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1

Enzymatic hydrolysis of oleuropein from Olea europea (olive) leaf extract and antioxidant activities.  

PubMed

Oleuropein (OE), the main polyphenol in olive leaf extract, is likely to decompose into hydroxytyrosol (HT) and elenolic acid under the action of light, acid, base, high temperature. In the enzymatic process, the content of OE in olive leaf extract and enzyme are key factors that affect the yield of HT. A selective enzyme was screened from among 10 enzymes with a high OE degradation rate. A single factor (pH, temperature, time, enzyme quantity) optimization process and a Box-Behnken design were studied for the enzymatic hydrolysis of 81.04% OE olive leaf extract. Additionally, enzymatic hydrolysis results with different substrates (38.6% and 81.04% OE) were compared and the DPPH antioxidant properties were also evaluated. The result showed that the performance of hydrolysis treatments was best using hemicellulase as a bio-catalyst, and the high purity of OE in olive extract was beneficial to biotransform OE into HT. The optimal enzymatic conditions for achieving a maximal yield of HT content obtained by the regression were as follows: pH 5, temperature 55 °C and enzyme quantity 55 mg. The experimental result was 11.31% ± 0.15%, and the degradation rate of OE was 98.54%. From the present investigation of the antioxidant activity determined by the DPPH method, the phenol content and radical scavenging effect were both decreased after enzymatic hydrolysis by hemicellulase. However, a high antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate extract enzymatic hydrolysate (IC50 = 41.82 ?g/mL) was demonstated. The results presented in this work suggested that hemicellulase has promising and attractive properties for industrial production of HT, and indicated that HT might be a valuable biological component for use in pharmaceutical products and functional foods. PMID:25679050

Yuan, Jiao-Jiao; Wang, Cheng-Zhang; Ye, Jian-Zhong; Tao, Ran; Zhang, Yu-Si

2015-01-01

2

Effect of supplementation of the laying hen diet with olive leaves (Olea europea L.) on lipid oxidation and fatty acid profile of ?-linolenic acid enriched eggs during storage.  

PubMed

1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation of the layer diet with olive leaves (Olea europea L.) on lipid oxidation and fatty acid profile of ?-linolenic acid enriched eggs during refrigerated storage, and to compare this effect with ?-tocopheryl acetate supplementation. 2. A total of 72 brown Lohmann laying hens, equally allocated to 3 groups, were fed on diets supplemented with 40?g/kg linseed oil, or linseed oil and olive leaves at 10?g/kg or linseed oil and ?-tocopheryl acetate at 200?mg/kg. Collected eggs were analysed for fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation either fresh or following 60?d storage at 4°C. 3. Results showed that olive leaves or ?-tocopheryl acetate supplementation reduced lipid hydroperoxide concentration in fresh eggs but had no effect on their fatty acid profile and malondialdehyde (MDA) content compared to controls. 4. Refrigerated storage for 60?d decreased the proportions of PUFAs but increased those of MUFAs in eggs from the control diet, whilst it had no effect on the fatty acid composition of eggs from the diets supplemented with olive leaves or ?-tocopheryl acetate, which in turn showed decreased concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides and MDA. PMID:23130586

Botsoglou, E; Govaris, A; Fletouris, D; Botsoglou, N

2012-01-01

3

Oil composition and genetic biodiversity of ancient and new olive (Olea europea L.) varieties and accessions of southern Italy.  

PubMed

The present study is focused on determining the olive oil fatty acid composition of ancient and recent varieties of the Campania region (Italy), but also on molecularly characterizing the most common cultivated varieties in the same region, together with olive trees of the garden of the University Campus of Salerno and of three olive groves of south Italy. Fatty acid methyl esters in the extra virgin oil derived olive fruits were determined, during three consecutive harvests, by gas chromatography. The statistical analysis on fatty acid composition was performed with the ffmanova package. The genetic biodiversity of the olive collection was estimated by using eight highly polymorphic microsatellite loci and calculating the most commonly used indexes. "Dice index" was employed to estimate the similarity level of the analysed olive samples, while the Structure software to infer their genetic structure. The fatty acid content of extra virgin olive oils, produced from the two olive groves in Campania, suggests that the composition is mainly determined by genotype and not by cultural practices or climatic conditions. Furthermore, the analysis conducted on the molecular data revealed the presence of 100 distinct genotypes and seven homonymies out of the 136 analysed trees. PMID:23849116

Cicatelli, Angela; Fortunati, Tancredi; De Feis, Italia; Castiglione, Stefano

2013-09-01

4

Influence of cultivar and site of cultivation on levels of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in virgin olive oils ( Olea Europea L.) and correlations with oxidative stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidation stability is an important property of olive oil quality and is affected by different antioxidant compounds whose levels may be influenced by cultivar, year and place of production. Polyphenols, tocopherols, carotenoids, chlorophylls and fatty acids levels were correlated to oxidative stability in olive oils from three experiments: cultivar influence (18 cultivars assessed for 4 years in the same place);

Debora Tura; Carmen Gigliotti; Stefano Pedò; Osvaldo Failla; Daniele Bassi; Arnaldo Serraiocco

2007-01-01

5

Influence of indole-butyric acid and electro-pulse on in vitro rooting and development of olive ( Olea europea L.) microshoots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of indole-butyric acid (IBA) and electro-pulses on rooting and shoot growth were studied in vitro, using olive\\u000a shoot cultures. Tested shoots were obtained from seedlings belonging to three Spanish cultivars, ‘Arbequina’, ‘Manzanilla\\u000a de Sevilla’ and ‘Gordal Sevillana’, which have easy-, medium- and difficult-to-root rooting abilities, respectively. The standard\\u000a two-step rooting method (SRM), consisting of root induction in olive

Isabel Maria Gonzalez Padilla; I. Vidoy; C. L. Encina

2009-01-01

6

Lipid and protein oxidation of ?-linolenic acid-enriched pork during refrigerated storage as influenced by diet supplementation with olive leaves (Olea europea L.) or ?-tocopheryl acetate.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diet supplementation with olive leaves or ?-tocopheryl acetate on lipid and protein oxidation of raw and cooked n-3 enriched-pork during refrigerated storage. Enrichment of pork with ?-linolenic acid through diet supplementation with linseed oil enhanced (p?0.05) lipid oxidation in both raw and cooked chops but had no effect (p>0.05) on protein oxidation during refrigerated storage while decreasing (p?0.05) the sensory attributes of cooked pork. Diet supplementation with olive leaves or ?-tocopheryl acetate had no effect (p>0.05) on the fatty acid composition of pork but decreased (p?0.05) lipid oxidation while exerting no effect (p>0.05) on protein oxidation in both raw and cooked ?-linolenic acid-enriched chops stored and chilled for 9 days. Moreover, olive leaves and ?-tocopheryl acetate supplemented at 10 g/kg and 200mg/kg diet, respectively, exerted (p?0.05) a beneficial effect on the sensory attributes of cooked ?-linolenic acid-enriched pork chops. PMID:22710099

Botsoglou, Evropi; Govaris, Alexander; Ambrosiadis, Ioannis; Fletouris, Dimitrios

2012-12-01

7

Hg contents in soils and olive-tree (Olea Europea, L.) leaves from an area affected by elemental mercury pollution (Jódar, SE Spain).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from soil and olive tree leaves around a decommissioned chlor-alkali plant are presented in this communication. The factory was active in the period 1977-1991, producing during these years a heavily pollution of Guadalquivir River and hydrargyrism in more than local 45 workers. It is located at 7 km South of Jódar, a locality with some 12,120 inhabitants. Mercury usage was general in this type of plants, but at present it is being replaced by other types of technologies, due to the risks of mercury usage in personal and environment. A soil geochemistry survey was carried out in the area, along with the analysis of olive-tree leaves (in the plots with this culture) from the same area. 73 soil samples were taken at two different depths (0-15 cm and 15-30 cm), together with 41 olive tree samples. Mercury content of geologic and biologic samples was determined by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Zeeman Effect, using a Lumex RA-915+ device with the RP-91C pyrolysis attachment. Air surveys were carried our using a RA-915M Lumex portable analytical device. Soil mercury contents were higher in topsoil than in the deeper soil samples, indicating that incorporation of mercury was due to dry and wet deposition of mercury vapors emitted from the plant. Average content in topsoil is 564.5 ng g-1. Hg contents in olive-tree leaves were in the range 46 - 453 ng g-1, with an average of 160.6 ng g-1. This level is slightly lower than tolerable level for agronomic crops established by Kabata-Pendias (2001) in 200 ng g-1. We have also compared soil and leaf contents for each sampling site, finding a positive and significant correlation (R=0.49), indicating that Hg contents in the leaves are linked to Hg contents in the soils. BAC (Bioaccumulation Absorption Coefficient, calculated as ratio between soil and leaf concentration) is 0.28 (consistent with world references, BAC = 0.7), considered "medium" in comparison with other mineral elements. Main conclusions of this research work are the following: i) The Jódar decommissioned chlor-alkali plant is still a mercury source 20 years after its cease of activities without any reclamation measures; ii) The activity of the plant has produced an important dissemination of mercury in the surrounding environment; and iii) The corresponding pollution levels, in particular in soils, may suppose a risk to the main crops of the area (olive trees present significant accumulation of Hg in leaf).

López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; María Esbrí, José; Amorós, José Angel; Lorenzo, Saturnino; Fernández-Calderón, Sergio; Higueras, Pablo; Perez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad

2014-05-01

8

Biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, in Israel  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bactrocera oleae, the olive fruit fly (OFF), is a key pest of olives in most olive-growing countries in the Mediterranean basin and elsewhere. It significantly reduces yields and degrades the quality of the oil extracted from infested fruit. Olive growers have traditionally used systemic organopho...

9

Olive plants (Olea europaea L.) as a bioindicator for pollution.  

PubMed

In the present work, olive plant (Olea europaea L.) was used as a biological indicator for pollution in which, molecular and physiological parameters were studied. Olive plants were collected from polluted and non-polluted areas in Jeddah - Saudi Arabia, traffic area as an air polluted area, sewage treatment station as water polluted area, industrial area as solid waste polluted, costal area as marine polluted area and an area without a direct source of pollution far away from the city center, which was used as control. These changes conducted with nucleic acid content, minerals content, pigments and some growth parameters. Results showed significant reductions in DNA and RNA contents under all polluted sites. Mineral contents were varied widely depending on the different pollutants and locations of olive plant. Generally, micro-elements varied (increase/decrease) significantly within collected samples and the source of pollution. All growth parameters were decreased significantly within the studied samples of all pollutant areas except the relative water content was increased. The content of chlorophyll a has decreased highly significantly in all polluted leaves. While the content of chlorophyll b has increased significantly in all polluted leaves especially in air polluted leaves. The total content of carotenoid pigments has decreased highly significantly in all polluted leaves. It was concluded that olive plant can be used as a biological indicator to the environmental pollutants. PMID:24494523

Eliwa, Amal Mohamed; Kamel, Ehab Abdel-Razik

2013-06-15

10

Altered Acetylcholinesterase Confers Organophosphate Resistance in the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae  

Microsoft Academic Search

An organophosphate-resistant strain of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae, the most important pest for olive orchards worldwide, was obtained by laboratory selection with dimethoate. Resistance mechanisms were investigated in comparison with the colonized parental strain and a field population collected from the same area after 12 years of continuous dimethoate-based insecticide pressure. Combined biochemical and bioassay data suggested that,

John G. Vontas; Nikos Cosmidis; Michael Loukas; Spyridon Tsakas; Mir Jalil Hejazi; Anna Ayoutanti; Janet Hemingway

2001-01-01

11

A survey of natural and introduced parasitoids of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Israel  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Olive cultivation occupies eight million hectares worldwide, with over ten million tons of olives annually (90% in the Mediterranean Basin). The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a key pest of olive fruit, causing up to 50% in crop loss. Increasing biological control by n...

12

Genetic Diversity of Tunisian Olive Tree ( Olea europaea L.) Cultivars Assessed by AFLP Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 29 olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars including oil and table olive cultivars originating from Tunisia and other Mediterranean countries, were genotyped\\u000a using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) DNA markers. This technique is a rapid and efficient method for producing\\u000a DNA fingerprints. Using nine AFLP primer combinations, we produced a total of 410 AFLP markers, among which 172 revealed polymorphism.

N. Grati-Kamoun; F. Lamy Mahmoud; A. Rebaï; A. Gargouri; O. Panaud; A. Saar

2006-01-01

13

Volatile constituents of commercial imported and domestic black-ripe table olives (Olea europaea)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Volatile constituents of commercial black-ripe table olives (Olea europaea) from the United States, Spain, Egypt and Morocco were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Dynamic headspace sampling was used to isolate a variety of aldehydes, alcohols, esters, ...

14

Diversity and ecology of natural enemies of olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, in South Africa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The recent establishment in North America of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmel.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), has renewed interest in classical biological control of this pest. Previous surveys conducted in Africa and Asia during the 20th century demonstrated a greater natural enemy diversity in s...

15

Effect of irrigation on fruit quality of table olives (Olea europaea), cultivar ‘Ascolana tenera’  

Microsoft Academic Search

This trial was carried out to study the relationship between irrigation and vegetative and productive activity and fruit quality of table olives (Olea europaea), cultivar ‘Ascolana tenera’. Irrigation every 15 days, with c. 0.4 m\\/tree at each irrigation, from the end of June to mid September, induced higher leaf surface area, photosynthesis, and transpiration during the entire growing period compared

P. Proietti; E. Antognozzi

1996-01-01

16

Observation of eight ancient olive trees (Olea europaea L.) growing in the Garden of Gethsemane.  

PubMed

For thousands of years, olive trees (Olea europaea L.) have been a significant presence and a symbol in the Garden of Gethsemane, a place located at the foot of the Mount of Olives, Jerusalem, remembered for the agony of Jesus Christ before his arrest. This investigation comprises the first morphological and genetic characterization of eight olive trees in the Garden of Gethsemane. Pomological traits, morphometric, and ultrastructural observations as well as SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) analysis were performed to identify the olive trees. Statistical analyses were conducted to evaluate their morphological variability. The study revealed a low morphological variability and minimal dissimilarity among the olive trees. According to molecular analysis, these trees showed the same allelic profile at all microsatellite loci analyzed. Combining the results of the different analyses carried out in the frame of the present work, we could conclude that the eight olive trees of the Gethsemane Garden have been propagated from a single genotype. PMID:24841957

Petruccelli, Raffaella; Giordano, Cristiana; Salvatici, Maria Cristina; Capozzoli, Laura; Ciaccheri, Leonardo; Pazzini, Massimo; Lain, Orietta; Testolin, Raffaele; Cimato, Antonio

2014-05-01

17

Valuable Nutrients and Functional Bioactives in Different Parts of Olive (Olea europaea L.)—A Review  

PubMed Central

The Olive tree (Olea europaea L.), a native of the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia, is now widely cultivated in many other parts of the world for production of olive oil and table olives. Olive is a rich source of valuable nutrients and bioactives of medicinal and therapeutic interest. Olive fruit contains appreciable concentration, 1–3% of fresh pulp weight, of hydrophilic (phenolic acids, phenolic alchohols, flavonoids and secoiridoids) and lipophilic (cresols) phenolic compounds that are known to possess multiple biological activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic, cardiotonic, laxative, and antiplatelet. Other important compounds present in olive fruit are pectin, organic acids, and pigments. Virgin olive oil (VOO), extracted mechanically from the fruit, is also very popular for its nutritive and health-promoting potential, especially against cardiovascular disorders due to the presence of high levels of monounsaturates and other valuable minor components such as phenolics, phytosterols, tocopherols, carotenoids, chlorophyll and squalene. The cultivar, area of production, harvest time, and the processing techniques employed are some of the factors shown to influence the composition of olive fruit and olive oil. This review focuses comprehensively on the nutrients and high-value bioactives profile as well as medicinal and functional aspects of different parts of olives and its byproducts. Various factors affecting the composition of this food commodity of medicinal value are also discussed. PMID:22489153

Ghanbari, Rahele; Anwar, Farooq; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Saari, Nazamid

2012-01-01

18

Valuable Nutrients and Functional Bioactives in Different Parts of Olive (Olea europaea L.)-A Review.  

PubMed

The Olive tree (Olea europaea L.), a native of the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia, is now widely cultivated in many other parts of the world for production of olive oil and table olives. Olive is a rich source of valuable nutrients and bioactives of medicinal and therapeutic interest. Olive fruit contains appreciable concentration, 1-3% of fresh pulp weight, of hydrophilic (phenolic acids, phenolic alchohols, flavonoids and secoiridoids) and lipophilic (cresols) phenolic compounds that are known to possess multiple biological activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic, cardiotonic, laxative, and antiplatelet. Other important compounds present in olive fruit are pectin, organic acids, and pigments. Virgin olive oil (VOO), extracted mechanically from the fruit, is also very popular for its nutritive and health-promoting potential, especially against cardiovascular disorders due to the presence of high levels of monounsaturates and other valuable minor components such as phenolics, phytosterols, tocopherols, carotenoids, chlorophyll and squalene. The cultivar, area of production, harvest time, and the processing techniques employed are some of the factors shown to influence the composition of olive fruit and olive oil. This review focuses comprehensively on the nutrients and high-value bioactives profile as well as medicinal and functional aspects of different parts of olives and its byproducts. Various factors affecting the composition of this food commodity of medicinal value are also discussed. PMID:22489153

Ghanbari, Rahele; Anwar, Farooq; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Saari, Nazamid

2012-01-01

19

Molecular interactions between the olive and the fruit fly Bactrocera oleae  

PubMed Central

Background The fruit fly Bactrocera oleae is the primary biotic stressor of cultivated olives, causing direct and indirect damages that significantly reduce both the yield and the quality of olive oil. To study the olive-B. oleae interaction, we conducted transcriptomic and proteomic investigations of the molecular response of the drupe. The identifications of genes and proteins involved in the fruit response were performed using a Suppression Subtractive Hybridisation technique and a combined bi-dimensional electrophoresis/nanoLC-ESI-LIT-MS/MS approach, respectively. Results We identified 196 ESTs and 26 protein spots as differentially expressed in olives with larval feeding tunnels. A bioinformatic analysis of the identified non-redundant EST and protein collection indicated that different molecular processes were affected, such as stress response, phytohormone signalling, transcriptional control and primary metabolism, and that a considerable proportion of the ESTs could not be classified. The altered expression of 20 transcripts was also analysed by real-time PCR, and the most striking differences were further confirmed in the fruit of a different olive variety. We also cloned the full-length coding sequences of two genes, Oe-chitinase I and Oe-PR27, and showed that these are wound-inducible genes and activated by B. oleae punctures. Conclusions This study represents the first report that reveals the molecular players and signalling pathways involved in the interaction between the olive fruit and its most damaging biotic stressor. Drupe response is complex, involving genes and proteins involved in photosynthesis as well as in the production of ROS, the activation of different stress response pathways and the production of compounds involved in direct defence against phytophagous larvae. Among the latter, trypsin inhibitors should play a major role in drupe resistance reaction. PMID:22694925

2012-01-01

20

Residues on olives, oil and processing waste waters of pesticides used for the control of Dacus oleae (Gmel.) (Dipt., Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been carried out on the presence of pesticide residues (deltamethrin, fenthion, formothion and their metabolites) on olives, oil and processing waste waters, after adulticide and larvicide treatments for the control ofDacus oleae (Gmel.). Deltamethrin was found to have a faster degradation rate than fenthion, leaving no traces on olives 18 days after treatment. Fenthion, on the contrary,

A. Leandri; V. Pompi; C. Pucci; A. F. Spanedda

1993-01-01

21

Volatile constituents of commercial imported and domestic black-ripe table olives (Olea europaea).  

PubMed

Volatile constituents of commercial black-ripe table olives (Olea europaea) from the United States, Spain, Egypt and Morocco were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Dynamic headspace sampling was used to isolate a variety of aldehydes, alcohols, esters, ketones, phenols, terpenes, norisoprenoids, and pyridines. Odour unit values, calculated from concentration and odour threshold data, indicate that the following compounds are major contributors to black-ripe table olive aroma: ?-damascenone, nonanal, (E)-dec-2-enal, 3-methylbutanal, ethyl benzoate, octanal, 2-methoxyphenol, 2-methylbutanal and 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol. Imported olives contained a variety of fermentation derived volatiles that were not detected in domestic olives. Constituents such as ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, oct-1-en-3-one, ethyl hexanoate, (Z)-hex-3-enyl acetate, hexyl acetate, ethyl cyclohexanecarboxylate, benzyl acetate and 4-ethylphenol contributed to the odour of imported olives but were not detected in domestic olives. PMID:24295708

Sansone-Land, Angelina; Takeoka, Gary R; Shoemaker, Charles F

2014-04-15

22

Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology of Olea europaea (Olive)  

PubMed Central

Aim of the Review. To grasp the fragmented information available on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Olea europaea to explore its therapeutic potential and future research opportunities. Material and Methods. All the available information on O. europaea was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, Scirus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science) and a library search. Results. Ethnomedical uses of O. europaea are recorded throughout the world where it has been used to treat various ailments. Phytochemical research had led to the isolation of flavonoids, secoiridoids, iridoids, flavanones, biophenols, triterpenes, benzoic acid derivatives, isochromans, and other classes of secondary metabolites from O. europaea. The plant materials and isolated components have shown a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities like antidiabetic, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihypertensive, anticancer, antihyperglycemic, antinociceptive, gastroprotective, and wound healing activities. Conclusions. O. europaea emerged as a good source of traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The outcomes of phytochemical and pharmacological studies reported in this review will further expand its existing therapeutic potential and provide a convincing support to its future clinical use in modern medicine. PMID:25802541

Hashmi, Muhammad Ali; Khan, Afsar; Hanif, Muhammad; Farooq, Umar; Perveen, Shagufta

2015-01-01

23

Identification of new polymorphic regions and differentiation of cultivated olives (Olea europaea L.) through plastome sequence comparison  

PubMed Central

Background The cultivated olive (Olea europaea L.) is the most agriculturally important species of the Oleaceae family. Although many studies have been performed on plastid polymorphisms to evaluate taxonomy, phylogeny and phylogeography of Olea subspecies, only few polymorphic regions discriminating among the agronomically and economically important olive cultivars have been identified. The objective of this study was to sequence the entire plastome of olive and analyze many potential polymorphic regions to develop new inter-cultivar genetic markers. Results The complete plastid genome of the olive cultivar Frantoio was determined by direct sequence analysis using universal and novel PCR primers designed to amplify all overlapping regions. The chloroplast genome of the olive has an organisation and gene order that is conserved among numerous Angiosperm species and do not contain any of the inversions, gene duplications, insertions, inverted repeat expansions and gene/intron losses that have been found in the chloroplast genomes of the genera Jasminum and Menodora, from the same family as Olea. The annotated sequence was used to evaluate the content of coding genes, the extent, and distribution of repeated and long dispersed sequences and the nucleotide composition pattern. These analyses provided essential information for structural, functional and comparative genomic studies in olive plastids. Furthermore, the alignment of the olive plastome sequence to those of other varieties and species identified 30 new organellar polymorphisms within the cultivated olive. Conclusions In addition to identifying mutations that may play a functional role in modifying the metabolism and adaptation of olive cultivars, the new chloroplast markers represent a valuable tool to assess the level of olive intercultivar plastome variation for use in population genetic analysis, phylogenesis, cultivar characterisation and DNA food tracking. PMID:20868482

2010-01-01

24

A survey of fruit-feeding insects and their parasitoids occurring on wild olives, Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata, in the Eastern Cape of South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits of wild olives, Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata (Wall. ex G. Don) Cif., were collected in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, during 2003–2005 to quantify levels of fruit-infesting pests and their parasitoids. Two species of Tephritidae, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) and B. biguttula (Bezzi), were the most abundant insects recovered and were reared from most samples. Fruit infestation rates by the

Nolwazi Mkize; Kim A. Hoelmer; Martin H. Villet

2008-01-01

25

Analysis of the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae Transcriptome and Phylogenetic Classification of the Major Detoxification Gene Families  

PubMed Central

The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae has a unique ability to cope with olive flesh, and is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. Its control has been largely based on the use of chemical insecticides, however, the selection of insecticide resistance against several insecticides has evolved. The study of detoxification mechanisms, which allow the olive fruit fly to defend against insecticides, and/or phytotoxins possibly present in the mesocarp, has been hampered by the lack of genomic information in this species. In the NCBI database less than 1,000 nucleotide sequences have been deposited, with less than 10 detoxification gene homologues in total. We used 454 pyrosequencing to produce, for the first time, a large transcriptome dataset for B. oleae. A total of 482,790 reads were assembled into 14,204 contigs. More than 60% of those contigs (8,630) were larger than 500 base pairs, and almost half of them matched with genes of the order of the Diptera. Analysis of the Gene Ontology (GO) distribution of unique contigs, suggests that, compared to other insects, the assembly is broadly representative for the B. oleae transcriptome. Furthermore, the transcriptome was found to contain 55 P450, 43 GST-, 15 CCE- and 18 ABC transporter-genes. Several of those detoxification genes, may putatively be involved in the ability of the olive fruit fly to deal with xenobiotics, such as plant phytotoxins and insecticides. In summary, our study has generated new data and genomic resources, which will substantially facilitate molecular studies in B. oleae, including elucidation of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic, as well as other important aspects of olive fruit fly biology. PMID:23824998

Rombauts, Stephane; Chrisargiris, Antonis; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

2013-01-01

26

The Bactrocera oleae genome: localization of nine genes on the polytene chromosomes of the olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

PubMed

Four homologous and five heterologous gene-specific sequences have been mapped by in situ hybridization on the salivary gland polytene chromosomes of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae. The nine genes were dispersed on four of the five autosomal chromosomes, thus enriching the available set of chromosome landmarks for this major agricultural pest. Present data further supports the proposed chromosome homologies among B. oleae, Ceratitis capitata, and Drosophila melanogaster and the idea of the conservation of chromosomal element identity throughout dipteran evolution. PMID:25723592

Drosopoulou, Elena; Nakou, Ifigeneia; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope

2014-10-01

27

Agistemus aimogastaensis sp. n. (Acari, Actinedida, Stigmaeidae), a recently discovered predator of eriophyid mites Aceria oleae and Oxycenus maxwelli, in olive orchards in Argentina  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species, Agistemus aimogastaensis, is described with the aid of optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy. This mite is an important predator of two eriophyid mites (Aceria oleae and Oxycenus maxwelli) in olive orchards (Olea europaea, variety Arauco) in La Rioja Province. The problems related to eriophyids in olive orchards in Argentina are highlighted and photos of the damage on leaves and fruit are included. PMID:23825448

Leiva, Sergio; Fernandez, Nestor; Theron, Pieter; Rollard, Christine

2013-01-01

28

Polyploidy in the Olive Complex (Olea europaea): Evidence from Flow Cytometry and Nuclear Microsatellite Analyses  

PubMed Central

Background Phylogenetic and phylogeographic investigations have been previously performed to study the evolution of the olive tree complex (Olea europaea). A particularly high genomic diversity has been found in north-west Africa. However, to date no exhaustive study has been addressed to infer putative polyploidization events and their evolutionary significance in the diversification of the olive tree and its relatives. Methods Representatives of the six olive subspecies were investigated using (a) flow cytometry to estimate genome content, and (b) six highly variable nuclear microsatellites to assess the presence of multiple alleles at co-dominant loci. In addition, nine individuals from a controlled cross between two individuals of O. europaea subsp. maroccana were characterized with microsatellites to check for chromosome inheritance. Key Results Based on flow cytometry and genetic analyses, strong evidence for polyploidy was obtained in subspp. cerasiformis (tetraploid) and maroccana (hexaploid), whereas the other subspecies appeared to be diploids. Agreement between flow cytometry and genetic analyses gives an alternative approach to chromosome counting to determine ploidy level of trees. Lastly, abnormalities in chromosomes inheritance leading to aneuploid formation were revealed using microsatellite analyses in the offspring from the controlled cross in subsp. maroccana. Conclusions This study constitutes the first report for multiple polyploidy in olive tree relatives. Formation of tetraploids and hexaploids may have played a major role in the diversification of the olive complex in north-west Africa. The fact that polyploidy is found in narrow endemic subspecies from Madeira (subsp. cerasiformis) and the Agadir Mountains (subsp. maroccana) suggests that polyploidization has been favoured to overcome inbreeding depression. Lastly, based on previous phylogenetic analyses, we hypothesize that subsp. cerasiformis resulted from hybridization between ancestors of subspp. guanchica and europaea. PMID:18024415

Besnard, G.; Garcia-Verdugo, C.; Rubio De Casas, R.; Treier, U. A.; Galland, N.; Vargas, P.

2008-01-01

29

Profiling and functional classification of esterases in olive (Olea europaea) pollen during germination  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims A pollen grain contains a number of esterases, many of which are released upon contact with the stigma surface. However, the identity and function of most of these esterases remain unknown. In this work, esterases from olive pollen during its germination were identifided and functionally characterized. Methods The esterolytic capacity of olive (Olea europaea) pollen was examined using in vitro and in-gel enzymatic assays with different enzyme substrates. The functional analysis of pollen esterases was achieved by inhibition assays by using specific inhibitors. The cellular localization of esterase activities was performed using histochemical methods. Key Results Olive pollen showed high levels of non-specific esterase activity, which remained steady after hydration and germination. Up to 20 esterolytic bands were identified on polyacrylamide gels. All the inhibitors decreased pollen germinability, but only diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DIFP) hampered pollen tube growth. Non-specific esterase activity is localized on the surface of oil bodies (OBs) and small vesicles, in the pollen intine and in the callose layer of the pollen tube wall. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was mostly observed in the apertures, exine and pollen coat, and attached to the pollen tube wall surface and to small cytoplasmic vesicles. Conclusions In this work, for the first time a systematic functional characterization of esterase enzymes in pollen from a plant species with wet stigma has been carried out. Olive pollen esterases belong to four different functional groups: carboxylesterases, acetylesterases, AChEs and lipases. The cellular localization of esterase activity indicates that the intine is a putative storage site for esterolytic enzymes in olive pollen. Based on inhibition assays and cellular localization of enzymatic activities, it can be concluded that these enzymes are likely to be involved in pollen germination, and pollen tube growth and penetration of the stigma. PMID:22922586

Rejón, Juan D.; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Rodríguez-García, María Isabel; Castro, Antonio J.

2012-01-01

30

Acetobacter tropicalis Is a Major Symbiont of the Olive Fruit Fly (Bactrocera oleae)?  

PubMed Central

Following cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques, we investigated the microbiota associated with Bactrocera oleae, one of the major agricultural pests in olive-producing countries. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene libraries and ultrastructural analyses revealed the presence of several bacterial taxa associated with this insect, among which Acetobacter tropicalis was predominant. The recent increased detection of acetic acid bacteria as symbionts of other insect model organisms, such as Anopheles stephensi (G. Favia et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:9047-9051, 2007) or Drosophila melanogaster (C. R. Cox and M. S. Gilmore, Infect. Immun. 75:1565-1576, 2007), prompted us to investigate the association established between A. tropicalis and B. oleae. Using an A. tropicalis-specific PCR assay, the symbiont was detected in all insects tested originating from laboratory stocks or field-collected from different locations in Greece. This acetic acid bacterium was successfully established in cell-free medium, and typing analyses, carried out on a collection of isolates, revealed that different A. tropicalis strains are present in fly populations. The capability to colonize and lodge in the digestive system of both larvae and adults and in Malpighian tubules of adults was demonstrated by using a strain labeled with a green fluorescent protein. PMID:19304818

Kounatidis, Ilias; Crotti, Elena; Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Sacchi, Luciano; Rizzi, Aurora; Chouaia, Bessem; Bandi, Claudio; Alma, Alberto; Daffonchio, Daniele; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Bourtzis, Kostas

2009-01-01

31

Acetobacter tropicalis is a major symbiont of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae).  

PubMed

Following cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques, we investigated the microbiota associated with Bactrocera oleae, one of the major agricultural pests in olive-producing countries. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene libraries and ultrastructural analyses revealed the presence of several bacterial taxa associated with this insect, among which Acetobacter tropicalis was predominant. The recent increased detection of acetic acid bacteria as symbionts of other insect model organisms, such as Anopheles stephensi (G. Favia et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:9047-9051, 2007) or Drosophila melanogaster (C. R. Cox and M. S. Gilmore, Infect. Immun. 75:1565-1576, 2007), prompted us to investigate the association established between A. tropicalis and B. oleae. Using an A. tropicalis-specific PCR assay, the symbiont was detected in all insects tested originating from laboratory stocks or field-collected from different locations in Greece. This acetic acid bacterium was successfully established in cell-free medium, and typing analyses, carried out on a collection of isolates, revealed that different A. tropicalis strains are present in fly populations. The capability to colonize and lodge in the digestive system of both larvae and adults and in Malpighian tubules of adults was demonstrated by using a strain labeled with a green fluorescent protein. PMID:19304818

Kounatidis, Ilias; Crotti, Elena; Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Sacchi, Luciano; Rizzi, Aurora; Chouaia, Bessem; Bandi, Claudio; Alma, Alberto; Daffonchio, Daniele; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Bourtzis, Kostas

2009-05-01

32

Molecular studies in olive ( Olea europaea L.): overview on DNA markers applications and recent advances in genome analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the oldest agricultural tree crops worldwide and is an important source of oil with beneficial properties for\\u000a human health. This emblematic tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin, which has conserved a very wide germplasm estimated in\\u000a more than 1,200 cultivars, is a diploid species (2n = 2x = 46) that is present in two forms, namely wild

T. Bracci; M. Busconi; C. Fogher; L. Sebastiani

2011-01-01

33

Nutrition metabolism plays an important role in the alternate bearing of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.).  

PubMed

The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits) are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between "on year" and "off year" leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree. PMID:23555820

Turktas, Mine; Inal, Behcet; Okay, Sezer; Erkilic, Emine Gulden; Dundar, Ekrem; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel; Unver, Turgay

2013-01-01

34

Nutrition Metabolism Plays an Important Role in the Alternate Bearing of the Olive Tree (Olea europaea L.)  

PubMed Central

The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits) are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between ”on year” and “off year” leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree. PMID:23555820

Turktas, Mine; Inal, Behcet; Okay, Sezer; Erkilic, Emine Gulden; Dundar, Ekrem; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel; Unver, Turgay

2013-01-01

35

Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive tree (Olea europaea L.) with a focus on the Mediterranean Basin: a review.  

PubMed

The olive tree (Olea europaea ssp. europaea.) is one of the most ancient cultivated trees. It is an emblematic species owing to its ecological, economic and cultural importance, especially in the Mediterranean Basin. Plant-parasitic nematodes are major damaging pests on olive trees, mainly in nurseries. They significantly contribute to economic losses in the top-ten olive-producing countries in the world. However, the damages they induce in orchards and nurseries are specifically documented only in a few countries. This review aims to update knowledge about the olive-nematode pathosystem by: (1) updating the list of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive trees; (2) analysing their diversity (taxonomic level, trophic groups, dominance of taxa), which allowed us (i) to assess the richness observed in each country, and (ii) to exhibit and describe the most important taxa able to induce damages on olive trees such as: Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Xiphinema, Tylenchulus, Rotylenchulus, Heterodera (distribution especially in the Mediterranean Basin, pathogenicity and reactions of olive trees); (3) describing some management strategies focusing on alternative control methods; (4) suggesting new approaches for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes based on the management of the diversity of their communities, which are structured by several environmental factors such as olive diversity (due to domestication of wild olive in the past, and to breeding now), cropping systems (from traditional to high-density orchards), irrigation, and terroirs. PMID:25103828

Ali, Nadine; Chapuis, Elodie; Tavoillot, Johannes; Mateille, Thierry

2014-01-01

36

Classical biological control of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera olea (Diptera: Tephritidae), using the exotic parasitoie, Psyttalia lounsburyi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in France.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is an important pest of olives which is worldwide distributed and responsible for economic losses of approximately US$800 million per year. Since the 2000s both economical and environmental concerns have raised interested in clas...

37

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, and their cross-species amplification in the Tephritidae family  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Tephritidae family of insects includes the most important agricultural pests of fruits and vegetables, belonging mainly to four genera (Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Anastrepha and Rhagoletis). The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major pest of the olive fruit. Currently, its control is based on chemical insecticides. Environmentally friendlier methods have been attempted in the past (Sterile Insect Technique),

Antonios A Augustinos; Elias E Stratikopoulos; Eleni Drosopoulou; Evdoxia G Kakani; Penelope Mavragani-Tsipidou; Antigone Zacharopoulou; Kostas D Mathiopoulos

2008-01-01

38

High-Throughput Sequencing of RNA Silencing-Associated Small RNAs in Olive (Olea europaea L.)  

PubMed Central

Small RNAs (sRNAs) of 20 to 25 nucleotides (nt) in length maintain genome integrity and control gene expression in a multitude of developmental and physiological processes. Despite RNA silencing has been primarily studied in model plants, the advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies has enabled profiling of the sRNA component of more than 40 plant species. Here, we used deep sequencing and molecular methods to report the first inventory of sRNAs in olive (Olea europaea L.). sRNA libraries prepared from juvenile and adult shoots revealed that the 24-nt class dominates the sRNA transcriptome and atypically accumulates to levels never seen in other plant species, suggesting an active role of heterochromatin silencing in the maintenance and integrity of its large genome. A total of 18 known miRNA families were identified in the libraries. Also, 5 other sRNAs derived from potential hairpin-like precursors remain as plausible miRNA candidates. RNA blots confirmed miRNA expression and suggested tissue- and/or developmental-specific expression patterns. Target mRNAs of conserved miRNAs were computationally predicted among the olive cDNA collection and experimentally validated through endonucleolytic cleavage assays. Finally, we use expression data to uncover genetic components of the miR156, miR172 and miR390/TAS3-derived trans-acting small interfering RNA (tasiRNA) regulatory nodes, suggesting that these interactive networks controlling developmental transitions are fully operational in olive. PMID:22140484

Donaire, Livia; Pedrola, Laia; de la Rosa, Raúl; Llave, César

2011-01-01

39

Isolation and functional characterization of three aquaporins from olive (Olea europaea L.).  

PubMed

To study the molecular bases of water transport in olive we characterized cDNAs from Olea europaea cv "Leccino" related to the aquaporin (AQP) gene family. A phylogenetic analysis of the corresponding polypeptides confirmed that they were part of water channel proteins localized in the plasma membrane and in the tonoplast. The full-length sequences were obtained by RACE-PCR and were named OePIP1.1, OePIP2.1 and OeTIP1.1. The OePIP2.1 and OeTIP1.1 encode functional water channel proteins, as indicated by expression assays in Xenopus laevis oocytes. OePIP1.1 and OePIP2.1 expression levels are high in roots and twigs and low in leaves. The highest hybridization signal of OeTIP1.1 was detected in twigs, while in roots and leaves the expression was low. To investigate the effect of abiotic stress on the transcript level of olive AQP genes, olive trees were subjected to drought treatment and the expression levels of the genes were measured by Northern-blot analysis. The transcript levels of each gene diminished strongly in plants submitted to drought stress, when soil moisture, twig water potential and twig hydraulic conductivity progressively decreased. The downregulation of AQP genes may result in reduced membrane water permeability and may limit loss of cellular water during periods of water stress. A possible role for AQPs on shoot embolism repair is discussed. PMID:16924538

Secchi, Francesca; Lovisolo, Claudio; Uehlein, Norbert; Kaldenhoff, Ralf; Schubert, Andrea

2007-01-01

40

Impacts of water stress on gas exchange, water relations, chlorophyll content and leaf structure in the two main Tunisian olive ( Olea europaea L.) cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf structural adaptations for the reduction of water loss were examined in two olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars (Chemlali and Chétoui) growing under water stress conditions. Leaf measurements included leaf tissue thickness, stomatal density, trichome density, specific leaf area, leaf density, water relations, and gas exchange. We found considerable genotypic differences between the two cultivars. Chemlali exhibited more tolerance to

Mokhtar Guerfel; Olfa Baccouri; Dalenda Boujnah; Wided Chaïbi; Mokhtar Zarrouk

2009-01-01

41

Molecular characterization of genetic diversity, structure, and differentiation in the olive (Olea europaea L.) germplasm collection of the united states department of agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fifteen microsatellite loci were used to genotype 108 accessions of cultivated olive, Olea europaea L. ssp. europaea var. europaea, and eight of O. europaea L. ssp. cuspidata (Wall. ex G. Don) Ciferri from the germplasm collection of the United States Department of Agriculture in Davis, California. ...

42

Oil, protein, antioxidants and free radical scavenging activity of stone from wild olive trees (Olea europaea L.).  

PubMed

The wild olive trees or oleaster (var. sylvestris) and the cultivated olive trees (var. europaea) constitute the two botanical varieties of Olea europaea L. from Mediterranean. In this study, a partial chemical profile was conducted including the total lipids, the fatty acid profiles, soluble proteins, polyphenols, flavanoids contents and antioxidants activities of stone from six oleaster trees. The comparison was made by two olive cultivars cultivated in the same region. The oleaster and cultivar stones were richer in oil content having an average of 8.99 and 7.38 % dry weight basis (DW), respectively. Qualitatively, all studied oils have the same fatty acids profile with the oleic acid C18:1n-9 as the major fatty acid. The oleaster stone oils were richer in monounsaturated fatty acids having an average of 64.87%. They, also, richer in protein content with an average of 198.86 mg/g DW.The globulin is the major fraction, followed by the albumin, the prolamin and the glutemin fractions. The oleaster stone extracts contain polyphenols, flavonoids with an average of 151.14 and 11.91 mg gallic acid equivalent/100g of DW, respectively. The studied extracts showed antioxidant activity using the free radical scavenging activity determined by DPPH and ABTS. The unexploited oleaster stone seems to be a source of oil with good fatty acids balance, in protein and antioxidants metabolites and would be useful for the formulation of supplements and/or pharmaceutical ingredients. PMID:23625423

Hannachi, Hédia; Elfalleh, Walid; Marzouk, Sizaiem

2013-05-01

43

Construction of Core Collections Suitable for Association Mapping to Optimize Use of Mediterranean Olive (Olea europaea L.) Genetic Resources  

PubMed Central

Phenotypic characterisation of germplasm collections is a decisive step towards association mapping analyses, but it is particularly expensive and tedious for woody perennial plant species. Characterisation could be more efficient if focused on a reasonably sized subset of accessions, or so-called core collection (CC), reflecting the geographic origin and variability of the germplasm. The questions that arise concern the sample size to use and genetic parameters that should be optimized in a core collection to make it suitable for association mapping. Here we investigated these questions in olive (Olea europaea L.), a perennial fruit species. By testing different sampling methods and sizes in a worldwide olive germplasm bank (OWGB Marrakech, Morocco) containing 502 unique genotypes characterized by nuclear and plastid loci, a two-step sampling method was proposed. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index was found to be the best criterion to be maximized in the first step using the Core Hunter program. A primary core collection of 50 entries (CC50) was defined that captured more than 80% of the diversity. This latter was subsequently used as a kernel with the Mstrat program to capture the remaining diversity. 200 core collections of 94 entries (CC94) were thus built for flexibility in the choice of varieties to be studied. Most entries of both core collections (CC50 and CC94) were revealed to be unrelated due to the low kinship coefficient, whereas a genetic structure spanning the eastern and western/central Mediterranean regions was noted. Linkage disequilibrium was observed in CC94 which was mainly explained by a genetic structure effect as noted for OWGB Marrakech. Since they reflect the geographic origin and diversity of olive germplasm and are of reasonable size, both core collections will be of major interest to develop long-term association studies and thus enhance genomic selection in olive species. PMID:23667437

El Bakkali, Ahmed; Haouane, Hicham; Moukhli, Abdelmajid; Costes, Evelyne; Van Damme, Patrick; Khadari, Bouchaib

2013-01-01

44

Plasma lipid modifications in elderly people after administration of two virgin olive oils of the same variety (Olea europaea var. hojiblanca) with different triacylglycerol composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we examined whether two virgin olive oils (VOO1 and VOO2), of the same variety (Olea europaea var. hojiblanca) and with a similar composition of minor components but differing in the content of triacylglycerol molecular species, had different effects on blood pressure and plasma lipid levels in a healthy elderly population. Thirty-one participants, aged 84·9 (SD 6·4)

Javier S. Perona; Julio Cañizares; Emilio Montero; José M. Sánchez-Domínguez; Valentina Ruiz-Gutierrez

2003-01-01

45

Resistance-associated point mutations of organophosphate insensitive acetylcholinesterase, in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2.2-kb full length cDNA containing an ORF encoding a putative acetylcholinesterase (AChE) precursor of 673 amino acid residues was obtained by a com- bined degenerate PCR and RACE strategy from an organophosphate-susceptible Bactrocera oleae strain. A comparison of cDNA sequences of individual insects from susceptible and resistant strains, coupled with an enzyme inhibition assay with omethoate, indicated a novel

J. G. Vontas; M. J. Hejazi; N. J. Hawkes; N. Cosmidis; M. Loukas; J. Hemingway

2002-01-01

46

Allozyme variation of oleaster populations (wild olive tree) (Olea europaea L.) in the Mediterranean Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the early domestication and extensive cultivation of the olive tree throughout the Mediterranean Basin, the wild-looking forms of olive (oleasters) presently observed constitute a complex, potentially ranging from wild to feral forms. Allozyme variation was analysed at 10 loci in 31 large and 44 small oleaster populations distributed in various habitats of the Mediterranean Basin and

R Lumaret; N Ouazzani; H Michaud; G Vivier; M-F Deguilloux; F Di Giusto

2004-01-01

47

Genetic Biodiversity of Italian Olives (Olea europaea) Germplasm Analyzed by SSR Markers  

PubMed Central

The olive is an important fruit species cultivated for oil and table olives in Italy and the Mediterranean basin. The conservation of cultivated plants in ex situ collections is essential for the optimal management and use of their genetic resources. The largest ex situ olive germplasm collection consists of approximately 500 Italian olive varieties and corresponding to 85% of the total Italian olive germplasm is maintained at the Consiglio per la Ricerca e sperimentazione per l'Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per l'Olivicoltura e l'Industria Olearia (CRA-OLI), in Italy. In this work, eleven preselected nuclear microsatellite markers were used to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flows with the aim of assembling a core collection. The dendrogram obtained utilizing the unweighted pair group method highlights the presence of homonymy and synonymy in olive tree datasets analyzed in this study. 439 different unique genotype profiles were obtained with this combination of 11 loci nSSR, representing 89.8% of the varieties analyzed. The remaining 10.2% comprises different variety pairs in which both accessions are genetically indistinguishable. Clustering analysis performed using BAPS software detected seven groups in Italian olive germplasm and gene flows were determined among identified clusters. We proposed an Italian core collection of 23 olive varieties capturing all detected alleles at microsatellites. The information collected in this study regarding the CRA-OLI ex situ collection can be used for breeding programs, for germplasm conservation, and for optimizing a strategy for the management of olive gene pools. PMID:24723801

Vendramin, Giuseppe Giovanni; Chiappetta, Adriana

2014-01-01

48

Resistance-associated point mutations of organophosphate insensitive acetylcholinesterase, in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae.  

PubMed

A 2.2-kb full length cDNA containing an ORF encoding a putative acetylcholinesterase (AChE) precursor of 673 amino acid residues was obtained by a combined degenerate PCR and RACE strategy from an organophosphate-susceptible Bactrocera oleae strain. A comparison of cDNA sequences of individual insects from susceptible and resistant strains, coupled with an enzyme inhibition assay with omethoate, indicated a novel glycine-serine substitution (G488S), at an amino acid residue which is highly conserved across species (G396 of Torpedocalifornica AChE), as a likely cause of AChE insensitivity. This mutation was also associated with a 35-40% reduction in AChE catalytic efficiency. The I199V substitution, which confers low levels of resistance in Drosophila, was also present in B. oleae (I214V) and in combination with G488S produced up to a 16-fold decrease in insecticide sensitivity. This is the first agricultural pest where resistance has been associated with an alteration in AChE, which arises from point mutations located within the active site gorge of the enzyme. PMID:12144698

Vontas, J G; Hejazi, M J; Hawkes, N J; Cosmidis, N; Loukas, M; Janes, R W; Hemingway, J

2002-08-01

49

( Z)-9-tricosene identified in rectal gland extracts of Bactrocera oleae males: first evidence of a male-produced female attractant in olive fruit fly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well-known that Bactrocera oleae (olive fruit fly) females attract conspecific males by using 1,7-dioxaspiro[5,5]undecane ( 1) as the main component of their sex pheromone, and that 1 is produced in the female rectal gland. Although some authors have claimed that B. oleae males also attract females, to date no male-produced female attractants have been found in this species. In this paper, we report the first identification of a substance unique to males and able to attract females. The findings of the study include the following: (1) females responded in a bioassay to hexane extracts obtained from rectal glands of 15-day-old B. oleae males, (2) the presence of ( Z)-9-tricosene ( 2) was consistently and unambiguously identified in these extracts using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry methods, (3) in preliminary bioactivity tests, low doses (equivalent to a few males) of chemically and stereoisomerically pure synthetic ( Z)-9-tricosene ( 2) attracted olive fruit fly females. Interestingly, compound 2, commonly called muscalure, is also a well-known component of the house fly ( Musca domestica) sex pheromone.

Carpita, Adriano; Canale, Angelo; Raffaelli, Andrea; Saba, Alessandro; Benelli, Giovanni; Raspi, Alfio

2012-01-01

50

(Z)-9-tricosene identified in rectal gland extracts of Bactrocera oleae males: first evidence of a male-produced female attractant in olive fruit fly.  

