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Conformation of oleuropein, the major bioactive compound of Olea europea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oleuropein is the major bioactive component of Olea europea (the olive tree) and possesses strong antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic and anticancer properties whereas it has been shown to bind to endogenous peptides. Thus the understanding of its conformation is important and could shed some light into its mechanism of action. The aim of the current study was to

Evangelos Gikas; Fotini N. Bazoti; Anthony Tsarbopoulos



Effect of supplementation of the laying hen diet with olive leaves (Olea europea L.) on lipid oxidation and fatty acid profile of ?-linolenic acid enriched eggs during storage.  


1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation of the layer diet with olive leaves (Olea europea L.) on lipid oxidation and fatty acid profile of ?-linolenic acid enriched eggs during refrigerated storage, and to compare this effect with ?-tocopheryl acetate supplementation. 2. A total of 72 brown Lohmann laying hens, equally allocated to 3 groups, were fed on diets supplemented with 40?g/kg linseed oil, or linseed oil and olive leaves at 10?g/kg or linseed oil and ?-tocopheryl acetate at 200?mg/kg. Collected eggs were analysed for fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation either fresh or following 60?d storage at 4°C. 3. Results showed that olive leaves or ?-tocopheryl acetate supplementation reduced lipid hydroperoxide concentration in fresh eggs but had no effect on their fatty acid profile and malondialdehyde (MDA) content compared to controls. 4. Refrigerated storage for 60?d decreased the proportions of PUFAs but increased those of MUFAs in eggs from the control diet, whilst it had no effect on the fatty acid composition of eggs from the diets supplemented with olive leaves or ?-tocopheryl acetate, which in turn showed decreased concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides and MDA. PMID:23130586

Botsoglou, E; Govaris, A; Fletouris, D; Botsoglou, N




Microsoft Academic Search

Olea europea, suppression subtractive hybridization, expressed sequence tags The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) is a serious pest of olive in most of the countries around the Mediterranean Basin, where it causes significant yield losses . Olive cultivars are characterized by different susceptibility level possibly related to the variability in plant defence responses to the insect pest attack. To


[Hypersensitivity to pollen of Olea europea in patients with pollen allergy in the area of Zadar and Dubrovnik].  


Olive pollen is one of the most important causes of inhalant allergy in countries around the Mediterranean sea. Due to the lack of information on hypersensitivity to the pollen of Olea europea from Croatian coast, the aim of this investigation was to establish the frequency of hypersensitivity to the pollen of Olea europea in pollen allergic patients in Zadar and Dubrovnik. Also, we compared two areas of Dalmatia regarding the number of patients and expression of allergy to the Olea europea. A total of 810 patients, children and adults, with pollen allergy were examined in both areas, Zadar and Dubrovnik. In the area of Zadar we examined 546 participants and in the area of Dubrovnik 264 participants. The patients were assessed by anamnestic data, clinical examination, measurement of pulmonary function (adults and children older than 7 years), skin prick test and enzymo-immunologic UniCAP test for measurements of specific IgE antibodies. For statistical analysis we used chi square test. Hypersensitivity to the allergy of Olea europea occurred in 66/810 (8.15%) assessed participants with pollen allergy. The comparison between the two areas didn't show any statistical difference in the number of affected participants with hypersensitivity to the Olea europea. Also, we didn't show any statistical difference in comparison of skin prick tests, immunologic measurements of specific IgE antibodies, or clinical manifestations between participants in the two investigated areas. The most prevalent clinical manifestation was rhinitis registered in 39/66 (59%) patients with hypersensitivity to the olive pollen. The majority of patients with hypersensitivity to olive pollen 51/66 (77%) live in towns. Only 3/66 (4%) participants live on an island. Rhinitis was the most prevalent clinical manifestation in our patients with hypersensitivity to allergen of Olea europea. Hypersensitivity to olive pollen was higher in participants who lived in towns. The hypersensitivity to Olea europea didn't show any difference between the two investigated areas of Dalmatia. PMID:15506266

Skitareli?, Natasa; Sindik, Niksa; Skitareli?, Neven; Mazzi, Antun; Vuleti?, Ana; Misuli?, Josko


Lipid oxidation of stored eggs enriched with very long chain n-3 fatty acids, as affected by dietary olive leaves (Olea europea L.) or ?-tocopheryl acetate supplementation.  


The antioxidant potential of dietary olive leaves or ?-tocopheryl acetate supplementation on lipid oxidation of refrigerated stored hen eggs enriched with very long-chain n-3 fatty acids, was investigated. Ninety-six brown Lohmann laying hens, were equally assigned into three groups. Hens within the control group were given a typical diet containing 3% fish oil, whereas other groups were given the same diet further supplemented with 10 g ground olive leaves/kg feed or 200mg ?-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed. Results showed that ?-tocopheryl acetate or olive leaves supplementation had no significant effect on the fatty acid composition and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of fresh eggs but reduced their lipid hydroperoxide levels compared to controls. Storage for 60 d decreased the proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) but increased those of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) in eggs from the control group, while had no effect on the fatty acid composition of the eggs from the other two groups, which showed decreased levels of lipid hydroperoxides and MDA. Therefore, the very long chain n-3 PUFAs in eggs were protected from undergoing deterioration partly by olive leaves supplementation and totally by ?-tocopheryl acetate supplementation. In addition, incorporating tocopherols into eggs might also provide a source of tocopherols for the human diet. PMID:23107728

Botsoglou, E; Govaris, A; Fletouris, D; Botsoglou, N



Lipid and protein oxidation of ?-linolenic acid-enriched pork during refrigerated storage as influenced by diet supplementation with olive leaves (Olea europea L.) or ?-tocopheryl acetate.  


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diet supplementation with olive leaves or ?-tocopheryl acetate on lipid and protein oxidation of raw and cooked n-3 enriched-pork during refrigerated storage. Enrichment of pork with ?-linolenic acid through diet supplementation with linseed oil enhanced (p?0.05) lipid oxidation in both raw and cooked chops but had no effect (p>0.05) on protein oxidation during refrigerated storage while decreasing (p?0.05) the sensory attributes of cooked pork. Diet supplementation with olive leaves or ?-tocopheryl acetate had no effect (p>0.05) on the fatty acid composition of pork but decreased (p?0.05) lipid oxidation while exerting no effect (p>0.05) on protein oxidation in both raw and cooked ?-linolenic acid-enriched chops stored and chilled for 9 days. Moreover, olive leaves and ?-tocopheryl acetate supplemented at 10 g/kg and 200mg/kg diet, respectively, exerted (p?0.05) a beneficial effect on the sensory attributes of cooked ?-linolenic acid-enriched pork chops. PMID:22710099

Botsoglou, Evropi; Govaris, Alexander; Ambrosiadis, Ioannis; Fletouris, Dimitrios



Influence of indole-butyric acid and electro-pulse on in vitro rooting and development of olive (Olea europea L.) microshoots.  


The effects of indole-butyric acid (IBA) and electro-pulses on rooting and shoot growth were studied in vitro, using olive shoot cultures. Tested shoots were obtained from seedlings belonging to three Spanish cultivars, 'Arbequina', 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' and 'Gordal Sevillana', which have easy-, medium- and difficult-to-root rooting abilities, respectively. The standard two-step rooting method (SRM), consisting of root induction in olive rooting medium supplemented with 0, 0.1 or 1 mg/l IBA followed by root elongation in the same rooting medium without IBA, was compared with a novel one-step method consisting of shoot electro-pulses of 250, 1,250 or 2,500 V in a solution of IBA (0, 0.1 or 1 mg/l) and direct transferral to root elongation medium. The rooting percentage of the seedling-derived shoots obtained with the SRM was 76% for 'Arbequina' and 'Gordal Sevillana' cultivars and 100% for 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' cultivar, whereas with the electro-pulse method, the rooting percentages were 68, 64 and 88%, respectively. IBA dipping without pulse produced 0% rooting in 'Arbequina' seedling-derived shoots. The electroporation in IBA not only had an effect on shoot rooting but also on shoot growth and development, with longer shoots and higher axillary shoot sprouting and growth after some of the treatments. These effects were cultivar-dependent. The electro-pulse per se could explain some of these effects on shoot development. PMID:19655148

Padilla, Isabel Maria Gonzalez; Vidoy, I; Encina, C L



Chemiotropic behavior of female olive fly ( Bactrocera oleae GMEL.) on Olea europaea L  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interpretation is given of a number of observations on the chemiotropic behavior ofBactrocera oleae in connection with olive maceration water and the fly's return to the olive groves after the first summer rains. To this end, the headspace of both maceration water and leaf leaching water, simulating rainfall, were examined. In both cases, the presence of ammonia, which is

Maria Luisa Scarpati; Roberto Lo Scalzo; Giovanni Vita; Augusto Gambacorta



IPM trials on attract-and-kill mixtures against the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key insect pest of the olive grove is the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) because it affects the quantitative and qualita- tive production of olive oil. In order to first attract and then kill B. oleae adults before egg laying, thus limiting the infestation and avoiding treatments on the whole olive grove, we tested a mixture of the female



Effects of climate warming on Olive and olive fly ( Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)) in California and Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is expected to alter the geographic distribution and abundance of many species. Here we examine the potential\\u000a effects of climate warming on olive (Olea europaea) and olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) across the ecological zones of Arizona–California (AZ–CA) and Italy. A weather-driven physiologically-based demographic\\u000a model was developed from the extensive literature and used to simulate the phenology, growth and

Andrew Paul Gutierrez; Luigi Ponti; Q. A. Cossu



Antioxidant activity of liquors from steam explosion of Olea europea wood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The liquors from steam explosion of Olea europea wood carried out at temperatures in the range of 190–240°C were analysed for phenolic content, radical scavenging capacity\\u000a and reducing power. Increased ethyl acetate solubles (EAS) and phenolics [as Gallic Acid Equivalents, (GAE)] extraction yield\\u000a with increasing temperature were observed. At the higher temperature tested, up to 2.3 g EAS\\/100 g dry wood were

Eulogio Castro; Enma Conde; Andrés Moure; Elena Falqué; Cristóbal Cara; Encarnación Ruiz; Herminia Domínguez



Rotenone: Efficiency against Olive Fly (Bactrocera oleae Gmelin) and Residual Activity in Olive Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotenone solution (root extract of Derris elliptica; 10% or 20% a.i.) was tested as a bait with 2% hydrolysate protein in field trials to determine its efficiency against olive fly (Bactrocera oleae Gmelin). Olive trees cvs. Koroneiki and Tsounati located in the Nerokorou District of Chania, Crete were sprayed. Rotenone toxicity was tested against both adult and immature stages of

G. Stavroulakis; K. A. Adediran; A. Nikoloudi; C. Petrakis; A. Kalaitzaki; S. Michelakis



Germ line transformation of the olive fly Bactrocera oleae using a versatile transgenesis marker  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olive fruit fly (olive fly) Bactrocera oleae (Dacus), recently introduced in North America, is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. The lack of an efficient gene transfer technology for olive fly has hampered molecular analysis, as well as development of genetic techniques for its control. We have developed a Minos -based transposon vector carrying a self- activating cassette

M. Koukidou; A. Klinakis; C. Reboulakis; L. Zagoraiou; N. Tavernarakis; I. Livadaras; A. Economopoulos; C. Savakis



Maintaining Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) colony on its natural host in the laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin.) (Diptera:Tephritidae) is a pest on olives (Olea europea) in the Mediterranean basin. An olive fruit fly colony was maintained on olives at 24 ± 1°C, 60% RH, and 16:8 h (light:dark)\\u000a photoperiod with fluorescent lighting. We investigated oviposition behavior, developmental duration and weights of the biological\\u000a stages, and adult longevity. A single female laid an average

Hanife Genç; James L. Nation



'Candidatus Erwinia dacicola', a coevolved symbiotic bacterium of the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The taxonomic identity of the hereditary prokaryotic symbiont of the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) was investigated. In order to avoid superficial microbial contaminants and loosely associated saprophytic biota, flies were surface-sterilized at the larval stage and reared under aseptic conditions until adult emergence. B. oleae flies originating from different geographical locations and collected at different times of the

Caterina Capuzzo; Giuseppe Firrao; Luca Mazzon; Andrea Squartini; Vincenzo Girolami



Prospects for improving biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), with introduced parasitoids (Hymenoptera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive fruit fly is a key pest of olive and consequently a serious threat to olive fruit and oil production throughout the Mediterranean region. With the establishment of Bactrocera oleae in California a decade ago, interest was renewed in classical (introduction) biological control of the pest. Here we discuss the prospects of identifying natural enemies of B. oleae in Africa

Kim A. Hoelmer; Alan A. Kirk; Charles H. Pickett; Kent M. Daane; Marshall W. Johnson



Isolation, annotation and applications of expressed sequence tags from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major pest of the olive tree. Despite its importance, very little genetic and molecular knowledge is available. The\\u000a present study is a first attempt to identify and characterize B. oleae expressed sequence tags (ESTs). One hundred and ninety-five randomly selected cDNA clones were isolated and the obtained\\u000a sequences were annotated through BLASTX

K. T. Tsoumani; A. A. Augustinos; E. G. Kakani; E. Drosopoulou; P. Mavragani-Tsipidou; K. D. Mathiopoulos



Comparison of olive oil (Olea europaea) quality extracted by stonemill and hammermill  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared two olive oil extraction processes used in New Zealand to assess the influence of processing on oil quality. The extraction systems included an Enorossi stonemill and an Oliomio 50 hammermill, malaxing basin, and centrifuge. Olives (Olea europaea) from individual harvests were found to show significantly higher polyphenol and chlorophyll content from the hammermill process. Slightly higher free

Rodney J. Mailer; Jamie Ayton



Evaluation of entomopathogenic nematodes against the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectivity of six entomopathogenic nematode (EPNs) species against Bactrocera oleae was compared. Similar infection levels were observed when third-instar larvae were exposed to infective juveniles (IJs) on a sand-potting soil substrate. When IJs were sprayed over naturally infested fallen olives, many larvae died within treated olives as well as in the soil; Steinernema feltiae caused the highest overall mortality of

Farshid O. Sirjani; Edwin E. Lewis; Harry K. Kaya



Alternative methods for controlling the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, involving semiochemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of semiochemical s, both sex pheromones and food attractants, in monitoring the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, has become well established in most olive-growing countries of the Mediterranean basin. There is an ever-increasi ng degree of sophisticatio n that is being intro - duced in the way trap catch data are collected and interpreted, making for a substantially more

Alfonso Montiel Bueno; Owen Jones


Altered Acetylcholinesterase Confers Organophosphate Resistance in the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae  

Microsoft Academic Search

An organophosphate-resistant strain of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae, the most important pest for olive orchards worldwide, was obtained by laboratory selection with dimethoate. Resistance mechanisms were investigated in comparison with the colonized parental strain and a field population collected from the same area after 12 years of continuous dimethoate-based insecticide pressure. Combined biochemical and bioassay data suggested that,

John G. Vontas; Nikos Cosmidis; Michael Loukas; Spyridon Tsakas; Mir Jalil Hejazi; Anna Ayoutanti; Janet Hemingway




Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of salt stress on photosynthetic capacity and proline accumulation in the Chemlali olive cultivar (Olea europaea L.) grown under field conditions at Sfax, Tunisia. Twelve year-old- olive trees were subjected to two drip irrigated treatments. The first was fresh water (EC = 1.2 dS m-1, control plants CP) and the second was



Physical properties and mechanical behavior of olive fruits ( Olea europaea L.) under compression loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, Gemlik variety of olive fruits (Olea europaea L.) and their pits from Ayd?n in Turkey were analyzed for some physical properties and mechanical behavior under compression loading. The average length, width, thickness, arithmetic mean diameter, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, volume, unit mass, bulk density, true density, porosity, terminal velocity, projected area, drag coefficient, specific deformation, rupture force,

A. K?l?çkan; M. Güner



Genetic and Cytogenetic Analysis of the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera Oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic and cytogenetic characteristics of one of the major agricultural pests, the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae, are presented here. The mitotic metaphase complement of this insect consists of six pairs of chromosomes including one pair of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, with the male being the heterogametic sex. The analysis of the polytene complements of three larval tissues, the fat

P. Mavragani-Tsipidou



Psyttalia ponerophaga (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as a potential biological control agent of olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is a newly invasive, significant threat to California's olive industry. As part of a classical biological control programme, Psyttalia ponerophaga (Silvestri) was imported to California from Pakistan and evaluated in quarantine. Biological parameters that would improve rearing and field-release protocols and permit comparisons to other olive fruit fly biological control agents were measured.

K. R. Sime; K. M. Daane; A. Kirk; J. W. Andrews; M. W. Johnson; R. H. Messing



Isolation, annotation and applications of expressed sequence tags from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae.  


The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major pest of the olive tree. Despite its importance, very little genetic and molecular knowledge is available. The present study is a first attempt to identify and characterize B. oleae expressed sequence tags (ESTs). One hundred and ninety-five randomly selected cDNA clones were isolated and the obtained sequences were annotated through BLASTX similarity searches. A set of 159 unique putative transcripts were functionally assigned using Gene Ontology terms in broad categories of biological process, molecular function and cellular component based on D. melanogaster matches. Moreover, the cytogenetic location of 35 ESTs was determined by in situ hybridization to B. oleae polytene chromosomes. The resulting low-resolution EST map more than doubles the available entry points to the insect's genome and can assist syntenic comparisons with other distant species. The deduced codon usage of the isolated ESTs suggested a conserved pattern of B. oleae with its closest relatives. Additionally, the comparative analysis of B. oleae ESTs with the homologous D. melanogaster genes led to the development of 17 nuclear EPIC-PCR markers for the amplification of intron sequences of 11 Tephritidae species. Sequencing analysis of several cross-amplified intron sequences revealed a high degree of conservation among Bactrocera species and a varying transferability of the generated markers across the examined genera, suggesting that this method can provide a useful tool for the clarification of phylogenetic relationships among different species, particularly in cases of species complexes. PMID:20978910

Tsoumani, K T; Augustinos, A A; Kakani, E G; Drosopoulou, E; Mavragani-Tsipidou, P; Mathiopoulos, K D



FlySim: A Cellular Automata Model of BactroceraOleae (Olive Fruit Fly) Infestation and First Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Cellular Automata model FlySim was developed for simulating life and reproduction cycles of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) and their behaviour, especially when they infest olive (Olea europaea) groves. This serious agricultural problem can be partially tackled in many ways, but not all the methods look sustainable,\\u000a e.g., by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation.

Pierre Pommois; Pietro Brunetti; Vincenzo Bruno; Antonio Mazzei; Valerio Baldacchini; Salvatore Di Gregorio



Tomato fruits as an alternative host for a laboratory strain of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nature, oviposition and larval growth of the olive fruit flyBactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) occur only in the mesocarp of fruits of the genusOlea, including the cultivated olive. Here we report on its growth in tomatoes, in the laboratory, as affected by a number of\\u000a factors. Caged flies from a colony reared for more than 100 generations on an

E. I. Navrozidis; M. E. Tzanakakis



Mitochondrial haplotypes reveal olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) population substructure in the Mediterranean.  


The olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) is the most important olive tree (Olea europaea) pest. In the Mediterranean basin, where 98 % of its main hosts are concentrated, it causes major agricultural losses, due to its negative effect on production and quality of both olive and olive oil. Previous phylogeographic analyses have established that Mediterranean olive fly populations are distinct from other Old World populations, but did not agree on the specific population substructure within this region. In order to achieve a higher resolution of the diversity of olive fly populations, particularly in Central and Western Mediterranean (home to 70 % of the world production), we comparatively analyzed a set of samples from Portugal in the context of published mitochondrial sequences across the species' worldwide range. Strong evidence of population substructure was found in the Central and Western Mediterranean area, with two clearly separate phylogenetic branches. Together with previously published data, our results strongly support the existence of at least three distinct Mediterranean populations of the olive fly, raise the possibility of additional regional substructure and suggest specific avenues for future research. This knowledge can be instrumental in the development of better management and control strategies for a major pest of Mediterranean agriculture. PMID:22825843

van Asch, Barbara; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando; da Costa, Luís Teixeira



Factors influencing phenolic compounds in table olives (Olea europaea).  


The Mediterranean diet appears to be associated with a reduced risk of several chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular and Alzheimer's diseases. Olive products (mainly olive oil and table olives) are important components of the Mediterranean diet. Olives contain a range of phenolic compounds; these natural antioxidants may contribute to the prevention of these chronic conditions. Consequently, the consumption of table olives and olive oil continues to increase worldwide by health-conscious consumers. There are numerous factors that can affect the phenolics in table olives including the cultivar, degree of ripening, and, importantly, the methods used for curing and processing table olives. The predominant phenolic compound found in fresh olive is the bitter secoiridoid oleuropein. Table olive processing decreases levels of oleuropein with concomitant increases in the hydrolysis products hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. Many of the health benefits reported for olives are thought to be associated with the levels of hydroxytyrosol. Herein the pre- and post-harvest factors influencing the phenolics in olives, debittering methods, and health benefits of phenolics in table olives are reviewed. PMID:22720792

Charoenprasert, Suthawan; Mitchell, Alyson



Valuable Nutrients and Functional Bioactives in Different Parts of Olive (Olea europaea L.)--A Review  

PubMed Central

The Olive tree (Olea europaea L.), a native of the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia, is now widely cultivated in many other parts of the world for production of olive oil and table olives. Olive is a rich source of valuable nutrients and bioactives of medicinal and therapeutic interest. Olive fruit contains appreciable concentration, 1–3% of fresh pulp weight, of hydrophilic (phenolic acids, phenolic alchohols, flavonoids and secoiridoids) and lipophilic (cresols) phenolic compounds that are known to possess multiple biological activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic, cardiotonic, laxative, and antiplatelet. Other important compounds present in olive fruit are pectin, organic acids, and pigments. Virgin olive oil (VOO), extracted mechanically from the fruit, is also very popular for its nutritive and health-promoting potential, especially against cardiovascular disorders due to the presence of high levels of monounsaturates and other valuable minor components such as phenolics, phytosterols, tocopherols, carotenoids, chlorophyll and squalene. The cultivar, area of production, harvest time, and the processing techniques employed are some of the factors shown to influence the composition of olive fruit and olive oil. This review focuses comprehensively on the nutrients and high-value bioactives profile as well as medicinal and functional aspects of different parts of olives and its byproducts. Various factors affecting the composition of this food commodity of medicinal value are also discussed.

Ghanbari, Rahele; Anwar, Farooq; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Saari, Nazamid



Molecular interactions between the olive and the fruit fly Bactrocera oleae  

PubMed Central

Background The fruit fly Bactrocera oleae is the primary biotic stressor of cultivated olives, causing direct and indirect damages that significantly reduce both the yield and the quality of olive oil. To study the olive-B. oleae interaction, we conducted transcriptomic and proteomic investigations of the molecular response of the drupe. The identifications of genes and proteins involved in the fruit response were performed using a Suppression Subtractive Hybridisation technique and a combined bi-dimensional electrophoresis/nanoLC-ESI-LIT-MS/MS approach, respectively. Results We identified 196 ESTs and 26 protein spots as differentially expressed in olives with larval feeding tunnels. A bioinformatic analysis of the identified non-redundant EST and protein collection indicated that different molecular processes were affected, such as stress response, phytohormone signalling, transcriptional control and primary metabolism, and that a considerable proportion of the ESTs could not be classified. The altered expression of 20 transcripts was also analysed by real-time PCR, and the most striking differences were further confirmed in the fruit of a different olive variety. We also cloned the full-length coding sequences of two genes, Oe-chitinase I and Oe-PR27, and showed that these are wound-inducible genes and activated by B. oleae punctures. Conclusions This study represents the first report that reveals the molecular players and signalling pathways involved in the interaction between the olive fruit and its most damaging biotic stressor. Drupe response is complex, involving genes and proteins involved in photosynthesis as well as in the production of ROS, the activation of different stress response pathways and the production of compounds involved in direct defence against phytophagous larvae. Among the latter, trypsin inhibitors should play a major role in drupe resistance reaction.



Effects of cryopreservation on germinability of olive ( Olea europaea L.) pollen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long term storage of viable pollen is important for bank germplasm constitution to preserve resources that can be used in\\u000a breeding programs, biotechnologies and genetic engineering. Pollen from 12 olive (Olea\\u000a europaea L.) cultivars was stored for 1 year in liquid nitrogen at ?196°C. The morphology of pollen grains and germination rates on\\u000a fresh and long term stored pollen were observed.

V. Alba; V. Bisignano; E. Alba; A. De Stradis; G. B. Polignano


Acetobacter tropicalis Is a Major Symbiont of the Olive Fruit Fly (Bactrocera oleae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques, we investigated the microbiota associated with Bactrocera oleae, one of the major agricultural pests in olive-producing countries. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene libraries and ultrastructural analyses revealed the presence of several bacterial taxa associated with this insect, among which Acetobacter tropicalis was predominant. The recent increased detection of acetic acid bacteria as symbionts of other insect

Ilias Kounatidis; Elena Crotti; Panagiotis Sapountzis; Luciano Sacchi; Aurora Rizzi; Bessem Chouaia; Claudio Bandi; Alberto Alma; Daniele Daffonchio; Penelope Mavragani-Tsipidou; Kostas Bourtzis



Cytoplasmic male sterility in the olive (Olea europaea L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olive tree is usually hermaphrodite but self-incompatible. In the Western Mediterranean some cultivars are totally male-sterile.\\u000a Three different male-sterile phenotypes have been recognised. To infer the genetic basis of male sterility we studied its\\u000a inheritance and cytoplasmic diversity in wild (oleaster) and cultivated Mediterranean olive. In the cross Olivière×Arbequina, the male-sterile trait was maternally inherited and affected all progenies.

G. Besnard; B. Khadari; P. Villemur; A. Bervillé



Reproductive biology of Olive ( Olea europaea L.) DOP Umbria cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive trees have a plentiful bloom but a low percentage of normal fruit set. To improve fruit set, numerous investigations have sought to identify the obstacles that prevent full production. In this work, flower development in five DOP Umbria cultivars (Leccino, Frantoio, Moraiolo, Dolce Agogia and San Felice) was studied throughout different developmental phases, from before microsporogenesis and megasporogenesis to

L. Reale; C. Sgromo; T. Bonofiglio; F. Orlandi; M. Fornaciari; F. Ferranti; B. Romano



Forensic Botany: Potential Usefulness of Microsatellite-based Genotyping of Croatian Olive (Olea europaea L.) in Forensic Casework  

PubMed Central

Aim To assess genotyping with microsatellite-based markers of the olive (Olea europaea L.) for potential application of olive as legal case evidence, with regard to the degree of variability within the Croatian olive genomic pool and to the effectiveness of the chosen set of microsatellite-based markers in revealing olive divergence. Methods The total of 44 autochthonous Croatian olive specimens were subjected to genotyping with 16 previously described and developed microsatellite-based markers. According to previous morphological analyses, 44 specimens were classified into 30 cultivars with the exception of an additional, previously unassigned specimen. Results Genotyping of 44 specimens distinguished a total of 44 different genotype profiles by 16 microsatellite-based loci. Average expected heterozigosity amounted to 0.758, which points to significant diversity of Croatian olives. Conclusion Croatian olive genotyping showed strong varietal discrimination up to the single tree and considerable potential application of olive as evidence in investigation of crime, accident, and suicide circumstances.

Stambuk, Snjezana; Sutlovic, Davorka; Bakaric, Pavle; Petricevic, Sandra; An?elinovic, Simun



Partial purification and characterization of peroxidase from olives ( Olea europaea cv. Koroneiki)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme peroxidase (POD) activity was extracted from olives (Olea europaea cv. Koroneiki) and was partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and gel permeation chromatography (Sephacryl\\u000a S 300). Further characterization of the POD was performed using the ammonium sulfate purified fraction. POD showed a molecular\\u000a mass of 44 ± 2 kDa and it expressed catalytic activity with 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS),\\u000a N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD) and

Evaggelia D. Tzika; Theodore G. Sotiroudis; Vassiliki Papadimitriou; Aristotelis Xenakis



Detection of resistance-associated point mutations of organophosphate-insensitive acetylcholinesterase in the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently identified two resistance-associated point mutations of organophosphate (OP)-insensitive acetylcholinesterase in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae, the most important olive orchard pest world-wide. We have developed simple PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assays for each mutation, utilising an AccI restriction site created by Ile214Val, and a BssHII restriction site destroyed by a neutral change always accompanying the second

Nicola J. Hawkes; Robert W. Janes; Janet Hemingway; John Vontas



Natural mortality of immature stages of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in traditional olive groves from North-Eastern Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 2006 to 2008, we studied the natural mortality of olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), eggs and larvae as collected in fruit on the tree, in two to five ‘traditional’ olive groves of Trás-os-Montes (North Eastern Portugal), per year. We also studied the fate of 2,044 puparia that were buried in the soil from November to May for two seasons,

Fátima M. Gonçalves; M. Conceição Rodrigues; José A. Pereira; Howard Thistlewood; Laura M. Torres



Yeast strains from the endogenous microflora of the olive flies Bactrocera oleae larvae which could degrade the olive oil mill wastewaters polyphenols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, wastewaters constitute a major environmental pollutant. They are very toxic against a wide range of plants and\\u000a soil microorganisms. Their toxicity is due to the presence of compounds such as polyphenols. In this study, we have isolated\\u000a yeast strains from the endogenous microflora of the olive fliesBactrocera oleae larvae that were capable of degrading the olive oil mill wastewater

Malika Chakri; Ahmed El Haidani; Mohammed El Mzibri; Abdellatif Haggoud; Mohammed Iraqui; Abdellah Houari; Saad Ibnsouda Koraichi



Non-destructive measurement of leaf area in olive ( Olea europaea L.) trees using a gap inversion method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf Area Index (LAI) data are required to characterise evaporation and assimilation rates from canopies. The LAI of a canopy of trees can be estimated from the transmittance of radiation at various angles. A commercial sensor for LAI determination (Plant Canopy Analyzer LI-COR LAI-2000) was tested for olive trees (Olea europaea L.) during 1992 and 1993 in Cordoba, Spain. Plant

F. J. Villalobos; F. Orgaz; L. Mateos



Evaluation of the impact on entomocoenosis of active agents allowed in organic olive farming against Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin, 1790)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several attempts for evaluating environmental impact of active agents allowed in organic olive farming against Bactrocera oleae have been made, but very few studies were performed contemporaneously on more than one of them. Insects were chosen as indicators because they are known to react very quickly to environmental perturbations, mainly at the community level. In fact, the coenosis is the

Nino Iannotta; Tiziana Belfiore; Pittro Brandmaya; Maria E. Noce; Stefano Scalercio



Geographical distribution and evolutionary history of organophosphate-resistant Ace alleles in the olive fly ( Bactrocera oleae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetylcholinesterase (Ace) is the molecular target of organophosphate (OP) insecticides, and two mutations that confer different levels of OP insensitivity have previously been identified in the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae. Numerous sensitive and two insensitive alleles (including one convergent acquisition) are described from the entire worldwide distribution of the fly. Most of the variation is harbored in the native range

Francesco Nardi; Antonio Carapelli; John G. Vontas; Romano Dallai; George K. Roderick; Francesco Frati



Assessment of susceptibility of olive cultivars to the Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin, 1790) and Camarosporium dalmaticum (Thüm.) Zachos & Tzav.-Klon. attacks in Calabria (Southern Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the framework of research concerning the application of techniques alternative to chemical pesticides for control of parasites, the C.R.A. Experimental Institute for Olive Growing for many years has been performing a large investigation in order to detect sources of genetic resistance in olive germplasm. In the present study we observed the behavior related to the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae)

Nino Iannotta; Maria E. Noce; Vincenzo Ripa; Stefano Scalercio; Veronica Vizzarri



A survey of fruit-feeding insects and their parasitoids occurring on wild olives, Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata, in the Eastern Cape of South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits of wild olives, Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata (Wall. ex G. Don) Cif., were collected in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, during 2003–2005 to quantify levels of fruit-infesting pests and their parasitoids. Two species of Tephritidae, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) and B. biguttula (Bezzi), were the most abundant insects recovered and were reared from most samples. Fruit infestation rates by the

Nolwazi Mkize; Kim A. Hoelmer; Martin H. Villet



The dual function of ovo\\/shavenbaby in germline and epidermis differentiation is conserved between Drosophila melanogaster and the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (B. oleae) is a major olive damaging pest in the Mediterranean area. As a first molecular analysis of a developmental gene in this insect, we characterised the ovo\\/shavenbaby (ovo\\/svb) gene. In Drosophila, ovo\\/svb encodes a family of transcription regulators with two distinct functions: ovo is required for female germline differentiation and svb controls morphogenesis

Abderrahman Khila; Ahmed El Haidani; Alain Vincent; François Payre; Saad Ibn Souda



Agistemus aimogastaensis sp. n. (Acari, Actinedida, Stigmaeidae), a recently discovered predator of eriophyid mites Aceria oleae and Oxycenus maxwelli, in olive orchards in Argentina.  


A new species, Agistemus aimogastaensis, is described with the aid of optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy. This mite is an important predator of two eriophyid mites (Aceria oleae and Oxycenus maxwelli) in olive orchards (Olea europaea, variety Arauco) in La Rioja Province. The problems related to eriophyids in olive orchards in Argentina are highlighted and photos of the damage on leaves and fruit are included. PMID:23825448

Leiva, Sergio; Fernandez, Nestor; Theron, Pieter; Rollard, Christine



Profiling and functional classification of esterases in olive (Olea europaea) pollen during germination  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims A pollen grain contains a number of esterases, many of which are released upon contact with the stigma surface. However, the identity and function of most of these esterases remain unknown. In this work, esterases from olive pollen during its germination were identifided and functionally characterized. Methods The esterolytic capacity of olive (Olea europaea) pollen was examined using in vitro and in-gel enzymatic assays with different enzyme substrates. The functional analysis of pollen esterases was achieved by inhibition assays by using specific inhibitors. The cellular localization of esterase activities was performed using histochemical methods. Key Results Olive pollen showed high levels of non-specific esterase activity, which remained steady after hydration and germination. Up to 20 esterolytic bands were identified on polyacrylamide gels. All the inhibitors decreased pollen germinability, but only diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DIFP) hampered pollen tube growth. Non-specific esterase activity is localized on the surface of oil bodies (OBs) and small vesicles, in the pollen intine and in the callose layer of the pollen tube wall. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was mostly observed in the apertures, exine and pollen coat, and attached to the pollen tube wall surface and to small cytoplasmic vesicles. Conclusions In this work, for the first time a systematic functional characterization of esterase enzymes in pollen from a plant species with wet stigma has been carried out. Olive pollen esterases belong to four different functional groups: carboxylesterases, acetylesterases, AChEs and lipases. The cellular localization of esterase activity indicates that the intine is a putative storage site for esterolytic enzymes in olive pollen. Based on inhibition assays and cellular localization of enzymatic activities, it can be concluded that these enzymes are likely to be involved in pollen germination, and pollen tube growth and penetration of the stigma.

Rejon, Juan D.; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Rodriguez-Garcia, Maria Isabel; Castro, Antonio J.



In vitro propagation of olive (Olea europaea L.) by nodal segmentation of elongated shoots.  


Olive (Olea europaea L.), long-living, ever-green fruit tree of the Old World, has been part of a traditional landscape in the Mediterranean area for centuries. Both the fruits consumed after processing and the oil extracted from the fruits are among the main components of the Mediterranean diet, widely used for salads and cooking, as well as for preserving other food. Documentations show that the ancient use of this beautiful tree also includes lamp fuel production, wool treatment, soap production, medicine, and cosmetics. However, unlike the majority of the fruit species, olive propagation is still a laborious practice. As regards traditional propagation, rooting of cuttings and grafting stem segments onto rootstocks are possible, former being achieved only when the cuttings are collected in specific periods (spring or beginning of autumn), and latter only when skilled grafters are available. In both the cases, performance of the cultivars varies considerably. The regeneration of whole plants from ovules, on the other hand, is used only occasionally. Micropropagation of olive is not easy mainly due to explant oxidation, difficulties in explant disinfection, and labor-oriented establishment of in vitro shoot cultures. However today, the progress in micropropagation technology has made available the complete protocols for several Mediterranean cultivars. This chapter describes a micropropagation protocol based on the segmentation of nodal segments obtained from elongated shoots. PMID:23179688

Lambardi, Maurizio; Ozudogru, Elif Aylin; Roncasaglia, Romano



Acetobacter tropicalis Is a Major Symbiont of the Olive Fruit Fly (Bactrocera oleae)?  

PubMed Central

Following cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques, we investigated the microbiota associated with Bactrocera oleae, one of the major agricultural pests in olive-producing countries. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene libraries and ultrastructural analyses revealed the presence of several bacterial taxa associated with this insect, among which Acetobacter tropicalis was predominant. The recent increased detection of acetic acid bacteria as symbionts of other insect model organisms, such as Anopheles stephensi (G. Favia et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:9047-9051, 2007) or Drosophila melanogaster (C. R. Cox and M. S. Gilmore, Infect. Immun. 75:1565-1576, 2007), prompted us to investigate the association established between A. tropicalis and B. oleae. Using an A. tropicalis-specific PCR assay, the symbiont was detected in all insects tested originating from laboratory stocks or field-collected from different locations in Greece. This acetic acid bacterium was successfully established in cell-free medium, and typing analyses, carried out on a collection of isolates, revealed that different A. tropicalis strains are present in fly populations. The capability to colonize and lodge in the digestive system of both larvae and adults and in Malpighian tubules of adults was demonstrated by using a strain labeled with a green fluorescent protein.

Kounatidis, Ilias; Crotti, Elena; Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Sacchi, Luciano; Rizzi, Aurora; Chouaia, Bessem; Bandi, Claudio; Alma, Alberto; Daffonchio, Daniele; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Bourtzis, Kostas



Human absorption and metabolism of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol ingested as olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract.  


Phenolic compounds derived from the olive plant (Olea europaea L.), particularly hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, have many beneficial effects in vitro. Olive leaves are the richest source of olive phenolic compounds, and olive leaf extract (OLE) is now a popular nutraceutical taken either as liquid or capsules. To quantify the bioavailability and metabolism of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol when taken as OLE, nine volunteers (five males) aged 42.8 ± 7.4 years were randomized to receive either capsulated or liquid OLE as a single lower (51.1 mg oleuropein, 9.7 mg hydroxytyrosol) or higher (76.6 mg oleuropein, 14.5 mg hydroxytyrosol) dose, and then the opposite strength (but same formulation) a week later. Plasma and urine samples were collected at fixed intervals for 24 h post-ingestion. Phenolic content was analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Conjugated metabolites of hydroxytyrosol were the primary metabolites recovered in plasma and urine after OLE ingestion. Peak oleuropein concentrations in plasma were greater following ingestion of liquid than capsule preparations (0.47 versus 2.74 ng/mL; p = 0.004), but no such effect was observed for peak concentrations of conjugated (sulfated and glucuronidated) hydroxytyrosol (p = 0.94). However, the latter peak was reached earlier with liquid preparation (93 versus 64 min; p = 0.031). There was a gender effect on the bioavailability of phenolic compounds, with males displaying greater plasma area under the curve for conjugated hydroxytyrosol (11 600 versus 2550 ng/mL; p = 0.048). All conjugated hydroxytyrosol metabolites were recovered in the urine within 8 h. There was wide inter-individual variation. OLE effectively delivers oleuropein and hydroxytrosol metabolites to plasma in humans. PMID:23766098

de Bock, Martin; Thorstensen, Eric B; Derraik, José G B; Henderson, Harold V; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S



Morphological and cytological development and starch accumulation in hermaphrodite and staminate flowers of olive ( Olea europaea L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In olive (Olea europaea L.), the formation of functionally staminate flowers rather than fully functional hermaphrodites is one of the major factors\\u000a limiting fruit set, as flowers with aborted pistils are incapable of producing fruit. Studies conducted on various angiosperm\\u000a species have shown a correlation between flower abortion and starch content. Thus, it is important to know if starch content

Lara Reale; Carlo Sgromo; Luisa Ederli; Stefania Pasqualini; Fabio Orlandi; Marco Fornaciari; Francesco Ferranti; Bruno Romano



The Effect of an Aqueous Extract of Olive (Olea europaea) Leaves on the Adrenal-Kidney-Pituitary Axis in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crude aqueous extract of the fresh leaves of olive (Olea europaea L., family Oleaceae) was administered orally for 14 consecutive days in doses of 100, 250, and 500 ?g\\/kg body weight. The highest dose level tested caused a significant increase of ACTH (323.20 pg\\/mL), cortisol (1.29 pg\\/mL), and potassium (5.14 mEq\\/L) in the blood. In contrast, the renin (5.98

S. A. ElMougy; A. A. Al-Qarawi; S. A. Bazaid



Molecular studies in olive ( Olea europaea L.): overview on DNA markers applications and recent advances in genome analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the oldest agricultural tree crops worldwide and is an important source of oil with beneficial properties for\\u000a human health. This emblematic tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin, which has conserved a very wide germplasm estimated in\\u000a more than 1,200 cultivars, is a diploid species (2n = 2x = 46) that is present in two forms, namely wild

T. Bracci; M. Busconi; C. Fogher; L. Sebastiani



Comparison of olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)) (Diptera: Tephritidae) captures in several commercial traps in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trapping efficiency of three commercially available traps for monitoring the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)) was tested in California. ChamP yellow sticky traps and IMPT plastic McPhail-type traps were tested in three locations during 2 years. The McPhail traps captured significantly more flies than other trap types. In the second year, three variants of AM yellow sticky traps

Hannah Joy Burrack; Joseph H. Connell; Frank G. Zalom



Presence of mature eggs in olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera Tephritidae), at different constant photoperiods and at two temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the constant photoperiod on presence of mature eggs in olive fruit fly was investigated. Adults of B. oleae were submitted to different photoperiodic treatments (LL:DD), at temperature of 20 °C: 9:15, 10:14, 12:12, 15:9, 16:8, continuous light (LL) and continuous dark (DD). Light was obtained from neon tubes and the light intensity, estimated inside the plexiglas cage,

Alfio RASPI; Angelo CANALE; Augusto LONI


Alternative pathways for phosphatidylcholine synthesis in olive (Olea europaea L.) callus cultures.  


