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1

Influence of olive storage period on oil quality of three Portuguese cultivars of Olea europea, Cobrançosa, Madural, and Verdeal Transmontana.  

PubMed

Olives (Olea europaea cv. Cobrançosa, Madural, and Verdeal Transmontana) used for oil production were stored, in plastic containers, at 5 +/- 2 degrees C (70% relative humidity) for three different periods before oil extraction: 0, 7, and 14 days (T(0), T(7), and T(14), respectively). In the crop year 1997/1998 this procedure was done only for cv. Cobrançosa and in 1998/1999 for the three cultivars. After storage, the oils were extracted from the fruits, and the acidity, peroxide value, coefficients of specific extinction at 232 and 270 nm, stability, color, p-anisidine value, fatty acids, and tocopherols compositions were determined. The results confirm that storage of fruits produces losses in the olive oil quality. Acidity and stability to oxidation indicate a progressive deterioration of oil quality as fruit is stored. The storage time affects the total tocopherols contents, namely, alpha-tocopherol, which clearly decreased during fruit storage. The oil quality of the Verdeal Transmontana cultivar deteriorated more rapidly than that of Cobrançosa and Madural cultivars. This study also shows that cv. Cobrançosa, the main cultivar in the region, is a good choice in terms of final olive oil quality. PMID:12381113

Pereira, J A; Casal, S; Bento, A; Oliveira, M B P P

2002-10-23

2

Influence of cultivar and site of cultivation on levels of lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants in virgin olive oils ( Olea Europea L.) and correlations with oxidative stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidation stability is an important property of olive oil quality and is affected by different antioxidant compounds whose levels may be influenced by cultivar, year and place of production. Polyphenols, tocopherols, carotenoids, chlorophylls and fatty acids levels were correlated to oxidative stability in olive oils from three experiments: cultivar influence (18 cultivars assessed for 4 years in the same place);

Debora Tura; Carmen Gigliotti; Stefano Pedò; Osvaldo Failla; Daniele Bassi; Arnaldo Serraiocco

2007-01-01

3

Olive leaves (Olea europea L.) and ?-tocopheryl acetate as feed antioxidants for improving the oxidative stability of ?-linolenic acid-enriched eggs.  

PubMed

Ninety-six brown Lohmann laying hens were equally assigned into four groups with six replicates. Hens within the control group were fed a corn-soybean-based diet supplemented with 4% linseed oil. Two other groups were given the same diet further supplemented with 5 or 10 g ground olive leaves/kg feed, while the diet of the fourth group was further supplemented with 200 mg ?-tocopheryl acetate/kg. Supplementing diets with olive leaves had no effect on egg production, feed intake and egg traits. Eggs collected 28 days after feeding the experimental diets were analysed for lipid hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, fatty acid profile, ?-tocopherol concentrations and susceptibility to iron-induced lipid oxidation. Olive leaves were also analysed for total and individual phenolics, and total flavonoids, whereas their antioxidant capacity was determined using both the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2-azinobis3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical scavenging activity assays. Results showed that neither ?-tocopheryl acetate nor olive leaves supplementation exerted (p>0.05) any effect on the fatty acid composition of n-3 eggs. Supplementing the diet with 5 g olive leaves/kg had no (p>0.05) effect on the hydroperoxide levels of n-3 eggs, while supplementing with 10 g olive leaves/kg or 200 mg ?-tocopheryl acetate/kg, the lipid hydroperoxide levels were reduced (p?0.05) compared to control. However, although hydroperoxides were reduced, MDA, a secondary lipid oxidation product, was not affected (p>0.05). Iron-induced lipid oxidation increased MDA values in eggs from all groups, the increase being higher (p?0.05) in the control group and the group supplemented with 5 g olive leaves/kg. The group supplemented with 10 g olive leaves/kg presented MDA values lower (p?0.05) than the control but higher (p?0.05) than the ?-tocopheryl acetate group, which presented MDA concentrations lower (p?0.05) than all other experimental diets at all incubation time points. PMID:22716021

Botsoglou, E; Govaris, A; Fletouris, D; Iliadis, S

2013-08-01

4

Hg contents in soils and olive-tree (Olea Europea, L.) leaves from an area affected by elemental mercury pollution (Jódar, SE Spain).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from soil and olive tree leaves around a decommissioned chlor-alkali plant are presented in this communication. The factory was active in the period 1977-1991, producing during these years a heavily pollution of Guadalquivir River and hydrargyrism in more than local 45 workers. It is located at 7 km South of Jódar, a locality with some 12,120 inhabitants. Mercury usage was general in this type of plants, but at present it is being replaced by other types of technologies, due to the risks of mercury usage in personal and environment. A soil geochemistry survey was carried out in the area, along with the analysis of olive-tree leaves (in the plots with this culture) from the same area. 73 soil samples were taken at two different depths (0-15 cm and 15-30 cm), together with 41 olive tree samples. Mercury content of geologic and biologic samples was determined by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Zeeman Effect, using a Lumex RA-915+ device with the RP-91C pyrolysis attachment. Air surveys were carried our using a RA-915M Lumex portable analytical device. Soil mercury contents were higher in topsoil than in the deeper soil samples, indicating that incorporation of mercury was due to dry and wet deposition of mercury vapors emitted from the plant. Average content in topsoil is 564.5 ng g-1. Hg contents in olive-tree leaves were in the range 46 - 453 ng g-1, with an average of 160.6 ng g-1. This level is slightly lower than tolerable level for agronomic crops established by Kabata-Pendias (2001) in 200 ng g-1. We have also compared soil and leaf contents for each sampling site, finding a positive and significant correlation (R=0.49), indicating that Hg contents in the leaves are linked to Hg contents in the soils. BAC (Bioaccumulation Absorption Coefficient, calculated as ratio between soil and leaf concentration) is 0.28 (consistent with world references, BAC = 0.7), considered "medium" in comparison with other mineral elements. Main conclusions of this research work are the following: i) The Jódar decommissioned chlor-alkali plant is still a mercury source 20 years after its cease of activities without any reclamation measures; ii) The activity of the plant has produced an important dissemination of mercury in the surrounding environment; and iii) The corresponding pollution levels, in particular in soils, may suppose a risk to the main crops of the area (olive trees present significant accumulation of Hg in leaf).

López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; María Esbrí, José; Amorós, José Angel; Lorenzo, Saturnino; Fernández-Calderón, Sergio; Higueras, Pablo; Perez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad

2014-05-01

5

Antimicrobial activity of commercial Olea europaea (olive) leaf extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was to investigate the activity of a commercial extract derived from the leaves of Olea europaea (olive) against a wide range of microorganisms (n=122). Using agar dilution and broth microdilution techniques, olive leaf extract was found to be most active against Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori and Staphylococcus aureus [including meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)], with minimum

Aurelia N. Sudjana; Carla D’Orazio; Vanessa Ryan; Nooshin Rasool; Justin Ng; Nabilah Islam; Thomas V. Riley; Katherine A. Hammer

2009-01-01

6

ORIGINAL ARTICLE On the origin of the invasive olives (Olea europaea  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE On the origin of the invasive olives (Olea europaea L., Oleaceae) G Besnard1 , P, Australia The olive tree (Olea europaea) has successfully invaded several regions in Australia and Pacific islands. Two olive subspecies (subspp. europaea and cuspidata) were first introduced in these areas during

Alvarez, Nadir

7

Antimicrobial activity of commercial Olea europaea (olive) leaf extract.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to investigate the activity of a commercial extract derived from the leaves of Olea europaea (olive) against a wide range of microorganisms (n=122). Using agar dilution and broth microdilution techniques, olive leaf extract was found to be most active against Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori and Staphylococcus aureus [including meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)], with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as low as 0.31-0.78% (v/v). In contrast, the extract showed little activity against all other test organisms (n=79), with MICs for most ranging from 6.25% to 50% (v/v). In conclusion, olive leaf extract was not broad-spectrum in action, showing appreciable activity only against H. pylori, C. jejuni, S. aureus and MRSA. Given this specific activity, olive leaf extract may have a role in regulating the composition of the gastric flora by selectively reducing levels of H. pylori and C. jejuni. PMID:19135874

Sudjana, Aurelia N; D'Orazio, Carla; Ryan, Vanessa; Rasool, Nooshin; Ng, Justin; Islam, Nabilah; Riley, Thomas V; Hammer, Katherine A

2009-05-01

8

Characterization of Libyan olive, olea europaea L., cultivars using morpholigical data  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Olive (Olea europaea L.) consumption and production are important socially and economically in Libya. Olive cultivars that are adapted to local conditions produce olives that have high quality and quantities of oil. Many of the important Libyan olive cultivars were included in this research. One goa...

9

Polyploidy in the Olive Complex (Olea europaea): Evidence from Flow Cytometry and Nuclear Microsatellite Analyses  

E-print Network

Polyploidy in the Olive Complex (Olea europaea): Evidence from Flow Cytometry and Nuclear and phylogeographic investigations have been previously performed to study the evol- ution of the olive tree complex and their evolutionary significance in the diversification of the olive tree and its relatives. Methods Representatives

Alvarez, Nadir

10

Molecular biology and genetics / Biologie et gntique molculaire Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea  

E-print Network

for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. ssp. europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms Guillaume of nuclear and cytoplasmic genetic diversity of cultivated olive, oleaster and other taxa belonging olive and oleaster. A fourth mitotype, ME2, was unique to some cultivars. The preponderant mitotype, ME1

Alvarez, Nadir

11

Draft Genome Sequence of Erwinia oleae, a Bacterium Associated with Olive Knots Caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi  

PubMed Central

Erwinia oleae is a nonpathogenic bacterial species isolated from olive knots caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi. Since the presence of E. oleae in the knots increases disease severity, interspecies interactions with the pathogen are hypothesized. Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of the E. oleae type strain. PMID:25502684

Cortese, Chiara; Passos da Silva, Daniel; Venturi, Vittorio; Firrao, Giuseppe; Buonaurio, Roberto

2014-01-01

12

Measurement of chlorophyllase activity in olive fruit (Olea europaea).  

PubMed

Chlorophyllase activity in olive fruit (Olea europaea) was measured using the enzyme solubilized from the protein precipitate. The reaction was stopped by freezing the mixture at -20 degrees C, to avoid dilution of the sample and consequent reduction of the substrate levels to below the detection limits of the analytical system. Separation of the substrates and products of the enzymatic reaction was performed by reverse-phase HPLC using a gradient solvent system of water and ion suppressor/methanol/acetone. These conditions allowed direct resolution of the reaction mixture prior to centrifugation, without the need for the transfer of any of the components to other solvents. Olive chlorophyllase in the crude enzymatic extract showed maximum activity at 50 degrees C and the optimum pH was 8.5 in acetate-phosphate-borate buffer for all substrates used, chlorophylls (a and b) and pheophytins (a and b). The Km and Vmax values obtained for hydrolysis of these substrates showed that chlorophyllase had a greater affinity for chlorophyll b, while the highest maximum rate of reaction occurred with pheophytin a. Substrate inhibition was observed with pheophytin b. PMID:7822241

Mínguez-Mosquera, M I; Gandul-Rojas, B; Gallardo-Guerrero, L

1994-08-01

13

A survey of natural and introduced parasitoids of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Israel  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Olive cultivation occupies eight million hectares worldwide, with over ten million tons of olives annually (90% in the Mediterranean Basin). The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a key pest of olive fruit, causing up to 50% in crop loss. Increasing biological control by n...

14

Diversity and ecology of natural enemies of olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, in South Africa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The recent establishment in North America of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmel.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), has renewed interest in classical biological control of this pest. Previous surveys conducted in Africa and Asia during the 20th century demonstrated a greater natural enemy diversity in s...

15

Volatile constituents of commercial imported and domestic black-ripe table olives (Olea europaea)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Volatile constituents of commercial black-ripe table olives (Olea europaea) from the United States, Spain, Egypt and Morocco were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Dynamic headspace sampling was used to isolate a variety of aldehydes, alcohols, esters, ...

16

Abstract Chloroplast DNA diversity in the olive (Olea europaea L.) complex was studied using PCR-RFLP and  

E-print Network

Abstract Chloroplast DNA diversity in the olive (Olea europaea L.) complex was studied using PCR and Sahara, and clade E2 in West Mediterranea. Cultivated olive clustered with Medi- terranean and Saharan eastern and western Mediterranean olives, suggesting that these areas have represented dif- ferent glacial

Alvarez, Nadir

17

Valuable Nutrients and Functional Bioactives in Different Parts of Olive (Olea europaea L.)—A Review  

PubMed Central

The Olive tree (Olea europaea L.), a native of the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia, is now widely cultivated in many other parts of the world for production of olive oil and table olives. Olive is a rich source of valuable nutrients and bioactives of medicinal and therapeutic interest. Olive fruit contains appreciable concentration, 1–3% of fresh pulp weight, of hydrophilic (phenolic acids, phenolic alchohols, flavonoids and secoiridoids) and lipophilic (cresols) phenolic compounds that are known to possess multiple biological activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic, cardiotonic, laxative, and antiplatelet. Other important compounds present in olive fruit are pectin, organic acids, and pigments. Virgin olive oil (VOO), extracted mechanically from the fruit, is also very popular for its nutritive and health-promoting potential, especially against cardiovascular disorders due to the presence of high levels of monounsaturates and other valuable minor components such as phenolics, phytosterols, tocopherols, carotenoids, chlorophyll and squalene. The cultivar, area of production, harvest time, and the processing techniques employed are some of the factors shown to influence the composition of olive fruit and olive oil. This review focuses comprehensively on the nutrients and high-value bioactives profile as well as medicinal and functional aspects of different parts of olives and its byproducts. Various factors affecting the composition of this food commodity of medicinal value are also discussed. PMID:22489153

Ghanbari, Rahele; Anwar, Farooq; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Saari, Nazamid

2012-01-01

18

Molecular interactions between the olive and the fruit fly Bactrocera oleae  

PubMed Central

Background The fruit fly Bactrocera oleae is the primary biotic stressor of cultivated olives, causing direct and indirect damages that significantly reduce both the yield and the quality of olive oil. To study the olive-B. oleae interaction, we conducted transcriptomic and proteomic investigations of the molecular response of the drupe. The identifications of genes and proteins involved in the fruit response were performed using a Suppression Subtractive Hybridisation technique and a combined bi-dimensional electrophoresis/nanoLC-ESI-LIT-MS/MS approach, respectively. Results We identified 196 ESTs and 26 protein spots as differentially expressed in olives with larval feeding tunnels. A bioinformatic analysis of the identified non-redundant EST and protein collection indicated that different molecular processes were affected, such as stress response, phytohormone signalling, transcriptional control and primary metabolism, and that a considerable proportion of the ESTs could not be classified. The altered expression of 20 transcripts was also analysed by real-time PCR, and the most striking differences were further confirmed in the fruit of a different olive variety. We also cloned the full-length coding sequences of two genes, Oe-chitinase I and Oe-PR27, and showed that these are wound-inducible genes and activated by B. oleae punctures. Conclusions This study represents the first report that reveals the molecular players and signalling pathways involved in the interaction between the olive fruit and its most damaging biotic stressor. Drupe response is complex, involving genes and proteins involved in photosynthesis as well as in the production of ROS, the activation of different stress response pathways and the production of compounds involved in direct defence against phytophagous larvae. Among the latter, trypsin inhibitors should play a major role in drupe resistance reaction. PMID:22694925

2012-01-01

19

Olive ( Olea europaea L.) leaf extract elicits antinociceptive activity, potentiates morphine analgesia and suppresses morphine hyperalgesia in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyOlive (Olea europaea) leaves are used as anti-rheumatic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antipyretic, vasodilatory, hypotensive, antidiuretic and hypoglycemic agents in traditional medicine. Recently, it has been shown that olive leaf extract (OLE) has calcium channel blocker property; however, its influences on nociceptive threshold and morphine effects have not yet been clarified.

Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani; Maryam Rezaeezadeh-Roukerd; Khadije Esmaeilpour; Mehdi Abbasnejad; Bahram Rasoulian; Vahid Sheibani; Ayat Kaeidi; Zahra Hajializadeh

2010-01-01

20

Volatile constituents of commercial imported and domestic black-ripe table olives (Olea europaea).  

PubMed

Volatile constituents of commercial black-ripe table olives (Olea europaea) from the United States, Spain, Egypt and Morocco were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Dynamic headspace sampling was used to isolate a variety of aldehydes, alcohols, esters, ketones, phenols, terpenes, norisoprenoids, and pyridines. Odour unit values, calculated from concentration and odour threshold data, indicate that the following compounds are major contributors to black-ripe table olive aroma: ?-damascenone, nonanal, (E)-dec-2-enal, 3-methylbutanal, ethyl benzoate, octanal, 2-methoxyphenol, 2-methylbutanal and 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol. Imported olives contained a variety of fermentation derived volatiles that were not detected in domestic olives. Constituents such as ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, oct-1-en-3-one, ethyl hexanoate, (Z)-hex-3-enyl acetate, hexyl acetate, ethyl cyclohexanecarboxylate, benzyl acetate and 4-ethylphenol contributed to the odour of imported olives but were not detected in domestic olives. PMID:24295708

Sansone-Land, Angelina; Takeoka, Gary R; Shoemaker, Charles F

2014-04-15

21

Use of native woodlands and traditional olive groves by foraging bats on a Mediterranean island: consequences for conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recorded bat activity on Zakynthos island (Greece) to test the hypotheses that (1) olive (Olea europea) groves and native woodlands provide comparable foraging habitat for insectivorous bats, (2) lower foraging activity occurs in olive groves treated with insecticide chemicals. We acoustically sampled bat activity (passes per minute) in four wooded habitats (organic and non-organic olive groves, oak woodland (Quercus

C. M. Davy; D. Russo; M. B. Fenton

2007-01-01

22

Olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract effective in patients with stage-1 hypertension: comparison with Captopril.  

PubMed

A double-blind, randomized, parallel and active-controlled clinical study was conducted to evaluate the anti-hypertensive effect as well as the tolerability of Olive leaf extract in comparison with Captopril in patients with stage-1 hypertension. Additionally, this study also investigated the hypolipidemic effects of Olive leaf extract in such patients. It consisted of a run-in period of 4 weeks continued subsequently by an 8-week treatment period. Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract (EFLA(®)943) was given orally at the dose of 500 mg twice daily in a flat-dose manner throughout the 8 weeks. Captopril was given at the dosage regimen of 12.5 mg twice daily at start. After 2 weeks, if necessary, the dose of Captopril would be titrated to 25 mg twice daily, based on subject's response to treatment. The primary efficacy endpoint was reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP) from baseline to week-8 of treatment. The secondary efficacy endpoints were SBP as well as diastolic blood pressure (DBP) changes at every time-point evaluation and lipid profile improvement. Evaluation of BP was performed every week for 8 weeks of treatment; while of lipid profile at a 4-week interval. Mean SBP at baseline was 149.3±5.58 mmHg in Olive group and 148.4±5.56 mmHg in Captopril group; and mean DBPs were 93.9±4.51 and 93.8±4.88 mmHg, respectively. After 8 weeks of treatment, both groups experienced a significant reduction of SBP as well as DBP from baseline; while such reductions were not significantly different between groups. Means of SBP reduction from baseline to the end of study were -11.5±8.5 and -13.7±7.6 mmHg in Olive and Captopril groups, respectively; and those of DBP were -4.8±5.5 and -6.4±5.2 mmHg, respectively. A significant reduction of triglyceride level was observed in Olive group, but not in Captopril group. In conclusion, Olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract, at the dosage regimen of 500 mg twice daily, was similarly effective in lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressures in subjects with stage-1 hypertension as Captopril, given at its effective dose of 12.5-25 mg twice daily. PMID:21036583

Susalit, Endang; Agus, Nafrialdi; Effendi, Imam; Tjandrawinata, Raymond R; Nofiarny, Dwi; Perrinjaquet-Moccetti, Tania; Verbruggen, Marian

2011-02-15

23

Analysis of the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae Transcriptome and Phylogenetic Classification of the Major Detoxification Gene Families  

PubMed Central

The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae has a unique ability to cope with olive flesh, and is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. Its control has been largely based on the use of chemical insecticides, however, the selection of insecticide resistance against several insecticides has evolved. The study of detoxification mechanisms, which allow the olive fruit fly to defend against insecticides, and/or phytotoxins possibly present in the mesocarp, has been hampered by the lack of genomic information in this species. In the NCBI database less than 1,000 nucleotide sequences have been deposited, with less than 10 detoxification gene homologues in total. We used 454 pyrosequencing to produce, for the first time, a large transcriptome dataset for B. oleae. A total of 482,790 reads were assembled into 14,204 contigs. More than 60% of those contigs (8,630) were larger than 500 base pairs, and almost half of them matched with genes of the order of the Diptera. Analysis of the Gene Ontology (GO) distribution of unique contigs, suggests that, compared to other insects, the assembly is broadly representative for the B. oleae transcriptome. Furthermore, the transcriptome was found to contain 55 P450, 43 GST-, 15 CCE- and 18 ABC transporter-genes. Several of those detoxification genes, may putatively be involved in the ability of the olive fruit fly to deal with xenobiotics, such as plant phytotoxins and insecticides. In summary, our study has generated new data and genomic resources, which will substantially facilitate molecular studies in B. oleae, including elucidation of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic, as well as other important aspects of olive fruit fly biology. PMID:23824998

Rombauts, Stephane; Chrisargiris, Antonis; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

2013-01-01

24

Agistemus aimogastaensis sp. n. (Acari, Actinedida, Stigmaeidae), a recently discovered predator of eriophyid mites Aceria oleae and Oxycenus maxwelli, in olive orchards in Argentina.  

PubMed

A new species, Agistemus aimogastaensis, is described with the aid of optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy. This mite is an important predator of two eriophyid mites (Aceria oleae and Oxycenus maxwelli) in olive orchards (Olea europaea, variety Arauco) in La Rioja Province. The problems related to eriophyids in olive orchards in Argentina are highlighted and photos of the damage on leaves and fruit are included. PMID:23825448

Leiva, Sergio; Fernandez, Nestor; Theron, Pieter; Rollard, Christine

2013-01-01

25

Agistemus aimogastaensis sp. n. (Acari, Actinedida, Stigmaeidae), a recently discovered predator of eriophyid mites Aceria oleae and Oxycenus maxwelli, in olive orchards in Argentina  

PubMed Central

Abstract A new species, Agistemus aimogastaensis, is described with the aid of optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy. This mite is an important predator of two eriophyid mites (Aceria oleae and Oxycenus maxwelli) in olive orchards (Olea europaea, variety Arauco) in La Rioja Province. The problems related to eriophyids in olive orchards in Argentina are highlighted and photos of the damage on leaves and fruit are included. PMID:23825448

Leiva, Sergio; Fernandez, Nestor; Theron, Pieter; Rollard, Christine

2013-01-01

26

Profiling and functional classification of esterases in olive (Olea europaea) pollen during germination  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims A pollen grain contains a number of esterases, many of which are released upon contact with the stigma surface. However, the identity and function of most of these esterases remain unknown. In this work, esterases from olive pollen during its germination were identifided and functionally characterized. Methods The esterolytic capacity of olive (Olea europaea) pollen was examined using in vitro and in-gel enzymatic assays with different enzyme substrates. The functional analysis of pollen esterases was achieved by inhibition assays by using specific inhibitors. The cellular localization of esterase activities was performed using histochemical methods. Key Results Olive pollen showed high levels of non-specific esterase activity, which remained steady after hydration and germination. Up to 20 esterolytic bands were identified on polyacrylamide gels. All the inhibitors decreased pollen germinability, but only diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DIFP) hampered pollen tube growth. Non-specific esterase activity is localized on the surface of oil bodies (OBs) and small vesicles, in the pollen intine and in the callose layer of the pollen tube wall. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was mostly observed in the apertures, exine and pollen coat, and attached to the pollen tube wall surface and to small cytoplasmic vesicles. Conclusions In this work, for the first time a systematic functional characterization of esterase enzymes in pollen from a plant species with wet stigma has been carried out. Olive pollen esterases belong to four different functional groups: carboxylesterases, acetylesterases, AChEs and lipases. The cellular localization of esterase activity indicates that the intine is a putative storage site for esterolytic enzymes in olive pollen. Based on inhibition assays and cellular localization of enzymatic activities, it can be concluded that these enzymes are likely to be involved in pollen germination, and pollen tube growth and penetration of the stigma. PMID:22922586

Rejón, Juan D.; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Rodríguez-García, María Isabel; Castro, Antonio J.

2012-01-01

27

Isolation and characterization of a new hydroxytyrosol derivative from olive (Olea europaea) leaves.  

PubMed

A new secoiridoid compound was isolated from the leaves of Olea europaea. This compound, not previously identified, is the bis methylacetal of oleuropein aglycone, the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethyl [(2,6-dimethoxy-3-ethylidene)-tetrahydropyran-4-yl]acetate (3,4-DHPEA-DETA), and was found in different olive cultivar phenolic extracts as one of the major secoiridoid components. This compound was shown to be easily transformed in acidic aqueous media into 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, the major polyphenolic compound found in olive oil, and permitted us to increase the yield of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA isolation from the olive leaf extract. The antiradical activity of this new compound, evaluated by scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals, was much higher than the one found for 3,4-DHPEA-EDA or alpha-tocopherol. Results also call to attention the need for a careful identification of compounds by HPLC-MS, usually performed in acidic conditions. PMID:18582082

Paiva-Martins, Fátima; Pinto, Marisa

2008-07-23

28

Human absorption and metabolism of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol ingested as olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract.  

PubMed

Phenolic compounds derived from the olive plant (Olea europaea L.), particularly hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, have many beneficial effects in vitro. Olive leaves are the richest source of olive phenolic compounds, and olive leaf extract (OLE) is now a popular nutraceutical taken either as liquid or capsules. To quantify the bioavailability and metabolism of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol when taken as OLE, nine volunteers (five males) aged 42.8 ± 7.4 years were randomized to receive either capsulated or liquid OLE as a single lower (51.1 mg oleuropein, 9.7 mg hydroxytyrosol) or higher (76.6 mg oleuropein, 14.5 mg hydroxytyrosol) dose, and then the opposite strength (but same formulation) a week later. Plasma and urine samples were collected at fixed intervals for 24 h post-ingestion. Phenolic content was analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Conjugated metabolites of hydroxytyrosol were the primary metabolites recovered in plasma and urine after OLE ingestion. Peak oleuropein concentrations in plasma were greater following ingestion of liquid than capsule preparations (0.47 versus 2.74 ng/mL; p = 0.004), but no such effect was observed for peak concentrations of conjugated (sulfated and glucuronidated) hydroxytyrosol (p = 0.94). However, the latter peak was reached earlier with liquid preparation (93 versus 64 min; p = 0.031). There was a gender effect on the bioavailability of phenolic compounds, with males displaying greater plasma area under the curve for conjugated hydroxytyrosol (11,600 versus 2550 ng/mL; p = 0.048). All conjugated hydroxytyrosol metabolites were recovered in the urine within 8 h. There was wide inter-individual variation. OLE effectively delivers oleuropein and hydroxytrosol metabolites to plasma in humans. PMID:23766098

de Bock, Martin; Thorstensen, Eric B; Derraik, José G B; Henderson, Harold V; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

2013-11-01

29

Morphological and cytological development and starch accumulation in hermaphrodite and staminate flowers of olive ( Olea europaea L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In olive (Olea europaea L.), the formation of functionally staminate flowers rather than fully functional hermaphrodites is one of the major factors\\u000a limiting fruit set, as flowers with aborted pistils are incapable of producing fruit. Studies conducted on various angiosperm\\u000a species have shown a correlation between flower abortion and starch content. Thus, it is important to know if starch content

Lara Reale; Carlo Sgromo; Luisa Ederli; Stefania Pasqualini; Fabio Orlandi; Marco Fornaciari; Francesco Ferranti; Bruno Romano

2009-01-01

30

Symbiotic bacteria enable olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) to exploit intractable sources of nitrogen.  

PubMed

Insects are often associated with symbiotic micro-organisms, which allow them to utilize nutritionally marginal diets. Adult fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) associate with extracellular bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae) that inhabit their digestive tract. These flies obtain nutrients by foraging for plant exudates, honeydew and bird droppings scattered on leaves and fruit - a nutritional niche which offers ample amounts of carbohydrates, but low quantities of available nitrogen. We identified the bacteria resident in the gut of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) - a worldwide pest of olives and examined their contribution to nitrogen metabolism in the adult insect. By suppressing bacteria in the gut and monitoring female fecundity, we demonstrate that bacteria contribute essential amino acids and metabolize urea into an available nitrogen source for the fly, thus significantly elevating egg production. In an ecological context, bacteria were found to be beneficial to females subsisting on bird droppings, but not on honeydew - two natural food sources. We suggest that a main gut bacterium (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola) forms an inseparable, essential part of this fly's nutritional ecology. The evolution of this symbiosis has allowed adult flies to utilize food substrates which are low or imbalanced in assimilable nitrogen and thereby to overcome the nitrogen limitations of their natural diet. PMID:25403559

Ben-Yosef, M; Pasternak, Z; Jurkevitch, E; Yuval, B

2014-12-01

31

Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive tree (Olea europaea L.) with a focus on the Mediterranean Basin: a review.  

PubMed

The olive tree (Olea europaea ssp. europaea.) is one of the most ancient cultivated trees. It is an emblematic species owing to its ecological, economic and cultural importance, especially in the Mediterranean Basin. Plant-parasitic nematodes are major damaging pests on olive trees, mainly in nurseries. They significantly contribute to economic losses in the top-ten olive-producing countries in the world. However, the damages they induce in orchards and nurseries are specifically documented only in a few countries. This review aims to update knowledge about the olive-nematode pathosystem by: (1) updating the list of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with olive trees; (2) analysing their diversity (taxonomic level, trophic groups, dominance of taxa), which allowed us (i) to assess the richness observed in each country, and (ii) to exhibit and describe the most important taxa able to induce damages on olive trees such as: Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Xiphinema, Tylenchulus, Rotylenchulus, Heterodera (distribution especially in the Mediterranean Basin, pathogenicity and reactions of olive trees); (3) describing some management strategies focusing on alternative control methods; (4) suggesting new approaches for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes based on the management of the diversity of their communities, which are structured by several environmental factors such as olive diversity (due to domestication of wild olive in the past, and to breeding now), cropping systems (from traditional to high-density orchards), irrigation, and terroirs. PMID:25103828

Ali, Nadine; Chapuis, Elodie; Tavoillot, Johannes; Mateille, Thierry

2014-01-01

32

Nutrition Metabolism Plays an Important Role in the Alternate Bearing of the Olive Tree (Olea europaea L.)  

PubMed Central

The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits) are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between ”on year” and “off year” leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree. PMID:23555820

Turktas, Mine; Inal, Behcet; Okay, Sezer; Erkilic, Emine Gulden; Dundar, Ekrem; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel; Unver, Turgay

2013-01-01

33

Identification of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in olive ( Olea europaea L.).  

PubMed

A small insert genomic library of Olea europaea L., highly enriched in (GA/CT) n repeats, was obtained using the procedure of Kandpal et al. (1994). The sequencing of 103 clones randomly extracted from this library allowed the identification of 56 unique genomic inserts containing simple sequence repeat regions made by at least three single repeats. A sample of 20 primer pairs out of the 42 available were tested for functionality using the six olive varieties whose DNA served for library construction. All primer pairs succeeded in amplifying at least one product from the six DNA samples, and ten pairs detecting more than one allele were used for the genetic characterisation of a panel of 20 olive accessions belonging to 16 distinct varieties. A total of 57 alleles were detected among the 20 genotypes at the ten polymorphic SSR loci. The remaining primer pair allowed the amplification of a single SSR allele for all accessions plus a longer fragment for some genotypes. Considering the simple sequence repeat polymorphism, 5.7 alleles were scored on average for each of the ten SSR loci. A genetic dissimilarity matrix, based on the proportion of shared alleles among all the pair-wise combinations of genotypes, was constructed and used to disentangle the genetic relationships among varieties by means of the UPGMA clustering algorithm. Graphical representation of the results showed the presence of two distinct clusters of varieties. The first cluster grouped the varieties cultivated on the Ionian Sea coasts. The second cluster showed two subdivisions: the first sub-cluster agglomerated the varieties from some inland areas of Calabria; the second grouped the remaining varieties from Basilicata and Apulia cultivated in nearby areas. Results of cluster analysis showed a significant relationship between the multilocus genetic similarities and the geographic origin of the cultivars. PMID:12582701

Carriero, F.; Fontanazza, G.; Cellini, F.; Giorio, G.

2002-02-01

34

Construction of Core Collections Suitable for Association Mapping to Optimize Use of Mediterranean Olive (Olea europaea L.) Genetic Resources  

PubMed Central

Phenotypic characterisation of germplasm collections is a decisive step towards association mapping analyses, but it is particularly expensive and tedious for woody perennial plant species. Characterisation could be more efficient if focused on a reasonably sized subset of accessions, or so-called core collection (CC), reflecting the geographic origin and variability of the germplasm. The questions that arise concern the sample size to use and genetic parameters that should be optimized in a core collection to make it suitable for association mapping. Here we investigated these questions in olive (Olea europaea L.), a perennial fruit species. By testing different sampling methods and sizes in a worldwide olive germplasm bank (OWGB Marrakech, Morocco) containing 502 unique genotypes characterized by nuclear and plastid loci, a two-step sampling method was proposed. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index was found to be the best criterion to be maximized in the first step using the Core Hunter program. A primary core collection of 50 entries (CC50) was defined that captured more than 80% of the diversity. This latter was subsequently used as a kernel with the Mstrat program to capture the remaining diversity. 200 core collections of 94 entries (CC94) were thus built for flexibility in the choice of varieties to be studied. Most entries of both core collections (CC50 and CC94) were revealed to be unrelated due to the low kinship coefficient, whereas a genetic structure spanning the eastern and western/central Mediterranean regions was noted. Linkage disequilibrium was observed in CC94 which was mainly explained by a genetic structure effect as noted for OWGB Marrakech. Since they reflect the geographic origin and diversity of olive germplasm and are of reasonable size, both core collections will be of major interest to develop long-term association studies and thus enhance genomic selection in olive species. PMID:23667437

El Bakkali, Ahmed; Haouane, Hicham; Moukhli, Abdelmajid; Costes, Evelyne; Van Damme, Patrick; Khadari, Bouchaib

2013-01-01

35

Resistance-associated point mutations of organophosphate insensitive acetylcholinesterase, in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2.2-kb full length cDNA containing an ORF encoding a putative acetylcholinesterase (AChE) precursor of 673 amino acid residues was obtained by a com- bined degenerate PCR and RACE strategy from an organophosphate-susceptible Bactrocera oleae strain. A comparison of cDNA sequences of individual insects from susceptible and resistant strains, coupled with an enzyme inhibition assay with omethoate, indicated a novel

J. G. Vontas; M. J. Hejazi; N. J. Hawkes; N. Cosmidis; M. Loukas; J. Hemingway

2002-01-01

36

Genetic Biodiversity of Italian Olives (Olea europaea) Germplasm Analyzed by SSR Markers  

PubMed Central

The olive is an important fruit species cultivated for oil and table olives in Italy and the Mediterranean basin. The conservation of cultivated plants in ex situ collections is essential for the optimal management and use of their genetic resources. The largest ex situ olive germplasm collection consists of approximately 500 Italian olive varieties and corresponding to 85% of the total Italian olive germplasm is maintained at the Consiglio per la Ricerca e sperimentazione per l'Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per l'Olivicoltura e l'Industria Olearia (CRA-OLI), in Italy. In this work, eleven preselected nuclear microsatellite markers were used to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flows with the aim of assembling a core collection. The dendrogram obtained utilizing the unweighted pair group method highlights the presence of homonymy and synonymy in olive tree datasets analyzed in this study. 439 different unique genotype profiles were obtained with this combination of 11 loci nSSR, representing 89.8% of the varieties analyzed. The remaining 10.2% comprises different variety pairs in which both accessions are genetically indistinguishable. Clustering analysis performed using BAPS software detected seven groups in Italian olive germplasm and gene flows were determined among identified clusters. We proposed an Italian core collection of 23 olive varieties capturing all detected alleles at microsatellites. The information collected in this study regarding the CRA-OLI ex situ collection can be used for breeding programs, for germplasm conservation, and for optimizing a strategy for the management of olive gene pools. PMID:24723801

Vendramin, Giuseppe Giovanni; Chiappetta, Adriana

2014-01-01

37

Olive ( Olea europaea) leaf extract effective in patients with stage-1 hypertension: Comparison with Captopril  

Microsoft Academic Search

A double-blind, randomized, parallel and active-controlled clinical study was conducted to evaluate the anti-hypertensive effect as well as the tolerability of Olive leaf extract in comparison with Captopril in patients with stage-1 hypertension. Additionally, this study also investigated the hypolipidemic effects of Olive leaf extract in such patients. It consisted of a run-in period of 4 weeks continued subsequently by

Endang Susalit; Nafrialdi Agus; Imam Effendi; Raymond R. Tjandrawinata; Dwi Nofiarny; Tania Perrinjaquet-Moccetti; Marian Verbruggen

2011-01-01

38

Antifungal activity of olive leaf ( Olea Europaea L.) extracts from the Trilye Region of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial properties of olive leaf extract on some yeast were examined in this study. Fresh olive leaf extracts were prepared\\u000a using various solvents (water, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate) in Soxhlet apparatus. Antimicrobial effects of these extacts\\u000a were tested againstSaccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9763,Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces uvarum, Candida oleophila, Metschnikowia fructicola andKloeckera apiculata. The antifungal activities of these extracts were tested by

Mihriban Korukluoglu; Yasemin Sahan; Aycan Yigit; Reyhan Karakas

2006-01-01

39

Assessment of susceptibility of olive cultivars to the Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin, 1790) and Camarosporium dalmaticum (Thüm.) Zachos & Tzav.-Klon. attacks in Calabria (Southern Italy).  

PubMed

Within the framework of research concerning the application of techniques alternative to chemical pesticides for control of parasites, the C.R.A. Experimental Institute for Olive Growing for many years has been performing a large investigation in order to detect sources of genetic resistance in olive germplasm. In the present study we observed the behavior related to the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) infestation and Camarosporium dalmaticum infection of ten olive cultivars farmed under the same agronomic and climatic conditions in Calabria, Southern Italy. The sampling and the data collecting were carried out in three different ripening times. The drupe amount of oleuropein and cyanidine was detected by laboratory analyses in order to verify a possible correlation between these molecules and the level of infestation/infection of the above-mentioned parasites. The obtained data were submitted to analysis of variance. In relation to the fungal infection the results displayed that cvs Tonda nera dolce showed the lowest susceptibility, while the cv Giarraffa turned out to be the most susceptible. The less susceptible cultivars to the phytophagous were Tonda nera dolce and Bhardi Tirana. Since the less susceptible cultivar to olive fly attacks are the same observed in relation to the susceptibility to olive fruit rot, it is suggested a relation between the olive fly infestation and the fungal infection. It suggests the utility to achieve these results both to transfer directly to the farmers' world and to emphasize ecosystem health and biodiversity conservation. PMID:17763035

Iannotta, Nino; Noce, Maria E; Ripa, Vincenzo; Scalercio, Stefano; Vizzarri, Veronica

2007-01-01

40

Pigment metabolism of 'Sikitita' olive ( Olea europaea L.): a new cultivar obtained by cross-breeding.  

PubMed

The new olive cultivar 'Sikitita' was obtained from a cross between the 'Picual' and 'Arbequina' varieties. 'Sikitita' was selected for its features, making it particularly suited to high-density olive hedgerow orchards. From the standpoint of chloroplast pigment metabolism, the fruits of the 'Picual' and 'Arbequina' varieties have significant differences. It is therefore extremely interesting to analyze the descendants of both cultivars. With regard to chlorophyll catabolism, 'Sikitita' has proven to be a cultivar with low pigmentation and low levels of chlorophyllase activity. This is contrary to the findings obtained to date, where varieties with low pigmentation are a consequence of high chlorophyllase activity ('Arbequina') and highly pigmented fruits are due to low chlorophyllase activity ('Picual'). 'Arbequina' was, until recently, the only cultivar described that had developed a carotenogenic process, despite its anthocyanic ripening. However, from its father ('Arbequina'), the 'Sikitita' cultivar has inherited the pool of enzymes necessary to esterify xanthophylls at the chromoplast level. This makes 'Sikitita' a very interesting cultivar, with potential chemotaxonomic differences (such as esterified xanthophylls in the olive oils), and demonstrates the interest in genetic improvement programs for olive cultivars with different organoleptic characteristics. PMID:21319806

Roca, María; León, Lorenzo; de la Rosa, Raúl

2011-03-01

41

Phenolic Compounds and Antimicrobial Activity of Olive (Olea europaea L. Cv. Cobrançosa) Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the determination of phenolic compounds in olive leaves by reversed- phase HPLC\\/DAD, and the evaluation of their in vitro activity against several microorganisms that may be causal agents of human intestinal and respiratory tract infections, namely Gram positive (Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), Gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and fungi (Candida

Ana Paula Pereira; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira; Filipa Marcelino; Patricia Valentão; Paula B. Andrade; Rosa Seabra; Leticia Estevinho; Albino Bento; José Alberto Pereira

2007-01-01

42

Variability of Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds in a Segregating Progeny from a Single Cross in Olea europaea L. and Sensory and Nutritional Quality Implications  

PubMed Central

Virgin olive oil phenolic compounds are responsible for its nutritional and sensory quality. The synthesis of phenolic compounds occurs when enzymes and substrates meet as olive fruit is crushed during the industrial process to obtain the oil. The genetic variability of the major phenolic compounds of virgin olive oil was studied in a progeny of the cross of Picual x Arbequina olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.). They belong to four different groups: compounds that included tyrosol or hydroxytyrosol in their molecules, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Data of phenolics in the oils showed that the progeny displayed a large degree of variability, widely transgressing the genitor levels. This high variability can be of interest on breeding programs. Thus, multivariate analysis allowed to identify genotypes within the progeny particularly interesting in terms of phenolic composition and deduced organoleptic and nutritional quality. The present study has demonstrated that it is possible to obtain enough degree of variability with a single cross of olive cultivars for compounds related to the nutritional and organoleptic properties of virgin olive oil. PMID:24651694

Pérez, Ana G.; León, Lorenzo; Pascual, Mar; Romero-Segura, Carmen; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; de la Rosa, Raúl; Sanz, Carlos

2014-01-01

43

Adsorption of olive leaf (Olea europaea L.) antioxidants on silk fibroin.  

PubMed

The adsorption isotherms of oleuropein and rutin were evaluated at different temperatures, pH values, and solid/liquid ratios. The experimental data of adsorption isotherms were well fitted to a Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacities were determined as 108 mg of oleuropein/g of silk fibroin and 21 mg of rutin/g of silk fibroin. After adsorption of oleuropein and rutin, the antioxidant capacity of silk fibroin increased from 1.93 to 3.61 mmol of TEAC/g. Silk fibroin also gained antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae after adsorption of olive leaf antioxidants. In a desorption process, 81% of rutin and 85% of oleuropein were removed from the adsorbent surface in 70% aqueous ethanol solution. Consequently, silk fibroin was found to be a promising biomaterial for the production of functional food or dietary supplements and for the purification of oleuropein and rutin from olive leaf extracts. PMID:17261014

Bayçin, Deniz; Altiok, Evren; Ulkü, Semra; Bayraktar, Oguz

2007-02-21

44

Characterization of a caleosin expressed during olive (Olea europaea L.) pollen ontogeny  

PubMed Central

Background The olive tree is an oil-storing species, with pollen being the second most active site in storage lipid biosynthesis. Caleosins are proteins involved in storage lipid mobilization during seed germination. Despite the existence of different lipidic structures in the anther, there are no data regarding the presence of caleosins in this organ to date. The purpose of the present work was to characterize a caleosin expressed in the olive anther over different key stages of pollen ontogeny, as a first approach to unravel its biological function in reproduction. Results A 30 kDa caleosin was identified in the anther tissues by Western blot analysis. Using fluorescence and transmission electron microscopic immunolocalization methods, the protein was first localized in the tapetal cells at the free microspore stage. Caleosins were released to the anther locule and further deposited onto the sculptures of the pollen exine. As anthers developed, tapetal cells showed the presence of structures constituted by caleosin-containing lipid droplets closely packed and enclosed by ER-derived cisternae and vesicles. After tapetal cells lost their integrity, the caleosin-containing remnants of the tapetum filled the cavities of the mature pollen exine, forming the pollen coat. In developing microspores, this caleosin was initially detected on the exine sculptures. During pollen maturation, caleosin levels progressively increased in the vegetative cell, concurrently with the number of oil bodies. The olive pollen caleosin was able to bind calcium in vitro. Moreover, PEGylation experiments supported the structural conformation model suggested for caleosins from seed oil bodies. Conclusions In the olive anther, a caleosin is expressed in both the tapetal and germ line cells, with its synthesis independently regulated. The pollen oil body-associated caleosin is synthesized by the vegetative cell, whereas the protein located on the pollen exine and its coating has a sporophytic origin. The biological significance of the caleosin in the reproductive process in species possessing lipid-storing pollen might depend on its subcellular emplacement. The pollen inner caleosin may be involved in OB biogenesis during pollen maturation. The protein located on the outside might rather play a function in pollen-stigma interaction during pollen hydration and germination. PMID:21884593

2011-01-01

45

Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7, an indigenous root endophyte from olive (Olea europaea L.) and effective biocontrol agent against Verticillium dahliae  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7 is a native endophyte of olive roots. Previous studies have shown this motile, Gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium is an effective biocontrol agent against the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae, the causal agent of one of the most devastating diseases for olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivation. Here, we announce and describe the complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7 consisting of a circular chromosome of 6,136,735 bp that encodes 5,567 protein-coding genes and 88 RNA-only encoding genes. Genome analysis revealed genes predicting factors such as secretion systems, siderophores, detoxifying compounds or volatile components. Further analysis of the genome sequence of PICF7 will help in gaining insights into biocontrol and endophytism.

