traits did not differ except for increased content of polyphenols in the organic treatments, and some changes in the acidic composition. Sensory analysis revealed increased bitterness (both cultivars) and pungency (Frantoio) and decreased sweetness (Frantoio) in the organic treatment. Fruit metabolomic analysis with HRMAS-NMR indicated significant changes in some compounds including glycocholate, fatty acids, NADPH, NADP+, some amino acids, thymidine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid, 5,6-dihydrouracil, hesanal, cis-olefin, ?-D-glucose, propanal and some unassigned species. The results suggest that agronomical practices may have effects on fruit composition that may be difficult to detect unless a broad-spectrum analysis is used. PMID:24767050

  13. New drugs from ancient natural foods. Oleocanthal, the natural occurring spicy compound of olive oil: a brief history.

    PubMed

    Scotece, Morena; Conde, Javier; Abella, Vanessa; Lopez, Veronica; Pino, Jesús; Lago, Francisca; Smith, Amos B; Gómez-Reino, Juan J; Gualillo, Oreste

    2015-04-01

    Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), a principal component of the Mediterranean diet (Med diet), is one of the most ancient known foods and has long been associated with health benefits. Many phenolic compounds extracted from Olea europea L. have attracted attention since their discovery. Among these phenolic constituents, oleocanthal has recently emerged as a potential therapeutic molecule for different diseases, showing relevant pharmacological properties in various pathogenic processes, including inflammation, cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we discuss and summarize the most recent pharmacological evidence for the medical relevance of oleocanthal, focusing our attention on its anti-inflammatory and chemotherapeutic roles. PMID:25448758

  14. Differences in the Neuroprotective Effect of Orally Administered Virgin Olive Oil (Olea europaea) Polyphenols Tyrosol and Hydroxytyrosol in Rats.

    PubMed

    De La Cruz, José Pedro; Ruiz-Moreno, Maria Isabel; Guerrero, Ana; Reyes, José Julio; Benitez-Guerrero, Adela; Espartero, José Luis; González-Correa, José Antonio

    2015-07-01

    The neuroprotective effect of virgin olive oil (VOO) polyphenols has been related to their antioxidant effect. The main objective was to analyze how tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol contribute to the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of VOO in a model of hypoxia-reoxygenation in rat brain slices. Rats were treated per os (po) (10 or 20 mg/kg/day) with hydroxytyrosol ethyl ether (HTEE), tyrosol ethyl ether (TEE), or 3,4-di-o-methylidene-hydroxytyrosol ethyl ether (MHTEE), used as a negative control for antioxidant effects. Lipid peroxidation was inhibited with HTEE, TEE, and MHTEE (from 5.0 ± 1.5 to 2.6 ± 1.5, 4.5 ± 1.5, and 4.8 ± 1.5 nmol/mg protein, respectively). However, all three compounds had similar neuroprotective effects: from 2.8 ± 0.07 to 1.8 ± 0.02 arbitrary units for HTEE, 1.4 ± 0.09 arbitrary units for TEE, and 1.3 ± 0.2 arbitrary units for MHTEE. All three compounds inhibited 3-nitrotyrosine production (from 3.7 ± 0.3 to 1.2 ± 0.03 nmol/0.1 g tissue for HTEE, 1.0 ± 0.2 nmol/0.1 g tissue for TEE, and 1.3 ± 0.1 nmol/0.1 g tissue for MHTEE), prostaglandin E2 production (from 55.7 ± 2.2 to 46.4 ± 1.9 pg/0.1 g tissue for HTEE, 24.7 ± 1.3 pg/0.1 g tissue for TEE, and 27.6 ± 2.6 pg/0.1 g tissue for MHTEE), whereas only HTEE inhibited IL1? production (from 35.7 ± 1.5 to 21.6 ± 0.8 pg/0.1 g tissue). Pearson correlation coefficients related neuroprotective effect with an antioxidant effect for HTEE (R = 0.72, p < 0.001), and inhibition of nitrosative stress (R = 0.78, 0.67, and 0.66 for HTEE, TEE, and MHTEE, respectively, p < 0.001) and inflammatory mediators (R = 0.72, 0.79, and 0.64 for HTEE, TEE, and MHTEE, respectively, p < 0.001) with all three compounds. PMID:26066316

  15. LOX Gene Transcript Accumulation in Olive (Olea europaea L.) Fruits at Different Stages of Maturation: Relationship between Volatile Compounds, Environmental Factors, and Technological Treatments for Oil Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Muzzalupo, Innocenzo; Macchione, Barbara; Bucci, Cristina; Stefanizzi, Francesca; Perri, Enzo; Chiappetta, Adriana; Tagarelli, Antonio; Sindona, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The quality of olive oil is influenced by genetic and environmental factors and by the maturation state of drupes, but it is equally affected by technological treatments of the process. This work investigates the possible correlation between olive LOX gene transcript accumulation, evaluated in fruits collected at different stages of maturation, and chemical biomarkers of its activity. During olive fruit ripening, the same genotype harvested from two different farms shows a positive linear trend between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive oil aroma. Interestingly, a negative linear trend was observed between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive pastes obtained from olive fruits with and without malaxation. The changes in the olive LOX transcript accumulation reveal its environmental regulation and suggest differential physiological functions for the LOXs. PMID:22645430

  16. Response of Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and conditions in California olive orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), by the USDA-APHIS, PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europae...

  17. Development, characterization and inheritance of new microsatellites in olive ( Olea europaea L.) and evaluation of their usefulness in cultivar identification and genetic relationship studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aurora Díaz; Raúl De la Rosa; Antonio Martín; Pilar Rallo

    2006-01-01

    Twelve new microsatellites have been developed in olive. For that purpose, a genomic library of the olive cultivar ‘Arbequina’ was enriched for GA, GT and ACT repeats. Two methods of screening yielded 27 sequences containing microsatellites out of the 119 clones sequenced. The GA repeat seems to be the most abundant motif. Among sequences containing microsatellites, 4 (14.8%) were redundant,

  18. Differential effects of oleuropein, a biophenol from Olea europaea, on anionic and zwiterionic phospholipid model membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nuria Caturla; Laura Pérez-Fons; Amparo Estepa; Vicente Micol

    2005-01-01

    Oleuropein (Ole) is the major phenolic constituent of the olive leaf (Olea europaea) and it is also present in olive oil and fruit. In the last years several compounds from olive tree, oleuropein among them, have shown a variety of biological activities such as antimicrobial or antioxidant. A phospholipid model membrane system was used to study whether the Ole biological

  19. Genetic variability analyses of the somatic embryogenesis induction process in Olea spp . using nuclear microsatellites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tina Lopes; Ana Capelo; Gina Brito; João Loureiro; Conceição Santos

    2009-01-01

    The crop species Olea europaea L. (olive tree) is of great economic importance in the Mediterranean region. Hence, many efforts have been done in the last\\u000a decades to propagate this commercially valuable species by in vitro methods. On the other hand, the lesser known Olea maderensis (Lowe) Rivas Mart. & Del Arco which is a native species of the Madeira

  20. Effect of fruit load on oil yield components and dynamics of fruit growth and oil accumulation in olive ( Olea europaea L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo R. Trentacoste; Carlos M. Puertas; Víctor O. Sadras

    2010-01-01

    Olive oil yield and its components (fruit number, average fruit weight and fruit oil concentration) depend on crop load and source–sink ratios as affected by environmental conditions, management and the alternate bearing typical of the species. The aims of this work were to: (i) establish quantitative relationships between oil yield and its components as affected by fruit load in a

  1. Olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract induces apoptosis and monocyte/macrophage differentiation in human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells: insight into the underlying mechanism.

    PubMed

    Samet, Imen; Han, Junkyu; Jlaiel, Lobna; Sayadi, Sami; Isoda, Hiroko

    2014-01-01

    Differentiation therapy is an attractive approach aiming at reversing malignancy and reactivating endogenous differentiation programs in cancer cells. Olive leaf extract, known for its antioxidant activity, has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in several cancer cells. However, its differentiation inducing properties and the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of Chemlali Olive Leaf Extract (COLE) for its potential differentiation inducing effect on multipotent leukemia K562 cells. Results showed that COLE inhibits K562 cells proliferation and arrests the cell cycle at G0/G1, and then at G2/M phase over treatment time. Further analysis revealed that COLE induces apoptosis and differentiation of K562 cells toward the monocyte lineage. Microarray analysis was conducted to investigate the underlying mechanism of COLE differentiation inducing effect. The differentially expressed genes such as IFI16, EGR1, NFYA, FOXP1, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL8 confirmed the commitment of K562 cells to the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Thus our results provide evidence that, in addition to apoptosis, induction of differentiation is one of the possible therapeutic effects of olive leaf in cancer cells. PMID:24803988

  2. Olive (Olea europaea) Leaf Extract Induces Apoptosis and Monocyte/Macrophage Differentiation in Human Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia K562 Cells: Insight into the Underlying Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Han, Junkyu; Jlaiel, Lobna; Sayadi, Sami; Isoda, Hiroko

    2014-01-01

    Differentiation therapy is an attractive approach aiming at reversing malignancy and reactivating endogenous differentiation programs in cancer cells. Olive leaf extract, known for its antioxidant activity, has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in several cancer cells. However, its differentiation inducing properties and the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of Chemlali Olive Leaf Extract (COLE) for its potential differentiation inducing effect on multipotent leukemia K562 cells. Results showed that COLE inhibits K562 cells proliferation and arrests the cell cycle at G0/G1, and then at G2/M phase over treatment time. Further analysis revealed that COLE induces apoptosis and differentiation of K562 cells toward the monocyte lineage. Microarray analysis was conducted to investigate the underlying mechanism of COLE differentiation inducing effect. The differentially expressed genes such as IFI16, EGR1, NFYA, FOXP1, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL8 confirmed the commitment of K562 cells to the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Thus our results provide evidence that, in addition to apoptosis, induction of differentiation is one of the possible therapeutic effects of olive leaf in cancer cells. PMID:24803988

  3. Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for Biological Control of Olive Fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, by the USDA-APHIS, PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. The maximu...

  4. Chryseobacterium oleae sp. nov., an efficient plant growth promoting bacterium in the rooting induction of olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cuttings and emended descriptions of the genus Chryseobacterium, C. daecheongense, C. gambrini, C. gleum, C. joostei, C. jejuense, C. luteum, C. shigense, C. taiwanense, C. ureilyticum and C. vrystaatense.

    PubMed

    Montero-Calasanz, Maria del Carmen; Göker, Markus; Rohde, Manfred; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Schmid, Michael; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Tindall, Brian J; Camacho, Maria

    2014-07-01

    A novel non-motile, Gram-staining-negative, yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated CT348(T), isolated from the ectorhizosphere of an organic olive tree in Spain and characterised as an efficient plant growth promoting bacterium, was investigated to determine its taxonomic status. The isolate grew best in a temperature range of 5-35°C, at pH 5.0-8.0 and with 0-1% (w/v) NaCl. Chemotaxonomic and molecular characteristics of the isolate matched those described for members of the genus Chryseobacterium. The DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 38.2mol%. The strain contained a polyamine pattern with sym-homospermidine as the major compound and produced flexirubin-type pigments. MK-6 was the dominant menaquinone and the major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, C17:1?9c, iso-C17:0 3-OH and iso-C15:0 2-OH. The main polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and several unidentified lipids and aminolipids. The 16S rRNA gene showed 92.2-97.8% sequence identity with the members of the genus Chyseobacterium. Based on the phenotypic traits and DNA-DNA hybridizations with the type strains of the most closely related species, the isolate is shown to represent a novel species, Chyseobacterium oleae, type strain CT348(T) (=DSM 25575 =CCUG 63020). Emended descriptions of the genus Chryseobacterium and C. daecheongense, C. gambrini, C. gleum, C. joostei, C. jejuense, C. luteum, C. shigense, C. taiwanense, C. ureilyticum and C. vrystaatense are also proposed. PMID:24867808

  5. The use of olive tree ( Olea europaea L.) leaves as a bioindicator for environmental pollution in the Province of Ayd?n, Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dilek Turan; Cemre Kocahakimoglu; P?nar Kavcar; Handan Gayg?s?z; Levent Atatanir; Cafer Turgut; Sait C. Sofuoglu

    2011-01-01

    Introduction  In this study, olive tree leaves, collected from 50 sampling sites throughout the Province of Ayd?n, Turkey, were used to\\u000a estimate level of pollution by measuring Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn concentrations\\u000a and calculating pollution factor (PF) values.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  After sample preparation, collected leaves were

  6. Biological effects of the olive polyphenol, hydroxytyrosol: An extra view from genome-wide transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Nan, Jia Nancy; Ververis, Katherine; Bollu, Sameera; Rodd, Annabelle L; Swarup, Oshi; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have established the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet, an important component of which are olives and olive oil derived from the olive tree (Olea Europea). It is now well-established that not only the major fatty acid constituents, but also the minor phenolic components, in olives and olive oil have important health benefits. Emerging research over the past decade has highlighted the beneficial effects of a range of phenolic compounds from olives and olive oil, particularly for cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome and inflammatory conditions. Mechanisms of action include potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Further, accumulating evidence indicates the potential of the polyphenols and potent antioxidants, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein in oncology. Numerous studies, both in vitro and in vivo, have demonstrated the anticancer effects of hydroxytyrosol which include chemopreventive and cell-specific cytotoxic and apoptotic effects. Indeed, the precise molecular mechanisms accounting for the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties are now becoming clear and this is, at least in part, due to high through-put gene transcription profiling. Initially, we constructed phylogenetic trees to visualize the evolutionary relationship of members of the Oleaceae family and secondly, between plants producing hydroxytyrosol to make inferences of potential similarities or differences in their medicinal properties and to identify novel plant candidates for the treatment and prevention of disease. Furthermore, given the recent interest in hydroxytyrosol as a potential anticancer agent and chemopreventative we utilized transcriptome analysis in the erythroleukemic cell line K562, to investigate the effects of hydroxytyrosol on three gene pathways: the complement system, The Warburg effect and chromatin remodeling to ascertain relevant gene candidates in the prevention of cancer. PMID:24392471

  7. Mortality of olive fruit fly pupae in California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mia M. Orsini; Kent M. Daane; Karen R. Sime; Erik H. Nelson

    2007-01-01

    Efforts to control the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), in California have focused on insecticidal baits and biological control by parasitoids, which primarily target the adult and larval stages, respectively. The pupal stage, which occurs in the soil, has largely been overlooked. This study investigated mortality factors for olive fruit fly pupae in California olive orchards, using a

  8. Biological control of olive fruit fly by 2006 parasitoid releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor imported from Guatemala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, was reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala and imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. Releases of parasitoid adults in 2006 were ...

  9. Genetic markers to distinguish between the Psyttalia lounsburyi populations which parasitize olive fruit flies in Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Psyttalia lounsburyi Loan (Hym.: Braconidae) is an African larval-pupal parasitoid of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae). The olive fruit fly is a key pest of cultivated olives throughout the Mediterranean region, and in California since its introduction into North America. Ol...

  10. Rearing, Importation, and Release of Psyttalia humilis for Biocontrol of Olive Fruit Fly in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control using imported parasitoids can be used to reduce olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), infestations in olives. In 2008-2010, we mass produced the olive fruit fly larval parasitoid, Psyttalia humilis = P. cf. concolor (Silvestri), at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Moscamed, laboratory in...

  11. Comparative evaluation of two olive fruit fly parasitoids under varying abiotic conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin-geng WangMarshall; Marshall W. Johnson; Victoria Y. Yokoyama; Charles H. Pickett; Kent M. Daane

    2011-01-01

    Psyttalia lounsburyi (Silvestri) and P. humilis (Silvestri) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were evaluated in California for their potential to control the invasive olive fruit\\u000a fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Psyttalia lounsburyi is a specialist on B. oleae while P. humilis also attacks other tephritid species. Field cage trials, conducted from 2006 to 2009, were used to compare P. lounsburyi and two

  12. Douglas Oliver SUPERIOR OLIVE

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    Douglas Oliver SUPERIOR OLIVE Douglas Oliver University of Connecticut Health Center #12;Auditory Pathways CORTEX Auditory CortexGLUT GABA MGB GABA GLY Medial Geniculate Body IC DLL DLL Inferior Colliculus medial superior superior olive; olive; LSO: LSO: lateral lateral superior superior oliveolive NTB

  13. Generation and Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags from Olea europaea L.

    PubMed Central

    Ozdemir Ozgenturk, Nehir; Oruç, Fatma; Sezerman, Ugur; Kuçukural, Alper; Vural Korkut, Senay; Toksoz, Feriha; Un, Cemal

    2010-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) is an important source of edible oil which was originated in Near-East region. In this study, two cDNA libraries were constructed from young olive leaves and immature olive fruits for generation of ESTs to discover the novel genes and search the function of unknown genes of olive. The randomly selected 3840 colonies were sequenced for EST collection from both libraries. Readable 2228 sequences for olive leaf and 1506 sequences for olive fruit were assembled into 205 and 69 contigs, respectively, whereas 2478 were singletons. Putative functions of all 2752 differentially expressed unique sequences were designated by gene homology based on BLAST and annotated using BLAST2GO. While 1339 ESTs show no homology to the database, 2024 ESTs have homology (under 80%) with hypothetical proteins, putative proteins, expressed proteins, and unknown proteins in NCBI-GenBank. 635 EST's unique genes sequence have been identified by over 80% homology to known function in other species which were not previously described in Olea family. Only 3.1% of total EST's was shown similarity with olive database existing in NCBI. This generated EST's data and consensus sequences were submitted to NCBI as valuable source for functional genome studies of olive. PMID:21197085

  14. Proteome Regulation during Olea europaea Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Linda; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldoni, Luciana; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Perrotta, Gaetano

    2013-01-01

    Background Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation of the biosynthesis of compounds affecting the quality of the drupes as well as the final composition of the olive oil. Proteomics offers the possibility to dig deeper into the major changes during fruit development, including the important phase of ripening, and to classify temporal patterns of protein accumulation occurring during these complex physiological processes. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we started monitoring the proteome variations associated with olive fruit development by using comparative proteomics coupled to mass spectrometry. Proteins extracted from drupes at three different developmental stages were separated on 2-DE and subjected to image analysis. 247 protein spots were revealed as differentially accumulated. Proteins were identified from a total of 121 spots and discussed in relation to olive drupe metabolic changes occurring during fruit development. In order to evaluate if changes observed at the protein level were consistent with changes of mRNAs, proteomic data produced in the present work were compared with transcriptomic data elaborated during previous studies. Conclusions/Significance This study identifies a number of proteins responsible for quality traits of cv. Coratina, with particular regard to proteins associated to the metabolism of fatty acids, phenolic and aroma compounds. Proteins involved in fruit photosynthesis have been also identified and their pivotal contribution in oleogenesis has been discussed. To date, this study represents the first characterization of the olive fruit proteome during development, providing new insights into fruit metabolism and oil accumulation process. PMID:23349718

  15. Oleuropein in Olive and its Pharmacological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Syed Haris

    2010-01-01

    Olive from Olea europaea is native to the Mediterranean region and, both the oil and the fruit are some of the main components of the Mediterranean diet. The main active constituents of olive oil include oleic acid, phenolic constituents, and squalene. The main phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, give extra-virgin olive oil its bitter, pungent taste. The present review focuses on recent works that have analyzed the relationship between the major phenolic compound oleuropein and its pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-cancer activities, antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effect. PMID:21179340

  16. Development of Biological and Cultural Control of Olive Fruit Fly in the Central Valley of California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The eastern side of the Central Valley of California where olives are grown for canning was surveyed for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), infestations. The pest was found for the first time in unusually high numbers in Merced. The a parasitic wasp, Psyttalia humilis (Silvestri), was import...

  17. Comparative evaluation of two olive fruit fly parasitoids under varying abiotic conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) invaded California around 1998 and has become a major olive pest. Two larval parasitoids, Psyttalia lounsburyi (Silvestri) and P. humilis (Szépligeti) (both Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were introduced from Africa into California and p...

  18. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF OLIVE FRUIT FLY IN CALIFORNIA BY PSYTTALIA CF. CONCOLOR (SZÉPLIGETI) FROM MOSCAMED, GUATEMALA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), was imported into California, USA, from MOSCAMED, Guatemala, and shown to have potential for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin). Calculated percentage parasitism of olive fruit fly 3rd instars in field cage te...

  19. Prediction of olive quality using FT-NIR spectroscopy in reflectance and transmittance modes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to use FT-NIR spectroscopy to predict the firmness, oil content and color of two olive (Olea europaea L) varieties (‘Ayvalik’ and ‘Gemlik’). Spectral measurements were performed on the intact olives for the wavelengths of 780-2500 nm in reflectance and for 800-1725...

  20. The standard centrifuge method accurately measures vulnerability curves of long-vesselled olive stems.

    PubMed

    Hacke, Uwe G; Venturas, Martin D; MacKinnon, Evan D; Jacobsen, Anna L; Sperry, John S; Pratt, R Brandon

    2015-01-01

    The standard centrifuge method has been frequently used to measure vulnerability to xylem cavitation. This method has recently been questioned. It was hypothesized that open vessels lead to exponential vulnerability curves, which were thought to be indicative of measurement artifact. We tested this hypothesis in stems of olive (Olea europea) because its long vessels were recently claimed to produce a centrifuge artifact. We evaluated three predictions that followed from the open vessel artifact hypothesis: shorter stems, with more open vessels, would be more vulnerable than longer stems; standard centrifuge-based curves would be more vulnerable than dehydration-based curves; and open vessels would cause an exponential shape of centrifuge-based curves. Experimental evidence did not support these predictions. Centrifuge curves did not vary when the proportion of open vessels was altered. Centrifuge and dehydration curves were similar. At highly negative xylem pressure, centrifuge-based curves slightly overestimated vulnerability compared to the dehydration curve. This divergence was eliminated by centrifuging each stem only once. The standard centrifuge method produced accurate curves of samples containing open vessels, supporting the validity of this technique and confirming its utility in understanding plant hydraulics. Seven recommendations for avoiding artefacts and standardizing vulnerability curve methodology are provided. PMID:25229841

  1. Landscape effects on the complex of Bactrocera oleae parasitoids and implications for conservation biological control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luigi Boccaccio; Ruggero Petacchi

    2009-01-01

    We studied the parasitoid complex of Bactrocera oleae Rossi (Diptera: Tephritidae) in order to analyse the parasitism response to landscape structure at different spatial extents.\\u000a Olive fruits were sampled and incubated in the laboratory for insect emergence, thus allowing the calculation of parasitoid\\u000a emergence rates. A landscape analysis was performed in five concentric buffers, ranging from 0.5 to 2 km diameter

  2. Modelling and measurement of radiation interception by olive canopies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Mariscal; F. Orgaz; F. J. Villalobos

    2000-01-01

    We present the formulation, calibration and validation of a model to estimate photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) intercepted by olive (Olea europaea L.) canopies. The model calculates the PAR transmittance at any point located within the four central trees of the orchard. The spatial and time integration of this process allows calculation of PAR transmitted to the ground and, thus, the

  3. Oinotria table olives: Quality evaluation during ripening and processing by biomolecular components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Borzillo; N. Iannotta; N. Uccella

    2000-01-01

    Since ancient times, olives (Olea europaea L. cv. Cassanese) have been treated for table black olive production; the wizened Oinotria(WOTO) is still processed in the traditional way. This process and the technological treatment include three operations: blanching,\\u000a salting and drying of mature black olives. In this investigation, samples were harvested at two ripening stages. The infestation\\u000a conditions, firmness, oil content

  4. Identification of optimum preprocessing storage conditions to maintain quality of black ripe `Manzanillo' olives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Tayfun Agar; Betty Hess-Pierce; Mohamed M. Sourour; Adel A. Kader

    1999-01-01

    Black-ripe olives (Olea europaea cv. `Manzanillo'), used for processing into canned olives or oil were stored at 0, 2.2 and 5°C in air or 2 kPa O2 (balance N2). Olive samples were analyzed initially, and after 2, 4 and 6 weeks for fruit quality based on color, visual quality and fruit firmness, weight loss, water and oil content. Respiration rate,

  5. Quality of Fruit and Oil of Black-Ripe Olives Is Influenced by Cultivar and Storage Period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Tayfun Agar; Betty Hess-Pierce; Mohamed M. Sourour; Adel A. Kader

    1998-01-01

    Black-ripe olives (Olea europaea cv. Ascolano, Manzanillo, Mission, and Sevillano), intended for oil extraction, were stored at 5 °C for 6-8 weeks to evaluate their postharvest physiology and quality changes. Also, samples of olives were placed at 20 °C for 2 weeks to determine the deterioration rate of four cultivars at ambient temperature. Fruit quality evaluations included color, visual quality,

  6. A 3-year Study on Quality, Nutritional and Organoleptic Evaluation of Organic and Conventional Extra-Virgin Olive Oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolino Ninfali; Mara Bacchiocca; Enrica Biagiotti; Sonia Esposto; Maurizio Servili; Adolfo Rosati; Gianfrancesco Montedoro

    2008-01-01

    The quality of extra-virgin olive oils (EVOO) from organic and conventional farming was investigated in this 3-year (2001–2003)\\u000a study. The oils were extracted from Leccino and Frantoio olive (Olea europaea) cultivars, grown in the same geographical area under either organic or conventional methods. Extra-virgin olive oils (EVOO)\\u000a were produced with the same technology and samples were analyzed for nutritional and

  7. Progress in table olive debittering: Degradation in vitro of oleuropein and its derivatives by Lactobacillus plantarum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Marsilio; B. Lanza; N. Pozzi

    1996-01-01

    Oleuropein, a bitter-tasting secoiridoid glycoside present in olive leaves and fruit (Olea europaea L.), is hydrolyzed by oleuropeinolyticLactobacillus plantarum strains. The work reports the results of a gas-chromatographic study of the oleuropein derivatives released by incubation\\u000a withL. plantarum B21, isolated from table olive brines, and byL. plantarum ATCC 8014. Process kinetics indicate that the bacterial strains initially hydrolyze the oleuropein

  8. Osmotin induces cold protection in olive trees by affecting programmed cell death and cytoskeleton organization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D’Angeli; M. M. Altamura

    2007-01-01

    Osmotin is a pathogenesis-related protein exhibiting cryoprotective functions. Our aim was to understand whether it is involved\\u000a in the cold acclimation of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.), a frost-sensitive species lacking dormancy. We exposed olive trees expressing tobacco osmotin gene under the 35S promoter (35S:osm) [in the same manner as wild type (wt) plants] to cold shocks in the

  9. Canopy Fruit Location Can Affect Olive Oil Quality in ‘Arbequina’ Hedgerow Orchards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Gómez-del-Campo; José M. García

    The effect of location of fruit in canopies of hedgerow olive trees (Olea europaea L., cv. ‘Arbequina’) on quality of virgin oil was tested by analyzing oils extracted from different height layers and faces\\u000a of nine olive hedgerows (6 North–South oriented and 3 East–West). Although sensory attributes were not different, other oil\\u000a quality parameters may be significantly modified by fruit

  10. Pest, Parasitoid, and Fruit Interactions in Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), and the imported parasitoid, P. humilis, required cool temperatures, high humidities, and food and water for prolonged survival (about 6 months for host) in laboratory and greenhouse tests. Life span was greatly shortened by high temperatures, low humiditi...

  11. 2008 Field Releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor for Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid Psytallia cf. concolor (Szépligeti) was reared on sterile Mediterranean fruit fly larvae at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Petapa Quarantine Laboratory in Guatemala and shipped to the USDA-ARS, Parlier for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in California. Improved ...

  12. The olive leaf extract exhibits antiviral activity against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia rhabdovirus (VHSV)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vicente Micol; Nuria Caturla; Laura Pérez-Fons; Vicente Más; Luis Pérez; Amparo Estepa

    2005-01-01

    A commercial plant extract derived from olive tree leaf (Olea europaea) (LExt) and its major compound, oleuropein (Ole), inhibited the in vitro infectivity of the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), a salmonid rhabdovirus. Incubation of virus with LExt or Ole before infection reduced the viral infectivity to 10 and 30%, respectively. Furthermore, LExt drastically decreased VHSV titers and viral protein

  13. Evaluation of olive as a host of Xylella fastidiosa and associated sharpshooter vectors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) trees exhibiting leaf scorch and/or branch dieback symptoms in California were surveyed for the xylem-limited, fastidious bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Only ~17% of diseased trees tested positive for X. fastidiosa by PCR, and disease symptoms could not be attributed to X. fa...

  14. Olive cultivar origin is a major cause of polymorphism for Ole e 1 pollen allergen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AbdelMounim Hamman-Khalifa; Antonio Jesús Castro; José Carlos Jiménez-López; María Isabel Rodríguez-García; Juan Alché

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pollens from different olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars have been shown to differ significantly in their content in Ole e 1 and in their overall allergenicity. This allergen is, in addition, characterized by a high degree of polymorphism in its sequence. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the putative presence of divergences in Ole e 1 sequences

  15. Olive biophenols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola Uccella

    2000-01-01

    Biophenols are monomeric dihydroxyaromatic moieties that are active non-nutrient components widely found in all plant-derived foodstuffs. Wizened Oinotria table olives (WOTO) and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), both typical ethnic products of the Mediterranean food culture, are especially rich in biophenols. Table olives can be prepared by traditional methods or by technological processing involving blanching, salting and drying of mature

  16. Nonsterol Triterpenoids as Major Constituents of Olea europaea

    PubMed Central

    Stiti, Naïm; Hartmann, Marie-Andrée

    2012-01-01

    Plant triterpenoids represent a large and structurally diverse class of natural products. A growing interest has been focused on triterpenoids over the past decade due to their beneficial effects on human health. We show here that these bioactive compounds are major constituents of several aerial parts (floral bud, leaf bud, stem, and leaf) of olive tree, a crop exploited so far almost exclusively for its fruit and oil. O. europaea callus cultures were analyzed as well. Twenty sterols and twenty-nine nonsteroidal tetra- and pentacyclic triterpenoids belonging to seven types of carbon skeletons (oleanane, ursane, lupane, taraxerane, taraxastane, euphane, and lanostane) were identified and quantified by GC and GC-MS as free and esterified compounds. The oleanane-type compounds, oleanolic acid and maslinic acid, were largely predominant in all the organs tested, whereas they are practically absent in olive oil. In floral buds, they represented as much as 2.7% of dry matter. In callus cultures, lanostane-type compounds were the most abundant triterpenoids. In all the tissues analyzed, free and esterified triterpene alcohols exhibited different distribution patterns of their carbon skeletons. Taken together, these data provide new insights into largely unknown triterpene secondary metabolism of Olea europaea. PMID:22523691

  17. Olive oil by capillary electrophoresis: characterization and genuineness.

    PubMed

    Monasterio, Romina P; Fernández, María de los Ángeles; Silva, María Fernanda

    2013-05-15

    Olive oil, obtained from Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) fruits, is an important ingredient in the Mediterranean diet. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate olive oil analysis using capillary electrophoresis (CE). This review covers a selection of the literature published on this topic over the past decade. The current state of the art of the topic is evaluated, with special emphasis on separation conditions, analysis purpose, and analytes investigated. CE has been used to characterize or to carry out authenticity studies. Particular attention has been focused on the botanical origin because high-quality monovarietal olive oils have been recently introduced on the markets and their quality control requires the development of new and powerful analytical tools as well as new regulations to avoid fraud. CE represents a good compromise between sample throughput, sample volume, satisfactory characterization, and sustainability for the analysis of target compounds present in olive oils. PMID:23594110

  18. The Drosophila Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene May Have Evolved Independently of the Functionally Homologous Medfly, Olive Fly, and Flesh Fly Genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saverio Brogna; Panayiotis V. Benos; Giuliano Gasperi; Charalambos Savakis

    cDNAs for alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isozymes were cloned and sequenced from two tephritid fruit flies, the medfly Ceratitis capitata and the olive fly Bactrocera oleae. Because of the high sequence divergence compared with the Drosophila sequences, the medfly cDNAs were cloned using sequence information from the purified proteins, and the olive fly cDNAs were cloned by functional complementation in yeast.

  19. Effects of High Boron Concentration and Scion-Rootstock Combination on Growth and Nutritional Status of Olive Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christos Chatzissavvidis; Ioannis Therios; Chrysovalantou Antonopoulou; Kortessa Dimassi

    2008-01-01

    Own rooted olive plants (Olea europaea L.) of the cvs. ‘Megaritiki’ (M), ‘Chondrolia Chalkidikis’ (C), ‘Amfissis’ (A), ‘Kalamon’, ‘Koroneiki’, ‘Agiou Orous’, and wild olives, as well as the scion x rootstock combinations CxC, MxC, MxM, AxM, CxM, AxA, and CxA were irrigated with a nutrient solution containing 10 mg boron (B)\\/L for two months. In all the own rooted plants

  20. Are indigenous strains of Trichogramma sp. (Hym., Trichogrammatidae) better candidates for biological control of lepidopterous pests of the olive tree?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Herz; Sherif A. Hassan

    2006-01-01

    Strains of the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma, indigenous in olive groves in the Mediterranean region (T. bourarachae Pintureau & Babault, T. cacoeciae Marchal, T. cordubensis Vargas & Cabello, T. euproctidis Girault, T. nerudai Pintureau & Gerding, T. oleae Voegelé & Pointel) as well as commercially available strains (T. brassicae Bezdenko, T. cacoeciae, T. evanescens Westwood), were assessed in laboratory and semi-field

  1. Olive Fruit Fly, an Invasive Species in California, Mitigation by Cultural and Biological Control Based on Pest Biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly (OLF), Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), was first detected in California in 1998. Adults can live for 7 months and lay eggs at 12 d-old with a peak at 20 d. The larvae complete development in fruit 1cm in height. Hot and dry conditions can cause complete mortality of the immatures. Non-har...

  2. Influence of carbon source and concentration on the in vitro development of olive zygotic embryos and explants raised from them

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. García; J. Troncoso; R. Sarmiento; A. Troncoso

    2002-01-01

    The influence of sucrose or mannitol on in vitro zygotic embryo germination, seedling development and explant propagation of olive tree (Olea europaea L.) was compared. Embryos germinated without sucrose in the medium but for adequate development of the seedlings to yield viable plants, a carbohydrate supply was necessary; both sucrose and mannitol were equally suitable for this purpose. However, when

  3. Come fare carriera in Europa PRESSO L'UNIONE EUROPEA

    E-print Network

    Romeo, Alessandro

    Come fare carriera in Europa TIROCINI PRESSO L'UNIONE EUROPEA E ALTRE ORGANIZZAZIONI INTERNAZIONALI;INDICE TIROCINI PRESSO LE ISTITUZIONI E GLI ORGANI DELL'UNIONE EUROPEA...........................................................................................................10 TIROCINI PRESSO LA CORTE DI GIUSTIZIA DELL'UNIONE EUROPEA

  4. Genetic similarity among Tunisian olive cultivars and two unknown feral olive trees estimated through SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ayed, Rayda; Sans-Grout, Cinderella; Moreau, Fabienne; Grati-Kamoun, Naziha; Rebai, Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    We used eight informative microsatellite markers for fingerprinting and evaluation of genetic similarity among 15 Tunisian olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars and two feral unknown trees named Soulela 1 and Soulela 2. Thirty-one alleles were revealed, and the number of alleles per SSR varied from 2 (UDO12) to 6 (GAPU71A). Cluster analysis grouped cultivars into three main clusters. The two unknown varieties could not be reliably classified into any of these cultivar groups. SSR analysis indicated the presence of three erroneous denominations of cultivars. We resolved two synonymy cases (Zalmati and Chemlali; Rkhami and Chetoui) and one case of homonymy (Chemlali Tataouine). Genetic analyses of DNA extracted from leaves, oils, and embryos of the two unknown cultivars and the two major Tunisian olive cultivars (Chemlali and Chetoui) were also studied. We conclude that the reliable identification of these two feral cultivars needs to be addressed by a larger set of markers. PMID:24535154

  5. Olive trees protected from the olive bark beetle, Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Bernard 1788) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) with a pyrethroid insecticide: Effect on the insect community of the olive grove.

    PubMed

    Ruano, Francisca; Campos, Mercedes; Sánchez-Raya, A Juan; Peña, Aránzazu

    2010-06-01

    Field studies were performed in two successive years, 2005 and 2006, in different olive groves of the province of Granada (South-eastern Spain) by spraying olive trees (Olea europaea) with a pyrethroid insecticide, deltamethrin, for the control of the olive bark beetle Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Bernard 1788) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae). Three olive groves received each year three treatments in June consisting of water (control) and two insecticide doses, which were halved the second year. From June to September six olives trees per site were inspected every 15d for feeding galleries in olive branches; the arthropods, collected in traps placed below the olive trees (three traps per site), were identified and counted. Results show that feeding galleries were significantly reduced, what proves that the pyrethroid insecticide efficiently protected the olive trees from the olive bark beetle with a single application and even at the lower dose employed in 2006. Some repellent effect may occur as deduced from the number of P. scarabaeoides individuals captured. Other individuals from the insect community were also affected to a great extent by insecticide application, though no statistical differences were found among the treatments due to the high variability in insect captures. Among the parasitoids, Scelionidae, Encyrtidae, Eurytomidae and Pteromalidae were captured in great numbers. Mirids were the predators whose numbers drastically increased in traps placed under the treated trees, while spiders and ants were less affected. A knock-down effect was noticed for some insect groups, for instance mirids and Euphyllura olivina. Approximately 80% of their captures corresponded to the first date of sampling after insecticide application. PMID:20413141

  6. Phenotypic comparisons between wild relatives and cultivars of kiwifruit, persimmon, mulberry, and olive at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Davis, CA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotypic traits were characterized for 23 wild species and 4 cultivars of 4 clonal fruit crops including, Kiwifruit (Actinidia), Persimmon (Diospyros), Mulberry (Morus) and Olive (Olea). Across all four crops, the wild species varied distinctly, especially when compared with the cultivars. The wil...

  7. Microsatellite Analysis of Olive Fly Populations in the Mediterranean Indicates a Westward Expansion of the Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Augustinos; Z. Mamuris; E. E. Stratikopoulos; S. D’Amelio; A. Zacharopoulou; K. D. Mathiopoulos

    2005-01-01

    Bactrocera oleae is the major insect pest of the olive fruit. Twelve microsatellite loci isolated from the genome of this insect were used in a Mediterranean-wide population analysis. These loci were highly polymorphic with a mean number of alleles per locus of 10.42 and a mean effective number of alleles of 2.76. The analysis was performed on a sample of

  8. Tree Irrigation Levels for Optimum Chemical and Sensory Properties of Olive Oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria J. Berenguer; Paul M. Vossen; Stephen R. Grattan; Joseph H. Connell; Vito S. Polito

    A comparative study was conducted to evaluate the infl uence of seven different levels of irrigation applied to 'Arbequina I-18' olive (Olea europaea L.) trees grown in a super-high-density orchard (1,656 trees\\/ha) in the Sacramento Valley of California. Wa- ter was applied differentially by drip irrigation at rates of 15%, 25%, 40%, 57%, 71%, 89%, and 107% evapotranspiration (ETc) in

  9. Effects of the olive tree leaf constituents on myocardial oxidative damage and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Efentakis, Panagiotis; Iliodromitis, Efstathios K; Mikros, Emmanuel; Papachristodoulou, Anastasia; Dagres, Nikolaos; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Andreadou, Ioanna

    2015-06-01

    The olive (Olea europaea) leaf is considered an important traditional herbal medicine utilized against infectious diseases, and for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension. Moreover, olive leaf constituents have been related to cardioprotection, probably due to their association with cellular redox modulating effects. The pathogenesis of certain common diseases, including those of the cardiovascular system, involves oxidative stress and tissue inflammation. Olive polyphenolic compounds, such as oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, or tyrosol, possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiatherosclerotic, anti-ischemic, and hypolipidemic effects on the myocardium as demonstrated by various in vitro and in vivo studies. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge on the role of the olive leaf constituents in the prevention of cardiac dysfunction and highlight future perspectives in their use as cardioprotective agents in therapeutics. PMID:26018920

  10. SNP Discovery by Illumina-Based Transcriptome Sequencing of the Olive and the Genetic Characterization of Turkish Olive Genotypes Revealed by AFLP, SSR and SNP Markers

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Hilal Betul; Cetin, Oznur; Kaya, Hulya; Sahin, Mustafa; Sefer, Filiz; Kahraman, Abdullah; Tanyolac, Bahattin

    2013-01-01

    Background The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is a diploid (2n?=?2x?=?46) outcrossing species mainly grown in the Mediterranean area, where it is the most important oil-producing crop. Because of its economic, cultural and ecological importance, various DNA markers have been used in the olive to characterize and elucidate homonyms, synonyms and unknown accessions. However, a comprehensive characterization and a full sequence of its transcriptome are unavailable, leading to the importance of an efficient large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery in olive. The objectives of this study were (1) to discover olive SNPs using next-generation sequencing and to identify SNP primers for cultivar identification and (2) to characterize 96 olive genotypes originating from different regions of Turkey. Methodology/Principal Findings Next-generation sequencing technology was used with five distinct olive genotypes and generated cDNA, producing 126,542,413 reads using an Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx. Following quality and size trimming, the high-quality reads were assembled into 22,052 contigs with an average length of 1,321 bases and 45 singletons. The SNPs were filtered and 2,987 high-quality putative SNP primers were identified. The assembled sequences and singletons were subjected to BLAST similarity searches and annotated with a Gene Ontology identifier. To identify the 96 olive genotypes, these SNP primers were applied to the genotypes in combination with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers. Conclusions/Significance This study marks the highest number of SNP markers discovered to date from olive genotypes using transcriptome sequencing. The developed SNP markers will provide a useful source for molecular genetic studies, such as genetic diversity and characterization, high density quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, association mapping and map-based gene cloning in the olive. High levels of genetic variation among Turkish olive genotypes revealed by SNPs, AFLPs and SSRs allowed us to characterize the Turkish olive genotype. PMID:24058483

  11. High Genetic Diversity Detected in Olives beyond the Boundaries of the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh-Hassani, Massoma; Ataei, Saeedeh; Cultrera, Nicolò G. M.; Pandolfi, Saverio; Baldoni, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Background Olive trees (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. europaea) naturally grow in areas spanning the Mediterranean basin and towards the East, including the Middle East. In the Iranian plateau, the presence of olives has been documented since very ancient times, though the early history of the crop in this area is shrouded in uncertainty. Methods The varieties presently cultivated in Iran and trees of an unknown cultivation status, surviving under extreme climate and soil conditions, were sampled from different provinces and compared with a set of Mediterranean cultivars. All samples were analyzed using SSR and chloroplast markers to establish the relationships between Iranian olives and Mediterranean varieties, to shed light on the origins of Iranian olives and to verify their contribution to the development of the current global olive variation. Results Iranian cultivars and ecotypes, when analyzed using SSR markers, clustered separately from Mediterranean cultivars and showed a high number of private alleles, on the contrary, they shared the same single chlorotype with the most widespread varieties cultivated in the Mediterranean. Conclusion We hypothesized that Iranian and Mediterranean olive trees may have had a common origin from a unique center in the Near East region, possibly including the western Iranian area. The present pattern of variation may have derived from different environmental conditions, distinct levels and selection criteria, and divergent breeding opportunities found by Mediterranean and Iranian olives.These unexpected findings emphasize the importance of studying the Iranian olive germplasm as a promising but endangered source of variation. PMID:24709858

  12. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by Releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, Parasitoid Longevity in Presence of the Host, and Host Status of Walnut Husk Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin),...

