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1

Gas-Exchange Properties of Salt-Stressed Olive (Olea europea L.) Leaves  

PubMed Central

The effects of two levels of salinity on photosynthetic properties of olive (Olea europea L.) leaves were observed either in low or in high H2O vapor pressure deficit (vpd). Under moderate salt stress, stomata were found to be less open and responsive both to light and vpd, but the predominant limitation of photosynthesis was due to the mesophyll capacity of CO2 fixation. We elaborate a procedure to correlate mesophyll capacity and liquid phase diffusive conductance. The estimated liquid phase diffusive conductance was reduced by salt and especially by high vpd; morphological and physiological changes could be responsible for this reduction. As a result, the chloroplast CO2 partial pressure was found to decrease both under salt and vpd stress, thus resulting in a ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase limitation of assimilation. However, under combined salt and vpd stress, O2 sensitivity of assimilation increased, as would be expected under conditions of limiting ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate regeneration. Fluorescence induction measurements indicated that, under these conditions, energy supply may become limiting. When Cl? concentration exceeded 80 millimolar in tissue water, zero growth and 50% leaf drop was observed. Fluorescence induction showed irreversible damage at Cl? levels higher than 200 millimolar and basal leaves reached this concentration earlier than the apical ones. Images Figure 2

Bongi, Guido; Loreto, Francesco

1989-01-01

2

Conformation of oleuropein, the major bioactive compound of Olea europea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oleuropein is the major bioactive component of Olea europea (the olive tree) and possesses strong antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic and anticancer properties whereas it has been shown to bind to endogenous peptides. Thus the understanding of its conformation is important and could shed some light into its mechanism of action. The aim of the current study was to

Evangelos Gikas; Fotini N. Bazoti; Anthony Tsarbopoulos

2007-01-01

3

A putative plastidic glucose translocator is expressed in heterotrophic tissues that do not contain starch, during olive (Olea europea L.) fruit ripening.  

PubMed

Metabolite-specific transporters are present in the inner membrane of the plastid envelope allowing transport between the plastid and other cellular compartments. A plastidic glucose translocator (pGlcT) in leaf mesophyll cells transports glucose from chloroplast stroma to the cytosol after amylolytic starch degradation at night. Here we report the cloning of a pGlcT expressed in olive fruits (Olea europea L.). Our results showed high expression of pGlcT in non-green heterotrophic fruit tissues. Expression of pGlcT in olive fruits was somewhat higher compared to leaves, and continued until the black, mature fruit stage. We cloned part of tomato pGlcT and found that it is also expressed throughout fruit development implying a role for pGlcT in heterotrophic tissues. Light and electron microscopic characterization of plastid structural changes during olive fruit ripening revealed the transition of chloroplast-like plastids into starchless, non-green plastids; in mature olive fruits only chromoplasts were present. Together, these findings suggest that olive pGlcT is abundant in chromoplasts during structural changes, and provide evidence that pGlcT may play different physiological roles in ripening fruits and possibly in other non-photosynthetic organs. PMID:14634151

Butowt, Rafal; Granot, David; Rodríguez-García, María Isabel

2003-11-01

4

Effect of supplementation of the laying hen diet with olive leaves (Olea europea L.) on lipid oxidation and fatty acid profile of ?-linolenic acid enriched eggs during storage.  

PubMed

1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation of the layer diet with olive leaves (Olea europea L.) on lipid oxidation and fatty acid profile of ?-linolenic acid enriched eggs during refrigerated storage, and to compare this effect with ?-tocopheryl acetate supplementation. 2. A total of 72 brown Lohmann laying hens, equally allocated to 3 groups, were fed on diets supplemented with 40?g/kg linseed oil, or linseed oil and olive leaves at 10?g/kg or linseed oil and ?-tocopheryl acetate at 200?mg/kg. Collected eggs were analysed for fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation either fresh or following 60?d storage at 4°C. 3. Results showed that olive leaves or ?-tocopheryl acetate supplementation reduced lipid hydroperoxide concentration in fresh eggs but had no effect on their fatty acid profile and malondialdehyde (MDA) content compared to controls. 4. Refrigerated storage for 60?d decreased the proportions of PUFAs but increased those of MUFAs in eggs from the control diet, whilst it had no effect on the fatty acid composition of eggs from the diets supplemented with olive leaves or ?-tocopheryl acetate, which in turn showed decreased concentrations of lipid hydroperoxides and MDA. PMID:23130586

Botsoglou, E; Govaris, A; Fletouris, D; Botsoglou, N

2012-01-01

5

IDENTIFICATION OF UP-REGULATED GENES IN OLIVE FRUITS UNDER BACTROCERA OLEAE ATTACK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olea europea, suppression subtractive hybridization, expressed sequence tags The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) is a serious pest of olive in most of the countries around the Mediterranean Basin, where it causes significant yield losses . Olive cultivars are characterized by different susceptibility level possibly related to the variability in plant defence responses to the insect pest attack. To

6

Lipid oxidation of stored eggs enriched with very long chain n-3 fatty acids, as affected by dietary olive leaves (Olea europea L.) or ?-tocopheryl acetate supplementation.  

PubMed

The antioxidant potential of dietary olive leaves or ?-tocopheryl acetate supplementation on lipid oxidation of refrigerated stored hen eggs enriched with very long-chain n-3 fatty acids, was investigated. Ninety-six brown Lohmann laying hens, were equally assigned into three groups. Hens within the control group were given a typical diet containing 3% fish oil, whereas other groups were given the same diet further supplemented with 10 g ground olive leaves/kg feed or 200mg ?-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed. Results showed that ?-tocopheryl acetate or olive leaves supplementation had no significant effect on the fatty acid composition and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of fresh eggs but reduced their lipid hydroperoxide levels compared to controls. Storage for 60 d decreased the proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) but increased those of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) in eggs from the control group, while had no effect on the fatty acid composition of the eggs from the other two groups, which showed decreased levels of lipid hydroperoxides and MDA. Therefore, the very long chain n-3 PUFAs in eggs were protected from undergoing deterioration partly by olive leaves supplementation and totally by ?-tocopheryl acetate supplementation. In addition, incorporating tocopherols into eggs might also provide a source of tocopherols for the human diet. PMID:23107728

Botsoglou, E; Govaris, A; Fletouris, D; Botsoglou, N

2012-09-15

7

Effect of olive leaf (Olea europea L.) extracts on protein and lipid oxidation of long-term frozen n-3 fatty acids-enriched pork patties.  

PubMed

Our previous study has demonstrated the protective effects of olive leaf extracts on the oxidation of pork patties from n-3 fatty acid-enriched meat during refrigerated storage. The target of the present study was to examine these effects during frozen storage. Results showed that frozen storage accelerated (P=0.05) both lipid and protein oxidation in pork patties, but an addition of olive leaf extract at 200mg gallic acid equivalent/kg improved sensory attributes by delaying oxidation of lipids (reduction (P=0.05) of conjugated dienes, hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde), and of proteins (reduction (P=0.05) of protein carbonyls and inhibition (P=0.05) of the decrease of protein sulfhydryls). PMID:24950084

Botsoglou, Evropi; Govaris, Alexander; Ambrosiadis, Ioannis; Fletouris, Dimitrios; Botsoglou, Nikolas

2014-10-01

8

Lipid and protein oxidation of ?-linolenic acid-enriched pork during refrigerated storage as influenced by diet supplementation with olive leaves (Olea europea L.) or ?-tocopheryl acetate.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diet supplementation with olive leaves or ?-tocopheryl acetate on lipid and protein oxidation of raw and cooked n-3 enriched-pork during refrigerated storage. Enrichment of pork with ?-linolenic acid through diet supplementation with linseed oil enhanced (p?0.05) lipid oxidation in both raw and cooked chops but had no effect (p>0.05) on protein oxidation during refrigerated storage while decreasing (p?0.05) the sensory attributes of cooked pork. Diet supplementation with olive leaves or ?-tocopheryl acetate had no effect (p>0.05) on the fatty acid composition of pork but decreased (p?0.05) lipid oxidation while exerting no effect (p>0.05) on protein oxidation in both raw and cooked ?-linolenic acid-enriched chops stored and chilled for 9 days. Moreover, olive leaves and ?-tocopheryl acetate supplemented at 10 g/kg and 200mg/kg diet, respectively, exerted (p?0.05) a beneficial effect on the sensory attributes of cooked ?-linolenic acid-enriched pork chops. PMID:22710099

Botsoglou, Evropi; Govaris, Alexander; Ambrosiadis, Ioannis; Fletouris, Dimitrios

2012-12-01

9

Hg contents in soils and olive-tree (Olea Europea, L.) leaves from an area affected by elemental mercury pollution (Jódar, SE Spain).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from soil and olive tree leaves around a decommissioned chlor-alkali plant are presented in this communication. The factory was active in the period 1977-1991, producing during these years a heavily pollution of Guadalquivir River and hydrargyrism in more than local 45 workers. It is located at 7 km South of Jódar, a locality with some 12,120 inhabitants. Mercury usage was general in this type of plants, but at present it is being replaced by other types of technologies, due to the risks of mercury usage in personal and environment. A soil geochemistry survey was carried out in the area, along with the analysis of olive-tree leaves (in the plots with this culture) from the same area. 73 soil samples were taken at two different depths (0-15 cm and 15-30 cm), together with 41 olive tree samples. Mercury content of geologic and biologic samples was determined by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Zeeman Effect, using a Lumex RA-915+ device with the RP-91C pyrolysis attachment. Air surveys were carried our using a RA-915M Lumex portable analytical device. Soil mercury contents were higher in topsoil than in the deeper soil samples, indicating that incorporation of mercury was due to dry and wet deposition of mercury vapors emitted from the plant. Average content in topsoil is 564.5 ng g-1. Hg contents in olive-tree leaves were in the range 46 - 453 ng g-1, with an average of 160.6 ng g-1. This level is slightly lower than tolerable level for agronomic crops established by Kabata-Pendias (2001) in 200 ng g-1. We have also compared soil and leaf contents for each sampling site, finding a positive and significant correlation (R=0.49), indicating that Hg contents in the leaves are linked to Hg contents in the soils. BAC (Bioaccumulation Absorption Coefficient, calculated as ratio between soil and leaf concentration) is 0.28 (consistent with world references, BAC = 0.7), considered "medium" in comparison with other mineral elements. Main conclusions of this research work are the following: i) The Jódar decommissioned chlor-alkali plant is still a mercury source 20 years after its cease of activities without any reclamation measures; ii) The activity of the plant has produced an important dissemination of mercury in the surrounding environment; and iii) The corresponding pollution levels, in particular in soils, may suppose a risk to the main crops of the area (olive trees present significant accumulation of Hg in leaf).