2015-01-01

46

De Novo Assembly and Functional Annotation of the Olive (Olea europaea) Transcriptome  

PubMed Central

Olive breeding programmes are focused on selecting for traits as short juvenile period, plant architecture suited for mechanical harvest, or oil characteristics, including fatty acid composition, phenolic, and volatile compounds to suit new markets. Understanding the molecular basis of these characteristics and improving the efficiency of such breeding programmes require the development of genomic information and tools. However, despite its economic relevance, genomic information on olive or closely related species is still scarce. We have applied Sanger and 454 pyrosequencing technologies to generate close to 2 million reads from 12 cDNA libraries obtained from the Picual, Arbequina, and Lechin de Sevilla cultivars and seedlings from a segregating progeny of a Picual × Arbequina cross. The libraries include fruit mesocarp and seeds at three relevant developmental stages, young stems and leaves, active juvenile and adult buds as well as dormant buds, and juvenile and adult roots. The reads were assembled by library or tissue and then assembled together into 81 020 unigenes with an average size of 496 bases. Here, we report their assembly and their functional annotation. PMID:23297299

Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; González-Plaza, Juan José; Cañada, Andrés; Blanco, Ana María; García-López, Maria del Carmen; Rodríguez, José Manuel; Pedrola, Laia; Sicardo, M. Dolores; Hernández, M. Luisa; De la Rosa, Raúl; Belaj, Angjelina; Gil-Borja, Mayte; Luque, Francisco; Martínez-Rivas, José Manuel; Pisano, David G.; Trelles, Oswaldo; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Beuzón, Carmen R.

2013-01-01

47

Secoiridoid type of antiallergic substances in olive waste materials of three Japanese varieties of Olea europaea.  

PubMed

2-Hydroxy-3-ethylidene-5-(methoxycarbonyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran-4-acetic acid 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl ester (3,4-DHPEA-EA) is a kind of secoiridoid first found in three Japanese olive pomaces: Mission, Lucca, and Manzanillo. These varieties showed high activity of 3,4-DHPEA-EA as an antiallergic active substance with IC50 at 33.5 ± 0.6 ?g/mL. Because 3,4-DHPEA-EA was the most abundant among the active substances in the pomaces and the activity of 3,4-DHPEA-EA was greater than that of hydroxytyrosol and elenolic acid, 3,4-DHPEA-EA, which has the ester linkage of hydroxytyrosol and elenolic acid, should be essential for antiallergic activity. Although a trace amount (1.04 mg/kg) of luteolin in the pomace showed the highest antiallergic activity with IC50 at 0.752 ± 0.1 ?g/mL, we concluded that the entire antiallergic effect derives from the abundance of 3,4-DHPEA-EA, especially in the green olive pomace of the Mission variety in October, which showed the highest level of 3,4-DHPEA-EA (5033 ± 118 mg/kg). Therefore, the Mission variety had the most effective antiallergy property. PMID:25029390

Sato, Akihiko; Shinozaki, Noboru; Tamura, Hirotoshi

2014-08-01

48

In vitro regeneration in olive (Olea europaea L.) cv, 'Frontio' from nodal segments.  

PubMed

An efficient and reproducible protocol for plantlet regeneration from nodal segments of Olive cv 'Frontio' has been developed. Media and explants browning due to exudation of phenolics from the explants were controlled by fortification of the medium with 100 mg/L ascorbic acid. Best establishment of olive explants was observed on half-strength MS salts fortified with 2.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), which resulted in 56.2% of bud break and 93.7% survival whereas, a combination of full strength MS medium with 1.0 mg/L each of 3-indole-butyric-acid (IBA) and kinetin was found to be the best for shoot multiplication, in terms of number of shoots (3.6 shoots/explant) and shoot length (2.2 cm). The in vitro shoots were rooted on half-strength MS medium fortified with 0.2 mg/L IBA and 0.2 mg/L alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) with 1.5 g/L activated charcoal, which supported optimum rooting (60%), with an average of 2-3 roots/shoot, about 2.4 cm length were produced on four weeks of culture. PMID:25241592

Mangal, Manisha; Sharma, Dheeraj; Sharma, Mamta; Kumar, Sunil

2014-09-01

49

Ingestion toxicity of three Lamiaceae essential oils incorporated in protein baits against the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera Tephritidae).  

PubMed

The ingestion toxicity of three Lamiaceae essential oils (EOs) - Hyptis suaveolens, Rosmarinus officinalis and Lavandula angustifolia - incorporated in protein baits was evaluated against Bactrocera oleae, a worldwide pest of olive fruits. In laboratory conditions, all the tested EOs showed dose-dependent toxicity on B. oleae, with mortality rates ranging from 12% (EO concentration: 0.01% w:v) to 100% (EO concentration: 1.75% w:v). Semi-field results highlighted the toxicity of L. angustifolia and H. suaveolens EOs, which exerted more than 60% of flies mortality at a concentration of 1.75% (w:v). Gas Chromatography-Electron Impact Mass Spectrometry analyses of the three EOs showed that H. suaveolens EO was dominated by monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the main chemical class in R. officinalis and L. angustifolia EOs. Further research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of these EOs plus food bait against the olive fruit fly in the open field. PMID:23594314

Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni; Conti, Barbara; Lenzi, Gabriele; Flamini, Guido; Francini, Alessandra; Cioni, Pier Luigi

2013-01-01

50

Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract counteracts genotoxicity and oxidative stress of permethrin in human lymphocytes.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of olive leaf extract (OLE) on genotoxicity and oxidative damage in cultured human blood cells treated with permethrin (PM) in the presence of a rat liver S9 mix containing cytochrome P 450 enzymes. Anti-genotoxic activities of OLE were studied using sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosome aberration (CA) tests and furthermore total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidative status (TOS) were examined to determine the oxidative damage. Our results clearly revealed that treatment with PM (200 mg/l) alone increased SCE and CA rates and TOS level, decreased TAC level in cultured human blood cells. The OLE alone at the all tested doses did not induce any significant changes in the genotoxicity endpoint. However OLE leads to increases of plasma TAC level in vitro. OLE starts showing this positive effect at 100 mg/l. The combined treatment showed significant improvements in cytogenetic and biochemical parameters tested. Moreover, this improvement was more pronounced in the group received the high dose of the OLE. It could be concluded that the ethanol extract of OLE induced its genoprotective effect via the increase in the antioxidant capacity, inhibition of oxidative stress and scavenging of free radicals. PMID:22008529

Türkez, Hasan; To?ar, Ba?ak

2011-10-01

51

Partial root zone drying: regulation of photosynthetic limitations and antioxidant enzymatic activities in young olive (Olea europaea) saplings.  

PubMed

The effect of partial root drying (PRD) irrigation on split-root olive (Olea europaea L. cv Picholine marocaine) saplings was investigated. An irrigated control and two PRD regimes were applied (control: irrigation applied on both sides of the root system to keep the soil water content close to field capacity; PRD(50): irrigation applied at 50% of the control amount on one side of the root system and irrigation withheld from the other side, with irrigation regimes switched between the sides of the root system every 2 weeks; and PRD(100): irrigation applied at 100% of the control amount on one side and irrigation withheld on the other side, with irrigation regimes switched between the sides of the root system every 2 weeks. Only saplings in the PRD(50) regime were subjected to water-deficit irrigation. The PRD treatments significantly affected water relations and vegetative growth throughout the growing season. Predawn leaf water potential and relative water content differed significantly between the PRD(50) and PRD(100) saplings, leading to reduced stomatal conductance, carbon assimilation, shoot length and leaf number in PRD(50) saplings. However, the PRD(50) water-deficit treatment did not affect the capacity of the saplings to assimilate CO(2). Activities of superoxide dismutase, soluble and insoluble peroxidase (POX) and polyphenol oxidase were up-regulated by the PRD(50) and PRD(100) treatments compared with control values. The higher activities of both soluble and insoluble POX observed in PRD(50) saplings may reflect the greater inhibitory effect of this treatment on vegetative growth. Up-regulation of the detoxifying systems in the PRD(100) and PRD(50) saplings may have provided protection mechanisms against irreversible damage to the photosynthetic machinery, thereby allowing the photosynthetic apparatus to function and preventing the development of severe water stress. We also measured CO(2) assimilation rate/internal leaf CO(2) concentration (A/C(i)) after exposing the attached leaves to very low [CO(2)] (approximately 50 micromol mol(-1)) to force stomatal opening. These results confirmed that, under conditions of moderate water stress, the sum of the diffusional resistances (i.e., stomatal and mesophyll resistances) sets the limit to photosynthetic rates. Assessing photosynthetic capacity without removing the diffusional limitations may lead to an overestimation of the biochemical limitations to photosynthesis in sclerophyllous plants. PMID:19324696

Aganchich, Badia; Wahbi, Said; Loreto, Francesco; Centritto, Mauro

2009-05-01

52

Molecular Characterization and Chromosomal Distribution of a Species-Specific Transcribed Centromeric Satellite Repeat from the Olive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera oleae  

PubMed Central

Satellite repetitive sequences that accumulate in the heterochromatin consist a large fraction of a genome and due to their properties are suggested to be implicated in centromere function. Current knowledge of heterochromatic regions of Bactrocera oleae genome, the major pest of the olive tree, is practically nonexistent. In our effort to explore the repetitive DNA portion of B. oleae genome, a novel satellite sequence designated BoR300 was isolated and cloned. The present study describes the genomic organization, abundance and chromosomal distribution of BoR300 which is organized in tandem, forming arrays of 298 bp-long monomers. Sequence analysis showed an AT content of 60.4%, a CENP-B like-motif and a high curvature value based on predictive models. Comparative analysis among randomly selected monomers demonstrated a high degree of sequence homogeneity (88% – 97%) of BoR300 repeats, which are present at approximately 3,000 copies per haploid genome accounting for about 0.28% of the total genomic DNA, based on two independent qPCR approaches. In addition, expression of the repeat was also confirmed through RT-PCR, by which BoR300 transcripts were detected in both sexes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of BoR300 on mitotic metaphases and polytene chromosomes revealed signals to the centromeres of two out of the six chromosomes which indicated a chromosome-specific centromeric localization. Moreover, BoR300 is not conserved in the closely related Bactrocera species tested and it is also absent in other dipterans, but it’s rather restricted to the B. oleae genome. This feature of species-specificity attributed to BoR300 satellite makes it a good candidate as an identification probe of the insect among its relatives at early development stages. PMID:24244494

Tsoumani, Konstantina T.; Drosopoulou, Elena; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D.

2013-01-01

53

Olive (Olea europaea L.) Leaf Polyphenols Improve Insulin Sensitivity in Middle-Aged Overweight Men: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Olive plant leaves (Olea europaea L.) have been used for centuries in folk medicine to treat diabetes, but there are very limited data examining the effects of olive polyphenols on glucose homeostasis in humans. Objective To assess the effects of supplementation with olive leaf polyphenols (51.1 mg oleuropein, 9.7 mg hydroxytyrosol per day) on insulin action and cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged overweight men. Design Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in New Zealand. 46 participants (aged 46.4±5.5 years and BMI 28.0±2.0 kg/m2) were randomized to receive capsules with olive leaf extract (OLE) or placebo for 12 weeks, crossing over to other treatment after a 6-week washout. Primary outcome was insulin sensitivity (Matsuda method). Secondary outcomes included glucose and insulin profiles, cytokines, lipid profile, body composition, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, and carotid intima-media thickness. Results Treatment evaluations were based on the intention-to-treat principle. All participants took >96% of prescribed capsules. OLE supplementation was associated with a 15% improvement in insulin sensitivity (p?=?0.024) compared to placebo. There was also a 28% improvement in pancreatic ?-cell responsiveness (p?=?0.013). OLE supplementation also led to increased fasting interleukin-6 (p?=?0.014), IGFBP-1 (p?=?0.024), and IGFBP-2 (p?=?0.015) concentrations. There were however, no effects on interleukin-8, TNF-?, ultra-sensitive CRP, lipid profile, ambulatory blood pressure, body composition, carotid intima-media thickness, or liver function. Conclusions Supplementation with olive leaf polyphenols for 12 weeks significantly improved insulin sensitivity and pancreatic ?-cell secretory capacity in overweight middle-aged men at risk of developing the metabolic syndrome. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry #336317. PMID:23516412

de Bock, Martin; Derraik, José G. B.; Brennan, Christine M.; Biggs, Janene B.; Morgan, Philip E.; Hodgkinson, Steven C.; Hofman, Paul L.; Cutfield, Wayne S.

2013-01-01

54

Changes in the phenolic composition of virgin olive oil from young trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Arbequina) grown under linear irrigation strategies.  

PubMed

This study reports the HPLC profiles of phenolic compounds of virgin olive oils obtained from young olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Arbequina) and how the application of a linear irrigation strategy affected these. Hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, vanillic acid, vanillin, 4-(acetoxyethyl)-1,2-dihydroxybenzene, p-coumaric acid, the dialdehydic form of elenolic acid linked to hydroxytyrosol and to tyrosol, lignans, and the oleuropein aglycon were found in all the oils. Hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, vanillic acid, and p-coumaric acid contents in the oils were unaffected by linear irrigation. The concentration of lignans was lower in the oils from the least irrigated treatment and the concentration of vanillin increased as the amount of irrigation water applied to olive trees increased. However, 4-(acetoxyethyl)-1,2-dihydroxybenzene, the dialdehydic form of elenolic acid linked to hydroxytyrosol and to tyrosol, and the oleuropein aglycon, all of them hydroxyphenyl derivatives, decreased as the level of irrigation water increased. The latter three compounds represented the most considerable part of the phenolic fraction of the oils and they were shown to be correlated to the oxidative stability, the bitter index (K(225)), and the bitter, pungent, and sweet sensory attributes. Linear irrigation strategy changed the profile of the oil phenolic compounds and, therefore, changed both the organoleptic properties and the antioxidant capacity of the product. PMID:11714351

Tovar, M J; Motilva, M J; Romero, M P

2001-11-01

55

Effect of the combined treatment of insecticides and an attractant for the control of Phloeotribus scarabaeoides, a pest of Olea europea.  

PubMed

Different insecticides have been tested for the control of the olive bark beetle, Phloeotribus scarabaeoides Bern. This scolytid can be managed at two points in its biological cycle: in pruned logs, where it excavates reproduction galleries, or in living trees, after emergence from the logs, where it digs feeding galleries. In mortality laboratory bioassays, the efficiency of organophosphorus insecticides has been ranked as follows: chlorpyrifos + dimethoate < formothion < methidathion. Formothion and methidathion, the two most efficient, were sprayed on olive logs together with a pyrethroid insecticide, deltamethrin, and a formulation which combined an organophosphorus (fenitrothion) and a pyrethroid (cypermethrin) insecticide. Deltamethrin inhibited the excavation of new reproduction galleries and induced a repellent effect on the olive pest. In contrast, none of the organophosphorus insecticides or the combination, fenitrothion + cypermethrin, were able to control the olive bark beetle. In olive trees, deltamethrin controlled this olive pest without showing the repellent effect observed for logs. Ethylene, a plant hormone, has been reported as an attractant for the olive bark beetle. The use of dispensers which released ethylene increased the number of P. scarabaeoides approaching the treated olive trees, thus favouring its use in a lure-and-trap control system. PMID:12639052

Rodríguez, Estefanía; Campos, Mercedes; Sánchez Raya, Aniceto J; Peña, Aránzazu

2003-03-01

56

Effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) or Olea europaea (olive) leaves on oxidative stability of rabbit meat fortified with n-3 fatty acids.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) or Olea europaea (olive tree) leaves on oxidative stability of rabbit meat fortified with n-3 fatty acids. Forty-eight slovenska kunka (SIKA) rabbits were divided into four homogeneous groups. The control group (CONT-) received diet with 6% palm fat; other groups received diet with 6% linseed oil and were either unsupplemented (CONT+) or supplemented with 1% of G. lucidum (REISHI) or O. europaea leaves (OLIVE). Rabbits were slaughtered and fatty acid composition, concentration of vitamin E and malondialdehyde (MDA) in back muscle were analyzed. The results showed that linseed oil addition improved fatty acid composition by increasing polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) proportion, decreasing proportion of saturated fatty acid (SFA) and reducing n-6/n-3 ratio in rabbit meat. Groups that were supplemented with linseed oil had lower content of ?-tocopherol and higher content of ?-tocopherol, compared to the CONT- group. The addition of potential antioxidants did not effectively prevent oxidation of rabbit meat. PMID:24334050

Trebušak, Tina; Levart, Alenka; Salobir, Janez; Pirman, Tatjana

2014-03-01

57

Validation of reference genes for gene expression analysis in olive (Olea europaea) mesocarp tissue by quantitative real-time RT-PCR  

PubMed Central

Background Gene expression analysis using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a robust method wherein the expression levels of target genes are normalised using internal control genes, known as reference genes, to derive changes in gene expression levels. Although reference genes have recently been suggested for olive tissues, combined/independent analysis on different cultivars has not yet been tested. Therefore, an assessment of reference genes was required to validate the recent findings and select stably expressed genes across different olive cultivars. Results A total of eight candidate reference genes [glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), serine/threonine-protein phosphatase catalytic subunit (PP2A), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1-alpha), polyubiquitin (OUB2), aquaporin tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP2), tubulin alpha (TUBA), 60S ribosomal protein L18-3 (60S RBP L18-3) and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein homolog 3 (PTB)] were chosen based on their stability in olive tissues as well as in other plants. Expression stability was examined by qRT-PCR across 12 biological samples, representing mesocarp tissues at various developmental stages in three different olive cultivars, Barnea, Frantoio and Picual, independently and together during the 2009 season with two software programs, GeNorm and BestKeeper. Both software packages identified GAPDH, EF1-alpha and PP2A as the three most stable reference genes across the three cultivars and in the cultivar, Barnea. GAPDH, EF1-alpha and 60S RBP L18-3 were found to be most stable reference genes in the cultivar Frantoio while 60S RBP L18-3, OUB2 and PP2A were found to be most stable reference genes in the cultivar Picual. Conclusions The analyses of expression stability of reference genes using qRT-PCR revealed that GAPDH, EF1-alpha, PP2A, 60S RBP L18-3 and OUB2 are suitable reference genes for expression analysis in developing Olea europaea mesocarp tissues, displaying the highest level of expression stability across three different olive cultivars, Barnea, Frantoio and Picual, however the combination of the three most stable reference genes do vary amongst individual cultivars. This study will provide guidance to other researchers to select reference genes for normalization against target genes by qPCR across tissues obtained from the mesocarp region of the olive fruit in the cultivars, Barnea, Frantoio and Picual. PMID:24884716

2014-01-01

58

Isolation of polyphenols from the extracts of olive leaves ( Olea europaea L.) by adsorption on silk fibroin  

Microsoft Academic Search

General objective of the present work was to assess the isolation of polyphenols from olive leaves. The effects of extraction conditions on the total phenol content and antioxidant activity of olive leaf extract (OLE) were investigated. An extract with good antioxidant activity (7.52mmol of Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC)\\/g olive leaf extract), and a high content of oleuropein (13.4%) and

Evren Alt?ok; Deniz Bayç?n; Oguz Bayraktar; Semra Ülkü

2008-01-01

59

Effect of water deficit on leaf phenolic composition, gas exchange, oxidative damage and antioxidant activity of four Greek olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars.  

PubMed

The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is often exposed to severe water stress during the summer season. In this study, we determined the changes in total phenol content, oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol in the leaves of four olive cultivars ('Gaidourelia', 'Kalamon', 'Koroneiki' and 'Megaritiki') grown under water deficit conditions for two months. Furthermore, we investigated the photosynthetic performance in terms of gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence, as well as malondialdehyde content and antioxidant activity. One-year-old self-rooted plants were subjected to three irrigation treatments that received a water amount equivalent to 100% (Control, C), 66% (Field Capacity 66%, FC(66)) and 33% (Field Capacity 33%, FC(33)) of field capacity. Measurements were conducted 30 and 60 days after the initiation of the experiment. Net CO(2) assimilation rate, stomatal conductance and F(v)/F(m) ratio decreased only in FC(33) plants. Photosynthetic rate was reduced mainly due to stomatal closure, but damage to PSII also contributed to this decrease. Water stress induced the accumulation of phenolic compounds, especially oleuropein, suggesting their role as antioxidants. Total phenol content increased in FC(33) treatment and oleuropein presented a slight increase in FC(66) and a sharper one in FC(33) treatment. Hydroxytyrosol showed a gradual decrease as water stress progressed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased due to water stress, mostly after 60 days, while antioxidant activity increased for all cultivars in the FC(33) treatment. 'Gaidourelia' could be considered as the most tolerant among the tested cultivars, showing higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant activity and lower lipid peroxidation and photochemical damage after two months of water stress. The results indicated that water stress affected olive tree physiological and biochemical parameters and magnitude of this effect depended on genotype, the degree of water limitation and duration of treatment. However, the severity as well as the duration of water stress might exceed antioxidant capacity, since MDA levels and subsequent oxidative damage increased after two months of water deficit. PMID:22885895

Petridis, Antonios; Therios, Ioannis; Samouris, Georgios; Koundouras, Stefanos; Giannakoula, Anastasia

2012-11-01

60

Recovery and stability of oleuropein and other phenolic compounds during extraction and processing of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenols in olive leaves, especially oleuropein, are of great interest to researchers, household consumers and commercial entities due to many health benefits of these compounds. Various processing and extraction methods were investigated to evaluate stability and recovery of oleuropein and other polyphenols from olive leaves. Brief thawing of frozen leaf samples (5 minutes) caused a sharp reduction in extractable oleuropein

Nasir S. A. Malik; Joe M. Bradford

61

Inhibition of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced PC12 cell apoptosis by olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract is performed by its main component oleuropein.  

PubMed

Parkinson disease (PD) is the most common progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive death of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Most neurodegenerative disease treatments are, at present, palliative. However, some natural herbal products have been shown to rescue neurons from death and apoptosis in some of neurodegenerative diseases. Not only Olea europaea L. olive oil, but also the leaves of this plant have been used for medical purposes. Olive leaf extract (OLE) is being used by people as a drink across the world and as an integral ingredient in their desire to maintain and improve their health. Here, we investigated the effects of OLE and its main phenolic component oleuropein on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced toxicity in rat adrenal pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells as an in vitro model of PD. Cell damage was induced by 150??M 6-OHDA. The cell survival rate was examined by MTT assay. Generation of intra-cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was studied using fluorescence spectrophotometry. Immunoblotting and DNA analysis were also employed to determine the levels of biochemical markers of apoptosis in the cells. The data showed that 6-OHDA could decrease the viability of the cells. In addition, intra-cellular ROS, activated caspase 3, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, as well as DNA fragmentation were significantly increased in 6-OHDA-treated cells. Incubation of cells with OLE (400 and 600??g/mL) and oleuropein (20 and 25??g/mL) could decrease cell damage and reduce biochemical markers of cell death. The results suggest that OLE and oleuropein have anti-oxidant protective effects against 6-OHDA-induced PC12 cell damage. The protective effects of OLE and oleuropein are correlative with their anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic properties and suggest their therapeutic potential in the treatment of PD. PMID:23394606

Pasban-Aliabadi, Hamzeh; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Sheibani, Vahid; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Mehdizadeh, Anahita; Yaghoobi, Mohammad Mehdi

2013-04-01

62

Effect of malaxation conditions on phenol and volatile profiles in olive paste and the corresponding virgin olive oils (Olea europaea L. Cv. Cornicabra).  

PubMed

Malaxation of olive paste must be considered to be much more than a simple physical separation, because a complex bioprocess takes place that is very relevant to the quality and composition of the final product. A combined study of the effect of kneading temperature and time on the minor composition of olive paste and its corresponding virgin olive oil, processed in an experimental oil mill (Pieralisi, Fattoria) with a working capacity of 200 kg/h, is reported. A large drop in the oleuropein content in the olive paste with respect to its initial content in the olive fruit (between 92 and 96%) was observed, which suggested its almost total degradation during the crushing operation. The major phenolic compound found in the olive paste during kneading was the dialdehydic form of elenolic acid linked to hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA, always higher than 60% of the total phenols). This greatly decreased during malaxation (from 5505 to 2317 mg/kg, on average). The content of phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil was much more affected by the malaxation temperature than the kneading time. For instance, the 3,4-DHPEA-EDA content increased by 220-630% in the two batches when the temperature was increased from 20 to 40 degrees C. A reduction in the C6 aldehydes was found in virgin olive oil as the malaxation temperature increased, especially in E-2-hexenal (30% reduction). In contrast, C6 aldehydes in the oils from the oil mill plant significantly increased as the malaxation time increased from 30 to 90 min, chiefly E-2-hexenal (about a 70% increase). PMID:19338278

Gómez-Rico, Aurora; Inarejos-García, Antonio M; Salvador, M Desamparados; Fregapane, Giuseppe

2009-05-13

63

Antioxidant Activity and Chemical Components as Potential Anticancer Agents in the Olive Leaf (Olea europaea L. cv Leccino.) Decoction.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have shown that a reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases is correlated with a regular consumption of fruits and vegetable, many of which are rich in polyphenols. The additive and synergistic effect of phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables may reduce chronic diseases related to oxidative stress in human body. Olea europaea L. leaf are rich in phenolic components, which have been proposed to play a role in cancer prevention. The purpose of this study was to identify the main components in the Olea europaea L. leaf (cv. Leccino) preserved during the decoction preparation, in order to delineate the antioxidant activities of the crude extracts and its isolated compounds by using different in vitro assays including DPPH radicalscavenging capacity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory effect and the ability to delay the linoleic acid peroxidation process (ALP). The aqueous decoction was partitioned obtaining four extracts and the n-butanol extract showed the highest antioxidant activity and the highest total phenolic content. Phytochemical investigation leads to the isolation of thirteen secondary metabolites including simple phenolics, flavonoids, secoiridoids whose structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR) and spectrometric techniques. A significant free radical scavenging effect against DPPH has been evidenced in fraxamoside (1) (EC50 62.6 µM) and taxifolin (5) (EC50 50.0 µM), isolated for the first time from the water decoction. The most active compound in the TAC evaluation, was the 3,4 dihydro-phenyl glycol (8) (0.90 caffeic acid equiv.) while taxifolin and fraxamoside resulted as the most efficient inhibitors of XO activity (IC50 2.7 and 5.2 µM, respectively). Secoxyloganin (4), oleuropein (2) and tyrosol (6) showed the highest ALP activity. This study adds to the growing body of data supporting the bioactivities of phytochemicals and their potential impact on human health. PMID:25102361

Marino, Simona De; Festa, Carmen; Zollo, Franco; Nini, Antonella; Antenucci, Lina; Raimo, Gennaro; Iorizzi, Maria

2014-01-01

64

Recovery and stability of oleuropein and other phenolic compounds during extraction and processing of olive leaves (Olea europaeaL.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Polyphenols in olive leaves, especially oleuropein, are of great interest to researchers, household consumers and commercial entities due to many health benefits of these compounds. Various processing and extraction methods were investigated to evaluate stability and recovery of oleuropein and othe...

65

Evaluation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Capacity to Alleviate Abiotic Stress of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Plants at Different Transplant Conditions  

PubMed Central

The capacity of roots to sense soil physicochemical parameters plays an essential role in maintaining plant nutritional and developmental functions under abiotic stress. These conditions generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant tissues causing oxidation of proteins and lipids among others. Some plants have developed adaptive mechanisms to counteract such adverse conditions such as symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). AMF enhance plant growth and improve transplant survival by protecting host plants against environmental stresses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the alleviation of transplanting stress by two strains of Rhizophagus irregularis (GC2 and GA5) in olive. Our results show that olive plants have an additional energetic expense in growth due to an adaptative response to the growing stage and to the mycorrhizal colonization at the first transplant. However, at the second transplant the coinoculation improves olive plant growth and protects against oxidative stress followed by the GA5-inoculation. In conclusion, a combination of two AMF strains at the beginning of olive propagation produces vigorous plants successfully protected in field cultivation even with an additional cost at the beginning of growth. PMID:24688382

Bompadre, María Josefina; Pérgola, Mariana; Fernández Bidondo, Laura; Colombo, Roxana Paula; Silvani, Vanesa Analía; Pardo, Alejandro Guillermo; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; Godeas, Alicia Margarita

2014-01-01

66

Fate of a Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi Type III Secretion System Mutant in Olive Plants (Olea europaea L.)?†  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi strain NCPPB 3335 is a model bacterial pathogen for studying the molecular basis of disease production in woody hosts. We report the sequencing of the hrpS-to-hrpZ region of NCPPB 3335, which has allowed us to determine the phylogenetic position of this pathogen with respect to previously sequenced Pseudomonas syringae hrp clusters. In addition, we constructed a mutant of NCPPB 3335, termed T3, which carries a deletion from the 3? end of the hrpS gene to the 5? end of the hrpZ operon. Despite its inability to multiply in olive tissues and to induce tumor formation in woody olive plants, P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi T3 can induce knot formation on young micropropagated olive plants. However, the necrosis and formation of internal open cavities previously reported in knots induced by the wild-type strain were not observed in those induced by P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi T3. Tagging of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi T3 with green fluorescent protein (GFP) allowed real-time monitoring of its behavior on olive plants. In olive plant tissues, the wild-type strain formed aggregates that colonized the intercellular spaces and internal cavities of the hypertrophic knots, while the mutant T3 strain showed a disorganized distribution within the parenchyma of the knot. Ultrastructural analysis of knot sections revealed the release of extensive outer membrane vesicles from the bacterial cell surface of the P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi T3 mutant, while the wild-type strain exhibited very few vesicles. This phenomenon has not been described before for any other bacterial phytopathogen during host infection. PMID:20363790

Pérez-Martínez, Isabel; Rodríguez-Moreno, Luis; Lambertsen, Lotte; Matas, Isabel M.; Murillo, Jesús; Tegli, Stefania; Jiménez, Antonio J.; Ramos, Cayo

2010-01-01

67

Characterization of polyphenol oxidase from the Manzanilla cultivar (Olea europaea pomiformis) and prevention of browning reactions in bruised olive fruits.  

PubMed

The crude extract of the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme from the Manzanilla cultivar (Olea europaea pomiformis) was obtained, and its properties were characterized. The browning reaction followed a zero-order kinetic model. Its maximum activity was at pH 6.0. This activity was completely inhibited at a pH below 3.0 regardless of temperature; however, in alkaline conditions, pH inhibition depended on temperature and was observed at values above 9.0 and 11.0 at 8 and 25 degrees C, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters of substrate oxidation depended on pH within the range in which activity was observed. The reaction occurred according to an isokinetic system because pH affected the enzymatic reaction rate but not the energy required to carry out the reaction. In the alkaline pH region, browning was due to a combination of enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions that occurred in parallel. These results correlated well with the browning behavior observed in intentionally bruised fruits at different temperatures and in different storage solutions. The use of a low temperature ( approximately 8 degrees C) was very effective for preventing browning regardless of the cover solution used. PMID:17628073

Segovia-Bravo, Kharla A; Jarén-Galan, Manuel; García-García, Pedro; Garrido-Fernandez, Antonio

2007-08-01

68

Determination of the genetic relationships between wild olive (Olea europaea oleaster) varieties grown in the Aegean region.  

PubMed

The RAPD technique was used for determining genetic differences between 12 wild-olive varieties grown in the Aegean provinces of Izmir, Mugla, and Manisa in Turkey. Wild olives obtained from the same provinces were included in the same plot. Twenty of 25 operon primers (OP-I 4, OP-I 14, OP-I 15, OP-I 16, OP-I 17, OP-Q1, OP-Q2, OP-Q3, OP-Q4, OP-Q11, OP-Q12, OP-Q13, OP-Q14, OP-Q15, OP-Q16, OP-Q17, OP-Q18, OP-Q19, OP-Q20, OP-F1, OP-F2, OP-F3, OP-F6, OP-F7, OP-F8) yielded bands. The differences between the varieties were determined based on their genetic similarities, using principal coordinate analysis; genetic distances were determined using neighbor-joining analysis. The varieties wild 7 and wild 12 had the lowest genetic similarity (0.97, Jaccard similarity index); they also had the greatest genetic distance between them (0.3606, Nei's genetic distance). It was concluded that the RAPD technique is adequate for the evaluation of genetic relationships among wild olives. Principal coordinate analysis and neighbor-joining analysis gave results that support the use of this type of analysis to help understand the genetic background of olives and for further genetic studies. PMID:20467981

Sesli, M; Ye?eno?lu, E D

2010-01-01

69

Antioxidant effect of dry olive ( Olea europaea L.) leaf extract on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies demonstrated that the damaging action of absolute ethanol could be attributed to the enhancement in the reactive\\u000a oxygen species, increase in lipid peroxidation and inhibition of antioxidative enzyme activity. In this study we investigated\\u000a the mechanism of protective effect of olive leaf extract (OLE), a natural antioxidant, on gastric mucosal damage induced by\\u000a absolute ethanol in rats. OLE

D. Dekanski; S. Risti?; D. M. Mitrovi?

2009-01-01

70

Blood pressure lowering effect of an olive leaf extract (Olea europaea) in L-NAME induced hypertension in rats.  

PubMed

A specially prepared olive leaf extract (EFLA 943) has been tested for its blood pressure lowering activity in rats rendered hypertensive by daily oral doses of L-NAME (NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, 50 mg/kg) for at least 4 weeks. Oral administration of the extract at different dose levels at the same time as L-NAME for a period of 8 weeks showed a dose dependent prophylactic effect against the rise in blood pressure induced by L-NAME, best effects being induced by a dose of 100 mg/kg of the extract. In rats previously rendered hypertensive by L-NAME for 6 weeks and then treated with that dose of the extract for a further 6 weeks without discontinuation of L-NAME, normalisation of the blood pressure was observed. The findings confirm previous reports on the hypotensive effects of olive leaf. The special extract, EFLA 943, was shown to give consistent results with little individual variability. The antihypertensive effect of the extract may be related to a variety of factors involving reversal of vascular changes involved in the L-NAME induced hypertension. PMID:12489249

Khayyal, Mohamed T; el-Ghazaly, Mona A; Abdallah, Dalal M; Nassar, Noha N; Okpanyi, Samuel N; Kreuter, Matthias-Heinrich

2002-01-01

71

Thermal constraints on the productivity of the olive (Olea europaea L.) in the climates of olive-producing regions and of Texas  

E-print Network

. The olive is monoecious. Two types of flowers arise on the tree: per- fect and staminate. In the latter, the pistil is aborted. The reasons for this abortion are not quite clear, but they seem to be linked to climate and nutrition. Although there are two... the climate of Texas. This circulation is linked with the Azores Subtropi- cal High, the same system which affects the climate of the Mediterranean. When unopposed, as in summer, Gulf circulation sends streams of moist air inland where it rises to form...

Denney, James Osborne

2012-06-07

72

Effect of agronomical practices on carpology, fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties, in olive (Olea europaea L.).  

PubMed

We examined whether some agronomical practices (i.e. organic vs. conventional) affect olive fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties. Fruit characteristics (i.e. fresh and dry weight of pulp and pit, oil content on a fresh and dry weight basis) did not differ. Oil chemical traits did not differ except for increased content of polyphenols in the organic treatments, and some changes in the acidic composition. Sensory analysis revealed increased bitterness (both cultivars) and pungency (Frantoio) and decreased sweetness (Frantoio) in the organic treatment. Fruit metabolomic analysis with HRMAS-NMR indicated significant changes in some compounds including glycocholate, fatty acids, NADPH, NADP+, some amino acids, thymidine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid, 5,6-dihydrouracil, hesanal, cis-olefin, ?-D-glucose, propanal and some unassigned species. The results suggest that agronomical practices may have effects on fruit composition that may be difficult to detect unless a broad-spectrum analysis is used. PMID:24767050

Rosati, Adolfo; Cafiero, Caterina; Paoletti, Andrea; Alfei, Barbara; Caporali, Silvia; Casciani, Lorena; Valentini, Massimiliano

2014-09-15

73

Food supplementation with an olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract reduces blood pressure in borderline hypertensive monozygotic twins.  

PubMed

Hypertension is a harmful disease factor that develops unnoticed over time. The treatment of hypertension is aimed at an early diagnosis followed by adequate lifestyle changes rather than pharmacological treatment. The olive leaf extract EFLA943, having antihypertensive actions in rats, was tested as a food supplement in an open study including 40 borderline hypertensive monozygotic twins. Twins of each pair were assigned to different groups receiving 500 or 1000 mg/day EFLA943 for 8 weeks, or advice on a favourable lifestyle. Body weight, heart rate, blood pressure, glucose and lipids were measured fortnightly. Blood pressure changed significantly within pairs, depending on the dose, with mean systolic differences of < or =6 mmHg (500 mg vs control) and < or =13 mmHg (1000 vs 500 mg), and diastolic differences of < or =5 mmHg. After 8 weeks, mean blood pressure remained unchanged from baseline in controls (systolic/diastolic: 133 +/- 5/77 +/- 6 vs 135 +/- 11/80 +/- 7 mmHg) and the low-dose group (136 +/- 7/77 +/- 7 vs 133 +/- 10/76 +/- 7), but had significantly decreased for the high dose group (137 +/- 10/80 +/- 10 vs 126 +/- 9/76 +/- 6). Cholesterol levels decreased for all treatments with significant dose-dependent within-pair differences for LDL-cholesterol. None of the other parameters showed significant changes or consistent trends. Concluding, the study confirmed the antihypertensive and cholesterol-lowering action of EFLA943 in humans. PMID:18729245

Perrinjaquet-Moccetti, Tania; Busjahn, Andreas; Schmidlin, Caesar; Schmidt, Annette; Bradl, Barbara; Aydogan, Cem

2008-09-01

74

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Spatial genetic structure in the Laperrine's olive  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Spatial genetic structure in the Laperrine's olive (Olea europaea subsp The Laperrine's olive (Olea europaea subsp. laperrinei) is an emblematic species of the Sahelo-Saharan Mountains.hdy.6801051 Keywords: conservation genetics; microsatellites; olive tree; plastid DNA; spatial autocorrelation

Alvarez, Nadir

75

Phenolic composition and in vitro antioxidant capacity of four commercial phytochemical products: Olive leaf extract ( Olea europaea L.), lutein, sesamol and ellagic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four commercially available natural products (olive leaf extract, lutein, sesamol and ellagic acid) were investigated for in vitro antioxidant properties using the DPPH, ABTS+, ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAP), oxygen reducing antioxidant capacity (ORAC) and ?-carotene-linoleic acid assays. Antioxidant potency followed the order: ellagic acid>sesamol>olive leaf extract>lutein for all antioxidant test methods. Total phenolic content of olive leaf extract was

J. E. Hayes; P. Allen; N. Brunton; M. N. O’Grady; J. P. Kerry

2011-01-01

76

Olive ( Olea europaea L.) leaf extract attenuates early diabetic neuropathic pain through prevention of high glucose-induced apoptosis: In vitro and in vivo studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of studySince the leaves of olive have been recommended in the literature as a remedy for the treatment of diabetes and they also contain antioxidant agents, we decided to investigate the possible effects of olive leaf extract (OLE) on in vitro and in vivo models of diabetic pain neuropathy.

Ayat Kaeidi; Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani; Vahid Sheibani; Mehdi Abbasnejad; Bahram Rasoulian; Zahra Hajializadeh; Samira Afrazi

2011-01-01

77

The effect of a hydro-alcoholic extract of olive fruit on reproductive argons in male sprague-dawley rat  

PubMed Central

Background: Olive (Olea europea), from the Oleaceae family, is known as a phytoestrogen plant compound, containing Lignans and phenoliccompounds. Some studies have shown phytoestrogens to have spermatogenesis-decreasing effects. Objective: The present study investigated the effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of olive fruit on reproductive argons in male rats. Materials and Methods: The hydro-alcoholic olive (Olea europaea) extract was given orally to three experimental groups of rats in 50, 150, and 450 mg/kg in 48 days. The vehicle group was fed with normal saline and nothing was given to the control group (each group with 8 rats). After 49 days reproductive indicators i.e., sperm count, sperm motility, the weight of prostate, testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle were measured. Results: The results showed a significant decrease in the weights of the left testicle, seminal vesicle, testosterone hormone, sperm count and sperm motility but there was no significant difference with regard to the weights of prostate and epididymis, and estradiol hormone. Conclusion: This study suggests that olive extract may have deleterious effects on fertility factors; therefore, after further studies, it may be used as a contraceptive in males. PMID:24639759

Najafizadeh, Parvaneh; Dehghani, Farzaneh; Panjeh Shahin, Mohammadreza; Hamzei Taj, Sommaye

2013-01-01

78

Response of Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and conditions in California olive orchards  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), by the USDA-APHIS, PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europae...

79

J. AMER.Soc. HORT.Sa.110(1):50-52. 1985. Role of the Endocarp in 'Manzanillo' Olive Seed  

E-print Network

J. AMER.Soc. HORT.Sa.110(1):50-52. 1985. Role of the Endocarp in 'Manzanillo' Olive Seed 95616 Additional index words. Olea europaea Abstract. The endocarp of 'Manzanillo' olive (Olea europaea of the olive seed. The endocarp inhibited germination in stratified as well as unstratified olive seeds

Crisosto, Carlos H.

80

The effect of high temperature interruptions during inductive period on the extent of flowering and on metabolic responses in olives (Olea europaea L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of the duration of high temperature interruption and the timing of it’s occurrence during inductive period on the extent of inhibition of inflorescence production in ‘Arbequina’ olive trees was investigated. Trees kept under inductive conditions in different growth chambers were subjected...

81

Effect of fruit load on oil yield components and dynamics of fruit growth and oil accumulation in olive ( Olea europaea L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive oil yield and its components (fruit number, average fruit weight and fruit oil concentration) depend on crop load and source–sink ratios as affected by environmental conditions, management and the alternate bearing typical of the species. The aims of this work were to: (i) establish quantitative relationships between oil yield and its components as affected by fruit load in a

Eduardo R. Trentacoste; Carlos M. Puertas; Víctor O. Sadras

2010-01-01

82

Phenological models to predict the main flowering phases of olive (Olea europaea L.) along a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient across the Mediterranean region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present study was to develop pheno-meteorological models to explain and forecast the main olive flowering phenological phases within the Mediterranean basin, across a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient that includes Tunisia, Spain, and Italy. To analyze the aerobiological sampling points, study periods from 13 years (1999-2011) to 19 years (1993-2011) were used. The forecasting models were constructed using partial least-squares regression, considering both the flowering start and full-flowering dates as dependent variables. The percentages of variance explained by the full-flowering models (mean 84 %) were greater than those explained by the flowering start models (mean 77 %). Moreover, given the time lag from the North African areas to the central Mediterranean areas in the main olive flowering dates, the regional full-flowering predictive models are proposed as the most useful to improve the knowledge of the influence of climate on the olive tree floral phenology. The meteorological parameters related to the previous autumn and both the winter and the spring seasons, and above all the temperatures, regulate the reproductive phenology of olive trees in the Mediterranean area. The mean anticipation of flowering start and full flowering for the future period from 2081 to 2100 was estimated at 10 and 12 days, respectively. One question can be raised: Will the olive trees located in the warmest areas be northward displaced or will they be able to adapt their physiology in response to the higher temperatures? The present study can be considered as an approach to design more detailed future bioclimate research.

Aguilera, Fátima; Fornaciari, Marco; Ruiz-Valenzuela, Luis; Galán, Carmen; Msallem, Monji; Dhiab, Ali Ben; la Guardia, Consuelo Díaz-de; del Mar Trigo, María; Bonofiglio, Tommaso; Orlandi, Fabio

2014-07-01

83

Phenological models to predict the main flowering phases of olive (Olea europaea L.) along a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient across the Mediterranean region.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to develop pheno-meteorological models to explain and forecast the main olive flowering phenological phases within the Mediterranean basin, across a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient that includes Tunisia, Spain, and Italy. To analyze the aerobiological sampling points, study periods from 13 years (1999-2011) to 19 years (1993-2011) were used. The forecasting models were constructed using partial least-squares regression, considering both the flowering start and full-flowering dates as dependent variables. The percentages of variance explained by the full-flowering models (mean 84 %) were greater than those explained by the flowering start models (mean 77 %). Moreover, given the time lag from the North African areas to the central Mediterranean areas in the main olive flowering dates, the regional full-flowering predictive models are proposed as the most useful to improve the knowledge of the influence of climate on the olive tree floral phenology. The meteorological parameters related to the previous autumn and both the winter and the spring seasons, and above all the temperatures, regulate the reproductive phenology of olive trees in the Mediterranean area. The mean anticipation of flowering start and full flowering for the future period from 2081 to 2100 was estimated at 10 and 12 days, respectively. One question can be raised: Will the olive trees located in the warmest areas be northward displaced or will they be able to adapt their physiology in response to the higher temperatures? The present study can be considered as an approach to design more detailed future bioclimate research. PMID:25060840

Aguilera, Fátima; Fornaciari, Marco; Ruiz-Valenzuela, Luis; Galán, Carmen; Msallem, Monji; Dhiab, Ali Ben; la Guardia, Consuelo Díaz-de; Del Mar Trigo, María; Bonofiglio, Tommaso; Orlandi, Fabio

2014-07-25

84

Optimisation of the extraction of olive ( Olea europaea ) leaf phenolics using water\\/ethanol-based solvent systems and response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental setup based on a 23 full-factorial, central-composite design was implemented with the aim of optimising the recovery of polyphenols from olive\\u000a leaves by employing reusable and nontoxic solutions composed of water\\/ethanol\\/citric acid as extracting media. The factors\\u000a considered were (i) the pH of the medium, (ii) the extraction time and (iii) the ethanol concentration. The model obtained\\u000a produced

Stefania Mylonaki; Elias Kiassos; Dimitris P. Makris; Panagiotis Kefalas

2008-01-01

85

Olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract induces apoptosis and monocyte/macrophage differentiation in human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells: insight into the underlying mechanism.  