PubMed

It is well-known that Bactrocera oleae (olive fruit fly) females attract conspecific males by using 1,7-dioxaspiro[5,5]undecane (1) as the main component of their sex pheromone, and that 1 is produced in the female rectal gland. Although some authors have claimed that B. oleae males also attract females, to date no male-produced female attractants have been found in this species. In this paper, we report the first identification of a substance unique to males and able to attract females. The findings of the study include the following: (1) females responded in a bioassay to hexane extracts obtained from rectal glands of 15-day-old B. oleae males, (2) the presence of (Z)-9-tricosene (2) was consistently and unambiguously identified in these extracts using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry methods, (3) in preliminary bioactivity tests, low doses (equivalent to a few males) of chemically and stereoisomerically pure synthetic (Z)-9-tricosene (2) attracted olive fruit fly females. Interestingly, compound 2, commonly called muscalure, is also a well-known component of the house fly (Musca domestica) sex pheromone. PMID:22159636

Carpita, Adriano; Canale, Angelo; Raffaelli, Andrea; Saba, Alessandro; Benelli, Giovanni; Raspi, Alfio

2012-01-01

51

The efficacy of kaolin particle film on oil quality indices of olive trees (Olea europaea L.) cv 'Zard' grown under warm and semi-arid region of Iran.  

PubMed

Kaolin particle film (0%, 3% and 6%; w/v), as an antitranspirant treatment, was applied to mature 'Zard' olive trees (Olea europaea L.). Olive oil was extracted from harvested fruit and fatty acid composition and other oil quality indices of the fruit assessed over crop seasons. Kaolin increased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, but decreased peroxide and iodine values, and UV absorbance extinction coefficients, of the oil. The highest palmitic acid was observed in the oil obtained from untreated trees (17%). Kaolin increased oleic acid up to 65% and 64% in the first and second crop seasons, respectively, but decreased linoleic and linolenic acid contents. Monounsaturated acids (65%) and oleic acid/linoleic acid ratios (4) were higher in oil obtained from kaolin treated than untreated trees. Therefore it can be expected that extracted olive oil from kaolin treated trees has a higher oxidative stability and shelf life than untreated trees. PMID:25053025

Khaleghi, Esmaeil; Arzani, Kazem; Moallemi, Norollah; Barzegar, Mohsen

2015-01-01

52

Proteomic platform for the identification of proteins in olive (Olea europaea) pulp.  

PubMed

The nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil extracted mechanically from the ripe fruits of Olea europaea trees are attracting constantly more attention worldwide. The preparation of high-quality protein samples from plant tissues for proteomic analysis poses many challenging problems. In this study we employed a proteomic platform based on two different extraction methods, SDS and CHAPS based protocols, followed by two precipitation protocols, TCA/acetone and MeOH precipitation, in order to increase the final number of identified proteins. The use of advanced MS techniques in combination with the Swissprot and NCBI Viridiplantae databases and TAIR10 Arabidopsis database allowed us to identify 1265 proteins, of which 22 belong to O. europaea. The application of this proteomic platform for protein extraction and identification will be useful also for other proteomic studies on recalcitrant plant/fruit tissues. PMID:24120165

Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Foglia, Patrizia; Piovesana, Susy; Samperi, Roberto; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Laganà, Aldo

2013-10-24

53

Genetic variation in the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cultivated in Morocco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation was studied using enzyme polymorphism at 8 loci in ancient olive trees. These were being cultivated in 10 sites along a transect from North (Pre-Rif) to South (Anti-Atlas), involving the main ecological areas where the species is cultivated in Morocco. For the 328 trees studied, 16 alleles and 68 multilocus genotypes, of which one was present in more

N. Ouazzani; R. Lumaret; P. Villemur

1996-01-01

54

Pigment metabolism of 'Sikitita' olive ( Olea europaea L.): a new cultivar obtained by cross-breeding.  

PubMed

The new olive cultivar 'Sikitita' was obtained from a cross between the 'Picual' and 'Arbequina' varieties. 'Sikitita' was selected for its features, making it particularly suited to high-density olive hedgerow orchards. From the standpoint of chloroplast pigment metabolism, the fruits of the 'Picual' and 'Arbequina' varieties have significant differences. It is therefore extremely interesting to analyze the descendants of both cultivars. With regard to chlorophyll catabolism, 'Sikitita' has proven to be a cultivar with low pigmentation and low levels of chlorophyllase activity. This is contrary to the findings obtained to date, where varieties with low pigmentation are a consequence of high chlorophyllase activity ('Arbequina') and highly pigmented fruits are due to low chlorophyllase activity ('Picual'). 'Arbequina' was, until recently, the only cultivar described that had developed a carotenogenic process, despite its anthocyanic ripening. However, from its father ('Arbequina'), the 'Sikitita' cultivar has inherited the pool of enzymes necessary to esterify xanthophylls at the chromoplast level. This makes 'Sikitita' a very interesting cultivar, with potential chemotaxonomic differences (such as esterified xanthophylls in the olive oils), and demonstrates the interest in genetic improvement programs for olive cultivars with different organoleptic characteristics. PMID:21319806

Roca, María; León, Lorenzo; de la Rosa, Raúl

2011-03-01

55

Variability of Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds in a Segregating Progeny from a Single Cross in Olea europaea L. and Sensory and Nutritional Quality Implications  

PubMed Central

Virgin olive oil phenolic compounds are responsible for its nutritional and sensory quality. The synthesis of phenolic compounds occurs when enzymes and substrates meet as olive fruit is crushed during the industrial process to obtain the oil. The genetic variability of the major phenolic compounds of virgin olive oil was studied in a progeny of the cross of Picual x Arbequina olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.). They belong to four different groups: compounds that included tyrosol or hydroxytyrosol in their molecules, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Data of phenolics in the oils showed that the progeny displayed a large degree of variability, widely transgressing the genitor levels. This high variability can be of interest on breeding programs. Thus, multivariate analysis allowed to identify genotypes within the progeny particularly interesting in terms of phenolic composition and deduced organoleptic and nutritional quality. The present study has demonstrated that it is possible to obtain enough degree of variability with a single cross of olive cultivars for compounds related to the nutritional and organoleptic properties of virgin olive oil. PMID:24651694

Pérez, Ana G.; León, Lorenzo; Pascual, Mar; Romero-Segura, Carmen; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; de la Rosa, Raúl; Sanz, Carlos

2014-01-01

56

De Novo Assembly and Functional Annotation of the Olive (Olea europaea) Transcriptome  

PubMed Central

Olive breeding programmes are focused on selecting for traits as short juvenile period, plant architecture suited for mechanical harvest, or oil characteristics, including fatty acid composition, phenolic, and volatile compounds to suit new markets. Understanding the molecular basis of these characteristics and improving the efficiency of such breeding programmes require the development of genomic information and tools. However, despite its economic relevance, genomic information on olive or closely related species is still scarce. We have applied Sanger and 454 pyrosequencing technologies to generate close to 2 million reads from 12 cDNA libraries obtained from the Picual, Arbequina, and Lechin de Sevilla cultivars and seedlings from a segregating progeny of a Picual × Arbequina cross. The libraries include fruit mesocarp and seeds at three relevant developmental stages, young stems and leaves, active juvenile and adult buds as well as dormant buds, and juvenile and adult roots. The reads were assembled by library or tissue and then assembled together into 81 020 unigenes with an average size of 496 bases. Here, we report their assembly and their functional annotation. PMID:23297299

Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; González-Plaza, Juan José; Cañada, Andrés; Blanco, Ana María; García-López, Maria del Carmen; Rodríguez, José Manuel; Pedrola, Laia; Sicardo, M. Dolores; Hernández, M. Luisa; De la Rosa, Raúl; Belaj, Angjelina; Gil-Borja, Mayte; Luque, Francisco; Martínez-Rivas, José Manuel; Pisano, David G.; Trelles, Oswaldo; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Beuzón, Carmen R.

2013-01-01

57

LTR retrotransposon dynamics in the evolution of the olive (Olea europaea) genome  

PubMed Central

Improved knowledge of genome composition, especially of its repetitive component, generates important information for both theoretical and applied research. The olive repetitive component is made up of two main classes of sequences: tandem repeats and retrotransposons (REs). In this study, we provide characterization of a sample of 254 unique full-length long terminal repeat (LTR) REs. In the sample, Ty1-Copia elements were more numerous than Ty3-Gypsy elements. Mapping a large set of Illumina whole-genome shotgun reads onto the identified retroelement set revealed that Gypsy elements are more redundant than Copia elements. The insertion time of intact retroelements was estimated based on sister LTR’s divergence. Although some elements inserted relatively recently, the mean insertion age of the isolated retroelements is around 18 million yrs. Gypsy and Copia retroelements showed different waves of transposition, with Gypsy elements especially active between 10 and 25 million yrs ago and nearly inactive in the last 7 million yrs. The occurrence of numerous solo-LTRs related to isolated full-length retroelements was ascertained for two Gypsy elements and one Copia element. Overall, the results reported in this study show that RE activity (both retrotransposition and DNA loss) has impacted the olive genome structure in more ancient times than in other angiosperms. PMID:25428895

Barghini, Elena; Natali, Lucia; Giordani, Tommaso; Cossu, Rosa Maria; Scalabrin, Simone; Cattonaro, Federica; Šimková, Hana; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Morgante, Michele; Cavallini, Andrea

2015-01-01

58

In vitro regeneration in olive (Olea europaea L.) cv, 'Frontio' from nodal segments.  

PubMed

An efficient and reproducible protocol for plantlet regeneration from nodal segments of Olive cv 'Frontio' has been developed. Media and explants browning due to exudation of phenolics from the explants were controlled by fortification of the medium with 100 mg/L ascorbic acid. Best establishment of olive explants was observed on half-strength MS salts fortified with 2.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), which resulted in 56.2% of bud break and 93.7% survival whereas, a combination of full strength MS medium with 1.0 mg/L each of 3-indole-butyric-acid (IBA) and kinetin was found to be the best for shoot multiplication, in terms of number of shoots (3.6 shoots/explant) and shoot length (2.2 cm). The in vitro shoots were rooted on half-strength MS medium fortified with 0.2 mg/L IBA and 0.2 mg/L alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) with 1.5 g/L activated charcoal, which supported optimum rooting (60%), with an average of 2-3 roots/shoot, about 2.4 cm length were produced on four weeks of culture. PMID:25241592

Mangal, Manisha; Sharma, Dheeraj; Sharma, Mamta; Kumar, Sunil

2014-09-01

59

Secoiridoid type of antiallergic substances in olive waste materials of three Japanese varieties of Olea europaea.  

PubMed

2-Hydroxy-3-ethylidene-5-(methoxycarbonyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran-4-acetic acid 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl ester (3,4-DHPEA-EA) is a kind of secoiridoid first found in three Japanese olive pomaces: Mission, Lucca, and Manzanillo. These varieties showed high activity of 3,4-DHPEA-EA as an antiallergic active substance with IC50 at 33.5 ± 0.6 ?g/mL. Because 3,4-DHPEA-EA was the most abundant among the active substances in the pomaces and the activity of 3,4-DHPEA-EA was greater than that of hydroxytyrosol and elenolic acid, 3,4-DHPEA-EA, which has the ester linkage of hydroxytyrosol and elenolic acid, should be essential for antiallergic activity. Although a trace amount (1.04 mg/kg) of luteolin in the pomace showed the highest antiallergic activity with IC50 at 0.752 ± 0.1 ?g/mL, we concluded that the entire antiallergic effect derives from the abundance of 3,4-DHPEA-EA, especially in the green olive pomace of the Mission variety in October, which showed the highest level of 3,4-DHPEA-EA (5033 ± 118 mg/kg). Therefore, the Mission variety had the most effective antiallergy property. PMID:25029390

Sato, Akihiko; Shinozaki, Noboru; Tamura, Hirotoshi

2014-08-01

60

Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7, an indigenous root endophyte from olive (Olea europaea L.) and effective biocontrol agent against Verticillium dahliae  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7 is a native endophyte of olive roots. Previous studies have shown this motile, Gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium is an effective biocontrol agent against the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae, the causal agent of one of the most devastating diseases for olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivation. Here, we announce and describe the complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7 consisting of a circular chromosome of 6,136,735 bp that encodes 5,567 protein-coding genes and 88 RNA-only encoding genes. Genome analysis revealed genes predicting factors such as secretion systems, siderophores, detoxifying compounds or volatile components. Further analysis of the genome sequence of PICF7 will help in gaining insights into biocontrol and endophytism. PMID:25685259

2015-01-01

61

Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7, an indigenous root endophyte from olive (Olea europaea L.) and effective biocontrol agent against Verticillium dahliae.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7 is a native endophyte of olive roots. Previous studies have shown this motile, Gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium is an effective biocontrol agent against the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae, the causal agent of one of the most devastating diseases for olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivation. Here, we announce and describe the complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7 consisting of a circular chromosome of 6,136,735 bp that encodes 5,567 protein-coding genes and 88 RNA-only encoding genes. Genome analysis revealed genes predicting factors such as secretion systems, siderophores, detoxifying compounds or volatile components. Further analysis of the genome sequence of PICF7 will help in gaining insights into biocontrol and endophytism. PMID:25685259

Martínez-García, Pedro Manuel; Ruano-Rosa, David; Schilirò, Elisabetta; Prieto, Pilar; Ramos, Cayo; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

2015-01-01

62

A centralised remote data collection system using automated traps for managing and controlling the population of the Mediterranean (Ceratitis capitata) and olive (Dacus oleae) fruit flies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper describes the development of a novel monitoring system (e-FlyWatch system) for managing and controlling the population of two of the world's most destructive fruit pests, namely the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae, Rossi - formerly Dacus oleae) and the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, also called medfly). The novel monitoring system consists of a) novel automated traps with optical and motion detection modules for capturing the flies, b) local stations including a GSM/GPRS module, sensors, flash memory, battery, antenna etc. and c) a central station that collects, stores and publishes the results (i.e. insect population in each field, sensor data, possible error/alarm data) via a web-based management software.The centralised data collection system provides also analysis and prediction models, end-user warning modules and historical analysis of infested areas. The e-FlyWatch system enables the SMEs-producers in the Fruit, Vegetable and Olive sectors to improve their production reduce the amount of insecticides/pesticides used and consequently the labour cost for spraying activities, and the labour cost for traps inspection.

Philimis, Panayiotis; Psimolophitis, Elias; Hadjiyiannis, Stavros; Giusti, Alessandro; Perelló, Josep; Serrat, Albert; Avila, Pedro

2013-08-01

63

Ingestion toxicity of three Lamiaceae essential oils incorporated in protein baits against the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera Tephritidae).  

PubMed

The ingestion toxicity of three Lamiaceae essential oils (EOs) - Hyptis suaveolens, Rosmarinus officinalis and Lavandula angustifolia - incorporated in protein baits was evaluated against Bactrocera oleae, a worldwide pest of olive fruits. In laboratory conditions, all the tested EOs showed dose-dependent toxicity on B. oleae, with mortality rates ranging from 12% (EO concentration: 0.01% w:v) to 100% (EO concentration: 1.75% w:v). Semi-field results highlighted the toxicity of L. angustifolia and H. suaveolens EOs, which exerted more than 60% of flies mortality at a concentration of 1.75% (w:v). Gas Chromatography-Electron Impact Mass Spectrometry analyses of the three EOs showed that H. suaveolens EO was dominated by monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the main chemical class in R. officinalis and L. angustifolia EOs. Further research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of these EOs plus food bait against the olive fruit fly in the open field. PMID:23594314

Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni; Conti, Barbara; Lenzi, Gabriele; Flamini, Guido; Francini, Alessandra; Cioni, Pier Luigi

2013-01-01

64

Peroxynitrite mediates programmed cell death both in papillar cells and in self-incompatible pollen in the olive (Olea europaea L.)  

PubMed Central

Programmed cell death (PCD) has been found to be induced after pollination both in papillar cells and in self-incompatible pollen in the olive (Olea europaea L.). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) are known to be produced in the pistil and pollen during pollination but their contribution to PCD has so far remained elusive. The possible role of ROS and NO was investigated in olive pollen–pistil interaction during free and controlled pollination and it was found that bidirectional interaction appears to exist between the pollen and the stigma, which seems to regulate ROS and NO production. Biochemical evidence strongly suggesting that both O2?? and NO are essential for triggering PCD in self-incompatibility processes was also obtained. It was observed for the first time that peroxynitrite, a powerful oxidizing and nitrating agent generated during a rapid reaction between O2?? and NO, is produced during pollination and that this is related to an increase in protein nitration which, in turn, is strongly associated with PCD. It may be concluded that peroxynitrite mediates PCD during pollen–pistil interaction in Olea europaea L. both in self-incompatible pollen and papillar cells. PMID:22140239

Serrano, Irene; Romero-Puertas, María C.; Rodríguez-Serrano, María; Sandalio, Luisa M.; Olmedilla, Adela

2012-01-01

65

Comparing the historic olive trees (Olea europaea L.) of Santa Cruz with contemporaneous trees in the Santa Barbara, CA area: a case study of diversity and structure in an introduced agricultural species conserved in situ  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Historic populations of crop species outside their centers of origin and diversity, like the domestic olive (Olea europaea L.) in North America, are genetic resources for contemporary agriculture, including genotypes that could be adapted to, local conditions. The primary goal of this study was to d...

66

Molecular characterization and chromosomal distribution of a species-specific transcribed centromeric satellite repeat from the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae.  

PubMed

Satellite repetitive sequences that accumulate in the heterochromatin consist a large fraction of a genome and due to their properties are suggested to be implicated in centromere function. Current knowledge of heterochromatic regions of Bactrocera oleae genome, the major pest of the olive tree, is practically nonexistent. In our effort to explore the repetitive DNA portion of B. oleae genome, a novel satellite sequence designated BoR300 was isolated and cloned. The present study describes the genomic organization, abundance and chromosomal distribution of BoR300 which is organized in tandem, forming arrays of 298 bp-long monomers. Sequence analysis showed an AT content of 60.4%, a CENP-B like-motif and a high curvature value based on predictive models. Comparative analysis among randomly selected monomers demonstrated a high degree of sequence homogeneity (88%-97%) of BoR300 repeats, which are present at approximately 3,000 copies per haploid genome accounting for about 0.28% of the total genomic DNA, based on two independent qPCR approaches. In addition, expression of the repeat was also confirmed through RT-PCR, by which BoR300 transcripts were detected in both sexes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of BoR300 on mitotic metaphases and polytene chromosomes revealed signals to the centromeres of two out of the six chromosomes which indicated a chromosome-specific centromeric localization. Moreover, BoR300 is not conserved in the closely related Bactrocera species tested and it is also absent in other dipterans, but it's rather restricted to the B. oleae genome. This feature of species-specificity attributed to BoR300 satellite makes it a good candidate as an identification probe of the insect among its relatives at early development stages. PMID:24244494

Tsoumani, Konstantina T; Drosopoulou, Elena; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D

2013-01-01

67

Molecular Characterization and Chromosomal Distribution of a Species-Specific Transcribed Centromeric Satellite Repeat from the Olive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera oleae  

PubMed Central

Satellite repetitive sequences that accumulate in the heterochromatin consist a large fraction of a genome and due to their properties are suggested to be implicated in centromere function. Current knowledge of heterochromatic regions of Bactrocera oleae genome, the major pest of the olive tree, is practically nonexistent. In our effort to explore the repetitive DNA portion of B. oleae genome, a novel satellite sequence designated BoR300 was isolated and cloned. The present study describes the genomic organization, abundance and chromosomal distribution of BoR300 which is organized in tandem, forming arrays of 298 bp-long monomers. Sequence analysis showed an AT content of 60.4%, a CENP-B like-motif and a high curvature value based on predictive models. Comparative analysis among randomly selected monomers demonstrated a high degree of sequence homogeneity (88% – 97%) of BoR300 repeats, which are present at approximately 3,000 copies per haploid genome accounting for about 0.28% of the total genomic DNA, based on two independent qPCR approaches. In addition, expression of the repeat was also confirmed through RT-PCR, by which BoR300 transcripts were detected in both sexes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of BoR300 on mitotic metaphases and polytene chromosomes revealed signals to the centromeres of two out of the six chromosomes which indicated a chromosome-specific centromeric localization. Moreover, BoR300 is not conserved in the closely related Bactrocera species tested and it is also absent in other dipterans, but it’s rather restricted to the B. oleae genome. This feature of species-specificity attributed to BoR300 satellite makes it a good candidate as an identification probe of the insect among its relatives at early development stages. PMID:24244494

Tsoumani, Konstantina T.; Drosopoulou, Elena; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D.

2013-01-01

68

Olive (Olea europaea L.) Leaf Polyphenols Improve Insulin Sensitivity in Middle-Aged Overweight Men: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Olive plant leaves (Olea europaea L.) have been used for centuries in folk medicine to treat diabetes, but there are very limited data examining the effects of olive polyphenols on glucose homeostasis in humans. Objective To assess the effects of supplementation with olive leaf polyphenols (51.1 mg oleuropein, 9.7 mg hydroxytyrosol per day) on insulin action and cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged overweight men. Design Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in New Zealand. 46 participants (aged 46.4±5.5 years and BMI 28.0±2.0 kg/m2) were randomized to receive capsules with olive leaf extract (OLE) or placebo for 12 weeks, crossing over to other treatment after a 6-week washout. Primary outcome was insulin sensitivity (Matsuda method). Secondary outcomes included glucose and insulin profiles, cytokines, lipid profile, body composition, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, and carotid intima-media thickness. Results Treatment evaluations were based on the intention-to-treat principle. All participants took >96% of prescribed capsules. OLE supplementation was associated with a 15% improvement in insulin sensitivity (p?=?0.024) compared to placebo. There was also a 28% improvement in pancreatic ?-cell responsiveness (p?=?0.013). OLE supplementation also led to increased fasting interleukin-6 (p?=?0.014), IGFBP-1 (p?=?0.024), and IGFBP-2 (p?=?0.015) concentrations. There were however, no effects on interleukin-8, TNF-?, ultra-sensitive CRP, lipid profile, ambulatory blood pressure, body composition, carotid intima-media thickness, or liver function. Conclusions Supplementation with olive leaf polyphenols for 12 weeks significantly improved insulin sensitivity and pancreatic ?-cell secretory capacity in overweight middle-aged men at risk of developing the metabolic syndrome. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry #336317. PMID:23516412

de Bock, Martin; Derraik, José G. B.; Brennan, Christine M.; Biggs, Janene B.; Morgan, Philip E.; Hodgkinson, Steven C.; Hofman, Paul L.; Cutfield, Wayne S.

2013-01-01

69

Colonization of olive trees (Olea europaea L.) with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus sp. modified the glycolipids biosynthesis and resulted in accumulation of unsaturated fatty acids.  

PubMed

The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi colonization on photosynthesis, mineral nutrition, the amount of phospholipids and glycolipids in the leaves of olive (Olea europaea L.) trees was investigated. After six months of growth, the rate of photosynthesis, carboxylation efficiency, transpiration and stomatal conductance in mycorrhizal (M) plants was significantly higher than that of non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants. The inoculation treatment increased the foliar P and Mg but not N. The amount of glycolipids in the leaves of M plants was significantly higher than that of NM plants. However, the amount of phospholipids in the leaves of M plants was not significantly different to that in the leaves of NM plants. Also, we observed a significant increase in the level of ?-linolenic acid (C18:3?3) in glycolipids of M plants. This work supports the view that increased glycolipids level in the leaves of M plants could be involved, at least in part, in the beneficial effects of mycorrhizal colonization on photosynthesis performance of olive trees. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the effect of AM fungi on the amount of glycolipids in the leaves of mycorrhizal plants. PMID:25014256

Mechri, Beligh; Attia, Faouzi; Tekaya, Meriem; Cheheb, Hechmi; Hammami, Mohamed

2014-09-01

70

Effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) or Olea europaea (olive) leaves on oxidative stability of rabbit meat fortified with n-3 fatty acids.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) or Olea europaea (olive tree) leaves on oxidative stability of rabbit meat fortified with n-3 fatty acids. Forty-eight slovenska kunka (SIKA) rabbits were divided into four homogeneous groups. The control group (CONT-) received diet with 6% palm fat; other groups received diet with 6% linseed oil and were either unsupplemented (CONT+) or supplemented with 1% of G. lucidum (REISHI) or O. europaea leaves (OLIVE). Rabbits were slaughtered and fatty acid composition, concentration of vitamin E and malondialdehyde (MDA) in back muscle were analyzed. The results showed that linseed oil addition improved fatty acid composition by increasing polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) proportion, decreasing proportion of saturated fatty acid (SFA) and reducing n-6/n-3 ratio in rabbit meat. Groups that were supplemented with linseed oil had lower content of ?-tocopherol and higher content of ?-tocopherol, compared to the CONT- group. The addition of potential antioxidants did not effectively prevent oxidation of rabbit meat. PMID:24334050

Trebušak, Tina; Levart, Alenka; Salobir, Janez; Pirman, Tatjana

2014-03-01

71

Validation of reference genes for gene expression analysis in olive (Olea europaea) mesocarp tissue by quantitative real-time RT-PCR  

PubMed Central

Background Gene expression analysis using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a robust method wherein the expression levels of target genes are normalised using internal control genes, known as reference genes, to derive changes in gene expression levels. Although reference genes have recently been suggested for olive tissues, combined/independent analysis on different cultivars has not yet been tested. Therefore, an assessment of reference genes was required to validate the recent findings and select stably expressed genes across different olive cultivars. Results A total of eight candidate reference genes [glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), serine/threonine-protein phosphatase catalytic subunit (PP2A), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1-alpha), polyubiquitin (OUB2), aquaporin tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP2), tubulin alpha (TUBA), 60S ribosomal protein L18-3 (60S RBP L18-3) and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein homolog 3 (PTB)] were chosen based on their stability in olive tissues as well as in other plants. Expression stability was examined by qRT-PCR across 12 biological samples, representing mesocarp tissues at various developmental stages in three different olive cultivars, Barnea, Frantoio and Picual, independently and together during the 2009 season with two software programs, GeNorm and BestKeeper. Both software packages identified GAPDH, EF1-alpha and PP2A as the three most stable reference genes across the three cultivars and in the cultivar, Barnea. GAPDH, EF1-alpha and 60S RBP L18-3 were found to be most stable reference genes in the cultivar Frantoio while 60S RBP L18-3, OUB2 and PP2A were found to be most stable reference genes in the cultivar Picual. Conclusions The analyses of expression stability of reference genes using qRT-PCR revealed that GAPDH, EF1-alpha, PP2A, 60S RBP L18-3 and OUB2 are suitable reference genes for expression analysis in developing Olea europaea mesocarp tissues, displaying the highest level of expression stability across three different olive cultivars, Barnea, Frantoio and Picual, however the combination of the three most stable reference genes do vary amongst individual cultivars. This study will provide guidance to other researchers to select reference genes for normalization against target genes by qPCR across tissues obtained from the mesocarp region of the olive fruit in the cultivars, Barnea, Frantoio and Picual. PMID:24884716

2014-01-01

72

Establishing the genetic relationships between the wild and cultivated olives using a nuclear intron from nitrate reductase ( nia -i3)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Oleaceae the most outstanding biological issue is to clarify the taxonomic relationships of cultivated and wild olives.\\u000a To establish the genetic relationships between the wild (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. sylvestris (Mill.) Lehr.), the cultivated olive (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. europaea), and other taxa of the genus Olea (Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (Wall. ex G. Don) Cif., Olea

A. M. Hamman-Khalifa; R. Navajas-Pérez; R. de la Herrán; M. Ruiz Rejón; M. A. Garrido-Ramos; C. Ruiz Rejón; J. L. Rosúa

2007-01-01

73

Genetic diversity and relationships between wild and cultivated olives ( Olea europaea L.) in Sardinia as assessed by SSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic relationships within and between wild and cultivated olives were examined and clarified in an isolated and restricted\\u000a area, such as the Mediterranean island of Sardinia. Wild (21 individuals) and cultivated olive trees (22 local cultivars from\\u000a a germplasm collection and 35 ancient trees) were genotyped by means of 13 SSR loci. Five cases of synonymy were observed\\u000a and

Patrizia Erre; Innocenza Chessa; Concepción Muñoz-Diez; Angjelina Belaj; Luis Rallo; Isabel Trujillo

2010-01-01

74

Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels.  

PubMed

This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets. PMID:25656181

Cayan, H; Erener, G

2015-04-01

75

Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels  

PubMed Central

This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets. PMID:25656181

Cayan, H.; Erener, G.

2015-01-01

76

Effect of Tea (Camellia sinensis) and Olive (Olea europaea L.) Leaves Extracts on Male Mice Exposed to Diazinon  

PubMed Central

The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination in male mice intoxicated with a sublethal concentration of diazinon. Exposure of mice to 6.5?mg/kg body weight of diazinon for seven weeks resulted in statistical increases of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, while the value of serum total protein was declined. Treating diazinon-intoxicated mice with tea and olive leaves extracts or their combination significantly attenuated the severe alterations in these hematobiochemical parameters. Moreover, the results indicated that the supplementation with combination of tea and olive leaves extracts led to more attenuation effect against diazinon toxicity. Additionally, these new findings suggest that the effect of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination against toxicity of diazinon may be due to antioxidant properties of their chemical constituents. Finally, the present study indicated that the extracts of tea and olive leaves and their combination can be considered as promising therapeutic agents against hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and metabolic disorders induced by diazinon and maybe by other toxicants and pathogenic factors. PMID:23691503

Al-Attar, Atef M.; Abu Zeid, Isam M.

2013-01-01

77

Evaluation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi capacity to alleviate abiotic stress of olive (Olea europaea L.) plants at different transplant conditions.  

PubMed

The capacity of roots to sense soil physicochemical parameters plays an essential role in maintaining plant nutritional and developmental functions under abiotic stress. These conditions generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant tissues causing oxidation of proteins and lipids among others. Some plants have developed adaptive mechanisms to counteract such adverse conditions such as symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). AMF enhance plant growth and improve transplant survival by protecting host plants against environmental stresses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the alleviation of transplanting stress by two strains of Rhizophagus irregularis (GC2 and GA5) in olive. Our results show that olive plants have an additional energetic expense in growth due to an adaptative response to the growing stage and to the mycorrhizal colonization at the first transplant. However, at the second transplant the coinoculation improves olive plant growth and protects against oxidative stress followed by the GA5-inoculation. In conclusion, a combination of two AMF strains at the beginning of olive propagation produces vigorous plants successfully protected in field cultivation even with an additional cost at the beginning of growth. PMID:24688382

Bompadre, María Josefina; Pérgola, Mariana; Fernández Bidondo, Laura; Colombo, Roxana Paula; Silvani, Vanesa Analía; Pardo, Alejandro Guillermo; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; Godeas, Alicia Margarita

2014-01-01

78

Evaluation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Capacity to Alleviate Abiotic Stress of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Plants at Different Transplant Conditions  

PubMed Central

The capacity of roots to sense soil physicochemical parameters plays an essential role in maintaining plant nutritional and developmental functions under abiotic stress. These conditions generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant tissues causing oxidation of proteins and lipids among others. Some plants have developed adaptive mechanisms to counteract such adverse conditions such as symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). AMF enhance plant growth and improve transplant survival by protecting host plants against environmental stresses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the alleviation of transplanting stress by two strains of Rhizophagus irregularis (GC2 and GA5) in olive. Our results show that olive plants have an additional energetic expense in growth due to an adaptative response to the growing stage and to the mycorrhizal colonization at the first transplant. However, at the second transplant the coinoculation improves olive plant growth and protects against oxidative stress followed by the GA5-inoculation. In conclusion, a combination of two AMF strains at the beginning of olive propagation produces vigorous plants successfully protected in field cultivation even with an additional cost at the beginning of growth. PMID:24688382

Bompadre, María Josefina; Pérgola, Mariana; Fernández Bidondo, Laura; Colombo, Roxana Paula; Silvani, Vanesa Analía; Pardo, Alejandro Guillermo; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; Godeas, Alicia Margarita

2014-01-01

79

Pomology observations, morphometric analysis, ultrastructural study and allelic profiles of “olivastra Seggianese” endocarps from ancient olive trees ( Olea europaea L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary studies of historical sources and remote sensing were used to identify ancient olive trees near archaeological sites and heritage buildings in the Orcia Valley (Siena, Italy). Distinctive characters were assessed by traditional pomological observation. Trees with similar characters were selected on the basis of the features of endocarps, the only structure that survives aerobic deterioration and conserves useful botanical

Claudio Milanesi; Andrea Sorbi; Elisa Paolucci; Francesca Antonucci; Paolo Menesatti; Corrado Costa; Federico Pallottino; Rita Vignani; Antonio Cimato; Andrea Ciacci; Mauro Cresti

2011-01-01

80

[Influence of the geographical locations on the agronomical and technological potentialities of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) in Tunisia].  

PubMed

This study aims at characterization four cultivars of the olive trees, Chétoui, Chemlali, Gerboui, and Chaïbi, cultivated in three different geographical locations, from pomological and technological points of view. The pomological characters of the fruit are influenced by the geographical location. Each individual of the same cultivar expresses different pomological characters. We have noted a significant fluctuation of the flush percentage in three Chaïbi individuals according to their geographical site; it varies from 49.06 to 82.19%. The three Gerboui individuals showed a significant variability of the fruit weight (from 1.13 to 3.17 g). Fluctuations of olive oil contents were also observed. Several fatty acid compositions showed some variation. The oleic and linoleic acid contents varied among individuals from Chétoui and Chaïbi. Moreover, the individuals of the cultivar Chemlali showed a variation of their content in palmitic and palmitoleic acids. Indeed, each individual of a cultivar showed its own potentialities, which are reflected by its pomological and technological characters. According to their geographical location, individuals from a given cultivar displayed diverse potentialities. PMID:17303540

Hannachi, Hédia; Msallem, Monji; Ben Elhadj, Salem; El Gazzah, Mohamed

2007-02-01

81

Effect of agronomical practices on carpology, fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties, in olive (Olea europaea L.).  

PubMed

We examined whether some agronomical practices (i.e. organic vs. conventional) affect olive fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties. Fruit characteristics (i.e. fresh and dry weight of pulp and pit, oil content on a fresh and dry weight basis) did not differ. Oil chemical traits did not differ except for increased content of polyphenols in the organic treatments, and some changes in the acidic composition. Sensory analysis revealed increased bitterness (both cultivars) and pungency (Frantoio) and decreased sweetness (Frantoio) in the organic treatment. Fruit metabolomic analysis with HRMAS-NMR indicated significant changes in some compounds including glycocholate, fatty acids, NADPH, NADP+, some amino acids, thymidine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid, 5,6-dihydrouracil, hesanal, cis-olefin, ?-D-glucose, propanal and some unassigned species. The results suggest that agronomical practices may have effects on fruit composition that may be difficult to detect unless a broad-spectrum analysis is used. PMID:24767050

Rosati, Adolfo; Cafiero, Caterina; Paoletti, Andrea; Alfei, Barbara; Caporali, Silvia; Casciani, Lorena; Valentini, Massimiliano

2014-09-15

82

Olive Breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olive (Olea europaea L.) is, at the same time, one of the most ancient domesticated fruit trees and the most extensively cultivated fruit crop\\u000a in the world, covering an area of about 7.5 million hectares. The recent diffusion of olive outside its traditional area of\\u000a cultivation, the Mediterranean basin, together with a continuous trend in the modernisation of its

Andrea Fabbri; Maurizio Lambardi; Yelda Ozden-Tokatli

83

New drugs from ancient natural foods. Oleocanthal, the natural occurring spicy compound of olive oil: a brief history.  

PubMed

Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), a principal component of the Mediterranean diet (Med diet), is one of the most ancient known foods and has long been associated with health benefits. Many phenolic compounds extracted from Olea europea L. have attracted attention since their discovery. Among these phenolic constituents, oleocanthal has recently emerged as a potential therapeutic molecule for different diseases, showing relevant pharmacological properties in various pathogenic processes, including inflammation, cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we discuss and summarize the most recent pharmacological evidence for the medical relevance of oleocanthal, focusing our attention on its anti-inflammatory and chemotherapeutic roles. PMID:25448758

Scotece, Morena; Conde, Javier; Abella, Vanessa; Lopez, Veronica; Pino, Jesús; Lago, Francisca; Smith, Amos B; Gómez-Reino, Juan J; Gualillo, Oreste

2014-11-01

84

LOX Gene Transcript Accumulation in Olive (Olea europaea L.) Fruits at Different Stages of Maturation: Relationship between Volatile Compounds, Environmental Factors, and Technological Treatments for Oil Extraction  

PubMed Central

The quality of olive oil is influenced by genetic and environmental factors and by the maturation state of drupes, but it is equally affected by technological treatments of the process. This work investigates the possible correlation between olive LOX gene transcript accumulation, evaluated in fruits collected at different stages of maturation, and chemical biomarkers of its activity. During olive fruit ripening, the same genotype harvested from two different farms shows a positive linear trend between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive oil aroma. Interestingly, a negative linear trend was observed between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive pastes obtained from olive fruits with and without malaxation. The changes in the olive LOX transcript accumulation reveal its environmental regulation and suggest differential physiological functions for the LOXs. PMID:22645430

Muzzalupo, Innocenzo; Macchione, Barbara; Bucci, Cristina; Stefanizzi, Francesca; Perri, Enzo; Chiappetta, Adriana; Tagarelli, Antonio; Sindona, Giovanni

2012-01-01

85

The effect of a hydro-alcoholic extract of olive fruit on reproductive argons in male sprague-dawley rat  

PubMed Central

Background: Olive (Olea europea), from the Oleaceae family, is known as a phytoestrogen plant compound, containing Lignans and phenoliccompounds. Some studies have shown phytoestrogens to have spermatogenesis-decreasing effects. Objective: The present study investigated the effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of olive fruit on reproductive argons in male rats. Materials and Methods: The hydro-alcoholic olive (Olea europaea) extract was given orally to three experimental groups of rats in 50, 150, and 450 mg/kg in 48 days. The vehicle group was fed with normal saline and nothing was given to the control group (each group with 8 rats). After 49 days reproductive indicators i.e., sperm count, sperm motility, the weight of prostate, testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle were measured. Results: The results showed a significant decrease in the weights of the left testicle, seminal vesicle, testosterone hormone, sperm count and sperm motility but there was no significant difference with regard to the weights of prostate and epididymis, and estradiol hormone. Conclusion: This study suggests that olive extract may have deleterious effects on fertility factors; therefore, after further studies, it may be used as a contraceptive in males. PMID:24639759

Najafizadeh, Parvaneh; Dehghani, Farzaneh; Panjeh Shahin, Mohammadreza; Hamzei Taj, Sommaye

2013-01-01

86

Microbial communities associated with the root system of wild olives ( Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris ) are good reservoirs of bacteria with antagonistic potential against Verticillium dahliae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild olive trees, namely oleaster, are considered the ancestor of cultivated olive and a unexplored source of genetic variability\\u000a that might contain important traits of agronomic and biotechnological interest. The longevity and genetic diversity of oleasters\\u000a may have favoured selection of specific and well adapted rhizosphere microbial populations that can constitute unique reservoirs\\u000a of microbial antagonists of Verticillium dahliae, the

Sergio Aranda; Miguel Montes-Borrego; Rafael M. Jiménez-Díaz; Blanca B. Landa

2011-01-01

87

Response of Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and conditions in California olive orchards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), by the USDA-APHIS, PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europae...

88

Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana and B. brongniartii strains and four wild-type fungal species against adults of Bactrocera oleae and Ceratitis capitata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The virulence of two isolates of the hyphomycete fungi, Beauveria bassianaand B. brongniartii, and additional fungal species isolated from diseased Bactrocera oleae pupae and Sesamia nonagrioideslarvae were assessed against adults of the olive fruit fly B. oleae and the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Contact and oral bioassays revealed that moderate to high mortality rates for the olive

M. A. Konstantopoulou; B. E. Mazomenos

2005-01-01

89

The effect of high temperature interruptions during inductive period on the extent of flowering and on metabolic responses in olives (Olea europaea L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of the duration of high temperature interruption and the timing of it’s occurrence during inductive period on the extent of inhibition of inflorescence production in ‘Arbequina’ olive trees was investigated. Trees kept under inductive conditions in different growth chambers were subjected...

90

Phenological models to predict the main flowering phases of olive (Olea europaea L.) along a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient across the Mediterranean region.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to develop pheno-meteorological models to explain and forecast the main olive flowering phenological phases within the Mediterranean basin, across a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient that includes Tunisia, Spain, and Italy. To analyze the aerobiological sampling points, study periods from 13 years (1999-2011) to 19 years (1993-2011) were used. The forecasting models were constructed using partial least-squares regression, considering both the flowering start and full-flowering dates as dependent variables. The percentages of variance explained by the full-flowering models (mean 84 %) were greater than those explained by the flowering start models (mean 77 %). Moreover, given the time lag from the North African areas to the central Mediterranean areas in the main olive flowering dates, the regional full-flowering predictive models are proposed as the most useful to improve the knowledge of the influence of climate on the olive tree floral phenology. The meteorological parameters related to the previous autumn and both the winter and the spring seasons, and above all the temperatures, regulate the reproductive phenology of olive trees in the Mediterranean area. The mean anticipation of flowering start and full flowering for the future period from 2081 to 2100 was estimated at 10 and 12 days, respectively. One question can be raised: Will the olive trees located in the warmest areas be northward displaced or will they be able to adapt their physiology in response to the higher temperatures? The present study can be considered as an approach to design more detailed future bioclimate research. PMID:25060840

Aguilera, Fátima; Fornaciari, Marco; Ruiz-Valenzuela, Luis; Galán, Carmen; Msallem, Monji; Dhiab, Ali Ben; la Guardia, Consuelo Díaz-de; Del Mar Trigo, María; Bonofiglio, Tommaso; Orlandi, Fabio

2015-05-01

91

Phenological models to predict the main flowering phases of olive (Olea europaea L.) along a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient across the Mediterranean region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present study was to develop pheno-meteorological models to explain and forecast the main olive flowering phenological phases within the Mediterranean basin, across a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient that includes Tunisia, Spain, and Italy. To analyze the aerobiological sampling points, study periods from 13 years (1999-2011) to 19 years (1993-2011) were used. The forecasting models were constructed using partial least-squares regression, considering both the flowering start and full-flowering dates as dependent variables. The percentages of variance explained by the full-flowering models (mean 84 %) were greater than those explained by the flowering start models (mean 77 %). Moreover, given the time lag from the North African areas to the central Mediterranean areas in the main olive flowering dates, the regional full-flowering predictive models are proposed as the most useful to improve the knowledge of the influence of climate on the olive tree floral phenology. The meteorological parameters related to the previous autumn and both the winter and the spring seasons, and above all the temperatures, regulate the reproductive phenology of olive trees in the Mediterranean area. The mean anticipation of flowering start and full flowering for the future period from 2081 to 2100 was estimated at 10 and 12 days, respectively. One question can be raised: Will the olive trees located in the warmest areas be northward displaced or will they be able to adapt their physiology in response to the higher temperatures? The present study can be considered as an approach to design more detailed future bioclimate research.

Aguilera, Fátima; Fornaciari, Marco; Ruiz-Valenzuela, Luis; Galán, Carmen; Msallem, Monji; Dhiab, Ali Ben; la Guardia, Consuelo Díaz-de; del Mar Trigo, María; Bonofiglio, Tommaso; Orlandi, Fabio

2014-07-01

92

Comparative uptake of trace elements in vines and olive trees over calcareous soils in western La Mancha  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and olive-tree (Olea europea L.) are very important cultures in Castilla-La Mancha for its extension and contribution to the regional economy. This study was carried out in the municipality of Carrión de Calatrava (Ciudad Real) where the variability of soils of different geological origin, with different evolutions giving a great diversity of soils. The metabolism of trace elements in plants has been extensively studied although each soil-plant system must be investigated, especially since small variations in composition can lead to marked differences. It can be stated that the composition of the plant reflects the environment where it is cultivated and the products of the plant (leaves, fruits, juices, etc…) will be influenced by the composition of the soil. The main aim of the work was to compare the uptake of 24 trace elements in grapevine and olive-tree cultivated in the same soil. Samples from surface soils and plant material (leaf) have been analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, obtaining trace elements in mg/kg. It can be concluded that the leaves of grapevines in the studied plots have shown content in elements: -Similar to the olive-tree in case of: Co, Ga, Y, Ta, Th, U y Nd. -Over to the olive-tree in: Sc, V, Cr, Ni, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, Ce, Hf y W. -Below to the olive-tree in: Cu, Zn, Cs y Pb. Keywords: woody culture soils, mineral nutrition, X-ray fluorescence.

Ángel Amorós, José; Higueras, Pablo; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; Jesús García, Francisco; Villaseñor, Begoña; Bravo, Sandra; Losilla, María Luisa; María Moreno, Marta

2014-05-01

93

Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for Biological Control of Olive Fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, by the USDA-APHIS, PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. The maximu...

94

Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California with a Parasitoid Imported from Guatemala  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), was imported into California from the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Moscamed, San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. The parasitoid did not develop in the seedhead fly, Cha...

95

OLIVE FRUIT FLY (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) POPULTATIONS IN RELATION TO REGION, TRAP TYPE, SEASON, AND AVAILABILITY OF FRUIT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The number of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), adults (mean ± SEM) captured per day in ChamP traps placed in olive, Olea europaea, trees in an isolated test site (2001 Grapevine, CA) was lower among trees with attract-and-kill traps (1.4 ± 0.7) but not significantly different (P = 0.34)...

96

Phylogenetics of Olea (Oleaceae) based on plastid and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences: Tertiary climatic shifts and lineage differentiation times  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The genus Olea (Oleaceae) includes approx. 40 taxa of evergreen shrubs and trees classified in three subgenera, Olea, Paniculatae and Tetrapilus, the first of which has two sections (Olea and Ligustroides). Olive trees (the O. europaea complex) have been the subject of intensive research, whereas little is known about the phylogenetic relationships among the other species. To clarify the biogeographical history of this group, a molecular analysis of Olea and related genera of Oleaceae is thus necessary. Methods A phylogeny was built of Olea and related genera based on sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 and four plastid regions. Lineage divergence and the evolution of abaxial peltate scales, the latter character linked to drought adaptation, were dated using a Bayesian method. Key Results Olea is polyphyletic, with O. ambrensis and subgenus Tetrapilus not sharing a most recent common ancestor with the main Olea clade. Partial incongruence between nuclear and plastid phylogenetic reconstructions suggests a reticulation process in the evolution of subgenus Olea. Estimates of divergence times for major groups of Olea during the Tertiary were obtained. Conclusions This study indicates the necessity of revising current taxonomic boundaries in Olea. The results also suggest that main lines of evolution were promoted by major Tertiary climatic shifts: (1) the split between subgenera Olea and Paniculatae appears to have taken place at the Miocene–Oligocene boundary; (2) the separation of sections Ligustroides and Olea may have occurred during the Early Miocene following the Mi-1 glaciation; and (3) the diversification within these sections (and the origin of dense abaxial indumentum in section Olea) was concomitant with the aridification of Africa in the Late Miocene. PMID:19465750

Besnard, Guillaume; Rubio de Casas, Rafael; Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Vargas, Pablo

2009-01-01

97

Distribution of olive fruit fly in California based on fruit infestations since the 1998 invasion  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), was first discovered in Los Angeles, California in 1998. Eradication and containment programs were immediately initiated, but within four years the olive pest was detected throughout the state. Olive fruit fly is not tolerated in canned fruit, and the insec...

98

Rearing, Importation, and Release of Psyttalia humilis for Biocontrol of Olive Fruit Fly in California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Biological control using imported parasitoids can be used to reduce olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), infestations in olives. In 2008-2010, we mass produced the olive fruit fly larval parasitoid, Psyttalia humilis = P. cf. concolor (Silvestri), at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Moscamed, laboratory in...

99

Screening Fruit Loosening Agents for Black Ripe Processed Table Olives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The California table olive (Olea europaeaL.) industry relies exclusively on hand harvesting ofits primaryManzanillo cultivar. Increased harvesting costs haveintensified industry interest in identifying an abscission agent that can be used with developing mechanical harvesting technologies to increase removal rates. Table olives are harvested immature green at horticultural maturity but before physiological maturity. The goal of this research was to reevaluate

Jacqueline K. Burns; Louise Ferguson; Kitren Glozer; William H. Krueger; Richard C. Rosecrance

2008-01-01

100

Computational annotation of genes differentially expressed along olive fruit development  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Olea europaea L. is a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean basin with a worldwide economical high impact. Differently from other fruit tree species, little is known about the physiological and molecular basis of the olive fruit development and a few sequences of genes and gene products are available for olive in public databases. This study deals with the

Giulio Galla; Gianni Barcaccia; Angelo Ramina; Silvio Collani; Fiammetta Alagna; Luciana Baldoni; Nicolò GM Cultrera; Federico Martinelli; Luca Sebastiani; Pietro Tonutti

2009-01-01

101

Mixtures of Olive Pomace with Different Nitrogen Sources for the Control of Meloidogyne spp. on Tomato  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of mixtures of dry olive (Olea europea) pomace with biuret, guanidine, and melamine for control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) was studied in greenhouse experiments. Olive pomace (OP) applied pre-plant at 10 g/kg soil was phytotoxic. Mixtures of OP (10 g/kg soil) with biuret or guanidine at 200-300 mg/kg soil reduced or eliminated the phytotoxic effect, controlled root-knot nematodes, and increased soil esterase activity indicative of microbial activity. The addition of biuret or guanidine without OP to soil at rates <300 mg/kg soil did not control root-knot nematodes. Melamine applied at 100-400 mg/kg soil was phytotoxic as were mixtures of melamine with OP. Treatment of OP with anhydrous ammonia increased N content of the material. In another greenhouse experiment, NH?-treated OP added to soil was not phytotoxic to tomato, suppressed root-knot nematodes, and increased soil esterase activity. Greenhouse and microplot experiments with OP plus chicken litter demonstrated the efficacy of these combination amendments to control root-knot nematodes and increase tomato yields in Meloidogyne-infested soil. PMID:19277325

Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Estaún, V.; Pinochet, J.; Marfá, O.