López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; María Esbrí, José; Amorós, José Angel; Lorenzo, Saturnino; Fernández-Calderón, Sergio; Higueras, Pablo; Perez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad

2014-05-01

10

Influence of indole-butyric acid and electro-pulse on in vitro rooting and development of olive (Olea europea L.) microshoots.  

PubMed

The effects of indole-butyric acid (IBA) and electro-pulses on rooting and shoot growth were studied in vitro, using olive shoot cultures. Tested shoots were obtained from seedlings belonging to three Spanish cultivars, 'Arbequina', 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' and 'Gordal Sevillana', which have easy-, medium- and difficult-to-root rooting abilities, respectively. The standard two-step rooting method (SRM), consisting of root induction in olive rooting medium supplemented with 0, 0.1 or 1 mg/l IBA followed by root elongation in the same rooting medium without IBA, was compared with a novel one-step method consisting of shoot electro-pulses of 250, 1,250 or 2,500 V in a solution of IBA (0, 0.1 or 1 mg/l) and direct transferral to root elongation medium. The rooting percentage of the seedling-derived shoots obtained with the SRM was 76% for 'Arbequina' and 'Gordal Sevillana' cultivars and 100% for 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' cultivar, whereas with the electro-pulse method, the rooting percentages were 68, 64 and 88%, respectively. IBA dipping without pulse produced 0% rooting in 'Arbequina' seedling-derived shoots. The electroporation in IBA not only had an effect on shoot rooting but also on shoot growth and development, with longer shoots and higher axillary shoot sprouting and growth after some of the treatments. These effects were cultivar-dependent. The electro-pulse per se could explain some of these effects on shoot development. PMID:19655148

Padilla, Isabel Maria Gonzalez; Vidoy, I; Encina, C L

2009-09-01

11

Olea Europea 3-year pollen record in the area of Thessaloniki, Greece and its sensitizing significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The observations of airborne pollen ofOlea europea and the incidence of clinical manifestations in patients allergic to this pollen type have not been registered so far in\\u000a the city of Thessaloniki.\\u000a \\u000a The purpose of this study was: 1. to assess theO. europea pollen circulation in the area of our city, and 2. to detect the percentage of sensitivity toO. europea

Dimitrios Gioulekas; Georgios Chatzigeorgiou; Simos Lykogiannis; Despina Papakosta; Christos Mpalafoutis; Frits Th. M. Spieksma

1991-01-01

12

Chemiotropic behavior of female olive fly ( Bactrocera oleae GMEL.) on Olea europaea L  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interpretation is given of a number of observations on the chemiotropic behavior ofBactrocera oleae in connection with olive maceration water and the fly's return to the olive groves after the first summer rains. To this end, the headspace of both maceration water and leaf leaching water, simulating rainfall, were examined. In both cases, the presence of ammonia, which is

Maria Luisa Scarpati; Roberto Lo Scalzo; Giovanni Vita; Augusto Gambacorta

1996-01-01

13

IPM trials on attract-and-kill mixtures against the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The key insect pest of the olive grove is the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) because it affects the quantitative and qualita- tive production of olive oil. In order to first attract and then kill B. oleae adults before egg laying, thus limiting the infestation and avoiding treatments on the whole olive grove, we tested a mixture of the female

Stefano SPERANZA; Gianni BELLOCCHI; Claudio PUCCI

14

Effects of climate warming on Olive and olive fly ( Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)) in California and Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is expected to alter the geographic distribution and abundance of many species. Here we examine the potential\\u000a effects of climate warming on olive (Olea europaea) and olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) across the ecological zones of Arizona–California (AZ–CA) and Italy. A weather-driven physiologically-based demographic\\u000a model was developed from the extensive literature and used to simulate the phenology, growth and

Andrew Paul Gutierrez; Luigi Ponti; Q. A. Cossu

2009-01-01

15

Rotenone: Efficiency against Olive Fly (Bactrocera oleae Gmelin) and Residual Activity in Olive Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotenone solution (root extract of Derris elliptica; 10% or 20% a.i.) was tested as a bait with 2% hydrolysate protein in field trials to determine its efficiency against olive fly (Bactrocera oleae Gmelin). Olive trees cvs. Koroneiki and Tsounati located in the Nerokorou District of Chania, Crete were sprayed. Rotenone toxicity was tested against both adult and immature stages of

G. Stavroulakis; K. A. Adediran; A. Nikoloudi; C. Petrakis; A. Kalaitzaki; S. Michelakis

2001-01-01

16

Lipoxygenase activity in olive ( Olea europaea ) fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work was designed to characterize lipoxygenase activity in olive fruit pulp, in order to determine its significance\\u000a in the biosynthesis of virgin olive oil aroma. Lipoxygenase activity has been detected in particulate fractions of enzyme\\u000a extracts from olive pulp subjected to differential centrifugation. The activity in different membrane fractions showed similar\\u000a properties, with optimal pH in the range

Joaquín J. Salas; Mark Williams; John L. Harwood; Juan Sánchez

1999-01-01

17

Germ line transformation of the olive fly Bactrocera oleae using a versatile transgenesis marker  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olive fruit fly (olive fly) Bactrocera oleae (Dacus), recently introduced in North America, is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. The lack of an efficient gene transfer technology for olive fly has hampered molecular analysis, as well as development of genetic techniques for its control. We have developed a Minos -based transposon vector carrying a self- activating cassette

M. Koukidou; A. Klinakis; C. Reboulakis; L. Zagoraiou; N. Tavernarakis; I. Livadaras; A. Economopoulos; C. Savakis

2006-01-01

18

Olive plants (Olea europaea L.) as a bioindicator for pollution.  

PubMed

In the present work, olive plant (Olea europaea L.) was used as a biological indicator for pollution in which, molecular and physiological parameters were studied. Olive plants were collected from polluted and non-polluted areas in Jeddah - Saudi Arabia, traffic area as an air polluted area, sewage treatment station as water polluted area, industrial area as solid waste polluted, costal area as marine polluted area and an area without a direct source of pollution far away from the city center, which was used as control. These changes conducted with nucleic acid content, minerals content, pigments and some growth parameters. Results showed significant reductions in DNA and RNA contents under all polluted sites. Mineral contents were varied widely depending on the different pollutants and locations of olive plant. Generally, micro-elements varied (increase/decrease) significantly within collected samples and the source of pollution. All growth parameters were decreased significantly within the studied samples of all pollutant areas except the relative water content was increased. The content of chlorophyll a has decreased highly significantly in all polluted leaves. While the content of chlorophyll b has increased significantly in all polluted leaves especially in air polluted leaves. The total content of carotenoid pigments has decreased highly significantly in all polluted leaves. It was concluded that olive plant can be used as a biological indicator to the environmental pollutants. PMID:24494523

Eliwa, Amal Mohamed; Kamel, Ehab Abdel-Razik

2013-06-15

19

Maintaining Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin.) (Diptera: Tephritidae) colony on its natural host in the laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin.) (Diptera:Tephritidae) is a pest on olives (Olea europea) in the Mediterranean basin. An olive fruit fly colony was maintained on olives at 24 ± 1°C, 60% RH, and 16:8 h (light:dark)\\u000a photoperiod with fluorescent lighting. We investigated oviposition behavior, developmental duration and weights of the biological\\u000a stages, and adult longevity. A single female laid an average

Hanife Genç; James L. Nation

2008-01-01

20

'Candidatus Erwinia dacicola', a coevolved symbiotic bacterium of the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The taxonomic identity of the hereditary prokaryotic symbiont of the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) was investigated. In order to avoid superficial microbial contaminants and loosely associated saprophytic biota, flies were surface-sterilized at the larval stage and reared under aseptic conditions until adult emergence. B. oleae flies originating from different geographical locations and collected at different times of the

Caterina Capuzzo; Giuseppe Firrao; Luca Mazzon; Andrea Squartini; Vincenzo Girolami

2005-01-01

21

Isolation, annotation and applications of expressed sequence tags from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major pest of the olive tree. Despite its importance, very little genetic and molecular knowledge is available. The\\u000a present study is a first attempt to identify and characterize B. oleae expressed sequence tags (ESTs). One hundred and ninety-five randomly selected cDNA clones were isolated and the obtained\\u000a sequences were annotated through BLASTX

K. T. Tsoumani; A. A. Augustinos; E. G. Kakani; E. Drosopoulou; P. Mavragani-Tsipidou; K. D. Mathiopoulos

2011-01-01

22

Identification of olive (Olea europaea) seed and pulp proteins by nLC-MS/MS via combinatorial peptide ligand libraries.  

PubMed

Different types of extraction protocols are described for identifying proteins in seed and pulp of olive (Olea europea), by employing both conventional extraction methods and capture with ProteoMiner as well as with in house-made combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (HM-CPLLs) at pH 7.4 and at pH 2.2. Thanks to the use of CPLLs, able to dramatically amplify the signal of low-abundance species, a quite large number of compounds has been indeed identified: 61 in the seed (vs. only four reported in current literature) and 231 in the pulp (vs. 56 described so far), the deepest investigation up to the present of the olive proteome. In the seed, it highlights the presence of seed storage proteins, oleosins and histones. In the pulp, the allergenic thaumatin-like protein (Ole e 13) was confirmed, among the other 231, as the most abundant protein in the olive pulp. The present research has also been undertaken with the aim of identifying proteins in olive oil and ascertaining the relative contribution of seed and pulp proteins in their presence, if any, in oils. PMID:22387115

Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Marina, María Luisa; García, María Concepción; Citterio, Attilio; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

2012-04-18

23

First report of olive knot caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi on olives ( Olea europaea ) in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi was identified as the cause of galling on olives (Olea europaea), cv Barnea in South Australia in May 2003 from a property at Greenfields ?10 km north of Adelaide. The bacterium was recovered\\u000a from galls on 2-year-old olive trees (cv. Barnea) showing symptoms consistent with those attributed to olive knot. Following\\u000a a targeted survey of cv.