PubMed

Differentiation therapy is an attractive approach aiming at reversing malignancy and reactivating endogenous differentiation programs in cancer cells. Olive leaf extract, known for its antioxidant activity, has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in several cancer cells. However, its differentiation inducing properties and the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of Chemlali Olive Leaf Extract (COLE) for its potential differentiation inducing effect on multipotent leukemia K562 cells. Results showed that COLE inhibits K562 cells proliferation and arrests the cell cycle at G0/G1, and then at G2/M phase over treatment time. Further analysis revealed that COLE induces apoptosis and differentiation of K562 cells toward the monocyte lineage. Microarray analysis was conducted to investigate the underlying mechanism of COLE differentiation inducing effect. The differentially expressed genes such as IFI16, EGR1, NFYA, FOXP1, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL8 confirmed the commitment of K562 cells to the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Thus our results provide evidence that, in addition to apoptosis, induction of differentiation is one of the possible therapeutic effects of olive leaf in cancer cells. PMID:24803988

Samet, Imen; Han, Junkyu; Jlaiel, Lobna; Sayadi, Sami; Isoda, Hiroko

2014-01-01

86

Olive (Olea europaea) Leaf Extract Induces Apoptosis and Monocyte/Macrophage Differentiation in Human Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia K562 Cells: Insight into the Underlying Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Differentiation therapy is an attractive approach aiming at reversing malignancy and reactivating endogenous differentiation programs in cancer cells. Olive leaf extract, known for its antioxidant activity, has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in several cancer cells. However, its differentiation inducing properties and the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of Chemlali Olive Leaf Extract (COLE) for its potential differentiation inducing effect on multipotent leukemia K562 cells. Results showed that COLE inhibits K562 cells proliferation and arrests the cell cycle at G0/G1, and then at G2/M phase over treatment time. Further analysis revealed that COLE induces apoptosis and differentiation of K562 cells toward the monocyte lineage. Microarray analysis was conducted to investigate the underlying mechanism of COLE differentiation inducing effect. The differentially expressed genes such as IFI16, EGR1, NFYA, FOXP1, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL8 confirmed the commitment of K562 cells to the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Thus our results provide evidence that, in addition to apoptosis, induction of differentiation is one of the possible therapeutic effects of olive leaf in cancer cells. PMID:24803988

Han, Junkyu; Jlaiel, Lobna; Sayadi, Sami; Isoda, Hiroko

2014-01-01

87

Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California with a Parasitoid Imported from Guatemala  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), was imported into California from the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Moscamed, San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. The parasitoid did not develop in the seedhead fly, Cha...

88

Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for Biological Control of Olive Fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, by the USDA-APHIS, PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. The maximu...

89

The effects of olives harvest period and production year on olive mill wastewater properties - evaluation of Pleurotus strains as bioindicators of the effluent's toxicity.  

PubMed

Olive mill wastewater (OMW) generated during the oil extraction from Olea europea L. var. koroneiki olives was sampled at the beginning, the middle and the end of the harvesting season for three successive crop production years, and from four olive mills. OMW samples were examined in respect to their physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid composition of the lipid fraction, and adverse effects on biomass production of nine white-rot fungi of the basidiomycetous genus Pleurotus. Total N, nitrogen species, potassium and phosphate concentrations as well as total phenolics content of OMW samples were influenced by the crop year but not from the harvest period (albeit higher values for nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and potassium as well as total phenolics contents were obtained during ripening of olives), whereas protein concentration, total organic carbon and total solids were not significantly affected by the crop year or the harvest period. In addition, fatty acids composition, i.e. nC14:0, nC16:1?9cis, nC17:1?10cis, nC18:0, nC18:1?9cis, nC22:0 and nC24:0 varied significantly during different crop years and harvest periods. Olive fruits maturity and biannual alternate-bearing appear to play key-roles in the fatty acid variation detected in OMW samples. OMW toxicity as evaluated by the mycelium growth of Pleurotus strains was influenced significantly by the phenolic content of OMW samples obtained during three successive crop years; in contrast, the olives harvest period did not affect Pleurotus biomass production. Hence, experimental data indicated that selected Pleurotus strains could serve as bioindicators of OMW toxicity. Development of viable OMW detoxification processes as well as the exploitation of the effluent's fertilizing value are discussed in the light of the above findings. PMID:23399310

Ntougias, Spyridon; Gaitis, Fragiskos; Katsaris, Panagiotis; Skoulika, Stavroula; Iliopoulos, Nikiforos; Zervakis, Georgios I

2013-07-01

90

Biological control of olive fruit fly by 2006 parasitoid releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor imported from Guatemala  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, was reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala and imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. Releases of parasitoid adults in 2006 were ...

91

The Antioxidant and Anti-proliferative Activity of the Lebanese Olea europaea Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is becoming increasingly evident that certain phytochemicals possess cancer chemopreventive properties. In this study,\\u000a the anti-proliferative activity of plant extracts from olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves was tested on human leukemic cell line (Jurkat). Cytotoxicity of various concentrations of plant extracts was examined\\u000a and the IC50 was determined. Olive leaf extracts showed concentration-dependent anti-proliferative effect as determined by the

Rida Fares; Samer Bazzi; Serine E. Baydoun; Roula M. Abdel-Massih

2011-01-01

92

Changes in assimilation capacity during leaf development in broad- leaved Prunus persica and sclerophyllous Olea europaea  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Net photosynthesis, dark respiration, chlorophyll and carbohydrate content, and leaf growth in plants of deciduous peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.) and evergreen olive (Olea europaea L.) grown in controlled environmental conditions were measured to assess changes in carbon balance during leaf development at the 6th, 12th and 16th nodes (first flush) from the beginning of expansion to full maturity.

S. MARCHI; D. GUIDOTTI; L. SEBASTIANI; R. TOGNETTI

2007-01-01

93

Mixtures of Olive Pomace with Different Nitrogen Sources for the Control of Meloidogyne spp. on Tomato  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of mixtures of dry olive (Olea europea) pomace with biuret, guanidine, and melamine for control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) was studied in greenhouse experiments. Olive pomace (OP) applied pre-plant at 10 g/kg soil was phytotoxic. Mixtures of OP (10 g/kg soil) with biuret or guanidine at 200-300 mg/kg soil reduced or eliminated the phytotoxic effect, controlled root-knot nematodes, and increased soil esterase activity indicative of microbial activity. The addition of biuret or guanidine without OP to soil at rates <300 mg/kg soil did not control root-knot nematodes. Melamine applied at 100-400 mg/kg soil was phytotoxic as were mixtures of melamine with OP. Treatment of OP with anhydrous ammonia increased N content of the material. In another greenhouse experiment, NH?-treated OP added to soil was not phytotoxic to tomato, suppressed root-knot nematodes, and increased soil esterase activity. Greenhouse and microplot experiments with OP plus chicken litter demonstrated the efficacy of these combination amendments to control root-knot nematodes and increase tomato yields in Meloidogyne-infested soil. PMID:19277325

Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Estaún, V.; Pinochet, J.; Marfá, O.

1995-01-01

94

Generation and Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags from Olea europaea L.  

PubMed Central

Olive (Olea europaea L.) is an important source of edible oil which was originated in Near-East region. In this study, two cDNA libraries were constructed from young olive leaves and immature olive fruits for generation of ESTs to discover the novel genes and search the function of unknown genes of olive. The randomly selected 3840 colonies were sequenced for EST collection from both libraries. Readable 2228 sequences for olive leaf and 1506 sequences for olive fruit were assembled into 205 and 69 contigs, respectively, whereas 2478 were singletons. Putative functions of all 2752 differentially expressed unique sequences were designated by gene homology based on BLAST and annotated using BLAST2GO. While 1339 ESTs show no homology to the database, 2024 ESTs have homology (under 80%) with hypothetical proteins, putative proteins, expressed proteins, and unknown proteins in NCBI-GenBank. 635 EST's unique genes sequence have been identified by over 80% homology to known function in other species which were not previously described in Olea family. Only 3.1% of total EST's was shown similarity with olive database existing in NCBI. This generated EST's data and consensus sequences were submitted to NCBI as valuable source for functional genome studies of olive. PMID:21197085

Ozdemir Ozgenturk, Nehir; Oruç, Fatma; Sezerman, Ugur; Kuçukural, Alper; Vural Korkut, Senay; Toksoz, Feriha; Un, Cemal

2010-01-01

95

Identification of potential sources of airborne Olea pollen in the Southwest Iberian Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to determine the potential origin of Olea pollen recorded in Badajoz in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula during 2009-2011. This was achieved using a combination of daily average and diurnal (hourly) airborne Olea pollen counts recorded at Badajoz (southwestern Spain) and Évora (southeastern Portugal), an inventory of olive groves in the studied area and air mass trajectory calculations computed using the HYSPLIT model. Examining olive pollen episodes at Badajoz that had distinctly different diurnal cycles in olive pollen in relation to the mean, allowed us to identify three different scenarios where olive pollen can be transported to the city from either distant or nearby sources. Back trajectory analysis showed that olive pollen can be transported to Badajoz from the West on prevailing winds, either directly or on slow moving air masses, and from high densities of olive groves situated to the Southeast (e.g. Andalucía). Regional scale transport of olive pollen can result in increased nighttime concentrations of this important aeroallergen. This could be particularly important in Mediterranean countries where people can be outdoors during this time due to climate and lifestyle. Such studies are valuable for allergy sufferers and health care professionals because the information can be incorporated into forecasts, the outputs of which are used for avoiding exposure to aeroallergens and planning medication. The results of studies of this nature can also be used for examining gene flow in this important agricultural crop.

Fernández-Rodríguez, S.; Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Tormo-Molina, R.; Brandao, R.; Caeiro, E.; Silva-Palacios, I.; Gonzalo-Garijo, Á.; Smith, M.

2012-04-01

96

Intraspecific larval competition in the olive fruit fly (Diptera: tephritidae).  

PubMed

Olive fruit flies [Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)] occur at densities in California that can result in intraspecific larval competition within infested fruit. Larval B. oleae densities tracked in the field at six location were found to be highly variable and related to the proportion of fruit infested and adult densities. Egg and larval distribution within the field was generally aggregated early in the season and trended toward random and uniform as the season progressed. To determine whether B. oleae experienced fitness consequences at a range of larval densities observed in the field, olive fruits were infested with one, two, four, and six eggs, and larval and pupal developmental time, pupal weight, and pupal yield were compared. At the highest egg density, all measures of performance were negatively impacted, resulting in fewer and lighter pupae that took longer to pupate and emerge as adults, and even when only two larvae was present per olive, resulting pupae were significantly smaller. Density did not impact the sex ratio of the resulting flies or survive to adults. As field surveys showed, larval densities ranged from 1 to 11 B. oleae per fruit at some sites, and our results suggest that, at high densities, B. oleae do experience competition for larval resources. The impact of intraspecific larval competition North American in field populations of B. oleae is unknown, but the potential for competition is present. PMID:19825295

Burrack, Hannah Joy; Fornell, Angela M; Connell, Joseph H; O'Connell, Neil V; Phillips, Phil A; Vossen, Paul M; Zalom, Frank G

2009-10-01

97

Olea europaea L. leaf extract and derivatives: antioxidant properties.  

PubMed

This paper reports a very simple and fast method to collect eluates with high amounts of hydroxytyrosol, biotransforming Olea europaea L. leaf extract by a thermophilic beta-glycosidase immobilized on chitosan. Some phenolic compounds in the leaf tissue and in the eluates obtained by biotransformation are identified. To propose the eluates as natural substances from a vegetal source, their antioxidant properties have been compared with those of the leaf extract from which they are originated. The eluates possess a higher concentration of simple phenols, characterized by a stronger antioxidant capacity, than those available in extra virgin olive oils and in many tablets of olive leaf extracts, commercially found as dietetic products and food integrators. PMID:12166985

Briante, Raffaella; Patumi, Maurizio; Terenziani, Stefano; Bismuto, Ettore; Febbraio, Ferdinando; Nucci, Roberto

2002-08-14

98

Effects of olive leaf polyphenols against H?O? toxicity in insulin secreting ?-cells.  

PubMed

In pancreatic ?-cells, although H?O? is a metabolic signal for glucose stimulated insulin secretion, it may induce injury in the presence of increased oxidative stress (OS) as in the case of diabetic chronic hyperglycemia. Olea europea L. (olive) leaves contain polyphenolic compounds that may protect insulin-secreting cells against OS. The major polyphenolic compound in ethanolic olive leaf extract (OLE) is oleuropein (about 20%), thus we compared the effects of OLE with the effects of standard oleuropein on INS-1 cells. The cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of OLE or oleuropein for 24 h followed by exposure to H?O? (0.035 mM) for 45 min. H?O? alone resulted in a significantly decreased viability (MTT assay), depressed glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, increased apoptotic and necrotic cell death (AO/EB staining), inhibited glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx) and stimulated catalase activity that were associated with increased intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (fluorescence DCF). OLE and oleuropein partly improved the viability, attenuated necrotic and apoptotic death, inhibited the ROS generation and improved insulin secretion in H?O?-exposed cells. The effects of oleuropein on insulin secretion were more pronounced than those of OLE, while OLE exerted a stronger anti-cytotoxic effect than oleuropein. Unlike OLE, oleuropein had no significant preserving effect on GPx; however, both compounds stimulated the activity of catalase in H?O?-exposed cells. These findings indicate different modulatory roles of polyphenolic constituents of olive leaves on redox homeostasis that may have a role in the maintenance of ?-cell physiology against OS. PMID:21383995

Cumao?lu, Ahmet; Rackova, Lucia; Stefek, Milan; Kartal, Murat; Maechler, Pierre; Karasu, Cimen

2011-01-01

99

Oleuropein in Olive and its Pharmacological Effects  

PubMed Central

Olive from Olea europaea is native to the Mediterranean region and, both the oil and the fruit are some of the main components of the Mediterranean diet. The main active constituents of olive oil include oleic acid, phenolic constituents, and squalene. The main phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, give extra-virgin olive oil its bitter, pungent taste. The present review focuses on recent works that have analyzed the relationship between the major phenolic compound oleuropein and its pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-cancer activities, antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effect. PMID:21179340

Omar, Syed Haris

2010-01-01

100

The effect of deficit irrigation on seasonal variations of plant water use in Olea europaea L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment on olive trees (Olea europaea L.) was designed with the objective to search for an optimum irrigation scheduling by analyzing the possible effects of deficit irrigation. Treatments were: a non-irrigated control (rainfed) and three treatments that received seasonal water amount equivalent to 33 and 66% of crop evapotranspiration (ETC) in the period August–September (respectively 33II and 66II),

Roberto Tognetti; Riccardo d’Andria; Giovanni Morelli; Arturo Alvino

2005-01-01

101

Using the dual approach of FAO-56 for partitioning ET into soil and plant1 components for olive orchards in a semi-arid region2  

E-print Network

1 Using the dual approach of FAO-56 for partitioning ET into soil and plant1 components for olive transpiration and soil evaporation) of an olive (Olea europaea L.) orchard in the semi arid27 region of Tensift ( cb K ) for the olive orchard was similar in both seasons with an average of 0.54. This value34

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

102

Prediction of olive quality using FT-NIR spectroscopy in reflectance and transmittance modes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this research was to use FT-NIR spectroscopy to predict the firmness, oil content and color of two olive (Olea europaea L) varieties (‘Ayvalik’ and ‘Gemlik’). Spectral measurements were performed on the intact olives for the wavelengths of 780-2500 nm in reflectance and for 800-1725...

103

Nondestructive Olive Quality Detection Using FT-NIR Spectroscopy in Reflectance Mode  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Quality features (firmness, oil content and color in terms of hue and chroma) of two olive (Olea europaea L) varieties (‘Ayvalik’ and ‘Gemlik’) were predicted using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. Reflectance measurements of intact olives were performed using a bifurcated fibe...

104

Comparative evaluation of two olive fruit fly parasitoids under varying abiotic conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) invaded California around 1998 and has become a major olive pest. Two larval parasitoids, Psyttalia lounsburyi (Silvestri) and P. humilis (Szépligeti) (both Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were introduced from Africa into California and p...

105

BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF OLIVE FLY: BALANCING PARASITOID EFFECTIVENESS AGAINST NON-TARGET IMPACTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), has become an important pest of California olives, and is the target of a classical biological control program. We report here on the pre-release screening of imported parasitoids Hymenoptera:Braconidae), conducted in the University of California ...

106

THE BIOLOGY OF BRACON CELER, AS A PARASITOID OF THE OLIVE FLY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Life-history trials were conducted in the laboratory for Bracon celer Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), reared on the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Female B. celer oviposit preferentially on late third-instar olive fly larvae. The parasitoid larva develops as an idi...

107

The standard centrifuge method accurately measures vulnerability curves of long-vesselled olive stems.  

PubMed

The standard centrifuge method has been frequently used to measure vulnerability to xylem cavitation. This method has recently been questioned. It was hypothesized that open vessels lead to exponential vulnerability curves, which were thought to be indicative of measurement artifact. We tested this hypothesis in stems of olive (Olea europea) because its long vessels were recently claimed to produce a centrifuge artifact. We evaluated three predictions that followed from the open vessel artifact hypothesis: shorter stems, with more open vessels, would be more vulnerable than longer stems; standard centrifuge-based curves would be more vulnerable than dehydration-based curves; and open vessels would cause an exponential shape of centrifuge-based curves. Experimental evidence did not support these predictions. Centrifuge curves did not vary when the proportion of open vessels was altered. Centrifuge and dehydration curves were similar. At highly negative xylem pressure, centrifuge-based curves slightly overestimated vulnerability compared to the dehydration curve. This divergence was eliminated by centrifuging each stem only once. The standard centrifuge method produced accurate curves of samples containing open vessels, supporting the validity of this technique and confirming its utility in understanding plant hydraulics. Seven recommendations for avoiding artefacts and standardizing vulnerability curve methodology are provided. PMID:25229841

Hacke, Uwe G; Venturas, Martin D; MacKinnon, Evan D; Jacobsen, Anna L; Sperry, John S; Pratt, R Brandon

2015-01-01

108

In vitro shoot regeneration from olive cultivar tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Petioles, leaf discs and midribs of several olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars, collected from potted greenhouse plants, field-grown and in vitro shoots, were used to test their morphogenic capacity. Adventitious shoots were induced only in petioles from in vitro-grown shoots of cultivars Moraiolo, Dolce Agogia and Halkidikis, grown on Olive Medium (OM) plus 18 µM zeatin within 4 to 5

Massimo Mencuccini; Eddo Rugini

1993-01-01

109

Modelling and measurement of radiation interception by olive canopies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the formulation, calibration and validation of a model to estimate photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) intercepted by olive (Olea europaea L.) canopies. The model calculates the PAR transmittance at any point located within the four central trees of the orchard. The spatial and time integration of this process allows calculation of PAR transmitted to the ground and, thus, the

M. J. Mariscal; F. Orgaz; F. J. Villalobos

2000-01-01

110

Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California: Longevity, oviposition, and development in canning olives in the laboratory and greenhouse  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Olive fruit fly adults, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), lived 11 d without food and water, and 8 d with food and water in the warm side of a greenhouse; and, in the cool side, adults lived 10 d without food and water, and percentage survival with food and water was about 50, 25, 10, 1, and 0 at 26, 46, 8...

111

The C-terminal segment of the 1,3-beta-glucanase Ole e 9 from olive (Olea europaea) pollen is an independent domain with allergenic activity: expression in Pichia pastoris and characterization.  

PubMed Central

Several allergenic proteins, such as the 1,3-beta-glucanases, have been associated with plant defence responses. Ole e 9 (46 kDa) is a 1,3-beta-glucanase and major allergen from olive pollen, which is a principal cause of allergy in Mediterranean countries. Its C-terminal segment (101 amino acid residues) has been produced as a recombinant polypeptide in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The cDNA encoding the polypeptide was inserted into the plasmid vector pPICZalpha-A and overexpressed in KM71 yeast cells. The recombinant product was purified by size-exclusion chromatography followed by reversed-phase HPLC. Edman degradation, MS and CD were used to determine molecular properties of the recombinant polypeptide, which exhibited 16% alpha-helix and 30% beta-sheet as regular elements of secondary structure. Disulphide bridges of the molecule were determined at positions Cys-14-Cys-76, Cys-33-Cys-94 and Cys-39-Cys-48. The high IgE-binding capability of the recombinant C-terminal segment of Ole e 9 against sera from Ole e 9-sensitive individuals, which was determined by immunoblotting and ELISA inhibition, supported the proper folding of the polypeptide and the maintenance of antigenic properties that it exhibits as a part of the whole allergen. These data indicated that this portion of Ole e 9 constitutes an independent domain, which could be used to study its three-dimensional structure and function, as well as for clinical purposes such as diagnosis and specific immunotherapy. Since it shows sequence similarity with portions of 1,3-beta-glucanases from plant tissues and the Gas/Phr/Epd protein families involved in yeast morphogenesis, we suggest that this domain could play an equivalent functional role within these enzymes. PMID:12392450

Palomares, Oscar; Villalba, Mayte; Rodríguez, Rosalía

2003-01-01

112

Bisphenol A and Dental Sealants: Olea's Response.  

PubMed Central

Comments on "Determination of bisphenol A and related aromatic compounds released from Bis-GMA-based composites and sealants by high performance liquid chromatography." by ulgar R, Olea-Serrano MF, Novillo-Fertrell A, Rivas A, Pazos P, Pedraza V, Navajas J-M, Olea N. Environ Health Perspect 108:21-27 (2000). PMID:11133410

Olea, N

2000-01-01

113

Identification of potential sources of airborne Olea pollen in the Southwest Iberian Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to determine the potential origin of Olea pollen recorded in Badajoz in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula during 2009-2011. This was achieved using a combination of daily average and diurnal (hourly) airborne Olea pollen counts recorded at Badajoz (south-western Spain) and Évora (south-eastern Portugal), an inventory of olive groves in the studied area and air mass trajectory calculations computed using the HYSPLIT model. Examining olive pollen episodes at Badajoz that had distinctly different diurnal cycles in olive pollen in relation to the mean, allowed us to identify three different scenarios where olive pollen can be transported to the city from either distant or nearby sources during conditions with slow air mass movements. Back trajectory analysis showed that olive pollen can be transported to Badajoz from the West on prevailing winds, either directly or on slow moving air masses, and from high densities of olive groves situated to the Southeast (e.g. Andalucía). Regional scale transport of olive pollen can result in increased nighttime concentrations of this important aeroallergen. This could be particularly important in Mediterranean countries where people can be outdoors during this time due to climate and lifestyle. Such studies that examine sources and the atmospheric transport of pollen are valuable for allergy sufferers and health care professionals because the information can be incorporated into forecasts, the outputs of which are used for avoiding exposure to aeroallergens and planning medication. The results of studies of this nature can also be used for examining gene flow in this important agricultural crop.

Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Brandao, Rui; Caeiro, Elsa; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela; Smith, Matt

2014-04-01

114

The mitochondrial genome of Prays oleae (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Praydidae).  

PubMed

Abstract Prays oleae is one of the most important olive tree pests and a species of interest in evolutionary studies, as it belongs to one of the oldest extant superfamilies of Ditrysian Lepidoptera. We determined its mitogenome sequence, and found it has common features for Lepidoptera, e.g. an >80% A?+?T content, an apparent CGA start codon for COX1 and an ATAGA(T)n motif in the control region, which also contains several copies of a 163-164?bp repeat. Importantly, the mitogenome displays the Met-Ile-Gln tRNA gene order typical of Ditrysia, consistent with the hypothesis that this is a synapomorphy of that clade. PMID:25423526

van Asch, Barbara; Blibech, Imen; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando Trindade; da Costa, Luís Teixeira

2014-11-25

115

Interaction effects of root-zone salinity and solar irradiance on the physiology and biochemistry of Olea europaea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root-zone salinity stress and high solar irradiance concomitantly occurs in the Mediterranean basin, where Olea europaea is the dominating fruit-tree crop-species. Although the effect of each individual stressor on plant performance has been widely investigated, much less is known on the interaction effects of salinity stress and solar irradiance on the physiology and biochemistry of olive plants. Here we analyzed

Damiano Remorini; Juan Carlos Melgar; Lucia Guidi; Elena Degl’Innocenti; Silvana Castelli; Maria Laura Traversi; Rossano Massai; Massimiliano Tattini

2009-01-01

116

A 3-year Study on Quality, Nutritional and Organoleptic Evaluation of Organic and Conventional Extra-Virgin Olive Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of extra-virgin olive oils (EVOO) from organic and conventional farming was investigated in this 3-year (2001–2003)\\u000a study. The oils were extracted from Leccino and Frantoio olive (Olea europaea) cultivars, grown in the same geographical area under either organic or conventional methods. Extra-virgin olive oils (EVOO)\\u000a were produced with the same technology and samples were analyzed for nutritional and

Paolino Ninfali; Mara Bacchiocca; Enrica Biagiotti; Sonia Esposto; Maurizio Servili; Adolfo Rosati; Gianfrancesco Montedoro

2008-01-01

117

Irrigation effects on daily and seasonal variations of trunk sap flow and leaf water relations in olive trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigation effects on whole-plant sap flow and leaf-level water relations were characterised throughout a growing season in an experimental olive (Olea europaea L.) orchard. Atmospheric evaporative demand and soil moisture conditions for irrigated and non-irrigated olive trees were also monitored. Whole-plant water use in field-grown irrigated and rain fed olive trees was determined using a xylem sap flow method (compensation

R. Tognetti; R. d'Andria; G. Morelli; D. Calandrelli; F. Fragnito

2004-01-01

118

Nonsterol Triterpenoids as Major Constituents of Olea europaea  

PubMed Central

Plant triterpenoids represent a large and structurally diverse class of natural products. A growing interest has been focused on triterpenoids over the past decade due to their beneficial effects on human health. We show here that these bioactive compounds are major constituents of several aerial parts (floral bud, leaf bud, stem, and leaf) of olive tree, a crop exploited so far almost exclusively for its fruit and oil. O. europaea callus cultures were analyzed as well. Twenty sterols and twenty-nine nonsteroidal tetra- and pentacyclic triterpenoids belonging to seven types of carbon skeletons (oleanane, ursane, lupane, taraxerane, taraxastane, euphane, and lanostane) were identified and quantified by GC and GC-MS as free and esterified compounds. The oleanane-type compounds, oleanolic acid and maslinic acid, were largely predominant in all the organs tested, whereas they are practically absent in olive oil. In floral buds, they represented as much as 2.7% of dry matter. In callus cultures, lanostane-type compounds were the most abundant triterpenoids. In all the tissues analyzed, free and esterified triterpene alcohols exhibited different distribution patterns of their carbon skeletons. Taken together, these data provide new insights into largely unknown triterpene secondary metabolism of Olea europaea. PMID:22523691

Stiti, Naïm; Hartmann, Marie-Andrée

2012-01-01

119

Olive oil production as influenced by different quantities of applied water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigation management can have a profound influence on olive oil production. We initiated a 2-year study in the spring of 2002 to identify the optimal level of applied water on a super high tree-density (spacing 1.5m×3.9m) olive (Olea europaea L.‘Arbequina I-18’) orchard. Irrigation water was applied by drip irrigation to produce different water-application treatments of 15, 25, 40, 57, 71,

S. R. Grattan; M. J. Berenguer; J. H. Connell; V. S. Polito; P. M. Vossen

2006-01-01

120

2008 Field Releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor for Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The parasitoid Psytallia cf. concolor (Szépligeti) was reared on sterile Mediterranean fruit fly larvae at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Petapa Quarantine Laboratory in Guatemala and shipped to the USDA-ARS, Parlier for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in California. Improved ...

121

Selections of an Olive Breeding Program Identifi ed by Microsatellite Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports on the use of 10 microsatel- lites for identifying and testing the paternity of the fi rst 17 selections of an olive (Olea euro- paea L.) breeding program in Córdoba, Spain. The usefulness of the microsatellites was con- fi rmed by the high discrimination power and polymorphism information content values and by the low probability of identity

Aurora Díaz; Raúl De la Rosa; Pilar Rallo; Concepción Muñoz-Díez; Isabel Trujillo; Diego Barranco; Antonio Martín; Angjelina Belaj

2007-01-01

122

The olive leaf extract exhibits antiviral activity against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia rhabdovirus (VHSV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercial plant extract derived from olive tree leaf (Olea europaea) (LExt) and its major compound, oleuropein (Ole), inhibited the in vitro infectivity of the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), a salmonid rhabdovirus. Incubation of virus with LExt or Ole before infection reduced the viral infectivity to 10 and 30%, respectively. Furthermore, LExt drastically decreased VHSV titers and viral protein

Vicente Micol; Nuria Caturla; Laura Pérez-Fons; Vicente Más; Luis Pérez; Amparo Estepa

2005-01-01

123

Allergenic variability in olea pollen.  

PubMed

Marked in vitro allergenic potency variations were observed among six different olive pollen batches as determined by RAST inhibition, in direct correlation with the content of a multimeric component of 55,000 D as analyzed by size-exclusion high performance liquid chromotography. Electrophoretical patterns displayed differences in a heterogeneous band of 20,000 D and isoelectric point around 5, which probably represents the monomeric form of the major allergen. PMID:2297143

Barber, D; Carpizo, J; Garcia-Rumbao, M C; Polo, F; Juan, F

1990-01-01

124

Identification of bacterial protein markers and enolase as a plant response protein in the infection of Olea europaea subsp. europaea by Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive knot disease is characterised by the development of galls on Olea europaea stems as a result of infection by Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi. Protein differential accumulation during the first week of infection was studied using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis\\u000a and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to investigate the biochemical changes occurring in infected tissues and to understand the\\u000a factors involved in bacteria

Alexandre Campos; Gonçalo da Costa; Ana Varela Coelho; Pedro Fevereiro

2009-01-01

125

TWO RP-HPLC METHODS TO QUANTIFY AND IDENTIFY BISPHENOL A DIGLYCIDYL ETHER (BADGE): EUROPEAN UNION FATTY FOOD SIMULANT (OLIVE OIL) DOS MÉTODOS RP-HPLC PARA CUANTIFICAR E IDENTIFICAR BISFENOL A DIGLICIDIL ÉTER (BADGE): SIMULANTE DE ALIMENTOS GRASOS DE LA UNIÓN EUROPEA (ACEITE DE OLIVA) DOUS MÉTODOS RP-HPLC PARA CUANTIFICAR E IDENTIFICAR BISFENOL A DIGLICIDIL ÉTER (BADGE): SIMULANTE DE ALIMENTOS GRASOS DA UNIÓN EUROPEA (ACEITE DE OLIVA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two HPLC-UV methods with fluorescence detection have been applied to quantify and identify bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE: a monomer of epoxy resins used as a coating in packaging materials that contact food), in olive oil (official fatty food simulant in European Union legislation) and in food coatings. Through an extraction process in solid phase employing a Florisil cartridge, BADGE

P. Paseiro-Losada; M. F. López-Fabal; C. Pérez-Lamela; P. Sanmartín-Fenollera; S. Paz-Abuín

1999-01-01

126

Olive oil by capillary electrophoresis: characterization and genuineness.  

PubMed

Olive oil, obtained from Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) fruits, is an important ingredient in the Mediterranean diet. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate olive oil analysis using capillary electrophoresis (CE). This review covers a selection of the literature published on this topic over the past decade. The current state of the art of the topic is evaluated, with special emphasis on separation conditions, analysis purpose, and analytes investigated. CE has been used to characterize or to carry out authenticity studies. Particular attention has been focused on the botanical origin because high-quality monovarietal olive oils have been recently introduced on the markets and their quality control requires the development of new and powerful analytical tools as well as new regulations to avoid fraud. CE represents a good compromise between sample throughput, sample volume, satisfactory characterization, and sustainability for the analysis of target compounds present in olive oils. PMID:23594110

Monasterio, Romina P; Fernández, María de los Ángeles; Silva, María Fernanda

2013-05-15

127

Selective recognition of DNA from olive leaves and olive oil by PNA and modified-PNA microarrays  

PubMed Central

PNA probes for the specific detection of DNA from olive oil samples by microarray technology were developed. The presence of as low as 5% refined hazelnut (Corylus avellana) oil in extra-virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L.) could be detected by using a PNA microarray. A set of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Actin gene of Olive was chosen as a model for evaluating the ability of PNA probes for discriminating olive cultivars. Both unmodified and C2-modified PNAs bearing an arginine side-chain were used, the latter showing higher sequence specificity. DNA extracted from leaves of three different cultivars (Ogliarola leccese, Canino and Frantoio) could be easily discriminated using a microarray with unmodified PNA probes, whereas discrimination of DNA from oil samples was more challenging, and could be obtained only by using chiral PNA probes. PMID:22772038

Rossi, Stefano; Calabretta, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Tullia; Sforza, Stefano; Arcioni, Sergio; Baldoni, Luciana; Corradini, Roberto; Marchelli, Rosangela

2012-01-01

128

Characterization of Olive-Leaf Phenolics by ESI-MS and Evaluation of their Antioxidant Capacities by the CAT Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive leaves are a very abundant vegetable material containing various phenolic compounds, such as secoiridoids and flavonoids,\\u000a that are expected to exert strong antioxidant capacity. However, little is known about the variation of olive-leaf phenolic\\u000a composition during maturation and its influence on antioxidant capacity. To answer this question, young and mature Olea Europaea L. leaves were submitted to successive extraction

Mickaël Laguerre; Luis Javier L?pez Giraldo; Georges Piombo; Maria Cruz Figueroa-Espinoza; Michel Pina; Mohamed Benaissa; Aurélia Combe; Anne Rossignol Castera; Jérôme Lecomte; Pierre Villeneuve

2009-01-01

129

REGULATION OF FLOWERING IN 'ARBEQUINA' OLIVES UNDER NON-CHILLING CONDITIONS: THE EFFECT OF HIGH DAYTIME TEMPERATURES ON BLOOMING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recently, we have shown that flowering and fruiting in ‘Arbequina’ cultivar of olives (Olea europaea) can be achieved in the absence of chilling temperatures (less than or equal to 7°C). In our previous studies we showed that absence of flowering in certain subtropical climates (e.g. southern Texa...

130

Olive Fruit Fly, an Invasive Species in California, Mitigation by Cultural and Biological Control Based on Pest Biology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Olive fruit fly (OLF), Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), was first detected in California in 1998. Adults can live for 7 months and lay eggs at 12 d-old with a peak at 20 d. The larvae complete development in fruit 1cm in height. Hot and dry conditions can cause complete mortality of the immatures. Non-har...

131

POTENTIAL OF P. CF. CONCOLOR FROM MOSCAMED, GUATEMALA FOR BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF OLIVE FRUIT FLY IN CALIFORNIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A parasitoid, Psytallia cf. concolor, imported from Moscamed, Guatemala and originally collected from Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), on coffee in Kenya, caused 100% mortality of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), larvae in field cage tests and 10% parasitism of lar...

132

Yeast dynamics during the fermentation of brined green olives treated in the field with kaolin and Bordeaux mixture to control the olive fruit fly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast microbiota associated with naturally fermented and inoculated green table olives, differently treated in the field with non-conventional repellent and antiovipositional products in the control of Bactrocera oleae, was analysed using a combination of culture-dependent and -independent molecular fingerprinting. The routine yeast isolation gave rise to 118 strains, whose identification was performed by PCR-RFLP of the internal transcribed spacer

Serena Muccilli; Cinzia Caggia; Cinzia L. Randazzo; Cristina Restuccia

2011-01-01

133

Pan-frying of French fries in three different edible oils enriched with olive leaf extract: Oxidative stability and fate of microconstituents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sunflower oil, olive oil, and refined palm oil were enriched with an extract – rich in polyphenols – obtained from olive tree (Olea europaea) leaves at levels of 120 and 240mg total polyphenols per kg oil. Potatoes were pan-fried in both the enriched and the non-supplemented oils under domestic frying conditions. Total polyphenols were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu and antioxidant capacity

Antonia Chiou; Nick Kalogeropoulos; Fotini N. Salta; Panayiota Efstathiou; Nikolaos K. Andrikopoulos

2009-01-01

134

The Genetic Polymorphisms and Colonization Process of Olive Fly Populations in Turkey  

PubMed Central

The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest of olives in olive growing regions worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean basin and North America. Despite the economic importance of the olive fly, the colonization route of this species is unclear. We used nuclear microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA to provide information about the population structure and invasion route of olive fly populations in Turkey, as representative of the Eastern Mediterranean region. Adult fly samples were collected from 38 sublocations covering all olive growing regions in Turkey. The simple sequence variability data revealed a significant genetic variability in olive fly populations and a certain degree of differentiation between Mediterranean and Aegean populations. Mediterranean populations harbor higher levels of microsatellite variation than Aegean populations, which points to the eastern part of the Mediterranean as the putative source of invasion. mtDNA results suggest olive flies from the western part of Turkey are closely related to Italo-Aegean flies of the Mediterranean basin and the olive fly populations have invaded the northern part of the Mediterranean basin through western Turkey. In addition, finding specific American haplotypes in high frequencies might indicate that Turkey is the possible source of American olive fly populations. In order to more precisely characterize the population structure and invasion routes of this organism, more DNA-based sequence analysis should be carried out worldwide. PMID:23457499

Dogaç, Ersin; Kandemir, ?rfan; Taskin, Vatan

2013-01-01

135

Non-target host risk assessment of the idiobiont parasitoid Bracon celer (Hymenoptera:Bracondiae) for biological control of olive fly in California.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The non-target risk posed by the African fruit-fly parasitoid, Bracon celer Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), was assessed as part of a classical biological program for the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) in California, USA. Behavioral and reproductive ...

136

Genomic profiling of plastid DNA variation in the Mediterranean olive tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Characterisation of plastid genome (or cpDNA) polymorphisms is commonly used for phylogeographic, population genetic and forensic\\u000a analyses in plants, but detecting cpDNA variation is sometimes challenging, limiting the applications of such an approach.\\u000a In the present study, we screened cpDNA polymorphism in the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) by sequencing the complete plastid genome of trees with a distinct cpDNA

Guillaume Besnard; Pilar Hernández; Bouchaib Khadari; Gabriel Dorado; Vincent Savolainen

2011-01-01

137

Spatiotemporal analysis of olive flowering using geostatistical techniques.  

PubMed

Analysis of flowering patterns in the olive (Olea europaea L.) are of considerable agricultural and ecological interest, and also provide valuable information for allergy-sufferers, enabling identification of the major sources of airborne pollen at any given moment by interpreting the aerobiological data recorded in pollen traps. The present spatiotemporal analysis of olive flowering in central Spain combined geostatistical techniques with the application of a Geographic Information Systems, and compared results for flowering intensity with airborne pollen records. The results were used to obtain continuous phenological maps which determined the pattern of the succession of the olive flowering. The results show also that, although the highest airborne olive-pollen counts were recorded during the greatest flowering intensity of the groves closest to the pollen trap, the counts recorded at the start of the pollen season were not linked to local olive groves, which had not yet begin to flower. To detect the remote sources of olive pollen several episodes of pollen recorded before the local flowering season were analysed using a HYSPLIT trajectory model and the findings showed that western, southern and southwestern winds transported pollen grains into the study area from earlier-flowering groves located outside the territory. PMID:25461089

Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

2015-02-01

138

Aromatized to Find Mates: ?-Pinene Aroma Boosts the Mating Success of Adult Olive Fruit Flies  

PubMed Central

Background Contrary to other Tephritidae, female but also male olive flies, Bactrocera oleae release pheromones during their sexual communication. Alpha-pinene, a common plant volatile found in high amounts in unripe olive fruit and leaves has been detected as one of the major components of the female pheromone. However, possible effects of ?-pinene and that of other host volatiles on the mating behavior of the olive fly have not been investigated. Methodology Using wild olive flies, reared on olive fruit for 3 generations in the laboratory, we explored whether exposure of male and female olive flies to ?-pinene affects their sexual performance. Results Exposure of sexually mature adult olive flies to the aroma of ?-pinene significantly increases the mating performance over non-exposed individuals. Interestingly, exposure to ?-pinene boosts the mating success of both males and female olive flies. Conclusions This is the first report of such an effect on the olive fly, and the first time that a single plant volatile has been reported to induce such a phenomenon on both sexes of a single species. We discuss the possible associated mechanism and provide some practical implications. PMID:24260571

Gerofotis, Christos D.; Ioannou, Charalampos S.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.

2013-01-01

139

Representations of Oliver Kullmann  

E-print Network

Representations of categories Oliver Kullmann Concrete categories Stronger representations categories Representations of categories Oliver Kullmann Computer Science Department University of Wales Oliver Kullmann Concrete categories Stronger representations Universal categories Algebraic

Kullmann, Oliver

140

Olive domestication and diversification in the Mediterranean Basin.  

PubMed

Olive (Olea europaea ssp. europaea) is the most important oil fruit crop in temperate areas, but the origin of the cultivated olive remains unclear. The existence of one or several domestication events in the Mediterranean Basin (MB) is still debated. We analyzed a dataset of 387 cultivated and wild accessions that were genotyped at 25 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) loci. The sample represented genetic diversity at the geographic extremes of the MB. We inferred relationships among samples and also applied approximate Bayesian computation to estimate the most probable demographic model of our samples. Cultivated olives clustered into three different gene pools (Q1, Q2 and Q3), corresponding loosely to the west, central and eastern MB, respectively. Q1 consisted primarily of accessions from southern Spain, retained the fingerprint of a genetic bottleneck, and was closely related to accessions from the eastern MB. Q2 showed signs of recent admixture with wild olives and may derive from a local domestication event in the central MB. Overall our results suggest that admixture shaped olive germplasm and perhaps also local domestication events. PMID:25420413

Diez, Concepcion M; Trujillo, Isabel; Martinez-Urdiroz, Nieves; Barranco, Diego; Rallo, Luis; Marfil, Pedro; Gaut, Brandon S

2014-11-24

141

Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by Releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, Parasitoid Longevity in Presence of the Host, and Host Status of Walnut Husk Fly  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin),...

142

High Genetic Diversity Detected in Olives beyond the Boundaries of the Mediterranean Sea  

PubMed Central

Background Olive trees (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. europaea) naturally grow in areas spanning the Mediterranean basin and towards the East, including the Middle East. In the Iranian plateau, the presence of olives has been documented since very ancient times, though the early history of the crop in this area is shrouded in uncertainty. Methods The varieties presently cultivated in Iran and trees of an unknown cultivation status, surviving under extreme climate and soil conditions, were sampled from different provinces and compared with a set of Mediterranean cultivars. All samples were analyzed using SSR and chloroplast markers to establish the relationships between Iranian olives and Mediterranean varieties, to shed light on the origins of Iranian olives and to verify their contribution to the development of the current global olive variation. Results Iranian cultivars and ecotypes, when analyzed using SSR markers, clustered separately from Mediterranean cultivars and showed a high number of private alleles, on the contrary, they shared the same single chlorotype with the most widespread varieties cultivated in the Mediterranean. Conclusion We hypothesized that Iranian and Mediterranean olive trees may have had a common origin from a unique center in the Near East region, possibly including the western Iranian area. The present pattern of variation may have derived from different environmental conditions, distinct levels and selection criteria, and divergent breeding opportunities found by Mediterranean and Iranian olives.These unexpected findings emphasize the importance of studying the Iranian olive germplasm as a promising but endangered source of variation. PMID:24709858

Sheikh-Hassani, Massoma; Ataei, Saeedeh; Cultrera, Nicolò G. M.; Pandolfi, Saverio; Baldoni, Luciana

2014-01-01

143

Stomatal behaviour, leaf water status and photosynthetic response in field-grown olive trees under water deficit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stomatal behaviour, leaf water status and photosynthetic response in relation to long-term water deficit were investigated in southern Italy on young trees of Olive (Olea europaea) to clarify mechanisms of stomatal control. Trees were subjected to three irrigation treatments, T0, T33 and T66 that received 0, 33 and 66%, respectively, of crop evapotranspiration by a drip irrigation system. The prolonged

P. Giorio; G. Sorrentino; R. d’Andria

1999-01-01

144

BICARBONATE AND LOW IRON LEVEL INCREASE ROOT TO TOTAL PLANT WEIGHT RATIO IN OLIVE AND PEACH ROOTSTOCK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young plants obtained by micropropagation of olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Picual) and peach rootstock GF677 (an hybrid of almond, Prunus amygdalus Batsch, and peach, Prunus persica L. Batsch) were grown in aerated basic nutrient solution for 35 days, with four treatments containing different concentrations of bicarbonate and iron as FeEDDHA, HCO3 (mM)\\/iron (Fe) (?M): 0\\/20, 5\\/5, 10\\/20, and 10\\/2.5.