Olive (Olea europaea L.) callus cultures were incubated with [2-14C]ethanolamine and [Me-14C]choline in order to study phospholipid synthesis. Radioactivity from [Me-14C]choline was shown to be incorporated into the phosphatidylcholine via the CDP-base pathway. [2-14C]Ethanolamine was primarily incorporated into phosphatidylethanolamine, but significant radio-activity was also detected in phosphatidylcholine, indicating the operation of a methylation route. Incubation with [2-14C]ethanolamine indicated that phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine incorporated radiolabel over a similar time course. This led us to investigate the possibility that phosphatidylcholine was being synthesized by a methylation pathway distinct from the direct methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine. There was extensive incorporation of [2-14C]ethanolamine into different components of the aqueous phase of the incubations, within which phospho-base derivatives of ethanolamine were prominent. These intermediates were identified and provided evidence for the operation of an alternative methylation pathway via phosphodimethylethanolamine for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine in olives. PMID:7998981

Williams, M; Harwood, J L



Biology and parasitism rates of Pteromalus nr. myopitae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a newly discovered parasitoid of olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in coastal California  

Microsoft Academic Search

An undescribed wasp, Pteromalus nr. myopitae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) opportunistically parasitizes the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), an introduced pest of olives in California. The native or typical host of P. nr. myopitae is unknown. We demonstrate that P. nr. myopitae is a solitary, ectoparasitic, idiobiont parasitoid of the third instar host inside fruit, and pupation occurs in

Therese Kapaun; Hannah Nadel; David Headrick; Larisa Vredevoe



Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, and their cross-species amplification in the Tephritidae family  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Tephritidae family of insects includes the most important agricultural pests of fruits and vegetables, belonging mainly to four genera (Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Anastrepha and Rhagoletis). The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major pest of the olive fruit. Currently, its control is based on chemical insecticides. Environmentally friendlier methods have been attempted in the past (Sterile Insect Technique),

Antonios A Augustinos; Elias E Stratikopoulos; Eleni Drosopoulou; Evdoxia G Kakani; Penelope Mavragani-Tsipidou; Antigone Zacharopoulou; Kostas D Mathiopoulos



Effect of acetone feeding on alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a clear connection between the presence of acetone in larval diet and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity in laboratory raised populations of Bactrocera oleae. ADH activity of B. oleae is depressed in acetone-impregnated diets. At the same time the change of activity is accompanied by a change in the relative proportions of the

N Cosmidis; M Loukas; V Peppa; G Goulielmos; E Zouros



Molecular differentiation of the Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti) species complex (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated with olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Psyttalia (Braconidae: Opiinae) contains several species being used or considered for use in the biological control of various fruit-infesting tephritid pests, most notably olive fly, Bactrocera oleae and Medfly, Ceratitis capitata. There is continued interest in obtaining more effective tephritid parasitoids, and much attention has focused on one particular group of closely related species from subsaharan Africa, the

Paul F. Rugman-Jones; Robert Wharton; Tom van Noort; Richard Stouthamer



Production of glucose and bioactive aglycone by chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis of purified oleuropein from Olea Europea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure-grade oleuropein, a bitter, hypotensive, phenolic glucoside, was obtained from organic extracts of olive plant leaves\\u000a by two Chromatographic steps. The purified compound was characterized by spectroscopic NMR and FAB-MS methods. The glucoside\\u000a underwent chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis. Aglycone was characterized by spectroscopic methods (1H-NMR and FAB-MS). Glucose was measured by enzymatic methods. The enzymatic hydrolysis of oleuropein was carried

Renato Capasso; Antonio Evidente; Carla Visca; Liloana Gianfreda; Michele Maremonti; GUIDO GRECO JR



Construction of Core Collections Suitable for Association Mapping to Optimize Use of Mediterranean Olive (Olea europaea L.) Genetic Resources  

PubMed Central

Phenotypic characterisation of germplasm collections is a decisive step towards association mapping analyses, but it is particularly expensive and tedious for woody perennial plant species. Characterisation could be more efficient if focused on a reasonably sized subset of accessions, or so-called core collection (CC), reflecting the geographic origin and variability of the germplasm. The questions that arise concern the sample size to use and genetic parameters that should be optimized in a core collection to make it suitable for association mapping. Here we investigated these questions in olive (Olea europaea L.), a perennial fruit species. By testing different sampling methods and sizes in a worldwide olive germplasm bank (OWGB Marrakech, Morocco) containing 502 unique genotypes characterized by nuclear and plastid loci, a two-step sampling method was proposed. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index was found to be the best criterion to be maximized in the first step using the Core Hunter program. A primary core collection of 50 entries (CC50) was defined that captured more than 80% of the diversity. This latter was subsequently used as a kernel with the Mstrat program to capture the remaining diversity. 200 core collections of 94 entries (CC94) were thus built for flexibility in the choice of varieties to be studied. Most entries of both core collections (CC50 and CC94) were revealed to be unrelated due to the low kinship coefficient, whereas a genetic structure spanning the eastern and western/central Mediterranean regions was noted. Linkage disequilibrium was observed in CC94 which was mainly explained by a genetic structure effect as noted for OWGB Marrakech. Since they reflect the geographic origin and diversity of olive germplasm and are of reasonable size, both core collections will be of major interest to develop long-term association studies and thus enhance genomic selection in olive species.

El Bakkali, Ahmed; Haouane, Hicham; Moukhli, Abdelmajid; Costes, Evelyne; Van Damme, Patrick; Khadari, Bouchaib




Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis and selective accumulation of the major yolk proteins in the developing oocytes of the speciesDacus oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) was studied biochemically and by immunoelectron microscopy. In the hemolymph of adult females, two yolk proteins precursors (or vitellogenins) have been detected. They each exhibit a similar molecular weight and isoelectric point to their respective mature yolk proteins (or vitellins), while

Ioannis P Trougakos; Klea Lamnissou; Lukas H Margaritis



Sugar and polyol compositions of some European olive fruit varieties ( Olea europaea L.) suitable for table olive purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation was carried out on olive fruits of Douro, Hojiblanca, Cassanese, Taggiasca and Thasos cultivars, to assess free sugar and polyol compositions and their changes during ripening and processing. TMS ethers of sugars from olive pulp were analysed by GC and GC–MS and identification of each sugar component was obtained by comparison of retention times and mass spectra

V. Marsilio; C. Campestre; B. Lanza; M. De Angelis



Changes in water relations, photosynthetic activity and proline accumulation in one-year-old olive trees ( Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali) in response to NaCl salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparative responses of young olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv “Chemlali”) to different NaCl salinity levels were investigated over 11 months. One-year-old own rooted plants were\\u000a grown in 10-L pots containing sand and perlite mixture (1:3 v\\/v). Trees were subjected to three irrigation treatments: CP\\u000a (control plants that were irrigated with fresh water); SS1 (salt stressed plants irrigated with water

C. Ben Ahmed; B. Ben Rouina; M. Boukhris



Characterization of Two Alcohol Dehydrogenase ( Adh ) Loci from the Olive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera ( Dacus ) oleae and Implications for Adh Duplication in Dipteran Insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   We report the cloning and structural characterization of two Adh loci of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae. Each of the two genes, named Adh1 and Adh2, consists of three exons and two introns for a total length of 1981 and 988 nucleotides, respectively. Their deduced amino\\u000a acid sequences of 257 and 258 residues exhibit a 77% identity and

George N. Goulielmos; Nickolaos Cosmidis; Michael Loukas; Spyros Tsakas; Eleftherios Zouros



Tracing the History of an Enzyme Polymorphism: The Case of Alcohol Dehydrogenase2 (Adh2) of the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae, previous studies have described a one-locus three-allele electrophoretic polymorphism of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase and provided evidence that the polymorphism is under the influence of selection. A recent study has shown that this species carries a two-locus duplication for alcohol dehydrogenase. Here, we show that the polymorphism maps at one of the duplicated

George N. Goulielmos; Nickolaos Cosmidis; Marianna E. Theodorakopoulou; Michael Loukas; Eleftherios Zouros



Genome-wide identification of alternate bearing-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) in olive (Olea europaea L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Alternate bearing is a widespread phenomenon among crop plants, defined as the tendency of certain fruit trees to produce a high-yield crop one year ("on-year"), followed by a low-yield or even no crop the following year ("off-year"). Several factors may affect the balance between such developmental phase-transition processes. Among them are the microRNA (miRNA), being gene-expression regulators that have been found to be involved as key determinants in several physiological processes. Results Six olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Ayvalik variety) small RNA libraries were constructed from fruits (ripe and unripe) and leaves (”on year” and ”off year” leaves in July and in November, respectively) and sequenced by high-throughput Illumina sequencing. The RNA was retrotranscribed and sequenced using the high-throughput Illumina platform. Bioinformatics analyses of 93,526,915 reads identified 135 conserved miRNA, belonging to 22 miRNA families in the olive. In addition, 38 putative novel miRNAs were discovered in the datasets. Expression of olive tree miRNAs varied greatly among the six libraries, indicating the contribution of diverse miRNA in balancing between reproductive and vegetative phases. Predicted targets of miRNA were categorized into 108 process ontology groups with significance abundance. Among those, potential alternate bearing-associated processes were found, such as development, hormone-mediated signaling and organ morphogenesis. The KEGG analyses revealed that the miRNA-targeted genes are involved in seven main pathways, belonging to carbohydrate metabolism and hormone signal-transduction pathways. Conclusion A comprehensive study on olive miRNA related to alternate bearing was performed. Regulation of miRNA under different developmental phases and tissues indicated that control of nutrition and hormone, together with flowering processes had a noteworthy impact on the olive tree alternate bearing. Our results also provide significant data on the miRNA-fruit development interaction and advance perspectives in the miRNA profile of the olive tree.



Resistance-associated point mutations of organophosphate insensitive acetylcholinesterase, in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2.2-kb full length cDNA containing an ORF encoding a putative acetylcholinesterase (AChE) precursor of 673 amino acid residues was obtained by a com- bined degenerate PCR and RACE strategy from an organophosphate-susceptible Bactrocera oleae strain. A comparison of cDNA sequences of individual insects from susceptible and resistant strains, coupled with an enzyme inhibition assay with omethoate, indicated a novel

J. G. Vontas; M. J. Hejazi; N. J. Hawkes; N. Cosmidis; M. Loukas; J. Hemingway



(Z)-9-tricosene identified in rectal gland extracts of Bactrocera oleae males: first evidence of a male-produced female attractant in olive fruit fly.  


It is well-known that Bactrocera oleae (olive fruit fly) females attract conspecific males by using 1,7-dioxaspiro[5,5]undecane (1) as the main component of their sex pheromone, and that 1 is produced in the female rectal gland. Although some authors have claimed that B. oleae males also attract females, to date no male-produced female attractants have been found in this species. In this paper, we report the first identification of a substance unique to males and able to attract females. The findings of the study include the following: (1) females responded in a bioassay to hexane extracts obtained from rectal glands of 15-day-old B. oleae males, (2) the presence of (Z)-9-tricosene (2) was consistently and unambiguously identified in these extracts using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry methods, (3) in preliminary bioactivity tests, low doses (equivalent to a few males) of chemically and stereoisomerically pure synthetic (Z)-9-tricosene (2) attracted olive fruit fly females. Interestingly, compound 2, commonly called muscalure, is also a well-known component of the house fly (Musca domestica) sex pheromone. PMID:22159636

Carpita, Adriano; Canale, Angelo; Raffaelli, Andrea; Saba, Alessandro; Benelli, Giovanni; Raspi, Alfio



( Z)-9-tricosene identified in rectal gland extracts of Bactrocera oleae males: first evidence of a male-produced female attractant in olive fruit fly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well-known that Bactrocera oleae (olive fruit fly) females attract conspecific males by using 1,7-dioxaspiro[5,5]undecane ( 1) as the main component of their sex pheromone, and that 1 is produced in the female rectal gland. Although some authors have claimed that B. oleae males also attract females, to date no male-produced female attractants have been found in this species. In this paper, we report the first identification of a substance unique to males and able to attract females. The findings of the study include the following: (1) females responded in a bioassay to hexane extracts obtained from rectal glands of 15-day-old B. oleae males, (2) the presence of ( Z)-9-tricosene ( 2) was consistently and unambiguously identified in these extracts using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry methods, (3) in preliminary bioactivity tests, low doses (equivalent to a few males) of chemically and stereoisomerically pure synthetic ( Z)-9-tricosene ( 2) attracted olive fruit fly females. Interestingly, compound 2, commonly called muscalure, is also a well-known component of the house fly ( Musca domestica) sex pheromone.

Carpita, Adriano; Canale, Angelo; Raffaelli, Andrea; Saba, Alessandro; Benelli, Giovanni; Raspi, Alfio



Analyzing diurnal and age-related pheromone emission of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae by sequential SPME-GCMS analysis.  


The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), uses 1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane ("olean"), produced primarily by females, as a sex pheromone. We used sequential solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GCMS) analysis to show that female olive flies release about 1000 ng of pheromone at the onset of scotophase for several weeks, while males release about 1/100 as much during the first week after eclosion. The present research demonstrates details of employing SPME-GCMS with the partially known pheromone system of the olive fruit fly as a model for pheromone identification and diurnal release patterns in insects, especially fruit flies. The sequential SPME-GCMS method will readily allow detection and semi-quantification of semiochemicals released by insects in minute amounts throughout the diurnal cycle. PMID:22941675

Levi-Zada, Anat; Nestel, David; Fefer, Daniela; Nemni-Lavy, Esther; Deloya-Kahane, Inbal; David, Maayan



Water relations and drought-induced embolism in olive (Olea europaea) varieties 'Meski' and 'Chemlali' during severe drought.  


We examined the effects of drought on the water relations, osmotic adjustment and xylem vulnerability to embolism of olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties, 'Meski' and 'Chemlali'. Two-year-old self-rooted cuttings growing in sand-filled pots in a greenhouse were subjected to water stress by withholding water for 60 days. Water relations and gas exchange measurements showed that 'Chemlali' was more drought resistant than 'Meski' and had a greater capacity for osmotic adjustment through solute accumulation. However, when water stress was acute, the effect of osmoregulation on leaf cell turgor was largely counteracted by xylem cavitation. Cavitation vulnerability curves showed that both varieties were highly resistant to embolism formation. The xylem water potential inducing 50% loss of stem conductivity approached -7 MPa in 'Meski' and only slightly less in 'Chemlali'. Although the difference between varieties in susceptibility to xylem embolism was small, it appears to account in large part for the difference between them in the ability to tolerate severe drought. PMID:18381277

Ennajeh, Mustapha; Tounekti, Taieb; Vadel, Ahmedou M; Khemira, Habib; Cochard, Hervé



Proteomic platform for the identification of proteins in olive (Olea europaea) pulp.  


The nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil extracted mechanically from the ripe fruits of Olea europaea trees are attracting constantly more attention worldwide. The preparation of high-quality protein samples from plant tissues for proteomic analysis poses many challenging problems. In this study we employed a proteomic platform based on two different extraction methods, SDS and CHAPS based protocols, followed by two precipitation protocols, TCA/acetone and MeOH precipitation, in order to increase the final number of identified proteins. The use of advanced MS techniques in combination with the Swissprot and NCBI Viridiplantae databases and TAIR10 Arabidopsis database allowed us to identify 1265 proteins, of which 22 belong to O. europaea. The application of this proteomic platform for protein extraction and identification will be useful also for other proteomic studies on recalcitrant plant/fruit tissues. PMID:24120165

Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Foglia, Patrizia; Piovesana, Susy; Samperi, Roberto; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Laganà, Aldo



Biochemical Differences Between Products of the ADH Locus in Olive Fruit Fly (Bactrocera oleae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purified alcohol dehydrogenases from olive fruitflies of genotypes SS, II, and SI were biochemicallycompared. The enzymes were found to differ in thespecific activity, in the influence of pH andtemperature on activity, and in the affinity with differentsubstrate-alcohols. The probable relationships of thesefindings with the dramatic changes in allele frequenciesobserved when natural populations are introduced in the laboratory are discussed.

Vasiliki Mazi; Nikos Cosmidis; Michael Loukas; Yannis Clonis; Eleftherios Zouros




Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative effects of in vitro-induced salinity and water deficit were studied in ‘Nabali’ olive (Olea europea) microshoot, callus, and cell suspension culture systems. Salinity and water deficit were induced by the incorporation of NaCl or sorbitol in the medium at 0.0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, or 150 mM. Induced salinity and water deficit significantly reduced (more negative) cell sap

Rida A. Shibli; Karim Al-Juboory



Effect of Soil Plowing and Fertilization on the Susceptibility of Four Olive Cultivars to the Insect Bactrocera oleae and the Fungi Sphaeropsis dalmatica and Spilocaea oleagina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Susceptibility to the insectBactrocera oleae and the fungiSpilocaea oleagina andSphaeropsis dalmatica was investigated in four olive cultivars, two for table fruit production (Kalamon and Chondrolia Chalkidikis) and two for\\u000a oil production (Lianolia and Koroneiki). Cv. Chondrolia Chalkidikis was the most susceptible to all three pathogens, followed\\u000a by cv. Kalamon. Soil plowing and the organic fertilizer Bio-Trust® (10-3-6+8% MgCO3+10% CaCO8) increased

E. Navrozidis; Z. Zartaloudis; T. Thomidis; N. Karagiannidis; K. Roubos; Z. Michailides



Olive tree, Olea europaea L., leaves as a bioindicator of atmospheric PCB contamination.  


Olive tree leaf samples were collected to investigate their possible use for biomonitoring of lipophilic toxic substances. The samples were analyzed for 28 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners. Twelve congeners were detected in the samples. PCB-60, 77, 81, 89, 105, 114, and 153 were the most frequently detected congeners ranging from 32 % for PCB-52 to 97 % for PCB-81. ?12PCBs concentration varied from below detection limit to 248 ng/g wet weight in the sampling area, while the mean congener concentrations ranged from 0.06 ng/g (PCB-128?+?167) to 64.2 ng/g wet weight (PCB-60). Constructed concentration maps showed that olive tree leaves can be employed for the estimation of spatial distrubution of these congeners. PMID:23589241

Sofuoglu, Sait C; Yayla, Burak; Kavcar, P?nar; Ates, Duygu; Turgut, Cafer; Sofuoglu, Aysun



Adsorption of olive leaf (Olea europaea L.) antioxidants on silk fibroin.  


The adsorption isotherms of oleuropein and rutin were evaluated at different temperatures, pH values, and solid/liquid ratios. The experimental data of adsorption isotherms were well fitted to a Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacities were determined as 108 mg of oleuropein/g of silk fibroin and 21 mg of rutin/g of silk fibroin. After adsorption of oleuropein and rutin, the antioxidant capacity of silk fibroin increased from 1.93 to 3.61 mmol of TEAC/g. Silk fibroin also gained antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae after adsorption of olive leaf antioxidants. In a desorption process, 81% of rutin and 85% of oleuropein were removed from the adsorbent surface in 70% aqueous ethanol solution. Consequently, silk fibroin was found to be a promising biomaterial for the production of functional food or dietary supplements and for the purification of oleuropein and rutin from olive leaf extracts. PMID:17261014

Bayçin, Deniz; Altiok, Evren; Ulkü, Semra; Bayraktar, Oguz



Identification and localization of a caleosin in olive (Olea europaea L.) pollen during in vitro germination.  


In plant organs and tissues, the neutral storage lipids are confined to discrete spherical organelles called oil bodies. Oil bodies from plant seeds contain 0.6-3% proteins, including oleosins, steroleosins, and caleosins. In this study, a caleosin isoform of approximately 30 kDa was identified in the olive pollen grain. The protein was mainly located at the boundaries of the oil bodies in the cytoplasm of the pollen grain and the pollen tube. In addition, caleosins were also visualized in the cytoplasm at the subapical zone, as well as in the tonoplast of vacuoles present in the pollen tube cytoplasm. The cellular behaviour of lipid bodies in the olive pollen was also monitored during in vitro germination. The number of oil bodies decreased 20-fold in the pollen grain during germination, whereas the opposite tendency occurred in the pollen tube, suggesting that oil bodies moved from one to the other. The data suggest that this pollen caleosin might have a role in the mobilization of oil bodies as well as in the reorganization of membrane compartments during pollen in vitro germination. PMID:20164143

Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Castro, Antonio J; Alché, Juan de Dios; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Suárez, Cynthia; Rodríguez-García, María Isabel



Control of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, (Diptera: Tephritidae) through mass trapping and mass releases of the parasitoid Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared on irradiated Mediterranean fruit fly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field studies were performed from 2002 to 2004 on Gökçeada Island, Turkey, to determine the effectiveness of releases of the larval–pupal parasitoid Psyttalia concolor Szepligeti against the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), alone and in combination with mass trapping, using EcoTraps®. For this, the parasitoid was reared on a factitious host, irradiated larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Preparatory to

Bahriye Hepdurgun; Tevfik Turanli; Aydin Zümreo?lu



Ingestion toxicity of three Lamiaceae essential oils incorporated in protein baits against the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera Tephritidae).  


The ingestion toxicity of three Lamiaceae essential oils (EOs) - Hyptis suaveolens, Rosmarinus officinalis and Lavandula angustifolia - incorporated in protein baits was evaluated against Bactrocera oleae, a worldwide pest of olive fruits. In laboratory conditions, all the tested EOs showed dose-dependent toxicity on B. oleae, with mortality rates ranging from 12% (EO concentration: 0.01% w:v) to 100% (EO concentration: 1.75% w:v). Semi-field results highlighted the toxicity of L. angustifolia and H. suaveolens EOs, which exerted more than 60% of flies mortality at a concentration of 1.75% (w:v). Gas Chromatography-Electron Impact Mass Spectrometry analyses of the three EOs showed that H. suaveolens EO was dominated by monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the main chemical class in R. officinalis and L. angustifolia EOs. Further research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of these EOs plus food bait against the olive fruit fly in the open field. PMID:23594314

Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni; Conti, Barbara; Lenzi, Gabriele; Flamini, Guido; Francini, Alessandra; Cioni, Pier Luigi



Dacus oleae microbial symbionts.  


Dacus oleae (Gmelin), which is a major insect pest of the olive tree, is closely associated during all developmental stages with a bacterial symbiont. This review describes the localization and transmission of the symbiont, the attempts made to isolate, cultivate and characterize it, and the host-symbiont interactions. PMID:3079231

Manousis, T; Ellar, D J



Analysis of leaf water relations in leaves of two olive (Olea europaea) cultivars differing in tolerance to salinity.  


One-year-old rooted cuttings of olive (Olea europaea L. cvs. Frantoio and Leccino) were grown either hydroponically or in soil in a greenhouse. Plants were exposed to NaCl treatments (0, 100, and 200 mM) for 35 days, followed by 30 to 34 days of relief from salt stress to determine whether previously demonstrated genotypic differences in tolerance to salinity were related to water relations parameters. Exposure to high salt concentrations resulted in reductions in predawn water potential (Psi(w)), osmotic potential at full turgor (Psi(piFT)), osmotic potential at turgor loss point (Psi(piTLP)), and relative water content (RWC) in both cultivars, regardless of the growth substrate. Leaf Psi(w) and RWC returned to values similar to those of controls by the end of the relief period. The effect of salinity on Psi(pi) appeared earlier in Leccino than in Frantoio. Values for Psi(piFT) were -2.50, -2.87, and -3.16 MPa for the 0, 100, and 200 mM salt-treated Frantoio plants, respectively, and -2.23, -2.87, and -3.37 MPa for the corresponding Leccino plants. Recovery of Psi(pi) was complete for plants in the 100 mM salt treatment, but not for plants in the 200 mM salt treatment, which maintained an increased pressure potential (Psi(pi)) compared to control plants. Net solute accumulation was higher in Leccino, the salt-sensitive cultivar, than in Frantoio. In controls of both cultivars, cations contributed 39.9 to 42.0% of the total Psi(piFT), mannitol and glucose contributed 27.1 to 30.8%, and other soluble carbohydrates contributed 3.1 to 3.6%. The osmotic contribution of Na(+) increased from 0.1-2.1% for non-treated plants to 8.6-15.5% and 15.6-20.0% for the 100 mM and 200 mM salt-treated plants, respectively. The mannitol contribution to Psi(piFT) reached a maximum of 9.1% at the end of the salinization period. We conclude that differences between the two cultivars in leaf water relations reflect differences in the exclusion capacities for Na(+) and Cl(-) ions. PMID:14759909

Gucci, R; Lombardini, L; Tattini, M



Olive (Olea europaea L.) Leaf Polyphenols Improve Insulin Sensitivity in Middle-Aged Overweight Men: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Olive plant leaves (Olea europaea L.) have been used for centuries in folk medicine to treat diabetes, but there are very limited data examining the effects of olive polyphenols on glucose homeostasis in humans. Objective To assess the effects of supplementation with olive leaf polyphenols (51.1 mg oleuropein, 9.7 mg hydroxytyrosol per day) on insulin action and cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged overweight men. Design Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in New Zealand. 46 participants (aged 46.4±5.5 years and BMI 28.0±2.0 kg/m2) were randomized to receive capsules with olive leaf extract (OLE) or placebo for 12 weeks, crossing over to other treatment after a 6-week washout. Primary outcome was insulin sensitivity (Matsuda method). Secondary outcomes included glucose and insulin profiles, cytokines, lipid profile, body composition, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, and carotid intima-media thickness. Results Treatment evaluations were based on the intention-to-treat principle. All participants took >96% of prescribed capsules. OLE supplementation was associated with a 15% improvement in insulin sensitivity (p?=?0.024) compared to placebo. There was also a 28% improvement in pancreatic ?-cell responsiveness (p?=?0.013). OLE supplementation also led to increased fasting interleukin-6 (p?=?0.014), IGFBP-1 (p?=?0.024), and IGFBP-2 (p?=?0.015) concentrations. There were however, no effects on interleukin-8, TNF-?, ultra-sensitive CRP, lipid profile, ambulatory blood pressure, body composition, carotid intima-media thickness, or liver function. Conclusions Supplementation with olive leaf polyphenols for 12 weeks significantly improved insulin sensitivity and pancreatic ?-cell secretory capacity in overweight middle-aged men at risk of developing the metabolic syndrome. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry #336317.

de Bock, Martin; Derraik, Jose G. B.; Brennan, Christine M.; Biggs, Janene B.; Morgan, Philip E.; Hodgkinson, Steven C.; Hofman, Paul L.; Cutfield, Wayne S.



Vegetative growth response of young olive trees ( Olea europaea L., cv. Arbequina) to soil salinity and waterlogging  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-density olive orchards are increasing around the world, many of which may be potentially affected by salinity and waterlogging (hypoxia), two important stresses common in irrigated fields in arid and semi-arid climates. However, the response of olive to these stresses under field conditions is not well established. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate the vegetative growth response of young olive

R. Aragüés; J. Puy; D. Isidoro



Oleuropein-Specific-?-Glucosidase Activity Marks the Early Response of Olive Fruits ( Olea europaea) to Mimed Insect Attack  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive fruits are seriously deteriorated by pre and postharvest damage due to the attack of insects, such as Bactrocera olaea, which strongly alters the quality of olives. Defence response in olive fruits injured both by pathogens and by mechanical damages has been associated with the enzyme ?-glucosidase, which specifically hydrolyses oleuropein, producing highly reactive aldehyde molecules. In situ detection of

Antonia Spadafora; Silvia Mazzuca; Francesca Fiorella Chiappetta; Attilio Parise; Enzo Perri; Anna Maria Innocenti



Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, and their cross-species amplification in the Tephritidae family  

PubMed Central

Background The Tephritidae family of insects includes the most important agricultural pests of fruits and vegetables, belonging mainly to four genera (Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Anastrepha and Rhagoletis). The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major pest of the olive fruit. Currently, its control is based on chemical insecticides. Environmentally friendlier methods have been attempted in the past (Sterile Insect Technique), albeit with limited success. This was mainly attributed to the lack of knowledge on the insect's behaviour, ecology and genetic structure of natural populations. The development of molecular markers could facilitate the access in the genome and contribute to the solution of the aforementioned problems. We chose to focus on microsatellite markers due to their abundance in the genome, high degree of polymorphism and easiness of isolation. Results Fifty-eight microsatellite-containing clones were isolated from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, bearing a total of sixty-two discrete microsatellite motifs. Forty-two primer pairs were designed on the unique sequences flanking the microsatellite motif and thirty-one of them amplified a PCR product of the expected size. The level of polymorphism was evaluated against wild and laboratory flies and the majority of the markers (93.5%) proved highly polymorphic. Thirteen of them presented a unique position on the olive fly polytene chromosomes by in situ hybridization, which can serve as anchors to correlate future genetic and cytological maps of the species, as well as entry points to the genome. Cross-species amplification of these markers to eleven Tephritidae species and sequencing of thirty-one of the amplified products revealed a varying degree of conservation that declines outside the Bactrocera genus. Conclusion Microsatellite markers are very powerful tools for genetic and population analyses, particularly in species deprived of any other means of genetic analysis. The presented set of microsatellite markers possesses all features that would render them useful in such analyses. This could also prove helpful for species where SIT is a desired outcome, since the development of effective SIT can be aided by detailed knowledge at the genetic and molecular level. Furthermore, their presented efficacy in several other species of the Tephritidae family not only makes them useful for their analysis but also provides tools for phylogenetic comparisons among them.

Augustinos, Antonios A; Stratikopoulos, Elias E; Drosopoulou, Eleni; Kakani, Evdoxia G; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D



Establishing the genetic relationships between the wild and cultivated olives using a nuclear intron from nitrate reductase ( nia -i3)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Oleaceae the most outstanding biological issue is to clarify the taxonomic relationships of cultivated and wild olives.\\u000a To establish the genetic relationships between the wild (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. sylvestris (Mill.) Lehr.), the cultivated olive (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. europaea), and other taxa of the genus Olea (Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (Wall. ex G. Don) Cif., Olea

A. M. Hamman-Khalifa; R. Navajas-Pérez; R. de la Herrán; M. Ruiz Rejón; M. A. Garrido-Ramos; C. Ruiz Rejón; J. L. Rosúa



(2?,3?)-2,3-Dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid, a new natural triterpene from Olea europea, induces caspase dependent apoptosis selectively in colon adenocarcinoma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triterpenoids are known to induce apoptosis and to be anti-tumoural. Maslinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene, is present in high concentrations in olive pomace. This study examines the response of HT29 and Caco-2 colon-cancer cell lines to maslinic-acid treatment. At concentrations inhibiting cell growth by 50–80% (IC50HT29=61±1?M, IC80HT29=76±1?M and IC50Caco-2=85±5?M, IC80Caco-2=116±5?M), maslinic acid induced strong G0\\/G1 cell-cycle arrest and DNA fragmentation,

Fernando J. Reyes; Josep J. Centelles; José A. Lupiáñez; Marta Cascante



Recovery and stability of oleuropein and other phenolic compounds during extraction and processing of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenols in olive leaves, especially oleuropein, are of great interest to researchers, household consumers and commercial entities due to many health benefits of these compounds. Various processing and extraction methods were investigated to evaluate stability and recovery of oleuropein and other polyphenols from olive leaves. Brief thawing of frozen leaf samples (5 minutes) caused a sharp reduction in extractable oleuropein

Nasir S. A. Malik; Joe M. Bradford


Impact of temperature on olive ( Olea europaea L.) pollen performance in relation to relative humidity and genotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive varieties ‘Koroneiki’, ‘Kalamata’, ‘Mastoidis’ and ‘Amigdalolia’ were employed in two experiments for 3 years to assess the effect of temperature on olive pollen germination and tube growth in relation to relative humidity and genotype. Pollen samples were subjected to pre-incubation at 10, 20, 30 or 40°C in combination with decreased air relative humidity – 80, 40, 30 or 20%,

Georgios C. Koubouris; Ioannis T. Metzidakis; Miltiadis D. Vasilakakis



Residues of rotenone, azadirachtin, pyrethrins and copper used to control Bactrocera oleae (Gmel.) in organic olives and oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotenone, azadirachtin, pyrethrins and copper fungicide decay curves were determined in olives and olive oil samples after experimental trials, consisting of one, two and three applications of each active ingredient, were carried out twice in 2005 and 2006. Rotenone, azadiracthin and pyrethrins were analyzed by extraction with acetonitrile and determined by liquid chromatography; copper was extracted into aqueous HCl and

V. Simeone; N. Baser; D. Perrelli; G. Cesari; H. El Bilali; P. Natale



Biocontrol potential of a Bacillus subtilis strain against Bactrocera oleae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the Mediterranean basin, pest infestation of the olive tree especially by Bactrocera oleae is a serious economic problem. In this study, we have isolated 115 bacterial strains from various ecological niches, and\\u000a tested their ability to protect the olive fruits against Bactrocera oleae. Among these strains, culture supernatant (CS) of one bacterial strain displayed the highest rate of larval

Mohammed Mostakim; Soumya El abed; Mohamed Iraqui; Kawtar Fikri Benbrahim; Abdellah Houari; Abdelilah Soussi Gounni; Saad Koraichi Ibnsouda


Olive Fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera, Tephritidae) Activity and Fruit Infestation Under Mass Trapping in an Organic Table Olive Orchard in Crete, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive fly activity in a commercial organic table olive orchard was monitored for 80 weeks using McPhail traps for two successive years, a fruiting and a non-fruiting year. Mass traps were employed from the end of May to limit fruit damage. In the fruiting year fly activity increased steadily with a peak in June-July but there was very little activity

N. G. Volakakis; M. D. Eyre; E. M. Kabourakis



Effect of tea (Camellia sinensis) and olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves extracts on male mice exposed to diazinon.  


The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination in male mice intoxicated with a sublethal concentration of diazinon. Exposure of mice to 6.5 mg/kg body weight of diazinon for seven weeks resulted in statistical increases of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, while the value of serum total protein was declined. Treating diazinon-intoxicated mice with tea and olive leaves extracts or their combination significantly attenuated the severe alterations in these hematobiochemical parameters. Moreover, the results indicated that the supplementation with combination of tea and olive leaves extracts led to more attenuation effect against diazinon toxicity. Additionally, these new findings suggest that the effect of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination against toxicity of diazinon may be due to antioxidant properties of their chemical constituents. Finally, the present study indicated that the extracts of tea and olive leaves and their combination can be considered as promising therapeutic agents against hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and metabolic disorders induced by diazinon and maybe by other toxicants and pathogenic factors. PMID:23691503

Al-Attar, Atef M; Abu Zeid, Isam M



Physical and chemical changes during the maturation of Gordal Sevillana olives ( Olea europaea L., cv. Gordal Sevillana).  


A series of physical and chemical changes occur as olives mature on the tree, and these changes are important for the production of oil and table olives. The aim of this study was to increase the understanding of the maturation process of Gordal Sevillana olives, to optimize harvest timing, and to determine the most appropriate harvesting and post-harvesting processing methods. During maturation, the olive size, flesh/pit ratio, and oil content increased, with a maximum oil content of 72 g kg(-1) (wet weight). Changes in the fatty acid composition are reported. Levels of both total sugars and total phenolic compounds slightly decreased over the maturation period; however, we observed that these compounds were continually being synthesized until full black maturity. The optimal harvest time for the production of Gordal Sevillana as Spanish-style green olives occurred immediately prior to the color change from green to turning color, at which point the sugar levels and flesh/pit ratio were at maximum levels. PMID:20355715

Menz, Garry; Vriesekoop, Frank



Effect of Tea (Camellia sinensis) and Olive (Olea europaea L.) Leaves Extracts on Male Mice Exposed to Diazinon  

PubMed Central

The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination in male mice intoxicated with a sublethal concentration of diazinon. Exposure of mice to 6.5?mg/kg body weight of diazinon for seven weeks resulted in statistical increases of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, while the value of serum total protein was declined. Treating diazinon-intoxicated mice with tea and olive leaves extracts or their combination significantly attenuated the severe alterations in these hematobiochemical parameters. Moreover, the results indicated that the supplementation with combination of tea and olive leaves extracts led to more attenuation effect against diazinon toxicity. Additionally, these new findings suggest that the effect of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination against toxicity of diazinon may be due to antioxidant properties of their chemical constituents. Finally, the present study indicated that the extracts of tea and olive leaves and their combination can be considered as promising therapeutic agents against hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and metabolic disorders induced by diazinon and maybe by other toxicants and pathogenic factors.

Al-Attar, Atef M.; Abu Zeid, Isam M.



Isolation and expression analysis of organelle genes involved in the development of olive flowers (Olea europaea L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research demonstrated that in olive, hermaphrodite and staminate flowers show a different starch content. The low RuBisCO activity and chlorophyll content suggested the secondary origin of this starch, so differences between these two kinds of flowers could be related to a different sink capability. To highlight the origin of starch and understand how photosynthetic activity and energetic metabolism are

C. Sgromo; C. Colao; L. Reale; F. Orlandi; E. Rugini; M. Fornaciari; F. Ferranti; R. Muleo; B. Romano



Pomology observations, morphometric analysis, ultrastructural study and allelic profiles of “olivastra Seggianese” endocarps from ancient olive trees ( Olea europaea L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary studies of historical sources and remote sensing were used to identify ancient olive trees near archaeological sites and heritage buildings in the Orcia Valley (Siena, Italy). Distinctive characters were assessed by traditional pomological observation. Trees with similar characters were selected on the basis of the features of endocarps, the only structure that survives aerobic deterioration and conserves useful botanical

Claudio Milanesi; Andrea Sorbi; Elisa Paolucci; Francesca Antonucci; Paolo Menesatti; Corrado Costa; Federico Pallottino; Rita Vignani; Antonio Cimato; Andrea Ciacci; Mauro Cresti



Evaluation of commercial traps of various designs for capturing the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attractiveness of six different traps, one hand-made and five commercially available, on olive fruit fly adults, was compared in the field. Experiments were undertaken at three different localities of Messinia Co., SW Greece, with varying conditions of fruit load and pest population density. The Glass-Plastic Elkofon Trap attracted more adult flies than any other type of trap. Satisfactory catches

Panagiotis A. Eliopoulos



Development of the cotyledon cells during olive ( Olea europaea L.) in vitro seed germination and seedling growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural changes occurred in differentiating olive cotyledon cells into mesophyll cells are described. Using histological\\u000a and immunocytological methods as well as microscopic observations, we showed that in the cells of mature embryo, large electron-dense\\u000a proteins bodies (PBs) are surrounded by numerous oil bodies (OBs). After 3 days of in vitro germination, the presence of large\\u000a PBs originated by fusion of

Agnieszka Zienkiewicz; José Carlos Jiménez-López; Krzysztof Zienkiewicz; Juan de Dios Alché; María Isabel Rodríguez-García


Responses of Two Olive Tree ( Olea Europaea L.) Cultivars to Elevated CO 2 Concentration in the Field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five-year-old plants of two olive cultivars (Frantoio and Moraiolo) grown in large pots were exposed for 7 to 8 months to ambient (AC) or elevated (EC) CO2 concentration in a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) facility. Exposure to EC enhanced net photosynthetic rate (PN) and decreased stomatal conductance, leading to greater instantaneous transpiration efficiency. Stomata density also decreased under EC, while

R. Tognetti; L. Sebastiani; C. Vitagliano; A. Raschi; A. Minnocci



Influence of Phenols Mass Fraction in Olive ( Olea europaea L.) Paste on Volatile Compounds in Buža Cultivar Virgin Olive Oil.  


The influence of the phenolic content in olive paste of cv. Buža increased by the addition of an aqueous solution of phenolic extract of freeze-dried olive pulp (cv. Istarska bjelica) on the final products of the lipoxygenase pathway in oil was studied. Increases by 12, 38, and 56% for ripe fruits (maturity index = 4.0) and by 38% for unripe fruits (maturity index = 1.2) were examined. Phenols in the olive paste were determined according to the HPLC method, whereas volatiles in oil were determined according to SPME-GC-MS. A significant negative effect on Z-3-hexenal and E-2-hexen-1-ol (Tukey's test, p < 0.05) was found for ripe fruits (average decreases of 55 and 60%, respectively), but not for the unripe sample. Positive effects in both ripening levels were found for Z-3-hexenyl acetate (average increase of 68% for ripe and a double increase for unripe fruits) and total C5 compounds (average increase of 32% for ripe and an increase of 30% for unripe fruits). PMID:23718881

Germek, Valerija Majeti?; Koprivnjak, Olivera; Butinar, Bojan; Pizzale, Lorena; Bu?ar-Miklav?i?, Milena; Conte, Lanfranco S



Characterization of polyphenol oxidase from the Manzanilla cultivar (Olea europaea pomiformis) and prevention of browning reactions in bruised olive fruits.  


The crude extract of the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme from the Manzanilla cultivar (Olea europaea pomiformis) was obtained, and its properties were characterized. The browning reaction followed a zero-order kinetic model. Its maximum activity was at pH 6.0. This activity was completely inhibited at a pH below 3.0 regardless of temperature; however, in alkaline conditions, pH inhibition depended on temperature and was observed at values above 9.0 and 11.0 at 8 and 25 degrees C, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters of substrate oxidation depended on pH within the range in which activity was observed. The reaction occurred according to an isokinetic system because pH affected the enzymatic reaction rate but not the energy required to carry out the reaction. In the alkaline pH region, browning was due to a combination of enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions that occurred in parallel. These results correlated well with the browning behavior observed in intentionally bruised fruits at different temperatures and in different storage solutions. The use of a low temperature ( approximately 8 degrees C) was very effective for preventing browning regardless of the cover solution used. PMID:17628073

Segovia-Bravo, Kharla A; Jarén-Galan, Manuel; García-García, Pedro; Garrido-Fernandez, Antonio



Frequencies of organophosphate resistance-associated mutations in the acetylcholinesterase gene of field collected olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) populations under different insecticide regimes.  


In the present study, the frequencies of three organophosphate (OP) resistance-associated mutations in acetylcholinesterase gene of Bactrocera oleae (BoAce) populations collected from 8 different important olivegrowing areas in the west part of Turkey were determined. Populations were sampled from the areas that have been treated with only the pyrethroid ?-cypermethrin; pyrethroids plus OPs; deltamethrin with pheromone eco-traps, and no insecticide treatment applied areas for many years. For Ile214Val and Gly488Ser point mutations PCR-RFLP and for ?3Q deletion mutation PCR diagnostic tests were carried out. Seventy-two percent of the total individuals analyzed in the study were exhibited heterozygous genotype (RS) for both Ile214Val and Gly488Ser point and homozygous susceptible genotype (SS) for ?3Q deletion mutations. This RS/RS/SS combination together with RS/RR/SS with the frequency of 13% were the most common two combinations observed in all of the populations under different insecticide regimes, even in the populations under no insecticide pressure for many years. Independent evaluation of the three mutations resulted in 0.450, 0.534 and 0.037 frequency values for the resistant alleles of 214Val, 488Ser and ?3Q mutations, respectively. Among the studied populations, the frequencies of resistant alleles for the positions of 214 and 488 were not differed from each other. However, in 3 of the populations the frequency of the R allele of ?3Q was zero and it changed between 0.025 and 0.100 in the remaining five populations. Results of this study contributed to the distribution pattern of the two point mutations in Europe and a pattern for ?3Q mutation was determined for the first time in the field collected olive fly samples. PMID:21388916

Ba?kurt, S Ibel; Do?aç, E; Ta?k?n, V; Ta?k?n, Belg In Göçmen



Purification of beta-glucosidase from olive (Olea europaea L.) fruit tissue with specifically designed hydrophobic interaction chromatography and characterization of the purified enzyme.  


An olive (Olea europaea L.) ?-glucosidase was purified to apparent homogeneity by salting out with ammonium sulfate and using specifically designed sepharose-4B-L-tyrosine-1-napthylamine hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The purification was 155 fold with an overall enzyme yield of 54%. The molecular mass of the protein was estimated as ca. 65 kDa. The purified ?-glucosidase was effectively active on p-/o-nitrophenyl-?-D-glucopyranosides (p-/o-NPG) with K(m) values of 2.22 and 14.11 mM and V(max) values of 370.4 and 48.5 U/mg, respectively. The enzyme was competitively inhibited by ?-gluconolactone and glucose against p-NPG as substrate. The K(i) and IC(50) values of ?-gluconolactone were determined as 0.016 mM and 0.23 mM while the enzyme was more tolerant to glucose inhibition with K(i) and IC(50) values of 6.4 mM and 105.5 mM, respectively, for p-NPG. The effect of various metal ions on the purified ?-glucosidase was investigated. Of the ions tested, only the Fe(2+) increased the activity while Cd(2+) Pb(2+) Cu(2+), Ni(+), and Ag(+) exhibited different levels of inhibitory effects with K(i) and IC(50) values of 4.29×10(-4) and 0.38×10(-4), 1.26×10(-2) and 5.3×10(-3), 2.26×10(-4) and 6.1×10(-4), 1.04×10(-4) and 0.63×10(-4), 3.21×10(-3) and 3.34×10(-3) mM, respectively. PMID:21493168

Kara, Hatibe Ertürk; Sinan, Selma; Turan, Yusuf



Pomology observations, morphometric analysis, ultrastructural study and allelic profiles of "olivastra Seggianese" endocarps from ancient olive trees (Olea europaea L.).  