B. H. Hall; E. J. Cother; M. Whattam; D. Noble; J. Luck; D. Cartwright

2004-01-01

24

Evaluation of entomopathogenic nematodes against the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectivity of six entomopathogenic nematode (EPNs) species against Bactrocera oleae was compared. Similar infection levels were observed when third-instar larvae were exposed to infective juveniles (IJs) on a sand-potting soil substrate. When IJs were sprayed over naturally infested fallen olives, many larvae died within treated olives as well as in the soil; Steinernema feltiae caused the highest overall mortality of

Farshid O. Sirjani; Edwin E. Lewis; Harry K. Kaya

2009-01-01

25

Alternative methods for controlling the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, involving semiochemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of semiochemical s, both sex pheromones and food attractants, in monitoring the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, has become well established in most olive-growing countries of the Mediterranean basin. There is an ever-increasi ng degree of sophisticatio n that is being intro - duced in the way trap catch data are collected and interpreted, making for a substantially more

Alfonso Montiel Bueno; Owen Jones

26

Altered Acetylcholinesterase Confers Organophosphate Resistance in the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae  

Microsoft Academic Search

An organophosphate-resistant strain of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae, the most important pest for olive orchards worldwide, was obtained by laboratory selection with dimethoate. Resistance mechanisms were investigated in comparison with the colonized parental strain and a field population collected from the same area after 12 years of continuous dimethoate-based insecticide pressure. Combined biochemical and bioassay data suggested that,

John G. Vontas; Nikos Cosmidis; Michael Loukas; Spyridon Tsakas; Mir Jalil Hejazi; Anna Ayoutanti; Janet Hemingway

2001-01-01

27

Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis to laboratory populations of the olive fruit fly (Dacus oleae).  

PubMed Central

A survey of Bacillus thuringiensis recovered from the environments of olive groves in Greece was carried out. Of 80 soil samples, 24 were found to contain B. thuringiensis with parasporal crystal inclusions; these were tested for toxicity against the olive fruit fly (Dacus oleae). Mortality levels of larvae caused by the different isolates varied from 7 to 87%. Higher levels of mortality were observed if a mixture of relatively pure crystals and spores was used compared with the mortality resulting from either fraction alone. We were able to show that the toxicity of the most active isolate is likely to be specific for D. oleae. Images

Karamanlidou, G; Lambropoulos, A F; Koliais, S I; Manousis, T; Ellar, D; Kastritsis, C

1991-01-01

28

Germ line transformation of the olive fly Bactrocera oleae using a versatile transgenesis marker.  

PubMed

The olive fruit fly (olive fly) Bactrocera oleae (Dacus), recently introduced in North America, is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. The lack of an efficient gene transfer technology for olive fly has hampered molecular analysis, as well as development of genetic techniques for its control. We have developed a Minos-based transposon vector carrying a self-activating cassette which overexpresses the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Efficient transposase-mediated integration of one to multiple copies of this vector was achieved in the germ line of B. oleae by coinjecting the vector along with in vitro synthesized Minos transposase mRNA into preblastoderm embryos. The self-activating gene construct combined with transposase mRNA present a system with potential for transgenesis of very diverse species. PMID:16469073

Koukidou, M; Klinakis, A; Reboulakis, C; Zagoraiou, L; Tavernarakis, N; Livadaras, I; Economopoulos, A; Savakis, C

2006-02-01

29

First report of Pseudomonas syringae on olives ( Olea europaea ) in South Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas syringae was recorded on olives (Olea europaea) for the first time in South Australia in March 2001 from a property approximately 30 km south of Adelaide, South Australia.\\u000a The bacterium was recovered from sunken brown stem lesions on 2-year-old olive trees cv. Barnea. In the following season from\\u000a December 2001, further infections were observed on 3-year-old trees of the

B. H. Hall; E. J. Cother; D. Noble; R. McMahon; T. J. Wicks

2003-01-01

30

Observation of eight ancient olive trees (Olea europaea L.) growing in the Garden of Gethsemane.  

PubMed

For thousands of years, olive trees (Olea europaea L.) have been a significant presence and a symbol in the Garden of Gethsemane, a place located at the foot of the Mount of Olives, Jerusalem, remembered for the agony of Jesus Christ before his arrest. This investigation comprises the first morphological and genetic characterization of eight olive trees in the Garden of Gethsemane. Pomological traits, morphometric, and ultrastructural observations as well as SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) analysis were performed to identify the olive trees. Statistical analyses were conducted to evaluate their morphological variability. The study revealed a low morphological variability and minimal dissimilarity among the olive trees. According to molecular analysis, these trees showed the same allelic profile at all microsatellite loci analyzed. Combining the results of the different analyses carried out in the frame of the present work, we could conclude that the eight olive trees of the Gethsemane Garden have been propagated from a single genotype. PMID:24841957

Petruccelli, Raffaella; Giordano, Cristiana; Salvatici, Maria Cristina; Capozzoli, Laura; Ciaccheri, Leonardo; Pazzini, Massimo; Lain, Orietta; Testolin, Raffaele; Cimato, Antonio

2014-05-01

31

Genetic and Cytogenetic Analysis of the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera Oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic and cytogenetic characteristics of one of the major agricultural pests, the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae, are presented here. The mitotic metaphase complement of this insect consists of six pairs of chromosomes including one pair of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, with the male being the heterogametic sex. The analysis of the polytene complements of three larval tissues, the fat

P. Mavragani-Tsipidou

2002-01-01

32

Factors influencing phenolic compounds in table olives (Olea europaea).  

PubMed

The Mediterranean diet appears to be associated with a reduced risk of several chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular and Alzheimer's diseases. Olive products (mainly olive oil and table olives) are important components of the Mediterranean diet. Olives contain a range of phenolic compounds; these natural antioxidants may contribute to the prevention of these chronic conditions. Consequently, the consumption of table olives and olive oil continues to increase worldwide by health-conscious consumers. There are numerous factors that can affect the phenolics in table olives including the cultivar, degree of ripening, and, importantly, the methods used for curing and processing table olives. The predominant phenolic compound found in fresh olive is the bitter secoiridoid oleuropein. Table olive processing decreases levels of oleuropein with concomitant increases in the hydrolysis products hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. Many of the health benefits reported for olives are thought to be associated with the levels of hydroxytyrosol. Herein the pre- and post-harvest factors influencing the phenolics in olives, debittering methods, and health benefits of phenolics in table olives are reviewed. PMID:22720792

Charoenprasert, Suthawan; Mitchell, Alyson

2012-07-25

33

Mitochondrial haplotypes reveal olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) population substructure in the Mediterranean.  

PubMed

The olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) is the most important olive tree (Olea europaea) pest. In the Mediterranean basin, where 98 % of its main hosts are concentrated, it causes major agricultural losses, due to its negative effect on production and quality of both olive and olive oil. Previous phylogeographic analyses have established that Mediterranean olive fly populations are distinct from other Old World populations, but did not agree on the specific population substructure within this region. In order to achieve a higher resolution of the diversity of olive fly populations, particularly in Central and Western Mediterranean (home to 70 % of the world production), we comparatively analyzed a set of samples from Portugal in the context of published mitochondrial sequences across the species' worldwide range. Strong evidence of population substructure was found in the Central and Western Mediterranean area, with two clearly separate phylogenetic branches. Together with previously published data, our results strongly support the existence of at least three distinct Mediterranean populations of the olive fly, raise the possibility of additional regional substructure and suggest specific avenues for future research. This knowledge can be instrumental in the development of better management and control strategies for a major pest of Mediterranean agriculture. PMID:22825843

van Asch, Barbara; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando; da Costa, Luís Teixeira

2012-06-01

34

Reduction of oil bitterness by heating of olive (Olea europaea) fruits.  

PubMed

Olives (Olea europaea) of the Manzanilla and Verdial varieties, harvested at the green mature stage of ripening, were heated at 30, 40, 45, and 50 degrees C during 24 h and at 40 degrees C during 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Just after treatments, oils were physically extracted from the olives. Olive heating promotes a reduction of oil bitterness in direct relationship to the time and temperature used. Fruit heating at < or =40 degrees C during 24 h did not produce significant changes of acidity, UV absorption, peroxide index, panel test score, or oxidative stability of the obtained oils. Both longer treatments at 40 degrees C and heating at >40 degrees C yielded oils with less oxidative stability. Oils obtained from olives heated at > or =40 degrees C showed higher concentrations of chlorophylls and carotenes. For each olive variety, a good correlation between oil bitterness and content of hydroxytyrosol secoiridoid derivatives was found. PMID:11559116

García, J M; Yousfi, K; Mateos, R; Olmo, M; Cert, A

2001-09-01

35

Isolation, annotation and applications of expressed sequence tags from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae.  