Manuel D. de laGuardia; Esteban Alcántara

2002-01-01

145

Probabilities for survival of glassy-winged sharpshooter and olive fruit fly pests in urban yard waste piles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homolodisca coagulate) and olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) were introduced into unturned, chipped yard waste piles to evaluate their survival with time and depth within the piles. In all three trials, no pests lasted more than 14d, and in no trial did pests survive more than 4d at the 30 and 100cm depths. No survivors were found after

David M. Crohn; Ben Faber; A. James Downer; Oleg Daugovish

2008-01-01

146

Heat-pulse measurements of sap flow in olives for automating irrigation: tests, root flow and diagnostics of water stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compensation heat-pulse method for measuring sap flow is tested here in olive trees (Olea europaea L.). We describe a rigorous three-way examination of the robustness of the technique for this species, and examine the potential of the technique for an automatic control of the irrigation system. Two tests were carried out using heat-pulse gear inserted into the stem of

J. E. Fernandez; M. J. Palomo; A D??az-Espejo; B. E. Clothier; S. R. Green; I. F. Giron; F. Moreno

2001-01-01

147

Genomic profiling of plastid DNA variation in the Mediterranean olive tree  

PubMed Central

Background Characterisation of plastid genome (or cpDNA) polymorphisms is commonly used for phylogeographic, population genetic and forensic analyses in plants, but detecting cpDNA variation is sometimes challenging, limiting the applications of such an approach. In the present study, we screened cpDNA polymorphism in the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) by sequencing the complete plastid genome of trees with a distinct cpDNA lineage. Our objective was to develop new markers for a rapid genomic profiling (by Multiplex PCRs) of cpDNA haplotypes in the Mediterranean olive tree. Results Eight complete cpDNA genomes of Olea were sequenced de novo. The nucleotide divergence between olive cpDNA lineages was low and not exceeding 0.07%. Based on these sequences, markers were developed for studying two single nucleotide substitutions and length polymorphism of 62 regions (with variable microsatellite motifs or other indels). They were then used to genotype the cpDNA variation in cultivated and wild Mediterranean olive trees (315 individuals). Forty polymorphic loci were detected on this sample, allowing the distinction of 22 haplotypes belonging to the three Mediterranean cpDNA lineages known as E1, E2 and E3. The discriminating power of cpDNA variation was particularly low for the cultivated olive tree with one predominating haplotype, but more diversity was detected in wild populations. Conclusions We propose a method for a rapid characterisation of the Mediterranean olive germplasm. The low variation in the cultivated olive tree indicated that the utility of cpDNA variation for forensic analyses is limited to rare haplotypes. In contrast, the high cpDNA variation in wild populations demonstrated that our markers may be useful for phylogeographic and populations genetic studies in O. europaea. PMID:21569271

2011-01-01

148

Olive phenolic compounds: metabolic and transcriptional profiling during fruit development  

PubMed Central

Background Olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits contain numerous secondary metabolites, primarily phenolics, terpenes and sterols, some of which are particularly interesting for their nutraceutical properties. This study will attempt to provide further insight into the profile of olive phenolic compounds during fruit development and to identify the major genetic determinants of phenolic metabolism. Results The concentration of the major phenolic compounds, such as oleuropein, demethyloleuropein, 3–4 DHPEA-EDA, ligstroside, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside and lignans, were measured in the developing fruits of 12 olive cultivars. The content of these compounds varied significantly among the cultivars and decreased during fruit development and maturation, with some compounds showing specificity for certain cultivars. Thirty-five olive transcripts homologous to genes involved in the pathways of the main secondary metabolites were identified from the massive sequencing data of the olive fruit transcriptome or from cDNA-AFLP analysis. Their mRNA levels were determined using RT-qPCR analysis on fruits of high- and low-phenolic varieties (Coratina and Dolce d’Andria, respectively) during three different fruit developmental stages. A strong correlation was observed between phenolic compound concentrations and transcripts putatively involved in their biosynthesis, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of the corresponding pathways. OeDXS, OeGES, OeGE10H and OeADH, encoding putative 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-P synthase, geraniol synthase, geraniol 10-hydroxylase and arogenate dehydrogenase, respectively, were almost exclusively present at 45 days after flowering (DAF), suggesting that these compounds might play a key role in regulating secoiridoid accumulation during fruit development. Conclusions Metabolic and transcriptional profiling led to the identification of some major players putatively involved in biosynthesis of secondary compounds in the olive tree. Our data represent the first step towards the functional characterisation of important genes for the determination of olive fruit quality. PMID:22963618

2012-01-01

149

Soil Properties and Olive Cultivar Determine the Structure and Diversity of Plant-Parasitic Nematode Communities Infesting Olive Orchards Soils in Southern Spain  

PubMed Central

This work has studied for the first time the structure and diversity of plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) infesting olive orchard soils in a wide-region in Spain that included 92 locations. It aims at determining which agronomical or environmental factors associated to the olive orchards are the main drivers of the PPNs community structure and diversity. Classical morphological and morphometric identification methods were used to determine the frequency and densities of PPNs. Thirteen families, 34 genera and 77 species of PPNs were identified. The highest diversity was found in Helicotylenchus genus, with six species previously reported in Spain and with H. oleae being a first report. Neodolichorhynchus microphasmis and Diptenchus sp., Diphtherophora sp., and Discotylenchus sp., usually considered fungal feeders, were also reported for the first time associated to olive rhizosphere. PPNs abundance ranged from 66 to 16,288 individuals/500-cm3 of soil with Helicotylenchus digonicus being the most prevalent species, followed by Filenchus sp., Merlinius brevidens and Xiphinema pachtaicum. Nematode abundance and diversity indexes were influenced by olive cultivar, and orchard and soil management practices; while olive variety and soil texture were the main factors driving PPN community composition. Soil physicochemical properties and climatic characteristics most strongly associated to the PPN community composition included pH, sand content and exchangeable K, and maximum and minimum average temperature of the sampled locations. Our data suggests that there is a high diversity of PPNs associated to olive in Southern Spain that can exert different damage to olive roots depending on the olive variety and their abundance. Further analysis to determine the resistance levels of most common olive varieties to the prevalent PPNs in Spain will help to choose the most appropriate ones for the establishment of new plantations. This choice will take into consideration the specific soils and environments where those olive varieties will be established. PMID:25625375

Palomares-Rius, Juan E.; Castillo, Pablo; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Navas-Cortés, Juan A.; Landa, Blanca B.

2015-01-01

150

Fine-scale ecological and economic assessment of climate change on olive in the Mediterranean Basin reveals winners and losers  

PubMed Central

The Mediterranean Basin is a climate and biodiversity hot spot, and climate change threatens agro-ecosystems such as olive, an ancient drought-tolerant crop of considerable ecological and socioeconomic importance. Climate change will impact the interactions of olive and the obligate olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae), and alter the economics of olive culture across the Basin. We estimate the effects of climate change on the dynamics and interaction of olive and the fly using physiologically based demographic models in a geographic information system context as driven by daily climate change scenario weather. A regional climate model that includes fine-scale representation of the effects of topography and the influence of the Mediterranean Sea on regional climate was used to scale the global climate data. The system model for olive/olive fly was used as the production function in our economic analysis, replacing the commonly used production-damage control function. Climate warming will affect olive yield and fly infestation levels across the Basin, resulting in economic winners and losers at the local and regional scales. At the local scale, profitability of small olive farms in many marginal areas of Europe and elsewhere in the Basin will decrease, leading to increased abandonment. These marginal farms are critical to conserving soil, maintaining biodiversity, and reducing fire risk in these areas. Our fine-scale bioeconomic approach provides a realistic prototype for assessing climate change impacts in other Mediterranean agro-ecosystems facing extant and new invasive pests. PMID:24706833

Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Ruti, Paolo Michele; Dell’Aquila, Alessandro

2014-01-01

151

Fine-scale ecological and economic assessment of climate change on olive in the Mediterranean Basin reveals winners and losers.  

PubMed

The Mediterranean Basin is a climate and biodiversity hot spot, and climate change threatens agro-ecosystems such as olive, an ancient drought-tolerant crop of considerable ecological and socioeconomic importance. Climate change will impact the interactions of olive and the obligate olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae), and alter the economics of olive culture across the Basin. We estimate the effects of climate change on the dynamics and interaction of olive and the fly using physiologically based demographic models in a geographic information system context as driven by daily climate change scenario weather. A regional climate model that includes fine-scale representation of the effects of topography and the influence of the Mediterranean Sea on regional climate was used to scale the global climate data. The system model for olive/olive fly was used as the production function in our economic analysis, replacing the commonly used production-damage control function. Climate warming will affect olive yield and fly infestation levels across the Basin, resulting in economic winners and losers at the local and regional scales. At the local scale, profitability of small olive farms in many marginal areas of Europe and elsewhere in the Basin will decrease, leading to increased abandonment. These marginal farms are critical to conserving soil, maintaining biodiversity, and reducing fire risk in these areas. Our fine-scale bioeconomic approach provides a realistic prototype for assessing climate change impacts in other Mediterranean agro-ecosystems facing extant and new invasive pests. PMID:24706833

Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Ruti, Paolo Michele; Dell'Aquila, Alessandro

2014-04-15

152

Dried leaf extract of Olea europaea ameliorates islet-directed autoimmunity in mice.  

PubMed

The health-promoting effects of various constituents of the olive tree (Olea europaea) are mainly associated with hypoglycaemic and insulin-sensitising activities and have been widely demonstrated in the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. However, their biological activity in autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) is poorly characterised. Therefore, the influence of O. europaea-derived components present in dry olive leaf extract (DOLE) was examined in two established preclinical models of human T1D, which differ in some aspects of diabetogenesis: multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes in susceptible C57BL/6 and CBA/H mouse strains; cyclophosphamide-accelerated diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice. In both T1D models, in vivo administration of DOLE significantly reduced clinical signs of diabetes (hyperglycaemia and body weight loss) and led to complete suppression of histopathological changes in pancreatic islets. In line with these, insulin expression and release were restored in DOLE-treated mice. Interestingly, inducible NO synthase expression and NO production were significantly elevated in peripheral tissues but were down-regulated within the local environment of the endocrine pancreas. This interference was reflected in NO-mediated suppression of T lymphocyte proliferation and lower production of the proinflammatory cytokines interferon-gamma, IL-17 and TNF-alpha in the spleen, with subsequent blockade of beta-cell destruction. The results suggest that DOLE interferes with development of autoimmune diabetes by down-regulating production of proinflammatory and cytotoxic mediators. Therefore, the potential use of a DOLE-enriched diet for prophylaxis/treatment of human T1D, and possibly other autoimmune diseases, is worthy of further investigation. PMID:20025835

Cvjeti?anin, Tamara; Miljkovi?, Djordje; Stojanovi?, Ivana; Dekanski, Dragana; Stosi?-Grujici?, Stanislava

2010-05-01

153

Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Nociceptive Effects of Defatted Fruit Extract of Olea europaea  

PubMed Central

Fruits of Olea europaea L. have been used for centuries in folk medicine to treat many inflammatory diseases. In order to evaluate the anti-nociceptive activities of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of defatted fruits of O. europaea, formalin test was used and for evaluation of anti-inflammatory effects of the extract, the volume of paw edema was measured. The results revealed that both extracts did not exhibit significant analgesic activity in the first phase of formalin test, whereas methanolic extract at the 600 mg/Kg dose and aqueous extract at the 450 and 600 mg/Kg doses could inhibit induced pain in the second phase of formalin test. Furthermore, the results of paw edema volume measurement indicated that the aqueous extract has anti-inflammatory effects at dose of 600 mg/Kg. Induced anti-nociception by aqueous olive extract was not reversed by naloxone, which indicates that the opioid receptors are not involved in the analgesic effects of the extracts. The present data pointed out that the extracts of olive defatted fruit have anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in rats but further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism(s) of action and active components which are involved in analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:24711837

Sahranavard, Shamim; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Faizi, Mehrdad

2014-01-01

154

Effect of non-crop vegetation types on conservation biological control of pests in olive groves  

PubMed Central

Conservation biological control (CBC) is an environmentally sound potential alternative to the use of chemical insecticides. It involves modifications of the environment to promote natural enemy activity on pests. Despite many CBC studies increasing abundance of natural enemies, there are far fewer demonstrations of reduced pest density and very little work has been conducted in olive crops. In this study we investigated the effects of four forms of non-crop vegetation on the abundance of two important pests: the olive psyllid (Euphyllura olivina) and the olive moth (Prays oleae). Areas of herbaceous vegetation and areas of woody vegetation near olive crops, and smaller patches of woody vegetation within olive groves, decreased pest abundance in the crop. Inter-row ground covers that are known to increase the abundance of some predators and parasitoids had no effect on the pests, possibly as a result of lack of synchrony between pests and natural enemies, lack of specificity or intra-guild predation. This study identifies examples of the right types of diversity for use in conservation biological control in olive production systems. PMID:23904994

Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M.; Campos, Mercedes

2013-01-01

155

Effect of non-crop vegetation types on conservation biological control of pests in olive groves.  

PubMed

Conservation biological control (CBC) is an environmentally sound potential alternative to the use of chemical insecticides. It involves modifications of the environment to promote natural enemy activity on pests. Despite many CBC studies increasing abundance of natural enemies, there are far fewer demonstrations of reduced pest density and very little work has been conducted in olive crops. In this study we investigated the effects of four forms of non-crop vegetation on the abundance of two important pests: the olive psyllid (Euphyllura olivina) and the olive moth (Prays oleae). Areas of herbaceous vegetation and areas of woody vegetation near olive crops, and smaller patches of woody vegetation within olive groves, decreased pest abundance in the crop. Inter-row ground covers that are known to increase the abundance of some predators and parasitoids had no effect on the pests, possibly as a result of lack of synchrony between pests and natural enemies, lack of specificity or intra-guild predation. This study identifies examples of the right types of diversity for use in conservation biological control in olive production systems. PMID:23904994

Paredes, Daniel; Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M; Campos, Mercedes

2013-01-01

156

The OKlibrary Oliver Kullmann  

E-print Network

The OKlibrary Oliver Kullmann The Maxima/Lisp level Overview External Sources The build system Planning and documentation Conclusions and Outlook Introducing the OKlibrary Oliver Kullmann Computer OKlibrary Oliver Kullmann The Maxima/Lisp level Overview External Sources The build system Planning

Martin, Ralph R.

157

Classification Oliver Gray  

E-print Network

Classification of N = 2 minimal models Oliver Gray What is a CFT? Classifying modular invariant of the N = 2 Virasoro unitary minimal models Oliver Gray Universit¨at Augsburg 17th December 2008 First Cuban Congress #12;Classification of N = 2 minimal models Oliver Gray What is a CFT? Classifying modular

Gasparim, Elizabeth

158

Oliver Kullmann Introduction  

E-print Network

Topoi Oliver Kullmann Introduction Grothendieck topoi Topoi Exponentiation Characteristic maps Properties Topoi: Theory and Applications Oliver Kullmann1 1Computer Science, Swansea University, UK http://cs.swan.ac.uk/~csoliver Categorical logic seminar Swansea, March 19+23, 2012 #12;Topoi Oliver Kullmann Introduction Grothendieck topoi

Martin, Ralph R.

159

Oliver Kullmann Main results  

E-print Network

Oliver Kullmann Main results Complement invariance Lean clause-sets Minimal unsatisfiability SAT and Outlook SAT and the Polya Permanent Problem Oliver Kullmann Computer Science Department Swansea University SAT 2007, Lisbon, May 30, 2007 SAT: Connecting combinatorics and linear algebra #12;Oliver Kullmann

Martin, Ralph R.

160

The OKlibrary Oliver Kullmann  

E-print Network

The OKlibrary Oliver Kullmann The Maxima/Lisp level Overview External Sources The test system Planning and documentation Conclusions and Outlook Introducing the OKlibrary Oliver Kullmann Computer" (IRE) for (generalised) SAT #12;The OKlibrary Oliver Kullmann The Maxima/Lisp level Overview External

Martin, Ralph R.

161

SAT Algorithms Oliver Kullmann  

E-print Network

SAT Algorithms Oliver Kullmann CNFs Clause-sets, assignments Properties Data structures algorithms Oliver Kullmann Computer Science Department University of Wales Swansea Complexity of Constraints Dagstuhl, October 3, 2006 SAT algorithms for boolean CNFs: Local search and DPLL #12;SAT Algorithms Oliver

Vollmer, Heribert

162

Olive leaf extract as a hypoglycemic agent in both human diabetic subjects and in rats.  

PubMed

Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaves have been widely used in traditional remedies in European and Mediterranean countries as extracts, herbal teas, and powder. They contain several potentially bioactive compounds that may have hypoglycemic properties. To examine the efficacy of 500 mg oral olive leaf extract taken once daily in tablet form versus matching placebo in improving glucose homeostasis in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). In this controlled clinical trial, 79 adults with T2DM were randomized to treatment with 500 mg olive leaf extract tablet taken orally once daily or matching placebo. The study duration was 14 weeks. Measures of glucose homeostasis including Hba1c and plasma insulin were measured and compared by treatment assignment. In a series of animal models, normal, streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic, and sand rats were used in the inverted sac model to determine the mechanism through which olive leaf extract affected starch digestion and absorption. In the randomized clinical trial, the subjects treated with olive leaf extract exhibited significantly lower HbA1c and fasting plasma insulin levels; however, postprandial plasma insulin levels did not differ significantly by treatment group. In the animal models, normal and STZ diabetic rats exhibited significantly reduced starch digestion and absorption after treatment with olive leaf extract compared with intestine without olive leaf treatment. Reduced digestion and absorption was observed in both the mucosal and serosal sides of the intestine. Though reduced, the decline in starch digestion and absorption did not reach statistical significance in the sand rats. Olive leaf extract is associated with improved glucose homeostasis in humans. Animal models indicate that this may be facilitated through the reduction of starch digestion and absorption. Olive leaf extract may represent an effective adjunct therapy that normalizes glucose homeostasis in individuals with diabetes. PMID:22512698

Wainstein, Julio; Ganz, Tali; Boaz, Mona; Bar Dayan, Yosefa; Dolev, Eran; Kerem, Zohar; Madar, Zecharia

2012-07-01

163

Effects of Peganum harmala (Zygophyllaceae) seed extract on the olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and its larval parasitoid Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).  

PubMed

Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae) is an herb native to arid and semiarid regions of Central Asian deserts. This study investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of P. harmala seeds on the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), i.e., adult repellency, reproductive activity, and larval growth, as well as parasitism levels by Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti). Olive fruit treated with 2% extract reduced B. oleae oviposition. In choice tests, female B. oleae spent >99% of their time foraging on untreated fruit rather than P. harmala-treated fruit. These changes in ovipositional behavior resulted in a nearly 30-fold decrease in oviposition marks on treated fruit compared with untreated fruit during a 48 h exposure period. When female B. oleae were fed liquid diet containing 0.2% P. harmala extract, there was no effect on the number of ovipositional marks on exposed fruit, but up to 21.4% of the deposited eggs were deformed. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses of deformed eggs revealed that some protein bands were missing. Consequently, the number of offspring produced by treated females was lower than by untreated females. Neither the sex ratio nor body size of the fly's offspring were affected by adults fed diet containing 0.2% P. harmala extract. However, there was a slightly prolonged developmental time from egg to adult. Parasitism of larval B. oleae by P. concolor was not affected by infested fruit treatment with 2% P. harmala extract. P. harmala extracts as a potential control for insect pest species are discussed. PMID:20069853

Rehman, Junaid Ur; Wang, Xin-Geng; Johnson, Marshall W; Daane, Kent M; Jilani, Ghulam; Khan, Mir A; Zalom, Frank G

2009-12-01

164

Is Ground Cover Vegetation an Effective Biological Control Enhancement Strategy against Olive Pests?  

PubMed Central

Ground cover vegetation is often added or allowed to generate to promote conservation biological control, especially in perennial crops. Nevertheless, there is inconsistent evidence of its effectiveness, with studies reporting positive, nil or negative effects on pest control. This might arise from differences between studies at the local scale (e.g. orchard management and land use history), the landscape context (e.g. presence of patches of natural or semi-natural vegetation near the focal orchard), or regional factors, particularly climate in the year of the study. Here we present the findings from a long-term regional monitoring program conducted on four pest species (Bactrocera oleae, Prays oleae, Euphyllura olivina, Saissetia oleae) in 2,528 olive groves in Andalusia (Spain) from 2006 to 2012. Generalized linear mixed effect models were used to analyze the effect of ground cover on different response variables related to pest abundance, while accounting for variability at the local, landscape and regional scales. There were small and inconsistent effects of ground cover on the abundance of pests whilst local, landscape and regional variability explained a large proportion of the variability in pest response variables. This highlights the importance of local and landscape-related variables in biological control and the potential effects that might emerge from their interaction with practices, such as groundcover vegetation, implemented to promote natural enemy activity. The study points to perennial vegetation close to the focal crop as a promising alternative strategy for conservation biological control that should receive more attention. PMID:25646778

Paredes, Daniel; Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M.; Campos, Mercedes

2015-01-01

165

Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Two Olive Cultivars in Response to NaCl-Stress  

PubMed Central

Background Olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivation is rapidly expanding and low quality saline water is often used for irrigation. The molecular basis of salt tolerance in olive, though, has not yet been investigated at a system level. In this study a comparative transcriptomics approach was used as a tool to unravel gene regulatory networks underlying salinity response in olive trees by simulating as much as possible olive growing conditions in the field. Specifically, we investigated the genotype-dependent differences in the transcriptome response of two olive cultivars, a salt-tolerant and a salt-sensitive one. Methodology/Principal Findings A 135-day long salinity experiment was conducted using one-year old trees exposed to NaCl stress for 90 days followed by 45 days of post-stress period during the summer. A cDNA library made of olive seedling mRNAs was sequenced and an olive microarray was constructed. Total RNA was extracted from root samples after 15, 45 and 90 days of NaCl-treatment as well as after 15 and 45 days of post-treatment period and used for microarray hybridizations. SAM analysis between the NaCl-stress and the post-stress time course resulted in the identification of 209 and 36 differentially expressed transcripts in the salt–tolerant and salt–sensitive cultivar, respectively. Hierarchical clustering revealed two major, distinct clusters for each cultivar. Despite the limited number of probe sets, transcriptional regulatory networks were constructed for both cultivars while several hierarchically-clustered interacting transcription factor regulators such as JERF and bZIP homologues were identified. Conclusions/Significance A systems biology approach was used and differentially expressed transcripts as well as regulatory interactions were identified. The comparison of the interactions among transcription factors in olive with those reported for Arabidopsis might indicate similarities in the response of a tree species with Arabidopsis at the transcriptional level under salinity stress. PMID:22952621

Bazakos, Christos; Manioudaki, Maria E.; Therios, Ioannis; Voyiatzis, Demetrios; Kafetzopoulos, Dimitris; Awada, Tala; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

2012-01-01

166

A lipoxygenase with dual positional specificity is expressed in olives (Olea europaea L.) during ripening.  

E-print Network

, and conjugated dienoic acids. These compounds are involved in seed germination, plant growth and development using linoleic acid as a substrate, plant LOX isoenzymes are grouped into 9-LOX and 13-LOX types [5,version1-17May2011 #12;3 Abstract Plant lipoxygenases (LOXs) are a class of widespread dioxygenases

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

167

In vitro culture conditions and OeARF and OeH3 expressions modulate adventitious root formation from oleaster (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) cuttings.  

PubMed

Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris, also named oleaster, is the wild form of olive and it is used as rootstock and pollen donor for many cultivated varieties. An efficient procedure for in vitro propagation of oleaster was established in this study. A zeatin concentration of 2.5?mg/L was effective to induce an appreciable vegetative growth. Also high rooting efficiency was obtained by using a short IBA pulse, followed by two different IBA concentrations in the culture medium. With the aim to enlarge knowledge on the molecular aspects of adventitious rooting, we also evaluated the transcriptional modulation of an ARFs member and HISTONE H3 genes, involved in auxin signaling and cell replication, respectively, during the root induction phase of cuttings. The obtained results suggest that the selected genes, as markers of the induction phase, could be very useful for setting up efficient culture conditions along the rooting process, thus increasing micropropagation efficiency. PMID:24587768

Chiappetta, Adriana; Gagliardi, Cinzia; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

2014-01-01

168

In Vitro Culture Conditions and OeARF and OeH3 Expressions Modulate Adventitious Root Formation from Oleaster (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) Cuttings  

PubMed Central

Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris, also named oleaster, is the wild form of olive and it is used as rootstock and pollen donor for many cultivated varieties. An efficient procedure for in vitro propagation of oleaster was established in this study. A zeatin concentration of 2.5?mg/L was effective to induce an appreciable vegetative growth. Also high rooting efficiency was obtained by using a short IBA pulse, followed by two different IBA concentrations in the culture medium. With the aim to enlarge knowledge on the molecular aspects of adventitious rooting, we also evaluated the transcriptional modulation of an ARFs member and HISTONE H3 genes, involved in auxin signaling and cell replication, respectively, during the root induction phase of cuttings. The obtained results suggest that the selected genes, as markers of the induction phase, could be very useful for setting up efficient culture conditions along the rooting process, thus increasing micropropagation efficiency. PMID:24587768

Gagliardi, Cinzia; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

2014-01-01

169

Inhibition of acid corrosion of carbon steel using aqueous extract of olive leaves.  

PubMed

The inhibitive action of the aqueous extract of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves toward the corrosion of C-steel in 2 M HCl solution was investigated using weight loss measurements, Tafel polarization, and cyclic voltammetry. It was found that the extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for the tested system. The inhibition efficiency increases with increasing extract concentration. The inhibitive action of the extract is discussed with a view to adsorption of its components onto the steel surface, making a barrier to mass and charge transfer. The adsorption of extract components onto the steel surface was found to be a spontaneous process and to follow the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. It was found also that such adsorption increases the activation energy of the corrosion process. The results of cyclic voltammetry showed that the presence of olive extract decreases the charge density in the transpassive region. The inhibition efficiency is greatly reduced as the temperature is increased. PMID:17628584

El-Etre, A Y

2007-10-15

170

The ethnobotany and pharmacognosy of Olea europaea subsp. africana (Oleaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethnobotanical uses of wild olive, O. europaea subsp. africana (sometimes referred to as subsp. cuspidata) in southern Africa and in other parts of Africa are reviewed. Chromatographic analyses of secoiridoids (oleuropein and other oleuropeosides) in 25 wild olive leaf samples from 10 localities in South Africa showed substantial amounts of oleuropein (up to 110mg\\/g dry weight) and not trace

H. S. Long; P. M. Tilney; B.-E. Van Wyk

2010-01-01

171

Control of the olive fruit fly using genetics-enhanced sterile insect technique  

PubMed Central

Background The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major arthropod pest of commercial olive production, causing extensive damage to olive crops worldwide. Current control techniques rely on spraying of chemical insecticides. The sterile insect technique (SIT) presents an alternative, environmentally friendly and species-specific method of population control. Although SIT has been very successful against other tephritid pests, previous SIT trials on olive fly have produced disappointing results. Key problems included altered diurnal mating rhythms of the laboratory-reared insects, resulting in asynchronous mating activity between the wild and released sterile populations, and low competitiveness of the radiation-sterilised mass-reared flies. Consequently, the production of competitive, male-only release cohorts is considered an essential prerequisite for successful olive fly SIT. Results We developed a set of conditional female-lethal strains of olive fly (named Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal; RIDL®), providing highly penetrant female-specific lethality, dominant fluorescent marking, and genetic sterility. We found that males of the lead strain, OX3097D-Bol, 1) are strongly sexually competitive with wild olive flies, 2) display synchronous mating activity with wild females, and 3) induce appropriate refractoriness to wild female re-mating. Furthermore, we showed, through a large proof-of-principle experiment, that weekly releases of OX3097D-Bol males into stable populations of caged wild-type olive fly could cause rapid population collapse and eventual eradication. Conclusions The observed mating characteristics strongly suggest that an approach based on the release of OX3097D-Bol males will overcome the key difficulties encountered in previous olive fly SIT attempts. Although field confirmation is required, the proof-of-principle suppression and elimination of caged wild-type olive fly populations through OX3097D-Bol male releases provides evidence for the female-specific RIDL approach as a viable method of olive fly control. We conclude that the promising characteristics of OX3097D-Bol may finally enable effective SIT-based control of the olive fly. PMID:22713628

2012-01-01

172

Olive Fertility as Affected by Cross-Pollination and Boron  

PubMed Central

Self-compatibility of local olive (Olea europaea L.) accessions and of the cultivars “Frantoio” and “Leccino” was investigated in Garda Lake area, northern Italy. Intercompatibility was determined for “Casaliva,” “Frantoio,” and “Leccino,” as well as the effects of foliar Boron applications (0, 262, 525, or 1050?mg·L?1) applied about one week before anthesis on fruit set, shotberry set, and on in vitro pollen germination. Following self-pollination, fruit set was significantly lower and the occurrence of shot berries significantly higher than those obtained by open pollination. No significant effect of controlled cross-pollination over self-pollination on fruit set and shotberry set was detectable. B treatments increased significantly fruit set in “Frantoio” and “Casaliva” but not in “Leccino.” B sprays had no effect on shotberry set, suggesting that these parthenocarpic fruits did not strongly compete for resources allocation and did not take advantage of increased B tissue levels. Foliar B application enhanced in vitro pollen germination, and the optimal level was higher for pollen germination than for fruit set. Our results highlight the importance of olive cross pollination for obtaining satisfactory fruit set and the beneficial effect of B treatments immediately prior to anthesis, possibly by affecting positively the fertilisation process and subsequent plant source-sink relations linked to fruitlet retention. PMID:22919310

Spinardi, A.; Bassi, D.

2012-01-01

173

7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 ...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means...

2013-01-01

174

7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 ...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means...

2012-01-01

175

7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.  

... 2014-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 ...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means...

2014-01-01

176

7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of...

2011-01-01

177

7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 ...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means...

2011-01-01

178

7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of...

2013-01-01

179

7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of...

2014-01-01

180

7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of...

2010-01-01

181

7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 ...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means...

2010-01-01

182

7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of...

2012-01-01

183

The Olive Branch Awards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first annual Olive Branch Awards, sponsored by the Writers' and Publishers Alliance and the Editors' Organizing Committee, were given to ten magazines, out of 60 that submitted entries. Winning entries are described briefly. (IM)

Harnack, William

1984-01-01

184

AJUDES ECONMIQUES PER A LA MOBILITAT INTERNACIONAL EUROPEA  

E-print Network

LA MOVILIDAD INTERNACIONAL EUROPEA DE LOS ESTUDIANTES DE LA FACULTAD DE FILOSOFÍA Y LETRAS (2012-13) BASES DE LA CONVOCATORIA 1. OBJETO Con el fin de promover la movilidad europeal de los estudiantes de la de la beca Sócrates/�rasmus. Teniendo en cuenta los índices de movilidad y las características

Escolano, Francisco

185

Comparative study on phenolic content and antioxidant activity during maturation of the olive cultivar Chemlali from Tunisia.  

PubMed

For the first time the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds of the Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali olive were carried out to examine their profile during maturation. The phenolic composition was studied by using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography during all steps of fruit development. Oleuropein is the abundant phenolic compound in Chemlali olive, and its concentration increases during maturation. An indirect relationship between oleuropein content in olive fruit and hydroxytyrosol was observed. Weak changes in the amounts of the other phenolic monomers and flavonoids were also observed. The total phenolic content varied from 6 to 16 g/kg expressed as pyrogallol equivalents. Its highest level was found at the last maturation period. The antioxidant capacity of olive extracts was evaluated by measuring the radical scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. The IC(50) values of the olive extract ranged from 3.2 to 1.5 microg/mL. There was a correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of samples. The antioxidant activity increased with maturation. This could be attributed to the increase of the tolal phenol level with fruit development. PMID:15315388

Bouaziz, Mohamed; Chamkha, Mohamed; Sayadi, Sami

2004-08-25

186

Acephate and buprofezin residues in olives and olive oil.  

PubMed

Field trials were carried out to study the persistence of acephate and buprofezin on olives. Two cultivars, pizz'e carroga and pendolino, with very large and small fruits respectively were used. After treatment, no difference was found between the two pesticide deposits on the olives. The disappearance rates, calculated as pseudo first order kinetics, were similar for both pesticides (on average 12 days). Methamidophos, the acephate metabolite, was always present on all olives, and in some pendolino samples it showed higher residues than the maximum residue limit (MRL). During washing, the first step of olive processing, the residue level of both pesticides on the olives did not decrease. After processing of the olives into oil, no residues of acephate or methamidophos were found in the olive oil, while the residues of buprofezin were on average four times higher than on olives. PMID:11103269

Cabras, P; Angioni, A; Garau, V L; Pirisi, F M; Cabitza, F; Pala, M

2000-10-01

187

Evaluation of the effects, on canopy arthropods, of two agricultural management systems to control pests in olive groves from north-east of Portugal.  

PubMed

This study aims to investigate the effect of management regime on canopy arthropod community of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.). Field studies were performed in two successive years, 2002 and 2003, in two olive groves, one under organic farming and the other under integrated protection. The integrated protection grove was sprayed once a year in June, with dimethoate, to control the anthophagous generation of the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bern.). From April to November of each year, the canopy arthropods were sampled weekly. PRC method was used to analyse the effect of management regime at the community level and results showed that taxa responded differently to insecticide application suggesting that the organic grove was a more suitable habitat for the arthropods than the integrated protection grove. Abundance of arthropods peaked in May and June for both years but, after spraying with dimethoate, decreased significantly in integrated protection grove, recovering very slowly thereafter. Psocoptera, Miridae, Formicidae and Coccinellidae were the most sensitive taxa to insecticide application. Their decreasing in abundance was more evident in the second year of the trial. On the other hand chrysopids showed some tolerance to insecticide applications. These results suggest that the timing of spray is of utmost importance in reducing the side effects of spraying on beneficial arthropods. Moreover, differences in population susceptibility as well as in life cycle patterns must be considered. PMID:17095048

Santos, Sónia A P; Pereira, José A; Torres, Laura M; Nogueira, António J A

2007-02-01

188

The adjoint functor Oliver Kullmann  

E-print Network

The adjoint functor theorem Oliver Kullmann Review Special morphisms Comma categories Universal: Ultrafilters The adjoint functor theorem Oliver Kullmann1 1Computer Science, University of Wales Swansea, UK adjoint functor theorem Oliver Kullmann Review Special morphisms Comma categories Universal arrows Natural

Martin, Ralph R.

189

The adjoint functor Oliver Kullmann  

E-print Network

The adjoint functor theorem Oliver Kullmann Review Special morphisms Comma categories Universal: Ultrafilters The adjoint functor theorem Oliver Kullmann Computer Science Department University of Wales Swansea PhD Theory Seminar (Hauptseminar) Swansea, March 14, 2007 #12;The adjoint functor theorem Oliver

Kullmann, Oliver

190

Antioxidant activity of phenolics extracted from Olea europaea L. leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify the main phenolic compounds present in an olive leaf extract (OL) in order to delineate the differential antioxidant activities of these compounds through the extent of their abilities to scavenge the ABTS+ radical cation and to clarify the structural elements conferring antioxidant capacity in aqueous systems. The results show that the relative

O Benavente-Garc??a; J Castillo; J Lorente; A Ortuño; J. A Del Rio

2000-01-01

191

Infraestrut. Financiamiento publico procedente da Unin Europea X X  

E-print Network

I+D+i Docencia Relac.Soc. Xestión Infraestrut. Financiamiento publico procedente da Unión Europea X X Aposta dos poderes públicos polo investimento en I+D+i X X Estabilidade do financiamento público autonómico para o período 2005-10 X X X X Demanda tecnolóxica por parte do sector empresarial próximo X X X X

Fraguela, Basilio B.

192

Hydrolysis of Oleuropein by Lactobacillus plantarum Strains Associated with Olive Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Oleuropein (Chemical Abstracts Service registry number 32619-42-4), a bitter-tasting secoiridoid glucoside commonly found in leaves of the olive tree as well as in olives (Olea europaea L.), was found to be hydrolyzed by the ?-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.2.1) produced by oleuropeinolytic Lactobacillus plantarum-type strains. Three strains, designated B17, B20, and B21, were isolated from the brine of naturally ripe olives not treated with alkali. These strains were rod-shaped forms, grown at a pH 3.5 limit, and tolerated 1% oleuropein and 8% NaCl in the growth medium. The ?-glucosidase produced hydrolyzed 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-?-d-glucopy-ranoside as well as oleuropein. The presence of 2% glucose in the medium inhibited activity by 40 to 50%, depending on the bacterial strain. Chromatographic analysis of the trimethylsilyl derivatives of the products obtained after 7 days of incubation at 30°C of strain B21 showed all the hydrolysis products of oleuropein, i.e., aglycone, iridoid monoterpen, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (hydroxytyrosol). Oleuropein and its aglycone after 21 days of incubation decreased to trace levels with the simultaneous increase in concentration of ?-3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol. Images PMID:16349442

Ciafardini, G.; Marsilio, V.; Lanza, B.; Pozzi, N.

1994-01-01

193

Interchromosomal Duplications on the Bactrocera oleae Y Chromosome Imply a Distinct Evolutionary Origin of the Sex Chromosomes Compared to Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Background Diptera have an extraordinary variety of sex determination mechanisms, and Drosophila melanogaster is the paradigm for this group. However, the Drosophila sex determination pathway is only partially conserved and the family Tephritidae affords an interesting example. The tephritid Y chromosome is postulated to be necessary to determine male development. Characterization of Y sequences, apart from elucidating the nature of the male determining factor, is also important to understand the evolutionary history of sex chromosomes within the Tephritidae. We studied the Y sequences from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae. Its Y chromosome is minute and highly heterochromatic, and displays high heteromorphism with the X chromosome. Methodology/Principal Findings A combined Representational Difference Analysis (RDA) and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) approach was used to investigate the Y chromosome to derive information on its sequence content. The Y chromosome is strewn with repetitive DNA sequences, the majority of which are also interdispersed in the pericentromeric regions of the autosomes. The Y chromosome appears to have accumulated small and large repetitive interchromosomal duplications. The large interchromosomal duplications harbour an importin-4-like gene fragment. Apart from these importin-4-like sequences, the other Y repetitive sequences are not shared with the X chromosome, suggesting molecular differentiation of these two chromosomes. Moreover, as the identified Y sequences were not detected on the Y chromosomes of closely related tephritids, we can infer divergence in the repetitive nature of their sequence contents. Conclusions/Significance The identification of Y-linked sequences may tell us much about the repetitive nature, the origin and the evolution of Y chromosomes. We hypothesize how these repetitive sequences accumulated and were maintained on the Y chromosome during its evolutionary history. Our data reinforce the idea that the sex chromosomes of the Tephritidae may have distinct evolutionary origins with respect to those of the Drosophilidae and other Dipteran families. PMID:21408187

Gabrieli, Paolo; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Bonomi, Angelica; Siciliano, Paolo; Scolari, Francesca; Franz, Gerald; Jessup, Andrew; Malacrida, Anna R.; Gasperi, Giuliano

2011-01-01

194

The olive leaf extract exhibits antiviral activity against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia rhabdovirus (VHSV).  

PubMed

A commercial plant extract derived from olive tree leaf (Olea europaea) (LExt) and its major compound, oleuropein (Ole), inhibited the in vitro infectivity of the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV), a salmonid rhabdovirus. Incubation of virus with LExt or Ole before infection reduced the viral infectivity to 10 and 30%, respectively. Furthermore, LExt drastically decreased VHSV titers and viral protein accumulation (virucidal effect) in a dose dependent manner when added to cell monolayers 36 h post-infection. On the other hand, both the LExt and Ole were able to inhibit cell-to-cell membrane fusion induced by VHSV in uninfected cells, suggesting interactions with viral envelope. Therefore, we propose that O. europaea could be used as a potential source of promising natural antivirals, which have demonstrated to lack impact on health and environment. In addition, Ole could be used to design other related antiviral agents. PMID:15869811

Micol, Vicente; Caturla, Nuria; Pérez-Fons, Laura; Más, Vicente; Pérez, Luis; Estepa, Amparo

2005-06-01

195

Induction of growth inhibition and differentiation of human leukemia HL-60 cells by a Tunisian gerboui olive leaf extract.  

PubMed

Cancer protection associated with the consumption of olive products is well established, but not for leukemia. The protective effects of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves were investigated by incubating human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells with olive leaf extracts (OLEs) from seven principal Tunisian olive varieties, namely, Chemchali, Chemlali, Chétoui, Gerboui, Sayali, Zalmati and Zarrazi. The results showed significant growth inhibition of HL-60 cells incubated for 48 h with a 100-fold dilution of each OLE which had been obtained by incubating 10 g of dried leaves in 100 ml of 70% ethanol for one week with subsequent ultrafiltration. DNA fragmentation was observed in the cells incubated for 19 h with a 100-fold dilution of the Chemchali, Chemlali and Zalmati extracts. The results of a nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) assay revealed NBT reduction, a differentiation marker, by the OLE-treated cells after an overnight incubation. The Gerboui extract showed the highest NBT reduction ability at more than 90%. An HPLC analysis revealed the presence of apigenin 7-glucoside in the extract, which was found in subsequent experiments to be responsible for the Gerboui extract-mediated cell differentiation. PMID:17485840

Abaza, Leila; Talorete, Terence P N; Yamada, Parida; Kurita, Yui; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Isoda, Hiroko

2007-05-01

196

Retention and distribution of polyphenols after pan-frying of French fries in oils enriched with olive leaf extract.  

PubMed

Palm oil, olive oil, and sunflower oil were supplemented with an extract rich in polyphenols obtained from olive tree (Olea europaea) leaves at levels of 120 and 240 mg total polyphenols per kilogram of oil. Pan-frying of potatoes was performed in both the enriched and the nonsupplemented oils under domestic frying conditions. Total polyphenol content was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay, oleuropein was determined by HPLC analysis, while other individual polyphenols by GC/MS analysis. Fourteen polyphenol species were identified in the olive leaf extract, among which oleuropein predominated (1.25 g/kg olive leaves). All the enriched oils contained oleuropein before and after frying. Oleuropein as well as other polyphenol species were detected in all French fries cooked in enriched oils. Polyphenol intake by consuming French fries pan-fried in the enriched oils was calculated to be 6 to 31 times higher than that in the case of French fries fried in commercial oils, being dependent on the frying oil type. PMID:17995623

Chiou, A; Salta, F N; Kalogeropoulos, N; Mylona, A; Ntalla, I; Andrikopoulos, N K

2007-10-01

197

REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS California Olive Committee  

E-print Network

1 REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS California Olive Committee 30 July 2010 The California Olive Committee (COC November 2010 Meeting of the UC Olive Workgroup (location to be announced) to review submitted concept

Hernes, Peter J.

198

Multiple antimelanoma potential of dry olive leaf extract.  

PubMed

Various constituents of the olive tree (Olea europaea) have been traditionally used in the treatment of infection, inflammation, prevention of chronic diseases, cardiovascular disorders and cancer. The anticancer potential of dry olive leaf extract (DOLE) represents the net effect of multilevel interactions between different biologically active compounds from the extract, cancer cells and conventional therapy. In this context, it was of primary interest to evaluate the influence of DOLE on progression of the highly malignant, immuno- and chemoresistant type of skin cancer-melanoma. DOLE significantly inhibited proliferation and subsequently restricted clonogenicity of the B16 mouse melanoma cell line in vitro. Moreover, late phase tumor treatment with DOLE significantly reduced tumor volume in a syngeneic strain of mice. DOLE-treated B16 cells were blocked in the G(0) /G(1) phase of the cell cycle, underwent early apoptosis and died by late necrosis. At the molecular level, the dying process started as caspase dependent, but finalized as caspase independent. In concordance, overexpression of antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, and diminished expression of their natural antagonists, Bim and p53, were observed. Despite molecular suppression of the proapoptotic process, DOLE successfully promoted cell death mainly through disruption of cell membrane integrity and late caspase-independent fragmentation of genetic material. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that DOLE possesses strong antimelanoma potential. When DOLE was applied in combination with different chemotherapeutics, various outcomes, including synergy and antagonism, were observed. This requires caution in the use of the extract as a supplementary antitumor therapeutic. PMID:20568104

Mijatovic, Sanja A; Timotijevic, Gordana S; Miljkovic, Djordje M; Radovic, Julijana M; Maksimovic-Ivanic, Danijela D; Dekanski, Dragana P; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava D

2011-04-15

199

The Douglas Oliver Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This remarkable collection from the University of Hawaii Library's Pacific Collection brings together over 960 images taken by Professor Douglas Oliver. In the late 1930s, Professor Oliver conducted research on Bougainville in the Solomon Islands. Visitors can browse through his images by title, category, place, collection, or reference number. Some of the images include rare photographs of nuptials and other events or ceremonies that marked key events in the community. Many of the images include portraits of men in profile, along with scenes of family life. The site also contains a glossary of terms, which details everything from place names (like "Aku") to "Upi," the wearing of tall conical hats known as upes.