Preliminary studies of historical sources and remote sensing were used to identify ancient olive trees near archaeological sites and heritage buildings in the Orcia Valley (Siena, Italy). Distinctive characters were assessed by traditional pomological observation. Trees with similar characters were selected on the basis of the features of endocarps, the only structure that survives aerobic deterioration and conserves useful botanical information for centuries. Non-invasive morphometric analysis of endocarp size and shape established morphological variations in individuals of different populations. Plastid organization in the endocarp and location of DNA in the endocarp tegument were detected by morphological and ultrastructural observations using light and electron microscopy. Cytoplasmic markers with high polymorphism were used to test similarity of endocarp and leaf DNA within individuals and to confirm low variability and minimal divergence between individuals. The ancient trees studied showed the same allelic profiles and therefore belonged to a distinct cultivar. The traditional pomological descriptions of the trees, leaves and fruits, morphometric analysis of size, and shape elliptic Fourier analysis of endocarp outline, ultrastructural observations and allelic profiles of endocarp tegument delineated the general species-specific qualities of the cultivar "olivastra Seggianese" of the Orcia Valley. PMID:21262485

Milanesi, Claudio; Sorbi, Andrea; Paolucci, Elisa; Antonucci, Francesca; Menesatti, Paolo; Costa, Corrado; Pallottino, Federico; Vignani, Rita; Cimato, Antonio; Ciacci, Andrea; Cresti, Mauro



Psyttalia lounsburyi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), potential biological control agent for the olive fruit fly in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The African parasitoid Psyttalia lounsburyi (Silvestri) was evaluated as part of a classical biological control program directed at the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), in California, USA. Experimental assessment using three non-target species provided some evidence that P. lounsburyi restricts its host use to B. oleae. Female P. lounsburyi preferentially searched olives infested with mature third-instar B. oleae, over

Kent M. Daane; Karen R. Sime; Xin-geng Wang; Hannah Nadel; Marshall W. Johnson; Vaughn M. Walton; Alan Kirk; Charles H. Pickett



LOX Gene Transcript Accumulation in Olive (Olea europaea L.) Fruits at Different Stages of Maturation: Relationship between Volatile Compounds, Environmental Factors, and Technological Treatments for Oil Extraction  

PubMed Central

The quality of olive oil is influenced by genetic and environmental factors and by the maturation state of drupes, but it is equally affected by technological treatments of the process. This work investigates the possible correlation between olive LOX gene transcript accumulation, evaluated in fruits collected at different stages of maturation, and chemical biomarkers of its activity. During olive fruit ripening, the same genotype harvested from two different farms shows a positive linear trend between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive oil aroma. Interestingly, a negative linear trend was observed between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive pastes obtained from olive fruits with and without malaxation. The changes in the olive LOX transcript accumulation reveal its environmental regulation and suggest differential physiological functions for the LOXs.

Muzzalupo, Innocenzo; Macchione, Barbara; Bucci, Cristina; Stefanizzi, Francesca; Perri, Enzo; Chiappetta, Adriana; Tagarelli, Antonio; Sindona, Giovanni



Effetti del trappolaggio massale sull'entomocenosi dell'ecosistema oliveto nel controllo di Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin, 1790)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMArY - Side-effects of mass trapping devices utilised against Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin, 1790) on the olive grove entomoceoenosis - In environmental sustainable olive farming, turned to be effective the use of mass trapping method for Bactrocera oleae control. This method is based on the use of devices placed in the field (150\\/ha) consisting in traps with contact insecticide and sexual



Olive genetic diversity assessed using amplified fragment length polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was used to study the genetic variation within and among populations\\u000a of genus Olea. A group of genotypes, all of them cultivated varieties of a single species, Olea europaea, was compared with wild olives and with a group of individuals belonging to different Olea species. Five primer combinations were used which produced about 290

A. Angiolillo; M. Mencuccini; L. Baldoni



Differential effects of oleuropein, a biophenol from Olea europaea, on anionic and zwiterionic phospholipid model membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oleuropein (Ole) is the major phenolic constituent of the olive leaf (Olea europaea) and it is also present in olive oil and fruit. In the last years several compounds from olive tree, oleuropein among them, have shown a variety of biological activities such as antimicrobial or antioxidant. A phospholipid model membrane system was used to study whether the Ole biological

Nuria Caturla; Laura Pérez-Fons; Amparo Estepa; Vicente Micol



Larger olive fruit size reduces the efficiency of Psyttalia concolor, as a parasitoid of the olive fruit fly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti), has been released for biological control of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), in California. The effect of olive (Olea europaea L.) fruit size on parasitism efficiency was quantified within one cultivar (Sevillano) and across four different sized cultivars (in order of decreasing size: Sevillano, Ascolano, Manzanillo, and Mission). Parasitism was examined under

Xin-Geng Wang; Marshall W. Johnson; Kent M. Daane; Victoria Y. Yokoyama



Five-year growth and yield response of two young olive cultivars ( Olea europaea L., cvs. Arbequina and Empeltre) to soil salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive is considered moderately tolerant to salinity, but most studies are short in duration and report its tolerance on the\\u000a basis of targeted irrigation water salinity (ECiw) rather than on measured root zone soil salinity (ECe). We evaluated the\\u000a growth (tree height and trunk diameter) and yield (fruit and oil weights) response of two drip-irrigated young olive cultivars\\u000a (Arbequina and

R. Aragüés; Mónica Guillén; A. Royo



Genetic variability analyses of the somatic embryogenesis induction process in Olea spp . using nuclear microsatellites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crop species Olea europaea L. (olive tree) is of great economic importance in the Mediterranean region. Hence, many efforts have been done in the last\\u000a decades to propagate this commercially valuable species by in vitro methods. On the other hand, the lesser known Olea maderensis (Lowe) Rivas Mart. & Del Arco which is a native species of the Madeira

Tina Lopes; Ana Capelo; Gina Brito; João Loureiro; Conceição Santos



Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana and B. brongniartii strains and four wild-type fungal species against adults of Bactrocera oleae and Ceratitis capitata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The virulence of two isolates of the hyphomycete fungi, Beauveria bassianaand B. brongniartii, and additional fungal species isolated from diseased Bactrocera oleae pupae and Sesamia nonagrioideslarvae were assessed against adults of the olive fruit fly B. oleae and the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Contact and oral bioassays revealed that moderate to high mortality rates for the olive

M. A. Konstantopoulou; B. E. Mazomenos



Psyttalia cf. c oncolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szepligeti), reared on Mediterranean fruit ßy, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), by the USDAÐAPHISÐPPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit ßy, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. Mean percentage parasitism of olive fruit ßy third instars infesting fruit in Þeld cages ranged from 7.0 in Grapevine to

Victoria Y. Yokoyama; Pedro A. Rendón; John Sivinski



Associated changes in physiological parameters and spectral reflectance indices in olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves in response to different levels of water stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to determine whether modification of physiological parameters could be detected remotely by monitoring the spectral reflectance of olive leaves in response to different degrees of drought. Three different drought intensities were simulated: (a) a mild drought by feeding abscisic acid to detached branches; (b) a rapid and severe drought by detaching leaves and letting them dry over

P. Sun; A. Grignetti; S. Liu; R. Casacchia; R. Salvatori; F. Pietrini; F. Loreto; M. Centritto



Effect of different irrigation regimes on carbohydrate partitioning in leaves and wood of two table olive cultivars ( Olea europaea L. cv. Meski and Picholine)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, changes in carbohydrate composition were investigated at the end of the biological cycle of two important table olive cultivars ‘Meski’ and ‘Picholine’ grown in Tunisia under different irrigation regimes. A control treatment [100% crop evapotranspiration (ETc)] and a stress treatment (50% ETc) were considered. At the end of August, leaf water potential was measured and sugar compounds

H. Chehab; B. Mechri; F. B. Mariem; M. Hammami; S. Ben Elhadj; M. Braham



Insecticidal Activity of Strains of Bacillus thuringiensis on Larvae and Adults of Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Dipt. Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the key pest on olives in the Mediterranean area. The pest can destroy, in some cases, up to 70% of the olive production. Its control relies mainly on chemical treatments, sometimes applied by aircraft over vast areas, with their subsequent ecological and toxicological side effects. Bacillus thuringiensis is a spore-forming soil bacterium which produces

T. M. Alberola; S. Aptosoglou; M. Arsenakis; Y. Bel; G. Delrio; D. J. Ellar; J. Ferré; F. Granero; D. M. Guttmann; S. Koliais; M. J. Mart??nez-Sebastián; R. Prota; S. Rubino; A. Satta; G. Scarpellini; A. Sivropoulou; E. Vasara



(2Alpha,3beta)-2,3-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid, a new natural triterpene from Olea europea, induces caspase dependent apoptosis selectively in colon adenocarcinoma cells.  


Triterpenoids are known to induce apoptosis and to be anti-tumoural. Maslinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene, is present in high concentrations in olive pomace. This study examines the response of HT29 and Caco-2 colon-cancer cell lines to maslinic-acid treatment. At concentrations inhibiting cell growth by 50-80% (IC50HT29=61+/-1 microM, IC80HT29=76+/-1 microM and IC50Caco-2=85+/-5 microM, IC80Caco-2=116+/-5 microM), maslinic acid induced strong G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest and DNA fragmentation, and increased caspase-3 activity. However, maslinic acid did not alter the cell cycle or induce apoptosis in the non-tumoural intestine cell lines IEC-6 and IEC-18. Moreover, maslinic acid induced cell differentiation in colon adenocarcinoma cells. These findings support a role for maslinic acid as a tumour suppressant and as a possible new therapeutic tool for aberrant cell proliferation in the colon. In this report, we demonstrate for the first time that, in tumoural cancer cells, maslinic acid exerts a significant anti-proliferation effect by inducing an apoptotic process characterized by caspase-3 activation by a p53-independent mechanism, which occurs via mitochondrial disturbances and cytochrome c release. PMID:17083937

Reyes, Fernando J; Centelles, Josep J; Lupiáñez, José A; Cascante, Marta



The use of olive tree ( Olea europaea L.) leaves as a bioindicator for environmental pollution in the Province of Ayd?n, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  In this study, olive tree leaves, collected from 50 sampling sites throughout the Province of Ayd?n, Turkey, were used to\\u000a estimate level of pollution by measuring Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn concentrations\\u000a and calculating pollution factor (PF) values.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  After sample preparation, collected leaves were

Dilek Turan; Cemre Kocahakimoglu; P?nar Kavcar; Handan Gayg?s?z; Levent Atatanir; Cafer Turgut; Sait C. Sofuoglu



The effects of olives harvest period and production year on olive mill wastewater properties - evaluation of Pleurotus strains as bioindicators of the effluent's toxicity.  


Olive mill wastewater (OMW) generated during the oil extraction from Olea europea L. var. koroneiki olives was sampled at the beginning, the middle and the end of the harvesting season for three successive crop production years, and from four olive mills. OMW samples were examined in respect to their physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid composition of the lipid fraction, and adverse effects on biomass production of nine white-rot fungi of the basidiomycetous genus Pleurotus. Total N, nitrogen species, potassium and phosphate concentrations as well as total phenolics content of OMW samples were influenced by the crop year but not from the harvest period (albeit higher values for nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and potassium as well as total phenolics contents were obtained during ripening of olives), whereas protein concentration, total organic carbon and total solids were not significantly affected by the crop year or the harvest period. In addition, fatty acids composition, i.e. nC14:0, nC16:1?9cis, nC17:1?10cis, nC18:0, nC18:1?9cis, nC22:0 and nC24:0 varied significantly during different crop years and harvest periods. Olive fruits maturity and biannual alternate-bearing appear to play key-roles in the fatty acid variation detected in OMW samples. OMW toxicity as evaluated by the mycelium growth of Pleurotus strains was influenced significantly by the phenolic content of OMW samples obtained during three successive crop years; in contrast, the olives harvest period did not affect Pleurotus biomass production. Hence, experimental data indicated that selected Pleurotus strains could serve as bioindicators of OMW toxicity. Development of viable OMW detoxification processes as well as the exploitation of the effluent's fertilizing value are discussed in the light of the above findings. PMID:23399310

Ntougias, Spyridon; Gaitis, Fragiskos; Katsaris, Panagiotis; Skoulika, Stavroula; Iliopoulos, Nikiforos; Zervakis, Georgios I



Tests on the effectiveness of kaolin and copper hydroxide in the control of Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repellent and antiovipositional products in the control of Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) finds a great interest in organic farming, because of the lack of effective products able to kill the olive fly preimmaginal stages. In 2003 in Castelvetrano (Trapani province, Sicily), tests on the effectiveness of Surround WP, a product containing 95% of kaolin, were carried out on three table olive

Virgilio Caleca; Roberto Rizzo


Efficacy of new mass-trapping devices against Bactrocera oleae (Diptera tephritidae) for minimizing pesticide input in agroecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decreasing pesticide use in olive groves is central to controlling pathogens and pests such as Bactrocera oleae. This has led to the development of mass trapping devices which not only minimize pesticide use but, with improved efficacy of attractants, also decrease costs associated with pest control and ensures that the quality of olive oil is safe for human consumption. This

Maria E. Noce; Tiziana Belfiore; Stefano Scalercio; Veronica Vizzarri; Nino Iannotta



Phylogenetics of Olea (Oleaceae) based on plastid and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences: Tertiary climatic shifts and lineage differentiation times  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The genus Olea (Oleaceae) includes approx. 40 taxa of evergreen shrubs and trees classified in three subgenera, Olea, Paniculatae and Tetrapilus, the first of which has two sections (Olea and Ligustroides). Olive trees (the O. europaea complex) have been the subject of intensive research, whereas little is known about the phylogenetic relationships among the other species. To clarify the biogeographical history of this group, a molecular analysis of Olea and related genera of Oleaceae is thus necessary. Methods A phylogeny was built of Olea and related genera based on sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 and four plastid regions. Lineage divergence and the evolution of abaxial peltate scales, the latter character linked to drought adaptation, were dated using a Bayesian method. Key Results Olea is polyphyletic, with O. ambrensis and subgenus Tetrapilus not sharing a most recent common ancestor with the main Olea clade. Partial incongruence between nuclear and plastid phylogenetic reconstructions suggests a reticulation process in the evolution of subgenus Olea. Estimates of divergence times for major groups of Olea during the Tertiary were obtained. Conclusions This study indicates the necessity of revising current taxonomic boundaries in Olea. The results also suggest that main lines of evolution were promoted by major Tertiary climatic shifts: (1) the split between subgenera Olea and Paniculatae appears to have taken place at the Miocene–Oligocene boundary; (2) the separation of sections Ligustroides and Olea may have occurred during the Early Miocene following the Mi-1 glaciation; and (3) the diversification within these sections (and the origin of dense abaxial indumentum in section Olea) was concomitant with the aridification of Africa in the Late Miocene.

Besnard, Guillaume; Rubio de Casas, Rafael; Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Vargas, Pablo



Mixtures of Olive Pomace with Different Nitrogen Sources for the Control of Meloidogyne spp. on Tomato  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of mixtures of dry olive (Olea europea) pomace with biuret, guanidine, and melamine for control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) was studied in greenhouse experiments. Olive pomace (OP) applied pre-plant at 10 g/kg soil was phytotoxic. Mixtures of OP (10 g/kg soil) with biuret or guanidine at 200-300 mg/kg soil reduced or eliminated the phytotoxic effect, controlled root-knot nematodes, and increased soil esterase activity indicative of microbial activity. The addition of biuret or guanidine without OP to soil at rates <300 mg/kg soil did not control root-knot nematodes. Melamine applied at 100-400 mg/kg soil was phytotoxic as were mixtures of melamine with OP. Treatment of OP with anhydrous ammonia increased N content of the material. In another greenhouse experiment, NH?-treated OP added to soil was not phytotoxic to tomato, suppressed root-knot nematodes, and increased soil esterase activity. Greenhouse and microplot experiments with OP plus chicken litter demonstrated the efficacy of these combination amendments to control root-knot nematodes and increase tomato yields in Meloidogyne-infested soil.

Rodriguez-Kabana, R.; Estaun, V.; Pinochet, J.; Marfa, O.



Rearing, Importation, and Release of Psyttalia humilis for Biocontrol of Olive Fruit Fly in California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biological control using imported parasitoids can be used to reduce olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), infestations in olives. In 2008-2010, we mass produced the olive fruit fly larval parasitoid, Psyttalia humilis = P. cf. concolor (Silvestri), at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Moscamed, laboratory in...


Diachasmimorpha longicaudata and D. kraussii (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), potential parasitoids of the olive fruit fly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Tephritidae), is a significant threat to California's olive industry. As part of a classical biological control program started in 2002, the parasitoids Diachasmimorpha kraussii and D. longicaudata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were imported to California from laboratory colonies in Hawaii. Studies on their biology and behavior as parasitoids of the olive fruit fly were conducted in

Karen R. Sime; Kent M. Daane; Hannah Nadel; Clara S. Funk; Russell H. Messing; John W. Andrews Jr; Marshall W. Johnson; Charles H. Pickett



Comparative evaluation of two olive fruit fly parasitoids under varying abiotic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psyttalia lounsburyi (Silvestri) and P. humilis (Silvestri) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were evaluated in California for their potential to control the invasive olive fruit\\u000a fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Psyttalia lounsburyi is a specialist on B. oleae while P. humilis also attacks other tephritid species. Field cage trials, conducted from 2006 to 2009, were used to compare P. lounsburyi and two

Xin-geng WangMarshall; Marshall W. Johnson; Victoria Y. Yokoyama; Charles H. Pickett; Kent M. Daane



Generation and Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags from Olea europaea L.  

PubMed Central

Olive (Olea europaea L.) is an important source of edible oil which was originated in Near-East region. In this study, two cDNA libraries were constructed from young olive leaves and immature olive fruits for generation of ESTs to discover the novel genes and search the function of unknown genes of olive. The randomly selected 3840 colonies were sequenced for EST collection from both libraries. Readable 2228 sequences for olive leaf and 1506 sequences for olive fruit were assembled into 205 and 69 contigs, respectively, whereas 2478 were singletons. Putative functions of all 2752 differentially expressed unique sequences were designated by gene homology based on BLAST and annotated using BLAST2GO. While 1339 ESTs show no homology to the database, 2024 ESTs have homology (under 80%) with hypothetical proteins, putative proteins, expressed proteins, and unknown proteins in NCBI-GenBank. 635 EST's unique genes sequence have been identified by over 80% homology to known function in other species which were not previously described in Olea family. Only 3.1% of total EST's was shown similarity with olive database existing in NCBI. This generated EST's data and consensus sequences were submitted to NCBI as valuable source for functional genome studies of olive.

Ozdemir Ozgenturk, Nehir; Oruc, Fatma; Sezerman, Ugur; Kucukural, Alper; Vural Korkut, Senay; Toksoz, Feriha; Un, Cemal



Oleuropein in Olive and its Pharmacological Effects  

PubMed Central

Olive from Olea europaea is native to the Mediterranean region and, both the oil and the fruit are some of the main components of the Mediterranean diet. The main active constituents of olive oil include oleic acid, phenolic constituents, and squalene. The main phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, give extra-virgin olive oil its bitter, pungent taste. The present review focuses on recent works that have analyzed the relationship between the major phenolic compound oleuropein and its pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-cancer activities, antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effect.

Omar, Syed Haris



Prediction of olive quality using FT-NIR spectroscopy in reflectance and transmittance modes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this research was to use FT-NIR spectroscopy to predict the firmness, oil content and color of two olive (Olea europaea L) varieties (‘Ayvalik’ and ‘Gemlik’). Spectral measurements were performed on the intact olives for the wavelengths of 780-2500 nm in reflectance and for 800-1725...


Olea europaea L. leaf extract and derivatives: antioxidant properties.  


This paper reports a very simple and fast method to collect eluates with high amounts of hydroxytyrosol, biotransforming Olea europaea L. leaf extract by a thermophilic beta-glycosidase immobilized on chitosan. Some phenolic compounds in the leaf tissue and in the eluates obtained by biotransformation are identified. To propose the eluates as natural substances from a vegetal source, their antioxidant properties have been compared with those of the leaf extract from which they are originated. The eluates possess a higher concentration of simple phenols, characterized by a stronger antioxidant capacity, than those available in extra virgin olive oils and in many tablets of olive leaf extracts, commercially found as dietetic products and food integrators. PMID:12166985

Briante, Raffaella; Patumi, Maurizio; Terenziani, Stefano; Bismuto, Ettore; Febbraio, Ferdinando; Nucci, Roberto



Whole-Organ analysis of calcium behaviour in the developing pistil of olive (Olea europaea L.) as a tool for the determination of key events in sexual plant reproduction  

PubMed Central

Background The pistil is a place where multiple interactions between cells of different types, origin, and function occur. Ca2+ is one of the key signal molecules in plants and animals. Despite the numerous studies on Ca2+ signalling during pollen-pistil interactions, which constitute one of the main topics of plant physiology, studies on Ca2+ dynamics in the pistil during flower formation are scarce. The purpose of this study was to analyze the contents and in situ localization of Ca2+ at the whole-organ level in the pistil of olive during the whole course of flower development. Results The obtained results showed significant changes in Ca2+ levels and distribution during olive pistil development. In the flower buds, the lowest levels of detectable Ca2+ were observed. As flower development proceeded, the Ca2+ amount in the pistil successively increased and reached the highest levels just after anther dehiscence. When the anthers and petals fell down a dramatic but not complete drop in calcium contents occurred in all pistil parts. In situ Ca2+ localization showed a gradual accumulation on the stigma, and further expansion toward the style and the ovary after anther dehiscence. At the post-anthesis phase, the Ca2+ signal on the stigmatic surface decreased, but in the ovary a specific accumulation of calcium was observed only in one of the four ovules. Ultrastructural localization confirmed the presence of Ca2+ in the intracellular matrix and in the exudate secreted by stigmatic papillae. Conclusions This is the first report to analyze calcium in the olive pistil during its development. According to our results in situ calcium localization by Fluo-3 AM injection is an effective tool to follow the pistil maturity degree and the spatial organization of calcium-dependent events of sexual reproduction occurring in developing pistil of angiosperms. The progressive increase of the Ca2+ pool during olive pistil development shown by us reflects the degree of pistil maturity. Ca2+ distribution at flower anthesis reflects the spatio-functional relationship of calcium with pollen-stigma interaction, progamic phase, fertilization and stigma senescence.



Landscape effects on the complex of Bactrocera oleae parasitoids and implications for conservation biological control  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the parasitoid complex of Bactrocera oleae Rossi (Diptera: Tephritidae) in order to analyse the parasitism response to landscape structure at different spatial extents.\\u000a Olive fruits were sampled and incubated in the laboratory for insect emergence, thus allowing the calculation of parasitoid\\u000a emergence rates. A landscape analysis was performed in five concentric buffers, ranging from 0.5 to 2 km diameter

Luigi Boccaccio; Ruggero Petacchi



Long-term effectiveness of vivianite in reducing iron chlorosis in olive trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron (Fe) chlorosis is common in olive (Olea europaea L.) trees growing on highly calcareous soils in Southern Spain, where generally causes reduction in yield, size and commercial value of the olives. The objective of this research was to study the effectiveness of synthetic vivianite (Fe3(PO4)2cH2O) to reduce Fe chlorosis in olive. Experiments were established in three orchards with cultivars

R. Rosado; M. C. del Campillo; M. A. Martínez; V. Barrón; J. Torrent




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It is generally known that olives (Olea europaea) require several days (over 80 days) of chilling temperatures ('7.2ºC) for flower induction; minimum nighttime temperatures between 2-4ºC, and maximum daytime temperatures of 15.5-19ºC are considered optimum for flower and fruit production. Environme...


Changes in Sink-source Relationships during Shoot Development in Olive  

Microsoft Academic Search

ADDITIONAL INDEX WORDS. CO2 assimilation, carbon balance, leaf area, Olea europaea, shoot growth, sink-source transition ABSTRACT. Net photosynthesis, dark respiration, chlorophyll and carbohydrate content, and leaf and shoot growth in plants of evergreen olive (Olea europaea L.) grown under controlled conditions were measured to assess changes in carbon balance during leaf development of the 6th, 12th, and 16th node (from

Susanna Marchi; Luca Sebastiani; Riccardo Gucci




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Methods to mitigate olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives used for canning and oil were developed after the pest was first detected in southern California in 1998. Greenhouse tests showed that adults would survive without food for 5-12 days at 18ºC and 50% humidity, and only 2-3 day...


Comparison of two laboratory cultures of Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), as a parasitoid of the olive fruit fly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life-history trials were conducted in the laboratory on two cultures of Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared on olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). The tested cultures (A and B) had similar histories except that Culture A was maintained in Kenya for four years. Results showed that parasitoids from both cultures preferentially searched on olive fruit containing 8

Karen R. Sime; Kent M. Daane; Russell H. Messing; Marshall W. Johnson



Biological control of Bactocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) using a Greek Bacillus thuringiensis isolate.  


Bacillus thuringiensis, isolate 114A, was used in toxicity experiments against the wild population ofthe olive pest Bactroceria oleae (Gmelin). In laboratory experiments, spores and crystals of the B.t. were delivered to the insects with the food. Longevity, oviposition period, number of eggs produced, and percent hatch were recorded. Olive fruits from the oviposition test were dipped into a suspension containing spores and crystals of B. thuringiensis 114A after the eggs were deposited. In field experiments, four to six sprayings per year of B.t. 114A isolate were applied for three successive years. It was found that, in addition to the longevity of B. oleae, the oviposition period, number of eggs and percent egg hatch decreased. Also, the percentage of pupation and emergence was reduced when olive fruits with eggs in their mesocarp were dipped in the solution of spores and crystals. Field applications with the toxins of 114A isolate of B. thuringiensis have resulted in significant protection of the olive production. PMID:11142295

Navrozidis, E I; Vasara, E; Karamanlidou, G; Salpiggidis, G K; Koliais, S I



Determination of endogenous hormones, sugars and mineral nutrition levels during the induction, initiation and differentiation stage and their effects on flower formation in olive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the most important crop plants grown in the Mediterranean region. Varying levels of hormones, sugars and mineral nutrient are thought to influence flower bud formation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in endogenous sugar, mineral nutrition and hormone levels in leaf, node and fruit samples of ‘Memecik’ olive during

Salih Ulger; Sahriye Sonmez; Mustafa Karkacier; Nisa Ertoy; Ozgur Akdesir; Mehmet Aksu



Purification and characterization of an olive fruit beta-glucosidase involved in the biosynthesis of virgin olive oil phenolics.  


An olive beta-glucosidase was purified to apparent homogeneity from mature fruits ( Olea europaea cv. Picual) by selective extraction and successive anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatographic procedures. The enzyme was shown to be a homodimer made up of two identical subunits of 65.4 kDa. Optimum activity was recorded at pH 5.5 and 45 degrees C. The enzyme was active on the main olive phenolic glycosides, with maximum activity toward oleuropein (100%), followed by ligstroside (65%) and demethyloleuropein (21%). The enzyme showed very low activity with apigenin and luteolin glucosides and was not active on verbascoside and rutin. Kinetic values show that olive beta-glucosidase is 200-fold more active against oleuropein than against the synthetic substrate p-nitrophenyl-beta-d-glucopyranoside (pNPG). According to its catalytic properties, the implication of the purified olive beta-glucosidase on the synthesis of virgin olive oil phenolics is discussed. PMID:19689134

Romero-Segura, Carmen; Sanz, Carlos; Perez, Ana G



The influence of bearing cycles on olive oil production response to irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water requirements for olive oil production and the effects of deficit irrigation were determined while considering the relative\\u000a fruit loads on trees occurring as a result of biennial bearing cycles. Two Israeli olive (Olea europaea) varieties (Barnea and Souri) were evaluated for growth and yield parameters in a 4-year field study where five relative\\u000a irrigation rates were applied. Increasing irrigation

A. Ben-Gal; U. Yermiyahu; I. Zipori; E. Presnov; E. Hanoch; A. Dag



Progress in table olive debittering: Degradation in vitro of oleuropein and its derivatives by Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oleuropein, a bitter-tasting secoiridoid glycoside present in olive leaves and fruit (Olea europaea L.), is hydrolyzed by oleuropeinolyticLactobacillus plantarum strains. The work reports the results of a gas-chromatographic study of the oleuropein derivatives released by incubation\\u000a withL. plantarum B21, isolated from table olive brines, and byL. plantarum ATCC 8014. Process kinetics indicate that the bacterial strains initially hydrolyze the oleuropein

V. Marsilio; B. Lanza; N. Pozzi



Temporal and spatial gene expression of cytochrome B5 during flower and fruit development in olives  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the characterisation of two cytochrome b5 genes and their spatial and temporal patterns of expression during development in olive, Olea europaea. A PCR-generated probe, based on a tobacco cytochrome b5 sequence, was used to isolate two full-length cDNA clones (cytochrome b5-15 and cytochrome b5-38) from a library derived from 13 WAF olive fruits. The cDNAs encoded proteins of

Anna I. Martsinkovskaya; Zaruhi P. Poghosyan; Kosmas Haralampidis; Denis J. Murphy; Polydefkis Hatzopoulos



Response to drought of two olive tree cultivars (cv Koroneki and Meski)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of water deprivation on plant water status, photosynthetic gas exchange and fluorescence parameters in two different olive tree varieties (Olea europaea L. var. ‘koroneiki’, ‘Meski’) was studied. Two-year-old olive trees, grown in pots in greenhouse, were subjected to one of three drought treatments (i.e., mild, moderate and severe drought stress) and compared to control trees. Both the leaf

Olfa Boussadia; Fethi Ben Mariem; Beligh Mechri; Wafa Boussetta; Mohamed Braham; Salem Ben El Hadj




Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted over 12 months using field-grown olive trees (Olea europaea) to assess the combined effect of soil water availability and fruit number on seasonal changes in leaf nitrogen (N) concentration. Three irrigation regimes were established and three trees per irrigation treatment were thinned to reduce their yield to about half that of unthinned trees. The N concentration

Riccardo Gucci; Giovanni Caruso; Luca Sebastiani



2008 Field Releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor for Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The parasitoid Psytallia cf. concolor (Szépligeti) was reared on sterile Mediterranean fruit fly larvae at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Petapa Quarantine Laboratory in Guatemala and shipped to the USDA-ARS, Parlier for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in California. Improved ...


Olive cultivar origin is a major cause of polymorphism for Ole e 1 pollen allergen  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Pollens from different olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars have been shown to differ significantly in their content in Ole e 1 and in their overall allergenicity. This allergen is, in addition, characterized by a high degree of polymorphism in its sequence. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the putative presence of divergences in Ole e 1 sequences

AbdelMounim Hamman-Khalifa; Antonio Jesús Castro; José Carlos Jiménez-López; María Isabel Rodríguez-García; Juan Alché



Comparative 454 pyrosequencing of transcripts from two olive genotypes during fruit development  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite its primary economic importance, genomic information on olive tree is still lacking. 454 pyrosequencing was used to enrich the very few sequence data currently available for the Olea europaea species and to identify genes involved in expression of fruit quality traits. RESULTS: Fruits of Coratina, a widely cultivated variety characterized by a very high phenolic content, and Tendellone,

Fiammetta Alagna; Nunzio D'Agostino; Laura Torchia; Maurizio Servili; Rosa Rao; Marco Pietrella; Giovanni Giuliano; Maria Luisa Chiusano; Luciana Baldoni; Gaetano Perrotta



Selective recognition of DNA from olive leaves and olive oil by PNA and modified-PNA microarrays  

PubMed Central

PNA probes for the specific detection of DNA from olive oil samples by microarray technology were developed. The presence of as low as 5% refined hazelnut (Corylus avellana) oil in extra-virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L.) could be detected by using a PNA microarray. A set of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Actin gene of Olive was chosen as a model for evaluating the ability of PNA probes for discriminating olive cultivars. Both unmodified and C2-modified PNAs bearing an arginine side-chain were used, the latter showing higher sequence specificity. DNA extracted from leaves of three different cultivars (Ogliarola leccese, Canino and Frantoio) could be easily discriminated using a microarray with unmodified PNA probes, whereas discrimination of DNA from oil samples was more challenging, and could be obtained only by using chiral PNA probes.

Rossi, Stefano; Calabretta, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Tullia; Sforza, Stefano; Arcioni, Sergio; Baldoni, Luciana; Corradini, Roberto; Marchelli, Rosangela



Direct and mediated effects on Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera; Tephritidae) of natural polyphenols and some of related synthetic compounds: Structureactivity relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the main polyphenols occurring in olive oil vegetation waters (VW), catechol showed the most deterrent action on the oviposition ofBactrocera oleae (Gmelin); 4-methylcatechol was less active, whereas hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol were inactive. In contrast, synthetico-quinone was found to be stimulant at 7.5 × 10?2 M. Two other synthetic derivatives of catechol, diacetylcatechol and guaiacol, were also deterrent, suggesting these

Renato Capasso; Antonio Evidente; Ermenegildo Tremblay; Andrea Sala; Carmine Santoro; Gennaro Cristinzio; Francesco Scognamiglio



Isolation and characterization of the Bactrocera oleae genes orthologous to the sex determining Sex-lethal and doublesex genes of Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we report the isolation and characterization of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae genes orthologous to the Drosophila melanogaster sex-determining genes Sex-lethal (Sxl) and doublesex (dsx). Fragments of the Sxl and dsx orthologous were isolated with RT-PCR. Genomic and cDNA clones were then obtained by screening a genomic library and separate male and female cDNA adult libraries using the

Dimitrios Lagos; M. Fernanda Ruiz; Lucas Sánchez; Katia Komitopoulou



Influence of saline drip-irrigation on fine root and sap-flow densities of two mature olive varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt stress is known to influence water use and carbon allocation in trees; however, information about the effects of salt exposure on water uptake and below-ground carbon investment is scant, especially for adult trees. Consequently, this study examined these variables in two mature olive varieties (Olea europaea L.) that differ in their NaCl tolerance: Barnea (tolerant) and Proline (sensitive). Trees

B. Rewald; S. Rachmilevitch; M. D. McCue; J. E. Ephrath



Olive fruit fly: managing an ancient pest in modern times.  


Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major pest of commercial olives worldwide. Various aspects of its biology, ecology, management, and impact on olive production are highlighted. With the discovery of insecticidal resistance in some populations frequently treated with organophosphates, old and new control options are being investigated. The potential of biological control is examined. Surveys suggest that a small group of braconids in the Opiinae subfamily best represent the primary parasitoids attacking olive fruit fly in its native range. These species include Psyttalia lounsburyi, P. dacicida, P. concolor, P. ponerophaga, and Utetes africanus. Bracon celer, another braconid but in the Braconinae subfamily, is also reared from the fruit fly in its native range. The potential of these and other natural enemies is discussed with respect to olive fruit fly biology, commercial olive production, and biological constraints that may limit their success. We suggest that numerous species exist that should be further investigated as control agents for olive fruit fly in the many climatic regimes where the pest is found. PMID:19961328

Daane, Kent M; Johnson, Marshall W



Yeast dynamics during the fermentation of brined green olives treated in the field with kaolin and Bordeaux mixture to control the olive fruit fly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast microbiota associated with naturally fermented and inoculated green table olives, differently treated in the field with non-conventional repellent and antiovipositional products in the control of Bactrocera oleae, was analysed using a combination of culture-dependent and -independent molecular fingerprinting. The routine yeast isolation gave rise to 118 strains, whose identification was performed by PCR-RFLP of the internal transcribed spacer

Serena Muccilli; Cinzia Caggia; Cinzia L. Randazzo; Cristina Restuccia



In vitro antifungal and anti-elastase activity of some aliphatic aldehydes from Olea europaea L. fruit.  


Olea europaea preparations are traditionally employed in a variety of troubles, including skin infections. Olive extracts and some of their pure compounds have shown antimicrobial activity in vitro. The present study deals with the antifungal activity of some aliphatic aldehydes from olive fruit [hexanal, nonanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-heptenal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal] against Tricophyton mentagrophytes (6 strains), Microsporum canis (1 strains) and Candida spp. (7 strains). The capability of these substances to inhibit elastase, a virulence factor essential for the dermatophytes colonization, and their cytotoxicity on cultures of reconstructed human epidermis, are also described. Aldehydes tested, inhibited the growth of T. mentagrophytes and M. canis in the range of concentration between <1.9 and 125 microg/ml; the unsaturated aldehydes showed the most broad spectrum of activity in that inhibited all strains tested. None of the aldehydes exhibited activity against Candida spp. strains. (E)-2-octenal and (E)-2-nonenal inhibited the elastase activity in a concentration-dependent manner; the anti-elastase activity suggests an additional target of the antimicrobial activity of these compounds. Aldehydes were devoid of cytotoxicity on cultures of human reconstructed epidermis. The antifungal activity of the aldehydes from olive fruit here reported, substantiates the use of olive and olive oil in skin diseases and suggests that these natural compounds could be useful agents in the topical treatment of fungal cutaneous infections. PMID:16920510

Battinelli, L; Daniele, C; Cristiani, M; Bisignano, G; Saija, A; Mazzanti, G



Nontarget host risk assessment of the idiobiont parasitoid Bracon celer (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for biological control of olive fruit fly in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-target risk posed by an African parasitoid, Bracon celer Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), was assessed for a classical biological control program against olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae), in California, USA. Behavioral and reproductive responses to non-target tephritid species were tested with beneficial (Chaetorellia succinea [Costa] and Parafreutreta regalis Munro) (Tephritidae: Tephritinae) and native (Rhagoletis fausta [Osten Sacken])

Hannah Nadel; Kent M. Daane; Kim A. Hoelmer; Charles H. Pickett; Marshall W. Johnson



Physiological and anatomical changes induced by drought in two olive cultivars (cv Zalmati and Chemlali)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthetic gas exchange, vegetative growth, water relations and fluorescence parameters as well as leaf anatomical characteristics\\u000a were investigated on young plants of two Olea europaea L. cultivars (Chemlali and Zalmati), submitted to contrasting water availability regimes. Two-year-old olive trees, grown\\u000a in pots in greenhouse, were not watered for 2 months. Relative growth rate (RGR), leaf water potential (?LW) and the leaf

Fayçal Boughalleb; Hichem Hajlaoui



Ionic relations of aeroponically-grown olive genotypes, during salt stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two olive (Olea europaea L.) genotypes, ‘Frantoio’ and ‘Leccino’, were exposed to increasing concentrations of NaCl (0-30-60-120 mM) in an aeroponic cultivation system for 60 days. Dry weights and sodium and potassium contents of apical and basal leaves, new and old wood, and roots were measured to determine Na uptake rate, Na translocation rate and K-Na selectivity ratio (SK,Na). ‘Frantoio’

Tattini Massimiliano



Growth, ion accumulation, and lipid composition of two olive genotypes under salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive (Olea europaea L cv. Leccino and cv. Frantoio) plants grown in aeroponic cultivation system were supplied with Hoagland solutions containing 0 and 150 mM NaCl for 4 weeks. Sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), and potassium (K) concentration was measued on 15?day?old leaves and K\\/Na selectivity ratio was calculated. Plant water relations were estimated on the same leaves by measuring leaf

D. Heimler; M. Tattini; S. Ticci; M. A. Coradeschi; M. L. Traversi



Boron deficiency and concentrations and composition of phenolic compounds in Olea europaea leaves: a combined growth chamber and field study.  


Boron deficiency is the most frequent micronutrient disorder in olive (Olea spp.) orchards. We tested the hypothesis that plant boron status affects phenolic metabolism, which, in turn, influences several ecophysiological traits of olive (Olea europaea L.) trees, by studying the effects of boron deficiency on leaf phenolic compounds of olive in a growth chamber experiment (CE) and a field experiment (FE). In the CE, a semi-hydroponic system was used to control nutrient supply. Plants received complete nutrient solution containing either 23 (control) or 0 microM H3BO3 (boron-deficient treatment). In the FE, boron-deficient trees were chosen based on visible boron-deficiency symptoms and analysis of their leaf boron concentration. Boron deficiency caused significant accumulation of phenolic compounds in leaves of CE plants (1.7 to 5.8 times more, depending on leaf age), but not in leaves of FE plants. However, in both experiments, the concentration of an unidentified phenolic compound, with a UV-spectrum resembling that of caffeic acid, increased in response to boron deficiency (by a factor of 40 to 184 in the CE and by a factor of three in the FE). Regression analysis showed that the concentration of this compound was negatively correlated to leaf boron concentration, irrespective of growth conditions and treatment. We conclude that, under field conditions, boron deficiency may not be the only factor determining the concentration of total phenolics, but it may be responsible for the accumulation of a distinct phenolic metabolite in olive leaves. PMID:15631979

Liakopoulos, Georgios; Karabourniotis, George



Volatiles from leaves, fruits, and virgin oil from Olea europaea Cv. Olivastra Seggianese from Italy.  


The volatiles produced by leaves and fruits of Olea europaea cv. Olivastra Seggianese have been analyzed in two different phenological stages. Furthermore, the volatiles of the virgin olive oil obtained from ripe fruits has been characterized. The volatiles were sampled by means of two different techniques: hydrodistillation and SPME. Differences were observed between the two different collection times, the different organs, and sampling techniques. The major constituents were often aldehydes, particularly (E)-2-hexenal (9.8-48.0%); however, also many terpenoids have been identified, mainly (E,E)-alpha-farnesene (0.2-27.0%), linalool (0-3.6%), beta-caryophyllene (0-8.1%), and valencene (0-2.5%). This is the first investigation on this cultivar. PMID:12590485

Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Morelli, Ivano



The genus Olea : molecular approaches of its structure and relationships to other Oleaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ribosomal DNA RFLP and RAPD polymorphisms were examined in taxa belonging to Oleaceae genera. The objective of this study was to determine the taxonomic position of the genus Olea and of its components: subg. Olea section Olea , subg. Olea section Ligustroides , subg. Paniculatae and subg. Tetrapilus . Ribosomal DNA polymorphisms supported that O. subg. Tetrapilus was separated from

Guillaume Besnard; Peter S. Green; André Bervillé


SNP Discovery by Illumina-Based Transcriptome Sequencing of the Olive and the Genetic Characterization of Turkish Olive Genotypes Revealed by AFLP, SSR and SNP Markers  

PubMed Central

Background The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is a diploid (2n?=?2x?=?46) outcrossing species mainly grown in the Mediterranean area, where it is the most important oil-producing crop. Because of its economic, cultural and ecological importance, various DNA markers have been used in the olive to characterize and elucidate homonyms, synonyms and unknown accessions. However, a comprehensive characterization and a full sequence of its transcriptome are unavailable, leading to the importance of an efficient large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery in olive. The objectives of this study were (1) to discover olive SNPs using next-generation sequencing and to identify SNP primers for cultivar identification and (2) to characterize 96 olive genotypes originating from different regions of Turkey. Methodology/Principal Findings Next-generation sequencing technology was used with five distinct olive genotypes and generated cDNA, producing 126,542,413 reads using an Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx. Following quality and size trimming, the high-quality reads were assembled into 22,052 contigs with an average length of 1,321 bases and 45 singletons. The SNPs were filtered and 2,987 high-quality putative SNP primers were identified. The assembled sequences and singletons were subjected to BLAST similarity searches and annotated with a Gene Ontology identifier. To identify the 96 olive genotypes, these SNP primers were applied to the genotypes in combination with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers. Conclusions/Significance This study marks the highest number of SNP markers discovered to date from olive genotypes using transcriptome sequencing. The developed SNP markers will provide a useful source for molecular genetic studies, such as genetic diversity and characterization, high density quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, association mapping and map-based gene cloning in the olive. High levels of genetic variation among Turkish olive genotypes revealed by SNPs, AFLPs and SSRs allowed us to characterize the Turkish olive genotype.