PubMed

The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major pest of the olive tree. Despite its importance, very little genetic and molecular knowledge is available. The present study is a first attempt to identify and characterize B. oleae expressed sequence tags (ESTs). One hundred and ninety-five randomly selected cDNA clones were isolated and the obtained sequences were annotated through BLASTX similarity searches. A set of 159 unique putative transcripts were functionally assigned using Gene Ontology terms in broad categories of biological process, molecular function and cellular component based on D. melanogaster matches. Moreover, the cytogenetic location of 35 ESTs was determined by in situ hybridization to B. oleae polytene chromosomes. The resulting low-resolution EST map more than doubles the available entry points to the insect's genome and can assist syntenic comparisons with other distant species. The deduced codon usage of the isolated ESTs suggested a conserved pattern of B. oleae with its closest relatives. Additionally, the comparative analysis of B. oleae ESTs with the homologous D. melanogaster genes led to the development of 17 nuclear EPIC-PCR markers for the amplification of intron sequences of 11 Tephritidae species. Sequencing analysis of several cross-amplified intron sequences revealed a high degree of conservation among Bactrocera species and a varying transferability of the generated markers across the examined genera, suggesting that this method can provide a useful tool for the clarification of phylogenetic relationships among different species, particularly in cases of species complexes. PMID:20978910

Tsoumani, K T; Augustinos, A A; Kakani, E G; Drosopoulou, E; Mavragani-Tsipidou, P; Mathiopoulos, K D

2011-01-01

36

Tomato fruits as an alternative host for a laboratory strain of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nature, oviposition and larval growth of the olive fruit flyBactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) occur only in the mesocarp of fruits of the genusOlea, including the cultivated olive. Here we report on its growth in tomatoes, in the laboratory, as affected by a number of\\u000a factors. Caged flies from a colony reared for more than 100 generations on an

E. I. Navrozidis; M. E. Tzanakakis

2005-01-01

37

Molecular interactions between the olive and the fruit fly Bactrocera oleae  

PubMed Central

Background The fruit fly Bactrocera oleae is the primary biotic stressor of cultivated olives, causing direct and indirect damages that significantly reduce both the yield and the quality of olive oil. To study the olive-B. oleae interaction, we conducted transcriptomic and proteomic investigations of the molecular response of the drupe. The identifications of genes and proteins involved in the fruit response were performed using a Suppression Subtractive Hybridisation technique and a combined bi-dimensional electrophoresis/nanoLC-ESI-LIT-MS/MS approach, respectively. Results We identified 196 ESTs and 26 protein spots as differentially expressed in olives with larval feeding tunnels. A bioinformatic analysis of the identified non-redundant EST and protein collection indicated that different molecular processes were affected, such as stress response, phytohormone signalling, transcriptional control and primary metabolism, and that a considerable proportion of the ESTs could not be classified. The altered expression of 20 transcripts was also analysed by real-time PCR, and the most striking differences were further confirmed in the fruit of a different olive variety. We also cloned the full-length coding sequences of two genes, Oe-chitinase I and Oe-PR27, and showed that these are wound-inducible genes and activated by B. oleae punctures. Conclusions This study represents the first report that reveals the molecular players and signalling pathways involved in the interaction between the olive fruit and its most damaging biotic stressor. Drupe response is complex, involving genes and proteins involved in photosynthesis as well as in the production of ROS, the activation of different stress response pathways and the production of compounds involved in direct defence against phytophagous larvae. Among the latter, trypsin inhibitors should play a major role in drupe resistance reaction.

2012-01-01

38

Genomic structure, organization and localization of the acetylcholinesterase locus of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae.  

PubMed

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), encoded by the ace gene, is a key enzyme of cholinergic neurotransmission. Insensitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE) has been shown to be responsible for resistance to OPs and CBs in a number of arthropod species, including the most important pest of olives trees, the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae. In this paper, the organization of the B. oleae ace locus, as well as the structural and functional features of the enzyme, are determined. The organization of the gene was deduced by comparison to the ace cDNA sequence of B. oleae and the organization of the locus in Drosophila melanogaster. A similar structure between insect ace gene has been found, with conserved exon-intron positions and junction sequences. The B. oleae ace locus extends for at least 75 kb, consists of ten exons with nine introns and is mapped to division 34 of the chromosome arm IIL. Moreover, according to bioinformatic analysis, the Bo AChE exhibits all the common features of the insect AChE. Such structural and functional similarity among closely related AChE enzymes may implicate similarities in insecticide resistance mechanisms. PMID:22967668

Kakani, E G; Trakala, M; Drosopoulou, E; Mavragani-Tsipidou, P; Mathiopoulos, K D

2013-02-01

39

Effects of cryopreservation on germinability of olive ( Olea europaea L.) pollen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long term storage of viable pollen is important for bank germplasm constitution to preserve resources that can be used in\\u000a breeding programs, biotechnologies and genetic engineering. Pollen from 12 olive (Olea\\u000a europaea L.) cultivars was stored for 1 year in liquid nitrogen at ?196°C. The morphology of pollen grains and germination rates on\\u000a fresh and long term stored pollen were observed.

V. Alba; V. Bisignano; E. Alba; A. De Stradis; G. B. Polignano

40

Acetobacter tropicalis Is a Major Symbiont of the Olive Fruit Fly (Bactrocera oleae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques, we investigated the microbiota associated with Bactrocera oleae, one of the major agricultural pests in olive-producing countries. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene libraries and ultrastructural analyses revealed the presence of several bacterial taxa associated with this insect, among which Acetobacter tropicalis was predominant. The recent increased detection of acetic acid bacteria as symbionts of other insect

Ilias Kounatidis; Elena Crotti; Panagiotis Sapountzis; Luciano Sacchi; Aurora Rizzi; Bessem Chouaia; Claudio Bandi; Alberto Alma; Daniele Daffonchio; Penelope Mavragani-Tsipidou; Kostas Bourtzis

2009-01-01

41

Biochemical characterization of a lipase from olive fruit (Olea europaea L.).  

PubMed

Lipase (triacylglycerol acylhydrolase; EC 3.1.1.3) is the first enzyme of the degradation path of stored triacylglycerols (TAGs). In olive fruits, lipase may determine the increase of free fatty acids (FFAs) which level is an important index of virgin olive oil quality. However, despite the importance of virgin olive oil for nutrition and human health, few studies have been realized on lipase activity in Olea europaea fruits. In order to characterize olive lipase, fruits of the cv. Ogliarola, widely diffused in Salento area (Puglia, Italy), were harvested at four stages of ripening according to their skin colour (green, spotted I, spotted II, purple). Lipase activity was detected in the fatty layer obtained after centrifugation of the olive mesocarp homogenate. The enzyme exhibited a maximum activity at pH 5.0. The addition of calcium in the lipase assay medium leads to an increment of activity, whereas in the presence of copper the activity was reduced by 75%. Furthermore, mesocarp lipase activity increases during olive development but declined at maturity (purple stage). The data represent the first contribution to the biochemical characterization of an olive fruit lipase associated to oil bodies. PMID:20708515

Panzanaro, S; Nutricati, E; Miceli, A; De Bellis, L

2010-09-01

42

Population structure and colonization history of the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera, Tephritidae).  

PubMed

The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major pest of olives in most commercial olive-growing regions worldwide. The species is abundant in the Mediterranean basin and has been introduced recently into California and Mexico, creating problems for quarantine protection and international trade. Here, we use nuclear microsatellite markers and mitochondrial sequences to examine the history of olive fly range expansion and colonization. Sampled populations span the current distribution of the olive fly worldwide, including South and Central Africa, Pakistan, Mediterranean Europe and Middle East, California, and Mexico. The Pakistani populations appear to be genetically well differentiated from the remaining populations, though rooting the origins of the species is problematic. Genetic similarity and assignment tests cluster the remaining populations into two genetic groups--Africa and a group including the Mediterranean basin and the American region. That Africa, and not the Mediterranean, is the origin of flies infesting cultivated olive is supported by the significantly greater genetic diversity at microsatellite loci in Africa relative to the Mediterranean area. The results also indicate that the recent invasion of olive flies in the American region most likely originated from the Mediterranean area. PMID:16029474

Nardi, Francesco; Carapelli, Antonio; Dallai, Romano; Roderick, George K; Frati, Francesco

2005-08-01

43

Nondestructive evaluation of anthocyanins in olive (Olea europaea) fruits by in situ chlorophyll fluorescence spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Anthocyanins (Anths) in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits at different degrees of pigmentation were assessed nondestructively by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF). The method is based on the comparison of the ChlF excitation spectra from olives with different pigmentation from green to green-red, reddish-purple, and purple. The logarithm of the ratio between the fluorescence excitation spectra (logFER) from two different colored zones gave the difference in the absorption spectrum between them. The absorbance spectrum derived from the logFER between a red olive and the same olive devoid of the skin showed the typical Anth green band (at 550 nm). It matched that recorded by microspectrophotometry on a single pulp cell and the in vitro absorbance spectrum of the olive skin extract. As expected, the in vivo Anths absorption maximum increased in intensity going from less to more mature olives and was higher in the sun-exposed olive side with respect to the sun-shaded side. Absolute quantitative nondestructive determination of Anths for each olive sample was obtained by the logFER calculated for two excitation wavelengths, 550 and 625 nm, of ChlF at 740 nm. Going from green to purple skin colors, the Log[ChlF(625)/ChlF(550)] was fairly well-correlated to the extract Anths concentration. Finally, the relationship between the Anths and the other main phenolics present in the olives analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography was evaluated. The main result was a net increase of verbascoside with increasing Anths content. On the basis of our results, the development of a new rapid and noninvasive method for the monitoring of olive development and ripening can be envisaged. PMID:15740006

Agati, Giovanni; Pinelli, Patrizia; Cortés Ebner, Solange; Romani, Annalisa; Cartelat, Aurélie; Cerovic, Zoran G

2005-03-01

44

Hot water dipping of olives (Olea europaea) for virgin oil debittering.  

PubMed

Olives (Olea europaea L.) of the Manzanilla, Picual, and Verdial varieties harvested at the green mature stage of ripening were dipped in hot water at a range of temperatures between 60 and 72 degrees C for 3 min. Immediately after treatment, oils were physically extracted from the olives. Olive heating promotes a reduction of oil bitterness in direct relationship to the temperature used. Fruit heating at > or =60 degrees C for 3 min did not cause significant changes in acidity, UV absorption, peroxide index, and panel test score of the oils obtained but decreased its oxidative stability. Oils extracted from heated fruit showed higher concentrations of chlorophylls and carotenes and lower total phenol content. PMID:16218671

García, José M; Yousfi, Khaled; Oliva, Jesús; García-Diaz, M Teresa; Pérez-Camino, M Carmen

2005-10-19

45

'Candidatus Erwinia dacicola', a coevolved symbiotic bacterium of the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin).  