Oliver, Douglas L.

200

Actividad financiera en los presupuestos de la Unión Europea: 50 años de instituciones comunitarias  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se va a estudiar principalmente el Presupuesto General de la Unión Europea. No obstante, no se prescindirá de otros presupuestos e instrumentos financieros comunitarios, que se tratarán, con mayor o menor detalle, en función de su posible contribución a la mejor comprensión de la actividad financiera global desarrollada por las instituciones europeas. En primer lugar, se expondrá

Valentín Edo Hernández; Laura de Pablos Escobar

2004-01-01

201

On the use of leaf spectral indices to assess water status and photosynthetic limitations in Olea europaea L. during water-stress and recovery.  

PubMed

Diffusional limitations to photosynthesis, relative water content (RWC), pigment concentrations and their association with reflectance indices were studied in olive (Olea europaea) saplings subjected to water-stress and re-watering. RWC decreased sharply as drought progressed. Following rewatering, RWC gradually increased to pre-stress values. Photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), mesophyll conductance (gm), total conductance (gt), photochemical reflectance index (PRI), water index (WI) and relative depth index (RDI) closely followed RWC. In contrast, carotenoid concentration, the carotenoid to chlorophyll ratio, water content reflectance index (WCRI) and structural independent pigment index (SIPI) showed an opposite trend to that of RWC. Photosynthesis scaled linearly with leaf conductance to CO2; however, A measured under non-photorespiratory conditions (A1%O2) was approximately two times greater than A measured at 21% [O2], indicating that photorespiration likely increased in response to drought. A1%O2 also significantly correlated with leaf conductance parameters. These relationships were apparent in saturation type curves, indicating that under non-photorespiratory conditions, CO2 conductance was not the major limitations to A. PRI was significant correlated with RWC. PRI was also very sensitive to pigment concentrations and photosynthesis, and significantly tracked all CO2 conductance parameters. WI, RDI and WCRI were all significantly correlated with RWC, and most notably to leaf transpiration. Overall, PRI correlated more closely with carotenoid concentration than SIPI; whereas WI tracked leaf transpiration more effectively than RDI and WCRI. This study clearly demonstrates that PRI and WI can be used for the fast detection of physiological traits of olive trees subjected to water-stress. PMID:25136798

Sun, Pengsen; Wahbi, Said; Tsonev, Tsonko; Haworth, Matthew; Liu, Shirong; Centritto, Mauro

2014-01-01

202

On the Use of Leaf Spectral Indices to Assess Water Status and Photosynthetic Limitations in Olea europaea L. during Water-Stress and Recovery  

PubMed Central

Diffusional limitations to photosynthesis, relative water content (RWC), pigment concentrations and their association with reflectance indices were studied in olive (Olea europaea) saplings subjected to water-stress and re-watering. RWC decreased sharply as drought progressed. Following rewatering, RWC gradually increased to pre-stress values. Photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), mesophyll conductance (gm), total conductance (gt), photochemical reflectance index (PRI), water index (WI) and relative depth index (RDI) closely followed RWC. In contrast, carotenoid concentration, the carotenoid to chlorophyll ratio, water content reflectance index (WCRI) and structural independent pigment index (SIPI) showed an opposite trend to that of RWC. Photosynthesis scaled linearly with leaf conductance to CO2; however, A measured under non-photorespiratory conditions (A1%O2) was approximately two times greater than A measured at 21% [O2], indicating that photorespiration likely increased in response to drought. A1%O2 also significantly correlated with leaf conductance parameters. These relationships were apparent in saturation type curves, indicating that under non-photorespiratory conditions, CO2 conductance was not the major limitations to A. PRI was significant correlated with RWC. PRI was also very sensitive to pigment concentrations and photosynthesis, and significantly tracked all CO2 conductance parameters. WI, RDI and WCRI were all significantly correlated with RWC, and most notably to leaf transpiration. Overall, PRI correlated more closely with carotenoid concentration than SIPI; whereas WI tracked leaf transpiration more effectively than RDI and WCRI. This study clearly demonstrates that PRI and WI can be used for the fast detection of physiological traits of olive trees subjected to water-stress. PMID:25136798

Sun, Pengsen; Wahbi, Said; Tsonev, Tsonko; Haworth, Matthew; Liu, Shirong; Centritto, Mauro

2014-01-01

203

Production of highly purified hydroxytyrosol from Olea europaea leaf extract biotransformed by hyperthermophilic ?-glycosidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large amount of highly purified hydroxytyrosol (91–94% in weight) is obtained in short time by a simple biotransformation of Olea europaea leaf extract by a partially purified hyperthermophilic ?-glycosidase immobilized on chitosan support. The biotransformation conditions have been modulated for increasing the hydroxytyrosol yield, whilst chitosan and chitin matrices are used as adsorbent materials in liquid phase hydroxytyrosol extraction

Raffaella Briante; Maurizio Patumi; Ferdinando Febbraio; Roberto Nucci

2004-01-01

204

Vulnerability to cavitation in Olea europaea current-year shoots: further evidence of an open-vessel artifact associated with centrifuge and air-injection techniques.  

PubMed

Different methods have been devised to analyze vulnerability to cavitation of plants. Although a good agreement between them is usually found, some discrepancies have been reported when measuring samples from long-vesseled species. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible artifacts derived from different methods and sample sizes. Current-year shoot segments of mature olive trees (Olea europaea), a long-vesseled species, were used to generate vulnerability curves (VCs) by bench dehydration, pressure collar and both static- and flow-centrifuge methods. For the latter, two different rotors were used to test possible effects of the rotor design on the curves. Indeed, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images were used to evaluate the functional status of xylem at different water potentials. Measurements of native embolism were used to validate the methods used. The pressure collar and the two centrifugal methods showed greater vulnerability to cavitation than the dehydration method. The shift in vulnerability thresholds in centrifuge methods was more pronounced in shorter samples, supporting the open-vessel artifact hypothesis as a higher proportion of vessels were open in short samples. The two different rotor designs used for the flow-centrifuge method revealed similar vulnerability to cavitation. Only the bench dehydration or HRCT methods produced VCs that agreed with native levels of embolism and water potential values measured in the field. PMID:24611594

Torres-Ruiz, José M; Cochard, Hervé; Mayr, Stefan; Beikircher, Barbara; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Celia M; Badel, Eric; Fernández, José Enrique

2014-11-01

205

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of individual and combined phenolics in Olea europaea leaf extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive leaves, an agricultural waste, have great potential as a natural antioxidant. The current study was made to assess the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of both the individual and combined phenolics in olive leaf extract. A combined phenolics mixture was prepared by amount ratios of the phenolic compounds in the olive leaf extract. The results showed that both the individual

Ok-Hwan Lee; Boo-Yong Lee

2010-01-01

206

The Vine and Olive Colony.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the historical sources of "Some Plant Olive Trees," a utopian novel by Emma Gelders Sterne, which offers a fictional account of the Vine and Olive colony, one of the most colorful yet least known utopian communities of the nineteenth century. (AYC)

Albinski, Nan Bowman

1985-01-01

207

7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a)...

2012-01-01

208

7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a)...

2010-01-01

209

7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a)...

2013-01-01

210

7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a)...

2014-01-01

211

7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a)...

2011-01-01

212

Root hairs play a key role in the endophytic colonization of olive roots by Pseudomonas spp. with biocontrol activity.  

PubMed

The use of indigenous bacterial root endophytes with biocontrol activity against soil-borne phytopathogens is an environmentally-friendly and ecologically-efficient action within an integrated disease management framework. The earliest steps of olive root colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 and Pseudomonas putida PICP2, effective biocontrol agents (BCAs) against Verticillium wilt of olive (Olea europaea L.) caused by the fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb., are here described. A gnotobiotic study system using in vitro propagated olive plants, differential fluorescent-protein tagging of bacteria, and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis have been successfully used to examine olive roots-Pseudomonas spp. interactions at the single-cell level. In vivo simultaneous visualization of PICF7 and PICP2 cells on/in root tissues enabled to discard competition between the two bacterial strains during root colonization. Results demonstrated that both BCAs are able to endophytically colonized olive root tissues. Moreover, results suggest a pivotal role of root hairs in root colonization by both biocontrol Pseudomonas spp. However, colonization of root hairs appeared to be a highly specific event, and only a very low number of root hairs were effectively colonized by introduced bacteria. Strains PICF7 and PICP2 can simultaneously colonize the same root hair, demonstrating that early colonization of a given root hair by one strain did not hinder subsequent attachment and penetration by the other. Since many environmental factors can affect the number, anatomy, development, and physiology of root hairs, colonization competence and biocontrol effectiveness of BCAs may be greatly influenced by root hair's fitness. Finally, the in vitro study system here reported has shown to be a suitable tool to investigate colonization processes of woody plant roots by microorganisms with biocontrol potential. PMID:21347721

Prieto, Pilar; Schilirò, Elisabetta; Maldonado-González, María Mercedes; Valderrama, Raquel; Barroso-Albarracín, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

2011-08-01

213

7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23 Section 932.23 Agriculture...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating...

2011-01-01

214

7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23 Section 932.23 Agriculture...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating...

2013-01-01

215

7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23 Section 932.23 Agriculture...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating...

2012-01-01

216

7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23 Section 932.23 Agriculture...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating...

2010-01-01

217

7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23 Section 932.23 Agriculture...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating...

2014-01-01

218

Optimization of olive leaf extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction with response surface methodology.  

PubMed

In the present article, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of polyphenols from agricultural and industrial waste of olive oil and table oil productions, olive tree (Olea europaea) leaves were investigated. The aim of the study is to examine the extraction parameters such as solvent concentration (0-100% ethanol (EtOH), v/v), the ratio of solid to solvent (25-50mg/mL) and extraction time (20-60 min), and to obtain the best possible combinations of these parameters through response surface methodology (RSM). The extract yield was stated as mg extract per g of dried leaf (DL). Total phenolic content was expressed in gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per g of dried leaf. Free radical scavenging activity for the antioxidant capacity was tested by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The second order polynomial model gave a satisfactory description of the experimental data. 201.2158 mg extract/g DL, 25.0626 mg GAE/g DL, and 95.5610% in respect to inhibition of DPPH radical were predicted at the optimum operating conditions (500 mg solid to 10 mL solvent ratio, 60 min of extraction time and 50% EtOH composition), respectively. PMID:22964032

?ahin, Selin; Saml?, Rüya

2013-01-01

219

An evaluation of olive-tree bark for the biological monitoring of airborne trace-elements at ground level.  

PubMed

There is a need to start looking into the possibility of tree bark for biomonitoring. Bark from olive trees (Olea europaea Linn.) has been collected over an area in northwestern Portugal, featuring a blend of rural lands, industrial towns and coastal environments. Samples were analysed through INAA and PIXE for their elemental contents. Results from both techniques were reconciled and then compared with an extensive database on 46 trace elements in Parmelia spp. thalli from the same sites and mostly from the very bark substrates. Distribution-free, nonparametric statistics show that, despite signal magnitude, variation patterns of bark and lichen concentrations follow one another in a most significant way. Selected elements in bark also correlate to a superior extent. As far as this investigation goes, there is no reason whatsoever for discarding bark as an alternative to lower epiphytes. PMID:12199470

Pacheco, A M G; Barros, L I C; Freitas, M C; Reis, M A; Hipólito, C; Oliveira, O R

2002-01-01

220

Isolation, molecular characterization and functional analysis of OeMT2, an olive metallothionein with a bioremediation potential.  

PubMed

Metallothioneins are essential in plants for metal detoxification in addition to their other roles in plant life cycle. This study reports the characterization of an olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Ayvalik) metallothionein with respect to molecular and functional properties. A cDNA encoding a type 2 metallothionein from olive was isolated from a leaf cDNA library, characterized and named OeMT2 after its molecular and functional properties. OeMT2 was expressed in Escherichia coli, and a single protein band was confirmed by protein gel blot analysis. Metal tolerance ability of bacterial cells expressing OeMT2 was determined against 0.2 mM CdCl2, 0.4 mM CdCl2 and 1 mM CuSO4 in the growth medium. Metal ion contents of bacterial cells expressing OeMT2 were measured by ICP. Metal tolerance assays and ICP measurements suggested that OeMT2 effectively binds Cu and Cd. Molecular analysis of OeMT2 revealed two introns, three exons, a short 3' UTR and a long 5' UTR. Comparing the genomic sequences from 14 olive cultivars revealed OeMT2 had both intron and exon polymorphisms dividing the cultivars into three groups. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that OeMT2 expresses more or less the same amounts in all tissues of the olive tree examined. The genomic copy number of OeMT2 was also determined employing real-time PCR which suggested a single copy gene in the olive genome while three other MT2 members were determined from the draft olive genome sequences of Ayvalik cultivar and that of wild olive. This is the first report on molecular and functional characterization of an olive metallothionein and shows that OeMT2 expressed in E. coli has the capability of effectively binding toxic heavy metals. This may suggest that OeMT2 plays an important role in metal homeostasis in addition to a good potential for environmental and industrial usage. PMID:25204791

Dundar, Ekrem; Sonmez, Görkem Deniz; Unver, Turgay

2015-02-01

221

7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8 Agriculture...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating...Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives...

2012-01-01

222

7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8 Agriculture...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating...Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives...

2011-01-01

223

7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8 Agriculture...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating...Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives...

2013-01-01

224

7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8 Agriculture...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating...Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives...

2010-01-01

225

7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.  

...2014-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8 Agriculture...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating...Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives...

2014-01-01

226

Olive School, Arlington Heights, Illinois  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Article stressed the need for a music teacher in an open school to have an openness to people and ideas. It also described the educational objectives at the Olive School in Arlington Heights, Illinois. (Author/RK)

Rausch, Kathy

1974-01-01

227

Jack Oliver (1923-2011)  

E-print Network

seismology, plate tectonics and deep imaging of Earth's conti- nental crust. He and Bryan Isacks, a former with another of their studies. In 1968, with Lynn Sykes, another researcher who had been advised by Oliver

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

228

Widespread head-to-head hydrocarbon biosynthesis in bacteria and role of OleA.  

PubMed

Previous studies identified the oleABCD genes involved in head-to-head olefinic hydrocarbon biosynthesis. The present study more fully defined the OleABCD protein families within the thiolase, alpha/beta-hydrolase, AMP-dependent ligase/synthase, and short-chain dehydrogenase superfamilies, respectively. Only 0.1 to 1% of each superfamily represents likely Ole proteins. Sequence analysis based on structural alignments and gene context was used to identify highly likely ole genes. Selected microorganisms from the phyla Verucomicrobia, Planctomyces, Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were tested experimentally and shown to produce long-chain olefinic hydrocarbons. However, different species from the same genera sometimes lack the ole genes and fail to produce olefinic hydrocarbons. Overall, only 1.9% of 3,558 genomes analyzed showed clear evidence for containing ole genes. The type of olefins produced by different bacteria differed greatly with respect to the number of carbon-carbon double bonds. The greatest number of organisms surveyed biosynthesized a single long-chain olefin, 3,6,9,12,15,19,22,25,28-hentriacontanonaene, that contains nine double bonds. Xanthomonas campestris produced the greatest number of distinct olefin products, 15 compounds ranging in length from C(28) to C(31) and containing one to three double bonds. The type of long-chain product formed was shown to be dependent on the oleA gene in experiments with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 ole gene deletion mutants containing native or heterologous oleA genes expressed in trans. A strain deleted in oleABCD and containing oleA in trans produced only ketones. Based on these observations, it was proposed that OleA catalyzes a nondecarboxylative thiolytic condensation of fatty acyl chains to generate a beta-ketoacyl intermediate that can decarboxylate spontaneously to generate ketones. PMID:20418421

Sukovich, David J; Seffernick, Jennifer L; Richman, Jack E; Gralnick, Jeffrey A; Wackett, Lawrence P

2010-06-01

229

Olea europaea leaf (Ph.Eur.) extract as well as several of its isolated phenolics inhibit the gout-related enzyme xanthine oxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Mediterranean folk medicine Olea europaea L. leaf (Ph.Eur.) preparations are used as a common remedy for gout. In this in vitro study kinetic measurements were performed on both an 80% ethanolic (v\\/v) Olea europaea leaf dry extract (OLE) as well as on nine of its typical phenolic constituents in order to investigate its possible inhibitory effects on xanthine oxidase

J. Flemmig; K. Kuchta; J. Arnhold; H. W. Rauwald

2011-01-01

230

Clay improvement with burned olive waste ash.  

PubMed

Olive oil is concentrated in the Mediterranean basin countries. Since the olive oil industries are incriminated for a high quantity of pollution, it has become imperative to solve this problem by developing optimized systems for the treatment of olive oil wastes. This study proposes a solution to the problem. Burned olive waste ash is evaluated for using it as clay stabilizer. In a laboratory, bentonite clay is used to improve olive waste ash. Before the laboratory, the olive waste is burned at 550°C in the high temperature oven. The burned olive waste ash was added to bentonite clay with increasing 1% by weight from 1% to 10%. The study consisted of the following tests on samples treated with burned olive waste ash: Atterberg Limits, Standard Proctor Density, and Unconfined Compressive Strength Tests. The test results show promise for this material to be used as stabilizer and to solve many of the problems associated with its accumulation. PMID:23766671

Mutman, Utkan

2013-01-01

231

Clay Improvement with Burned Olive Waste Ash  

PubMed Central

Olive oil is concentrated in the Mediterranean basin countries. Since the olive oil industries are incriminated for a high quantity of pollution, it has become imperative to solve this problem by developing optimized systems for the treatment of olive oil wastes. This study proposes a solution to the problem. Burned olive waste ash is evaluated for using it as clay stabilizer. In a laboratory, bentonite clay is used to improve olive waste ash. Before the laboratory, the olive waste is burned at 550°C in the high temperature oven. The burned olive waste ash was added to bentonite clay with increasing 1% by weight from 1% to 10%. The study consisted of the following tests on samples treated with burned olive waste ash: Atterberg Limits, Standard Proctor Density, and Unconfined Compressive Strength Tests. The test results show promise for this material to be used as stabilizer and to solve many of the problems associated with its accumulation. PMID:23766671

Mutman, Utkan

2013-01-01

232

Characterization of Olive Waste Ashes as Fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Wet and dry olive cakes are the most important wastes generated when olive oil is produced. In recent years, both olive wastes\\u000a have been incinerated to produce electricity, and thereby large amounts of fly and bottom ash are generated. In this study,\\u000a physical, physicochemical, and chemical characteristics of olive waste ashes produced in Andalusian biomass power plants were\\u000a analyzed to

Rogelio Nogales; Gabriel Delgado; Mar Quirantes; Manuel Romero; Esperanza Romero; Eduarda Molina-Alcaide

233

Olive oil and the cardiovascular system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive oil is the primary source of fat in the Mediterranean diet which is associated with a low mortality for cardiovascular disease. In spite of this, data concerning olive oil consumption and primary end points for cardiovascular disease are scarce. However, a large body of knowledge exists providing evidence of the benefits of olive oil consumption on secondary end points

Mar ´ õa-Isabel Covas

2007-01-01

234

4, 28112835, 2007 The olive tree: a  

E-print Network

HESSD 4, 2811­2835, 2007 The olive tree: a paradigm for drought tolerance A. Sofo et al. Title Page are under open-access review for the journal Hydrology and Earth System Sciences The olive tree: a paradigm Correspondence to: S. Manfreda (salvatore.manfreda@unibas.it) 2811 #12;HESSD 4, 2811­2835, 2007 The olive tree

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

235

Robust Multivariate Linear Regression David J. Olive  

E-print Network

Robust Multivariate Linear Regression David J. Olive Southern Illinois University May 3, 2013. KEY WORDS: outliers; prediction regions. David J. Olive is Associate Professor, Department: dolive@siu.edu. 1 #12;1 INTRODUCTION Olive (2013b), using results from Su and Cook (2012) and Kakizawa

Olive, David

236

Bootstrapping Hypotheses Tests David J. Olive  

E-print Network

Bootstrapping Hypotheses Tests David J. Olive Southern Illinois University December 9, 2014 regression, prediction region, variable selection David J. Olive is Professor, Department of Mathematics T f,n. Olive (2014a, p. 283) recommends using the shorth(c) estimator for the percentile method. Let c

Olive, David

237

Heft 127 Oliver Witt Erosionsstabilitt von  

E-print Network

Heft 127 Oliver Witt Erosionsstabilität von Gewässersedimenten und deren Bedeutung für den Erlangung der Würde eines Doktor-Ingenieurs (Dr.-Ing.) genehmigte Abhandlung Vorgelegt von Oliver Witt aus ausgewählter Stauhaltungen des Oberrheins von Dr.-Ing. Oliver Witt Eigenverlag des Instituts für Wasserbau der

Cirpka, Olaf Arie

238

MATCHING DISSIMILAR SHAPES Oliver van Kaick  

E-print Network

MATCHING DISSIMILAR SHAPES by Oliver van Kaick M.Sc., Federal University of Paran´a, 2005 B for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the School of Computing Science Faculty of Applied Sciences c Oliver appropriately. #12;APPROVAL Name: Oliver van Kaick Degree: Doctor of Philosophy Title of Thesis: Matching

Zhang, Richard "Hao"

239

Ideal objects in set Oliver Kullmann  

E-print Network

Ideal objects in set theory and topology Oliver Kullmann Historical remarks Enumerating sets and topology Oliver Kullmann Computer Science Department Swansea University MRes Seminar Swansea, November 17, 2008 #12;Ideal objects in set theory and topology Oliver Kullmann Historical remarks Enumerating sets

Berger, Ulrich

240

Chemical and physical properties of two-year short-rotation deciduous species. [Olea sp. , Populus deltoides, Platanus sp. , Alnus glutinosa, Paulownia tomentosa, Robina pseudoacacia, Acer saccharinum  

SciTech Connect

The following seven broadleaved species were tested: autumn olive (Olea sp.) eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), sycamore (Platanus species), black alder (Alnus glutinosa), royal paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa), black locust (Robina pseudoacacia) and silver maple (Acer saccharinum). The species and portions both significantly affected the chemical and the physical findings of the juvenile wood. The ages, which were tested in factorial combination with the species, also showed a significant effect on both the chemical and the physical properties of wood. All of the results indicated that both chemical and physical properties did vary with species, among the portions of the wood, and according to the ages of the wood. From the portion standpoint, the bark had higher gross heat content, sulphur content, ash content and lignin content, and it was also higher in all three kinds of extractives contents. The wood portion was found to be rich in holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and pentosan. In considering the chemical and physical properties of juvenile wood among the species, eastern cottonwood was found to have the highest value for ash content and all of the three kinds of extractives content. Paulownia had the highest value for sulphur content. Black locust had highest gross heat content, holocellulose and alpha-cellulose contents. Silver maple had highest lignin content. Results from this study showed that these seven juvenile hardwood species can produce high biomass yields of fibre and energy when grown under intensive care in central and southern Illinois sites. The best species of these seven tested woods seem to be black locust, which could also serve as a raw material for the pulp and paper industry, as well as for a fuel for energy generation. However, further economic and energy efficiency analyses are needed before judging the feasibility of these short-rotation juvenile hardwood species.

Lee, C.S

1982-01-01

241

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of individual and combined phenolics in Olea europaea leaf extract.  

PubMed

Olive leaves, an agricultural waste, have great potential as a natural antioxidant. The current study was made to assess the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of both the individual and combined phenolics in olive leaf extract. A combined phenolics mixture was prepared by amount ratios of the phenolic compounds in the olive leaf extract. The results showed that both the individual and combined phenolics exhibited good radical scavenging abilities, and also revealed superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity. In terms of antimicrobial activity, both oleuropein and caffeic acid showed inhibition effects against microorganisms. Furthermore, the antimicrobial effect of the combined phenolics was significantly higher than those of the individual phenolics. These results show that the combination of olive leaf extract phenolics possessed antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. This study indicates that olive leaf extract might be a valuable bioactive source, and would seem to be applicable in both the health and medical food. PMID:20106659

Lee, Ok-Hwan; Lee, Boo-Yong

2010-05-01

242

Oliver Sacks in Mendeleev's Garden  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After returning to New York, Oliver Sacks sent to us a preprint of Uncle Tungsten, which we had the pleasure of perusing for a whole year before publication. After the events of September 11, 2001, my wife and I anxiously awaited word that he was all right. We were relieved—and honored—when in early December we received an autographed copy of Uncle Tungsten (3). We will always treasure Oliver Sacks’s book, his remarkable story of chemistry, and our friendship with him.

Marshall, James L.

2003-08-01

243

In vitro antimicrobial activity of olive leaves.  

PubMed

We investigated the antimicrobial effect of olive leaves against bacteria and fungi. The microorganisms tested were inoculated in various concentrations of olive leaf water extract. Olive leaf 0.6% (w/v) water extract killed almost all bacteria tested, within 3 h. Dermatophytes were inhibited by 1.25% (w/v) plant extract following a 3-day exposure whereas Candida albicans was killed following a 24 h incubation in the presence of 15% (w/v) plant extract. Olive leaf extract fractions, obtained by dialysis, that showed antimicrobial activity consisted of particles smaller than 1000 molecular rate cutoffs. Scanning electron microscopic observations of C. albicans, exposed to 40% (w/v) olive leaf extract, showed invaginated and amorphous cells. Escherichia coli cells, subjected to a similar treatment but exposed to only 0.6% (w/v) olive leaf extract showed complete destruction. These findings suggest an antimicrobial potential for olive leaves. PMID:12870202

Markin, D; Duek, L; Berdicevsky, I

2003-04-01

244

Olea europaea Linn. Fruit Pulp Extract Protects against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Hepatic Damage in Mice  

PubMed Central

The present study we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of Olea europaea fruit pulp extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in experimental mice. Further we explored the antioxidant potential of the extract to substantiate the hepatoprotective properties. Biochemical parameters were analyzed in the serum of experimental mice using respective diagnostic kits. Antioxidant activities were measured following alkyl and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. Compared with control groups, administration of the extract to carbon tetrachloride-treated mice significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. The carbon tetrachloride-treated morphological changes in hepatocyte architecture were also reversed by extract pretreatment. Further, the carbon tetrachloride-treated increased serum cholesterol levels such as triglyceride and low density/very low-density lipoprotein in the liver were reversed in acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride-treated mice. The extract was also found to significantly increase the serum level of high-density lipoproteins in carbon tetrachloride-treated mice. Furthermore, the extract showed significant in vitro antioxidant actions by scavenging the alkyl and hydroxyl free radicals, substantiating its use in hepatoprotection. The concentration of the extract necessary for 50% inhibition of alkyl and hydroxyl radicals was 72.41 and 52.24 ?g/ml, respectively. In conclusion, data from our study suggest that Olea europaea fruit pulp extract could prevent carbon tetrachloride-treated acute and chronic liver degeneration and attenuated the lipid levels elevated by carbon tetrachloride. The hepatoprotective activity exhibited by Olea europaea extract might possibly be through its antioxidant defense mechanisms. PMID:25284924

Kang, H.; Koppula, S.

2014-01-01

245

Early and delayed long-term transcriptional changes and short-term transient responses during cold acclimation in olive leaves.  

PubMed

Low temperature severely affects plant growth and development. To overcome this constraint, several plant species from regions having a cool season have evolved an adaptive response, called cold acclimation. We have studied this response in olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cv. Picual. Biochemical stress markers and cold-stress symptoms were detected after the first 24 h as sagging leaves. After 5 days, the plants were found to have completely recovered. Control and cold-stressed plants were sequenced by Illumina HiSeq 1000 paired-end technique. We also assembled a new olive transcriptome comprising 157,799 unigenes and found 6,309 unigenes differentially expressed in response to cold. Three types of response that led to cold acclimation were found: short-term transient response, early long-term response, and late long-term response. These subsets of unigenes were related to different biological processes. Early responses involved many cold-stress-responsive genes coding for, among many other things, C-repeat binding factor transcription factors, fatty acid desaturases, wax synthesis, and oligosaccharide metabolism. After long-term exposure to cold, a large proportion of gene down-regulation was found, including photosynthesis and plant growth genes. Up-regulated genes after long-term cold exposure were related to organelle fusion, nucleus organization, and DNA integration, including retrotransposons. PMID:25324298

Leyva-Pérez, María de la O; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Valderrama, Raquel; Jiménez-Ruiz, Jaime; Muñoz-Merida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; Barroso, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Luque, Francisco

2014-10-16

246

Biogas production from olive pomace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas production from a slurry obtained by mixing finely ground olive pomace in water was investigated using anaerobic digesters of 1-l working volume at 37°C. A start-up culture was obtained from a local landfill area and was adopted to the slurry within 10 days at this temperature. The biogas generation rates were determined by varying the total solids (TS) concentration

Ali R Tekin; A. Co?kun Dalg?ç

2000-01-01

247

Bioactive derivatives from oleuropein by a biotransformation on Olea europaea leaf extracts.  

PubMed

A very simple method is proposed to produce, using non-homogeneous hyperthermophilic beta-glycosidase immobilised on chitosan, 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylethanol (hydroxytyrosol), a commercially unavailable compound with well known biological properties which justify a potential commercial application. Leaf extracts from Olea europaea with high oleuropein content are selected as substrate for biotransformation. Under the biotransformation conditions, high amounts of hydroxytyrosol are collected within a short space of time after being preliminarily purified by a non-treated chitosan column. This is possible due to the capacity of amino groups on the chitosan to bind aldehydic groups of molecules present at the end of the reaction. We have produced a natural and non-toxic product from vegetal source, as opposed to the molecule obtainable through chemical synthesis, as a candidate to test in vivo its biological properties. The proposed process may prove useful for a further application for recycling Olea europaea leaves. The radical-scavenging properties of the bioreactor eluates and their capacity to inhibit fatty acid peroxidation rates are characterized in order to make them candidates as substitutes for synthetic antioxidants commonly used to increase the shelf-life of food products as well as for their possible protective effect in human cells. PMID:11738718

Briante, Raffaella; La Cara, Francesco; Febbraio, Ferdinando; Patumi, Maurizio; Nucci, Roberto

2002-02-14

248

Correlation between large-scale atmospheric fields and the olive pollen season in Central Italy.  

PubMed

Olives are one of the largest crops in the Mediterranean and in central and southern Italy. This work investigates the correlation of the Olea europaea L. pollen season in Perugia, the capital city of the region of Umbria in central Italy, with atmospheric parameters. The aim of the study is twofold. First, we study the correlation between the pollen season and the surface air temperature of the spring and late spring in Perugia. Second, the correlation between the pollen season and large-scale atmospheric patterns is investigated. The average surface temperature in the spring and late spring has a clear impact on the pollen season in Perugia. Years with higher average temperatures have an earlier onset of the pollen season. In particular, a 1 degrees C higher (lower) average surface temperature corresponds to an earlier (later) start of the pollen season of about 1 week. The correlation between the pollen season and large-scale atmospheric patterns of sea level pressure and 500-hPa geopotential height shows that the cyclonic activity in the Mediterranean is unequivocally tied to the pollen season in Perugia. A larger than average cyclonic activity in the Mediterranean Basin corresponds to a later than average pollen season. Larger than average cyclonic activity in Northern Europe and Siberia corresponds to an earlier than average pollen season. A possible explanation of this correlation, that needs further investigation to be proven, is given. These results can have a practical application by using the seasonal forecast of atmospheric general circulation models. PMID:18618152

Avolio, E; Pasqualoni, L; Federico, S; Fornaciari, M; Bonofiglio, T; Orlandi, F; Bellecci, C; Romano, B

2008-11-01

249

Evaluation of Olive Cake for Bio-Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive samples used in this study were supplied from different Turkish olive species. Olive cake is a waste from olive oil production process. Turkey produces 8.41% of the total olive in the world. Olive cake can be pyrolyzed into bio-oil. The yield of bio-oil first increases and then decreases as a function of temperature. Therefore, there is an optimum temperature

M. F. Demirbas

2009-01-01

250

Enhancement of polyphenols in olive oil by contact with fermented olive mill wastewater by Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of olive mill wastewater (OMW) phenolic compounds with low and high molecular weight depolymerisation by Lactobacillus plantarum on the transport of phenolics from OMW to olive oil was studied. Incubation of olive oil samples with fermented OMW by L. plantarum caused polyphenols to decrease in OMW and increase in oil with multiple biological effects. The lower total phenolic

Faten Kachouri; Moktar Hamdi

2004-01-01

251

Sample preparation approaches for the analysis of pesticide residues in olives and olive oils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Agricultural practices generally require the use of pesticides by olive growers for the best olive and olive oil production. Thus, analytical methods are needed to identify and quantify the pesticide residues that may be present, and ensure that the product complies with regulatory requirements. I...

252

Effect of deficit irrigation on olive and olive oil quality during fruit storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effects of deficit irrigation on olive fruit and olive oil quality. Mature 'Konservolea' olive trees were deficit irrigated during August (10% of control). Control trees received in total around 5600 m 3 \\/ ha. Total water savings in deficit irrigated trees were around 3000 m 3\\/ha. Quality parameters, as skin colour, flesh firmness, dry matter and total

G. D. Nanos; E. Pliakoni; M. L. Amodio; G. Colelli

253

Detection of extra virgin olive oil adulteration with lampante olive oil and refined olive oil using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis.  

PubMed

High-field 31P NMR (202.2 MHz) spectroscopy was applied to the analysis of 59 samples from three grades of olive oils, 34 extra virgin olive oils from various regions of Greece, and from different olive varieties, namely, 13 samples of refined olive oils and 12 samples of lampante olive oils. Classification of the three grades of olive oils was achieved by two multivariate statistical methods applied to five variables, the latter being determined upon analysis of the respective 31P NMR spectra and selected on the basis of one-way ANOVA. The hierarchical clustering statistical procedure was able to classify in a satisfactory manner the three olive oil groups. Subsequent application of discriminant analysis to the five selected variables of oils allowed the grouping of 59 samples according to their quality with no error. Different artificial mixtures of extra virgin olive oil-refined olive oil and extra virgin olive oil-lampante olive oil were prepared and analyzed by 31P NMR spectroscopy. Subsequent discriminant analysis of the data allowed detection of extra virgin olive oil adulteration as low as 5% w/w for refined and lampante olive oils. Further application of the classification/prediction model allowed the estimation of the percent concentration of refined olive oil in six commercial blended olive oils composed of refined and virgin olive oils purchased from supermarkets. PMID:15826023

Fragaki, Georgia; Spyros, Apostolos; Siragakis, George; Salivaras, Emmanuel; Dais, Photis

2005-04-20

254

Oliver Byrne's edition of Euclid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An unusual and attractive edition of Euclid was published in 1847 in England, edited by an otherwise unknown mathematician named Oliver Byrne. It covers the first 6 books of Euclid, which range through most of elementary plane geometry and the theory of proportions. What distinguishes Byrne's edition is that he attempts to present Euclid's proofs in terms of pictures, using as little text - and in particular as few labels - as possible.

Byrne, Oliver

2007-04-05

255

Photopyroelectric Monitoring of Olive's Ripening Conditions and Olive Oil Quality Using Pulsed Wideband IR Thermal Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study is based on band absorption of radiation from pulsed wideband infrared (IR) thermal source (PWBS) in conjunction with polyvinylidene fluoride film (PVDF). It is the first time to be employed to monitor the ripening state of olive fruit. Olive's characteristics vary at different stages of ripening, and hence, cultivation of olives at the right time is important in ensuring the best oil quality and maximizes the harvest yield. The photopyroelectric (PPE) signal resulting from absorption of wideband infrared (IR) radiation by fresh olive juice indicates the ripening stage of olives, i.e., allows an estimate of the suitable harvest time. The technique was found to be very useful in discriminating between olive oil samples according to geographical region, shelf life, some storage conditions, and deliberate adulteration. Our results for monitoring oil accumulation in olives during the ripening season agree well with the complicated analytical studies carried out by other researchers.

Abu-Taha, M. I.; Sarahneh, Y.; Saleh, A. M.

256

East Jerusalem: Mount of Olives Jewish Cemetary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Jewish Cemetary on the Mount of Olives has been active for over 2000 years. The site is desirable for those of Jewish faith as a Bible verse (Zech. 14:4) claims that the resurrection will begin here when the messiah arrives. The Mount of Olives is a mountain ridge in East Jerusalem whose name dates back thousands of years when

Chet Smolski

1980-01-01

257

Olive Banks (1923-2006): An Appreciation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Appreciation of Olive Banks (1923-2006) draws upon her memoir published in Women's History Review, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1999, pp. 401-410, and upon the author's recollections of and correspondence with her. Born into a solidly working-class family, Olive Banks overcame the disadvantages of her social class background and gender to become an…

Purvis, June

2008-01-01

258

Biological Properties of Olive Oil Phytochemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Referee: Dr. Joe Vinson, Chemistry Department, University of Scranton, Scranton, PA 18510 Olive oil is the principal source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, which has been associated with a lower incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers. Extra-virgin olive oil contains a considerable amount of phenolic compounds, for example, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, that are responsible for its peculiar

Francesco Visioli; Claudio Galli

2002-01-01

259

A Stern Introduction to Combinatorial Number Oliver Pechenik  

E-print Network

A Stern Introduction to Combinatorial Number Theory Oliver Pechenik February 10, 2012 Oliver. Oliver Pechenik A Stern Introduction to Combinatorial Number Theory #12;The Stern sequence s(1423543) = 6699. We can think of the Stern sequence as a function s : N N. Oliver Pechenik A Stern Introduction

Reznick, Bruce

260

Response Plots and Related Plots for Regression David Olive  

E-print Network

Response Plots and Related Plots for Regression David Olive Southern Illinois University In a 1D(Y |SP) = m(SP) of an additive error single index model Y = m(SP) + e. Also see Chang and Olive (2010 and Weibull accelerated failure time models give 1D regression exam- ples. See Cook and Olive (2001), Olive

Olive, David

261

The activity of healthy olive microbiota during virgin olive oil extraction influences oil chemical composition.  

PubMed

The activity of olive microbiota during the oil extraction process could be a critical point for virgin olive oil quality. With the aim to evaluate the role of microbiological activity during the virgin olive oil extraction process, just before oil extraction freshly collected healthy olive fruits were immersed in contaminated water from an olive mill washing tank. The oils extracted were then compared with control samples from the same batch of hand-picked olives. The presence of lactic and enteric bacteria, fungi and Pseudomonas on the surface of olives was proved to be much higher in washed than in control olives, with increments in cfu/g between 2 and 3 orders of magnitude. The biogenesis of volatile compounds and the extraction of olive polyphenols and pigments were significantly influenced by the microbiological profile of olives even without any previous storage. In most cases the effect of olive microbiota on oil characteristics was greater than the effect exerted by malaxation time and temperature. Oils from microbiologically contaminated olives showed lower amounts of C5 volatiles and higher levels of C6 volatiles from the lipoxygenase pathway and some fermentation products. On the other hand, a decrease of chlorophylls, pheophytins, xanthophylls and the ratio chlorophyll/pheophytin was observed in these oils. Likewise, the microbiological activity during oil extraction led to significantly lower amounts of polyphenols, in particular of oleuropein derivatives. These differences in olive oil chemical composition were reflected in oil sensory characteristics by the decrease of the green and bitter attributes and by the modification of the oil color chromatic ordinates. PMID:21506578

Vichi, Stefania; Romero, Agustí; Tous, Joan; Caixach, Josep

2011-05-11

262

Preliminary studies on the immunomodulatory effect of the C3 binding glycoprotein isolated from Cuscuta europea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the immunomodulatory effect of a C3 binding glycoprotein (C3bgp), isolated from the parasitic plant Cuscuta europea. When BALB\\/c mice, immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBC), were given a single intraperitoneal injection of C3bgp a dose-dependent immunostimulation was observed. The stimulation was assessed by an increase in the number of haemolytic plaque forming cells (PFC) and haemaglutination

Spaska Angelova Stanilova; Zhivko Dimitrov Zhelev; Zlatka Georgieva Dobreva

2000-01-01

263

Role of hydraulic and chemical signals in leaves, stems and roots in the stomatal behaviour of olive trees under water stress and recovery conditions.  

PubMed

The control of plant transpiration by stomata under water stress and recovery conditions is of paramount importance for plant performance and survival. Although both chemical and hydraulic signals emitted within a plant are considered to play a major role in controlling stomatal dynamics, they have rarely been assessed together. The aims of this study were to evaluate (i) the dynamics of chemical and hydraulic signals at leaf, stem and root level, and (ii) their effect on the regulation of stomatal conductance (gs) during water stress and recovery. Measurements of gs, water potential, abscisic acid (ABA) content and loss of hydraulic functioning at leaf, stem and root level were conducted during a water stress and recovery period imposed on 1-year-old olive plants (Olea europaea L.). Results showed a strong hydraulic segmentation in olive plants, with higher hydraulic functioning losses in roots and leaves than in stems. The dynamics of hydraulic conductance of roots and leaves observed as water stress developed could explain both a protection of the hydraulic functionality of larger organs of the plant (i.e., branches, etc.) and a role in the down-regulation of gs. On the other hand, ABA also increased, showing a similar pattern to gs dynamics, and thus its effect on gs in response to water stress cannot be ruled out. However, neither hydraulic nor non-hydraulic factors were able to explain the delay in the full recovery of gs after soil water availability was restored. PMID:25030936

Torres-Ruiz, Jose M; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Perez-Martin, Alfonso; Hernandez-Santana, Virginia

2014-07-15

264

Regulation of photosynthesis and stomatal and mesophyll conductance under water stress and recovery in olive trees: correlation with gene expression of carbonic anhydrase and aquaporins  

PubMed Central

The hypothesis that aquaporins and carbonic anhydrase (CA) are involved in the regulation of stomatal (g s) and mesophyll (g m) conductance to CO2 was tested in a short-term water-stress and recovery experiment in 5-year-old olive plants (Olea europaea) growing outdoors. The evolution of leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and plant water status, and a quantitative analysis of photosynthesis limitations, were followed during water stress and recovery. These variables were correlated with gene expression of the aquaporins OePIP1.1 and OePIP2.1, and stromal CA. At mild stress and at the beginning of the recovery period, stomatal limitations prevailed, while the decline in g m accounted for up to 60% of photosynthesis limitations under severe water stress. However, g m was restored to control values shortly after rewatering, facilitating the recovery of the photosynthetic rate. CA was downregulated during water stress and upregulated after recovery. The use of structural equation modelling allowed us to conclude that both OePIP1.1 and OePIP2.1 expression could explain most of the variations observed for g s and g m. CA expression also had a small but significant effect on g m in olive under water-stress conditions. PMID:24799563

Perez-Martin, Alfonso; Michelazzo, Chiara; Torres-Ruiz, Jose M.; Flexas, Jaume; Fernández, José E.; Sebastiani, Luca; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio

2014-01-01

265

Effects of olive leaf extract and its main component oleuroepin on acute ultraviolet B irradiation-induced skin changes in C57BL/6J mice.  

PubMed

Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves have long been used in folk medicine and herbal tea in Europe and the Mediterranean area. The Mediterranean climate is characterized by high temperatures, and by strong ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation causing the skin to age, increasing wrinkling, pigmentation and skin thickness. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an olive leaf extract and its component oleuropein on skin damage caused by acute UVB irradiation in C57BL/6J mice. The extract (300 or 1000 mg/kg) and oleuropein (25 or 85 mg/kg) were administered orally twice daily for 14 days. UVB was administered daily at a dose of 120 mJ/cm(2) for the first 5 days and then every other day for 9 days. Both treatments inhibited the increases in skin thickness induced by radiation. They also inhibited increases in the Ki-67- and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine-positive cell numbers, melanin granule area and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) expression. These preventive effects on UVB-induced skin damage might be caused in part by inhibiting the degradation of extracellular matrixes in the corium, and by the proliferation of epidermal cells through the inhibition of increases in MMP-13 levels and reactive oxygen species induced by irradiation. PMID:19957248

Sumiyoshi, Maho; Kimura, Yoshiyuki

2010-07-01

266

Application of compost of two-phase olive mill waste on olive grove: effects on soil, olive fruit and olive oil quality.  

PubMed

Composting is a method for preparing organic fertilizers that represents a suitable management option for the recycling of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) in agriculture. Four different composts were prepared by mixing TPOMW with different agro-industrial by-products (olive pruning, sheep manure and horse manure), which were used either as bulking agents or as N sources. The mature composts were added during six consecutive years to a typical "Picual" olive tree grove in the Jaén province (Spain). The effects of compost addition on soil characteristics, crop yield and nutritional status and also the quality of the olive oil were evaluated at the end of the experiment and compared to a control treated only with mineral fertilization. The most important effects on soil characteristics included a significant increase in the availability of N, P, K and an increase of soil organic matter content. The application of TPOMW compost produced a significant increase in olive oil content in the fruit. The compost amended plots had a 15% higher olive oil content than those treatment with inorganic fertilization. These organics amendments maintained the composition and quality of the olive oil. PMID:24810202

Fernández-Hernández, Antonia; Roig, Asunción; Serramiá, Nuria; Civantos, Concepción García-Ortiz; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A

2014-07-01

267

Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity.  

PubMed

The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations. PMID:25236229

Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

2015-02-15

268

Exogenous proline effects on photosynthetic performance and antioxidant defense system of young olive tree.  