Kaya, Hilal Betul; Cetin, Oznur; Kaya, Hulya; Sahin, Mustafa; Sefer, Filiz; Kahraman, Abdullah; Tanyolac, Bahattin



Olive phenolic compounds: metabolic and transcriptional profiling during fruit development  

PubMed Central

Background Olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits contain numerous secondary metabolites, primarily phenolics, terpenes and sterols, some of which are particularly interesting for their nutraceutical properties. This study will attempt to provide further insight into the profile of olive phenolic compounds during fruit development and to identify the major genetic determinants of phenolic metabolism. Results The concentration of the major phenolic compounds, such as oleuropein, demethyloleuropein, 3–4 DHPEA-EDA, ligstroside, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside and lignans, were measured in the developing fruits of 12 olive cultivars. The content of these compounds varied significantly among the cultivars and decreased during fruit development and maturation, with some compounds showing specificity for certain cultivars. Thirty-five olive transcripts homologous to genes involved in the pathways of the main secondary metabolites were identified from the massive sequencing data of the olive fruit transcriptome or from cDNA-AFLP analysis. Their mRNA levels were determined using RT-qPCR analysis on fruits of high- and low-phenolic varieties (Coratina and Dolce d’Andria, respectively) during three different fruit developmental stages. A strong correlation was observed between phenolic compound concentrations and transcripts putatively involved in their biosynthesis, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of the corresponding pathways. OeDXS, OeGES, OeGE10H and OeADH, encoding putative 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-P synthase, geraniol synthase, geraniol 10-hydroxylase and arogenate dehydrogenase, respectively, were almost exclusively present at 45 days after flowering (DAF), suggesting that these compounds might play a key role in regulating secoiridoid accumulation during fruit development. Conclusions Metabolic and transcriptional profiling led to the identification of some major players putatively involved in biosynthesis of secondary compounds in the olive tree. Our data represent the first step towards the functional characterisation of important genes for the determination of olive fruit quality.




Microsoft Academic Search

Young plants obtained by micropropagation of olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Picual) and peach rootstock GF677 (an hybrid of almond, Prunus amygdalus Batsch, and peach, Prunus persica L. Batsch) were grown in aerated basic nutrient solution for 35 days, with four treatments containing different concentrations of bicarbonate and iron as FeEDDHA, HCO3 (mM)\\/iron (Fe) (?M): 0\\/20, 5\\/5, 10\\/20, and 10\\/2.5.

Manuel D. de laGuardia; Esteban Alcántara



Stomatal behaviour, leaf water status and photosynthetic response in field-grown olive trees under water deficit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stomatal behaviour, leaf water status and photosynthetic response in relation to long-term water deficit were investigated in southern Italy on young trees of Olive (Olea europaea) to clarify mechanisms of stomatal control. Trees were subjected to three irrigation treatments, T0, T33 and T66 that received 0, 33 and 66%, respectively, of crop evapotranspiration by a drip irrigation system. The prolonged

P. Giorio; G. Sorrentino; R. d’Andria



Improvement of FAO56 method for olive orchards through sequential assimilation of thermal infrared-based estimates of ET  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to use the FAO-56-based single crop coefficient approach to estimate actual evapotranspiration (AET) of an olive (Olea europaea L.) orchard in the Mediterranean semi arid region of Tensift-basin (central Morocco) during two consecutive growing seasons (2003 and 2004). The results showed that using crop coefficients Kc suggested by FAO-56 method yielded an AET overestimation

S. Er-Raki; A. Chehbouni; J. Hoedjes; J. Ezzahar; B. Duchemin; F. Jacob



Heat-pulse measurements of sap flow in olives for automating irrigation: tests, root flow and diagnostics of water stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compensation heat-pulse method for measuring sap flow is tested here in olive trees (Olea europaea L.). We describe a rigorous three-way examination of the robustness of the technique for this species, and examine the potential of the technique for an automatic control of the irrigation system. Two tests were carried out using heat-pulse gear inserted into the stem of

J. E. Fernandez; M. J. Palomo; A D??az-Espejo; B. E. Clothier; S. R. Green; I. F. Giron; F. Moreno



Sex chromosomes and associated rDNA form a heterochromatic network in the polytene nuclei of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae).  


The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, has a diploid set of 2n = 12 chromosomes including a pair of sex chromosomes, XX in females and XY in males, but polytene nuclei show only five polytene chromosomes, obviously formed by five autosome pairs. Here we examined the fate of the sex chromosomes in the polytene complements of this species using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with the X and Y chromosome-derived probes, prepared by laser microdissection of the respective chromosomes from mitotic metaphases. Specificity of the probes was verified by FISH in preparations of mitotic chromosomes. In polytene nuclei, both probes hybridized strongly to a granular heterochromatic network, indicating thus underreplication of the sex chromosomes. The X chromosome probe (in both female and male nuclei) highlighted most of the granular mass, whereas the Y chromosome probe (in male nuclei) identified a small compact body of this heterochromatic network. Additional hybridization signals of the X probe were observed in the centromeric region of polytene chromosome II and in the telomeres of six polytene arms. We also examined distribution of the major ribosomal DNA (rDNA) using FISH with an 18S rDNA probe in both mitotic and polytene chromosome complements of B. oleae. In mitotic metaphases, the probe hybridized exclusively to the sex chromosomes. The probe signals localized a discrete rDNA site at the end of the short arm of the X chromosome, whereas they appeared dispersed over the entire dot-like Y chromosome. In polytene nuclei, the rDNA was found associated with the heterochromatic network representing the sex chromosomes. Only in nuclei with preserved nucleolar structure, the probe signals were scattered in the restricted area of the nucleolus. Thus, our study clearly shows that the granular heterochromatic network of polytene nuclei in B. oleae is formed by the underreplicated sex chromosomes and associated rDNA. PMID:22825842

Drosopoulou, Elena; Nakou, Ifigeneia; Síchová, Jindra; Kubí?ková, Svatava; Marec, František; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope



Aromadendrine, a new component of the flavonoid pattern of Olea europaea L. and its anti-inflammatory activity.  


Leaves of Olea europaea, cultivar Nocellara del Belice, were examined with respect to the medium-polar fraction, obtained by an ethyl acetate extraction of the whole extract. In the medium polar fraction, we isolated the two hydroxy-phenyl-ethyl alcohols (hydroxyl-tyrosol and tyrosol) that are the main component of olives. In addition, we isolated a flavonoidic compound, aromadendrine, a dihydroflavonol yet known but quite rare in nature. It is the first time that aromadendrine is isolated in O. europaea and we studied the aromadendrine biological activity. In particular, the ability of aromadendrine to reduce the inflammation induced in normal keratinocytes using an in vitro cell model was evaluated. The results of the present research indicate aromadendrine as a novel component in O. europaea with effective activity against skin inflammation. PMID:22691108

Venditti, Alessandro; Serrilli, Anna Maria; Rizza, Luisa; Frasca, Giuseppina; Cardile, Venera; Bonina, Francesco Paolo; Bianco, Armandodoriano



Olive orchard amended with olive mill wastewater: effects on olive fruit and olive oil quality.  


The aim of this work was to study the effects of agronomic application of olive mill wastewater (OMW) in a field of olive trees on olive fruit and olive oil quality. Agronomic application of OMW increased significantly the fungal:bacteria ratio, whereas the root colonisation and the photosynthetic rates decreased significantly. Consequently, the oil content expressed as a percentage of dry weight, decreased significantly after agronomic application of OMW. Land spreading of OMW altered the relative proportion of individual olive fruit sugar and decreased significantly the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) of the fruit. A significant increase was observed in total phenol content of oil after agronomic application of OMW. alpha-Tocopherol content, on the contrary, decreased with OMW application. The fatty acid composition of the oil was not affected by the treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first report of change in the olive fruit and olive oil quality following agronomic application of OMW. PMID:19720463

Mechri, B; Issaoui, M; Echbili, A; Chehab, H; Mariem, F B; Braham, M; Hammami, M



The effect of NaCl stress and relief on gas exchange properties of two olive cultivars differing in tolerance to salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young olive plants (Olea europaea L.) were grown either in hydroponic or soil culture in a glasshouse over two growing seasons. Plants were exposed to NaCl concentrations between 0 and 200 mM for 34–35 days followed by 30–34 days of relief from stress to determine the effect of salinity on gas exchange of two cultivars ('Frantoio' and 'Leccino') differing in

Massimiliano Tattini; Leonardo Lombardini; Riccardo Gucci



Using the dual approach of FAO56 for partitioning ET into soil and plant components for olive orchards in a semi-arid region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of this research was to evaluate the potential of the dual approach of FAO-56 for estimating actual crop evapotranspiration (AET) and its components (crop transpiration and soil evaporation) of an olive (Olea europaea L.) orchard in the semi-arid region of Tensift-basin (central of Morocco). Two years (2003 and 2004) of continuous measurements of AET with the eddy-covariance

S. Er-Raki; A. Chehbouni; G. Boulet; D. G. Williams



Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California: longevity, oviposition, and development in canning olives in the laboratory and greenhouse.  


The biology of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), was studied in the laboratory, greenhouse, and in canning olives, Olea europaea L., in relation to California regional climates. Adults survived in laboratory tests at constant temperatures and relative humidities of 5 degrees C and 83%; 15 degrees C and 59%; 25 degrees C and 30%; and 35 degrees C and 29% for 15, 6, 3, and 2 d without provisions of food and water and for 37, 63, 25, and 4 d with provisions, respectively. In a divided greenhouse, adults survived for 8-11 d in the warm side (36 degrees C and 31% RH daytime); and in the cool side (26 degrees C and 63% RH daytime) 10 d without provisions and 203 d with provisions. A significantly greater number of adults survived in the cool side than the warm side, and with provisions than without. First and last eggs were oviposited in olive fruit when females were 6 and 90 d old, respectively. The highest number of eggs was 55 per day in 10 olive fruit oviposited by 10 28 d-old females, with maximum egg production by 13-37 d-old females. A significantly greater number of ovipositional sites occurred in all sizes of immature green fruit when exposed to adults in cages for 5 d than 2 d. Adults emerged from fruit with a height of > or = 1.0 cm or a volume of > or = 0.2 cm3. More than seven adults per 15 fruit emerged from field infested fruit with a height of 1.1 cm and volume of 0.1 cm3. Larval length was significantly different among the first, second, and third instars and ranged from 0.7 to 1.6, 2.4-4.3, and 4.8-5.6 mm at 14 degrees C; 0.8-1.1, 1.9-2.9, and 3.9-4.4 mm at 21 degrees C, and 0.7-1.3, 2.4-2.9, and 4.4-4.8 mm at 26 degrees C, respectively. Survival of pupae to the adult stage was significantly lower at 26 degrees C than 14 degrees C or 21 degrees C. The period of adult emergence began at 38, 14, and 11 d over a period of 8, 5, and 1 d at 14, 21, and 26 degrees C, respectively. Findings were related to the occurrence and control of California olive fruit fly infestations. PMID:22420271

Yokoyama, Victoria Y



Evidence of two lineages of the symbiont 'Candidatus Erwinia dacicola' in Italian populations of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) based on 16S rRNA gene sequences.  


The close association between the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and bacteria has been known for more than a century. Recently, the presence of a host-specific, hereditary, unculturable symbiotic bacterium, designated 'Candidatus Erwinia dacicola', has been described inside the cephalic organ of the fly, called the oesophageal bulb. In the present study, the 16S rRNA gene sequence variability of 'Ca. E. dacicola' was examined within and between 26 Italian olive fly populations sampled across areas where olive trees occur in the wild and areas where cultivated olive trees have been introduced through history. The bacterial contents of the oesophageal bulbs of 314 olive flies were analysed and a minimum of 781 bp of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. The corresponding host fly genotype was assessed by sequencing a 776 bp portion of the mitochondrial genome. Two 'Ca. E. dacicola' haplotypes were found (htA and htB), one being slightly more prevalent than the other (57%). The two haplotypes did not co-exist in the same individuals, as confirmed by cloning. Interestingly, the olive fly populations of the two main Italian islands, Sicily and Sardinia, appeared to be represented exclusively by the htB and htA haplotypes, respectively, while peninsular populations showed both bacterial haplotypes in different proportions. No significant correlation emerged between the two symbiont haplotypes and the 16 host fly haplotypes observed, suggesting evidence for a mixed model of vertical and horizontal transmission of the symbiont during the fly life cycle. PMID:21378134

Savio, Claudia; Mazzon, Luca; Martinez-Sañudo, Isabel; Simonato, Mauro; Squartini, Andrea; Girolami, Vincenzo



Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes occurring during olive development and ripening.  


Since ancient times the olive tree (Olea europaea), an evergreen drought- and moderately salt-tolerant species, has been cultivated for its oil and fruit in the Mediterranean basin. Olive is unique among the commercial important oil crops for many reasons. Today, it ranks sixth in the world's production of vegetable oils. Due to its nutritional quality, olive oil has a high commercial value compared with most other plant oils. Olive oil has a well-balanced composition of fatty acids, with small amounts of palmitate, and it is highly enriched in the moneonic acid oleate. This makes it both fairly stable against auto-oxidation and suitable for human health. Nevertheless, it is the presence of minor components, in particular phenolics, contributing for oil's high oxidative stability, color and flavor, that makes olive oil unique among other oils. Moreover, as a result of their demonstrated roles in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, olive phenolics have gained much attention during the past years. Also unique to virgin olive oil is its characteristic aroma. This results from the formation of volatile compounds, namely, aldehydes and alcohols of six carbon atoms, which is triggered when olives are crushed during the process of oil extraction. The biochemistry of the olive tree is also singular. O. europaea is one of the few species able to synthesize both polyols (mannitol) and oligosaccharides (raffinose and stachyose) as the final products of the photosynthetic CO(2) fixation in the leaf. These carbohydrates, together with sucrose, can be exported from leaves to fruits to fulfill cellular metabolic requirements and act as precursors to oil synthesis. Additionally, developing olives contain active chloroplasts capable of fixing CO(2) and thus contributing to the carbon economy of the fruit. The overall quality of table olives and olive oil is influenced by the fruit ripening stage. Olive fruit ripening is a combination of physiological and biochemical changes influenced by several environmental and cultural conditions, even if most events are under strict genetic control. PMID:18571766

Conde, Carlos; Delrot, Serge; Gerós, Hernâni



Il ruolo del turismo per l'integrazione Europea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nell'Unione Europea l'espansione del settore turi stico è destinato a svolgere un ruolo di grande rilievo, per molteplici motivi. Inn anzitutto il turismo ha un notevole impatto economico, in quanto contribuisce positivamente all a creazione di nuovi posti di lavoro e alla crescita di reddito. Inoltre può potenziare le politiche regionali e la politica agricola comune sostenendo lo sviluppo delle

Giulio Querini; Carmen Bizzarri



Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Two Olive Cultivars in Response to NaCl-Stress  

PubMed Central

Background Olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivation is rapidly expanding and low quality saline water is often used for irrigation. The molecular basis of salt tolerance in olive, though, has not yet been investigated at a system level. In this study a comparative transcriptomics approach was used as a tool to unravel gene regulatory networks underlying salinity response in olive trees by simulating as much as possible olive growing conditions in the field. Specifically, we investigated the genotype-dependent differences in the transcriptome response of two olive cultivars, a salt-tolerant and a salt-sensitive one. Methodology/Principal Findings A 135-day long salinity experiment was conducted using one-year old trees exposed to NaCl stress for 90 days followed by 45 days of post-stress period during the summer. A cDNA library made of olive seedling mRNAs was sequenced and an olive microarray was constructed. Total RNA was extracted from root samples after 15, 45 and 90 days of NaCl-treatment as well as after 15 and 45 days of post-treatment period and used for microarray hybridizations. SAM analysis between the NaCl-stress and the post-stress time course resulted in the identification of 209 and 36 differentially expressed transcripts in the salt–tolerant and salt–sensitive cultivar, respectively. Hierarchical clustering revealed two major, distinct clusters for each cultivar. Despite the limited number of probe sets, transcriptional regulatory networks were constructed for both cultivars while several hierarchically-clustered interacting transcription factor regulators such as JERF and bZIP homologues were identified. Conclusions/Significance A systems biology approach was used and differentially expressed transcripts as well as regulatory interactions were identified. The comparison of the interactions among transcription factors in olive with those reported for Arabidopsis might indicate similarities in the response of a tree species with Arabidopsis at the transcriptional level under salinity stress.

Bazakos, Christos; Manioudaki, Maria E.; Therios, Ioannis; Voyiatzis, Demetrios; Kafetzopoulos, Dimitris; Awada, Tala; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis



Development of new ecological long-lasting dispensers of semiochemicals for the control of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi).  


BACKGROUND: A new controlled-release pheromone 1,7-dioxaspiro[5,5]undecane dispenser has been developed, which is useful for monitoring the population and controlling Bactrocera oleae (Rossi, 1790) (Diptera: Tephritidae). For this purpose, several kinds of dispensers based on attapulgite were designed and tested in this study. RESULTS: The designed dispensers, together with the commercial-brand olive fruit fly 'Long-Life Lure', which was used as a reference, were evaluated in the field, and in parallel were subjected to an accelerated ageing process in a chamber with a constant temperature and air speed. The residual pheromone content was periodically determined by liquid-gas chromatography in order to obtain the half-life of dispensers and the pheromone release rate. The mesoporous dispenser proved to have the best performance in the field, with a half-life of 5 months and an average emission speed of 0.6 mg day(-1) , parameters very close to those obtained with the commercial dispenser tested. In addition, to evaluate the effectiveness of the different dispensers in the field, a duplicate comparative study of captures was designed, and a colony monitoring study of the olive fruit fly was performed using various food and sex attractants. CONCLUSIONS: Although no significant differences in captures were found between the dispensers tested, the highest number of captures was obtained on average with the mesoporous dispensers demonstrating good pheromone emission characteristics.© 2012 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:23109288

Gil-Ortiz, Ricardo



Effects of Peganum harmala (Zygophyllaceae) seed extract on the olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and its larval parasitoid Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).  


Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae) is an herb native to arid and semiarid regions of Central Asian deserts. This study investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of P. harmala seeds on the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), i.e., adult repellency, reproductive activity, and larval growth, as well as parasitism levels by Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti). Olive fruit treated with 2% extract reduced B. oleae oviposition. In choice tests, female B. oleae spent >99% of their time foraging on untreated fruit rather than P. harmala-treated fruit. These changes in ovipositional behavior resulted in a nearly 30-fold decrease in oviposition marks on treated fruit compared with untreated fruit during a 48 h exposure period. When female B. oleae were fed liquid diet containing 0.2% P. harmala extract, there was no effect on the number of ovipositional marks on exposed fruit, but up to 21.4% of the deposited eggs were deformed. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses of deformed eggs revealed that some protein bands were missing. Consequently, the number of offspring produced by treated females was lower than by untreated females. Neither the sex ratio nor body size of the fly's offspring were affected by adults fed diet containing 0.2% P. harmala extract. However, there was a slightly prolonged developmental time from egg to adult. Parasitism of larval B. oleae by P. concolor was not affected by infested fruit treatment with 2% P. harmala extract. P. harmala extracts as a potential control for insect pest species are discussed. PMID:20069853

Rehman, Junaid Ur; Wang, Xin-Geng; Johnson, Marshall W; Daane, Kent M; Jilani, Ghulam; Khan, Mir A; Zalom, Frank G



Determination of pesticide residues in olive oil and olives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pesticide-residue determination in olive oil is becoming a very important and challenging issue. The present article provides a review of the most significant methods for determining pesticides in olive oil. The discussion of sample-treatment procedures is focused on not only the final product (olive oil), but also the direct analysis of the raw material (olive fruits). We outline extraction and

Juan F. García-Reyes; Antonio Molina-Díaz; M GOMEZRAMOS; A FERNANDEZALBA



Control of the olive fruit fly using genetics-enhanced sterile insect technique  

PubMed Central

Background The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major arthropod pest of commercial olive production, causing extensive damage to olive crops worldwide. Current control techniques rely on spraying of chemical insecticides. The sterile insect technique (SIT) presents an alternative, environmentally friendly and species-specific method of population control. Although SIT has been very successful against other tephritid pests, previous SIT trials on olive fly have produced disappointing results. Key problems included altered diurnal mating rhythms of the laboratory-reared insects, resulting in asynchronous mating activity between the wild and released sterile populations, and low competitiveness of the radiation-sterilised mass-reared flies. Consequently, the production of competitive, male-only release cohorts is considered an essential prerequisite for successful olive fly SIT. Results We developed a set of conditional female-lethal strains of olive fly (named Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal; RIDL®), providing highly penetrant female-specific lethality, dominant fluorescent marking, and genetic sterility. We found that males of the lead strain, OX3097D-Bol, 1) are strongly sexually competitive with wild olive flies, 2) display synchronous mating activity with wild females, and 3) induce appropriate refractoriness to wild female re-mating. Furthermore, we showed, through a large proof-of-principle experiment, that weekly releases of OX3097D-Bol males into stable populations of caged wild-type olive fly could cause rapid population collapse and eventual eradication. Conclusions The observed mating characteristics strongly suggest that an approach based on the release of OX3097D-Bol males will overcome the key difficulties encountered in previous olive fly SIT attempts. Although field confirmation is required, the proof-of-principle suppression and elimination of caged wild-type olive fly populations through OX3097D-Bol male releases provides evidence for the female-specific RIDL approach as a viable method of olive fly control. We conclude that the promising characteristics of OX3097D-Bol may finally enable effective SIT-based control of the olive fly.



Occurrence of C15-C45 mineral paraffins in olives and olive oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different classes of olive oils and other olive samples (olives, olive paste and olive pomace) collected during their production were analysed for mineral paraffins in the range of C15–C45. None of the 22 extra virgin olive oils contained mineral paraffins above the detection limit of 1 mg kg. Also, lampante virgin olive oil from the olive mill showed no detectable

S. Moret; T. Populin; L. S. Conte; K. Grob; H.-P. Neukom



Inhibition of acid corrosion of carbon steel using aqueous extract of olive leaves.  


The inhibitive action of the aqueous extract of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves toward the corrosion of C-steel in 2 M HCl solution was investigated using weight loss measurements, Tafel polarization, and cyclic voltammetry. It was found that the extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for the tested system. The inhibition efficiency increases with increasing extract concentration. The inhibitive action of the extract is discussed with a view to adsorption of its components onto the steel surface, making a barrier to mass and charge transfer. The adsorption of extract components onto the steel surface was found to be a spontaneous process and to follow the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. It was found also that such adsorption increases the activation energy of the corrosion process. The results of cyclic voltammetry showed that the presence of olive extract decreases the charge density in the transpassive region. The inhibition efficiency is greatly reduced as the temperature is increased. PMID:17628584

El-Etre, A Y



Summer Deficit-Irrigation Strategies in a Hedgerow Olive cv. Arbequina Orchard: Effect on Oil Quality.  


Different irrigation treatments were applied to a superintensive orchard of 'Arbequina' olives ( Olea europaea L.) during three seasons (2007-2009) to examine the effect of the amount of water and the moment of irrigation in summer on the virgin olive oil (VOO) quality. A control was made (CON) with irrigation to maintain the root zone close to field capacity; two water deficit treatments were employed with irrigation at 30% of CON, either from the end of fruit drop to the end of July (DI-J) or from the end of July until the beginning of oil synthesis (DI-A); and other treatment was tested by irrigating 50% of CON in July and August (DI-JA). DI-J oils exhibited significantly higher oxidative stability, which coincided with significantly higher contents in phenol derivatives. Consequently, the selection of the moment and intensity of summer irrigation played an important role in the nutritional and sensory quality of the VOO. PMID:23972260

Gómez Del Campo, María; García, José M



Overwintering survival of olive fruit fly (Diptera: tephritidae) and two introduced parasitoids in California.  


The overwintering survival and development of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), and the endoparasitoids, Psyttalia humilis Silvestri and P. lounsburyi (Silvestri), were investigated at sites in California's interior valley and coastal region. In the interior valley, adult flies survived up to 4-6 mo during the winter when food was provided. Adult female flies could oviposit in late fall and early winter on nonharvested fruit and, although egg survival was low (0.23-8.50%), a portion of the overwintered cohort developed into adults the following spring; percentage of survival was negatively correlated to daily minimum temperature. P. humilis and P. lounsburyi successfully oviposited into host larvae in late fall, and their progeny developed into adults the following spring, although with a low percentage (0-11.9%) survivorship. Overwintering survival of puparia of the olive fruit fly and immature larvae of P. humilis and P. lounsburyi (inside host puparia), buried in the soil, were tested at an interior valley and coastal site. Survival of olive fruit fly ranged from 0 to 60% and was affected by the trial date and soil moisture. Overwintering survival of both the fruit fly and tested parasitoids was lower at the colder interior valley than the coastal site; P. humilis immature stages had the highest mortality levels while B. oleae pupae had the lowest mortality levels. The spring emergence pattern of the tested insects was well predicted by a degree-day model. We discuss factors potentially impeding establishment of introduced olive fruit fly parasitoids in California and elsewhere. PMID:23726056

Wang, Xin-Geng; Levy, Karmit; Nadel, Hannah; Johnson, Marshall W; Blanchet, Arnaud; Argov, Yael; Pickett, Charles H; Daane, Kent M



Olive Fertility as Affected by Cross-Pollination and Boron  

PubMed Central

Self-compatibility of local olive (Olea europaea L.) accessions and of the cultivars “Frantoio” and “Leccino” was investigated in Garda Lake area, northern Italy. Intercompatibility was determined for “Casaliva,” “Frantoio,” and “Leccino,” as well as the effects of foliar Boron applications (0, 262, 525, or 1050?mg·L?1) applied about one week before anthesis on fruit set, shotberry set, and on in vitro pollen germination. Following self-pollination, fruit set was significantly lower and the occurrence of shot berries significantly higher than those obtained by open pollination. No significant effect of controlled cross-pollination over self-pollination on fruit set and shotberry set was detectable. B treatments increased significantly fruit set in “Frantoio” and “Casaliva” but not in “Leccino.” B sprays had no effect on shotberry set, suggesting that these parthenocarpic fruits did not strongly compete for resources allocation and did not take advantage of increased B tissue levels. Foliar B application enhanced in vitro pollen germination, and the optimal level was higher for pollen germination than for fruit set. Our results highlight the importance of olive cross pollination for obtaining satisfactory fruit set and the beneficial effect of B treatments immediately prior to anthesis, possibly by affecting positively the fertilisation process and subsequent plant source-sink relations linked to fruitlet retention.

Spinardi, A.; Bassi, D.



Agricultural management systems affect the green lacewing community (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) in olive orchards in southern Spain.  


Green lacewings are generalist predators whose conservation is important for pest control in olive orchards (Olea europaea L.) Sustainable farming practices, as opposed to conventional management techniques, are believed to foster the presence of natural enemies. This study therefore aims to analyze the effect of 1) herbicidal weed cover removal and insecticide applications, and 2) the general management systems used in the olive orchards of southern Spain on chrysopid assemblages and abundance. Green lacewing adults and larvae were collected from olive orchards under conventional, integrated, and organic management systems. In addition, chemical analyses of residues were carried out to determine the presence of insecticidal and herbicidal residues. Eight adult species and three genera of larvae were identified. No rare species were captured from the most intensively farmed orchard, which therefore recorded the most limited chrysopid diversity with a very marked dominance of Chrysoperla carnea s.l.. No effect of dimethoate treatments on Chrysoperla larvae or C. carnea s.l. adults was observed. However, the presence of insecticide residues was associated with the depletion of Dichochrysa larvae. The absence of herbicide treatments favored C. carnea s.l. adult presence on olive trees while larval abundance decreased. Dichochrysa larvae were more abundant when weed cover received no treatment. In relation to the management systems studied, no difference in Chrysoperla larval abundance was observed between conventional and organic orchards. However, Dichochrysa larvae were more abundant in orchards under organic management. PMID:23339790

Porcel, M; Ruano, F; Cotes, B; Peña, A; Campos, M



Acephate and buprofezin residues in olives and olive oil.  


Field trials were carried out to study the persistence of acephate and buprofezin on olives. Two cultivars, pizz'e carroga and pendolino, with very large and small fruits respectively were used. After treatment, no difference was found between the two pesticide deposits on the olives. The disappearance rates, calculated as pseudo first order kinetics, were similar for both pesticides (on average 12 days). Methamidophos, the acephate metabolite, was always present on all olives, and in some pendolino samples it showed higher residues than the maximum residue limit (MRL). During washing, the first step of olive processing, the residue level of both pesticides on the olives did not decrease. After processing of the olives into oil, no residues of acephate or methamidophos were found in the olive oil, while the residues of buprofezin were on average four times higher than on olives. PMID:11103269

Cabras, P; Angioni, A; Garau, V L; Pirisi, F M; Cabitza, F; Pala, M



Population genetics of Mediterranean and Saharan olives: geographic patterns of differentiation and evidence for early generations of admixture.  


Background and Aims The olive (Olea europaea subsp. europaea) was domesticated in the Mediterranean area but its wild relatives are distributed over three continents, from the Mediterranean basin to South Africa and south-western Asia. Recent studies suggested that this crop originated in the Levant while a secondary diversification occurred in most westward areas. A possible contribution of the Saharan subspecies (subsp. laperrinei) has been highlighted, but the data available were too limited to draw definite conclusions. Here, patterns of genetic differentiation in the Mediterranean and Saharan olives are analysed to test for recent admixture between these taxa. Methods Nuclear microsatellite and plastid DNA (ptDNA) data were compiled from previous studies and completed for a sample of 470 cultivars, 390 wild Mediterranean trees and 270 Saharan olives. A network was reconstructed for the ptDNA haplotypes, while a Bayesian clustering method was applied to identify the main gene pools in the data set and then simulate and test for early generations of admixture between Mediterranean and Saharan olives. Key Results Four lineages of ptDNA haplotypes are recognized: three from the Mediterranean basin and one from the Sahara. Only one haplotype, primarily distributed in the Sahara, is shared between laperrinei and europaea. This haplotype is detected once in 'Dhokar', a cultivar from the Maghreb. Nuclear microsatellites show geographic patterns of genetic differentiation in the Mediterranean olive that reflect the primary origins of cultivars in the Levant, and indicate a high genetic differentiation between europaea and laperrinei. No first-generation hybrid between europaea and laperrinei is detected, but recent, reciprocal admixture between Mediterranean and Saharan subspecies is found in a few accessions, including 'Dhokar'. Conclusions This study reports for the first time admixture between Mediterranean and Saharan olives. Although its contribution remains limited, Laperrine's olive has been involved in the diversification of cultivated olives. PMID:24013386

Besnard, G; El Bakkali, A; Haouane, H; Baali-Cherif, D; Moukhli, A; Khadari, B



Thriving at the limit: Differential reproductive performance in range-edge populations of a Mediterranean sclerophyll (Olea europaea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peripheral populations are often lumped together on the assumption of thriving in marginal habitats where reproductive performance is compromised. We have tested this hypothesis in peripheral populations of wild olive tree (Olea europaea L.) presumably limited by different factors at the westernmost limit of the species range. Additionally, we hypothesized that differences in reproductive outcome among populations are better explained by site-specific environmental conditions (PAR, soil water, soil nutrients, air humidity and air temperature) than by differences in phenotypic traits (tree size and leaf traits). To test these hypotheses, we assessed the number of flowering trees, the flowering intensity, fruit set and seed viability in eight populations for three consecutive years. Our findings provided sufficient evidence to reject the first hypothesis. Peripheral populations that occur under oceanic conditions, resembling the Tertiary subtropical climate, consistently presented higher values for all components of reproductive performance than those at the thermal and rainfall tolerance limits. In support of our second hypothesis, the variation in reproductive performance among populations was primarily accounted for by local environmental conditions. Leaf traits, however, also explained reproductive variation but to a lesser extent. Finally, we found that small changes in tree size may cause large differences in reproductive performance. This close relationship between tree size and reproductive performance suggests that any impact on population size structure would likely jeopardize persistence and expansion at the range edge. Our results suggest that reproductive performance of wild olive trees was not shaped by the population geographic position within the species range, but by the interaction between local environment, as the main driver, and individual phenotypic traits.

Granado-Yela, Carlos; Balaguer, Luis; García-Verdugo, Carlos; Carrillo, Katty; Méndez, Marcos



Marketing Olive Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to examine the issues related to the production of olive oil, by the Greek company Elais, and the marketing practices implemented by the company. Thus, the product, its target market and competition are examined, a SWOT analysis is performed and the marketing mix is presented.To gain an initial understanding of the marketing practices employed

Evangelia Blery; Konstantina Kapsopoulou



Inflorescence architecture of olive  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of flower position on the inflorescence on opening day, gender, and petal persistence was studied in three olive cultivars: Manzanillo, Mission, and Frantoio. In each cultivar, 45 inflorescences were checked every morning from flower opening to petal fall. Perfect flowers opened mainly in the beginning of the flower opening period, and staminate flowers opened later. Flower position on

Esmaeil Seifi; Jenny Guerin; Brent Kaiser; Margaret Sedgley



Olive oil phenols and neuroprotection.  


Olive oil is a rich source of phenolic components which have a wide variety of beneficial health effects in vitro, in vivo, and clinically. The beneficial effects of olive oil phenols attributed to a variety of biological activities including free radical scavenging/antioxidant actions, anti-inflammatory effects, anti-carcinogenic properties, and anti-microbial activities. On the other hand, olive oil phenols have been shown to be some of neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia, spinal cord injury, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's diseases, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, aging, and peripheral neuropathy. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of olive oil phenols. PMID:23406576

Khalatbary, Ali Reza



Microsatellite analysis of olive fly populations in the Mediterranean indicates a westward expansion of the species.  


Bactrocera oleae is the major insect pest of the olive fruit. Twelve microsatellite loci isolated from the genome of this insect were used in a Mediterranean-wide population analysis. These loci were highly polymorphic with a mean number of alleles per locus of 10.42 and a mean effective number of alleles of 2.76. The analysis was performed on a sample of 671 flies collected from nineteen locations around the European part of the Mediterranean basin. Despite the high level of gene flow across the Mediterranean, results support the notion of a differentiation of three subpopulations: one of the Iberian Peninsula, one of Greece and Italy and one of Cyprus. In addition, the gradual decrease of heterozygosity from the Eastern to the Western part of the Mediterranean indicates a westward expansion of the species. PMID:16247695

Augustinos, A A; Mamuris, Z; Stratikopoulos, E E; D'Amelio, S; Zacharopoulou, A; Mathiopoulos, K D



Can elevated CO(2) improve salt tolerance in olive trees?  


We compared growth, leaf gas exchange characteristics, water relations, chlorophyll fluorescence, and Na(+) and Cl(-) concentration of two cultivars ('Koroneiki' and 'Picual') of olive (Olea europaea L.) trees in response to high salinity (NaCl 100mM) and elevated CO(2) (eCO(2)) concentration (700microLL(-1)). The cultivar 'Koroneiki' is considered to be more salt sensitive than the relatively salt-tolerant 'Picual'. After 3 months of treatment, the 9-month-old cuttings of 'Koroneiki' had significantly greater shoot growth, and net CO(2) assimilation (A(CO(2))) at eCO(2) than at ambient CO(2), but this difference disappeared under salt stress. Growth and A(CO(2)) of 'Picual' did not respond to eCO(2) regardless of salinity treatment. Stomatal conductance (g(s)) and leaf transpiration were decreased at eCO(2) such that leaf water use efficiency (WUE) increased in both cultivars regardless of saline treatment. Salt stress increased leaf Na(+) and Cl(-) concentration, reduced growth and leaf osmotic potential, but increased leaf turgor compared with non-salinized control plants of both cultivars. Salinity decreased A(CO(2)), g(s), and WUE, but internal CO(2) concentrations in the mesophyll were not affected. eCO(2) increased the sensitivity of PSII and chlorophyll concentration to salinity. eCO(2) did not affect leaf or root Na(+) or Cl(-) concentrations in salt-tolerant 'Picual', but eCO(2) decreased leaf and root Na(+) concentration and root Cl(-) concentration in the more salt-sensitive 'Koroneiki'. Na(+) and Cl(-) accumulation was associated with the lower water use in 'Koroneiki' but not in 'Picual'. Although eCO(2) increased WUE in salinized leaves and decreased salt ion uptake in the relatively salt-tolerant 'Koroneiki', growth of these young olive trees was not affected by eCO(2). PMID:17728014

Melgar, Juan Carlos; Syvertsen, James P; García-Sánchez, Francisco



Characterization of olfactory sensilla of the olive fly: behavioral and electrophysiological responses to volatile organic compounds from the host plant and bacterial filtrate.  


The responses of olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) antennal and palpal olfactory receptors to odors emitted by Pseudomonas putida bacterial filtrate and to volatiles from a host plant were evaluated using electrophysiological and behavioral bioassays. Morphological identification of olfactory receptors was also performed. The third antennal segment (flagellum) bears four types of multiporous sensilla: trichoid, short basiconica, clavate and grooved. Maxillary palps have mechanosensory bristles and multiporous basiconica sensilla. In wind-tunnel bioassays, olive fly responses to volatiles emitted by bacterial filtrate were higher than those to culture medium. Bacterial filtrate was more attractive than ammonium carbonate or a mixture of ethyl acetate and acetic acid in ethanol. GC-MS of bacterial filtrate identified some of the chemicals produced by bacterial activity, including methyl thiolacetate, ammonia, 2-pentanone, 2-heptanone, ethyl tiglate and methyl thiocyanate. Electrophysiological investigations proved that antennal sensilla are responsive to bacterial filtrate odor, methyl thiolacetate, olive leaves and olives, as well as to ?-pinene, while acetic acid elicited an inhibitory response. Electropalpgrams recorded a specific response to bacterial filtrate by mated males and females, as well as a dose-dependent response relationship to methyl thiolacetate by mated females. The identification of new active volatile compounds in the semiochemical system of the olive fly is promising for the development of innovative control strategies in area-wide management. PMID:23669464

Liscia, Anna; Angioni, Piera; Sacchetti, Patrizia; Poddighe, Simone; Granchietti, Aurelio; Setzu, Maria Dolores; Belcari, Antonio



Olea europaea leaf (Ph.Eur.) extract as well as several of its isolated phenolics inhibit the gout-related enzyme xanthine oxidase.  


In Mediterranean folk medicine Olea europaea L. leaf (Ph.Eur.) preparations are used as a common remedy for gout. In this in vitro study kinetic measurements were performed on both an 80% ethanolic (v/v) Olea europaea leaf dry extract (OLE) as well as on nine of its typical phenolic constituents in order to investigate its possible inhibitory effects on xanthine oxidase (XO), an enzyme well known to contribute significantly to this pathological process. Dixon and Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis were used to determine K(i) values and the inhibition mode for the isolated phenolics, which were analysed by RP-HPLC for standardisation of OLE. The standardised OLE as well as some of the tested phenolics significantly inhibited the activity of XO. Among these, the flavone aglycone apigenin exhibited by far the strongest effect on XO with a K(i) value of 0.52 ?M. In comparison, the known synthetic XO inhibitor allopurinol, used as a reference standard, showed a K(i) of 7.3 ?M. Although the phenolic secoiridoid oleuropein, the main ingredient of the extract (24.8%), had a considerable higher K(i) value of 53.0 ?M, it still displayed a significant inhibition of XO. Furthermore, caffeic acid (K(i) of 11.5 ?M; 1.89% of the extract), luteolin-7-O-?-D-glucoside (K(i) of 15.0 ?M; 0.86%) and luteolin (K(i) of 2.9 ?M; 0.086%) also contributed significantly to the XO inhibiting effect of OLE. For oleuropein, a competitive mode of inhibition was found, while all other active substances displayed a mixed mode of inhibition. Tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside, and apigenin-7-O-?-D-glucoside, which makes up for 0.3% of the extract, were inactive in all tested concentrations. Regarding the pharmacological in vitro effect of apigenin-7-O-?-D-glucoside, it has to be considered that it is transformed into the active apigenin aglycone in the mammalian body, thus also contributing substantially to the anti-gout activity of olive leaves. For the first time, this study provides a rational basis for the traditional use of olive leaves against gout in Mediterranean folk medicine. PMID:21144719

Flemmig, J; Kuchta, K; Arnhold, J; Rauwald, H W



Root hairs play a key role in the endophytic colonization of olive roots by Pseudomonas spp. with biocontrol activity.  


The use of indigenous bacterial root endophytes with biocontrol activity against soil-borne phytopathogens is an environmentally-friendly and ecologically-efficient action within an integrated disease management framework. The earliest steps of olive root colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 and Pseudomonas putida PICP2, effective biocontrol agents (BCAs) against Verticillium wilt of olive (Olea europaea L.) caused by the fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb., are here described. A gnotobiotic study system using in vitro propagated olive plants, differential fluorescent-protein tagging of bacteria, and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis have been successfully used to examine olive roots-Pseudomonas spp. interactions at the single-cell level. In vivo simultaneous visualization of PICF7 and PICP2 cells on/in root tissues enabled to discard competition between the two bacterial strains during root colonization. Results demonstrated that both BCAs are able to endophytically colonized olive root tissues. Moreover, results suggest a pivotal role of root hairs in root colonization by both biocontrol Pseudomonas spp. However, colonization of root hairs appeared to be a highly specific event, and only a very low number of root hairs were effectively colonized by introduced bacteria. Strains PICF7 and PICP2 can simultaneously colonize the same root hair, demonstrating that early colonization of a given root hair by one strain did not hinder subsequent attachment and penetration by the other. Since many environmental factors can affect the number, anatomy, development, and physiology of root hairs, colonization competence and biocontrol effectiveness of BCAs may be greatly influenced by root hair's fitness. Finally, the in vitro study system here reported has shown to be a suitable tool to investigate colonization processes of woody plant roots by microorganisms with biocontrol potential. PMID:21347721

Prieto, Pilar; Schilirò, Elisabetta; Maldonado-González, María Mercedes; Valderrama, Raquel; Barroso-Albarracín, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús



The Olive Fly Endosymbiont, "Candidatus Erwinia dacicola," Switches from an Intracellular Existence to an Extracellular Existence during Host Insect Development? †  

PubMed Central

As polyphagous, holometabolous insects, tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) provide a unique habitat for endosymbiotic bacteria, especially those microbes associated with the digestive system. Here we examine the endosymbiont of the olive fly [Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae)], a tephritid of great economic importance. “Candidatus Erwinia dacicola” was found in the digestive systems of all life stages of wild olive flies from the southwestern United States. PCR and microscopy demonstrated that “Ca. Erwinia dacicola” resided intracellularly in the gastric ceca of the larval midgut but extracellularly in the lumen of the foregut and ovipositor diverticulum of adult flies. “Ca. Erwinia dacicola” is one of the few nonpathogenic endosymbionts that transitions between intracellular and extracellular lifestyles during specific stages of the host's life cycle. Another unique feature of the olive fly endosymbiont is that unlike obligate endosymbionts of monophagous insects, “Ca. Erwinia dacicola” has a G+C nucleotide composition similar to those of closely related plant-pathogenic and free-living bacteria. These two characteristics of “Ca. Erwinia dacicola,” the ability to transition between intracellular and extracellular lifestyles and a G+C nucleotide composition similar to those of free-living relatives, may facilitate survival in a changing environment during the development of a polyphagous, holometabolous host. We propose that insect-bacterial symbioses should be classified based on the environment that the host provides to the endosymbiont (the endosymbiont environment).

Estes, Anne M.; Hearn, David J.; Bronstein, Judith L.; Pierson, Elizabeth A.



Irrigation effects on quality, phenolic composition, and selected volatiles of virgin olive oils cv. Leccino.  