PubMed

The taxonomic identity of the hereditary prokaryotic symbiont of the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) was investigated. In order to avoid superficial microbial contaminants and loosely associated saprophytic biota, flies were surface-sterilized at the larval stage and reared under aseptic conditions until adult emergence. B. oleae flies originating from different geographical locations and collected at different times of the year were tested. Bacterial isolation was undertaken from the cephalic oesophageal bulb, which is known to be a specific site of accumulation for the hosted microsymbionts in the adult insect. Despite evidence of multiplication cycles taking place within the insect, attempts at cultivation of the isolated bacteria ex situ were not productive at any stage, leading to the choice of unculturable status definition. PCR amplification and nucleotide sequencing of the entire 16S rRNA gene consistently yielded a single sequence that displayed marked similarity with enterobacterial lineages, with closest matches (97%) to Erwinia persicina and Erwinia rhapontici. The novel taxon differs from common intestinal bacterial species of fruit flies and from instances of culturable bacteria previously described in B. oleae raised without sterility precautions, which we also observed as minority occupants or occasional contaminants. The symbiont's identity is also distinct from Pseudomonas savastanoi. In all observations, the numerically dominant inhabitant of the olive fly oesophageal organ was the same unculturable organism, whose presence at later stages was also regularly observed in the midgut. A novel species is proposed, by virtue of its unique properties, under the designation 'Candidatus Erwinia dacicola'. PMID:16014495

Capuzzo, Caterina; Firrao, Giuseppe; Mazzon, Luca; Squartini, Andrea; Girolami, Vincenzo

2005-07-01

46

Seasonal pheromone trap catches of male Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northern California: asynchrony with host (olive tree) phenology?  

PubMed

Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae, Dacinae) is an oligophagous species that feeds only on cultivated olives (Olea europaea L.) and its close relatives. Synchrony of seasonal activity patterns of B. oleae, the olive fruit fly with its host's phenology is therefore expected. The objective of this study was to monitor the male olive fruit fly response to female sex pheromone in the field. White sticky traps were deployed year round for 3 yr in an olive orchard in Oroville, CA. They were checked periodically, and flies captured were counted and sexed. Although males were captured regularly, the numbers of females captured on pheromone traps were negligible. Food-baited traps and water-baited traps were deployed to show the presence of flies in the field. Our hypothesis that males would respond to pheromone when females were available and olive fruits were susceptible for oviposition was partially supported. There were two peaks of high male captures in pheromone traps: spring and fall. In spring, females were available and mature but few acceptable olives were available for oviposition (no new crop olives yet). In fall, females were present but many of the new crop olives were already infested. The food baited traps confirmed the presence of flies in the field even when very few were being captured in the pheromone-baited traps. Traps containing only water caught only two flies showing that water alone or the trap type in itself was not attractive to flies. PMID:24468560

Villamil, Soledad C; Lewis, Edwin E; Zalom, Frank G

2013-12-01

47

Organophosphate resistance in olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, populations in Greece and Cyprus.  

PubMed

The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most important pest of olives in countries around the Mediterranean basin. Its control has been based mostly on bait sprays with organophosphate insecticides (usually dimethoate or fenthion) for about 40 years. In the present study, the resistance status of olive fruit fly populations to dimethoate was examined in Greece and Cyprus over 2 years. Thirty-one populations from various regions of Greece, nine from Cyprus and one laboratory susceptible strain, which served as a control, were assayed by topical application of dimethoate. Considerable variation in the resistance levels to dimethoate was recorded in the populations of B. oleae, with resistance ratios ranging from 6.3 to 64.4 (ED(50) values 12.5-128.7 ng dimethoate per insect). The highest resistance ratios were found in populations from Crete, and the lowest in those from Cyprus. This variation could be attributed to different selection pressures from insecticidal applications among populations from the various regions. Migration of resistant genotypes, either autonomous or via commerce, may also be involved. PMID:17103369

Skouras, Panagiotis J; Margaritopoulos, John T; Seraphides, Nicos A; Ioannides, Ioannis M; Kakani, Evi G; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D; Tsitsipis, John A

2007-01-01

48

The peculiar landscape of repetitive sequences in the olive (Olea europaea L.) genome.  

PubMed

Analyzing genome structure in different species allows to gain an insight into the evolution of plant genome size. Olive (Olea europaea L.) has a medium-sized haploid genome of 1.4 Gb, whose structure is largely uncharacterized, despite the growing importance of this tree as oil crop. Next-generation sequencing technologies and different computational procedures have been used to study the composition of the olive genome and its repetitive fraction. A total of 2.03 and 2.3 genome equivalents of Illumina and 454 reads from genomic DNA, respectively, were assembled following different procedures, which produced more than 200,000 differently redundant contigs, with mean length higher than 1,000 nt. Mapping Illumina reads onto the assembled sequences was used to estimate their redundancy. The genome data set was subdivided into highly and medium redundant and nonredundant contigs. By combining identification and mapping of repeated sequences, it was established that tandem repeats represent a very large portion of the olive genome (?31% of the whole genome), consisting of six main families of different length, two of which were first discovered in these experiments. The other large redundant class in the olive genome is represented by transposable elements (especially long terminal repeat-retrotransposons). On the whole, the results of our analyses show the peculiar landscape of the olive genome, related to the massive amplification of tandem repeats, more than that reported for any other sequenced plant genome. PMID:24671744

Barghini, Elena; Natali, Lucia; Cossu, Rosa Maria; Giordani, Tommaso; Pindo, Massimo; Cattonaro, Federica; Scalabrin, Simone; Velasco, Riccardo; Morgante, Michele; Cavallini, Andrea

2014-04-01

49

The Peculiar Landscape of Repetitive Sequences in the Olive (Olea europaea L.) Genome  

PubMed Central

Analyzing genome structure in different species allows to gain an insight into the evolution of plant genome size. Olive (Olea europaea L.) has a medium-sized haploid genome of 1.4 Gb, whose structure is largely uncharacterized, despite the growing importance of this tree as oil crop. Next-generation sequencing technologies and different computational procedures have been used to study the composition of the olive genome and its repetitive fraction. A total of 2.03 and 2.3 genome equivalents of Illumina and 454 reads from genomic DNA, respectively, were assembled following different procedures, which produced more than 200,000 differently redundant contigs, with mean length higher than 1,000 nt. Mapping Illumina reads onto the assembled sequences was used to estimate their redundancy. The genome data set was subdivided into highly and medium redundant and nonredundant contigs. By combining identification and mapping of repeated sequences, it was established that tandem repeats represent a very large portion of the olive genome (?31% of the whole genome), consisting of six main families of different length, two of which were first discovered in these experiments. The other large redundant class in the olive genome is represented by transposable elements (especially long terminal repeat-retrotransposons). On the whole, the results of our analyses show the peculiar landscape of the olive genome, related to the massive amplification of tandem repeats, more than that reported for any other sequenced plant genome.

Barghini, Elena; Natali, Lucia; Cossu, Rosa Maria; Giordani, Tommaso; Pindo, Massimo; Cattonaro, Federica; Scalabrin, Simone; Velasco, Riccardo; Morgante, Michele; Cavallini, Andrea

2014-01-01

50

Domestication of olive fly through a multi-regional host shift to cultivated olives: comparative dating using complete mitochondrial genomes.  

PubMed

The evolutionary history of the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, was reconstructed in a phylogenetic and coalescent framework using full mitochondrial genome data from 21 individuals covering the entire worldwide distribution of the species. Special attention was given to reconstructing the timing of the processes under study. The early subdivision of the olive fly reflects the Quaternary differentiation between Olea europea subsp. europea in the Mediterranean area and the two lineages of Olea europea subsp. cuspidata in Africa and Asia, pointing to an early and close association between the olive fly and its host. The geographic structure and timing of olive fly differentiation in the Mediterranean indicates a clear connection with the post-glacial recolonization of wild olives in the area, and is irreconcilable with the early historical process of domestication and spread of the cultivated olive from its Levantine origin. Therefore, we suggest an early co-history of the olive fly with its wild host during the Quaternary and post-glacial periods and a multi-regional shift of olive flies to cultivated olives as these cultivars gradually replaced wild olives in historical times. PMID:20723608

Nardi, F; Carapelli, A; Boore, J L; Roderick, G K; Dallai, R; Frati, F

2010-11-01

51

Yeast strains from the endogenous microflora of the olive flies Bactrocera oleae larvae which could degrade the olive oil mill wastewaters polyphenols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide, wastewaters constitute a major environmental pollutant. They are very toxic against a wide range of plants and\\u000a soil microorganisms. Their toxicity is due to the presence of compounds such as polyphenols. In this study, we have isolated\\u000a yeast strains from the endogenous microflora of the olive fliesBactrocera oleae larvae that were capable of degrading the olive oil mill wastewater

Malika Chakri; Ahmed El Haidani; Mohammed El Mzibri; Abdellatif Haggoud; Mohammed Iraqui; Abdellah Houari; Saad Ibnsouda Koraichi

2007-01-01

52

Detection of resistance-associated point mutations of organophosphate-insensitive acetylcholinesterase in the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently identified two resistance-associated point mutations of organophosphate (OP)-insensitive acetylcholinesterase in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae, the most important olive orchard pest world-wide. We have developed simple PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assays for each mutation, utilising an AccI restriction site created by Ile214Val, and a BssHII restriction site destroyed by a neutral change always accompanying the second

Nicola J. Hawkes; Robert W. Janes; Janet Hemingway; John Vontas

2005-01-01

53

Natural mortality of immature stages of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in traditional olive groves from North-Eastern Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 2006 to 2008, we studied the natural mortality of olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), eggs and larvae as collected in fruit on the tree, in two to five ‘traditional’ olive groves of Trás-os-Montes (North Eastern Portugal), per year. We also studied the fate of 2,044 puparia that were buried in the soil from November to May for two seasons,

Fátima M. Gonçalves; M. Conceição Rodrigues; José A. Pereira; Howard Thistlewood; Laura M. Torres

2012-01-01

54

Structural organization and cytochemical features of the pistil in Olive ( Olea europaea L.) cv. Picual at anthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pistil structure and composition are critical in recognizing and permitting the germination of suitable pollen grains. We\\u000a have studied the structure of the different component tissues of the pistil, their organization and cytochemical features\\u000a of olive flowers, Olea europaea L., at anthesis, an essential first step for understanding the processes of pollen-pistil interaction and fertilization.\\u000a The pistil from olive cv.