1995-01-01

102

Generation and Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags from Olea europaea L.  

PubMed

Olive (Olea europaea L.) is an important source of edible oil which was originated in Near-East region. In this study, two cDNA libraries were constructed from young olive leaves and immature olive fruits for generation of ESTs to discover the novel genes and search the function of unknown genes of olive. The randomly selected 3840 colonies were sequenced for EST collection from both libraries. Readable 2228 sequences for olive leaf and 1506 sequences for olive fruit were assembled into 205 and 69 contigs, respectively, whereas 2478 were singletons. Putative functions of all 2752 differentially expressed unique sequences were designated by gene homology based on BLAST and annotated using BLAST2GO. While 1339 ESTs show no homology to the database, 2024 ESTs have homology (under 80%) with hypothetical proteins, putative proteins, expressed proteins, and unknown proteins in NCBI-GenBank. 635 EST's unique genes sequence have been identified by over 80% homology to known function in other species which were not previously described in Olea family. Only 3.1% of total EST's was shown similarity with olive database existing in NCBI. This generated EST's data and consensus sequences were submitted to NCBI as valuable source for functional genome studies of olive. PMID:21197085

Ozdemir Ozgenturk, Nehir; Oruç, Fatma; Sezerman, Ugur; Kuçukural, Alper; Vural Korkut, Senay; Toksoz, Feriha; Un, Cemal

2010-01-01

103

Proteome Regulation during Olea europaea Fruit Development  

PubMed Central

Background Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation of the biosynthesis of compounds affecting the quality of the drupes as well as the final composition of the olive oil. Proteomics offers the possibility to dig deeper into the major changes during fruit development, including the important phase of ripening, and to classify temporal patterns of protein accumulation occurring during these complex physiological processes. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we started monitoring the proteome variations associated with olive fruit development by using comparative proteomics coupled to mass spectrometry. Proteins extracted from drupes at three different developmental stages were separated on 2-DE and subjected to image analysis. 247 protein spots were revealed as differentially accumulated. Proteins were identified from a total of 121 spots and discussed in relation to olive drupe metabolic changes occurring during fruit development. In order to evaluate if changes observed at the protein level were consistent with changes of mRNAs, proteomic data produced in the present work were compared with transcriptomic data elaborated during previous studies. Conclusions/Significance This study identifies a number of proteins responsible for quality traits of cv. Coratina, with particular regard to proteins associated to the metabolism of fatty acids, phenolic and aroma compounds. Proteins involved in fruit photosynthesis have been also identified and their pivotal contribution in oleogenesis has been discussed. To date, this study represents the first characterization of the olive fruit proteome during development, providing new insights into fruit metabolism and oil accumulation process. PMID:23349718

Bianco, Linda; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldoni, Luciana; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Perrotta, Gaetano

2013-01-01

104

Douglas Oliver SUPERIOR OLIVE  

E-print Network

Douglas Oliver SUPERIOR OLIVE Douglas Oliver University of Connecticut Health Center #12;Auditory Pathways CORTEX Auditory CortexGLUT GABA MGB GABA GLY Medial Geniculate Body IC DLL DLL Inferior Colliculus medial superior superior olive; olive; LSO: LSO: lateral lateral superior superior oliveolive NTB

Oliver, Douglas L.

105

Nutritional dynamics of olive tree flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutrient element fluctuations of olive tree flowers (Olea europaea L. cv ‘Konservolia') during their development were studied, since this period is a crucial one for the productivity of the tree. The profiles of number and kind of flowers along inflorescence were also recorded at the yellowish petal stage (one week before full bloom) in relation to the nutritional element

D. L. Bouranis; C. K. Kitsaki; S. N. Chorianopoulou; G. Aivalakis; J. B. Drossopoulos

1999-01-01

106

Identification of potential sources of airborne Olea pollen in the Southwest Iberian Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to determine the potential origin of Olea pollen recorded in Badajoz in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula during 2009-2011. This was achieved using a combination of daily average and diurnal (hourly) airborne Olea pollen counts recorded at Badajoz (southwestern Spain) and Évora (southeastern Portugal), an inventory of olive groves in the studied area and air mass trajectory calculations computed using the HYSPLIT model. Examining olive pollen episodes at Badajoz that had distinctly different diurnal cycles in olive pollen in relation to the mean, allowed us to identify three different scenarios where olive pollen can be transported to the city from either distant or nearby sources. Back trajectory analysis showed that olive pollen can be transported to Badajoz from the West on prevailing winds, either directly or on slow moving air masses, and from high densities of olive groves situated to the Southeast (e.g. Andalucía). Regional scale transport of olive pollen can result in increased nighttime concentrations of this important aeroallergen. This could be particularly important in Mediterranean countries where people can be outdoors during this time due to climate and lifestyle. Such studies are valuable for allergy sufferers and health care professionals because the information can be incorporated into forecasts, the outputs of which are used for avoiding exposure to aeroallergens and planning medication. The results of studies of this nature can also be used for examining gene flow in this important agricultural crop.

Fernández-Rodríguez, S.; Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Tormo-Molina, R.; Brandao, R.; Caeiro, E.; Silva-Palacios, I.; Gonzalo-Garijo, Á.; Smith, M.

2012-04-01

107

Olive fruit fly adult response to attract-and-kill bait stations in greenhouse cages with weathered bait spray and a commercial table olive orchard  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An attract-and-kill trap for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) adults, and olive foliage sprayed with insecticidal bait spray were evaluated for efficacy after 1-4 weeks in outdoor weather. Adults caged for 1-3 days with weathered material on foliage and traps in the greenhouse resulted in h...

108

Oleuropein in Olive and its Pharmacological Effects  

PubMed Central

Olive from Olea europaea is native to the Mediterranean region and, both the oil and the fruit are some of the main components of the Mediterranean diet. The main active constituents of olive oil include oleic acid, phenolic constituents, and squalene. The main phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, give extra-virgin olive oil its bitter, pungent taste. The present review focuses on recent works that have analyzed the relationship between the major phenolic compound oleuropein and its pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-cancer activities, antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effect. PMID:21179340

Omar, Syed Haris

2010-01-01

109

Molecular characterization and identification of a group of local Olea europaea L. varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an urgent need for a rapid and accurate procedure to evaluate the degree of genetic diversity in Olea europaea L. In this research work, we used simple sequence repeat markers for the characterization and identification of the genetic\\u000a profiles of a group of ancient olive trees, using clustering analysis (dendrogram analysis, Bayesian method) to estimate the\\u000a genetic distance

Deborah Beghè; Alessandro Ferrarini; Tommaso Ganino; Andrea Fabbri

110

Nondestructive Olive Quality Detection Using FT-NIR Spectroscopy in Reflectance Mode  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Quality features (firmness, oil content and color in terms of hue and chroma) of two olive (Olea europaea L) varieties (‘Ayvalik’ and ‘Gemlik’) were predicted using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. Reflectance measurements of intact olives were performed using a bifurcated fibe...

111

THE BIOLOGY OF BRACON CELER, AS A PARASITOID OF THE OLIVE FLY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Life-history trials were conducted in the laboratory for Bracon celer Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), reared on the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Female B. celer oviposit preferentially on late third-instar olive fly larvae. The parasitoid larva develops as an idi...

112

Development of Biological and Cultural Control of Olive Fruit Fly in the Central Valley of California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The eastern side of the Central Valley of California where olives are grown for canning was surveyed for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), infestations. The pest was found for the first time in unusually high numbers in Merced. The a parasitic wasp, Psyttalia humilis (Silvestri), was import...

113

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF OLIVE FRUIT FLY IN CALIFORNIA BY PSYTTALIA CF. CONCOLOR (SZÉPLIGETI) FROM MOSCAMED, GUATEMALA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), was imported into California, USA, from MOSCAMED, Guatemala, and shown to have potential for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin). Calculated percentage parasitism of olive fruit fly 3rd instars in field cage te...

114

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF OLIVE FLY: BALANCING PARASITOID EFFECTIVENESS AGAINST NON-TARGET IMPACTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), has become an important pest of California olives, and is the target of a classical biological control program. We report here on the pre-release screening of imported parasitoids Hymenoptera:Braconidae), conducted in the University of California ...

115

The standard centrifuge method accurately measures vulnerability curves of long-vesselled olive stems.  

PubMed

The standard centrifuge method has been frequently used to measure vulnerability to xylem cavitation. This method has recently been questioned. It was hypothesized that open vessels lead to exponential vulnerability curves, which were thought to be indicative of measurement artifact. We tested this hypothesis in stems of olive (Olea europea) because its long vessels were recently claimed to produce a centrifuge artifact. We evaluated three predictions that followed from the open vessel artifact hypothesis: shorter stems, with more open vessels, would be more vulnerable than longer stems; standard centrifuge-based curves would be more vulnerable than dehydration-based curves; and open vessels would cause an exponential shape of centrifuge-based curves. Experimental evidence did not support these predictions. Centrifuge curves did not vary when the proportion of open vessels was altered. Centrifuge and dehydration curves were similar. At highly negative xylem pressure, centrifuge-based curves slightly overestimated vulnerability compared to the dehydration curve. This divergence was eliminated by centrifuging each stem only once. The standard centrifuge method produced accurate curves of samples containing open vessels, supporting the validity of this technique and confirming its utility in understanding plant hydraulics. Seven recommendations for avoiding artefacts and standardizing vulnerability curve methodology are provided. PMID:25229841

Hacke, Uwe G; Venturas, Martin D; MacKinnon, Evan D; Jacobsen, Anna L; Sperry, John S; Pratt, R Brandon

2015-01-01

116

Transpiration and root water uptake by olive trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the cultivated olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is known to be sclerophyllous and effective at tolerating drought, little is known of its short-term water-use dynamics for most studies have been based on longer-term, water-balance information. We present here, for the first time, heat-pulse measurements of the sap flux measured not only within the semi-trunk of an olive tree, but

Félix Moreno; J. Enrique Fernández; Brent E. Clothier; Steven R. Green

1996-01-01

117

OLIVE FRUIT FLY BIOLOGY AND CULTURAL CONTROL PRACTICES IN CALIFORNIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), first found in California, USA in 1998 was investigated in laboratory and field studies. Mortality of 1-5, 6-8, 9-11, and 12-14 d-old immature insects in olives was 19-75, 13-58, 5-27, and 0-7% when exposed to 15C and 60% relative humidity (RH), and was 14...

118

Ancient olive DNA in pits: preservation, amplification and sequence analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olive tree (Olea europaea) was domesticated by vegetative propagation of selected wild individuals with superior fruit. Later, new cultivars were established repeatedly from feral trees or from crosses between wild, feral, and domesticated trees. Thus the genetic background of many contemporary domesticated lines is a mixture of ancient cultivars and local wild trees. Ancient DNA may illuminate the complicated

Rivka Elbaum; Cathy Melamed-Bessudo; Elisabetta Boaretto; Ehud Galili; Simcha Lev-Yadun; Avraham A. Levy; Steve Weiner

2006-01-01

119

The C-terminal segment of the 1,3-beta-glucanase Ole e 9 from olive (Olea europaea) pollen is an independent domain with allergenic activity: expression in Pichia pastoris and characterization.  

PubMed Central

Several allergenic proteins, such as the 1,3-beta-glucanases, have been associated with plant defence responses. Ole e 9 (46 kDa) is a 1,3-beta-glucanase and major allergen from olive pollen, which is a principal cause of allergy in Mediterranean countries. Its C-terminal segment (101 amino acid residues) has been produced as a recombinant polypeptide in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The cDNA encoding the polypeptide was inserted into the plasmid vector pPICZalpha-A and overexpressed in KM71 yeast cells. The recombinant product was purified by size-exclusion chromatography followed by reversed-phase HPLC. Edman degradation, MS and CD were used to determine molecular properties of the recombinant polypeptide, which exhibited 16% alpha-helix and 30% beta-sheet as regular elements of secondary structure. Disulphide bridges of the molecule were determined at positions Cys-14-Cys-76, Cys-33-Cys-94 and Cys-39-Cys-48. The high IgE-binding capability of the recombinant C-terminal segment of Ole e 9 against sera from Ole e 9-sensitive individuals, which was determined by immunoblotting and ELISA inhibition, supported the proper folding of the polypeptide and the maintenance of antigenic properties that it exhibits as a part of the whole allergen. These data indicated that this portion of Ole e 9 constitutes an independent domain, which could be used to study its three-dimensional structure and function, as well as for clinical purposes such as diagnosis and specific immunotherapy. Since it shows sequence similarity with portions of 1,3-beta-glucanases from plant tissues and the Gas/Phr/Epd protein families involved in yeast morphogenesis, we suggest that this domain could play an equivalent functional role within these enzymes. PMID:12392450

Palomares, Oscar; Villalba, Mayte; Rodríguez, Rosalía

2003-01-01

120

Identification of potential sources of airborne Olea pollen in the Southwest Iberian Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to determine the potential origin of Olea pollen recorded in Badajoz in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula during 2009-2011. This was achieved using a combination of daily average and diurnal (hourly) airborne Olea pollen counts recorded at Badajoz (south-western Spain) and Évora (south-eastern Portugal), an inventory of olive groves in the studied area and air mass trajectory calculations computed using the HYSPLIT model. Examining olive pollen episodes at Badajoz that had distinctly different diurnal cycles in olive pollen in relation to the mean, allowed us to identify three different scenarios where olive pollen can be transported to the city from either distant or nearby sources during conditions with slow air mass movements. Back trajectory analysis showed that olive pollen can be transported to Badajoz from the West on prevailing winds, either directly or on slow moving air masses, and from high densities of olive groves situated to the Southeast (e.g. Andalucía). Regional scale transport of olive pollen can result in increased nighttime concentrations of this important aeroallergen. This could be particularly important in Mediterranean countries where people can be outdoors during this time due to climate and lifestyle. Such studies that examine sources and the atmospheric transport of pollen are valuable for allergy sufferers and health care professionals because the information can be incorporated into forecasts, the outputs of which are used for avoiding exposure to aeroallergens and planning medication. The results of studies of this nature can also be used for examining gene flow in this important agricultural crop.

Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Brandao, Rui; Caeiro, Elsa; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela; Smith, Matt

2014-04-01

121

Bisphenol A and Dental Sealants: Olea's Response.  

PubMed Central

Comments on "Determination of bisphenol A and related aromatic compounds released from Bis-GMA-based composites and sealants by high performance liquid chromatography." by ulgar R, Olea-Serrano MF, Novillo-Fertrell A, Rivas A, Pazos P, Pedraza V, Navajas J-M, Olea N. Environ Health Perspect 108:21-27 (2000). PMID:11133410

Olea, N

2000-01-01

122

Nocellaralactone, a new monoterpenoid with anti-inflammatory activity, from Olea europaea L., cultivar Nocellara del Belice.  

PubMed

Nocellara del Belice, a cultivated variety (cultivar) of olive tree (Olea europæa L.), was examined with respect to the medium-polar compounds present in the wastewaters of olive oil extraction at the end of 2007. Charcoal-polyamide chromatography of obtained wastewaters showed the presence of the chemotaxonomical markers of Olea europaea. In addition a new compound was isolated which resulted to be a lactone related to oleuropein aglycone. We propose the name of nocellaralactone (NOC). This compound is also present in the leaves and it appears to be structurally, probably biogenetically, related to jasminanhydride, a monoterpenoid previously isolated from Jasminum grandiflorum. NOC showed a significant in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:24006848

Serrilli, Anna Maria; Frasca, Giuseppina; Rizza, Luisa; Bonina, Francesco Paolo; Bianco, Armandodoriano

2013-01-01

123

Determination of endogenous hormones, sugars and mineral nutrition levels during the induction, initiation and differentiation stage and their effects on flower formation in olive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the most important crop plants grown in the Mediterranean region. Varying levels of hormones, sugars and mineral nutrient are thought to influence flower bud formation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in endogenous sugar, mineral nutrition and hormone levels in leaf, node and fruit samples of ‘Memecik’ olive during

Salih Ulger; Sahriye Sonmez; Mustafa Karkacier; Nisa Ertoy; Ozgur Akdesir; Mehmet Aksu

2004-01-01

124

Canopy Fruit Location Can Affect Olive Oil Quality in ‘Arbequina’ Hedgerow Orchards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of location of fruit in canopies of hedgerow olive trees (Olea europaea L., cv. ‘Arbequina’) on quality of virgin oil was tested by analyzing oils extracted from different height layers and faces\\u000a of nine olive hedgerows (6 North–South oriented and 3 East–West). Although sensory attributes were not different, other oil\\u000a quality parameters may be significantly modified by fruit

María Gómez-del-Campo; José M. García

125

Mobility of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) late third instars and teneral adults in test arenas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mobility of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), late third instars before pupation, teneral adults before flight, and mature adults restricted from flight was studied under mulches in greenhouse cage tests, in horizontal pipes, vertical bottles and pipes filled with sand, and by observati...

126

Pest, Parasitoid, and Fruit Interactions in Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), and the imported parasitoid, P. humilis, required cool temperatures, high humidities, and food and water for prolonged survival (about 6 months for host) in laboratory and greenhouse tests. Life span was greatly shortened by high temperatures, low humiditi...

127

2008 Field Releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor for Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The parasitoid Psytallia cf. concolor (Szépligeti) was reared on sterile Mediterranean fruit fly larvae at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Petapa Quarantine Laboratory in Guatemala and shipped to the USDA-ARS, Parlier for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in California. Improved ...

128

Genetic relationships between cultivated and wild olives of Corsica and Sardinia using RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to ensure the genetic diversity of the Olea europaea complex,it is necessary to characterize the cultivated varieties and the wildpopulations. In the present study, we focused on the olives growing on twoMediterranean islands, Corsica and Sardinia. On these two islands, there areolives with many denominations, as well as forests of oleasters. Here, it wasproposed to determine the relationships

Virginie Bronzini de Caraffa; Jean Giannettini; Claude Gambotti; Jacques Maury

2002-01-01

129

Centennial olive trees as a reservoir of genetic diversity  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the oldest trees could be a powerful tool both for germplasm collection and for understanding the earliest origins of clonally propagated fruit crops. The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is a suitable model to study the origin of cultivars due to its long lifespan, resulting in the existence of both centennial and millennial trees across the Mediterranean Basin. Methods The genetic identity and diversity as well as the phylogenetic relationships among the oldest wild and cultivated olives of southern Spain were evaluated by analysing simple sequence repeat markers. Samples from both the canopy and the roots of each tree were analysed to distinguish which trees were self-rooted and which were grafted. The ancient olives were also put into chronological order to infer the antiquity of traditional olive cultivars. Key Results Only 9·6 % out of 104 a priori cultivated ancient genotypes matched current olive cultivars. The percentage of unidentified genotypes was higher among the oldest olives, which could be because they belong to ancient unknown cultivars or because of possible intra-cultivar variability. Comparing the observed patterns of genetic variation made it possible to distinguish which trees were grafted onto putative wild olives. Conclusions This study of ancient olives has been fruitful both for germplasm collection and for enlarging our knowledge about olive domestication. The findings suggest that grafting pre-existing wild olives with olive cultivars was linked to the beginnings of olive growing. Additionally, the low number of genotypes identified in current cultivars points out that the ancient olives from southern Spain constitute a priceless reservoir of genetic diversity. PMID:21852276

Díez, Concepción M.; Trujillo, Isabel; Barrio, Eladio; Belaj, Angjelina; Barranco, Diego; Rallo, Luis

2011-01-01

130

Olive oil by capillary electrophoresis: characterization and genuineness.  

PubMed

Olive oil, obtained from Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) fruits, is an important ingredient in the Mediterranean diet. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate olive oil analysis using capillary electrophoresis (CE). This review covers a selection of the literature published on this topic over the past decade. The current state of the art of the topic is evaluated, with special emphasis on separation conditions, analysis purpose, and analytes investigated. CE has been used to characterize or to carry out authenticity studies. Particular attention has been focused on the botanical origin because high-quality monovarietal olive oils have been recently introduced on the markets and their quality control requires the development of new and powerful analytical tools as well as new regulations to avoid fraud. CE represents a good compromise between sample throughput, sample volume, satisfactory characterization, and sustainability for the analysis of target compounds present in olive oils. PMID:23594110

Monasterio, Romina P; Fernández, María de los Ángeles; Silva, María Fernanda

2013-05-15

131

Selective recognition of DNA from olive leaves and olive oil by PNA and modified-PNA microarrays  

PubMed Central

PNA probes for the specific detection of DNA from olive oil samples by microarray technology were developed. The presence of as low as 5% refined hazelnut (Corylus avellana) oil in extra-virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L.) could be detected by using a PNA microarray. A set of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Actin gene of Olive was chosen as a model for evaluating the ability of PNA probes for discriminating olive cultivars. Both unmodified and C2-modified PNAs bearing an arginine side-chain were used, the latter showing higher sequence specificity. DNA extracted from leaves of three different cultivars (Ogliarola leccese, Canino and Frantoio) could be easily discriminated using a microarray with unmodified PNA probes, whereas discrimination of DNA from oil samples was more challenging, and could be obtained only by using chiral PNA probes. PMID:22772038

Rossi, Stefano; Calabretta, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Tullia; Sforza, Stefano; Arcioni, Sergio; Baldoni, Luciana; Corradini, Roberto; Marchelli, Rosangela

2012-01-01

132

ISSR Variation in Olive-tree Cultivars from Morocco and other Western Countries of the Mediterranean Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In olive tree (Olea europaea L.), 12 varieties (or cultivars) representing the main domesticated material used in Morocco and 19 olive cultivars used\\u000a extensively in five countries of the western Mediterranean Basin, were analysed using inter-simple sequences repeat (ISSR)\\u000a markers which had never been used previously for extensive discrimination of cultivars. Four selected primers produced a total\\u000a of 26 polymorphic

M. Essadki; N. Ouazzani; R. Lumaret; M. Moumni

2006-01-01

133

REGULATION OF FLOWERING IN 'ARBEQUINA' OLIVES UNDER NON-CHILLING CONDITIONS: THE EFFECT OF HIGH DAYTIME TEMPERATURES ON BLOOMING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recently, we have shown that flowering and fruiting in ‘Arbequina’ cultivar of olives (Olea europaea) can be achieved in the absence of chilling temperatures (less than or equal to 7°C). In our previous studies we showed that absence of flowering in certain subtropical climates (e.g. southern Texa...

134

POTENTIAL OF P. CF. CONCOLOR FROM MOSCAMED, GUATEMALA FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF OLIVE FRUIT FLY IN CALIFORNIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A parasitoid, Psytallia cf. concolor, imported from Moscamed, Guatemala and originally collected from Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), on coffee in Kenya, caused 100% mortality of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), larvae in field cage tests and 10% parasitism of lar...

135

Influence of carbon source and concentration on the in vitro development of olive zygotic embryos and explants raised from them  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of sucrose or mannitol on in vitro zygotic embryo germination, seedling development and explant propagation of olive tree (Olea europaea L.) was compared. Embryos germinated without sucrose in the medium but for adequate development of the seedlings to yield viable plants, a carbohydrate supply was necessary; both sucrose and mannitol were equally suitable for this purpose. However, when

J. L. García; J. Troncoso; R. Sarmiento; A. Troncoso

2002-01-01

136

Olive Fruit Fly, an Invasive Species in California, Mitigation by Cultural and Biological Control Based on Pest Biology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Olive fruit fly (OLF), Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), was first detected in California in 1998. Adults can live for 7 months and lay eggs at 12 d-old with a peak at 20 d. The larvae complete development in fruit 1cm in height. Hot and dry conditions can cause complete mortality of the immatures. Non-har...

137

Los centros de documentacin europea son bibliotecas depositarias de las publicaciones de la Unin Europea: reciben  

E-print Network

: repositorio institucional que contiene tesis doctorales leídas en la Universidad Revistas electrónicas a texto la Unión Europea: reciben regularmente fondos documentales publicados por las instituciones de la información y documentación sobre las instituciones europeas para facilitar el conocimiento y la investigación

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

138

PARASITOIDS OF BLACK SCALE IN CALIFORNIA: ESTABLISHMENT OF PROCOCCOPHAGUS PROBUS ANNECKE & MYNHARDT AND COCCOPHAGUS RUSTI COMPERE (HYMENOPTERA: APHELINIDAE) IN OLIVE ORCHARDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the parasitoid species of black scale, Saissetia oleae (Olivier), in California central valley olive orchards revealed that two recently imported parasitoids, Prococcophagus probus Annecke & Mynhardt and Coccophagus rusts Compere, have become established. These South African parasitoids were released from 1979 to 1983. During the release period, neither parasitoid was recovered. However, subsequent to the release, surveys

K. M. DAANE; M. S. BARZMAN; C. E. KENNETT; L. E. CALTAGIRONE

139

Non-target host risk assessment of the idiobiont parasitoid Bracon celer (Hymenoptera:Bracondiae) for biological control of olive fly in California.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The non-target risk posed by the African fruit-fly parasitoid, Bracon celer Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), was assessed as part of a classical biological program for the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) in California, USA. Behavioral and reproductive ...

140

Phenotypic comparisons between wild relatives and cultivars of kiwifruit, persimmon, mulberry, and olive at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Davis, CA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phenotypic traits were characterized for 23 wild species and 4 cultivars of 4 clonal fruit crops including, Kiwifruit (Actinidia), Persimmon (Diospyros), Mulberry (Morus) and Olive (Olea). Across all four crops, the wild species varied distinctly, especially when compared with the cultivars. The wil...

141

Effect of harvesting system and fruit cold storage on virgin olive oil chemical composition and quality of superintensive cultivated 'Arbequina' olives.  

PubMed

Storage at 3 and 18 °C of 'Arbequina' olives (Olea europaea L.) cultivated in hedgerows and harvested manually or mechanically (wine grape harvester) was tested. Fruit characteristics and oil quality were monitored. Mechanical harvesting caused internal fruit damage that induced its rapid softening and decay, but also facilitated obtaining higher amounts of oil, which suffered a rapid deterioration during fruit storage. This oil presented lower tocopherol and phenol contents and lower oxidative stability than the oil extracted from manually harvested olives, but showed similar fatty acid composition. Cold storage (3 °C) delayed all of these deterioration processes. It allowed maintaining the best commercial level of quality ("extra") in the oil from mechanically harvested olives for 10 days. This cold storage could be considered as an alternative to the increase in machinery for processing the growing olive production, due to both hedgerow cultivation and mechanized harvesting. PMID:22506860

Yousfi, Khaled; Weiland, Carlos M; García, José M

2012-05-01

142

Somatic embryogenesis induction in leaves and petioles of a mature wild olive  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a protocol for somatic embryogenesis (SE) induction from an adult wild olive tree (Olea\\u000a europaea ssp. europaea var. sylvestris. The protocol used confirms for the first time that there is no need to use juvenile or rejuvenated material for SE induction.\\u000a For SE induction, petiole and leaf (proximal, intermediary and distal zones) explants were grown on Murashige and

Ana Margarida Capelo; Sónia Silva; Gina Brito; Conceição Santos

2010-01-01

143

Genomic profiling of plastid DNA variation in the Mediterranean olive tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Characterisation of plastid genome (or cpDNA) polymorphisms is commonly used for phylogeographic, population genetic and forensic\\u000a analyses in plants, but detecting cpDNA variation is sometimes challenging, limiting the applications of such an approach.\\u000a In the present study, we screened cpDNA polymorphism in the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) by sequencing the complete plastid genome of trees with a distinct cpDNA

Guillaume Besnard; Pilar Hernández; Bouchaib Khadari; Gabriel Dorado; Vincent Savolainen

2011-01-01

144

Aromatized to Find Mates: ?-Pinene Aroma Boosts the Mating Success of Adult Olive Fruit Flies  

PubMed Central

Background Contrary to other Tephritidae, female but also male olive flies, Bactrocera oleae release pheromones during their sexual communication. Alpha-pinene, a common plant volatile found in high amounts in unripe olive fruit and leaves has been detected as one of the major components of the female pheromone. However, possible effects of ?-pinene and that of other host volatiles on the mating behavior of the olive fly have not been investigated. Methodology Using wild olive flies, reared on olive fruit for 3 generations in the laboratory, we explored whether exposure of male and female olive flies to ?-pinene affects their sexual performance. Results Exposure of sexually mature adult olive flies to the aroma of ?-pinene significantly increases the mating performance over non-exposed individuals. Interestingly, exposure to ?-pinene boosts the mating success of both males and female olive flies. Conclusions This is the first report of such an effect on the olive fly, and the first time that a single plant volatile has been reported to induce such a phenomenon on both sexes of a single species. We discuss the possible associated mechanism and provide some practical implications. PMID:24260571

Gerofotis, Christos D.; Ioannou, Charalampos S.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.

2013-01-01

145

Olive domestication and diversification in the Mediterranean Basin.  

PubMed

Olive (Olea europaea ssp. europaea) is the most important oil fruit crop in temperate areas, but the origin of the cultivated olive remains unclear. The existence of one or several domestication events in the Mediterranean Basin (MB) is still debated. We analyzed a dataset of 387 cultivated and wild accessions that were genotyped at 25 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) loci. The sample represented genetic diversity at the geographic extremes of the MB. We inferred relationships among samples and also applied approximate Bayesian computation to estimate the most probable demographic model of our samples. Cultivated olives clustered into three different gene pools (Q1, Q2 and Q3), corresponding loosely to the west, central and eastern MB, respectively. Q1 consisted primarily of accessions from southern Spain, retained the fingerprint of a genetic bottleneck, and was closely related to accessions from the eastern MB. Q2 showed signs of recent admixture with wild olives and may derive from a local domestication event in the central MB. Overall our results suggest that admixture shaped olive germplasm and perhaps also local domestication events. PMID:25420413

Diez, Concepcion M; Trujillo, Isabel; Martinez-Urdiroz, Nieves; Barranco, Diego; Rallo, Luis; Marfil, Pedro; Gaut, Brandon S

2015-04-01

146

SNP Discovery by Illumina-Based Transcriptome Sequencing of the Olive and the Genetic Characterization of Turkish Olive Genotypes Revealed by AFLP, SSR and SNP Markers  

PubMed Central

Background The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is a diploid (2n?=?2x?=?46) outcrossing species mainly grown in the Mediterranean area, where it is the most important oil-producing crop. Because of its economic, cultural and ecological importance, various DNA markers have been used in the olive to characterize and elucidate homonyms, synonyms and unknown accessions. However, a comprehensive characterization and a full sequence of its transcriptome are unavailable, leading to the importance of an efficient large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery in olive. The objectives of this study were (1) to discover olive SNPs using next-generation sequencing and to identify SNP primers for cultivar identification and (2) to characterize 96 olive genotypes originating from different regions of Turkey. Methodology/Principal Findings Next-generation sequencing technology was used with five distinct olive genotypes and generated cDNA, producing 126,542,413 reads using an Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx. Following quality and size trimming, the high-quality reads were assembled into 22,052 contigs with an average length of 1,321 bases and 45 singletons. The SNPs were filtered and 2,987 high-quality putative SNP primers were identified. The assembled sequences and singletons were subjected to BLAST similarity searches and annotated with a Gene Ontology identifier. To identify the 96 olive genotypes, these SNP primers were applied to the genotypes in combination with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers. Conclusions/Significance This study marks the highest number of SNP markers discovered to date from olive genotypes using transcriptome sequencing. The developed SNP markers will provide a useful source for molecular genetic studies, such as genetic diversity and characterization, high density quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, association mapping and map-based gene cloning in the olive. High levels of genetic variation among Turkish olive genotypes revealed by SNPs, AFLPs and SSRs allowed us to characterize the Turkish olive genotype. PMID:24058483

Kaya, Hilal Betul; Cetin, Oznur; Kaya, Hulya; Sahin, Mustafa; Sefer, Filiz; Kahraman, Abdullah; Tanyolac, Bahattin

2013-01-01

147

High Genetic Diversity Detected in Olives beyond the Boundaries of the Mediterranean Sea  

PubMed Central

Background Olive trees (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. europaea) naturally grow in areas spanning the Mediterranean basin and towards the East, including the Middle East. In the Iranian plateau, the presence of olives has been documented since very ancient times, though the early history of the crop in this area is shrouded in uncertainty. Methods The varieties presently cultivated in Iran and trees of an unknown cultivation status, surviving under extreme climate and soil conditions, were sampled from different provinces and compared with a set of Mediterranean cultivars. All samples were analyzed using SSR and chloroplast markers to establish the relationships between Iranian olives and Mediterranean varieties, to shed light on the origins of Iranian olives and to verify their contribution to the development of the current global olive variation. Results Iranian cultivars and ecotypes, when analyzed using SSR markers, clustered separately from Mediterranean cultivars and showed a high number of private alleles, on the contrary, they shared the same single chlorotype with the most widespread varieties cultivated in the Mediterranean. Conclusion We hypothesized that Iranian and Mediterranean olive trees may have had a common origin from a unique center in the Near East region, possibly including the western Iranian area. The present pattern of variation may have derived from different environmental conditions, distinct levels and selection criteria, and divergent breeding opportunities found by Mediterranean and Iranian olives.These unexpected findings emphasize the importance of studying the Iranian olive germplasm as a promising but endangered source of variation. PMID:24709858

Sheikh-Hassani, Massoma; Ataei, Saeedeh; Cultrera, Nicolò G. M.; Pandolfi, Saverio; Baldoni, Luciana

2014-01-01

148

Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by Releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, Parasitoid Longevity in Presence of the Host, and Host Status of Walnut Husk Fly  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin),...

149

Heat-pulse measurements of sap flow in olives for automating irrigation: tests, root flow and diagnostics of water stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compensation heat-pulse method for measuring sap flow is tested here in olive trees (Olea europaea L.). We describe a rigorous three-way examination of the robustness of the technique for this species, and examine the potential of the technique for an automatic control of the irrigation system. Two tests were carried out using heat-pulse gear inserted into the stem of

J. E. Fernandez; M. J. Palomo; A D??az-Espejo; B. E. Clothier; S. R. Green; I. F. Giron; F. Moreno

2001-01-01

150

Genomic profiling of plastid DNA variation in the Mediterranean olive tree  

PubMed Central

Background Characterisation of plastid genome (or cpDNA) polymorphisms is commonly used for phylogeographic, population genetic and forensic analyses in plants, but detecting cpDNA variation is sometimes challenging, limiting the applications of such an approach. In the present study, we screened cpDNA polymorphism in the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) by sequencing the complete plastid genome of trees with a distinct cpDNA lineage. Our objective was to develop new markers for a rapid genomic profiling (by Multiplex PCRs) of cpDNA haplotypes in the Mediterranean olive tree. Results Eight complete cpDNA genomes of Olea were sequenced de novo. The nucleotide divergence between olive cpDNA lineages was low and not exceeding 0.07%. Based on these sequences, markers were developed for studying two single nucleotide substitutions and length polymorphism of 62 regions (with variable microsatellite motifs or other indels). They were then used to genotype the cpDNA variation in cultivated and wild Mediterranean olive trees (315 individuals). Forty polymorphic loci were detected on this sample, allowing the distinction of 22 haplotypes belonging to the three Mediterranean cpDNA lineages known as E1, E2 and E3. The discriminating power of cpDNA variation was particularly low for the cultivated olive tree with one predominating haplotype, but more diversity was detected in wild populations. Conclusions We propose a method for a rapid characterisation of the Mediterranean olive germplasm. The low variation in the cultivated olive tree indicated that the utility of cpDNA variation for forensic analyses is limited to rare haplotypes. In contrast, the high cpDNA variation in wild populations demonstrated that our markers may be useful for phylogeographic and populations genetic studies in O. europaea. PMID:21569271

2011-01-01

151

Olive phenolic compounds: metabolic and transcriptional profiling during fruit development  

PubMed Central

Background Olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits contain numerous secondary metabolites, primarily phenolics, terpenes and sterols, some of which are particularly interesting for their nutraceutical properties. This study will attempt to provide further insight into the profile of olive phenolic compounds during fruit development and to identify the major genetic determinants of phenolic metabolism. Results The concentration of the major phenolic compounds, such as oleuropein, demethyloleuropein, 3–4 DHPEA-EDA, ligstroside, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside and lignans, were measured in the developing fruits of 12 olive cultivars. The content of these compounds varied significantly among the cultivars and decreased during fruit development and maturation, with some compounds showing specificity for certain cultivars. Thirty-five olive transcripts homologous to genes involved in the pathways of the main secondary metabolites were identified from the massive sequencing data of the olive fruit transcriptome or from cDNA-AFLP analysis. Their mRNA levels were determined using RT-qPCR analysis on fruits of high- and low-phenolic varieties (Coratina and Dolce d’Andria, respectively) during three different fruit developmental stages. A strong correlation was observed between phenolic compound concentrations and transcripts putatively involved in their biosynthesis, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of the corresponding pathways. OeDXS, OeGES, OeGE10H and OeADH, encoding putative 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-P synthase, geraniol synthase, geraniol 10-hydroxylase and arogenate dehydrogenase, respectively, were almost exclusively present at 45 days after flowering (DAF), suggesting that these compounds might play a key role in regulating secoiridoid accumulation during fruit development. Conclusions Metabolic and transcriptional profiling led to the identification of some major players putatively involved in biosynthesis of secondary compounds in the olive tree. Our data represent the first step towards the functional characterisation of important genes for the determination of olive fruit quality. PMID:22963618

2012-01-01

152

Soil properties and olive cultivar determine the structure and diversity of plant-parasitic nematode communities infesting olive orchards soils in southern Spain.  

PubMed

This work has studied for the first time the structure and diversity of plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) infesting olive orchard soils in a wide-region in Spain that included 92 locations. It aims at determining which agronomical or environmental factors associated to the olive orchards are the main drivers of the PPNs community structure and diversity. Classical morphological and morphometric identification methods were used to determine the frequency and densities of PPNs. Thirteen families, 34 genera and 77 species of PPNs were identified. The highest diversity was found in Helicotylenchus genus, with six species previously reported in Spain and with H. oleae being a first report. Neodolichorhynchus microphasmis and Diptenchus sp., Diphtherophora sp., and Discotylenchus sp., usually considered fungal feeders, were also reported for the first time associated to olive rhizosphere. PPNs abundance ranged from 66 to 16,288 individuals/500-cm3 of soil with Helicotylenchus digonicus being the most prevalent species, followed by Filenchus sp., Merlinius brevidens and Xiphinema pachtaicum. Nematode abundance and diversity indexes were influenced by olive cultivar, and orchard and soil management practices; while olive variety and soil texture were the main factors driving PPN community composition. Soil physicochemical properties and climatic characteristics most strongly associated to the PPN community composition included pH, sand content and exchangeable K, and maximum and minimum average temperature of the sampled locations. Our data suggests that there is a high diversity of PPNs associated to olive in Southern Spain that can exert different damage to olive roots depending on the olive variety and their abundance. Further analysis to determine the resistance levels of most common olive varieties to the prevalent PPNs in Spain will help to choose the most appropriate ones for the establishment of new plantations. This choice will take into consideration the specific soils and environments where those olive varieties will be established. PMID:25625375

Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Castillo, Pablo; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Navas-Cortés, Juan A; Landa, Blanca B

2015-01-01

153

Soil Properties and Olive Cultivar Determine the Structure and Diversity of Plant-Parasitic Nematode Communities Infesting Olive Orchards Soils in Southern Spain  

PubMed Central

This work has studied for the first time the structure and diversity of plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) infesting olive orchard soils in a wide-region in Spain that included 92 locations. It aims at determining which agronomical or environmental factors associated to the olive orchards are the main drivers of the PPNs community structure and diversity. Classical morphological and morphometric identification methods were used to determine the frequency and densities of PPNs. Thirteen families, 34 genera and 77 species of PPNs were identified. The highest diversity was found in Helicotylenchus genus, with six species previously reported in Spain and with H. oleae being a first report. Neodolichorhynchus microphasmis and Diptenchus sp., Diphtherophora sp., and Discotylenchus sp., usually considered fungal feeders, were also reported for the first time associated to olive rhizosphere. PPNs abundance ranged from 66 to 16,288 individuals/500-cm3 of soil with Helicotylenchus digonicus being the most prevalent species, followed by Filenchus sp., Merlinius brevidens and Xiphinema pachtaicum. Nematode abundance and diversity indexes were influenced by olive cultivar, and orchard and soil management practices; while olive variety and soil texture were the main factors driving PPN community composition. Soil physicochemical properties and climatic characteristics most strongly associated to the PPN community composition included pH, sand content and exchangeable K, and maximum and minimum average temperature of the sampled locations. Our data suggests that there is a high diversity of PPNs associated to olive in Southern Spain that can exert different damage to olive roots depending on the olive variety and their abundance. Further analysis to determine the resistance levels of most common olive varieties to the prevalent PPNs in Spain will help to choose the most appropriate ones for the establishment of new plantations. This choice will take into consideration the specific soils and environments where those olive varieties will be established. PMID:25625375

Palomares-Rius, Juan E.; Castillo, Pablo; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Navas-Cortés, Juan A.; Landa, Blanca B.

2015-01-01

154

Fine-scale ecological and economic assessment of climate change on olive in the Mediterranean Basin reveals winners and losers.  

PubMed

The Mediterranean Basin is a climate and biodiversity hot spot, and climate change threatens agro-ecosystems such as olive, an ancient drought-tolerant crop of considerable ecological and socioeconomic importance. Climate change will impact the interactions of olive and the obligate olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae), and alter the economics of olive culture across the Basin. We estimate the effects of climate change on the dynamics and interaction of olive and the fly using physiologically based demographic models in a geographic information system context as driven by daily climate change scenario weather. A regional climate model that includes fine-scale representation of the effects of topography and the influence of the Mediterranean Sea on regional climate was used to scale the global climate data. The system model for olive/olive fly was used as the production function in our economic analysis, replacing the commonly used production-damage control function. Climate warming will affect olive yield and fly infestation levels across the Basin, resulting in economic winners and losers at the local and regional scales. At the local scale, profitability of small olive farms in many marginal areas of Europe and elsewhere in the Basin will decrease, leading to increased abandonment. These marginal farms are critical to conserving soil, maintaining biodiversity, and reducing fire risk in these areas. Our fine-scale bioeconomic approach provides a realistic prototype for assessing climate change impacts in other Mediterranean agro-ecosystems facing extant and new invasive pests. PMID:24706833

Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Ruti, Paolo Michele; Dell'Aquila, Alessandro

2014-04-15

155

Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California.  

PubMed

The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), by the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. Mean percentage parasitism of olive fruit fly third instars infesting fruit in field cages ranged from 7.0 in Grapevine to 59.7 in Santa Barbara and in free releases ranged from 0 in Grapevine to 10.6 in Santa Barbara after 4- to 6-d exposures. In the laboratory, more parasitoids developed to adults in olive fruit fly larvae that were 11-13 d old than in larvae 8-10 d old. Adult parasitoids lived significantly longer when provided with water than adults without water in environmental chambers at 5 degrees C, 85% RH; 15 degrees C, 65% RH; 25 degrees C, 25% RH; and 35 degrees C, 25% RH. Adult parasitoids lived for 48 d with honey for food and water and 32 d with food and sugar solution at 15 degrees C and 65% RH. Survival of adult parasitoids without food and water in greenhouse tests was approximately 4 d in a simulated coastal climate and 1 d in a simulated inland valley climate and was significantly increased by providing food and water. The parasitoid did not develop in the beneficial seedhead fly, Chaetorellia succinea (Costa), in yellow star thistle. The rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, larvae in green walnut husks was 28.4% in laboratory no-choice tests. In choice tests, the rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly versus olive fruit fly larvae in olives was 11.5 and 24.2%, respectively. PMID:18559183

Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Rendón, Pedro A; Sivinski, John

2008-06-01

156

Effect of non-crop vegetation types on conservation biological control of pests in olive groves  

PubMed Central

Conservation biological control (CBC) is an environmentally sound potential alternative to the use of chemical insecticides. It involves modifications of the environment to promote natural enemy activity on pests. Despite many CBC studies increasing abundance of natural enemies, there are far fewer demonstrations of reduced pest density and very little work has been conducted in olive crops. In this study we investigated the effects of four forms of non-crop vegetation on the abundance of two important pests: the olive psyllid (Euphyllura olivina) and the olive moth (Prays oleae). Areas of herbaceous vegetation and areas of woody vegetation near olive crops, and smaller patches of woody vegetation within olive groves, decreased pest abundance in the crop. Inter-row ground covers that are known to increase the abundance of some predators and parasitoids had no effect on the pests, possibly as a result of lack of synchrony between pests and natural enemies, lack of specificity or intra-guild predation. This study identifies examples of the right types of diversity for use in conservation biological control in olive production systems. PMID:23904994

Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M.; Campos, Mercedes

2013-01-01

157

Effects of Peganum harmala (Zygophyllaceae) seed extract on the olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and its larval parasitoid Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).  

PubMed

Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae) is an herb native to arid and semiarid regions of Central Asian deserts. This study investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of P. harmala seeds on the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), i.e., adult repellency, reproductive activity, and larval growth, as well as parasitism levels by Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti). Olive fruit treated with 2% extract reduced B. oleae oviposition. In choice tests, female B. oleae spent >99% of their time foraging on untreated fruit rather than P. harmala-treated fruit. These changes in ovipositional behavior resulted in a nearly 30-fold decrease in oviposition marks on treated fruit compared with untreated fruit during a 48 h exposure period. When female B. oleae were fed liquid diet containing 0.2% P. harmala extract, there was no effect on the number of ovipositional marks on exposed fruit, but up to 21.4% of the deposited eggs were deformed. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses of deformed eggs revealed that some protein bands were missing. Consequently, the number of offspring produced by treated females was lower than by untreated females. Neither the sex ratio nor body size of the fly's offspring were affected by adults fed diet containing 0.2% P. harmala extract. However, there was a slightly prolonged developmental time from egg to adult. Parasitism of larval B. oleae by P. concolor was not affected by infested fruit treatment with 2% P. harmala extract. P. harmala extracts as a potential control for insect pest species are discussed. PMID:20069853

Rehman, Junaid Ur; Wang, Xin-Geng; Johnson, Marshall W; Daane, Kent M; Jilani, Ghulam; Khan, Mir A; Zalom, Frank G

2009-12-01

158

Is Ground Cover Vegetation an Effective Biological Control Enhancement Strategy against Olive Pests?  

PubMed Central

Ground cover vegetation is often added or allowed to generate to promote conservation biological control, especially in perennial crops. Nevertheless, there is inconsistent evidence of its effectiveness, with studies reporting positive, nil or negative effects on pest control. This might arise from differences between studies at the local scale (e.g. orchard management and land use history), the landscape context (e.g. presence of patches of natural or semi-natural vegetation near the focal orchard), or regional factors, particularly climate in the year of the study. Here we present the findings from a long-term regional monitoring program conducted on four pest species (Bactrocera oleae, Prays oleae, Euphyllura olivina, Saissetia oleae) in 2,528 olive groves in Andalusia (Spain) from 2006 to 2012. Generalized linear mixed effect models were used to analyze the effect of ground cover on different response variables related to pest abundance, while accounting for variability at the local, landscape and regional scales. There were small and inconsistent effects of ground cover on the abundance of pests whilst local, landscape and regional variability explained a large proportion of the variability in pest response variables. This highlights the importance of local and landscape-related variables in biological control and the potential effects that might emerge from their interaction with practices, such as groundcover vegetation, implemented to promote natural enemy activity. The study points to perennial vegetation close to the focal crop as a promising alternative strategy for conservation biological control that should receive more attention. PMID:25646778

Paredes, Daniel; Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M.; Campos, Mercedes

2015-01-01

159

Characterization and pathogenicity of Botryosphaeriaceae species collected from olive and other hosts in Spain and California.  