Field-grown olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Leccino) were used over two growing seasons to determine the effect of deficit irrigation regimes on virgin olive oil (VOO) quality. Drip irrigation was managed to maintain a predawn leaf water potential (PLWP): (a) higher than -1.1 MPa (full irrigation: FI); (b) between -1.0 and -3.3 MPa (deficit irrigation: DI); (c) higher than -4.2 MPa (severe deficit irrigation: SI). The fruit yield and oil yield of DI trees were over 90% of those of FI treatments in both years, respectively, whereas yields of SI trees ranged from 61 to 76%. The irrigation regime had minor effects on the free acidity, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of VOO. The concentrations of phenols and o-diphenols in VOO were negatively correlated with PLWP. The concentrations of the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid linked to (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA), the isomer of the oleuropein aglycon (3,4-DHPEA-EA), and the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid linked to (p-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol (p-HPEA-EDA) were lower in FI than in SI treatments. The concentrations of lignans (+)-1-acetoxipinoresinol and (+)-1-pinoresinol were unaffected by the irrigation regime. The tree water status had a marked effect on the concentration of volatile compounds, such as the C(6)-saturated and unsaturated aldehydes, alcohols, and esters. PMID:17636938

Servili, Maurizio; Esposto, Sonia; Lodolini, Enrico; Selvaggini, Roberto; Taticchi, Agnese; Urbani, Stefania; Montedoro, Gianfrancesco; Serravalle, Matteo; Gucci, Riccardo



Microflora species and their volatile compounds affecting development of an alcohol dehydrogenase homozygous strain (Adh-I) of Bactrocera (Dacus) oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae).  


Microflora species and volatiles emitted from artificial diets were examined from the larvae of three homozygous alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) strains of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) oleae (Gmelin), reared under identical conditions. Differences in volatile composition were detected when Adh-I homozygous larvae developed in a diet lacking the preservative p-hydroxybenzoic acid methyl ester (nipagin). Larval development of the Adh-I strain in the preservative-free diet was reduced by 50%, whereas pupal emergence was completely inhibited. The larval development and pupal emergence of Adh-F and Adh-S strains were not affected. Unique microorganisms with characteristic volatile profiles were isolated from the preservative-free diet of the Adh-I strain that were different from those, isolated from Adh-S, Adh-F, laboratory colony, and wild insect populations. Our results indicated that the variations in volatile composition of the artificial diets, and the inhibition of larval development and pupal emergence in Adh-I strain were related to changes in the microflora that developed in the diets of the Adh-I strain. PMID:16539118

Konstantopoulou, M A; Raptopoulos, D G; Stavrakis, N G; Mazomenos, B E



Composting of olive leaves and pomace from a three-phase olive mill plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composting of olive leaves and olive pomace from a three-phase olive mill was tested as a method for solid waste reuse. The process was carried out using a compost windrow and mixing olive leaves and pomace at a ratio of 1:2. Compost was retained in the windrow for 60 days during which thermophilic temperatures developed for the first 40

Michael Michailides; Gerasimos Christou; Christos S. Akratos; Athanasia G. Tekerlekopoulou; Dimitrios V. Vayenas



Clay improvement with burned olive waste ash.  


Olive oil is concentrated in the Mediterranean basin countries. Since the olive oil industries are incriminated for a high quantity of pollution, it has become imperative to solve this problem by developing optimized systems for the treatment of olive oil wastes. This study proposes a solution to the problem. Burned olive waste ash is evaluated for using it as clay stabilizer. In a laboratory, bentonite clay is used to improve olive waste ash. Before the laboratory, the olive waste is burned at 550°C in the high temperature oven. The burned olive waste ash was added to bentonite clay with increasing 1% by weight from 1% to 10%. The study consisted of the following tests on samples treated with burned olive waste ash: Atterberg Limits, Standard Proctor Density, and Unconfined Compressive Strength Tests. The test results show promise for this material to be used as stabilizer and to solve many of the problems associated with its accumulation. PMID:23766671

Mutman, Utkan



Method for treating olives to be utilized for olive oil production  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Methods are provided for treating freshly harvested olives to substantially retain the quality of oil contained therewithin for enabling production of high quality olive oil from said treated olives at a prolonged time after harvest and treated freshly harvested olives with retained oil qualities characterized in that the oil extracted therefrom after a prolonged storage time meets the standards of the IOC for Virgin Olive Oils.




Microsoft Academic Search

Three natural populations of Dams oleae have been sampled for six electio- phoretically detected polyniorphic genes. The distributions of the allele fre- quencies in the different populations were analyzed by the method suggested by LEWONTIN and KRAKAUER (1973) (the variation in space one) in order to test for selective neutrality. This method, however, which in our case showed that one



Exploring Japanese olive oil consumer behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last two decades, olive oil consumption in Japan is showing an increasing trend due to dietary and health concerns. Traditional olive oil producer and exporter countries such as Italy, Spain and Tunisia have interest to reinforce and to increase their penetration in the Japanese market. This study examines Japanese olive oil consumer behaviour by the use of the

Nadhem Mtimet; Kenichi Kashiwagi; Lokman Zaibet; N. Masakazu



Olive-Harvesting Eye Injuries  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To document the types of ocular trauma that occurs during the olive-harvesting season in a region of the Middle East. Materials and Methods: Ophthalmic assessments of all patients were performed by one ophthalmologist. Examinations included visual acuity, slit-lamp evaluation of the anterior segment, intraocular pressure measurement and posterior segment assessment after pupil dilatation. Results: The study cohort comprised 119 patients who presented for ocular injury due to olive harvesting. Seven patients (5.9%) had severe ocular trauma. Two of these patients presented with corneal perforation, and five with retinal edema. Six patients with severe ocular injury were male. Conclusions: Ocular injuries are common when olives were harvested manually or with sticks. A preventive program to reduce injury should consider environmental and cultural factors.

Yulish, Michael; Pikkel, Joseph



Comparative fine structural analysis of the male reproductive accessory glands in Bactrocera oleae and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology and ultrastructure of the male reproductive accessory glands from Bactrocera oleae and Ceratitis capitata were comparatively investigated. In both insects, there are two types of glands, mesoderm? and ectoderm?derived, which open in the ejaculatory duct. The mesoderm?derived glands are sac?like in B. oleae and very long tubules in C. capitata, whereas the ectodermic glands, generally branched finger?like structures,

Daniela Marchini; Giovanna Del Bene



Oliver Heaviside's Contribution to Telecommunications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-taught, Oliver Heaviside must be considered, with Hertz, as the direct heir and follower of Maxwellian thought as expressed in the Dynamical Theory and the Treatise. In particular, to Heaviside we owe the reformulation of Maxwellian electrodynamics, the currently used vectorial formulas of which were stated by him. His Electromagnetic Theory and Electrical Papers also investigated the energy of the

Adriano Morando



Biogas production from olive pomace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas production from a slurry obtained by mixing finely ground olive pomace in water was investigated using anaerobic digesters of 1-l working volume at 37°C. A start-up culture was obtained from a local landfill area and was adopted to the slurry within 10 days at this temperature. The biogas generation rates were determined by varying the total solids (TS) concentration

Ali R Tekin; A. Co?kun Dalg?ç



Marketing olive oil in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the issues related to the promotion and marketing of olive oil, by the Greek company Minerva S.A. Thus, the product, its target market and competition are examined, a SWOT analysis is performed and the marketing mix is presented. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Since the aim of this study was to examine the

Evangelia Blery; Eugenia Sfetsiou



"Oliver Twist": A Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This teacher's guide for public television's 3-part adaptation of Charles Dickens's "Oliver Twist" provides information that will help enrich students' viewing of the series, whether or not they read the novel. The guide includes a wide range of discussion and activity ideas; there is also a series Web site and a list of Web resources.…

Cashion, Carol; Fischer, Diana


Modelling of olive cake thin-layer drying process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive cake is a sub-product of the mechanical olive oil extraction industry, which consists of pit and pulp of the olive fruit, olive oil and vegetable water. It has been using for direct combustion in bakeries and olive oil mills due to its energy content. However, the initial moisture content of olive cake is approximately 44.78%±0.5 (wet basis), and this

Nalan A. Akgun; Ibrahim Doymaz



Widespread Head-to-Head Hydrocarbon Biosynthesis in Bacteria and Role of OleA ? †  

PubMed Central

Previous studies identified the oleABCD genes involved in head-to-head olefinic hydrocarbon biosynthesis. The present study more fully defined the OleABCD protein families within the thiolase, ?/?-hydrolase, AMP-dependent ligase/synthase, and short-chain dehydrogenase superfamilies, respectively. Only 0.1 to 1% of each superfamily represents likely Ole proteins. Sequence analysis based on structural alignments and gene context was used to identify highly likely ole genes. Selected microorganisms from the phyla Verucomicrobia, Planctomyces, Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were tested experimentally and shown to produce long-chain olefinic hydrocarbons. However, different species from the same genera sometimes lack the ole genes and fail to produce olefinic hydrocarbons. Overall, only 1.9% of 3,558 genomes analyzed showed clear evidence for containing ole genes. The type of olefins produced by different bacteria differed greatly with respect to the number of carbon-carbon double bonds. The greatest number of organisms surveyed biosynthesized a single long-chain olefin, 3,6,9,12,15,19,22,25,28-hentriacontanonaene, that contains nine double bonds. Xanthomonas campestris produced the greatest number of distinct olefin products, 15 compounds ranging in length from C28 to C31 and containing one to three double bonds. The type of long-chain product formed was shown to be dependent on the oleA gene in experiments with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 ole gene deletion mutants containing native or heterologous oleA genes expressed in trans. A strain deleted in oleABCD and containing oleA in trans produced only ketones. Based on these observations, it was proposed that OleA catalyzes a nondecarboxylative thiolytic condensation of fatty acyl chains to generate a ?-ketoacyl intermediate that can decarboxylate spontaneously to generate ketones.

Sukovich, David J.; Seffernick, Jennifer L.; Richman, Jack E.; Gralnick, Jeffrey A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.



Bioactive derivatives from oleuropein by a biotransformation on Olea europaea leaf extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A very simple method is proposed to produce, using non-homogeneous hyperthermophilic ?-glycosidase immobilised on chitosan, 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylethanol (hydroxytyrosol), a commercially unavailable compound with well known biological properties which justify a potential commercial application. Leaf extracts from Olea europaea with high oleuropein content are selected as substrate for biotransformation. Under the biotransformation conditions, high amounts of hydroxytyrosol are collected within a short

Raffaella Briante; Francesco La Cara; Ferdinando Febbraio; Maurizio Patumi; Roberto Nucci



A High Mobility Group Protein from the Dipteran Insects Ceratitis capitata and Bactrocera oleae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclei from Bactrocera oleae and Ceratitis capitata larvae contain a major protein that shares most of the characteristics of vertebrate high mobility group (HMG) proteins. Proteins are extracted from nuclei with 0.35 M NaCl, are soluble in 5% perchloric acid, are relatively small (molecular weight in the range of 10–16 kDa), and have both a high basic and a high

Vassiliki Aleporou-Marinou; Christina Deli; Yiannis Ninios; Barbara Agelopoulou; Haroula Marinou; Theocharis Patargias



Sample preparation approaches for the analysis of pesticide residues in olives and olive oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural practices generally require the use of pesticides by olive growers for the best olive and olive oil production. Thus, analytical methods are needed to identify and quantify the pesticide residues that may be present, and ensure that the product complies with regulatory requirements. I...


Detection of extra virgin olive oil adulteration with lampante olive oil and refined olive oil using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis.  


High-field 31P NMR (202.2 MHz) spectroscopy was applied to the analysis of 59 samples from three grades of olive oils, 34 extra virgin olive oils from various regions of Greece, and from different olive varieties, namely, 13 samples of refined olive oils and 12 samples of lampante olive oils. Classification of the three grades of olive oils was achieved by two multivariate statistical methods applied to five variables, the latter being determined upon analysis of the respective 31P NMR spectra and selected on the basis of one-way ANOVA. The hierarchical clustering statistical procedure was able to classify in a satisfactory manner the three olive oil groups. Subsequent application of discriminant analysis to the five selected variables of oils allowed the grouping of 59 samples according to their quality with no error. Different artificial mixtures of extra virgin olive oil-refined olive oil and extra virgin olive oil-lampante olive oil were prepared and analyzed by 31P NMR spectroscopy. Subsequent discriminant analysis of the data allowed detection of extra virgin olive oil adulteration as low as 5% w/w for refined and lampante olive oils. Further application of the classification/prediction model allowed the estimation of the percent concentration of refined olive oil in six commercial blended olive oils composed of refined and virgin olive oils purchased from supermarkets. PMID:15826023

Fragaki, Georgia; Spyros, Apostolos; Siragakis, George; Salivaras, Emmanuel; Dais, Photis



Removal of total phenols from olive-mill wastewater using an agricultural by-product, olive pomace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the sorption of total phenols, which are contained in olive-mill wastewater (OMWW), on solid by-products of olive pomace processing mills. Preliminary batch experiments were conducted using three different types of olive pomace, dried olive pomace (OP-1), dried and solvent extracted olive pomace (OP-2) and dried, solvent extracted and incompletely combusted olive pomace

Athanasios S. Stasinakis; Irene Elia; Anastasios V. Petalas; Constantinos P. Halvadakis



Oliver Byrne's edition of Euclid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An unusual and attractive edition of Euclid was published in 1847 in England, edited by an otherwise unknown mathematician named Oliver Byrne. It covers the first 6 books of Euclid, which range through most of elementary plane geometry and the theory of proportions. What distinguishes Byrne's edition is that he attempts to present Euclid's proofs in terms of pictures, using as little text - and in particular as few labels - as possible.

Byrne, Oliver



Exogenous proline effects on water relations and ions contents in leaves and roots of young olive.  


The ability of exogenous compatible solutes, such as proline, to counteract salt inhibitory effects was investigated in 2-year-old olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali) subjected to different saline water irrigation levels supplied or not with exogenous proline. Leaf water relations [relative water content (RWC), water potential], photosynthetic activity, leaf chlorophyll content, and starch contents were measured in young and old leaves. Salt ions (Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+)), proline and soluble sugars contents were determined in leaf and root tissues. Supplementary proline significantly mitigated the adverse effects of salinity via the improvement of photosynthetic activity (Pn), RWC, chlorophyll and carotenoid, and starch contents. Pn of young leaves in the presence of 25 mM proline was at 1.18 and 1.38 times higher than the values recorded under moderate (SS1) and high salinity (SS2) treatments, respectively. Further, the proline supply seems to have a more important relaxing effect on the photosynthetic chain in young than in old leaves of salt-stressed olive plants. The differential pattern of proline content between young and old leaves suggests that there would be a difference between these tissues in distinguishing between the proline taken from the growing media and that produced as a result of salinity stress. Besides, the large reduction in Na(+) accumulation in leaves and roots in the presence of proline could be due to its interference in osmotic adjustment process and/or its dilution by proline supply. Moreover, the lower accumulation of Na(+) in proline-treated plants, compared to their corresponding salinity treatment, displayed the improved effect of proline on the ability of roots to exclude the salt ions from the xylem sap flowing to the shoot, and thus better growth rates. PMID:20617349

Ben Ahmed, Ch; Magdich, S; Ben Rouina, B; Sensoy, S; Boukhris, M; Ben Abdullah, F



Photopyroelectric Monitoring of Olive's Ripening Conditions and Olive Oil Quality Using Pulsed Wideband IR Thermal Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study is based on band absorption of radiation from pulsed wideband infrared (IR) thermal source (PWBS) in conjunction with polyvinylidene fluoride film (PVDF). It is the first time to be employed to monitor the ripening state of olive fruit. Olive's characteristics vary at different stages of ripening, and hence, cultivation of olives at the right time is important in ensuring the best oil quality and maximizes the harvest yield. The photopyroelectric (PPE) signal resulting from absorption of wideband infrared (IR) radiation by fresh olive juice indicates the ripening stage of olives, i.e., allows an estimate of the suitable harvest time. The technique was found to be very useful in discriminating between olive oil samples according to geographical region, shelf life, some storage conditions, and deliberate adulteration. Our results for monitoring oil accumulation in olives during the ripening season agree well with the complicated analytical studies carried out by other researchers.

Abu-Taha, M. I.; Sarahneh, Y.; Saleh, A. M.


Extra virgin olive oil's polyphenols: biological activities.  


In addition to its high proportion of oleic acid (which is considered as "neutral" in terms of cardioprotection), extra virgin olive oil is rich in phenolic compounds, which other vegetable oils do not contain. This review critically appraises the current scientific evidence of a healthful role of olive phenols, with particular emphasis on hydroxytyrosol and related molecules. PMID:21443485

Visioli, Francesco; Bernardini, Elena



Mechanical Pruning in New Olive-Groves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In olive-growing, pruning is essential in order to limit the size of trees and allow easy harvesting as well as to maintain a good reproductive and vegetative balance. Pruning, after olive harvesting, requires the largest utilization of farm labour in the whole crop cycle and the progressive shortage of skilled labour and its increasing cost, force farmers to carry out

Gennaro Giametta; Giuseppe Zimbalatti



Hot Air Drying of Green Table Olives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The characteristics of hot air-drying of green table olives (Domat variety) by using a tray dryer were studied. Air temperature varied from 40 to 70 °C with an air velocity of 1 m\\/s. Drying rate curves were determined and quality of dried green olives was evaluated by instrumental analysis (bulk density, particle density, porosity, shrinkage, moisture con- tent, water

Gaye Öngen; Sayit Sargi; Derya Tetik; Timur Köse


Content of biogenic amines in table olives.  


Content of biogenic amines in flesh and brines of table olives was determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis of their benzoyl derivatives. No biogenic amines were found in the flesh of fresh fruits at any stage of ripeness. Contents of biogenic amines in Spanish-style green or stored olives increased throughout the brining period but were always higher in the former. Putrescine was the amine found in the highest concentration. Small quantities of cadaverine were found in the samples taken after 3 months of brining. This compound and histamine, tyramine, and tryptamine were also found in samples taken after 12 months. Gordal cultivar showed the highest contents, followed by Manzanilla and Hojiblanca. No relationship was found between contents of biogenic amines and lactic acid production or table olive spoilages, although zapatera olives had considerably higher amounts than those brines that had undergone a normal process. Concentrations in directly brined olives were markedly lower than contents in Spanish-style olives. With respect to partition between flesh and brine, there was equilibrium between both media in the case of Spanish-style olives, whereas the contents in directly brined olives were higher in flesh than brine. PMID:10643779

García-García, P; Brenes-Balbuena, M; Hornero-Méndez, D; García-Borrego, A; Garrido-Fernández, A



The Importance and Potential Uses of Olive Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since phenolic compounds have been known as strong antioxidants, studies on olive leaves have attracted the investigators due to the richness of phenolic compounds in olive leaves. Recently, olive leaves are used in medicine, cosmetics, and in pharmaceutical products. It has a high potential for industrial exploitation in the food industry. In this study, the importance of olive leaves is

Zafer Erbay; Filiz Icier



76 FR 11937 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

This rule decreases the assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for 2011 and subsequent fiscal years from $44.72 to $16.61 per ton of olives handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order which regulates the handling of olives grown in California. Assessments upon olive handlers are used by the Committee to fund reasonable and necessary expenses......



Olives, hospitality and tourism: a Western Australian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the links between olive growing, hospitality and tourism in an emerging olive growing region, as well as challenges olive grove operators face. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A qualitative approach is taken in the form of face-to-face and telephone interviews among 23 olive grove operators in Western Australia from a sample of 33

Abel Duarte Alonso



Olive stone an attractive source of bioactive and valuable compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olive stone and seed are an important byproduct generated in the olive oil extraction and pitted table olive industries. As a lignocellulosic material, the hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin are the main components of olive stone as wells as protein, fat, phenols, free sugars and poliols composition. The main use of this biomass is as combustion to produce electric energy

Guillermo Rodríguez; Antonio Lama; Rocío Rodríguez; Ana Jiménez; Rafael Guillén; Juan Fernández-Bolaños



Vasculoprotective potential of olive oil components.  


Epidemiological and clinical studies found that the traditional Mediterranean-style diet is associated with significantly lower mortality from coronary artery disease. Although it is difficult to isolate individual dietary factors, cumulative evidence suggests that olive oil, used as primary source of fat by Mediterranean populations, may play a key role in the observed cardiovascular benefit. Olive oil is a priceless source of vitamins and polyphenolic antioxidants, and has a balanced ratio of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. There are multiple mechanisms by which olive oil might impact the development of atherosclerosis. Olive oil decreases LDL-cholesterol and increases HDL-cholesterol, and also reduces oxidative stress due to polyphenols, which are able to scavenge free radicals and protect LDL from oxidation. In addition, olive oil components may interfere with the inflammatory response within atherosclerotic lesion, by inhibiting endothelial activation involved in monocyte recruitment during early atherogenesis and macrophage production of inflammatory cytokines and matrix degrading enzymes, thus improving vascular stability. Other vasculoprotective mechanisms by olive oil components derive from anti-thrombotic and anti-hypertensive actions. The available data support the need to preserve certain dietary traditions, such as olive oil consumption, to counteract the burden of cardiovascular disease. PMID:17912721

Carluccio, Maria Annunziata; Massaro, Marika; Scoditti, Egeria; De Caterina, Raffaele



Characterisation of phenolic extracts from olive pulp and olive pomace by electrospray mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanol extracts of olive pomace (two-phase olive oil extraction) and olive pulp were analysed by reverse phase HPLC and the eluted fractions were characterised by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. This technique allowed the identification of some common phenolic compounds, namely, verbascoside, rutin, caffeoyl-quinic acid, luteolin-4-glucoside and 11-methyl-oleoside. Hydroxytyrosol-1? - ?-glucoside, luteolin-7-rutinoside and oleoside were also detected. Moreover, this technique enabled

Susana M Cardoso; Sylvain Guyot; Nathalie Marnet; Catherine MGC Renard; Manuel A Coimbra



Characterization of Turkish Virgin Olive Oils Produced from Early Harvest Olives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olives were collected from various districts of Turkey (North and South Aegean sub-region, Bursa-Akhisar, South East Anatolia\\u000a region) harvested over seven (2001–2007) seasons. The aim of this study was to characterize the chemical profiles of the oils\\u000a derived from single variety Turkish olives including Ayvalik, Memecik, Gemlik, Erkence, Nizip Yaglik and Uslu. The olive oils\\u000a were extracted by super press

Harun D?raman; Hamdi Dibeklio?lu



Effect of crushing on olive paste and virgin olive oil minor components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study focuses on the influence of the olive crushing technique on the minor composition of olive pastes and their\\u000a corresponding virgin olive oils since these compounds are strongly related to their quality and characteristics. Two different\\u000a cultivars, Arbequina and Cornicabra—known for their different minor component composition—were processed at laboratory scale\\u000a using hammer mills at various breakage forces and

Antonio M. Inarejos-García; G. Fregapane; M. Desamparados Salvador



Trace-element measurements in atmospheric biomonitors-A look at the relative performance of INAA and PIXE on olive-tree bark  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of an ongoing evaluation of its suitability for atmospheric biomonitoring, bark from olive trees (Olea europaea Linn.) has been collected and searched for trace elements by means of two nuclear-analytical techniques-instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The sampling for the present study was carried out across two separate sections of an established grid for air-quality surveys in mainland Portugal. The dual location comprises 58 collection sites-littoral-north (29 sites) and littoral-centre (29 sites). Both techniques are intrinsically accurate and may be seen to complement each other in the way that, as a whole, they yield 46 elements, with an overlap of 16 elements. Among the latter, this paper focuses on four of them and looks into their joint determination. Descriptive statistics for soil-related Al and Ti, and for sea-related Cl and Br, show results for each element to be fairly comparable. The degree of association between elemental patterns by either technique, as seen through nonparametric tests (Kendall's RK), is outstanding. No statistical evidence (Wilcoxon's /T) for relative bias in correlated samples-consistently higher or lower results by one technique-could be found as well. As far as this study goes, INAA and PIXE may be used interchangeably for determining the present elements in olive-tree bark.

Pacheco, Adriano M. G.; Freitas, Maria Do Carmo; Reis, Miguel A.



Effect of olive pomace extracts on hyperlipidaemia.  


In this study, we have examined the hypolipidemic effect of olive pomace extracts. Identification and quantitation of maslinic acid and oleanolic acid as the potentially effective components of the pomace extracts were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography methods. Hyperlipidaemia was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by feeding them with a high cholesterol diet for 30 days. The olive pomace extracts were supplemented (200 mg kg?¹ body wt day?¹) for 15 days. The levels of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase increased in rats with hyperlipidaemia. Treatment with the olive pomace extracts significantly modulated the abnormalities induced by hyperlipidaemia. Lipid accumulation was decreased in histological findings. This study provides the possibility of utilising the olive pomaces for the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidaemia. PMID:21740285

Liu, Jun; Sun, Hongbin; Shang, Jing; Yong, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Luyong



Olive fermentation brine: biotechnological potentialities and valorization.  


Olive fermentation brine causes an important local environmental problem in Mediterranean countries. Valorization is a relatively new concept in the field of industrial residue management, promoting the principle of sustainable development. One of the valorization objectives regarding food processing by-products is the recovery of fine chemicals and the production of value metabolites via chemical and biotechnological processes. In this article, recent research studies for the valorization of olive fermentation brine performed by several authors were reviewed. Special attention was paid to the metabolic products produced during table olive preparation. The selection of the corresponding valorization process will depend on the agricultural or industrial environment of the olive fermentation brine. Although some methods are strongly consolidated in this sector, other options, more respectful to the environment, should also be considered. PMID:23530329

Fendri, Imen; Chamkha, Mohamed; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Labat, Marc; Sayadi, Sami; Abdelkafi, Slim


13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine olive oil grades  

Microsoft Academic Search

13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used in a first attempt to differentiate olive oil samples by grades. High resolution 13C NMR Distortionless Enhancement by Polarization Transfer (DEPT) spectra of 137 olive oil samples from the four grades, extra virgin olive oils, olive oils, olive pomace oils and lampante olive oils, were measured. The data relative to the resonance intensities

Giovanna Vlahov



Differential scanning calorimetry: A potential tool for discrimination of olive oil commercial categories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms of five commercial categories of olive oils (extra virgin olive oil, olive oil, refined olive oil, olive-pomace oil and refined olive-pomace oil) were performed in both cooling and heating regimes. Overlapping transitions were resolved by deconvolution analysis and all thermal properties were related to major (triacylglycerols, total fatty acids) and minor (diacylglycerols, lipid oxidation products) chemical

Emma Chiavaro; Maria Teresa Rodriguez-Estrada; Carlo Barnaba; Elena Vittadini; Lorenzo Cerretani; Alessandra Bendini



Purification and Characterization of OleA from Xanthomonas campestris and Demonstration of a Non-decarboxylative Claisen Condensation Reaction*  

PubMed Central

OleA catalyzes the condensation of fatty acyl groups in the first step of bacterial long-chain olefin biosynthesis, but the mechanism of the condensation reaction is controversial. In this study, OleA from Xanthomonas campestris was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The purified protein was shown to be active with fatty acyl-CoA substrates that ranged from C8 to C16 in length. With limiting myristoyl-CoA (C14), 1 mol of the free coenzyme A was released/mol of myristoyl-CoA consumed. Using [14C]myristoyl-CoA, the other products were identified as myristic acid, 2-myristoylmyristic acid, and 14-heptacosanone. 2-Myristoylmyristic acid was indicated to be the physiologically relevant product of OleA in several ways. First, 2-myristoylmyristic acid was the major condensed product in short incubations, but over time, it decreased with the concomitant increase of 14-heptacosanone. Second, synthetic 2-myristoylmyristic acid showed similar decarboxylation kinetics in the absence of OleA. Third, 2-myristoylmyristic acid was shown to be reactive with purified OleC and OleD to generate the olefin 14-heptacosene, a product seen in previous in vivo studies. The decarboxylation product, 14-heptacosanone, did not react with OleC and OleD to produce any demonstrable product. Substantial hydrolysis of fatty acyl-CoA substrates to the corresponding fatty acids was observed, but it is currently unclear if this occurs in vivo. In total, these data are consistent with OleA catalyzing a non-decarboxylative Claisen condensation reaction in the first step of the olefin biosynthetic pathway previously found to be present in at least 70 different bacterial strains.

Frias, Janice A.; Richman, Jack E.; Erickson, Jasmine S.; Wackett, Lawrence P.



Mediterranean diet, olive oil and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive oil is an integral ingredient of the «Mediterranean diet» and accumulating evidence suggests that it may have a potential\\u000a role in lowering the risk of several types of cancers. The mechanisms by which the carcer-preventing effects of olive oil\\u000a can be performed, however, are not known. We recently hypothesized that a novel molecular explanation concerning the anti-cancer\\u000a actions of

Ramón Colomer; Javier A. Menéndez



Malaxation of Olive Paste Under Sealed Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virgin olive oils from pilot-scale malaxation under hermetically sealed conditions were compared with olive oils from industrial\\u000a conventional open-to-air malaxation (control). Under sealed conditions, large CO2 emissions coupled with O2 depletion occur. Oil samples produced under sealed conditions were less oxidized and contained greater concentrations of\\u000a antioxidant compounds (especially secoiridoids phenols) than the control. These results were attributed to the

Piernicola Masella; Alessandro Parenti; Paolo Spugnoli; Luca Calamai



Main antimicrobial compounds in table olives.  


The inhibitors involved in the lactic acid fermentation of table olives were investigated in aseptic olive brines of the Manzanilla and Gordal varieties. Phenolic and oleosidic compounds in these brines were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry detection, and several substances were also characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance. Among these compounds, the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid linked to hydroxytyrosol showed the strongest antilactic acid bacteria activity, and its presence in brines could explain the growth inhibition of these microorganisms during olive fermentation. However, it was found that the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid, identified for the first time in table olives, and an isomer of oleoside 11-methyl ester were also effective against Lactobacillus pentosus and can, therefore, contribute to the antimicrobial activity of olive brines. It must also be stressed that the three new inhibitors discovered in table olive brines exerted a more potent antibacterial activity than the well-studied oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. PMID:17970590

Medina, Eduardo; Brenes, Manuel; Romero, Concepción; García, Aranzazu; de Castro, Antonio



Exogenous proline effects on photosynthetic performance and antioxidant defense system of young olive tree.  


The ability of exogenous compatible solutes, such as proline, to counteract salt inhibitory effects in olive plants ( Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali) was investigated. Two-year-old olive trees were subjected to different saline water irrigation levels supplied or not with exogenous proline. Leaf water relations (relative water content, water potential), photosynthetic activity, and leaf chlorophyll content decreased under either saline water level. The proline supplement mitigated the reduction of growth and photosynthetic activity under salt stress, and the mitigating effect of proline was different among treatments. The increment rate of leaf relative water content (RWC) in the presence of 25 and 50 mM proline was 4.45 and 6.67%, respectively, in comparison to values recorded in SS1-treated plants (plants irrigated with water containing 100 mM NaCl). In SS2 (200 mM NaCl) plus proline-treated plants, this increase was 1.14 times for 25 mM proline and 1.19 times for 50 mM proline higher than those recorded in severe salt stress treatment (SS2). In response to salt stress, Chemlali olive plants seem to activate a complex antioxidative defense system that was displayed via the increase of activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and the decrease of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) under either salt stress treatment. The exogenous application of proline improved the antioxidative enzyme activities of salt-stressed olive plants. Indeed, in young or old leaf tissues, the highest levels of these antioxidant enzymes activities were recorded in (SS2 + P2)-treated plants (plants irrigated with water containing 200 mM NaCl plus 50 mM proline). In young leaves, this increase was 2.11, 2.96, and 2.76 times, respectively, for SOD, APX, and CAT enzyme activities in comparison to their respective activities in control plants (nonstressed plants irrigated with fresh water). In old leaves, this increase was 2, 2.41, and 2.48 times, respectively, for the various enzymes. If compared to high water salinity-treated plants (SS2), this increase was 1.1, 1.3, and 1.4 times in young leaves, respectively, for SOD, APX, and CAT activities. From these results, the proline supplements seem to improve olive salt tolerance by amelioration of some antioxidative enzyme activities, photosynthetic activity, and, so, plant growth and the preservation of a suitable plant water status under salinity conditions. More to the point, the decrease of soluble sugars contents in proline treated-plants revealed the important osmoprotectant effect played by the added proline in such a way that limited the need of salt-stressed plants for soluble sugars synthesis. PMID:20210359

Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Ben Rouina, Bechir; Sensoy, Serhat; Boukhriss, Mekki; Ben Abdullah, Ferjani



Analysis of the legislated metals in different categories of olive and olive-pomace oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination in olive oils of the legislated metals (As, Cu, Fe and Pb) by the International Olive Oil Council (IOC) has been carried out by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) following microwave digestion with nitric acid. The method has been validated using an oil reference material and by recovery experiments, obtaining in both cases satisfactory results. The detection

E. J. Llorent-Martínez; P. Ortega-Barrales; M. L. Fernández-de Córdova; A. Ruiz-Medina



Aerobic biological treatment of olive mill wastewater by olive pulp bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capability of olive fruit bacteria to remove chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater (OMW) using flasks and packed bed reactors was tested. Batch aerobic experiments were performed in flask reactors, with OMW at different dilutions (20%, 50%, and 100%). The maximum phenolic and dissolved COD removal reached up to 82–90% for the dilutions of

G. Tziotzios; S. Michailakis; D. V. Vayenas



Influence of olive paste preparation conditions on virgin olive oil triterpenic compounds at laboratory-scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of olive paste preparation conditions on the triterpenic content of virgin olive oils from Arbequina and Picual cultivars was investigated. For this purpose, three sieve diameters of the hammer mill (4, 5, and 6mm), two malaxation temperatures (20 and 30°C), and two malaxation times (20 and 40min) were tested. Results obtained showed that for Arbequina oils, a finer

Yosra Allouche; Antonio Jiménez; Marino Uceda; M. Paz Aguilera; José Juan Gaforio; Gabriel Beltrán



Saline water irrigation effects on antioxidant defense system and proline accumulation in leaves and roots of field-grown olive.  


Field-grown olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali) were used over two growing seasons to determine the effects of different saline water irrigation levels on levels of proline and chlorophyll contents and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT). The plants were irrigated with fresh water (FW; ECe = 1.2 dS m(-1)) and saline water (SW; ECe = 7.5 dS m(-1)). Leaf water relations (relative water content, water potential), photosynthetic activity, and leaf chlorophyll content decreased under irrigation with saline water. In spring 2005, net photosynthesis of young leaves was 24.5 and 14.9 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in FW- and SW-treated plants, respectively. In old leaves, these rates were 20.2 and 12.2 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively. The relative reduction of net photosynthesis in SW-treated plants varied from 39 to 46% and from 39 to 61%, compared to FW-treated plants during the first and second crop seasons, respectively. The relative reduction of leaf chlorophyll (a + b) content under high water salinity level exceeds 50%, compared to FW-treated plants. However, proline content and activities of SOD, CAT, and APX increased under saline water irrigation. The increase of proline content was more important in leaves than in roots. In young leaves, the increment of antioxidant activities in SW-treated plants was 2.67, 3.61, and 1.85 times, respectively, for SOD, APX, and CAT, compared to FW-treated plants. From these results, interaction between antioxidant defense system and proline contents seems to be involved in the salt tolerance mechanisms of Chemlali olive tree. PMID:19924889

Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Ben Rouina, Bechir; Sensoy, Serhat; Boukhriss, Mekki; Ben Abdullah, Ferjani



Straight on view of northeast side of Olive Switching Station ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Straight on view of northeast side of Olive Switching Station from north side of San Fernando Road facing southwest - Olive Switching Station, 13355 San Fernando Road, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA


Free Radical-Scavenging Properties of Olive Oil Polyphenols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants in the Mediterranean basin, such as vine and olive trees, have developed an array of antioxidant defences to protect themselves from environmental stress. Accordingly, the incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers is lower in the Mediterranean area, where olive oil is the dietary fat of choice. As opposed to other vegetable oils, extra virgin olive oil, which

Francesco Visioli; Giorgio Bellomo; Claudio Galli



Optimisation, characterisation and quantification of phenolic compounds in olive cake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenolic compounds in extracts from pressed olive cake were investigated. Free phenolic compounds were extracted from olive cake using methanol. To liberate bound phenolic compounds, the olive cake was subjected to basic and acidic hydrolysis followed by methanol extraction. The individual phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of the extracts were determined. The highest total phenolic content and antioxidant activity

Muhammad H. Alu’datt; Inteaz Alli; Khalil Ereifej; Mohammad Alhamad; Abdel Rahman Al-Tawaha; Taha Rababah



Presence of microorganisms in flavoured extra-virgin olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reports a study on the presence of microorganisms in the flavoured extra-virgin olive oils. The microbiological analysis of the commercial extra-virgin olive oils flavoured with lemon, oregano, garlic and red chilli pepper indicated the presence of a dif- ferent type of microflora according to the ingredient. Moulds were present in all of the types of commercial flavoured olive




Isothermal microwave and microwave-convection drying of olive pomace  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Olive pomace is the residue produced when olives are pressed for oil. Valuable polyphenolic compounds can be extracted from olive pomace, but this material is more than 60% water (wet basis) and thus costly to transport and process in its original, wet form. The objective of this study was thus to ...


7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...respect to canned ripe olives, inspection and certification...importation. Any lot of olives which fails to meet...organization or processing into oil may be exported...shall not be applicable to olives imported for charitable...organizations or processing for oil, but shall be...



7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...respect to canned ripe olives, inspection and certification...importation. Any lot of olives which fails to meet...organization or processing into oil may be exported...shall not be applicable to olives imported for charitable...organizations or processing for oil, but shall be...



Recovery and characterisation of DNA from virgin olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characterisation of the genetic identity of DNA recoverable from olive oil could facilitate the assessment of its place of origin and conformity to type thanks to the particular regional spread of olive cultivars and to their different contributions to the olive oil mixture as stated by each Protected Designation of Origin regulation. This requires that intact DNA should be

Innocenzo Muzzalupo; Enzo Perri



Effect of natural antioxidants in virgin olive oil on oxidative stability of refined, bleached, and deodorized olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors influencing the oxidative stability of different commercial olive oils were evaluated. Comparisons were made of\\u000a (i) the oxidative stability of commercial olive oils with that of a refined, bleached, and deodorized (RBD) olive oil, and\\u000a (ii) the antioxidant activity of a mixture of phenolic compounds extracted from virgin olive oil with that of pure compounds\\u000a and?-tocopherol added to

M. Teresa Satue; Shu-Wen Huang; Edwin N. Frankel



Composting of the solid fraction of olive mill wastewater with olive leaves: organic matter degradation and biological activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flocculated solid fraction of olive mill wastewaters, obtained from two different olive oil extraction systems (FOMW1 and FOMW2) was composted, with olive leaves (OL) as bulking agent, by the static pile system (Rutgers). The dynamic of organic matter (OM) degradation during composting and its relationship with the basal respiration and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolytic activity, as indicators of biological

A Garc??a-Gómez; A Roig; M. P Bernal



DNA fingerprinting and genetic relatedness among cultivated varieties of Olea europaea L. estimated by AFLP analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was used to evaluate the genetic biodiversity and variability present in some Italian varieties of cultivated olive. A group of 12 genotypes belonging to three varieties was screened using six different AFLP primer combinations. A total of 274 loci (59.8% of which were polymorphic) were investigated. The number of polymorphic loci detected by single

E Sensi; R Vignani; M Scali; E Masi; M Cresti



Mobility of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) late third instars and teneral adults in test arenas.  


The mobility of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), late third instars before pupation, teneral adults before flight, and mature adults restricted from flight were studied under mulches in greenhouse cage tests, in horizontal pipes, vertical bottles and pipes filled with sand, and by observation on smooth laboratory surfaces. Percentage adults emerging from pupae and percentage adult females that escaped soil, fabric, and paper mulches over a soil or sand substrate ranged from 63 to 83, and 40-53%, respectively. Percentage adults emerging from pupae and percentage adult females that walked through the open interior of 1.52-6.10-m horizontal pipes of 1.5-2.0-cm inner diameter ranged from 57 to 81, and 27-61%, respectively. Percentage adults emerging from pupae that escaped through sand depths of 2.5-10.2, and 12.7-20.3 cm, ranged from 68 to 87, and 12-88%; and percentage adult females that escaped ranged from 46 to 58, and 38-70%, respectively. In 15.4-cm-inner-diameter pipes filled with different heights of sand, the highest percentage of the total number of adults that emerged in the control were found from 0 to 20.3 cm, and ranged from 37 to 71%. Ten to 47% of adults were found from 20.3 cm to below the surface, and 6-21% escaped to the top of 20.3-50.8 cm high sand columns. In column heights of 55.9 and 61 cm, pressures at the bottom caused by the weight of the sand above were 91.4 and 99.7 g/cm(2), respectively, and a mean of <1 adult escaped to the top. Before pupation, the late third instars were found to travel continuously for 6.9 h over 23.9 m at a speed of 6.0 cm per min, when placed on a smooth surface, at 22.2°C. Teneral females and males that could not fly, made ?7 stops totaling 11-13 min, walked at a speed of 57-62 cm per min, and began a rest period of 83-84 min duration, at 85-89 min before flight. Males walked a distance of 13.1 m in 22 min, which was greater than females that walked for 9.6 m in 17 min, at 20-22°C and 35% RH. The mobility of the third instars and the teneral adults is discussed in relation to potential control techniques in olive orchards. PMID:23068175

Yokoyama, Victoria Y



Combustion Analysis of Different Olive Residues  

PubMed Central

The Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) techniques and concretely the study of the burning profile provide information that can be used to estimate the behaviour of the combustion of carbonous materials. Commonly, these techniques have been used for the study of carbons, but are also interesting for the analysis of biomass wastes, due to the different species present on the wastes affect directly to its thermal properties. In this work, techniques of thermal analysis have been applied to compare the behaviour of different wastes coming from olive oil mills. From these results, it is remarkable that the Concentrated Olive Mill Waste Water (COMWW) presents more unfavourable conditions for its combustion.

Miranda, Teresa; Esteban, Alberto; Rojas, Sebastian; Montero, Irene; Ruiz, Antonio



Evaluation of imported parasitoid fitness for biocontrol of olive fruit fly in California olives  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A parasitoid, Psyttalia humilis (Silvestri), was reared on irradiated Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala, and imported into California for biological control of olive fruit ...


Determination of oil and water in olive and olive pomace by NIR and multivariate analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourier transform (FT) Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) spectrometry in combination with partial least squares (PLS) regression\\u000a was used for direct, reagent-free determination fat and moisture content in milled olive and olive pomace. The two calibration\\u000a models obtained were built with samples from two years harvest (2006\\/2007) and have a good predictive power considering the\\u000a nature of the samples and are

António S. Barros; Alexandra Nunes; Joana Martins; Ivonne Delgadillo



Aroma Characterization of Virgin Olive Oil from Two Turkish Olive Varieties by SPME\\/GC\\/MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virgin olive oil samples of Ayvalik and Memecik olive varieties from the Aegean region of Turkey were evaluated for their acidity, peroxide, and color values, and the volatile compounds were investigated by using solid phasemicro extraction\\/gas chromatography\\/mass spectroscopy (SPME\\/GC\\/MS). The acidity of all the samples were found to be between 0.35–1.0% oleic acid and peroxide values of the oil samples

Arinç Kaftan; Y. Elmaci



Syngas production from olive tree cuttings and olive kernels in a downdraft fixed-bed gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a laboratory fixed-bed gasification of olive kernels and olive tree cuttings. Gasification took place with air, in a temperature range of 750–950°C, for various air equivalence ratios (0.14–0.42) and under atmospheric pressure. In each run, the main components of the gas phase were CO, CO2, H2 and CH4. Experimental results showed that gasification with air at high

V. Skoulou; A. Zabaniotou; G. Stavropoulos; G. Sakelaropoulos



Extra Virgin Olive Oil Components and Oxidative Stability from Olives Grown in Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the contents of lipids, pigments, ?-tocopherol and phenols were studied in relation to the antioxidant capacity\\u000a of five virgin olive oils obtained from five olive cultivars planted in Tunisia (Arbequina, Koroneiki, Leccino, Oueslati and\\u000a Chemchali). The antioxidant capacities were evaluated by two different radical scavenging activities: radical scavenging activity\\u000a by the DPPH assay (RSA-DPPH) and total antioxidant

Samia Dabbou; Faten Brahmi; Ameni Taamali; Manel Issaoui; Youssef Ouni; Mohamed Braham; Mokhtar Zarrouk; Mohamed Hammami




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An algorithm using a Bayesian classifier was developed to automatically detect olive fruit fly infestations in x-ray images of olives. The data set consisted of 249 olives with various degrees of infestation and 161 non-infested olives. Each olive was x-rayed on film and digital images were acquired...