  13. Probabilities for survival of glassy-winged sharpshooter and olive fruit fly pests in urban yard waste piles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Crohn; Ben Faber; A. James Downer; Oleg Daugovish

    2008-01-01

    Glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homolodisca coagulate) and olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) were introduced into unturned, chipped yard waste piles to evaluate their survival with time and depth within the piles. In all three trials, no pests lasted more than 14d, and in no trial did pests survive more than 4d at the 30 and 100cm depths. No survivors were found after

  14. Olive phenolic compounds: metabolic and transcriptional profiling during fruit development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits contain numerous secondary metabolites, primarily phenolics, terpenes and sterols, some of which are particularly interesting for their nutraceutical properties. This study will attempt to provide further insight into the profile of olive phenolic compounds during fruit development and to identify the major genetic determinants of phenolic metabolism. Results The concentration of the major phenolic compounds, such as oleuropein, demethyloleuropein, 3–4 DHPEA-EDA, ligstroside, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside and lignans, were measured in the developing fruits of 12 olive cultivars. The content of these compounds varied significantly among the cultivars and decreased during fruit development and maturation, with some compounds showing specificity for certain cultivars. Thirty-five olive transcripts homologous to genes involved in the pathways of the main secondary metabolites were identified from the massive sequencing data of the olive fruit transcriptome or from cDNA-AFLP analysis. Their mRNA levels were determined using RT-qPCR analysis on fruits of high- and low-phenolic varieties (Coratina and Dolce d’Andria, respectively) during three different fruit developmental stages. A strong correlation was observed between phenolic compound concentrations and transcripts putatively involved in their biosynthesis, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of the corresponding pathways. OeDXS, OeGES, OeGE10H and OeADH, encoding putative 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-P synthase, geraniol synthase, geraniol 10-hydroxylase and arogenate dehydrogenase, respectively, were almost exclusively present at 45 days after flowering (DAF), suggesting that these compounds might play a key role in regulating secoiridoid accumulation during fruit development. Conclusions Metabolic and transcriptional profiling led to the identification of some major players putatively involved in biosynthesis of secondary compounds in the olive tree. Our data represent the first step towards the functional characterisation of important genes for the determination of olive fruit quality. PMID:22963618

  15. Fine-scale ecological and economic assessment of climate change on olive in the Mediterranean Basin reveals winners and losers

    PubMed Central

    Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Ruti, Paolo Michele; Dell’Aquila, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean Basin is a climate and biodiversity hot spot, and climate change threatens agro-ecosystems such as olive, an ancient drought-tolerant crop of considerable ecological and socioeconomic importance. Climate change will impact the interactions of olive and the obligate olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae), and alter the economics of olive culture across the Basin. We estimate the effects of climate change on the dynamics and interaction of olive and the fly using physiologically based demographic models in a geographic information system context as driven by daily climate change scenario weather. A regional climate model that includes fine-scale representation of the effects of topography and the influence of the Mediterranean Sea on regional climate was used to scale the global climate data. The system model for olive/olive fly was used as the production function in our economic analysis, replacing the commonly used production-damage control function. Climate warming will affect olive yield and fly infestation levels across the Basin, resulting in economic winners and losers at the local and regional scales. At the local scale, profitability of small olive farms in many marginal areas of Europe and elsewhere in the Basin will decrease, leading to increased abandonment. These marginal farms are critical to conserving soil, maintaining biodiversity, and reducing fire risk in these areas. Our fine-scale bioeconomic approach provides a realistic prototype for assessing climate change impacts in other Mediterranean agro-ecosystems facing extant and new invasive pests. PMID:24706833

  16. Expression analysis identifies FAD2-2 as the olive oleate desaturase gene mainly responsible for the linoleic acid content in virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Hernández, M Luisa; Padilla, María N; Mancha, Manuel; Martínez-Rivas, José M

    2009-07-22

    The effect of ripening stage and water regimen on oleate desaturase gene expression levels in the fruit of different olive ( Olea europaea L.) varieties was investigated to elucidate the contribution of each to the linoleic acid content in virgin olive oil. To this end, fatty acid analysis and quantitative real time PCR were performed using distinct olive tissues and different developmental stages from the Picual and Arbequina cultivars. The results showed that the olive FAD2-1, FAD2-2, and FAD6 genes were spatial and temporally regulated. In addition, the data indicated that FAD2-2 seems to be the main gene responsible for the linoleic acid content in the olive fruit mesocarp tissue. This conclusion was also confirmed when the study was extended to Hojiblanca, Picudo, and Manzanilla varieties. With regard to the water regimen, unlike the Picual cultivar, a small increase of linoleic acid was observed in the Arbequina variety cultivated with irrigation, which correlated well with the increase detected for the FAD2-2 gene expression level. All of these data strongly suggest that FAD2-2 is the main gene that determines the linoleic acid content in the virgin olive oil. PMID:19601663

  17. IgG4 levels in relation to Olea europaea immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Guerra, F; Moreno, C; Daza, J C; García, M; Arenas, A; Miguel, R; Sánchez Guijo, P

    1992-01-01

    We determined olive pollen-specific IgG4 levels in 100 patients, 39 of whom had been subjected to no immunotherapy (IT) for Olea (31 allergic and 8 nonallergic individuals) and 61 of whom had been administered IT as extracts, including Olea pollen (29 extracts in BUs, 24 allergenic extracts polymerized with glutaraldehyde:Allergoid and 8 extracts standardized in PNUs). IgG4 levels were correlated to the clinical picture, type of extract and average cumulative dose (ACD). We found average IgG4 levels of 0.80 +/- 0.74, 8.60 +/- 13.07 (p < 0.01) and 1.42 +/- 2.5 micrograms/ml (n.s.) for the untreated group and those treated with BU and Allergoid, respectively. The difference between the IT-BU-treated and IT-Allergoid-treated patients was significant at p < 0.01. On the other hand, we found no significant differences among the average IgG4 levels of the three groups in relation to age or sex. The group of asthmatic patients treated with BU extracts had average IgG4 levels of 16 +/- 17.34 micrograms/ml, while those of the rhinoconjunctivitic, non-asthmatic group were 5.05 +/- 6.149 micrograms/ml, with p < 0.05 (Student's "t" test). Thus, patients treated with extracts polymerized with glutaraldehyde had IgG4 levels that were similar to those of the patients subjected to no IT. Also, the group treated with IT extracts standardized in BUs had increased IgG4 levels that were correlated with the cumulative dose, particularly in asthmatic patients. PMID:1342914

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of genes encoding two microsomal oleate desaturases ( FAD2) from olive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Luisa Hernández; Manuel Mancha; José M. Martínez-Rivas

    2005-01-01

    Two different cDNA sequences, designated OepFAD2-1 and OepFAD2-2, encoding two microsomal oleate desaturases (FAD2) have been isolated from olive (Olea europaea cv. Picual) using a PCR approach. Both deduced amino acid sequences showed the three histidine boxes characteristic of all membrane-bound desaturases, and possess a C-terminal endoplasmic reticulum retention signal. Phylogenetic analysis shows that OepFAD2-1 and OepFAD2-2 are grouped with

  19. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Two Olive Cultivars in Response to NaCl-Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bazakos, Christos; Manioudaki, Maria E.; Therios, Ioannis; Voyiatzis, Demetrios; Kafetzopoulos, Dimitris; Awada, Tala; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    Background Olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivation is rapidly expanding and low quality saline water is often used for irrigation. The molecular basis of salt tolerance in olive, though, has not yet been investigated at a system level. In this study a comparative transcriptomics approach was used as a tool to unravel gene regulatory networks underlying salinity response in olive trees by simulating as much as possible olive growing conditions in the field. Specifically, we investigated the genotype-dependent differences in the transcriptome response of two olive cultivars, a salt-tolerant and a salt-sensitive one. Methodology/Principal Findings A 135-day long salinity experiment was conducted using one-year old trees exposed to NaCl stress for 90 days followed by 45 days of post-stress period during the summer. A cDNA library made of olive seedling mRNAs was sequenced and an olive microarray was constructed. Total RNA was extracted from root samples after 15, 45 and 90 days of NaCl-treatment as well as after 15 and 45 days of post-treatment period and used for microarray hybridizations. SAM analysis between the NaCl-stress and the post-stress time course resulted in the identification of 209 and 36 differentially expressed transcripts in the salt–tolerant and salt–sensitive cultivar, respectively. Hierarchical clustering revealed two major, distinct clusters for each cultivar. Despite the limited number of probe sets, transcriptional regulatory networks were constructed for both cultivars while several hierarchically-clustered interacting transcription factor regulators such as JERF and bZIP homologues were identified. Conclusions/Significance A systems biology approach was used and differentially expressed transcripts as well as regulatory interactions were identified. The comparison of the interactions among transcription factors in olive with those reported for Arabidopsis might indicate similarities in the response of a tree species with Arabidopsis at the transcriptional level under salinity stress. PMID:22952621

  20. Is Ground Cover Vegetation an Effective Biological Control Enhancement Strategy against Olive Pests?

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Daniel; Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M.; Campos, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Ground cover vegetation is often added or allowed to generate to promote conservation biological control, especially in perennial crops. Nevertheless, there is inconsistent evidence of its effectiveness, with studies reporting positive, nil or negative effects on pest control. This might arise from differences between studies at the local scale (e.g. orchard management and land use history), the landscape context (e.g. presence of patches of natural or semi-natural vegetation near the focal orchard), or regional factors, particularly climate in the year of the study. Here we present the findings from a long-term regional monitoring program conducted on four pest species (Bactrocera oleae, Prays oleae, Euphyllura olivina, Saissetia oleae) in 2,528 olive groves in Andalusia (Spain) from 2006 to 2012. Generalized linear mixed effect models were used to analyze the effect of ground cover on different response variables related to pest abundance, while accounting for variability at the local, landscape and regional scales. There were small and inconsistent effects of ground cover on the abundance of pests whilst local, landscape and regional variability explained a large proportion of the variability in pest response variables. This highlights the importance of local and landscape-related variables in biological control and the potential effects that might emerge from their interaction with practices, such as groundcover vegetation, implemented to promote natural enemy activity. The study points to perennial vegetation close to the focal crop as a promising alternative strategy for conservation biological control that should receive more attention. PMID:25646778

  1. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Nociceptive Effects of Defatted Fruit Extract of Olea europaea

    PubMed Central

    Sahranavard, Shamim; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Faizi, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Fruits of Olea europaea L. have been used for centuries in folk medicine to treat many inflammatory diseases. In order to evaluate the anti-nociceptive activities of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of defatted fruits of O. europaea, formalin test was used and for evaluation of anti-inflammatory effects of the extract, the volume of paw edema was measured. The results revealed that both extracts did not exhibit significant analgesic activity in the first phase of formalin test, whereas methanolic extract at the 600 mg/Kg dose and aqueous extract at the 450 and 600 mg/Kg doses could inhibit induced pain in the second phase of formalin test. Furthermore, the results of paw edema volume measurement indicated that the aqueous extract has anti-inflammatory effects at dose of 600 mg/Kg. Induced anti-nociception by aqueous olive extract was not reversed by naloxone, which indicates that the opioid receptors are not involved in the analgesic effects of the extracts. The present data pointed out that the extracts of olive defatted fruit have anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in rats but further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism(s) of action and active components which are involved in analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:24711837

  2. Inhibition of acid corrosion of carbon steel using aqueous extract of olive leaves.

    PubMed

    El-Etre, A Y

    2007-10-15

    The inhibitive action of the aqueous extract of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves toward the corrosion of C-steel in 2 M HCl solution was investigated using weight loss measurements, Tafel polarization, and cyclic voltammetry. It was found that the extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for the tested system. The inhibition efficiency increases with increasing extract concentration. The inhibitive action of the extract is discussed with a view to adsorption of its components onto the steel surface, making a barrier to mass and charge transfer. The adsorption of extract components onto the steel surface was found to be a spontaneous process and to follow the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. It was found also that such adsorption increases the activation energy of the corrosion process. The results of cyclic voltammetry showed that the presence of olive extract decreases the charge density in the transpassive region. The inhibition efficiency is greatly reduced as the temperature is increased. PMID:17628584

  3. Candida olivae sp. nov., a novel yeast species from 'Greek-style' black olive fermentation.

    PubMed

    Nisiotou, Aspasia A; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Nychas, George-John E

    2010-05-01

    Two yeast strains (FMCC Y-1(T) and FMCC Y-2) were recovered during a survey of the yeast biota associated with fermenting black olives, collected from an olive tree (Olea europaea L. cv. 'Conservolea') orchard in Central Greece. Phylogenetic analysis based on rRNA gene sequences (18S, 26S, and 5.8S-ITS) indicated that the two strains represent a separate species within the Candida membranifaciens clade, in close relation to Candida blattariae NRRL Y-27703(T). Electrophoretic karyotyping and physiological analysis support the affiliation of the two strains to a novel species as Candida olivae sp. nov. The novel strains are conspecific with two Candida sp. strains previously isolated from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal fields [Gadanho & Sampaio (2005). Microb Ecol 50, 408-417], indicating that Candida olivae sp. nov. may occupy diverse ecological niches. FMCC Y-1(T) (=CBS 11171(T) =ATCC MYA-4568(T)) is the type strain. PMID:19666810

  4. Evaluation of the effect on arthropod populations by using deltamethrin to control Phloeotribus scarabaeoides Bern. (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in olive orchards.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Estefanía; Peña, Aránzazu; Sánchez Raya, Aniceto J; Campos, Mercedes

    2003-07-01

    Field tests were made for the control of an olive insect pest, the olive bark beetle, Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Col: Scolytidae), using the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin (D) and this insecticide combined with ethylene (D+E), an attractant of the olive bark beetle. The tests were run in olive orchards in the provinces of Granada and Jaén (Andalusia, southern Spain), treating several olive rows so as to create a barrier effect to control the pest attack. The main objective was to evaluate the arthropod fauna affected by these treatments. The different taxa captured have been separated in three different trophic groups: parasitoids, predators and phytophagous. A knock-down effect was found during the first dates in all the functional groups in all cases. The results showed the following trend in arthropod abundance: D+E>D>C. This trend was significant (p<0.05) for predators and phytophagous insects in both zones. The parasitoids of Prays oleae (Lep.: Plutellidae), a major olive pest, were most affected by the treatments, together with several groups of predators such as ants, cantharids, coccinellids and mirids. Data from the captures show the need to determine the optimum time for insecticide application in order to minimise its effect on beneficial insect populations. PMID:12729695

  5. Occurrence of C15-C45 mineral paraffins in olives and olive oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Moret; T. Populin; L. S. Conte; K. Grob; H.-P. Neukom

    2003-01-01

    Different classes of olive oils and other olive samples (olives, olive paste and olive pomace) collected during their production were analysed for mineral paraffins in the range of C15–C45. None of the 22 extra virgin olive oils contained mineral paraffins above the detection limit of 1 mg kg. Also, lampante virgin olive oil from the olive mill showed no detectable

  6. Olive cultivar origin is a major cause of polymorphism for Ole e 1 pollen allergen

    PubMed Central

    Hamman-Khalifa, AbdelMounim; Castro, Antonio Jesús; Jiménez-López, José Carlos; Rodríguez-García, María Isabel; Alché, Juan de Dios

    2008-01-01

    Background Pollens from different olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars have been shown to differ significantly in their content in Ole e 1 and in their overall allergenicity. This allergen is, in addition, characterized by a high degree of polymorphism in its sequence. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the putative presence of divergences in Ole e 1 sequences from different olive cultivars. Results RNA from pollen individually collected from 10 olive cultivars was used to amplify Ole e 1 sequences by RT-PCR, and the sequences were analyzed by using different bioinformatics tools. Numerous nucleotide substitutions were detected throughout the sequences, many of which resulted in amino acid substitutions in the deduced protein sequences. In most cases variability within a single variety was much lower than among varieties. Key amino acid changes in comparison with "canonical" sequences previously described in the literature included: a) the substitution of C19-relevant to the disulphide bond structure of the protein-, b) the presence of an additional N-glycosylation motif, and c) point substitutions affecting regions of Ole e 1 already described like relevant for the immunogenicity/allergenicity of the protein. Conclusion Varietal origin of olive pollen is a major factor determining the diversity of Ole e 1 variants. We consider this information of capital importance for the optimal design of efficient and safe allergen formulations, and useful for the genetic engineering of modified forms of the allergen among other applications. PMID:18218146

  7. Identification of olive pollen allergens using a fluorescence-based 2D multiplex method.

    PubMed

    Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Alché, Juan de Dios; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Tormo, Alejandro; Castro, Antonio Jesús

    2015-04-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) pollen is a major health concern in the Mediterranean countries and some olive growing regions in America and Australia. The molecular variability of pollen allergens constitutes a handicap for commercial extract standardization, which is the base of current diagnosis and vaccination procedures. In this paper, we report a time-saving and plant material saving multiplex detection method for the rapid and simultaneous analysis of Ole e 1, Ole e 2, and Ole e 5 allergen polymorphism on a single blot. This method combines high-resolution 2DE techniques with high-sensitive fluorescence-based detection methods. Using this strategy, we were capable to identify a higher number of allergen forms compared with classical 1D approach. The use of fluorescent probes and the increased resolution of 2D blots avoided overlapping effects, and allow estimating the amount of individual allergen forms. In addition, the pattern and identity of the IgE-reactive proteins of either a population or individual patients allergic to olive pollen was also effortlessly determined in a single additional step. This flexible method might be extended to a higher number of olive allergens and cultivars, and is also applicable to other allergogenic plant species and sources. PMID:25640071

  8. Food Allergy due to Olive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Ünsel; R Ersoy; A Kokuludag

    ? Abstract We report the case of a 28-year-old man who presented palatal itching and genaralized urticaria following ingestion of olive 3 years after being diagnosed with olive pollinosis. The patient did not have a history of food allergy or urticaria. The results of skin prick tests with aeroallergens including latex were positive for house dust mite and olive pollen.

  9. Cold perception and gene expression differ in Olea europaea seed coat and embryo during drupe cold acclimation.

    PubMed

    D'Angeli, S; Falasca, G; Matteucci, M; Altamura, M M

    2013-01-01

    FAD2 and FAD7 desaturases are involved in cold acclimation of olive (Olea europaea) mesocarp. There is no research information available on cold acclimation of seeds during mesocarp cold acclimation or on differences in the cold response of the seed coat and embryo. How FAD2 and FAD7 affect seed coat and embryo cold responses is unknown. Osmotin positively affects cold acclimation in olive tree vegetative organs, but its role in the seeds requires investigation. OeFAD2.1, OeFAD2.2, OeFAD7 and Oeosmotin were investigated before and after mesocarp acclimation by transcriptomic, lipidomic and immunolabelling analyses, and cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](cyt)) signalling, F-actin changes and seed development were investigated by epifluorescence/histological analyses. Transient [Ca(2+)](cyt) rises and F-actin disassembly were found in cold-shocked protoplasts from the seed coat, but not from the embryo. The thickness of the outer endosperm cuticle increased during drupe exposure to lowering of temperature, whereas the embryo protoderm always lacked cuticle. OeFAD2 transcription increased in both the embryo and seed coat in the cold-acclimated drupe, but linoleic acid (i.e. the product of FAD2 activity) increased solely in the seed coat. Osmotin was immunodetected in the seed coat and endosperm of the cold-acclimated drupe, and not in the embryo. The results show cold responsiveness in the seed coat and cold tolerance in the embryo. We propose a role for the seed coat in maintaining embryo cold tolerance by increasing endosperm cutinization through FAD2 and osmotin activities. PMID:23078289

  10. The olive knot disease as a model to study the role of interspecies bacterial communities in plant disease

    PubMed Central

    Buonaurio, Roberto; Moretti, Chiaraluce; da Silva, Daniel Passos; Cortese, Chiara; Ramos, Cayo; Venturi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in studying interspecies bacterial interactions in diseases of animals and plants as it is believed that the great majority of bacteria found in nature live in complex communities. Plant pathologists have thus far mainly focused on studies involving single species or on their interactions with antagonistic competitors. A bacterial disease used as model to study multispecies interactions is the olive knot disease, caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi (Psv). Knots caused by Psv in branches and other aerial parts of the olive trees are an ideal niche not only for the pathogen but also for many other plant-associated bacterial species, mainly belonging to the genera Pantoea, Pectobacterium, Erwinia, and Curtobacterium. The non-pathogenic bacterial species Erwinia toletana, Pantoea agglomerans, and Erwinia oleae, which are frequently isolated inside the olive knots, cooperate with Psv in modulating the disease severity. Co-inoculations of these species with Psv result in bigger knots and better bacterial colonization when compared to single inoculations. Moreover, harmless bacteria co-localize with the pathogen inside the knots, indicating the formation of stable bacterial consortia that may facilitate the exchange of quorum sensing signals and metabolites. Here we discuss the possible role of bacterial communities in the establishment and development of olive knot disease, which we believe could be taking place in many other bacterial plant diseases.

  11. Microsatellite analysis of olive fly populations in the Mediterranean indicates a westward expansion of the species.

    PubMed

    Augustinos, A A; Mamuris, Z; Stratikopoulos, E E; D'Amelio, S; Zacharopoulou, A; Mathiopoulos, K D

    2005-11-01

    Bactrocera oleae is the major insect pest of the olive fruit. Twelve microsatellite loci isolated from the genome of this insect were used in a Mediterranean-wide population analysis. These loci were highly polymorphic with a mean number of alleles per locus of 10.42 and a mean effective number of alleles of 2.76. The analysis was performed on a sample of 671 flies collected from nineteen locations around the European part of the Mediterranean basin. Despite the high level of gene flow across the Mediterranean, results support the notion of a differentiation of three subpopulations: one of the Iberian Peninsula, one of Greece and Italy and one of Cyprus. In addition, the gradual decrease of heterozygosity from the Eastern to the Western part of the Mediterranean indicates a westward expansion of the species. PMID:16247695

  12. Infraestrut. Financiamiento publico procedente da Unin Europea X X

    E-print Network

    Fraguela, Basilio B.

    I+D+i Docencia Relac.Soc. Xestión Infraestrut. Financiamiento publico procedente da Unión Europea X X Aposta dos poderes públicos polo investimento en I+D+i X X Estabilidade do financiamento público autonómico para o período 2005-10 X X X X Demanda tecnolóxica por parte do sector empresarial próximo X X X X

  13. The Douglas Oliver Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    This remarkable collection from the University of Hawaii Library's Pacific Collection brings together over 960 images taken by Professor Douglas Oliver. In the late 1930s, Professor Oliver conducted research on Bougainville in the Solomon Islands. Visitors can browse through his images by title, category, place, collection, or reference number. Some of the images include rare photographs of nuptials and other events or ceremonies that marked key events in the community. Many of the images include portraits of men in profile, along with scenes of family life. The site also contains a glossary of terms, which details everything from place names (like "Aku") to "Upi," the wearing of tall conical hats known as upes.

  14. Measuring and modelling interception loss by an isolated olive tree in a traditional olive grove - pasture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nóbrega, Cristina; Pereira, Fernando L.; Valente, Fernanda

    2015-04-01

    Water losses associated to the rainfall interception process by trees can be an important component of the local hydrologic balance and must be accounted for when implementing any sustainable water management programme. In many dry areas of the Mediterranean region where agro-forestry systems are common, those programmes are crucial to foster adequate water conservation measures. Recent studies have shown that the evaluation of interception loss in sparse forests or tree plantations should be made for individual trees, being the total value determined as the sum of the individual contributions. Following this approach, rainfall interception was measured and modelled over two years, in an isolated Olea europeaea L. tree, in a traditional low-density olive grove in Castelo Branco, central Portugal. Total interception loss over the experimental period was 243.5 mm, on a tree crown projected area basis, corresponding to 18.0% of gross rainfall (Pg). Modelling made for each rainfall event using the sparse version of the Gash model, slightly underestimated interception loss with a value of 240.5 mm, i.e., 17.8 % ofPg. Modelling quality, evaluated according to a number of criteria, was good, allowing the conclusion that the methodology used was adequate. Modelling was also made on a daily basis, i.e., assuming a single storm per rainday. In this case, interception loss was overestimated by 12%, mostly because 72% of all rainfall events lasted for more than a day.

  15. Triterpenic acids in table olives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Concepción Romero; Aranzazu García; Eduardo Medina; Antonio de Castro; Manuel Brenes

    2010-01-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out for the first time on the triterpenic acids in table olives. Maslinic acid was found in a higher concentration than oleanolic acid in the flesh of 17, unprocessed olive varieties, with the Picual and the Manzanilla varieties showing the highest and almost the lowest contents, respectively. The level of triterpenic acids in several types

  16. High Genetic Diversity and Clonal Growth in Relict Populations of Olea europaea subsp. laperrinei (Oleaceae) from Hoggar, Algeria

    PubMed Central

    BAALI-CHERIF, DJAMEL; BESNARD, GUILLAUME

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The Laperrine's olive (Olea europaea subsp. laperrinei) is an endemic tree from Saharan massifs. Its populations have substantially regressed since the Pleistocene and are presently distributed in a fragmented habitat. Long-term persistence of this taxon is uncertain and programmes of preservation have to be urgently implemented. To define a conservation strategy, the genetic diversity and breeding system of this tree have to be investigated. • Methods One hundred and eleven ramets were prospected in the laperrinei populations from the Tamanrasset region, southern Algeria. Genetic polymorphism was revealed at nuclear and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) microsatellite loci allowing a comparative assessment of the genetic diversity of laperrinei and Mediterranean populations based on bi-parental and maternal markers. Additionally, nuclear microsatellite markers enabled the genotypes to be identified unambiguously. • Key Results Based on nuclear microsatellite data, the total diversity was high (Ht = 0·61) in laperrinei populations and similar to that observed in western Mediterranean populations. A substantial cpDNA diversity (Ht = 0·19) was also observed. Genetically identical ramets originated from the same stump (which can cover >80?m2) were identified in each population. Sixteen per cent of genets exhibited more than one ramet. In addition, several cases of somatic mutations were unambiguously revealed in distinct ramets stemming from the same stump. • Conclusions These data show that highly isolated and small laperrinei populations are able to maintain a high genetic diversity. This supports the existence of relict trees persisting for a very long time (probably since the last humid transition, 3000 years ago). It is proposed that the very long persistence associated with an asexual multiplication of highly adapted trees could be a strategy of survival in extreme conditions avoiding a mutational meltdown due to reproduction in reduced populations. PMID:16043438

  17. La cittadinanza dell'Unione europea e il federalismo fiscale Relazione tenuta dal prof. Ruggiero Cafari Panico

    E-print Network

    Romeo, Alessandro

    La cittadinanza dell'Unione europea e il federalismo fiscale Relazione tenuta dal prof. Ruggiero Cafari Panico al convegno "Identità europea e cittadinanza dell'Unione" (Verona 7 novembre 2008) Sommario fra Corte costituzionale e Corte di giustizia - 5. La cittadinanza dell'Unione europea e le situazioni

  18. Irrigation effects on quality, phenolic composition, and selected volatiles of virgin olive oils cv. Leccino.

    PubMed

    Servili, Maurizio; Esposto, Sonia; Lodolini, Enrico; Selvaggini, Roberto; Taticchi, Agnese; Urbani, Stefania; Montedoro, Gianfrancesco; Serravalle, Matteo; Gucci, Riccardo

    2007-08-01

    Field-grown olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Leccino) were used over two growing seasons to determine the effect of deficit irrigation regimes on virgin olive oil (VOO) quality. Drip irrigation was managed to maintain a predawn leaf water potential (PLWP): (a) higher than -1.1 MPa (full irrigation: FI); (b) between -1.0 and -3.3 MPa (deficit irrigation: DI); (c) higher than -4.2 MPa (severe deficit irrigation: SI). The fruit yield and oil yield of DI trees were over 90% of those of FI treatments in both years, respectively, whereas yields of SI trees ranged from 61 to 76%. The irrigation regime had minor effects on the free acidity, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of VOO. The concentrations of phenols and o-diphenols in VOO were negatively correlated with PLWP. The concentrations of the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid linked to (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA), the isomer of the oleuropein aglycon (3,4-DHPEA-EA), and the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid linked to (p-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol (p-HPEA-EDA) were lower in FI than in SI treatments. The concentrations of lignans (+)-1-acetoxipinoresinol and (+)-1-pinoresinol were unaffected by the irrigation regime. The tree water status had a marked effect on the concentration of volatile compounds, such as the C(6)-saturated and unsaturated aldehydes, alcohols, and esters. PMID:17636938

  19. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...fairly uniform thickness prepared from pitted olives. (f) Chopped. “Chopped” olives are random-size cut pieces or cut bits prepared from pitted olives. (g) Broken pitted. “Broken pitted” olives consist substantially of large pieces...

  20. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...fairly uniform thickness prepared from pitted olives. (f) Chopped. “Chopped” olives are random-size cut pieces or cut bits prepared from pitted olives. (g) Broken pitted. “Broken pitted” olives consist substantially of large pieces...

  1. Isolation, molecular characterization and functional analysis of OeMT2, an olive metallothionein with a bioremediation potential.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Ekrem; Sonmez, Görkem Deniz; Unver, Turgay

    2015-02-01

    Metallothioneins are essential in plants for metal detoxification in addition to their other roles in plant life cycle. This study reports the characterization of an olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Ayvalik) metallothionein with respect to molecular and functional properties. A cDNA encoding a type 2 metallothionein from olive was isolated from a leaf cDNA library, characterized and named OeMT2 after its molecular and functional properties. OeMT2 was expressed in Escherichia coli, and a single protein band was confirmed by protein gel blot analysis. Metal tolerance ability of bacterial cells expressing OeMT2 was determined against 0.2 mM CdCl2, 0.4 mM CdCl2 and 1 mM CuSO4 in the growth medium. Metal ion contents of bacterial cells expressing OeMT2 were measured by ICP. Metal tolerance assays and ICP measurements suggested that OeMT2 effectively binds Cu and Cd. Molecular analysis of OeMT2 revealed two introns, three exons, a short 3' UTR and a long 5' UTR. Comparing the genomic sequences from 14 olive cultivars revealed OeMT2 had both intron and exon polymorphisms dividing the cultivars into three groups. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that OeMT2 expresses more or less the same amounts in all tissues of the olive tree examined. The genomic copy number of OeMT2 was also determined employing real-time PCR which suggested a single copy gene in the olive genome while three other MT2 members were determined from the draft olive genome sequences of Ayvalik cultivar and that of wild olive. This is the first report on molecular and functional characterization of an olive metallothionein and shows that OeMT2 expressed in E. coli has the capability of effectively binding toxic heavy metals. This may suggest that OeMT2 plays an important role in metal homeostasis in addition to a good potential for environmental and industrial usage. PMID:25204791

  2. Vulnerability to cavitation in Olea europaea current-year shoots: further evidence of an open-vessel artifact associated with centrifuge and air-injection techniques.

    PubMed

    Torres-Ruiz, José M; Cochard, Hervé; Mayr, Stefan; Beikircher, Barbara; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Celia M; Badel, Eric; Fernández, José Enrique

    2014-11-01

    Different methods have been devised to analyze vulnerability to cavitation of plants. Although a good agreement between them is usually found, some discrepancies have been reported when measuring samples from long-vesseled species. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible artifacts derived from different methods and sample sizes. Current-year shoot segments of mature olive trees (Olea europaea), a long-vesseled species, were used to generate vulnerability curves (VCs) by bench dehydration, pressure collar and both static- and flow-centrifuge methods. For the latter, two different rotors were used to test possible effects of the rotor design on the curves. Indeed, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images were used to evaluate the functional status of xylem at different water potentials. Measurements of native embolism were used to validate the methods used. The pressure collar and the two centrifugal methods showed greater vulnerability to cavitation than the dehydration method. The shift in vulnerability thresholds in centrifuge methods was more pronounced in shorter samples, supporting the open-vessel artifact hypothesis as a higher proportion of vessels were open in short samples. The two different rotor designs used for the flow-centrifuge method revealed similar vulnerability to cavitation. Only the bench dehydration or HRCT methods produced VCs that agreed with native levels of embolism and water potential values measured in the field. PMID:24611594

  3. Chloroformic and Methanolic Extracts of Olea europaea L. Leaves Present Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities

    PubMed Central

    Chebbi Mahjoub, R; Khemiss, M.; Dhidah, M.; Dellaï, A.; Bouraoui, A.; Khemiss, F.

    2011-01-01

    Olea europaea L. is used in traditional medicine in the Mediterranean areas. Its natural products are used in the treatment of different disorders, like fighting fever and some infectious diseases such as malaria, the treatment of arrhythmia, and relief of intestinal spasms. The aim of the current study is to investigate the possible anti-inflammatory and anatinociceptive effects of methanol and chloroformic extracts prepared from leaves of Olea europaea L. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of the different extracts of Olea europaea leaves were assessed after intraperitoneal administration into rats and mice, using the carrageenan-induced paw edema model in rats to test the anti-inflammatory effect and the acetic acid-induced writhing in mice to test the analgesic effect. The chloroformic and methanolic leaves extracts, studied at the doses of 50, 100, and 200?mg/kg (Body Weight: BW), exhibited significant dose-dependent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that Olea europaea leaves extracts have anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. PMID:22084717

  4. Airborne-pollen map for Olea europaea L. in eastern Andalusia (Spain) using GIS: Estimation models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Alba; D. Nieto-Lugilde; P. Comtois; C. Díaz de la Guardia; C. De Linares; L. Ruiz

    2006-01-01

    Estimations based upon geostatistics and mapping have enabled the construction of a spatial model to predict the presence of biological particles in a particular region. This methodological proposal has been tested in a case study, at a regional scale, of airborne Olea pollen, using the data acquired from?various sampling stations that are designed for the aerobiological monitoring of pollen levels.

  5. Production of highly purified hydroxytyrosol from Olea europaea leaf extract biotransformed by hyperthermophilic ?-glycosidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raffaella Briante; Maurizio Patumi; Ferdinando Febbraio; Roberto Nucci

    2004-01-01

    A large amount of highly purified hydroxytyrosol (91–94% in weight) is obtained in short time by a simple biotransformation of Olea europaea leaf extract by a partially purified hyperthermophilic ?-glycosidase immobilized on chitosan support. The biotransformation conditions have been modulated for increasing the hydroxytyrosol yield, whilst chitosan and chitin matrices are used as adsorbent materials in liquid phase hydroxytyrosol extraction

  6. Oliver Wendell Holmes 1

    PubMed Central

    Lindskog, Gustaf E.

    1974-01-01

    The life of Oliver Wendell Holmes was selected as the subject for a lecture in the 1974 History of Medicine series at Yale University School of Medicine because, as the Latin subtitle of the essay suggests, he represents a fortunate and uncommon, but by no means unique, synthesis of the practical and aesthetic, of science and the humanities. An attempt has been made by the lecturer, employing frequent, but brief, excerpts from the works of several disinguished biographers as well as Doctor Holmes' own lectures, medical papers, essays and poems to delineate the elite heritage and the events that led this complex person transiently into the sudy of law, the profession in which his older son reached the pinnacle of the U.S. Supreme Court, and finally into medicine where a short period of private practice was followed by more than three decades of distinguished teaching is anatomy. His lifetime (1809-1894) spanned most of the nineteenth century, in the literary hisory of which he played a significant role. His writings reveal a remarkable, and sometimes prophetic, appreciation of the impact that burgeoning science and evolving social pressures and changes would have on the teaching and practice of medicine in the future—our present. PMID:4617425

  7. Olive-Harvesting Eye Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Yulish, Michael; Pikkel, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To document the types of ocular trauma that occurs during the olive-harvesting season in a region of the Middle East. Materials and Methods: Ophthalmic assessments of all patients were performed by one ophthalmologist. Examinations included visual acuity, slit-lamp evaluation of the anterior segment, intraocular pressure measurement and posterior segment assessment after pupil dilatation. Results: The study cohort comprised 119 patients who presented for ocular injury due to olive harvesting. Seven patients (5.9%) had severe ocular trauma. Two of these patients presented with corneal perforation, and five with retinal edema. Six patients with severe ocular injury were male. Conclusions: Ocular injuries are common when olives were harvested manually or with sticks. A preventive program to reduce injury should consider environmental and cultural factors. PMID:22837627

  8. Hypertrophy of the inferior olives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Jellinger

    1973-01-01

    A report is given on 29 cases of olivary hypertrophy of different origin with special reference to the quality and topistic distribution of olivary degeneration in relation to the dating and site of the primary lesion. All except one case of hypertrophic degeneration of the inferior olive resulted from injury to the dentato-olivary pathway; 13 were associated with an isolated

  9. "Oliver Twist": A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashion, Carol; Fischer, Diana

    This teacher's guide for public television's 3-part adaptation of Charles Dickens's "Oliver Twist" provides information that will help enrich students' viewing of the series, whether or not they read the novel. The guide includes a wide range of discussion and activity ideas; there is also a series Web site and a list of Web resources.…

  10. Oliver stone's defense of JFK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William L. Benoit; Dawn M. Nill

    1998-01-01

    Oliver Stone and his film JFK were subjected to a scathing attack in the mainstream press. Stone, his direction of the film, his sources, and the conspiracy theory advanced by JFK were all subjected to harsh criticism. Nevertheless, his movie provoked renewed discussion and provoked calls for declassification of secret documents on the assassination. This essay addresses the question of

  11. Early and delayed long-term transcriptional changes and short-term transient responses during cold acclimation in olive leaves.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Pérez, María de la O; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Valderrama, Raquel; Jiménez-Ruiz, Jaime; Muñoz-Merida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; Barroso, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Luque, Francisco

    2015-02-01

    Low temperature severely affects plant growth and development. To overcome this constraint, several plant species from regions having a cool season have evolved an adaptive response, called cold acclimation. We have studied this response in olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cv. Picual. Biochemical stress markers and cold-stress symptoms were detected after the first 24 h as sagging leaves. After 5 days, the plants were found to have completely recovered. Control and cold-stressed plants were sequenced by Illumina HiSeq 1000 paired-end technique. We also assembled a new olive transcriptome comprising 157,799 unigenes and found 6,309 unigenes differentially expressed in response to cold. Three types of response that led to cold acclimation were found: short-term transient response, early long-term response, and late long-term response. These subsets of unigenes were related to different biological processes. Early responses involved many cold-stress-responsive genes coding for, among many other things, C-repeat binding factor transcription factors, fatty acid desaturases, wax synthesis, and oligosaccharide metabolism. After long-term exposure to cold, a large proportion of gene down-regulation was found, including photosynthesis and plant growth genes. Up-regulated genes after long-term cold exposure were related to organelle fusion, nucleus organization, and DNA integration, including retrotransposons. PMID:25324298

  12. Dry olive leaf extract counteracts L-thyroxine-induced genotoxicity in human peripheral blood leukocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Topalovi?, Dijana Žukovec; Živkovi?, Lada; ?abarkapa, Andrea; Djeli?, Ninoslav; Baji?, Vladan; Dekanski, Dragana; Spremo-Potparevi?, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid hormones change the rate of basal metabolism, modulating the consumption of oxygen and causing production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to the development of oxidative stress and DNA strand breaks. Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf contains many potentially bioactive compounds, making it one of the most potent natural antioxidants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of L-thyroxine and to investigate antioxidative and antigenotoxic potential of the standardized oleuropein-rich dry olive leaf extract (DOLE) against hydrogen peroxide and L-thyroxine-induced DNA damage in human peripheral blood leukocytes by using the comet assay. Various concentrations of the extract were tested with both DNA damage inducers, under two different experimental conditions, pretreatment and posttreatment. Results indicate that L-thyroxine exhibited genotoxic effect and that DOLE displayed protective effect against thyroxine-induced genotoxicity. The number of cells with DNA damage, was significantly reduced, in both pretreated and posttreated samples (P < 0.05). Comparing the beneficial effect of all tested concentrations of DOLE, in both experimental protocols, it appears that extract was more effective in reducing DNA damage in the pretreatment, exhibiting protective role against L-thyroxine effect. This feature of DOLE can be explained by its capacity to act as potent free radical scavenger. PMID:25789081

  13. Dry Olive Leaf Extract Counteracts L-Thyroxine-Induced Genotoxicity in Human Peripheral Blood Leukocytes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Žukovec Topalovi?, Dijana; Živkovi?, Lada; ?abarkapa, Andrea; Djeli?, Ninoslav; Baji?, Vladan; Spremo-Potparevi?, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid hormones change the rate of basal metabolism, modulating the consumption of oxygen and causing production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to the development of oxidative stress and DNA strand breaks. Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf contains many potentially bioactive compounds, making it one of the most potent natural antioxidants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of L-thyroxine and to investigate antioxidative and antigenotoxic potential of the standardized oleuropein-rich dry olive leaf extract (DOLE) against hydrogen peroxide and L-thyroxine-induced DNA damage in human peripheral blood leukocytes by using the comet assay. Various concentrations of the extract were tested with both DNA damage inducers, under two different experimental conditions, pretreatment and posttreatment. Results indicate that L-thyroxine exhibited genotoxic effect and that DOLE displayed protective effect against thyroxine-induced genotoxicity. The number of cells with DNA damage, was significantly reduced, in both pretreated and posttreated samples (P < 0.05). Comparing the beneficial effect of all tested concentrations of DOLE, in both experimental protocols, it appears that extract was more effective in reducing DNA damage in the pretreatment, exhibiting protective role against L-thyroxine effect. This feature of DOLE can be explained by its capacity to act as potent free radical scavenger. PMID:25789081

  14. Cellular localization of ROS and NO in olive reproductive tissues during flower development

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) are involved in the signalling processes taking place during the interactions pollen-pistil in several plants. The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is an important crop in Mediterranean countries. It is a dicotyledonous species, with a certain level of self-incompatibility, fertilisation preferentially allogamous, and with an incompatibility system of the gametophytic type not well determined yet. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether relevant ROS and NO are present in the stigmatic surface and other reproductive tissues in the olive over different key developmental stages of the reproductive process. This is a first approach to find out the putative function of these signalling molecules in the regulation of the interaction pollen-stigma. Results The presence of ROS and NO was analyzed in the olive floral organs throughout five developmental stages by using histochemical analysis at light microscopy, as well as different fluorochromes, ROS and NO scavengers and a NO donor by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The "green bud" stage and the period including the end of the "recently opened flower" and the "dehiscent anther" stages displayed higher concentrations of the mentioned chemical species. The stigmatic surface (particularly the papillae and the stigma exudate), the anther tissues and the pollen grains and pollen tubes were the tissues accumulating most ROS and NO. The mature pollen grains emitted NO through the apertural regions and the pollen tubes. In contrast, none of these species were detected in the style or the ovary. Conclusion The results obtained clearly demonstrate that both ROS and NO are produced in the olive reproductive organs in a stage- and tissue- specific manner. The biological significance of the presence of these products may differ between early flowering stages (defence functions) and stages where there is an intense interaction between pollen and pistil which may determine the presence of a receptive phase in the stigma. The study confirms the enhanced production of NO by pollen grains and tubes during the receptive phase, and the decrease in the presence of ROS when NO is actively produced. PMID:20181244

  15. Bioactive derivatives from oleuropein by a biotransformation on Olea europaea leaf extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raffaella Briante; Francesco La Cara; Ferdinando Febbraio; Maurizio Patumi; Roberto Nucci

    2002-01-01

    A very simple method is proposed to produce, using non-homogeneous hyperthermophilic ?-glycosidase immobilised on chitosan, 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylethanol (hydroxytyrosol), a commercially unavailable compound with well known biological properties which justify a potential commercial application. Leaf extracts from Olea europaea with high oleuropein content are selected as substrate for biotransformation. Under the biotransformation conditions, high amounts of hydroxytyrosol are collected within a short

  16. Electrophysiological Properties of Inferior Olive Neurons: A Compartmental Model

    E-print Network

    Kawato, Mitsuo

    Electrophysiological Properties of Inferior Olive Neurons: A Compartmental Model NICOLAS Schweighofer, Nicolas, Kenji Doya, and Mitsuo Kawato. Electro- physiological properties of inferior olive of the inferior olive, we constructed a biophysical model of the olivary neurons to examine their unique

  17. Evaluation of Olive Cake for Bio-Oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. Demirbas

    2009-01-01

    Olive samples used in this study were supplied from different Turkish olive species. Olive cake is a waste from olive oil production process. Turkey produces 8.41% of the total olive in the world. Olive cake can be pyrolyzed into bio-oil. The yield of bio-oil first increases and then decreases as a function of temperature. Therefore, there is an optimum temperature

  18. Sample preparation approaches for the analysis of pesticide residues in olives and olive oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural practices generally require the use of pesticides by olive growers for the best olive and olive oil production. Thus, analytical methods are needed to identify and quantify the pesticide residues that may be present, and ensure that the product complies with regulatory requirements. I...