PubMed

Species in the family Botryosphaeriaceae are common pathogens causing fruit rot and dieback of many woody plants. In this study, 150 Botryosphaeriaceae isolates were collected from olive and other hosts in Spain and California. Representative isolates of each type were characterized based on morphological features and comparisons of DNA sequence data of three regions: internal transcribed spacer 5.8S, ?-tubulin, and elongation factor. Three main species were identified as Neofusicoccum mediterraneum, causing dieback of branches of olive and pistachio; Diplodia seriata, causing decay of ripe fruit and dieback of olive branches; and Botryosphaeria dothidea, causing dalmatian disease on unripe olive fruit in Spain. Moreover, the sexual stage of this last species was also found attacking olive branches in California. In pathogenicity tests using unripe fruit and branches of olive, D. seriata isolates were the least aggressive on the fruit and branches while N. mediterraneum isolates were the most aggressive on both tissues. Isolates of B. dothidea which cause dalmatian disease on fruit were not pathogenic on branches and only weakly aggressive on fruit. These results, together with the close association between the presence of dalmatian disease symptoms and the wound created by the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae), suggest that the fly is essential for the initiation of the disease on fruit. Isolates recovered from dalmatian disease symptoms had an optimum of 26°C for mycelial growth and 30°C for conidial germination, suggesting that the pathogen is well adapted to high summer temperatures. In contrast, the range of water activity in the medium for growth of dalmatian isolates was 0.93 to 1 MPa, which was similar to that for the majority of fungi. This study resolved long-standing questions of identity and pathogenicity of species within the family Botryosphaeriaceae attacking olive trees in Spain and California. PMID:20731532

Moral, Juan; Muñoz-Díez, Concepción; González, Nazaret; Trapero, Antonio; Michailides, Themis J

2010-12-01

160

Immunological cross-reactivity between olive and grass pollen: implication of major and minor allergens  

PubMed Central

Background Grasses and olive trees are the most common sources of allergenic pollen worldwide. Although they share some allergens, there are few studies analyzing the in vitro cross-reactivity between them. The aim was to define the cross-reactivity between Olea europaea and Phleum pratense using well-characterized sera of allergic children from Madrid, Spain. Methods 66 patients (mean age 10.32+/?4.07 years) were included in the study. All suffered from rhinoconjuntivitis and/or asthma and had a positive skin test and/or specific IgE determination to olive and grass pollen. Serum sIgE to individual allergens was conducted and sIgE against different grass species and olive was also determined by ELISA. Inhibition assays were performed using two serum sources, containing, or not, sIgE to minor allergens. Mass spectrometry analysis was performed in both extracts. Results 59/66 (89.39%) children had a positive sIgE determination by ELISA to grasses and 57/66 (86.36%) to olive pollen. There was no significant correlation between sIgE levels to grass and olive. Inhibition assays demonstrated no cross-reactivity between P. pratense and olive pollen when using the pool containing mainly sIgE to major allergens, whereas minimal to moderate cross-reactivity was detected when the serum contained high sIgE titers to minor allergens. Proteomic analyses revealed the presence of 42 common proteins in grasses and olive pollens. Conclusion No in vitro cross-reactivity was observed when sIgE was mainly directed to major allergens. In our population, sensitization to olive and grasses is not due to cross-reactivity. The contribution of the major allergens seems to be determinant. PMID:24940475

2014-01-01

161

In Vitro Culture Conditions and OeARF and OeH3 Expressions Modulate Adventitious Root Formation from Oleaster (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) Cuttings  

PubMed Central

Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris, also named oleaster, is the wild form of olive and it is used as rootstock and pollen donor for many cultivated varieties. An efficient procedure for in vitro propagation of oleaster was established in this study. A zeatin concentration of 2.5?mg/L was effective to induce an appreciable vegetative growth. Also high rooting efficiency was obtained by using a short IBA pulse, followed by two different IBA concentrations in the culture medium. With the aim to enlarge knowledge on the molecular aspects of adventitious rooting, we also evaluated the transcriptional modulation of an ARFs member and HISTONE H3 genes, involved in auxin signaling and cell replication, respectively, during the root induction phase of cuttings. The obtained results suggest that the selected genes, as markers of the induction phase, could be very useful for setting up efficient culture conditions along the rooting process, thus increasing micropropagation efficiency. PMID:24587768

Gagliardi, Cinzia; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

2014-01-01

162

In vitro culture conditions and OeARF and OeH3 expressions modulate adventitious root formation from oleaster (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) cuttings.  

PubMed

Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris, also named oleaster, is the wild form of olive and it is used as rootstock and pollen donor for many cultivated varieties. An efficient procedure for in vitro propagation of oleaster was established in this study. A zeatin concentration of 2.5?mg/L was effective to induce an appreciable vegetative growth. Also high rooting efficiency was obtained by using a short IBA pulse, followed by two different IBA concentrations in the culture medium. With the aim to enlarge knowledge on the molecular aspects of adventitious rooting, we also evaluated the transcriptional modulation of an ARFs member and HISTONE H3 genes, involved in auxin signaling and cell replication, respectively, during the root induction phase of cuttings. The obtained results suggest that the selected genes, as markers of the induction phase, could be very useful for setting up efficient culture conditions along the rooting process, thus increasing micropropagation efficiency. PMID:24587768

Chiappetta, Adriana; Gagliardi, Cinzia; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

2014-01-01

163

Paternity Analysis of the Olive Variety “Istrska Belica” and Identification of Pollen Donors by Microsatellite Markers  

PubMed Central

The leading olive variety in Slovenia is “Istrska belica” (Olea europaea L.), which currently represents 70% of all olive trees in productive orchards. Paternity analysis based on microsatellite markers was used for genotyping and identification of the potential pollen donors of “Istrska belica” and for assessing the proportion of self-fertilization in monovarietal olive orchards in the Slovene Istria. Seven microsatellite loci were used for genotyping thirty-one olive embryos from “Istrska belica” trees and for all potential pollen donor varieties, which are grown in the region and could participate as pollinators. Genotyping results and allele identification were performed using the FaMoz software. The most probable pollen donor was assigned to 39% of all analyzed embryos. Among all analyzed embryos no single case of self-fertilization was confirmed. According to the present results, the variety “Istrska belica” was in all cases fertilized by foreign pollen. The results will contribute to defining the new guidelines for farmers regarding the proper management and growing practice in monovarietal olive groves. PMID:25097869

Jakše, Jernej

2014-01-01

164

Diversity of auxin-producing bacteria associated to Pseudomonas savastanoi -induced olive knots.  

PubMed

Forty three strains were isolated from knots induced by Pseudomonas savastanoi in different olive cultivars. All the selected bacteria were shown to produce variable amounts of the plant growth hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Amplification of the intergenic transcribed spacers (ITS) between 16S and 23S rDNA genes, allowed the clustering of the isolates into seven distinct groups. All isolates from ITS group 1 were positive to the Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi specific iaa L gene as shown by PCR. Partial sequencing of 16S rDNA gene confirmed the identity of these isolates to Pseudomonas savastanoi strains and allowed to tentatively assign the other isolates from the remaining ITS groups to Pantoea oleae/agglomerans, Burkholderia cepacia, Pseudomonas putida, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Hafnia alvei. Identification of endophytic knot-derived isolates revealed association of various saprophytic and putative human pathogenic bacteria with P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi in knot environment of olive infected trees. PMID:18759227

Ouzari, Hadda; Khsairi, Amel; Raddadi, Noura; Jaoua, Leila; Hassen, Abdennaceur; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Daffonchio, Daniele; Boudabous, Abdellatif

2008-10-01

165

Control of the olive fruit fly using genetics-enhanced sterile insect technique  

PubMed Central

Background The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major arthropod pest of commercial olive production, causing extensive damage to olive crops worldwide. Current control techniques rely on spraying of chemical insecticides. The sterile insect technique (SIT) presents an alternative, environmentally friendly and species-specific method of population control. Although SIT has been very successful against other tephritid pests, previous SIT trials on olive fly have produced disappointing results. Key problems included altered diurnal mating rhythms of the laboratory-reared insects, resulting in asynchronous mating activity between the wild and released sterile populations, and low competitiveness of the radiation-sterilised mass-reared flies. Consequently, the production of competitive, male-only release cohorts is considered an essential prerequisite for successful olive fly SIT. Results We developed a set of conditional female-lethal strains of olive fly (named Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal; RIDL®), providing highly penetrant female-specific lethality, dominant fluorescent marking, and genetic sterility. We found that males of the lead strain, OX3097D-Bol, 1) are strongly sexually competitive with wild olive flies, 2) display synchronous mating activity with wild females, and 3) induce appropriate refractoriness to wild female re-mating. Furthermore, we showed, through a large proof-of-principle experiment, that weekly releases of OX3097D-Bol males into stable populations of caged wild-type olive fly could cause rapid population collapse and eventual eradication. Conclusions The observed mating characteristics strongly suggest that an approach based on the release of OX3097D-Bol males will overcome the key difficulties encountered in previous olive fly SIT attempts. Although field confirmation is required, the proof-of-principle suppression and elimination of caged wild-type olive fly populations through OX3097D-Bol male releases provides evidence for the female-specific RIDL approach as a viable method of olive fly control. We conclude that the promising characteristics of OX3097D-Bol may finally enable effective SIT-based control of the olive fly. PMID:22713628

2012-01-01

166

Computational annotation of genes differentially expressed along olive fruit development  

PubMed Central

Background Olea europaea L. is a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean basin with a worldwide economical high impact. Differently from other fruit tree species, little is known about the physiological and molecular basis of the olive fruit development and a few sequences of genes and gene products are available for olive in public databases. This study deals with the identification of large sets of differentially expressed genes in developing olive fruits and the subsequent computational annotation by means of different software. Results mRNA from fruits of the cv. Leccino sampled at three different stages [i.e., initial fruit set (stage 1), completed pit hardening (stage 2) and veraison (stage 3)] was used for the identification of differentially expressed genes putatively involved in main processes along fruit development. Four subtractive hybridization libraries were constructed: forward and reverse between stage 1 and 2 (libraries A and B), and 2 and 3 (libraries C and D). All sequenced clones (1,132 in total) were analyzed through BlastX against non-redundant NCBI databases and about 60% of them showed similarity to known proteins. A total of 89 out of 642 differentially expressed unique sequences was further investigated by Real-Time PCR, showing a validation of the SSH results as high as 69%. Library-specific cDNA repertories were annotated according to the three main vocabularies of the gene ontology (GO): cellular component, biological process and molecular function. BlastX analysis, GO terms mapping and annotation analysis were performed using the Blast2GO software, a research tool designed with the main purpose of enabling GO based data mining on sequence sets for which no GO annotation is yet available. Bioinformatic analysis pointed out a significantly different distribution of the annotated sequences for each GO category, when comparing the three fruit developmental stages. The olive fruit-specific transcriptome dataset was used to query all known KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes) metabolic pathways for characterizing and positioning retrieved EST records. The integration of the olive sequence datasets within the MapMan platform for microarray analysis allowed the identification of specific biosynthetic pathways useful for the definition of key functional categories in time course analyses for gene groups. Conclusion The bioinformatic annotation of all gene sequences was useful to shed light on metabolic pathways and transcriptional aspects related to carbohydrates, fatty acids, secondary metabolites, transcription factors and hormones as well as response to biotic and abiotic stresses throughout olive drupe development. These results represent a first step toward both functional genomics and systems biology research for understanding the gene functions and regulatory networks in olive fruit growth and ripening. PMID:19852839

Galla, Giulio; Barcaccia, Gianni; Ramina, Angelo; Collani, Silvio; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldoni, Luciana; Cultrera, Nicolò GM; Martinelli, Federico; Sebastiani, Luca; Tonutti, Pietro

2009-01-01

167

Thriving at the limit: Differential reproductive performance in range-edge populations of a Mediterranean sclerophyll (Olea europaea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peripheral populations are often lumped together on the assumption of thriving in marginal habitats where reproductive performance is compromised. We have tested this hypothesis in peripheral populations of wild olive tree (Olea europaea L.) presumably limited by different factors at the westernmost limit of the species range. Additionally, we hypothesized that differences in reproductive outcome among populations are better explained by site-specific environmental conditions (PAR, soil water, soil nutrients, air humidity and air temperature) than by differences in phenotypic traits (tree size and leaf traits). To test these hypotheses, we assessed the number of flowering trees, the flowering intensity, fruit set and seed viability in eight populations for three consecutive years. Our findings provided sufficient evidence to reject the first hypothesis. Peripheral populations that occur under oceanic conditions, resembling the Tertiary subtropical climate, consistently presented higher values for all components of reproductive performance than those at the thermal and rainfall tolerance limits. In support of our second hypothesis, the variation in reproductive performance among populations was primarily accounted for by local environmental conditions. Leaf traits, however, also explained reproductive variation but to a lesser extent. Finally, we found that small changes in tree size may cause large differences in reproductive performance. This close relationship between tree size and reproductive performance suggests that any impact on population size structure would likely jeopardize persistence and expansion at the range edge. Our results suggest that reproductive performance of wild olive trees was not shaped by the population geographic position within the species range, but by the interaction between local environment, as the main driver, and individual phenotypic traits.

Granado-Yela, Carlos; Balaguer, Luis; García-Verdugo, Carlos; Carrillo, Katty; Méndez, Marcos

2013-10-01

168

Olive Fertility as Affected by Cross-Pollination and Boron  

PubMed Central

Self-compatibility of local olive (Olea europaea L.) accessions and of the cultivars “Frantoio” and “Leccino” was investigated in Garda Lake area, northern Italy. Intercompatibility was determined for “Casaliva,” “Frantoio,” and “Leccino,” as well as the effects of foliar Boron applications (0, 262, 525, or 1050?mg·L?1) applied about one week before anthesis on fruit set, shotberry set, and on in vitro pollen germination. Following self-pollination, fruit set was significantly lower and the occurrence of shot berries significantly higher than those obtained by open pollination. No significant effect of controlled cross-pollination over self-pollination on fruit set and shotberry set was detectable. B treatments increased significantly fruit set in “Frantoio” and “Casaliva” but not in “Leccino.” B sprays had no effect on shotberry set, suggesting that these parthenocarpic fruits did not strongly compete for resources allocation and did not take advantage of increased B tissue levels. Foliar B application enhanced in vitro pollen germination, and the optimal level was higher for pollen germination than for fruit set. Our results highlight the importance of olive cross pollination for obtaining satisfactory fruit set and the beneficial effect of B treatments immediately prior to anthesis, possibly by affecting positively the fertilisation process and subsequent plant source-sink relations linked to fruitlet retention. PMID:22919310

Spinardi, A.; Bassi, D.

2012-01-01

169

Agricultural management systems affect the green lacewing community (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) in olive orchards in southern Spain.  

PubMed

Green lacewings are generalist predators whose conservation is important for pest control in olive orchards (Olea europaea L.) Sustainable farming practices, as opposed to conventional management techniques, are believed to foster the presence of natural enemies. This study therefore aims to analyze the effect of 1) herbicidal weed cover removal and insecticide applications, and 2) the general management systems used in the olive orchards of southern Spain on chrysopid assemblages and abundance. Green lacewing adults and larvae were collected from olive orchards under conventional, integrated, and organic management systems. In addition, chemical analyses of residues were carried out to determine the presence of insecticidal and herbicidal residues. Eight adult species and three genera of larvae were identified. No rare species were captured from the most intensively farmed orchard, which therefore recorded the most limited chrysopid diversity with a very marked dominance of Chrysoperla carnea s.l.. No effect of dimethoate treatments on Chrysoperla larvae or C. carnea s.l. adults was observed. However, the presence of insecticide residues was associated with the depletion of Dichochrysa larvae. The absence of herbicide treatments favored C. carnea s.l. adult presence on olive trees while larval abundance decreased. Dichochrysa larvae were more abundant when weed cover received no treatment. In relation to the management systems studied, no difference in Chrysoperla larval abundance was observed between conventional and organic orchards. However, Dichochrysa larvae were more abundant in orchards under organic management. PMID:23339790

Porcel, M; Ruano, F; Cotes, B; Peña, A; Campos, M

2013-02-01

170

Olive cultivar origin is a major cause of polymorphism for Ole e 1 pollen allergen  

PubMed Central

Background Pollens from different olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars have been shown to differ significantly in their content in Ole e 1 and in their overall allergenicity. This allergen is, in addition, characterized by a high degree of polymorphism in its sequence. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the putative presence of divergences in Ole e 1 sequences from different olive cultivars. Results RNA from pollen individually collected from 10 olive cultivars was used to amplify Ole e 1 sequences by RT-PCR, and the sequences were analyzed by using different bioinformatics tools. Numerous nucleotide substitutions were detected throughout the sequences, many of which resulted in amino acid substitutions in the deduced protein sequences. In most cases variability within a single variety was much lower than among varieties. Key amino acid changes in comparison with "canonical" sequences previously described in the literature included: a) the substitution of C19-relevant to the disulphide bond structure of the protein-, b) the presence of an additional N-glycosylation motif, and c) point substitutions affecting regions of Ole e 1 already described like relevant for the immunogenicity/allergenicity of the protein. Conclusion Varietal origin of olive pollen is a major factor determining the diversity of Ole e 1 variants. We consider this information of capital importance for the optimal design of efficient and safe allergen formulations, and useful for the genetic engineering of modified forms of the allergen among other applications. PMID:18218146

Hamman-Khalifa, AbdelMounim; Castro, Antonio Jesús; Jiménez-López, José Carlos; Rodríguez-García, María Isabel; Alché, Juan de Dios

2008-01-01

171

Population genetics of Mediterranean and Saharan olives: geographic patterns of differentiation and evidence for early generations of admixture  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The olive (Olea europaea subsp. europaea) was domesticated in the Mediterranean area but its wild relatives are distributed over three continents, from the Mediterranean basin to South Africa and south-western Asia. Recent studies suggested that this crop originated in the Levant while a secondary diversification occurred in most westward areas. A possible contribution of the Saharan subspecies (subsp. laperrinei) has been highlighted, but the data available were too limited to draw definite conclusions. Here, patterns of genetic differentiation in the Mediterranean and Saharan olives are analysed to test for recent admixture between these taxa. Methods Nuclear microsatellite and plastid DNA (ptDNA) data were compiled from previous studies and completed for a sample of 470 cultivars, 390 wild Mediterranean trees and 270 Saharan olives. A network was reconstructed for the ptDNA haplotypes, while a Bayesian clustering method was applied to identify the main gene pools in the data set and then simulate and test for early generations of admixture between Mediterranean and Saharan olives. Key Results Four lineages of ptDNA haplotypes are recognized: three from the Mediterranean basin and one from the Sahara. Only one haplotype, primarily distributed in the Sahara, is shared between laperrinei and europaea. This haplotype is detected once in ‘Dhokar’, a cultivar from the Maghreb. Nuclear microsatellites show geographic patterns of genetic differentiation in the Mediterranean olive that reflect the primary origins of cultivars in the Levant, and indicate a high genetic differentiation between europaea and laperrinei. No first-generation hybrid between europaea and laperrinei is detected, but recent, reciprocal admixture between Mediterranean and Saharan subspecies is found in a few accessions, including ‘Dhokar’. Conclusions This study reports for the first time admixture between Mediterranean and Saharan olives. Although its contribution remains limited, Laperrine's olive has been involved in the diversification of cultivated olives. PMID:24013386

Besnard, G.; El Bakkali, A.; Haouane, H.; Baali-Cherif, D.; Moukhli, A.; Khadari, B.

2013-01-01

172

CONCENTRACION INDUSTRIAL EN LAS REGIONES ESPAÑOLAS Y EUROPEAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este documento es una versión actualizada del Capítulo 3 del libro de Guisán, Cancelo, Aguayo y Díaz(2001). El interés de este estudio está en analizar la importancia de la industria sobre la renta y el empleo de las regiones europeas, no sólo por su efecto positivo directo sino también por sus efectos positivos indirectos sobre otros sectores productivos y en

Maria-Carmen GUISAN; Maria-Teresa CANCELO; Maria-Rosario DÍAZ

2010-01-01

173

Water Deficit during Pit Hardening Enhances Phytoprostanes Content, a Plant Biomarker of Oxidative Stress, in Extra Virgin Olive Oil.  

PubMed

No previous information exists on the effects of water deficit on the phytoprostanes (PhytoPs) content in extra virgin olive oil from fruits of mature olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Cornicabra) trees during pit hardening. PhytoPs profile in extra virgin olive oil was characterized by the presence of 9-F1t-PhytoP, 9-epi-9-F1t-PhytoP, 9-epi-9-D1t-PhytoP, 9-D1t-PhytoP, 16-B1-PhytoP + ent-16-B1-PhytoP, and 9-L1-PhytoP + ent-9-L1-PhytoP. The qualitative and quantitative differences in PhytoPs content with respect to those reported by other authors indicate a decisive effect of cultivar, oil extraction technology, and/or storage conditions prone to autoxidation. The pit hardening period was critical for extra virgin olive oil composition because water deficit enhanced the PhytoPs content, with the concomitant potential beneficial aspects on human health. From a physiological and agronomical point of view, 9-F1t-PhytoP, 9-epi-9-F1t-PhytoP, and 16-B1-PhytoP + ent-16-B1-PhytoP could be considered as early candidate biomarkers of water stress in olive tree. PMID:25826384

Collado-González, Jacinta; Pérez-López, David; Memmi, Houssem; Gijón, M Carmen; Medina, Sonia; Durand, Thierry; Guy, Alexandre; Galano, Jean-Marie; Ferreres, Federico; Torrecillas, Arturo; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel

2015-04-15

174

Plant genotype-specific archaeal and bacterial endophytes but similar Bacillus antagonists colonize Mediterranean olive trees.  

PubMed

Endophytes have an intimate and often symbiotic interaction with their hosts. Less is known about the composition and function of endophytes in trees. In order to evaluate our hypothesis that plant genotype and origin have a strong impact on both, endophytes of leaves from 10 Olea europaea L. cultivars from the Mediterranean basin growing at a single agricultural site in Spain and from nine wild olive trees located in natural habitats in Greece, Cyprus, and on Madeira Island were studied. The composition of the bacterial endophytic communities as revealed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and the subsequent PCoA analysis showed a strong correlation to the plant genotypes. The bacterial distribution patterns were congruent with the plant origins in "Eastern" and "Western" areas of the Mediterranean basin. Subsequently, the endophytic microbiome of wild olives was shown to be closely related to those of cultivated olives of the corresponding geographic origins. The olive leaf endosphere harbored mostly Proteobacteria, followed by Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The detection of a high portion of archaeal taxa belonging to the phyla Thaumarchaeota, Crenarchaeota, and Euryarchaeota in the amplicon libraries was an unexpected discovery, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR revealing an archaeal portion of up to 35.8%. Although the function of these Archaea for their host plant remains speculative, this finding suggests a significant relevance of archaeal endophytes for plant-microbe interactions. In addition, the antagonistic potential of culturable endophytes was determined; all isolates with antagonistic activity against the olive-pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb. belong to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. In contrast to the specific global structural diversity, BOX-fingerprints of the antagonistic Bacillus isolates were highly similar and independent of the olive genotype from which they were isolated. PMID:25784898

Müller, Henry; Berg, Christian; Landa, Blanca B; Auerbach, Anna; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Berg, Gabriele

2015-01-01

175

Plant genotype-specific archaeal and bacterial endophytes but similar Bacillus antagonists colonize Mediterranean olive trees  

PubMed Central

Endophytes have an intimate and often symbiotic interaction with their hosts. Less is known about the composition and function of endophytes in trees. In order to evaluate our hypothesis that plant genotype and origin have a strong impact on both, endophytes of leaves from 10 Olea europaea L. cultivars from the Mediterranean basin growing at a single agricultural site in Spain and from nine wild olive trees located in natural habitats in Greece, Cyprus, and on Madeira Island were studied. The composition of the bacterial endophytic communities as revealed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and the subsequent PCoA analysis showed a strong correlation to the plant genotypes. The bacterial distribution patterns were congruent with the plant origins in “Eastern” and “Western” areas of the Mediterranean basin. Subsequently, the endophytic microbiome of wild olives was shown to be closely related to those of cultivated olives of the corresponding geographic origins. The olive leaf endosphere harbored mostly Proteobacteria, followed by Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The detection of a high portion of archaeal taxa belonging to the phyla Thaumarchaeota, Crenarchaeota, and Euryarchaeota in the amplicon libraries was an unexpected discovery, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR revealing an archaeal portion of up to 35.8%. Although the function of these Archaea for their host plant remains speculative, this finding suggests a significant relevance of archaeal endophytes for plant–microbe interactions. In addition, the antagonistic potential of culturable endophytes was determined; all isolates with antagonistic activity against the olive-pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb. belong to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. In contrast to the specific global structural diversity, BOX-fingerprints of the antagonistic Bacillus isolates were highly similar and independent of the olive genotype from which they were isolated. PMID:25784898

Müller, Henry; Berg, Christian; Landa, Blanca B.; Auerbach, Anna; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Berg, Gabriele

2015-01-01

176

Fungi isolated from olive ecosystems and screening of their potential biotechnological use.  

PubMed

This study investigated the fungi diversity of fresh olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits, olive paste (crushed olives) and olive pomace (solid waste) and screened and quantified enzymatic activities with biotechnological applications. Fungi were randomly isolated from olive cultivars from Castilla La Mancha region (Spain). Identification included comparison of their polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal DNA region, followed by nucleotide sequence analysis. Fourteen different species with DNA sequences of different similarities were identified, belonging to seven different genera (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizomucor, Mucor, Rhizopus, Lichtheimia and Galactomyces). Aspergillus fumigatus, followed by Galactomyces geotrichum, Penicillium commune and Rhizomucor variabilis var. regularior were the most frequent species. Specific enzyme screening was assayed on agar plates, using cellobiose, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), polygalacturonic acid and CaCl(2)/Tween 80 as substrates for ?-glucosidase, carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase), polygalacturonase and lipase, respectively. Species exhibiting the best activities were: Aspergillus fumigatus (for ?-glucosidase, CMCase and lipase); Rhizopus oryzae (for ?-glucosidase and lipase); Rhizomucor variabilis (for ?-glucosidase, CMCase and polygalacturonase); Mucor fragilis (?-glucosidase, CMCase and lipase); Galactomyces geotrichum (for ?-glucosidase, polygalacturonase and lipase) and Penicillium commune and Penicillium crustosum (for lipase). The species that had shown the best enzymatic activities were grown on hemicellulose, cellulose and pectin and some activities were quantified (xylanase, cellulase, ?-glucosidase and pectinase). An isolate of A. fumigatus and one of A. niger showed the best cellulase and xylanase activities, while no species presented good pectinase and ?-glucosidase activities. The selected species with potential enzymatic activities could be used for future applications of industrial interest. PMID:21689797

Baffi, Milla Alves; Romo-Sánchez, Sheila; Ubeda-Iranzo, Juan; Briones-Pérez, Ana Isabel

2012-02-15

177

Interchromosomal Duplications on the Bactrocera oleae Y Chromosome Imply a Distinct Evolutionary Origin of the Sex Chromosomes Compared to Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Background Diptera have an extraordinary variety of sex determination mechanisms, and Drosophila melanogaster is the paradigm for this group. However, the Drosophila sex determination pathway is only partially conserved and the family Tephritidae affords an interesting example. The tephritid Y chromosome is postulated to be necessary to determine male development. Characterization of Y sequences, apart from elucidating the nature of the male determining factor, is also important to understand the evolutionary history of sex chromosomes within the Tephritidae. We studied the Y sequences from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae. Its Y chromosome is minute and highly heterochromatic, and displays high heteromorphism with the X chromosome. Methodology/Principal Findings A combined Representational Difference Analysis (RDA) and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) approach was used to investigate the Y chromosome to derive information on its sequence content. The Y chromosome is strewn with repetitive DNA sequences, the majority of which are also interdispersed in the pericentromeric regions of the autosomes. The Y chromosome appears to have accumulated small and large repetitive interchromosomal duplications. The large interchromosomal duplications harbour an importin-4-like gene fragment. Apart from these importin-4-like sequences, the other Y repetitive sequences are not shared with the X chromosome, suggesting molecular differentiation of these two chromosomes. Moreover, as the identified Y sequences were not detected on the Y chromosomes of closely related tephritids, we can infer divergence in the repetitive nature of their sequence contents. Conclusions/Significance The identification of Y-linked sequences may tell us much about the repetitive nature, the origin and the evolution of Y chromosomes. We hypothesize how these repetitive sequences accumulated and were maintained on the Y chromosome during its evolutionary history. Our data reinforce the idea that the sex chromosomes of the Tephritidae may have distinct evolutionary origins with respect to those of the Drosophilidae and other Dipteran families. PMID:21408187

Gabrieli, Paolo; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Bonomi, Angelica; Siciliano, Paolo; Scolari, Francesca; Franz, Gerald; Jessup, Andrew; Malacrida, Anna R.; Gasperi, Giuliano

2011-01-01

178

High Genetic Diversity and Clonal Growth in Relict Populations of Olea europaea subsp. laperrinei (Oleaceae) from Hoggar, Algeria  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims The Laperrine's olive (Olea europaea subsp. laperrinei) is an endemic tree from Saharan massifs. Its populations have substantially regressed since the Pleistocene and are presently distributed in a fragmented habitat. Long-term persistence of this taxon is uncertain and programmes of preservation have to be urgently implemented. To define a conservation strategy, the genetic diversity and breeding system of this tree have to be investigated. • Methods One hundred and eleven ramets were prospected in the laperrinei populations from the Tamanrasset region, southern Algeria. Genetic polymorphism was revealed at nuclear and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) microsatellite loci allowing a comparative assessment of the genetic diversity of laperrinei and Mediterranean populations based on bi-parental and maternal markers. Additionally, nuclear microsatellite markers enabled the genotypes to be identified unambiguously. • Key Results Based on nuclear microsatellite data, the total diversity was high (Ht = 0·61) in laperrinei populations and similar to that observed in western Mediterranean populations. A substantial cpDNA diversity (Ht = 0·19) was also observed. Genetically identical ramets originated from the same stump (which can cover >80?m2) were identified in each population. Sixteen per cent of genets exhibited more than one ramet. In addition, several cases of somatic mutations were unambiguously revealed in distinct ramets stemming from the same stump. • Conclusions These data show that highly isolated and small laperrinei populations are able to maintain a high genetic diversity. This supports the existence of relict trees persisting for a very long time (probably since the last humid transition, 3000 years ago). It is proposed that the very long persistence associated with an asexual multiplication of highly adapted trees could be a strategy of survival in extreme conditions avoiding a mutational meltdown due to reproduction in reduced populations. PMID:16043438

BAALI-CHERIF, DJAMEL; BESNARD, GUILLAUME

2005-01-01

179

The Douglas Oliver Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This remarkable collection from the University of Hawaii Library's Pacific Collection brings together over 960 images taken by Professor Douglas Oliver. In the late 1930s, Professor Oliver conducted research on Bougainville in the Solomon Islands. Visitors can browse through his images by title, category, place, collection, or reference number. Some of the images include rare photographs of nuptials and other events or ceremonies that marked key events in the community. Many of the images include portraits of men in profile, along with scenes of family life. The site also contains a glossary of terms, which details everything from place names (like "Aku") to "Upi," the wearing of tall conical hats known as upes.

Oliver, Douglas L.

180

On the Use of Leaf Spectral Indices to Assess Water Status and Photosynthetic Limitations in Olea europaea L. during Water-Stress and Recovery  

PubMed Central

Diffusional limitations to photosynthesis, relative water content (RWC), pigment concentrations and their association with reflectance indices were studied in olive (Olea europaea) saplings subjected to water-stress and re-watering. RWC decreased sharply as drought progressed. Following rewatering, RWC gradually increased to pre-stress values. Photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), mesophyll conductance (gm), total conductance (gt), photochemical reflectance index (PRI), water index (WI) and relative depth index (RDI) closely followed RWC. In contrast, carotenoid concentration, the carotenoid to chlorophyll ratio, water content reflectance index (WCRI) and structural independent pigment index (SIPI) showed an opposite trend to that of RWC. Photosynthesis scaled linearly with leaf conductance to CO2; however, A measured under non-photorespiratory conditions (A1%O2) was approximately two times greater than A measured at 21% [O2], indicating that photorespiration likely increased in response to drought. A1%O2 also significantly correlated with leaf conductance parameters. These relationships were apparent in saturation type curves, indicating that under non-photorespiratory conditions, CO2 conductance was not the major limitations to A. PRI was significant correlated with RWC. PRI was also very sensitive to pigment concentrations and photosynthesis, and significantly tracked all CO2 conductance parameters. WI, RDI and WCRI were all significantly correlated with RWC, and most notably to leaf transpiration. Overall, PRI correlated more closely with carotenoid concentration than SIPI; whereas WI tracked leaf transpiration more effectively than RDI and WCRI. This study clearly demonstrates that PRI and WI can be used for the fast detection of physiological traits of olive trees subjected to water-stress. PMID:25136798

Sun, Pengsen; Wahbi, Said; Tsonev, Tsonko; Haworth, Matthew; Liu, Shirong; Centritto, Mauro

2014-01-01

181

Chloroformic and Methanolic Extracts of Olea europaea L. Leaves Present Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities  

PubMed Central

Olea europaea L. is used in traditional medicine in the Mediterranean areas. Its natural products are used in the treatment of different disorders, like fighting fever and some infectious diseases such as malaria, the treatment of arrhythmia, and relief of intestinal spasms. The aim of the current study is to investigate the possible anti-inflammatory and anatinociceptive effects of methanol and chloroformic extracts prepared from leaves of Olea europaea L. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of the different extracts of Olea europaea leaves were assessed after intraperitoneal administration into rats and mice, using the carrageenan-induced paw edema model in rats to test the anti-inflammatory effect and the acetic acid-induced writhing in mice to test the analgesic effect. The chloroformic and methanolic leaves extracts, studied at the doses of 50, 100, and 200?mg/kg (Body Weight: BW), exhibited significant dose-dependent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that Olea europaea leaves extracts have anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. PMID:22084717

Chebbi Mahjoub, R; Khemiss, M.; Dhidah, M.; Dellaï, A.; Bouraoui, A.; Khemiss, F.

2011-01-01

182

Vulnerability to cavitation in Olea europaea current-year shoots: further evidence of an open-vessel artifact associated with centrifuge and air-injection techniques.  

PubMed

Different methods have been devised to analyze vulnerability to cavitation of plants. Although a good agreement between them is usually found, some discrepancies have been reported when measuring samples from long-vesseled species. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible artifacts derived from different methods and sample sizes. Current-year shoot segments of mature olive trees (Olea europaea), a long-vesseled species, were used to generate vulnerability curves (VCs) by bench dehydration, pressure collar and both static- and flow-centrifuge methods. For the latter, two different rotors were used to test possible effects of the rotor design on the curves. Indeed, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images were used to evaluate the functional status of xylem at different water potentials. Measurements of native embolism were used to validate the methods used. The pressure collar and the two centrifugal methods showed greater vulnerability to cavitation than the dehydration method. The shift in vulnerability thresholds in centrifuge methods was more pronounced in shorter samples, supporting the open-vessel artifact hypothesis as a higher proportion of vessels were open in short samples. The two different rotor designs used for the flow-centrifuge method revealed similar vulnerability to cavitation. Only the bench dehydration or HRCT methods produced VCs that agreed with native levels of embolism and water potential values measured in the field. PMID:24611594

Torres-Ruiz, José M; Cochard, Hervé; Mayr, Stefan; Beikircher, Barbara; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Celia M; Badel, Eric; Fernández, José Enrique

2014-11-01

183

Sodium replacement of potassium in physiological processes of olive trees (var. Barnea) as affected by drought.  

PubMed

Potassium (K) is a macro-nutrient understood to play a role in the physiological performance of plants under drought. In some plant species, sodium (Na) can partially substitute K. Although a beneficial role of Na is well established, information regarding its nutritional role in trees is scant and its function under conditions of drought is not fully understood. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of K and its possible replacement by Na in olive's (Olea europaea L.) response to drought. Young and bearing olive trees were grown in soilless culture and exposed to gradual drought. In the presence of Na, trees were tolerant of extremely low K concentrations. Depletion of K and Na resulted in ?50% reduction in CO2 assimilation rate when compared with sufficiently fertilized control plants. Sodium was able to replace K and recover the assimilation rate to nearly optimum level. The inhibitory effect of K deficiency on photosynthesis was more pronounced under high stomatal conductance. Potassium was not found to facilitate drought tolerance mechanisms in olives. Moreover, stomatal control machinery was not significantly impaired by K deficiency, regardless of water availability. Under drought, leaf water potential was affected by K and Na. High environmental K and Na increased leaf starch content and affected the soluble carbohydrate profile in a similar manner. These results identify olive as a species capable of partly replacing K by Na. The nutritional effect of K and Na was shown to be independent of plant water status. The beneficial effect of Na on photosynthesis and carbohydrates under insufficient K indicates a positive role of Na in metabolism and photosynthetic reactions. PMID:25281842

Erel, Ran; Ben-Gal, Alon; Dag, Arnon; Schwartz, Amnon; Yermiyahu, Uri

2014-10-01

184

The Vine and Olive Colony.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the historical sources of "Some Plant Olive Trees," a utopian novel by Emma Gelders Sterne, which offers a fictional account of the Vine and Olive colony, one of the most colorful yet least known utopian communities of the nineteenth century. (AYC)

Albinski, Nan Bowman

1985-01-01

185

Root hairs play a key role in the endophytic colonization of olive roots by Pseudomonas spp. with biocontrol activity.  

PubMed

The use of indigenous bacterial root endophytes with biocontrol activity against soil-borne phytopathogens is an environmentally-friendly and ecologically-efficient action within an integrated disease management framework. The earliest steps of olive root colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 and Pseudomonas putida PICP2, effective biocontrol agents (BCAs) against Verticillium wilt of olive (Olea europaea L.) caused by the fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb., are here described. A gnotobiotic study system using in vitro propagated olive plants, differential fluorescent-protein tagging of bacteria, and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis have been successfully used to examine olive roots-Pseudomonas spp. interactions at the single-cell level. In vivo simultaneous visualization of PICF7 and PICP2 cells on/in root tissues enabled to discard competition between the two bacterial strains during root colonization. Results demonstrated that both BCAs are able to endophytically colonized olive root tissues. Moreover, results suggest a pivotal role of root hairs in root colonization by both biocontrol Pseudomonas spp. However, colonization of root hairs appeared to be a highly specific event, and only a very low number of root hairs were effectively colonized by introduced bacteria. Strains PICF7 and PICP2 can simultaneously colonize the same root hair, demonstrating that early colonization of a given root hair by one strain did not hinder subsequent attachment and penetration by the other. Since many environmental factors can affect the number, anatomy, development, and physiology of root hairs, colonization competence and biocontrol effectiveness of BCAs may be greatly influenced by root hair's fitness. Finally, the in vitro study system here reported has shown to be a suitable tool to investigate colonization processes of woody plant roots by microorganisms with biocontrol potential. PMID:21347721

Prieto, Pilar; Schilirò, Elisabetta; Maldonado-González, María Mercedes; Valderrama, Raquel; Barroso-Albarracín, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

2011-08-01

186

Thermal constraints on the productivity of the olive (Olea europaea L.) in the climates of olive-producing regions and of Texas  

E-print Network

are chance seedlings (6, 24). Climate in Texas Texas, the second largest of the United States, is a vast state, covering some 692, 400 kmz, an area larger than any European country ex- cept the Soviet Union. It extends from before 94' W to beyond 106' N...

Denney, James Osborne

1982-01-01

187

The Olive Fly Endosymbiont, “Candidatus Erwinia dacicola,” Switches from an Intracellular Existence to an Extracellular Existence during Host Insect Development? †  

PubMed Central

As polyphagous, holometabolous insects, tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) provide a unique habitat for endosymbiotic bacteria, especially those microbes associated with the digestive system. Here we examine the endosymbiont of the olive fly [Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae)], a tephritid of great economic importance. “Candidatus Erwinia dacicola” was found in the digestive systems of all life stages of wild olive flies from the southwestern United States. PCR and microscopy demonstrated that “Ca. Erwinia dacicola” resided intracellularly in the gastric ceca of the larval midgut but extracellularly in the lumen of the foregut and ovipositor diverticulum of adult flies. “Ca. Erwinia dacicola” is one of the few nonpathogenic endosymbionts that transitions between intracellular and extracellular lifestyles during specific stages of the host's life cycle. Another unique feature of the olive fly endosymbiont is that unlike obligate endosymbionts of monophagous insects, “Ca. Erwinia dacicola” has a G+C nucleotide composition similar to those of closely related plant-pathogenic and free-living bacteria. These two characteristics of “Ca. Erwinia dacicola,” the ability to transition between intracellular and extracellular lifestyles and a G+C nucleotide composition similar to those of free-living relatives, may facilitate survival in a changing environment during the development of a polyphagous, holometabolous host. We propose that insect-bacterial symbioses should be classified based on the environment that the host provides to the endosymbiont (the endosymbiont environment). PMID:19767463

Estes, Anne M.; Hearn, David J.; Bronstein, Judith L.; Pierson, Elizabeth A.

2009-01-01

188

Optimization of olive leaf extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction with response surface methodology.  

PubMed

In the present article, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of polyphenols from agricultural and industrial waste of olive oil and table oil productions, olive tree (Olea europaea) leaves were investigated. The aim of the study is to examine the extraction parameters such as solvent concentration (0-100% ethanol (EtOH), v/v), the ratio of solid to solvent (25-50mg/mL) and extraction time (20-60 min), and to obtain the best possible combinations of these parameters through response surface methodology (RSM). The extract yield was stated as mg extract per g of dried leaf (DL). Total phenolic content was expressed in gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per g of dried leaf. Free radical scavenging activity for the antioxidant capacity was tested by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The second order polynomial model gave a satisfactory description of the experimental data. 201.2158 mg extract/g DL, 25.0626 mg GAE/g DL, and 95.5610% in respect to inhibition of DPPH radical were predicted at the optimum operating conditions (500 mg solid to 10 mL solvent ratio, 60 min of extraction time and 50% EtOH composition), respectively. PMID:22964032

?ahin, Selin; Saml?, Rüya

2013-01-01

189

Chlorophylls in olive and in olive oil: chemistry and occurrences.  

PubMed

The chlorophylls are responsible for the characteristic green color of the olive fruits and their products. Virgin olive oil (VOO) is obtained from processing olives only by mechanical and physical means under conditions ensuring that the natural characteristics of the fruit composition are maintained as far as possible. In terms of the total chlorophyll content of oil, the extraction process entails a loss of chlorophyll of up to 80%. Many factors, both agronomical and technological, can affect the presence of green pigments in VOO. The analysis of green pigments in olives and/or oil requires an initial phase of extraction of these compounds from the solid and fluid matrix, followed by the selective separation and subsequent identification of the different components of the chlorophyll fraction. The aim of this review article is to summarize and critically analyze the available information about chlorophylls in VOO. PMID:21793727

Giuliani, Angela; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Cichelli, Angelo

2011-08-01

190

Isolation, molecular characterization and functional analysis of OeMT2, an olive metallothionein with a bioremediation potential.  

PubMed

Metallothioneins are essential in plants for metal detoxification in addition to their other roles in plant life cycle. This study reports the characterization of an olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Ayvalik) metallothionein with respect to molecular and functional properties. A cDNA encoding a type 2 metallothionein from olive was isolated from a leaf cDNA library, characterized and named OeMT2 after its molecular and functional properties. OeMT2 was expressed in Escherichia coli, and a single protein band was confirmed by protein gel blot analysis. Metal tolerance ability of bacterial cells expressing OeMT2 was determined against 0.2 mM CdCl2, 0.4 mM CdCl2 and 1 mM CuSO4 in the growth medium. Metal ion contents of bacterial cells expressing OeMT2 were measured by ICP. Metal tolerance assays and ICP measurements suggested that OeMT2 effectively binds Cu and Cd. Molecular analysis of OeMT2 revealed two introns, three exons, a short 3' UTR and a long 5' UTR. Comparing the genomic sequences from 14 olive cultivars revealed OeMT2 had both intron and exon polymorphisms dividing the cultivars into three groups. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that OeMT2 expresses more or less the same amounts in all tissues of the olive tree examined. The genomic copy number of OeMT2 was also determined employing real-time PCR which suggested a single copy gene in the olive genome while three other MT2 members were determined from the draft olive genome sequences of Ayvalik cultivar and that of wild olive. This is the first report on molecular and functional characterization of an olive metallothionein and shows that OeMT2 expressed in E. coli has the capability of effectively binding toxic heavy metals. This may suggest that OeMT2 plays an important role in metal homeostasis in addition to a good potential for environmental and industrial usage. PMID:25204791

Dundar, Ekrem; Sonmez, Görkem Deniz; Unver, Turgay

2015-02-01

191

Widespread Head-to-Head Hydrocarbon Biosynthesis in Bacteria and Role of OleA ? †  

PubMed Central

Previous studies identified the oleABCD genes involved in head-to-head olefinic hydrocarbon biosynthesis. The present study more fully defined the OleABCD protein families within the thiolase, ?/?-hydrolase, AMP-dependent ligase/synthase, and short-chain dehydrogenase superfamilies, respectively. Only 0.1 to 1% of each superfamily represents likely Ole proteins. Sequence analysis based on structural alignments and gene context was used to identify highly likely ole genes. Selected microorganisms from the phyla Verucomicrobia, Planctomyces, Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were tested experimentally and shown to produce long-chain olefinic hydrocarbons. However, different species from the same genera sometimes lack the ole genes and fail to produce olefinic hydrocarbons. Overall, only 1.9% of 3,558 genomes analyzed showed clear evidence for containing ole genes. The type of olefins produced by different bacteria differed greatly with respect to the number of carbon-carbon double bonds. The greatest number of organisms surveyed biosynthesized a single long-chain olefin, 3,6,9,12,15,19,22,25,28-hentriacontanonaene, that contains nine double bonds. Xanthomonas campestris produced the greatest number of distinct olefin products, 15 compounds ranging in length from C28 to C31 and containing one to three double bonds. The type of long-chain product formed was shown to be dependent on the oleA gene in experiments with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 ole gene deletion mutants containing native or heterologous oleA genes expressed in trans. A strain deleted in oleABCD and containing oleA in trans produced only ketones. Based on these observations, it was proposed that OleA catalyzes a nondecarboxylative thiolytic condensation of fatty acyl chains to generate a ?-ketoacyl intermediate that can decarboxylate spontaneously to generate ketones. PMID:20418421

Sukovich, David J.; Seffernick, Jennifer L.; Richman, Jack E.; Gralnick, Jeffrey A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.

2010-01-01

192

The olive tree: a paradigm for drought tolerance in Mediterranean climates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Olive trees (Olea europaea L.) are commonly grown in the Mediterranean basin where prolonged droughts may occur during the vegetative period. This species has developed a series of physiological mechanisms, that can be observed in several plants of the Mediterranean macchia, to tolerate drought stress and grow under adverse climatic conditions. These mechanisms have been investigated through an experimental campaign carried out over both irrigated and drought-stressed plants in order to comprehend the plant response under stressed conditions and its ability to recover. Experimental results show that olive plants subjected to water deficit lower the water content and water potentials of their tissues, establishing a particularly high potential gradient between leaves and roots, and stop canopy growth but not photosynthetic activity and transpiration. This allows the continuous production of assimilates as well as their accumulation in the various plant parts, so creating a higher root/leaf ratio if compared to well-watered plants. Active and passive osmotic adjustment due to the accumulation of carbohydrates (in particular mannitol and glucose), proline and other osmolytes have key roles in maintaining cell turgor and leaf activities. At severe drought-stress levels, the non-stomatal component of photosynthesis is inhibited and a light-dependent inactivation of the photosystem II occurs. Finally, the activities of some antioxidant enzymes involved in the scavenging of activated oxygen species and in other biochemical pathways increase during a period of drought. The present paper provides an overview of the driving mechanisms adopted by olive trees to face drought stress with the aim of better understanding plant-soil interactions.

Sofo, A.; Manfreda, S.; Fiorentino, M.; Dichio, B.; Xiloyannis, C.

2008-02-01

193

The olive tree: a paradigm for drought tolerance in Mediterranean climates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is commonly grown in the Mediterranean basin where prolonged droughts may occur during the vegetative period. This species has developed a series of physiological mechanisms to tolerate drought stress and grow under adverse climatic conditions that can be observed in numerous plants of the Mediterranean macchia. These mechanisms have been investigated through an experimental campaign carried out over both irrigated and drought-stressed plants in order to comprehend the plant response under stressed conditions and its ability to recover. Experimental results show that olive plants subjected to water deficit lower the water content and water potentials of their tissues, establishing a particularly high potential gradient between leaves and roots, and stop canopy growth but not photosynthetic activity and transpiration. This allows the continuous production of assimilates as well as their accumulation in the various plant parts, so creating a higher root/leaf ratio if compared to well-watered plants. Active and passive osmotic adjustment due to the accumulation of sugars (in particular mannitol and glucose), proline and other osmolytes has a key role in maintaining cell turgor and leaf activities. At severe drought-stress levels, the non-stomatal component of photosynthesis is inhibited and a light-dependent inactivation of the photosystem II occurs. Finally, the activities of some antioxidant enzymes involved in the scavenging of activated oxygen species and in other biochemical pathways, increase during a period of drought. The present paper provides an overview of the driving mechanisms adopted by olive trees to face drought stress with the aim of better understand plant-soil interactions.

Sofo, A.; Manfreda, S.; Dichio, B.; Fiorentino, M.; Xiloyannis, C.

2007-09-01

194

Pigments profile in monovarietal virgin olive oils from various Italian olive varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the investigation of the chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments composition in monovarietal virgin olive oils produced from the five main olive varieties (Minuta, Ottobratica, Calabrese, Ogliarola, Baddarica) cultivated in Sicily (southern Italy), from four main olive varieties (DolceAgogia, Moraiolo, Leccino, Frantoio) cultivated in Umbria (central Italy), and from three main olive varieties (Leccino, Oliva Nera di Collecorto, Noccioluta)

Daniele Giuffrida; Francesco Salvo; Andrea Salvo; Lina Cossignani; Giacomo Dugo

2011-01-01

195

Clay Improvement with Burned Olive Waste Ash  

PubMed Central

Olive oil is concentrated in the Mediterranean basin countries. Since the olive oil industries are incriminated for a high quantity of pollution, it has become imperative to solve this problem by developing optimized systems for the treatment of olive oil wastes. This study proposes a solution to the problem. Burned olive waste ash is evaluated for using it as clay stabilizer. In a laboratory, bentonite clay is used to improve olive waste ash. Before the laboratory, the olive waste is burned at 550°C in the high temperature oven. The burned olive waste ash was added to bentonite clay with increasing 1% by weight from 1% to 10%. The study consisted of the following tests on samples treated with burned olive waste ash: Atterberg Limits, Standard Proctor Density, and Unconfined Compressive Strength Tests. The test results show promise for this material to be used as stabilizer and to solve many of the problems associated with its accumulation. PMID:23766671

Mutman, Utkan

2013-01-01

196

Clay improvement with burned olive waste ash.  