Effect of olive stoning on the volatile and phenolic composition of virgin olive oil.  


Olive stoning during the virgin olive oil (VOO) mechanical extraction process was studied to show the effect on the phenolic and volatile composition of the oil. To study the impact of the constitutive parts of the fruit in the composition of olive pastes during processing, the phenolic compounds and several enzymatic activities such as polyphenoloxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), and lipoxygenase (LPO) of the olive pulp, stone, and seed were also studied. The olive pulp showed large amounts of oleuropein, demethyloleuropein, and lignans, while the contribution of the stone and the seed in the overall phenolic composition of the fruit was very low. The occurrence of crushed stone in the pastes, during malaxation, increased the peroxidase activity in the pastes, reducing the phenolic concentration in VOO and, at the same time, modifying the composition of volatile compounds produced by the lipoxygenase pathway. The oil obtained from stoned olive pastes contained higher amounts of secoiridoid derivatives such as the dialdehydic forms of elenolic acid linked to (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol and (p-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA and p-HPEA-EDA, respectively) and the isomer of the oleuropein aglycon (3,4-DHPEA-EA) and, at the same time, did not show significant variations of lignans. The stoning process modified the volatile profile of VOO by increasing the C6 unsaturated aldehydes that are strictly related to the cut-grass sensory notes of the oil. PMID:17665928

Servili, Maurizio; Taticchi, Agnese; Esposto, Sonia; Urbani, Stefania; Selvaggini, Roberto; Montedoro, GianFrancesco



Foederatio Europea Orthodontica FEO: its history, its aims and commitments, its achievements, its future goals.  


Created in 1996, the Foederatio Europea Orthodontica or European Federation of Orthodontics represents, today, 15 associations counting almost ten thousands European colleagues. Committed to establish and develop good relationships between the national scientific orthodontic societies of the European Continent and to pursue a common goal to communicate and share an up-to-date orthodontic information, it has undertaken, with a minimal budget (one Euro/orthodontist as annual fee), several actions including a valuable and user friendly internet site ( - an annual award for the best scientific paper published in Europe - a list of excellent speakers ready to communicate, an objective support for the national association which is selected for hosting the general assembly and a newsletter on the web that will be soon published in national journals of the FEO members. Thanks to devoted professionals that have actively contribute in the founding and the management of the federation, FEO is now grown up and ready to plan and finalize, with the specially created think tank, new common actions and some exciting steps for the future. It is time for those that have been reluctant in the past, to join the group and be part of its further development. PMID:16552451

Dahan, José



Effect of olive pomace extracts on hyperlipidaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we have examined the hypolipidemic effect of olive pomace extracts. Identification and quantitation of maslinic acid and oleanolic acid as the potentially effective components of the pomace extracts were carried out by high performance liquid chromatography methods. Hyperlipidaemia was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by feeding them with a high cholesterol diet for 30 days. The

Jun Liu; Hongbin Sun; Jing Shang; Yuanyuan Yong; Luyong Zhang



The Spectrum of Olive Pollen Allergens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive pollen is one of the most important causes of seasonal respiratory allergy in Mediterranean countries, where this tree is intensely cultivated. Among the high number of protein allergens detected in this pollen, 8 – Ole e 1 to Ole e 8 – have been isolated and characterized. Ole e 1 is the most frequent sensitizing agent, affecting more than

Rosalía Rodríguez; Mayte Villalba; Rafael I. Monsalve; Eva Batanero



Cloning and structural characterization of the 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase locus of the medfly Ceratitis capitata and the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pentose phosphate cycle is considered as a major source of NADPH and pentose needed for nucleic acid biosynthesis. 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), an enzyme participating in this cycle, catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of 6PGD to ribulose 5-phosphate with the subsequent release of CO2 and the reduction of NADP. We have determined the genomic sequences of 6PGD of two species of

George N. Goulielmos; Nikos Cosmidis; Elias Eliopoulos; Michael Loukas; Eleftherios Zouros



A new model of energy valorisation for olive grove by-products based on the gasification technology integrated in an olive-oil mill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present model for olive cultivation is based on the farmer picking the fruit, transport them to the mill to produce extra-virgin olive oil, burn or chip the pruning debris and send the olive pomace from the mill to the extractor to obtain olive pomace oil. A sustainable technological option is the model shown in this paper. It is based

J. A. La Cal Herrera; F. Jurado; B. Ogayar



Olive stone an attractive source of bioactive and valuable compounds.  


The olive stone and seed are an important byproduct generated in the olive oil extraction and pitted table olive industries. As a lignocellulosic material, the hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin are the main components of olive stone as wells as protein, fat, phenols, free sugars and poliols composition. The main use of this biomass is as combustion to produce electric energy or heat. Other uses such as activated carbon, furfural production, plastic filled, abrasive and cosmetic or other potential uses such as biosorbent, animal feed or resin formation have been cited. In this article, an overview of the characterization and main uses of olive stone and seed are described for the first time. Also, this review discusses the potential use of this material based on each component. In this way, a new approach to the olive stone and seed by pretreating with a steam explosion followed by chemical fractionation is described. PMID:18160280

Rodríguez, Guillermo; Lama, Antonio; Rodríguez, Rocío; Jiménez, Ana; Guillén, Rafael; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan



Efficient method for screening and identification of radical scavengers in the leaves of Olea europaea L.  


In this article, an efficient method was developed to screen, isolate and identify the major radical scavengers in the leaves of Olea europaea L. by DPPH-HPLC-DAD, HSCCC and NMR. The method of DPPH-HPLC-DAD was used to screen the major radical scavengers. It was found that three major constituents (A, B, C) in the extract of the leaves of O. europaea L. possessed potential antioxidant activities. In order to identify the chemical structures of those compounds, the HSCCC method with a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-water at an optimized volume ratio of 6:600:700 (v/v/v) together with column chromatography was developed to isolate and purify the active compounds. Pure compounds A (225?mg), B (10?mg) and C (12?mg) with purities 92.6, 95.1 and 96.4%, respectively, were obtained from the crude sample (500?mg). Their structures were identified as oleuropein (A), luteolin-7-O-glucoside (B) and verbascoside (C) by (1) H-NMR and (13) C-NMR. PMID:21321972

Wang, Xiaofei; Li, Chen; Liu, Yewei; Li, Hongbing; Di, Duolong



Flavor components of olive oil—A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unique and delicate flavor of olive oil is attributed to a number of volatile components. Aldehydes, alcohols, esters,\\u000a hydrocarbons, ketones, furans, and other compounds have been quantitated and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry\\u000a in good-quality olive oil. The presence of flavor compounds in olive oil is closely related to its sensory quality. Hexanal,\\u000a trans-2-hexenal, 1-hexanol, and 3-methylbutan-1-ol are the

A. K. Kiritsakis



Rapid synchronous fluorescence method for virgin olive oil adulteration assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the differentiation of virgin olive from olive-pomace, corn, sunflower, soybean, rapeseed and walnut oils using total synchronous fluorescence (TSyF) spectra. TSyF spectra are acquired by varying the excitation wavelength in the region 250–720nm and the wavelength interval (??) in the region from 20 to 120nm. It is shown that adulterants can be discriminated from virgin olive oil

Konstantina I. Poulli; George A. Mousdis; Constantinos A. Georgiou



Suitability of Moist Olive Pomace as Soil Amendment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory experiment was performedto evaluate the suitability of moist olive pomace(MOP) as soil amendment. Moist olive pomace wasobtained from a new olive-oil industrial processcalled the `two-phases method'. Soil samples weremixed with MOP to approximate a field application of40 t ha-1 and incubated under aerobic conditionsat 20 °C and 60% of soil water holdingcapacity. To estimate the effect of different

A. Saviozzi; R. Levi-Minzi; R. Cardelli; A. Biasci; R. Riffaldi



Bioremediation and biovalorisation of olive-mill wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive-mill wastes are produced by the industry of olive oil production, which is a very important economic activity, particularly\\u000a for Spain, Italy and Greece, leading to a large environmental problem of current concern in the Mediterranean basin. There\\u000a is as yet no accepted treatment method for all the wastes generated during olive oil production, mainly due to technical and\\u000a economical

J. A. Morillo; B. Antizar-Ladislao; M. Monteoliva-Sánchez; A. Ramos-Cormenzana; N. J. Russell



An efficient regeneration system via somatic embryogenesis in olive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive is one of the most important oil crops in the Mediterranean area. Biotechnological improvement of this species is hampered\\u000a by the recalcitrant nature of olive tissue regeneration in vitro. In this investigation, we have developed an efficient regeneration\\u000a system for juvenile olive explants via somatic embryogenesis. Embryogenic cultures were obtained at a rate of 25% by culturing\\u000a isolated radicles from

Sergio Cerezo; José A. Mercado; Fernando Pliego-Alfaro



Liquefaction of olive husk by supercritical fluid extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive husk was converted to liquid products by using some organic solvents, such as methanol, ethanol and acetone. Supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE) is suitable for the olive husk material. The most effective solvents are acetone for non-catalytic SCFE and methanol for NaOH catalytic SCFE of the olive husk samples. The yields of SCFEs with methanol, ethanol or acetone were 27.4,

A. Demirba?



Sensory characterization of virgin olive oil-based cosmetic creams.  


The influence of olive oil concentration and sensory profile on the odor of virgin olive oil-based cosmetic creams was studied. Four olive oils were selected on the basis of different intensities of positive and defective odor attributes: two extra virgin olive oils, one virgin olive oil, and one ordinary virgin olive oil. Thirty cosmetic creams were prepared, by both cold and hot processing methods, using each of the above oils at concentrations of 3%, 5%, and 10%, in addition to mineral oil controls. A trained sensory panel evaluated the fruitiness and defectiveness intensities in the odor of creams, using unstructured 10-cm scales ranging from "none at all" to "much." The fruity and defective attributes perceived in the odor of creams were significantly influenced by the sensory profile of the starting olive oil, oil concentration, and preparation method. Overall, these findings suggest that virgin olive oils of only slightly fruity odor may be conveniently used for the preparation of cold-processed cosmetic creams, whereas ordinary virgin olive oils appear to be suitable for the preparation of cosmetic creams only by hot processing of the emulsion at a low oil concentration. PMID:24139435

Parente, Maria Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Boinbaser, Lucia; Roascio, Antonella


Traceability markers to the botanical origin in olive oils.  


This review provides an overview of traceability studies performed to date (April 2009) for olive oils. Special emphasis has been made on the botanical origin because high-quality monovarietal olive oils have been recently introduced on the markets and their quality control requires the development of new and powerful analytical tools as well as new regulations to avoid fraud to consumers. Several parameters with discriminant power have been used for olive oil traceability according to the olive variety used in the production of the oil. They have been considered as traceability markers to the botanical origin and classified, in this work, as compositional and genetical markers. PMID:19961225

Montealegre, Cristina; Marina Alegre, María Luisa; García-Ruiz, Carmen



High-power ultrasound in olive paste pretreatment. Effect on process yield and virgin olive oil characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of high-power ultrasound on olive paste, on laboratory thermo-mixing operations for virgin olive oil extraction, has been studied. Direct sonication by an ultrasound probe horn (105Wcm?2 and 24kHz) and indirect sonication with an ultrasound-cleaning bath (150W and 25kHz) were applied and their effects compared with the conventional thermal treatment.A quick-heating of olive paste, from ambient (12–20°C) to optimal

A. Jiménez; G. Beltrán; M. Uceda



Land treatment of olive oil mill wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments carried out in lysimeters filled with two calcareous clayey soils (ca 40% CaCO3; ca 40% clay), showed that a 2m layer of soil almost completely removed the organic and inorganic components of olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) when it was applied in doses of 5000–10000m3ha?1year?1. This efficiency was maintained for at least 2 years. In field experiments, the application

F. Cabrera; R. López; A. Martinez-Bordiú; E. Dupuy de Lome; J. M. Murillo




Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen consumption, microbial growth, lignin and phenol degradation, urease, protease and nitrogenase activity were determined during the composting of an olive-mill wastewaters (OMW)–wheat straw mixture. Oxygen consumption, microbial growth and urease activity were greatly enhanced during the thermophilic phase, reaching their maximum in about three weeks. Casein-hydrolysing protease showed a high initial activity which sharply decreased after 2 weeks. At

E. Galli; L. Pasetti; F. Fiorelli; U. Tomati



Electrochemical oxidation of olive oil mill wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical oxidation of olive oil mill wastewaters over a titanium–tantalum–platinum–iridium anode was investigated. Batch experiments were conducted in a flow-through electrolytic cell with internal recycle at voltage of 5, 7 and 9V, NaCl concentrations of 1%, 2% and 4%, recirculation rates of 0.4 and 0.62L\\/s and initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations of 1475, 3060, 5180 and 6545mg\\/L. The

Marina Gotsi; Nicolas Kalogerakis; Elefteria Psillakis; Petros Samaras; Dionissios Mantzavinos




Microsoft Academic Search

IZVLE?EK Olj?na muha (Bactrocera oleae) je znana kot najve?ji škodljivec oljk v Sredozemlju z velikim vplivom na kakovost olj?nega olja. Li?inka olj?ne muhe se hrani z vrtanjem mesnatega dela ploda oljke in s tem povzro?a razgradnjo triacilglicerolov zaradi ?esar se poviša vsebnost prostih maš?obnih kislin (kislosti) v olju. Višje vsebnosti prostih maš?obnih kislin pa znatno zni?ujejo kakovost olj?nega olja. Z



Triterpenes in the hexane extract of leaves of Olea europaea L.: analysis using 13C-NMR spectroscopy.  


Two neutral triterpenes and a triterpene acid were identified and quantified directly, in the absence of any purification steps, in a precipitate obtained during the industrial extraction of the leaves of Olea europaea L. using 13C-NMR spectroscopy (spectrometer operating at 4.7 T equipped with a 10 mm probe). The method was optimised in order to reduce the duration of analysis with a routine NMR spectrometer. Together with long-chain linear compounds, erythrodiol, uvaol and oleanolic acid accounted for 27.3, 18.3 and 12.5% of the precipitate, respectively. PMID:17623370

Duquesnoy, Emilie; Castola, Vincent; Casanova, Joseph


Qualitative and Quantitative Sugar Profiling in Olive Fruits, Leaves, and Stems by Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) after Ultrasound-Assisted Leaching.  


Qualitative and quantitative profiling of sugars in vegetal materials from Olea europaea cultivars is here reported. Vegetal tissues from olive fruits, leaves, and stems have been characterized by determination of 22 compounds belonging to monosaccharides, disaccharides, trisaccharides, sugar carboxylic acids and alcohols, cyclic polyols, and derived compounds. Sugar isolation was carried out by leaching into a 2:1 dichloromethane/methanol extraction solution under ultrasonic assistance. Multivariate optimization made possible complete isolation of the target fraction in 10 min with an efficiency similar to that provided by a conventional protocol based on 24 h maceration of the vegetal samples. An aliquot of the extract was dried and reconstituted for silylation prior to GC-MS/MS analysis for selective and sensitive identification/quantitation of sugars. Monitoring the target product ions generated after isolation of the precursor ions for each analyte increases the selectivity of the method. The proposed approach is of particular interest for characterization of the sugar fraction in O. europaea, which is of great relevance because of the role of sugars in the metabolism of lipids, proteins, and antioxidants. PMID:21058721

Go?mez-Gonza?lez, Soledad; Ruiz-Jime?nez, Jose?; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, Mar??a Dolores



Quantitation of Oleuropein and Related Metabolites in Decoctions of Olea europaea Leaves from Ten Greek Cultivated Varieties by HPLC with Diode Array Detection (HPLC?DAD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extraction procedure and chromatographic methodology for the simultaneous quantitation of four major constituents in the boiling water extracts (decoctions) of Olea europaea leaves has been developed. The four studied constituents were oleuropein, elenolic acid, hydroxytyrosol, and tyrosol. The quantitation was performed using HPLC?DAD, whereas qualitative data were acquired using LC?MS. The developed methodology was applied in the study of

Apostolis Agalias; Eleni Melliou; Prokopios Magiatis; Sofia Mitaku; Evagelos Gikas; Anthony Tsarbopoulos



78 FR 24979 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FV13-932-1 IR] Olives Grown in California; Decreased...handling of olives grown in California. Assessments...began January 1 and ends December 31. The assessment rate will remain in effect indefinitely unless...Marketing Specialist, or Rose Aguayo, Acting...



Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in olive oils on the Italian market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The six olive oils and seven virgin olive oils which are most consumed in Italy were analysed for 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The aim was to evaluate whether a carcinogenic hazard for the general population can derive from the dietary intake of this food, which is consumed particularly highly in the Mediterranean area. The analytical method involved extraction by

Edoardo Menichini; Adriana Bocca; Franco Merli; Daniela Ianni; Fabio Monfredini



77 FR 55468 - Oliver Hydro LLC; Notice Soliciting Scoping Comments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Project No. 13005-003] Oliver Hydro LLC; Notice Soliciting Scoping Comments...December 14, 2011. d. Applicant: Oliver Hydro LLC. e. Name of Project: William Bacon...accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act. The EA will consider both...



A Review of Waste Management Options in Olive Oil Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, treatment and disposal alternatives of olive oil mill wastes and technical requirements for their management are covered. Waste characteristics, treatment options with regard to the economic feasibility, and challenges of existing waste disposal practices in olive growing countries are mentioned. Attention is drawn to present-day techniques of waste management. The search concerning the environmentally acceptable, economically feasible,




Biological and Molecular Characterization of Olive latent virus 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive latent virus 1 (OLV-1) belongs to the Necrovirus genus, Tombusviridae family and is pathogenic to olive, citrus and tulip plants. It is easily mechanically transmissible to indicator plants causing necrotic lesions and can be transmitted through the soil into the plant roots in the absence of biological vectors. Infected cells contain virus aggregates, inclusions made up of excess of

Maria do Rosário Félix; Joana M. S. Cardoso; Solange Oliveira; Maria Ivone; E. Clara


Effect of brine replacement and salt concentration on the fermentation of naturally black olives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to modify the traditional fermentation of naturally black olives in order to obtain higher quality black table olives. After holding olives in tap water or low salt brine prior to fermentation, acidification of the cover brine and fermentation at two different salt concentrations (6 and 14 g\\/ 100 ml NaCl) were applied to Gemlik variety olives

Güner Özay; Mehlika Borcakh



64 FR 46754 - Proposed Olive Oil Promotion, Research, and Information Order  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...7 CFR Part 1217 Olive Oil Promotion, Research, and Information Order...1217 [FV-99-703-PR1] Proposed Olive Oil Promotion, Research, and Information Order...research, and information program for olive oil. A proposed program--the Olive Oil...



NMR and statistical study of olive oils from Lazio: A geographical, ecological and agronomic characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

NMR and statistical procedures were used to analyse olive oils obtained from trees grown in different areas of Lazio, an Italian region, under different irrigation conditions. In order to obtain information on “real” commercial olive oils and to study the effects of some agronomical and ecological factors on the olive oil composition, we studied commercial multi-varietal olive oils, all produced

Marco D’Imperio; Luisa Mannina; Donatella Capitani; Olivier Bidet; Enrico Rossi; Francesco M. Bucarelli; Giovanni B. Quaglia; Annalaura Segre



Spatial and temporal effects of olive mill wastewaters to stream macroinvertebrates and aquatic ecosystems status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is one of the major and most challenging organic pollutants in olive oil production countries. However, the knowledge about the in-situ effects of olive mill wastewaters to lotic ecosystems and their benthic organisms is very limited. To resolve this, eight sampling sites were selected upstream and downstream the outflow of several olive mills to assess the

Ioannis Karaouzas; Nikolaos T. Skoulikidis; Urania Giannakou; Triantafyllos A. Albanis



Study of a downdraft gasifier and externally fired gas turbine for olive industry wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive mill technology generates a variety of biomass wastes: olive pits\\/stones and remaining pomace resultant from olive oil extraction. Solid wastes are also generated during the pruning of olive trees (leaves and small branches). This renewable biomass could be a feasible option in gasification technology. Thermodynamic calculations evaluate the optimum operating parameters of a small scale gasification system. The product

D. Vera; F. Jurado; J. Carpio



Comparison of polyphenol extractions from olive pomace and solid fraction of olive mill waste water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solid fraction of olive mill waste water (OMWW) was separated from OMWW and then the solutes in the solid fraction of OMWW were extracted with ethanol. The detection of polyphenols in the ethanol extract showed the presence of polyphenols in the solid fraction of OMWW. Effects of solvent-to-solid ratio, extraction and agitation time on the extraction of polyphenols from

Sevgul Tercan; Mahmut Seker



Phenolic compounds in olive oil and olive pomace from Cilento (Campania, Italy) and their antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virgin olive oil (VOO) has nutritional and sensory characteristics that make it unique and a basic component of the Mediterranean diet. Its importance is mainly attributed to its richness in polyphenols, which act as natural antioxidants and may contribute to the prevention of several human diseases. In this paper we report the determination and quantification of oleocanthal, one of the

Giuseppina Cioffi; Maria Sabina Pesca; Paolo De Caprariis; Alessandra Braca; Lorella Severino; Nunziatina De Tommasi



Water deficit-induced changes in mesocarp cellular processes and the relationship between mesocarp and endocarp during olive fruit development.  


A field experiment was conducted during two consecutive growing seasons to determine and quantify the growth response of the olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Leccino) fruit and of its component tissues to tree water status. Pre-dawn leaf water potential (Psi(w)) and fruit volume were measured at about weekly intervals, and fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) of the fruit tissues at 15, 20 and 21 weeks after full bloom (AFB). Fruit anatomical sections were prepared at 8, 15 and 21 weeks AFB for area determinations and cell counts. Fruit volume of the well-watered trees (average Psi(w) = -0.97 MPa) increased rapidly and reached the greatest final size, that from the most stressed (average Psi(w) = -2.81 MPa) grew most slowly and were smallest. In general, equatorial transverse areas of the mesocarp increased with increasing Psi(w), and this response was more evident at 21 than at 15 weeks AFB. By 21 weeks AFB, the mesocarp of the well-watered trees reached values more than three times higher than those measured at 8 weeks AFB. The endocarp FW and DW did not increase between 15 and 21 weeks AFB. Within each sampling date the endocarp area, FW and DW responded weakly to Psi(w). The mesocarp-to-endocarp ratio (FW and DW) increased from 15 to 21 weeks AFB regardless of water status, mainly due to the mesocarp growth. In both years at 20 and 21 weeks AFB, low values of the mesocarp-to-endocarp ratio were found with Psi(w) below -2.5 MPa. Within the mesocarp, cell size was more responsive to water deficit than to cell number. At 8 weeks AFB, the number of cells in the mesocarp was unaffected by tree water deficit, whereas cell size decreased, although slightly, in fruits sampled from trees in which Psi(w) was < -3.0 MPa. At 21 weeks AFB, cell size showed a linear decrease with increasing level of water deficit, whereas the number of cells at 21 weeks AFB decreased as the Psi(w) decreased below -2.5 MPa and seemed unaffected above that range. Overall, the results clarify the complexity of the water-induced response of mesocarp and endocarp growth and cellular processes of olive fruits. PMID:19825868

Gucci, Riccardo; Lodolini, Enrico M; Rapoport, Hava F



Effects of the olive, extra virgin olive and canola oils on cisplatin-induced clastogenesis in Wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cisplatin is one of the mostly used antineoplastic drugs in the treatment of cancer, but its clastogenic potential has become of great interest. In patients treated with long-term cisplatin, genetic damage can be observed during chemotherapy or many years later. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible anticlastogenic effect of pretreatment with olive, extra virgin olive, canola

Cristina Márcia Wolf Evangelista; Lusânia Maria Greggi Antunes; Helo??sa D. C Francescato; Maria Lourdes Pires Bianchi



Use of imagery to indicate landscape features important when assessing environmental risk caused by olive farming and olive oil production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low vegetation and linear features, such as terraces, paths, hedges and fences can contribute to estimation of management factor in soil erosion models, while recognition, allocation, and identification of olive mills waste tanks can support selection indicators and setup of criteria for pollution risk assessment. In this work, the olive oil production area of Kolymvari in the island of Crete,



Monitoring of virgin olive oil volatile compounds evolution during olive malaxation by an array of metal oxide sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to the sanitary aspects of production and the genetic and\\/or geographic origin of the drupes olive malaxation is a critical control point of virgin olive oil (VOO) production from a qualitative point of view. In particular the sensory peculiarities of malaxation are determined by the presence of C6 and C5 aldehydes and alcohols in the VOO head space

Esposto Sonia; Montedoro GianFrancesco; Selvaggini Roberto; Riccò Ibanez; Taticchi Agnese; Urbani Stefania; Servili Maurizio



Olive orchard amended with two experimental olive mill wastes mixtures: Effects on soil organic carbon, plant growth and yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amendments of olive orchard soil with two different preparations of olive mill solid waste (OMWMs) at the rate of 9tonha?1 per year for five years in two different plots were compared with an industry standard soil amendment using urea. Both the OMWMs amendments showed significant increases in total organic carbon and humic substances in soil of approximately 40% and 58%,

Roberto Altieri; Alessandro Esposito



Blends of olive oil and sunflower oil: characterisation and olive oil quantification using fatty acid composition and chemometric tools.  


A method capable of recognising the percentage of olive oil in a blend is required to verify whether its labelling complies with the statements set out by the Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1019/2002. In this study an analytical methodology was developed in order to define blends of olive oil and sunflower oil, which contain 50% of olive oil, compared to blends with 40% and 60% of it, respectively. Methyl esters of fatty acids were analysed by GC-FID and processed through chemometric tools (PCA, TFA, SIMCA and PLS). A strong differentiation of blends according to the amount of olive oil contained and a quantification model with a standard error of prediction of 1.51% were obtained. As this issue represents a significant analytical challenge, variability associated with the fatty acid composition of olive oil was first studied. PMID:23442687

Monfreda, M; Gobbi, L; Grippa, A



Effects of olive pomace and olive pomace oil on growth performance, fatty acid composition and cardio protective properties of gilthead sea bream ( Sparus aurata) and sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were fed with two experimental diets: olive pomace diet and olive pomace oil diet, in order to examine whether fish oil substitution in fish feeds by olive oil production wastes, such as olive pomace and olive pomace oil, has an influence on growth performance, fatty acid composition and cardio protective

Constantina Nasopoulou; Giorgos Stamatakis; Constantinos A. Demopoulos; Ioannis Zabetakis



Spatial modelling of risk indicators for stream pollution caused by inappropriate function of olive oil factories in Crete  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many areas, such as in the Mediterranean island of Crete, Greece, olive cultivation is mostly oriented to olive oil production. In the last two decades, olive oil factories became a serious source of pollution for streams, because technology allowed massive production of olive oil at much faster rates than before. The major component of the contemporary olive mill waste




Investigation into the biological properties of the olive polyphenol, hydroxytyrosol: mechanistic insights by genome-wide mRNA-Seq analysis.  


The medicinal properties of the leaves and fruit of Olea Europaea (olive tree) have been known since antiquity. Numerous contemporary studies have linked the Mediterranean diet with increased health. In particular, consumption of olive oil has been associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Increasingly, there has been an interest in the biological properties of polyphenols, which are minor constituents of olive oil. For example, hydroxytyrosol has been shown to be a potent antioxidant and has anti-atherogenic and anti-cancer properties. The overall aim of this study was to provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of action of hydroxytyrosol using genome-wide mRNA-Seq. Initial experiments were aimed at assessing cytotoxicity, apoptosis and cell cycle effects of hydroxytyrosol in various cell lines. The findings indicated a dose-dependent reduction in cell viability in human erythroleukemic K562 and human keratinocytes. When comparing the viability in parental CEM-CCRF and R100 cells (which overexpress the P-glycoprotein pump), it was determined that the R100 cells were more resistant to effects of hydroxytyrosol suggesting efflux by the multi-drug resistance pump. By comparing the uptake of Hoechst 33342 in the two cell lines that had been pretreated with hydroxytyrosol, it was determined that the polyphenol may have P-glycoprotein-modulating activity. Further, initial studies indicated modest radioprotective effects of relatively low doses of hydroxytyrosol in human keratinocytes. Analysis of mRNA sequencing data identified that treatment of keratinocytes with 20 ?M hydroxytyrosol results in the upregulation of numerous antioxidant proteins and enzymes, including heme oxygenase-1 (15.46-fold upregulation), glutaredoxin (1.65) and glutathione peroxidase (1.53). This may account for the radioprotective activity of the compound, and reduction in oxidative stress suggests a mechanism for chemoprevention of cancer by hydroxytyrosol. Alteration in the expression of transcription factors may also contribute to the anti-cancer effects described in numerous studies. These include changes in the expression of STAT3, STAT6, SMAD7 and ETS-1. The telomerase subunit TERT was also found to be downregulated in K562 cells. Overall, our findings provide insights into the mechanisms of action of hydroxytyrosol, and more generally, we identify potential gene candidates for further exploration. PMID:21953375

Rafehi, Haloom; Smith, Andrea J; Balcerczyk, Aneta; Ziemann, Mark; Ooi, Jenny; Loveridge, Shanon J; Baker, Emma K; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C



Rapid authentication of olive oil adulteration by Raman spectrometry.  


The authentication of olive oil and its adulteration with lower priced oils are still serious problems in the olive oil industry. In this study, a method based on the intensity ratio of the Raman spectroscopy vibration bands, especially on the intensity ratio of the cis ( ==C-H) and cis (C=C) bonds normalized by the band at 1441 cm(-1) (CH(2)), was established to authenticate genuine/fake olive oil. These intensity ratios of the vibration bands given in the form of a two-dimensional chart allow first the discrimination between the various grades of olive oil and the seed oils and then the detection of olive oil fraud by the line of y = 0.7, which is observed under most experiments and dot charts. This method can reliably distinguish the genuine olive oils from the olive oils containing 5% (volume percentage) or more of other edible oils, such as soybean oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower seed oil, or corn oil. Compared to the traditional principal component analysis method, this method is more intuitive, more precise, and easier to use. Moreover, this method also has the advantages of simplicity efficiency and has no need for sample preprocessing, being especially suitable for on-site testing in field applications. PMID:19537730

Zou, Ming-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Qi, Xiao-Hua; Ma, Han-Lu; Dong, Ying; Liu, Chun-Wei; Guo, Xun; Wang, Hong



Saltcedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act Science Assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The primary intent of this document is to provide the science assessment called for under The Saltcedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-320; the Act). A secondary purpose is to provide a common background for applicants for prospective demonstration projects, should funds be appropriated for this second phase of the Act. This document synthesizes the state-of-the-science on the following topics: the distribution and abundance (extent) of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) in the Western United States, potential for water savings associated with controlling saltcedar and Russian olive and the associated restoration of occupied sites, considerations related to wildlife use of saltcedar and Russian olive habitat or restored habitats, methods to control saltcedar and Russian olive, possible utilization of dead biomass following removal of saltcedar and Russian olive, and approaches and challenges associated with revegetation or restoration following control efforts. A concluding chapter discusses possible long-term management strategies, needs for additional study, potentially useful field demonstration projects, and a planning process for on-the-ground projects involving removal of saltcedar and Russian olive.

Shafroth, Patrick B.; Brown, Curtis A.; Merritt, David M.



Cardioprotective and neuroprotective roles of oleuropein in olive  

PubMed Central

Traditional diets of people living in the Mediterranean basin are, among other components, very rich in extra-virgin olive oil, the most typical source of visible fat. Olive is a priceless source of monounsaturated and di-unsaturated fatty acids, polyphenolic antioxidants and vitamins. Oleuropein is the main glycoside in olives and is responsible for the bitter taste of immature and unprocessed olives. Chemically, oleuropein is the ester of elenolic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl ethanol, which possesses beneficial effects on human health, such as antioxidant, antiatherogenic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The phenolic fraction extracted from the leaves of the olive tree, which contains significant amounts of oleuropein, prevents lipoprotein oxidation. In addition, oleuropein has shown cardioprotective effect against acute adriamycin cardiotoxicity and an anti-ischemic and hypolipidemic activities. Recently, oleuropein has shown neuroprotection by forming a non-covalent complex with the A? peptide, which is a key hallmark of several degenerative diseases like Alzheimer and Parkinson. Thus, a large mass of research has been accumulating in the area of olive oil, in the attempt to provide evidence for the health benefits of olive oil consumption and to scientifically support the widespread adoption of traditional Mediterranean diet as a model of healthy eating. These results provide a molecular basis for some of the benefits potentially coming from oleuropein consumption and pave the way to further studies on the possible pharmacological use of oleuropein to prevent or to slow down the cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.

Omar, Syed Haris



Separation of olive proteins combining a simple extraction method and a selective capillary electrophoresis (CE) approach: application to raw and table olive samples.  


A simple extraction method was developed to extract proteins from olive samples based on chloroform/methanol extraction followed by a protein precipitation with cold acetone. Then, a capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was carried out using an acid buffer (1 M formic acid at pH 2) to ensure a positive net charge for proteins and a neutral charge for potential interferents as polyphenols. The method developed was applied to raw and table olive samples. Interestingly, raw olive samples showed differences in protein profiles depending upon the botanical variety of olives and their geographical region. Protein profiles obtained for table olives also showed differences according to the sample treatment. Thus, a signal reduction in the electropherograms obtained for black olives was observed in comparison to those achieved for treated green olives. In this work, the use of protein profiles was demonstrated to be a powerful tool for studying variations among olive samples. PMID:21038920

Montealegre, Cristina; Marina, Maria Luisa; García-Ruiz, Carmen



Olive polyphenol hydroxytyrosol prevents bone loss.  


Polyphenols reportedly exert physiological effects against diseases such as cancer, arteriosclerosis, hyperlipidemia and osteoporosis. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, the major polyphenols in olives, on bone formation using cultured osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and on bone loss in ovariectomized mice. No polyphenols markedly affected the proliferation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells at concentrations up to 10?M. Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol at 10 to 100?M had no effect on the production of type I collagen and the activity of alkaline phosphatase in MC3T3-E1 cells, but stimulated the deposition of calcium in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, oleuropein at 10 to 100?M and hydroxytyrosol at 50 to 100?M inhibited the formation of multinucleated osteoclasts in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, both compounds suppressed the bone loss of trabecular bone in femurs of ovariectomized mice (6-week-old BALB/c female mice), while hydroxytyrosol attenuated H(2)O(2) levels in MC3T3-E1 cells. Our findings indicate that the olive polyphenols oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol may have critical effects on the formation and maintenance of bone, and can be used as effective remedies in the treatment of osteoporosis symptoms. PMID:21539839

Hagiwara, Keitaro; Goto, Tadashi; Araki, Masahiro; Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Hagiwara, Hiromi



Heavy metal accumulation in the mole, Talpa europea, and earthworms as an indicator of metal bioavailability in terrestrial environments  

SciTech Connect

Bioaccumulation studies in animals can supply valuable information to supplement the data obtained by chemical analysis of pollutants in abiotic samples. With respect to the terrestrial ecosystem, suitable indicator species in the decomposer subsystem can be identified on the basis of functional characteristics and trophic level. Investigations on metal behavior at the first trophic level, done in lumbricid earthworms showed that the potential for bioaccumulation depends on the degree of contamination as well as on the metal-binding capacity of the soil. The present study was performed to investigate metal behavior at a higher trophic level, and the mole (Talpa europea) was chosen a representative of the terrestrial decomposer subsystem. As earthworms are the preferred food of moles, they provide the major source of ingested metals to these animals. The food chain involving earthworms and moles provides an example of a critical pathway for potentially toxic non-essential metals such as cadmium and lead.

Ma, W.



Crystal Structures of Xanthomonas campestris OleA Reveal Features That Promote Head-to-Head Condensation of Two Long-Chain Fatty Acids  

SciTech Connect

OleA is a thiolase superfamily enzyme that has been shown to catalyze the condensation of two long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) substrates. The enzyme is part of a larger gene cluster responsible for generating long-chain olefin products, a potential biofuel precursor. In thiolase superfamily enzymes, catalysis is achieved via a ping-pong mechanism. The first substrate forms a covalent intermediate with an active site cysteine that is followed by reaction with the second substrate. For OleA, this conjugation proceeds by a nondecarboxylative Claisen condensation. The OleA from Xanthomonas campestris has been crystallized and its structure determined, along with inhibitor-bound and xenon-derivatized structures, to improve our understanding of substrate positioning in the context of enzyme turnover. OleA is the first characterized thiolase superfamily member that has two long-chain alkyl substrates that need to be bound simultaneously and therefore uniquely requires an additional alkyl binding channel. The location of the fatty acid biosynthesis inhibitor, cerulenin, that possesses an alkyl chain length in the range of known OleA substrates, in conjunction with a single xenon binding site, leads to the putative assignment of this novel alkyl binding channel. Structural overlays between the OleA homologues, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase and the fatty acid biosynthesis enzyme FabH, allow assignment of the two remaining channels: one for the thioester-containing pantetheinate arm and the second for the alkyl group of one substrate. A short {beta}-hairpin region is ordered in only one of the crystal forms, and that may suggest open and closed states relevant for substrate binding. Cys143 is the conserved catalytic cysteine within the superfamily, and the site of alkylation by cerulenin. The alkylated structure suggests that a glutamic acid residue (Glu117{beta}) likely promotes Claisen condensation by acting as the catalytic base. Unexpectedly, Glu117{beta} comes from the other monomer of the physiological dimer.

Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Frias, Janice A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M. (UMM)



Comparison of polyphenol extractions from olive pomace and solid fraction of olive mill waste water.  


The solid fraction of olive mill waste water (OMWW) was separated from OMWW and then the solutes in the solid fraction of OMWW were extracted with ethanol. The detection of polyphenols in the ethanol extract showed the presence of polyphenols in the solid fraction of OMWW. Effects of solvent-to-solid ratio, extraction and agitation time on the extraction of polyphenols from the solid fraction of OMWW were examined and the maximum amount of polyphenol was extracted from the solid fraction of OMWW with a solvent-to-solid ratio of 15 at 70?min of extraction and 10?min of agitation time. Percent yields and purities of the polyphenols extracted from solid fraction of OMWW were higher than those of the polyphenols extracted from olive pomace with ethanol at 70?min of extraction and 10?min of agitation time with solvent-to-solid ratio of 15. PMID:22085324

Tercan, Sevgul; Seker, Mahmut



Microbiota of table olive fermentations and criteria of selection for their use as starters  

PubMed Central

Fermentation is one of the oldest methods for preserving of olives applied worldwide for thousands of years. However, olive processing is a speculative area where whether olives are fermented products or pickled products produced by organic acids and salt. Although lactobacilli and yeasts play a major role in the process, literature survey indicates that lactobacilli are less relevant at least in some types of natural green olives during fermentation. There have been significant advances recently in understanding the process to produce olives, especially the role of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts including biofilm formation on olive surfaces by these organisms. The purpose of this paper is to review the latest developments regarding the microbiota of olives on the basis of olive types, their role on the fermentation process, the interaction between both group of microorganisms and the olive surface, the possibility to use starter cultures and the criteria to select appropriate cultures.

Heperkan, Dilek



Olive Leaf Extract D-Lenolate and Oxygen Elements Plus  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... the Internet address and has determined that the products “Olive Leaf Extract D-Lenolate” and “Oxygen Elements Plus ... More results from



Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

31. VIEW LOOKING INSIDE 'BRAVO' SILO OLIVE DRAB SHIELD, DRAWN IN DISTORTED WAY TO FIT ON STAIRWELL Everett Weinreb, photographer, April 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA


Biosensor immunoassay for traces of hazelnut protein in olive oil.  


The fraudulent addition of hazelnut oil to more expensive olive oil not only causes economical loss but may also result in problems for allergic individuals as they may inadvertently be exposed to potentially allergenic hazelnut proteins. To improve consumer safety, a rapid and sensitive direct biosensor immunoassay, based on a highly specific monoclonal antibody, was developed to detect the presence of hazelnut proteins in olive oils. The sample preparation was easy (extraction with buffer); the assay time was fast (4.5 min only) and the limit of detection was low (0.08 microg/g of hazelnut proteins in olive oil). Recoveries obtained with an olive oil mixed with different amounts of a hazelnut protein containing hazelnut oil varied between 93% and 109%. PMID:19263041

Bremer, Maria G E G; Smits, Nathalie G E; Haasnoot, Willem



HEALTH Advises Consumers Not to Eat Certain Olives  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

The Rhode Island Department of Health (HEALTH) advises consumers not to eat Mediterranean Olives: Calcidica Sweet (Brand: Bel Frantoio) sold ... More results from


Determination of benzo(a)pyrene by GC\\/MS\\/MS in retail olive oil samples available in Qatar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was carried out for the presence of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) in olive oils following reports that some batches of Spanish olive–pomace oil and its products contained high levels of B(a)P. Three types of olive oils (1) virgin olive oil, (2) refined olive oil and (3) olive–pomace oil, originating from France, Greece, Italy, the Lebanon, Spain, Tunisia and Turkey, and

A. H. W. Abdulkadar; A. A. M. Kunhi; Al-Jedah Jassim; Al-Ali Abdulla



Detoxification of olive mill wastewaters by Moroccan yeast isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 105 yeast strains were isolated from Moroccan olive oil production plants and evaluated for their ability to grow\\u000a in olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW). The 9 isolates that grew best on OMW were selected for further study to evaluate their\\u000a effect on removal of organic pollutants and OMW phytotoxicity (barley seed germination test). The results showed that

A. Ben Sassi; N. Ouazzani; G. M. Walker; S. Ibnsouda; M. El Mzibri; A. Boussaid



Calcium-mediated gelation of an olive pomace pectic extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pectic raw material was extracted from the alcohol insoluble residue of olive pomace. After purification, the olive pectic extract (OPE) contained 48% of galacturonic acid (GalA) and 31% of arabinose, in a total sugar content of 72%, and a degree of methylesterification (DM) of 43%. Phase diagrams were established to define the physical state of the OPE\\/calcium systems, at pH

Susana M Cardoso; Manuel A Coimbra; J. A Lopes da Silva



Drying kinetics of olive pomace in a fluidized bed dryer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drying kinetics of olive pomace was investigated in a fluidized bed dryer. The drying experiments were performed at different temperatures of the drying air (50, 60, 70 and 80°C) and bed heights of the sample (41, 52, and 63mm), using a constant air velocity of 1.0m\\/s. A constant rate period was not observed in the drying of olive pomace; all

Smail Meziane



Constant and Intermittent Drying Characteristics of Olive Cake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drying kinetics of olive cake, the solid by-product of the olive oil extraction process, has been experimentally investigated in a small-scale tray dryer using both constant and intermittent (on\\/off) heating schemes. The parameters investigated include inlet air temperature and intermittency of heat input. The drying kinetics was interpreted through two mathematical models, the Page equation and the Lewis equation.