PubMed

The ability of exogenous compatible solutes, such as proline, to counteract salt inhibitory effects in olive plants ( Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali) was investigated. Two-year-old olive trees were subjected to different saline water irrigation levels supplied or not with exogenous proline. Leaf water relations (relative water content, water potential), photosynthetic activity, and leaf chlorophyll content decreased under either saline water level. The proline supplement mitigated the reduction of growth and photosynthetic activity under salt stress, and the mitigating effect of proline was different among treatments. The increment rate of leaf relative water content (RWC) in the presence of 25 and 50 mM proline was 4.45 and 6.67%, respectively, in comparison to values recorded in SS1-treated plants (plants irrigated with water containing 100 mM NaCl). In SS2 (200 mM NaCl) plus proline-treated plants, this increase was 1.14 times for 25 mM proline and 1.19 times for 50 mM proline higher than those recorded in severe salt stress treatment (SS2). In response to salt stress, Chemlali olive plants seem to activate a complex antioxidative defense system that was displayed via the increase of activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and the decrease of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) under either salt stress treatment. The exogenous application of proline improved the antioxidative enzyme activities of salt-stressed olive plants. Indeed, in young or old leaf tissues, the highest levels of these antioxidant enzymes activities were recorded in (SS2 + P2)-treated plants (plants irrigated with water containing 200 mM NaCl plus 50 mM proline). In young leaves, this increase was 2.11, 2.96, and 2.76 times, respectively, for SOD, APX, and CAT enzyme activities in comparison to their respective activities in control plants (nonstressed plants irrigated with fresh water). In old leaves, this increase was 2, 2.41, and 2.48 times, respectively, for the various enzymes. If compared to high water salinity-treated plants (SS2), this increase was 1.1, 1.3, and 1.4 times in young leaves, respectively, for SOD, APX, and CAT activities. From these results, the proline supplements seem to improve olive salt tolerance by amelioration of some antioxidative enzyme activities, photosynthetic activity, and, so, plant growth and the preservation of a suitable plant water status under salinity conditions. More to the point, the decrease of soluble sugars contents in proline treated-plants revealed the important osmoprotectant effect played by the added proline in such a way that limited the need of salt-stressed plants for soluble sugars synthesis. PMID:20210359

Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Ben Rouina, Bechir; Sensoy, Serhat; Boukhriss, Mekki; Ben Abdullah, Ferjani

2010-04-14

269

Olive leaf extract attenuates cardiac, hepatic, and metabolic changes in high carbohydrate-, high fat-fed rats.  

PubMed

Olive oil, an important component of the Mediterranean diet, produces cardioprotective effects, probably due to both oleic acid and the polyphenols such as oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. Our aim in this study was to assess whether a polyphenol-enriched extract from the leaves of Olea europaea L. with oleuropein as the major component attenuated the cardiovascular, hepatic, and metabolic signs of a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (HCHF) diet (carbohydrate, 52%; fat, 24%, 25% fructose in drinking water) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed either a cornstarch diet (CS) or a HCHF diet for a total of 16 wk. Diets of the treatment groups [CS+olive leaf extract (OLE) and HCHF+OLE] were supplemented with 3% OLE after 8 wk of being fed their respective CS or HCHF diets for a further 8 wk. After 16 wk, HCHF rats developed signs of metabolic syndrome, including elevated abdominal and hepatic fat deposition, collagen deposition in heart and liver, cardiac stiffness, and oxidative stress markers (plasma malondialdehyde and uric acid concentrations), with diminished aortic ring reactivity, abnormal plasma lipid profile, impaired glucose tolerance, and hypertension. Compared with HCHF rats, those in the HCHF+OLE group had improved or normalized cardiovascular, hepatic, and metabolic signs with the exception of elevated blood pressure. These results strongly suggest that an OLE containing polyphenols such as oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol reverses the chronic inflammation and oxidative stress that induces the cardiovascular, hepatic, and metabolic symptoms in this rat model of diet-induced obesity and diabetes without changing blood pressure. PMID:20335636

Poudyal, Hemant; Campbell, Fiona; Brown, Lindsay

2010-05-01

270

Saline water irrigation effects on antioxidant defense system and proline accumulation in leaves and roots of field-grown olive.  

PubMed

Field-grown olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali) were used over two growing seasons to determine the effects of different saline water irrigation levels on levels of proline and chlorophyll contents and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT). The plants were irrigated with fresh water (FW; ECe = 1.2 dS m(-1)) and saline water (SW; ECe = 7.5 dS m(-1)). Leaf water relations (relative water content, water potential), photosynthetic activity, and leaf chlorophyll content decreased under irrigation with saline water. In spring 2005, net photosynthesis of young leaves was 24.5 and 14.9 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in FW- and SW-treated plants, respectively. In old leaves, these rates were 20.2 and 12.2 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively. The relative reduction of net photosynthesis in SW-treated plants varied from 39 to 46% and from 39 to 61%, compared to FW-treated plants during the first and second crop seasons, respectively. The relative reduction of leaf chlorophyll (a + b) content under high water salinity level exceeds 50%, compared to FW-treated plants. However, proline content and activities of SOD, CAT, and APX increased under saline water irrigation. The increase of proline content was more important in leaves than in roots. In young leaves, the increment of antioxidant activities in SW-treated plants was 2.67, 3.61, and 1.85 times, respectively, for SOD, APX, and CAT, compared to FW-treated plants. From these results, interaction between antioxidant defense system and proline contents seems to be involved in the salt tolerance mechanisms of Chemlali olive tree. PMID:19924889

Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Ben Rouina, Bechir; Sensoy, Serhat; Boukhriss, Mekki; Ben Abdullah, Ferjani

2009-12-23

271

Characteristics and composition of libyan olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical and physical characteristics of local olive oil (both virgin and refined) were determined. The moisture levels in\\u000a olive fruit, cake and oils were 11.77, 12.7 and 0.16% respectively. The total crude fat on dry basis was: fruit, 39%; and\\u000a cake, 7%. The free fatty acids (FFA) in both virgin and refined oils were high (4.4 and 4.3%). The samples

M. S. Rana; A. A. Ahmed

1981-01-01

272

Pigments present in virgin olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The qualitative and quantitative control of pigments in ripe olives and in extracted virgin olive oil has increased our knowledge\\u000a of the influence on these compounds in the areas of ripening of the fruit, storage time in the factory and the oil extraction\\u000a process. As the harvesting time of the fruits increases, pigment content decreases. During storage, the presence of

M. Isabel Minguez-Mosquera; Beatriz Gandul-Rojas; Juan Garrido-Fernandez; Lourdes Gallardo-Guerrero

1990-01-01

273

The Microbiology of Olive Mill Wastes  

PubMed Central

Olive mill wastes (OMWs) are high-strength organic effluents, which upon disposal can degrade soil and water quality, negatively affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning the microbial communities identified over the past 20 years in olive mill wastes using both culture-dependent and independent approaches. A database survey of 16S rRNA gene sequences (585 records in total) obtained from olive mill waste environments revealed the dominance of members of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Independent studies confirmed that OMW microbial communities' structure is cultivar dependant. On the other hand, the detection of fecal bacteria and other potential human pathogens in OMWs is of major concern and deserves further examination. Despite the fact that the degradation and detoxification of the olive mill wastes have been mostly investigated through the application of known bacterial and fungal species originated from other environmental sources, the biotechnological potential of indigenous microbiota should be further exploited in respect to olive mill waste bioremediation and inactivation of plant and human pathogens. The implementation of omic and metagenomic approaches will further elucidate disposal issues of olive mill wastes. PMID:24199199

Ntougias, Spyridon; Bourtzis, Kostas

2013-01-01

274

Safety assessment of aqueous olive pulp extract as an antioxidant or antimicrobial agent in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olive fruit, its oil and the leaves of the olive tree have a rich history of nutritional, medicinal and ceremonial uses. Olive oil, table olives and olive products are an important part of the Mediterranean diet, the greatest value of which may be due to olive polyphenols that contribute to the modulation of the oxidative balance in vivo. The

M. G. Soni; G. A. Burdock; M. S. Christian; C. M. Bitler; R. Crea

2006-01-01

275

Canopy light heterogeneity drives leaf anatomical, eco-physiological, and photosynthetic changes in olive trees grown in a high-density plantation.  

PubMed

In the field, leaves may face very different light intensities within the tree canopy. Leaves usually respond with light-induced morphological and photosynthetic changes, in a phenomenon known as phenotypic plasticity. Canopy light distribution, leaf anatomy, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and pigment composition were investigated in an olive (Olea europaea, cvs. Arbequina and Arbosana) orchard planted with a high-density system (1,250 trees ha(-1)). Sampling was made from three canopy zones: a lower canopy (<1 m), a central one (1-2 m), and an upper one (>2 m). Light interception decreased significantly in the lower canopy when compared to the central and top ones. Leaf angle increased and photosynthetic rates and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) decreased significantly and progressively from the upper canopy to the central and the lower canopies. The largest leaf areas were found in the lower canopy, especially in the cultivar Arbequina. The palisade and spongy parenchyma were reduced in thickness in the lower canopy when compared to the upper one, in the former due to a decrease in the number of cell layers from three to two (clearly distinguishable in the light and fluorescence microscopy images). In both cultivars, the concentration of violaxanthin-cycle pigments and ?-carotene was higher in the upper than in the lower canopy. Furthermore, the de-epoxidized forms zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin increased significantly in those leaves from the upper canopy, in parallel to the NPQ increases. In conclusion, olive leaves react with morphological and photosynthetic changes to within-crown light gradients. These results strengthen the idea of olive trees as "modular organisms" that adjust the modules morphology and physiology in response to light intensity. PMID:25344757

Larbi, Ajmi; Vázquez, Saúl; El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Msallem, Monji; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Morales, Fermín

2015-02-01

276

Tissue-specific expression of olive S-adenosyl methionine decarboxylase and spermidine synthase genes and polyamine metabolism during flower opening and early fruit development.  

PubMed

Polyamines (PAs) are required for cell growth and cell division in eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. The present study is aimed at understanding the developmental regulation of PA biosynthesis and catabolism during flower opening and early fruit development in relation to fruit size and shape. Two full-length cDNA clones coding for S-adenosyl methionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) and spermidine synthase (SPDS) homologs, key steps in the PA biosynthesis pathway, in the stone-fruit of olive (Olea europaea L.) were identified and the spatial and temporal organization of these genes were described. In olive flowers, OeSAMDC gene transcripts were highly expressed in ovary wall, placenta and ovules, while OeSPDS transcript was confined to the ovules of ovary at anthesis stage. A correlation was detected between the SAMDC enzyme activity/accumulation transcript and spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) levels during flower opening, implying that the synthesis of decarboxylated SAM might be a rate-limiting step in Spd and Spm biosynthesis. OeSAMDC and OeSPDS transcripts were co-expressed in fruit mesocarp and exocarp at all developmental stages analyzed as well as in nucellus, integuments and inner epidermis tissues of fertilized ovules. In contrast, the OeSAMDC and OeSPDS genes had different expression patterns during early fruit development. The results provide novel data about localization of PA biosynthesis gene transcripts, indicating that transcript levels of PA biosynthesis genes are all highly regulated in a developmental and tissue-specific manner. The differences between the two olive cultivars in the fruit size in relation to the differences in the accumulation patterns of PAs are discussed. PMID:20532909

Gomez-Jimenez, Maria C; Paredes, Miguel A; Gallardo, Mercedes; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Olmos, Enrique; Sanchez-Calle, Isabel M

2010-08-01

277

Monitoring endogenous enzymes during olive fruit ripening and storage: Correlation with virgin olive oil phenolic profiles.  

PubMed

The ability of olive endogenous enzymes ?-glucosidase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX), to determine the phenolic profile of virgin olive oil was investigated. Olives used for oil production were stored for one month at 20°C and 4°C and their phenolic content and enzymatic activities were compared to those of ripening olive fruits. Phenolic and volatile profiles of the corresponding oils were also analysed. Oils obtained from fruits stored at 4°C show similar characteristics to that of freshly harvested fruits. However, the oils obtained from fruits stored at 20°C presented the lowest phenolic content. Concerning the enzymatic activities, results show that the ?-glucosidase enzyme is the key enzyme responsible for the determination of virgin olive oil phenolic profile as the decrease in this enzyme activity after 3weeks of storage at 20°C was parallel to a dramatic decrease in the phenolic content of the oils. PMID:25529676

Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

2015-05-01

278

Aumentan un 100% los estudiantes de Movilidad No Europea de la UA, los nuevos convenios y el presupuesto destinado a este programa  

E-print Network

Aumentan un 100% los estudiantes de Movilidad No Europea de la UA, los nuevos convenios y el estudiantes que participarán del programa de Movilidad No Europea este año Alicante, 14 de febrero de 2014 El vicerrector de Relaciones Internacionales de la UA, Juan Llopis, el director del Secretariado de Movilidad

Escolano, Francisco

279

Straight on view of northeast side of Olive Switching Station ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Straight on view of northeast side of Olive Switching Station from north side of San Fernando Road facing southwest - Olive Switching Station, 13355 San Fernando Road, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

280

Effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on chemical, oxidative and sensorial quality of marinated anchovy.  

PubMed

This study describes the potential use of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces as antioxidant, preservative and flavoring agent in fish marinades. The olive oil and sauces, produced from emulsifying of olive oil and pomegranate juice with gums, were blended with marinated anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) fillets. The aim of the present study was to produce a new polyphenol-rich marinade sauces by emulsifying pomegranate juice with olive oil in different proportions (25%, 35% and 50%v:v). In order to evaluate the effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on quality of anchovy marinades, the chemical (TVB-N and TMA), oxidative (peroxides value, K230, thiobarbituric acid and K270) and sensory analyses were carried out during storage at 4°C. The present study showed that saucing of anchovy marinades with olive oil-pomegranate sauce can retard the undesirable quality changes, prolong the lipid oxidation and improve the sensory properties. PMID:24518316

Topuz, Osman Kadir; Yerlikaya, Pinar; Ucak, Ilknur; Gumus, Bahar; Büyükbenli, Hanife Aydan

2014-07-01

281

Free Radical-Scavenging Properties of Olive Oil Polyphenols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants in the Mediterranean basin, such as vine and olive trees, have developed an array of antioxidant defences to protect themselves from environmental stress. Accordingly, the incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers is lower in the Mediterranean area, where olive oil is the dietary fat of choice. As opposed to other vegetable oils, extra virgin olive oil, which

Francesco Visioli; Giorgio Bellomo; Claudio Galli

1998-01-01

282

Photodegradation of phytosanitary molecules present in virgin olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, traces of active ingredients from phytosanitary products and other products used in treating olive trees have been found in some olive oils because production systems are unable to separate and\\/or eliminate these chemical residues. Degradation of five phytosanitary chemicals (methyl parathion, ethyl parathion, chlorpyrifos, methyl chlorpyrifos and oxyfluorfen) in virgin olive oil exposed to ultraviolet light at

L. Martínez Nieto; Gassan Hodaifa; S. Rodríguez Vives; J. A. Giménez Casares; M. S. Casanova

2009-01-01

283

7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756 Agriculture...States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles... § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the...

2011-01-01

284

Chloroplast DNA variations in Mediterranean olive By GUILLAUME BESNARD  

E-print Network

Chloroplast DNA variations in Mediterranean olive By GUILLAUME BESNARD Department of Ecology in the olive chloroplast genome (cpDNA). A particularly low level of cpDNA polymorphism was detected; but to be sufficiently variable to distinguish at least six haplotypes in cultivated olive. Compared to previous studies

Alvarez, Nadir

285

Jan Peleska, Oliver Mller Testing on Target: Concepts and  

E-print Network

IQNITE2010 Jan Peleska, Oliver Möller Testing on Target: Concepts and Experiences Prof. Dr. Jan Peleska Centre for Computing Technologies, University of Bremen, Germany Dr. M. Oliver Möller Verified Systems International GmbH, Bremen, Germany #12;Jan Peleska, Oliver Möller Overview 1. Motivation 2

Peleska, Jan - Fachbereich 3

286

76 FR 35957 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-10-0115; FV11-932-1 FIR] Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for 2011 and subsequent...from $44.72 to $16.61 per ton of olives handled. The Committee locally...

2011-06-21

287

INCORPORATING MT. OLIVER BOROUGH'S DATA IN THE PITTSBURGH NEIGHBORHOOD  

E-print Network

INCORPORATING MT. OLIVER BOROUGH'S DATA IN THE PITTSBURGH NEIGHBORHOOD AND COMMUNITY INFORMATION................................................................................................................................................... 155 #12;2 Purpose This project collected Mt. Oliver Borough's crime, tax delinquency, and property. Oliver Borough in winter 2010 and spring 2011, and describes the data that was collected so the process

Sibille, Etienne

288

PRICING EQUITY DEFAULT SWAPS CLAUDIO ALBANESE AND OLIVER CHEN  

E-print Network

PRICING EQUITY DEFAULT SWAPS CLAUDIO ALBANESE AND OLIVER CHEN Abstract. Pricing credit into consideration. This work was completed while Oliver Chen was visiting Imperial College. The authors were AND OLIVER CHEN Another typical trade is to enhance the yield of synthetic collateralized debt obli- gations

Albanese, Claudio

289

EXTENSIONS OF LINKING SYSTEMS AND FUSION SYSTEMS BOB OLIVER  

E-print Network

OLIVER Abstract. We correct two errors in the statement and proof of a theorem i* *n [BCGLO2, and Oliver [BLO ] of abstract link* *ing systems. The main theorem in this note (Theorem 9) describes how of linking systems, and by Andersen, Oliver, and Ventura [AOV ] to construct e* *xotic fusion and linking

Oliver, Bob

290

7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753 Agriculture...States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles... § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole”...

2010-01-01

291

Halftoning and Stippling Oliver Deussen and Tobias Isenberg  

E-print Network

Chapter 3 Halftoning and Stippling Oliver Deussen and Tobias Isenberg This is an author on the basis of sets of parallel lines that were superimposed with the input Oliver Deussen Dept. of Computer and Information Science, University of Konstanz, Germany e-mail: oliver.deussen@uni-konstanz.de Tobias Isenberg

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

292

7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753 Agriculture...States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles... § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole”...

2013-01-01

293

76 FR 11937 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-10-0115; FV11-932-1 IR] Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for 2011 and subsequent...from $44.72 to $16.61 per ton of olives handled. The Committee locally...

2011-03-04

294

Principles of Gating Mechanisms of Ion Channels Oliver Beckstein  

E-print Network

Principles of Gating Mechanisms of Ion Channels Oliver Beckstein #12;#12;Principles of Gating Mechanisms of Ion Channels Oliver Beckstein Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics and Merton College, Oxford, Oxford. Copyright c 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2012 Oliver Beckstein. First version 2005-05-29. Second

Beckstein, Oliver

295

77 FR 33104 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-11-0093; FV12-932-1 PR] Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for the 2012 and...61 to $31.32 per assessable ton of olives handled. The Committee locally...

2012-06-05

296

7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753 Agriculture...States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles... § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole”...

2011-01-01

297

7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.  

...2014-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753 Agriculture...States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles... § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole”...

2014-01-01

298

Juniorprofessur fr Software Engineering Prof. Dr. Oliver Hummel  

E-print Network

Juniorprofessur für Software Engineering Prof. Dr. Oliver Hummel Vorstellung des Teamprojekts für Planning of the University of Mannheim Prof. Dr. Oliver Hummel (JP SE) Dr. Ingo Ott (RUM) #12;Chair of Software Engineering Oliver Hummel hummel@informatik.uni-mannheim.de 2222 Advanced Software Engineering

Mannheim, Universität

299

77 FR 51684 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-11-0093; FV12-932-1 FR] Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for 2012 and subsequent...61 to $31.32 per assessable ton of olives handled. The Committee locally...

2012-08-27

300

7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753 Agriculture...States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles... § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole”...

2012-01-01

301

78 FR 45841 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AMS-FV-12-0076; FV13-932-1 FIR] Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for the 2013 and...32 to $21.16 per ton of assessable olives handled. The Committee locally...

2013-07-30

302

Zur Antrittsvorlesung Jun.-Prof. Dr. Oliver Kramer  

E-print Network

Einladung Zur Antrittsvorlesung Jun.-Prof. Dr. Oliver Kramer Computational Intelligence Adresse. Oliver Kramer am Montag, dem 11. Juni 2012 um 16:00 Uhr im OFFIS, Raum F02 (Lageplan umseitig) Mit. Susanne Boll-Westermann Vortrag Jun.-Prof. Dr. Oliver Kramer Computational Intelligence Methoden

Damm, Werner

303

Robustifying Robust Estimators David J. Olive and Douglas M. Hawkins  

E-print Network

Robustifying Robust Estimators David J. Olive and Douglas M. Hawkins Southern Illinois University J. Olive is Associate Professor, Department of Mathematics, Southern Illinois Uni- versity, Mailcode are the FMCD estimator of Hawkins and Olive (1999), the Fast­MCD estimator of Rousseeuw and Van Driessen (1999

Olive, David

304

77 FR 55468 - Oliver Hydro LLC; Notice Soliciting Scoping Comments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...e. Name of Project: William Bacon Oliver Lock and Dam Hydroelectric Project f. Location: At the U.S. Army...Engineers' (Corps) William Bacon Oliver Lock and Dam on the Black...the Corps' existing William Bacon Oliver Lock and Dam, and...

2012-09-10

305

Bacteriocin production and competitiveness of Lactobacillus plantarum LPCO10 in olive juice broth, a culture medium obtained from olives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A culture medium, named olive juice broth, which resembles the natural environment of Lactobacillus plantarum in the traditional Spanish-style green olive fermentation was obtained from green olives. In this medium, the bacteriocin-producing L. plantarum LPCO10 strain was able to produce bacteriocin throughout the incubation time (15 days). Bacteriocin purification from olive juice broth was achieved by a protocol including ammonium

M Baras; J. L Ruiz-Barba; B Floriano; R Jiménez-D??az

1998-01-01

306

Composting of the solid fraction of olive mill wastewater with olive leaves: organic matter degradation and biological activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flocculated solid fraction of olive mill wastewaters, obtained from two different olive oil extraction systems (FOMW1 and FOMW2) was composted, with olive leaves (OL) as bulking agent, by the static pile system (Rutgers). The dynamic of organic matter (OM) degradation during composting and its relationship with the basal respiration and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolytic activity, as indicators of biological

A Garc??a-Gómez; A Roig; M. P Bernal

2003-01-01

307

Olive oil and cognition OLIVE OIL AND COGNITION:RESULTS FROM THE THREE-CITY STUDY1  

E-print Network

Olive oil and cognition 1 OLIVE OIL AND COGNITION:RESULTS FROM THE THREE-CITY STUDY1 2 Dem Ger Cogn oil and cognition24 inserm-00413995,version1-6Nov2009 Author manuscript, published in "Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 2009;28(4):357-364" DOI : 10.1159/000253483 #12;Olive oil and cognition 2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

308

Performance of Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from irradiated host on olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California.  

PubMed

The parasitoid Psyttalia humilis (Silvestri) was reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), third instars irradiated at 0-70 Gy at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala, and shipped to the USDA, ARS, Parlier, CA. Irradiation dose did not affect the parasitoid's offspring sex ratio (53-62% females), percentage of unemerged adults (12-34%), number of progeny produced per female (1.4-1.8), and parasitism (19-24%). Host irradiation dose had no significant effect on the forewing length of female P. humilis and its parasitism on olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) and offspring sex ratio, but dissection of 1-wk-old female parasitoids reared from hosts irradiated with 70 Gy had a significantly lower number of mature eggs than females from nonirradiated hosts. Longevity of P. humilis adults decreased with increased temperature from 15 to 35°C, regardless of food provisions, gender, and host irradiation dose. Females survived 37-49 d at 15°C with water and food, and only 1-2 d at 35°C without food, whereas males lived shorter than females at all temperatures and food combinations tested. Adult P. humilis reared from fertile C. capitata and aspirated for dispensing in cups lived significantly longer after shipment than those specimens chilled and dispensed by weight. At 21 and 32°C, 50% of parasitoids departed release cages after 180 and 30 min, respectively, but none departed at 12°C. Thirteen shipments of P. humilis (2,980-21,922 parasitoids per shipment) were received between September and December 2009, and seven shipments (7,502-22,560 parasitoids per shipment) were received between October and December 2010 from San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala. Daily number of olive fruit fly adult and percentage female trap captures ranged <1-19 and 8-58% in 2009, and <1-11 and 0-42% in 2010, respectively. The number of parasitoids released ranged 848-12,257 in 2009 and 3,675-11,154 in 2010. Percentage parasitism of olive fruit fly third instars at all locations ranged 0-9% in 2009 and 0-36% in 2010. PMID:22732607

Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Wang, Xin-Geng; Aldana, Alicia; Cáceres, Carlos E; Yokoyama-Hatch, Hana A; Rendón, Pedro A; Johnson, Marshall W; Daane, Kent M

2012-06-01

309

Saline water irrigation effects on soil salinity distribution and some physiological responses of field grown Chemlali olive.  

PubMed

The shortage of water resources of good quality is becoming an issue in arid and semi arid regions. Per consequent, the use of water resources of marginal quality is becoming an important consideration, particularly in arid regions in Tunisia, where large quantities of saline water are used for irrigation. Nevertheless, the use of these waters in irrigated lands requires the control of soil salinity and a comprehensive analysis even beyond the area where water is applied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of saline water irrigation on soil salinity distribution and some physiological traits of field-grown adult olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali) under contrasting environmental conditions of the arid region in the south of Tunisia. The plants were subjected, over two growing seasons, to two drip irrigated treatments: fresh water (ECe=1.2 dS m(-1), FW) and saline water (ECe=7.5 dS m(-1), SW). Saline water irrigation (SW) has led to a significant increase in soil salinity. Furthermore, these results showed that soil salinity and soil moisture variations are not only dependent on water salinity level but are also controlled by a multitude of factors particularly the soil texture, the distance from the irrigation source and climatic conditions (rainfall pattern, temperature average, …). On the other hand, salt treatment reduced leaf midday water potential (LMWP), relative water content and photosynthetic activity and increased the leaf proline content, and this increase was season-dependent. Indeed, LMWP in SW plants decreased to -3.71 MPa. Furthermore, the highest level of proline in SW plants was registered during summer period (2.19 ?mol/mg Fw). The proline accumulation recorded in stressed plants has allowed them to preserve appropriate leaf water status and photosynthetic activity. More to the point, this olive cultivar seems to be more sensible to soil salinity during the intense growth phase. Such tendencies would help to better manage water resources for irrigation, particularly under actual climatic conditions of water scarcity. For example, in the case of the availability of different water qualities, it would be better to preserve those of high quality for olive irrigation during the intense vegetative growth phase, in coincidence with high salt sensitive period, and those of low quality for irrigation during partial growth and plant rest phases. What's more, the urgent use of saline water for irrigation should not be applied without taking into consideration the different surroundings conditions where it is used, particularly the water salinity level, the soil type, the adopted irrigation system, the degree of the crop salt tolerance, the plant growth phase and the climatic conditions of the experimental site. PMID:22572465

Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Magdich, Salwa; Ben Rouina, Bechir; Boukhris, Makki; Ben Abdullah, Ferjani

2012-12-30

310

Genetic diversity and differentiation processes in the ploidy series of Olea europaea L.: a multiscale approach from subspecies to insular populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographical isolation and polyploidization are central concepts in plant evolution. The hierarchical organization of archipelagos in this study provides a framework for testing the evolutionary consequences for polyploid taxa and populations occurring in isolation. Using amplified fragment length polymorphism and simple sequence repeat markers, we determined the genetic diversity and differentiation patterns at three levels of geographical isolation in Olea

C. GARCÍA-VERDUGO; M. F. FAY; C. GRANADO-YELA; R. RUBIO DE CASAS; L. BALAGUER; G. BESNARD; P. VARGAS

2009-01-01

311

Combustion Analysis of Different Olive Residues  

PubMed Central

The Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) techniques and concretely the study of the burning profile provide information that can be used to estimate the behaviour of the combustion of carbonous materials. Commonly, these techniques have been used for the study of carbons, but are also interesting for the analysis of biomass wastes, due to the different species present on the wastes affect directly to its thermal properties. In this work, techniques of thermal analysis have been applied to compare the behaviour of different wastes coming from olive oil mills. From these results, it is remarkable that the Concentrated Olive Mill Waste Water (COMWW) presents more unfavourable conditions for its combustion. PMID:19325766

Miranda, Teresa; Esteban, Alberto; Rojas, Sebastián; Montero, Irene; Ruiz, Antonio

2008-01-01

312

Evaluation of imported parasitoid fitness for biocontrol of olive fruit fly in California olives  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A parasitoid, Psyttalia humilis (Silvestri), was reared on irradiated Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala, and imported into California for biological control of olive fruit ...

313

Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp, b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen from the olive pulp, and c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane. Both continuous and batch experiments were performed. The hydrogen potential of the olive pulp amounted to 1.6 mmole H2 per g TS. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS. This suggests that olive pulp is an ideal substrate for methane production and it shows that biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step for methane production. PMID:16180430

Gavala, H N; Skiadas, I V; Ahring, B K; Lyberatos, G

2005-01-01

314

Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Olive Leaf Extracts from Greek Olive Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olive leaf phenolic composition of the Greek cultivars koroneiki, megaritiki and kalamon was determined using LC\\/MS. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of olive leaf extracts from the above three cultivars,\\u000a using solvents of increasing polarity (petroleum ether, dichloromethane, methanol and methanol\\/water: 60\\/40) was evaluated\\u000a using the stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. Furthermore the oxidative stability index (OSI) was compared

Kostas KiritsakisM; M. G. Kontominas; C. Kontogiorgis; D. Hadjipavlou-Litina; A. Moustakas; A. Kiritsakis

2010-01-01

315

A singular photograph: Olive Cotton's Sea's awakening  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1937 Australian photographer Olive Cotton photographed the sea from the headland at Newport Beach, producing Sea's awakening, one of the most sublime images of her career. This essay considers the photograph in depth as part of an ongoing search for developing alternative means of analysing and interpreting photographs. It is premised on the conviction that photographic history is limited

Helen Ennis

2011-01-01

316

Means-Ends Epistemology Oliver Schulte  

E-print Network

Means-Ends Epistemology Oliver Schulte University of Alberta October 3, 2001 Abstract. This paper of means-ends epistemology. 1. The Long Run In The Short Run Inquiry begins with uncertainty. Empirical inference could be reduced to estimating probabilities. 1 #12;Means-Ends Epistemology 2 studying questions

Schulte, Oliver

317

Epistemology, Reliable Inquiry and Topology Oliver Schulte  

E-print Network

Epistemology, Reliable Inquiry and Topology Oliver Schulte Department of Philosophy Carnegie Mellon or of numbers) and their limits. A broad class of epistemological questions also appear to be concerned of epistemological and methodological questions about re- liable inquiry translate literally into topological

Schulte, Oliver

318

The Making of a Special "Oliver!"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How trainable mentally handicapped high school students very successfully adapted Charles Dickens's novel "Oliver Twist" into a musical play is described. The project, which involved the entire school as well as the community, shows that handicapped people are capable of artistic endeavors and growth when given the proper environment. (RM)

Beall, Lee

1985-01-01

319

Geometric Origin of Montonen-Olive Duality  

E-print Network

We show how $N=4, D=4$ duality of Montonen and Olive can be derived for all gauge groups using geometric engineering in the context of type II strings, where it reduces to T-duality. The derivation for the non-simply laced cases involves the use of some well known facts about orbifold conformal theories.

Cumrun Vafa

1997-07-14

320

OLIVE FRUIT FLY MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES FOR 2006  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research topics include but are not limited to: a) maximization of the efficacy of GF-120 bait treatments used within olive groves; b) discovery, introduction, and establishment of parasitic wasps that attack OLF (i.e., classical biological control); c) development of phenology models for OLF and ol...

321

Statistical mechanics of nonlinear elasticity Oliver Penrose  

E-print Network

Statistical mechanics of nonlinear elasticity Oliver Penrose Department of Mathematics, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, Scotland, UK July 24, 2003 Running title: statistical mechanics Reviews classification numbers: 82B05 classical equilibrium statistical mechanics (general), 74B20

Penrose, Oliver

322

photography Oliver Knill, July 11, 2007  

E-print Network

Panorama photography Oliver Knill, July 11, 2007 The mathematics of #12;1. Panorama Cameras 2. Math parameters #12;Coordinates and camera types The mathematics of photography is most developed for perspective of photography #12;Art Albrecht Duerer,, 1471-1528 Art #12;Art Edme-Sebastien Jeaurat, Traite de perspective a l

Knill, Oliver

323

Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. Digital Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Harvard Law School Library digitized its holdings of materials associated with Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., and his family. This website constitutes phase one of the project, and contains items that are related to his service in the 20th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment of the Union Army, including correspondence, telegrams, and a diary. Click on "Scrapbook" in the first bullet point on the homepage to see Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.'s, scrapbook from the Civil War. The inside cover, which is the second image, shows a handwritten inscription of 1864, and instructions that "the enclosed letters to be buried unread at my death - without fail." The Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. Visual Materials Collection includes "photographs, etchings, drawings, and paintings" of his parents and wife, and can be accessed by clicking a link in the third bullet point on the homepage. Finally, the link to the Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. Object Collection is provided in the fourth bullet point on the homepage, and objects in the collection include "Civil War uniform relics, family and personal effects, and a death mask."

324

BALANCED WORDS AND MAJORIZATION OLIVER JENKINSON  

E-print Network

BALANCED WORDS AND MAJORIZATION OLIVER JENKINSON Abstract. When expressed in terms of base-2 expanions, balanced words are majorized by other words of the same slope. Consequently they have smaller Theorem 1.2 below) that P(w) is as large as possible when w is balanced. By a balanced word2 we mean one

Jenkinson, Oliver

325

"Black Olive" or Bucida Caterpillar (Characoma nilotica) a Nuisance Pest Doug Caldwell  

E-print Network

"Black Olive" or Bucida Caterpillar (Characoma nilotica) a Nuisance Pest Doug Caldwell A little caterpillar can defoliate "black olive" and its finer textured variety `Shady Lady' "black olive" (Bucida. Conn. These "black olive" trees were turned onto brown olive trees in early May (2002) by the black

Watson, Craig A.

326

Pure Culture Fermentation of Green Olives1  

PubMed Central

The method previously developed by us for the pure-culture fermentation of brined cucumbers and other vegetables has been applied successfully to Manzanillo variety olives. Field-run grade fruit was processed first by conventional procedures to remove most of the bitterness. Then the relative abilities of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, Pediococcus cerevisiae, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides to become established and produce acid in both heat-shocked (74 C for 3 min) and unheated olives, brined at 4.7 to 5.9% NaCl (w/v basis), were evaluated. The heat-shock treatment not only proved effective in ridding the fruit of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining and inoculation, but also made the olives highly fermentable with respect to growth and acid production by the introduced culture, particularly L. plantarum. Of the four species used as inocula, L. plantarum was by far the most vigorous in fermentation ability. It consistently produced the highest levels of brine acidity (1.0 to 1.2% calculated as lactic acid) and the lowest pH values (3.8 to 3.9) during the fermentation of heat-shocked olives. Also, L. plantarum completely dominated fermentations when used in two-species (with P. cerevisiae) and three-species (with P. cerevisiae and L. brevis) combinations as inocula. In contrast, when L. plantarum was inoculated into the brines of unheated olives it failed to become properly established; the same was true for the other species tested, but even to a more pronounced degree. L. brevis was the only species used that failed to develop in brines of both heat-shocked and unheated olives. Modification of the curing brine by the addition of lactic acid at the outset, either with or without dextrose, led to a much earlier onset of fermentation with accompanying acid development, as compared to treatments with dextrose alone or nonadditive controls. Reasons for the marked improvement of the fermentability of Manzanillo olives receiving the prebrining heat-shock treatment are discussed. PMID:16349674

Etchells, J. L.; Borg, A. F.; Kittel, I. D.; Bell, T. A.; Fleming, H. P.

1966-01-01

327

Olive leaf extract inhibits lead poisoning-induced brain injury  

PubMed Central

Olive leaves have an antioxidant capacity, and olive leaf extract can protect the blood, spleen and hippocampus in lead-poisoned mice. However, little is known about the effects of olive leaf extract on lead-induced brain injury. This study was designed to determine whether olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury, and whether this effect is associated with antioxidant capacity. First, we established a mouse model of lead poisoning by continuous intragastric administration of lead acetate for 30 days. Two hours after successful model establishment, lead-poisoned mice were given olive leaf extract at doses of 250, 500 or 1 000 mg/kg daily by intragastric administration for 50 days. Under the transmission electron microscope, olive leaf extract attenuated neuronal and capillary injury and reduced damage to organelles and the matrix around the capillaries in the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex in the lead-poisoned mice. Olive leaf extract at a dose of 1 000 mg/kg had the greatest protective effect. Spectrophotometry showed that olive leaf extract significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, while it reduced malondialdehyde content, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining revealed that olive leaf extract dose-dependently decreased Bax protein expression in the cerebral cortex of lead-poisoned mice. Our findings indicate that olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury by increasing antioxidant capacity and reducing apoptosis. PMID:25206510

Wang, Yu; Wang, Shengqing; Cui, Wenhui; He, Jiujun; Wang, Zhenfu; Yang, Xiaolu

2013-01-01

328

Olive leaf extract inhibits lead poisoning-induced brain injury.  

PubMed

Olive leaves have an antioxidant capacity, and olive leaf extract can protect the blood, spleen and hippocampus in lead-poisoned mice. However, little is known about the effects of olive leaf extract on lead-induced brain injury. This study was designed to determine whether olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury, and whether this effect is associated with antioxidant capacity. First, we established a mouse model of lead poisoning by continuous intragastric administration of lead acetate for 30 days. Two hours after successful model establishment, lead-poisoned mice were given olive leaf extract at doses of 250, 500 or 1 000 mg/kg daily by intragastric administration for 50 days. Under the transmission electron microscope, olive leaf extract attenuated neuronal and capillary injury and reduced damage to organelles and the matrix around the capillaries in the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex in the lead-poisoned mice. Olive leaf extract at a dose of 1 000 mg/kg had the greatest protective effect. Spectrophotometry showed that olive leaf extract significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, while it reduced malondialdehyde content, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining revealed that olive leaf extract dose-dependently decreased Bax protein expression in the cerebral cortex of lead-poisoned mice. Our findings indicate that olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury by increasing antioxidant capacity and reducing apoptosis. PMID:25206510

Wang, Yu; Wang, Shengqing; Cui, Wenhui; He, Jiujun; Wang, Zhenfu; Yang, Xiaolu

2013-08-01

329

Antioxidant activity of maslinic acid, a triterpene derivative obtained from Olea europaea.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of maslinic acid (a triterpene derivative obtained from olive pomace), on the susceptibility of plasma or hepatocyte membranes to lipid peroxidation (LPO), induced respectively by the hydroxyl radical (OH*) generated by Fe2+/H2O2 ex vivo and by the system Fe3+/ascorbate in vitro; moreover, three groups of animals used in the plasma study were pretreated with CCl4 (to generate CCl3-*). Endogenous plasma lipoperoxide levels and susceptibility to LPO were decreased in rats treated with maslinic acid, after exposure to OH* by Fe2+/H2O2 (Fenton reaction). Co-incubation with maslinic acid prevented hepatocyte membrane LPO as shown by the reduction of TBARS. In conclusion, maslinic acid may offer some advantages in the resistance of oxidative stress in the animals. PMID:12802735

Montilla, M Pilar; Agil, Ahmad; Navarro, M Concepción; Jiménez, M Isabel; García-Granados, Andrés; Parra, Andrés; Cabo, M Matilde

2003-05-01

330

78 FR 42122 - Bridge Builder Trust and Olive Street Investment Advisers, LLC; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...812-14118] Bridge Builder Trust and Olive Street Investment Advisers, LLC; Notice...Builder Trust (the ``Trust'') and Olive Street Investment Advisers (the ``Adviser...91741; The Adviser: James A. Tricarico, Olive Street Investment Advisers, LLC,...

2013-07-15

331

78 FR 73853 - Oliver Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting Comments...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Name of Project: William Bacon Oliver Lock and Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: At the U.S...Engineers' (Corps) William Bacon Oliver Lock and Dam on the Black...the Corps' existing William Bacon Oliver Lock and Dam, and...

2013-12-09

332

77 FR 105 - Oliver Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission, Soliciting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Name of Project: William Bacon Oliver Lock and Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: At the U.S...Engineers' (Corps) William Bacon Oliver Lock and Dam on the Black...the existing Corps' William Bacon Oliver Lock and Dam, and...

2012-01-03

333

7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety...procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety...imports: (1) Avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and...

2011-01-01

334

7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety...procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety...imports: (1) Avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and...

2013-01-01

335

7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety...procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety...imports: (1) Avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and...

2012-01-01

336

7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...  

...procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety...procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety...imports: (1) Avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and...

2014-01-01

337

Crystal Structures of Xanthomonas campestris OleA Reveal Features That Promote Head-to-Head Condensation of Two Long-Chain Fatty Acids  

SciTech Connect

OleA is a thiolase superfamily enzyme that has been shown to catalyze the condensation of two long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) substrates. The enzyme is part of a larger gene cluster responsible for generating long-chain olefin products, a potential biofuel precursor. In thiolase superfamily enzymes, catalysis is achieved via a ping-pong mechanism. The first substrate forms a covalent intermediate with an active site cysteine that is followed by reaction with the second substrate. For OleA, this conjugation proceeds by a nondecarboxylative Claisen condensation. The OleA from Xanthomonas campestris has been crystallized and its structure determined, along with inhibitor-bound and xenon-derivatized structures, to improve our understanding of substrate positioning in the context of enzyme turnover. OleA is the first characterized thiolase superfamily member that has two long-chain alkyl substrates that need to be bound simultaneously and therefore uniquely requires an additional alkyl binding channel. The location of the fatty acid biosynthesis inhibitor, cerulenin, that possesses an alkyl chain length in the range of known OleA substrates, in conjunction with a single xenon binding site, leads to the putative assignment of this novel alkyl binding channel. Structural overlays between the OleA homologues, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase and the fatty acid biosynthesis enzyme FabH, allow assignment of the two remaining channels: one for the thioester-containing pantetheinate arm and the second for the alkyl group of one substrate. A short {beta}-hairpin region is ordered in only one of the crystal forms, and that may suggest open and closed states relevant for substrate binding. Cys143 is the conserved catalytic cysteine within the superfamily, and the site of alkylation by cerulenin. The alkylated structure suggests that a glutamic acid residue (Glu117{beta}) likely promotes Claisen condensation by acting as the catalytic base. Unexpectedly, Glu117{beta} comes from the other monomer of the physiological dimer.

Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Frias, Janice A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M. (UMM)

2012-10-25

338

The rotational spectrum of H32SOH and H34SOH above 1 THz Oliver Baum, Monika Koerber, Oliver Ricken, Gisbert Winnewisser, Sergei N. Yurchenko et al.  

E-print Network

The rotational spectrum of H32SOH and H34SOH above 1 THz Oliver Baum, Monika Koerber, Oliver Ricken://jcp.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;The rotational spectrum of H32 SOH and H34 SOH above 1 THz Oliver Baum,1,a Monika Koerber,1 Oliver

Giesen, Thomas

339

Inclusion complexes of cyclomaltoheptaose (beta-cyclodextrin) and its methylated derivatives with the main components of the pheromone of the olive fruit fly.  

PubMed

The inclusion complexes of cyclomaltoheptaose (beta CD) and heptakis(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl)cyclomaltoheptaose (TM-beta CD) with the four major components of the pheromone of the olive fruit fly (Dacus oleae), namely 1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane, (-)-alpha-pinene, nonanal, and ethyl dodecanoate, and the complex of heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)cyclomaltoheptaose (DM-beta CD) with 1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane were studied. The complexes were characterised in the solid state by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction. In aqueous solution, the structure of the complexes was investigated by 1H NMR spectroscopy. In solution, 1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane, (-)-alpha-pinene, and nonanal enter the cavity of the cyclo-oligosaccharides. Association constants for some of these complexes were also measured. The complexes of ethyl dodecanoate did not provide evidence of their structure in solution. This was attributed to the existence of negligible amounts of these complexes in water due to the combined effects of low solubility and low association constant. PMID:8472260

Botsi, A; Yannakopoulou, K; Hadjoudis, E

1993-03-17

340

Characterization of filamentous fungi isolated from Moroccan olive and olive cake: toxinogenic potential of Aspergillus strains.  