  19. Growth and aflatoxin B 1 production on olives and olive paste by moulds isolated from ‘Turkish-style’ natural black olives in brine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rengin Eltem

    1996-01-01

    The growth and aflatoxin production of five Aspergillus flavus and two Aspergillus parasiticus strains isolated from natural black olives in brine for table consumption, fresh whole black olives, fresh damaged black olives and fresh black olive paste were examined. Aspergillus flavus NRRL 6555 and A. parasiticus NRRL 2999 strains were also studied for comparison. All aflatoxigenic strains inoculated onto fresh

  20. Comparative 454 pyrosequencing of transcripts from two olive genotypes during fruit development

    PubMed Central

    Alagna, Fiammetta; D'Agostino, Nunzio; Torchia, Laura; Servili, Maurizio; Rao, Rosa; Pietrella, Marco; Giuliano, Giovanni; Chiusano, Maria Luisa; Baldoni, Luciana; Perrotta, Gaetano

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite its primary economic importance, genomic information on olive tree is still lacking. 454 pyrosequencing was used to enrich the very few sequence data currently available for the Olea europaea species and to identify genes involved in expression of fruit quality traits. Results Fruits of Coratina, a widely cultivated variety characterized by a very high phenolic content, and Tendellone, an oleuropein-lacking natural variant, were used as starting material for monitoring the transcriptome. Four different cDNA libraries were sequenced, respectively at the beginning and at the end of drupe development. A total of 261,485 reads were obtained, for an output of about 58 Mb. Raw sequence data were processed using a four step pipeline procedure and data were stored in a relational database with a web interface. Conclusion Massively parallel sequencing of different fruit cDNA collections has provided large scale information about the structure and putative function of gene transcripts accumulated during fruit development. Comparative transcript profiling allowed the identification of differentially expressed genes with potential relevance in regulating the fruit metabolism and phenolic content during ripening. PMID:19709400

  1. A dehydrin gene isolated from feral olive enhances drought tolerance in Arabidopsis transgenic plants

    PubMed Central

    Chiappetta, Adriana; Muto, Antonella; Bruno, Leonardo; Woloszynska, Magdalena; Lijsebettens, Mieke Van; Bitonti, Maria B.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydrins belong to a protein family whose expression may be induced or enhanced by developmental process and environmental stresses that lead to cell dehydration. A dehydrin gene named OesDHN was isolated and characterized from oleaster (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea, var. sylvestris), the wild form of olive. To elucidate the contribution of OesDHN in the development of drought tolerance, its expression levels were investigated in oleaster plants during development and under drought stress condition. The involvement of OesDHN in plant stress response was also evaluated in Arabidopsis transgenic lines, engineered to overexpress this gene, and exposed to a controlled mild osmotic stress. OesDHN expression was found to be modulated during development and induced under mild drought stress in oleaster plants. In addition, the Arabidopsis transgenic plants showed a better tolerance to osmotic stress than wild-type plants. The results demonstrated that OesDHN expression is induced by drought stress and is able to confer osmotic stress tolerance. We suggest a role for OesDHN, as a putative functional marker of plant stress tolerance. PMID:26175736

  2. Components of a standardised olive leaf dry extract (Ph. Eur.) promote hypothiocyanite production by lactoperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Flemmig, Jörg; Rusch, Dorothea; Czerwi?ska, Monika Ewa; Rauwald, Hans-Wilhelm; Arnhold, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    We investigated in vitro the ability of a standardised olive leaf dry extract (Ph. Eur.) (OLE) as well as of its single components to circumvent the hydrogen peroxide-induced inhibition of the hypothiocyanite-producing activity of lactoperoxidase (LPO). The rate of hypothiocyanite (?OSCN) formation by LPO was quantified by spectrophotometric detection of the oxidation of 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid (TNB). By using excess hydrogen peroxide, we forced the accumulation of inactive enzymatic intermediates which are unable to promote the two-electronic oxidation of thiocyanate. Both OLE and certain extract components showed a strong LPO-reactivating effect. Thereby an o-hydroxyphenolic moiety emerged to be essential for a good reactivity with the inactive LPO redox states. This basic moiety is found in the main OLE components oleuropein, oleacein, hydroxytyrosol, caffeic acid as well as in different other constituents including the OLE flavone luteolin. As LPO is a key player in the humoral immune response, these results propose a new mode of action regarding the well-known bacteriostatic and anti-inflammatory properties of the leaf extract of Olea europaea L. PMID:24657078

  3. Isolation of a powerful antioxidant from Olea europaea fruit-mill waste: 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylglycol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillermo Rodríguez; Antonio Lama; Mariana Trujillo; José L. Espartero; Juan Fernández-Bolaños

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional and antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds are important in relation to human health and palatability of products. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) is a strong antioxidant found in small amounts in virgin olive oil and table olives, with an antioxidant activity even higher than that of the powerful hydroxytyrosol. The origin of this antioxidant is completely unclear since has never been reported

  4. Oliver Byrne's edition of Euclid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Byrne, Oliver

    An unusual and attractive edition of Euclid was published in 1847 in England, edited by an otherwise unknown mathematician named Oliver Byrne. It covers the first 6 books of Euclid, which range through most of elementary plane geometry and the theory of proportions. What distinguishes Byrne's edition is that he attempts to present Euclid's proofs in terms of pictures, using as little text - and in particular as few labels - as possible.

  5. GDAE Working Paper No. 14-03: TTIP: Desintegracin de la Unin Europea, Desempleo e Inestabilidad Acuerdo Transatlntico de Comercio e Inversin

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    GDAE Working Paper No. 14-03: TTIP: Desintegración de la Unión Europea, Desempleo e Inestabilidad Acuerdo Transatlántico de Comercio e Inversión: Desintegración de la Unión Europea, Desempleo e. 14-03: TTIP: Desintegración de la Unión Europea, Desempleo e Inestabilidad · El TTIP llevaría

  6. Occurrence of C15-C45 mineral paraffins in olives and olive oils.

    PubMed

    Moret, S; Populin, T; Conte, L S; Grob, K; Neukom, H-P

    2003-05-01

    Different classes of olive oils and other olive samples (olives, olive paste and olive pomace) collected during their production were analysed for mineral paraffins in the range of C(15)-C(45). None of the 22 extra virgin olive oils contained mineral paraffins above the detection limit of 1 mg kg(-1). Also, lampante virgin olive oil from the olive mill showed no detectable amounts, but olive oil from the market contained 6-30 mg kg(-1). This contamination cannot be attributed to the refining step, which, on the contrary, partially removes the more volatile hydrocarbons, but could result from transport. Olive-pomace oils obtained by second centrifugation contained 16-145 mg kg(-1) mineral paraffins, presumably because of contamination during storage of the pomace. All olive-pomace oils from solvent extraction contained more than 100 mg kg(-1) mineral paraffins, also mainly from storage. Deposition of particulate matter from the air, vehicle exhaust emissions and direct contamination from the bulldozers used to move the pomace were identified as potential sources. PMID:12775460

  7. Photopyroelectric Monitoring of Olive's Ripening Conditions and Olive Oil Quality Using Pulsed Wideband IR Thermal Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Taha, M. I.; Sarahneh, Y.; Saleh, A. M.

    The present study is based on band absorption of radiation from pulsed wideband infrared (IR) thermal source (PWBS) in conjunction with polyvinylidene fluoride film (PVDF). It is the first time to be employed to monitor the ripening state of olive fruit. Olive's characteristics vary at different stages of ripening, and hence, cultivation of olives at the right time is important in ensuring the best oil quality and maximizes the harvest yield. The photopyroelectric (PPE) signal resulting from absorption of wideband infrared (IR) radiation by fresh olive juice indicates the ripening stage of olives, i.e., allows an estimate of the suitable harvest time. The technique was found to be very useful in discriminating between olive oil samples according to geographical region, shelf life, some storage conditions, and deliberate adulteration. Our results for monitoring oil accumulation in olives during the ripening season agree well with the complicated analytical studies carried out by other researchers.

  8. Phenolic compounds in olive oils intended for refining: formation of 4-ethylphenol during olive paste storage.

    PubMed

    Brenes, Manuel; Romero, Concepción; García, Aranzazu; Hidalgo, Francisco J; Ruiz-Méndez, M V

    2004-12-29

    The phenolic composition of "lampante olive oil", "crude olive pomace oil", and "second centrifugation olive oil" was characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV, fluorescence, and mass spectrometry detection. The phenolic profile of these olive oils intended for refining was rather similar to that previously reported for virgin olive oil. However, a new compound was found in these oils, which is mainly responsible of their foul odor. It was identified as 4-ethylphenol by comparison of its UV and mass spectra with those of a commercial standard. Although 4-ethylphenol was discovered in all oils intended for refining, its presence was particularly significant in "second centrifugation olive oils", its concentration increasing with time of olive paste storage. Similar trends were observed for hydroxytyrosol, hydroxytyrosol acetate, tyrosol, and catechol, the concentration of these substances reaching values of up to 600 mg/kg of oil, which makes their recovery for food, cosmetic, or pharmaceutical purposes attractive. PMID:15612814

  9. Olive leaf extracts protect cardiomyocytes against 4-hydroxynonenal-induced toxicity in vitro: comparison with oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and quercetin.

    PubMed

    Bali, Elif Burcu; Ergin, Volkan; Rackova, Lucia; Bayraktar, O?uz; Küçükboyaci, Nurgün; Karasu, Çimen

    2014-08-01

    Olive (Olea europaea) leaf, an important traditional herbal medicine, displays cardioprotection that may be related to the cellular redox modulating effects of its polyphenolic constituents. This study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of the ethanolic and methanolic extracts of olive leaves compared to the effects of oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and quercetin as a positive standard in a carbonyl compound (4-hydroxynonenal)-induced model of oxidative damage to rat cardiomyocytes (H9c2). Cell viability was detected by the MTT assay; reactive oxygen species production was assessed by the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate method, and the mitochondrial membrane potential was determined using a JC-1 dye kit. Phospho-Hsp27 (Ser82), phospho-MAPKAPK-2 (Thr334), phospho-c-Jun (Ser73), cleaved-caspase-3 (cl-CASP3) (Asp175), and phospho-SAPK/JNK (Thr183/Tyr185) were measured by Western blotting. The ethanolic and methanolic extracts of olive leaves inhibited 4-hydroxynonenal-induced apoptosis, characterized by increased reactive oxygen species production, impaired viability (LD50: 25?µM), mitochondrial dysfunction, and activation of pro-apoptotic cl-CASP3. The ethanolic and methanolic extracts of olive leaves also inhibited 4-hydroxynonenal-induced phosphorylation of stress-activated transcription factors, and the effects of extracts on p-SAPK/JNK, p-Hsp27, and p-MAPKAPK-2 were found to be concentration-dependent and comparable with oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and quercetin. While the methanolic extract downregulated 4-hydroxynonenal-induced p-MAPKAPK-2 and p-c-Jun more than the ethanolic extract, it exerted a less inhibitory effect than the ethanolic extract on 4-hydroxynonenal-induced p-SAPK/JNK and p-Hsp27. cl-CASP3 and p-Hsp27 were attenuated, especially by quercetin. Experiments showed a predominant reactive oxygen species inhibitory and mitochondrial protecting ability at a concentration of 1-10?µg/mL of each extract, oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and quercetin. The ethanolic extract of olive leaves, which contains larger amounts of oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside, luteolin, and quercetin (by HPLC) than the methanolic one, has more protecting ability on cardiomyocyte viability than the methanolic extract or each phenolic compound against 4-hydroxynonenal-induced carbonyl stress and toxicity. PMID:25098929

  10. Chemistry and Health of Olive Oil Phenolics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Cicerale; Xavier A. Conlan; Andrew J. Sinclair; Russell S. J. Keast

    2008-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially attributed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Most recent interest has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and

  11. AUTUMN OLIVE: A POTENTIAL ALTERNATIVE CROP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fruit of autumn olive has a pleasant sweet-tart flavor and could be used for a variety of fruit- based products, but has not been used commercially for human consumption in this country. Recent studies at the USDA Beltsville Phytonutrient Laboratory have shown that the fruit of Autumn olive is ...

  12. 7 CFR 52.3752 - Types of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...canned ripe olives” refers to olives of either “ripe-type” or...Ripe type. “Ripe type” olives are those which have been...produce a typical dark brown to black color. (b) Green-ripe type. “Green-ripe type” olives are those which have not...

  13. 7 CFR 52.3752 - Types of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...canned ripe olives” refers to olives of either “ripe-type” or...Ripe type. “Ripe type” olives are those which have been...produce a typical dark brown to black color. (b) Green-ripe type. “Green-ripe type” olives are those which have not...

  14. Oligomeric anthocyanin formation in black table olives during anaerobic processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandra Del Caro; Emanuela Azara; Giovanna Delogu; Ivo Pinna; Antonio Piga

    2006-01-01

    The results of a study on the evolution of anthocyanins and colour during processing of black olives are reported. Olives of “Bosana” cultivar were collected at a technological black-ripe stage and were processed by the traditional anacrobic system. At regular intervals brines and olives were inspected for different parameters. The routine physico-chemical values in brines and olives changed as expected.

  15. 7 CFR 52.3752 - Types of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...canned ripe olives” refers to olives of either “ripe-type” or...Ripe type. “Ripe type” olives are those which have been...produce a typical dark brown to black color. (b) Green-ripe type. “Green-ripe type” olives are those which have not...

  16. Winner: Software - Make Your Very Own Virtual World With Olive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Kushner

    2008-01-01

    Forterra's OLIVE software makes the business of virtual-world environments real. OLIVE creates virtual worlds for customers in health care, the military, and the media. One main difference between an OLIVE world and other virtual worlds is the OLIVE world's \\

  17. [Study on the content determination of total flavonoids in Olea europaea L. leaves].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Chen; Feng, Shi-Lan; Huang, Xin-Yi; Liu, Yong-Feng; Chen, Xiao-Fen; Di, Duo-Long

    2011-02-01

    A quantitative determination method of the total flavonoids in Olea europaea L. leaves using rutin as a standard substance was developed. Two coloration systems including Al(NO3)3-NaNO2-NaOH and AlCl3 were both used. The latter was selected as the optimal determination method by comparing with the results. The main interference of the matrix was discussed. The result showed that the AlCl3 coloration method is simple, accurate and reproducible with good linear relationship, and it can be looked as a reference method for the determination of total flavonoids in herbal materials or natural products. PMID:21510424

  18. The effect of deficit irrigation on crop yield and vegetative development of Olea europaea L. (cvs. Frantoio and Leccino)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Tognetti; R. d’Andria; A. Lavini; G. Morelli

    2006-01-01

    Water is the most important environmental constrain determining plant growth and fruit yield of olive tree plantations. Although olive trees are resilient to water-limited conditions of Mediterranean-type agroecosystems, crop yields may respond positively to any additional water up to a limit. A field experiment on olive trees was carried out with the aim to present guidelines for efficient management of

  19. Vasculoprotective potential of olive oil components.

    PubMed

    Carluccio, Maria Annunziata; Massaro, Marika; Scoditti, Egeria; De Caterina, Raffaele

    2007-10-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies found that the traditional Mediterranean-style diet is associated with significantly lower mortality from coronary artery disease. Although it is difficult to isolate individual dietary factors, cumulative evidence suggests that olive oil, used as primary source of fat by Mediterranean populations, may play a key role in the observed cardiovascular benefit. Olive oil is a priceless source of vitamins and polyphenolic antioxidants, and has a balanced ratio of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. There are multiple mechanisms by which olive oil might impact the development of atherosclerosis. Olive oil decreases LDL-cholesterol and increases HDL-cholesterol, and also reduces oxidative stress due to polyphenols, which are able to scavenge free radicals and protect LDL from oxidation. In addition, olive oil components may interfere with the inflammatory response within atherosclerotic lesion, by inhibiting endothelial activation involved in monocyte recruitment during early atherogenesis and macrophage production of inflammatory cytokines and matrix degrading enzymes, thus improving vascular stability. Other vasculoprotective mechanisms by olive oil components derive from anti-thrombotic and anti-hypertensive actions. The available data support the need to preserve certain dietary traditions, such as olive oil consumption, to counteract the burden of cardiovascular disease. PMID:17912721

  20. Application of compost of two-phase olive mill waste on olive grove: effects on soil, olive fruit and olive oil quality.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Hernández, Antonia; Roig, Asunción; Serramiá, Nuria; Civantos, Concepción García-Ortiz; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A

    2014-07-01

    Composting is a method for preparing organic fertilizers that represents a suitable management option for the recycling of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) in agriculture. Four different composts were prepared by mixing TPOMW with different agro-industrial by-products (olive pruning, sheep manure and horse manure), which were used either as bulking agents or as N sources. The mature composts were added during six consecutive years to a typical "Picual" olive tree grove in the Jaén province (Spain). The effects of compost addition on soil characteristics, crop yield and nutritional status and also the quality of the olive oil were evaluated at the end of the experiment and compared to a control treated only with mineral fertilization. The most important effects on soil characteristics included a significant increase in the availability of N, P, K and an increase of soil organic matter content. The application of TPOMW compost produced a significant increase in olive oil content in the fruit. The compost amended plots had a 15% higher olive oil content than those treatment with inorganic fertilization. These organics amendments maintained the composition and quality of the olive oil. PMID:24810202

  1. Effect of crushing on olive paste and virgin olive oil minor components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio M. Inarejos-García; G. Fregapane; M. Desamparados Salvador

    2011-01-01

    The present study focuses on the influence of the olive crushing technique on the minor composition of olive pastes and their\\u000a corresponding virgin olive oils since these compounds are strongly related to their quality and characteristics. Two different\\u000a cultivars, Arbequina and Cornicabra—known for their different minor component composition—were processed at laboratory scale\\u000a using hammer mills at various breakage forces and

  2. Effects of olive leaf polyphenols on male mouse brain NGF, BDNF and their receptors TrkA, TrkB and p75.

    PubMed

    Carito, Valentina; Venditti, Alessandro; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Ceccanti, Mauro; Serrilli, Anna Maria; Chaldakov, George; Tarani, Luigi; De Nicolò, Sara; Fiore, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated, in the mouse, the effects of 20 mg/kg i.p. daily administration for 15 consecutive days of a blend of polyphenols, containing mostly oleuropein, extracted from the olive leaves (Olea europaea) on brain nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and on the expression of their receptors, TrkA, TrkB and p75. Polyphenols decreased the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and increased the levels of NGF and BDNF in the serum. In the brain, we found decreased levels of NGF and BDNF in the hippocampus and striatum but elevated levels of NGF in the olfactory lobes and hypothalamus and again BDNF potentiation in the olfactory lobes. No changes in TrkA, TrkB and p75 expression were observed. In conclusion, olive polyphenols may not only elicit an activation of the rodent olfactory system by increasing the levels of NGF and BDNF but also be stressing for the animal by reducing both the levels of hippocampal NGF/BDNF and serum GSH and increasing serum levels of NGF and BDNF. PMID:24865115

  3. Effects of olive leaf extract and its main component oleuroepin on acute ultraviolet B irradiation-induced skin changes in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Maho; Kimura, Yoshiyuki

    2010-07-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves have long been used in folk medicine and herbal tea in Europe and the Mediterranean area. The Mediterranean climate is characterized by high temperatures, and by strong ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causing the skin to age, increasing wrinkling, pigmentation and skin thickness. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an olive leaf extract and its component oleuropein on skin damage caused by acute UVB irradiation in C57BL/6J mice. The extract (300 or 1000 mg/kg) and oleuropein (25 or 85 mg/kg) were administered orally twice daily for 14 days. UVB was administered daily at a dose of 120 mJ/cm(2) for the first 5 days and then every other day for 9 days. Both treatments inhibited the increases in skin thickness induced by radiation. They also inhibited increases in the Ki-67- and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine-positive cell numbers, melanin granule area and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) expression. These preventive effects on UVB-induced skin damage might be caused in part by inhibiting the degradation of extracellular matrixes in the corium, and by the proliferation of epidermal cells through the inhibition of increases in MMP-13 levels and reactive oxygen species induced by irradiation. PMID:19957248

  4. Role of hydraulic and chemical signals in leaves, stems and roots in the stomatal behaviour of olive trees under water stress and recovery conditions.

    PubMed

    Torres-Ruiz, Jose M; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Perez-Martin, Alfonso; Hernandez-Santana, Virginia

    2015-04-01

    The control of plant transpiration by stomata under water stress and recovery conditions is of paramount importance for plant performance and survival. Although both chemical and hydraulic signals emitted within a plant are considered to play a major role in controlling stomatal dynamics, they have rarely been assessed together. The aims of this study were to evaluate (i) the dynamics of chemical and hydraulic signals at leaf, stem and root level, and (ii) their effect on the regulation of stomatal conductance (gs) during water stress and recovery. Measurements of gs, water potential, abscisic acid (ABA) content and loss of hydraulic functioning at leaf, stem and root level were conducted during a water stress and recovery period imposed on 1-year-old olive plants (Olea europaea L.). Results showed a strong hydraulic segmentation in olive plants, with higher hydraulic functioning losses in roots and leaves than in stems. The dynamics of hydraulic conductance of roots and leaves observed as water stress developed could explain both a protection of the hydraulic functionality of larger organs of the plant (i.e., branches, etc.) and a role in the down-regulation of gs. On the other hand, ABA also increased, showing a similar pattern to gs dynamics, and thus its effect on gs in response to water stress cannot be ruled out. However, neither hydraulic nor non-hydraulic factors were able to explain the delay in the full recovery of gs after soil water availability was restored. PMID:25030936

  5. Oliver A. Shergold Norman A. Fleck1

    E-print Network

    Fleck, Norman A.

    penetration pressure on the shank cross section of a flat-bottomed punch exceeds that for a sharp-tipped punchOliver A. Shergold Norman A. Fleck1 Department of Engineering, Cambridge University, Trumpington

  6. Xanthan production from olive-mill wastewaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Lopez; A. Ramos-Cormenzana

    1996-01-01

    Olive mill wastewaters (OMW) are a by-product from olive oil manufacture that cause environmental pollution. These wastes have been used as substrate for the production of the extracellular polysaccharide xanthan by Xanthomonas campestris NRRL B1459-S4L41. Growth and xanthan production on dilute OMW as a sole source of nutrients were obtained at OMW concentrations below 60%, yielding a maximal xanthan production

  7. Mediterranean diet, olive oil and cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramón Colomer; Javier A. Menéndez

    2006-01-01

    Olive oil is an integral ingredient of the «Mediterranean diet» and accumulating evidence suggests that it may have a potential\\u000a role in lowering the risk of several types of cancers. The mechanisms by which the carcer-preventing effects of olive oil\\u000a can be performed, however, are not known. We recently hypothesized that a novel molecular explanation concerning the anti-cancer\\u000a actions of

  8. Safety assessment of aqueous olive pulp extract as an antioxidant or antimicrobial agent in foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Soni; G. A. Burdock; M. S. Christian; C. M. Bitler; R. Crea

    2006-01-01

    The olive fruit, its oil and the leaves of the olive tree have a rich history of nutritional, medicinal and ceremonial uses. Olive oil, table olives and olive products are an important part of the Mediterranean diet, the greatest value of which may be due to olive polyphenols that contribute to the modulation of the oxidative balance in vivo. The

  9. Ethanol in Olive Fruit. Changes during Ripening.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Gabriel; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio; Sanchez-Ortiz, Araceli

    2015-06-10

    Ethanol is one of the precursors of ethyl esters, the virgin olive oil quality parameter for the "extra" category recently adopted by the European Union and International Olive Oil Council. Although ethyl ester content has great importance for virgin olive oil classification, the origin of ethanol is not clear. A possible source of ethanol may be the olive fruit itself while it remains on the tree. Variation of fruit ethanol content during ripening was studied for three different olive cultivars: 'Picual', 'Hojiblanca', and 'Arbequina'. Ethanol was measured in fruit homogenates by HS-SPME-GC-FID. The ethanol content varied between 0.56 and 58 mg/kg. 'Hojiblanca' fruits showed the highest ethanol concentration. For all of the cultivars, ethanol content of fruit increased during the ripening process, although a clear cultivar-dependent effect was observed because 'Hojiblanca' fruits showed the most significant raise. Therefore, results indicated that ethanol can be accumulated during fruit maturation on the olive tree. PMID:25998425

  10. The Microbiology of Olive Mill Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    Olive mill wastes (OMWs) are high-strength organic effluents, which upon disposal can degrade soil and water quality, negatively affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning the microbial communities identified over the past 20 years in olive mill wastes using both culture-dependent and independent approaches. A database survey of 16S rRNA gene sequences (585 records in total) obtained from olive mill waste environments revealed the dominance of members of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Independent studies confirmed that OMW microbial communities' structure is cultivar dependant. On the other hand, the detection of fecal bacteria and other potential human pathogens in OMWs is of major concern and deserves further examination. Despite the fact that the degradation and detoxification of the olive mill wastes have been mostly investigated through the application of known bacterial and fungal species originated from other environmental sources, the biotechnological potential of indigenous microbiota should be further exploited in respect to olive mill waste bioremediation and inactivation of plant and human pathogens. The implementation of omic and metagenomic approaches will further elucidate disposal issues of olive mill wastes. PMID:24199199

  11. Monitoring endogenous enzymes during olive fruit ripening and storage: correlation with virgin olive oil phenolic profiles.

    PubMed

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2015-05-01

    The ability of olive endogenous enzymes ?-glucosidase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX), to determine the phenolic profile of virgin olive oil was investigated. Olives used for oil production were stored for one month at 20 °C and 4 °C and their phenolic content and enzymatic activities were compared to those of ripening olive fruits. Phenolic and volatile profiles of the corresponding oils were also analysed. Oils obtained from fruits stored at 4 °C show similar characteristics to that of freshly harvested fruits. However, the oils obtained from fruits stored at 20 °C presented the lowest phenolic content. Concerning the enzymatic activities, results show that the ?-glucosidase enzyme is the key enzyme responsible for the determination of virgin olive oil phenolic profile as the decrease in this enzyme activity after 3 weeks of storage at 20 °C was parallel to a dramatic decrease in the phenolic content of the oils. PMID:25529676

  12. Canopy light heterogeneity drives leaf anatomical, eco-physiological, and photosynthetic changes in olive trees grown in a high-density plantation.

    PubMed

    Larbi, Ajmi; Vázquez, Saúl; El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Msallem, Monji; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Morales, Fermín

    2015-02-01

    In the field, leaves may face very different light intensities within the tree canopy. Leaves usually respond with light-induced morphological and photosynthetic changes, in a phenomenon known as phenotypic plasticity. Canopy light distribution, leaf anatomy, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and pigment composition were investigated in an olive (Olea europaea, cvs. Arbequina and Arbosana) orchard planted with a high-density system (1,250 trees ha(-1)). Sampling was made from three canopy zones: a lower canopy (<1 m), a central one (1-2 m), and an upper one (>2 m). Light interception decreased significantly in the lower canopy when compared to the central and top ones. Leaf angle increased and photosynthetic rates and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) decreased significantly and progressively from the upper canopy to the central and the lower canopies. The largest leaf areas were found in the lower canopy, especially in the cultivar Arbequina. The palisade and spongy parenchyma were reduced in thickness in the lower canopy when compared to the upper one, in the former due to a decrease in the number of cell layers from three to two (clearly distinguishable in the light and fluorescence microscopy images). In both cultivars, the concentration of violaxanthin-cycle pigments and ?-carotene was higher in the upper than in the lower canopy. Furthermore, the de-epoxidized forms zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin increased significantly in those leaves from the upper canopy, in parallel to the NPQ increases. In conclusion, olive leaves react with morphological and photosynthetic changes to within-crown light gradients. These results strengthen the idea of olive trees as "modular organisms" that adjust the modules morphology and physiology in response to light intensity. PMID:25344757

  13. 77 FR 55468 - Oliver Hydro LLC; Notice Soliciting Scoping Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...13005-003] Oliver Hydro LLC; Notice Soliciting...Applicant: Oliver Hydro LLC. e. Name of Project...Secretary, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...mode utilizing surplus water from the William...

  14. A consensus list of microsatellite markers for olive genotyping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciana Baldoni; Nicolò G. Cultrera; Roberto Mariotti; Claudia Ricciolini; Sergio Arcioni; Giovanni G. Vendramin; Anna Buonamici; Andrea Porceddu; Vania Sarri; Maria A. Ojeda; Isabel Trujillo; Luis Rallo; Angjelina Belaj; Enzo Perri; Amelia Salimonti; Innocenzo Muzzalupo; Alberto Casagrande; Orietta Lain; Rachele Messina; Raffaele Testolin

    2009-01-01

    Cultivar identification is a primary concern for olive growers, breeders, and scientists. This study was aimed at examining\\u000a the SSR markers retrieved from the literature and currently used in olive study, in order to select those most effective in\\u000a characterizing the olive accessions and to make possible the comparison of data obtained by different laboratories. Olive\\u000a microsatellite profiles were assessed

  15. Phenolic compounds in natural black Spanish olive varieties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Concepción Romero; Pedro García; Manuel Brenes; Aranzazu García; Antonio Garrido

    2002-01-01

    There is increasing interest in olive phenolic compounds because of their biological properties as well as their contribution to the colour, taste and shelf life of olive products. Phenolic compounds in natural black Spanish olives are characterised by HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS. Hydroxytyrosol-4-#-D-glucoside has been identified as the major phenolic compound in natural black olives. A qualitative and quantitative study of

  16. Effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on chemical, oxidative and sensorial quality of marinated anchovy.

    PubMed

    Topuz, Osman Kadir; Yerlikaya, Pinar; Ucak, Ilknur; Gumus, Bahar; Büyükbenli, Hanife Aydan

    2014-07-01

    This study describes the potential use of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces as antioxidant, preservative and flavoring agent in fish marinades. The olive oil and sauces, produced from emulsifying of olive oil and pomegranate juice with gums, were blended with marinated anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) fillets. The aim of the present study was to produce a new polyphenol-rich marinade sauces by emulsifying pomegranate juice with olive oil in different proportions (25%, 35% and 50%v:v). In order to evaluate the effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on quality of anchovy marinades, the chemical (TVB-N and TMA), oxidative (peroxides value, K230, thiobarbituric acid and K270) and sensory analyses were carried out during storage at 4°C. The present study showed that saucing of anchovy marinades with olive oil-pomegranate sauce can retard the undesirable quality changes, prolong the lipid oxidation and improve the sensory properties. PMID:24518316

  17. Major phenolic compounds in olive oil: metabolism and health effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kellie L Tuck; Peter J Hayball

    2002-01-01

    It has been postulated that the components in olive oil in the Mediterranean diet, a diet which is largely vegetarian in nature, can contribute to the lower incidence of coronary heart disease and prostate and colon cancers. The Mediterranean diet includes the consumption of large amounts of olive oil. Olive oil is a source of at least 30 phenolic compounds.

  18. Chaos may enhance information transmission in the inferior olive

    E-print Network

    Kawato, Mitsuo

    Chaos may enhance information transmission in the inferior olive Nicolas Schweighofer* , Kenji Doya, such as extensive electrical coupling and low firing rates, the role of the inferior olive (IO), which is the source: 100,000 parallel fibers and a single climbing fiber, an axon from an inferior olive (IO) neuron

  19. Original article Impact of spreading olive mill wastewater on soil

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Impact of spreading olive mill wastewater on soil characteristics: laboratory 2001) Abstract ­ A dynamic of soil pollution with olive mill wastewater (OMW) was investigated process forms an olive mill wastewater (OMW). The amount of this waste depends on the process used for oil

  20. Microbial population dynamics during the processing of Arbequina table olives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Hurtado; Cristina Reguant; Braulio Esteve-Zarzoso; Albert Bordons; Nicolas Rozès

    2008-01-01

    Arbequina table olives are produced according to a traditional process involving an spontaneous fermentation in brine. The aim of this study was to evaluate for the first time the different microorganism populations in brine during the processing of Arbequina table olives.Yeasts were the main organisms involved in fermentation but lactic acid bacteria were important when the olives were being matured

  1. In vivo and in vitro addition of dried olive extract in poultry.

    PubMed

    King, Annie J; Griffin, Johanna K; Roslan, Fahkirah

    2014-08-01

    A freeze-dried powder from organic olive (Olea europaea) juice extract, contains 8.82% polyphenols and a minimum of 2.5% hydroxytyrosol (3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol), an effective free radical scavenger and the major antioxidant in the byproduct (dried olive extract, DOE). Myricetin, a bioflavonoid extract from the bark powder of the bayberry tree (Myrica cerifera), also has many beneficial biological properties and antioxidative capacity. While well-known as antioxidants, the capacity of these compounds to retard lipid oxidation in foods containing unsaturated fatty acids has not been widely evaluated. Thus, a study was conducted to assess the capacity of DOE to (1) enhance the growth of poultry, (2) determine the effectiveness of DOE (administered in vivo) as an antioxidant in post-mortem tissue and further processed meat, and (3) compare the in vitro antioxidative capacity of hydroxytyrosol and myricetin. DOE was administered ad libitum in water at 6 and 12 mg per bird per day for 6 weeks in a factorial design: 3 diets (control plus two treatment levels) × 2 blocks × 2 replications. There was no enhancement of feed consumption, body weight (BW), or feed conversion by DOE; overall means for these measurements were 5.49 kg per bird, 3.32 kg per bird, and 1.65 g feed per g live BW, respectively. Diagnostic examinations of two birds per pen at the end of the study revealed no adverse effects due to consumption of DOE, a generally recognized as safe substance. The byproduct, administered in vivo, did not retard lipid oxidation in fresh, heated, or NaCl (1.0% w/w)/heated/stored meat as assessed by absorbance values for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances at 532 nm and 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl at 517 nm. Both the byproduct and hydroxytyrosol are highly water-soluble and may have been unavailable as an antioxidant in the tissue of broilers that did not consume water for 4-6 h prior to processing. As an additive in processed thigh meat, 6 and 12 mg of DOE (2.5% hydroxytyrosol) per 3 mg of meat, although not as effective as myricetin (95% purity), reduced oxidation. Further assessment revealed that hydroxytyrosol from the DOE, added at (1)/38 the concentration of myricetin, was almost 50% as effective. PMID:25007306

  2. Stemflow in low-density and hedgerow olive orchards in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Pedro D.; Valente, Fernanda; Pereira, Fernando L.; Abreu, Francisco G.

    2015-04-01

    Stemflow (Sf) is responsible for a localized water and solute input to soil around tree's trunks, playing an important eco-hydrological role in forest and agricultural ecosystems. Sf was monitored for seven months in 25 Olea europaea L. trees distributed in three orchards managed in two different ways, traditional low-density and super high density hedgerow. The orchards were located in central Portugal in the regions of Santarém (Várzea and Azóia) and Lisboa (Tapada). Seven olive varieties were analysed: Arbequina, Galega, Picual, Maçanilha, Cordovil, Azeiteira, Negrinha and Blanqueta. Measured Sf ranged from 7.5 to 87.2 mm (relative to crown-projected area), corresponding to 1.2 and 16.7% of gross rainfall (Pg). To understand better the variables that affect Sf and to be able to predict its value, linear regression models were fitted to these data. Whenever possible, the linear models were simplified using the backward stepwise algorithm based on the Akaike information criterion. For each tree, multiple linear regressions were adjusted between Sf and the duration, volume and intensity of rainfall episodes and maximum evaporation rate. In the low-density Várzea grove the more relevant explanatory variables were the three rainfall characteristics. In the super high density Azóia orchard only rainfall volume and intensity were considered relevant. In the low-density Tapada's grove all trees had a different sub-model with Pg being the only common variable. To try to explain differences between trees and to improve the quality of the modeling in each orchard, another set of explanatory variables was added: canopy volume, tree and trunk heights and trunk perimeter at the height of the first branches. The variables present in all sub-models were rainfall volume and intensity and the tree and trunk heights. Canopy volume and rainfall duration were also present in the sub-models of the two low-density groves (Tapada and Várzea). The determination coefficient (R2) of all models ranged from 0.5 to 0.76. The size of leaves was also analysed. Although there were significant differences between varieties and between trees of the same variety, they did not seem to affect the amount of Sf generated. Through analysis of bark storage capacity, it was found that older trees, with rough and thick bark, had higher trunk storage capacity and, therefore, originated less Sf. The results confirm the need for considering the contribution of stemflow when trying to correctly assess interception loss in olive orchards. Although the use of simple and general statistical models may be an attractive option, their precision may be small, making direct measurements or conceptual modelling preferable methods.