R. Jumah; E. Al-Kteimat; A. Al-Hamad; E. Telfah



Detoxification of olive mill wastewater by electrocoagulation and sedimentation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is characterised by its high suspended solids content (SS), high turbidity (NTU), chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration up to 100gl?1 and toxic phenolic compounds concentration up to 10gl?1. This study examined the effect of a physico-electrochemical method to detoxify olive mill wastewater prior an anaerobic biotreatment process. The proposed pre-treatment process consisted in a preliminary electrocoagulation

Sonia Khoufi; Firas Feki; Sami Sayadi



Survival of yeasts inoculated in flavoured extra virgin olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival of four strains of yeast belonging to the speciesSaccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida wickerhamii, Candida boidinii andWilliopsis californica was studied in extra virgin olive oil flavoured with garlic, lemon, oregano and red chilli pepper. The ingredients used in\\u000a the doses of 1%, 5% and 10% profoundly modified the habitat of the extra virgin olive oil, reducing drastically, in 90 days

Gino Ciafardini; Biagi Angelo Zullo; Alfredo D’Amico; Giuseppe Cioccia; Lucia Maiuro



Reduction of acrylamide content of ripe olives by selected additives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model system based on alkali-treated olive juice heated at 121°C for 30min was used to screen different additives (salts, amino acids, antioxidants) for potential inhibition of acrylamide formation in ripe olives. The most-efficient inhibitors found were sodium bisulphite, l-cysteine, and l-arginine. These compounds, as well as other sulphur-containing compounds (N-acetyl-l-cysteine, reduced glutathione, methionine) and several natural products (tea, oregano,

Francisco Javier Casado; Antonio Higinio Sánchez; Alfredo Montaño



Technological Factors Affecting Sterols in Australian Olive Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sterols are important lipids related to the quality of olive oil and broadly used for checking its genuineness. Recent analyses\\u000a have identified that some Australian olive oils would not meet international standards for total content of sterols or for\\u000a certain individual components. Several research works indicate that there are some significant correlations between cultural\\u000a and processing practices and sterols content

Claudia Guillaume; Leandro Ravetti; Debashree Lala Ray; Joshua Johnson


Mediterranean diet and health: biological importance of olive oil.  


Olive oil, the main fatty component of the Mediterranean diet, is characterized by consisting of monounsaturated fatty acids as well as by its elevated content in antioxidant agents. This oil exhibits numerous biological functions which are beneficial for the state of health. A diet rich in monounsaturated fatty acids provides an adequate fluidity to the biological membranes, diminishing the hazard of lipid peroxidation which affects polyunsaturated fatty acids. Moreover, the antioxidants present in olive oil are able to scavenge free radicals and afford an adequate protection against peroxidation. Regarding the heart, olive oil decreases the plasmatic levels of LDL-cholesterol and increases those of HDL-cholesterol, hence diminishing the risk of suffering from heart complaints. In this context, it has been suggested that increased consumption of monounsaturated fatty acids in place of polyunsaturated fatty acids will render circulating lipoproteins less sensitive to peroxidation and thereby diminish the development of atherosclerosis. Olive oil has also been proven to contribute to a better control of the hypertriglyceridemia accompanying diabetes and may reduce the risk of breast cancer and colorectum. On the other hand, several investigations have suggested that olive oil can be beneficial in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. In this sense, some reports have indicated that olive oil modifies inflammatory cytokines production. As for the digestive system, olive oil enhances gallbladder emptying consequently reducing cholelithiasis risk, decreases the pancreatic exocrine secretion and gastric secretory function in response to food. Finally, it has been demonstrated that a diet rich in olive oil is associated with a high percentage of gastric ulcer healing and affords a higher resistance against non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs-induced gastric ulcerogenesis. PMID:11472248

Alarcón de la Lastra, C; Barranco, M D; Motilva, V; Herrerías, J M



Recent patents in olive oil industry: New technologies for the recovery of phenols compounds from olive oil, olive oil industrial by-products and waste waters.  


Olive oil is the major source of mono-unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean basin. It has been demonstrated that several olive components play an important role in human health. Among these components, polyphenols play a very important role. They are responsible for olive oil stability and sensory attributes. Moreover, they have pharmacological properties, are natural antioxidants and inhibit the proliferation of many pathogen microorganisms. Studies in vitro have demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol scavenges free radicals, inhibits human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation which is a process involved in the pathogenesis of the atherosclerosis, inhibits platelet aggregation and discloses anticancer activity on cancer cells by means of pro-apoptotic mechanisms. It has also been demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol acts in vitro against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which are involved in many infections of respiratory and intestinal tracts. In this review, the most recent patents developed to improve technologies for recovering of antioxidant compounds of olive oil, olive oil industrial by products and waste-waters have been presented. PMID:20653560

Sabatini, N



An overview on olive mill wastes and their valorisation methods.  


Olive mill wastes represent an important environmental problem in Mediterranean areas where they are generated in huge quantities in short periods of time. Their high phenol, lipid and organic acid concentrations turn them into phytotoxic materials, but these wastes also contain valuable resources such as a large proportion of organic matter and a wide range of nutrients that could be recycled. In this article, recent research studies for the valorisation of olive mill wastes performed by several authors were reviewed: second oil extraction, combustion, gasification, anaerobic digestion, composting and solid fermentation are some of the methods proposed. Special attention was paid to the new solid waste generated during the extraction of olive oil by the two-phase system. The peculiar physicochemical properties of the new solid waste, called two-phase olive mill waste, caused specific management problems in the olive mills that have led to the adaptation and transformation of the traditional valorisation strategies. The selection of the most suitable or appropriate valorisation strategy will depend on the social, agricultural or industrial environment of the olive mill. Although some methods are strongly consolidated in this sector, other options, more respectful with the environment, should also be considered. PMID:16246541

Roig, A; Cayuela, M L; Sánchez-Monedero, M A



Major phenolic compounds in olive oil: metabolism and health effects.  


It has been postulated that the components in olive oil in the Mediterranean diet, a diet which is largely vegetarian in nature, can contribute to the lower incidence of coronary heart disease and prostate and colon cancers. The Mediterranean diet includes the consumption of large amounts of olive oil. Olive oil is a source of at least 30 phenolic compounds. The major phenolic compounds in olive oil are oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. Recently there has been a surge in the number of publications that has investigated their biological properties. The phenolic compounds present in olive oil are strong antioxidants and radical scavengers. Olive "waste water" also possesses compounds which are strong antioxidant and radical scavengers. Typically, hydroxytyrosol is a superior antioxidant and radical scavenger to oleuropein and tyrosol. Hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein have antimicrobial activity against ATTC bacterial strains and clinical bacterial strains. Recent syntheses of labeled and unlabelled hydroxytyrosol coupled with superior analytical techniques have enabled its absorption and metabolism to be studied. It has recently been found that hydroxytyosol is renally excreted unchanged and as the following metabolites as its glucuronide conjugate, sulfate conjugate, homovanillic acid, homovanillic alcohol, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde. Studies with tyrosol have shown that it is excreted unchanged and as its conjugates. This review summarizes the antioxidant abilities; the scavenging abilities and the biological fates of hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein and tyrosol which have been published in recent years. PMID:12550060

Tuck, Kellie L.; Hayball, Peter J.



Biodegradation of simazine in olive fields.  


Simazine (2-chloro-4, bis ethylamino-1,3,5-triazine) is a herbicide of the s-triazine group used mainly to control broad-leaved weeds in different crops. Several papers report about simazine and other s-triazine derivates as being actual polluting agents. In fact, simazine has been detected in groundwater and soil. Since this herbicide has been extensively used in Andalusia (south of Spain), we are analyzing the levels of simazine residues found in the soil of olive fields. We are also simazine could be detected isolating live micro organisms able to degrade this compound, and are characterizing the metabolic pathways leading to this degradation and the fate of this compound in nature. With all these data in mind, we will try to develop a strategy for the bioremediation of contaminated soils. We have taken samples of soil from many olive orchards of Andalusia that have been treated with simazine. These samples were located with the help of a handheld GPS. The presence of simazine of these samples was detected by HPLC. In most of the samples taken no, and those where it could be, contained very low levels of this herbicide (lower than 0.5 ppm). Soil samples are being characterized to determine their physicochemical characteristics [pH, organic matter, texture, etc), and we are attempting to correlate all these parameters with the presence or absence of simazine. From some of the soils, we have isolated a group of micro organisms that can grow using simazine as the sole carbon and nitrogen sources. We are analyzing how the addition of carbon or nitrogen can influence the rate of the simazine degradation. PMID:15149137

Santiago, R; De Prado, R; Franco, A R



Leishmanicidal activity assessment of olive tree extracts.  


Leishmaniasis, a protozoan parasitic disease that remains a major worldwide health problem with high endemicity in developing countries, is prevalent around the Mediterranean basin. High cost, systemic toxicity, and diminished efficacy due to development of parasite resistance are the serious drawbacks of current treatment options. Thus, identifying new, effective, and safer anti-leishmanial drug(s) is of paramount importance. Here we tested the anti-promastigote and anti-amastigote activity of five natural products, including oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, present in olive tree leaves and olive mill wastewater. These products are recognized as low-cost starting materials rich in bioactive compounds, particularly biophenols. Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol exhibited the best inhibitory effect among the natural products tested in both stationary and middle logarithmic phase promastigotes of L. infantum, L. donovani, and L. major. Similarly, oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol demonstrated the highest selectivity index ratio against L. donovani amastigotes that parasitize J774A.1 macrophages. Moreover, oleuropein was tested in vivo in an experimental visceral leishmaniasis model. L. donovani-infected BALB/c mice received intraperitoneal oleuropein a total of 14 times at intervals of every other day. Three days after treatment termination, the spleen parasitic burden was reduced >80%. Of interest, this effect of oleuropein persisted and was even enhanced 6 weeks after the termination of the treatment, as determined by parasite depletion of >95% in liver and spleen. These findings contribute to the potential development of natural products as effective drugs against parasites of the Leishmania genus, with low cost and diminished cytotoxicity. PMID:23273752

Kyriazis, Joannis D; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Polychronopoulos, Panagiotis; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Dotsika, Eleni



Variation in mesophyll anatomy and photosynthetic capacity during leaf development in a deciduous mesophyte fruit tree ( Prunus persica ) and an evergreen sclerophyllous Mediterranean shrub ( Olea europaea )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative importance that biomechanical and biochemical leaf traits have on photosynthetic capacity would depend on a complex\\u000a interaction of internal architecture and physiological differences. Changes in photosynthetic capacity on a leaf area basis\\u000a and anatomical properties during leaf development were studied in a deciduous tree, Prunus persica, and an evergreen shrub, Olea europaea. Photosynthetic capacity increased as leaves approached

S. Marchi; R. Tognetti; A. Minnocci; M. Borghi; L. Sebastiani



Correlation of the Insecticidal Activity of the Bacillus thuringiensis A4 Strain Against Bactrocera oleae (Diptera) with the 140-kDa Crystal Polypeptide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crystals of the soil-isolated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strain A4 consist of two polypeptides with molecular mass of 140 kDa and 32 kDa that exhibit insecticidal activity against\\u000a adult flies of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera). Plasmid curing applied to this strain resulted in the isolation of several subclones exhibiting alterations in\\u000a their crystal polypeptides as well as two acrystalliferous subclones. The

Afroditi Sivropoulou; Lidia Haritidou; Eleni Vasara; Sofia Aptosoglou; Stefanos Koliais



Effect of the Addition of Membrane Processed Olive Mill Waste Water (OMWW) to Extra Virgin Olive Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern membrane technologies are useful for enhancing the concentration of phenolic antioxidants in olive mill waste water\\u000a (OMWW) to produce concentrates with valuable applications in functional foods. Three types of OMWW concentrates, each with\\u000a different levels of solute concentration and purity, were obtained from a single OMWW batch and dissolved in two extra virgin\\u000a olive oils to achieve saturated solutions.

P. ZuninG; G. C. Fusella; R. Leardi; R. Boggia; A. Bottino; G. Capannelli


A rapid argentation tlc method for detection of reesterified oils in olive and olive-residue oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid, simple and reproducible argentation thin layer Chromatog-raphic method for the detection of reesterified oils in\\u000a olive and olive-residue oil is described. The sensitivity of the method is com-parable to the sensitivity to the IUPAC method\\u000a 2,210 for the determination of fatty acids in the 2-position in the triglycerides of oils and fats.

D. Gegiou; M. Georgouli



Removal of total phenols from olive-mill wastewater using an agricultural by-product, olive pomace.  


The purpose of this study was to investigate the sorption of total phenols, which are contained in olive-mill wastewater (OMWW), on solid by-products of olive pomace processing mills. Preliminary batch experiments were conducted using three different types of olive pomace, dried olive pomace (OP-1), dried and solvent extracted olive pomace (OP-2) and dried, solvent extracted and incompletely combusted olive pomace (OP-3). According to the results, OP-3 showed high performance for total phenols sorption and stability. For sorbent concentration of 10gL(-1) and sorbate concentration of 50mgL(-1), more than 40% of initial total phenols concentration was removed. Sorption kinetics was well described by the pseudo-second order rate model (R2>0.99). Total phenols removal efficiency was improved by increasing sorbent concentration and solution's pH or decreasing particle size of the sorbent material. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms sufficiently described OP-3 sorption capacity for the concentration range studied (50-500mgL(-1)). Fixed bed sorption experiments showed that lower flow rates and smaller particle size of sorbent resulted in longer column exhaustion time and higher initial removal efficiency. Experiments with thermally or chemically regenerated OP-3 showed that sorption capacity deteriorated after regeneration. PMID:18417287

Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Elia, Irene; Petalas, Anastasios V; Halvadakis, Constantinos P



77 FR 105 - Oliver Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission, Soliciting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Project No. 13005-003] Oliver Hydro LLC; Notice of Application...2011. d. Applicant: Oliver Hydro LLC. e. Name of Project...should note the Commission's policy that agencies that cooperate...processed according to the following Hydro Licensing Schedule....



7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives...944.350 Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives...a) Each person who imports: (1) Avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit,...



Olive oil supplemented with menaquinone-7 significantly affects osteocalcin carboxylation.  


Menaquinone-7 (MK-7), a member of the vitamin K2 family, performs several functions, all related to its recognised effect on post-translational carboxylation of certain protein-bound glutamate residues. Due to its lipophilic structure MK-7 is soluble in olive oil, so the aim of the present study was to test whether extra-virgin (EV) olive oil enriched with MK-7 significantly increases MK-7 plasma levels and has an effect on osteocalcin and its carboxylation status. Healthy young volunteers (n 12) were administered 20 ml EV olive oil per d for 2 weeks, followed by 2 weeks of the same amount of olive oil enriched with 45 ?g and then 90 ?g MK-7, with an appropriate washout time in between. Blood was collected and plasma separated in each phase of the study. We found that integration of the diet with EV olive oil alone did not produce any significant variation of MK-7 plasma levels compared with baseline. Supplementation with MK-7-enriched olive oil resulted in a significant and dose-dependent increase in plasma levels. The high dose also significantly increased carboxylated osteocalcin (cOC) and decreased undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) plasma levels, resulting in a significant increase in the cOC:ucOC ratio. A significant correlation was also found between percentage variation of plasma cOCA:ucOC ratio and increase in plasma MK-7 levels. We conclude that regular consumption of MK-7-enriched olive oil may constitute a valid approach in order to preserve some key biochemical mechanisms controlling bone mineralisation. PMID:21736837

Brugè, Francesca; Bacchetti, Tiziana; Principi, Federica; Littarru, Gian Paolo; Tiano, Luca



Antioxidant activity of tocopherols and phenolic compounds of virgin olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant effects of hydrophilic phenols and tocopherols on the oxidative stability in virgin olive oils and in purified\\u000a olive oil have been evaluated. Total hydrophilic phenols and the oleosidic forms of 3,4-dihydroxyphenolethanol (3,4-DHPEA)\\u000a were correlated (r=0.97) with the oxidative stability of virgin olive oil. On the contrary, tocopherols showed low correlation (r=0.05). Purified olive oil with the dialdehydic form

M. Baldioli; M. Servili; G. Perretti; G. F. Montedoro



Bioavailability and antioxidant effects of olive oil phenols in humans: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We reviewed the bioavailability and antioxidant effects of phenols from extra virgin olive oil.Search strategy: We searched the MEDLINE database for the years 1966–2002. To review the bioavailability of olive oil phenols, we selected animal and human studies that studied the absorption, metabolism, and urinary excretion of olive oil phenols. We also estimated the intake of the various phenols

M. N. Vissers; P L Zock; M B Katan



Combined combustion of various phases of olive wastes in a conventional combustor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spain, the main producer of olive oil in the world, generates a big amount of waste from the olive mills. For the treatment of the two-phases Olive Mill Solid Waste (OMSW), which is obtained in higher proportion in these installations, there are different possibilities, among them, one consists of a differentiated treatment of the waste obtaining as final products, three

M. T. Miranda; A. Cabanillas; S. Rojas; I. Montero; A. Ruiz



Chemical treatment of olive pomace: Effect on acid-basic properties and metal biosorption capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, olive pomace, an agricultural waste that is very abundant in Mediterranean area, was modified by two chemical treatments in order to improve its biosorption capacity. Potentiometric titrations and IR analyses were used to characterise untreated olive pomace (OP), olive pomace treated by phosphoric acid (PAOP) and treated by hydrogen peroxide (HPOP). Acid–base properties of all investigated biosorbents

M. A. Martín-Lara; F. Pagnanelli; S. Mainelli; M. Calero; L. Toro



Biosorption of protons and heavy metals onto olive pomace: Modelling of competition effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal biosorption onto solid wastes from olive oil production plants, olive pomace, has been investigated. Acid–base properties of the active sites of olive pomace were determined by potentiometric titrations and represented by a continuous model accounting for two main kinds of active sites. Competition among protons and heavy metals in solution was considered by performing biosorption tests at different

Francesca Pagnanelli; Sara Mainelli; Simona De Angelis; Luigi Toro



Hydrolytic enzyme activities of extracted humic substances during the vermicomposting of a lignocellulosic olive waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humic substances and three hydrolytic enzymes (?-glucosidase, phosphatase and urease) were extracted by neutral sodium pyrophosphate from an olive waste (dry olive cake), alone or mixed with municipal biosolids, during a nine month vermicomposting process. Easily degradable compounds decreased during the vermicomposting process because of microbial consumption. When municipal biosolids were added to dry olive cake, microbial activity increased and

E. Benitez; H. Sainz; R. Nogales



7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109 Section 932... § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged...



An Evaluation of Chemical Treatment and Burning on the Control of Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellate)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since ceasing extensive planting of autumn olive, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources has sought means to control the spread of autumn olive into open habitats. We conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of 2 herbicides in combination with a prescribed burn to kill autumn olive at the Rose Lake Wildlife Research Area in East Lansing, Michigan. Sixteen clumps of

Michael L. Donovan; Sarah L. Mayhew; Bruce E. Warren; Vernon E. Stephens



Availability of triazine herbicides in aged soils amended with olive oil mill waste  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Olive oil extraction generates a lot of organic waste, which can potentially cause adverse environmental impacts. Application of olive oil mill waste, alperujo, to the land could be an effective way to dispose of the waste. However, addition of olive oil mill wastes can modify the binding capacity o...


21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102.37 Section 102.37...Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or usual name of a...100 percent and more than 0 percent olive oil shall be as follows: (a) A...



21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102.37 Section 102.37...Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or usual name of a...100 percent and more than 0 percent olive oil shall be as follows: (a) A...



An investigation on dihydroxy-isochromans in extra virgin olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, some dihydroxy-isochromans were discovered in extra virgin olive oil. In this work, the authors tried to investigate whether these substances are natural compounds, present also in the olive fruit, or whether they are formed during the crushing and malaxation procedures, or during the subsequent storage of oil. The variation of dihydroxy-isochroman amounts during extra virgin olive oil ageing have

Marcella Guiso; Carolina Marra; Rocio Rodriguez Arcos



Kneading olive paste from unripe ‘Picual’ fruits: I. Effect on oil process yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive growers start earlier to harvesting in order to obtain high quality oils, however unripe olives show different characteristics affecting technological and rheological properties. This work is aimed to study the effect of malaxation conditions on process oil yield for unripe ‘Picual’ olives. Experiments were carried out using Picual fruits harvested at early dates for three consecutive crops seasons. The

Maria P. Aguilera; Gabriel Beltran; Sebastián Sanchez-Villasclaras; Marino Uceda; Antonio Jimenez



Biological controls investigated to aid management of olive fruit fly in California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The recent widespread and rapid establishment of the olive fruit fly in California made necessary immediate changes in existing olive IPM programs. After determining that resident natural enemies (various generalist predators and a previously unknown parasitoid) that have been found attacking olive...


High resolution NMR characterization of olive oils in terms of quality, authenticity and geographical origin.  


This review deals with the most relevant results obtained in the last 10 years of studies of olive oils by high field nuclear magnetic resonance. Among these, quality and authenticity of olive oils, as well as geographical and variety characterization of Mediterranean olive oils, are discussed. PMID:22290707

Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P



Effects of olive oil on striae gravidarum in the second trimester of pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed in order to determine the effects of olive oil on striae gravidarum (SG) occurring within the second trimester of pregnancy.The intervention group, applied olive oil on their abdominal skin area twice a day until the end of the study term. The control group did not use any oil.Striae occurred in 40% of women using olive oil

Simin Taavoni; Farzaneh Soltanipour; Hamid Haghani; Habibeh Ansarian; Masoomeh Kheirkhah



Semiquantitative simultaneous determination of metals in olive oil using direct emulsion nebulization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method for the semiquantitative determination of several metals in olive oil by ICP-MS is described. The formation of olive oil emulsions, as a simplified sample preparation procedure is demonstrated. Optimization of the chemical conditions for the formation and stabilization of olive oil emulsions is reported: pH, emulsifiers, stirring (mechanical and ultrasonic mode) time, reagents and sample volumes. The

Juan R. Castillo; Maria S. Jimeneza; L. Ebdonb


Evaluation of the in Vitro Anti-Atherogenic Properties of Lipid Fractions of Olive Pomace, Olive Pomace Enriched Fish Feed and Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Fed with Olive Pomace Enriched Fish Feed.  


Given the pivotal role of Platelet-Activating-Factor (PAF) in atherosclerosis and the cardio-protective role of PAF-inhibitors derived from olive pomace, the inclusion of olive pomace in fish feed has been studied for gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). The aim of the current research was to elucidate the anti-atherogenic properties of specific HPLC lipid fractions obtained from olive pomace, olive pomace enriched fish feed and fish fed with the olive pomace enriched fish feed, by evaluating their in vitro biological activity against washed rabbit platelets. This in vitro study underlines that olive pomace inclusion in fish feed improves the nutritional value of both fish feed and fish possibly by enriching the marine lipid profile of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) with specific bioactive lipid compounds of plant origin. PMID:24084786

Nasopoulou, Constantina; Gogaki, Vassiliki; Stamatakis, Giorgos; Papaharisis, Leonidas; Demopoulos, Constantinos A; Zabetakis, Ioannis



Olive oil consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.  


The clinical implications of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) derive from their potential to progress to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Inappropriate dietary fat intake, excessive intake of soft drinks, insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress results in increased free fatty acid delivery to the liver and increased hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation. An olive oil-rich diet decreases accumulation of TGs in the liver, improves postprandial TGs, glucose and glucagon-like peptide-1 responses in insulin-resistant subjects, and upregulates glucose transporter-2 expression in the liver. The principal mechanisms include: decreased nuclear factor-kappaB activation, decreased low-density lipoprotein oxidation, and improved insulin resistance by reduced production of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6) and improvement of jun N-terminal kinase-mediated phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1. The beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet is derived from monounsaturated fatty acids, mainly from olive oil. In this review, we describe the dietary sources of the monounsaturated fatty acids, the composition of olive oil, dietary fats and their relationship to insulin resistance and postprandial lipid and glucose responses in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, clinical and experimental studies that assess the relationship between olive oil and NAFLD, and the mechanism by which olive oil ameliorates fatty liver, and we discuss future perspectives. PMID:19370776

Assy, Nimer; Nassar, Faris; Nasser, Gattas; Grosovski, Maria



Vermicomposting of olive oil mill wastewaters.  


The disposal of olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW) represents a substantial environmental problem in Italy. A vermicompost process could be an alternative and valid method for the management of OMW. In a laboratory experiment, the OMW were absorbed onto a ligno-cellulosic solid matrix and 30 adult earthworms of Eisenia fetida specie were added. The experiment was carried out for 13 weeks. The number of earthworms increased throughout the experimental period and after 2 weeks about 90% of the earthworms had become sexually mature. The decrease in total organic carbon (about 35%), C : N ratio (from 31.2 to 12.3) and biochemical parameters (hydrolytic enzymes averagely 40% and dehydrogenase 23%), and the increase in humification rate (pyrophosphate extractable carbon (PEC) from 17.6 to 33.3 mg g(-1), and PEC : water-soluble carbon from 1.76 to 2.97) indicated the mineralization and the stabilization of organic matter at the end of the vermicomposting process. At the end of the experiment, the extracellular beta-glucosidase, phosphatase, urease and protease activities, measured in the pyrophosphate extract of the vermicompost, were found to be always higher or equal to that measured at the beginning of the vermicomposting process, suggesting that the enzymes bound to humic matter resisted biological attack and environmental stress. Moreover, the results obtained from the phyto-test showed that the OMW lose their toxicity and stimulate plant germination and growth. PMID:20015937

Macci, Cristina; Masciandaro, Grazia; Ceccanti, Brunello



Hydrothermal carbonization of olive mill wastewater.  


Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is an emerging technology to treat wet biomasses aimed at producing a biochar material. Herein, olive mill wastewater (OMW) was subjected to HTC. Mass balance considerations provide evidence that the yield of biochar is low (~30%, w/w), which is associated with a low fraction of carbohydrates in OMW. The combination of different preparation schemes, pre-chromatographic derivatization reactions and GC/MS analysis for the analysis of organic compounds in aqueous HTC-solutions allowed to identify and quantify a wide array of analytes which belong either to intrinsic constituents of OMW or to characteristic HTC-breakdown products. Biophenols, such as hydroxyl-tyrosol (OH-Tyr), tyrosol (Tyr) account for the most abundant members of the first group. Most abundant breakdown products include phenol and benzenediols as well as short-chain organic acids. Secoiridoids, such as decarbomethoxy ligostride aglycon and decarbomethoxy oleuropein aglycon, all of them being typical components of OMW, are less abundant in HTC-solutions. PMID:23475178

Poerschmann, J; Baskyr, I; Weiner, B; Koehler, R; Wedwitschka, H; Kopinke, F-D



Air and noise pollution of a diesel engine fuelled with olive pomace oil methyl ester and petrodiesel blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive pomace oil derives from the oil left in the olive fruit pulp than remains after pressing extra virgin olive oil. To extract olive pomace oil, the pulp is treated with solvents. The resultant oil contains impurities and may undergo several heating and filtering processes to refine it to an acceptable standard. To make it satisfactory to consumers, it must

M. D. Redel-Macías; S. Pinzi; D. Leiva; A. J. Cubero-Atienza; M. P. Dorado


Bypassing the Rumen in Dairy Ewes: The Reticular Groove Reflex vs. Calcium Soap of Olive Fatty Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A3 × 3 Latin Square experiment was designed to compare 2 ways of bypassing the effects of the rumen with olive oil fatty acids in 'Manchega' dairy ewes. Treatments were a control diet, CaOFA (control diet plus 45 g of olive fatty acids as calcium soap), and OO (control plus 45 g\\/d of olive fatty acids as olive oil emulsified

C. Dobarganes García; M. Pérez Hernández; G. Cantalapiedra; J. M. Salas; J. A. Merino



Effect of temperature and aeration rate on co-composting of olive mill wastewater with olive stone wooden residues.  


Co-composting of the solid residues and wastewater from the olive oil production process was examined as a potential bioremediation treatment for these wastes. Experimental results from a semi batch laboratory pilot plant were reported. Composting was performed for 20 days under constant moisture 40% and the temperature ranged from 55 to 72°C and the oxygen partial pressure from 10 to 17%. An operational region of temperature and oxygen partial pressure was defined in order to achieve a ratio of total olive mill wastewater consumption to olive stone wooden residue stabilization equal or greater than 2.5, the typical ratio for an olive mill plant. Another critical parameter for the optimisation of the 20-day co-composting process that was examined was the biological efficiency of the process, as the carbon dioxide produced to the total carbon available to biomass. A strong sigmoid correlation of co-composting efficiency with temperature derived, reaching a maximum plateau of 0.50 at 68°C. The optimum conditions for a 20-day semi batch co-composting proved to be 68°C and 16-17% oxygen partial pressure, indicating that this process could be an integrated treatment scheme for olive mills. PMID:20401685

Vlyssides, Alphapostolos; Barampouti, Elli Maria; Mai, Sofia; Loizides, Michael



Adaptive coupling of inferior olive neurons in cerebellar learning.  


In the cerebellar learning hypothesis, inferior olive neurons are presumed to transmit high fidelity error signals, despite their low firing rates. The idea of chaotic resonance has been proposed to realize efficient error transmission by desynchronized spiking activities induced by moderate electrical coupling between inferior olive neurons. A recent study suggests that the coupling strength between inferior olive neurons can be adaptive and may decrease during the learning process. We show that such a decrease in coupling strength can be beneficial for motor learning, since efficient coupling strength depends upon the magnitude of the error signals. We introduce a scheme of adaptive coupling that enhances the learning of a neural controller for fast arm movements. Our numerical study supports the view that the controlling strategy of the coupling strength provides an additional degree of freedom to optimize the actual learning in the cerebellum. PMID:23337637

Tokuda, Isao T; Hoang, Huu; Schweighofer, Nicolas; Kawato, Mitsuo



Modeling Free Energies of Solvation in Olive Oil  

PubMed Central

Olive oil partition coefficients are useful for modeling the bioavailability of drug-like compounds. We have recently developed an accurate solvation model called SM8 for aqueous and organic solvents (Marenich, A. V.; Olson, R. M.; Kelly, C. P.; Cramer, C. J.; Truhlar, D. G. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2007, 3, 2011) and a temperature-dependent solvation model called SM8T for aqueous solution (Chamberlin, A. C.; Cramer, C. J.; Truhlar, D. G. J. Phys. Chem. B 2008, 112, 3024). Here we describe an extension of SM8T to predict air–olive oil and water–olive oil partitioning for drug-like solutes as functions of temperature. We also describe the database of experimental partition coefficients used to parameterize the model; this database includes 371 entries for 304 compounds spanning the 291–310 K temperature range.

Chamberlin, Adam C.; Levitt, David G.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Truhlar, Donald G.



Fractionation of olive mill wastewaters by membrane separation techniques.  


This study aims to evaluate the potential of an integrated membrane system in the treatment of olive mill wastewaters (OMWs) to produce a purified fraction enriched in low molecular weight polyphenols, a concentrated fraction of organic substances and a water stream which can be reused in the extractive process of olive oil. In particular, a sequence of two ultrafiltration (UF) processes followed by a final nanofiltration (NF) step was investigated on laboratory scale operating in selected process parameters. The produced fractions were analyzed for their total content of polyphenols, total antioxidant activity (TAA), free low molecular weight polyphenols and total organic carbon (TOC). The performance of selected membranes in terms of productivity, fouling index and selectivity toward compounds of interest was also evaluated and discussed. An integrated membrane process was proposed to achieve high levels of purification of OMWs and a water fraction which can be discharged in aquatic systems or to be reused in the olive oil extraction process. PMID:23376489

Cassano, Alfredo; Conidi, Carmela; Giorno, Lidietta; Drioli, Enrico



The presence of oxidizing enzyme activities in virgin olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of Greek virgin olive oils were examined for the presence of proteins and oxidative enzyme activities. All oil samples\\u000a tested contained detectable amounts of protein, as well as lipoxygenase and polyphenol oxidase activities. Sodium dodecyl\\u000a sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and size-exclusion chromatography of olive oil extracts revealed the presence of\\u000a low-molecular-mass (10–40 kDa) silver-staining and ultraviolet-absorbing components, respectively. Both lipoxygenase

M. D. Georgalaki; T. G. Sotiroudis; A. Xenakis



Air pollution effects on the leaf structure of two injury resistant species: Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Olea europaea L  

SciTech Connect

The release of toxic gases as well as of particulate pollutants into the atmosphere is a major side effect of the human industrial, agricultural and domestic activities. The impact of these compounds on the various life forms of our planet seems to be very serious. Investigations of plant species resistant to pollution-induced injuries do have a meaning. The introduction of these species will improve air quality and establish a moderate rate of primary productivity in the handicapped regions. That is why data concerning an evergreen sclerophyllous species which does not present structural modifications and organelle destruction although forced to be a dweller of a partition isle in a heavily polluted, traffic-loaded main street of the smog-suffering city of Athens, Greece, seemed very interesting. In this paper, further investigation is presented. Two common, species were studied. The first, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, a huge tree once imported to Europe from Australia as a marsh-drier in an effort to control malaria, is a drought enduring species mostly known for the essential oils accumulated in its leaves. The second, Olea europaea L. var oleaster Brot, is a sclerophyllous tree growing wild in chaparall formations in Greece.

Christodoulakis, N.S.; Koutsogeorgopoulou, L. (Univ. of Athens (Greece))



Influence of fruit ripeness and salt concentration on the microbial processing of Arbequina table olives.  


Arbequina table olives are processed as "naturally green olives", they are directly placed in brine and fermentation starts spontaneously. Olives are harvested just before they change to 'turning colour'. Different salt concentrations are used depending on the producer. The aim of the study was to evaluate how (i) the ripeness of the olive when it is harvested and (ii) the salt concentration of the brine influence the different microorganism populations in brine during the fermentation of Arbequina table olives. The results showed that the Enterobacteriaceae population lasted longer in black and turning colour olives than in green olives, whereas the growth of lactic acid bacteria was delayed in green olives. A higher salt concentration favoured the elimination of Enterobacteriaceae and hindered yeast growth. The main yeast species identified were Pichia anomala, Candida sorbosa and Candida boidinii, while Lactobacillus plantarum was the only lactic acid bacteria species involved in the process. In a sensory test, panellists preferred green olives and were not able to tell the laboratory-scale processed olives from a commercial sample, nor could they distinguish green olives from different brines. PMID:19835767

Hurtado, Albert; Reguant, Cristina; Bordons, Albert; Rozès, Nicolas



Plant food supplements with anti-inflammatory properties: a systematic review (I).  


Plant food supplements (PFS) receive great acceptance by European consumers. However, quality and efficacy of these products remain a question of concern. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize and critically evaluate the evidence for or against the efficacy of PFS for coping inflammatory conditions by considering epidemiological and human intervention studies. The review, which consists of two parts, considers Olea europea L., Camellia sinensis L., Vitis vinifera L., and Matricaria recutita L., which are herbal material frequently used also as food. The search retrieved 1251 publications. By applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the final number of papers was 91. Vitis vinifera L. showed promising results, but other trials should be performed in order to assessing the efficacy. Surprisingly, it was impossible to draw conclusions for the anti-inflammatory effect of Camellia sinensis L. as green tea. No studies were found on the leaves of Olea europea L. whereas more human trials are needed to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of olive oil. Only one study for Matricaria recutita L. was selected. In conclusion, it is advisable to conduct further studies with more homogeneous population and larger number of subjects by avoiding the heterogeneity of the herbal preparations considered. PMID:23320910

Dell'Agli, Mario; Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Badea, Mihaela; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Dima, Lorena; Bosisio, Enrica; Restani, Patrizia



Clerodane diterpenoids from Tinospora sagittata (Oliv.) Gagnep.  


Three new clerodane diterpene glycosides, tinospinosides A (1), B (2), and C (3) were isolated from the roots of Tinospora sagittata (Oliv.) Gagnep. Their structures were determined to be (2 S,4a R,6a R,9 R,10a S,10b S)-2-(3-furanyl)-9-( ?-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-1,4,4a,5,6,6a,9,10,10a,10b-decahydro-6a,10b-dimethyl-4-oxo-2H-naphtho[2,1-c]pyran-7-carboxylic acid methyl ester (1), (2 S,4a S,6a R,9 R,10a R,10b S)-2-(3-furanyl)-9-( ?-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-1,4,4a,5,6,6a,9,10,10a,10b-decahydro-4a-hydroxyl-6a,10b-dimethyl-4-oxo-2H-naphtho[2,1-c]pyran-7-carboxylic acid methyl ester (2) and (2 S,4a R,6a R,9 R,10a R,10b S)-2-(3-furanyl)-9-( ?-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-1,4,4a,5,6,6a,9,10,10a,10b-decahydro-4a-hydroxyl-6a,10b-dimethyl-4-oxo-2H-naphtho[2,1-c]pyran-7-carboxylic acid methyl ester (3), by various spectroscopic analyses, chemical reactions, and computer-assisted calculations. The inhibitory activities of NO production by these compounds and their chemical derivatives in lipopolysaccharide and TNF ?-activated macrophage-like cell line J774.1 were tested. Tinospin A, 12- EPI-tinospin A, tinospinoside B, and tinospinoside C showed inhibitory activities of NO production with the IC(50) values of 162, 182, 290, and 218?µM, respectively. PMID:21969117

Li, Wei; Huang, Chao; Li, Songpei; Ma, Fenghua; Li, Qin; Asada, Yoshihisa; Koike, Kazuo



Antithrombotic and antiatherosclerotic properties of olive oil and olive pomace polar extracts in rabbits.  


Olive oil polar lipid (OOPL) extract has been reported to inhibit atherosclerosis development on rabbits. Olive pomace polar lipid (PPL) extract inhibits PAF activity in vitro and the most potent antagonist has been identified as a glycerylether-sn-2-acetyl glycolipid with common structural characteristics with the respective potent antagonist of OOPL. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PPL on early atherosclerosis development on rabbits and to compare it with the antiatherosclerotic effect of OOPL. OOPL and PPL inhibition potency, towards both PAF action and PAF binding, was tested in vitro on washed rabbit platelets. Consequently, rabbits were divided into three groups (A, B, and C). All groups were fed atherogenic diet for 22 days. Atherogenic diets in groups B and C were enriched with OOPL and PPL, respectively. At the end of the experimental time, rabbits were euthanized and aortic samples were examined histopathologically. OOPL and PPL inhibited PAF-induced aggregation, as well as specific PAF binding, with PPL being more potent. Free and bound PAF levels and PAF-AH activity were significantly elevated at the end of the experimental time. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were also found increased. Groups B and C exhibited significantly increased values of EC(50) compared to group A. Histopathological examination revealed that the development of early atherosclerosis lesions in groups B and C were significantly inhibited compared to group A. Significant differences were noted in the early atherosclerosis lesions between groups B and C, thus indicating that PPL exhibit its anti-atherosclerotic activity by blocking PAF receptor. Specific PAF antagonists with similar in vitro and in vivo bioactivity to those that have been previously reported in OOPL exist in PPL. PMID:18253466

Tsantila, Nektaria; Karantonis, Haralabos C; Perrea, Despina N; Theocharis, Stamatios E; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios G; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi; Demopoulos, Constantinos A



Transesterification of Waste Olive Oil by "Candida" Lipase  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Biodiesel was produced by transesterification of waste olive oil with methanol and Novozym [R] 435. The effect of the molar ratio of methanol to triolein, mode of methanol addition, reaction temperature, and mixing speed on biodiesel yield was determined. The effect of different acyl acceptors and/or solvents on biodiesel yield was also…

Shen, Xiangping; Vasudevan, Palligarnai T.



Effect of irrigation on quality attributes of olive oil.  


Two irrigation treatments were applied to olive trees of the major commercial Cretan variety cv. Koroneiki, (a) irrigation with 0.4 evaporation class "A" pan and (b) rain-feed only, in two successive crop years to assess the effect of irrigation on olive oil quality. Olive fruits were harvested at their semiblack maturity stage. Data obtained indicated that irrigation increased fruit weight and oil content, but the standard quality indices (free fatty acids, peroxide value, K(232), and K(270)) of the oil were not affected significantly. However, irrigation affected some aspects of olive oil composition. There were changes in the proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), triacylglycerol molecular species, sterols, and aliphatic alcohols. Furthermore, the concentrations of the dialdehydic form of elenolic acid linked to 3,4-DHPEA (3,4-DHPEA-EDA) and the isomer of oleuropeine aglycon (3,4-DHPEA-EA) were higher in oils from non-irrigated trees. Tocopherol and total volatiles were higher in the oil produced from the non-irrigated trees. Such oil was graded more pungent when compared to oils produced from fruits of irrigated trees, although both oils were graded satisfactory by consumers. PMID:19722583

Stefanoudaki, Evagelia; Williams, Mark; Chartzoulakis, Kostas; Harwood, John



Somatic Embryogenesis in Indian Olive ( Elaeocarpus robustus L)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elaeocarpus robustus L. (Indian olive, Fam. Elaeocarpaceae) is a well-known evergreen fruit tree and 25 m tall. It is native to Bangladesh and India. The tree is of great economic importance for its fruits and timber. The importance of fleshy sour fruits having citric acid occupy an important position in tropical countries since they provide needed vitamin-C in diets. Its

Shyamal K. Roy; Pinaki Sinha


Phenolics and antimicrobial activity of traditional stoned table olives ‘alcaparra’  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, we report the determination of phenolic compounds in ‘alcaparra’ table olives by reversed-phase HPLC\\/DAD, and the evaluation of their extract in vitro activity against several microorganisms that may be causal agents of human intestinal and respiratory tract infections, namely Gram positive (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus), Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and

Anabela Sousa; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira; Ricardo Calhelha; Paula B. Andrade; Patrícia Valentão; Rosa Seabra; Letícia Estevinho; Albino Bento; José Alberto Pereira



International conference on the healthy effect of virgin olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 Ageing represents a great concern in developed countries because the number of people involved and the pathologies related with it, like atherosclerosis, morbus Parkinson, Alzheime's disease, vascular dementia, cognitive decline, diabetes and cancer. 2 Epidemiological studies suggest that a Mediterranean diet (which is rich in virgin olive oil) decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease. 3 The Mediterranean diet,

Sant Pau; Maria Claret


Characterization and combustion of olive pomace and forest residue pellets  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of agroindustrial activities in southwestern Europe, a great amount of residues are generated; among them, olive pomace stands out as one of the most abundant. One interesting alternative to increase its potential as biofuel can be its densification. However, in order to achieve high quality pellets, it is necessary to blend this material with other feedstocks. In

T. Miranda; J. I. Arranz; I. Montero; S. Román; C. V. Rojas; S. Nogales


Development of new composite biosorbents from olive pomace wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study olive pomace was used as a source of binding substances for the development of composite biosorbents to be used in heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions. The aim was to obtain biosorbent material with an increased concentration of binding sites. The effects of two different extraction procedures (one using only methanol and the other one hexane followed

Francesca Pagnanelli; Carolina Cruz Viggi; Luigi Toro



Russian olive - a suitable target for classical biological control in ...  


Because of the perceived benefits of planting Russian olive in some regions, ... Particular emphasis is being put on the following questions: 1) what are the ... We will present first results of our data analysis and propose a way forward to reach ...


Biodegradation of olive oil husks in composting aerated piles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the composting performance of two olive oil husk piles was compared using two different aeration processes: aeration by mechanical turning or by forced air-injection.The results showed that after the maturation phase both piles had a similar chemical composition and the same level of organic matter degradation (around 55%). However, the time necessary to reach the thermophilic phase

Lina Baeta-Hall; M. Céu Sàágua; M. Lourdes Bartolomeu; Ana M. Anselmo; M. Fernanda Rosa



Calcium metabolism in olive ridley turtle eggs during embryonic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of calcium, magnesium, sulphur, potassium and phosphorus content of the eggshell, yolk-albumen and embryos of olive ridley turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea, have been carried out at various stages of embryonic development. Calcium is the major inorganic constituent in the egg (shell and yolk-albumen) and embryos. Other elements are present either in trace or in minute trace amounts. The egg contents

G Sahoo; R. K Sahoo; P Mohanty-Hejmadi



Olive Oil Consumption in Greece: A Microeconometric Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the factors affecting at-home demand for three types of oils and fats in Greece, with emphasis on olive oil, are investigated using the linear approximation of the Almost Ideal Demand System and family budget survey data. To overcome the econometric problem created with the existence of zero expenditure, a generalization of the two-stage Heckman procedure is employed.