I. Serrano; C. Suárez; A. Olmedilla; H. F. Rapoport; M. I. Rodríguez-García

2008-01-01

55

Identification of new polymorphic regions and differentiation of cultivated olives (Olea europaea L.) through plastome sequence comparison  

PubMed Central

Background The cultivated olive (Olea europaea L.) is the most agriculturally important species of the Oleaceae family. Although many studies have been performed on plastid polymorphisms to evaluate taxonomy, phylogeny and phylogeography of Olea subspecies, only few polymorphic regions discriminating among the agronomically and economically important olive cultivars have been identified. The objective of this study was to sequence the entire plastome of olive and analyze many potential polymorphic regions to develop new inter-cultivar genetic markers. Results The complete plastid genome of the olive cultivar Frantoio was determined by direct sequence analysis using universal and novel PCR primers designed to amplify all overlapping regions. The chloroplast genome of the olive has an organisation and gene order that is conserved among numerous Angiosperm species and do not contain any of the inversions, gene duplications, insertions, inverted repeat expansions and gene/intron losses that have been found in the chloroplast genomes of the genera Jasminum and Menodora, from the same family as Olea. The annotated sequence was used to evaluate the content of coding genes, the extent, and distribution of repeated and long dispersed sequences and the nucleotide composition pattern. These analyses provided essential information for structural, functional and comparative genomic studies in olive plastids. Furthermore, the alignment of the olive plastome sequence to those of other varieties and species identified 30 new organellar polymorphisms within the cultivated olive. Conclusions In addition to identifying mutations that may play a functional role in modifying the metabolism and adaptation of olive cultivars, the new chloroplast markers represent a valuable tool to assess the level of olive intercultivar plastome variation for use in population genetic analysis, phylogenesis, cultivar characterisation and DNA food tracking.

2010-01-01

56

Role of carbohydrate reserves in yield production of intensively cultivated oil olive (Olea europaea L.) trees.  

PubMed

Olive (Olea europaea) has a very high tendency for year-to-year deviation in yield (alternate bearing), which has a negative economic impact on the olive oil industry. Among possible reasons for alternate bearing, depletion of stored carbohydrates (CHO) during the On-year (high yield) has often been mentioned. The objective of the present study was to verify the role of CHO reserves, as a cause or effect, in the alternate bearing of intensively cultivated olives. A monthly survey of soluble sugar and starch concentrations in the leaves, branches, bark and roots of On- and Off-trees (cv. Barnea) was carried out during a complete reproductive cycle from November 2005 to October 2006. Carbohydrate concentration in the sapwood was determined in January, as well as an estimate of whole-tree biomass. The trunk and limbs possess the largest portion of CHO reserves. The influence of reduced fruit load on CHO reserves was also investigated. Starch, mannitol and sucrose concentrations increased from December to March in all tissues, and then declined along with fruit development. Leaves, branches and bark have a significant role in CHO storage, whereas roots accumulated the lowest CHO concentrations. However, fluctuations in reserve content suggested considerable involvement of roots in the CHO budget. Nevertheless, there were no meaningful differences in the annual pattern of CHO concentration between On- and Off-trees. Even a 75-100% reduction in fruit number brought about only a minor, sluggish increase in CHO content, though this was more pronounced in the roots. Carbohydrate reserves were not depleted, even under maximum demands for fruit and oil production. It is concluded that in olives, the status of CHO reserves is not a yield determinant. However, they may play a significant role in the olive's survival strategy, ensuring tree recovery in the unpredictable semiarid Mediterranean environment. This suggests that CHO reserves in olive act like an active sink, challenging the common concept regarding the regulation of CHO reserves in plants. PMID:21571726

Bustan, Amnon; Avni, Avishai; Lavee, Shimon; Zipori, Isaac; Yeselson, Yelena; Schaffer, Arthur A; Riov, Joseph; Dag, Arnon

2011-05-01

57

Nuclear DNA content estimations in wild olive ( Olea europaea L. ssp. europaea var. sylvestris Brot.) and Portuguese cultivars of O. europaea using flow cytometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is an economically important woody fruit crop widely distributed in the Mediterranean regions. In this work the genome size of six Portuguese cultivars of olive (O. europaea ssp. europaea var. europaea) and wild olive (O. europaea spp. europaea var. sylvestris) was estimated for the first time. The nuclear DNA content of O. europaea cultivars ranged

João Loureiro; Eleazar Rodriguez; Armando Costa; Conceição Santos

2007-01-01

58

Assessment of susceptibility of olive cultivars to the Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin, 1790) and Camarosporium dalmaticum (Thüm.) Zachos & Tzav.-Klon. attacks in Calabria (Southern Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the framework of research concerning the application of techniques alternative to chemical pesticides for control of parasites, the C.R.A. Experimental Institute for Olive Growing for many years has been performing a large investigation in order to detect sources of genetic resistance in olive germplasm. In the present study we observed the behavior related to the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae)

Nino Iannotta; Maria E. Noce; Vincenzo Ripa; Stefano Scalercio; Veronica Vizzarri

2007-01-01

59

Non-destructive measurement of leaf area in olive ( Olea europaea L.) trees using a gap inversion method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf Area Index (LAI) data are required to characterise evaporation and assimilation rates from canopies. The LAI of a canopy of trees can be estimated from the transmittance of radiation at various angles. A commercial sensor for LAI determination (Plant Canopy Analyzer LI-COR LAI-2000) was tested for olive trees (Olea europaea L.) during 1992 and 1993 in Cordoba, Spain. Plant

F. J. Villalobos; F. Orgaz; L. Mateos

1995-01-01

60

Evaluation of the impact on entomocoenosis of active agents allowed in organic olive farming against Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin, 1790)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several attempts for evaluating environmental impact of active agents allowed in organic olive farming against Bactrocera oleae have been made, but very few studies were performed contemporaneously on more than one of them. Insects were chosen as indicators because they are known to react very quickly to environmental perturbations, mainly at the community level. In fact, the coenosis is the

Nino Iannotta; Tiziana Belfiore; Pittro Brandmaya; Maria E. Noce; Stefano Scalercio

2007-01-01

61

Geographical distribution and evolutionary history of organophosphate-resistant Ace alleles in the olive fly ( Bactrocera oleae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetylcholinesterase (Ace) is the molecular target of organophosphate (OP) insecticides, and two mutations that confer different levels of OP insensitivity have previously been identified in the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae. Numerous sensitive and two insensitive alleles (including one convergent acquisition) are described from the entire worldwide distribution of the fly. Most of the variation is harbored in the native range

Francesco Nardi; Antonio Carapelli; John G. Vontas; Romano Dallai; George K. Roderick; Francesco Frati

2006-01-01

62

Polyploidy in the Olive Complex (Olea europaea): Evidence from Flow Cytometry and Nuclear Microsatellite Analyses  

PubMed Central

Background Phylogenetic and phylogeographic investigations have been previously performed to study the evolution of the olive tree complex (Olea europaea). A particularly high genomic diversity has been found in north-west Africa. However, to date no exhaustive study has been addressed to infer putative polyploidization events and their evolutionary significance in the diversification of the olive tree and its relatives. Methods Representatives of the six olive subspecies were investigated using (a) flow cytometry to estimate genome content, and (b) six highly variable nuclear microsatellites to assess the presence of multiple alleles at co-dominant loci. In addition, nine individuals from a controlled cross between two individuals of O. europaea subsp. maroccana were characterized with microsatellites to check for chromosome inheritance. Key Results Based on flow cytometry and genetic analyses, strong evidence for polyploidy was obtained in subspp. cerasiformis (tetraploid) and maroccana (hexaploid), whereas the other subspecies appeared to be diploids. Agreement between flow cytometry and genetic analyses gives an alternative approach to chromosome counting to determine ploidy level of trees. Lastly, abnormalities in chromosomes inheritance leading to aneuploid formation were revealed using microsatellite analyses in the offspring from the controlled cross in subsp. maroccana. Conclusions This study constitutes the first report for multiple polyploidy in olive tree relatives. Formation of tetraploids and hexaploids may have played a major role in the diversification of the olive complex in north-west Africa. The fact that polyploidy is found in narrow endemic subspecies from Madeira (subsp. cerasiformis) and the Agadir Mountains (subsp. maroccana) suggests that polyploidization has been favoured to overcome inbreeding depression. Lastly, based on previous phylogenetic analyses, we hypothesize that subsp. cerasiformis resulted from hybridization between ancestors of subspp. guanchica and europaea.

Besnard, G.; Garcia-Verdugo, C.; Rubio De Casas, R.; Treier, U. A.; Galland, N.; Vargas, P.

2008-01-01

63

Erwinia oleae sp. nov., isolated from olive knots caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi.  

PubMed

Three endophytic bacterial isolates were obtained in Italy from olive knots caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi. Phenotypic tests in combination with 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated a phylogenetic position for these isolates in the genera Erwinia or Pantoea, and revealed two other strains with highly similar 16S rRNA gene sequences (>99 %), CECT 5262 and CECT 5264, obtained in Spain from olive knots. Rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting of the five strains from olive knots with BOX, ERIC and REP primers revealed three groups of profiles that were highly similar to each other. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on concatenated partial atpD, gyrB, infB and rpoB gene sequences indicated that the strains constituted a single novel species in the genus Erwinia. The strains showed general phenotypic characteristics typical of the genus Erwinia and whole genome DNA-DNA hybridization data confirmed that they represented a single novel species of the genus Erwinia. The strains showed DNA G+C contents ranging from 54.7 to 54.9 mol%. They could be discriminated from phylogenetically related species of the genus Erwinia by their ability to utilize potassium gluconate, l-rhamnose and d-arabitol, but not glycerol, inositol or d-sorbitol. The name Erwinia oleae sp. nov. (type strain DAPP-PG 531(T)= LMG 25322(T) = DSM 23398(T)) is proposed for this novel taxon. PMID:21186287

Moretti, Chiaraluce; Hosni, Taha; Vandemeulebroecke, Katrien; Brady, Carrie; De Vos, Paul; Buonaurio, Roberto; Cleenwerck, Ilse

2011-11-01

64

Analysis of the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae Transcriptome and Phylogenetic Classification of the Major Detoxification Gene Families  

PubMed Central

The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae has a unique ability to cope with olive flesh, and is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. Its control has been largely based on the use of chemical insecticides, however, the selection of insecticide resistance against several insecticides has evolved. The study of detoxification mechanisms, which allow the olive fruit fly to defend against insecticides, and/or phytotoxins possibly present in the mesocarp, has been hampered by the lack of genomic information in this species. In the NCBI database less than 1,000 nucleotide sequences have been deposited, with less than 10 detoxification gene homologues in total. We used 454 pyrosequencing to produce, for the first time, a large transcriptome dataset for B. oleae. A total of 482,790 reads were assembled into 14,204 contigs. More than 60% of those contigs (8,630) were larger than 500 base pairs, and almost half of them matched with genes of the order of the Diptera. Analysis of the Gene Ontology (GO) distribution of unique contigs, suggests that, compared to other insects, the assembly is broadly representative for the B. oleae transcriptome. Furthermore, the transcriptome was found to contain 55 P450, 43 GST-, 15 CCE- and 18 ABC transporter-genes. Several of those detoxification genes, may putatively be involved in the ability of the olive fruit fly to deal with xenobiotics, such as plant phytotoxins and insecticides. In summary, our study has generated new data and genomic resources, which will substantially facilitate molecular studies in B. oleae, including elucidation of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic, as well as other important aspects of olive fruit fly biology.