PubMed

Olive oil is concentrated in the Mediterranean basin countries. Since the olive oil industries are incriminated for a high quantity of pollution, it has become imperative to solve this problem by developing optimized systems for the treatment of olive oil wastes. This study proposes a solution to the problem. Burned olive waste ash is evaluated for using it as clay stabilizer. In a laboratory, bentonite clay is used to improve olive waste ash. Before the laboratory, the olive waste is burned at 550°C in the high temperature oven. The burned olive waste ash was added to bentonite clay with increasing 1% by weight from 1% to 10%. The study consisted of the following tests on samples treated with burned olive waste ash: Atterberg Limits, Standard Proctor Density, and Unconfined Compressive Strength Tests. The test results show promise for this material to be used as stabilizer and to solve many of the problems associated with its accumulation. PMID:23766671

Mutman, Utkan

2013-01-01

197

Ethanol production from olive cake biomass substrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inexpensive production of sugars from lignocellulose is an essential step for the use of biomass to produce fuel ethanol.\\u000a Olive cake is an abundant by-product of the olive oil industry and represents a potentially significant lignocellulosic source\\u000a for bioethanol production in the Mediterranean basin. Furthermore, converting olive cake to ethanol could add further value\\u000a to olive production. In the

Abdelghani El Asli; Abdel-Illah Qatibi

2009-01-01

198

Oliver Wendell Holmes 1  

PubMed Central

The life of Oliver Wendell Holmes was selected as the subject for a lecture in the 1974 History of Medicine series at Yale University School of Medicine because, as the Latin subtitle of the essay suggests, he represents a fortunate and uncommon, but by no means unique, synthesis of the practical and aesthetic, of science and the humanities. An attempt has been made by the lecturer, employing frequent, but brief, excerpts from the works of several disinguished biographers as well as Doctor Holmes' own lectures, medical papers, essays and poems to delineate the elite heritage and the events that led this complex person transiently into the sudy of law, the profession in which his older son reached the pinnacle of the U.S. Supreme Court, and finally into medicine where a short period of private practice was followed by more than three decades of distinguished teaching is anatomy. His lifetime (1809-1894) spanned most of the nineteenth century, in the literary hisory of which he played a significant role. His writings reveal a remarkable, and sometimes prophetic, appreciation of the impact that burgeoning science and evolving social pressures and changes would have on the teaching and practice of medicine in the future—our present. PMID:4617425

Lindskog, Gustaf E.

1974-01-01

199

Biotechnological innovations for table olives.  

PubMed

The production of table olives is based on a relatively simple flow chart, including debittering and lactic fermentation. Producers' demand for innovation was the background to design and test some innovative and alternative approaches, i.e. the selection of suitable starter cultures (both lactic acid bacteria and yeasts), the production of functional olives inoculated with probiotic strains, the use of bioremediation (i.e. degradation of oleuropein by bacteria or yeasts), as well as the inoculation of functional starter cultures with a strong biopreservative effect. This article reports a brief description of the most important innovations, with a special focus on the role of traditional and innovative starter cultures. PMID:25578760

Bevilacqua, Antonio; de Stefano, Fabio; Augello, Salvatore; Pignatiello, Stefano; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria

2015-03-01

200

Olea europaea Linn. Fruit Pulp Extract Protects against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Hepatic Damage in Mice  

PubMed Central

The present study we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of Olea europaea fruit pulp extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in experimental mice. Further we explored the antioxidant potential of the extract to substantiate the hepatoprotective properties. Biochemical parameters were analyzed in the serum of experimental mice using respective diagnostic kits. Antioxidant activities were measured following alkyl and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. Compared with control groups, administration of the extract to carbon tetrachloride-treated mice significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. The carbon tetrachloride-treated morphological changes in hepatocyte architecture were also reversed by extract pretreatment. Further, the carbon tetrachloride-treated increased serum cholesterol levels such as triglyceride and low density/very low-density lipoprotein in the liver were reversed in acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride-treated mice. The extract was also found to significantly increase the serum level of high-density lipoproteins in carbon tetrachloride-treated mice. Furthermore, the extract showed significant in vitro antioxidant actions by scavenging the alkyl and hydroxyl free radicals, substantiating its use in hepatoprotection. The concentration of the extract necessary for 50% inhibition of alkyl and hydroxyl radicals was 72.41 and 52.24 ?g/ml, respectively. In conclusion, data from our study suggest that Olea europaea fruit pulp extract could prevent carbon tetrachloride-treated acute and chronic liver degeneration and attenuated the lipid levels elevated by carbon tetrachloride. The hepatoprotective activity exhibited by Olea europaea extract might possibly be through its antioxidant defense mechanisms. PMID:25284924

Kang, H.; Koppula, S.

2014-01-01

201

De un aula virtual plurilingüe a un aula multicultural. Una aproximación desde la perspectiva de la Ciencia Jurídica Europea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Europa constituye, sin duda, una sociedad multicultural. Por este motivo, es preciso que la universidad europea inicie su reflexión sobre la formación multicultural de sus estudiantes y ciudadanos europeos. A una nueva sociedad, debe corresponderle una nueva universidad. La universidad del siglo XXI debe servir a la nueva sociedad del conocimiento en que se ha transformado la sociedad europea. El

Lourdes Salomón; Ana María Delgado García; Rafael Oliver Cuello

2008-01-01

202

Two new secoiridoid glycosides from the leaves of Olea europaea L.  

PubMed

Two new secoiridoid glycosides, oleuricines A (1) and B (2), together with five known triterpenoids, beta-amyrin, oleanolic acid, erythrodiol, urs-2beta,3beta-dihydroxy-12-en-28-oic acid, and beta-maslinic acid, were isolated from the EtOAc-soluble part of EtOH extract of the leaves of Olea europaea L. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by various spectroscopic methods, including intensive 1D, 2D NMR, and HR-ESI-MS techniques. PMID:20183257

Wang, Xiao-Fei; Li, Chen; Shi, Yan-Ping; Di, Duo-Long

2009-11-01

203

Antiallodynic and analgesic effects of maslinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid from Olea europaea.  

PubMed

The effects of maslinic acid (1), a pentacyclic triterpenoid obtained from Olea europaea, were studied in several tests for nociception in mice. Systemic administration of 1 reduced acetic acid-induced writhing, the inflammatory phase of formalin-induced pain, and capsaicin-induced mechanical allodynia. However, it did not induce motor incoordination in the rotarod test. The topical administration of 1 also reduced the inflammatory phase of the formalin test, indicating that at least some of its effects are mediated peripherally. The present results demonstrate for the first time that maslinic acid induces antinociceptive and antiallodynic effects. PMID:23540838

Nieto, Francisco R; Cobos, Enrique J; Entrena, José M; Parra, Andrés; García-Granados, Andrés; Baeyens, José M

2013-04-26

204

Early and delayed long-term transcriptional changes and short-term transient responses during cold acclimation in olive leaves.  

PubMed

Low temperature severely affects plant growth and development. To overcome this constraint, several plant species from regions having a cool season have evolved an adaptive response, called cold acclimation. We have studied this response in olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cv. Picual. Biochemical stress markers and cold-stress symptoms were detected after the first 24 h as sagging leaves. After 5 days, the plants were found to have completely recovered. Control and cold-stressed plants were sequenced by Illumina HiSeq 1000 paired-end technique. We also assembled a new olive transcriptome comprising 157,799 unigenes and found 6,309 unigenes differentially expressed in response to cold. Three types of response that led to cold acclimation were found: short-term transient response, early long-term response, and late long-term response. These subsets of unigenes were related to different biological processes. Early responses involved many cold-stress-responsive genes coding for, among many other things, C-repeat binding factor transcription factors, fatty acid desaturases, wax synthesis, and oligosaccharide metabolism. After long-term exposure to cold, a large proportion of gene down-regulation was found, including photosynthesis and plant growth genes. Up-regulated genes after long-term cold exposure were related to organelle fusion, nucleus organization, and DNA integration, including retrotransposons. PMID:25324298

Leyva-Pérez, María de la O; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Valderrama, Raquel; Jiménez-Ruiz, Jaime; Muñoz-Merida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; Barroso, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Luque, Francisco

2015-02-01

205

Response of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) to an attract-and-kill trap in greenhouse cage tests.  

PubMed

A novel attract-and-kill trap for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), was constructed with yellow corrugated plastic in an inverted cylindrical pan shape formed from a disk and collar. The trap components were tested under three greenhouse temperatures and humidities of warm, hot, and very hot for attractiveness to caged young or older adults. A greater proportion of adults regardless of age were found underneath the devices including disks, cylindrical pans, and pans with pheromone lures and test units of cylindrical pans sprayed with water, insecticidal bait spray, and with lures. The effect was related to lower temperatures on the underside compared with the top and the intolerance of the pest to heat. A circular collar added to the perimeter of the disk that formed the top of the inverted cylinder made the attract-and-kill trap more attractive to adults than the disk alone. Pheromone lures or bait sprays did not increase adult attraction, so were not needed for efficacy. The cylindrical pan was especially attractive to adults when temperatures were high by providing shelter from the heat. At very high temperatures, the pan became unattractive, possibly due to heating of the construction materials. Cylindrical pans sprayed with water on the underside attracted the highest number of adults especially at high temperatures. Greenhouse tests showed that the inverted cylindrical pan design has potential as an attract-and-kill device for olive fruit fly control. PMID:25368094

Yokoyama, Victoria Y

2014-01-01

206

Early and delayed long-term transcriptional changes and short-term transient responses during cold acclimation in olive leaves  

PubMed Central

Low temperature severely affects plant growth and development. To overcome this constraint, several plant species from regions having a cool season have evolved an adaptive response, called cold acclimation. We have studied this response in olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cv. Picual. Biochemical stress markers and cold-stress symptoms were detected after the first 24 h as sagging leaves. After 5 days, the plants were found to have completely recovered. Control and cold-stressed plants were sequenced by Illumina HiSeq 1000 paired-end technique. We also assembled a new olive transcriptome comprising 157,799 unigenes and found 6,309 unigenes differentially expressed in response to cold. Three types of response that led to cold acclimation were found: short-term transient response, early long-term response, and late long-term response. These subsets of unigenes were related to different biological processes. Early responses involved many cold-stress-responsive genes coding for, among many other things, C-repeat binding factor transcription factors, fatty acid desaturases, wax synthesis, and oligosaccharide metabolism. After long-term exposure to cold, a large proportion of gene down-regulation was found, including photosynthesis and plant growth genes. Up-regulated genes after long-term cold exposure were related to organelle fusion, nucleus organization, and DNA integration, including retrotransposons. PMID:25324298

Leyva-Pérez, María de la O; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Valderrama, Raquel; Jiménez-Ruiz, Jaime; Muñoz-Merida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; Barroso, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Luque, Francisco

2015-01-01

207

Dry Olive Leaf Extract Counteracts L-Thyroxine-Induced Genotoxicity in Human Peripheral Blood Leukocytes In Vitro  

PubMed Central

The thyroid hormones change the rate of basal metabolism, modulating the consumption of oxygen and causing production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to the development of oxidative stress and DNA strand breaks. Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf contains many potentially bioactive compounds, making it one of the most potent natural antioxidants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of L-thyroxine and to investigate antioxidative and antigenotoxic potential of the standardized oleuropein-rich dry olive leaf extract (DOLE) against hydrogen peroxide and L-thyroxine-induced DNA damage in human peripheral blood leukocytes by using the comet assay. Various concentrations of the extract were tested with both DNA damage inducers, under two different experimental conditions, pretreatment and posttreatment. Results indicate that L-thyroxine exhibited genotoxic effect and that DOLE displayed protective effect against thyroxine-induced genotoxicity. The number of cells with DNA damage, was significantly reduced, in both pretreated and posttreated samples (P < 0.05). Comparing the beneficial effect of all tested concentrations of DOLE, in both experimental protocols, it appears that extract was more effective in reducing DNA damage in the pretreatment, exhibiting protective role against L-thyroxine effect. This feature of DOLE can be explained by its capacity to act as potent free radical scavenger. PMID:25789081

Žukovec Topalovi?, Dijana; Živkovi?, Lada; ?abarkapa, Andrea; Djeli?, Ninoslav; Baji?, Vladan; Spremo-Potparevi?, Biljana

2015-01-01

208

Dry olive leaf extract counteracts L-thyroxine-induced genotoxicity in human peripheral blood leukocytes in vitro.  

PubMed

The thyroid hormones change the rate of basal metabolism, modulating the consumption of oxygen and causing production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to the development of oxidative stress and DNA strand breaks. Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf contains many potentially bioactive compounds, making it one of the most potent natural antioxidants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of L-thyroxine and to investigate antioxidative and antigenotoxic potential of the standardized oleuropein-rich dry olive leaf extract (DOLE) against hydrogen peroxide and L-thyroxine-induced DNA damage in human peripheral blood leukocytes by using the comet assay. Various concentrations of the extract were tested with both DNA damage inducers, under two different experimental conditions, pretreatment and posttreatment. Results indicate that L-thyroxine exhibited genotoxic effect and that DOLE displayed protective effect against thyroxine-induced genotoxicity. The number of cells with DNA damage, was significantly reduced, in both pretreated and posttreated samples (P < 0.05). Comparing the beneficial effect of all tested concentrations of DOLE, in both experimental protocols, it appears that extract was more effective in reducing DNA damage in the pretreatment, exhibiting protective role against L-thyroxine effect. This feature of DOLE can be explained by its capacity to act as potent free radical scavenger. PMID:25789081

Žukovec Topalovi?, Dijana; Živkovi?, Lada; ?abarkapa, Andrea; Djeli?, Ninoslav; Baji?, Vladan; Dekanski, Dragana; Spremo-Potparevi?, Biljana

2015-01-01

209

MEMORIAL DR. OLIVER "CECIL" COMPTON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dr. Oliver "Cecil" Compton of Corvallis, Oregon, died Wednesday 10 August 2005, at Samaritan Heart of the Valley Care Center. He was 102. Dr. Compton was an Emeritus Professor of Oregon State University. This brief article gives a brief summary of his life and some of his academic activities in pomo...

210

Hypertrophy of the inferior olives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A report is given on 29 cases of olivary hypertrophy of different origin with special reference to the quality and topistic distribution of olivary degeneration in relation to the dating and site of the primary lesion. All except one case of hypertrophic degeneration of the inferior olive resulted from injury to the dentato-olivary pathway; 13 were associated with an isolated

K. Jellinger

1973-01-01

211

Jack Oliver (1923-2011)  

E-print Network

develop- ment. The first was Paul Brown, his high-school American-football coach in Massillon, Ohio -- who was famously intolerant of prima donnas, and Oliver's philosophy of science and administration followed had gone before offered a high probability of scientific discovery, and that discovery was fun -- jet

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

212

Biogas production from olive pomace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas production from a slurry obtained by mixing finely ground olive pomace in water was investigated using anaerobic digesters of 1-l working volume at 37°C. A start-up culture was obtained from a local landfill area and was adopted to the slurry within 10 days at this temperature. The biogas generation rates were determined by varying the total solids (TS) concentration

Ali R Tekin; A. Co?kun Dalg?ç

2000-01-01

213

"Oliver Twist": A Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide for public television's 3-part adaptation of Charles Dickens's "Oliver Twist" provides information that will help enrich students' viewing of the series, whether or not they read the novel. The guide includes a wide range of discussion and activity ideas; there is also a series Web site and a list of Web resources.…

Cashion, Carol; Fischer, Diana

214

Marketing olive oil in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the issues related to the promotion and marketing of olive oil, by the Greek company Minerva S.A. Thus, the product, its target market and competition are examined, a SWOT analysis is performed and the marketing mix is presented. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Since the aim of this study was to examine the

Evangelia Blery; Eugenia Sfetsiou

2008-01-01

215

Olea europaea L. in the North Mediterranean Basin during the Pleniglacial and the Early-Middle Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper aims to define the natural distribution of Olea europaea L. var. sylvestris (Miller) Lehr. in the North Mediterranean basin during the Pleniglacial and the Early-Middle Holocene by means of the identification of its wood-charcoal and/or wood at prehistoric sites. For this purpose we have reviewed the previously available information and we have combined it with new wood-charcoal analyses data. We have taken under consideration the presence and frequency of O. europaea L. in the available wood-charcoal sequences, the characteristics of the accompanying flora, the associated chrono-cultural contexts, the broader biogeographical context and the AMS dates provided by Olea wood-charcoal or endocarps. According to the available evidence, during the Middle and Late Pleniglacial (ca 59-11.5 ka cal. BP), Olea would have persisted in thermophilous refugia located in the southern areas of the North Mediterranean basin, the southern Levant and the north of Africa. The Last Glacial Maximum (ca 22-18 ka cal. BP) probably reduced the distribution area of Olea. During the Preboreal and the Boreal (ca 11?500-8800 cal. BP) the species started to expand in the thermomediterranean bioclimatic level. In the western Mediterranean, during the Atlantic period (ca 8800-5600 cal. BP), the species became very abundant or dominant in the thermophilous plant formations and expanded to favorable enclaves outside the limits of the thermomediterranean level.

Carrión, Yolanda; Ntinou, Maria; Badal, Ernestina

2010-04-01

216

Inhibitory effects of Olea ferruginea crude leaves extract against some bacterial and fungal pathogen.  

PubMed

This work aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of Olea ferruginea crude leaves extract that are commonly used as remedy to cure infections in the tribal (Khyber Agency) areas of Pakistan against some of bacterial and fungal pathogens. The crude n-hexane fraction was appreciably active against both gram positive and negative microorganisms (MIC ranged from 7.5 to 15 mg/ml) followed by butanol fraction (MIC 15 to 30 mg/ml). Conversely least biological activity was shown by chloroform (30mg/ml) and methanol (15 to 30mg/ml) crude fractions. The MBC observed for all crude fractions was same or 2 times higher when compared with MIC for all crude extract fractions. Likewise all the fractions showed activity against Aspergillus niger and maximum zones of inhibition were shown by the n-hexane fraction (14 ± (0.02), butanol (13 ± (0.02) followed by methanol (9 ± (0.05) and chloroform fractions (7 ± (0.02). These results clearly imitate the antibacterial and antifungal potential of Olea ferruginea and hence we recommend the whole plant for further futuristic studies. PMID:23455192

Amin, Adnan; Khan, Muhammad Ayaz; Shah, Swahid; Ahmad, Mushatq; Zafar, Muhammad; Hameed, Abdul

2013-03-01

217

Electrophysiological Properties of Inferior Olive Neurons: A Compartmental Model  

E-print Network

Electrophysiological Properties of Inferior Olive Neurons: A Compartmental Model NICOLAS Schweighofer, Nicolas, Kenji Doya, and Mitsuo Kawato. Electro- physiological properties of inferior olive of the inferior olive, we constructed a biophysical model of the olivary neurons to examine their unique

Kawato, Mitsuo

218

7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives means olives in their fresh harvested state, whether or not placed in a water or other preserving medium. [33 FR...

2010-01-01

219

Effects of heat-treatments of olive fruit on pigment composition of virgin olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of heat-treatments of olive fruits on olive oil colour were investigated by quantification of the main pigments present in virgin olive oil. Contents of lutein and ?-carotene increased as a consequence of heat-treatments. Lutein content increased at least 2.2-fold compared to control olive oil. ?-Carotene contents also increased due to heat-treatments although not as much as lutein contents.

Pilar Luaces; Ana G. Pérez; José M. Garc??a; Carlos Sanz

2005-01-01

220

Modelling of olive cake thin-layer drying process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive cake is a sub-product of the mechanical olive oil extraction industry, which consists of pit and pulp of the olive fruit, olive oil and vegetable water. It has been using for direct combustion in bakeries and olive oil mills due to its energy content. However, the initial moisture content of olive cake is approximately 44.78%±0.5 (wet basis), and this

Nalan A. Akgun; Ibrahim Doymaz

2005-01-01

221

Sample preparation approaches for the analysis of pesticide residues in olives and olive oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural practices generally require the use of pesticides by olive growers for the best olive and olive oil production. Thus, analytical methods are needed to identify and quantify the pesticide residues that may be present, and ensure that the product complies with regulatory requirements. I...

222

Pigments composition in monovarietal virgin olive oils from various sicilian olive varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the first investigation of the chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments composition in sicilian monovarietal virgin olive oils from the three (Cerasuola, Nocellara, Biancolilla) main olive varieties cultivated in Sicily (Italy). In all, 19 compounds were identified and quantified in 24 olive oil samples. The application of reversed-phase liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection using a C-30 column in

Daniele Giuffrida; Francesco Salvo; Andrea Salvo; Lara La Pera; Giacomo Dugo

2007-01-01

223

Mitochondrial DNA variation and RAPD mark oleasters, olive and feral olive from Western and Eastern Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of genetic diversity within the olive-tree (cultivated and wild forms) may be useful to reveal agronomic traits in the wild germplasm and to try to understand the history of the olive-tree domestication. In this way, a study of nuclear and mitochondrial DNAs of cultivated and wild olives from two Corsican and Sardinian Mediterranean islands was performed using RAPD

Bronzini V. de Caraffa; J. Maury; C. Gambotti; C. Breton; A. Bervillé; J. Giannettini

2002-01-01

224

Eur Biophys J (1984) 11:95-102 Europea.n BophysgsJournal  

E-print Network

Eur Biophys J (1984) 11:95-102 Europea.n BophysgsJournal © Springer-Verlag 1984 An investigation Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom Received March 5, 1984/Accepted May 24, 1984 Abstract. A 500-MHz 1H-NMR study on the sin- gle-stranded DNA undecamer (11-mer) 5'd

Clore, G. Marius

225

Chad Oliver: An Annotated Bibliography and Guide.  

E-print Network

Center for the Bibliography of Science Fiction and Fantasy Cushing Library, Texas A&M University Chad Oliver: An Annotated Bibliography and Guide Compiled by Hal W. Hall Revised Edition, February 20, 2008... College Station, TX The Center for the Bibliography of Science Fiction and Fantasy October 2007 2 Cataloging Data Hall, Halbert W. The Work of Chad Oliver : an annotated bibliography & guide / by Hal W. Hall. 1. Oliver, Chad, 1928...

Hall, Hal W.

2008-06-01

226

Components of a standardised olive leaf dry extract (Ph. Eur.) promote hypothiocyanite production by lactoperoxidase.  

PubMed

We investigated in vitro the ability of a standardised olive leaf dry extract (Ph. Eur.) (OLE) as well as of its single components to circumvent the hydrogen peroxide-induced inhibition of the hypothiocyanite-producing activity of lactoperoxidase (LPO). The rate of hypothiocyanite (?OSCN) formation by LPO was quantified by spectrophotometric detection of the oxidation of 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid (TNB). By using excess hydrogen peroxide, we forced the accumulation of inactive enzymatic intermediates which are unable to promote the two-electronic oxidation of thiocyanate. Both OLE and certain extract components showed a strong LPO-reactivating effect. Thereby an o-hydroxyphenolic moiety emerged to be essential for a good reactivity with the inactive LPO redox states. This basic moiety is found in the main OLE components oleuropein, oleacein, hydroxytyrosol, caffeic acid as well as in different other constituents including the OLE flavone luteolin. As LPO is a key player in the humoral immune response, these results propose a new mode of action regarding the well-known bacteriostatic and anti-inflammatory properties of the leaf extract of Olea europaea L. PMID:24657078

Flemmig, Jörg; Rusch, Dorothea; Czerwi?ska, Monika Ewa; Rauwald, Hans-Wilhelm; Arnhold, Jürgen

2014-05-01

227

Lactic acid bacteria from fermented table olives.  

PubMed

Table olives are one of the main fermented vegetables in the world. Olives can be processed as treated or natural. Both have to be fermented but treated green olives have to undergo an alkaline treatment before they are placed in brine to start their fermentation. It has been generally established that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are responsible for the fermentation of treated olives. However, LAB and yeasts compete for the fermentation of natural olives. Yeasts play a minor role in some cases, contributing to the flavour and aroma of table olives and in LAB development. The main microbial genus isolated in table olives is Lactobacillus. Other genera of LAB have also been isolated but to a lesser extent. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus pentosus are the predominant species in most fermentations. Factors influencing the correct development of fermentation and LAB, such as pH, temperature, the amount of NaCl, the polyphenol content or the availability of nutrients are also reviewed. Finally, current research topics on LAB from table olives are reviewed, such as using starters, methods of detection and identification of LAB, their production of bacteriocins, and the possibility of using table olives as probiotics. PMID:22475936

Hurtado, Albert; Reguant, Cristina; Bordons, Albert; Rozès, Nicolas

2012-08-01

228

Oliver Byrne's edition of Euclid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An unusual and attractive edition of Euclid was published in 1847 in England, edited by an otherwise unknown mathematician named Oliver Byrne. It covers the first 6 books of Euclid, which range through most of elementary plane geometry and the theory of proportions. What distinguishes Byrne's edition is that he attempts to present Euclid's proofs in terms of pictures, using as little text - and in particular as few labels - as possible.

Byrne, Oliver

229

Photopyroelectric Monitoring of Olive's Ripening Conditions and Olive Oil Quality Using Pulsed Wideband IR Thermal Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study is based on band absorption of radiation from pulsed wideband infrared (IR) thermal source (PWBS) in conjunction with polyvinylidene fluoride film (PVDF). It is the first time to be employed to monitor the ripening state of olive fruit. Olive's characteristics vary at different stages of ripening, and hence, cultivation of olives at the right time is important in ensuring the best oil quality and maximizes the harvest yield. The photopyroelectric (PPE) signal resulting from absorption of wideband infrared (IR) radiation by fresh olive juice indicates the ripening stage of olives, i.e., allows an estimate of the suitable harvest time. The technique was found to be very useful in discriminating between olive oil samples according to geographical region, shelf life, some storage conditions, and deliberate adulteration. Our results for monitoring oil accumulation in olives during the ripening season agree well with the complicated analytical studies carried out by other researchers.

Abu-Taha, M. I.; Sarahneh, Y.; Saleh, A. M.

230

Biological Properties of Olive Oil Phytochemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Referee: Dr. Joe Vinson, Chemistry Department, University of Scranton, Scranton, PA 18510 Olive oil is the principal source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, which has been associated with a lower incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers. Extra-virgin olive oil contains a considerable amount of phenolic compounds, for example, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, that are responsible for its peculiar

Francesco Visioli; Claudio Galli

2002-01-01

231

Edible mushrooms from olive oil mill wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological remediation of olive oil mill wastes has been attempted several times in the past through the use of different types of microbes. Among them, a relatively large array of fungi were studied for neutralizing the heavy pollutant effects and\\/or for converting these wastes into new value-added products. The present investigation was aiming at examining whether olive oil mill

Georgios Zervakis; Panayiotis Yiatras; Constantinos Balis

1996-01-01

232

The activity of healthy olive microbiota during virgin olive oil extraction influences oil chemical composition.  

PubMed

The activity of olive microbiota during the oil extraction process could be a critical point for virgin olive oil quality. With the aim to evaluate the role of microbiological activity during the virgin olive oil extraction process, just before oil extraction freshly collected healthy olive fruits were immersed in contaminated water from an olive mill washing tank. The oils extracted were then compared with control samples from the same batch of hand-picked olives. The presence of lactic and enteric bacteria, fungi and Pseudomonas on the surface of olives was proved to be much higher in washed than in control olives, with increments in cfu/g between 2 and 3 orders of magnitude. The biogenesis of volatile compounds and the extraction of olive polyphenols and pigments were significantly influenced by the microbiological profile of olives even without any previous storage. In most cases the effect of olive microbiota on oil characteristics was greater than the effect exerted by malaxation time and temperature. Oils from microbiologically contaminated olives showed lower amounts of C5 volatiles and higher levels of C6 volatiles from the lipoxygenase pathway and some fermentation products. On the other hand, a decrease of chlorophylls, pheophytins, xanthophylls and the ratio chlorophyll/pheophytin was observed in these oils. Likewise, the microbiological activity during oil extraction led to significantly lower amounts of polyphenols, in particular of oleuropein derivatives. These differences in olive oil chemical composition were reflected in oil sensory characteristics by the decrease of the green and bitter attributes and by the modification of the oil color chromatic ordinates. PMID:21506578

Vichi, Stefania; Romero, Agustí; Tous, Joan; Caixach, Josep

2011-05-11

233

Liquid chromatography with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometric detection of phenolic compounds from Olea europaea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results demonstrate the potential of electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry for the specific detection of phenolic species in olives. Phenolic compounds were detected with greater sensitivity in the negative ion mode, but results from positive and negative ion modes were complementary with the positive ion mode showing structurally significant fragments. This is demonstrated by the identification of oleuropein and isomers

D Ryan; K Robards; P Prenzler; D Jardine; T Herlt; M Antolovich

1999-01-01

234

Application of compost of two-phase olive mill waste on olive grove: effects on soil, olive fruit and olive oil quality.  

PubMed

Composting is a method for preparing organic fertilizers that represents a suitable management option for the recycling of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) in agriculture. Four different composts were prepared by mixing TPOMW with different agro-industrial by-products (olive pruning, sheep manure and horse manure), which were used either as bulking agents or as N sources. The mature composts were added during six consecutive years to a typical "Picual" olive tree grove in the Jaén province (Spain). The effects of compost addition on soil characteristics, crop yield and nutritional status and also the quality of the olive oil were evaluated at the end of the experiment and compared to a control treated only with mineral fertilization. The most important effects on soil characteristics included a significant increase in the availability of N, P, K and an increase of soil organic matter content. The application of TPOMW compost produced a significant increase in olive oil content in the fruit. The compost amended plots had a 15% higher olive oil content than those treatment with inorganic fertilization. These organics amendments maintained the composition and quality of the olive oil. PMID:24810202

Fernández-Hernández, Antonia; Roig, Asunción; Serramiá, Nuria; Civantos, Concepción García-Ortiz; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A

2014-07-01

235

Effect of Lipase Activity and Specificity on the DAG Content of Olive Oil from the Shodoshima-Produced Olive Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive oils have a higher relative diacylglycerol (DAG) content than other plant oils. The lipase in olive fruits is involved\\u000a in DAG production and is directly related to the acidity of the olive oil. However, the lipase activity and positional selectivity\\u000a have not been clarified. To investigate the properties of olive fruit lipase, olive fruits of the Mission variety harvested

Masao Shimizu; Naoto Kudo; Yoshinobu Nakajima; Noboru Matsuo; Yoshihisa Katsuragi; Ichiro Tokimitsu; Francisca Barceló

2008-01-01

236

Regulation of photosynthesis and stomatal and mesophyll conductance under water stress and recovery in olive trees: correlation with gene expression of carbonic anhydrase and aquaporins  

PubMed Central

The hypothesis that aquaporins and carbonic anhydrase (CA) are involved in the regulation of stomatal (g s) and mesophyll (g m) conductance to CO2 was tested in a short-term water-stress and recovery experiment in 5-year-old olive plants (Olea europaea) growing outdoors. The evolution of leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and plant water status, and a quantitative analysis of photosynthesis limitations, were followed during water stress and recovery. These variables were correlated with gene expression of the aquaporins OePIP1.1 and OePIP2.1, and stromal CA. At mild stress and at the beginning of the recovery period, stomatal limitations prevailed, while the decline in g m accounted for up to 60% of photosynthesis limitations under severe water stress. However, g m was restored to control values shortly after rewatering, facilitating the recovery of the photosynthetic rate. CA was downregulated during water stress and upregulated after recovery. The use of structural equation modelling allowed us to conclude that both OePIP1.1 and OePIP2.1 expression could explain most of the variations observed for g s and g m. CA expression also had a small but significant effect on g m in olive under water-stress conditions. PMID:24799563

Perez-Martin, Alfonso; Michelazzo, Chiara; Torres-Ruiz, Jose M.; Flexas, Jaume; Fernández, José E.; Sebastiani, Luca; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio

2014-01-01

237

Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity.  

PubMed

The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations. PMID:25236229

Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

2015-02-15

238

Heft 127 Oliver Witt Erosionsstabilitt von  

E-print Network

Heft 127 Oliver Witt Erosionsstabilität von Gewässersedimenten und deren Bedeutung für den Stofftransport bei Hochwasser am Beispiel ausgewählter Stauhaltungen des Oberrheins #12;Erosionsstabilität von des Oberrheins Von der Fakultät Bau- und Umweltingenieurwissenschaften der Universität Stuttgart zur

Cirpka, Olaf Arie

239

Pigments present in virgin olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The qualitative and quantitative control of pigments in ripe olives and in extracted virgin olive oil has increased our knowledge\\u000a of the influence on these compounds in the areas of ripening of the fruit, storage time in the factory and the oil extraction\\u000a process. As the harvesting time of the fruits increases, pigment content decreases. During storage, the presence of

M. Isabel Minguez-Mosquera; Beatriz Gandul-Rojas; Juan Garrido-Fernandez; Lourdes Gallardo-Guerrero

1990-01-01

240

The Microbiology of Olive Mill Wastes  

PubMed Central

Olive mill wastes (OMWs) are high-strength organic effluents, which upon disposal can degrade soil and water quality, negatively affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning the microbial communities identified over the past 20 years in olive mill wastes using both culture-dependent and independent approaches. A database survey of 16S rRNA gene sequences (585 records in total) obtained from olive mill waste environments revealed the dominance of members of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Independent studies confirmed that OMW microbial communities' structure is cultivar dependant. On the other hand, the detection of fecal bacteria and other potential human pathogens in OMWs is of major concern and deserves further examination. Despite the fact that the degradation and detoxification of the olive mill wastes have been mostly investigated through the application of known bacterial and fungal species originated from other environmental sources, the biotechnological potential of indigenous microbiota should be further exploited in respect to olive mill waste bioremediation and inactivation of plant and human pathogens. The implementation of omic and metagenomic approaches will further elucidate disposal issues of olive mill wastes. PMID:24199199

Ntougias, Spyridon; Bourtzis, Kostas

2013-01-01

241

Modification of non-stomatal limitation and photoprotection due to K and Na nutrition of olive trees.  

PubMed

Potassium (K) is an essential macronutrient shown to play a fundamental role in photosynthetic processes and may facilitate photoinhibition resistance. In some plant species, sodium (Na) can partially substitute for K. Although photosynthetic enhancement has been well established, the mechanisms by which K or Na affects photosynthesis are not fully understood. Olive (Olea europaea L.) trees were previously shown to benefit from Na nutrition when K is limiting. In order to study the effect of K and Na on photosynthetic performance, we measured gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence in young olive trees supplied with either K, Na or no fertilizer, and subjected to manipulated levels of CO2, O2 and radiation. Light and CO2 response curves indicate substantially superior photosynthetic capacity of K-sufficient trees, while Na substitution generated intermediate results. The enhanced performance of K, and to a lesser extent, Na-supplied trees was found to be related mainly to modification of non-stomatal limitation. This indicates that K deficiency promotes inhibition of enzymatic-photochemical processes. Results indicate lower chlorophyll content and altered Rubisco activity as probable causes of photosynthetic impairment. Potassium deficiency was found to diminish photoprotection mechanisms due to reduced photosynthetic and photorespiratory capacity. The lower CO2 and O2 assimilation rate in K-deficient trees caused elevated levels of exited energy. Consequently, non-photochemical quenching, an alternative energy dispersion pathway, was increased. Nonetheless, K-deficient trees were shown to suffer from photodamage to photosystem-II. Sodium replacement considerably diminished the negative effect of K deficiency on photoprotection mechanisms. The overall impact of K and Na nutrition plays down any indirect effect on stomatal limitation and rather demonstrates the centrality of these elements in photochemical processes of photosynthesis and photoprotection. PMID:25659331

Erel, Ran; Yermiyahu, Uri; Ben-Gal, Alon; Dag, Arnon; Shapira, Or; Schwartz, Amnon

2015-04-01

242

Obituary: John P. Oliver (1939-2011)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

John P. Oliver, an emeritus professor of astronomy at the University of Florida in Gainesville, passed away Thursday, February 10, 2011, after a courageous and long battle with renal cancer. He left behind memories of a life and career to envy. During his forty years of service to his profession and department, this unique astronomer distinguished himself as a research scientist and instrumentalist, creative software designer, gifted teacher and speaker, a vocal advocate of public outreach, and friend to all who knew him. Oliver was born in New Rochelle, New York, during late fall 1939 on November 24. His father, James P. Oliver, was a naval officer and his mother was the former Dorothy Armstrong Cambell. Oliver's early days were spent in various cities due to his father's military life but he eventually received a high school diploma from Princess Ann High School in Virginia. Oliver subsequently graduated with a bachelor of science degree in physics in 1963 from the prestigious Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy. Lick Observatory awarded him a graduate assistantship so he moved west to California where he met and, on November 2, 1963, married Barbara Kay McKenna, who became his lifelong love and partner. In California Oliver had the good fortune to work with several eminent astronomers. This included Albert E. Whifford, director of Lick Observatory and known for his work on interstellar reddening, and Merle F. Walker, an expert in photometry, who also helped establish Pluto's rotation period. His close relation with Lawrence H. Aller, one of the 20th century's memorable astronomers, known for his ability to combine observation, theory and education, and for his care and kindness, helped bind Oliver and astronomy together for life. Oliver would also join the technical staff of the Aerospace Corporation, become an acting director of the Pine Mountain Observatory (University of Oregon), and a research assistant at the University of California in Los Angeles. Eventually, he earned both a master's degree (1968) and Ph.D. (1974) in astronomy from this well-known institution. The brilliant and eminent astronomer Daniel M. Popper supervised Oliver's doctoral dissertation, "An Investigation of Eclipsing Binary Stars Exhibiting Calcium II Emission." This research suggested that many systems Oliver investigated belonged to a new category of variable eclipsing binary stars. Popper had previously defined this new class of stars based on spectral features and intended AR Lac to be its prototype. Instead, using Oliver's suggestion, this class became known as RS CVn variables. Rare among astronomers, Popper himself was fussy about errors of measurement-uncompromising about accurate, conscientious work and intolerant about careless research. Oliver was the only student to receive a Ph.D. under this authoritative and honest astronomer, a testament to Oliver's own talents. As a University of Florida faculty member and astronomer, Oliver occupied many roles, including service as associate department chair, director of the university's Rosemary Hill Observatory near Bronson, Florida, and both undergraduate and graduate coordinators. He made significant contributions to both the operation and instrumentation of telescopes at Rosemary Hill Observatory. The establishment of the observatory's 18-inch Ritchey-Crétien telescope as a working telescope was a major accomplishment for which he wrote its operational software and programs for high speed occultation observations of stars. In addition, he was responsible for both relocating the campus teaching observatory to its present site and its operation during the 1970s. Oliver taught thousands of students both basic astronomy and advanced topics in undergraduate and graduate courses including an important sequence of graduate courses on binary stars. Faculty and students also applauded his superb, advanced course on techniques of observational astronomy. In addition, he was always looking for new techniques to improve teaching. He was among the first to adopt new technologies in t

Cohen, Howard

2011-12-01

243

Monitoring endogenous enzymes during olive fruit ripening and storage: correlation with virgin olive oil phenolic profiles.  

PubMed

The ability of olive endogenous enzymes ?-glucosidase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX), to determine the phenolic profile of virgin olive oil was investigated. Olives used for oil production were stored for one month at 20 °C and 4 °C and their phenolic content and enzymatic activities were compared to those of ripening olive fruits. Phenolic and volatile profiles of the corresponding oils were also analysed. Oils obtained from fruits stored at 4 °C show similar characteristics to that of freshly harvested fruits. However, the oils obtained from fruits stored at 20 °C presented the lowest phenolic content. Concerning the enzymatic activities, results show that the ?-glucosidase enzyme is the key enzyme responsible for the determination of virgin olive oil phenolic profile as the decrease in this enzyme activity after 3 weeks of storage at 20 °C was parallel to a dramatic decrease in the phenolic content of the oils. PMID:25529676

Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

2015-05-01

244

The spectrum of olive pollen allergens.  

PubMed

Olive pollen is one of the most important causes of seasonal respiratory allergy in Mediterranean countries, where this tree is intensely cultivated. Among the high number of protein allergens detected in this pollen, 8 - Ole e 1 to Ole e 8 - have been isolated and characterized. Ole e 1 is the most frequent sensitizing agent, affecting more than 70% of the patients suffering of olive pollinosis, although others, such as Ole e 4 and Ole e 7, have also been shown to be major allergens. In this context, the prevalence of many olive pollen allergens seems to be dependent on the geographical area where the sensitized patients live. Some of the olive allergens have been revealed as members of known protein families: profilin (Ole e 2), Ca(2+)-binding proteins (Ole e 3 and Ole e 8), superoxide dismutase (Ole e 5) and lipid transfer protein (Ole e 7). No biological function has been demonstrated for Ole e 1, whereas Ole e 4 and Ole e 6 are new proteins without homology to known sequences from databases. cDNAs encoding for Ole e 1, Ole e 3 and Ole e 8 have been overproduced in heterologous systems. The recombinant products were correctly folded and exhibited the functional activities of the natural allergens. In addition to the Oleaceae family, other species, such as Gramineae or Betulaceae, contain pollen allergens structurally or immunologically related to those of the olive tree. This fact allows to detect and evaluate antigenic cross-reactivities involving olive allergens. The aim of this research is the development of new diagnostic tools for olive pollinosis and new approaches to improve the classical immunotherapy. PMID:11490150

Rodríguez, R; Villalba, M; Monsalve, R I; Batanero, E

2001-07-01

245

Olive oil history, production and by-product management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review paper, the history of the olive tree and the development of the main olive oil extraction systems employed\\u000a in the past are presented. Furthermore, the management techniques employed from antiquity until today for the treatment of\\u000a olive mill wastewater (OMW), which constitutes the most important by-product of olive oil production, are addressed and compared.\\u000a Reference is also

Iosif Emmanouil Kapellakis; Konstantinos P. Tsagarakis; John C. Crowther

2008-01-01

246

Chaos may enhance information transmission in the inferior olive  

E-print Network

Chaos may enhance information transmission in the inferior olive Nicolas Schweighofer* , Kenji Doya, such as extensive electrical coupling and low firing rates, the role of the inferior olive (IO), which is the source: 100,000 parallel fibers and a single climbing fiber, an axon from an inferior olive (IO) neuron

Kawato, Mitsuo

247

Isothermal microwave and microwave-convection drying of olive pomace  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Olive pomace is the residue produced when olives are pressed for oil. Valuable polyphenolic compounds can be extracted from olive pomace, but this material is more than 60% water (wet basis) and thus costly to transport and process in its original, wet form. The objective of this study was thus to ...

248

Original article Impact of spreading olive mill wastewater on soil  

E-print Network

Original article Impact of spreading olive mill wastewater on soil characteristics: laboratory 2001) Abstract ­ A dynamic of soil pollution with olive mill wastewater (OMW) was investigated process forms an olive mill wastewater (OMW). The amount of this waste depends on the process used for oil

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

249

Free Radical-Scavenging Properties of Olive Oil Polyphenols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants in the Mediterranean basin, such as vine and olive trees, have developed an array of antioxidant defences to protect themselves from environmental stress. Accordingly, the incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers is lower in the Mediterranean area, where olive oil is the dietary fat of choice. As opposed to other vegetable oils, extra virgin olive oil, which

Francesco Visioli; Giorgio Bellomo; Claudio Galli

1998-01-01

250

Effect of natural antioxidants in virgin olive oil on oxidative stability of refined, bleached, and deodorized olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors influencing the oxidative stability of different commercial olive oils were evaluated. Comparisons were made of\\u000a (i) the oxidative stability of commercial olive oils with that of a refined, bleached, and deodorized (RBD) olive oil, and\\u000a (ii) the antioxidant activity of a mixture of phenolic compounds extracted from virgin olive oil with that of pure compounds\\u000a and?-tocopherol added to

M. Teresa Satue; Shu-Wen Huang; Edwin N. Frankel

1995-01-01

251

Composting of the solid fraction of olive mill wastewater with olive leaves: organic matter degradation and biological activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flocculated solid fraction of olive mill wastewaters, obtained from two different olive oil extraction systems (FOMW1 and FOMW2) was composted, with olive leaves (OL) as bulking agent, by the static pile system (Rutgers). The dynamic of organic matter (OM) degradation during composting and its relationship with the basal respiration and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolytic activity, as indicators of biological

A Garc??a-Gómez; A Roig; M. P Bernal

2003-01-01

252

Analysis of Epicuticular Phenolics of Prunus persica and Olea europaea Leaves: Evidence for the Chemical Origin of the UV-induced Blue Fluorescence of Stomata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epicuticular waxes were removed from the leaf surfaces of Olea europaea and Prunus persica by washing with chloroform and the resulting rinses were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the presence of fluorescing compounds. Removal of epicuticular waxes from leaves of some representative plants by the same treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the intensity of the

Georgios Liakopoulos; Sotiria Stavrianakou; George Karabourniotis

2001-01-01

253

Comparison of near-infrared, fourier transform-infrared, and fourier transform-raman methods for determining olive pomace oil adulteration in extra virgin olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with cheaper oils is a major problem in the olive oil market. In this study, near-infrared,\\u000a mid-infrared, and Raman spectroscopic techniques were used to quantify the amount of olive pomace oil adulteration in extra\\u000a virgin olive oil. The concentration of olive pomace oil in extra virgin olive oil was in the range between

Hong Yang; Joseph Irudayaraj

2001-01-01

254

Saline water irrigation effects on soil salinity distribution and some physiological responses of field grown Chemlali olive.  

PubMed

The shortage of water resources of good quality is becoming an issue in arid and semi arid regions. Per consequent, the use of water resources of marginal quality is becoming an important consideration, particularly in arid regions in Tunisia, where large quantities of saline water are used for irrigation. Nevertheless, the use of these waters in irrigated lands requires the control of soil salinity and a comprehensive analysis even beyond the area where water is applied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of saline water irrigation on soil salinity distribution and some physiological traits of field-grown adult olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali) under contrasting environmental conditions of the arid region in the south of Tunisia. The plants were subjected, over two growing seasons, to two drip irrigated treatments: fresh water (ECe=1.2 dS m(-1), FW) and saline water (ECe=7.5 dS m(-1), SW). Saline water irrigation (SW) has led to a significant increase in soil salinity. Furthermore, these results showed that soil salinity and soil moisture variations are not only dependent on water salinity level but are also controlled by a multitude of factors particularly the soil texture, the distance from the irrigation source and climatic conditions (rainfall pattern, temperature average, …). On the other hand, salt treatment reduced leaf midday water potential (LMWP), relative water content and photosynthetic activity and increased the leaf proline content, and this increase was season-dependent. Indeed, LMWP in SW plants decreased to -3.71 MPa. Furthermore, the highest level of proline in SW plants was registered during summer period (2.19 ?mol/mg Fw). The proline accumulation recorded in stressed plants has allowed them to preserve appropriate leaf water status and photosynthetic activity. More to the point, this olive cultivar seems to be more sensible to soil salinity during the intense growth phase. Such tendencies would help to better manage water resources for irrigation, particularly under actual climatic conditions of water scarcity. For example, in the case of the availability of different water qualities, it would be better to preserve those of high quality for olive irrigation during the intense vegetative growth phase, in coincidence with high salt sensitive period, and those of low quality for irrigation during partial growth and plant rest phases. What's more, the urgent use of saline water for irrigation should not be applied without taking into consideration the different surroundings conditions where it is used, particularly the water salinity level, the soil type, the adopted irrigation system, the degree of the crop salt tolerance, the plant growth phase and the climatic conditions of the experimental site. PMID:22572465

Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Magdich, Salwa; Ben Rouina, Bechir; Boukhris, Makki; Ben Abdullah, Ferjani

2012-12-30

255

Performance of Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from irradiated host on olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California.  

PubMed

The parasitoid Psyttalia humilis (Silvestri) was reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), third instars irradiated at 0-70 Gy at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala, and shipped to the USDA, ARS, Parlier, CA. Irradiation dose did not affect the parasitoid's offspring sex ratio (53-62% females), percentage of unemerged adults (12-34%), number of progeny produced per female (1.4-1.8), and parasitism (19-24%). Host irradiation dose had no significant effect on the forewing length of female P. humilis and its parasitism on olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) and offspring sex ratio, but dissection of 1-wk-old female parasitoids reared from hosts irradiated with 70 Gy had a significantly lower number of mature eggs than females from nonirradiated hosts. Longevity of P. humilis adults decreased with increased temperature from 15 to 35°C, regardless of food provisions, gender, and host irradiation dose. Females survived 37-49 d at 15°C with water and food, and only 1-2 d at 35°C without food, whereas males lived shorter than females at all temperatures and food combinations tested. Adult P. humilis reared from fertile C. capitata and aspirated for dispensing in cups lived significantly longer after shipment than those specimens chilled and dispensed by weight. At 21 and 32°C, 50% of parasitoids departed release cages after 180 and 30 min, respectively, but none departed at 12°C. Thirteen shipments of P. humilis (2,980-21,922 parasitoids per shipment) were received between September and December 2009, and seven shipments (7,502-22,560 parasitoids per shipment) were received between October and December 2010 from San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala. Daily number of olive fruit fly adult and percentage female trap captures ranged <1-19 and 8-58% in 2009, and <1-11 and 0-42% in 2010, respectively. The number of parasitoids released ranged 848-12,257 in 2009 and 3,675-11,154 in 2010. Percentage parasitism of olive fruit fly third instars at all locations ranged 0-9% in 2009 and 0-36% in 2010. PMID:22732607

Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Wang, Xin-Geng; Aldana, Alicia; Cáceres, Carlos E; Yokoyama-Hatch, Hana A; Rendón, Pedro A; Johnson, Marshall W; Daane, Kent M

2012-06-01

256

Efectos de la unión monetaria sobre el comercio internacional: elementos de juicio iniciales de la Unión Monetaria Europea  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Disponible en idioma inglés únicamente) En este trabajo calculamos los efectos iniciales de la Unión Monetaria Europea (UME) en el comercio internacional. Empleamos un conjunto de datos de panel que incluye la información más actualizada sobre el comercio internacional de 22 países desarrollados, desde 1992 hasta 2002. Durante ese período, 12 países europeos se incorporaron formalmente a una unión monetaria.