Panagiotis Lazaridis



Olive oil consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical implications of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) derive from their potential to progress to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Inappropriate dietary fat intake, excessive intake of soft drinks, insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress results in increased free fatty acid delivery to the liver and increased hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation. An olive oil-rich diet decreases accumulation of TGs in the

Nimer Assy; Faris Nassar; Gattas Nasser; Maria Grosovski; Israel Faris Nassar; Eddie Wisse; M. Olive




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey




Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is a significant environmental pollution problem in Mediterranean countries. In Greece, due to the existence of small and decentralized facilities, the treatment of OMW can't be achieved by a centralized large scale treatment plant. The most common practice is the use of evaporation basins after the pretreatment of wastewaters with calcium oxide. The main objective


Is It Advisable to Store Olive Oil in PET Bottles?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the role of the container material on the quality of olive oil, literature results concerning the analytical definition of the quality of oils stored in PET or glass bottles were critically reviewed. The performance of active and passive barrier PET containers may move towards that of glass bottles. The influence of storage conditions was also considered: the main

Teresa Cecchi; Paolo Passamonti; Patrizio Cecchi



Packaging of Olive Oil: Quality Issues and Shelf Life Predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive oil has gained much appreciation among consumers worldwide leading to increased markets as well as greater consumer expectation and thus more challenges for the relevant food sector. By understanding the product, its interactions with the environment, and the protective role of the package, decisions can be made on the barrier properties required of the packaging materials to achieve the

Antonis Kanavouras; Pilar Hernandez-Munoz; Frank A. Coutelieris



Characterization of the Photosynthetic Competitiveness of Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata), a non-native invasive shrub in the United States, threatens to decrease biodiversity in natural areas throughout Southwestern Michigan. This study conducted at the ecological preserve at Pierce Cedar Creek Institute in Barry County, Michigan, sought to characterize the photosynthetic competitiveness of E. umbellata in comparison with several established native species. Photosynthesis rates of E. umbellata and

Michele R. Ritsema; David L. Dornbos


The Olive Project: An Oral History Project in Multiple Modes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This project is devoted to the memory of my grandmother, Olive. It is at once her life story and not a story at all. In a sense it represents the product of an intimate family collaboration and of the close journey we shared in collecting and preserving her oral history. But this project is not a product, nor is it entirely about my grandma,…

Anderson, Erin R.



Real Time Monitoring at the Olive 8 Excavation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The real time monitoring for the Olive 8 project in Seattle is described. This project involved construction of a 39 story structure with 5 levels of below grade parking. The 76 ft deep excavation next to an adjacent building required a hybrid support system consisting of large soldier piles with tightly spaced soil nails in the upper portion and steeply

Richard J. Finno; Miltos Langousis; David G. Winter; Matthew W. Smith; King H. Chin


Yeasts in table olive processing: desirable or spoilage microorganisms?  


Yeasts are unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms isolated from many foods, and are commonly found in table olive processing where they can play a double role. On one hand, these microorganisms can produce spoilage of fruits due to the production of bad odours and flavours, the accumulation of CO(2) leading to swollen containers, the clouding of brines, the softening of fruits and the degradation of lactic acid, which is especially harmful during table olive storage and packaging. But on the other hand, fortunately, yeasts also possess desirable biochemical activities (lipase, esterase, ?-glucosidase, catalase, production of killer factors, etc.) with important technological applications in this fermented vegetable. Recently, the probiotic potential of olive yeasts has begun to be evaluated because many species are able to resist the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and show beneficial effects on the host. In this way, yeasts may improve consumers' health by decreasing cholesterol levels, inhibiting pathogens, degrading non assimilated compounds, producing antioxidants and vitamins, adhering to intestinal cells or by maintaining epithelial barrier integrity. Many yeast species, usually also found in table olive processing, such as Wicherhamomyces anomalus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranifaciens and Kluyveromyces lactis, have been reported to exhibit some of these properties. Thus, the selection of the most appropriate strains to be used as starters, alone or in combination with lactic acid bacteria, is a promising research line to develop in a near future which might improve the added value of the commercialized product. PMID:23141644

Arroyo-López, F N; Romero-Gil, V; Bautista-Gallego, J; Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Jiménez-Díaz, R; García-García, P; Querol, A; Garrido-Fernández, A



Influence of malaxation conditions on characteristic qualities of olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there has been considerable work examining the effect of extraction methods and malaxation conditions on different characteristics of olive oils, there have been few that deal with all the major aspects. Here we have evaluated three different extraction techniques and the influence of time and temperature during malaxation using a major Italian (cv. Coratina) and the main Cretan (cv.

E. Stefanoudaki; A. Koutsaftakis; J. L. Harwood



Electrochemical sensor and biosensor for polyphenols detection in olive oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the work was to compare different techniques, in evaluating the phenolic content of an extra-virgin olive oil with varying storage time and storage conditions. A disposable screen-printed sensor (SPE) was coupled with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) to determine the phenolic fractions after extraction with a glycine buffer; DPV parameters were chosen in order to study the oxidation

Cecilia Capannesi; Ilaria Palchetti; Marco Mascini; Alessandro Parenti



Olive Banks and the Collective Biography of British Feminism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper considers Olive Banks' work on charting the history and development of British feminism, and particularly her use of collective biography as a research and analytic tool. It is argued that while this has been seen as the least "fashionable" aspect of her work, it took forward C. Wright Mills' contention for one definition of sociology…

Weiner, Gaby




Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares the three novels of Olive Schreiner (1855-1920), the South African writer. The novels so compared are Undine (1876), The Story of an African Farm (1883), and From Man to Man (uncompleted). The need for a critical biography of this writer is emphasized, as the five biographies now existing lay emphasis on biographical details to the neglect of




Nutrient Stress, Ecophysiological, and Metabolic Aspects of Olive Tree Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research, aimed at evaluating stress on the olive tree, utilized cultivars ‘Meski’ and ‘Chetoui’ in regards to the removal of major elements such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), and potassium (K). The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions in hydroponics culture. Measurements of leaf area showed a non-substantial and weak effect due to phosphorus, potassium, or magnesium

Dhouha Saidana; Mohamed Braham; Dalenda Boujnah; Fathi Ben Mariem; Salwa Ammari; Salem Ben El Hadj



Year clustering analysis for modelling olive flowering phenology.  


It is now widely accepted that weather conditions occurring several months prior to the onset of flowering have a major influence on various aspects of olive reproductive phenology, including flowering intensity. Given the variable characteristics of the Mediterranean climate, we analyse its influence on the registered variations in olive flowering intensity in southern Spain, and relate them to previous climatic parameters using a year-clustering approach, as a first step towards an olive flowering phenology model adapted to different year categories. Phenological data from Cordoba province (Southern Spain) for a 30-year period (1982-2011) were analysed. Meteorological and phenological data were first subjected to both hierarchical and "K-means" clustering analysis, which yielded four year-categories. For this classification purpose, three different models were tested: (1) discriminant analysis; (2) decision-tree analysis; and (3) neural network analysis. Comparison of the results showed that the neural-networks model was the most effective, classifying four different year categories with clearly distinct weather features. Flowering-intensity models were constructed for each year category using the partial least squares regression method. These category-specific models proved to be more effective than general models. They are better suited to the variability of the Mediterranean climate, due to the different response of plants to the same environmental stimuli depending on the previous weather conditions in any given year. The present detailed analysis of the influence of weather patterns of different years on olive phenology will help us to understand the short-term effects of climate change on olive crop in the Mediterranean area that is highly affected by it. PMID:22886343

Oteros, J; García-Mozo, H; Hervás-Martínez, C; Galán, C



Effect of cultivar and processing method on the contents of polyphenols in table olives.  


Polyphenols were determined by HPLC in the juice and oil of packed table olives. The phenolic compositions of the two phases were very different, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol being the main polyphenols in olive juice and tyrosol acetate, hydroxtyrosol acetate, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and lignans (1-acetoxypinoresinol and pinoresinol) in oil. The type of processing had a marked influence on the concentration of polyphenols in olive juice and little on the content in oil. The analyses carried out on 48 samples showed that turning color olives in brine had the highest concentration in polyphenols ( approximately 1200 mg/kg), whereas oxidized olives had the lowest ( approximately 200 mg/kg). Among olive cultivars, Manzanilla had a higher concentration than Hojiblanca and Gordal. The type of olive presentation also influenced the concentration of polyphenols in olives, decreasing in the order plain > pitted > stuffed. The results obtained in this work indicate that table olives can be considered a good source of phenolic antioxidants, although their concentration depends on olive cultivar and processing method. PMID:14759136

Romero, Concepción; Brenes, Manuel; Yousfi, Khaled; García, Pedro; García, Aranzazu; Garrido, Antonio



Sensory properties and consumer acceptance of imported and domestic sliced black ripe olives.  


Table olives are healthy and nutritious products with high contents of monounsaturated fatty acids, phenolics, vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Understanding sensory cues affecting consumer preferences would enable the increase of olive consumption. The objectives of this study were to characterize the sensory properties of commercial sliced black ripe olives from different regions, including California, Egypt, Morocco, Portugal, and Spain, and to examine the preferences of California consumers for sliced black ripe olives. Sensory profiles and preferences for 20 sliced olive samples were determined using descriptive analysis with a trained panel and a consumer test with 104 users and likers of table olives. Aroma and flavor characteristics separated the olives according to country of origin, and were the main determinants of consumer preferences for sliced olives, even though the biggest differences among the samples were in appearance and texture. Total of 2 consumer segments were identified with 51 and 53 consumers, respectively, that both liked Californian products, but differed in the olives they disliked. Negative drivers of liking for both segments included alcohol, oak barrel, and artificial fruity/floral characteristics; however, consumers from Cluster 1 were further negatively influenced by rancid, gassy, and bitter characteristics. This study stresses the need for sound and appealing flavor quality for table olives to gain wider acceptance among U.S. consumers. PMID:23240976

Lee, Soh Min; Kitsawad, Kamolnate; Sigal, Abdulkadir; Flynn, Dan; Guinard, Jean-Xavier



Optimisation of olive oil extraction and minor compounds content of Tunisian olive oil using enzymatic formulations during malaxation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to investigate and evaluate culture filtrates of different enzymatic formulations in terms of their individual and synergistic effects with regard to the quality and extraction yields of Tunisian olive oil from the Chemlali Sfax variety. The formulations, which contained a number of hydrolytic enzymes, particularly pectinases, xylanases and cellulases were tested both separately and

Noomen Hadj-Taieb; Naziha Grati; Mohamed Ayadi; Imen Attia; Houda Bensalem; Ali Gargouri


Volatile Compounds and Phenolic Composition of Virgin Olive Oil:  Optimization of Temperature and Time of Exposure of Olive Pastes to Air Contact during the Mechanical Extraction Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operative conditions of malaxation such as temperature and time of exposure of olive pastes to air contact (TEOPAC) affect volatile and phenolic composition of virgin olive oil (VOO) and, as a consequence, its sensory and healthy qualities. In this paper, optimal temperature and TEOPAC during malaxation were studied, in lab scale, in two Italian cultivars using phenolic compounds, volatile

Maurizio Servili; Roberto Selvaggini; Agnese Taticchi; Sonia Esposto; GianFrancesco Montedoro



Olive mill wastewater effects on the microbial communities as studied in the field of olive trees by analysis of fatty acid signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to study the effects of spreading olive mill wastewater (OMW) on the soil surface of an olive grove on the soil microbial communities. Analyses of ester-linked fatty acid methyl esters (EL-FAME) were used to assess variations in the soil microbial community structure following land spreading of OMW. Our data provide evidence that agronomic application

B. Mechri; H. Chehab; F. Attia; F. B. Mariem; M. Braham; M. Hammami



Effects of agronomic application of olive mill wastewater in a field of olive trees on carbohydrate profiles, chlorophyll a fluorescence and mineral nutrient content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive mill wastewater (OMW) management is a serious environmental issue for the Mediterranean area where there is the most production of olive oil. OMW contains a high organic load, substantial amounts of plant nutrients but also several compounds with recognized toxicity towards living organisms. Moreover, OMW may represent a low cost source of water. We studied the influence of irrigation

Beligh Mechri; Hechmi Cheheb; Olfa Boussadia; Faouzi Attia; Fethi Ben Mariem; Mohamed Braham; Mohamed Hammami



Mediterranean savanna system: understanding and modeling of olive orchard.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays most of the studies on C and N exchange were focused on forest ecosystems and crop systems, while only few studies have been focused on so called "savanna systems". They are long-term agro-ecosystems (fruit trees, grapevines and olive trees, etc.) usually characterized by two different layers (ground vegetation and trees). Generally, there is a lack of knowledge about these systems due to their intrinsic structural complexity (different eco-physiological characteristics so as agricultural practices). However, given their long-term carbon storage capacity, these systems can play a fundamental role in terms of global C cycle. Among all of them, the role that olive trees can play in C sequestration should not be neglected, especially in Mediterranean areas where they typify the rural landscape and are widely cultivated (Loumou and Giourga, 2003). It is therefore fundamental modelling the C-fluxes exchanges coming from these systems through a tool able to well reproduce these dynamics in one of the most exposed areas to the risk of climate change (IPCC, 2007). In this work, 2 years of Net CO2 Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) measures from eddy covariance were used to test the biogeochemistry model DayCent. The study was conducted in a rain-fed olive orchard situated in Follonica, South Tuscany, Italy (42 ° 55'N, 10 ° 45'E), in an agricultural area near the coast. The instrumentation for flux measurement was placed 1.9 m above the canopy top (6.5 m from the ground) so that the footprint area, expressed as the area containing 90% of the observed flux, was almost entirely contained within the olive orchard limits (Brilli et al., in press). Ancillary slow sensors have included soil temperature profiles, global radiation, air temperature and humidity, rain gauge. Fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, momentum and CO2 as well as ancillary data were derived at half-hourly time resolution. Specific soil (texture, current and historical land use and vegetation cover) and vegetation data (biomass partition, C and N content in olive trees branches and roots) were additionally collected to improve the model calibration. Preliminary results showed that olive grove can be an important C sink while agronomic practices and hottest conditions can induce large C losses. DayCent simulations have confirmed that the model properly tuned for the two components can be used to simulate total olive grove NEE. Additional studies should be conducted to assess the possibility of further improving model performances. References Brilli, L., Chiesi, M., Maselli, F., Moriondo, M., Gioli, B., Toscano, P., Zaldei, A., Bindi, M., 2013. Simulation of olive grove Gross Primary Production by the combination of ground and multisensory satellite data. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, in press. IPCC, 2007, Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, Pachauri, R.K and Reisinger, A. (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 104 pp. Loumou, A., Giourga, C., 2003. Olive groves: The life and identity of the Mediterranean. Agricultural and Human Values 20, 87-95.

Brilli, Lorenzo; Moriondo, Marco; Bindi, Marco



Use of molecular methods for the identification of yeast associated with table olives.  


A molecular approach is used for the identification of yeast isolated from table olives. Our results validate those obtained in the past by the classical biochemical methodology. Yeast were isolated from both aerobically and anaerobically processed black table olives and also from canned seasoned green table olives. Molecular identification methodology used included restriction pattern analysis of both PCR-amplified 5.8S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacers ITS(1) and ITS(2). For some species, sequence analysis of the 26S rRNA gene was necessary. These techniques allowed the identification of three yeast species (Issatchenkia occidentalis, Geotrichum candidum and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii) which had not been described previously in table olives. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida boidinii were the most frequent species in green seasoned olives and processed black olives, respectively. The molecular study of total DNA variability among the S. cerevisiae strains isolated indicates a quite heterogeneous population, with at least four different restriction patterns. PMID:16943084

Arroyo-López, F N; Durán-Quintana, M C; Ruiz-Barba, J L; Querol, A; Garrido-Fernández, A



Ultrasonic and thermal pretreatments to enhance the anaerobic bioconversion of olive husks.  


Olive husks, typical solid by-products from the olive oil industry, were selected to carry out anaerobic digestion tests. Before digestion, olive husks were subjected to ultrasonic or thermal pretreatments in order to release the organic matter into solution. Both sonication and thermal pretreatment allowed to solubilize the particulate matter with 22% and 72% increase in soluble organics of olive husks, respectively. Nevertheless, such pretreatments caused the release of unwanted molecules in solution, with the related risks of inhibition of the methanogenic process. Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests on olive husks mixed with olive-mill wastewater and dairy wastewater, either pretreated or not, showed that ultrasound pretreatment resulted in 15% increase in volatile solids reduction and a 13% increase in biogas production, while after thermal pretreatment no benefits were observed. PMID:24035286

Gianico, A; Braguglia, C M; Mescia, D; Mininni, G



Oligopolymer, diglyceride and oxidized triglyceride contents as measures of olive oil quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to test the qualities of olive oils of different commercial grades by quantifying oligopolymer\\u000a compounds by high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). The method required no sample manipulation and was accurate\\u000a and rapid. The mean level of oligopolymers in refined olive oils was 0.70% and was more than twice as high in refined olive\\u000a pomace oils.

Tommaso Gomes



Biodegradation of olive-mill pomace mixed with organic fraction of municipal solid waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) addition on the anaerobic treatment\\u000a of the olive-mill pomace. Biodegradability of olive-mill pomace mixed with OFMSW was examined in anaerobic bioreactors. Only\\u000a OFMSW was loaded in the first (control) bioreactor, while run 1 and run 2 bioreactors included different ratio of OFMSW and\\u000a olive-mill pomace. COD, BOD5,

Osman Nuri A?da?



Modulation of cytokine secretion by pentacyclic triterpenes from olive pomace oil in human mononuclear cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive pomace oil, also known as “orujo” olive oil, is a blend of refined-pomace oil and virgin olive oil, fit for human consumption. Maslinic acid, oleanolic acid, erythrodiol, and uvaol are pentacyclic triterpenes, found in the non-glyceride fraction of orujo oil, which have previously been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. In the present work, we investigated the effect of these

Ana Marquez-Martin; Rocio De La Puerta; Angeles Fernandez-Arche; Valentina Ruiz-Gutierrez; Parveen Yaqoob



Serum lipids, apoproteins and nutrient intake in rural Cretan boys consuming high-olive-oil diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high intake of olive oil has produced high levels of high-density and low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in short-term dietary trials. To investigate long-term effects of olive oil we have studied the diet and serum lipids of boys in Crete, where a high olive oil consumption is the norm. Seventy-six healthy rural Cretan boys aged 7–9 years were

C. Aravanis; R. P. Mensink; N. Karalias; B. Christodoulou; A. Kafatos; M. B. Katan



Detection of DNA in virgin olive oils extracted from destoned fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of genetic identity using DNA extracted from olive oil has the potential to facilitate assessment of origin\\u000a and varietal conformity. Such a prospect is particularly interesting in light of the increased regional spread of olive cultivars\\u000a and their various contributions to olive oil mixtures for certification of denomination of origin. Towards this goal, we have\\u000a devised a reliable method

Innocenzo Muzzalupo; Massimiliano Pellegrino; Enzo Perri



Pb(II) and Cd(II) removal from aqueous solutions by olive cake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of heavy metals from wastewater using olive cake as an adsorbent was investigated. The effect of the contact time, pH, temperature, and concentration of adsorbate on adsorption performance of olive cake for Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions were examined by batch method. Adsorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) in aqueous solution onto olive cake was studied in single component. After

Sabriye Doyurum; Ali Çelik



Partition of phenolic compounds during the virgin olive oil industrial extraction process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolics have been considered an important group of natural antioxidants. The type and quantity of phenolics vary in olive\\u000a matrices (leaves, fruit, stones, seeds, and paste). However, the relationships linking the products from the olive oil extraction\\u000a process are poorly studied. This manuscript deals with the partition of phenolic compounds during olive oil production season\\u000a at three times. Samples were

Luz-Stella Artajo; Maria-Paz Romero; Manuel Suárez; Maria-José Motilva



Color Measurements in Blue-Tinted Cups for Virgin-Olive-Oil Tasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color measurements have been performed using eighteen virgin-olive-oil tasting cups with ten different commercial virgin olive\\u000a oils, positioned in a color cabinet with a D65 source. Three geometries (spectroradiometer tilted 0°, 30°, and 60°) were employed,\\u000a simulating different positions of the taster’s eye. Our main goal was to test whether traditional blue-tinted cups effectively\\u000a conceal the color of virgin olive

M. Melgosa; L. Gómez-Robledo; R. Huertas; L. F. Capitán-Vallvey; M. J. Moyano; F. J. Heredia



13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine olive oil grades.  


13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used in a first attempt to differentiate olive oil samples by grades. High resolution 13C NMR Distortionless Enhancement by Polarization Transfer (DEPT) spectra of 137 olive oil samples from the four grades, extra virgin olive oils, olive oils, olive pomace oils and lampante olive oils, were measured. The data relative to the resonance intensities (variables) of the unsaturated carbons of oleate (C-9 and C-10) and linoleate (L-9, L-10 and L-12) chains attached at the 1,3- and 2-positions of triacylglycerols were analyzed by linear discriminant analysis. The 1,3- and 2- carbons of the glycerol moiety of triacylglycerols along with the C-2, C-16 and C-18 resonance intensities of saturated, oleate and linoleate chains were also analyzed by linear discriminant analysis. The three discriminanting functions, which were calculated by using a stepwise variable selection algorithm, classified in the true group by cross-validation procedure, respectively, 76.9, 70.0, 94.4 and 100% of the extra virgin, olive oil, olive pomace oil and lampante olive oil grades. PMID:17723685

Vlahov, Giovanna



Effect of olive oil consumption on serum resistin concentrations in healthy men.  


Resistin has been linked to atherosclerosis and inflammatory processes in humans. Some polyphenols have been shown to downregulate resistin expression in adipocytes. The effects of olive oil phenolics on resistin are not known; therefore, we investigated the impact of olive oil consumption on serum resistin as a function of the olive oils' phenolic content. In a randomized, controlled, cross-over study 38 healthy German men aged 38+/-2 years replaced their usual consumption of raw fat during 3 periods of 3 weeks each by 25 ml of virgin, common and refined olive oil varying in phenolic content. Serum resistin, blood lipids and urine biomarkers of subjects' compliance were analysed at baseline and at the end of each intervention period. The integration of olive oil in the subjects' habitual diet led to a decrease in total cholesterol (p=0.025) and triglycerides (p=0.013) independent of the content of phenolic compounds in the oil. Serum resistin concentrations were not affected by the olive oils' phenolic content. After low phenolic olive oil consumption, a decrease in serum resistin level was observed compared to medium and high phenolic olive oil (-0.4+/-0.1 ng/ml; p=0.040). Our results suggest that olive oil consumption has only marginal beneficial effects on serum resistin levels. PMID:18622895

Machowetz, A; Gruendel, S; Garcia, A L; Harsch, I; Covas, M-I; Zunft, H-J F; Koebnick, C



Survey of vitamin B(6) content in commercial presentations of table olives.  


For nutritional purposes, a survey of the vitamin B(6) levels from a variety of commercial presentations of table olives was carried out, taking into account the three main processing types (Spanish-style, directly brined, and ripe olives). The analysis was performed by HPLC, following the official French method for vitamin B(6) determination in foodstuffs. In-house validation data for two commercial table olives showed that the method precision was good (coefficient of variation <6%) and recovery was quantitative (104% on average). There was a wide range of values for vitamin B(6) in table olives (0-69.3 microg/100 g edible portion). The highest mean content was found in directly brined olives (33.9 microg/100 g edible portion) followed by Spanish-style (14.4 microg/100 g) and ripe olives (4.3 microg/100 g). On average, samples of the Gordal and Carrasqueña cultivars showed the highest vitamin B(6) content in the case of Spanish-style olives, but in directly brined olives as well as in ripe olives the effect of cultivar was not statistically significant (p < 0.05). PMID:18496754

López-López, Antonio; Montaño, Alfredo; Cortés-Delgado, Amparo; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio



Liquid Hot Water Pretreatment of Olive Tree Pruning Residues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Olive tree pruning generates an abundant, renewable lignocellulose residue, which is usually burnt on fields to prevent propagation of vegetal diseases, causing economic costs and environmental concerns. As a first step in an alternative use to produce fuel ethanol, this work is aimed to study the pretreatment of olive tree pruning residues by liquid hot water. Pretreatment was carried out at seven temperature levels in the range 170-230°C for 10 or 60 min. Sugar recoveries in both solid and liquid fractions resulting from pretreatment as well as enzymatic hydrolysis yield of the solid were used to evaluate pretreatment performance. Results show that the enzyme accessibility of cellulose in the pretreated solid fraction increased with pretreatment time and temperature, although sugar degradation in the liquid fraction was concomitantly higher.

Cara, Cristóbal; Romero, Inmaculada; Oliva, Jose Miguel; Sáez, Felicia; Castro, Eulogio


Mixed-culture polyhydroxyalkanoate production from olive oil mill pomace.  


Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) was produced in bench-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed olive pomace fermentate containing a mixed microbial consortium. Initial anaerobic fermentation in a sequencing batch fermentor (SBF) produced soluble carbon compounds, mainly organic acids. SBF effluent was centrifuged, removing solids, and fed into a SBR where intracellular PHA was produced. Buffer pre-treatment of diluted olive pomace increased organic acid production 75% in SBF fermentate over no pre-treatment. Hydraulic retention time (HRT), solids retention time (SRT), pomace concentration/dilution, and aerobic operation vs. anoxic/oxic cycling were studied to improve PHA formation. Maximum %PHA achieved was 39% (on a dry-weight cell basis), and the highest volumetric productivity was 0.042 g PHA/L-day under fully aerobic conditions. The highest PHA conversion yield was 0.3625 g PHA/L fermentate. PMID:22784593

Waller, James L; Green, Peter G; Loge, Frank J



Genetic Linkage Map of Olive Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus  

PubMed Central

Olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, is an important fish species in Asia, both for fisheries and aquaculture. As the first step for better understanding the genomic structure and functional analysis, we constructed a genetic linkage map for olive flounder based on 180 microsatellites and 31 expressed sequence tag (EST)-derived markers. Twenty-four linkage groups were identified, consistent with the 24 chromosomes of this species. The total map distance was 1,001.3 cM based on Kosambi sex-average mapping, and the average inter-locus distance was 4.7 cM. Linkage between the loci was identified by an LOD score of ?3. This linkage map may be used to map quantitative trait loci associated with important traits of the species and may assist in breeding programs.

Kang, Jung-Ha; Kim, Woo-Jin; Lee, Woo-Jai



Olive oil and the Mediterranean diet: beyond the rhetoric  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the association of food, nutrient and energy intakes with olive oil consumption in Spain.Design: Cross-sectional study by face-to-face interview.Setting: Population-based random sample derived from the Catalan Nutrition Survey.Subjects: In total, 1600 individuals between 18 and 60 y of age.Intervention: Two 24-h recalls were administered to measure food and nutrient intakes. Food

Ll Serra-Majem; J Ngo de la Cruz; L Ribas; J A Tur; LI Serra-Majem



Effect of Alcalase ™ on olive pomace protein extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Alcalase™ treatment on olive pomace protein extraction has been studied. Alcalase improves protein extraction from 5 to 30% of total\\u000a protein. This improvement is not accompained by an increase in degree of protein hydrolysis, probably because protease activity\\u000a is inhibited by secondary metabolites and the substrate is highly denatured and resistant to hydrolysis. The increase in protein

J. Vioque; A. Clemente; R. Sánchez-Vioque; J. Pedroche; F. Millán



Antioxidant activity and biological evaluation of olive pomace extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antiradical power of the methanol extracts of olive pomace (Taggiasca cultivar) achieved by high-pressure–high-temperature reactor were investigated using ABTS• and DPPH• assays. The highest antioxidant activity was quantified at 90?min of contact time and 180°C of extraction temperature (64.19?±?0.16?µgTE?L and 15.80 ± 0.62?µgDPPH?µLextract ). The extract with high-antioxidant power resulted to be effective to counteract key aspects of cellular

Bahar Aliakbarian; Daniela Palmieri; Alessandro Alberto Casazza; Domenico Palombo; Patrizia Perego



Biosorption of Tl201 radionuclide on olive pomace  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents an investigation on the bio-sorption of Tl-201 radionuclide used in nuclear medicine on olive pomace. The experimental parameters were chosen as temperature, the initial pH of the solution, stirring speed, bio-sorbent dose and nominal particle size of bio-sorbent. The initial pH of the solution was found to be the most effective parameter. Thermodynamic analysis gave negative values

Sinan Yapici; Hayrettin Eroglu; Erhan Varoglu



Comparison of olive, corn, soybean and sunflower oils by PDSC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils of different types and qualities are widely used in homemade cooking and food industry. Most of the safety\\u000a concerns were related to possible oxidation processes produced at the relatively high temperatures used when frying. Thus,\\u000a the thermal stability to oxidation is an important parameter for edible oils. Oils from the Arbequina, Picual, Hojiblanca\\u000a and Cornicabra olive varieties, corn,

Jorge López-Beceiro; Ramón Artiaga; Carlos Gracia; Javier Tarrío-Saavedra; Salvador Naya; José Luis Mier



Lactobacillus casei, dominant species in naturally fermented Sicilian green olives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of lactic acid bacteria in naturally fermented green olives, collected from different areas of Sicily. Both classical biochemical tests and PCR\\/Restriction Fragments Length Polymorphism (RFLP) of 16S rDNA were used to characterize the isolates. The identity of the isolates was obtained by the partial sequencing analysis of the 16S rDNA. The BioMerieux

Cinzia L. Randazzo; Cristina Restuccia; A. Daniele Romano; Cinzia Caggia



Specific Heat of Olive Oil to 356 MPa  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the velocity of sound in olive oil under pressure with the Brillouin light scattering technique. Using the values\\u000a for the density and the thermal conductivity that have only recently been reported, we calculated the adiabatic compressibility\\u000a and the isobaric specific heat up to 356 MPa and the thermal diffusivity up to 200 MPa. The specific heat displays a maximum\\u000a at

Bogdan M. Leu; Hasan Yava?; Innokenty Kantor; Vitali B. Prakapenka



Recruitment of two Opuntia species invading abandoned olive groves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Europe, many agricultural areas are now abandoned and hence can be invaded by exotic species. The abundance and spatial distribution patterns of two Opuntia species were studied in old olive groves in the Parc Natural del Cap de Creus, Catalonia (Spain). Seedling recruitment (97.3% and 51.5% of juveniles for O. maxima and O. stricta, respectively) was higher than recruitment by cladodes.

Isabel Gimeno; Montserrat Vilà



Fertilizers from composting of olive-mill wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aerobic bioremediation of olive-mill wastewaters produces a high quality compost, characterized by a considerable presence of nutrients, mainly organically-bound nitrogen (1.5-3%), a good level of humification (degree of humification=78%; humification index=0.28), and by the absence of phytotoxicity. The agronomic value of a compost thus obtained was assayed both by the ‘crop test’ and following the plant-soil system as influenced

U. Tomati; E. Galli; F. Fiorelli; L. Pasetti



Atlas Linguarum Europea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using selected dialect maps and explanatory comments, the Atlas Linguarum Europae aims to describe dialect variations in Europe and thus produce a clear typology of the spoken languages and dialects. (Author)

Kruijsen, Joep



High-performance liquid chromatography evaluation of phenols in olive fruit, virgin olive oil, vegetation waters, and pomace and 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic compounds are the most important antioxidants of virgin olive oil. This paper reports on the application of solid\\u000a phase extraction (SPE) in the separation of phenolic compounds from olive fruit, olive oil, and by-products of the mechanical\\u000a extraction of the oil and the complete spectroscopic characterization by nuclear magnetic resonance of demethyloleuropein\\u000a and verbascoside extracted from olive fruit. SPE

Maurizio Servili; Maura Baldioli; Roberto Selvaggini; Enrico Miniati; Alceo Macchioni; Gianfrancesco Montedoro



Olive Oil Based Emulsions in Frozen Puff Pastry Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Puff pastry is an interesting food product having different industrial applications. It is obtained by laminating layers of dough and fats, mainly shortenings or margarine, having specific properties which provides required spreading characteristic and able to retain moisture into dough. To obtain these characteristics, pastry shortenings are usually saturated fats, however the current trend in food industry is mainly oriented towards unsatured fats such as olive oil, which are thought to be safer for human health. In the present work, a new product, based on olive oil, was studied as shortening replacer in puff pastry production. To ensure the desired consistency, for the rheological matching between fat and dough, a water-in-oil emulsion was produced based on olive oil, emulsifier and a hydrophilic thickener agent able to increase material structure. Obtained materials were characterized by rheological dynamic tests in linear viscoelastic conditions, aiming to setup process and material consistency, and rheological data were analyzed by using the weak gel model. Results obtained for tested emulsions were compared to theological properties of a commercial margarine, adopted as reference value for texture and stability. Obtained emulsions are characterized by interesting rheological properties strongly dependent on emulsifier characteristics and water phase composition. However a change in process temperature during fat extrusion and dough lamination seems to be necessary to match properly typical dough rheological properties.

Gabriele, D.; Migliori, M.; Lupi, F. R.; de Cindio, B.



New records of eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea) from Saudi Arabia.  


A field study was conducted to investigate eriophyoid mites associated with some fruit trees in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The survey was carried out in four localities (El-Waseel, Al-Beer, Al-Haiyer and El-Deriya) and included seven species of fruit trees, namely olives (Olea europea), fig (Ficus carica), grapes (Vitis vinifera), apple (Malus domestica), citrus (Citrus spp.), pomegranate (Punica granatum) and pear (Pyrus communis). Seven new records of eriophyoid species (Aceria benghalensis Soliman and Abou-Awad, A. olivi Zaher and Abou-Awad, Caleptrimerus baileyi K., Colomerus oculivitis (Attiah), Oxycenus niloticus (Zaher and Abou-Awad), Rhynchaphytoptusficifolia (Keifer) and Tegolophus hassani (Keifer)), belonging two families, Eriophyidae and Diptilomiopidae, were collected from four species of fruit crops covering four different production localities in Riyadh. An illustrated identification key for these mites is provided. The present study is the first scientific study on Saudi eriophyoid mites. PMID:21916261

Al-Atawi, Fahad J; Halawa, Alaa M



Rapid detection of olive–pomace oil adulteration in extra virgin olive oils from the protected denomination of origin “Siurana” using excitation–emission fluorescence spectroscopy and three-way methods of analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is the highest-quality type of olive oil. This makes it also the most expensive. For this reason, it is sometimes adulterated with cheaper oils. One of these is olive–pomace oil (OPO). The protected denomination of origin (PDO) “Siurana” distinction is given to the EVOO produced in a specific area of the south of Catalonia. Here

Francesca Guimet; Joan Ferré; Ricard Boqué



Effects of pectinolytic yeast on the microbial composition and spoilage of olive fermentations.  


This study resulted in the identification of pectinolytic yeasts in directly brined Sicilian-style green olive fermentations and examination of the influence of those yeasts on the microbial composition and quality of fermented olives. Firstly, defective olives processed in Northern California from 2007 to 2008 and characterized by high levels of mesocarp tissue degradation were found to contain distinct yeast and bacterial populations according to DNA sequence-based analyses. Strains of (pectinolytic) Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia manshurica, Pichia kudriavzevii, and Candida boidinii isolated from directly brined olives were then inoculated into laboratory-scale olive fermentations to quantify the effects of individual yeast strains on the olives. The pH, titratable acidity, and numbers of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts varied between the fermentations and fermentations inoculated with P. kudriavzevii and C. boidinii promoted the development of LAB populations. Olive tissue structural integrity declined significantly within 30, 74, and 192 days after the inoculation of pectinolytic S. cerevisiae, P. manshurica and C. boidinii, respectively. In comparison, tissue integrity of olives in control fermentations remained intact although pectinolytic yeasts were present. Notably, pectinolytic yeasts were not found in fermentations inoculated with (non-pectinolytic) P. kudriavzevii and olives exposed to a 1:1 ratio of P. kudriavzevii and P. manshurica exhibited no significant tissue defects. This study showed that pectinolytic yeast are important components of directly brined green olive fermentations and damage caused by pectinolytic yeasts might be prevented by other microbial colonists of the olives. PMID:23122507

Golomb, Benjamin L; Morales, Vanessa; Jung, Alesia; Yau, Bianca; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L; Marco, Maria L



Performance of a Cocoa Butter-Like Fat Enzymatically Produced from Olive Pomace Oil as a Partial Cocoa Butter Replacer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive pomace oil is a by-product of olive oil processing and it is considered a low-quality oil. Considering its suitable\\u000a triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, this work aimed to convert refined olive pomace oil (ROPO) to a cocoa butter (CB)-like\\u000a fat using sn-1,3 specific lipase, and to investigate its performance as a partial CB replacer. CB-like fat was produced from olive pomace

Ozan Naz?m Çiftçi; Fahrettin Gö?ü?; Sibel Fad?lo?lu



Microwave heating of different commercial categories of olive oil: Part I. Effect on chemical oxidative stability indices and phenolic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of microwave heating of extra virgin olive oil (EVOo), olive oil (Oo) and pomace olive oil (Po) in domestic appliances, was investigated in terms of chemical oxidative indices (peroxide, p-anisidine and Totox values), free acidity, water content, total phenol content and different classes of phenolic compounds.Water content of unheated EVOo was higher as compared to the other two

Lorenzo Cerretani; Alessandra Bendini; Maria Teresa Rodriguez-Estrada; Elena Vittadini; Emma Chiavaro



Analysis of a laboratory method to test the effects of pesticides on adult females of Opius concolor (Hym., Braconidae), a parasitoid of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Dip., Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The laboratory test described in the present paper assesses pesticide effects on the ‘most exposed’ life stage of the parasitic wasp Opius concolor, and it has been developed and interpreted according to the guidelines of the IOBC\\/WPRS Working Group ‘Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms ‘. The evaluation of results is based on longevity and parasitism of adult females exposed to afresh

J. A. Jacas; E. Viñuela



The use of Yarrowia lipolytica to reduce pollution in olive mill wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater produced from the processing of olive oil presents a serious pollution problem in the Mediterranean area, because of its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) level (100–200 g\\/litre), and the high level of other organic and inorganic compounds. This paper examines the growth of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica ATCC 20255 on olive mill wastewater. The practical results presented show that

Custode Scioli; Lucia Vollaro



Differential scanning calorimetry: a potential tool for discrimination of olive oil commercial categories.  


Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms of five commercial categories of olive oils (extra virgin olive oil, olive oil, refined olive oil, olive-pomace oil and refined olive-pomace oil) were performed in both cooling and heating regimes. Overlapping transitions were resolved by deconvolution analysis and all thermal properties were related to major (triacylglycerols, total fatty acids) and minor (diacylglycerols, lipid oxidation products) chemical components. All oils showed two well distinguishable exothermic events upon cooling. Crystallization enthalpies were significantly lower in olive oils due to a more ordered crystal structure, which may be related to the higher triolein content. Pomace oils exhibited a significantly higher crystallization onset temperature and a larger transition range, possibly associated to the higher amount of diacylglycerols. Heating thermograms were more complex: all oils exhibited complex exo- and endothermic transitions that could differentiate samples especially with respect to the highest temperature endotherm. These preliminary results suggest that both cooling and heating thermograms obtained by means of differential scanning calorimetry may be useful for discriminating among olive oils of different commercial categories. PMID:18724997

Chiavaro, Emma; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Barnaba, Carlo; Vittadini, Elena; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Bendini, Alessandra



Atherosclerosis regression study in rabbits upon olive pomace polar lipid extract administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aimsVirgin olive oil polar lipid extract (OOPL) and olive pomace polar lipid extract (PPL) have similar antiatherosclerotic effects in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Our aim was to compare the effect of PPL with that of simvastatin on the progression of atherogenesis.

N. Tsantila; H. C. Karantonis; D. N. Perrea; S. E. Theocharis; D. G. Iliopoulos; C. Iatrou; S. Antonopoulou; C. A. Demopoulos



Bioconversion of wastes from olive oil industries by vermicomposting process using the epigeic earthworm Eisenia andrei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work evaluates the possible bioconversion of wet olive cake by low-cost biostabilization (vermicomposting process). Wet olive cake fresh (WOC), precomposted (WOCP), or mixed with biosolids (WOCB), were vermicomposted for 6 months to obtain organic amendments for agricultural and remediation purposes. The results showed initial differences depending on previous treatment. WOCP was initially more stable, presented a low C:N

Raquel Melgar; Emilio Benitez; Rogelio Nogales



The antioxidant\\/anticancer potential of phenolic compounds isolated from olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our ongoing studies on the chemoprevention of cancer we have a particular interest in the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet, of which olive oil is a major component. Recent studies have shown that extravirgin olive oil contains an abundance of phenolic antioxidants including simple phenols (hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol), aldehydic secoiridoids, flavonoids and lignans (acetoxypinoresinol, pinoresinol). All of these phenolic

R. W Owen; A Giacosa; W. E Hull; R Haubner; B Spiegelhalder; H Bartsch



Recovery Plan for U.S. Pacific Populations of the Olive Ridley Turtle ('Lepidochelys olivacea').  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The olive ridley turtle is listed as Threatened in the Pacific, except for the Mexican nesting population, which is classified as Endangered. This latter classification was based on the extensive over-harvesting of olive ridleys in Mexico, which caused a ...



Migration routes and foraging behaviour of olive ridley turtlesLepidochelys olivaceain northern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The foraging ecology of endangered olive ridley Lepidochelys olivacea sea turtles is poorly known in Australia, with only a limited knowledge of their foraging distribution inferred from captures in trawl net fisheries. We attached satellite transmitters to 8 olive ridley turtles in 2004 and 2005 at a nesting beach in Australia's Northern Territory to document their migratory routes and for-

S. D. Whiting; J. L. Long; M. Coyne




Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the beach fidelity of Olive Ridley Turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) for three seasons at the Rushikulya rookery on the coast of Orissa in India between December and May (2003-2005). We monitored sporadic nesting and arribadas for tagged turtles. Multiple nesting by individual turtles and recapture of tagged turtles confirmed beach fidelity in Olive Ridley Turtles. The inter-nesting intervals ranged



Electrochemical treatment of olive mill wastewaters: Removal of phenolic compounds and decolourization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive mill wastewaters (OMW) characterized by their dark brown colour and their very high content of phenolic compounds constitute an environmental concern, particularly in Mediterranean countries where the production of olive oil is important. In this investigation, OMW were electrolyzed at platinized expanded titanium electrodes in a modified Grignard reactor divided into two cylindrical compartments separated by a cation-exchange membrane.

Chokri Belaid; Monem Kallel; Moncef Khadhraou; Gérard Lalleve; Boubaker Elleuch; Jean-François Fauvarque



Conservation scenarios for olive farming on sloping land in de Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future of olive farming on sloping land in the Mediterranean is uncertain. Sloping and Mountainous Olive Production Systems (SMOPS) that have been sustainable for ages have in a relatively short time frame witnessed major changes. Although remnants of many of these traditional landscapes still exist today, the general trend is different. Demographic changes of the rural population, integration in

L. Fleskens



Morphological evaluation of olive plants propagated in vitro culture through axillary buds and somatic embryogenesis methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphological fidelity of the olive plants propagated through axillary buds, microplants and somatic embryogenesis, somatic plants was evaluated. Thirty-two morphological traits were used to characterize the tissue culture propagated olive plants. The microplants showed very high phenotypic similarity compared to plants produced by conventional cutting propagation method. The somatic plants exhibited variant morphological stable phenotypes, among somaclonal population two

Leva Annarita


Effect of viscosity, sodium caseinate and oil on bitterness perception of olive oil phenolics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive oil phenolics contribute to the sensory and technological quality of extra virgin olive oil (EVOV). Recent research indicates that these phenolics have a beneficial effect on health. However, their bitter taste limits use of EVOV or extracted phenolics as functional ingredients in many food products and it is therefore of interest to use different approaches to reduce their bitter

Are Hugo Pripp; Johanneke Busch; Rob Vreeker