PubMed

During the 2003 and 2004 olive oil production campaigns in Morocco, 136 samples from spoiled olive and olive cake were analyzed and 285 strains were isolated in pure culture. Strains included 167 mesophilic strains belonging to ten genera: Penicillium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Mucor, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Alternaria, Acremonium, Humicola, Ulocladium as well as 118 thermophilic strains isolated in 2003 and 2004, mainly belonging to six species: Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii, Mucor pusillus, Thermomyces lanuginosus, Humicola grisea, and Thermoascus aurantiacus. Penicillium and Aspergillus, respectively, 32.3 and 26.9% of total isolates represented the majority of mesophilic fungi isolated. When considering total strains (including thermotolerant strains) Aspergillus were the predominant strains isolated; follow-up studies on mycotoxins therefore focused primarily on aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) from the latter strains. All isolated Aspergillus flavus strains (9) and Aspergillus niger strains (36) were studied in order to evaluate their capacity to produce AFs and OTA, respectively, when grown on starch-based culture media. Seven of the nine tested A. flavus strains isolated from olive and olive cake produced AF B1 at concentrations between 48 and 95 microg/kg of dry rice weight. As for the A. niger strains, 27 of the 36 strains produced OTA. PMID:16715545

Roussos, Sevastianos; Zaouia, Nabila; Salih, Ghislane; Tantaoui-Elaraki, Abdelrhafour; Lamrani, Khadija; Cheheb, Mostafa; Hassouni, Hicham; Verhé, Fréderic; Perraud-Gaime, Isabelle; Augur, Christopher; Ismaili-Alaoui, Mustapha

2006-05-01

341

Olives and Olive Oil Are Sources of Electrophilic Fatty Acid Nitroalkenes  

PubMed Central

Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and olives, key sources of unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean diet, provide health benefits to humans. Nitric oxide (•NO) and nitrite (NO2?)-dependent reactions of unsaturated fatty acids yield electrophilic nitroalkene derivatives (NO2-FA) that manifest salutary pleiotropic cell signaling responses in mammals. Herein, the endogenous presence of NO2-FA in both EVOO and fresh olives was demonstrated by mass spectrometry. The electrophilic nature of these species was affirmed by the detection of significant levels of protein cysteine adducts of nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA-cysteine) in fresh olives, especially in the peel. Further nitration of EVOO by NO2? under acidic gastric digestive conditions revealed that human consumption of olive lipids will produce additional nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2-cLA) and nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA). The presence of free and protein-adducted NO2-FA in both mammalian and plant lipids further affirm a role for these species as signaling mediators. Since NO2-FA instigate adaptive anti-inflammatory gene expression and metabolic responses, these redox-derived metabolites may contribute to the cardiovascular benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet. PMID:24454759

Schopfer, Francisco J.; Salvatore, Sonia R.; Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Vitturi, Dario; Valderrama, Raquel; Barroso, Juan B.; Radi, Rafael; Freeman, Bruce A.; Rubbo, Homero

2014-01-01

342

Combination of Fenton oxidation and composting for the treatment of the olive solid residue and the olive mile wastewater from the olive oil industry in Cyprus.  

PubMed

Co-composting of olive oil solid residue (OOSR) and treated wastewaters (with Fenton) from the olive oil production process has been studied as an alternative method for the treatment of wastewater containing high organic and toxic pollutants in small olive oil industry in Cyprus. The experimental results indicated that the olive mill wastewater (OMW) is detoxified at the end of Fenton Process and the COD is reduced up to 70%. The final co-composted material of OOSR with the treated olive mile wastewater (TOMW) is presented with optimum characteristics and is suitable for agricultural purpose. The final product coming out from an in-Vessel reactor seems to mature faster than the product from the windrow system and is presented with a better soil conditioner. PMID:20627547

Zorpas, Antonis A; Costa, Costa N

2010-10-01

343

Bioremediation and biovalorisation of olive-mill wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive-mill wastes are produced by the industry of olive oil production, which is a very important economic activity, particularly\\u000a for Spain, Italy and Greece, leading to a large environmental problem of current concern in the Mediterranean basin. There\\u000a is as yet no accepted treatment method for all the wastes generated during olive oil production, mainly due to technical and\\u000a economical

J. A. Morillo; B. Antizar-Ladislao; M. Monteoliva-Sánchez; A. Ramos-Cormenzana; N. J. Russell

2009-01-01

344

Producing Bio-oil from Olive Cake by Fast Pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on physico-chemical properties of olive cakes to evaluate them as a raw material in energy production through thermo-chemical pyrolysis conversion process. The present study focuses on the actions related to the possibilities to utilize in particularly olive cake as an agricultural residue. Olive cake is a very promising material for the production of bio-oil. Liquid, solid, and

A. Demirbas

2007-01-01

345

7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders...ripe” and “green-ripe” as defined...otherwise known as “green olives.” (3...Division, Agricultural Marketing Service,...

2010-01-01

346

7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders...ripe” and “green-ripe” as defined...otherwise known as “green olives.” (3...Division, Agricultural Marketing Service,...

2011-01-01

347

7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders...ripe” and “green-ripe” as defined...otherwise known as “green olives.” (3...Division, Agricultural Marketing Service,...

2012-01-01

348

7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS...ripe” and “green-ripe” as defined...otherwise known as “green olives.” (3...Division, Agricultural Marketing Service,...

2013-01-01

349

7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.  

...Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS...ripe” and “green-ripe” as defined...otherwise known as “green olives.” (3...Division, Agricultural Marketing Service,...

2014-01-01

350

OLIVE-MILL WASTEWATER COMPOSTING: MICROBIOLOGICAL ASPECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen consumption, microbial growth, lignin and phenol degradation, urease, protease and nitrogenase activity were determined during the composting of an olive-mill wastewaters (OMW)–wheat straw mixture. Oxygen consumption, microbial growth and urease activity were greatly enhanced during the thermophilic phase, reaching their maximum in about three weeks. Casein-hydrolysing protease showed a high initial activity which sharply decreased after 2 weeks. At

E. Galli; L. Pasetti; F. Fiorelli; U. Tomati

1997-01-01

351

Changes in serum levels of cytokines in mice injected with an immunostimulator C3bgp isolated from Cuscuta europea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of C3 binding glycoprotein (C3bgp), isolated from Cuscuta europea seeds on induction of in vivo cytokine synthesis was investigated. Different groups of mice were stimulated with 30 ?g C3bgp per mouse, injected intraperitoneally. The quantitative determination of IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-? and IFN-? was performed in mouse sera by ELISA. The quantities of these cytokines were

S. Stanilova; Z. Dobreva; Zh. Zhelev

2001-01-01

352

Variation in mesophyll anatomy and photosynthetic capacity during leaf development in a deciduous mesophyte fruit tree ( Prunus persica ) and an evergreen sclerophyllous Mediterranean shrub ( Olea europaea )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative importance that biomechanical and biochemical leaf traits have on photosynthetic capacity would depend on a complex\\u000a interaction of internal architecture and physiological differences. Changes in photosynthetic capacity on a leaf area basis\\u000a and anatomical properties during leaf development were studied in a deciduous tree, Prunus persica, and an evergreen shrub, Olea europaea. Photosynthetic capacity increased as leaves approached

S. Marchi; R. Tognetti; A. Minnocci; M. Borghi; L. Sebastiani

2008-01-01

353

Effects of olive mill wastes added to olive grove soils on erosion and soil properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INTRODUCTION The increasing degradation of olive groves by effect of organic matter losses derived from intensive agricultural practices has promoted the use (by olive farmers) of olive mill wastes (olive leaves and alperujo) which contain large amounts of organic matter and are free of heavy metals and pathogenic microorganisms. In this work we compared the effects of these oil mill wastes on the decrease of soil erosion, also, we undertook the assessment of the organic carbon and nitrogen contents of soil, their distribution across the profile, the accumulation and Stratification ratios (SRs) of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN), and the C:N ratio, in Cambisols in Mediterranean olive groves treated with olive leaves and alperujo. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study area was a typical olive grove in southern Spain under conventional tillage (CT). Three plots were established. The first one was the control plot; the second one was treated with olive leaves (CTol) and the third one, with alperujo (CTa). 9 samples per plot were collected to examine the response of the soil 3 years after application of the wastes. Soil properties determined were: soil particle size, pH, bulk density, the available water capacity, SOC, TN and C:N ratio. SOC and N stock, expressed for a specific depth in Mg ha-1. Stratification ratios (SRs) (that can be used as an indicator of dynamic soil quality) for SOC and TN at three different depths were calculated. The erosion study was based on simulations of rain; that have been carried out in order to highlight differences in the phenomena of runoff and soil losses in the three plots considered. The effect of different treatments on soil properties was analyzed using a ANOVA, followed by an Anderson-Darling test. RESULTS Supplying the soil with the wastes significantly improved physical and chemical properties in the studied soils with respect to the control. C and N stocks increased, the SOC stock was 75.4 Mg ha-1 in CT, 91.5 Mg ha-1 in CTa and 136.3 Mg ha-1 in CTol; and the TN stock 12.1, 13.9 and 16.1 Mg ha-1 in CT, CTa and CTol, respectively. In addition, both oil mill wastes contributed to delay runoff generation and erosion, enhancing the infiltration of rainwater. Furthermore, application of the wastes improved soil quality (SRs of SOC were greater than 2). So the addition of these oil mill wastes to agricultural soils has become a viable solution to their disposal; not only do they enrich deficient soils with organic matter, but also improve their physical and chemical properties, even decrease soil erosion, especially olive leaves. REFERENCES Lozano-García, B., Parras-Alcántara, L., del Toro, M., 2011. The effects of agricultural management with oil mill by-products on surface soil properties, runoff and soil losses in southern Spain. Catena 85, 187-193. Lozano-García, B., Parras-Alcántara, L., 2013. Short-term effects of olive mill by-products on soil organic carbon, total N, C:N ratio and stratification ratios in a Mediterranean olive grove. Agriculture Ecosystem and Environment 165, 68-73.

Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

2014-05-01

354

Olive response to water availability: yield response functions, soil water content indicators and evaluation of adaptability to climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate evolution, with the foreseen increase of temperature and frequency of drought events during the summer, could cause significant changes in the availability of water resources specially in the Mediterranean region. European countries need to encourage sustainable agriculture practices, reducing inputs, especially of water, and minimizing any negative impact on crop quantity and quality. Olive is an important crop in the Mediterranean region that has traditionally been cultivated with no irrigation and is known to attain acceptable production under dry farming. Therefore this crop will not compete for foreseen reduced water resources. However, a good quantitative knowledge must be available about effects of reduced precipitation and water availability on yield. Yield response functions, coupled with indicators of soil water availability, provide a quantitative description of the cultivar- specific behavior in relation to hydrological conditions. Yield response functions of 11 olive cultivars, typical of Mediterranean environment, were determined using experimental data (unpublished or reported in scientific literature). The yield was expressed as relative yield (Yr); the soil water availability was described by means of different indicators: relative soil water deficit (RSWD), relative evapotranspiration (RED) and transpiration deficit (RTD). Crops can respond nonlinearly to changes in their growing conditions and exhibit threshold responses, so for the yield functions of each olive cultivar both linear regression and threshold-slope models were considered to evaluate the best fit. The level of relative yield attained in rain-fed conditions was identified and defined as the acceptable yield level (Yrrainfed). The value of the indicator (RSWD, RED and RTD) corresponding to Yrrainfed was determined for each cultivar and indicated as the critical value of water availability. The error in the determination of the critical value was estimated. By means of a simulation model of the water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, the indicators of soil water availability were calculated for different soil units in an area of Southern Italy, traditionally cultivated with olive. Simulations were performed for two climate scenarios: reference (1961-90) and future climate (2021-50). The potentiality of the indicators RSWD, RED and RTD to describe soil water availability was evaluated using simulated and experimental data. The analysis showed that RED values were correlated to RTD. The analysis demonstrated that RTD was more effective than RED in representing crop water availability RSWD is very well correlated to RTD and the degree of correlation depends of the period of deficit considered. The probability of adaptation of each cultivar was calculated for both climatic periods by comparing the critical values (and their error distribution) with soil availability indicators. Keywords: Olea europaea, soil water deficit, water availability critical value. The work was carried out within the Italian national project AGROSCENARI funded by the Ministry for Agricultural, Food and Forest Policies (MIPAAF, D.M. 8608/7303/2008)

Riccardi, Maria; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Basile, Angelo; Bonfante, Antonello; Menenti, Massimo; Monaco, Eugenia; De Lorenzi, Francesca

2013-04-01

355

Notes and records Feeding ecology of olive baboons (Papio anubis)  

E-print Network

Notes and records Feeding ecology of olive baboons (Papio anubis) in Kibale National Park, Uganda and nutritional ecology of baboons (Papio) has been widely documented (Norton et al., 1987; Whiten et al., 1991 & Schreier, 2008; Bentley-Condit, 2009), most research on olive baboons (P. anubis) has focused on savannah

Rothman, Jessica M.

356

VIEW OF WARRIOR RIVER, OLIVER LOCK AND DAM LOOKING NORTHEAST, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF WARRIOR RIVER, OLIVER LOCK AND DAM LOOKING NORTHEAST, LURLEEN WALLACE BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND, GULF MOBILE & OHIO RAILROAD BRIDGE IN FRONT OF LURLEEN WALLACE BRIDGE, NORTHPORT LEFT SIDE, TUSCALOOSA RIGHT SIDE, UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - William Baker Oliver Lock & Dam, Spans Warrior River between Tuscaloosa & Northport, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

357

78 FR 24979 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agricultural Statistics Service (CASS) are 67,355 tons, which compares to 26,944 tons in...than the 2012- 13 crop receipts of 67,355 tons reported by CASS because some olives...olives and total grower deliveries were 67,355 tons. Based on production, producer...

2013-04-29

358

Accurate Graphical Representation of Plant Oliver Franzke1  

E-print Network

and practical method for rendering leaves and other translucent parts of plants. In contrast to otherAccurate Graphical Representation of Plant Leaves Oliver Franzke1 , Oliver Deussen2 (1: Dresden translucent materials, plant leaves usually are thin, though highly textured. An adaptation of rendering

Reiterer, Harald

359

Role of chlorophyllase in chlorophyll metabolism in olives cv. Gordal  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the development of the olive two stages in chlorophyll evolution can be distinguished: one of synthesis when the fruit is in the growth phase, and a degradative stage which begins when the fruit is completely developed. Although the enzyme chlorophyllase is present in olives throughout their development cycle, its activity reaches a maximum at both the beginning and end

Ma. Isabel Minguez-Mosquera; Lourdes Gallardo-Guerrero

1996-01-01

360

Lipase production by yeasts from extra virgin olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Newly produced olive oil has an opalescent appearance due to the presence of solid particles and micro-drops of vegetation water from the fruits. Some of our recent microbiological research has shown that a rich micro-flora is present in the suspended fraction of the freshly produced olive oil capable of improving the quality of the oil through the hydrolysis of the

G. Ciafardini; B. A. Zullo; A. Iride

2006-01-01

361

Dietary supplementation with olive oil influences iron concentrations in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the effect of corn oil diet and olive oil diet (5%\\/wt) on serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation levels, plasma lipid peroxides and liver iron levels of male Sprague Dawley rats. After three weeks, blood and liver samples were collected assayed. Rats fed the olive-oil supplemented diet had significantly lower levels of serum iron and transferrin

Kothapa N. Chetty; Ragene Conway; Katrina C. Harris; Waneene C. Dorsey; Dagne Hill; Srikrishna Chetty; Rajashekar Yerrapragada; Sushil Jain

1999-01-01

362

The effects of polyphenols in olive leaves on platelet function  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe phenolic compounds of olive leaves and olive oils in the Mediterranean diet have been associated with a reduced incidence of heart disease. Accordingly, antioxidant-rich diets may prevent the deleterious effects of oxidative metabolism by scavenging free radicals, thus inhibiting oxidation and delaying atherosclerosis. The process involves phospholipase C activation and arachidonic acid metabolism, and is thought to reduce hydrogen

Indu Singh; Michelle Mok; Anne-Marie Christensen; Alan H. Turner; John A. Hawley

2008-01-01

363

75 FR 22211 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and subsequent fiscal years from $28.63 to $44.72 per assessable ton of olives...and subsequent fiscal years from $28.63 to $44.72 per ton of olives handled...and subsequent fiscal years from $28.63 to $44.72 per ton of assessable...

2010-04-28

364

75 FR 9536 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and subsequent fiscal years from $28.63 to $44.72 per assessable ton of olives...and subsequent fiscal years from $28.63 to $44.72 per ton of olives. The California...and subsequent fiscal years from $28.63 to $44.72 per ton of assessable...

2010-03-03

365

International conference on the healthy effect of virgin olive oil.  

PubMed

1. Ageing represents a great concern in developed countries because the number of people involved and the pathologies related with it, like atherosclerosis, morbus Parkinson, Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, cognitive decline, diabetes and cancer. 2. Epidemiological studies suggest that a Mediterranean diet (which is rich in virgin olive oil) decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease. 3. The Mediterranean diet, rich in virgin olive oil, improves the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as the lipoprotein profile, blood pressure, glucose metabolism and antithrombotic profile. Endothelial function, inflammation and oxidative stress are also positively modulated. Some of these effects are attributed to minor components of virgin olive oil. Therefore, the definition of the Mediterranean diet should include virgin olive oil. 4. Different observational studies conducted in humans have shown that the intake of monounsaturated fat may be protective against age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. 5. Microconstituents from virgin olive oil are bioavailable in humans and have shown antioxidant properties and capacity to improve endothelial function. Furthermore they are also able to modify the haemostasis, showing antithrombotic properties. 6. In countries where the populations fulfilled a typical Mediterranean diet, such as Spain, Greece and Italy, where virgin olive oil is the principal source of fat, cancer incidence rates are lower than in northern European countries. 7. The protective effect of virgin olive oil can be most important in the first decades of life, which suggests that the dietetic benefit of virgin olive oil intake should be initiated before puberty, and maintained through life. 8. The more recent studies consistently support that the Mediterranean diet, based in virgin olive oil, is compatible with a healthier ageing and increased longevity. However, despite the significant advances of the recent years, the final proof about the specific mechanisms and contributing role of the different components of virgin olive oil to its beneficial effects requires further investigations. PMID:16008542

Perez-Jimenez, F; Alvarez de Cienfuegos, G; Badimon, L; Barja, G; Battino, M; Blanco, A; Bonanome, A; Colomer, R; Corella-Piquer, D; Covas, I; Chamorro-Quiros, J; Escrich, E; Gaforio, J J; Garcia Luna, P P; Hidalgo, L; Kafatos, A; Kris-Etherton, P M; Lairon, D; Lamuela-Raventos, R; Lopez-Miranda, J; Lopez-Segura, F; Martinez-Gonzalez, M A; Mata, P; Mataix, J; Ordovas, J; Osada, J; Pacheco-Reyes, R; Perucho, M; Pineda-Priego, M; Quiles, J L; Ramirez-Tortosa, M C; Ruiz-Gutierrez, V; Sanchez-Rovira, P; Solfrizzi, V; Soriguer-Escofet, F; de la Torre-Fornell, R; Trichopoulos, A; Villalba-Montoro, J M; Villar-Ortiz, J R; Visioli, F

2005-07-01

366

Monitoring of virgin olive oil volatile compounds evolution during olive malaxation by an array of metal oxide sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to the sanitary aspects of production and the genetic and\\/or geographic origin of the drupes olive malaxation is a critical control point of virgin olive oil (VOO) production from a qualitative point of view. In particular the sensory peculiarities of malaxation are determined by the presence of C6 and C5 aldehydes and alcohols in the VOO head space

Esposto Sonia; Montedoro GianFrancesco; Selvaggini Roberto; Riccò Ibanez; Taticchi Agnese; Urbani Stefania; Servili Maurizio

2009-01-01

367

Influence of fruit ripeness and salt concentration on the microbial processing of Arbequina table olives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arbequina table olives are processed as “naturally green olives”, they are directly placed in brine and fermentation starts spontaneously. Olives are harvested just before they change to ‘turning colour’. Different salt concentrations are used depending on the producer. The aim of the study was to evaluate how (i) the ripeness of the olive when it is harvested and (ii) the

Albert Hurtado; Cristina Reguant; Albert Bordons; Nicolas Rozès

2009-01-01

368

publication 420-321 Autumn olive was introduced to the U.S. from Japan  

E-print Network

publication 420-321 Autumn olive was introduced to the U.S. from Japan and China in 1830 and disturbed areas. Autumn olive's drought tolerance and ability to fix nitrogen allow it to colonize readily to 20 feet. Similar species Russian olive and thorny olive, both of which are also non

Liskiewicz, Maciej

369

Assessment of phenolics-enriched extract and fractions of olive leaves and their antioxidant activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies suggest that olive leaf is a significant source of bioactive phenolic compounds comparable to olive oil and fruits. Identifying appropriate extraction methods is thus an important step to increase the yield of such bioactive components from olive leaf, which is otherwise agricultural waste. The present study evaluates phenolic contents and compositions of olive leaf extracted by several solvent

Ok-Hwan Lee; Boo-Yong Lee; Junsoo Lee; Hee-Bong Lee; Jong-Youn Son; Cheon-Seok Park; Kalidas Shetty; Young-Cheul Kim

2009-01-01

370

The use of near-infrared spectrometry in the olive oil industry.  

PubMed

The enormous possibilities offered by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the (on/in/at-line) quality control process of olive fruits, pastes, and oils are summarized throughout this paper. Special attention has been paid to the combination of NIR and chemometric treatments for the on-line analysis of olive fruits and also for the quality parameters evaluation on olive oils and pastes which can enhance the production of a high quality olive oil and the selection of olive fruit with superior properties. The implementation of NIR sensors in olive mills with successful results has also been reviewed and the commercial olive fruit and oil analyzers highlighted. PMID:20544444

Armenta, S; Moros, J; Garrigues, S; de la Guardia, M

2010-06-01

371

DISTRIBUTION OF OLIVE TREE VIRUSES IN ITALY AS REVEALED BY ONE-STEP RT-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We have used a one-step RT-PCR protocol to detect and identify each of the eight viruses most commonly found in olive trees namely: Arabis mosaic virus (Ar- MV), Cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Olive leaf yellowing associated virus (OLYaV), Olive latent ring spot virus (OLRSV), Olive latent virus-1 (OLV-1), Olive latent virus-2 (OLV-2), and Strawberry

F. Faggioli; L. Ferretti; G. Albanese; R. Sciarroni; G. Pasquini; V. Lumia; M. Barba; Piazza S. Francesco

2005-01-01

372

Rapid authentication of olive oil adulteration by Raman spectrometry.  

PubMed

The authentication of olive oil and its adulteration with lower priced oils are still serious problems in the olive oil industry. In this study, a method based on the intensity ratio of the Raman spectroscopy vibration bands, especially on the intensity ratio of the cis ( ==C-H) and cis (C=C) bonds normalized by the band at 1441 cm(-1) (CH(2)), was established to authenticate genuine/fake olive oil. These intensity ratios of the vibration bands given in the form of a two-dimensional chart allow first the discrimination between the various grades of olive oil and the seed oils and then the detection of olive oil fraud by the line of y = 0.7, which is observed under most experiments and dot charts. This method can reliably distinguish the genuine olive oils from the olive oils containing 5% (volume percentage) or more of other edible oils, such as soybean oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower seed oil, or corn oil. Compared to the traditional principal component analysis method, this method is more intuitive, more precise, and easier to use. Moreover, this method also has the advantages of simplicity efficiency and has no need for sample preprocessing, being especially suitable for on-site testing in field applications. PMID:19537730

Zou, Ming-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Qi, Xiao-Hua; Ma, Han-Lu; Dong, Ying; Liu, Chun-Wei; Guo, Xun; Wang, Hong

2009-07-22

373

Cardioprotective and neuroprotective roles of oleuropein in olive  

PubMed Central

Traditional diets of people living in the Mediterranean basin are, among other components, very rich in extra-virgin olive oil, the most typical source of visible fat. Olive is a priceless source of monounsaturated and di-unsaturated fatty acids, polyphenolic antioxidants and vitamins. Oleuropein is the main glycoside in olives and is responsible for the bitter taste of immature and unprocessed olives. Chemically, oleuropein is the ester of elenolic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl ethanol, which possesses beneficial effects on human health, such as antioxidant, antiatherogenic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The phenolic fraction extracted from the leaves of the olive tree, which contains significant amounts of oleuropein, prevents lipoprotein oxidation. In addition, oleuropein has shown cardioprotective effect against acute adriamycin cardiotoxicity and an anti-ischemic and hypolipidemic activities. Recently, oleuropein has shown neuroprotection by forming a non-covalent complex with the A? peptide, which is a key hallmark of several degenerative diseases like Alzheimer and Parkinson. Thus, a large mass of research has been accumulating in the area of olive oil, in the attempt to provide evidence for the health benefits of olive oil consumption and to scientifically support the widespread adoption of traditional Mediterranean diet as a model of healthy eating. These results provide a molecular basis for some of the benefits potentially coming from oleuropein consumption and pave the way to further studies on the possible pharmacological use of oleuropein to prevent or to slow down the cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23964170

Omar, Syed Haris

2010-01-01

374

Saltcedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act Science Assessment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The primary intent of this document is to provide the science assessment called for under The Saltcedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-320; the Act). A secondary purpose is to provide a common background for applicants for prospective demonstration projects, should funds be appropriated for this second phase of the Act. This document synthesizes the state-of-the-science on the following topics: the distribution and abundance (extent) of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) in the Western United States, potential for water savings associated with controlling saltcedar and Russian olive and the associated restoration of occupied sites, considerations related to wildlife use of saltcedar and Russian olive habitat or restored habitats, methods to control saltcedar and Russian olive, possible utilization of dead biomass following removal of saltcedar and Russian olive, and approaches and challenges associated with revegetation or restoration following control efforts. A concluding chapter discusses possible long-term management strategies, needs for additional study, potentially useful field demonstration projects, and a planning process for on-the-ground projects involving removal of saltcedar and Russian olive.

Shafroth, Patrick B.; Brown, Curtis A.; Merritt, David M.

2010-01-01

375

Spectroscopic and density functional theory studies of 5,7,3?,5?-tetrahydroxyflavanone from the leaves of Olea ferruginea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

5,7,3?,5?-Tetrahydroxyflavanone (1) was isolated from the leaves of Olea ferruginea and a theoretical model was developed for obtaining the electronic and spectroscopic properties of 1. The geometric and electronic properties were calculated at B3LYP/6-311 G (d, p) level of Density Functional Theory (DFT). The theoretical data was in good agreement with the experimental one. The optimized geometric parameters of compound 1 were calculated for the first time. The theoretical vibrational frequencies of 1 were found to correlate with the experimental IR spectrum after a scaling factor of 0.9811. The UV and NMR spectral data computed theoretically were in good agreement with the experimental data. Electronic properties of the compound i.e., ionization potential (IP), electron affinity (EA), coefficients of HOMO and LUMO were estimated computationally for the first time which can be used to explain its antioxidant as well as other related activities and more active sites on it. The intermolecular interactions and their effects on IR frequencies, electronic and geometric parameters were simulated using water molecule as a model for hydrogen bonding with flavonoid hydroxyl groups.

Hashmi, Muhammad Ali; Khan, Afsar; Ayub, Khurshid; Farooq, Umar

2014-07-01

376

Air pollution effects on the leaf structure of two injury resistant species: Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Olea europaea L  

SciTech Connect

The release of toxic gases as well as of particulate pollutants into the atmosphere is a major side effect of the human industrial, agricultural and domestic activities. The impact of these compounds on the various life forms of our planet seems to be very serious. Investigations of plant species resistant to pollution-induced injuries do have a meaning. The introduction of these species will improve air quality and establish a moderate rate of primary productivity in the handicapped regions. That is why data concerning an evergreen sclerophyllous species which does not present structural modifications and organelle destruction although forced to be a dweller of a partition isle in a heavily polluted, traffic-loaded main street of the smog-suffering city of Athens, Greece, seemed very interesting. In this paper, further investigation is presented. Two common, species were studied. The first, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, a huge tree once imported to Europe from Australia as a marsh-drier in an effort to control malaria, is a drought enduring species mostly known for the essential oils accumulated in its leaves. The second, Olea europaea L. var oleaster Brot, is a sclerophyllous tree growing wild in chaparall formations in Greece.

Christodoulakis, N.S.; Koutsogeorgopoulou, L. (Univ. of Athens (Greece))

1991-09-01

377

Spectroscopic and density functional theory studies of 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone from the leaves of Olea ferruginea.  

PubMed

5,7,3',5'-Tetrahydroxyflavanone (1) was isolated from the leaves of Olea ferruginea and a theoretical model was developed for obtaining the electronic and spectroscopic properties of 1. The geometric and electronic properties were calculated at B3LYP/6-311 G (d, p) level of Density Functional Theory (DFT). The theoretical data was in good agreement with the experimental one. The optimized geometric parameters of compound 1 were calculated for the first time. The theoretical vibrational frequencies of 1 were found to correlate with the experimental IR spectrum after a scaling factor of 0.9811. The UV and NMR spectral data computed theoretically were in good agreement with the experimental data. Electronic properties of the compound i.e., ionization potential (IP), electron affinity (EA), coefficients of HOMO and LUMO were estimated computationally for the first time which can be used to explain its antioxidant as well as other related activities and more active sites on it. The intermolecular interactions and their effects on IR frequencies, electronic and geometric parameters were simulated using water molecule as a model for hydrogen bonding with flavonoid hydroxyl groups. PMID:24667429

Hashmi, Muhammad Ali; Khan, Afsar; Ayub, Khurshid; Farooq, Umar

2014-07-15

378

Determination of the Diglyceride Content in Greek Virgin Olive Oils and Some Commercial Olive Oils by Employing 31 P NMR Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the diglyceride contents of 96 samples of virgin olive oils from the regions of Crete, Lesvos, Messinia, Pilion, Zakynthos, Halkidiki, and Ilia, 15 samples of commercial extra virgin and pure olive oils, and 3 samples each of refined olive oils and pomace oils were determined by a facile method introduced in a previous publication. This method is

Penelope Fronimaki; Apostolos Spyros; Stella Christophoridou; Photis Dais

2002-01-01

379

Oliver Wendell Holmes Man of Medicine; Man of Letters  

PubMed Central

This biographical sketch portrays Oliver Wendell Holmes as a leading figure both in American medicine and in American literature. Particular attention is directed to his classic essay, “The Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever.” PMID:5325818

Parker, Virginia

1966-01-01

380

Biosensor immunoassay for traces of hazelnut protein in olive oil  

PubMed Central

The fraudulent addition of hazelnut oil to more expensive olive oil not only causes economical loss but may also result in problems for allergic individuals as they may inadvertently be exposed to potentially allergenic hazelnut proteins. To improve consumer safety, a rapid and sensitive direct biosensor immunoassay, based on a highly specific monoclonal antibody, was developed to detect the presence of hazelnut proteins in olive oils. The sample preparation was easy (extraction with buffer); the assay time was fast (4.5 min only) and the limit of detection was low (0.08 ?g/g of hazelnut proteins in olive oil). Recoveries obtained with an olive oil mixed with different amounts of a hazelnut protein containing hazelnut oil varied between 93% and 109%. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00216-009-2720-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:19263041

Smits, Nathalie G. E.; Haasnoot, Willem

2009-01-01

381

Evidence of oleuropein degradation by olive leaf protein extract.  

PubMed

The enzymatic activity of raw protein olive leaf extract has been investigated in vivo, on olive leaf homogenate and, in vitro with pure oleuropein and other phenolic substrates. At least two types of enzymes were found to be involved in the degradation of endogenous oleuropein in olive leaves. As for the in vitro experiments, the presence of active polyphenoloxidase and ?-glucosidase was determined by HPLC and UV-Visible spectroscopy. Interestingly, both the enzymatic activities were found to change during the storage of olive leaves. Specifically, the protein extracts obtained from fresh leaves showed the presence of both the enzymatic activities, because oleuropein depletion occurred simultaneously with the formation of the oleuropein aglycon, 3,4-DHPEA-EA. In comparison leaves subjected to the drying process showed a polyphenoloxidase activity leading exclusively to the formation of oxidation products responsible for the typical brown coloration of the reaction solution. PMID:25577121

De Leonardis, Antonella; Macciola, Vincenzo; Cuomo, Francesca; Lopez, Francesco

2015-05-15

382

Recent patents in olive oil industry: New technologies for the recovery of phenols compounds from olive oil, olive oil industrial by-products and waste waters.  

PubMed

Olive oil is the major source of mono-unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean basin. It has been demonstrated that several olive components play an important role in human health. Among these components, polyphenols play a very important role. They are responsible for olive oil stability and sensory attributes. Moreover, they have pharmacological properties, are natural antioxidants and inhibit the proliferation of many pathogen microorganisms. Studies in vitro have demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol scavenges free radicals, inhibits human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation which is a process involved in the pathogenesis of the atherosclerosis, inhibits platelet aggregation and discloses anticancer activity on cancer cells by means of pro-apoptotic mechanisms. It has also been demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol acts in vitro against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which are involved in many infections of respiratory and intestinal tracts. In this review, the most recent patents developed to improve technologies for recovering of antioxidant compounds of olive oil, olive oil industrial by products and waste-waters have been presented. PMID:20653560

Sabatini, N

2010-06-01

383

7 CFR 932.153 - Establishment of minimum quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses. 932.153 Section...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations...quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses. (a) Minimum...

2013-01-01

384

7 CFR 932.153 - Establishment of minimum quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses. 932.153 Section...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations...quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses. (a) Minimum...

2010-01-01

385

7 CFR 932.153 - Establishment of minimum quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses.  

...quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses. 932.153 Section...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations...quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses. (a) Minimum...

2014-01-01

386

7 CFR 932.153 - Establishment of minimum quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses. 932.153 Section...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations...quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses. (a) Minimum...

2011-01-01

387

7 CFR 932.153 - Establishment of minimum quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses. 932.153 Section...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations...quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses. (a) Minimum...

2012-01-01

388

77 FR 55202 - Oliver Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions To Intervene...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Name of Project: William Bacon Oliver Lock and Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: At the U.S...Engineers' (Corps) William Bacon Oliver Lock and Dam on the Black...the Corps' existing William Bacon Oliver Lock and Dam, and...

2012-09-07

389

Antioxidant effect of natural phenols on olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total polar fraction and individual phenols present in virgin olive oil were tested for their antioxidant effect in refined\\u000a olive oil. Hydroxytyrosol and caffeic acid showed protection factors greater than BHT. Protocatechuic and syringic acid were\\u000a also found to have antioxidant activity. Tyrosol, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, o-coumaric acid, p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic\\u000a acid and vanillic acid had very little or no

George Papadopoulos; Dimitrios Boskou

1991-01-01

390

Olive bagasse and nutshell as gamma shielding material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma ray linear attenuation coefficients have been measured experimentally for olive bagasse and nutshell by using narrow beam geometry for Co-60 and the values have been compared with soil. These values have been used calculate mean free path, half value layer and tenth value layer parameters. Besides, effect of multi-layered systems (soil + olive bagasse and soil + nutshell) has been analyzed in terms of half value layer.

Inaç, Esra; Bayta?, A. Filiz

2013-12-01

391

Electric monopoles and the Montonen-Olive conjecture  

E-print Network

We introduce a topological field theory with a Bogomol'nyi structure permitting BPS electric, magnetic and dyonic monopoles. From the general arguments given by Montonen and Olive the particle spectrum and mass compare favourably with that of the intermediate vector bosons. In most, if not in all, of its essential features the topological field theory introduced here provides an example of a dual field theory, the existence of which was conjectured by Montonen and Olive.

M. Temple-Raston

1993-11-10

392

Olive bagasse and nutshell as gamma shielding material  

SciTech Connect

Gamma ray linear attenuation coefficients have been measured experimentally for olive bagasse and nutshell by using narrow beam geometry for Co-60 and the values have been compared with soil. These values have been used calculate mean free path, half value layer and tenth value layer parameters. Besides, effect of multi-layered systems (soil + olive bagasse and soil + nutshell) has been analyzed in terms of half value layer.

?naç, Esra; Bayta?, A. Filiz [Energy Institute, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey)

2013-12-16

393

Supercritical fluid extraction of phenol compounds from olive leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A clean, highly selective supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method for the isolation of phenols from olive leaf samples was examined. Total phenol extracts were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Dried, ground, sieved olive leaf samples (30 mg) are subjected to SFE, using carbon dioxide modified with 10% methanol at 334 bar, 100°C (CO2 density 0.70 g ml?1) at a liquid

F Le Floch; M. T Tena; A R??os; M Valcárcel

1998-01-01

394

FURTHER CHARACTERIZATION OF OLIVE LEAF YELLOWING-ASSOCIATED VIRUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY RACE-PCR using a denatured dsRNA extract from an olive plant infected by Olive leaf yellowing-associat- ed virus (OLYaV), extended a previously sequenced large fragment of the viral genome by 854 nt down- stream in the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). This se- quence showed from 45 to 53% identity at the nu- cleotide level with that of putative HSP90s

T. El Beaino; M. Saponari; A. Minafra; M. A. Castellano; V. Savino; G. P. Martelli

2005-01-01

395

Volatile compounds characterizing Tunisian Chemlali and Chétoui virgin olive oils.  

PubMed

A total of 33 virgin olive oil samples of the two main Tunisian cultivars, Chemlali and Chétoui, were characterized by their volatile compounds. The olive oil samples were obtained from olives harvested at four stages of ripeness in costal and inland farms of different geographical places. Major volatiles, mostly C6 and C5 compounds produced from linolenic and linoleic acids through the lipoxygenase cascade, were quantified by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography. Mathematical procedures allowed for the determination of the volatiles that not only are able to discriminate the olive oils by their olive cultivar (hexanal, E-2-hexenal, and total ketones) and ripeness (pentanal and 1-penten-3-one) but also contribute to their distinctive aroma. Finally, an electronic nose based on metal oxide sensors was checked for a rapid and at-line implementation of Tunisian olive oil varietal traceability. The classification of the samples by the sensors was explained by their sensitivity to volatiles E-2-hexanal, hexanal, 1-penten-3-one, ethanol, and Z-3-hexenol. Multivariate procedures of discriminant analysis and principal component analysis were used in the study. PMID:17708651

Tena, Noelia; Lazzez, Aida; Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón; García-González, Diego L

2007-09-19

396

Encapsulation of olive leaf extract in beta-cyclodextrin.  

PubMed

Olive leaf extract, rich in oleuropein, formed an inclusion complex with beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) upon mixing of the components in aqueous media and subsequent freeze-drying. Inclusion complex formation was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSC thermograms indicated that the endothermic peaks of both the olive leaf extract and the physical mixture of olive leaf extract with beta-CD, attributed to the melting of crystals of the extract, were absent in DSC thermogram of inclusion complex. Moreover, DSC studies under oxidative conditions indicated that the complex of olive leaf extract with beta-CD was protected against oxidation, since it remained intact at temperatures where the free olive leaf extract was oxidized. Phase solubility studies afforded A L type diagrams, 1:1 complex stoichiometry, a moderate binding constant ( approximately 300 M (-1)), and an increase of the aqueous solubility by approximately 50%. The formation of the inclusion complex was also confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of beta-CD solutions in the presence of both pure oleuropein and olive leaf extract. The NMR data have established the formation of a 1:1 complex with beta-CD that involves deep insertion of the dihydroxyphenethyl moiety inside the cavity from its secondary side. PMID:17764146

Mourtzinos, Ioannis; Salta, Fotini; Yannakopoulou, Konstantina; Chiou, Antonia; Karathanos, Vaios T

2007-10-01

397

The role of structural C--H compared with phenolic OH sites on the antioxidant activity of oleuropein and its derivatives as a great non-flavonoid family of the olive components: a DFT study.  

PubMed

Oleuropein and its derivatives are the main phenolic compounds of Olea europaea L. leaf and fruit. The structure-antioxidant activity relationship was considered for studying the radical scavenging activity of this non-flavonoid family of the olive components using density functional theory (DFT). The structure of these compounds were optimized employing the B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) and the role of some structural CH positions was compared with phenolic OH sites on radical scavenging. As a result, a radical unique position (C3) in the oleuropein, characterized by low BDE (Bond Dissociation Enthalpy), reasonable spin density and electron distribution, was identified. The experimental results of the previous publications of oleuropein for NO and OH scavenging confirmed the presence of this unique active site in its molecular structure. According to the results, 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) cannot find this non-marginal active site. Therefore, DPPH may not be a determinant assay for all antioxidant comparisons. Solvent effects were considered in all calculations using a Polarized Continuum Model (PCM) at the B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) level. Solvation calculations were carried out for benzene (?=2.3) to simulate the oil environment compared to gas phase. PMID:24996331

Hassanzadeh, Keyumars; Akhtari, Keivan; Hassanzadeh, Halaleh; Zarei, Seyed Amir; Fakhraei, Nahid; Hassanzadeh, Katayoun

2014-12-01

398

Las ayudas de la Unión Europea a las regiones españolas en el período 1989-1993 : fichas descriptivas y apoyos financieros  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se ofrece una descripción de las ayudas europeas a las regiones españolas en el periodo 1989-1993, prestando especial atención a las canalizadas a través de los fondos estructurales y de las principales iniciativas comunitarias de carácter estructural. La descripción guarda un mismo esquema para cada Comunidad Autónoma y resume los datos ofrecidos en la publicación 'Las regiones españolas en la

José Antonio Nieto Solís; Alfonso Utrilla de la Hoz

1996-01-01

399

El Mediterráneo europeo: Una imagen de marca común frente a los países lejanos para los destinos tradicionalmente turísticos de la Unión Europea  

Microsoft Academic Search

En la actualidad el turismo se configura como uno de los sectores de mayor aportación al PIB de determinados países que en pocos años han visto cómo esta industria es capaz de configurarse como un motor fundamental de su economía. En el marco de la Unión Europea, cabe destacar países como Francia, España o Italia y podemos incluir también a

Mecedes Jiménez García

2008-01-01

400

L'Universit di Salerno ottiene il Diploma Supplement Label L'Universit di Salerno ha ottenuto dalla Commissione europea il Diploma Supplement Label, un  

E-print Network

L'Università di Salerno ottiene il Diploma Supplement Label L'Università di Salerno ha ottenuto dalla Commissione europea il Diploma Supplement Label, un riconoscimento di prestigio che valorizza i titoli accademici dei nostri laureati. Il Diploma Supplement è un documento integrativo del titolo di

Costagliola, Gennaro

401

Lipase production by yeasts from extra virgin olive oil.  

PubMed

Newly produced olive oil has an opalescent appearance due to the presence of solid particles and micro-drops of vegetation water from the fruits. Some of our recent microbiological research has shown that a rich micro-flora is present in the suspended fraction of the freshly produced olive oil capable of improving the quality of the oil through the hydrolysis of the oleuropein. Present research however has, for the first time, demonstrated the presence of lipase-positive yeasts in some samples of extra virgin olive oil which can lower the quality of the oil through the hydrolysis of the triglycerides. The tests performed with yeasts of our collection, previously isolated from olive oil, demonstrated that two lipase-producing yeast strains named Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1525 and Williopsis californica 1639 were able to hydrolyse different specific synthetic substrates represented by p-nitrophenyl stearate, 4-nitrophenyl palmitate, tripalmitin and triolein as well as olive oil triglycerides. The lipase activity in S. cerevisiae 1525 was confined to the whole cells, whereas in W. californica 1639 it was also detected in the extracellular fraction. The enzyme activity in both yeasts was influenced by the ratio of the aqueous to the organic phase reaching its maximum value in S. cerevisiae 1525 when the water added to the olive oil was present in a ratio of 0.25% (v/v), whereas in W. californica 1639 the optimal ratio was 1% (v/v). Furthermore, the free fatty acids of olive oil proved to be good inducers of lipase activity in both yeasts. The microbiological analysis carried out on commercial extra virgin olive oil, produced in four different geographic areas, demonstrated that the presence of lipase-producing yeast varied from zero to 56% of the total yeasts detected, according to the source of oil samples. The discovery of lipase-positive yeasts in some extra virgin olive oils leads us to believe that yeasts are able to contribute in a positive or negative way towards the organological quality of the olive oil. PMID:16942987

Ciafardini, G; Zullo, B A; Iride, A

2006-02-01

402

The molecular biology of the olive fly comes of age  

PubMed Central

Background Olive cultivation blends with the history of the Mediterranean countries since ancient times. Even today, activities around the olive tree constitute major engagements of several people in the countryside of both sides of the Mediterranean basin. The olive fly is, beyond doubt, the most destructive pest of cultivated olives. The female fly leaves its eggs in the olive fruit. Upon emergence, the larvae feed on the olive sap, thus destroying the fruit. If untreated, practically all olives get infected. The use of chemical insecticides constitutes the principal olive fly control approach. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), an environmentally friendly alternative control method, had been tried in pilot field applications in the 1970's, albeit with no practical success. This was mainly attributed to the low, non-antagonistic quality of the mixed-sex released insects. Many years of experience from successful SIT applications in related species, primarily the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, demonstrated that efficient SIT protocols require the availability of fundamental genetic and molecular information. Results Among the primary systems whose understanding can contribute towards novel SIT approaches (or its recently developed alternative RIDL: Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal) is the reproductive, since the ability to manipulate the reproductive system would directly affect the insect's fertility. In addition, the analysis of early embryonic promoters and apoptotic genes would provide tools that confer dominant early-embryonic lethality during mass-rearing. Here we report the identification of several genes involved in these systems through whole transcriptome analysis of female accessory glands (FAGs) and spermathecae, as well as male testes. Indeed, analysis of differentially expressed genes in these tissues revealed higher metabolic activity in testes than in FAGs/spermathecae. Furthermore, at least five olfactory-related genes were shown to be differentially expressed in the female and male reproductive systems analyzed. Finally, the expression profile of the embryonic serendipity-? locus and the pre-apoptotic head involution defective gene were analyzed during embryonic developmental stages. Conclusions Several years of molecular studies on the olive fly can now be combined with new information from whole transcriptome analyses and lead to a deep understanding of the biology of this notorious insect pest. This is a prerequisite for the development of novel embryonic lethality female sexing strains for successful SIT efforts which, combined with improved mass-reared conditions, give new hope for efficient SIT applications for the olive fly. PMID:25472866

2014-01-01

403

Genetic Diversity of the Coat Protein of Olive Mild Mosaic Virus (OMMV) and Tobacco Necrosis Virus D (TNV-D) Isolates and Its Structural Implications  

PubMed Central

The genetic variability among 13 isolates of Olive mild mosaic virus (OMMV) and of 11 isolates of Tobacco necrosis virus D (TNV-D) recovered from Olea europaea L. samples from various sites in Portugal, was assessed through the analysis of the coat protein (CP) gene sequences. This gene was amplified through reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cloned, and 5 clone sequences of each virus isolate, were analysed and compared, including sequences from OMMV and TNV-D isolates originally recovered from different hosts and countries and available in the GenBank, totalling 131 sequences. The encoded CP sequences consisted of 269 amino acids (aa) in OMMV and 268 in TNV-D. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the isolates showed a very low variability among OMMV isolates, 0.005 and 0.007, respectively, as well as among TNV-D isolates, 0.006 and 0.008. The maximum nucleotide distances of OMMV and TNV-D sequences within isolates were also low, 0.013 and 0.031, respectively, and close to that found between isolates, 0.018 and 0.034, respectively. In some cases, less variability was found in clone sequences between isolates than in clone sequences within isolates, as also shown through phylogenetic analysis. CP aa sequence identities among OMMV and TNV-D isolates ranged from 84.3% to 85.8%. Comparison between the CP genomic sequences of the two viruses, showed a relatively low variability, 0.199, and a maximum nucleotide distance between isolates of 0.411. Analysis of comparative models of OMMV and TNV-D CPs, showed that naturally occurring substitutions in their respective sequences do not seem to cause significant alterations in the virion structure. This is consistent with a high selective pressure to preserve the structure of viral capsid proteins. PMID:25350108

Varanda, Carla M. R.; Machado, Marco; Martel, Paulo; Nolasco, Gustavo; Clara, Maria I. E.; Félix, Maria R.