Rombauts, Stephane; Chrisargiris, Antonis; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

2013-01-01

65

Density and structure of Saissetia oleae (Hemiptera: Coccidae) populations on citrus and olives: relative importance of the two annual generations.  

PubMed

Saissetia oleae (Olivier) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) populations were studied and compared in citrus (Citrus spp.) and olive (Olea europaea L.) groves to determine the number of generations, crawler emergence periods and changes in population density during the year. Ten citrus and four olive groves were sampled regularly between March 2003 and December 2005 in eastern Spain, covering an area of 10,000 km2. Each sample consisted of 16 branches and 64 leaves. Saissetia oleae populations presented a similar trend in both crops during the three years of study. Populations peaked in July, when crawlers emerged after the egg-laying period, and decreased during several months due to mortality of first instars in summer. A second crawler emergence period, with lower numbers and more variability from year to year, occurred between October and March. Populations did not increase during this period, probably because most eggs and crawlers perished during the winter and also because females that gave rise to this fall-winter generation were half as big and fecund as spring females. No differences were found between the size of mature females that had developed on citrus and on olives during the spring. Considering this population pattern, the best seasonal period to apply pesticides to control S. oleae would be at the end of July, when populations are synchronous, all crawlers have already emerged, and first instars predominate. PMID:17716461

Tena, Alejandro; Soto, Antonia; Vercher, Rosa; Garcia-Marí, Ferran

2007-08-01

66

Agistemus aimogastaensis sp. n. (Acari, Actinedida, Stigmaeidae), a recently discovered predator of eriophyid mites Aceria oleae and Oxycenus maxwelli, in olive orchards in Argentina.  

PubMed

A new species, Agistemus aimogastaensis, is described with the aid of optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy. This mite is an important predator of two eriophyid mites (Aceria oleae and Oxycenus maxwelli) in olive orchards (Olea europaea, variety Arauco) in La Rioja Province. The problems related to eriophyids in olive orchards in Argentina are highlighted and photos of the damage on leaves and fruit are included. PMID:23825448

Leiva, Sergio; Fernandez, Nestor; Theron, Pieter; Rollard, Christine

2013-01-01

67

The dual function of ovo\\/shavenbaby in germline and epidermis differentiation is conserved between Drosophila melanogaster and the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (B. oleae) is a major olive damaging pest in the Mediterranean area. As a first molecular analysis of a developmental gene in this insect, we characterised the ovo\\/shavenbaby (ovo\\/svb) gene. In Drosophila, ovo\\/svb encodes a family of transcription regulators with two distinct functions: ovo is required for female germline differentiation and svb controls morphogenesis

Abderrahman Khila; Ahmed El Haidani; Alain Vincent; François Payre; Saad Ibn Souda

2003-01-01

68

The mitochondrial genome of the olive fly Bactrocera oleae: two haplotypes from distant geographical locations.  

PubMed

The complete sequence of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) mitochondrial genome has been determined. Two independent haplotypes, from flies of distant geographical origin (Italy and Portugal) were completely sequenced. The molecule is 15815 bp long, and shows the gene content and organization typical of insects, namely thirteen protein coding genes (PCGs) encoding proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, two rRNAs, twenty-two tRNAs and a long (949 bp) noncoding region. The genomes of the two fly specimens share the same arrangement, differing by a mere thirty-one point mutations. The differences are mostly transitions (26) and synonymous substitutions in PCGs (21). The two new sequences are compared with others already present in the database. PMID:14986921

Nardi, F; Carapelli, A; Dallai, R; Frati, F

2003-12-01

69

Human absorption and metabolism of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol ingested as olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract.  

PubMed

Phenolic compounds derived from the olive plant (Olea europaea L.), particularly hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, have many beneficial effects in vitro. Olive leaves are the richest source of olive phenolic compounds, and olive leaf extract (OLE) is now a popular nutraceutical taken either as liquid or capsules. To quantify the bioavailability and metabolism of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol when taken as OLE, nine volunteers (five males) aged 42.8 ± 7.4 years were randomized to receive either capsulated or liquid OLE as a single lower (51.1 mg oleuropein, 9.7 mg hydroxytyrosol) or higher (76.6 mg oleuropein, 14.5 mg hydroxytyrosol) dose, and then the opposite strength (but same formulation) a week later. Plasma and urine samples were collected at fixed intervals for 24 h post-ingestion. Phenolic content was analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Conjugated metabolites of hydroxytyrosol were the primary metabolites recovered in plasma and urine after OLE ingestion. Peak oleuropein concentrations in plasma were greater following ingestion of liquid than capsule preparations (0.47 versus 2.74 ng/mL; p = 0.004), but no such effect was observed for peak concentrations of conjugated (sulfated and glucuronidated) hydroxytyrosol (p = 0.94). However, the latter peak was reached earlier with liquid preparation (93 versus 64 min; p = 0.031). There was a gender effect on the bioavailability of phenolic compounds, with males displaying greater plasma area under the curve for conjugated hydroxytyrosol (11,600 versus 2550 ng/mL; p = 0.048). All conjugated hydroxytyrosol metabolites were recovered in the urine within 8 h. There was wide inter-individual variation. OLE effectively delivers oleuropein and hydroxytrosol metabolites to plasma in humans. PMID:23766098

de Bock, Martin; Thorstensen, Eric B; Derraik, José G B; Henderson, Harold V; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

2013-11-01

70

Acetobacter tropicalis Is a Major Symbiont of the Olive Fruit Fly (Bactrocera oleae)?  

PubMed Central

Following cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques, we investigated the microbiota associated with Bactrocera oleae, one of the major agricultural pests in olive-producing countries. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene libraries and ultrastructural analyses revealed the presence of several bacterial taxa associated with this insect, among which Acetobacter tropicalis was predominant. The recent increased detection of acetic acid bacteria as symbionts of other insect model organisms, such as Anopheles stephensi (G. Favia et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:9047-9051, 2007) or Drosophila melanogaster (C. R. Cox and M. S. Gilmore, Infect. Immun. 75:1565-1576, 2007), prompted us to investigate the association established between A. tropicalis and B. oleae. Using an A. tropicalis-specific PCR assay, the symbiont was detected in all insects tested originating from laboratory stocks or field-collected from different locations in Greece. This acetic acid bacterium was successfully established in cell-free medium, and typing analyses, carried out on a collection of isolates, revealed that different A. tropicalis strains are present in fly populations. The capability to colonize and lodge in the digestive system of both larvae and adults and in Malpighian tubules of adults was demonstrated by using a strain labeled with a green fluorescent protein.

Kounatidis, Ilias; Crotti, Elena; Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Sacchi, Luciano; Rizzi, Aurora; Chouaia, Bessem; Bandi, Claudio; Alma, Alberto; Daffonchio, Daniele; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Bourtzis, Kostas

2009-01-01

71

Acetobacter tropicalis is a major symbiont of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae).  

PubMed

Following cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques, we investigated the microbiota associated with Bactrocera oleae, one of the major agricultural pests in olive-producing countries. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene libraries and ultrastructural analyses revealed the presence of several bacterial taxa associated with this insect, among which Acetobacter tropicalis was predominant. The recent increased detection of acetic acid bacteria as symbionts of other insect model organisms, such as Anopheles stephensi (G. Favia et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:9047-9051, 2007) or Drosophila melanogaster (C. R. Cox and M. S. Gilmore, Infect. Immun. 75:1565-1576, 2007), prompted us to investigate the association established between A. tropicalis and B. oleae. Using an A. tropicalis-specific PCR assay, the symbiont was detected in all insects tested originating from laboratory stocks or field-collected from different locations in Greece. This acetic acid bacterium was successfully established in cell-free medium, and typing analyses, carried out on a collection of isolates, revealed that different A. tropicalis strains are present in fly populations. The capability to colonize and lodge in the digestive system of both larvae and adults and in Malpighian tubules of adults was demonstrated by using a strain labeled with a green fluorescent protein. PMID:19304818

Kounatidis, Ilias; Crotti, Elena; Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Sacchi, Luciano; Rizzi, Aurora; Chouaia, Bessem; Bandi, Claudio; Alma, Alberto; Daffonchio, Daniele; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Bourtzis, Kostas

2009-05-01

72

Nutrition metabolism plays an important role in the alternate bearing of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.).  

PubMed

The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits) are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between "on year" and "off year" leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree. PMID:23555820

Turktas, Mine; Inal, Behcet; Okay, Sezer; Erkilic, Emine Gulden; Dundar, Ekrem; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel; Unver, Turgay

2013-01-01

73

Nutrition Metabolism Plays an Important Role in the Alternate Bearing of the Olive Tree (Olea europaea L.)  

PubMed Central

The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits) are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between ”on year” and “off year” leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree.