Alejandro Micco; Ernesto H. Stein; Guillermo Luis Ordoñez

2003-01-01

257

Effect of amurca on olive oil quality during storage.  

PubMed

Total phenolic compounds (TPC), antioxidant activity (AA), lipid peroxidation inhibition (percent) (LPOIP), free fatty acid and peroxide values were measured in olive oil samples over the period of 12 months in comparison with oil samples extracted from amurca (olive oil lees) and olive oil samples taken from the bottom of the canister (near amurca) after 12 months of storage. Olive oil samples taken over the period of 12 months possessed decreasing amounts of TPC, AA and LPOIP, which led to increased peroxide and free fatty acid values. In contrast, oil extracted from amurca and olive oil samples taken from the bottom of the container after 12 months of storage possessed significantly higher TPC, AA, LPOIP and consequently lower free fatty acid and peroxide values. These results show that the presence of naturally occurring amurca (sediment) in stored olive oil stabilizes olive oil quality during storage. PMID:25745252

Janakat, Sana; Al-Nabulsi, Anas; Hammad, Fwzieh; Holley, Richard

2015-03-01

258

Evaluation of imported parasitoid fitness for biocontrol of olive fruit fly in California olives  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A parasitoid, Psyttalia humilis (Silvestri), was reared on irradiated Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala, and imported into California for biological control of olive fruit ...

259

Genetic diversity in Tunisian olive accessions and their relatedness with other Mediterranean olive genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-four olive accessions obtained from the National Conservatory of Boughrara-Sfax (Tunisia), previously evaluated for morphological traits, were analysed with 47 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. They were compared with other olive genotypes originated from Eastern or Western Mediterranean. The highest and lowest similarities between genotypes, estimated by simple matching algorithm, were 0.98 and 0.40, respectively. A dendrogram based on

Bchira Zitoun; Virginie Bronzini de Caraffa; Jean Giannettini; Catherine Breton; Ahmed Trigui; Jacques Maury; Claude Gambotti; Brahim Marzouk; Liliane Berti

2008-01-01

260

X-RAY DETECTION OF AND SORTING OF OLIVES DAMAGED BY FRUIT FLY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An algorithm using a Bayesian classifier was developed to automatically detect olive fruit fly infestations in x-ray images of olives. The data set consisted of 249 olives with various degrees of infestation and 161 non-infested olives. Each olive was x-rayed on film and digital images were acquired...

261

OLIVE FRUIT FLY MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES FOR 2006  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research topics include but are not limited to: a) maximization of the efficacy of GF-120 bait treatments used within olive groves; b) discovery, introduction, and establishment of parasitic wasps that attack OLF (i.e., classical biological control); c) development of phenology models for OLF and ol...

262

Oxidation of water emulsified olive oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The susceptibility to oxidation of water emulsified olive oils was monitored by preparing emulsions with different amounts of water.The oxidative and kinetic stability of the emulsions were studied by performing simultaneous measurements of sedimentation and oxidation. The results reveal that the greater the region of emulsion stability, the longer the resistance of oil to oxidation. The micrographs of Video-Enhanced Microscopy

L. Ambrosone; M. Mosca; A. Ceglie

2006-01-01

263

Statistical mechanics of nonlinear elasticity Oliver Penrose  

E-print Network

Statistical mechanics of nonlinear elasticity Oliver Penrose Department of Mathematics, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, Scotland, UK July 24, 2003 Running title: statistical mechanics Reviews classification numbers: 82B05 classical equilibrium statistical mechanics (general), 74B20

Penrose, Oliver

264

The Making of a Special "Oliver!"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How trainable mentally handicapped high school students very successfully adapted Charles Dickens's novel "Oliver Twist" into a musical play is described. The project, which involved the entire school as well as the community, shows that handicapped people are capable of artistic endeavors and growth when given the proper environment. (RM)

Beall, Lee

1985-01-01

265

Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. Digital Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Harvard Law School Library digitized its holdings of materials associated with Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., and his family. This website constitutes phase one of the project, and contains items that are related to his service in the 20th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment of the Union Army, including correspondence, telegrams, and a diary. Click on "Scrapbook" in the first bullet point on the homepage to see Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.'s, scrapbook from the Civil War. The inside cover, which is the second image, shows a handwritten inscription of 1864, and instructions that "the enclosed letters to be buried unread at my death - without fail." The Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. Visual Materials Collection includes "photographs, etchings, drawings, and paintings" of his parents and wife, and can be accessed by clicking a link in the third bullet point on the homepage. Finally, the link to the Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. Object Collection is provided in the fourth bullet point on the homepage, and objects in the collection include "Civil War uniform relics, family and personal effects, and a death mask."

266

7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes...avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes...grapefruit, kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety plums (fresh...

2010-01-01

267

Crystal Structures of Xanthomonas campestris OleA Reveal Features That Promote Head-to-Head Condensation of Two Long-Chain Fatty Acids  

SciTech Connect

OleA is a thiolase superfamily enzyme that has been shown to catalyze the condensation of two long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) substrates. The enzyme is part of a larger gene cluster responsible for generating long-chain olefin products, a potential biofuel precursor. In thiolase superfamily enzymes, catalysis is achieved via a ping-pong mechanism. The first substrate forms a covalent intermediate with an active site cysteine that is followed by reaction with the second substrate. For OleA, this conjugation proceeds by a nondecarboxylative Claisen condensation. The OleA from Xanthomonas campestris has been crystallized and its structure determined, along with inhibitor-bound and xenon-derivatized structures, to improve our understanding of substrate positioning in the context of enzyme turnover. OleA is the first characterized thiolase superfamily member that has two long-chain alkyl substrates that need to be bound simultaneously and therefore uniquely requires an additional alkyl binding channel. The location of the fatty acid biosynthesis inhibitor, cerulenin, that possesses an alkyl chain length in the range of known OleA substrates, in conjunction with a single xenon binding site, leads to the putative assignment of this novel alkyl binding channel. Structural overlays between the OleA homologues, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase and the fatty acid biosynthesis enzyme FabH, allow assignment of the two remaining channels: one for the thioester-containing pantetheinate arm and the second for the alkyl group of one substrate. A short {beta}-hairpin region is ordered in only one of the crystal forms, and that may suggest open and closed states relevant for substrate binding. Cys143 is the conserved catalytic cysteine within the superfamily, and the site of alkylation by cerulenin. The alkylated structure suggests that a glutamic acid residue (Glu117{beta}) likely promotes Claisen condensation by acting as the catalytic base. Unexpectedly, Glu117{beta} comes from the other monomer of the physiological dimer.

Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Frias, Janice A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M. (UMM)

2012-10-25

268

A review of waste management options in olive oil production  

E-print Network

In this article, treatment and disposal alternatives of olive oil mill wastes and technical requirements for their management are covered. Waste characteristics, treatment options with regard to the economic feasibility, and challenges of existing waste disposal practices in olive growing countries are mentioned. Attention is drawn to present-day techniques of waste management. The search concerning the environmentally acceptable, economically feasible, and practically applicable methods of disposal of olive oil mill wastes is referred. In the management schemes, compliance with environmental regulations and economic and social benefits of the olive oil production are the goals that must be simultaneously achieved. KEY WORDS: mill wastewaters; olive oil; olive wastes; treatment economy; waste combustion; wastewater treatment.

Nuri Azbar; Abdurrahman Bayram; Ayse Filibeli; Aysen Muezzinoglu

269

Polyamine-induced modulation of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling pathways and nitric oxide production during olive mature fruit abscission  

PubMed Central

After fruit ripening, many fruit-tree species undergo massive natural fruit abscission. Olive (Olea europaea L.) is a stone-fruit with cultivars such as Picual (PIC) and Arbequina (ARB) which differ in mature fruit abscission potential. Ethylene (ET) is associated with abscission, but its role during mature fruit abscission remains largely uncharacterized. The present study investigates the possible roles of ET and polyamine (PA) during mature fruit abscission by modulating genes involved in the ET signalling and biosynthesis pathways in the abscission zone (AZ) of both cultivars. Five ET-related genes (OeACS2, OeACO2, OeCTR1, OeERS1, and OeEIL2) were isolated in the AZ and adjacent cells (AZ–AC), and their expression in various olive organs and during mature fruit abscission, in relation to interactions between ET and PA and the expression induction of these genes, was determined. OeACS2, OeACO2, and OeEIL2 were found to be the only genes that were up-regulated in association with mature fruit abscission. Using the inhibition of ET and PA biosynthesis, it is demonstrated that OeACS2 and OeEIL2 expression are under the negative control of PA while ET induces their expression in AZ–AC. Furthermore, mature fruit abscission depressed nitric oxide (NO) production present mainly in the epidermal cells and xylem of the AZ. Also, NO production was differentially responsive to ET, PA, and different inhibitors. Taken together, the results indicate that PA-dependent ET signalling and biosynthesis pathways participate, at least partially, during mature fruit abscission, and that endogenous NO and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid maintain an inverse correlation, suggesting an antagonistic action of NO and ET in abscission signalling. PMID:21633085

Parra-Lobato, Maria C.; Gomez-Jimenez, Maria C.

2011-01-01

270

Olives and olive oil are sources of electrophilic fatty acid nitroalkenes.  

PubMed

Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and olives, key sources of unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean diet, provide health benefits to humans. Nitric oxide (•NO) and nitrite (NO2 (-))-dependent reactions of unsaturated fatty acids yield electrophilic nitroalkene derivatives (NO2-FA) that manifest salutary pleiotropic cell signaling responses in mammals. Herein, the endogenous presence of NO2-FA in both EVOO and fresh olives was demonstrated by mass spectrometry. The electrophilic nature of these species was affirmed by the detection of significant levels of protein cysteine adducts of nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA-cysteine) in fresh olives, especially in the peel. Further nitration of EVOO by NO2 (-) under acidic gastric digestive conditions revealed that human consumption of olive lipids will produce additional nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2-cLA) and nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA). The presence of free and protein-adducted NO2-FA in both mammalian and plant lipids further affirm a role for these species as signaling mediators. Since NO2-FA instigate adaptive anti-inflammatory gene expression and metabolic responses, these redox-derived metabolites may contribute to the cardiovascular benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet. PMID:24454759

Fazzari, Marco; Trostchansky, Andrés; Schopfer, Francisco J; Salvatore, Sonia R; Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Vitturi, Dario; Valderrama, Raquel; Barroso, Juan B; Radi, Rafael; Freeman, Bruce A; Rubbo, Homero

2014-01-01

271

Olives and Olive Oil Are Sources of Electrophilic Fatty Acid Nitroalkenes  

PubMed Central

Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and olives, key sources of unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean diet, provide health benefits to humans. Nitric oxide (•NO) and nitrite (NO2?)-dependent reactions of unsaturated fatty acids yield electrophilic nitroalkene derivatives (NO2-FA) that manifest salutary pleiotropic cell signaling responses in mammals. Herein, the endogenous presence of NO2-FA in both EVOO and fresh olives was demonstrated by mass spectrometry. The electrophilic nature of these species was affirmed by the detection of significant levels of protein cysteine adducts of nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA-cysteine) in fresh olives, especially in the peel. Further nitration of EVOO by NO2? under acidic gastric digestive conditions revealed that human consumption of olive lipids will produce additional nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2-cLA) and nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA). The presence of free and protein-adducted NO2-FA in both mammalian and plant lipids further affirm a role for these species as signaling mediators. Since NO2-FA instigate adaptive anti-inflammatory gene expression and metabolic responses, these redox-derived metabolites may contribute to the cardiovascular benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet. PMID:24454759

Schopfer, Francisco J.; Salvatore, Sonia R.; Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Vitturi, Dario; Valderrama, Raquel; Barroso, Juan B.; Radi, Rafael; Freeman, Bruce A.; Rubbo, Homero

2014-01-01

272

Bioremediation and biovalorisation of olive-mill wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive-mill wastes are produced by the industry of olive oil production, which is a very important economic activity, particularly\\u000a for Spain, Italy and Greece, leading to a large environmental problem of current concern in the Mediterranean basin. There\\u000a is as yet no accepted treatment method for all the wastes generated during olive oil production, mainly due to technical and\\u000a economical

J. A. Morillo; B. Antizar-Ladislao; M. Monteoliva-Sánchez; A. Ramos-Cormenzana; N. J. Russell

2009-01-01

273

Liquefaction of olive husk by supercritical fluid extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive husk was converted to liquid products by using some organic solvents, such as methanol, ethanol and acetone. Supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE) is suitable for the olive husk material. The most effective solvents are acetone for non-catalytic SCFE and methanol for NaOH catalytic SCFE of the olive husk samples. The yields of SCFEs with methanol, ethanol or acetone were 27.4,

A. Demirba?

2000-01-01

274

Pentacyclic triterpenoids from olive fruit and leaf.  

PubMed

This work establishes a new procedure for the extraction and analysis of pentacyclic triterpenes, with which fruits and leaves from three Spanish olive cultivars ("Picual", "Hojiblanca", and "Arbequina") has been studied. The leaf contains important amounts of oleanolic acid (3.0-3.5% DW), followed by significant concentrations of maslinic acid and minor levels of ursolic acid, erythrodiol, and uvaol. The abundance and profile of triterpenoids change during the leaf ontogeny. In the fruit, triterpenes are exclusively located in the epicarp at concentrations 30-fold lower than that in the leaf. Maslinic acid is the main triterpenoid, only accompanied of oleanolic acid. Along the ripening the levels of these triterpenes decreased. All the analyzed leaves and fruits come from the same agricultural estate, with identical climate and culturing conditions. For this reason, the found differences could majorly be attributable to the genetic factors of the olive cultivars. PMID:20712364

Guinda, Angeles; Rada, Mirela; Delgado, Teresa; Gutiérrez-Adánez, Pilar; Castellano, José María

2010-09-01

275

Microcircuitry and function of the inferior olive  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inferior olive, which provides the climbing fibers to Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex, has been implicated in various functions, such as learning and timing of movements, and comparing intended with achieved movements. For example, climbing-fiber activity could transmit error signals during eye-blink conditioning or adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, or it could carry motor command signals beating on

Chris I. De Zeeuw; Casper C. Hoogenraad; S. K. E. Koekkoek; Tom J. H. Ruigrok; Niels Galjart; John I. Simpson

1998-01-01

276

Fruit quality and olive leaf and stone addition affect Picual virgin olive oil triterpenic content.  

PubMed

The present research aimed to evaluate whether Picual virgin olive oil triterpenic compounds are affected by the addition of variable quantities of stones and leaves before processing or by fruit resting on the ground during 3 months. Results showed that stone addition did not influence triterpenic dialcohol content (uvaol and erythrodiol), whereas triterpenic acids (oleanolic and maslinic) increased significantly when 20 and 30% stones were added. Leaves added at 2% increased significantly oleanolic acid, maslinic acid, and erythrodiol content by 83, 41, and 36%, respectively. During fruit resting on the ground, olive oils showed no differences in uvaol content, a slight increase in erythrodiol, and a gradual increase in both oleanolic and maslinic acids, obtaining at the end of the experiment contents nearly 10- and 3-fold higher than control oils. These results confirm that olive oil triterpenic composition is modified by the factors analyzed. PMID:19702272

Allouche, Yosra; Uceda, Marino; Jiménez, Antonio; Aguilera, M Paz; Gaforio, José Juan; Beltrán, Gabriel

2009-10-14

277

Mitochondrial DNA variation and RAPD mark oleasters, olive and feral olive from Western and Eastern Mediterranean.  

PubMed

The study of genetic diversity within the olive-tree (cultivated and wild forms) may be useful to reveal agronomic traits in the wild germplasm and to try to understand the history of the olive-tree domestication. In this way, a study of nuclear and mitochondrial DNAs of cultivated and wild olives from two Corsican and Sardinian Mediterranean islands was performed using RAPD and RFLP markers. Our results show that most of the varieties and most of the oleasters were separated using the UPGMA dendrogram based on the Nei and Li similarity index. Most of oleasters carried either the MOM or MCK mitotype, characteristic of olives in the Western Mediterranean, whereas most of the varieties carried the ME1 mitotype, characteristic of olives in the East Mediterranean. The results indicate that the combination of mitotype and RAPD markers can be used as a powerful tool for differentiating two groups in the wild forms: the Western true oleasters and the feral forms. The true oleasters are characterized by a Western mitotype and a Western RAPD pattern. Feral forms originate either from varieties or from hybridisation between a variety and an oleaster. Consequently, as expected, some of them aggregated with the varieties from which they were derived. The other feral forms are clustered with the oleasters and were detected only by their mitotype determination. This study has also permitted us to differentiate two populations of cultivated olives in Corsica: one with close relationships with Italian varieties (influenced by the East) and one selected from local oleasters probably due to a better local adaptation than foreign varieties. PMID:12582632

De Caraffa, V. Bronzini; Maury, J.; Gambotti, C.; Breton, C.; Bervillé, A.; Giannettini, J.

2002-05-01

278

Influence du site géographique sur les potentialités agronomiques et technologiques de l'olivier ( Olea europaea L.) en Tunisie  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aims at characterization four cultivars of the olive trees, Chétoui, Chemlali, Gerboui, and Chaïbi, cultivated in three different geographical locations, from pomological and technological points of view. The pomological characters of the fruit are influenced by the geographical location. Each individual of the same cultivar expresses different pomological characters. We have noted a significant fluctuation of the flush

Hédia Hannachi; Monji Msallem; Salem Ben Elhadj; Mohamed El Gazzah

2007-01-01

279

Olive response to water availability: yield response functions, soil water content indicators and evaluation of adaptability to climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate evolution, with the foreseen increase of temperature and frequency of drought events during the summer, could cause significant changes in the availability of water resources specially in the Mediterranean region. European countries need to encourage sustainable agriculture practices, reducing inputs, especially of water, and minimizing any negative impact on crop quantity and quality. Olive is an important crop in the Mediterranean region that has traditionally been cultivated with no irrigation and is known to attain acceptable production under dry farming. Therefore this crop will not compete for foreseen reduced water resources. However, a good quantitative knowledge must be available about effects of reduced precipitation and water availability on yield. Yield response functions, coupled with indicators of soil water availability, provide a quantitative description of the cultivar- specific behavior in relation to hydrological conditions. Yield response functions of 11 olive cultivars, typical of Mediterranean environment, were determined using experimental data (unpublished or reported in scientific literature). The yield was expressed as relative yield (Yr); the soil water availability was described by means of different indicators: relative soil water deficit (RSWD), relative evapotranspiration (RED) and transpiration deficit (RTD). Crops can respond nonlinearly to changes in their growing conditions and exhibit threshold responses, so for the yield functions of each olive cultivar both linear regression and threshold-slope models were considered to evaluate the best fit. The level of relative yield attained in rain-fed conditions was identified and defined as the acceptable yield level (Yrrainfed). The value of the indicator (RSWD, RED and RTD) corresponding to Yrrainfed was determined for each cultivar and indicated as the critical value of water availability. The error in the determination of the critical value was estimated. By means of a simulation model of the water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, the indicators of soil water availability were calculated for different soil units in an area of Southern Italy, traditionally cultivated with olive. Simulations were performed for two climate scenarios: reference (1961-90) and future climate (2021-50). The potentiality of the indicators RSWD, RED and RTD to describe soil water availability was evaluated using simulated and experimental data. The analysis showed that RED values were correlated to RTD. The analysis demonstrated that RTD was more effective than RED in representing crop water availability RSWD is very well correlated to RTD and the degree of correlation depends of the period of deficit considered. The probability of adaptation of each cultivar was calculated for both climatic periods by comparing the critical values (and their error distribution) with soil availability indicators. Keywords: Olea europaea, soil water deficit, water availability critical value. The work was carried out within the Italian national project AGROSCENARI funded by the Ministry for Agricultural, Food and Forest Policies (MIPAAF, D.M. 8608/7303/2008)

Riccardi, Maria; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Basile, Angelo; Bonfante, Antonello; Menenti, Massimo; Monaco, Eugenia; De Lorenzi, Francesca

2013-04-01

280

Halftoning and Stippling Oliver Deussen and Tobias Isenberg  

E-print Network

men- tioned an etching method (intaglio printing) for processing photographic screens which and Information Science, University of Konstanz, Germany e-mail: oliver.deussen@uni-konstanz.de Tobias Isenberg.1007/978-1-4471-4519-6_3 #12;2 Oliver Deussen and Tobias Isenberg (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Fig. 3.1 Reproducing a photograph

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

281

Long term modification of cerebellar inhibition after inferior olive degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long term effects of inferior olive destruction on the activities of the Purkinje cells and their target neurones in the cerebellar nuclei were studied in the rat. Careful observations were also made of motor behaviour throughout the study. Albino rats were injected with 3-acetylpyridine to produce a neurotoxic destruction of the inferior olive and then were used for acute

C. Batini; J. M. Billard; H. Daniel

1985-01-01

282

75 FR 9536 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and subsequent fiscal years from $28.63 to $44.72 per assessable ton of olives...and subsequent fiscal years from $28.63 to $44.72 per ton of olives. The California...and subsequent fiscal years from $28.63 to $44.72 per ton of assessable...

2010-03-03

283

75 FR 22211 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and subsequent fiscal years from $28.63 to $44.72 per assessable ton of olives...and subsequent fiscal years from $28.63 to $44.72 per ton of olives handled...and subsequent fiscal years from $28.63 to $44.72 per ton of assessable...

2010-04-28

284

Notes and records Feeding ecology of olive baboons (Papio anubis)  

E-print Network

Notes and records Feeding ecology of olive baboons (Papio anubis) in Kibale National Park, Uganda and nutritional ecology of baboons (Papio) has been widely documented (Norton et al., 1987; Whiten et al., 1991 & Schreier, 2008; Bentley-Condit, 2009), most research on olive baboons (P. anubis) has focused on savannah

Rothman, Jessica M.

285

OPTIMAL SOCIAL SECURITY WITH IMPERFECT TAGGING Oliver DENK  

E-print Network

OPTIMAL SOCIAL SECURITY WITH IMPERFECT TAGGING Oliver DENK Jean-Baptiste MICHAU Cahier n° 2013:chantal.poujouly@polytechnique.edu hal-00796521,version1-4Mar2013 #12;Optimal Social Security with Imperfect Tagging Oliver Denk OECD pillars of the "Social Security" system which is meant to provide security against the risk of being

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

286

Olive oil stability under deep-frying conditions.  

PubMed

The suitability of different commercial olive oil categories for domestic frying was investigated. Oil samples were taken every 3h of frying and evaluated for free acidity, peroxide and p-anisidine values, specific extinction coefficients, oxidative stability, fatty acids, vitamin E, ?-carotene and total phenols, until the total polar compounds achieved the maximum legal value (25%). All olive oils were fried during more time than the commercial vegetable oil blend taken for comparison (from 24 to 27 h, against 15 h). The extra-virgin Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) olive oil was characterized by reduced levels of oxidation and hydrolysis, and superior amounts of minor antioxidant compounds. The "olive oil" commercial category behaves similarly, but "Cobrançosa" olive oils performance was slightly worse, and clearly different between years, highlighting the importance of blending different cultivars. The vegetable oil, despite containing significantly higher amounts of vitamin E, was highly susceptible to oxidation under frying conditions when compared to all olive oils. The results also show that the chemical composition of olive oils, particularly the amount of natural antioxidants, are important parameters in their predictive behavior along the frying process, but mostly that olive oil is clearly resistant to frying conditions, independently to the commercial category chosen. PMID:20678538

Casal, Susana; Malheiro, Ricardo; Sendas, Artur; Oliveira, Beatriz P P; Pereira, José Alberto

2010-10-01

287

75 FR 22363 - United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...fruit results in a poor quality olive oil that would...virgin category (highest quality) but could meet the...for the detection of seed oils and verifies authenticity...varnish, paint, or seed-like odors. Fusty...is not related to oil quality so what is the...

2010-04-28

288

Olive orchard amended with two experimental olive mill wastes mixtures: Effects on soil organic carbon, plant growth and yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amendments of olive orchard soil with two different preparations of olive mill solid waste (OMWMs) at the rate of 9tonha?1 per year for five years in two different plots were compared with an industry standard soil amendment using urea. Both the OMWMs amendments showed significant increases in total organic carbon and humic substances in soil of approximately 40% and 58%,

Roberto Altieri; Alessandro Esposito

2008-01-01

289

Investigation into the biological properties of the olive polyphenol, hydroxytyrosol: mechanistic insights by genome-wide mRNA-Seq analysis.  

PubMed

The medicinal properties of the leaves and fruit of Olea Europaea (olive tree) have been known since antiquity. Numerous contemporary studies have linked the Mediterranean diet with increased health. In particular, consumption of olive oil has been associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Increasingly, there has been an interest in the biological properties of polyphenols, which are minor constituents of olive oil. For example, hydroxytyrosol has been shown to be a potent antioxidant and has anti-atherogenic and anti-cancer properties. The overall aim of this study was to provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of action of hydroxytyrosol using genome-wide mRNA-Seq. Initial experiments were aimed at assessing cytotoxicity, apoptosis and cell cycle effects of hydroxytyrosol in various cell lines. The findings indicated a dose-dependent reduction in cell viability in human erythroleukemic K562 and human keratinocytes. When comparing the viability in parental CEM-CCRF and R100 cells (which overexpress the P-glycoprotein pump), it was determined that the R100 cells were more resistant to effects of hydroxytyrosol suggesting efflux by the multi-drug resistance pump. By comparing the uptake of Hoechst 33342 in the two cell lines that had been pretreated with hydroxytyrosol, it was determined that the polyphenol may have P-glycoprotein-modulating activity. Further, initial studies indicated modest radioprotective effects of relatively low doses of hydroxytyrosol in human keratinocytes. Analysis of mRNA sequencing data identified that treatment of keratinocytes with 20 ?M hydroxytyrosol results in the upregulation of numerous antioxidant proteins and enzymes, including heme oxygenase-1 (15.46-fold upregulation), glutaredoxin (1.65) and glutathione peroxidase (1.53). This may account for the radioprotective activity of the compound, and reduction in oxidative stress suggests a mechanism for chemoprevention of cancer by hydroxytyrosol. Alteration in the expression of transcription factors may also contribute to the anti-cancer effects described in numerous studies. These include changes in the expression of STAT3, STAT6, SMAD7 and ETS-1. The telomerase subunit TERT was also found to be downregulated in K562 cells. Overall, our findings provide insights into the mechanisms of action of hydroxytyrosol, and more generally, we identify potential gene candidates for further exploration. PMID:21953375

Rafehi, Haloom; Smith, Andrea J; Balcerczyk, Aneta; Ziemann, Mark; Ooi, Jenny; Loveridge, Shanon J; Baker, Emma K; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

2012-04-01

290

Saltcedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act Science Assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The primary intent of this document is to provide the science assessment called for under The Saltcedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-320; the Act). A secondary purpose is to provide a common background for applicants for prospective demonstration projects, should funds be appropriated for this second phase of the Act. This document synthesizes the state-of-the-science on the following topics: the distribution and abundance (extent) of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) in the Western United States, potential for water savings associated with controlling saltcedar and Russian olive and the associated restoration of occupied sites, considerations related to wildlife use of saltcedar and Russian olive habitat or restored habitats, methods to control saltcedar and Russian olive, possible utilization of dead biomass following removal of saltcedar and Russian olive, and approaches and challenges associated with revegetation or restoration following control efforts. A concluding chapter discusses possible long-term management strategies, needs for additional study, potentially useful field demonstration projects, and a planning process for on-the-ground projects involving removal of saltcedar and Russian olive.

Shafroth, Patrick B.; Brown, Curtis A.; Merritt, David M.

2010-01-01

291

Spectroscopic and density functional theory studies of 5,7,3?,5?-tetrahydroxyflavanone from the leaves of Olea ferruginea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

5,7,3?,5?-Tetrahydroxyflavanone (1) was isolated from the leaves of Olea ferruginea and a theoretical model was developed for obtaining the electronic and spectroscopic properties of 1. The geometric and electronic properties were calculated at B3LYP/6-311 G (d, p) level of Density Functional Theory (DFT). The theoretical data was in good agreement with the experimental one. The optimized geometric parameters of compound 1 were calculated for the first time. The theoretical vibrational frequencies of 1 were found to correlate with the experimental IR spectrum after a scaling factor of 0.9811. The UV and NMR spectral data computed theoretically were in good agreement with the experimental data. Electronic properties of the compound i.e., ionization potential (IP), electron affinity (EA), coefficients of HOMO and LUMO were estimated computationally for the first time which can be used to explain its antioxidant as well as other related activities and more active sites on it. The intermolecular interactions and their effects on IR frequencies, electronic and geometric parameters were simulated using water molecule as a model for hydrogen bonding with flavonoid hydroxyl groups.

Hashmi, Muhammad Ali; Khan, Afsar; Ayub, Khurshid; Farooq, Umar

2014-07-01

292

Air pollution effects on the leaf structure of two injury resistant species: Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Olea europaea L  

SciTech Connect

The release of toxic gases as well as of particulate pollutants into the atmosphere is a major side effect of the human industrial, agricultural and domestic activities. The impact of these compounds on the various life forms of our planet seems to be very serious. Investigations of plant species resistant to pollution-induced injuries do have a meaning. The introduction of these species will improve air quality and establish a moderate rate of primary productivity in the handicapped regions. That is why data concerning an evergreen sclerophyllous species which does not present structural modifications and organelle destruction although forced to be a dweller of a partition isle in a heavily polluted, traffic-loaded main street of the smog-suffering city of Athens, Greece, seemed very interesting. In this paper, further investigation is presented. Two common, species were studied. The first, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, a huge tree once imported to Europe from Australia as a marsh-drier in an effort to control malaria, is a drought enduring species mostly known for the essential oils accumulated in its leaves. The second, Olea europaea L. var oleaster Brot, is a sclerophyllous tree growing wild in chaparall formations in Greece.

Christodoulakis, N.S.; Koutsogeorgopoulou, L. (Univ. of Athens (Greece))

1991-09-01

293

Spectroscopic and density functional theory studies of 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone from the leaves of Olea ferruginea.  

PubMed

5,7,3',5'-Tetrahydroxyflavanone (1) was isolated from the leaves of Olea ferruginea and a theoretical model was developed for obtaining the electronic and spectroscopic properties of 1. The geometric and electronic properties were calculated at B3LYP/6-311 G (d, p) level of Density Functional Theory (DFT). The theoretical data was in good agreement with the experimental one. The optimized geometric parameters of compound 1 were calculated for the first time. The theoretical vibrational frequencies of 1 were found to correlate with the experimental IR spectrum after a scaling factor of 0.9811. The UV and NMR spectral data computed theoretically were in good agreement with the experimental data. Electronic properties of the compound i.e., ionization potential (IP), electron affinity (EA), coefficients of HOMO and LUMO were estimated computationally for the first time which can be used to explain its antioxidant as well as other related activities and more active sites on it. The intermolecular interactions and their effects on IR frequencies, electronic and geometric parameters were simulated using water molecule as a model for hydrogen bonding with flavonoid hydroxyl groups. PMID:24667429

Hashmi, Muhammad Ali; Khan, Afsar; Ayub, Khurshid; Farooq, Umar

2014-07-15

294

Biorefinery based on olive biomass. State of the art and future trends.  

PubMed

With currently more than nine million hectares, olive tree cultivation has spread worldwide, table olives and olive oil as the main products. Moreover, a number of by-products and residues derived from both tree cultivation and the process of industrial olive oil production, most having no practical applications, are obtained yearly. This paper reviews the research regarding these by-products, namely biomass from olive tree pruning, olive stones, olive pomace and wastewaters obtained from the process of olive oil production. Furthermore, a wide range of compounds has been identified and can be produced using a broad definition of the term biorefinery based on olive tree biomass. As an example, this paper reviews ethanol production as one of the main proposed applications, as well as research on other value-added products. Finally, this paper also assesses recent technological advances, future perspectives and challenges in each stage of the process. PMID:24713236

Romero-García, J M; Niño, L; Martínez-Patiño, C; Álvarez, C; Castro, E; Negro, M J

2014-05-01

295

Microbiota of table olive fermentations and criteria of selection for their use as starters  

PubMed Central

Fermentation is one of the oldest methods for preserving of olives applied worldwide for thousands of years. However, olive processing is a speculative area where whether olives are fermented products or pickled products produced by organic acids and salt. Although lactobacilli and yeasts play a major role in the process, literature survey indicates that lactobacilli are less relevant at least in some types of natural green olives during fermentation. There have been significant advances recently in understanding the process to produce olives, especially the role of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts including biofilm formation on olive surfaces by these organisms. The purpose of this paper is to review the latest developments regarding the microbiota of olives on the basis of olive types, their role on the fermentation process, the interaction between both group of microorganisms and the olive surface, the possibility to use starter cultures and the criteria to select appropriate cultures. PMID:23781216

Heperkan, Dilek

2013-01-01

296

Oliver Wendell Holmes Man of Medicine; Man of Letters  

PubMed Central

This biographical sketch portrays Oliver Wendell Holmes as a leading figure both in American medicine and in American literature. Particular attention is directed to his classic essay, “The Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever.” PMID:5325818

Parker, Virginia

1966-01-01

297

Evidence of oleuropein degradation by olive leaf protein extract.  

PubMed

The enzymatic activity of raw protein olive leaf extract has been investigated in vivo, on olive leaf homogenate and, in vitro with pure oleuropein and other phenolic substrates. At least two types of enzymes were found to be involved in the degradation of endogenous oleuropein in olive leaves. As for the in vitro experiments, the presence of active polyphenoloxidase and ?-glucosidase was determined by HPLC and UV-Visible spectroscopy. Interestingly, both the enzymatic activities were found to change during the storage of olive leaves. Specifically, the protein extracts obtained from fresh leaves showed the presence of both the enzymatic activities, because oleuropein depletion occurred simultaneously with the formation of the oleuropein aglycon, 3,4-DHPEA-EA. In comparison leaves subjected to the drying process showed a polyphenoloxidase activity leading exclusively to the formation of oxidation products responsible for the typical brown coloration of the reaction solution. PMID:25577121

De Leonardis, Antonella; Macciola, Vincenzo; Cuomo, Francesca; Lopez, Francesco

2015-05-15

298

Soil amendment with olive mill wastes: impact on groundwater.  

PubMed

Two sets of soil lysimeters were amended with solid and liquid olive mill wastes and the composition of leachate was analysed. Five treatments were carried out using: olive mill wastewater (OMW) at two different rates (80 and 320 m(3)/ha); OMW pre-treated by catalytical digestion with MnO2; compost obtained by exhausted olive pomace; freshwater as the control. Electric conductivity, pH, potassium, total polyphenols and nitrates were monitored in the leachate as indexes of potential groundwater contamination. The study demonstrated that the impact of all the selected amendments on groundwater was the minimum. OMW was safely applied to soil even at four times the rate allowed by the Italian law, and pre-treatment by catalytical digestion was not necessary to further reduce the impact on groundwater. The application of olive pomace compost was equally safe. PMID:24178314

Caputo, Maria Clementina; De Girolamo, Anna Maria; Volpe, Angela

2013-12-15

299

Changes in olive oil composition due to microwave heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of microwave heating on some components of extra-virgin olive oil were studied. Traditional parameters, including\\u000a free acidity, peroxide value and ultraviolet absorbance values at 232 and 268 nm, were determined in six extra-virgin olive\\u000a oil samples before and after the microwave treatment. Significant differences (P<0.01) were detected for free acidity, peroxide, and ultraviolet absorbance at 268 nm; also,

L. Cossignani; M. S. Simonetti; A. Neri; P. Damiani

1998-01-01

300

Olive bagasse and nutshell as gamma shielding material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma ray linear attenuation coefficients have been measured experimentally for olive bagasse and nutshell by using narrow beam geometry for Co-60 and the values have been compared with soil. These values have been used calculate mean free path, half value layer and tenth value layer parameters. Besides, effect of multi-layered systems (soil + olive bagasse and soil + nutshell) has been analyzed in terms of half value layer.

Inaç, Esra; Bayta?, A. Filiz

2013-12-01

301

Antioxidant effect of natural phenols on olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total polar fraction and individual phenols present in virgin olive oil were tested for their antioxidant effect in refined\\u000a olive oil. Hydroxytyrosol and caffeic acid showed protection factors greater than BHT. Protocatechuic and syringic acid were\\u000a also found to have antioxidant activity. Tyrosol, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, o-coumaric acid, p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic\\u000a acid and vanillic acid had very little or no

George Papadopoulos; Dimitrios Boskou

1991-01-01

302

Direct olive oil anisidine value determination by flow injection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flow injection (FI) spectrophotometric method for the determination of olive oil anisidine value (AV) is presented. A 40-l aliquot of 10% (w\\/v) olive oil samples in 2-propanol are injected in a p-anisidine in 2-propanol\\/acetic acid stream. The reagents are premixed in the FI system using a two-line manifold. Detection is achieved by monitoring absorbance continuously at 350nm. The proposed

Eleni P. Labrinea; Nikolaos S. Thomaidis; Constantinos A. Georgiou

2001-01-01

303

Leishmanicidal activity assessment of olive tree extracts.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis, a protozoan parasitic disease that remains a major worldwide health problem with high endemicity in developing countries, is prevalent around the Mediterranean basin. High cost, systemic toxicity, and diminished efficacy due to development of parasite resistance are the serious drawbacks of current treatment options. Thus, identifying new, effective, and safer anti-leishmanial drug(s) is of paramount importance. Here we tested the anti-promastigote and anti-amastigote activity of five natural products, including oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, present in olive tree leaves and olive mill wastewater. These products are recognized as low-cost starting materials rich in bioactive compounds, particularly biophenols. Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol exhibited the best inhibitory effect among the natural products tested in both stationary and middle logarithmic phase promastigotes of L. infantum, L. donovani, and L. major. Similarly, oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol demonstrated the highest selectivity index ratio against L. donovani amastigotes that parasitize J774A.1 macrophages. Moreover, oleuropein was tested in vivo in an experimental visceral leishmaniasis model. L. donovani-infected BALB/c mice received intraperitoneal oleuropein a total of 14 times at intervals of every other day. Three days after treatment termination, the spleen parasitic burden was reduced >80%. Of interest, this effect of oleuropein persisted and was even enhanced 6 weeks after the termination of the treatment, as determined by parasite depletion of >95% in liver and spleen. These findings contribute to the potential development of natural products as effective drugs against parasites of the Leishmania genus, with low cost and diminished cytotoxicity. PMID:23273752

Kyriazis, Joannis D; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Polychronopoulos, Panagiotis; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Dotsika, Eleni

2013-02-15

304

Determination of benzo(a)pyrene by GC\\/MS\\/MS in retail olive oil samples available in Qatar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was carried out for the presence of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) in olive oils following reports that some batches of Spanish olive–pomace oil and its products contained high levels of B(a)P. Three types of olive oils (1) virgin olive oil, (2) refined olive oil and (3) olive–pomace oil, originating from France, Greece, Italy, the Lebanon, Spain, Tunisia and Turkey, and

A. H. W. Abdulkadar; A. A. M. Kunhi; Al-Jedah Jassim; Al-Ali Abdulla

2003-01-01

305

Effects of the olive, extra virgin olive and canola oils on cisplatin-induced clastogenesis in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Cisplatin is one of the mostly used antineoplastic drugs in the treatment of cancer, but its clastogenic potential has become of great interest. In patients treated with long-term cisplatin, genetic damage can be observed during chemotherapy or many years later. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible anticlastogenic effect of pretreatment with olive, extra virgin olive, canola or corn oils on cisplatin-induced chromosomal aberrations in Wistar rat bone marrow cells. The animals received pretreatment with a single dose of vegetable oils (5 ml/kg b.w.) by gavage before cisplatin i.p. (5 mg/kg b.w.), and were sacrificed 24 h after cisplatin injection. The pretreatment with a single dose of olive, extra virgin olive and canola oils caused a statistically significant decrease in the total of chromosomal aberrations and abnormal metaphases induced by cisplatin when compared with the groups treated with cisplatin alone. The possible explanation for the anticlastogenic effects observed in the pretreatment with olive, extra virgin olive and canola oils is ascribed to the oil contents. In conclusion, from the findings we suggest that these oils have some antioxidant effect, and the anticlastogenesis mechanisms of these oils need to be explored further before their use during cisplatin chemotherapy. PMID:15207380

Evangelista, Cristina Márcia Wolf; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi; Francescato, Heloísa D C; Bianchi, Maria Lourdes Pires

2004-08-01

306

Ld Perca (PtTCi jliaiiiiis), una especie europea imroiiiiida els daen anys a CIII/IJIVI. La introucci de peixos  

E-print Network

u Ld Perca (PtTCíi jliaiíiiiíis), una especie europea imroiiiiida els dañen anys a CÍIIÍI Ilac Victoria o Ukerewe, la introducció d'un peix gran depredador, la perca del Nil (Lütes nííotícus

García-Berthou, Emili

307

The molecular biology of the olive fly comes of age  

PubMed Central

Background Olive cultivation blends with the history of the Mediterranean countries since ancient times. Even today, activities around the olive tree constitute major engagements of several people in the countryside of both sides of the Mediterranean basin. The olive fly is, beyond doubt, the most destructive pest of cultivated olives. The female fly leaves its eggs in the olive fruit. Upon emergence, the larvae feed on the olive sap, thus destroying the fruit. If untreated, practically all olives get infected. The use of chemical insecticides constitutes the principal olive fly control approach. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), an environmentally friendly alternative control method, had been tried in pilot field applications in the 1970's, albeit with no practical success. This was mainly attributed to the low, non-antagonistic quality of the mixed-sex released insects. Many years of experience from successful SIT applications in related species, primarily the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, demonstrated that efficient SIT protocols require the availability of fundamental genetic and molecular information. Results Among the primary systems whose understanding can contribute towards novel SIT approaches (or its recently developed alternative RIDL: Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal) is the reproductive, since the ability to manipulate the reproductive system would directly affect the insect's fertility. In addition, the analysis of early embryonic promoters and apoptotic genes would provide tools that confer dominant early-embryonic lethality during mass-rearing. Here we report the identification of several genes involved in these systems through whole transcriptome analysis of female accessory glands (FAGs) and spermathecae, as well as male testes. Indeed, analysis of differentially expressed genes in these tissues revealed higher metabolic activity in testes than in FAGs/spermathecae. Furthermore, at least five olfactory-related genes were shown to be differentially expressed in the female and male reproductive systems analyzed. Finally, the expression profile of the embryonic serendipity-? locus and the pre-apoptotic head involution defective gene were analyzed during embryonic developmental stages. Conclusions Several years of molecular studies on the olive fly can now be combined with new information from whole transcriptome analyses and lead to a deep understanding of the biology of this notorious insect pest. This is a prerequisite for the development of novel embryonic lethality female sexing strains for successful SIT efforts which, combined with improved mass-reared conditions, give new hope for efficient SIT applications for the olive fly. PMID:25472866

2014-01-01

308

Genetic Diversity of the Coat Protein of Olive Mild Mosaic Virus (OMMV) and Tobacco Necrosis Virus D (TNV-D) Isolates and Its Structural Implications  

PubMed Central

The genetic variability among 13 isolates of Olive mild mosaic virus (OMMV) and of 11 isolates of Tobacco necrosis virus D (TNV-D) recovered from Olea europaea L. samples from various sites in Portugal, was assessed through the analysis of the coat protein (CP) gene sequences. This gene was amplified through reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cloned, and 5 clone sequences of each virus isolate, were analysed and compared, including sequences from OMMV and TNV-D isolates originally recovered from different hosts and countries and available in the GenBank, totalling 131 sequences. The encoded CP sequences consisted of 269 amino acids (aa) in OMMV and 268 in TNV-D. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the isolates showed a very low variability among OMMV isolates, 0.005 and 0.007, respectively, as well as among TNV-D isolates, 0.006 and 0.008. The maximum nucleotide distances of OMMV and TNV-D sequences within isolates were also low, 0.013 and 0.031, respectively, and close to that found between isolates, 0.018 and 0.034, respectively. In some cases, less variability was found in clone sequences between isolates than in clone sequences within isolates, as also shown through phylogenetic analysis. CP aa sequence identities among OMMV and TNV-D isolates ranged from 84.3% to 85.8%. Comparison between the CP genomic sequences of the two viruses, showed a relatively low variability, 0.199, and a maximum nucleotide distance between isolates of 0.411. Analysis of comparative models of OMMV and TNV-D CPs, showed that naturally occurring substitutions in their respective sequences do not seem to cause significant alterations in the virion structure. This is consistent with a high selective pressure to preserve the structure of viral capsid proteins. PMID:25350108

Varanda, Carla M. R.; Machado, Marco; Martel, Paulo; Nolasco, Gustavo; Clara, Maria I. E.; Félix, Maria R.

2014-01-01

309

Olive oil supplemented with menaquinone-7 significantly affects osteocalcin carboxylation.  

PubMed

Menaquinone-7 (MK-7), a member of the vitamin K2 family, performs several functions, all related to its recognised effect on post-translational carboxylation of certain protein-bound glutamate residues. Due to its lipophilic structure MK-7 is soluble in olive oil, so the aim of the present study was to test whether extra-virgin (EV) olive oil enriched with MK-7 significantly increases MK-7 plasma levels and has an effect on osteocalcin and its carboxylation status. Healthy young volunteers (n 12) were administered 20 ml EV olive oil per d for 2 weeks, followed by 2 weeks of the same amount of olive oil enriched with 45 ?g and then 90 ?g MK-7, with an appropriate washout time in between. Blood was collected and plasma separated in each phase of the study. We found that integration of the diet with EV olive oil alone did not produce any significant variation of MK-7 plasma levels compared with baseline. Supplementation with MK-7-enriched olive oil resulted in a significant and dose-dependent increase in plasma levels. The high dose also significantly increased carboxylated osteocalcin (cOC) and decreased undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) plasma levels, resulting in a significant increase in the cOC:ucOC ratio. A significant correlation was also found between percentage variation of plasma cOCA:ucOC ratio and increase in plasma MK-7 levels. We conclude that regular consumption of MK-7-enriched olive oil may constitute a valid approach in order to preserve some key biochemical mechanisms controlling bone mineralisation. PMID:21736837

Brugè, Francesca; Bacchetti, Tiziana; Principi, Federica; Littarru, Gian Paolo; Tiano, Luca

2011-10-01

310

78 FR 48412 - Approval of Subzone Status Milwaukee Electric Tool Corporation Olive Branch, Greenwood and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Milwaukee Electric Tool Corporation Olive Branch, Greenwood and Jackson, Mississippi On June 5, 2013, the Executive Secretary of...Corporation at its facilities in Olive Branch, Greenwood and Jackson, Mississippi. The application was processed in...

2013-08-08

311

NSCL Webinar, January 21, 20091 Georg Bollen, Oliver Kester, Marc Doleans  

E-print Network

NSCL Webinar, January 21, 20091 Georg Bollen, Oliver Kester, Marc Doleans Welcome! You are joining rates and properties Experimental areas ReA3 status Georg Bollen, Oliver Kester, Marc Doleans #12;NSCL

312

Evaluation of the in Vitro Anti-Atherogenic Properties of Lipid Fractions of Olive Pomace, Olive Pomace Enriched Fish Feed and Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Fed with Olive Pomace Enriched Fish Feed  

PubMed Central

Given the pivotal role of Platelet-Activating-Factor (PAF) in atherosclerosis and the cardio-protective role of PAF-inhibitors derived from olive pomace, the inclusion of olive pomace in fish feed has been studied for gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). The aim of the current research was to elucidate the anti-atherogenic properties of specific HPLC lipid fractions obtained from olive pomace, olive pomace enriched fish feed and fish fed with the olive pomace enriched fish feed, by evaluating their in vitro biological activity against washed rabbit platelets. This in vitro study underlines that olive pomace inclusion in fish feed improves the nutritional value of both fish feed and fish possibly by enriching the marine lipid profile of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) with specific bioactive lipid compounds of plant origin. PMID:24084786

Nasopoulou, Constantina; Gogaki, Vassiliki; Stamatakis, Giorgos; Papaharisis, Leonidas; Demopoulos, Constantinos A.; Zabetakis, Ioannis

2013-01-01

313

"Black Olive" or Bucida Caterpillar (Characoma nilotica) a Nuisance Pest Doug Caldwell  

E-print Network

"Black Olive" or Bucida Caterpillar (Characoma nilotica) a Nuisance Pest Doug Caldwell A little caterpillar can defoliate "black olive" and its finer textured variety `Shady Lady' "black olive" (Bucida buceras). Nuisance calls (complaints about the caterpillars, not the calls) usually start in mid to late

Watson, Craig A.

314

Availability of triazine herbicides in aged soils amended with olive oil mill waste  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Olive oil extraction generates a lot of organic waste, which can potentially cause adverse environmental impacts. Application of olive oil mill waste, alperujo, to the land could be an effective way to dispose of the waste. However, addition of olive oil mill wastes can modify the binding capacity o...

315

Chemical treatment of olive pomace: Effect on acid-basic properties and metal biosorption capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, olive pomace, an agricultural waste that is very abundant in Mediterranean area, was modified by two chemical treatments in order to improve its biosorption capacity. Potentiometric titrations and IR analyses were used to characterise untreated olive pomace (OP), olive pomace treated by phosphoric acid (PAOP) and treated by hydrogen peroxide (HPOP). Acid–base properties of all investigated biosorbents

M. A. Martín-Lara; F. Pagnanelli; S. Mainelli; M. Calero; L. Toro

2008-01-01

316

The Generation of Phase Differences and Frequency Changes in a Network Model of Inferior Olive  

E-print Network

The Generation of Phase Differences and Frequency Changes in a Network Model of Inferior Olive University, Jerusalem, Israel Abstract It is commonly accepted that the Inferior Olive (IO) provides a timing Changes in a Network Model of Inferior Olive Subthreshold Oscillations. PLoS Comput Biol 8(7): e1002580

Segev, Idan

317

7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. 932.150 Section 932...minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum quality requirements...are hereby modified with respect to canned green ripe olives so that no requirements...