2014-01-01

404

7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.  

...minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. 932.150 Section...Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND...minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum...

2014-01-01

405

7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. 932.150 Section...Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and...minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum...

2010-01-01

406

7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. 932.150 Section...Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and...minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum...

2011-01-01

407

7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. 932.150 Section...Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and...minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum...

2012-01-01

408

7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. 932.150 Section...Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND...minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum...

2013-01-01

409

Bounds for DNA codes with constant GC-content Oliver D. King  

E-print Network

Bounds for DNA codes with constant GC-content Oliver D. King Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA oliver king@hms.harvard.edu Submitted: June

Roth, Frederick

410

Antioxidant defences in olive trees during drought stress: changes in activity of some antioxidant enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of drought on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), indoleacetate oxidase (IAAox) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were studied in 2-year old Olea europaea L. (cv. 'Coratina') plants grown under high temperatures and irradiance levels and gradually subjected to a controlled water deficit. After 20 d without irrigation, mean predawn leaf

411

Inoculated fermentation of green olives with potential probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures isolated from industrially fermented olives.  

PubMed

The performance of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282, previously isolated from industrially fermented table olives and screened in vitro for probiotic potential, was investigated as starter cultures in Spanish style fermentation of cv. Halkidiki green olives. Fermentation was undertaken at room temperature in two different initial salt concentrations (8% and 10%, w/v, NaCl) in the brines. The strains were inoculated as single and combined cultures and the dynamics of their population on the surface of olives was monitored for a period of 114 days. The survival of inoculated strains on olives was determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Both probiotic strains successfully colonized the olive surface at populations ranged from 6.0 to 7.0 log CFU/g throughout fermentation. PFGE analysis revealed that L. pentosus B281 presented higher colonization in both salt levels at the end of fermentation (81.2% and 93.3% in 8% and 10% NaCl brines, respectively). For L. plantarum B282 a high survival rate (83.3%) was observed in 8% NaCl brines, but in 10% NaCl the strain could not colonize the surface of olives. L. pentosus B281 also dominated over L. plantarum B282 in inoculated fermentations when the two strains were used as combined culture. The biochemical profile (pH, organic acids, volatile compounds) attained during fermentation and the sensory analysis of the final product indicated a typical lactic acid fermentation process of green olives. PMID:24290645

Blana, Vasiliki A; Grounta, Athena; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

2014-04-01

412

Yeast biodiversity from oleic ecosystems: Study of their biotechnological properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to know the yeast biodiversity from fresh olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits, olive paste (crush olives) and olive pomace (solid waste) from Arbequina and Cornicabra varieties. Yeasts were isolated from fruits randomly harvested at various olive groves in the region of Castilla La Mancha (Spain). Olive paste and pomace, a byproduct of the processing

Sheila Romo-Sánchez; Milla Alves-Baffi; María Arévalo-Villena; Juan Úbeda-Iranzo; Ana Briones-Pérez

2010-01-01

413

Olive oil consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

The clinical implications of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) derive from their potential to progress to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Inappropriate dietary fat intake, excessive intake of soft drinks, insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress results in increased free fatty acid delivery to the liver and increased hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation. An olive oil-rich diet decreases accumulation of TGs in the liver, improves postprandial TGs, glucose and glucagon-like peptide-1 responses in insulin-resistant subjects, and upregulates glucose transporter-2 expression in the liver. The principal mechanisms include: decreased nuclear factor-kappaB activation, decreased low-density lipoprotein oxidation, and improved insulin resistance by reduced production of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6) and improvement of jun N-terminal kinase-mediated phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1. The beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet is derived from monounsaturated fatty acids, mainly from olive oil. In this review, we describe the dietary sources of the monounsaturated fatty acids, the composition of olive oil, dietary fats and their relationship to insulin resistance and postprandial lipid and glucose responses in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, clinical and experimental studies that assess the relationship between olive oil and NAFLD, and the mechanism by which olive oil ameliorates fatty liver, and we discuss future perspectives. PMID:19370776

Assy, Nimer; Nassar, Faris; Nasser, Gattas; Grosovski, Maria

2009-01-01

414

Chemical treatment of olive pomace: Effect on acid-basic properties and metal biosorption capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, olive pomace, an agricultural waste that is very abundant in Mediterranean area, was modified by two chemical treatments in order to improve its biosorption capacity. Potentiometric titrations and IR analyses were used to characterise untreated olive pomace (OP), olive pomace treated by phosphoric acid (PAOP) and treated by hydrogen peroxide (HPOP). Acid–base properties of all investigated biosorbents

M. A. Martín-Lara; F. Pagnanelli; S. Mainelli; M. Calero; L. Toro

2008-01-01

415

Biological controls investigated to aid management of olive fruit fly in California  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The recent widespread and rapid establishment of the olive fruit fly in California made necessary immediate changes in existing olive IPM programs. After determining that resident natural enemies (various generalist predators and a previously unknown parasitoid) that have been found attacking olive...

416

7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.  

...2014-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109 Section 932... § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged...

2014-01-01

417

7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109 Section 932... § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged...

2010-01-01

418

7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109 Section 932... § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged...

2013-01-01

419

7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109 Section 932... § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged...

2012-01-01

420

7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109 Section 932... § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged...

2011-01-01

421

A parcel formulation for Hamiltonian layer models AND M. OLIVER1  

E-print Network

A parcel formulation for Hamiltonian layer models O. BOKHOVE AND M. OLIVER1 Department of Applied-particle mechanics (Bokhove and Oliver 2006). Each single parcel Hamiltonian is the sum of its kinetic energy equations for an ideal gas (Bokhove and Oliver 2006, Bokhove and Lynch 2007). Corresponding author. Email: o

Oliver, Marcel

422

EXTENSIONS OF LINKING SYSTEMS WITH p-GROUP KERNEL BOB OLIVER AND JOANA VENTURA  

E-print Network

EXTENSIONS OF LINKING SYSTEMS WITH p-GROUP KERNEL BOB OLIVER. Classifying space, p-completion, finite groups, fusion. B. Oliver is partially supported by UMR 7539;2 BOB OLIVER AND JOANA VENTURA Another problem is that in general, when eLis a linking system and A C e

Oliver, Bob

423

A Greenland Sea Perspective on the Dynamics of Postconvective Eddies* K. I. C. OLIVER  

E-print Network

A Greenland Sea Perspective on the Dynamics of Postconvective Eddies* K. I. C. OLIVER School Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, United Kingdom. Corresponding author address: K. I. C. Oliver, United Kingdom. E-mail: k.i.c.oliver@open.ac.uk DECEMBER 2008 O L I V E R E T A L . 2755 DOI: 10

Stevens, David

424

THE THEORY OF p-LOCAL GROUPS: A SURVEY CARLES BROTO, RAN LEVI, AND BOB OLIVER  

E-print Network

, AND BOB OLIVER The motivation for this project comes from the study of the p-local homotopy2001-2035. B. Oliver is partially supported by UMR 7539 of the CNRS. 1 #12;2 CARLES BROTO, RAN LEVI, AND BOB OLIVER topological monoid of self homotopy

Oliver, Bob

425

AN ALGEBRAIC MODEL FOR FINITE LOOP SPACES CARLES BROTO, RAN LEVI, AND BOB OLIVER  

E-print Network

LEVI, AND BOB OLIVER Contents 1. Background on fusion. Oliver is partially supported by UMR 7539 of the CNRS, and by project ANR * *BLAN08-2`338236, HGRT. 1 #12;2 CARLES BROTO, RAN LEVI, AND BOB OLIVER (saturated) fusion system over

Oliver, Bob

426

IS SELECTIVELY HARVESTED FOREST AN ECOLOGICAL TRAP FOR OLIVE-SIDED FLYCATCHERS?  

E-print Network

IS SELECTIVELY HARVESTED FOREST AN ECOLOGICAL TRAP FOR OLIVE-SIDED FLYCATCHERS? BRUCE A. ROBERTSON1 success of Olive-sided Flycatchers (Contopus cooperi) in a naturally occurring burned forest and an anthropogenically created habitat type--selectively harvested forest. Olive-sided Fly- catcher density and nestling

Montana, University of

427

Practical High Breakdown Regression David J. Olive and Douglas M. Hawkins  

E-print Network

Practical High Breakdown Regression David J. Olive and Douglas M. Hawkins Southern Illinois. Olive is Associate Professor (E-mail: dolive@math.siu.edu), Department of Mathematics, Southern Illinois and Pollard (1990) while computation is discussed by Bernholt (2005) and Hawkins and Olive (1999). Since

Olive, David

428

Rachel Mary Cardell-Oliver School of Computer Science and Software Engineering  

E-print Network

Rachel Mary Cardell-Oliver School of Computer Science and Software Engineering The University: rachel.cardell-oliver@uwa.edu.au Homepage: http://people.csse.uwa.edu.au/rachel/ Education PhD Computer to July 1988, Tutor Nov 1984 to July 1987. #12;Rachel Cardell-Oliver December 2013 2 Publications Journal

Cardell-Oliver, Rachel

429

Real Time Monitoring at the Olive 8 Excavation By Richard J. Finno1  

E-print Network

Page 1 Real Time Monitoring at the Olive 8 Excavation By Richard J. Finno1 M.ASCE, Miltos Langousis, WA 98101, kchin@geoengineers.com ABSTRACT: The real time monitoring for the Olive 8 project be used to great effect. INTRODUCTION The Olive 8 project in Seattle, WA involved the construction of a 39

430

REDUCED, TAME, AND EXOTIC FUSION SYSTEMS KASPER ANDERSEN, BOB OLIVER, AND JOANA VENTURA  

E-print Network

OLIVER, AND JOANA VENTURA Abstract. We define here two new classes of saturated fusion systems. B. Oliver is partially supported by UMR 7539 of the CNRS, and by project ANR * *BLAN08. 1 #12;2 KASPER ANDERSEN, BOB OLIVER, AND JOANA VENTURA automorphisms of F

Oliver, Bob

431

h t t p : / / w w w . n p s . e d u PRESIDENT OLIVER'S  

E-print Network

h t t p : / / w w w . n p s . e d u PRESIDENT OLIVER'S PREFERRED INTRODUCTION Retired Vice Admiral Daniel T. Oliver was commissioned through the Navy ROTC program at the University of Virginia in 1966 events/functions as appropriate. (Optional--Command Addendum): President Oliver commanded a Patrol

432

HAEMOPROTEUS CYANOMITRAE SP. NOV. (HAEMOSPORIDA: HAEMOPROTEIDAE) FROM A WIDESPREAD AFRICAN SONGBIRD, THE OLIVE SUNBIRD,  

E-print Network

, THE OLIVE SUNBIRD, CYANOMITRA OLIVACEA Tatjana A. Iezhova, Gediminas Valkiu¯nas, Claire Loiseau*, Thomas B. sp. (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) was found in the olive sunbird, Cyanomitra olivacea (Nectariniidae in the olive sunbird so far. It is probable that H. cyanomitrae is transmitted throughout the range

Sehgal, Ravinder

433

Naval Postgraduate School Committee on the Future: Timeline 15: Charter drafted; approved by President Oliver  

E-print Network

; approved by President Oliver · 30: Working group - initial meeting; minutes generated May 2010 · 19 from President Oliver; RSVP by June 4, 2010 · 21: SharePoint site: http interview with President Oliver and Admiral Ellis · Web site established · Environmental scan completed #12

434

Hydrolytic enzyme activities of extracted humic substances during the vermicomposting of a lignocellulosic olive waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humic substances and three hydrolytic enzymes (?-glucosidase, phosphatase and urease) were extracted by neutral sodium pyrophosphate from an olive waste (dry olive cake), alone or mixed with municipal biosolids, during a nine month vermicomposting process. Easily degradable compounds decreased during the vermicomposting process because of microbial consumption. When municipal biosolids were added to dry olive cake, microbial activity increased and

E. Benitez; H. Sainz; R. Nogales

2005-01-01

435

76 FR 73613 - Oliver Hydro LLC; FFP Project 97 LLC; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Applications...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...applications, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act...Engineers' (Corps) William Bacon Oliver Lock & Dam, located on...surplus water from the William Bacon Oliver Lock & Dam, as directed...surplus water from the William Bacon Oliver Lock & Dam, as...

2011-11-29

436

Direct olive oil authentication: detection of adulteration of olive oil with hazelnut oil by direct coupling of headspace and mass spectrometry, and multivariate regression techniques.  

PubMed

Control of adulteration of olive oil, together with authentication and contamination, is one of the main aspects in the quality control of olive oil. Adulteration with hazelnut oil is one of the most difficult to detect due to the similar composition of hazelnut and olive oils; both virgin olive oil and olive oil are subjected to that kind of adulteration. The main objective of this work was to develop an analytical method able to detect adulteration of virgin olive oils and olive oils with hazelnut oil by means of its analysis by a headspace autosampler directly coupled to a mass spectrometer used as detector (ChemSensor). As no chromatographic separation of the individual components of the samples exists, a global signal of the sample is obtained and employed for its characterization by means of chemometric techniques. Four different crude hazelnut oils from Turkey were employed for the development of the method. Multivariate regression techniques (partial least squares and principal components analysis) were applied to generate adequate regression models. Good values were obtained in both techniques for the parameters employed (standard errors of prediction (SEP) and prediction residual error sum of squares (PRESS)) to evaluate its goodness. With the proposed method, minimum adulteration levels of 7 and 15% can be detected in refined and virgin olive oils, respectively. Once validated, the method was applied to the detection of such adulteration in commercial olive oil and virgin olive oil samples. PMID:15941058

Peña, Fernando; Cárdenas, Soledad; Gallego, Mercedes; Valcárcel, Miguel

2005-05-13

437

Ensiling olive cake with and without molasses for ruminant feeding.  

PubMed

The purpose of the current experiment was to study the ensiling properties of olive cake with and without added molasses at 2-6% (w/w). The results indicate that molasses enhanced the ensiling fermentation of olive cake, as evidenced from higher lactic acid content and higher lactic acid bacteria numbers at 4% and 6% added molasses. However, when applied at 4% and 6% molasses increased fermentation losses up to 9.4%, probably due to larger yeast population. Polyphenols which could interfere with protein utilization by ruminants, decreased during ensiling by about 40%. It is concluded that molasses added at 3% could improve the ensiling fermentation of olive cake without substantial losses. PMID:17543518

Weinberg, Z G; Chen, Y; Weinberg, P

2008-04-01

438

Olive Oil Production in Greece1 The 1981 accession of Greece into the EEC was significant for the  

E-print Network

Olive Oil Production in Greece1 The 1981 accession of Greece into the EEC was significant for the olive oil sector. Greece is covered by 1,025,748 hectares of olive groves. In the period of 1991 to 1996 to other crops due to the high level of CAP support and high olive-oil prices and d) the lack

Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

439

Progressive limb ataxia following inferior olive lesions  

PubMed Central

Cerebellar climbing fibres originate in the inferior olive (IO). Temporary IO inactivation produces movement deficits. Does permanent inactivation produce similar deficits and, if so, do they recover? The excitotoxin, kainic acid, was injected into the rostral IO of three cats. Behaviour was measured during reaching and locomotion. Two cats were injected during the reaching task. Within minutes, grasping became difficult and the trajectories of the reaches showed higher arcing than normally seen. During locomotion, both cats showed head and trunk deviation to the injected side, walking paths curved to the injected side, and the paws were lifted higher than normal. Limbs contralateral to the injections became rigid. Within 1 day, posture had normalized, locomotion was unsteady and high lifting of the paws had reversed to a tendency to drag the dorsum of the paws. Passive body movement produced vestibular signs. Over a few days, locomotion normalized and vestibular signs disappeared. Reach trajectories were normal but grasping deficits persisted. Over the first week, the amplitude of limb lift during reaching and locomotion began to increase. The increase continued over time and, after several months, limb movements became severely ataxic. The effects followed the somatotopy of the rostral IO: a loss of cells in medial rostral IO only affected the forelimb, whereas a loss of cells in medial and lateral IO affected both forelimb and hindlimb. Deficits produced by IO lesions involve multiple mechanisms; some recover rapidly, some appear stable, and some worsen over time. The nature of the progressive deficit suggests a gradual loss of Purkinje cell inhibition on cerebellar nuclear cells. PMID:23027819

Horn, K M; Deep, A; Gibson, A R

2013-01-01

440

Sistemas de reescritura de redes* M. Llorens, J. Oliver  

E-print Network

Sistemas de reescritura de redes* M. Llorens, J. Oliver Univ. Polit´ecnica de Valencia. Depto´amicos utilizando extensiones de las redes de Petri. Comenzamos recordando la noci´on de sistema de reescritura de redes y probamos que tales sistemas tienen el mismo poder computacional que la m´aquina de Turing. Una

Alpuente, María

441

7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED...good flavor, that has a good color, that is practically free...olives may have a reasonably good color if the total score is not less...that has a reasonably good color, that is reasonably...

2012-01-01

442

7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.  

...PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED...good flavor, that has a good color, that is practically free...olives may have a reasonably good color if the total score is not less...that has a reasonably good color, that is reasonably...

2014-01-01

443

7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED...good flavor, that has a good color, that is practically free...olives may have a reasonably good color if the total score is not less...that has a reasonably good color, that is reasonably...

2013-01-01

444

7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED...good flavor, that has a good color, that is practically free...olives may have a reasonably good color if the total score is not less...that has a reasonably good color, that is reasonably...

2010-01-01

445

Tunisian table olive phenolic compounds and their antioxidant capacity.  

PubMed

For the 1st time, 4 olive cultivars, the Meski, Chemlali, Besbessi, and Tounsi, from the Tunisian market were investigated to evaluate the phenolic compounds' contribution in nutritional value of table olives. From the Meski cultivar, we have chosen 4 different samples to evaluate differences within the same cultivar. Basic characteristics and total phenolic content were evaluated in flesh and kernel. The highest value of flesh phenolic content was observed in sample M4 of the Meski cultivar; however, the lowest value was observed in the Besbessi cultivar and they were 1801 and 339 mg GA/100 g dry weight, respectively. The main simple phenolic compounds identified in flesh extracts are hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and vanillic acid. Oleuropein was not detected in any samples. The antioxidant activity of Tunisian olive flesh varies between 212 and 462 muM TEAC/g of dry weight. Antioxidant activity of olives was related to their phenolic content but we found a low correlation between phenolic content and TEAC. PMID:18460116

Ben Othman, N; Roblain, D; Thonart, P; Hamdi, M

2008-05-01

446

Synthesis of hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers from olive oil waste waters.  

PubMed

The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol. PMID:19471196

Madrona, Andrés; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Mateos, Raquel; Rodríguez, Guillermo; Trujillo, Mariana; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan; Espartero, José L

2009-01-01

447

Control of olive oil adulteration with copper-chlorophyll derivatives.  

PubMed

The present work proposes an analytical method able to detect in an adulterated olive oil sample the addition of the copper complexes of chlorophylls (E 141i). The method consists of a pigment extraction in liquid phase and subsequent analysis by HPLC-DAD. The profile of chlorophyll pigments of an olive oil is determined essentially by its content in pheophytins (a and b), but in no case any copper derivative. Different samples of colorant E 141i have been analyzed, the natural coloring additives used to adulterate vegetable oils. The 99.59+/-0.52% of the chlorophyll pigments present in the different samples of E 141i colorant are not those of an olive oil (more than 75% are cupro-derivatives). Thus, the simple detection of one of the compounds in an olive oil indicates adulteration. The major chlorophyll derivative in all the E 141i colorants samples is Cu-pyropheophytin a and its limit of detection (LOD) defined at a signal-to-noise ratio of about 3 was 6.58 ng/g. PMID:20000773

Roca, María; Gallardo-Guerrero, Lourdes; Mínguez-Mosquera, María Isabel; Gandul Rojas, Beatriz

2010-01-13

448

Feasibility of growing olives on selected sites along coastal Texas  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Five sites along the Texas coastline (Seadrift, Galveston, Brazoria, Santa Fe, and Orange) were evaluated for feasibility of growing olives in these areas. In addition, two non-coastal sites (Carrizo Springs and Weslaco) were also included in the study for comparative purposes. Flowering and fruit ...

449

Prediction Intervals in the Presence of Outliers David J. Olive  

E-print Network

WORDS: Regression, Robust Statistics David J. Olive is Assistant Professor, Department of Mathematics if there is an omitted categorical variable (e.g. gender, species, or geographical location) where the data behaves differently for each category. Outliers should always be examined to see if they follow a pattern

Olive, David

450

Packaging of Olive Oil: Quality Issues and Shelf Life Predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive oil has gained much appreciation among consumers worldwide leading to increased markets as well as greater consumer expectation and thus more challenges for the relevant food sector. By understanding the product, its interactions with the environment, and the protective role of the package, decisions can be made on the barrier properties required of the packaging materials to achieve the

Antonis Kanavouras; Pilar Hernandez-Munoz; Frank A. Coutelieris

2006-01-01

451

67. Historic American Buildings Survey John Oliver Brostrup, Photographer August ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

67. Historic American Buildings Survey John Oliver Brostrup, Photographer August 12,1936 1:35 P. M. VIEW OF C.C.C. BOYS SCREENING FOR ARTIFACTS. - General John Mason House, Analostan Island or Theodore Roosevelt Island, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

452

Volume Stylizer: Tomography-based Volume Painting Oliver Klehm  

E-print Network

Volume Stylizer: Tomography-based Volume Painting Oliver Klehm MPI Informatik Ivo Ihrke MPI of Technology Figure 1: Volume stylization of an environmentally lit cloud hovering over a city. On the left, we show the original cloud model, whereas on the right, the volume was stylized to increase

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

453

An Integrated Process of Olive Mill Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is considered as a challenge for environmental scientists. It is characterized by high values of total organics expressed by chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD5), and phenols. In this paper, an integrated process of OMWW treatment, which includes lime precipitation, filtration using a novel technology of a membrane filter press (a pilot scale) and

P. F. M. Correia; J. M. R. de Carvalho

2005-01-01

454

DIFFERENTIAL RESPONSE OF TWO OLIVE CULTIVARS TO EXCESS MANGANESE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of three-month-old rooted cuttings of the olive cultivars ‘Picual’ and ‘Koroneiki’ grown in black plastic bags containing perlite as a substrate to excess manganese (Mn) (640 ?M) was studied. The rooted cuttings were irrigated with 50% modified Hoagland nutrient solution. At the end of the experimental period, which lasted 130 days, the total fresh and dry weights, as

T. Chatzistathis; I. Papadakis; I. Therios; A. Patakas; A. Giannakoula; G. Menexes

2012-01-01

455

The Rotation Group of Rubik's Cube Oliver Knill  

E-print Network

The Rotation Group of Rubik's Cube Oliver Knill Roman E. Mdder ETH Zurich Revised by Robin S theory program "Cayley" is used to solve some problems asso ciated with Rubik's Cube, including the original problem of restoring the initial state of the cube. Project-No.: 003-021 Title: Rubik's Cube

Knill, Oliver

456

Transesterification of Waste Olive Oil by "Candida" Lipase  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biodiesel was produced by transesterification of waste olive oil with methanol and Novozym [R] 435. The effect of the molar ratio of methanol to triolein, mode of methanol addition, reaction temperature, and mixing speed on biodiesel yield was determined. The effect of different acyl acceptors and/or solvents on biodiesel yield was also evaluated.…

Shen, Xiangping; Vasudevan, Palligarnai T.

2008-01-01

457

VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, WARRIOR RIVER, OLIVER LOCK IN RIGHT BACKGROUND, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, WARRIOR RIVER, OLIVER LOCK IN RIGHT BACKGROUND, GULF MOBILE & OHIO BRIDGE IN MIDDLE GROUND, LURLEEN WALLACE BRIDGE IN FRONT OF GULF MOBILE & OHIO. - Gulf, Mobile & Ohio Railroad Bridge, Spans Black Warrior River between Northport & Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

458

Gold Olive Branch Left on the Moon by Neil Armstrong  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the gold replica of an olive branch, the traditional symbol of peace, left on the Moon's surface by Apollo 11 crewmembers. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, placed the small replica (less than half a foot in length) on the Moon. The gesture represented a wish for peace for all mankind.

1971-01-01

459

Virgin olive oil reduces blood pressure in hypertensive elderly subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & aims: Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors for coronary heart disease. Recent studies have pointed out the possibility that virgin olive oil (VOO) may lower blood pressure in hypertensive (HT) subjects. However, until the date there is scarce information regarding elderly people. The present study was designed to assess the effect of dietary VOO on

Javier S. Perona; Julio Cañizares; Emilio Montero; José M. Sánchez-Dom??nguez; Angel Catalá; Valentina Ruiz-Gutiérrez

2004-01-01

460

Olive fruit pulp and pit growth under differing nutrient supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objetive of this work was to study if the addition of nutrients to the irrigation water modified ‘Manzanilla de Sevilla’ olive pulp and pit growth. The experiment was carried out during the 2003 fruit-growth period in an irrigated orchard near Seville, southern Spain. Fruit samples were taken in July and September, at 12 and 21 weeks after full bloom

A. Morales-Sillero; H. Rapoport; J. E. Fernández; A. Troncoso

2008-01-01

461

Recurrent idiopathic gingival enlargement in an olive baboon (Papio anubis).  

PubMed

We here describe a case of recurrent gingival enlargement in an olive baboon (Papio anubis). This baboon (a male breeder that had not undergone any experimental procedures) also had shown mild gingival enlargement the 2 y prior to the current lesion. Clinical and histopathologic findings confirmed a diagnosis of idiopathic gingival enlargement. PMID:21205454

Kolappaswamy, Krishnan; Shipley, Steven; Reynolds, Mark A; McLeod, Charles; DeTolla, Louis

2010-11-01

462

Composition of gases released during olive stones pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this work is to study the variation in the composition of the gas mixture released during olive stones pyrolysis as a function of the temperature. Pyrolysis was carried out in a Gray-King type furnace and in a microbalance for TG\\/DTG studies. The pyrolysis products were fractionated into char, liquids and gases, the latter being analyzed by

M. C Blanco López; C. G Blanco; A Mart??nez-Alonso; J. M. D Tascón

2002-01-01

463

CHINESE REMAINDER Oliver Knill, Math Circle, April 15, 2014  

E-print Network

CHINESE REMAINDER THEOREM Oliver Knill, Math Circle, April 15, 2014 #12;LINEAR EQUATIONS x = 2 mod th-century "Da Yan Method" Sushu Jiuzhang 1247 Regiomontanus and Chinese mathematics, , Albrecht;CALENDAR PROBLEMS x = 2 mod 7 x = 11 mod 365 x is a Tuesday x is the 11'th day in the year #12

Knill, Oliver

464

How Particle Physics Cut Nature At Its Joints Oliver Schulte  

E-print Network

How Particle Physics Cut Nature At Its Joints Oliver Schulte Department of Philosophy and School in particle physics. Discovering conservation laws has posed various challenges concerning Model of particle physics, I show that the standard family laws are the only ones that determine

Schulte, Oliver

465

Biodegradation of olive oil husks in composting aerated piles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the composting performance of two olive oil husk piles was compared using two different aeration processes: aeration by mechanical turning or by forced air-injection.The results showed that after the maturation phase both piles had a similar chemical composition and the same level of organic matter degradation (around 55%). However, the time necessary to reach the thermophilic phase

Lina Baeta-Hall; M. Céu Sàágua; M. Lourdes Bartolomeu; Ana M. Anselmo; M. Fernanda Rosa

2005-01-01

466

Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of olive leaf extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of olive leaf extracts were determined. Plant material was extracted with methanol and fractionated with solvents of increasing polarity, giving certain extracts. The qualitative changes in the composition of the extracts were determined after the storage of leaves for 22?h at 37°C, before the extraction. Total polyphenol contents in extracts were determined by

Vassiliki G. Kontogianni; Ioannis P. Gerothanassis

2011-01-01

467

Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of olive leaf extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of olive leaf extracts were determined. Plant material was extracted with methanol and fractionated with solvents of increasing polarity, giving certain extracts. The qualitative changes in the composition of the extracts were determined after the storage of leaves for 22?h at 37°C, before the extraction. Total polyphenol contents in extracts were determined by

Vassiliki G. Kontogianni; Ioannis P. Gerothanassis

2012-01-01

468

Biosynthesis of Au nanoparticles using olive leaf extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of various shapes (triangle, hexagonal, and spherical) using hot water olive leaf extracts as reducing agent is reported. The size and the shape of Au nanoparticles are modulated by varying the ratio of metal salt and extract in the reaction medium. Only 20min were required for the conversion into gold nanoparticles at room

Mostafa M. H. Khalil; Eman H. Ismail; Fatma El-Magdoub

469

Detoxification of olive mill wastewater using superabsorbent polymers.  

PubMed

The detoxification of agro-industrial effluents using superabsorbent polymers is a new and innovative process. Olive mill wastewater constitutes a major environmental problem in Mediterranean countries due to the large volumes generated, the seasonality of the industry, and the high content of polyphenols and organic matter. The application of superabsorbent polymers allows olive mill wastewater to be used as a fertilizer, as it is immobilized, increasing the biological activity that decreases its phytotoxicity, thus making its water, organic matter and mineral content usable for plant nutrition. Various parameters that characterise olive mill wastewater were evaluated after absorption in 2 different superabsorbent polymers (SAP1 and SAP2). The organic matter was equally distributed in both phases, while there was a concentration of protein and sodium in solution. The K:Na ratio decreased from 70:1 to 2:1. The polyphenol desorption from the gel into solution was found to follow Fick's law. The mass transfer coefficients were 0.147 min(-1) and 0.0085 min(-1) for SAP1 and SAP2, respectively. Phytotoxicity tests were carried out with SAP2. Olive mill wastewater in SAP2 with polyphenol concentrations up to 200 mg l(-1) revealed no phytotoxicity, and even stimulated Lepidium sativum growth, while olive mill wastewater without superabsorbent polymer revealed growth inhibition for all concentrations tested. Caffeic acid degradation by the immobilised biomass followed zero order kinetics. Degradation constants of 0.087 mg l(-1) min(-1) gSAP2(-1) and 1.156 mg l(-1) min(-1) gSAP2(-1) were found. Fungi that developed in the plant growth medium were identified as Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. PMID:15027653

Davies, L C; Novais, J M; Martins-Dias, S

2004-01-01

470

Year clustering analysis for modelling olive flowering phenology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now widely accepted that weather conditions occurring several months prior to the onset of flowering have a major influence on various aspects of olive reproductive phenology, including flowering intensity. Given the variable characteristics of the Mediterranean climate, we analyse its influence on the registered variations in olive flowering intensity in southern Spain, and relate them to previous climatic parameters using a year-clustering approach, as a first step towards an olive flowering phenology model adapted to different year categories. Phenological data from Cordoba province (Southern Spain) for a 30-year period (1982-2011) were analysed. Meteorological and phenological data were first subjected to both hierarchical and "K-means" clustering analysis, which yielded four year-categories. For this classification purpose, three different models were tested: (1) discriminant analysis; (2) decision-tree analysis; and (3) neural network analysis. Comparison of the results showed that the neural-networks model was the most effective, classifying four different year categories with clearly distinct weather features. Flowering-intensity models were constructed for each year category using the partial least squares regression method. These category-specific models proved to be more effective than general models. They are better suited to the variability of the Mediterranean climate, due to the different response of plants to the same environmental stimuli depending on the previous weather conditions in any given year. The present detailed analysis of the influence of weather patterns of different years on olive phenology will help us to understand the short-term effects of climate change on olive crop in the Mediterranean area that is highly affected by it.

Oteros, J.; García-Mozo, H.; Hervás-Martínez, C.; Galán, C.

2013-07-01

471

Olive mill wastewater effects on the microbial communities as studied in the field of olive trees by analysis of fatty acid signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to study the effects of spreading olive mill wastewater (OMW) on the soil surface of an olive grove on the soil microbial communities. Analyses of ester-linked fatty acid methyl esters (EL-FAME) were used to assess variations in the soil microbial community structure following land spreading of OMW. Our data provide evidence that agronomic application

B. Mechri; H. Chehab; F. Attia; F. B. Mariem; M. Braham; M. Hammami

2010-01-01

472

Determination of the diglyceride content in greek virgin olive oils and some commercial olive oils by employing (31)P NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

In this study, the diglyceride contents of 96 samples of virgin olive oils from the regions of Crete, Lesvos, Messinia, Pilion, Zakynthos, Halkidiki, and Ilia, 15 samples of commercial extra virgin and pure olive oils, and 3 samples each of refined olive oils and pomace oils were determined by a facile method introduced in a previous publication. This method is based on the phosphitylation of the free hydroxyls of the diglycerides with 2-chloro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyldioxaphospholane and the integration of the appropriate peaks in the (31)P NMR spectra. This preliminary study showed interesting trends in the diglyceride content of the virgin olive oils from the various regions of Greece that can be used as simple criteria to assess the olive oil characteristics. Analysis of variance has been carried out for the diglyceride content of each region in an attempt to detect possible differences in the diglyceride levels among the various regions. Finally, the relationship between the ratio of 1,2-diglycerides to the total amount of diglycerides and the total amount of diglycerides has been used to monitor the quality of virgin olive oils, commercial olive oils, refined olive oils, and pomace oils. PMID:11929272

Fronimaki, Penelope; Spyros, Apostolos; Christophoridou, Stella; Dais, Photis

2002-04-10

473

Mediterranean savanna system: understanding and modeling of olive orchard.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays most of the studies on C and N exchange were focused on forest ecosystems and crop systems, while only few studies have been focused on so called "savanna systems". They are long-term agro-ecosystems (fruit trees, grapevines and olive trees, etc.) usually characterized by two different layers (ground vegetation and trees). Generally, there is a lack of knowledge about these systems due to their intrinsic structural complexity (different eco-physiological characteristics so as agricultural practices). However, given their long-term carbon storage capacity, these systems can play a fundamental role in terms of global C cycle. Among all of them, the role that olive trees can play in C sequestration should not be neglected, especially in Mediterranean areas where they typify the rural landscape and are widely cultivated (Loumou and Giourga, 2003). It is therefore fundamental modelling the C-fluxes exchanges coming from these systems through a tool able to well reproduce these dynamics in one of the most exposed areas to the risk of climate change (IPCC, 2007). In this work, 2 years of Net CO2 Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) measures from eddy covariance were used to test the biogeochemistry model DayCent. The study was conducted in a rain-fed olive orchard situated in Follonica, South Tuscany, Italy (42 ° 55'N, 10 ° 45'E), in an agricultural area near the coast. The instrumentation for flux measurement was placed 1.9 m above the canopy top (6.5 m from the ground) so that the footprint area, expressed as the area containing 90% of the observed flux, was almost entirely contained within the olive orchard limits (Brilli et al., in press). Ancillary slow sensors have included soil temperature profiles, global radiation, air temperature and humidity, rain gauge. Fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, momentum and CO2 as well as ancillary data were derived at half-hourly time resolution. Specific soil (texture, current and historical land use and vegetation cover) and vegetation data (biomass partition, C and N content in olive trees branches and roots) were additionally collected to improve the model calibration. Preliminary results showed that olive grove can be an important C sink while agronomic practices and hottest conditions can induce large C losses. DayCent simulations have confirmed that the model properly tuned for the two components can be used to simulate total olive grove NEE. Additional studies should be conducted to assess the possibility of further improving model performances. References Brilli, L., Chiesi, M., Maselli, F., Moriondo, M., Gioli, B., Toscano, P., Zaldei, A., Bindi, M., 2013. Simulation of olive grove Gross Primary Production by the combination of ground and multisensory satellite data. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, in press. IPCC, 2007, Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, Pachauri, R.K and Reisinger, A. (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 104 pp. Loumou, A., Giourga, C., 2003. Olive groves: The life and identity of the Mediterranean. Agricultural and Human Values 20, 87-95.

Brilli, Lorenzo; Moriondo, Marco; Bindi, Marco

2013-04-01

474

Combined use of nitrogen and coatings to improve the quality of mechanically harvested Manzanilla olives.  

PubMed

The combined effect of an edible coating and a nitrogen atmosphere on the quality of Manzanilla olives mechanically harvested and processed as Spanish-style green olives was assessed. The percentage of olives free of any brown spots ranged between 35-50%, 10-25% and 50-65% for fruit directly processed, storage under nitrogen and coated and storage under nitrogen respectively. Moreover, olives stored in the open air developed brown spots due to the oxidation of oleuropein. By contrast, the anoxic conditions prevented oleuropein from undergoing enzymatic oxidation but not from its enzymatic hydrolysis. Hence, the phenolic derivative HyEDA was formed in olives stored under nitrogen, and this substance was rapidly oxidized in the open air to give rise to brown spots although to a lesser extent in the coated fruit. Therefore, the postharvest storage of coated olives under nitrogen can be a good method to prevent bruise damage in mechanically harvested fruit. PMID:25308641

Ramírez, Eva; Sánchez, Antonio H; Romero, Concepción; Brenes, Manuel

2015-03-15

475

YEAST dynamics during the natural fermentation process of table olives (Negrinha de Freixo cv.).  

PubMed

Yeast population and dynamics associated to spontaneous fermentation of green table olives Negrinha de Freixo cv. were evaluated. Olives and brine samples were taken at different fermentation times, and yeast were enumerated by standard plate count and identified by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the most frequent, followed by Candida tropicalis, Pichia membranifaciens and Candida boidini, representing together 94.8% of the total isolates. Galactomyces reessii was also identified for the first time in table olives. The highest species diversity was found between 44 and 54 days of fermentation, both in brine and olive pulp. Furthermore, high similarity was observed between brine and olive pulp microbiotas. In conclusion, these results give valuable information to table olive industrials in order to achieve more knowledge on the fermentation process of this important Protected Designation of Origin product. PMID:25475331

Pereira, Ermelinda L; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Borges, Ana; Pereira, José A; Baptista, Paula

2015-04-01

476

The Use of Near-Infrared Spectrometry in the Olive Oil Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enormous possibilities offered by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the (on\\/in\\/at-line) quality control process of olive fruits, pastes, and oils are summarized throughout this paper. Special attention has been paid to the combination of NIR and chemometric treatments for the on-line analysis of olive fruits and also for the quality parameters evaluation on olive oils and pastes which can enhance

S. Armenta; J. Moros; S. Garrigues; M. De La Guardia

2010-01-01

477

Fatty acid profile, sugar composition, and antioxidant compounds of table olives as affected by different treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of cultivar and processing on olive antioxidants, fatty acids, and sugars profiles were studied for the autochthonous\\u000a Meski and two introduced table olives (Picholine and Manzanella). Olive fruits were treated with two traditional Tunisian\\u000a processes. Fatty acid analysis by capillary gas chromatography, total phenols and o-diphenols, and sugars profiles by GC and GC–MS, together with oxidative capacity, were

Manel Issaoui; Samia Dabbou; Beligh Mechri; Amel Nakbi; Hechmi Chehab; Mohamed Hammami

2011-01-01

478

Use of molecular methods for the identification of yeast associated with table olives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A molecular approach is used for the identification of yeast isolated from table olives. Our results validate those obtained in the past by the classical biochemical methodology. Yeast were isolated from both aerobically and anaerobically processed black table olives and also from canned seasoned green table olives. Molecular identification methodology used included restriction pattern analysis of both PCR-amplified 5.8S rRNA

F. N. Arroyo-López; M. C. Durán-Quintana; J. L. Ruiz-Barba; A. Querol; A. Garrido-Fernández

2006-01-01

479

MIQUEL DELS SANTS OLIVER EN EL 150 ANIVERSARI DEL SEU NAIXEMENT  

E-print Network

MIQUEL DELS SANTS OLIVER EN EL 150è ANIVERSARI DEL SEU NAIXEMENT (Campanet, 1864 ­ Barcelona, 1920'anàlisi de la personalitat i l'obra d'Oliver. Primerament hi haurà una jornada d'estudi, l'objectiu de la impartirà una conferència a la seu de la Societat Arqueològica Lul·liana, entitat de la qual Oliver va ser

Oro, Daniel

480

VALEUR ALIMENTAIRE DU TOURTEAU D'OLIVE M. THRIEZ G. BOULE  

E-print Network

VALEUR ALIMENTAIRE DU TOURTEAU D'OLIVE M. TH�RIEZ G. BOULE I. N. R. A. T., Ayiana (Tunisie) R�SUM� La distribution de ioo g par jour de tourteau d'olive à des brebis gestantes alimentées par pâturage d'olive, qu'il soit distribué à l'animal ou ajouté au substrat au cours de mesures in vitro. Cette

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

481

Statistics 1: MATH11400 Oliver Johnson: maotj@bris.ac.uk  

E-print Network

Statistics 1: MATH11400 Oliver Johnson: maotj@bris.ac.uk Statistics group, University of Bristol Teaching Block 2, 2014 Oliver Johnson (maotj@bris.ac.uk) Statistics 1: @BristolStats1 TB 2 c UoB 2014 1 private study only. Oliver Johnson (maotj@bris.ac.uk) Statistics 1: @BristolStats1 TB 2 c UoB 2014 2 / 300

Johnson, Oliver

482

Influence of Pasteurization and Lye Treatment on the Fermentation of Spanish-Style Manzanilla Olives  

PubMed Central

The effect of lye concentration and pasteurization on the fermentation of Spanish-style Manzanilla green olives was investigated. Results showed that a rapid, normal fermentation always occurred when the proper lye was used, and only in the case of an inappropriate alkaline treatment could pasteurization help the growth of lactobacilli. Although pasteurization does not seem to affect color of processed olives, texture tests gave lower values for pasteurized samples than for those obtained from nonpasteurized olives. PMID:16349845

Y Alca?a, Jo?e Mo Rod?iguez De La Borbolla; Fer?andez-D?iez, Mat?ias J.; Gon?alez-Cancho, Fernando

1969-01-01

483

Effects of the Olive-Derived Polyphenol Oleuropein on Human Health  

PubMed Central

The use of the products derived from the olive tree on human health dates back centuries. In several civilizations, the olive tree had and still has a very strong cultural and religious symbolism. Notably, the official seal and emblem of the World Health Organization features the rod of Asclepius over a world map surrounded by olive tree branches, chosen as a symbol of peace and health. Recently, accumulating experimental, clinical and epidemiological data have provided support to the traditional beliefs of the beneficial effect provided by olive derivates. In particular, the polyphenols present in olive leaves, olives, virgin (unrefined) olive oil and olive mill waste are potent antioxidant and radical scavengers with anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we review the positive impact on human health of oleuropein, the most prevalent polyphenol present in olives. In addition, we provide data collected in our laboratory on the role of oleuropein in counteracting lipid accumulation in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:25318054

Barbaro, Barbara; Toietta, Gabriele; Maggio, Roberta; Arciello, Mario; Tarocchi, Mirko; Galli, Andrea; Balsano, Clara

2014-01-01

484

Hormones associated with friendship between adult male and lactating female olive baboons, Papio hamadryas anubis.  

E-print Network

??Adult male and lactating female olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) form non-sexual attachments described by researchers as "friendships." Explanations for the evolutionary function of baboon… (more)

Shur, Marc David

2008-01-01

485

Supplementation with olive oil, but not fish oil, improves cutaneous wound healing in stressed mice.  

PubMed

Supplementation with olive and fish oils reverses the effects of stress on behavioral activities and adrenal activation. However, previous studies have not shown whether supplementation with olive and fish oil could inhibit the effects of stress on cutaneous wound healing. Thus, this study investigated the effects of supplementation with fish or olive oil on cutaneous healing in stressed mice. Mice were subjected to rotational stress and treated with olive or fish oil daily until euthanasia. An excisional lesion was created on each mouse, and 14?days later, the lesions were analyze