  3. Composting of the solid fraction of olive mill wastewater with olive leaves: organic matter degradation and biological activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Garc??a-Gómez; A Roig; M. P Bernal

    2003-01-01

    The flocculated solid fraction of olive mill wastewaters, obtained from two different olive oil extraction systems (FOMW1 and FOMW2) was composted, with olive leaves (OL) as bulking agent, by the static pile system (Rutgers). The dynamic of organic matter (OM) degradation during composting and its relationship with the basal respiration and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolytic activity, as indicators of biological

  4. The combined effects of black oxidising table olive process and ripening on the cell wall polysaccharides of olive pulp

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel Mafra; António S. Barros; Manuel A. Coimbra

    2007-01-01

    Olive fruits harvested at cherry and black stages of ripening were processed according the table olive black oxidising processing and sampled after the three main steps: storage in brine, lye treatment and thermal treatment (final product). The results show that the storage in brine contributed positively to the stabilisation of cell wall polysaccharides of olive pulp as the amounts of

  5. Comparison of near-infrared, fourier transform-infrared, and fourier transform-raman methods for determining olive pomace oil adulteration in extra virgin olive oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Yang; Joseph Irudayaraj

    2001-01-01

    The adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with cheaper oils is a major problem in the olive oil market. In this study, near-infrared,\\u000a mid-infrared, and Raman spectroscopic techniques were used to quantify the amount of olive pomace oil adulteration in extra\\u000a virgin olive oil. The concentration of olive pomace oil in extra virgin olive oil was in the range between

  6. Sorting Olive Batches for the Milling Process Using Image Processing.

    PubMed

    Puerto, Daniel Aguilera; Gila, Diego Manuel Martínez; García, Javier Gámez; Ortega, Juan Gómez

    2015-01-01

    The quality of virgin olive oil obtained in the milling process is directly bound to the characteristics of the olives. Hence, the correct classification of the different incoming olive batches is crucial to reach the maximum quality of the oil. The aim of this work is to provide an automatic inspection system, based on computer vision, and to classify automatically different batches of olives entering the milling process. The classification is based on the differentiation between ground and tree olives. For this purpose, three different species have been studied (Picudo, Picual and Hojiblanco). The samples have been obtained by picking the olives directly from the tree or from the ground. The feature vector of the samples has been obtained on the basis of the olive image histograms. Moreover, different image preprocessing has been employed, and two classification techniques have been used: these are discriminant analysis and neural networks. The proposed methodology has been validated successfully, obtaining good classification results. PMID:26147729

  7. Evaluation of imported parasitoid fitness for biocontrol of olive fruit fly in California olives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A parasitoid, Psyttalia humilis (Silvestri), was reared on irradiated Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala, and imported into California for biological control of olive fruit ...

  8. Aroma Characterization of Virgin Olive Oil from Two Turkish Olive Varieties by SPME\\/GC\\/MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arinç Kaftan; Y. Elmaci

    2011-01-01

    Virgin olive oil samples of Ayvalik and Memecik olive varieties from the Aegean region of Turkey were evaluated for their acidity, peroxide, and color values, and the volatile compounds were investigated by using solid phasemicro extraction\\/gas chromatography\\/mass spectroscopy (SPME\\/GC\\/MS). The acidity of all the samples were found to be between 0.35–1.0% oleic acid and peroxide values of the oil samples

  9. The Making of a Special "Oliver!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beall, Lee

    1985-01-01

    How trainable mentally handicapped high school students very successfully adapted Charles Dickens's novel "Oliver Twist" into a musical play is described. The project, which involved the entire school as well as the community, shows that handicapped people are capable of artistic endeavors and growth when given the proper environment. (RM)

  10. OLIVE OIL AND HEALTH (IN THE LITERATURE)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Vossen

    Dietary patterns associated with the Mediterranean diet that include a relatively high intake of fat, but that source of fat being olive oil (low in saturated fat), has been associated with low rates of coronary heart disease, certain cancers, diabetes, and some other chronic diseases in a population with some of the highest life expectancies in the world. Consumers of

  11. BALANCED WORDS AND MAJORIZATION OLIVER JENKINSON

    E-print Network

    Jenkinson, Oliver

    BALANCED WORDS AND MAJORIZATION OLIVER JENKINSON Abstract. When expressed in terms of base-2 expanions, balanced words are majorized by other words of the same slope. Consequently they have smaller Theorem 1.2 below) that P(w) is as large as possible when w is balanced. By a balanced word2 we mean one

  12. Statistical mechanics of nonlinear elasticity Oliver Penrose

    E-print Network

    Penrose, Oliver

    Statistical mechanics of nonlinear elasticity Oliver Penrose Department of Mathematics, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, Scotland, UK July 24, 2003 Running title: statistical mechanics Reviews classification numbers: 82B05 classical equilibrium statistical mechanics (general), 74B20

  13. The Spectrum of Olive Pollen Allergens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosalía Rodríguez; Mayte Villalba; Rafael I. Monsalve; Eva Batanero

    2001-01-01

    Olive pollen is one of the most important causes of seasonal respiratory allergy in Mediterranean countries, where this tree is intensely cultivated. Among the high number of protein allergens detected in this pollen, 8 – Ole e 1 to Ole e 8 – have been isolated and characterized. Ole e 1 is the most frequent sensitizing agent, affecting more than

  14. Effect of olive pomace extracts on hyperlipidaemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Liu; Hongbin Sun; Jing Shang; Yuanyuan Yong; Luyong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we have examined the hypolipidemic effect of olive pomace extracts. Identification and quantitation of maslinic acid and oleanolic acid as the potentially effective components of the pomace extracts were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography methods. Hyperlipidaemia was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by feeding them with a high cholesterol diet for 30 days. The

  15. photography Oliver Knill, July 11, 2007

    E-print Network

    Knill, Oliver

    Panorama photography Oliver Knill, July 11, 2007 The mathematics of #12;1. Panorama Cameras 2. Math parameters #12;Coordinates and camera types The mathematics of photography is most developed for perspective of photography #12;Art Albrecht Duerer,, 1471-1528 Art #12;Art Edme-Sebastien Jeaurat, Traite de perspective a l

  16. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. Digital Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Harvard Law School Library digitized its holdings of materials associated with Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., and his family. This website constitutes phase one of the project, and contains items that are related to his service in the 20th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment of the Union Army, including correspondence, telegrams, and a diary. Click on "Scrapbook" in the first bullet point on the homepage to see Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.'s, scrapbook from the Civil War. The inside cover, which is the second image, shows a handwritten inscription of 1864, and instructions that "the enclosed letters to be buried unread at my death - without fail." The Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. Visual Materials Collection includes "photographs, etchings, drawings, and paintings" of his parents and wife, and can be accessed by clicking a link in the third bullet point on the homepage. Finally, the link to the Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. Object Collection is provided in the fourth bullet point on the homepage, and objects in the collection include "Civil War uniform relics, family and personal effects, and a death mask."

  17. Anaerobic digestion of olive mill wastewaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hamdi; K. Stamatelatou; M. Kornaros; G. Lyberatos

    1996-01-01

    Anaerobic digestions for the treatment of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) are reviewed. A major limitation of anaerobic digestion of OMW is inhibition of methanogenic bacteria by simple phenolic compounds, certain organic acids and polyphenols. Pretreatment methods that modify or remove these natural inhibitors improve digestion of OMW.

  18. Epistemology, Reliable Inquiry and Topology Oliver Schulte

    E-print Network

    Schulte, Oliver

    Epistemology, Reliable Inquiry and Topology Oliver Schulte Department of Philosophy Carnegie Mellon or of numbers) and their limits. A broad class of epistemological questions also appear to be concerned of epistemological and methodological questions about re- liable inquiry translate literally into topological

  19. Means-Ends Epistemology Oliver Schulte

    E-print Network

    Schulte, Oliver

    Means-Ends Epistemology Oliver Schulte University of Alberta October 3, 2001 Abstract. This paper of means-ends epistemology. 1. The Long Run In The Short Run Inquiry begins with uncertainty. Empirical inference could be reduced to estimating probabilities. 1 #12;Means-Ends Epistemology 2 studying questions

  20. OLIVE FRUIT FLY MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES FOR 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research topics include but are not limited to: a) maximization of the efficacy of GF-120 bait treatments used within olive groves; b) discovery, introduction, and establishment of parasitic wasps that attack OLF (i.e., classical biological control); c) development of phenology models for OLF and ol...

  1. Pure Culture Fermentation of Green Olives1

    PubMed Central

    Etchells, J. L.; Borg, A. F.; Kittel, I. D.; Bell, T. A.; Fleming, H. P.

    1966-01-01

    The method previously developed by us for the pure-culture fermentation of brined cucumbers and other vegetables has been applied successfully to Manzanillo variety olives. Field-run grade fruit was processed first by conventional procedures to remove most of the bitterness. Then the relative abilities of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, Pediococcus cerevisiae, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides to become established and produce acid in both heat-shocked (74 C for 3 min) and unheated olives, brined at 4.7 to 5.9% NaCl (w/v basis), were evaluated. The heat-shock treatment not only proved effective in ridding the fruit of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining and inoculation, but also made the olives highly fermentable with respect to growth and acid production by the introduced culture, particularly L. plantarum. Of the four species used as inocula, L. plantarum was by far the most vigorous in fermentation ability. It consistently produced the highest levels of brine acidity (1.0 to 1.2% calculated as lactic acid) and the lowest pH values (3.8 to 3.9) during the fermentation of heat-shocked olives. Also, L. plantarum completely dominated fermentations when used in two-species (with P. cerevisiae) and three-species (with P. cerevisiae and L. brevis) combinations as inocula. In contrast, when L. plantarum was inoculated into the brines of unheated olives it failed to become properly established; the same was true for the other species tested, but even to a more pronounced degree. L. brevis was the only species used that failed to develop in brines of both heat-shocked and unheated olives. Modification of the curing brine by the addition of lactic acid at the outset, either with or without dextrose, led to a much earlier onset of fermentation with accompanying acid development, as compared to treatments with dextrose alone or nonadditive controls. Reasons for the marked improvement of the fermentability of Manzanillo olives receiving the prebrining heat-shock treatment are discussed. PMID:16349674

  2. 2Un Sobrevuelo del Asteroide Lutetia La nave espacial europea Rosetta de la Agencia, con instrumentos de la

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    instrumentos de la NASA a bordo, sobrevoló el asteroide Lutetia sábado, 10 de julio 2010. El diámetro del2Un Sobrevuelo del Asteroide Lutetia La nave espacial europea Rosetta de la Agencia, con asteroide es de unos 130 km. Esta fotografía fue tomada desde una distancia de 3.162 kilometros. Problema 1

  3. Olives and Olive Oil Are Sources of Electrophilic Fatty Acid Nitroalkenes

    PubMed Central

    Schopfer, Francisco J.; Salvatore, Sonia R.; Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Vitturi, Dario; Valderrama, Raquel; Barroso, Juan B.; Radi, Rafael; Freeman, Bruce A.; Rubbo, Homero

    2014-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and olives, key sources of unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean diet, provide health benefits to humans. Nitric oxide (•NO) and nitrite (NO2?)-dependent reactions of unsaturated fatty acids yield electrophilic nitroalkene derivatives (NO2-FA) that manifest salutary pleiotropic cell signaling responses in mammals. Herein, the endogenous presence of NO2-FA in both EVOO and fresh olives was demonstrated by mass spectrometry. The electrophilic nature of these species was affirmed by the detection of significant levels of protein cysteine adducts of nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA-cysteine) in fresh olives, especially in the peel. Further nitration of EVOO by NO2? under acidic gastric digestive conditions revealed that human consumption of olive lipids will produce additional nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2-cLA) and nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA). The presence of free and protein-adducted NO2-FA in both mammalian and plant lipids further affirm a role for these species as signaling mediators. Since NO2-FA instigate adaptive anti-inflammatory gene expression and metabolic responses, these redox-derived metabolites may contribute to the cardiovascular benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet. PMID:24454759

  4. Bioremediation and biovalorisation of olive-mill wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Morillo; B. Antizar-Ladislao; M. Monteoliva-Sánchez; A. Ramos-Cormenzana; N. J. Russell

    2009-01-01

    Olive-mill wastes are produced by the industry of olive oil production, which is a very important economic activity, particularly\\u000a for Spain, Italy and Greece, leading to a large environmental problem of current concern in the Mediterranean basin. There\\u000a is as yet no accepted treatment method for all the wastes generated during olive oil production, mainly due to technical and\\u000a economical

  5. Influence of ecological cultivation on virgin olive oil quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisca Gutiérrez; Teresa Arnaud; Miguel A. Albi

    1999-01-01

    The quality of oil extracted from ecologically cultivated olives of the Picual variety was compared with oil extracted from\\u000a Picual olives cultivated using conventional methods. Olive trees were grown in a two-section plot. Fruits from each plot were\\u000a harvested at various stages of ripeness, and acidity value, peroxide index, ultraviolet absorption at 232 and 270 nm, stability\\u000a to oxidation, sensory

  6. Polyamine-induced modulation of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling pathways and nitric oxide production during olive mature fruit abscission

    PubMed Central

    Parra-Lobato, Maria C.; Gomez-Jimenez, Maria C.

    2011-01-01

    After fruit ripening, many fruit-tree species undergo massive natural fruit abscission. Olive (Olea europaea L.) is a stone-fruit with cultivars such as Picual (PIC) and Arbequina (ARB) which differ in mature fruit abscission potential. Ethylene (ET) is associated with abscission, but its role during mature fruit abscission remains largely uncharacterized. The present study investigates the possible roles of ET and polyamine (PA) during mature fruit abscission by modulating genes involved in the ET signalling and biosynthesis pathways in the abscission zone (AZ) of both cultivars. Five ET-related genes (OeACS2, OeACO2, OeCTR1, OeERS1, and OeEIL2) were isolated in the AZ and adjacent cells (AZ–AC), and their expression in various olive organs and during mature fruit abscission, in relation to interactions between ET and PA and the expression induction of these genes, was determined. OeACS2, OeACO2, and OeEIL2 were found to be the only genes that were up-regulated in association with mature fruit abscission. Using the inhibition of ET and PA biosynthesis, it is demonstrated that OeACS2 and OeEIL2 expression are under the negative control of PA while ET induces their expression in AZ–AC. Furthermore, mature fruit abscission depressed nitric oxide (NO) production present mainly in the epidermal cells and xylem of the AZ. Also, NO production was differentially responsive to ET, PA, and different inhibitors. Taken together, the results indicate that PA-dependent ET signalling and biosynthesis pathways participate, at least partially, during mature fruit abscission, and that endogenous NO and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid maintain an inverse correlation, suggesting an antagonistic action of NO and ET in abscission signalling. PMID:21633085

  7. Sensory characterization of virgin olive oil-based cosmetic creams.

    PubMed

    Parente, Maria Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Boinbaser, Lucia; Roascio, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    The influence of olive oil concentration and sensory profile on the odor of virgin olive oil-based cosmetic creams was studied. Four olive oils were selected on the basis of different intensities of positive and defective odor attributes: two extra virgin olive oils, one virgin olive oil, and one ordinary virgin olive oil. Thirty cosmetic creams were prepared, by both cold and hot processing methods, using each of the above oils at concentrations of 3%, 5%, and 10%, in addition to mineral oil controls. A trained sensory panel evaluated the fruitiness and defectiveness intensities in the odor of creams, using unstructured 10-cm scales ranging from "none at all" to "much." The fruity and defective attributes perceived in the odor of creams were significantly influenced by the sensory profile of the starting olive oil, oil concentration, and preparation method. Overall, these findings suggest that virgin olive oils of only slightly fruity odor may be conveniently used for the preparation of cold-processed cosmetic creams, whereas ordinary virgin olive oils appear to be suitable for the preparation of cosmetic creams only by hot processing of the emulsion at a low oil concentration. PMID:24139435

  8. Traditional olive orchards on sloping land: sustainability or abandonment?

    PubMed

    Duarte, Filomena; Jones, Nádia; Fleskens, Luuk

    2008-11-01

    Traditional olive orchards account for a large share of the area under olives in the EU, particularly in marginal areas, like those analysed in the OLIVERO project. In general, traditional olive growing can be described as a low-intensity production system, associated with old (sometimes very old) trees, grown at a low density, giving small yields and receiving low inputs of labour and materials. Though such systems are environmentally sustainable, their economic viability has become an issue, since EU policies favour more intensive and competitive systems. Orchards that have not been intensified seem to be threatened by the recent reform of the EU olive and olive oil policy, as income support has been decoupled from production. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the present constraints to traditional olive growing, and to recommend some private and public interventions to prevent its abandonment. During the OLIVERO project, traditional olive production systems were identified and described in five target areas (Trás-os-Montes--Portugal, Cordoba and Granada/Jaen--Spain, Basilicata/Salerno--Italy, and West Crete--Greece). The causes and consequences of abandonment are discussed, based on the analysis of the costs and returns, which revealed that these systems are barely economically sustainable. Their viability is only assured if reduced opportunity costs for family labour are accepted, and the olive growing is part-time. Based on these results, recommendations are made to prevent the abandonment of traditional olive growing and to preserve its environmental benefits. PMID:17923250

  9. Analysis of minor components in olive oil.

    PubMed

    Murkovic, Michael; Lechner, Sonja; Pietzka, Ariane; Bratacos, Michael; Katzogiannos, Evangellos

    2004-10-29

    Virgin olive oil is well known for its high content of phenolic substances that are thought to have health-promoting properties. These substances also contribute to the distinctive taste of the oil. In this study, tyrosol, vanillic acid, luteolin, and apigenin were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In the seven samples analysed, tyrosol, the most abundant, was in the range of 1.4-29 mg/kg, vanillic acid was in the range of 0.67-4.0 mg/kg, luteolin was in the range of 0.22-7.0 mg/kg, and apigenin was in the range of 0.68-1.6 mg/kg. It was also shown that in olive oil, squalene can be analysed by using a refractive index detector. In the samples analysed, squalene occurred in the range of 3.9-9.6 g/l. PMID:15560931

  10. Qualitative and quantitative sugar profiling in olive fruits, leaves, and stems by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) after ultrasound-assisted leaching.

    PubMed

    Gómez-González, Soledad; Ruiz-Jiménez, José; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, María Dolores

    2010-12-01

    Qualitative and quantitative profiling of sugars in vegetal materials from Olea europaea cultivars is here reported. Vegetal tissues from olive fruits, leaves, and stems have been characterized by determination of 22 compounds belonging to monosaccharides, disaccharides, trisaccharides, sugar carboxylic acids and alcohols, cyclic polyols, and derived compounds. Sugar isolation was carried out by leaching into a 2:1 dichloromethane/methanol extraction solution under ultrasonic assistance. Multivariate optimization made possible complete isolation of the target fraction in 10 min with an efficiency similar to that provided by a conventional protocol based on 24 h maceration of the vegetal samples. An aliquot of the extract was dried and reconstituted for silylation prior to GC-MS/MS analysis for selective and sensitive identification/quantitation of sugars. Monitoring the target product ions generated after isolation of the precursor ions for each analyte increases the selectivity of the method. The proposed approach is of particular interest for characterization of the sugar fraction in O. europaea, which is of great relevance because of the role of sugars in the metabolism of lipids, proteins, and antioxidants. PMID:21058721

  11. Chemometric characterization of three varietal olive oils (Cvs. Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana) extracted from olives with different maturation indices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luís C. Matos; Sara C. Cunha; Joana S. Amaral; José A. Pereira; Paula B. Andrade; Rosa M. Seabra; Beatriz P. P. Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates the usefulness of three chemical parameters (compositions on tocopherols, sterols and fatty acids) as a tool to discriminate three varietal olive oils (Cvs. Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana), which are permitted cultivars for the production of “Trás-os-Montes olive oil”, a Portuguese protected designation of origin (PDO) product. The olives were collected during the year crop 2000\\/2001 from

  12. Air exposure time of olive pastes during the extraction process and phenolic and volatile composition of virgin olive oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurizio Servili; Roberto Selvaggini; Agnese Taticchi; Sonia Esposto; Gianfrancesco Montedoro

    2003-01-01

    The time of exposure of olive pastes to air contact (TEOPAC) during malaxation was studied as a processing parameter that\\u000a could be used to control endogenous oxidoreductases, such as polyphenoloxidase, peroxidase, and lipoxygenase, which affect\\u000a virgin olive oil quality. Phenolic and volatile compounds were analyzed in the oils obtained using progressive TEOPAC at three\\u000a ripening stages of olives. Multivariate statistical

  13. Microcircuitry and function of the inferior olive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris I. De Zeeuw; Casper C. Hoogenraad; S. K. E. Koekkoek; Tom J. H. Ruigrok; Niels Galjart; John I. Simpson

    1998-01-01

    The inferior olive, which provides the climbing fibers to Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex, has been implicated in various functions, such as learning and timing of movements, and comparing intended with achieved movements. For example, climbing-fiber activity could transmit error signals during eye-blink conditioning or adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, or it could carry motor command signals beating on

  14. Olive oil isochromans inhibit human platelet reactivity.

    PubMed

    Togna, Giuseppina I; Togna, Anna Rita; Franconi, Matteo; Marra, Carolina; Guiso, Marcella

    2003-08-01

    The effects of certain polyphenolic compounds in red wine, such as resveratrol and quercetin, have been widely investigated to determine the relationship between dietary phenolic compounds and the decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effects of polyphenolic compounds contained in other foods, such as olive oil, have received less attention and little information exists regarding the biological activities of the phenol fraction in olive oil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiplatelet activity and antioxidant power of two isochromans [1-(3'-methoxy-4'-hydroxy-phenyl)-6,7-dihydroxy-isochroman (encoded L116) and 1-phenyl-6,7-dihydroxy-isochroman (encoded L137)] recently discovered in olive oil and synthesized in our laboratory from hydroxytyrosol. These compounds were effective free radical scavengers and inhibited platelet aggregation and thromboxane release evoked by agonists that induce reactive oxygen species-mediated platelet activation including sodium arachidonate and collagen, but not ADP. Release of tritiated arachidonic acid from platelets was also impaired by L116 and L137. These results indicate that other Mediterranean diet nutraceuticals also exhibit antioxidant activity that could be beneficial in the prevention of vascular diseases. PMID:12888632

  15. Quantitation of Oleuropein and Related Metabolites in Decoctions of Olea europaea Leaves from Ten Greek Cultivated Varieties by HPLC with Diode Array Detection (HPLC?DAD)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Apostolis Agalias; Eleni Melliou; Prokopios Magiatis; Sofia Mitaku; Evagelos Gikas; Anthony Tsarbopoulos

    2005-01-01

    An extraction procedure and chromatographic methodology for the simultaneous quantitation of four major constituents in the boiling water extracts (decoctions) of Olea europaea leaves has been developed. The four studied constituents were oleuropein, elenolic acid, hydroxytyrosol, and tyrosol. The quantitation was performed using HPLC?DAD, whereas qualitative data were acquired using LC?MS. The developed methodology was applied in the study of

  16. Multiple Biological Effects of Olive Oil By-products such as Leaves, Stems, Flowers, Olive Milled Waste, Fruit Pulp, and Seeds of the Olive Plant on Skin.

    PubMed

    Kishikawa, Asuka; Ashour, Ahmed; Zhu, Qinchang; Yasuda, Midori; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-06-01

    As olive oil production increases, so does the amount of olive oil by-products, which can cause environmental problems. Thus, new ways to utilize the by-products are needed. In the present study, five bioactive characteristics of olive oil by-products were assessed, namely their antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-melanogenesis, anti-allergic, and collagen-production-promoting activities. First, the extracts of leaves (May and October), stems (May and October), flowers, olive milled waste, fruit pulp and seeds were prepared using two safe solvents, ethanol and water. According to HPLC and LC/MS analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the ethanol extracts of the leaves (May and October), stems (May and October) and flowers contained oleuropein, and the ethanol extract of the stems showed the highest total phenol content. Oleuropein may contribute to the antioxidant and anti-melanogenesis activities of the leaves, stems, and flowers. However, other active compounds or synergistic effects present in the ethanol extracts are also likely to contribute to the anti-bacterial activity of the leaves and flowers, the anti-melanogenesis activity of some parts, the anti-allergic activity of olive milled waste, and the collagen-production-promoting activity of the leaves, stems, olive milled waste and fruit pulp. This study provides evidence that the by-products of olive oil have the potential to be further developed and used in the skin care industry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25779104

  17. Effects of olive mill wastes added to olive grove soils on erosion and soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2014-05-01

    INTRODUCTION The increasing degradation of olive groves by effect of organic matter losses derived from intensive agricultural practices has promoted the use (by olive farmers) of olive mill wastes (olive leaves and alperujo) which contain large amounts of organic matter and are free of heavy metals and pathogenic microorganisms. In this work we compared the effects of these oil mill wastes on the decrease of soil erosion, also, we undertook the assessment of the organic carbon and nitrogen contents of soil, their distribution across the profile, the accumulation and Stratification ratios (SRs) of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN), and the C:N ratio, in Cambisols in Mediterranean olive groves treated with olive leaves and alperujo. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study area was a typical olive grove in southern Spain under conventional tillage (CT). Three plots were established. The first one was the control plot; the second one was treated with olive leaves (CTol) and the third one, with alperujo (CTa). 9 samples per plot were collected to examine the response of the soil 3 years after application of the wastes. Soil properties determined were: soil particle size, pH, bulk density, the available water capacity, SOC, TN and C:N ratio. SOC and N stock, expressed for a specific depth in Mg ha-1. Stratification ratios (SRs) (that can be used as an indicator of dynamic soil quality) for SOC and TN at three different depths were calculated. The erosion study was based on simulations of rain; that have been carried out in order to highlight differences in the phenomena of runoff and soil losses in the three plots considered. The effect of different treatments on soil properties was analyzed using a ANOVA, followed by an Anderson-Darling test. RESULTS Supplying the soil with the wastes significantly improved physical and chemical properties in the studied soils with respect to the control. C and N stocks increased, the SOC stock was 75.4 Mg ha-1 in CT, 91.5 Mg ha-1 in CTa and 136.3 Mg ha-1 in CTol; and the TN stock 12.1, 13.9 and 16.1 Mg ha-1 in CT, CTa and CTol, respectively. In addition, both oil mill wastes contributed to delay runoff generation and erosion, enhancing the infiltration of rainwater. Furthermore, application of the wastes improved soil quality (SRs of SOC were greater than 2). So the addition of these oil mill wastes to agricultural soils has become a viable solution to their disposal; not only do they enrich deficient soils with organic matter, but also improve their physical and chemical properties, even decrease soil erosion, especially olive leaves. REFERENCES Lozano-García, B., Parras-Alcántara, L., del Toro, M., 2011. The effects of agricultural management with oil mill by-products on surface soil properties, runoff and soil losses in southern Spain. Catena 85, 187-193. Lozano-García, B., Parras-Alcántara, L., 2013. Short-term effects of olive mill by-products on soil organic carbon, total N, C:N ratio and stratification ratios in a Mediterranean olive grove. Agriculture Ecosystem and Environment 165, 68-73.

  18. Long term modification of cerebellar inhibition after inferior olive degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Batini; J. M. Billard; H. Daniel

    1985-01-01

    The long term effects of inferior olive destruction on the activities of the Purkinje cells and their target neurones in the cerebellar nuclei were studied in the rat. Careful observations were also made of motor behaviour throughout the study. Albino rats were injected with 3-acetylpyridine to produce a neurotoxic destruction of the inferior olive and then were used for acute

  19. Sustainable technologies for olive mill wastewater management (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The California olive oil industry produces more than 600 million gallons of wastewater each year. Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is considered a highly polluting effluent due to its high organic load and resistance to biological degradation. A current trend in OMWW management is to not only decrease e...

  20. Anaerobic treatment of olive mill wastes in batch reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. H Ergüder; E Güven; G. N Demirer

    2000-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment of olive oil mill wastes, namely black water and prina, was investigated in batch reactors. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted to determine the anaerobic biodegradability of black water and\\/or prina. With these BMP tests the biodegradability of olive mill wastes (OMWs) at different initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations and corresponding methane gas productions were investigated.

  1. Industrial implementation of black ripe olive storage under acid conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio de Castro; Pedro García; Concepción Romero; Manuel Brenes; Antonio Garrido

    2007-01-01

    Restrictions on the discharge of chloride in wastewater streams have recently increased, and processors of black ripe olives have to look for alternative storage systems to the traditional brines. Ripe olives of the Hojiblanca variety were stored under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in industrial underground tanks for one year. The aerobic systems assayed with or without NaCl produced a continuous

  2. Energy budget in organic and conventional olive groves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Apostolos M. Kaltsas; Andreas P. Mamolos; Constantinos A. Tsatsarelis; George D. Nanos; Kiriaki L. Kalburtji

    2007-01-01

    An energy analysis, combined with an economic one, in conventional and organic olive groves is useful in evaluating present situation and deciding best management strategies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences in the energy budget between organic and conventional olive groves in three locations in the island of Thasos and to calculate CO2-emissions based on the

  3. Olive Phenol Hydroxytyrosol Prevents Passive Smoking-Induced Oxidative Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Visioli; Claudio Galli; Elena Plasmati; Serena Viappiani; Alicia Hernandez; Claudio Colombo; Angelo Sala

    2010-01-01

    Background—Oxidative stress is involved in the onset of several degenerative disorders, and epidemiological studies indicate that a high intake of dietary antioxidants, as in the case of the Mediterranean basin, is protective. Olive mill waste waters (OMWWs) are a byproduct of olive oil production rich in phenolic antioxidants, such as hydroxytyrosol. We tested the effects of a low dose of

  4. Technical, quality and environmental efficiency of the olive oil industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafaela Dios-Palomares; José M. Martínez-Paz

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the level of technical efficiency in the olive oil industry from a multi-output perspective, and examines olive oil production in quantitative and qualitative terms. The study also covers the environmental impact of the production process. These are key issues due to the current environmental, organoleptic and food traceability requirements of the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Furthermore,

  5. Olive response to water availability: yield response functions, soil water content indicators and evaluation of adaptability to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccardi, Maria; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Basile, Angelo; Bonfante, Antonello; Menenti, Massimo; Monaco, Eugenia; De Lorenzi, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    Climate evolution, with the foreseen increase of temperature and frequency of drought events during the summer, could cause significant changes in the availability of water resources specially in the Mediterranean region. European countries need to encourage sustainable agriculture practices, reducing inputs, especially of water, and minimizing any negative impact on crop quantity and quality. Olive is an important crop in the Mediterranean region that has traditionally been cultivated with no irrigation and is known to attain acceptable production under dry farming. Therefore this crop will not compete for foreseen reduced water resources. However, a good quantitative knowledge must be available about effects of reduced precipitation and water availability on yield. Yield response functions, coupled with indicators of soil water availability, provide a quantitative description of the cultivar- specific behavior in relation to hydrological conditions. Yield response functions of 11 olive cultivars, typical of Mediterranean environment, were determined using experimental data (unpublished or reported in scientific literature). The yield was expressed as relative yield (Yr); the soil water availability was described by means of different indicators: relative soil water deficit (RSWD), relative evapotranspiration (RED) and transpiration deficit (RTD). Crops can respond nonlinearly to changes in their growing conditions and exhibit threshold responses, so for the yield functions of each olive cultivar both linear regression and threshold-slope models were considered to evaluate the best fit. The level of relative yield attained in rain-fed conditions was identified and defined as the acceptable yield level (Yrrainfed). The value of the indicator (RSWD, RED and RTD) corresponding to Yrrainfed was determined for each cultivar and indicated as the critical value of water availability. The error in the determination of the critical value was estimated. By means of a simulation model of the water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, the indicators of soil water availability were calculated for different soil units in an area of Southern Italy, traditionally cultivated with olive. Simulations were performed for two climate scenarios: reference (1961-90) and future climate (2021-50). The potentiality of the indicators RSWD, RED and RTD to describe soil water availability was evaluated using simulated and experimental data. The analysis showed that RED values were correlated to RTD. The analysis demonstrated that RTD was more effective than RED in representing crop water availability RSWD is very well correlated to RTD and the degree of correlation depends of the period of deficit considered. The probability of adaptation of each cultivar was calculated for both climatic periods by comparing the critical values (and their error distribution) with soil availability indicators. Keywords: Olea europaea, soil water deficit, water availability critical value. The work was carried out within the Italian national project AGROSCENARI funded by the Ministry for Agricultural, Food and Forest Policies (MIPAAF, D.M. 8608/7303/2008)

  6. Phenolic compounds in olive oil and olive pomace from Cilento (Campania, Italy) and their antioxidant activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppina Cioffi; Maria Sabina Pesca; Paolo De Caprariis; Alessandra Braca; Lorella Severino; Nunziatina De Tommasi

    2010-01-01

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) has nutritional and sensory characteristics that make it unique and a basic component of the Mediterranean diet. Its importance is mainly attributed to its richness in polyphenols, which act as natural antioxidants and may contribute to the prevention of several human diseases. In this paper we report the determination and quantification of oleocanthal, one of the

  7. Microwave heating of different commercial categories of olive oil: Part II. Effect on thermal properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma Chiavaro; Carlo Barnaba; Elena Vittadini; Maria Teresa Rodriguez-Estrada; Lorenzo Cerretani; Alessandra Bendini

    2009-01-01

    The effect of microwave heating of commercial categories of olive oil for human consumption (extra virgin olive oil [EVOo], olive–pomace oil [Po] and olive oil [Oo]) on DSC thermal properties was evaluated at different times of microwave treatment.Marked changes of DSC cooling profiles were found for EVOo and Po subjected to microwaving, with the major exotherm that shifted towards lower

  8. 64 FR 46754 - Proposed Olive Oil Promotion, Research, and Information Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-08-26

    ...7 CFR Part 1217 Olive Oil Promotion, Research, and Information Order...1217 [FV-99-703-PR1] Proposed Olive Oil Promotion, Research, and Information Order...research, and information program for olive oil. A proposed program--the Olive Oil...

  9. International conference on the healthy effect of virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Perez-Jimenez, F; Alvarez de Cienfuegos, G; Badimon, L; Barja, G; Battino, M; Blanco, A; Bonanome, A; Colomer, R; Corella-Piquer, D; Covas, I; Chamorro-Quiros, J; Escrich, E; Gaforio, J J; Garcia Luna, P P; Hidalgo, L; Kafatos, A; Kris-Etherton, P M; Lairon, D; Lamuela-Raventos, R; Lopez-Miranda, J; Lopez-Segura, F; Martinez-Gonzalez, M A; Mata, P; Mataix, J; Ordovas, J; Osada, J; Pacheco-Reyes, R; Perucho, M; Pineda-Priego, M; Quiles, J L; Ramirez-Tortosa, M C; Ruiz-Gutierrez, V; Sanchez-Rovira, P; Solfrizzi, V; Soriguer-Escofet, F; de la Torre-Fornell, R; Trichopoulos, A; Villalba-Montoro, J M; Villar-Ortiz, J R; Visioli, F

    2005-07-01

    1. Ageing represents a great concern in developed countries because the number of people involved and the pathologies related with it, like atherosclerosis, morbus Parkinson, Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, cognitive decline, diabetes and cancer. 2. Epidemiological studies suggest that a Mediterranean diet (which is rich in virgin olive oil) decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease. 3. The Mediterranean diet, rich in virgin olive oil, improves the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as the lipoprotein profile, blood pressure, glucose metabolism and antithrombotic profile. Endothelial function, inflammation and oxidative stress are also positively modulated. Some of these effects are attributed to minor components of virgin olive oil. Therefore, the definition of the Mediterranean diet should include virgin olive oil. 4. Different observational studies conducted in humans have shown that the intake of monounsaturated fat may be protective against age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. 5. Microconstituents from virgin olive oil are bioavailable in humans and have shown antioxidant properties and capacity to improve endothelial function. Furthermore they are also able to modify the haemostasis, showing antithrombotic properties. 6. In countries where the populations fulfilled a typical Mediterranean diet, such as Spain, Greece and Italy, where virgin olive oil is the principal source of fat, cancer incidence rates are lower than in northern European countries. 7. The protective effect of virgin olive oil can be most important in the first decades of life, which suggests that the dietetic benefit of virgin olive oil intake should be initiated before puberty, and maintained through life. 8. The more recent studies consistently support that the Mediterranean diet, based in virgin olive oil, is compatible with a healthier ageing and increased longevity. However, despite the significant advances of the recent years, the final proof about the specific mechanisms and contributing role of the different components of virgin olive oil to its beneficial effects requires further investigations. PMID:16008542

  10. Cardioprotective and neuroprotective roles of oleuropein in olive.

    PubMed

    Omar, Syed Haris

    2010-07-01

    Traditional diets of people living in the Mediterranean basin are, among other components, very rich in extra-virgin olive oil, the most typical source of visible fat. Olive is a priceless source of monounsaturated and di-unsaturated fatty acids, polyphenolic antioxidants and vitamins. Oleuropein is the main glycoside in olives and is responsible for the bitter taste of immature and unprocessed olives. Chemically, oleuropein is the ester of elenolic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl ethanol, which possesses beneficial effects on human health, such as antioxidant, antiatherogenic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The phenolic fraction extracted from the leaves of the olive tree, which contains significant amounts of oleuropein, prevents lipoprotein oxidation. In addition, oleuropein has shown cardioprotective effect against acute adriamycin cardiotoxicity and an anti-ischemic and hypolipidemic activities. Recently, oleuropein has shown neuroprotection by forming a non-covalent complex with the A? peptide, which is a key hallmark of several degenerative diseases like Alzheimer and Parkinson. Thus, a large mass of research has been accumulating in the area of olive oil, in the attempt to provide evidence for the health benefits of olive oil consumption and to scientifically support the widespread adoption of traditional Mediterranean diet as a model of healthy eating. These results provide a molecular basis for some of the benefits potentially coming from oleuropein consumption and pave the way to further studies on the possible pharmacological use of oleuropein to prevent or to slow down the cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23964170

  11. Cardioprotective and neuroprotective roles of oleuropein in olive

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Syed Haris

    2010-01-01

    Traditional diets of people living in the Mediterranean basin are, among other components, very rich in extra-virgin olive oil, the most typical source of visible fat. Olive is a priceless source of monounsaturated and di-unsaturated fatty acids, polyphenolic antioxidants and vitamins. Oleuropein is the main glycoside in olives and is responsible for the bitter taste of immature and unprocessed olives. Chemically, oleuropein is the ester of elenolic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl ethanol, which possesses beneficial effects on human health, such as antioxidant, antiatherogenic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The phenolic fraction extracted from the leaves of the olive tree, which contains significant amounts of oleuropein, prevents lipoprotein oxidation. In addition, oleuropein has shown cardioprotective effect against acute adriamycin cardiotoxicity and an anti-ischemic and hypolipidemic activities. Recently, oleuropein has shown neuroprotection by forming a non-covalent complex with the A? peptide, which is a key hallmark of several degenerative diseases like Alzheimer and Parkinson. Thus, a large mass of research has been accumulating in the area of olive oil, in the attempt to provide evidence for the health benefits of olive oil consumption and to scientifically support the widespread adoption of traditional Mediterranean diet as a model of healthy eating. These results provide a molecular basis for some of the benefits potentially coming from oleuropein consumption and pave the way to further studies on the possible pharmacological use of oleuropein to prevent or to slow down the cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23964170

  12. Separation of olive proteins combining a simple extraction method and a selective capillary electrophoresis (CE) approach: application to raw and table olive samples.