2011-01-01

318

7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. 932.150 Section 932...minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum quality requirements...are hereby modified with respect to canned green ripe olives so that no requirements...

2010-01-01

319

Biological controls investigated to aid management of olive fruit fly in California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The recent widespread and rapid establishment of the olive fruit fly in California made necessary immediate changes in existing olive IPM programs. After determining that resident natural enemies (various generalist predators and a previously unknown parasitoid) that have been found attacking olive...

320

Treatment of olive mill waste water with activated carbons from agricultural by-products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of activated carbons prepared by a two-step steam activation of olive stone and solvent extracted olive pulp (SEOP) have been used in an attempt to investigate the total phenol removal and chemical oxygen demand (COD) decrease in olive mill waste water (OMWW). The temperature of carbonization and activation were kept constant at 850 and 800 °C, respectively. One of

Polymnia Galiatsatou; Michail Metaxas; Dimitrios Arapoglou; Vasilia Kasselouri-Rigopoulou

2002-01-01

321

7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109 Section 932... § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged...

2010-01-01

322

7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109 Section 932... § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged...

2011-01-01

323

7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109 Section 932... § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged...

2013-01-01

324

7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109 Section 932... § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged...

2014-01-01

325

7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109 Section 932... § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged...

2012-01-01

326

3D modelling of the oldest olive tree of the world  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Monumental Olive Tree of Vouves, known as the oldest olive tree in the World is an important part of our cultural heritage. Branches from this olive tree were used for the wreath bestowed upon the winners in the Olympic Games in Beijing and Athens and the winners of the Classic Marathon in Kalimarmaron Stadium. This ancient tree became an

Emmanuel Maravelakis; Nikolaos Bilalis; Irini Mantzorou; Antonios Konstantaras; Aristomenis Antoniadis

2012-01-01

327

Disposal of by-products in olive oil industry: waste-to-energy solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive oil production industry is characterized by relevant amounts of liquid and solid by-products [olive mill wastewater (OMW) and olive husk (OH)], and by economical, technical and organizational constraints that make difficult the adoption of environmentally sustainable waste disposal approaches.In this context, waste treatment technologies aimed at energy recovery represent an interesting alternative. In the paper, a technical and economical

Antonio C. Caputo; Federica Scacchia; Pacifico M. Pelagagge

2003-01-01

328

Carbonyl trapping and antiglycative activities of olive oil mill wastewater.  

PubMed

The use of natural compounds as antiglycative agents to reduce the load of advanced glycation end products from diet is very promising. Olive mill wastewater is a by-product of the olive oil extraction processes with a high content of hydroxytyrosol, hydroxytyrosol derivatives and molecules containing o-dihydroxyl functions such as verbascoside. Two powders were obtained after the ultrafiltration and nanofiltration of olive mill wastewater, and successive spray drying with maltodextrin and acacia fiber. The samples were characterized by phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity. Antiglycative capacity was evaluated by in vitro BSA-glucose and BSA-methylglyoxal assays, formation of Amadori products and direct trapping of reactive dicarbonyls (methylglyoxal and glyoxal). Both ultrafiltered and nanofiltered olive mill wastewater powders had an activity comparable to quercetin and hydroxytyrosol against the inhibition of protein glycation (IC50 = 0.3 mg mL(-1)). The antiglycative activity of the powder was further investigated after separation by reverse phase solid extraction. Fractions extracted with the methanol content higher than 40% and rich in hydroxytyrosol and verbascoside exerted the highest reactivity against dicarbonyls. Data confirmed that the direct trapping of dicarbonyl compounds is the main route explaining the antiglycative action rather than of the already known antioxidant capacity. Results support further investigations to evaluate the technological feasibility to use olive mill wastewater powders as antiglycative ingredients in foods or in pharmacological preparations in future. PMID:25519075

Navarro, Marta; Fiore, Alberto; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Morales, Francisco J

2015-02-11

329

The effects of inferior olive lesion on strychnine seizure  

SciTech Connect

Bilateral inferior olive lesions, produced by systemic administration of the neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3AP) produce a proconvulsant state specific for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus. We have proposed that these phenomena are mediated through increased excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, through activation of glutamate receptors, in response to climbing fiber deafferentation. An increase in quisqualic acid (QA)-displaceable ({sup 3}H)AMPA ((RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) binding in cerebella from inferior olive-lesioned rats was observed, but no difference in ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding displaced by glutamate, kainic acid (KA) or glutamate diethylester (GDEE) was seen. The excitatory amino acid antagonists GDEE and MK-801 ((+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cyclo-hepten-5,10 imine) were tested as anticonvulsants for strychnine-induced seizures in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned and control rats. Neither drug effected seizures in control rats, however, both GDEE and MK-801 produced a leftward shift in the strychnine-seizure dose-response curve in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned rats. GDEE also inhibited strychnine-induced myoclonus in the lesioned group, while MK-801 had no effect on myoclonus. The decreased threshold for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus in the 3AP-inferior olive-lesioned rats may be due to an increase in glutamate receptors as suggested by the ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding data.

Anderson, M.C.; Chung, E.Y.; Van Woert, M.H. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

1990-10-01

330

Modeling Free Energies of Solvation in Olive Oil  

PubMed Central

Olive oil partition coefficients are useful for modeling the bioavailability of drug-like compounds. We have recently developed an accurate solvation model called SM8 for aqueous and organic solvents (Marenich, A. V.; Olson, R. M.; Kelly, C. P.; Cramer, C. J.; Truhlar, D. G. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2007, 3, 2011) and a temperature-dependent solvation model called SM8T for aqueous solution (Chamberlin, A. C.; Cramer, C. J.; Truhlar, D. G. J. Phys. Chem. B 2008, 112, 3024). Here we describe an extension of SM8T to predict air–olive oil and water–olive oil partitioning for drug-like solutes as functions of temperature. We also describe the database of experimental partition coefficients used to parameterize the model; this database includes 371 entries for 304 compounds spanning the 291–310 K temperature range. PMID:19434923

Chamberlin, Adam C.; Levitt, David G.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Truhlar, Donald G.

2009-01-01

331

Olive oil phenolic compounds affect the release of aroma compounds.  

PubMed

Twelve aroma compounds were monitored and quantified by dynamic headspace analysis after their addition in refined olive oil model systems with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) biophenols to simulate EVOO aroma. The influence of polyphenols on aroma release was studied under simulated mouth conditions by using human saliva, and SPME-GC/MS analysis. While few differences were observed in orthonasal assay (without saliva), interesting results were obtained for retronasal aroma. Biophenols caused generally the lowest headspace release of almost all volatile compounds. However, only ethyl esters and linalool concentrations were significantly lower in retronasal than orthonasal assay. Saliva also caused higher concentration of hexanal, probably due to hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) action on linoleyl hydroperoxides. Epicatechin was compared to EVOO phenolics and the behaviour was dramatically different, likely to be due to salivary protein-tannin binding interactions, which influenced aroma headspace release. These results were also confirmed using two extra virgin olive oils. PMID:25794752

Genovese, Alessandro; Caporaso, Nicola; Villani, Veronica; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

2015-08-15

332

Association of SSR markers with contents of fatty acids in olive oil and genetic diversity analysis of an olive core collection.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to characterize an olive core collection using some agronomic characters and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and to determine SSR markers associated with the content of fatty acids in olive oil. SSR marker analysis demonstrated the presence of a high amount of genetic variation between the olive cultivars analyzed. A UPGMA dendrogram demonstrated that olive cultivars did not cluster on the basis of their geographic origin. Fatty acid components of olive oil in these cultivars were determined. The results also showed that there was a great amount of variation between the olive cultivars in terms of fatty acid composition. For example, oleic acid content ranged from 57.76 to 76.9% with standard deviation of 5.10%. Significant correlations between fatty acids of olive oil were observed. For instance, a very high negative correlation (-0.812) between oleic and linoleic acids was detected. A structured association analysis between the content of fatty acids in olive oil and SSR markers was performed. STRUCTURE analysis assigned olive cultivars to two gene pools (K = 2). Assignment of olive cultivars to these gene pools was not based on geographical origin. Association between fatty acid traits and SSR markers was evaluated using the general linear model of TASSEL. Significant associations were determined between five SSR markers and stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids of olive oil. Very high associations (P < 0.001) between ssrOeUA-DCA14 and stearic acid and between GAPU71B and oleic acid indicated that these markers could be used for marker-assisted selection in olive. PMID:25867371

Ipek, M; Ipek, A; Seker, M; Gul, M K

2015-01-01

333

Progressive limb ataxia following inferior olive lesions.  

PubMed

Cerebellar climbing fibres originate in the inferior olive (IO). Temporary IO inactivation produces movement deficits. Does permanent inactivation produce similar deficits and, if so, do they recover? The excitotoxin, kainic acid, was injected into the rostral IO of three cats. Behaviour was measured during reaching and locomotion. Two cats were injected during the reaching task. Within minutes, grasping became difficult and the trajectories of the reaches showed higher arcing than normally seen. During locomotion, both cats showed head and trunk deviation to the injected side, walking paths curved to the injected side, and the paws were lifted higher than normal. Limbs contralateral to the injections became rigid. Within 1 day, posture had normalized, locomotion was unsteady and high lifting of the paws had reversed to a tendency to drag the dorsum of the paws. Passive body movement produced vestibular signs. Over a few days, locomotion normalized and vestibular signs disappeared. Reach trajectories were normal but grasping deficits persisted. Over the first week, the amplitude of limb lift during reaching and locomotion began to increase. The increase continued over time and, after several months, limb movements became severely ataxic. The effects followed the somatotopy of the rostral IO: a loss of cells in medial rostral IO only affected the forelimb, whereas a loss of cells in medial and lateral IO affected both forelimb and hindlimb. Deficits produced by IO lesions involve multiple mechanisms; some recover rapidly, some appear stable, and some worsen over time. The nature of the progressive deficit suggests a gradual loss of Purkinje cell inhibition on cerebellar nuclear cells. PMID:23027819

Horn, K M; Deep, A; Gibson, A R

2013-11-15

334

Progressive limb ataxia following inferior olive lesions  

PubMed Central

Cerebellar climbing fibres originate in the inferior olive (IO). Temporary IO inactivation produces movement deficits. Does permanent inactivation produce similar deficits and, if so, do they recover? The excitotoxin, kainic acid, was injected into the rostral IO of three cats. Behaviour was measured during reaching and locomotion. Two cats were injected during the reaching task. Within minutes, grasping became difficult and the trajectories of the reaches showed higher arcing than normally seen. During locomotion, both cats showed head and trunk deviation to the injected side, walking paths curved to the injected side, and the paws were lifted higher than normal. Limbs contralateral to the injections became rigid. Within 1 day, posture had normalized, locomotion was unsteady and high lifting of the paws had reversed to a tendency to drag the dorsum of the paws. Passive body movement produced vestibular signs. Over a few days, locomotion normalized and vestibular signs disappeared. Reach trajectories were normal but grasping deficits persisted. Over the first week, the amplitude of limb lift during reaching and locomotion began to increase. The increase continued over time and, after several months, limb movements became severely ataxic. The effects followed the somatotopy of the rostral IO: a loss of cells in medial rostral IO only affected the forelimb, whereas a loss of cells in medial and lateral IO affected both forelimb and hindlimb. Deficits produced by IO lesions involve multiple mechanisms; some recover rapidly, some appear stable, and some worsen over time. The nature of the progressive deficit suggests a gradual loss of Purkinje cell inhibition on cerebellar nuclear cells. PMID:23027819

Horn, K M; Deep, A; Gibson, A R

2013-01-01

335

Feasibility of growing olives on selected sites along coastal Texas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Five sites along the Texas coastline (Seadrift, Galveston, Brazoria, Santa Fe, and Orange) were evaluated for feasibility of growing olives in these areas. In addition, two non-coastal sites (Carrizo Springs and Weslaco) were also included in the study for comparative purposes. Flowering and fruit ...

336

Sistemas de reescritura de redes* M. Llorens, J. Oliver  

E-print Network

Sistemas de reescritura de redes* M. Llorens, J. Oliver Univ. Polit´ecnica de Valencia. Depto´amicos utilizando extensiones de las redes de Petri. Comenzamos recordando la noci´on de sistema de reescritura de redes y probamos que tales sistemas tienen el mismo poder computacional que la m´aquina de Turing. Una

Alpuente, María

337

67. Historic American Buildings Survey John Oliver Brostrup, Photographer August ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

67. Historic American Buildings Survey John Oliver Brostrup, Photographer August 12,1936 1:35 P. M. VIEW OF C.C.C. BOYS SCREENING FOR ARTIFACTS. - General John Mason House, Analostan Island or Theodore Roosevelt Island, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

338

Oliver Otis Howard: Reassessing the Legacy of the “Christian General”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the end of the Civil War, historians have constantly referred to Oliver Otis Howard as the “Christian General.” Howard earned this title during the war due to his intense religious devotion with which he carried himself on a daily basis. Yet, most historians have failed to address Howard’s Christianity at a deeper level, preferring to assail him for his

David Thomson

2009-01-01

339

Olive mill waste as a substrate for nitrogen fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive mill wastewaters (OMWW) because of their low content in nitrogenous organic components and reachness in carbon sources offer a highly favourable environment for the growth of free-living dinitrogen fixing microorganisms. This property is manifested both in natural environments and in axenic cultures. Repetitive addition of OMWW to soil under aerobic conditions leads progressively to its enrichment with dinitrogen fixers,

C. Balis; J. Chatzipavlidis; F. Flouri

1996-01-01

340

Software Cinema Bernd Bruegge, Oliver Creighton Technische Universitaet Muenchen  

E-print Network

1 Software Cinema Bernd Bruegge, Oliver Creighton Technische Universitaet Muenchen Martin Purvis alternatives. Software Cinema is a boundary object, that allows one to discuss possible designs of mobile and powerful editing tools, Software Cinema movies can be made in a very short time, allowing multiple

Bruegge, Bernd

341

An Integrated Process of Olive Mill Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is considered as a challenge for environmental scientists. It is characterized by high values of total organics expressed by chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD5), and phenols. In this paper, an integrated process of OMWW treatment, which includes lime precipitation, filtration using a novel technology of a membrane filter press (a pilot scale) and

P. F. M. Correia; J. M. R. de Carvalho

2005-01-01

342

Chaos may enhance information transmission in the inferior olive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite unique well characterized neuronal properties, such as extensive electrical coupling and low firing rates, the role of the inferior olive (IO), which is the source of the climbing fiber inputs to cerebellar Purkinje cells, is still controversial. We propose that the IO stochastically recodes the high-frequency information carried by its synaptic inputs into stochastic, low-rate spikes in its climbing

Nicolas Schweighofer; Kenji Doya; Hidekazu Fukai; Jean Vianney Chiron; Tetsuya Furukawa; Mitsuo Kawato

2004-01-01

343

MRI findings of inferior olives in palatal myoclonus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four patients with palatal myoclonus (PM) were studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Increased signal intensity and bilateral enlargement of the inferior olives were recognized in two patients with bilateral PM, pontine haemorrhage and neuro-Behçet disease, and a similar olivary change on the contralateral side was noted in a case of pontine infarction with unilateral PM. These findings were consistent

T. Yokota; F. Hirashima; T. Furukawa; H. Tsukagoshi; H. Yoshikawa

1989-01-01

344

Origins of Scaling in Genetic Code Oliver Obst1,  

E-print Network

Origins of Scaling in Genetic Code Oliver Obst1, , Daniel Polani2 , and Mikhail Prokopenko1 1 CSIRO. This paper applies the principle and the information- theoretic model of Ferrer i Cancho and Sol´e to genetic) gene transfer, and confirms that Zipf's law can be found in the transition between referen- tially

Polani, Daniel

345

On nonconvex caustics of convex billiards Oliver Knill \\Lambda  

E-print Network

On nonconvex caustics of convex billiards Oliver Knill \\Lambda July 29, 1996 Abstract belong to continuous but nowhere differentiable caustics. We apply this to construct ruled surfaces which on the sphere such that the caustic belonging at least one point on the sphere is nowhere differentiable

346

Development of new composite biosorbents from olive pomace wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study olive pomace was used as a source of binding substances for the development of composite biosorbents to be used in heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions. The aim was to obtain biosorbent material with an increased concentration of binding sites. The effects of two different extraction procedures (one using only methanol and the other one hexane followed by methanol) on the binding properties of olive pomace were tested by potentiometric titrations and batch biosorption tests for copper and cadmium removal. Titration modelling evidenced that both kinds of extractions generated a solid with a reduced amount of protonatable sites. Biosorption tests were organized according to full factorial designs. Analysis of variance denoted that both kinds of extractions determined a statistically significant negative effect on metal biosorption. In the case of cadmium extractions also determined a significant decrease of selectivity with respect to olive pomace. When the acid-base and binding properties of the substances extracted were determined, they were adsorbed onto a synthetic resin (octadecylsilane) and calcium alginate beads. In this way two kinds of composite biosorbents have been obtained both having an increased concentration of binding substances with respect to native olive pomace, also working more efficiently in metal removal.

Pagnanelli, Francesca; Viggi, Carolina Cruz; Toro, Luigi

2010-06-01

347

a walking tour of ALONG THE OLIVE WALK  

E-print Network

a walking tour of Caltech ALONG THE OLIVE WALK #12;2 The California Institute of Technology Medal of Technology. Welcome to Caltech! Caltech offers an unparalleled undergraduate education and research experience through joint programs with City of Hope, Huntington Memorial Hospital, Children

Stoltz, Brian M.

348

Is It Advisable to Store Olive Oil in PET Bottles?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the role of the container material on the quality of olive oil, literature results concerning the analytical definition of the quality of oils stored in PET or glass bottles were critically reviewed. The performance of active and passive barrier PET containers may move towards that of glass bottles. The influence of storage conditions was also considered: the main

Teresa Cecchi; Paolo Passamonti; Patrizio Cecchi

2009-01-01

349

Enabling RTR for Industry Oliver Diessel & Shannon Koh  

E-print Network

Enabling RTR for Industry Oliver Diessel & Shannon Koh + Computer Science & Engineering computational power? #12;How does industry want to use it? · Industry's goal is to maximize profit ­ Equivalent RTR confer a benefit? #12;SIREN: Satnav Interference Rejection Engine1 · Use emerging GNSS signal

Diessel, Oliver

350

Volume Stylizer: Tomography-based Volume Painting Oliver Klehm  

E-print Network

Volume Stylizer: Tomography-based Volume Painting Oliver Klehm MPI Informatik Ivo Ihrke MPI of Technology Figure 1: Volume stylization of an environmentally lit cloud hovering over a city. On the left, we show the original cloud model, whereas on the right, the volume was stylized to increase

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

351

FLATTENING FUNCTIONS ON FLOWERS EDMUND HARRISS AND OLIVER JENKINSON  

E-print Network

FLATTENING FUNCTIONS ON FLOWERS EDMUND HARRISS AND OLIVER JENKINSON Abstract. Let T. The closure of the image of a pre-image selector is called a flower, and a flower with p connected components is called a p-flower. We say that a real-valued Lipschitz function can be Lipschitz

Wright, Francis

352

Rhizosphere dynamics during phytoremediation of olive mill wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of phytoremediation as a treatment option for olive mill wastewater (OMW) was tested on five perennial tree species. Cupressus sempervirens and Quercus ilex proved tolerant to six-month OMW treatment followed by six-month water irrigation, whereas Salix sp. and Laurus nobilis and, later, Pinus mugo suffered from phytotoxic effects. Test plants were compared to controls after treatment and irrigation,

S. F. Bodini; A. R. Cicalini; F. Santori

2011-01-01

353

Effect of irrigation on quality attributes of olive oil.  

PubMed

Two irrigation treatments were applied to olive trees of the major commercial Cretan variety cv. Koroneiki, (a) irrigation with 0.4 evaporation class "A" pan and (b) rain-feed only, in two successive crop years to assess the effect of irrigation on olive oil quality. Olive fruits were harvested at their semiblack maturity stage. Data obtained indicated that irrigation increased fruit weight and oil content, but the standard quality indices (free fatty acids, peroxide value, K(232), and K(270)) of the oil were not affected significantly. However, irrigation affected some aspects of olive oil composition. There were changes in the proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), triacylglycerol molecular species, sterols, and aliphatic alcohols. Furthermore, the concentrations of the dialdehydic form of elenolic acid linked to 3,4-DHPEA (3,4-DHPEA-EDA) and the isomer of oleuropeine aglycon (3,4-DHPEA-EA) were higher in oils from non-irrigated trees. Tocopherol and total volatiles were higher in the oil produced from the non-irrigated trees. Such oil was graded more pungent when compared to oils produced from fruits of irrigated trees, although both oils were graded satisfactory by consumers. PMID:19722583

Stefanoudaki, Evagelia; Williams, Mark; Chartzoulakis, Kostas; Harwood, John

2009-08-12

354

Droughtmortality relationships for tropical forests Oliver L. Phillips1  

E-print Network

Drought­mortality relationships for tropical forests Oliver L. Phillips1 , Geertje van der Heijden1, 66077-830 Bele´m PA, Brazil; 5 Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Kilo´metro 2 Via Tarapaca´, Leticia-011 Manaus AM, Brazil; 7 Tropical Ecology Assessment and Monitoring Network (TEAM), Conservation

Slik, Ferry

355

Phytochemical progress made in investigations of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels.  

PubMed

The phytochemical progress on Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels over the past decades is summarized. Since 1970s, 165 chemical constituents, including phthalides, phenylpropanoids, terpenoids and essential oils, aromatic compounds, alkaloids, alkynes, sterols, fatty acids, and polysaccharides have been isolated or detected from the various parts of the title plant. PMID:25908620

Ma, Jian-Ping; Guo, Zhi-Bing; Jin, Ling; Li, Ying-Dong

2015-04-01

356

The Value of Lead Logistics Services Oliver Schneider1  

E-print Network

The Value of Lead Logistics Services Oliver Schneider1 , André Lindner2 1 ETH Zurich, Center Schindellegi, Switzerland andre.lindner@kuehne-nagel.com Abstract. Logistics Services are one of the most was developed in a collaborative action research project with a world leading provider of lead logistics

Boyer, Edmond

357

Fusing a Heterogeneous Alert Stream into Scenarios Oliver Dain  

E-print Network

Fusing a Heterogeneous Alert Stream into Scenarios£ Oliver Dain Massachusetts Institute 14th September 2001 Abstract An algorithm for fusing the alerts produced by multiple heterogeneous intrusion detection systems is pre- sented. The algorithm runs in realtime, combining the alerts

358

Fusing a Heterogeneous Alert Stream into Scenarios Oliver Dain  

E-print Network

Fusing a Heterogeneous Alert Stream into Scenarios£ Oliver Dain Massachusetts Institute 18th December 2001 Abstract An algorithm for fusing the alerts produced by multiple heterogeneous intrusion detection systems is pre- sented. The algorithm runs in realtime, combining the alerts

359

Transesterification of Waste Olive Oil by "Candida" Lipase  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biodiesel was produced by transesterification of waste olive oil with methanol and Novozym [R] 435. The effect of the molar ratio of methanol to triolein, mode of methanol addition, reaction temperature, and mixing speed on biodiesel yield was determined. The effect of different acyl acceptors and/or solvents on biodiesel yield was also evaluated.…

Shen, Xiangping; Vasudevan, Palligarnai T.

2008-01-01

360

Year clustering analysis for modelling olive flowering phenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now widely accepted that weather conditions occurring several months prior to the onset of flowering have a major influence on various aspects of olive reproductive phenology, including flowering intensity. Given the variable characteristics of the Mediterranean climate, we analyse its influence on the registered variations in olive flowering intensity in southern Spain, and relate them to previous climatic parameters using a year-clustering approach, as a first step towards an olive flowering phenology model adapted to different year categories. Phenological data from Cordoba province (Southern Spain) for a 30-year period (1982-2011) were analysed. Meteorological and phenological data were first subjected to both hierarchical and "K-means" clustering analysis, which yielded four year-categories. For this classification purpose, three different models were tested: (1) discriminant analysis; (2) decision-tree analysis; and (3) neural network analysis. Comparison of the results showed that the neural-networks model was the most effective, classifying four different year categories with clearly distinct weather features. Flowering-intensity models were constructed for each year category using the partial least squares regression method. These category-specific models proved to be more effective than general models. They are better suited to the variability of the Mediterranean climate, due to the different response of plants to the same environmental stimuli depending on the previous weather conditions in any given year. The present detailed analysis of the influence of weather patterns of different years on olive phenology will help us to understand the short-term effects of climate change on olive crop in the Mediterranean area that is highly affected by it.

Oteros, J.; García-Mozo, H.; Hervás-Martínez, C.; Galán, C.

2013-07-01

361

Influence of antioxidants in virgin olive oil on the formation of heterocyclic amines in fried beefburgers.  

PubMed

An association between the intake of heterocyclic amines (HAs) and the development of cancer has been observed in some epidemiological studies, while in other studies no such correlation has been found. HAs are mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds formed at low levels via the Maillard reaction and a free radical mechanism during cooking of animal tissue. The addition of pure antioxidants or foods containing antioxidants has previously been shown to decrease the amount of HAs formed during cooking. In this study, beefburgers were fried in six different oils: refined olive oil, virgin olive oil, virgin olive oil depleted of phenols, rapeseed oil, virgin olive oil with rosemary extract and refined olive oil with rosemary extract. The content of antioxidative compounds in the virgin olive oil and the rosemary extract was determined. The beefburgers were analysed with regards to 12 different HAs by solid phase extraction and HPLC analysis. MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, Harman and Norharman were detected in all beefburgers fried in the different oils, but the relative amounts varied. Frying in virgin olive oil reduced the formation of HAs compared with refined olive oil. This effect is probably due to the content of phenols in the virgin olive oil. The HA-reducing effect of virgin olive oil decreased during storage, but the addition of rosemary extract may prevent this decrease. PMID:12963012

Persson, E; Graziani, G; Ferracane, R; Fogliano, V; Skog, K

2003-11-01

362

Enlargement of cultivated olive fruit reduces the efficiency of the larval olive fruit fly parasitoid Psyttalia concolor  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cultivated olive fruit are greatly enlarged as a result of domestication. In this study, we examined the effects of fruit size within a cultivar (Sevillano) and across four different-sized cultivars (in order of decreasing size: Sevillano, Ascolano, Manzanillo, and Mission) grown in California on th...

363

Olive “quick decline” in Italy is associated with Xylella fastidiosa, a plant pathogenic bacterium also associated with California olives  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of Pierce’s Disease on grapevine, has made its first documented entrance to continental Europe, possibly associated with a new disease on olive called “quick decline.” In October 2013, X. fastidiosa was reported in the Puglia region of southern Italy on declining...

364

Mediterranean savanna system: understanding and modeling of olive orchard.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays most of the studies on C and N exchange were focused on forest ecosystems and crop systems, while only few studies have been focused on so called "savanna systems". They are long-term agro-ecosystems (fruit trees, grapevines and olive trees, etc.) usually characterized by two different layers (ground vegetation and trees). Generally, there is a lack of knowledge about these systems due to their intrinsic structural complexity (different eco-physiological characteristics so as agricultural practices). However, given their long-term carbon storage capacity, these systems can play a fundamental role in terms of global C cycle. Among all of them, the role that olive trees can play in C sequestration should not be neglected, especially in Mediterranean areas where they typify the rural landscape and are widely cultivated (Loumou and Giourga, 2003). It is therefore fundamental modelling the C-fluxes exchanges coming from these systems through a tool able to well reproduce these dynamics in one of the most exposed areas to the risk of climate change (IPCC, 2007). In this work, 2 years of Net CO2 Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) measures from eddy covariance were used to test the biogeochemistry model DayCent. The study was conducted in a rain-fed olive orchard situated in Follonica, South Tuscany, Italy (42 ° 55'N, 10 ° 45'E), in an agricultural area near the coast. The instrumentation for flux measurement was placed 1.9 m above the canopy top (6.5 m from the ground) so that the footprint area, expressed as the area containing 90% of the observed flux, was almost entirely contained within the olive orchard limits (Brilli et al., in press). Ancillary slow sensors have included soil temperature profiles, global radiation, air temperature and humidity, rain gauge. Fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, momentum and CO2 as well as ancillary data were derived at half-hourly time resolution. Specific soil (texture, current and historical land use and vegetation cover) and vegetation data (biomass partition, C and N content in olive trees branches and roots) were additionally collected to improve the model calibration. Preliminary results showed that olive grove can be an important C sink while agronomic practices and hottest conditions can induce large C losses. DayCent simulations have confirmed that the model properly tuned for the two components can be used to simulate total olive grove NEE. Additional studies should be conducted to assess the possibility of further improving model performances. References Brilli, L., Chiesi, M., Maselli, F., Moriondo, M., Gioli, B., Toscano, P., Zaldei, A., Bindi, M., 2013. Simulation of olive grove Gross Primary Production by the combination of ground and multisensory satellite data. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, in press. IPCC, 2007, Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, Pachauri, R.K and Reisinger, A. (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 104 pp. Loumou, A., Giourga, C., 2003. Olive groves: The life and identity of the Mediterranean. Agricultural and Human Values 20, 87-95.

Brilli, Lorenzo; Moriondo, Marco; Bindi, Marco

2013-04-01

365

YEAST dynamics during the natural fermentation process of table olives (Negrinha de Freixo cv.).  

PubMed

Yeast population and dynamics associated to spontaneous fermentation of green table olives Negrinha de Freixo cv. were evaluated. Olives and brine samples were taken at different fermentation times, and yeast were enumerated by standard plate count and identified by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the most frequent, followed by Candida tropicalis, Pichia membranifaciens and Candida boidini, representing together 94.8% of the total isolates. Galactomyces reessii was also identified for the first time in table olives. The highest species diversity was found between 44 and 54 days of fermentation, both in brine and olive pulp. Furthermore, high similarity was observed between brine and olive pulp microbiotas. In conclusion, these results give valuable information to table olive industrials in order to achieve more knowledge on the fermentation process of this important Protected Designation of Origin product. PMID:25475331

Pereira, Ermelinda L; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Borges, Ana; Pereira, José A; Baptista, Paula

2015-04-01

366

Extra virgin olive oils increase hepatic fat accumulation and hepatic antioxidant protein levels in APOE-/- mice.  

PubMed

We assessed the effects of Picual and Arbequina olive oil, rich and poor in polyphenols, respectively, on plasma lipid and glucose metabolism, hepatic fat content, and the hepatic proteome in female Apoe-/- mice. Both olive oils increased hepatic fat content and adipophilin levels (p < 0.05), though Picual olive oil significantly decreased plasma triglycerides (p < 0.05). Proteomics identified a range of hepatic antioxidant enzymes that were differentially regulated by both olive oils as compared with palm oil. We found a clear association between olive oil consumption and differential regulation of adipophilin and betaine homocysteine methyl transferase as modulators of hepatic triglyceride metabolism. Therefore, our "systems biology" approach revealed hitherto unrecognized insights into the triglyceride-lowering and anti-atherogenic mechanisms of extra virgin olive oils, wherein the up-regulation of a large array of anti-oxidant enzymes may offer sufficient protection against lesion development and diminish oxidative stress levels instigated by hepatic steatosis. PMID:17845022

Arbones-Mainar, Jose Miguel; Ross, Karen; Rucklidge, Garry J; Reid, Martin; Duncan, Gary; Arthur, John R; Horgan, Graham W; Navarro, Maria A; Carnicer, Ricardo; Arnal, Carmen; Osada, Jesus; de Roos, Baukje

2007-10-01

367

Cultivar Origin and Admixture Detection in Turkish Olive Oils by SNP-Based CAPS Assays.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to establish a DNA-based identification key to ascertain the cultivar origin of Turkish monovarietal olive oils. To reach this aim, we sequenced short fragments from five olive genes for SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) identification and developed CAPS (cleaved amplified polymorphic DNA) assays for SNPs that alter restriction enzyme recognition motifs. When applied on the oils of 17 olive cultivars, a maximum of five CAPS assays were necessary to discriminate the varietal origin of the samples. We also tested the efficiency and limit of our approach for detecting olive oil admixtures. As a result of the analysis, we were able to detect admixing down to a limit of 20%. The SNP-based CAPS assays developed in this work can be used for testing and verification of the authenticity of Turkish monovarietal olive oils, for olive tree certification, and in germplasm characterization and preservation studies. PMID:25673069

Uncu, Ali Tevfik; Frary, Anne; Doganlar, Sami

2015-03-01

368

Combined use of nitrogen and coatings to improve the quality of mechanically harvested Manzanilla olives.  

PubMed

The combined effect of an edible coating and a nitrogen atmosphere on the quality of Manzanilla olives mechanically harvested and processed as Spanish-style green olives was assessed. The percentage of olives free of any brown spots ranged between 35-50%, 10-25% and 50-65% for fruit directly processed, storage under nitrogen and coated and storage under nitrogen respectively. Moreover, olives stored in the open air developed brown spots due to the oxidation of oleuropein. By contrast, the anoxic conditions prevented oleuropein from undergoing enzymatic oxidation but not from its enzymatic hydrolysis. Hence, the phenolic derivative HyEDA was formed in olives stored under nitrogen, and this substance was rapidly oxidized in the open air to give rise to brown spots although to a lesser extent in the coated fruit. Therefore, the postharvest storage of coated olives under nitrogen can be a good method to prevent bruise damage in mechanically harvested fruit. PMID:25308641

Ramírez, Eva; Sánchez, Antonio H; Romero, Concepción; Brenes, Manuel

2015-03-15

369

Ultrasonic and thermal pretreatments to enhance the anaerobic bioconversion of olive husks.  

PubMed

Olive husks, typical solid by-products from the olive oil industry, were selected to carry out anaerobic digestion tests. Before digestion, olive husks were subjected to ultrasonic or thermal pretreatments in order to release the organic matter into solution. Both sonication and thermal pretreatment allowed to solubilize the particulate matter with 22% and 72% increase in soluble organics of olive husks, respectively. Nevertheless, such pretreatments caused the release of unwanted molecules in solution, with the related risks of inhibition of the methanogenic process. Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests on olive husks mixed with olive-mill wastewater and dairy wastewater, either pretreated or not, showed that ultrasound pretreatment resulted in 15% increase in volatile solids reduction and a 13% increase in biogas production, while after thermal pretreatment no benefits were observed. PMID:24035286

Gianico, A; Braguglia, C M; Mescia, D; Mininni, G

2013-11-01

370

Pb(II) and Cd(II) removal from aqueous solutions by olive cake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of heavy metals from wastewater using olive cake as an adsorbent was investigated. The effect of the contact time, pH, temperature, and concentration of adsorbate on adsorption performance of olive cake for Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions were examined by batch method. Adsorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) in aqueous solution onto olive cake was studied in single component. After

Sabriye Doyurum; Ali Çelik

2006-01-01

371

Chlorophyll and ?-carotene pigments in moroccan virgin olive oils measured by high-performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorophyll and ?-carotene concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in virgin olive\\u000a oils, which were press-extracted from green and semi-black olives. Pheophytin A was found to be the major chlorophyll isomer\\u000a in all oil samples. The occurrence of this pigment at higher concentrations in oil extracted from green olives is a possible\\u000a indication of its time-related destruction during

M. Rahmani; A. Saari Csallany

1991-01-01

372

Effects of the Olive-Derived Polyphenol Oleuropein on Human Health  

PubMed Central

The use of the products derived from the olive tree on human health dates back centuries. In several civilizations, the olive tree had and still has a very strong cultural and religious symbolism. Notably, the official seal and emblem of the World Health Organization features the rod of Asclepius over a world map surrounded by olive tree branches, chosen as a symbol of peace and health. Recently, accumulating experimental, clinical and epidemiological data have provided support to the traditional beliefs of the beneficial effect provided by olive derivates. In particular, the polyphenols present in olive leaves, olives, virgin (unrefined) olive oil and olive mill waste are potent antioxidant and radical scavengers with anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we review the positive impact on human health of oleuropein, the most prevalent polyphenol present in olives. In addition, we provide data collected in our laboratory on the role of oleuropein in counteracting lipid accumulation in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:25318054

Barbaro, Barbara; Toietta, Gabriele; Maggio, Roberta; Arciello, Mario; Tarocchi, Mirko; Galli, Andrea; Balsano, Clara

2014-01-01

373

Effects of the olive-derived polyphenol oleuropein on human health.  

PubMed

The use of the products derived from the olive tree on human health dates back centuries. In several civilizations, the olive tree had and still has a very strong cultural and religious symbolism. Notably, the official seal and emblem of the World Health Organization features the rod of Asclepius over a world map surrounded by olive tree branches, chosen as a symbol of peace and health. Recently, accumulating experimental, clinical and epidemiological data have provided support to the traditional beliefs of the beneficial effect provided by olive derivates. In particular, the polyphenols present in olive leaves, olives, virgin (unrefined) olive oil and olive mill waste are potent antioxidant and radical scavengers with anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we review the positive impact on human health of oleuropein, the most prevalent polyphenol present in olives. In addition, we provide data collected in our laboratory on the role of oleuropein in counteracting lipid accumulation in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:25318054

Barbaro, Barbara; Toietta, Gabriele; Maggio, Roberta; Arciello, Mario; Tarocchi, Mirko; Galli, Andrea; Balsano, Clara

2014-01-01

374

Valorization of solid waste products from olive oil industry as potential adsorbents for water pollution control--a review.  

PubMed

The global olive oil production for 2010 is estimated to be 2,881,500 metric tons. The European Union countries produce 78.5% of the total olive oil, which stands for an average production of 2,136,000 tons. The worldwide consumption of olive oil increased of 78% between 1990 and 2010. The increase in olive oil production implies a proportional increase in olive mill wastes. As a consequence of such increasing trend, olive mills are facing severe environmental problems due to lack of feasible and/or cost-effective solutions to olive-mill waste management. Therefore, immediate attention is required to find a proper way of management to deal with olive mill waste materials in order to minimize environmental pollution and associated health risks. One of the interesting uses of solid wastes generated from olive mills is to convert them as inexpensive adsorbents for water pollution control. In this review paper, an extensive list of adsorbents (prepared by utilizing different types of olive mill solid waste materials) from vast literature has been compiled, and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants removal are presented. Different physicochemical methods that have been used to convert olive mill solid wastes into efficient adsorbents have also been discussed. Characterization of olive-based adsorbents and adsorption mechanisms of various aquatic pollutants on these developed olive-based adsorbents have also been discussed in detail. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed, and suggestions for future research are proposed. PMID:24068561

Bhatnagar, Amit; Kaczala, Fabio; Hogland, William; Marques, Marcia; Paraskeva, Christakis A; Papadakis, Vagelis G; Sillanpää, Mika

2014-01-01

375

Inhibition of flowering 'Arbequina' olives from chilling at lower temperatures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of four nighttime chilling temperatures on the induction of flowering in ‘Arbequina’ olives was investigated. Daytime temperature was kept at 17.5 ± 0.8°C (8 hrs) while nighttime temperatures (8 hrs ) were maintained at 7.8 ± 0.5, 4.4 ± 0.5, 2.2 ± 0.5, or -1.2 ± 0.6°C; transition from da...

376

Ultrasonically assisted antioxidant extraction from grape stalks and olive leaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grape stalks and olive leaves present high amount of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties. The extraction of these compounds may be considered a way to increase in value both agro-food by-products. Ultrasound is widely applied in extraction due to its effects (cavitation, microstirring or sponge effect) over the process. The goal of this work was to address the application of ultrasound on the antioxidant extraction of olive leaves and grape stalk. For that purpose, the extraction of antioxidant compounds from grape stalks and olive leaves, previously dried at 100 °C, were carried out using a ethanolic solution (80 % v/v) at 60 °C. Extractions were carried out with (US; 30 kHz; 600W)) and agitation (AG) without ultrasound application. In the AG experiments, the solution was agitated with a stirrer. Samples were obtained at different extraction time (10, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, 360, 480 and 1440 min) and their antioxidant capacity was measured using FRAP method. The Naik model was used to model the extraction kinetics, being identified the antioxidant capacity of extracts at the equilibrium (Y eq) and the initial velocity of extraction (Y eq/B). For grape stalks, the antioxidant capacity of extracts at the equilibrium (Y eq) and the initial velocity of extraction (Y eq/B) were higher in AG experiments than in US experiments. In the olive leaves extractions, the Y eq/B was of the same order for both treatments but Y eq was significantly higher for US experiments. The different influence of ultrasound for both by-products can be explained from their different geometry and structure.

Cárcel, Juan A.; García-Pérez, José V.; Mulet, Antonio; Rodríguez, Ligia; Riera, Enrique

2010-01-01

377

Das Hexspiel und der Brouwersche Fixpunktsatz Oliver Muller  

E-print Network

- xi-1| 1. Satz 2 (Hex-Theorem). Seien die Mengen H und V eine Partition der Menge B. Dann enthDas Hexspiel und der Brouwersche Fixpunktsatz Oliver M¨uller Spiel. Das Hex-Spiel ist ein Hexbrett der Gr¨oesse k ist die Teilmenge B := Bk := {(i, j) Z2 | 1 i, j k}. · F¨ur x Rn sei |x

Kraft, Hanspeter

378

The Olive Project: An Oral History Project in Multiple Modes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project is devoted to the memory of my grandmother, Olive. It is at once her life story and not a story at all. In a sense it represents the product of an intimate family collaboration and of the close journey we shared in collecting and preserving her oral history. But this project is not a product, nor is it entirely about my grandma, about…

Anderson, Erin R.

2011-01-01

379

Olive Oil and Reduced Need for Antihypertensive Medications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The blood pressure (BP) effects of chang- ing the total fat intake and saturated-unsaturated fat ra- tio are still controversial, despite evidence that satu- rated fat-enriched diets are associated with higher BP levels. This double-blind, randomized crossover study evaluated a possible difference between antihyperten- sive effects of monounsaturated (MUFA) (extra-virgin olive oil) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (sun- flower

L. Aldo Ferrara; A. Sonia Raimondi; Lucia d'Episcopo; Lucio Guida; Antonio Dello Russo; Teodoro Marotta

2000-01-01

380

Color-pigment correlation in virgin olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chlorophyll and carotenoid content of virgin olive oils from five varieties harvested at varying degrees of ripeness were\\u000a determined. Colors were evaluated from the chromatic ordinates L*, a*, b* of the absorption spectrum. Oil color changes for\\u000a different varieties or stages of ripeness are directly related to pigment content and a* and b* values. The statistical study\\u000a made on

M. Isabel Minguez-Mosquera; Luis Rejano-Navarro; Beatriz Gandul-Rojas; Antonio Higinio SanchezGomez; Juan Garrido-Fernandez

1991-01-01

381

Deacidification of olive oils by supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of the application of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction to the deacidification of olive oils has been made to verify that the nutritional properties of the oil remain\\u000a unchanged when this technique is applied.\\u000a \\u000a Preliminary runs at 20 and 30 MPa in the temperature range of 35–60C were performed on fatty acids and triglycerides as pure\\u000a compounds or

L. Brunetti; A. Daghetta; E. Fedell; I. Kikic; L. Zanderighi

1989-01-01

382

Comparison of olive, corn, soybean and sunflower oils by PDSC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetable oils of different types and qualities are widely used in homemade cooking and food industry. Most of the safety\\u000a concerns were related to possible oxidation processes produced at the relatively high temperatures used when frying. Thus,\\u000a the thermal stability to oxidation is an important parameter for edible oils. Oils from the Arbequina, Picual, Hojiblanca\\u000a and Cornicabra olive varieties, corn,

Jorge López-Beceiro; Ramón Artiaga; Carlos Gracia; Javier Tarrío-Saavedra; Salvador Naya; José Luis Mier

2011-01-01

383

Safety evaluation of olive phenolic compounds as natural antioxidants.  

PubMed

Free and total polyphenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits and leaves of the Picual cultivar. The safety limits of these compounds were recognized by measuring the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and total lipids of rat serum. The free and total phenolic compounds (400, 800, and 1600 ppm) and butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) (200 ppm) were daily ingested for 7 weeks. The administration of olive total and free phenolic compounds at 400 and 800 ppm did not cause any significant changes on ALT and AST activities and serum total lipids. These compounds at 1600 ppm caused significant increase in ALT and AST activities and the content of total lipids. Both olive phenolic compounds were superior to that of BHT in increasing HDL-cholesterol level. Nutritional experiments demonstrated that BHT at 200 ppm caused an enlargement in the kidney and liver of the rat compared with the administration of total and free olive phenolic compounds at 1200 and 1600 ppm. Microscopical examination of kidney and liver tissues of rats administered free and total phenolic compounds at 1200 ppm had the same histological character as that of control rats, while the administration of BHT (200 ppm) and phenolic compounds (1600 ppm) induced severe damage to the tissues of the rat kidney and liver. PMID:12775365

Farag, R S; El-Baroty, G S; Basuny, Amany M

2003-05-01

384

Recruitment of two Opuntia species invading abandoned olive groves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Europe, many agricultural areas are now abandoned and hence can be invaded by exotic species. The abundance and spatial distribution patterns of two Opuntia species were studied in old olive groves in the Parc Natural del Cap de Creus, Catalonia (Spain). Seedling recruitment (97.3% and 51.5% of juveniles for O. maxima and O. stricta, respectively) was higher than recruitment by cladodes. O. maxima had more seedlings recruited beneath olive trees and beneath Opuntia adults than expected. Most O. stricta seedlings were also located beneath Opuntia adult plants. However, although most seedlings were recruited beneath Opuntia, some (10-30%) were found away from putative parental plants. This may be due to seed dispersal by birds and wild boars. Seeds dispersed by wild boars were not significantly more viable than seeds from intact fruits. Seedlings grow very slowly but have a high survival rate. In conclusion, Opuntia seedling recruitment is very successful and ensures the persistence of these species within old olive groves. Consequently, it prevents restoration from an agricultural land-use back to the native community.

Gimeno, Isabel; Vilà, Montserrat

2002-08-01

385

Olive Oil Based Emulsions in Frozen Puff Pastry Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Puff pastry is an interesting food product having different industrial applications. It is obtained by laminating layers of dough and fats, mainly shortenings or margarine, having specific properties which provides required spreading characteristic and able to retain moisture into dough. To obtain these characteristics, pastry shortenings are usually saturated fats, however the current trend in food industry is mainly oriented towards unsatured fats such as olive oil, which are thought to be safer for human health. In the present work, a new product, based on olive oil, was studied as shortening replacer in puff pastry production. To ensure the desired consistency, for the rheological matching between fat and dough, a water-in-oil emulsion was produced based on olive oil, emulsifier and a hydrophilic thickener agent able to increase material structure. Obtained materials were characterized by rheological dynamic tests in linear viscoelastic conditions, aiming to setup process and material consistency, and rheological data were analyzed by using the weak gel model. Results obtained for tested emulsions were compared to theological properties of a commercial margarine, adopted as reference value for texture and stability. Obtained emulsions are characterized by interesting rheological properties strongly dependent on emulsifier characteristics and water phase composition. However a change in process temperature during fat extrusion and dough lamination seems to be necessary to match properly typical dough rheological properties.

Gabriele, D.; Migliori, M.; Lupi, F. R.; de Cindio, B.

2008-07-01

386

Models for forecasting the flowering of Cornicabra olive groves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the impact of weather-related variables on flowering phenology in the Cornicabra olive tree and constructed models based on linear and Poisson regression to forecast the onset and length of the pre-flowering and flowering phenophases. Spain is the world's leading olive oil producer, and the Cornicabra variety is the second largest Spanish variety in terms of surface area. However, there has been little phenological research into this variety. Phenological observations were made over a 5-year period (2009-2013) at four sampling sites in the province of Toledo (central Spain). Results showed that the onset of the pre-flowering phase is governed largely by temperature, which displayed a positive correlation with the temperature in the start of dormancy (November) and a negative correlation during the months prior to budburst (January, February and March). A similar relationship was recorded for the onset of flowering. Other weather-related variables, including solar radiation and rainfall, also influenced the succession of olive flowering phenophases. Linear models proved the most suitable for forecasting the onset and length of the pre-flowering period and the onset of flowering. The onset and length of pre-flowering can be predicted up to 1 or 2 months prior to budburst, whilst the onset of flowering can be forecast up to 3 months beforehand. By contrast, a nonlinear model using Poisson regression was best suited to predict the length of the flowering period.

Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

2015-02-01

387

Some Pink Yeasts Associated with Softening of Olives1  

PubMed Central

Pink yeasts identified as Rhodotorula glutinis var. glutinis, R. minuta var. minuta, and R. rubra produce polygalacturonases which cause a slow softening of olive tissue. Both pectin methyl esterase and polygalacturonase are produced when cultures are grown in appropriate media. Crude, cell-free dialyzed enzyme preparations measured viscosimetrically exhibited optimal activity on sodium polygalacturonate at pH 6.0 and 40 C, and were active in the range of pH 4.0 to 9.0 and 10 to 50 C. Cultures grown in sterilized olives and brine at pH 4.0 with sterile glucose added aseptically caused a slow softening of tissue as measured with a Christel texturometer. Similar results were obtained when crude, cell-free enzyme preparations were added to olives in buffer solution at pH 6.0 with Merthiolate. Commercial control of these yeasts is easy if anaerobic conditions can be provided. Otherwise, the industry has to resort to manual removal of the film from the brine surface, either by skimming or by flagellation. PMID:16349864

Vaughn, Reese H.; Jakubczyk, Tadeusz; MacMillan, James D.; Higgins, Thomas E.; Dav?e, Bhalchandra A.; Crampton, Veronica M.

1969-01-01

388

Identification of molecular markers associated with fruit traits in olive and assessment of olive core collection with AFLP markers and fruit traits.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to characterize olive core collection with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and fruit traits and to determine AFLP markers significantly associated with these fruit characters in olive. A total of 168 polymorphic AFLP markers generated by five primer combinations and nine fruit traits were used to characterize relationships between 18 olive cultivars. Although all olive cultivars were discriminated from each other by either AFLP markers (<0.75 similarity level) or fruit traits, clustering based on the AFLP markers and fruit traits was not significantly correlated (r = 0.13). Partial clustering of olive cultivars by AFLP markers according to their geographical origin was observed. Associations of AFLP markers with fruits were determined using a multiple-regression analysis with stepwise addition of AFLP markers. Significant associations between eight AFLP markers and fruit traits were identified. While five AFLP markers demonstrated significant negative correlation with fruit and stone weight, width and length and total polyphenols (P < 0.05), three AFLP markers displayed significant positive correlation with ?-tocopherol and ?-tocopherol (P < 0.01). This is the first report on the association of molecular markers with fruit traits in olive. Molecular markers associated with morphological and agronomic traits could be utilized for the breeding of olive cultivars. However, the association power of these markers needs to be confirmed in larger populations, and highly correlated markers should then be converted to PCR-based DNA markers such as sequence-characterized amplified region markers for better utilization. PMID:25867425

Ipek, M; Seker, M; Ipek, A; Gul, M K

2015-01-01

389

Mutagenicity assessment of aerosols in emissions from wood combustion in Portugal.  

PubMed

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) extracts of fine particles (PM(2.5)) collected from combustion of seven wood species and briquettes were tested for mutagenic activities using Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. The woods were Pinus pinaster (maritime pine), Eucalyptus globulus (eucalypt), Quercus suber (cork oak), Acacia longifolia (golden wattle), Quercus faginea (Portuguese oak), Olea europea (olive), and Quercus ilex rotundifolia (Holm oak). Burning experiments were done using woodstove and fireplace, hot start and cold start conditions. A mutagenic response was recorded for all species except golden wattle, maritime pine, and briquettes. The mutagenic extracts were not correlated with high emission factors of carcinogenic PAHs. These extracts were obtained both from two burning appliances and start-up conditions. However, fireplace seemed to favour the occurrence of mutagenic emissions. The negative result recorded for golden wattle was interesting, in an ecological point of view, since after confirmation, this invasive species, can be recommended for domestic use. PMID:22512998

Vu, B; Alves, C A; Gonçalves, C; Pio, C; Gonçalves, F; Pereira, R

2012-07-01

390

EU Agricultural Policy Analysis1 The EU policy that has had the greatest role in the olive oil sector  

E-print Network

between the high costs of production on European soil and the lower market value for olive oil which hadEU Agricultural Policy Analysis1 The EU policy that has had the greatest role in the olive oil by the Mediterranean EU Member States to be a competitive producer in olive oil, payment support schemes were

Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

391

Implementation of Physicochemical and Sensory Analysis in Conjunction with Multivariate analysis towards Assessing Olive Oil Authentication\\/Adulteration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authenticity of products labeled as olive oils, and in particular as virgin olive oils, stands for a very important issue both in terms of its health and commercial aspects. In view of the continuously increasing interest in virgin olive oil therapeutic properties, the traditional methods of characterization and physical and sensory analysis were further enriched with more advanced and

Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis; Antonios Vlachos

2007-01-01

392

Descending projections to the inferior olive from the mesencephalon and superior colliculus in the cat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Descending projections from the mesencephalon and superior colliculus to the inferior olive were analyzed by an autoradiographic tracing method. Injections of tritium-labelled leucine were placed in regions which had previously been identified as sources of afferents to the olive. These were located adjacent to the central gray and extended from the rostral red nucleus to the posterior thalamus. Additional

J. A. Saint-Cyr; J. Courville

1982-01-01

393

Removal of the inferior olive abolishes myoclonic seizures associated with a loss of olivary serotonin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several lines of clinical evidence suggest that myoclonus is caused by a reduction of serotonin in the brain and hyperactivity of the inferior olive. We determined whether a change in serotonin content within the olivocerebellar system accompanied a predisposition to myoclonus and investigated the necessity of the inferior olive for a myoclonic seizure. The experiments employed the genetically epilepsy-prone rat

J. P Welsh; B Chang; M. E Menaker; S. A Aicher

1997-01-01

394

LYCOPENE AND TOTAL PHENOL CONTENT OF AUTUMN OLIVE (ELAEAGNUS UMBELLATA) SELECTIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Autumn olive (E/aeagnus umbel/ata) is a small red berry that grows on shrubs from Maine to Alabama. This plant originated in China and was introduced to the U.S. in the late 1800's for erosion control. About 20% of the berry' fresh weight is in its single, large seed. The berries of Autumn olive are...

395

Evaluation of the effectiveness of olive cake residue as an expansive soil stabilizer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantity of the by-product olive cake residue generated in most parts of the Mediterranean countries continues to increase and expected to double in amount within 10 15 years. This increase intensifies the problems associated with the disposal of this by-product. Olive cake residue has a potential for use as a soil stabilizer and large volumes can be beneficially used. This study is directed toward determining if olive cake residue can be utilized to increase the strength and stability of expansive soils which constitute a costly natural hazard to lightweight structures on shallow foundations. A series of laboratory tests using engineering properties, such as Atterberg limits, moisture-density relationship (compaction), swell, unconfined compressive strength were undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness and performance of the olive cake residue as a soil stabilizer. Test results indicate that an addition of only 3% burned olive waste into the soil causes a reduction in plasticity, volume change and an increase in the unconfined compressive strength. However, it was observed that the presence of burned olive waste in the soil greater than 3% caused an increase in the compressibility and a decrease in the unconfined compressive strength. Test results indicate that the use of olive waste in soil stabilization gives greater benefits to the environment than simply disposing of the by-product, olive cake residue.

Nalbantoglu, Zalihe; Tawfiq, Salma

2006-08-01

396

A process for producing carbonaceous matter from tar sand, oil shale and olive cake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many countries which do not produce oil are rich with other sources of energy that are not fully utilized, such as tar sand, oil shale and olive cake. Limited previous work was done on producing carbonaceous matter and separating volatile matter from combinations of tar sand, oil shale and olive cake. In this study, a process is designed and tested

T. M Alkhamis; M. M Kablan

1999-01-01

397

21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102.37 Section...Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or usual name of a mixture of edible fats and oils containing less than 100...

2010-04-01

398

Evaluation of pathogenicity and insect transmission of Xylella fastidiosa strains to olive plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) is a xylem-limited bacterium that causes disease in a number of economically important crops in California and worldwide. Newly observed scorching symptoms in olive trees may be due to Xf infection. If true, “olive leaf scorch disease” (OLSD) would represent a new threat to...

399

Centrifugation as a pre-treatment in olive mill wastewater processing (abstract)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Olive mill wastewater (OMWW), generated during production of olive oil, is an untapped source of nutritious compounds. Thus, processors want to separate OMWW into a high-value, concentrated product stream and near-pure water. However, the amount and characteristics of the produced OMWW depend on t...

400

Characterization of Human Gene Expression Changes after Olive Oil Ingestion: an Exploratory Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive oil consumption is protective against risk factors for cardiovascular and cancer diseases. A nutrigenomic approach was performed to assess whether changes in gene expression could occur in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells after oli ve oil ingestion at postprandial state. Six healthy male volunteers ingested, at fasting state, 50 ml of olive oil. Prior to intervention a 1-week washout

V. KONSTANTINIDOU; O. KHYMENETS; M. FITO; R. DE LA TORRE; R. ANGLADA; A. DOPAZO; M. I. COVAS

401

RESEARCH ARTICLE A novel method to assess drought stress of olive tree  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE A novel method to assess drought stress of olive tree Kamel Gargouri & Hatem relatively minor warming and drying scenarios. This situation raises the need for mitigation strategies of Tunisian olive trees to drought was assessed under extremely low precip- itation levels, of 50% of normal

Boyer, Edmond

402

Conservation scenarios for olive farming on sloping land in de Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future of olive farming on sloping land in the Mediterranean is uncertain. Sloping and Mountainous Olive Production Systems (SMOPS) that have been sustainable for ages have in a relatively short time frame witnessed major changes. Although remnants of many of these traditional landscapes still exist today, the general trend is different. Demographic changes of the rural population, integration in

L. Fleskens

2007-01-01

403

Phylogeny of the fungus Spilocaea oleagina, the causal agent of peacock leaf spot in olive  

E-print Network

Phylogeny of the fungus Spilocaea oleagina, the causal agent of peacock leaf spot in olive Roc First published online 12 April 2002 Abstract The fungus Spilocaea oleagina causes peacock leaf spot in olive. Virtually nothing is known about S. oleagina despite the loss of crop yield caused by this fungus

Málaga, Universidad de

404

Olive Tree-Ring Problematic Dating: A Comparative Analysis on Santorini (Greece)  

E-print Network

for Aegean and Near Eastern Dendrochronology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States of America tree-rings for dendrochronology, we examined by various methods the reliability of olive tree-rings identification. Dendrochronological analyses of olive trees growing on the Aegean island Santorini (Greece) show

405

Infrared machine vision system for the automatic detection of olive fruit quality.  

PubMed

External quality is an important factor in the extraction of olive oil and the marketing of olive fruits. The appearance and presence of external damage are factors that influence the quality of the oil extracted and the perception of consumers, determining the level of acceptance prior to purchase in the case of table olives. The aim of this paper is to report on artificial vision techniques developed for the online estimation of olive quality and to assess the effectiveness of these techniques in evaluating quality based on detecting external defects. This method of classifying olives according to the presence of defects is based on an infrared (IR) vision system. Images of defects were acquired using a digital monochrome camera with band-pass filters on near-infrared (NIR). The original images were processed using segmentation algorithms, edge detection and pixel value intensity to classify the whole fruit. The detection of the defect involved a pixel classification procedure based on nonparametric models of the healthy and defective areas of olives. Classification tests were performed on olives to assess the effectiveness of the proposed method. This research showed that the IR vision system is a useful technology for the automatic assessment of olives that has the potential for use in offline inspection and for online sorting for defects and the presence of surface damage, easily distinguishing those that do not meet minimum quality requirements. PMID:24148491

Guzmán, Elena; Baeten, Vincent; Pierna, Juan Antonio Fernández; García-Mesa, José A

2013-11-15

406

Cultivation of two Pleurotus species on wheat straw substrates containing olive mill waste water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive oil extraction produces large amounts of waste water, known as olive mill waste water (OMWW). This has a high chemical oxygen demand and contains high levels of phenolic compounds, and is therefore a cause of environmental pollution. The major aim of this study was to investigate the use of OMWW as a moisture source for mushroom cultivation. Pleurotus sajor-caju

Erbil Kalm??; Sayit Sarg?n

2004-01-01

407

Flash thermal conditioning of olive pastes during the olive oil mechanical extraction process: impact on the structural modifications of pastes and oil quality.  

PubMed

The quality of virgin olive oil (VOO) is strictly related to the concentrations of phenolic and volatile compounds, which are strongly affected by the operative conditions of the VOO mechanical extraction process. The aim of this work is to study the impact of a new technology such as flash thermal conditioning (FTC) on olive paste structural modification and on VOO quality. The evaluation of olive paste structure modification by cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) showed that the application of FTC after crushing produces significant differences in terms of the breaking of the parenchyma cells and aggregation of oil droplets in comparison to the crushed pastes. The virgin olive oil flash thermal conditioning (VOO-FTC) featured a higher concentration of volatile compounds compared to that in the control, particularly of all saturated and unsaturated aldehydes and esters, whereas the phenolic concentration was higher in VOO obtained from the traditional process (VOO-C). PMID:23590117

Esposto, Sonia; Veneziani, Gianluca; Taticchi, Agnese; Selvaggini, Roberto; Urbani, Stefania; Di Maio, Ilona; Sordini, Beatrice; Minnocci, Antonio; Sebastiani, Luca; Servili, Maurizio

2013-05-22

408

Arbuscular Mycorhizal Fungi Associated with the Olive Crop across the Andalusian Landscape: Factors Driving Community Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Background In the last years, many olive plantations in southern Spain have been mediated by the use of self-rooted planting stocks, which have incorporated commercial AMF during the nursery period to facilitate their establishment. However, this was practised without enough knowledge on the effect of cropping practices and environment on the biodiversity of AMF in olive orchards in Spain. Methodology/Principal Findings Two culture-independent molecular methods were used to study the AMF communities associated with olive in a wide-region analysis in southern Spain including 96 olive locations. The use of T-RFLP and pyrosequencing analysis of rDNA sequences provided the first evidence of an effect of agronomic and climatic characteristics, and soil physicochemical properties on AMF community composition associated with olive. Thus, the factors most strongly associated to AMF distribution varied according to the technique but included among the studied agronomic characteristics the cultivar genotype and age of plantation and the irrigation regimen but not the orchard management system or presence of a cover crop to prevent soil erosion. Soil physicochemical properties and climatic characteristics most strongly associated to the AMF community composition included pH, textural components and nutrient contents of soil, and average evapotranspiration, rainfall and minimum temperature of the sampled locations. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed 33 AMF OTUs belonging to five families, with Archaeospora spp., Diversispora spp. and Paraglomus spp., being first records in olive. Interestingly, two of the most frequent OTUs included a diverse group of Claroideoglomeraceae and Glomeraceae sequences, not assigned to any known AMF species commonly used as inoculants in olive during nursery propagation. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggests that AMF can exert higher host specificity in olive than previously thought, which may have important implications for redirecting the olive nursery process in the future as well as to take into consideration the specific soils and environments where the mycorrhized olive trees will be established. PMID:24797669

Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Metsis, Madis; Landa, Blanca B.

2014-01-01

409

Net carbon flux in organic and conventional olive production systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural systems are considered as one of the most relevant sources of atmospheric carbon. However, agriculture has the potentiality to mitigate carbon dioxide mainly through soil carbon sequestration. Some agricultural practices, particularly fertilization and soil management, can play a dual role in the agricultural systems regarding the carbon cycle contributing to the emissions and to the sequestration process in the soil. Good soil and input managements affect positively Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) changes and consequently the carbon cycle. The present study aimed at comparing the carbon footprint of organic and conventional olive systems and to link it to the efficiency of both systems on carbon sequestration by calculating the net carbon flux. Data were collected at farm level through a specific and detailed questionnaire based on one hectare as a functional unit and a system boundary limited to olive production. Using LCA databases particularly ecoinvent one, IPCC GWP 100a impact assessment method was used to calculate carbon emissions from agricultural practices of both systems. Soil organic carbon has been measured, at 0-30 cm depth, based on soil analyses done at the IAMB laboratory and based on reference value of SOC, the annual change of SOC has been calculated. Substracting sequestrated carbon in the soil from the emitted on resulted in net carbon flux calculation. Results showed higher environmental impact of the organic system on Global Warming Potential (1.07 t CO2 eq. yr-1) comparing to 0.76 t CO2 eq. yr-1 in the conventional system due to the higher GHG emissions caused by manure fertilizers compared to the use of synthetic foliar fertilizers in the conventional system. However, manure was the main reason behind the higher SOC content and sequestration in the organic system. As a resultant, the organic system showed higher net carbon flux (-1.7 t C ha-1 yr-1 than -0.52 t C ha-1 yr-1 in the conventional system reflecting higher efficiency as a sink for atmospheric CO2 (the negative value of Net C flux indicates that a system is a net sink for atmospheric CO2). In conclusion, this study illustrates the importance of including soil carbon sequestration associated with CO2 emissions in the evaluation process between alternatives of agricultural systems. Thus, organic olive system offers an opportunity to increase carbon sequestration compared to the conventional one although it causes higher C emissions from manure fertilization. Keywords: Net carbon flux, GHG, organic, olive, soil organic carbon

Saeid Mohamad, Ramez; Verrastro, Vincenzo; Bitar, Lina Al; Roma, Rocco; Moretti, Michele; Chami, Ziad Al

2014-05-01

410

Biological Control of Olive Green Mold in Agaricus bisporus Cultivation.  

PubMed

Successful methods to control the damaging weed mold Chaetomium olivaceum (olive green mold) in mushroom beds are not presently known. An attempt was made to control C. olivaceum by biological means. A thermophilic Bacillus sp. which showed dramatic activity against C. olivaceum on Trypticase soy agar (BBL Microbiology Systems)-0.4% yeast extract agar plates was isolated from commercial mushroom compost (phase I). When inoculated into conventional and hydroponic mushroom beds, the bacillus not only provided a significant degree of protection from C. olivaceum, but also increased yields of Agaricus bisporus. PMID:16346199

Tautorus, T E; Townsley, P M

1983-02-01

411

Effects of seasonal olive mill wastewater applications on hydrological and biological soil properties in an olive orchard in Israel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During olive oil production in Mediterranean countries, large amounts of olive mill wastewater (OMW) are generated within a short period of time. OMW has a high nutrient content and could serve as fertilizer when applied on land. However, its fatty and phenolic constituents have adverse effects on hydrological and biological soil properties. It is still unknown how seasonal fluctuations in temperature and precipitation influence the fate and effect of OMW components on soil in a long-term perspective. An appropriate application season could mitigate negative consequences of OMW while preserving its beneficial effects. In order to investigate this, 14 L OMW m-2 were applied to different plots of an olive orchard in Gilat, Israel, in winter, spring, and summer, respectively. Hydrological soil properties (water drop penetration time, hydraulic conductivity, dynamic contact angle), physicochemical parameters (pH, EC, soluble ions, phenolic compounds, organic matter), and biological degradation (bait-lamina test) were measured to assess the soil state after OMW application. After one rainy season following OMW application, the soil quality of summer treatments significantly decreased compared to the control. This was particularly apparent in a ten-fold higher soil water repellency, a three-times lower biodegradation performance, and a four-fold higher content of phenolic compounds. 1.5 years after the last OMW application, the soil properties of winter treatments were comparable to the control, which suggests a certain recovery potential of the soil. Spring treatments resulted in an intermediate response compared to summer and winter treatments, but without any precipitation following OMW application. Strongest OMW effects were found in the top soil layers. Further research is needed to quantify the effect of spring treatments as well as to gain further insight into leaching effects, the composition of organic OMW constituents, and the kinetics of their degradation in relation to climatic conditions.

Steinmetz, Zacharias; Kurtz, Markus; Peikert, Benjamin; Zipori, Isaac; Dag, Arnon; Schaumann, Gabriele E.

2014-05-01

412

Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for quantitative determination of virgin olive oil adulteration with sunflower oil.  

PubMed

Adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with sunflower oil is a major issue for the olive oil industry. In this paper, the potential of total synchronous fluorescence (TSyF) spectra to differentiate virgin olive oil from sunflower oil and synchronous fluorescence (SyF) spectra combined with multivariate analysis to assess the adulteration of virgin olive oil are demonstrated. TSyF spectra were acquired by varying the excitation wavelength in the region 270-720 nm and the wavelength interval (Deltalambda) in the region from 20 to 120 nm. TSyF contour plots for sunflower, in contrast to virgin olive oil, show a fluorescence region in the excitation wavelength range 325-385 nm. Fifteen different virgin olive oil samples were adulterated with sunflower oil at varying levels (0.5-95%) resulting in one hundred and thirty six mixtures. The partial least-squares regression model was used for quantification of the adulteration using wavelength intervals of 20 and 80 nm. This technique is useful for detection of sunflower oil in virgin olive oil at levels down to 3.4% (w/v) in just two and a half minutes using an 80-nm wavelength interval. PMID:16953317

Poulli, Konstantina I; Mousdis, George A; Georgiou, Constantinos A

2006-11-01

413

Varietal Tracing of Virgin Olive Oils Based on Plastid DNA Variation Profiling  

PubMed Central

Olive oil traceability remains a challenge nowadays. DNA analysis is the preferred approach to an effective varietal identification, without any environmental influence. Specifically, olive organelle genomics is the most promising approach for setting up a suitable set of markers as they would not interfere with the pollinator variety DNA traces. Unfortunately, plastid DNA (cpDNA) variation of the cultivated olive has been reported to be low. This feature could be a limitation for the use of cpDNA polymorphisms in forensic analyses or oil traceability, but rare cpDNA haplotypes may be useful as they can help to efficiently discriminate some varieties. Recently, the sequencing of olive plastid genomes has allowed the generation of novel markers. In this study, the performance of cpDNA markers on olive oil matrices, and their applicability on commercial Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) oils were assessed. By using a combination of nine plastid loci (including multi-state microsatellites and short indels), it is possible to fingerprint six haplotypes (in 17 Spanish olive varieties), which can discriminate high-value commercialized cultivars with PDO. In particular, a rare haplotype was detected in genotypes used to produce a regional high-value commercial oil. We conclude that plastid haplotypes can help oil traceability in commercial PDO oils and set up an experimental methodology suitable for organelle polymorphism detection in the complex olive oil matrices. PMID:23950947

Pérez-Jiménez, Marga; Besnard, Guillaume; Dorado, Gabriel; Hernandez, Pilar

2013-01-01

414

Differences in the Chemesthetic Subqualities of Capsaicin, Ibuprofen, and Olive Oil  

PubMed Central

Chemesthetic sensations elicited by ibuprofen, extra-virgin olive oil, and capsaicin were compared to quantify perceptual differences between known agonists of TRPA1 and TRPV1. Extra virgin olive oil contains a phenolic compound, oleocanthal, which is thought to share unique chemesthetic qualities with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ibuprofen. Pilot work suggested participants had difficulty distinguishing between multiple chemesthetic subqualities (e.g., burn, sting, itch, tickle, etc.) in a multiattribute rating task. Here, we assessed overall irritation via direct scaling, and a check all that apply task was used to collect information about chemesthetic subqualities over time. Replicated ratings were collected at discrete intervals using the generalized labeled magnitude scale to generate time-intensity curves; maximum intensity (Imax) and area under the curve were extracted for each participant. Intensity responses varied substantially across participants, and within a participant, the relationship was strongest between ibuprofen and olive oil. However, there were also positive, albeit weaker, correlations between capsaicin and ibuprofen and capsaicin and olive oil. The correlation found between olive oil and capsaicin may suggest the presence of unknown TRPV1 agonists in olive oil. This view was also supported by the qualitative data: Capsaicin was described most often as burning and warm/hot, whereas ibuprofen was numbing and tickling. Olive oil shared characteristics with both capsaicin (warm/hot) and ibuprofen (tickle). PMID:22281531

Bennett, Samantha M.

2012-01-01

415

Determination of the olive maturity index of intact fruits using image analysis.  

PubMed

In this work, the maturity index of different samples of olives was objectively assessed by image analysis obtained through machine vision, in which algorithms of color-based segmentation and operators to detect edges were used. This method allows a fast, automatic and objective prediction of olive maturity index. This prediction value was compared to maturity index (MI), generally used by olive oil industry, based on the subjective visual determination of color of fruit skin and flesh. Machine vision was also applied to the automatic estimation of size and weight of olive fruits. The proposed system was tested to obtain a good performance in the classification of the fruit in batches. When applied to several olive samples, the maturity index predicted by machine vision was in close agreement with the maturity index of fruits visually estimated, values that are currently used as standards. The evaluation of weight of fruit also provided good results (R(2)?=?0.91). These results obtained by image analysis can be used as a useful method for the classification of olives at the reception in olive mill, allowing a better quality control of the production process. PMID:25745214

Guzmán, Elena; Baeten, Vincent; Pierna, Juan Antonio Fernández; García-Mesa, José A

2015-03-01

416

Compositional and tissue modifications induced by the natural fermentation process in table olives.  

PubMed

Olive fruits contain high concentrations of phenols that include phenolic acids, phenolic alcohols, flavonoids, and secoiridoids. The final concentration of phenols is strongly affected by brine conditions. The factors involved in modification by brine are still partially unknown and can include hydrolysis of secoiridoid glucosides and the release of hydrolyzed products. In this study olives from various Italian cultivars were processed by natural fermentation (e.g., without a preliminary treatment of olives with NaOH) using a selected Lactobacillus strain. Processed olives are characterized by a low phenolic concentration of phenols, consisting mainly of phenyl alcohols, verbascoside, and the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethylelenolic acid linked to (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA), whereas a high level of phenols occurs in olive brine from all the cultivars studied. Olives of the Coratina cultivar, control and with fermentation by Lactobacillus pentosus 1MO, were analyzed in a frozen hydrated state by cryo scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis, on both surface and transversal freeze-fracture planes. Structural modifications, found in olives after fermentation, may explain the phenol release in brine. PMID:18636682

Servili, Maurizio; Minnocci, Antonio; Veneziani, Gianluca; Taticchi, Agnese; Urbani, Stefania; Esposto, Sonia; Sebastiani, Luca; Valmorri, Sara; Corsetti, Aldo

2008-08-13

417

In vitro activity of olive oil polyphenols against Helicobacter pylori.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori is linked to a majority of peptic ulcers and to some types of gastric cancer, and resistance of the microorganism to antibiotic treatment is now found worldwide. Virgin olive oil is an unrefined vegetable oil that contains a significant amount of phenolic compounds. Under simulated conditions, we have demonstrated that these substances can diffuse from the oil into the gastric juice and be stable for hours in this acidic environment. In vitro, they exerted a strong bactericidal activity against eight strains of H. pylori, three of them resistant to some antibiotics. Among the phenolic compounds, the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycon showed the strongest bactericidal effect at a concentration as low as 1.3 microg/mL. Although the experimental conditions are different from other reported works, this bactericidal concentration is much lower than those found for phenolic compounds from tea, wine, and plant extracts. These results open the possibility of considering virgin olive oil a chemopreventive agent for peptic ulcer or gastric cancer, but this bioactivity should be confirmed in vivo in the future. PMID:17263460

Romero, Concepción; Medina, Eduardo; Vargas, Julio; Brenes, Manuel; De Castro, Antonio

2007-02-01

418

Direct combustion of olive cake using fluidized bed combustor  

SciTech Connect

A fluidized bed combustor of 0.146 m diameter and 1 m length was fabricated from stainless steel to burn olive cake. Initially, and in order to obtain fluidization, the system was operated under cold conditions using a sand with particle size in the range of 500 to 710 microns. The continuous combustion experiments were carried out under controlled conditions, such that the effects of bed temperature, olive cake feed rate, fluidization velocity, and particle size on combustion efficiency and flue gas composition were investigated. It was found that the combustion efficiency decreases with the bed temperature, fluidization velocity, and the feed rate, while it increases with the particle size used. Further, the gas products analysis carried out using a gas chromatography analyzer have shown a nonmeasured amount of SO{sub 2}, and small amounts of CO. Finally, the temperature distribution along the bed indicated that the temperature throughout the bed is fairly uniform, demonstrating a good mixing of reactants, which is important for efficient combustion.

Khraisha, Y.H.; Hamdan, M.A.; Qalalweh, H.S. [Univ. of Jordan, Amman (Jordan). Faculty of Engineering and Technology

1999-05-01

419

Response of Olive View Hospital to Northridge and Whittier earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this paper is to study the response of the conventionally designed new Olive View Medical Center (OVMC) building at 16 km from the epicenter of the January 17, 1994 Northridge, California earthquake (Ms = 6.8). OVMC is on an alluvial deposit. The building was subjected to design level peak accelerations during the earthquake and suffered only limited structural and nonstructural damage. The recorded motions at different levels of the OVMC building as well as its associated free-field sites are analyzed using spectral analyses and system identification techniques. The new OVMC building was conservatively designed in 1976 with very high lateral load resisting capability - particularly as a reaction to the detrimental fate of the original Olive View Hospital that was heavily damaged during the 1971 San Fernando earthquake. The original hospital building was later razed. The replacement structure, the new cross-shaped OVMC building, experienced peak acceleration of 2.31g at the roof while its peak ground floor acceleration was 0.82g. The free-field peak acceleration was 0.91g. The lateral load resisting system of the OVMC building consists of concrete shear walls in the lower two stories and steel shear walls at the perimeter of the upper four stories. Spectral analysis shows that this stiff structure was not affected by the long duration pulses of the motions recorded at this site.

Celebi, M.

1997-01-01

420

Evaluation of an aerobic treatment for olive mill wastewater detoxification.  

PubMed

Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is a by-product of the olive oil extraction industry. Its dumping creates severe environmental problems in the Mediterranean countries. The phytoxicity of OMWW is due to the phenolic substances and is evaluated through a genotoxicity method. An aerobic treatment of OMWW was conducted during 45 days. Different concentrations of raw and treated OMWW were tested using the Vicia faba micronuclei test. Results showed that raw OMWW induced significant micronuclei formation at 10% of OMWW dilution. At 20% of dilution, no mitosis was recorded. The 45 days aerobic treatment OMWW showed an important decrease in the genotoxicity and also in the toxicity that was observed at 10% and 20% OMWW dilution. This could be correlated with the biodegradation of 76% of the total phenols. Indeed, qualitative analysis by high performance liquid chromatography shows the disappearance of the majority of phenolic compounds after 45 days of treatment. This study was completed by an agricultural test with V. faba plant. Data showed significant growth yield of 36.3% and 29.9% after being irrigated with 5 and 10 t/ha, respectively. These results supported the positive role of aerobic treatment on OMWW and their capacity to ameliorate the agronomic potential of these effluents. PMID:25244133

El Hajjouji, Houda; El Fels, Loubna; Pinelli, Eric; Barje, Farid; El Asli, Abdelghani; Merlina, Georges; Hafidi, Mohamed

2014-01-01

421

Towards an optimized method of olive tree crown volume measurement.  

PubMed

Accurate crown characterization of large isolated olive trees is vital for adjusting spray doses in three-dimensional crop agriculture. Among the many methodologies available, laser sensors have proved to be the most reliable and accurate. However, their operation is time consuming and requires specialist knowledge and so a simpler crown characterization method is required. To this end, three methods were evaluated and compared with LiDAR measurements to determine their accuracy: Vertical Crown Projected Area method (VCPA), Ellipsoid Volume method (VE) and Tree Silhouette Volume method (VTS). Trials were performed in three different kinds of olive tree plantations: intensive, adapted one-trunked traditional and traditional. In total, 55 trees were characterized. Results show that all three methods are appropriate to estimate the crown volume, reaching high coefficients of determination: R2 = 0.783, 0.843 and 0.824 for VCPA, VE and VTS, respectively. However, discrepancies arise when evaluating tree plantations separately, especially for traditional trees. Here, correlations between LiDAR volume and other parameters showed that the Mean Vector calculated for VCPA method showed the highest correlation for traditional trees, thus its use in traditional plantations is highly recommended. PMID:25658396

Miranda-Fuentes, Antonio; Llorens, Jordi; Gamarra-Diezma, Juan L; Gil-Ribes, Jesús A; Gil, Emilio

2015-01-01

422

Pesticide interactions with soils affected by olive oil mill wastewater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil pesticide sorption is well known to affect the fate of pesticides, their bioavailability and the potential to contaminate air and water. Soil - pesticide interactions may be strongly influenced by soil organic matter (SOM) and organic matter (OM)-rich soil amendments. One special OM source in soils is related to olive oil production residues that may include both solid and liquid wastes. In the Mediterranean area, the olive oil production is considered as an important field in the agricultural sector. Due to the significant rise in olive oil production, the amount of wastes is growing respectively. Olive oil mill waste water (OMWW) is the liquid byproduct in the so-called "three phase" technological process. Features of OMWW include the high content of fatty aliphatic components and polyphenols and their often-considered toxicity. One way of OMWW disposal is the land spreading, e.g., in olive orchards. The land application of OMWW (either controlled or not) is supposed to affect the multiple soil properties, including hydrophobicity and the potential of soils to interact with pesticides. Therefore, there is both basic and applied interest in elucidating the interactions between organic compounds and soils affected by OMWW. However, little is known about the impact of OMWW - soil interactions on sorption of organic compounds, and specifically, on sorption of agrochemicals. This paper reports an experimental study of sorption interactions of a series of organic compounds including widely used herbicides such as diuron and simazine, in a range of soils that were affected by OMWW (i) historically or (ii) in the controlled land disposal experiments. It is demonstrated that there is a distinct increase in apparent sorption of organic chemicals in soils affected by OMWW. In selected systems, this increase may be explained by increase in SOM content. However, the SOM quality places a role: the rise in organic compound - soil interactions may both exceed the SOM content increase and be less than that. Sorption interactions of herbicides with soils demonstrate a strong hysteresis (which is not expected to be related to a biodegradation). The data suggests that the OMWW - soil interaction seems to change the shape of the apparent sorption isotherms of organic sorbates, and, possibly, their sorption mechanisms: from a Langmuir-like sorption isotherm (describing the adsorptive interactions with a saturation of sorption sites) in the native soils to the sigmoidal or linear isotherms (expected for a partitioning into the bulk OM phases and their swelling) in the OMWW-amended soils. These results may have a significant impact on multiple agricultural and hydrological aspects, e.g., such as the application rate of herbicides in the field, and their possible release and the long term effect on groundwater. The authors acknowledge the support from the OLIVEOIL project (SCHA849/13) funded by DFG.

Keren, Yonatan; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda; Borisover, Mikhail

2013-04-01

423

Blends of olive oil and seeds oils: characterisation and olive oil quantification using fatty acids composition and chemometric tools. Part II.  

PubMed

A method to verify the percentage of olive oil in a blend, in compliance with the Commission Regulation EU No. 29/2012, was developed by GC-FID analysis of methyl esters of fatty acids, followed by chemometric tools (PCA, TFA, SIMCA and PLS). First of all, binary blends of twelve olive oils and one sunflower oil were studied, in order to evaluate the variability associated to the fatty acids profile of olive oils (Monfreda, Gobbi, & Grippa, 2012). In this study, binary blends of twelve olive oils with four types of seeds oils (peanut, corn, rice and grape seed oils) were evaluated. These four groups of blends were analysed and processed separately, each group consisting of 36 samples with 40%, 50% and 60% of olive oil content. Chemometric tools were also applied to the global data set (180 samples, including those analysed in the previous paper). Outstanding results were achieved, showing that the proposed method would be capable to discriminate blends with a difference in concentration of olive oil lower than 5% (a standard error of prediction of 3.97% was obtained with PLS). Therefore blends containing 45% and 55% of olive oil were also analysed with the current method and added to the data sets for chemometric assessment with supervised tools. SIMCA still provided good models; however the best performance was achieved by processing each group of binary blends (consisting of 60 samples) separately, rather than applying SIMCA to the overall data set (300 samples). On the other hand PLS did not show significant improvements. PMID:24128518

Monfreda, M; Gobbi, L; Grippa, A

2014-02-15

424

Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for fingerprint pattern recognition in olive oils produced by two different techniques in Portuguese olive varieties Galega Vulgar, Cobrançosa e Carrasquenha.  

PubMed

For olive oil production a metal hammer-decanter olive processing line was compared to a traditional metal hammer-press line, a discontinuous method which, if properly used, yields high-quality virgin olive oils. Galega, Carrasquenha and Cobrançosa olives (traditional Portuguese varieties) were studied. The analysis of the aroma compounds was performed after headspace-solid phase micro extraction. The analytical results obtained after comprehensive gas chromatography in tandem with time of flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/ToFMS) for these three different olive oil varieties, from a single year harvest and processed with two different extraction technologies, were compared using statistical image treatment, by means of ImageJ software, for fingerprint recognitions and compared with principal component analysis when the area data of each chromatographic spot of the contour plots were considered. The differences used to classify the olive oils studied under different groups after principal component analysis were observed independently of the treatment used (peak areas or the sum of the pixels counts). When the individual peak areas were considered, more then 75.7% of the total variance is explained by the first two principal components while in the case where the data were subjected to image treatment 84.0% of the total variance is explained by the first two principal components. In both cases the first and second principal components present eigenvalues higher then 1.0. Fingerprint image monitoring of the aroma compounds of the olive oil allowed a rapid differentiation of the three varieties studied as well as the extraction methods used. The volatile compounds responsible for their characterization were tentatively identified in a bi-dimensional polar/non-polar column set in the GCxGC/Tof-MS apparatus. This methodology allowed the reduction of the number of compounds needed for matrices characterization, preserving the efficiency of the discrimination, when compared with the traditional methods where the identification of all peaks is needed. PMID:19166732

Vaz-Freire, L Torres; da Silva, M D R Gomes; Freitas, A M Costa

2009-02-01

425

Atlas Linguarum Europea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using selected dialect maps and explanatory comments, the Atlas Linguarum Europae aims to describe dialect variations in Europe and thus produce a clear typology of the spoken languages and dialects. (Author)

Kruijsen, Joep

1977-01-01

426

Visible and near-infrared spectral signatures for adulteration assessment of extra virgin olive oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of its high price, the extra virgin olive oil is frequently target for adulteration with lower quality oils. This paper presents an innovative optical technique capable of quantifying the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil caused by lowergrade olive oils. It relies on spectral fingerprinting the test liquid by means of diffuse-light absorption spectroscopy carried out by optical fiber technology in the wide 400-1700 nm spectral range. Then, a smart multivariate processing of spectroscopic data is applied for immediate prediction of adulterant concentration.

Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Ottevaere, H.; Thienpont, H.; Conte, L.; Marega, M.; Cichelli, A.; Attilio, C.; Cimato, A.

2010-04-01

427

History of the invasive African olive tree in Australia and Hawaii: evidence for sequential bottlenecks and hybridization with the Mediterranean olive  

PubMed Central

Humans have introduced plants and animals into new continents and islands with negative effects on local species. This has been the case of the olive that was introduced in Australia, New Zealand and Pacific islands where it became invasive. Two subspecies were introduced in Australia, and each successfully invaded a specific area: the African olive in New South Wales (NSW) and the Mediterranean olive in South Australia. Here, we examine their origins and spread and analyse a large sample of native and invasive accessions with chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites. African olive populations from the invaded range exhibit two South African chlorotypes hence supporting an introduction from South Africa, while populations from South Australia exhibit chlorotypes of Mediterranean cultivars. Congruently, nuclear markers support the occurrence of two lineages in Australia but demonstrate that admixture took place, attesting that they hybridized early after introduction. Furthermore, using an approximate Bayesian computation framework, we found strong support for the serial introduction of the African olive from South Africa to NSW and then from NSW to Hawaii. The taxon experienced successive bottlenecks that did not preclude invasion, meaning that rapid decisions need to be taken to avoid naturalization where it has not established a large population yet. PMID:24567742

Besnard, Guillaume; Dupuy, Jérémy; Larter, Maximilien; Cuneo, Peter; Cooke, David; Chikhi, Lounes

2014-01-01

428

Curve numbers for olive orchard catchments in Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Curve Number (CN) method (Soil Conservation Service, 1972) is widely applied around the world to estimate direct runoff and the corresponding hydrograph of a rainfall event. Its efficient and simple computation, its complete parameterization for different soils, uses and managements and its good performance justify its application. Nevertheless, apart from Romero et al. (2007) who calculated CN-values at the plot scale, there is little information on the model performance in olive orchards at the catchment scale. In this work, the CN-model has been applied in three small catchments in Spain ranging between 6 and 8 ha with different soil types (regosol, luvisol and vertisol), topography (mean slopes between 9-15%) and management practices (non-tillage with a spontaneous grass cover, minimum tillage, conventional tillage). A rainfall-runoff dataset of 6 years have been used to test the usefulness of model as well as the accuracy of its reference parameterization (CNs and of initial substraction, Ia). CN-values were adjusted, optimized and compared with reference values for orchard crops while the sensitivity of the goodness of fit to Ia was described for each catchment. Classical equations based on the use of CN-percentiles 50, 10 and 90 for determining the antecedent moisture content (AMC) provided very good results with Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients of efficiency equal to 0.73 and 0.81 in two of the catchments with an annual rainfall higher than 600 mm. The third one -with an annual rainfall lower than 400 mm and spontaneous grass cover- showed a different pattern where a multiple linear regression dependant on precipitation and temperature features, represented notably better the rainfall-runoff relationships. Although fractions of Ia on the storage (S) equal to 0.15 and 0.25 allowed to optimize the adjustments of CN, the usual reference of 0.20 is quite appropriate. Finally, significant deviations were observed on reference-CNs for sandy soils that should be considered for hydrological calculations in olive orchard catchments. REFERENCES P. Romero, G. Castro, J.A. Gómez and E. Fereres. 2007. Curve Number Values for Olive Orchards under Different Soil Managemen. Soil Sicence Society of America Journal. Vol. 71 No. 6, p. 1758-1769 doi:10.2136/sssaj2007.0034

Taguas, Encarnación; Yuan, Yongping; Licciardello, Feliciana; Gómez, Jose

2014-05-01

429

7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size, quality...variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size, quality...variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes for processing; (3) Olives for...

2014-01-01

430

7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size, quality...variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size, quality...variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes for processing; (3) Olives for...

2013-01-01

431

7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size, quality...variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size, quality...variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes for processing; (3) Olives for...

2011-01-01

432

7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size, quality...variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size, quality...variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes for processing; (3) Olives for...

2012-01-01

433

To Denoise or Deblur: Parameter Optimization for Imaging Systems Kaushik Mitraa, Oliver Cossairtb and Ashok Veeraraghavana  

E-print Network

To Denoise or Deblur: Parameter Optimization for Imaging Systems Kaushik Mitraa, Oliver Cossairtb with these improvements the image quality of the smartphones are much inferior to that of the current DSLR cameras

Bustamante, Fabián E.

434

ENTRY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE [ENTRY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE] Authors: Oliver Knill: March 2000 Literature: Peter Norvig,  

E-print Network

ENTRY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE [ENTRY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE] Authors: Oliver Knill: March 2000 Literature: Peter Norvig, Paradigns of Artificial Intelligence Programming Daniel Juravsky and James Martin interface to a neural net simulator. artificial intelligence [artificial intelligence] (AI) is a field

Knill, Oliver

435

Phenolic profile characterization of chemlali olive stones by liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Aqueous methanol extracts of Chemlali olive stones were analyzed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection and mass spectrometry [LC-MS/MS]. Oleoside, oleoside 11-methyl ester, nuezhenide, oleoside 11-methyloleoside, nuezhenide 11-methyloleoside, oleuropein, and glycosides of tryosol and hydroxytyrosol glycosides were identified in stones of Chemali olives. The antioxidant activity observed for the extract of the olive stones (IC50 = 13.84 ?g/mL, TEAC = 0.436 mM) may be due to the high content of phenolic compounds, of which the main compounds are nuezhenide (325.78 mg/100g), methoxy derivative of nuezhenide (132.46 mg/100g), and nuezhenide-11-methyloleoside (82.91 mg/100g). These results suggest the use of olive stones as sources of natural antioxidants. PMID:25650173

Ben Mansour, Amir; Porter, Elaine A; Kite, Geoffrey C; Simmonds, Monique S J; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

2015-02-25

436

Modulating oxidoreductase activity modifies the phenolic content of virgin olive oil.  

PubMed

The effect of modifying polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX) activity during the extraction of virgin olive oil has been assessed in terms of its influence on the phenolic profile of the oil produced. These enzymes were modified by adding exogenous enzyme or specific inhibitors during the milling and subsequent kneading step, studying the effect on specific phenolic compounds in the oils. PPO is the main enzyme involved in phenolic oxidation at the milling step whereas POX activity seems to be the main influence during the kneading step. The data obtained suggest it is possible to increase the nutritional and organoleptic quality of virgin olive oil by inhibiting these enzymes during olive fruit processing. Treatment with the PPO inhibitor tropolone produced a twofold increase in the phenolic fraction, which would therefore seem to be an interesting strategy to improve the nutritional and organoleptic properties of virgin olive oil. PMID:25308681

García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Romero-Segura, Carmen; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

2015-03-15

437

publication 420-321 Autumn olive was introduced to the U.S. from Japan  

E-print Network

publication 420-321 Autumn olive was introduced to the U.S. from Japan and China in 1830-Atlantic Natural Areas. National Park Service and U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, 82 pp. Manufacturer Product Name

Liskiewicz, Maciej

438

Differences in Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Capacity among Different Genotypes of Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellate Thumb)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit from six genotypes of autumn olive (‘Brilliant Rose’, ‘Delightful’, ‘Jewel’, ‘Natural 1’, ‘Natural 2’, and ‘Sweet Tart’) were evaluated for fruit quality, phenolic contents, carotenoids, antioxidants, antioxidant capacity, and antioxidant enzyme activity. The fruit soluble solids, titratable ...

439

Olive tree-ring problematic dating: a comparative analysis on Santorini (Greece).  

PubMed

Olive trees are a classic component of Mediterranean environments and some of them are known historically to be very old. In order to evaluate the possibility to use olive tree-rings for dendrochronology, we examined by various methods the reliability of olive tree-rings identification. Dendrochronological analyses of olive trees growing on the Aegean island Santorini (Greece) show that the determination of the number of tree-rings is impossible because of intra-annual wood density fluctuations, variability in tree-ring boundary structure, and restriction of its cambial activity to shifting sectors of the circumference, causing the tree-ring sequences along radii of the same cross section to differ. PMID:23382949

Cherubini, Paolo; Humbel, Turi; Beeckman, Hans; Gärtner, Holger; Mannes, David; Pearson, Charlotte; Schoch, Werner; Tognetti, Roberto; Lev-Yadun, Simcha

2013-01-01

440

Olive Tree-Ring Problematic Dating: A Comparative Analysis on Santorini (Greece)  

PubMed Central

Olive trees are a classic component of Mediterranean environments and some of them are known historically to be very old. In order to evaluate the possibility to use olive tree-rings for dendrochronology, we examined by various methods the reliability of olive tree-rings identification. Dendrochronological analyses of olive trees growing on the Aegean island Santorini (Greece) show that the determination of the number of tree-rings is impossible because of intra-annual wood density fluctuations, variability in tree-ring boundary structure, and restriction of its cambial activity to shifting sectors of the circumference, causing the tree-ring sequences along radii of the same cross section to differ. PMID:23382949

Cherubini, Paolo; Humbel, Turi; Beeckman, Hans; Gärtner, Holger; Mannes, David; Pearson, Charlotte; Schoch, Werner; Tognetti, Roberto; Lev-Yadun, Simcha

2013-01-01

441

Detection of Virgin Olive Oil Adulteration Using Low Field Unilateral NMR  

PubMed Central

The detection of adulteration in edible oils is a concern in the food industry, especially for the higher priced virgin olive oils. This article presents a low field unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for the detection of the adulteration of virgin olive oil that can be performed through sealed bottles providing a non-destructive screening technique. Adulterations of an extra virgin olive oil with different percentages of sunflower oil and red palm oil were measured with a commercial unilateral instrument, the profile NMR-Mouse. The NMR signal was processed using a 2-dimensional Inverse Laplace transformation to analyze the transverse relaxation and self-diffusion behaviors of different oils. The obtained results demonstrated the feasibility of detecting adulterations of olive oil with percentages of at least 10% of sunflower and red palm oils. PMID:24469355

Xu, Zheng; Morris, Robert H.; Bencsik, Martin; Newton, Michael I.

2014-01-01

442

Detection of virgin olive oil adulteration using low field unilateral NMR.  

PubMed

The detection of adulteration in edible oils is a concern in the food industry, especially for the higher priced virgin olive oils. This article presents a low field unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for the detection of the adulteration of virgin olive oil that can be performed through sealed bottles providing a non-destructive screening technique. Adulterations of an extra virgin olive oil with different percentages of sunflower oil and red palm oil were measured with a commercial unilateral instrument, the profile NMR-Mouse. The NMR signal was processed using a 2-dimensional Inverse Laplace transformation to analyze the transverse relaxation and self-diffusion behaviors of different oils. The obtained results demonstrated the feasibility of detecting adulterations of olive oil with percentages of at least 10% of sunflower and red palm oils. PMID:24469355

Xu, Zheng; Morris, Robert H; Bencsik, Martin; Newton, Michael I

2014-01-01

443

Olive Oil Waste Treatment: A Comparative and Critical Presentation of Methods, Advantages & Disadvantages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since olive oil industries were considered responsible for a great amount of pollution there has been a strong need for optimization of olive oil waste treatment systems. The currently employed systems are numerous and fall in the following large categories; bioremediation (ex-situ, in-situ), thermal processes (incineration, pyrolysis, gasification), evaporation, membrance processes, electrolysis, ozonation, digestion, coagulation\\/flocculation\\/precipitation, and distillation. Both advantages and

Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis; Aikaterini Kassaveti; Stelios Stefanatos

2007-01-01

444

Use of Geotrichum candidum for olive mill wastewater treatment in submerged and static culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lipases by Geotrichum candidum were performed in order to control the decolourisation and biodegradation of olive mill wastewater (OMW). Optimisation of different factors showed that dilution, carbon and ammonium concentrations significantly affected decolourisation and activities of ligniolytic peroxidases (LiP and MnP) on OMW. Moreover, addition of olive oil and agitation

N. Asses; L. Ayed; H. Bouallagui; I. Ben Rejeb; M. Gargouri; M. Hamdi

2009-01-01

445

Metabolic activity of intracerebellar nuclei in the rat: Effects of inferior olive inactivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Metabolic activity of the intracerebellar nuclei during cryoinactivation of the inferior olive was studied in the anaesthetized rat by using the 14C-2-deoxyglucose method. Single unit recording of Purkinje cells was simultaneously monitored in the cerebellar cortex.Local inactivation in the inferior olive resulted in regional suppression of complex