    PubMed

    Montealegre, Cristina; Marina, Maria Luisa; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2010-11-24

    A simple extraction method was developed to extract proteins from olive samples based on chloroform/methanol extraction followed by a protein precipitation with cold acetone. Then, a capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was carried out using an acid buffer (1 M formic acid at pH 2) to ensure a positive net charge for proteins and a neutral charge for potential interferents as polyphenols. The method developed was applied to raw and table olive samples. Interestingly, raw olive samples showed differences in protein profiles depending upon the botanical variety of olives and their geographical region. Protein profiles obtained for table olives also showed differences according to the sample treatment. Thus, a signal reduction in the electropherograms obtained for black olives was observed in comparison to those achieved for treated green olives. In this work, the use of protein profiles was demonstrated to be a powerful tool for studying variations among olive samples. PMID:21038920

  13. Chemical composition of virgin olive oils according to the ripening in olives.

    PubMed

    Fuentes de Mendoza, Manuel; De Miguel Gordillo, Concepción; Marín Expóxito, Julia; Sánchez Casas, Jacinto; Martínez Cano, Manuel; Martín Vertedor, Daniel; Franco Baltasar, Ma Nieves

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was the classification of olive oil according to the stage of ripeness of the olives used for its manufacture. A discriminant analysis was applied taking as dependent variables the fatty acids, triglycerides and sterols profile. The evolution of parameters of quality of the oils during ripening of the fruit has also been studied in three successive crops. The results of the classification shows that 88.5% of selected original grouped cases are correctly classified (85.7% green, 80% spotted and 78.9% ripe) and furthermore the validation classified the 69.6% of the unselected original cases. The most discriminating variables have been: avenasterol, linolenic acid, ?-sitosterol and gadoleico. Fig. 1 shows graphically the values of the canonical discriminant functions and the centroids of the intervals of three or the maturity index. PMID:23870997

  14. Determination of the Diglyceride Content in Greek Virgin Olive Oils and Some Commercial Olive Oils by Employing 31 P NMR Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Penelope Fronimaki; Apostolos Spyros; Stella Christophoridou; Photis Dais

    2002-01-01

    In this study, the diglyceride contents of 96 samples of virgin olive oils from the regions of Crete, Lesvos, Messinia, Pilion, Zakynthos, Halkidiki, and Ilia, 15 samples of commercial extra virgin and pure olive oils, and 3 samples each of refined olive oils and pomace oils were determined by a facile method introduced in a previous publication. This method is

  15. Microbiota of table olive fermentations and criteria of selection for their use as starters

    PubMed Central

    Heperkan, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    Fermentation is one of the oldest methods for preserving of olives applied worldwide for thousands of years. However, olive processing is a speculative area where whether olives are fermented products or pickled products produced by organic acids and salt. Although lactobacilli and yeasts play a major role in the process, literature survey indicates that lactobacilli are less relevant at least in some types of natural green olives during fermentation. There have been significant advances recently in understanding the process to produce olives, especially the role of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts including biofilm formation on olive surfaces by these organisms. The purpose of this paper is to review the latest developments regarding the microbiota of olives on the basis of olive types, their role on the fermentation process, the interaction between both group of microorganisms and the olive surface, the possibility to use starter cultures and the criteria to select appropriate cultures. PMID:23781216

  16. Microbiological characterization of table olives commercialized in Portugal in respect to safety aspects.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana Paula; Pereira, José Alberto; Bento, Albino; Estevinho, M Letícia

    2008-08-01

    Table olives are a traditional component of the Mediterranean diet and are largely consumed in the world. There are different trade treatments that originate different types of olives. The aim of the present work was to proceed to the microbiological characterization of table olives commercialized in the Portuguese market, with respect to their microbiological safety. The microbiological characterization was made in the olive pulp and packing brine of thirty-five table olives samples of different types and trade treatments, namely natural olives Cv. Galega (NOG), natural turning colour olives (NTCO), green olives (GO), black ripe olives (BO) and natural olives purchased in the traditional market and obtained from traditional producers (NOt). Simultaneously it was verified specific legislation of the table olives in what it concerns to labeling rules, pH values and the identification of isolated yeasts. In general, table olives consumed showed acceptable security with exception of four NOt samples that presented Staphylococcus aureus. In a considerable number of samples high number of microorganisms indicators of contaminations were observed that reveals the need of optimization the hygienic procedures during production process to improve the quality and safety of table olives. During the work seven yeasts were isolated from olive pulp and brine. PMID:18573303

  17. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds Present in Virgin Olive Oil

    PubMed Central

    Cicerale, Sara; Lucas, Lisa; Keast, Russell

    2010-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a traditional Mediterranean diet. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have demonstrated that olive oil phenolic compounds have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, antimicrobial activity and bone health. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the bioavailability and biological activities of olive oil phenolic compounds. PMID:20386648

  18. Origin assessment of EV olive oils by esterified sterols analysis.

    PubMed

    Giacalone, Rosa; Giuliano, Salvatore; Gulotta, Eleonora; Monfreda, Maria; Presti, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    In this study extra virgin olive oils of Italian and non-Italian origin (from Spain, Tunisia and blends of EU origin) were differentiated by GC-FID analysis of sterols and esterified sterols followed by chemometric tools. PCA allowed to highlight the high significance of esterified sterols to characterise extra virgin olive oils in relation to their origin. SIMCA provided a sensitivity and specificity of 94.39% and 91.59% respectively; furthermore, an external set of 54 extra virgin olive oils bearing a designation of Italian origin on the labelling was tested by SIMCA. Prediction results were also compared with organoleptic assessment. Finally, the poor correlation found between ethylesters and esterified sterols allowed to hazard the guess, worthy of further investigations, that esterified sterols may prove to be promising in studies of geographical discrimination: indeed they appear to be independent of those factors causing the formation of ethyl esters and related to olive oil production. PMID:26041193

  19. Evidence of oleuropein degradation by olive leaf protein extract.

    PubMed

    De Leonardis, Antonella; Macciola, Vincenzo; Cuomo, Francesca; Lopez, Francesco

    2015-05-15

    The enzymatic activity of raw protein olive leaf extract has been investigated in vivo, on olive leaf homogenate and, in vitro with pure oleuropein and other phenolic substrates. At least two types of enzymes were found to be involved in the degradation of endogenous oleuropein in olive leaves. As for the in vitro experiments, the presence of active polyphenoloxidase and ?-glucosidase was determined by HPLC and UV-Visible spectroscopy. Interestingly, both the enzymatic activities were found to change during the storage of olive leaves. Specifically, the protein extracts obtained from fresh leaves showed the presence of both the enzymatic activities, because oleuropein depletion occurred simultaneously with the formation of the oleuropein aglycon, 3,4-DHPEA-EA. In comparison leaves subjected to the drying process showed a polyphenoloxidase activity leading exclusively to the formation of oxidation products responsible for the typical brown coloration of the reaction solution. PMID:25577121

  20. Oliver Wendell Holmes Man of Medicine; Man of Letters

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Virginia

    1966-01-01

    This biographical sketch portrays Oliver Wendell Holmes as a leading figure both in American medicine and in American literature. Particular attention is directed to his classic essay, “The Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever.” PMID:5325818

  1. 31. VIEW LOOKING INSIDE 'BRAVO' SILO OLIVE DRAB SHIELD, DRAWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW LOOKING INSIDE 'BRAVO' SILO OLIVE DRAB SHIELD, DRAWN IN DISTORTED WAY TO FIT ON STAIRWELL Everett Weinreb, photographer, April 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. Olive bagasse and nutshell as gamma shielding material

    SciTech Connect

    ?naç, Esra; Bayta?, A. Filiz [Energy Institute, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2013-12-16

    Gamma ray linear attenuation coefficients have been measured experimentally for olive bagasse and nutshell by using narrow beam geometry for Co-60 and the values have been compared with soil. These values have been used calculate mean free path, half value layer and tenth value layer parameters. Besides, effect of multi-layered systems (soil + olive bagasse and soil + nutshell) has been analyzed in terms of half value layer.

  3. Evaluation of Functional Phytochemicals in Destoned Virgin Olive Oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfonso Ranalli; Donato Marchegiani; Diana Pardi; Stefania Contento; Davide Pardi; Fabio Girardi; Faten Kotti

    2009-01-01

    Processing destoned olives by means of extracting adjuvants micronised food talc and depolymerising Cytolase 0 enzyme complex have been studied in the present work. This innovative processing technology increased the plant efficiency\\u000a (amounts of olives processed per hour) by 20%, as well as the nutritional quality of the end product with respect to functional\\u000a compounds. The oils showed higher contents

  4. The concentration of oleocanthal in olive oil waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Cicerale; X. A. Conlan; N. W. Barnett; R. S. J. Keast

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of oleocanthal in olive pomace waste and compare this to its concentration in extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The concentration of oleocanthal in freshly pressed EVOO and its subsequent waste was analysed at early, mid and late season harvests. Oleocanthal concentrations were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. In oil, oleocanthal

  5. Evaluation of the bitter taste in virgin olive oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Gutiérrez Rosales; S. Perdiguero; R. Gutiérrez; J. M. Olias

    1992-01-01

    An analytical method has been developed to evaluate the intensity of the bitter taste in virgin olive oil. Results from the\\u000a proposed method, based on extraction of the bitter constituents of virgin olive oil with methanol\\/water and measurement of\\u000a the absorbance at 225 nm, show a significant correlation with the intensity of bitterness that had been evaluated in a sensorial

  6. Proinflammatory Event of Ozonized Olive Oil in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiromi Kataoka; Masanori Semma; Humitoshi Sakazaki; Katsuhiko Nakamuro; Tadashi Yamamoto; Seiichi Hirota; Keiko Tazuya-Murayama; Atsushi Ichikawa

    2009-01-01

    Ozonized olive oil inhibited the swelling reaction of 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced mouse-contact hypersensitivity, which is a model for chronic skin diseases involved in the initiation and propagation of several inflammatory processes, mainly due to type IV hypersensitivity. On the other hand, ozonized olive oil itself stimulated the development of inflammatory responses, such as vasodilation, swelling and epidermal hyperplasia. When repeatedly applied

  7. Liquid Hot Water Pretreatment of Olive Tree Pruning Residues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristóbal Cara; Inmaculada Romero; Jose Miguel Oliva; Felicia Sáez; Eulogio Castro

    2007-01-01

    Olive tree pruning generates an abundant, renewable lignocellulose residue, which is usually burnt on fields to prevent propagation\\u000a of vegetal diseases, causing economic costs and environmental concerns. As a first step in an alternative use to produce fuel\\u000a ethanol, this work is aimed to study the pretreatment of olive tree pruning residues by liquid hot water. Pretreatment was\\u000a carried out

  8. Liquid hot water pretreatment of olive tree pruning residues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristóbal Cara; Inmaculada Romero; Jose Miguel Oliva; Felicia Sáez; Eulogio Castro

    2007-01-01

    Olive tree pruning generates an abundant, renewable lignocellulose residue, which is usually burnt on fields to prevent propagation\\u000a of vegetal diseases, causing economic costs and environmental concerns. As a first step in an alternative use to produce fuel\\u000a ethanol, this work is aimed to study the pretreatment of olive tree pruning residues by liquid hot water. Pretreatment was\\u000a carried out

  9. Effect of fruit stoning on olive oil quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Patumi; S. Terenziani; M. Ridolfi; Giuseppe Fontanazza

    2003-01-01

    Stoning olives has been proposed as an alternative to crushing the whole fruit during the oil extraction process. Seven pairs\\u000a of oils obtained from stoned and nonstoned olives from five different cultivars were evaluated to determine the effect of\\u000a the proposed technology on oil quality. The main organoleptic and physicochemical parameters as well as resistance to oxidation\\u000a showed no obvious

  10. Determination of benzo(a)pyrene by GC\\/MS\\/MS in retail olive oil samples available in Qatar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. W. Abdulkadar; A. A. M. Kunhi; Al-Jedah Jassim; Al-Ali Abdulla

    2003-01-01

    A survey was carried out for the presence of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) in olive oils following reports that some batches of Spanish olive–pomace oil and its products contained high levels of B(a)P. Three types of olive oils (1) virgin olive oil, (2) refined olive oil and (3) olive–pomace oil, originating from France, Greece, Italy, the Lebanon, Spain, Tunisia and Turkey, and

  11. Biodegradation of simazine in olive fields.

    PubMed

    Santiago, R; De Prado, R; Franco, A R

    2003-01-01

    Simazine (2-chloro-4, bis ethylamino-1,3,5-triazine) is a herbicide of the s-triazine group used mainly to control broad-leaved weeds in different crops. Several papers report about simazine and other s-triazine derivates as being actual polluting agents. In fact, simazine has been detected in groundwater and soil. Since this herbicide has been extensively used in Andalusia (south of Spain), we are analyzing the levels of simazine residues found in the soil of olive fields. We are also simazine could be detected isolating live micro organisms able to degrade this compound, and are characterizing the metabolic pathways leading to this degradation and the fate of this compound in nature. With all these data in mind, we will try to develop a strategy for the bioremediation of contaminated soils. We have taken samples of soil from many olive orchards of Andalusia that have been treated with simazine. These samples were located with the help of a handheld GPS. The presence of simazine of these samples was detected by HPLC. In most of the samples taken no, and those where it could be, contained very low levels of this herbicide (lower than 0.5 ppm). Soil samples are being characterized to determine their physicochemical characteristics [pH, organic matter, texture, etc), and we are attempting to correlate all these parameters with the presence or absence of simazine. From some of the soils, we have isolated a group of micro organisms that can grow using simazine as the sole carbon and nitrogen sources. We are analyzing how the addition of carbon or nitrogen can influence the rate of the simazine degradation. PMID:15149137

  12. Mechanisms of action of phenolic compounds in olive.

    PubMed

    Rafehi, Haloom; Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2012-06-01

    Olive oil, an oil rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFCs) and minor constituents including phenolic compounds, is a major component of the Mediterranean diet. The potential health benefits of the Mediterranean diet were highlighted by the seminal Seven Countries Study, and more contemporary research has identified olive oil as a major element responsible for these effects. It is emerging that the phenolic compounds are the most likely candidates accounting for the cardioprotective and cancer preventative effects of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). In particular, the phenolic compound, hydroxytyrosol has been identified as one of the most potent antioxidants found in olive oil. This review will briefly consider historical aspects of olive oil research and the biological properties of phenolic compounds in olive oil will be discussed. The focus of the discussion will be related to the mechanisms of action of hydroxytyrosol. Studies have demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in cancer cells. Further, research has shown that hydroxytyrosol can prevent cardiovascular disease by reducing the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells and preventing the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The molecular mechanisms accounting for these effects are reviewed. PMID:22607645

  13. Effect of the Addition of Membrane Processed Olive Mill Waste Water (OMWW) to Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. ZuninG; G. C. Fusella; R. Leardi; R. Boggia; A. Bottino; G. Capannelli

    Modern membrane technologies are useful for enhancing the concentration of phenolic antioxidants in olive mill waste water\\u000a (OMWW) to produce concentrates with valuable applications in functional foods. Three types of OMWW concentrates, each with\\u000a different levels of solute concentration and purity, were obtained from a single OMWW batch and dissolved in two extra virgin\\u000a olive oils to achieve saturated solutions.

  14. The molecular biology of the olive fly comes of age

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Olive cultivation blends with the history of the Mediterranean countries since ancient times. Even today, activities around the olive tree constitute major engagements of several people in the countryside of both sides of the Mediterranean basin. The olive fly is, beyond doubt, the most destructive pest of cultivated olives. The female fly leaves its eggs in the olive fruit. Upon emergence, the larvae feed on the olive sap, thus destroying the fruit. If untreated, practically all olives get infected. The use of chemical insecticides constitutes the principal olive fly control approach. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), an environmentally friendly alternative control method, had been tried in pilot field applications in the 1970's, albeit with no practical success. This was mainly attributed to the low, non-antagonistic quality of the mixed-sex released insects. Many years of experience from successful SIT applications in related species, primarily the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, demonstrated that efficient SIT protocols require the availability of fundamental genetic and molecular information. Results Among the primary systems whose understanding can contribute towards novel SIT approaches (or its recently developed alternative RIDL: Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal) is the reproductive, since the ability to manipulate the reproductive system would directly affect the insect's fertility. In addition, the analysis of early embryonic promoters and apoptotic genes would provide tools that confer dominant early-embryonic lethality during mass-rearing. Here we report the identification of several genes involved in these systems through whole transcriptome analysis of female accessory glands (FAGs) and spermathecae, as well as male testes. Indeed, analysis of differentially expressed genes in these tissues revealed higher metabolic activity in testes than in FAGs/spermathecae. Furthermore, at least five olfactory-related genes were shown to be differentially expressed in the female and male reproductive systems analyzed. Finally, the expression profile of the embryonic serendipity-? locus and the pre-apoptotic head involution defective gene were analyzed during embryonic developmental stages. Conclusions Several years of molecular studies on the olive fly can now be combined with new information from whole transcriptome analyses and lead to a deep understanding of the biology of this notorious insect pest. This is a prerequisite for the development of novel embryonic lethality female sexing strains for successful SIT efforts which, combined with improved mass-reared conditions, give new hope for efficient SIT applications for the olive fly. PMID:25472866

  15. The role of structural C--H compared with phenolic OH sites on the antioxidant activity of oleuropein and its derivatives as a great non-flavonoid family of the olive components: a DFT study.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh, Keyumars; Akhtari, Keivan; Hassanzadeh, Halaleh; Zarei, Seyed Amir; Fakhraei, Nahid; Hassanzadeh, Katayoun

    2014-12-01

    Oleuropein and its derivatives are the main phenolic compounds of Olea europaea L. leaf and fruit. The structure-antioxidant activity relationship was considered for studying the radical scavenging activity of this non-flavonoid family of the olive components using density functional theory (DFT). The structure of these compounds were optimized employing the B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) and the role of some structural CH positions was compared with phenolic OH sites on radical scavenging. As a result, a radical unique position (C3) in the oleuropein, characterized by low BDE (Bond Dissociation Enthalpy), reasonable spin density and electron distribution, was identified. The experimental results of the previous publications of oleuropein for NO and OH scavenging confirmed the presence of this unique active site in its molecular structure. According to the results, 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) cannot find this non-marginal active site. Therefore, DPPH may not be a determinant assay for all antioxidant comparisons. Solvent effects were considered in all calculations using a Polarized Continuum Model (PCM) at the B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) level. Solvation calculations were carried out for benzene (?=2.3) to simulate the oil environment compared to gas phase. PMID:24996331

  16. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102.37 Section 102.37...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common...

  17. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102.37 Section 102.37...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common...

  18. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102.37 Section 102.37...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common...

  19. 78 FR 73853 - Oliver Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13005-003] Oliver Hydro LLC; Notice of Application...river mode utilizing surplus water from the William Bacon Oliver...notice: (1) A copy of the water quality certification;...

  20. Oliver Wendell HolmesSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-10-06

    Interviewee: Paul Lombardo DNAi Location:Chronicle>Trial of Carrie Buck>players Oliver Wendell Holmes Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes' Supreme Court decisions contained a number of memorable phrases, and Buck vs. Bell provided him an opportunity to create another.

  1. Genetic Diversity of the Coat Protein of Olive Mild Mosaic Virus (OMMV) and Tobacco Necrosis Virus D (TNV-D) Isolates and Its Structural Implications

    PubMed Central

    Varanda, Carla M. R.; Machado, Marco; Martel, Paulo; Nolasco, Gustavo; Clara, Maria I. E.; Félix, Maria R.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic variability among 13 isolates of Olive mild mosaic virus (OMMV) and of 11 isolates of Tobacco necrosis virus D (TNV-D) recovered from Olea europaea L. samples from various sites in Portugal, was assessed through the analysis of the coat protein (CP) gene sequences. This gene was amplified through reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cloned, and 5 clone sequences of each virus isolate, were analysed and compared, including sequences from OMMV and TNV-D isolates originally recovered from different hosts and countries and available in the GenBank, totalling 131 sequences. The encoded CP sequences consisted of 269 amino acids (aa) in OMMV and 268 in TNV-D. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the isolates showed a very low variability among OMMV isolates, 0.005 and 0.007, respectively, as well as among TNV-D isolates, 0.006 and 0.008. The maximum nucleotide distances of OMMV and TNV-D sequences within isolates were also low, 0.013 and 0.031, respectively, and close to that found between isolates, 0.018 and 0.034, respectively. In some cases, less variability was found in clone sequences between isolates than in clone sequences within isolates, as also shown through phylogenetic analysis. CP aa sequence identities among OMMV and TNV-D isolates ranged from 84.3% to 85.8%. Comparison between the CP genomic sequences of the two viruses, showed a relatively low variability, 0.199, and a maximum nucleotide distance between isolates of 0.411. Analysis of comparative models of OMMV and TNV-D CPs, showed that naturally occurring substitutions in their respective sequences do not seem to cause significant alterations in the virion structure. This is consistent with a high selective pressure to preserve the structure of viral capsid proteins. PMID:25350108

  2. The Generation of Phase Differences and Frequency Changes in a Network Model of Inferior Olive

    E-print Network

    Segev, Idan

    The Generation of Phase Differences and Frequency Changes in a Network Model of Inferior Olive University, Jerusalem, Israel Abstract It is commonly accepted that the Inferior Olive (IO) provides a timing Changes in a Network Model of Inferior Olive Subthreshold Oscillations. PLoS Comput Biol 8(7): e1002580

  3. CaV3.1 is a tremor rhythm pacemaker in the inferior olive

    E-print Network

    Kim, Daesoo

    CaV3.1 is a tremor rhythm pacemaker in the inferior olive Young-Gyun Parka,1 , Hye-Yeon Parka,1 , C+ channels in the inferior olive contributes to the onset of the tremor in a pharmacological model that the CaV3.1-deficient inferior olive neurons lacked the subthreshold os- cillation of membrane potentials

  4. Olive quick decline in Italy is associated with unique strain of Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive quick decline syndrome (OQDS) is a destructive new disease currently affecting approximately 20,000 acres of olive in southern Italy—an area approximately the size of California’s table olive production in California. Symptoms of OQDS include extensive branch and twig dieback, yellow and brown...

  5. Ozonated Olive Oil Enhances the Growth of Granulation Tissue in a Mouse Model of Pressure Ulcer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Sakazaki; H. Kataoka; T. Okuno; H. Ueno; M. Semma; A. Ichikawa; K. Nakamuro

    2007-01-01

    The curative effect of ozonated olive oil was evaluated using mouse models of cut wounds and pressure ulcers (decubitus or bedsores). Although ozonated olive oil did not significantly accelerate or decelerate wound contraction in either model, some histological modifications were observed. Ozonated olive oil induced blood coagulation in the hypodermis and cell infiltration in the dermis 1 day after its

  6. Sources of contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Spanish virgin olive oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Rodríguez-Acuña; María del Carmen Pérez-Camino; Arturo Cert; Wenceslao Moreda

    2008-01-01

    The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in virgin olive oils results from contamination on olive skins and the oil itself during processing. Determination of nine PAHs was carried out by isolation of the hydrocarbon fraction and subsequent clean-up by solid phase extraction, followed by RP-HPLC analysis using a programmable fluorescence detector. Contamination of olive skins depends directly on environmental

  7. 7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. 932.150 Section 932...minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum quality requirements...are hereby modified with respect to canned green ripe olives so that no requirements...

  8. 7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. 932.150 Section 932...minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum quality requirements...are hereby modified with respect to canned green ripe olives so that no requirements...

  9. Quality attributes of black olives as affected by different darkening methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. S. Ziena; M. M. Youssef; M. E. Aman

    1997-01-01

    Olives can be darkened by different methods, some of which utilize chemicals and even dyes in some locations. The present study was carried out to evaluate the different darkening methods in terms of acceptance and safety of blackened olives. Olives were blackened naturally (on the tree) as well as artificially. For the latter, air oxidation was conducted on both mature

  10. Anthocyanin and colour evolution in naturally black table olives during anaerobic processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Piga; A. Del Caro; I. Pinna; M. Agabbio

    2005-01-01

    The results of a study on the evolution of physicochemical parameters during processing of black olives, with particular emphasis on anthocyanins and colour, are reported. Olives of two cultivars collected at a technological black-ripe stage were processed by the traditional anaerobic system. At regular intervals, brines and olives were inspected for different parameters. The routine physicochemical values in brines and

  11. Black olives as substrate for Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin B 1 production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Leontopoulos; A Siafaka; P Markaki

    2003-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by certain Aspergillus species on agricultural commodities. Molds isolated from black olives are potentially toxigenic and present a potential health hazard. Olive oil originating from contaminated olives with AFB1 might also be contaminated. The aim of this study was to investigate A. parasiticus growth and AFB1 production in black

  12. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109 Section 932... § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged...

  13. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109 Section 932... § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged...

  14. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109 Section 932... § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged...

  15. Tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol are absorbed from moderate and sustained doses of virgin olive oil in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Miró-Casas; M-I Covas; M Fitó; M Farré-Albadalejo; J Marrugat; R de la Torre

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the absorption of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol from moderate and sustained doses of virgin olive oil consumption. The study also aimed to investigate whether these phenolic compounds could be used as biomarkers of virgin olive oil intake.Design and interventions: Ingestion of a single dose of virgin olive oil (50 ml). Thereafter, for a week, participants followed their usual

  16. Olive oil consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Assy, Nimer; Nassar, Faris; Nasser, Gattas; Grosovski, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The clinical implications of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) derive from their potential to progress to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Inappropriate dietary fat intake, excessive intake of soft drinks, insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress results in increased free fatty acid delivery to the liver and increased hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation. An olive oil-rich diet decreases accumulation of TGs in the liver, improves postprandial TGs, glucose and glucagon-like peptide-1 responses in insulin-resistant subjects, and upregulates glucose transporter-2 expression in the liver. The principal mechanisms include: decreased nuclear factor-kappaB activation, decreased low-density lipoprotein oxidation, and improved insulin resistance by reduced production of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6) and improvement of jun N-terminal kinase-mediated phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1. The beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet is derived from monounsaturated fatty acids, mainly from olive oil. In this review, we describe the dietary sources of the monounsaturated fatty acids, the composition of olive oil, dietary fats and their relationship to insulin resistance and postprandial lipid and glucose responses in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, clinical and experimental studies that assess the relationship between olive oil and NAFLD, and the mechanism by which olive oil ameliorates fatty liver, and we discuss future perspectives. PMID:19370776

  17. The effects of inferior olive lesion on strychnine seizure

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.C.; Chung, E.Y.; Van Woert, M.H. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Bilateral inferior olive lesions, produced by systemic administration of the neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3AP) produce a proconvulsant state specific for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus. We have proposed that these phenomena are mediated through increased excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, through activation of glutamate receptors, in response to climbing fiber deafferentation. An increase in quisqualic acid (QA)-displaceable ({sup 3}H)AMPA ((RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) binding in cerebella from inferior olive-lesioned rats was observed, but no difference in ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding displaced by glutamate, kainic acid (KA) or glutamate diethylester (GDEE) was seen. The excitatory amino acid antagonists GDEE and MK-801 ((+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cyclo-hepten-5,10 imine) were tested as anticonvulsants for strychnine-induced seizures in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned and control rats. Neither drug effected seizures in control rats, however, both GDEE and MK-801 produced a leftward shift in the strychnine-seizure dose-response curve in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned rats. GDEE also inhibited strychnine-induced myoclonus in the lesioned group, while MK-801 had no effect on myoclonus. The decreased threshold for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus in the 3AP-inferior olive-lesioned rats may be due to an increase in glutamate receptors as suggested by the ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding data.

  18. Hydrothermal carbonization of olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Poerschmann, J; Baskyr, I; Weiner, B; Koehler, R; Wedwitschka, H; Kopinke, F-D

    2013-04-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is an emerging technology to treat wet biomasses aimed at producing a biochar material. Herein, olive mill wastewater (OMW) was subjected to HTC. Mass balance considerations provide evidence that the yield of biochar is low (~30%, w/w), which is associated with a low fraction of carbohydrates in OMW. The combination of different preparation schemes, pre-chromatographic derivatization reactions and GC/MS analysis for the analysis of organic compounds in aqueous HTC-solutions allowed to identify and quantify a wide array of analytes which belong either to intrinsic constituents of OMW or to characteristic HTC-breakdown products. Biophenols, such as hydroxyl-tyrosol (OH-Tyr), tyrosol (Tyr) account for the most abundant members of the first group. Most abundant breakdown products include phenol and benzenediols as well as short-chain organic acids. Secoiridoids, such as decarbomethoxy ligostride aglycon and decarbomethoxy oleuropein aglycon, all of them being typical components of OMW, are less abundant in HTC-solutions. PMID:23475178

  19. Olive Oil Production in Greece1 The 1981 accession of Greece into the EEC was significant for the

    E-print Network

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    Olive Oil Production in Greece1 The 1981 accession of Greece into the EEC was significant for the olive oil sector. Greece is covered by 1,025,748 hectares of olive groves. In the period of 1991 to 1996 importance of the olive for Greece in particular is apparent in its history and mythology. Some historians

  20. Olive Mill Wastes—A Growing Medium Component for Seedling and Crop Production of Lettuce and Chicory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sofia Kelepesi; Nikos G. Tzortzakis

    2009-01-01

    Olive mill waste management has been a major issue of environmental concern for all olive oil–producing countries. Several soil amendments have been used to improve the physical and chemical characteristics of rootzone profiles and mixes. Olive mill waste (OW, olive stone and pulp) in different ratios (10%, 30%, or 50% v\\/v) was investigated for use in production of lettuce (Lactuca

  1. SEPT. 19, 2013 | 5:30 PM | $5 DONATION Dr. Selina Wang of the UC Davis Olive Center

    E-print Network

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    for analyzing olive oil quality and authenticity. She has a PhD in Organic Chemistry from UC Davis. WHAT will present her research into olive oil quality standards as well as new developments at the Olive Center quality of olive oil available to US consumers, with a large research project showing that 65 percent

  2. Olive oil phenolic compounds affect the release of aroma compounds.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Alessandro; Caporaso, Nicola; Villani, Veronica; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-08-15

    Twelve aroma compounds were monitored and quantified by dynamic headspace analysis after their addition in refined olive oil model systems with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) biophenols to simulate EVOO aroma. The influence of polyphenols on aroma release was studied under simulated mouth conditions by using human saliva, and SPME-GC/MS analysis. While few differences were observed in orthonasal assay (without saliva), interesting results were obtained for retronasal aroma. Biophenols caused generally the lowest headspace release of almost all volatile compounds. However, only ethyl esters and linalool concentrations were significantly lower in retronasal than orthonasal assay. Saliva also caused higher concentration of hexanal, probably due to hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) action on linoleyl hydroperoxides. Epicatechin was compared to EVOO phenolics and the behaviour was dramatically different, likely to be due to salivary protein-tannin binding interactions, which influenced aroma headspace release. These results were also confirmed using two extra virgin olive oils. PMID:25794752

  3. Air pollution effects on the leaf structure of two injury resistant species: Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Olea europaea L

    SciTech Connect

    Christodoulakis, N.S.; Koutsogeorgopoulou, L. (Univ. of Athens (Greece))

    1991-09-01

    The release of toxic gases as well as of particulate pollutants into the atmosphere is a major side effect of the human industrial, agricultural and domestic activities. The impact of these compounds on the various life forms of our planet seems to be very serious. Investigations of plant species resistant to pollution-induced injuries do have a meaning. The introduction of these species will improve air quality and establish a moderate rate of primary productivity in the handicapped regions. That is why data concerning an evergreen sclerophyllous species which does not present structural modifications and organelle destruction although forced to be a dweller of a partition isle in a heavily polluted, traffic-loaded main street of the smog-suffering city of Athens, Greece, seemed very interesting. In this paper, further investigation is presented. Two common, species were studied. The first, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, a huge tree once imported to Europe from Australia as a marsh-drier in an effort to control malaria, is a drought enduring species mostly known for the essential oils accumulated in its leaves. The second, Olea europaea L. var oleaster Brot, is a sclerophyllous tree growing wild in chaparall formations in Greece.

  4. Olive Oil Headspace Characterization by a Gas Sensor Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santonico, Marco; Gianni, Giacomo; Capuano, Rosamaria; Migliorini, Marzia; Catini, Alexandro; Dini, Francesca; Martinelli, Eugenio; Paolesse, Roberto; D'Amico, Arnaldo; Di Natale, Corrado

    2011-09-01

    Olive oil quality is strictly correlated to the volatile compounds profile. Both quality and defects can be connected to the presence of specific volatile compounds in the oil headspace. In this paper, olive oil samples have been artificially modified by adding a number of compounds known to be typical of the more frequent defects: fusty, musty, muddy and rancid. Results demonstrate the sensitivity of the electronic nose to the compounds characterizing the defects and then the capability of the instrument to identify the defects in real samples.

  5. Association of SSR markers with contents of fatty acids in olive oil and genetic diversity analysis of an olive core collection.

    PubMed

    Ipek, M; Ipek, A; Seker, M; Gul, M K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to characterize an olive core collection using some agronomic characters and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and to determine SSR markers associated with the content of fatty acids in olive oil. SSR marker analysis demonstrated the presence of a high amount of genetic variation between the olive cultivars analyzed. A UPGMA dendrogram demonstrated that olive cultivars did not cluster on the basis of their geographic origin. Fatty acid components of olive oil in these cultivars were determined. The results also showed that there was a great amount of variation between the olive cultivars in terms of fatty acid composition. For example, oleic acid content ranged from 57.76 to 76.9% with standard deviation of 5.10%. Significant correlations between fatty acids of olive oil were observed. For instance, a very high negative correlation (-0.812) between oleic and linoleic acids was detected. A structured association analysis between the content of fatty acids in olive oil and SSR markers was performed. STRUCTURE analysis assigned olive cultivars to two gene pools (K = 2). Assignment of olive cultivars to these gene pools was not based on geographical origin. Association between fatty acid traits and SSR markers was evaluated using the general linear model of TASSEL. Significant associations were determined between five SSR markers and stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids of olive oil. Very high associations (P < 0.001) between ssrOeUA-DCA14 and stearic acid and between GAPU71B and oleic acid indicated that these markers could be used for marker-assisted selection in olive. PMID:25867371

  6. Classification of extra virgin olive oils according to the protected designation of origin, olive variety and geographical origin.

    PubMed

    López-Feria, Silvia; Cárdenas, Soledad; García-Mesa, José Antonio; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2008-05-30

    A headspace-mass spectrometry (HS-MS) coupling designed for the sensory characterization and classification of extra virgin olive oil on the basis of its protected designation of origin, olive variety and geographical origin is reported. The procedure involves the headspace generation and the direct injection of the homogenized gaseous phase into a mass spectrometer through a transfer line. The results obtained were chemometrically treated to achieve the best model capable of discriminating between the different olive oil categories. For this purpose, several procedures for variables selection, data pretreatments and unsupervised techniques were evaluated. In addition, K-nearest neighbor and soft independent modeling of class analogy algorithms were employed to the classification models building. Taking into account the prediction results obtained (ca. 87% of samples correctly classified and a specificity of ca. 97%), it can be concluded than the HS-MS coupling is, with an adequate chemometric treatment, an appropriate technique for routine control. PMID:18585166

  7. Influence of fruit ripeness and salt concentration on the microbial processing of Arbequina table olives.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Albert; Reguant, Cristina; Bordons, Albert; Rozès, Nicolas

    2009-12-01

    Arbequina table olives are processed as "naturally green olives", they are directly placed in brine and fermentation starts spontaneously. Olives are harvested just before they change to 'turning colour'. Different salt concentrations are used depending on the producer. The aim of the study was to evaluate how (i) the ripeness of the olive when it is harvested and (ii) the salt concentration of the brine influence the different microorganism populations in brine during the fermentation of Arbequina table olives. The results showed that the Enterobacteriaceae population lasted longer in black and turning colour olives than in green olives, whereas the growth of lactic acid bacteria was delayed in green olives. A higher salt concentration favoured the elimination of Enterobacteriaceae and hindered yeast growth. The main yeast species identified were Pichia anomala, Candida sorbosa and Candida boidinii, while Lactobacillus plantarum was the only lactic acid bacteria species involved in the process. In a sensory test, panellists preferred green olives and were not able to tell the laboratory-scale processed olives from a commercial sample, nor could they distinguish green olives from different brines. PMID:19835767

  8. Progressive limb ataxia following inferior olive lesions.

    PubMed

    Horn, K M; Deep, A; Gibson, A R

    2013-11-15

    Cerebellar climbing fibres originate in the inferior olive (IO). Temporary IO inactivation produces movement deficits. Does permanent inactivation produce similar deficits and, if so, do they recover? The excitotoxin, kainic acid, was injected into the rostral IO of three cats. Behaviour was measured during reaching and locomotion. Two cats were injected during the reaching task. Within minutes, grasping became difficult and the trajectories of the reaches showed higher arcing than normally seen. During locomotion, both cats showed head and trunk deviation to the injected side, walking paths curved to the injected side, and the paws were lifted higher than normal. Limbs contralateral to the injections became rigid. Within 1 day, posture had normalized, locomotion was unsteady and high lifting of the paws had reversed to a tendency to drag the dorsum of the paws. Passive body movement produced vestibular signs. Over a few days, locomotion normalized and vestibular signs disappeared. Reach trajectories were normal but grasping deficits persisted. Over the first week, the amplitude of limb lift during reaching and locomotion began to increase. The increase continued over time and, after several months, limb movements became severely ataxic. The effects followed the somatotopy of the rostral IO: a loss of cells in medial rostral IO only affected the forelimb, whereas a loss of cells in medial and lateral IO affected both forelimb and hindlimb. Deficits produced by IO lesions involve multiple mechanisms; some recover rapidly, some appear stable, and some worsen over time. The nature of the progressive deficit suggests a gradual loss of Purkinje cell inhibition on cerebellar nuclear cells. PMID:23027819

  9. Antithrombotic and antiatherosclerotic properties of olive oil and olive pomace polar extracts in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Tsantila, Nektaria; Karantonis, Haralabos C; Perrea, Despina N; Theocharis, Stamatios E; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios G; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi; Demopoulos, Constantinos A

    2007-01-01

    Olive oil polar lipid (OOPL) extract has been reported to inhibit atherosclerosis development on rabbits. Olive pomace polar lipid (PPL) extract inhibits PAF activity in vitro and the most potent antagonist has been identified as a glycerylether-sn-2-acetyl glycolipid with common structural characteristics with the respective potent antagonist of OOPL. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PPL on early atherosclerosis development on rabbits and to compare it with the antiatherosclerotic effect of OOPL. OOPL and PPL inhibition potency, towards both PAF action and PAF binding, was tested in vitro on washed rabbit platelets. Consequently, rabbits were divided into three groups (A, B, and C). All groups were fed atherogenic diet for 22 days. Atherogenic diets in groups B and C were enriched with OOPL and PPL, respectively. At the end of the experimental time, rabbits were euthanized and aortic samples were examined histopathologically. OOPL and PPL inhibited PAF-induced aggregation, as well as specific PAF binding, with PPL being more potent. Free and bound PAF levels and PAF-AH activity were significantly elevated at the end of the experimental time. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were also found increased. Groups B and C exhibited significantly increased values of EC(50) compared to group A. Histopathological examination revealed that the development of early atherosclerosis lesions in groups B and C were significantly inhibited compared to group A. Significant differences were noted in the early atherosclerosis lesions between groups B and C, thus indicating that PPL exhibit its anti-atherosclerotic activity by blocking PAF receptor. Specific PAF antagonists with similar in vitro and in vivo bioactivity to those that have been previously reported in OOPL exist in PPL. PMID:18253466

  10. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, WARRIOR RIVER, OLIVER LOCK IN RIGHT BACKGROUND, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, WARRIOR RIVER, OLIVER LOCK IN RIGHT BACKGROUND, GULF MOBILE & OHIO BRIDGE IN MIDDLE GROUND, LURLEEN WALLACE BRIDGE IN FRONT OF GULF MOBILE & OHIO. - Gulf, Mobile & Ohio Railroad Bridge, Spans Black Warrior River between Northport & Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  11. Chaos may enhance information transmission in the inferior olive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Schweighofer; Kenji Doya; Hidekazu Fukai; Jean Vianney Chiron; Tetsuya Furukawa; Mitsuo Kawato

    2004-01-01

    Despite unique well characterized neuronal properties, such as extensive electrical coupling and low firing rates, the role of the inferior olive (IO), which is the source of the climbing fiber inputs to cerebellar Purkinje cells, is still controversial. We propose that the IO stochastically recodes the high-frequency information carried by its synaptic inputs into stochastic, low-rate spikes in its climbing

  12. MRI findings of inferior olives in palatal myoclonus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Yokota; F. Hirashima; T. Furukawa; H. Tsukagoshi; H. Yoshikawa

    1989-01-01

    Four patients with palatal myoclonus (PM) were studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Increased signal intensity and bilateral enlargement of the inferior olives were recognized in two patients with bilateral PM, pontine haemorrhage and neuro-Behçet disease, and a similar olivary change on the contralateral side was noted in a case of pontine infarction with unilateral PM. These findings were consistent

  13. Landscapes on Spaces of Trees Oliver Bastert a

    E-print Network

    Stadler, Peter F.

    Landscapes on Spaces of Trees Oliver Bastert a , Dan Rockmore b , Peter F. Stadler c-3510, USA rockmore@cs.dartmouth.edu cInstitut f¨ur Theoretische Chemie, Universit¨at Wien W. The collection of possible phylogenetic trees is arranged as a so-called Robinson graph by means of the nearest

  14. a walking tour of ALONG THE OLIVE WALK

    E-print Network

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    a walking tour of Caltech ALONG THE OLIVE WALK #12;2 The California Institute of Technology Medal of Technology. Welcome to Caltech! Caltech offers an unparalleled undergraduate education's Hospital LA, and the UCLA Medical Center. The Caltech­UC San Diego Medical Scholars program awards selected

  15. Oliver Heaviside: A first-rate oddity Bruce J. Hunt

    E-print Network

    Allen, Jont

    or across space, or when they use such words as "im- pedance" or "inductance," they are following. An early bout with scarlet fever left Oliver nearly deaf, though he re- covered most of his hearing by his exceedingly deaf that I couldn't go Prickly, reclusive, and unemployed for most of his career, Heaviside

  16. On the conflict matrix of clause-sets Oliver Kullmann

    E-print Network

    Grant, P. W.

    On the conflict matrix of clause-sets Oliver Kullmann Computer Science Department University.ac.uk/csoliver/ March 13, 2003 Abstract We study the asymmetric respectively symmetric conflict matrix of a multi of a (symmetric) conflict matrix A, which is the minimal number of variables in a multi-clause-set F

  17. Mind Change Efficient Learning Wei Luo and Oliver Schulte

    E-print Network

    Schulte, Oliver

    Mind Change Efficient Learning Wei Luo and Oliver Schulte School of Computing Science, Simon Fraser with respect to mind changes. Our starting point is the idea that a learner that is efficient with respect to mind changes minimizes mind changes not only globally in the entire learning prob- lem, but also

  18. Healthy virgin olive oil: a matter of bitterness.

    PubMed

    Vitaglione, Paola; Savarese, Maria; Paduano, Antonello; Scalfi, Luca; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-11-10

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the pillar fat of Mediterranean diet. It is made from olive fruits and obtained by squeezing olives without any solvent extraction. Respect to the seed oils, an unique polar polyphenol-rich fraction gives VOO a bitter and pungent taste. The recent substantiation by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) of a health claim for VOO polyphenols may represent an efficient stimulus to get the maximum health benefit from one of the most valuable traditional product of Mediterranean countries educating consumers to the relationship between the VOO bitterness and its health effect. Agronomical practices and new processing technology to avoid phenolic oxidation and hydrolysis and to enhance the aromatic components of the VOO have been developed and they can be used to modulate taste and flavor to diversify the products on the market. VOOs having high concentration of phenol compounds are bitter and pungent therefore many people do not consume them, thus loosing the health benefits related to their intake. In this paper, the chemist's and nutritionist's point of view has been considered to address possible strategies to overcome the existing gap between the quality perceived by consumer and that established by expert tasters. Educational campaigns emphasizing the bitter-health link for olive oils should be developed. PMID:24915318

  19. Feasibility of growing olives on selected sites along coastal Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five sites along the Texas coastline (Seadrift, Galveston, Brazoria, Santa Fe, and Orange) were evaluated for feasibility of growing olives in these areas. In addition, two non-coastal sites (Carrizo Springs and Weslaco) were also included in the study for comparative purposes. Flowering and fruit ...

  20. ENTRY HARVARD [ENTRY HARVARD] Authors: Oliver Knill: 2000, Literature: no

    E-print Network

    Knill, Oliver

    ENTRY HARVARD [ENTRY HARVARD] Authors: Oliver Knill: 2000, Literature: no Harvard [Harvard] Science center [Science center] The science center is the Polaroid camera shape building near Harvard square virtually walk into the science center president of Harvard [president of Harvard] The President of Harvard

  1. SPLITTING FUSION SYSTEMS OVER 2-GROUPS BOB OLIVER

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Bob

    SPLITTING FUSION SYSTEMS OVER 2-GROUPS BOB OLIVER Abstract.We find conditions which imply that a saturated fusion system ov* *er a product of 2-groups splits as a product of fusion systems over the factors. A saturated fusion system F

  2. Gold Olive Branch Left on the Moon by Neil Armstrong

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This is the gold replica of an olive branch, the traditional symbol of peace, left on the Moon's surface by Apollo 11 crewmembers. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, placed the small replica (less than half a foot in length) on the Moon. The gesture represented a wish for peace for all mankind.

  3. Photocatalytic treatment of black table olive processing wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Efthalia Chatzisymeon; Elias Stypas; Spiridon Bousios; Nikolaos P. Xekoukoulotakis; Dionissios Mantzavinos

    2008-01-01

    The photocatalytic treatment of an effluent from black table olive processing over TiO2 suspensions was investigated. The study focused on the effect of various operating parameters on the treatment efficiency including initial organic load, catalyst type, concentration and reuse, and addition of hydrogen peroxide. Initial organic load, expressed in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD), was studied in the range

  4. Antioxidant phenolic compounds loss during the fermentation of Chétoui olives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nada Ben Othman; Dominique Roblain; Nadia Chammen; Philippe Thonart; Moktar Hamdi

    2009-01-01

    Evolution of phenolic compounds was studied during spontaneous and controlled fermentations of “Chétoui” cultivar olives at three degree of ripeness. Both spontaneous and controlled fermentations led to an important loss of total phenolic compounds with a reduction rate of 32–58%. Consequently, the antioxidant activity decreased by 50–72%. After fermentations, hydroxytyrosol and caffeic acid concentrations increased, whilst protocatechuic acid, ferulic acid

  5. International conference on the healthy effect of virgin olive oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sant Pau; Maria Claret

    Summary 1 Ageing represents a great concern in developed countries because the number of people involved and the pathologies related with it, like atherosclerosis, morbus Parkinson, Alzheime's disease, vascular dementia, cognitive decline, diabetes and cancer. 2 Epidemiological studies suggest that a Mediterranean diet (which is rich in virgin olive oil) decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease. 3 The Mediterranean diet,

  6. The Rotation Group of Rubik's Cube Oliver Knill

    E-print Network

    Knill, Oliver

    The Rotation Group of Rubik's Cube Oliver Knill Roman E. Mdder ETH Zurich Revised by Robin S theory program "Cayley" is used to solve some problems asso ciated with Rubik's Cube, including the original problem of restoring the initial state of the cube. Project-No.: 003-021 Title: Rubik's Cube

  7. Yeasts in table olive processing: desirable or spoilage microorganisms?

    PubMed

    Arroyo-López, F N; Romero-Gil, V; Bautista-Gallego, J; Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Jiménez-Díaz, R; García-García, P; Querol, A; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2012-11-01

    Yeasts are unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms isolated from many foods, and are commonly found in table olive processing where they can play a double role. On one hand, these microorganisms can produce spoilage of fruits due to the production of bad odours and flavours, the accumulation of CO(2) leading to swollen containers, the clouding of brines, the softening of fruits and the degradation of lactic acid, which is especially harmful during table olive storage and packaging. But on the other hand, fortunately, yeasts also possess desirable biochemical activities (lipase, esterase, ?-glucosidase, catalase, production of killer factors, etc.) with important technological applications in this fermented vegetable. Recently, the probiotic potential of olive yeasts has begun to be evaluated because many species are able to resist the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and show beneficial effects on the host. In this way, yeasts may improve consumers' health by decreasing cholesterol levels, inhibiting pathogens, degrading non assimilated compounds, producing antioxidants and vitamins, adhering to intestinal cells or by maintaining epithelial barrier integrity. Many yeast species, usually also found in table olive processing, such as Wicherhamomyces anomalus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranifaciens and Kluyveromyces lactis, have been reported to exhibit some of these properties. Thus, the selection of the most appropriate strains to be used as starters, alone or in combination with lactic acid bacteria, is a promising research line to develop in a near future which might improve the added value of the commercialized product. PMID:23141644

  8. Carsten Grnbjerg Ltzen (140488) Oliver Finn Madsen (250685)

    E-print Network

    Boyar, Joan

    Stuxnet Carsten Grønbjerg Lützen (140488) Oliver Finn Madsen (250685) 25. April, 2012 DM830 8 Fremtiden 6 9 Afrunding 6 10 Kildeliste 7 #12;DM830 1 1 Introduktion Stuxnet er en meget avanceret for at inficere andre maskiner. Stuxnet blev udgivet i tre forskellige udgaver og nåede at inficere talrige anlæg

  9. Phytochemical progress made in investigations of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian-Ping; Guo, Zhi-Bing; Jin, Ling; Li, Ying-Dong

    2015-04-01

    The phytochemical progress on Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels over the past decades is summarized. Since 1970s, 165 chemical constituents, including phthalides, phenylpropanoids, terpenoids and essential oils, aromatic compounds, alkaloids, alkynes, sterols, fatty acids, and polysaccharides have been isolated or detected from the various parts of the title plant. PMID:25908620

  10. Is It Advisable to Store Olive Oil in PET Bottles?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa Cecchi; Paolo Passamonti; Patrizio Cecchi

    2009-01-01

    To assess the role of the container material on the quality of olive oil, literature results concerning the analytical definition of the quality of oils stored in PET or glass bottles were critically reviewed. The performance of active and passive barrier PET containers may move towards that of glass bottles. The influence of storage conditions was also considered: the main

  11. Olive oil and modulation of cell signaling in disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Wahle, Klaus W J; Caruso, Donatella; Ochoa, Julio J; Quiles, Jose L

    2004-12-01

    Epidemiological studies show that populations consuming a predominantly plant-based Mediterranean-style diet exhibit lower incidences of chronic diseases than those eating a northern European or North American diet. This observation has been attributed to the greater consumption of fruits and vegetables and the lower consumption of animal products, particularly fat. Although total fat intake in Mediterranean populations can be higher than in other regions (ca. 40% of calories), the greater proportion is derived from olive oil and not animals. Increased olive oil consumption is implicated in a reduction in cardiovascular disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and, to a lesser extent, a variety of cancers. Olive oil intake also has been shown to modulate immune function, particularly the inflammatory processes associated with the immune system. Olive oil is a nonoxidative dietary component, and the attenuation of the inflammatory process it elicits could explain its beneficial effects on disease risk since oxidative and inflammatory stresses appear to be underlying factors in the etiology of these diseases in man. The antioxidant effects of olive oil are probably due to a combination of its high oleic acid content (low oxidation potential compared with linoleic acid) and its content of a variety of plant antioxidants, particularly oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and tyrosol. It is also possible that the high oleic acid content and a proportionate reduction in linoleic acid intake would allow a greater conversion of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) to longer-chain n-3 PUFA, which have characteristic health benefits. Adoption of a Mediterranean diet could confer health benefits in high-risk populations. PMID:15736919

  12. Effect of cultivar and processing method on the contents of polyphenols in table olives.

    PubMed

    Romero, Concepción; Brenes, Manuel; Yousfi, Khaled; García, Pedro; García, Aranzazu; Garrido, Antonio

    2004-02-11

    Polyphenols were determined by HPLC in the juice and oil of packed table olives. The phenolic compositions of the two phases were very different, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol being the main polyphenols in olive juice and tyrosol acetate, hydroxtyrosol acetate, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and lignans (1-acetoxypinoresinol and pinoresinol) in oil. The type of processing had a marked influence on the concentration of polyphenols in olive juice and little on the content in oil. The analyses carried out on 48 samples showed that turning color olives in brine had the highest concentration in polyphenols ( approximately 1200 mg/kg), whereas oxidized olives had the lowest ( approximately 200 mg/kg). Among olive cultivars, Manzanilla had a higher concentration than Hojiblanca and Gordal. The type of olive presentation also influenced the concentration of polyphenols in olives, decreasing in the order plain > pitted > stuffed. The results obtained in this work indicate that table olives can be considered a good source of phenolic antioxidants, although their concentration depends on olive cultivar and processing method. PMID:14759136

  13. Sensory properties and consumer acceptance of imported and domestic sliced black ripe olives.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soh Min; Kitsawad, Kamolnate; Sigal, Abdulkadir; Flynn, Dan; Guinard, Jean-Xavier

    2012-12-01

    Table olives are healthy and nutritious products with high contents of monounsaturated fatty acids, phenolics, vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Understanding sensory cues affecting consumer preferences would enable the increase of olive consumption. The objectives of this study were to characterize the sensory properties of commercial sliced black ripe olives from different regions, including California, Egypt, Morocco, Portugal, and Spain, and to examine the preferences of California consumers for sliced black ripe olives. Sensory profiles and preferences for 20 sliced olive samples were determined using descriptive analysis with a trained panel and a consumer test with 104 users and likers of table olives. Aroma and flavor characteristics separated the olives according to country of origin, and were the main determinants of consumer preferences for sliced olives, even though the biggest differences among the samples were in appearance and texture. Total of 2 consumer segments were identified with 51 and 53 consumers, respectively, that both liked Californian products, but differed in the olives they disliked. Negative drivers of liking for both segments included alcohol, oak barrel, and artificial fruity/floral characteristics; however, consumers from Cluster 1 were further negatively influenced by rancid, gassy, and bitter characteristics. This study stresses the need for sound and appealing flavor quality for table olives to gain wider acceptance among U.S. consumers. PMID:23240976

  14. Effect of processing systems on the quality and stability of Chemlali olive oils.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Sonda; Zribi, Akram; Ben Mansour, Amir; Ayadi, Mohamed; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The present work has been carried out to ascertain the influence of different processing systems employed in olive process on the chemical composition, quality and stability of three Chemlali olive oils. Among these oils, two were classified as extra-virgin olive oils and the third named repassed olive oil was classified as an ordinary virgin olive oil. The analysis of the effect of the processing (two- and three-phases) on the analytical determinations values, revealed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) in some parameters, mainly in oxidative stability, antioxidant activity, total waxes, total phenols, o-diphenols and ?-tocopherol contents as well as phenolic composition. The phenolic composition values were higher in the extra-virgin olive oil obtained from the two-phase system than in that obtained from the three-phase processing because it does not require the addition of water to the olive paste. Nevertheless, they were lower in the ordinary virgin olive oil (repassed olive oil) which was obtained by introducing hot water to the wet residues into the centrifugation processing at two-phases, than those in the extra-virgin olive oils obtained from the two- and three-phase processing. PMID:24599103

  15. Plant food supplements with anti-inflammatory properties: a systematic review (I).

    PubMed

    Dell'Agli, Mario; Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Badea, Mihaela; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Dima, Lorena; Bosisio, Enrica; Restani, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Plant food supplements (PFS) receive great acceptance by European consumers. However, quality and efficacy of these products remain a question of concern. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize and critically evaluate the evidence for or against the efficacy of PFS for coping inflammatory conditions by considering epidemiological and human intervention studies. The review, which consists of two parts, considers Olea europea L., Camellia sinensis L., Vitis vinifera L., and Matricaria recutita L., which are herbal material frequently used also as food. The search retrieved 1251 publications. By applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the final number of papers was 91. Vitis vinifera L. showed promising results, but other trials should be performed in order to assessing the efficacy. Surprisingly, it was impossible to draw conclusions for the anti-inflammatory effect of Camellia sinensis L. as green tea. No studies were found on the leaves of Olea europea L. whereas more human trials are needed to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of olive oil. Only one study for Matricaria recutita L. was selected. In conclusion, it is advisable to conduct further studies with more homogeneous population and larger number of subjects by avoiding the heterogeneity of the herbal preparations considered. PMID:23320910

  16. Olive “quick decline” in Italy is associated with Xylella fastidiosa, a plant pathogenic bacterium also associated with California olives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce’s Disease on grapevine, has made its first documented entrance to continental Europe, possibly associated with a new disease on olive called “quick decline.” In October 2013, X. fastidiosa was reported in the Puglia region of southern Italy on declining...

  17. Quality of extra virgin olive oils produced in an emerging olive growing area in north-western Spain.

    PubMed

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-12-01

    Systematic studies of physico-chemical and stability-related properties, and chemical composition, of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) obtained from drupes cropped in specific regions are of special agricultural interest. This is particularly so with new production areas, where careful selection of the most suitable olive varieties for EVOO production is required. This paper reports the first comprehensive chemical characterisation of EVOOs obtained from three different olive varieties (viz., Picual, Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla) grown in a new cultivation area in Galicia (NW Spain). The Morisca variety was that providing the highest industrial oil yield (21%). However, the three types of EVOO exhibited no statistically significant differences in standard quality-related indices other than acidity. Morisca EVOO was that with the lowest content in oleic acid (mean=68%) and highest content in linoleic acid (mean=13%). Also, Morisca EVOO exhibited the highest sterol levels (mean=1,616 mg/kg) and Picual EVOO the lowest (mean=1,160 mg/kg). Picual EVOO contained greater amounts of the phenolic compounds luteolin and pinoresinol than both Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOOs. Finally, Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOO exhibited differential attributes, with banana and olive fruit aromatic series prevailing predominantly over bitter-like, pungent-like and leaf series. PMID:24996353

  18. Olea europaea leaf extract improves the treatment response of GBM stem cells by modulating miRNA expression

    PubMed Central

    Tezcan, Gulcin; Tunca, Berrin; Bekar, Ahmet; Budak, Ferah; Sahin, Saliha; Cecener, Gulsah; Egeli, Unal; Taskap?l?oglu, Mevlut Ozgur; Kocaeli, Hasan; Tolunay, Sahsine; Malyer, Hulusi; Demir, Cevdet; Tumen, Gulendam

    2014-01-01

    The stem-like cells of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors (GSCs) are one of the important determinants of recurrence and drug resistance. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the anticancer effect of Olea europaea leaf extract (OLE) on GBM cell lines, the association between OLE and TMZ responses, and the effect of OLE and the OLE-TMZ combination in GSCs and to clarify the molecular mechanism of this effect on the expression of miRNAs related to cell death. The anti-proliferative activity of OLE and the effect of the OLE-TMZ combination were tested in the T98G, U-138MG and U-87MG GBM cell lines using WST-1 assay. The mechanism of cell death was analyzed with Annexin V/FITC and TUNEL assays. The effects of OLE on the expression levels of miR-181b, miR-153, miR-145 and miR-137 and potential mRNA targets were analyzed in GSCs using RT-qPCR. OLE exhibited anti-proliferative effects via apoptosis and necrosis in the GBM cell lines. In addition, OLE significantly induced the expression of miR-153, miR-145, and miR-137 and decreased the expression of the target genes of these miRNAs in GSCs (p < 0.05). OLE causes cell death in GBM cells with different TMZ responses, and this effect is synergistically increased when the cells are treated with a combination of OLE and TMZ. This is the first study to indicate that OLE may interfere with the pluripotency of GSCs by modulating miRNA expression. Further studies are required, but we suggest that OLE may have a potential for advanced therapeutic cancer drug studies in GBM. PMID:25232498

  19. Co-combustion of waste from olive oil production with coal in a fluidised bed.

    PubMed

    Cliffe, K R; Patumsawad, S

    2001-01-01

    Waste from olive oil production was co-fired with coal in a fluidised bed combustor to study the feasibility of using this waste as an energy source. The combustion efficiency and CO emission were investigated and compared to those of burning 100% of coal. Olive oil waste with up to 20% mass concentration can be co-fired with coal in a fluidised bed combustor designed for coal combustion with a maximum drop of efficiency of 5%. A 10% olive oil waste concentration gave a lower CO emission than 100% coal firing due to improved combustion in the freeboard region. A 20% olive oil waste mixture gave a higher CO emission than both 100% coal firing and 10% olive oil waste mixture, but the combustion efficiency was higher than the 10% olive oil waste mixture due to lower elutriation from the bed. PMID:11150132

  20. Combined use of nitrogen and coatings to improve the quality of mechanically harvested Manzanilla olives.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Eva; Sánchez, Antonio H; Romero, Concepción; Brenes, Manuel

    2015-03-15

    The combined effect of an edible coating and a nitrogen atmosphere on the quality of Manzanilla olives mechanically harvested and processed as Spanish-style green olives was assessed. The percentage of olives free of any brown spots ranged between 35-50%, 10-25% and 50-65% for fruit directly processed, storage under nitrogen and coated and storage under nitrogen respectively. Moreover, olives stored in the open air developed brown spots due to the oxidation of oleuropein. By contrast, the anoxic conditions prevented oleuropein from undergoing enzymatic oxidation but not from its enzymatic hydrolysis. Hence, the phenolic derivative HyEDA was formed in olives stored under nitrogen, and this substance was rapidly oxidized in the open air to give rise to brown spots although to a lesser extent in the coated fruit. Therefore, the postharvest storage of coated olives under nitrogen can be a good method to prevent bruise damage in mechanically harvested fruit. PMID:25308641

  1. Influence of Pasteurization and Lye Treatment on the Fermentation of Spanish-Style Manzanilla Olives

    PubMed Central

    Y Alca?a, Jo?e Mo Rod?iguez De La Borbolla; Fer?andez-D?iez, Mat?ias J.; Gon?alez-Cancho, Fernando

    1969-01-01

    The effect of lye concentration and pasteurization on the fermentation of Spanish-style Manzanilla green olives was investigated. Results showed that a rapid, normal fermentation always occurred when the proper lye was used, and only in the case of an inappropriate alkaline treatment could pasteurization help the growth of lactobacilli. Although pasteurization does not seem to affect color of processed olives, texture tests gave lower values for pasteurized samples than for those obtained from nonpasteurized olives. PMID:16349845

  2. The Use of Near-Infrared Spectrometry in the Olive Oil Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Armenta; J. Moros; S. Garrigues; M. De La Guardia

    2010-01-01

    The enormous possibilities offered by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the (on\\/in\\/at-line) quality control process of olive fruits, pastes, and oils are summarized throughout this paper. Special attention has been paid to the combination of NIR and chemometric treatments for the on-line analysis of olive fruits and also for the quality parameters evaluation on olive oils and pastes which can enhance

  3. Use of molecular methods for the identification of yeast associated with table olives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. N. Arroyo-López; M. C. Durán-Quintana; J. L. Ruiz-Barba; A. Querol; A. Garrido-Fernández

    2006-01-01

    A molecular approach is used for the identification of yeast isolated from table olives. Our results validate those obtained in the past by the classical biochemical methodology. Yeast were isolated from both aerobically and anaerobically processed black table olives and also from canned seasoned green table olives. Molecular identification methodology used included restriction pattern analysis of both PCR-amplified 5.8S rRNA

  4. Chlorophyll and ?-carotene pigments in moroccan virgin olive oils measured by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rahmani; A. Saari Csallany

    1991-01-01

    Chlorophyll and ?-carotene concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in virgin olive\\u000a oils, which were press-extracted from green and semi-black olives. Pheophytin A was found to be the major chlorophyll isomer\\u000a in all oil samples. The occurrence of this pigment at higher concentrations in oil extracted from green olives is a possible\\u000a indication of its time-related destruction during

  5. Hindawi Publishing Corporation Comparative and Functional Genomics

    E-print Network

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    of black table olive in the world and Gemlik cuv. represents 80% of black table olives production in Turkey medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Olive (Olea europaea L.) is an important source from young olive leaves and immature olive fruits for generation of ESTs to discover the novel genes

  6. Effects of the Olive-Derived Polyphenol Oleuropein on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Barbaro, Barbara; Toietta, Gabriele; Maggio, Roberta; Arciello, Mario; Tarocchi, Mirko; Galli, Andrea; Balsano, Clara

    2014-01-01

    The use of the products derived from the olive tree on human health dates back centuries. In several civilizations, the olive tree had and still has a very strong cultural and religious symbolism. Notably, the official seal and emblem of the World Health Organization features the rod of Asclepius over a world map surrounded by olive tree branches, chosen as a symbol of peace and health. Recently, accumulating experimental, clinical and epidemiological data have provided support to the traditional beliefs of the beneficial effect provided by olive derivates. In particular, the polyphenols present in olive leaves, olives, virgin (unrefined) olive oil and olive mill waste are potent antioxidant and radical scavengers with anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we review the positive impact on human health of oleuropein, the most prevalent polyphenol present in olives. In addition, we provide data collected in our laboratory on the role of oleuropein in counteracting lipid accumulation in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:25318054

  7. Liquid Hot Water Pretreatment of Olive Tree Pruning Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cara, Cristóbal; Romero, Inmaculada; Oliva, Jose Miguel; Sáez, Felicia; Castro, Eulogio

    Olive tree pruning generates an abundant, renewable lignocellulose residue, which is usually burnt on fields to prevent propagation of vegetal diseases, causing economic costs and environmental concerns. As a first step in an alternative use to produce fuel ethanol, this work is aimed to study the pretreatment of olive tree pruning residues by liquid hot water. Pretreatment was carried out at seven temperature levels in the range 170-230°C for 10 or 60 min. Sugar recoveries in both solid and liquid fractions resulting from pretreatment as well as enzymatic hydrolysis yield of the solid were used to evaluate pretreatment performance. Results show that the enzyme accessibility of cellulose in the pretreated solid fraction increased with pretreatment time and temperature, although sugar degradation in the liquid fraction was concomitantly higher.

  8. Instrumentality in health care: a response to Adam Oliver.

    PubMed

    Tanenbaum, Sandra J

    2015-07-01

    In his paper, 'Incentivizing improvements in health care delivery', Adam Oliver discusses recent efforts to manage the performance of health care workers in the United States and United Kingdom. Overall, the results of performance management seem to be mixed, but Oliver's discussion hints at a more fundamental question about this approach, specifically: what are the limits of a focused instrumentality in a context as rich, fluid and collaborative as the delivery of health care? Might performance management schemes actually frustrate the efforts of conscientious health care workers? Indicators make few allowances for the heterogeneity of treatment effects or patient values or preferences. Health care workers may also face pressure to appear to satisfy indicators that are actually impossible to satisfy. PMID:25656047

  9. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Franco, Ma Nieves; Galeano-Díaz, Teresa; López, Oscar; Fernández-Bolaños, José G; Sánchez, Jacinto; De Miguel, Concepción; Gil, Ma Victoria; Martín-Vertedor, Daniel

    2014-11-15

    The characterisation of virgin olive oil from Arbequina, Carrasqueña, Corniche, Manzanilla Cacereña, Morisca, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz varieties according to the individual phenolic compounds at different ripening stage was carried out. In all olive oil varieties studied, secoiridoid derivatives were most abundant, followed by phenolic alcohols, flavonoids and phenolic acids. The secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol were the most important complex phenols for Picual and Carrasqueña, whereas the tyrosol derivatives were the major ones found in Manzanilla Cacereña, and Verdial de Badajoz. For secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, Arbequina was the oil variety showing the lowest concentration. Tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, vanillic acid, p-cumaric acid, luteolin, and apigenin levels were greater in early harvested samples in almost all oils analysed. Antioxidant activity measurements (antiradical, lipid peroxide inhibition, H2O2 and NO scavenging) were also accomplished for the seven varieties in the first ripening stage. PMID:24912728

  10. Fictional father?: Oliver Sacks and the revalidation of pathography.

    PubMed

    Hull, Andrew John

    2013-12-01

    This paper is a revalidation of Oliver Sacks's role in the development of medicine's narrative turn and, as such, a reinterpretation of the history of narrative in medicine. It suggests that, from the late 1960s, Sacks pioneered in his 'Romantic Science' a new medical mode that reunited the seemingly incommensurable art and science of medicine while also offering a way for medical humanities to shape clinical reasoning more effectively. PMID:23515010

  11. Condensed water in tropical cyclone “Oliver”, 8 February 1993

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Pueschel; D. A. Allen; C. Black; S. Faisant; G. V. Ferry; S. D. Howard; J. M. Livingston; J. Redemann; C. E. Sorenson; S. Verma

    1995-01-01

    On February 8, 1993, the NASA DC-8 aircraft profiled from 10,000 to 37,000 feet (3.1–11.3 km) pressure altitude in a stratified section of tropical cyclone “Oliver” over the Coral Sea northeast of Australia. Size, shape and phase of cloud and precipitation particles were measured with a 2-D Greyscale probe. Cloud\\/ precipitation particles changed from liquid to ice as soon as

  12. Deacidification of olive oils by supercritical carbon dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Brunetti; A. Daghetta; E. Fedell; I. Kikic; L. Zanderighi

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of the application of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction to the deacidification of olive oils has been made to verify that the nutritional properties of the oil remain\\u000a unchanged when this technique is applied.\\u000a \\u000a Preliminary runs at 20 and 30 MPa in the temperature range of 35–60C were performed on fatty acids and triglycerides as pure\\u000a compounds or

  13. Micronutrient dynamics after thermal pretreatment of olive mill solid waste.

    PubMed

    Almansa, Ana R; Rodriguez-Galan, Monica; Borja, Rafael; Fermoso, Fernando G

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated metal dynamics, and their bioavailability, before and after thermal pretreatment of olive mill solid waste (OMSW), using a sequential metal extraction scheme. The 11.5% increase of cobalt in the most available fraction after the pretreatment coupled to the increase of methane production rate have been a good indicator that the OMSW anaerobic digestion might be metal limited due to the lack of cobalt. PMID:26004390

  14. Commentary to Adam Oliver's 'Incentivising improvements in health care delivery'.

    PubMed

    Vrangbaek, Karsten

    2015-07-01

    The commentary discusses key issues for assessment of performance management within health care. It supports the ambition to develop more realistic understandings of performance management based on insights from behavioral economics as suggested by Adam Oliver. However, it also points to several pitfalls and potential risks to consider when doing so. The commentary concludes that this is a promising field, but further research is needed to support the development of policy instruments. PMID:25858252

  15. Olive oil and the Mediterranean diet: beyond the rhetoric

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ll Serra-Majem; J Ngo de la Cruz; L Ribas; J A Tur; LI Serra-Majem

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the association of food, nutrient and energy intakes with olive oil consumption in Spain.Design: Cross-sectional study by face-to-face interview.Setting: Population-based random sample derived from the Catalan Nutrition Survey.Subjects: In total, 1600 individuals between 18 and 60 y of age.Intervention: Two 24-h recalls were administered to measure food and nutrient intakes. Food

  16. Influence of Vertical Centrifugation on Extra Virgin Olive Oil Quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piernicola Masella; Alessandro Parenti; Paolo Spugnoli; Luca Calamai

    2009-01-01

    The qualitative effects of vertical centrifugation (VC), i.e., the last step of the extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) extraction\\u000a process, were investigated on an industrial scale by sampling EVOOs before and after VC. Several parameters were determined\\u000a to evaluate EVOO quality. Vertical centrifugation results in a marked loss of volatile aromatic compounds, whereas only a\\u000a slightly variation was recorded in

  17. Robust control charts in industrial production of olive oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilo, Luís M.; Mateus, Dina M. R.; Alves, Ana C.; Grilo, Helena L.

    2014-10-01

    Acidity is one of the most important variables in the quality analysis and characterization of olive oil. During the industrial production we use individuals and moving range charts to monitor this variable, which is not always normal distributed. After a brief exploratory data analysis, where we use the bootstrap method, we construct control charts, before and after a Box-Cox transformation, and compare their robustness and performance.

  18. Olive oil hydroxytyrosol protects human erythrocytes against oxidative damages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caterina Manna; Patrizia Galletti; Valeria Cucciolla; Gianfrancesco Montedoro; Vincenzo Zappia

    1999-01-01

    Hydroxytyrosol, the major representative phenolic compound of virgin olive oil, is a dietary component. Its possible protective effect on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative alterations was investigated in human erythrocytes. Cells were pretreated with micromolar hydroxytyrosol concentrations and then exposed to H2O2 over different time intervals. Subsequently, erythrocytes were analyzed for oxidative hemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Our data demonstrate that hydroxytyrosol

  19. Antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics.

    PubMed

    Turner, Rufus; Etienne, Nicolas; Alonso, Maria Garcia; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia; Minihane, Anne Marie; Weinberg, Peter D; Rimbach, Gerald

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the antioxidant and cellular activity of the olive oil phenolics oleuropein, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, and homovanillic alcohol (which is also a major metabolite of hydroxytyrosol). Well-characterized chemical and biochemical assays were used to assess the antioxidant potential of the compounds. Further experiments investigated their influence in cell culture on cytotoxic effects of hydrogen peroxide and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL), nitric oxide production by activated macrophages, and secretion of chemoattractant and cell adhesion molecules by the endothelium. Inhibitory influences on in vitro platelet aggregation were also measured. The antioxidant assays indicated that homovanillic alcohol was a significantly more potent antioxidant than the other phenolics, both in chemical assays and in prolonging the lag phase of LDL oxidation. Cell culture experiments suggested that the olive oil phenolics induce a significant reduction in the secretion of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (and a trend towards a reduced secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), and protect against cytotoxic effects of hydrogen peroxide and oxidized LDL. However, no influence on nitric oxide production or platelet aggregation was evident. The data show that olive oil phenolics have biochemical and cellular actions, which, if also apparent in vivo, could exert cardioprotective effects. PMID:15830923

  20. The concentration of oleocanthal in olive oil waste.

    PubMed

    Cicerale, S; Conlan, X A; Barnett, N W; Keast, R S J

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of oleocanthal in olive pomace waste and compare this to its concentration in extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The concentration of oleocanthal in freshly pressed EVOO and its subsequent waste was analysed at early, mid and late season harvests. Oleocanthal concentrations were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In oil, oleocanthal concentration was as follows: 123.24 ± 6.48 mg kg(-1) in early harvest, 114.20 ± 17.42 mg kg(-1) in mid harvest and 152.22 ± 10.54 mg kg(-1) in late harvest. Its concentration in waste was determined to be: 128.25 ± 11.33 mg kg(-1) in early harvest, 112.15 ± 1.51 mg kg(-1) in mid harvest and 62.35 ± 8.00 mg kg(-1) in late harvest. Overall, olive pomace waste is a valuable source of oleocanthal. PMID:21391116

  1. Models for forecasting the flowering of Cornicabra olive groves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the impact of weather-related variables on flowering phenology in the Cornicabra olive tree and constructed models based on linear and Poisson regression to forecast the onset and length of the pre-flowering and flowering phenophases. Spain is the world's leading olive oil producer, and the Cornicabra variety is the second largest Spanish variety in terms of surface area. However, there has been little phenological research into this variety. Phenological observations were made over a 5-year period (2009-2013) at four sampling sites in the province of Toledo (central Spain). Results showed that the onset of the pre-flowering phase is governed largely by temperature, which displayed a positive correlation with the temperature in the start of dormancy (November) and a negative correlation during the months prior to budburst (January, February and March). A similar relationship was recorded for the onset of flowering. Other weather-related variables, including solar radiation and rainfall, also influenced the succession of olive flowering phenophases. Linear models proved the most suitable for forecasting the onset and length of the pre-flowering period and the onset of flowering. The onset and length of pre-flowering can be predicted up to 1 or 2 months prior to budburst, whilst the onset of flowering can be forecast up to 3 months beforehand. By contrast, a nonlinear model using Poisson regression was best suited to predict the length of the flowering period.

  2. Endopathogenic lifestyle of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi in olive knots

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez?Moreno, Luis; Jiménez, Antonio J.; Ramos, Cayo

    2009-01-01

    Summary The endophytic phase of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi in olive stems and the structural and ultrastructural histogenesis of olive knots have been studied. Construction of a stable plasmid vector expressing the green fluorescent protein, in combination with the use of in vitro olive plants, allowed real?time monitoring of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi infection. The infection process was also examined by bright field and epifluorescence microscopy as well as by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Hypertrophy of the stem tissue was concomitant with the formation of bacterial aggregates, microcolonies and multilayer biofilms, over the cell surfaces and the interior of plasmolysed cells facing the air?tissue interface of internal opened fissures, and was followed by invasion of the outer layers of the hypertrophied tissue. Pathogenic invasion of the internal lumen of newly formed xylem vessels, which were connected with the stem vascular system, was also observed in late stages of infection. Ultrastructural analysis of knot sections showed the release of outer membrane vesicles from the pathogen surface, a phenomenon not described before for bacterial phytopathogens during host infection. This is the first real?time monitoring of P. savastanoi disease development and the first illustrated description of the ultrastructure of P. savastanoi?induced knots. PMID:21255279

  3. Physicochemical and microbiological profile of packed table olives.

    PubMed

    López-López, A; García-García, P; Durán-Quintana, M C; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2004-10-01

    The water activity of different commercial products of table olives as well as their physicochemical and microbiological profiles were studied. Average values of water activity were 0.976, 0.977, and 0.990 for green, directly brined, and ripe (by alkaline oxidation) olives, respectively. Mean values of pH were 3.69, 3.92, and 6.52 while salt levels were 5.53, 4.98, and 2.55 for the same commercial products. In some of the commercial products of green and directly brined olives that were examined, a certain level of microorganisms was observed. Most of them were lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, the lactic acid bacteria being more abundant than the yeasts. Traditionally, this flora has not been considered harmful due to its resemblance to that found in natural and spontaneous fermentation. Spore-forming mesophilic aerobes, which can be considered contaminants from ingredient or product handling, were present in only some samples and were always at low levels. However, their detection does not cause any concern regarding safety because there is no reference showing that they can grow in any of the products studied given the physicochemical characteristics found. PMID:15508652

  4. 77 FR 55202 - Oliver Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions To Intervene...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...13005-003] Oliver Hydro LLC; Notice of Application...Applicant: Oliver Hydro LLC. e. Name of Project...Secretary, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...mode utilizing surplus water from the William...

  5. Microwave heating of different commercial categories of olive oil: Part I. Effect on chemical oxidative stability indices and phenolic compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorenzo Cerretani; Alessandra Bendini; Maria Teresa Rodriguez-Estrada; Elena Vittadini; Emma Chiavaro

    2009-01-01

    The effect of microwave heating of extra virgin olive oil (EVOo), olive oil (Oo) and pomace olive oil (Po) in domestic appliances, was investigated in terms of chemical oxidative indices (peroxide, p-anisidine and Totox values), free acidity, water content, total phenol content and different classes of phenolic compounds.Water content of unheated EVOo was higher as compared to the other two

  6. A New Market for an Old Food: the U.S. Demand for Olive Oil , Daniel Sumner

    E-print Network

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    and origin, olive oils are highly substitutable with each other but not with other vegetable oils. News aboutA New Market for an Old Food: the U.S. Demand for Olive Oil Bo Xiong , Daniel Sumner , William Matthews Abstract While U.S. consumption of olive oil has tripled over the past two decades, nearly all

  7. Low-Amplitude Oscillations in the Inferior Olive: A Model Based on Electrical Coupling of Neurons With Heterogeneous Channel Densities

    E-print Network

    Segev, Idan

    Low-Amplitude Oscillations in the Inferior Olive: A Model Based on Electrical Coupling of Neurons) of membrane potential in inferior olivary (IO) amplitude oscillations in the inferior olive: a model based, with some probability, in particular timevariable, Hodgkin-Huxley-like model for inferior olive neurons

  8. Implementation of Physicochemical and Sensory Analysis in Conjunction with Multivariate analysis towards Assessing Olive Oil Authentication\\/Adulteration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis; Antonios Vlachos

    2007-01-01

    The authenticity of products labeled as olive oils, and in particular as virgin olive oils, stands for a very important issue both in terms of its health and commercial aspects. In view of the continuously increasing interest in virgin olive oil therapeutic properties, the traditional methods of characterization and physical and sensory analysis were further enriched with more advanced and

  9. Naturally fermented black olives: Effect on cell wall polysaccharides and on enzyme activities of Taggiasca and Conservolea varieties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susana M. Cardoso; Isabel Mafra; Ana Reis; Cláudia Nunes; Jorge A. Saraiva; Manuel A. Coimbra

    2010-01-01

    Black olives of Taggiasca (Ta) and Conservolea (Co) varieties were processed according to the Greek style method in order to investigate the effect of this type of table olive processing on cell wall composition. Naturally black processing involves the storage in brine of fully ripe olives for several months, allowing a spontaneous fermentation by a mixed flora followed by fermentation

  10. Comparative effects of emu and olive oil on aortic early atherosclerosis and associated risk factors in hypercholesterolemic hamsters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas A Wilson; Robert J Nicolosi; Garry Handelman; Subbiah Yoganathan; Timothy Kotyla; Frank Orthoefer; Paul Binford

    2004-01-01

    The comparative cholesterol lowering and antiatherosclerotic properties of emu oil and olive oil were evaluated in four groups (n = 8) of hamsters fed a nonpurified diet containing either 10% coconut oil crude and refined, emu oil, and olive oil and 0.05% cholesterol (wt\\/wt) for 8 weeks. Hamsters fed the olive and emu oil diets had significantly lower concentrations of

  11. THINKING LIKE ARCHIMEDES WITH A 3D PRINTER OLIVER KNILL AND ELIZABETH SLAVKOVSKY

    E-print Network

    Knill, Oliver

    , where 3D printing is becoming popular and affordable. 1. Introduction Archimedes, whose 2300th birthday education, 3D printing, Rapid prototyping, Greek mathematics. 1 #12;2 OLIVER KNILL AND ELIZABETH SLAVKOVSKYTHINKING LIKE ARCHIMEDES WITH A 3D PRINTER OLIVER KNILL AND ELIZABETH SLAVKOVSKY Abstract. We

  12. Descending projections to the inferior olive from the mesencephalon and superior colliculus in the cat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Saint-Cyr; J. Courville

    1982-01-01

    Summary Descending projections from the mesencephalon and superior colliculus to the inferior olive were analyzed by an autoradiographic tracing method. Injections of tritium-labelled leucine were placed in regions which had previously been identified as sources of afferents to the olive. These were located adjacent to the central gray and extended from the rostral red nucleus to the posterior thalamus. Additional

  13. Removal of the inferior olive abolishes myoclonic seizures associated with a loss of olivary serotonin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P Welsh; B Chang; M. E Menaker; S. A Aicher

    1997-01-01

    Several lines of clinical evidence suggest that myoclonus is caused by a reduction of serotonin in the brain and hyperactivity of the inferior olive. We determined whether a change in serotonin content within the olivocerebellar system accompanied a predisposition to myoclonus and investigated the necessity of the inferior olive for a myoclonic seizure. The experiments employed the genetically epilepsy-prone rat

  14. Discrimination of olive oil adulterated with vegetable oils using dielectric spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hu Lizhi; K. Toyoda; I. Ihara

    2010-01-01

    The study focused on application of dielectric spectroscopy to identify the adulteration of olive oil. The dielectric properties of binary mixture of oils were investigated in the frequency range of 101Hz–1MHz. A partial least squares (PLS) model was developed and used to verify the concentrations of the adulterant. Furthermore, the principal component analysis (PCA) was used to classify olive oil

  15. Characterization of Human Gene Expression Changes after Olive Oil Ingestion: an Exploratory Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. KONSTANTINIDOU; O. KHYMENETS; M. FITO; R. DE LA TORRE; R. ANGLADA; A. DOPAZO; M. I. COVAS

    Olive oil consumption is protective against risk factors for cardiovascular and cancer diseases. A nutrigenomic approach was performed to assess whether changes in gene expression could occur in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells after oli ve oil ingestion at postprandial state. Six healthy male volunteers ingested, at fasting state, 50 ml of olive oil. Prior to intervention a 1-week washout

  16. A modified sorting task to investigate consumer perceptions of extra virgin olive oils Metta Santosa a

    E-print Network

    Abdi, Hervé

    with health benefits as well. Three main polyphenols found in olive oil ­ oleuropin, hydroxytyrosol Adminis- tration (2004) (FDA) announced that a qualified health claim could be used for labeling olive oil the health benefits con- sumers can enjoy beyond the sensory properties of the oil itself. According

  17. Using Satellite Tracking to Optimize Protection of Long-Lived Marine Species: Olive Ridley Sea Turtle

    E-print Network

    Costa, Daniel P.

    Turtle Conservation in Central Africa Sara M. Maxwell1¤ *, Greg A. Breed2 , Barry A. Nickel3 , Junior movements of olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) (n = 18) in Central Africa during two breeding Species: Olive Ridley Sea Turtle Conservation in Central Africa. PLoS ONE 6(5): e19905. doi:10

  18. Centrifugation as a pre-treatment in olive mill wastewater processing (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive mill wastewater (OMWW), generated during production of olive oil, is an untapped source of nutritious compounds. Thus, processors want to separate OMWW into a high-value, concentrated product stream and near-pure water. However, the amount and characteristics of the produced OMWW depend on t...

  19. Bactericidal action of oleuropein extracted from green olives against Lactobacillus plantarum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Ruiz-Barba; A. Garrido-Fernandez; R. Jimenez-Diaz

    1991-01-01

    The phenolic compound oleuropein extracted from green olives was shown to be bactericidal against nine strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from green olive fermentation brines. Heat-treated oleuropein also demonstrated a strong bacteri- cidal effect but not alkali-treated oleuropein, which allowed survival of most of the strains tested. The bactericidal effect was accompanied by changes in the typical bacillary structure and

  20. Infrared machine vision system for the automatic detection of olive fruit quality.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Elena; Baeten, Vincent; Pierna, Juan Antonio Fernández; García-Mesa, José A

    2013-11-15

    External quality is an important factor in the extraction of olive oil and the marketing of olive fruits. The appearance and presence of external damage are factors that influence the quality of the oil extracted and the perception of consumers, determining the level of acceptance prior to purchase in the case of table olives. The aim of this paper is to report on artificial vision techniques developed for the online estimation of olive quality and to assess the effectiveness of these techniques in evaluating quality based on detecting external defects. This method of classifying olives according to the presence of defects is based on an infrared (IR) vision system. Images of defects were acquired using a digital monochrome camera with band-pass filters on near-infrared (NIR). The original images were processed using segmentation algorithms, edge detection and pixel value intensity to classify the whole fruit. The detection of the defect involved a pixel classification procedure based on nonparametric models of the healthy and defective areas of olives. Classification tests were performed on olives to assess the effectiveness of the proposed method. This research showed that the IR vision system is a useful technology for the automatic assessment of olives that has the potential for use in offline inspection and for online sorting for defects and the presence of surface damage, easily distinguishing those that do not meet minimum quality requirements. PMID:24148491

  1. Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Christian N. L. Olivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Christian N. L. Olivers, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology, is cited for outstanding research on visual attention and working memory. Olivers uses classic experimental designs in an innovative and sophisticated way to determine underlying mechanisms. He has formulated important theoretical…

  2. Cross-cultural perception of six commercial olive oils: A study with Spanish and US consumers.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Araújo, L; Adhikari, K; Chambers, E; Chambers, Dh; Carbonell-Barrachina, Aa

    2014-07-15

    A cross-cultural study was conducted with Spanish and US consumers to gain an insight into the preferred characteristics of olive oils in both countries. Six commercial olive oils (four samples from Spain and two samples from the US) were analyzed by a highly trained panel (descriptive analysis) and also by two consumers' groups (100 consumers from Spain and 100 from the US). Demographic, acceptability, and Just-About-Right data were collected to study the preferences of both groups, and the relationships with descriptive data were explored to determine the drivers of like/dislike. The Spanish extra virgin olive oils and the imported US extra virgin olive oil were characterized by having bitter, pungent, and more green notes, and were preferred by the Spanish consumers. The US consumers liked the bland Spanish refined olive oil, and the Californian olive oil that was characterized by fruity, floral, and sweet notes. The results showed that the Spanish consumers were more aware about olive oil quality in general than their US counterparts, maybe because of a higher usage of the product in Spain. The present study provides essential data which might help producers in designing and promoting olive oils matching US consumers' requirements, an emerging market for this Mediterranean product. PMID:25028154

  3. Antimicrobial activity of L. plantarum, isolated from a traditional lactic acid fermentation of table olives

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Health Antimicrobial activity of L. plantarum, isolated from a traditional lactic acid fermentation Abstract -- Lactobacillus plantarum strain LB17.2b, isolated from traditional table olive fermentation has- petitors of L. plantarum from olive fermentation brines. Bioactivity was quantified against Weis- sella

  4. Original Contribution Effect of dietary virgin olive oil on urinary excretion of etheno-DNA adducts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter R. Hillestrøm; Maria-Isabel Covas; Henrik E. Poulsen

    A significant protective effect against cancer and coronary heart disease has been attributed to the Mediterranean diet, in which olive oil is the main source of fat. Dietary antioxidants, as phenolic compounds from virgin olive oil, are candidates for reducing cancer risk by minimizing oxidatively derived DNA damage. Etheno-DNA adducts are formed as a result of oxidative stress and lipid

  5. Influence of California-style black ripe olive processing on the formation of acrylamide.

    PubMed

    Charoenprasert, Suthawan; Mitchell, Alyson

    2014-08-27

    Methods used in processing California-style black ripe olives generate acrylamide. California-style black ripe olives contain higher levels of acrylamide (409.67 ± 42.60-511.91 ± 34.08 ?g kg(-1)) as compared to California-style green ripe olives (44.02 ± 3.55-105.79 ± 22.01 ?g kg(-1)), Greek olives (<1.42 ?g kg(-1)), and Spanish olives (not detected), indicating that the higher temperatures used to sterilize the California-style green ripe and black ripe olives are required for acrylamide formation. Preprocessing brine storage influenced the formation of acrylamide in a time-dependent manner. Acrylamide increased during the first 30 days of storage. Longer brine storage times (>30 days) result in lower acrylamide levels in the finished product. The presence of calcium ions in the preprocessing brining solution results in higher levels of acrylamide in finished products. Air oxidation during lye processing and the neutralization of olives prior to sterilization significantly increase the formation of acrylamide in the finished products. Conversely, lye-processing decreases the levels of acrylamide in the final product. These results indicate that specific steps in the California-style black ripe olive processing may be manipulated to mitigate the formation of acrylamide in finished products. PMID:25110929

  6. Fermentation of black olives with application of starter culture and aeration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Borcakli; G. Özay

    1995-01-01

    The possibility of the application of the selected starter to black olives, in batches with and without air injection were investigated in the laboratory. Effect of the pretreatment application on the microbial development, the inoculum level of the starter culture and the composition of the contaminating flora to the fermentation of the olives were examined. Experiments were pursued in regard

  7. Conservation scenarios for olive farming on sloping land in de Mediterranean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Fleskens

    2007-01-01

    The future of olive farming on sloping land in the Mediterranean is uncertain. Sloping and Mountainous Olive Production Systems (SMOPS) that have been sustainable for ages have in a relatively short time frame witnessed major changes. Although remnants of many of these traditional landscapes still exist today, the general trend is different. Demographic changes of the rural population, integration in

  8. Analysis of thermal processing of table olives using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Dimou, A; Panagou, E; Stoforos, N G; Yanniotis, S

    2013-11-01

    In the present work, the thermal processing of table olives in brine in a stationary metal can was studied through computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The flow patterns of the brine and the temperature evolution in the olives and brine during the heating and the cooling cycles of the process were calculated using the CFD code. Experimental temperature measurements at 3 points (2 inside model olive particles and 1 at a point in the brine) in a can (with dimensions of 75 mm × 105 mm) filled with 48 olives in 4% (w/v) brine, initially held at 20 °C, heated in water at 100 °C for 10 min, and thereafter cooled in water at about 20 °C for 10 min, validated model predictions. The distribution of temperature and F-values and the location of the slowest heating zone and the critical point within the product, as far as microbial destruction is concerned, were assessed for several cases. For the cases studied, the critical point was located at the interior of the olives at the 2nd, or between the 1st and the 2nd olive row from the bottom of the container, the exact location being affected by olive size, olive arrangement, and geometry of the container. PMID:24245887

  9. Evaluation of pathogenicity and insect transmission of Xylella fastidiosa strains to olive plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is a xylem-limited bacterium that causes disease in a number of economically important crops in California and worldwide. Newly observed scorching symptoms in olive trees may be due to Xf infection. If true, “olive leaf scorch disease” (OLSD) would represent a new threat to...

  10. Physiological and Biochemical Reactions of Olive Genotypes during Site-Relevant Ozone Exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Sebastiani; A. Minnocci; F. Scebba; C. Vitagliano; A. Panicucci; G. Lorenzini

    Ozone (O3) is one of the major atmospheric pollutants in the Mediterranean area and negatively interacts with several biochemical and physiological processes of the plants. Olive is one of the most widely cultivated trees in the Mediterranean climates and previous studies have shown that O3 can potentially interfere with olive trees productivity. In order to test the physiological and biochemical

  11. Mutagenicity assessment of aerosols in emissions from wood combustion in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Vu, B; Alves, C A; Gonçalves, C; Pio, C; Gonçalves, F; Pereira, R

    2012-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) extracts of fine particles (PM(2.5)) collected from combustion of seven wood species and briquettes were tested for mutagenic activities using Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. The woods were Pinus pinaster (maritime pine), Eucalyptus globulus (eucalypt), Quercus suber (cork oak), Acacia longifolia (golden wattle), Quercus faginea (Portuguese oak), Olea europea (olive), and Quercus ilex rotundifolia (Holm oak). Burning experiments were done using woodstove and fireplace, hot start and cold start conditions. A mutagenic response was recorded for all species except golden wattle, maritime pine, and briquettes. The mutagenic extracts were not correlated with high emission factors of carcinogenic PAHs. These extracts were obtained both from two burning appliances and start-up conditions. However, fireplace seemed to favour the occurrence of mutagenic emissions. The negative result recorded for golden wattle was interesting, in an ecological point of view, since after confirmation, this invasive species, can be recommended for domestic use. PMID:22512998

  12. Oxidative DNA Damage Is Prevented by Extracts of Olive Oil, Hydroxytyrosol, and Other Olive Phenolic Compounds in Human Blood Mononuclear Cells and HL60 Cells1,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Fabiani; Patrizia Rosignoli; Angelo De Bartolomeo; Raffaela Fuccelli; Maurizio Servili; Gian Francesco Montedoro; Guido Morozzi

    Ouraiminthisstudywastoprovidefurthersupporttothehypothesisthatphenoliccompoundsmayplayanimportantrolein theanticarcinogenicpropertiesofoliveoil.Wemeasuredtheeffectofoliveoilphenolsonhydrogenperoxide(H2O2)-induced DNA damage in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL60) using single- cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Hydroxytyrosol (3,4-dyhydroxyphenyl-ethanol (3,4-DHPEA)) and a complex mixture of phenols extracted from both virgin olive oil (OO-PE) and olive mill wastewater (WW-PE) reduced the DNA damage at concentrations as low as 1 mmol\\/L when coincubated in the medium

  13. Differences in the Chemesthetic Subqualities of Capsaicin, Ibuprofen, and Olive Oil

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Samantha M.

    2012-01-01

    Chemesthetic sensations elicited by ibuprofen, extra-virgin olive oil, and capsaicin were compared to quantify perceptual differences between known agonists of TRPA1 and TRPV1. Extra virgin olive oil contains a phenolic compound, oleocanthal, which is thought to share unique chemesthetic qualities with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ibuprofen. Pilot work suggested participants had difficulty distinguishing between multiple chemesthetic subqualities (e.g., burn, sting, itch, tickle, etc.) in a multiattribute rating task. Here, we assessed overall irritation via direct scaling, and a check all that apply task was used to collect information about chemesthetic subqualities over time. Replicated ratings were collected at discrete intervals using the generalized labeled magnitude scale to generate time-intensity curves; maximum intensity (Imax) and area under the curve were extracted for each participant. Intensity responses varied substantially across participants, and within a participant, the relationship was strongest between ibuprofen and olive oil. However, there were also positive, albeit weaker, correlations between capsaicin and ibuprofen and capsaicin and olive oil. The correlation found between olive oil and capsaicin may suggest the presence of unknown TRPV1 agonists in olive oil. This view was also supported by the qualitative data: Capsaicin was described most often as burning and warm/hot, whereas ibuprofen was numbing and tickling. Olive oil shared characteristics with both capsaicin (warm/hot) and ibuprofen (tickle). PMID:22281531

  14. Differences in the chemesthetic subqualities of capsaicin, ibuprofen, and olive oil.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Samantha M; Hayes, John E

    2012-06-01

    Chemesthetic sensations elicited by ibuprofen, extra-virgin olive oil, and capsaicin were compared to quantify perceptual differences between known agonists of TRPA1 and TRPV1. Extra virgin olive oil contains a phenolic compound, oleocanthal, which is thought to share unique chemesthetic qualities with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ibuprofen. Pilot work suggested participants had difficulty distinguishing between multiple chemesthetic subqualities (e.g., burn, sting, itch, tickle, etc.) in a multiattribute rating task. Here, we assessed overall irritation via direct scaling, and a check all that apply task was used to collect information about chemesthetic subqualities over time. Replicated ratings were collected at discrete intervals using the generalized labeled magnitude scale to generate time-intensity curves; maximum intensity (Imax) and area under the curve were extracted for each participant. Intensity responses varied substantially across participants, and within a participant, the relationship was strongest between ibuprofen and olive oil. However, there were also positive, albeit weaker, correlations between capsaicin and ibuprofen and capsaicin and olive oil. The correlation found between olive oil and capsaicin may suggest the presence of unknown TRPV1 agonists in olive oil. This view was also supported by the qualitative data: capsaicin was described most often as burning and warm/hot, whereas ibuprofen was numbing and tickling. Olive oil shared characteristics with both capsaicin (warm/hot) and ibuprofen (tickle). PMID:22281531

  15. Determination of the olive maturity index of intact fruits using image analysis.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Elena; Baeten, Vincent; Pierna, Juan Antonio Fernández; García-Mesa, José A

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the maturity index of different samples of olives was objectively assessed by image analysis obtained through machine vision, in which algorithms of color-based segmentation and operators to detect edges were used. This method allows a fast, automatic and objective prediction of olive maturity index. This prediction value was compared to maturity index (MI), generally used by olive oil industry, based on the subjective visual determination of color of fruit skin and flesh. Machine vision was also applied to the automatic estimation of size and weight of olive fruits. The proposed system was tested to obtain a good performance in the classification of the fruit in batches. When applied to several olive samples, the maturity index predicted by machine vision was in close agreement with the maturity index of fruits visually estimated, values that are currently used as standards. The evaluation of weight of fruit also provided good results (R(2)?=?0.91). These results obtained by image analysis can be used as a useful method for the classification of olives at the reception in olive mill, allowing a better quality control of the production process. PMID:25745214

  16. In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Romero, Concepción; Medina, Eduardo; Vargas, Julio; Brenes, Manuel; De Castro, Antonio

    2007-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori is linked to a majority of peptic ulcers and to some types of gastric cancer, and resistance of the microorganism to antibiotic treatment is now found worldwide. Virgin olive oil is an unrefined vegetable oil that contains a significant amount of phenolic compounds. Under simulated conditions, we have demonstrated that these substances can diffuse from the oil into the gastric juice and be stable for hours in this acidic environment. In vitro, they exerted a strong bactericidal activity against eight strains of H. pylori, three of them resistant to some antibiotics. Among the phenolic compounds, the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycon showed the strongest bactericidal effect at a concentration as low as 1.3 microg/mL. Although the experimental conditions are different from other reported works, this bactericidal concentration is much lower than those found for phenolic compounds from tea, wine, and plant extracts. These results open the possibility of considering virgin olive oil a chemopreventive agent for peptic ulcer or gastric cancer, but this bioactivity should be confirmed in vivo in the future. PMID:17263460

  17. Towards an Optimized Method of Olive Tree Crown Volume Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Fuentes, Antonio; Llorens, Jordi; Gamarra-Diezma, Juan L.; Gil-Ribes, Jesús A.; Gil, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Accurate crown characterization of large isolated olive trees is vital for adjusting spray doses in three-dimensional crop agriculture. Among the many methodologies available, laser sensors have proved to be the most reliable and accurate. However, their operation is time consuming and requires specialist knowledge and so a simpler crown characterization method is required. To this end, three methods were evaluated and compared with LiDAR measurements to determine their accuracy: Vertical Crown Projected Area method (VCPA), Ellipsoid Volume method (VE) and Tree Silhouette Volume method (VTS). Trials were performed in three different kinds of olive tree plantations: intensive, adapted one-trunked traditional and traditional. In total, 55 trees were characterized. Results show that all three methods are appropriate to estimate the crown volume, reaching high coefficients of determination: R2 = 0.783, 0.843 and 0.824 for VCPA, VE and VTS, respectively. However, discrepancies arise when evaluating tree plantations separately, especially for traditional trees. Here, correlations between LiDAR volume and other parameters showed that the Mean Vector calculated for VCPA method showed the highest correlation for traditional trees, thus its use in traditional plantations is highly recommended. PMID:25658396

  18. Evaluation of an aerobic treatment for olive mill wastewater detoxification.

    PubMed

    El Hajjouji, Houda; El Fels, Loubna; Pinelli, Eric; Barje, Farid; El Asli, Abdelghani; Merlina, Georges; Hafidi, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is a by-product of the olive oil extraction industry. Its dumping creates severe environmental problems in the Mediterranean countries. The phytoxicity of OMWW is due to the phenolic substances and is evaluated through a genotoxicity method. An aerobic treatment of OMWW was conducted during 45 days. Different concentrations of raw and treated OMWW were tested using the Vicia faba micronuclei test. Results showed that raw OMWW induced significant micronuclei formation at 10% of OMWW dilution. At 20% of dilution, no mitosis was recorded. The 45 days aerobic treatment OMWW showed an important decrease in the genotoxicity and also in the toxicity that was observed at 10% and 20% OMWW dilution. This could be correlated with the biodegradation of 76% of the total phenols. Indeed, qualitative analysis by high performance liquid chromatography shows the disappearance of the majority of phenolic compounds after 45 days of treatment. This study was completed by an agricultural test with V. faba plant. Data showed significant growth yield of 36.3% and 29.9% after being irrigated with 5 and 10 t/ha, respectively. These results supported the positive role of aerobic treatment on OMWW and their capacity to ameliorate the agronomic potential of these effluents. PMID:25244133

  19. Effects of Fermentation and Its Control on the Sensory Characteristics of Conservolea Variety Green Olives

    PubMed Central

    Balatsouras, G.; Tsibri, A.; Dalles, T.; Doutsias, G.

    1983-01-01

    The various factors assumed to retard or even prevent the lactic acid fermentation of Conservolea variety green olives have been investigated. Of these, the sugar supplement along with the appropriate lactic starter culture supported a complete lactic acid fermentation. Acidification, particularly of starting brine, was shown to have little or no effect, whereas heat shock treatment improved the olive fermentability slightly without modifying the course of fermentation. These findings indicate that Conservolea olives do not contain phenolic compounds in concentrations inhibitory to lactic acid bacteria. PMID:16346354

  20. Visible and near-infrared spectral signatures for adulteration assessment of extra virgin olive oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Ottevaere, H.; Thienpont, H.; Conte, L.; Marega, M.; Cichelli, A.; Attilio, C.; Cimato, A.

    2010-04-01

    Because of its high price, the extra virgin olive oil is frequently target for adulteration with lower quality oils. This paper presents an innovative optical technique capable of quantifying the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil caused by lowergrade olive oils. It relies on spectral fingerprinting the test liquid by means of diffuse-light absorption spectroscopy carried out by optical fiber technology in the wide 400-1700 nm spectral range. Then, a smart multivariate processing of spectroscopic data is applied for immediate prediction of adulterant concentration.

  1. Olive oil intake and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the PREDIMED Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether individuals at high cardiovascular risk sustain a benefit in cardiovascular disease from increased olive oil consumption. The aim was to assess the association between total olive oil intake, its varieties (extra virgin and common olive oil) and the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Methods We included 7,216 men and women at high cardiovascular risk, aged 55 to 80 years, from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) study, a multicenter, randomized, controlled, clinical trial. Participants were randomized to one of three interventions: Mediterranean Diets supplemented with nuts or extra-virgin olive oil, or a control low-fat diet. The present analysis was conducted as an observational prospective cohort study. The median follow-up was 4.8 years. Cardiovascular disease (stroke, myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death) and mortality were ascertained by medical records and National Death Index. Olive oil consumption was evaluated with validated food frequency questionnaires. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards and generalized estimating equations were used to assess the association between baseline and yearly repeated measurements of olive oil intake, cardiovascular disease and mortality. Results During follow-up, 277 cardiovascular events and 323 deaths occurred. Participants in the highest energy-adjusted tertile of baseline total olive oil and extra-virgin olive oil consumption had 35% (HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.47 to 0.89) and 39% (HR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.44 to 0.85) cardiovascular disease risk reduction, respectively, compared to the reference. Higher baseline total olive oil consumption was associated with 48% (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.29 to 0.93) reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality. For each 10 g/d increase in extra-virgin olive oil consumption, cardiovascular disease and mortality risk decreased by 10% and 7%, respectively. No significant associations were found for cancer and all-cause mortality. The associations between cardiovascular events and extra virgin olive oil intake were significant in the Mediterranean diet intervention groups and not in the control group. Conclusions Olive oil consumption, specifically the extra-virgin variety, is associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and mortality in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Trial registration This study was registered at controlled-trials.com (http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN35739639). International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 35739639. Registration date: 5 October 2005. PMID:24886626

  2. History of the invasive African olive tree in Australia and Hawaii: evidence for sequential bottlenecks and hybridization with the Mediterranean olive

    PubMed Central

    Besnard, Guillaume; Dupuy, Jérémy; Larter, Maximilien; Cuneo, Peter; Cooke, David; Chikhi, Lounes

    2014-01-01

    Humans have introduced plants and animals into new continents and islands with negative effects on local species. This has been the case of the olive that was introduced in Australia, New Zealand and Pacific islands where it became invasive. Two subspecies were introduced in Australia, and each successfully invaded a specific area: the African olive in New South Wales (NSW) and the Mediterranean olive in South Australia. Here, we examine their origins and spread and analyse a large sample of native and invasive accessions with chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites. African olive populations from the invaded range exhibit two South African chlorotypes hence supporting an introduction from South Africa, while populations from South Australia exhibit chlorotypes of Mediterranean cultivars. Congruently, nuclear markers support the occurrence of two lineages in Australia but demonstrate that admixture took place, attesting that they hybridized early after introduction. Furthermore, using an approximate Bayesian computation framework, we found strong support for the serial introduction of the African olive from South Africa to NSW and then from NSW to Hawaii. The taxon experienced successive bottlenecks that did not preclude invasion, meaning that rapid decisions need to be taken to avoid naturalization where it has not established a large population yet. PMID:24567742

  3. Direct measurement of oleocanthal and oleacein levels in olive oil by quantitative (1)H NMR. Establishment of a new index for the characterization of extra virgin olive oils.

    PubMed

    Karkoula, Evangelia; Skantzari, Angeliki; Melliou, Eleni; Magiatis, Prokopios

    2012-11-28

    A new method for direct measurement of the oleocanthal and oleacein levels in olive oil by quantitative (1)H NMR was developed. The method was applied to the study of 175 monovarietal commercial Greek and California olive oil samples. The main findings were as follows: (1) There was a significant variation concerning the concentrations of oleocanthal and oleacein among the studied samples. Their concentrations ranged from nondetectable to 355 mg/kg and their sum (index D1) from 0 to 501 mg/kg. (2) There are olive varieties that independent of geographic origin and harvest time produce oil that contains both compounds in low levels. (3) There is a positive correlation of a high level of oleocanthal and oleacein in olive oils with the early time of harvest. Although there is a need for more extensive study, a new index for the characterization of extra virgin olive oils, which is a combination of D1 = oleocanthal + oleacein level and D2 = oleocanthal/oleacein ratio, seems to be very useful. PMID:23116297

  4. History of the invasive African olive tree in Australia and Hawaii: evidence for sequential bottlenecks and hybridization with the Mediterranean olive.

    PubMed

    Besnard, Guillaume; Dupuy, Jérémy; Larter, Maximilien; Cuneo, Peter; Cooke, David; Chikhi, Lounes

    2014-02-01

    Humans have introduced plants and animals into new continents and islands with negative effects on local species. This has been the case of the olive that was introduced in Australia, New Zealand and Pacific islands where it became invasive. Two subspecies were introduced in Australia, and each successfully invaded a specific area: the African olive in New South Wales (NSW) and the Mediterranean olive in South Australia. Here, we examine their origins and spread and analyse a large sample of native and invasive accessions with chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites. African olive populations from the invaded range exhibit two South African chlorotypes hence supporting an introduction from South Africa, while populations from South Australia exhibit chlorotypes of Mediterranean cultivars. Congruently, nuclear markers support the occurrence of two lineages in Australia but demonstrate that admixture took place, attesting that they hybridized early after introduction. Furthermore, using an approximate Bayesian computation framework, we found strong support for the serial introduction of the African olive from South Africa to NSW and then from NSW to Hawaii. The taxon experienced successive bottlenecks that did not preclude invasion, meaning that rapid decisions need to be taken to avoid naturalization where it has not established a large population yet. PMID:24567742

  5. Dependence of fatty-acid composition of edible oils on their enrichment in olive phenols.

    PubMed

    Girón, María Victoria; Ruiz-Jiménez, José; Luque de Castro, María Dolores

    2009-04-01

    Olive phenol extracts from waste from olive-oil production (alperujo) have been obtained by microwave-assisted extraction and used for edible oil enrichment. The extracts as such or after extractant removal were used to enrich edible oils of different fatty acid composition by liquid-liquid or solid-liquid extraction, respectively. The distribution ratios of the phenols in the different oils [olive-orujo (the waste of milled olives from which low-quality oil is obtained), sunflower, high oleic-acid content sunflower, coconut, and linseed] showed a given order as a function of phenol polarity and molecular weight, with higher distribution factors for more polar and lower molecular-weight phenols. Concerning oil composition, those oils with higher concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids yielded higher phenol distribution factors; oils with higher concentrations of saturated fatty acids yielded lower distribution factors. PMID:19253972

  6. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size, quality...variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size, quality...variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes for processing; (3) Olives for...

  7. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size, quality...variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size, quality...variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes for processing; (3) Olives for...

  8. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size, quality...variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size, quality...variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes for processing; (3) Olives for...

  9. Modulating oxidoreductase activity modifies the phenolic content of virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Romero-Segura, Carmen; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2015-03-15

    The effect of modifying polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX) activity during the extraction of virgin olive oil has been assessed in terms of its influence on the phenolic profile of the oil produced. These enzymes were modified by adding exogenous enzyme or specific inhibitors during the milling and subsequent kneading step, studying the effect on specific phenolic compounds in the oils. PPO is the main enzyme involved in phenolic oxidation at the milling step whereas POX activity seems to be the main influence during the kneading step. The data obtained suggest it is possible to increase the nutritional and organoleptic quality of virgin olive oil by inhibiting these enzymes during olive fruit processing. Treatment with the PPO inhibitor tropolone produced a twofold increase in the phenolic fraction, which would therefore seem to be an interesting strategy to improve the nutritional and organoleptic properties of virgin olive oil. PMID:25308681

  10. To Denoise or Deblur: Parameter Optimization for Imaging Systems Kaushik Mitraa, Oliver Cossairtb and Ashok Veeraraghavana

    E-print Network

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    To Denoise or Deblur: Parameter Optimization for Imaging Systems Kaushik Mitraa, Oliver Cossairtb with these improvements the image quality of the smartphones are much inferior to that of the current DSLR cameras

  11. A novel reliable method of DNA extraction from olive oil suitable for molecular traceability.

    PubMed

    Raieta, Katia; Muccillo, Livio; Colantuoni, Vittorio

    2015-04-01

    Extra virgin olive oil production has a worldwide economic impact. The use of this brand, however, is of great concern to Institutions and private industries because of the increasing number of fraud and adulteration attempts to the market products. Here, we present a novel, reliable and not expensive method for extracting the DNA from commercial virgin and extra virgin olive oils. The DNA is stable overtime and amenable for molecular analyses; in fact, by carrying out simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers analysis, we characterise the genetic profile of monovarietal olive oils. By comparing the oil-derived pattern with that of the corresponding tree, we can unambiguously identify four cultivars from Samnium, a region of Southern Italy, and distinguish them from reference and more widely used varieties. Through a parentage statistical analysis, we also identify the putative pollinators, establishing an unprecedented and powerful tool for olive oil traceability. PMID:25442596

  12. Fourier transform Raman spectrometry for the quantitative analysis of oil content and humidity in olives.

    PubMed

    Muik, Barbara; Lendl, Bernhard; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Ayora-Cañada, Maria José

    2003-02-01

    A method for the direct and fast determination of oil content and humidity in olives using Fourier transform Raman spectrometry is reported. The only sample preparation step required was crushing of the olives using a hammer mill. The crushed olives were placed in a dedicated sample cup, which was rotated excentrically to the horizontal laser beam during spectrum acquisition. This allowed us to sample an increased volume and thus compensate for sample inhomogeneities. In this way the reproducibility of Raman spectra taken from crushed olives was significantly improved. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression was used for the chemometric evaluation of the Raman spectra. Standard errors of prediction for the validation set of 0.81% for oil content (in the range 19.68-35.71%) and 1.54% for humidity (in the range 29.23-51.49%), both expressed as weight percentage referred to fresh matter, were obtained. PMID:14610962

  13. 76 FR 73613 - Oliver Hydro LLC; FFP Project 97 LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ...Oliver Lock & Dam, located on the Black Warrior River in Tuscaloosa County, Alabama...the instructions on the Commission's Web site http://www.ferc.gov/docs-filing...eLibrary'' link of the Commission's Web site at...

  14. Chemical composition and oxidative stability of Tunisian monovarietal virgin olive oils with regard to fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Baccouri, Olfa; Guerfel, Mokhtar; Baccouri, Bechir; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Bendini, Alessandra; Lercker, Giovanni; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Daoud Ben Miled, Douja

    2008-08-15

    The chemical composition of virgin olive oil may be influenced by genotype and different agronomic (i.e. fruit ripeness degree, water supply) and technological factors. This article reports the evaluation of the influence of the olive ripening stage on the quality indices, the major and the minor components and the oxidative stability of the two main monovarietal Tunisian cultivars (cvv. Chétoui and Chemlali) virgin olive oils. Moreover, the olives cv. Chétoui were tested in a rain-fed control and an irrigation regime. The oils sampled at five different ripeness stages were submitted to liquid chromatographic determination (HPLC-DAD/MSD) of their quali-quantitative phenolic and tocopherolic profiles. Moreover, the triacylglycerol and fatty acid compositions, and minor components such as squalene, pigments and their relation with the oil oxidative stability were evaluated. The tested oils showed very good correlation between the oxidative stability and the concentrations of total phenols, practically secoiridoids and ?-tocopherol. PMID:26049987

  15. 77 FR 105 - Oliver Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission, Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...13005-003] Oliver Hydro LLC; Notice of Application...Secretary, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...run-of-river utilizing surplus water from the William Bacon...according to the following Hydro Licensing...

  16. CHARACTERISATIONS OF BALANCED WORDS VIA ORDERINGS Oliver Jenkinson and Luca Q. Zamboni

    E-print Network

    Jenkinson, Oliver

    CHARACTERISATIONS OF BALANCED WORDS VIA ORDERINGS Oliver Jenkinson Abstract. Three new characterisations of balanced words are presented. Ea* *ch we study certain finite factors of Sturmian sequences which w* *e call balanced words (see below

  17. Oxirane-immobilized Lentinula edodes laccase: stability and phenolics removal efficiency in olive mill wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro D’Annibale; Silvia Rita Stazi; Vittorio Vinciguerra; Giovanni Giovannozzi Sermanni

    2000-01-01

    Immobilization of Lentinula edodes laccase on Eupergit® C increased pH, thermal and proteolytic stability with slight modifications in laccase oxidation efficiency. Immobilized laccase proved to be efficiently stable in removing olive mill wastewater phenolics.

  18. A Paleontological Perspective on Designing Adaptable Software Systems Oliver Stiemerling and Armin B. Cremers

    E-print Network

    Nehaniv, Chrystopher

    A Paleontological Perspective on Designing Adaptable Software Systems Oliver Stiemerling and Armin developed theory in paleontology and genetics to the design of adaptable software, i.e. systems whose

  19. Possibilities of peanut, pecan and safflower seed oils as supplements for olive oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. G. Bickford; G. E. Mann; K. S. Markley

    1943-01-01

    Summary  Samples of completely refined peanut oil, semirefined pecan oil, imported edible grade olive oil and crude safflower seed\\u000a oil have been examined for composition, spectral transmittance and other properties. Compositions were determined by means\\u000a of the modified Bertram oxidation method and application of the iodine-thiocyanogen number technique.\\u000a \\u000a None of the oils examined simulate olive oil in composition. Peanut and pecan

  20. Degradation of organic matter in olive-oil mill wastewater through homogeneous Fenton-like reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leopoldo Martínez Nieto; Gassan Hodaifa; Salvador Rodríguez; José A. Giménez; Javier Ochando

    2011-01-01

    The degradation of organic matter present in olive-oil mill wastewater from two-phase olive-oil extraction process was carried out by chemical oxidation reaction. It was shown that organic matter is efficiently degraded through a Fenton-like reaction using FeCl3 as catalyst in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Oxidation was carried out in a batch reactor with controlled temperature. Operating at pH 3.0,

  1. Inhibition of the inferior olive during conditioned responses in the decerebrate ferret

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Germund Hesslow; Magnus Ivarsson

    1996-01-01

    Output from the interpositus nucleus can inhibit the inferior olive, probably via the GABA-ergic nucleo-olivary pathway. It has been suggested that the function of this inhibition might be to regulate synaptic plasticity resulting from parallel fibre\\/climbing fibre interaction in cerebellar Purkinje cells, by providing negative feedback information to the olive. Thus, when a learned response, generated by the interpositus nucleus,

  2. Metabolic activity of intracerebellar nuclei in the rat: Effects of inferior olive inactivation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Batini; F. Benedetti; C. Buisseret-Delmas; P. G. Montarolo; P. Strata

    1984-01-01

    Summary  Metabolic activity of the intracerebellar nuclei during cryoinactivation of the inferior olive was studied in the anaesthetized rat by using the 14C-2-deoxyglucose method. Single unit recording of Purkinje cells was simultaneously monitored in the cerebellar cortex.Local inactivation in the inferior olive resulted in regional suppression of complex spike discharges in the cerebellar cortex.An increased metabolic activity was observed in the

  3. Effects of Repetitive Temperature Changes on the Stress Response and Growth of Olive Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Wook Hur; Han Kyu Lim; Young Jin Chang

    2008-01-01

    Hur, J.W., Lim, H.K. and Chang, Y.J. 2008. Effects of repetitive temperature changes on the stress response and growth of olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 33: 49–54.This study has examined the effects of repetitive and rapid changes of water temperature (such as sudden rises and falls) on the stress response and growth of olive flounder. Whereas, 3C

  4. Olive Oil Waste Treatment: A Comparative and Critical Presentation of Methods, Advantages & Disadvantages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis; Aikaterini Kassaveti; Stelios Stefanatos

    2007-01-01

    Since olive oil industries were considered responsible for a great amount of pollution there has been a strong need for optimization of olive oil waste treatment systems. The currently employed systems are numerous and fall in the following large categories; bioremediation (ex-situ, in-situ), thermal processes (incineration, pyrolysis, gasification), evaporation, membrance processes, electrolysis, ozonation, digestion, coagulation\\/flocculation\\/precipitation, and distillation. Both advantages and

  5. The analysis of the Conde de Tolosa and the Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe olive jar assemblage

    E-print Network

    James, Stephen Robert

    1985-01-01

    nationalities such as French, English and Portuguese, the jars were used and produced primarily by the Spanish during the exploration and colonization of the Americas. The amphora-Iike shape of the jars indicates that they are lineal descendents of a pottery... of Central and South America, Goggin's investigation was oriented toward a broad analysis of Spanish material culture, the main focus being majolica pottery. Olive jar material, a major secondary area of attention, was presented in "The Spanish Olive Jar...

  6. Exhaust emissions from a Diesel engine fueled with transesterified waste olive oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P Dorado; E Ballesteros; J. M Arnal; J Gómez; F. J López

    2003-01-01

    The exhaust emissions of a Diesel direct injection Perkins engine fueled with waste olive oil methyl ester were studied at several steady-state operating conditions. Emissions were characterized with neat biodiesel from used olive oil and conventional Diesel fuel. Results revealed that the use of biodiesel resulted in lower emissions of CO (up to 58.9%), CO2 (up to 8.6%, excepting a

  7. Superheated liquid extraction of oleuropein and related biophenols from olive leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Luque de Castro

    2006-01-01

    Oleuropein and other healthy olive biophenols (OBPs) such as verbacoside, apigenin-7-glucoside and luteolin-7-glucoside have been extracted from olive leaves by using superheated liquids and a static–dynamic approach. Multivariate methodology has been used to carry out a detailed optimisation of the extraction. Under the optimal working conditions, complete removal without degradation of the target analytes was achieved in 13min. The extract

  8. Olive oil microemulsions as a biomimetic medium for enzymatic studies: Oxidation of oleuropein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Papadimitriou; T. G. Sotiroudis; A. Xenakis

    2005-01-01

    Microemulsions consisting of olive oil as the non-polar solvent, lecithin as surfactant, 1-propanol as cosurfactant, and water\\u000a were prepared. The choice of the compositions of the microemulsions used was based on the pseudo-ternary phase diagrams of\\u000a the system determined at 30°C, for different weight ratios of lecithin\\/olive oil. Lecithin solubilization and water incorporation\\u000a in these microemulsion systems was limited. Tyrosinase,

  9. Dynamic ultrasound-assisted extraction of oleuropein and related biophenols from olive leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Luque-Rodríguez; M. D. Luque de Castro

    2006-01-01

    A continuous approach for the ultrasound-assisted extraction of olive biophenols (OBPs) from olive leaves is proposed. Multivariate methodology was used to carry out a detailed optimisation of extraction. Under the optimal working conditions, complete extraction of the target analytes (namely, oleuropein, verbacoside, apigenin-7-glucoside and luteolin-7-glucoside with LODs 11.04, 2.68, 1.49 and 3.91mg\\/kg, respectively) was achieved in 25min. The extract was

  10. Continuous hydrolysis of olive oil by lipase in microporous hydrophobic membrane bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Mozammel Hoq; Tsuneo Yamane; Shoichi Shimizu; Tadashi Funada; Shiro Ishida

    1985-01-01

    Continuous hydrolysis of olive oil byCandida cylindracea’s lipase was studied in a microporous hydrophobic membrane bioreactor. Olive oil and buffer solution, fed continuously through\\u000a two compartments partitioned by membrane, caused reaction at the interface of lipase-adsorbed membrane and buffer solution.\\u000a Fatty acid was obtained in a single phase without being mixed with components of other phases. At all mean residence

  11. Protective effect of olive oil and its phenolic compounds against low density lipoprotein oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Montserrat Fitó; María Isabel Covas; Rosa M. Lamuela-Raventós; Joan Vila; Jaume Torrents; Carmen de la Torre; Jaume Marrugat

    2000-01-01

    The protective effect of phenolic compounds from an olive oil extract, and of olive oils with (extra-virgin) and without (refined)\\u000a phenolic components, on low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation was investigated. When added to isolated LDL, phenolics [0.025–0.3\\u000a mg\\/L caffeic acid equivalents (CAE)] increased the lag time of conjugated diene formation after copper-mediated LDL oxidation\\u000a in a concentration-dependent manner. Concentrations of

  12. Olive Oil and Red Wine Antioxidant Polyphenols Inhibit Endothelial Activation Antiatherogenic Properties of Mediterranean Diet Phytochemicals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Annunziata Carluccio; Luisa Siculella; Maria Assunta Ancora; Marika Massaro; Egeria Scoditti; Carlo Storelli; Francesco Visioli; Alessandro Distante; Raffaele De Caterina

    2010-01-01

    Objective—Epidemiology suggests that Mediterranean diets are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Because monocyte adhesion to the endothelium is crucial in early atherogenesis, we evaluated whether typical olive oil and red wine polyphenols affect endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule expression and monocyte adhesion. Methods and Results—Phytochemicals in olive oil and red wine, including oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, elenolic acid, and resveratrol, with

  13. Olive Fruit Extracts Inhibit Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis in HT29 Human Colon Cancer Cells1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Emilia Juan; Valentina Ruiz-Gutierrez; Joana M. Planas; Departament de Fisiologia; Facultat de Farmacia

    Olives and their derivatives represent an important component of the Mediterranean diet that has been considered to be protective against cancer. We investigated the effect on cell proliferation and apoptosis in HT-29 cells of an extract from the skin of olives composed of pentacyclic triterpenes with the main components maslinic acid (73.25%) and oleanolic acid (25.75%).Studiesofthedose-dependenteffectsshowedantiproliferativeactivityatanEC50valueof73.96 63.19 mmol\\/Lof maslinic acid

  14. Use of chlorophyll and carotenoid pigment composition to determine authenticity of virgin olive oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatriz Gandul-Rojas; María Roca-L. Cepero; M. Isabel Mínguez-Mosquera

    2000-01-01

    The chlorophyll and carotenoid pigment profile of 50 mono-variety virgin olive oils was used to develop an index of authenticity\\u000a for the product. The presence of carotenoids other than those described, or chlorophyll derivatives at another level of degradation,\\u000a were found to be determing elements of this index for “virgin” olive oil quality. In addition, the ratio of chlorophyll\\/carotenoid\\u000a should

  15. Effect of the olive oil phenol hydroxytyrosol on human hepatoma HepG2 cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Goya; Raquel Mateos; Laura Bravo

    2007-01-01

    Background  Scientific evidence suggests that olive oil’s beneficial effects are related to the high level of antioxidants, including\\u000a phenolic compounds such as hydroxytyrosol. In vivo studies have shown that olive oil HTy is bioavailable and its biological\\u000a activities, similar to those reported for other natural antioxidants such as quercetin, include prevention of LDL oxidation.\\u000a Previous studies from our laboratory have shown

  16. Hydroxytyrosol, a Natural Molecule Occurring in Olive Oil, Induces Cytochrome c-Dependent Apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fulvio Della Ragione; Valeria Cucciolla; Adriana Borriello; Valentina Della Pietra; Gabriele Pontoni; Luigi Racioppi; Caterina Manna; Patrizia Galletti; Vincenzo Zappia

    2000-01-01

    2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol (DPE), a naturally occurring phenolic antioxidant molecule found in olive oil, has been reported to exert several biological and pharmacological activities. We studied the effect of this compound on the proliferation and survival of HL60 cell line. Concentrations from 50 to 100 ?M DPE, comparable to its olive oil content, caused a complete arrest of HL60 cell proliferation and

  17. Physiological effects of natural olive oil antioxidants utilization in rainbow trout ( Onchorynchus mykiss ) feeding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benedetto Sicuro; Paola Badino; Franco Daprà; Francesco Gai; Marco Galloni; Rosangela Odore; Giovanni Battista Palmegiano; Elisabetta Macchi

    2010-01-01

    Olive mill vegetation water (VW) is an olive oil by-product rich in polyphenols has powerful antioxidant effects. In light\\u000a of the interest on the research of novel natural antioxidants to use in fish feed, the aim of this research was to use VW\\u000a as a potential substitute for artificial antioxidants in rainbow trout diet as well as checking its effects

  18. Bioactive phthalides from Ligusticum sinense Oliv cv. Chaxiong.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qian; Yang, Jianbo; Ren, Jin; Wang, Aiguo; Ji, Tengfei; Su, Yalun

    2014-03-01

    Five new phthalides (1-4, 6), two new natural products (5, 7) and five known phthalides (8-12) were isolated from the aerial parts of Ligusticum sinense Oliv cv. Chaxiong. Their structures were elucidated by HR-ESI-MS, UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR (HSQC, HMBC, (1)H-(1)H COSY, NOESY) methods. The absolute configurations were established by the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum and the modified Mosher's method. Compounds 1-8 were tested against SK-N-SH cell depriving oxygen and glucose and showed different degrees of increasing the cell survival, among which compounds 1, 4 and 8 (10 ?M) showed higher cell survival than Ginsenoside Rg1. PMID:24456660

  19. QTL Mapping of Flowering and Fruiting Traits in Olive

    PubMed Central

    Sadok, Inès Ben; Celton, Jean-Marc; Essalouh, Laila; El Aabidine, Amal Zine; Garcia, Gilbert; Martinez, Sebastien; Grati-Kamoun, Naziha; Rebai, Ahmed; Costes, Evelyne; Khadari, Bouchaib

    2013-01-01

    One of the challenge fruit growers are facing is to balance between tree production and vegetative growth from year to year. To investigate the existence of genetic determinism for reproductive behaviour in olive tree, we studied an olive segregating population derived from a cross between ‘Olivière’ and ‘Arbequina’ cultivars. Our strategy was based on (i) an annual assessment of individual trees yield, and (ii) a decomposition of adult growth units at the crown periphery into quantitative variables related to both flowering and fruiting process in relation to their growth and branching. Genetic models, including the year, genotype effects and their interactions, were built with variance function and correlation structure of residuals when necessary. Among the progeny, trees were either ‘ON’ or ‘OFF’ for a given year and patterns of regular vs. irregular bearing were revealed. Genotype effect was significant on yield but not for flowering traits at growth unit (GU) scale, whereas the interaction between genotype and year was significant for both traits. A strong genetic effect was found for all fruiting traits without interaction with the year. Based on the new constructed genetic map, QTLs with small effects were detected, revealing multigenic control of the studied traits. Many were associated to alleles from ‘Arbequina’. Genetic correlations were found between Yield and Fruit set at GU scale suggesting a common genetic control, even though QTL co-localisations were in spe`cific years only. Most QTL were associated to flowering traits in specific years, even though reproductive traits at GU scale did not capture the bearing status of the trees in a given year. Results were also interpreted with respect to ontogenetic changes of growth and branching, and an alternative sampling strategy was proposed for capturing tree fruiting behaviour. Regular bearing progenies were identified and could constitute innovative material for selection programs. PMID:23690957

  20. Rapid determination of alpha tocopherol in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bakre, S M; Gadmale, D K; Toche, R B; Gaikwad, V B

    2015-05-01

    A new method is developed to determine the presence of sunflower oil in olive oil. ?-tocopherol is selected as discriminating parameter for detecting sunflower oil adulterant in olive oil. Admixtures of olive oil and sunflower oil (5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % sunflower oil in olive oil) are prepared. These admixtures are analysed by reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector. The sample preparation does not require saponification or addition of antioxidant. The chromatographic system consists of a C18 column with methanol: acetonitrile (50:50) mobile phase. Fluorescence detector excitation wavelength is set at 290 nm and emission wavelength is set at 330 nm. The ? tocopherol concentration increases linearly in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil. The method is simple, selective, sensitive and is precise (RSD?=?2.65 %) for ? tocopherol. The present method can precisely detect 5 % sunflower oil in olive oil. PMID:25892814

  1. Fast determination of virgin olive oil phenolic metabolites in human high-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ávila, C; Montes, R; Castellote, A I; Chisaguano, A M; Fitó, M; Covas, M I; Muñoz-Aguallo, D; Nyyssönen, K; Zunft, H J; López-Sabater, M C

    2015-07-01

    In recent years it has been confirmed that the consumption of olive oil prevents the oxidation of biomolecules owing to its monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and phenolic content. The main objective of the study was to develop an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method for the determination of phenolic compounds in human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) samples. At the same time, the influence of olive oil consumption on the phenolic metabolite levels was evaluated in a European population. The participants were 51 healthy men, aged 20-60. They were randomized to two consecutive intervention periods with the administration of raw olive oil with low and high polyphenolic content. The UHPLC-MS/MS analytical method has been validated for hydroxytyrosol and homovanillic acid in terms of linearity (r(2) ?=?0.99 and 1.00), repeatability (5.7 and 6.5%) reproducibility (6.2 and 7%), recovery (98 to 97%), limits of detection (1.7 to 1.8?ppb) and quantification (5.8 and 6.3?ppb).The levels of the studied metabolites increased significantly after high polyphenolic content virgin olive oil ingestion (p <0.05) compared with lowpolyphenolic content olive oil. Virgin olive oil consumption increases the levels of phenolic metabolites in HDL and thus provides human HDL with more efficient antioxidant protection. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25425119

  2. Occurrence of an Inhibitor of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Green Olives1

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, H. P.; Etchells, J. L.

    1967-01-01

    Green olives were found to contain an inhibitor(s) of several species of lactic acid bacteria usually associated with the Spanish-type brined olive fermentation. The inhibitor was demonstrated by the presence of inhibition zones surrounding tissue which had been cut from frozen olives and implanted in a seeded nutritive agar medium. Relative potencies of aqueous extracts of frozen olives were determined by a paper disc assay method. The Mission variety of olive contained the most inhibitor, and the Manzanillo and Ascolano, about 50 and 40% as much as the Mission variety, respectively. Sevillano and Barouni varieties contained comparatively little inhibitor. Effects of the inhibitor on growth rates of lactic acid bacteria were determined by adding various amounts of a concentrated aqueous extract of olives to a nutritive broth medium contained in screw-capped tubes. Of the four species of lactic acid bacteria tested, Leuconostoc mesenteroides was the most sensitive, and Lactobacillus plantarum was the least sensitive; Pediococcus cerevisiae and Lactobacillus brevis were intermediate in sensitivity. Extracts possessed a bactericidal property, as evidenced by their effect on L. mesenteroides. Sodium chloride, especially at concentrations of about 5% and higher, greatly increased the effectiveness of the inhibitor. The inhibitor was ethyl alcohol-soluble and was stable when heated at 100 C in aqueous solution. Potencies of extracts were reduced greatly by adjustment to pH 10, but no appreciable effect was noted by adjustment to pH 0.8. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16349729

  3. Influence of processing conditions on acrylamide content in black ripe olives.

    PubMed

    Casado, Francisco J; Montaño, Alfredo

    2008-03-26

    The presence of acrylamide was investigated in different presentations of commercial black ripe olives, a well-known sterilized alkali-treated product. The analysis was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after bromination of acrylamide, using (13C3)acrylamide as internal standard. In-house validation data for commercial ripe olives showed good precision and accuracy of the method, with repeatability below 3% and recoveries between 94 and 105%. Acrylamide was detected in all samples, but its concentration varied significantly from 176 to 1578 microg/kg of pulp. The effects of different processing conditions (two preservation methods and three darkening methods), cultivar (Hojiblanca or Manzanilla), and presentation form (pitted or sliced olives) on acrylamide content were evaluated in experiments performed in an olive-processing plant. All canned samples were sterilized at 121 degrees C for 30 min. Statistical analysis of the data indicated that the effects of darkening method and olive cultivar were the most pronounced. Acrylamide contents did not significantly differ after 6 months of storage. The small amounts of free amino acids and reducing sugars found in olives before sterilization did not significantly correlate with the acrylamide formed. PMID:18303816

  4. El envejecimiento de las poblaciones en Europa o el invierno demogrfico La expresin "vieja Europa" es antigua. Se inscribe en la idea de una antigedad de la civilizacin europea actual en rel

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , Europa se dist por tres características demográficas: por una parte, es el único continente con menor estudiar la evolución de la estructura por edad en el contin europeo y, sobre todo, los factores que la evolución de la proporción de las personas de 60 años o m de los menores de 20 años para la Unión Europea de

  5. Atlas Linguarum Europea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruijsen, Joep

    1977-01-01

    Using selected dialect maps and explanatory comments, the Atlas Linguarum Europae aims to describe dialect variations in Europe and thus produce a clear typology of the spoken languages and dialects. (Author)

  6. Leaf Extracts from Tunisian Olive Cultivars Induce Growth Inhibition and Differentiation of Human Leukemia HL60 Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leila Abaza; Terence P. N. Talorete; Parida Yamada; Mokhtar Zarrouk; Hiroko Isoda

    \\u000a Recently a lot of interest is given to the beneficial actions and healthy effects of olive leaves. Thus, this work is an investigation\\u000a of the antiproliferative activities and other effects of olive leaf extracts (OLEs) from seven principal Tunisian olive varieties\\u000a on the human promyelocytic cell line HL60.Three in vitro assays were performed for this study: MTT assay to evaluate

  7. Original Contribution Postprandial LDL phenolic content and LDL oxidation are modulated by olive oil phenolic compounds in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria-Isabel Covas; Karina de la Torre; MagiFarre ´-Albaladejo; Jari Kaikkonen; Carmen Lopez-Sabater; Maria A. Pujadas-Bastardes; Jesus Joglar; Tanja Weinbrenner; Rosa M. Lamuela-Raventosc; Rafael de la Torre

    Olive oil phenolic compounds are potent antioxidants in vitro, but evidence for antioxidant action in vivo is controversial. We examined the role of the phenolic compounds from olive oil on postprandial oxidative stress and LDL antioxidant content. Oral fat loads of 40 mL of similar olive oils, but with high (366 mg\\/kg), moderate (164 mg\\/kg), and low (2.7 mg\\/kg) phenolic

  8. A Supervised Feature Extraction Method For GC-MS Data Based On PLS. Application To Olive Oil Adulteration Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burian, C.; Brezmes, J.; Correig, X.; Martinelli, E.; Di Natale, C.

    2011-09-01

    Olive oil adulteration is often complicated and more than one test is necessary to determine olive oil authenticity. In particular, detection of hazelnut oil in admixtures has been difficult to confirm due to the similarity of the two oils. In this work a method to identify the olive oil adulteration is presented based on GC-MS analysis coupled with data analysis techniques and a feature selection step.

  9. Literature review on production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil enriched in bioactive compounds. Potential use of byproducts as alternative sources of polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Edwin; Bakhouche, Abdelhakim; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    This review describes the olive oil production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) enriched in polyphenol and byproducts generated as sources of antioxidants. EVOO is obtained exclusively by mechanical and physical processes including collecting, washing, and crushing of olives, malaxation of olive paste, centrifugation, storage, and filtration. The effect of each step is discussed to minimize losses of polyphenols from large quantities of wastes. Phenolic compounds including phenolic acids, alcohols, secoiridoids, lignans, and flavonoids are characterized in olive oil mill wastewater, olive pomace, storage byproducts, and filter cake. Different industrial pilot plant processes are developed to recover phenolic compounds from olive oil byproducts with antioxidant and bioactive properties. The technological information compiled in this review will help olive oil producers to improve EVOO quality and establish new processes to obtain valuable extracts enriched in polyphenols from byproducts with food ingredient applications. PMID:23656613

  10. Effect of pretreatments on microbial growth and sensory properties of dry-salted olives.

    PubMed

    De?irmencio?lu, Nurcan; Gürbüz, Ozan; De?irmencio?lu, Ali; Yildiz, Semanur

    2014-09-01

    The effect of various washing solutions (acetic acid, lactic acid, and chlorine dioxide) and NaCl concentrations (2.5, 5.0, and 10.0%) on the stability of dry-salted olives (cultivars Gemlik and Edincik) during storage was studied. Vacuum-packed olives were stored at 4°C for 7 months and monitored for microbiological changes that occurred in the dry-salted olives during the dry-salting process and for their stability during storage. Microbial populations were enumerated using pour plating (for aerobic plate counts) and spread plating (for counts of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts and molds). Aerobic plate counts were <2.5 log CFU/g for olive samples washed in chlorine dioxide at all NaCl concentrations. At 4°C, the population of yeasts and molds increased steadily during the shelf life in Gemlik olive samples washed with all of the solutions, except chlorine dioxide, whereas yeast and mold counts in Edincik olives decreased depending on the increase in salt concentration. Therefore, different combinations of organic acids, NaCl, and vacuum packaging can be successfully used to control the growth of yeasts and molds in these olives. The combination of vacuum sealing (with a 10-ppm chlorine dioxide wash) and storage at 4°C was the most effective approach for controlling the growth of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts and molds. Members of the sensory panel considered saltiness to be appropriate at 2.5 and 5.0% NaCl. Softness and bitterness scores increased with reduced NaCl concentrations, but rancidity and hardness scores increased as NaCl concentration increased. PMID:25198844

  11. Abnormal fermentations in table-olive processing: microbial origin and sensory evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The process of transformation of table olives from tree to table is the result of complex biochemical reactions that are determined by the interactions between the indigenous microflora of the olives, together with a variety of contaminating microrganisms from different sources [fiber-glass fermenters, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tanks, pipelines, pumps, and water], with the compositional characteristics of the fruit. One of the most important aspects of improving the quality of table olives is the use of selected microorganisms to drive the fermentation. These can supplant the indigenous microflora and, in particular, the complementary microflora that are responsible for spoilage of canned olives. In this context, from a technological point of view, a well-characterized collection of microrganisms (lactic acid bacteria, yeast) that can be isolated from the matrix to be processed (the olive fruit) will provide the basis for the development of starter culture systems. These cultures can be fully compatible with the typical products and will guarantee high quality standards. Inoculation of the brine with such selected starter cultures will reduce the probability of spoilage, and help to achieve an improved and more predictable fermentation process. Control of the fermentation processes can thus occur through chemical, chemico-physical and microbiological approaches, and since 2008, also through organoleptic evaluation (COI/OT/MO/Doc. No 1. Method for the sensory analysis of table olives). This last has established the necessary criteria and procedures for sensory analysis of the negative, gustatory and kinaesthetic sensations of table olives, which can also be attributed to abnormal proliferation of microrganisms. It also sets out the system for commercial classification, through assessment of the median of the defect predominantly perceived. PMID:23675370

  12. Bioactives and nutraceutical phytochemicals naturally occurring in virgin olive oil. The case study of the Nocellara del Belice Italian olive cultivar.

    PubMed

    Ranalli, F; Ranalli, A; Contento, S; Casanovas, M; Antonucci, M; Simone, G Di

    2013-01-01

    This work reports on the composition and bionutritional value of organic virgin olive oil from the Nocellara del Belice variety, one cultivated in the olive areas of the Sicily region, Italy. Destoned oils obtained by processing olives with a destoning-based procedure were compared with conventional oils. This innovative technique, consisting in removing the stone from fruits prior to processing, strongly enhanced the already high-quality level of the conventional product. An in-depth analytical investigation from 2008 to 2010 showed how this innovative olive extraction process led to an excellent peculiar final product, mainly attributable to the improved biophenol and volatile composition, as well as higher concentrations of the lipophilic and vitamin antioxidants (tocopherols and tocotrienols). It had higher levels of oleocanthal (p-HPEA-EDA), a nutraceutical compound exerting actions against COX1 and COX2 (cycloxygenases). Its head-space aroma displayed new volatile phytomolecules and also had higher levels of green volatiles from the lipoxygenase (LOX)-pathway (one having as precursors the polyunsaturated fatty acids containing a cis-cis-1,4-pentadiene system). Among the other bioactives, we highlight its significant levels of trans-?-carotene and xanthophylls (lutein, violaxanthin, neoxanthin and other carotenoids). Its enhanced nutritional value was also attributable to the increased intensity of valuable tasting notes. PMID:23356880

  13. Short and medium-term effects of two-phase olive mill waste application on olive grove production and soil properties under semiarid mediterranean conditions.

    PubMed

    López-Piñeiro, A; Albarrán, A; Nunes, J M Rato; Barreto, C

    2008-11-01

    A five-year field study was conducted to evaluate the potential use of oiled and de-oiled two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW and DTPOMW, respectively) as soil amendment on a representative olive grove soil: a Cutanic Luvisol. Treatments included a non-amended control, TPOMW1, TPOMW2, DTPOMW1 and DTPOMW2 (30, 60, 27 and 54Mgha(-1) dry weight equivalent). Significant increases (P<0.05) in organic carbon, total N, available P and K, and aggregate stability were observed in the amended soils. Leaf analysis showed significant increases in N, P, and K concentrations in treated plots after the two first years of TPOMW or DTPOMW amendments. Also, a general increase in olive production was observed in the treated plots, this increase being higher in the TPOMW1 and DTPOMW1 treated soils. After five years of repeated TPOMW and DTPOMW application, the increase in yield was 29%, 9.8%, 30%, and 19% for TPOMW1, TPOMW2, DTPOMW1, and DTPOMW2, respectively. Raw TPOMW and DTPOMW have the potential to be valuable soil amendments and source of organic matter, with a positive effect on olive yield, and closing the cycle of residues-resources. PMID:18462936

  14. Effective production of Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase by semi-batch culture with turbidity-dependent automatic feeding of both olive oil and iron ion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuto Ishihara; Takahiro Suzuki; Tsuneo Yamane; Shoichi Shimizu

    1989-01-01

    An automatic feeding system to supply olive oil in semi-batch culture was established by monitoring cell concentration with a laser turbidimeter combined with a microcomputer and a pulse motor. In this automatic feeding system, specific olive oil supply rate (g olive oil) · (g dry cell)-1 · h-1, q0, was changed in an appropriate range. Attempts were made to produce

  15. Antimicrobial fish gelatin films with olive leaf extract for inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat smoked salmon (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive leaf is a sizable by-product from the olive industry. Its use as antimicrobial/antioxidant ingredient in edible films for fish preservation was evaluated. Olive leaf powder (OLP) and its water/ethanol extract (OLPE) were tested against three foodborne pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes, Escheri...

  16. Thin Layer Drying Kinetics of By-Products from Olive Oil Processing

    PubMed Central

    Montero, Irene; Miranda, Teresa; Arranz, Jose Ignacio; Rojas, Carmen Victoria

    2011-01-01

    The thin-layer behavior of by-products from olive oil production was determined in a solar dryer in passive and active operation modes for a temperature range of 20–50 °C. The increase in the air temperature reduced the drying time of olive pomace, sludge and olive mill wastewater. Moisture ratio was analyzed to obtain effective diffusivity values, varying in the oil mill by-products from 9.136 × 10?11 to 1.406 × 10?9 m2/s in forced convection (ma = 0.22 kg/s), and from 9.296 × 10?11 to 6.277 × 10?10 m2/s in natural convection (ma = 0.042 kg/s). Diffusivity values at each temperature were obtained using the Fick’s diffusion model and, regardless of the convection, they increased with the air temperature. The temperature dependence on the effective diffusivity was determined by an Arrhenius type relationship. The activation energies were found to be 38.64 kJ/mol, 30.44 kJ/mol and 47.64 kJ/mol for the olive pomace, the sludge and the olive mill wastewater in active mode, respectively, and 91.35 kJ/mol, 14.04 kJ/mol and 77.15 kJ/mol in natural mode, in that order. PMID:22174639

  17. Characterization, tissue distribution, and expression of neuropeptide Y in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Tan, Xungang; Du, Shaojun; Sun, Wei; You, Feng; Zhang, Peijun

    2015-05-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36-amino acid peptide of the neuropeptide Y family that plays key roles in the regulation of food intake. In this study, we focused on NPY mRNA expression changes around feeding time and during food deprivation in olive flounder. The olive flounder NPY mRNA levels were analyzed in different tissues and a high level of expression was detected in the brain. We also demonstrated a correlation between NPY expression levels in the brain and feeding schedule. NPY expression levels in olive flounder maintained on a daily scheduled feeding regimen increased shortly before feeding and decreased after the scheduled feeding time. Compared with the -1 h group before feeding, NPY expression in the 3 h group after feeding decreased significantly ( P<0.05). Food deprivation led to an 81.7% decrease in NPY mRNA levels in the 24 h fasted group ( P<0.05) and a 91.7% decrease in the 48 h fasted group ( P<0.05). Therefore, our study demonstrates that NPY expression is associated with food intake in olive flounder. This result reveals the function of NPY in regulating food intake and its potential importance in olive flounder aquaculture.

  18. Chemical, Biochemical, and Microbiological Properties of Soils from Abandoned and Extensively Cultivated Olive Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Palese, A. M.; Magno, R.; Casacchia, T.; Curci, M.; Baronti, S.; Miglietta, F.; Crecchio, C.; Xiloyannis, C.; Sofo, A.

    2013-01-01

    The abandonment of olive orchards is a phenomenon of great importance triggered mainly by economic and social causes. The aim of this study was to investigate some chemical, biochemical, and microbiological properties in a soil of a southern olive grove abandoned for 25 years. In order to define the effect of the long-term land abandonment on soil properties, an adjacent olive grove managed according to extensive practices was taken as reference (essentially minimum tillage and no fertilization). Soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and pH were significantly higher in the abandoned olive grove due to the absence of tillage and the natural inputs of organic matter at high C/N ratio which, inter alia, increased the number of cellulolytic bacteria and stimulated the activity of ?-glucosidase, an indicator of a more advanced stage of soil evolution. The soil of the abandoned olive orchard showed a lower number of total bacteria and fungi and a lower microbial diversity, measured by means of the Biolog method, as a result of a sort of specialization trend towards low quality organic substrates. From this point of view, the extensive cultivation management seemed to not induce a disturbance to microbiological communities. PMID:24348166

  19. Olive oil enriched in lycopene from tomato by-product through a co-milling process.

    PubMed

    Bendini, Alessandra; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Valli, Enrico; Barbieri, Sara; Tesini, Federica; Gallina Toschi, Tullia

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to produce an olive oil (OO) naturally enriched with antioxidants, recovering carotenoids, in particular lycopene, using an industrial by-product of tomato seeds and skin. For this purpose, a technological process in a low-scale industrial plant to co-mill olives and tomato by-product in de-frosted or freeze-dried forms was applied and studied with respect to control samples. Preliminary results obtained from two different experiments were carried out by 40?kg of cultivar Correggiolo olives and 60?kg of olive blends from different cultivars. In both the experiments, the co-milling showed significant enrichment in carotenoids, especially in lycopene (mean values of 5.4 and 7.2?mg/kg oil from defrosted and freeze-dried by-products, respectively). The experimental results demonstrated the possibility to obtain a new functional food naturally enriched in antioxidant compounds, which might be marketed as "OO dressing enriched in lycopene" or "condiment produced using olives and tomato by-product". PMID:26001089

  20. Mycotoxin production by molds isolated from 'Greek-style' black olives.

    PubMed

    Gourama, H; Bullerman, L B

    1988-02-01

    Seventeen mold strains were isolated from 'Greek-style' black olives produced in Morocco. Eight of these isolates were identified as Aspergillus flavus, seven as Aspergillus petrakii, and two as Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm. The A. flavus strains were tested for production of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2; and A. ochraceus and A. petrakii strains were tested for production of ochratoxin, penicillic acid, patulin, and citrinin. The organisms were tested for mycotoxin production on five different substrates, including rice powder-corn steep agar, autoclaved rice, yeast-extract sucrose broth (YES), potato dextrose agar (PDA), and fresh olive paste. All strains of A. flavus produced aflatoxins on all substrates except olive paste and PDA. In PDA, only two strains produced Aflatoxin B1. Five A. ochraceus group isolates produced penicillic acid on one or more of the substrates, but only two out of the five produced penicillic acid on olive paste. None produced ochratoxin, patulin or citrinin. Quantities of aflatoxin B1 produced in rice ranged from 5 to 14 micrograms/g of rice, and of penicillic acid 15-32 micrograms/g of rice. In olive paste, the concentrations of penicillic acid were 11.4 and 30.2 micrograms/g. Biological toxicity of extracts of mold cultures was confirmed using chicken embryos and a microbiological test. Crude extracts of cultures were also tested for mutagenicity using the Salmonella mutagenicity (Ames) Test, and some gave positive mutagenic responses. PMID:3079463

  1. The inferior olive of the C57BL/6J mouse: a chemoarchitectonic study.

    PubMed

    Yu, You; Fu, Yuhong; Watson, Charles

    2014-02-01

    We have used the histochemical and immunohistochemical staining methods and maps of gene expression to analyze the structure of the inferior olive of the C57BL mouse. As in other mammals, the inferior olive of the C57BL mouse contains three major nuclei, the medial nucleus, the principal nucleus, and the dorsal nucleus. The medial nucleus can be divided into a rostral medial nucleus and a more complex caudal part, which is formed by subnuclei C, B, A, the cap of Kooy, and the beta subnucleus. The principal nucleus includes the major principal nucleus and the arcuate subnucleus. Most of the inferior olive neurons are small to medium size, the smallest of which are found in the arcuate subnucleus. Calbindin and the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 gene are expressed in nearly all inferior olive neurons, but acetylcholinesterase, glutamate decarboxylase 1 gene, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript protein prepropeptide gene, galanin gene, and calretinin are selectively expressed within different subnuclei. These findings are consistent with a pattern of extensive functional differentiation among the neuron groups of the inferior olive. PMID:24443186

  2. Neuropharmacologic characterization of strychnine seizure potentiation in the inferior olive lesioned rat

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    Cerebellar stimulation is associated with anticonvulsant activity in several animal models. There are two afferent inputs to cerebellar Purkinje cells: (1) parallel fibers, which relay mossy fiber input, from brainstem, spinal cord, cerebral cortex and cerebellum, and (2) climbing fibers, arising from the inferior olive. Both climbing and parallel fibers release excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters, which stimulate Purkinje cells and cause GABA release in the deep cerebellar nuclei. Climbing fibers also exert tonic inhibition over Purkinje cell activity by producing an absolute refractory period following stimulation, rendering Purkinje cells unresponsive to parallel fibers. Climbing fiber deafferentation by bilateral inferior olive lesions produced a specific decrease in threshold for strychnine-seizures in the rat. Inferior olive lesions produced no change in threshold to seizures induced by picrotoxin, bicuculline or pentylenetetrazole. Inferior olive lesions also produced abnormal motor behavior including, myoclonus, backward locomotion and hyperextension, which was significantly aggravated by strychnine, brucine, picrotoxin, bicuculline and pentylenetetrazole. Inferior olive lesions produced a significant increase in quisqualate sensitive ({sup 3}H)AMPA ((Rs)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) binding to cerebellar membranes. AMPA is a glutamate analog with high affinity for quisqualate sensitive receptors.

  3. Modulation of hepatic lipid metabolism by olive oil and its phenols in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Priore, Paola; Cavallo, Alessandro; Gnoni, Antonio; Damiano, Fabrizio; Gnoni, Gabriele V; Siculella, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the most common chronic liver disease in western countries, being considered the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Cumulative lines of evidence suggest that olive oil, used as primary source of fat by Mediterranean populations, may play a key role in the observed health benefits on NAFLD. In this review, we summarize the state of the art of the knowledge on the protective role of both major and minor components of olive oil on lipid metabolism during NAFLD. In particular, the biochemical mechanisms responsible for the increase or decrease in hepatic lipid content are critically analyzed, taking into account that several studies have often provided different and/or conflicting results in animal models fed on olive oil-enriched diet. In addition, new findings that highlight the hypolipidemic and the antisteatotic actions of olive oil phenols are presented. As mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD, the targeting of these organelles with olive oil phenols as a powerful therapeutic approach is also discussed. PMID:25631376

  4. Application of starter cultures to table olive fermentation: an overview on the experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Corsetti, Aldo; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    Table olives are one of the oldest fermented foods and are considered as an important component of the Mediterranean diet, since their richness in monounsaturated fats (primarily oleic acid) and phenolic compounds may function as antioxidants in the human body; in the Western world they represent one of the most popular fermented vegetables but, despite its economic significance, table olive fermentation is still craft-based and empirical. In particular, such a type of fermentation results from the competitive activities among indigenous, contaminating microorganisms, the microbial balance depending on several intrinsic (pH, water activity, diffusion of nutrients from the drupe, and level of anti-microbial compounds) and extrinsic (temperature, oxygen availability, and salt concentration) factors. At present, to reduce the risk of spoilage and to achieve a more predictable process there is an increasing interest in developing starter cultures for table olives fermentation. Anyway, the application of starter cultures in the field of table olives is quite far from reaching the diffusion as it has in other sectors of food industry (e.g., dairy products and alcoholic beverages). This review focuses on experimental researches devoted to studying starter cultures for possible application to table olive fermentation both at artisan and industrial level. PMID:22833739

  5. Application of starter cultures to table olive fermentation: an overview on the experimental studies

    PubMed Central

    Corsetti, Aldo; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    Table olives are one of the oldest fermented foods and are considered as an important component of the Mediterranean diet, since their richness in monounsaturated fats (primarily oleic acid) and phenolic compounds may function as antioxidants in the human body; in the Western world they represent one of the most popular fermented vegetables but, despite its economic significance, table olive fermentation is still craft-based and empirical. In particular, such a type of fermentation results from the competitive activities among indigenous, contaminating microorganisms, the microbial balance depending on several intrinsic (pH, water activity, diffusion of nutrients from the drupe, and level of anti-microbial compounds) and extrinsic (temperature, oxygen availability, and salt concentration) factors. At present, to reduce the risk of spoilage and to achieve a more predictable process there is an increasing interest in developing starter cultures for table olives fermentation. Anyway, the application of starter cultures in the field of table olives is quite far from reaching the diffusion as it has in other sectors of food industry (e.g., dairy products and alcoholic beverages). This review focuses on experimental researches devoted to studying starter cultures for possible application to table olive fermentation both at artisan and industrial level. PMID:22833739

  6. Nonthermal Pasteurization of Fermented Green Table Olives by means of High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing

    PubMed Central

    Argyri, Anthoula A.; Panagou, Efstathios Z.; Nychas, George-John E.; Tassou, Chrysoula C.

    2014-01-01

    Green fermented olives cv. Halkidiki were subjected to different treatments of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing (400, 450, and 500?MPa for 15 or 30?min). Total viable counts, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts/moulds, and the physicochemical characteristics of the product (pH, colour, and firmness) were monitored right after the treatment and after 7 days of storage at 20°C to allow for recovery of injured cells. The treatments at 400?MPa for 15 and 30?min, 450?MPa for 15 and 30?min, and 500?MPa for 15?min were found insufficient as a recovery of the microbiota was observed. The treatment at 500?MPa for 30?min was effective in reducing the olive microbiota below the detection limit of the enumeration method after the treatment and after 1 week of storage and was chosen as being more appropriate for storing olives for an extended time period (5 months). After 5 months of storage at 20°C, no microbiota was detected in treated samples, while significant changes for both HHP treated and untreated olives were observed for colour parameters only (minor degradation). In conclusion, HHP treatment may introduce a reliable nonthermal pasteurization method to extend the microbiological shelf-life of fermented table olives. PMID:25243146

  7. Endophytic fungi from the Amazonian plant Paullinia cupana and from Olea europaea isolated using cassava as an alternative starch media source.

    PubMed

    Sia, Eliandra de Freitas; Marcon, Joelma; Luvizotto, Danice Mazzer; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Tsui, Sarina; Pereira, José Odair; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline Aparecida; Azevedo, João Lúcio

    2013-01-01

    Endophytic fungi live inside plants, apparently do not cause any harm to their hosts and may play important roles in defense and growth promotion. Fungal growth is a routine practice at microbiological laboratories, and the Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) is the most frequently used medium because it is a rich source of starch. However, the production of potatoes in some regions of the world can be costly. Aiming the development of a new medium source to tropical countries, in the present study, we used leaves from the guarana (a tropical plant from the Amazon region) and the olive (which grows in subtropical and temperate regions) to isolate endophytic fungi using PDA and Manihot Dextrose Agar (MDA). Cassava (Manihot esculenta) was evaluated as a substitute starch source. For guarana, the endophytic incidence (EI) was 90% and 98% on PDA and MDA media, respectively, and 65% and 70% for olive, respectively. The fungal isolates were sequenced using the ITS- rDNA region. The fungal identification demonstrated that the isolates varied according to the host plant and media source. In the guarana plant, 13 fungal genera were found using MDA and six were found using PDA. In the olive plant, six genera were obtained using PDA and 4 were obtained using MDA. The multivariate analysis results demonstrated the highest fungal diversity from guarana when using MDA medium. Interestingly, some genera were isolated from one specific host or in one specific media, suggesting the importance of these two factors in fungal isolation specificity. Thus, this study indicated that cassava is a feasible starch source that could serve as a potential alternative medium to potato medium. PMID:25674409

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus iniae YSFST01-82, Isolated from Olive Flounder in Jeju, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Rajoo, Sasikumar; Jeon, Wooyoung; Park, Kyungmoon; Yoo, Sungsik; Yoon, Injung; Lee, Hongweon

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus iniae is associated with morbidity in commercial fish species, especially in olive flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus), and was recently identified as an emerging human pathogen. Here, we report the complete 2.09-Mb genome sequence of S. iniae strain YSFST01-82, isolated from an olive flounder with streptococcosis disease in Jeju, South Korea. PMID:25908134

  9. IS CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE TECHNIQUE A USEFUL TOOL TO ASSESS MANGANESE DEFICIENCY AND TOXICITY STRESS IN OLIVE PLANTS?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Chatzistathis; I. E. Papadakis; I. N. Therios; A. Giannakoula; K. Dimassi

    2010-01-01

    A 130-day hydroponic experiment was carried out in a glasshouse to examine whether manganese (Mn) concentration in the nutrient solution affects the nutritional status of olive plants and to find out whether the chlorophyll fluorescence technique is suitable to assess Mn toxicity and\\/or deficiency stress in olive plants prior to the appearance of these two nutritional disorders. For this purpose,

  10. Storage of extra virgin olive oil and its effect on the biological activity and concentration of oleocanthal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Cicerale; Xavier A. Conlan; Neil W. Barnett; Russell S. J. Keast

    The olive oil phenolic, oleocanthal has recently received attention regarding its anti-inflammatory capacity and the thought that it is partially responsible for the beneficial health effects of the Mediterranean diet. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) containing oleocanthal is often consumed after storage for a substantial amount of time and for oleocanthal to indeed provide health benefits, it has to be

  11. New Demand for Old Food: the U.S. Demand for Olive Oil Bo Xiong, William Matthews, Daniel Sumner

    E-print Network

    Schladow, S. Geoffrey

    substitutable with each other but not with other vegetable oils. News about the health and culinary benefits in the United States. Keywords: olive oil, food demand, Mediterranean diet, health, food trends JEL of the health benefits of olive oil and the spread of Mediterranean diet in the United States. We use U

  12. Removal of phenol compounds from olive mill wastewater using Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus and Geotrichum candidum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Garc??a Garc??a; P. R. Jiménez Peña; J. L. Bonilla Venceslada; A. Mart??n Mart??n; M. A. Mart??n Santos; E. Ramos Gómez

    2000-01-01

    The manufacturing process of olive oil yields a liquid waste called ‘olive mill wastewater’ (OMW). This waste has a high polluting power as well as a high antibacterial activity exerted, among others, by various phenolic compounds. Among the methods for the purification of OMW, biological systems show some advantages that make these particularly suitable. However, the presence of phenolic inhibitors

  13. Olive Leaf Extract Elevates Hepatic PPAR ? mRNA Expression and Improves Serum Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Leena; Liu, Ya-Nan; Park, Hyunjin; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2015-07-01

    We hypothesized that olive leaf extract might alleviate dyslipidemia resulting from estrogen deficiency. Serum lipid profile and mRNA expression of the related genes in the liver and adipose tissue were analyzed after providing olive leaf extract (200 or 400?mg/kg body weight; n=7 for each group) to ovariectomized rats for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks' administration, the rats in the olive leaf extract-administered groups showed significantly lower levels of serum triglyceride and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol compared with the rats in the control group, whereas the administration of olive leaf extract did not significantly change the elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In addition, administration of high dose of olive leaf extract significantly decreased the liver triglyceride and increased serum estradiol levels. mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR ?) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) were not affected by ovariectomy, however, administration of olive leaf extract significantly increased both PPAR ? and ACO mRNA expression. Expression of adiponectin mRNA in adipose tissue was significantly decreased in the ovariectomized control group. Rats administered low-dose olive leaf extract showed significantly elevated adiponectin mRNA expression compared with rats in the ovariectomized control group. Even though dose-dependent effects were not observed in most of the measurements, these results suggest that genes involved in lipid metabolism may be regulated by olive leaf extract administration in ovariectomized rats. PMID:25714618

  14. High hydrostatic pressure effects on mold flora, citrinin mycotoxin, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein phenolics and antioxidant activity of black table olives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Özlem Toku?o?lu; Hami Alpas; Faruk Bozo?lu

    2010-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as a non-thermal technology is an effective tool for microbiologically safe and shelf-stable fruits. Mycotoxin citrinin (CIT) is a toxic secondary metabolite, especially produced from filamentous fungus Penicillium citrinum and is also produced by other species of Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Monascus that are able to develop on olive after harvest, during brine and storage of olives.

  15. Biology/Marine Biology Prizes/Awards/Scholarships 2005/06 University Medal in Biology Oliver Barker

    E-print Network

    Gunawardena, Arunika

    Biology/Marine Biology Prizes/Awards/Scholarships 2005/06 University Medal in Biology Oliver Barker University Medal in Marine Biology Katy Garant Hugh P. Bell Scholarships Oliver Barker, Alison Green, CarmenFields, David Bowen Ming Fang Li Memorial Prize Aimee Houde Shao Hua and Wen Hsiang Yuh Prizes in Biology

  16. Effect of Olive-mill Waste Addition to Soil on Sorption, Persistence, and Leaching of the Herbicide Fluometuron

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic amendment addition to agricultural soils is an agronomic practice that can greatly affect the behavior of pesticides. Olive-mill waste (OMW) is an organic residue generated in great amounts in olive oil producing countries, and its addition to agricultural soils has been proposed as an alter...

  17. Isolation, structure elucidation and antioxidant potential of the major phenolic and flavonoid compounds in brined olive drupes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W Owen; R Haubner; W Mier; A Giacosa; W. E Hull; B Spiegelhalder; H Bartsch

    2003-01-01

    Because olives represent an important component of the Mediterranean diet, it is necessary to establish unequivocal identification and quantitation of the major potential antioxidant phenolic compounds they contain. The major phenolic antioxidants in two types of brined olives were isolated and purified by semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography. Structural analysis was conducted using UV spectrophotometry, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic

  18. Genetic Responses Induced in Olive Roots upon Colonization by the Biocontrol Endophytic Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7

    PubMed Central

    Schilirò, Elisabetta; Ferrara, Massimo; Nigro, Franco; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge on the genetic basis underlying interactions between beneficial bacteria and woody plants is still very limited, and totally absent in the case of olive. We aimed to elucidate genetic responses taking place during the colonization of olive roots by the native endophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, an effective biocontrol agent against Verticillium wilt of olive. Roots of olive plants grown under non-gnotobiotic conditions were collected at different time points after PICF7 inoculation. A Suppression Subtractive Hybridization cDNA library enriched in induced genes was generated. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis validated the induction of selected olive genes. Computational analysis of 445 olive ESTs showed that plant defence and response to different stresses represented nearly 45% of genes induced in PICF7-colonized olive roots. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis confirmed induction of lipoxygenase, phenylpropanoid, terpenoids and plant hormones biosynthesis transcripts. Different classes of transcription factors (i.e., bHLH, WRKYs, GRAS1) were also induced. This work highlights for the first time the ability of an endophytic Pseudomonas spp. strain to mount a wide array of defence responses in an economically-relevant woody crop such as olive, helping to explain its biocontrol activity. PMID:23144916

  19. Extra virgin olive oil: from composition to "molecular gastronomy".

    PubMed

    Sacchi, Raffaele; Paduano, Antonello; Savarese, Maria; Vitaglione, Paola; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of the recent results of studies on extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and its interactions with other food ingredients during cooking, to highlight basic molecular aspects of the "magic" of EVOO and its role in Mediterranean gastronomy. The use of raw EVOO added to foods after cooking (or as a salad oil) is the best way to express the original flavour and to maximize the intake of natural antioxidants and compounds related to positive effects on human health (hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancerogenic, among others). EVOO, however, also exhibits its protective properties during/after cooking. Different chemical interactions between biophenolic compounds and other food ingredients (water, milk proteins, carotenoids of tomato, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned-in-oil fish and meat or fish proteins) occur. Even during cooking, EVOO exhibits strong antioxidant properties and influences the overall flavour of cooked foods. The physical (partitioning, emulsion) and chemical (hydrolysis, covalent binding, antioxidant properties) phenomena occurring during cooking of EVOO are discussed with emphasis on the changes in the sensory (bitterness and fruity flavour) and nutritional qualities of some traditional Mediterranean foods. In particular, tomato-oil interactions during cooking, fish canning in EVOO, meat marinated in EVOO before cooking and roasting and frying in EVOO are examined. The interactions between EVOO antioxidants and flavours with milk proteins are also briefly discussed. PMID:24114489

  20. Effects of inferior olive lesion on fear-conditioned bradycardia.

    PubMed

    Kotajima, Hiroko; Sakai, Kazuhisa; Hashikawa, Tsutomu; Yanagihara, Dai

    2014-05-28

    The inferior olive (IO) sends excitatory inputs to the cerebellar cortex and cerebellar nuclei through the climbing fibers. In eyeblink conditioning, a model of motor learning, the inactivation of or a lesion in the IO impairs the acquisition or expression of conditioned eyeblink responses. Additionally, climbing fibers originating from the IO are believed to transmit the unconditioned stimulus to the cerebellum in eyeblink conditioning. Studies using fear-conditioned bradycardia showed that the cerebellum is associated with adaptive control of heart rate. However, the role of inputs from the IO to the cerebellum in fear-conditioned bradycardia has not yet been investigated. To examine this possible role, we tested fear-conditioned bradycardia in mice by selective disruption of the IO using 3-acetylpyridine. In a rotarod test, mice with an IO lesion were unable to remain on the rod. The number of neurons of IO nuclei in these mice was decreased to ?40% compared with control mice. Mice with an IO lesion did not show changes in the mean heart rate or in heart rate responses to a conditioned stimulus, or in their responses to a painful stimulus in a tail-flick test. However, they did show impairment of the acquisition/expression of conditioned bradycardia and attenuation of heart rate responses to a pain stimulus used as an unconditioned stimulus. These results indicate that the IO inputs to the cerebellum play a key role in the acquisition/expression of conditioned bradycardia. PMID:24784584