Turktas, Mine; Inal, Behcet; Okay, Sezer; Erkilic, Emine Gulden; Dundar, Ekrem; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel; Unver, Turgay

2013-01-01

74

Cricket Paralysis Virus, a Potential Control Agent for the Olive Fruit Fly, Dacus oleae Gmel  

PubMed Central

Representatives of several families of insect viruses were tested for growth and pathogenicity in the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae Gmel. The viruses included nuclear polyhedrosis viruses, an iridovirus, two picornaviruses, and Trichoplusia ni small RNA virus (a member of the Nudaurelia ? family), in addition to two naturally occurring viruses of the olive fruit fly. Two viruses, one of the two picornaviruses (cricket paralysis virus [CrPV] and the iridovirus (type 21 from Heliothis armigera), were found to replicate in adult flies. Flies which were fed on a solution containing CrPV for 1 day demonstrated a high mortality with 50% dying within 5 days and nearly 80% dying within 12 days of being fed. The virus was transmissible from infected to noninfected flies by fecal contamination. The CrPV which replicated in the infected flies was demonstrated to be the same as input virus by infection of Drosophila melanogaster cells and examination of the expressed viral proteins, immunoprecipitation of the virus purified from flies, and electrophoretic analysis of the structural proteins. Images

Manousis, Thanasis; Moore, Norman F.

1987-01-01

75

Alternative pathways for phosphatidylcholine synthesis in olive (Olea europaea L.) callus cultures.  

PubMed Central

Olive (Olea europaea L.) callus cultures were incubated with [2-14C]ethanolamine and [Me-14C]choline in order to study phospholipid synthesis. Radioactivity from [Me-14C]choline was shown to be incorporated into the phosphatidylcholine via the CDP-base pathway. [2-14C]Ethanolamine was primarily incorporated into phosphatidylethanolamine, but significant radio-activity was also detected in phosphatidylcholine, indicating the operation of a methylation route. Incubation with [2-14C]ethanolamine indicated that phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine incorporated radiolabel over a similar time course. This led us to investigate the possibility that phosphatidylcholine was being synthesized by a methylation pathway distinct from the direct methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine. There was extensive incorporation of [2-14C]ethanolamine into different components of the aqueous phase of the incubations, within which phospho-base derivatives of ethanolamine were prominent. These intermediates were identified and provided evidence for the operation of an alternative methylation pathway via phosphodimethylethanolamine for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine in olives.

Williams, M; Harwood, J L

1994-01-01

76

Effect of the herbicides terbuthylazine and glyphosate on photosystem II photochemistry of young olive (Olea europaea) plants.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to understand the effect produced by the addition of the herbicides terbuthylazine (N(2)-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N(4)-ethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) and glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) on photosystem II photochemistry of young plants of Olea europaea L. under greenhouse conditions. The effect of soil amendment with an organic residue from olive oil production was also assessed. Terbuthylazine reduced the efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry of plants due to chronic photoinhibition, and this effect was counterbalanced by soil amendment with the organic waste, whereas the photosystem II photochemistry of olive plants was not affected by glyphosate or by glyphosate and organic waste addition. In this study, we have shown that the soil application of terbuthylazine is a source of indirect phytotoxicity for olive plants. We have also observed that the olive plants were not affected by higher amounts of glyphosate in the soil. PMID:21517077

Cañero, Ana I; Cox, Lucía; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Hermosín, María C; Cornejo, Juan

2011-05-25

77

Effects of fly attack (Bactrocera oleae) on the phenolic profile and selected chemical parameters of olive oil.  

PubMed

The phenolic fraction of virgin olive oil influences both its quality and oxidative stability. One of the principal threats of the quality of olive fruit is the olive fly ( Bactrocera oleae) as it alters the chemical composition. The attack of this olive pest has been studied in order to evaluate its influence on the quality of virgin olive oil (free acidity, peroxide value, fatty acid composition, water content, oxidative stability, phenols, and antioxidant power of phenolic fraction). The study was performed using several virgin olive oils obtained from olives with different degrees of fly infestation. They were acquired in different Italian industrial mills from the Abruzzo region. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of phenolic profiles were performed by capillary electrophoresis-diode array detection, and electrochemical evaluation of the antioxidant power of the phenolic fraction was also carried out. These analyses demonstrated that the degree of fly attack was positively correlated with free acidity ( r = 0.77, p < 0.05) and oxidized products ( r = 0.58, p < 0.05), and negatively related to the oxidative stability index ( r = -0.54, p < 0.05) and phenolic content ( r = -0.50, p < 0.05), mainly with secoiridoid compounds. However, it has been confirmed that the phenolic fraction of olive oil depends on several parameters and that a clear correlation does not exist between the percentages of fly attack and phenolic content. PMID:18522402

Gómez-Caravaca, Ana Maria; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Bendini, Alessandra; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Del Carlo, Michele; Compagnone, Dario; Cichelli, Angelo

2008-06-25

78

High-Throughput Sequencing of RNA Silencing-Associated Small RNAs in Olive (Olea europaea L.)  

PubMed Central

Small RNAs (sRNAs) of 20 to 25 nucleotides (nt) in length maintain genome integrity and control gene expression in a multitude of developmental and physiological processes. Despite RNA silencing has been primarily studied in model plants, the advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies has enabled profiling of the sRNA component of more than 40 plant species. Here, we used deep sequencing and molecular methods to report the first inventory of sRNAs in olive (Olea europaea L.). sRNA libraries prepared from juvenile and adult shoots revealed that the 24-nt class dominates the sRNA transcriptome and atypically accumulates to levels never seen in other plant species, suggesting an active role of heterochromatin silencing in the maintenance and integrity of its large genome. A total of 18 known miRNA families were identified in the libraries. Also, 5 other sRNAs derived from potential hairpin-like precursors remain as plausible miRNA candidates. RNA blots confirmed miRNA expression and suggested tissue- and/or developmental-specific expression patterns. Target mRNAs of conserved miRNAs were computationally predicted among the olive cDNA collection and experimentally validated through endonucleolytic cleavage assays. Finally, we use expression data to uncover genetic components of the miR156, miR172 and miR390/TAS3-derived trans-acting small interfering RNA (tasiRNA) regulatory nodes, suggesting that these interactive networks controlling developmental transitions are fully operational in olive.

Donaire, Livia; Pedrola, Laia; de la Rosa, Raul; Llave, Cesar

2011-01-01

79

Comparison of olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)) (Diptera: Tephritidae) captures in several commercial traps in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trapping efficiency of three commercially available traps for monitoring the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)) was tested in California. ChamP yellow sticky traps and IMPT plastic McPhail-type traps were tested in three locations during 2 years. The McPhail traps captured significantly more flies than other trap types. In the second year, three variants of AM yellow sticky traps

Hannah Joy Burrack; Joseph H. Connell; Frank G. Zalom

2008-01-01

80

Presence of mature eggs in olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera Tephritidae), at different constant photoperiods and at two temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the constant photoperiod on presence of mature eggs in olive fruit fly was investigated. Adults of B. oleae were submitted to different photoperiodic treatments (LL:DD), at temperature of 20 °C: 9:15, 10:14, 12:12, 15:9, 16:8, continuous light (LL) and continuous dark (DD). Light was obtained from neon tubes and the light intensity, estimated inside the plexiglas cage,

Alfio RASPI; Angelo CANALE; Augusto LONI

81

Morphological and cytological development and starch accumulation in hermaphrodite and staminate flowers of olive ( Olea europaea L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In olive (Olea europaea L.), the formation of functionally staminate flowers rather than fully functional hermaphrodites is one of the major factors\\u000a limiting fruit set, as flowers with aborted pistils are incapable of producing fruit. Studies conducted on various angiosperm\\u000a species have shown a correlation between flower abortion and starch content. Thus, it is important to know if starch content

Lara Reale; Carlo Sgromo; Luisa Ederli; Stefania Pasqualini; Fabio Orlandi; Marco Fornaciari; Francesco Ferranti; Bruno Romano

2009-01-01

82

Biology and parasitism rates of Pteromalus nr. myopitae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), a newly discovered parasitoid of olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in coastal California  

Microsoft Academic Search

An undescribed wasp, Pteromalus nr. myopitae (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) opportunistically parasitizes the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), an introduced pest of olives in California. The native or typical host of P. nr. myopitae is unknown. We demonstrate that P. nr. myopitae is a solitary, ectoparasitic, idiobiont parasitoid of the third instar host inside fruit, and pupation occurs in

Therese Kapaun; Hannah Nadel; David Headrick; Larisa Vredevoe

2010-01-01

83

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, and their cross-species amplification in the Tephritidae family  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Tephritidae family of insects includes the most important agricultural pests of fruits and vegetables, belonging mainly to four genera (Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Anastrepha and Rhagoletis). The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major pest of the olive fruit. Currently, its control is based on chemical insecticides. Environmentally friendlier methods have been attempted in the past (Sterile Insect Technique),

Antonios A Augustinos; Elias E Stratikopoulos; Eleni Drosopoulou; Evdoxia G Kakani; Penelope Mavragani-Tsipidou; Antigone Zacharopoulou; Kostas D Mathiopoulos

2008-01-01

84

Olive (Olea europaea L.) tree nitrogen status is a key factor for olive oil quality.  

PubMed

The influence of macronutrient status on olive oil properties was studied for three years. Data were analyzed by a multivariate model considering N, P, K, and fruiting year as explanatory factors. Oil quality parameters were primarily associated with N concentration in leaves and fruits which increased with N in irrigation solution. The effect of P on oil quality was mainly indirect since increased P availability increased N accumulation. The potassium level had negligible effects. The oil phenolic content decreased linearly as a function of increased leaf N, indicating protein-phenol competition in leaves. The overall saturation level of the fatty acids decreased with fruit N, resulting in increased polyunsaturated fatty acids. Free fatty acids increased with increased levels of fruit N. High fruit load tended to reduce fruit N and subsequently improve oil quality. The effect of N on oil properties depended solely on its concentration in leaves or fruits, regardless of the cause. PMID:24245487

Erel, Ran; Kerem, Zohar; Ben-Gal, Alon; Dag, Arnon; Schwartz, Amnon; Zipori, Isaac; Basheer, Loai; Yermiyahu, Uri

2013-11-27

85

Phenol metabolism in the leaves of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cv. Picual, Verdial, Arbequina, and Frantoio during ripening.  

PubMed

The kinetic behavior and protein-expression level of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) have been determined in the leaves of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) of cv. Picual, Verdial, Arbequina, and Frantoio during fruit ripening. Moreover, the concentration of total phenolic compounds, oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and tyrosol has been also determined. This study was carried out in 20-year-old olive trees grown in Jaén (Spain). The concentration of total and specific phenols showed a specific pattern in each cultivar. Frantoio showed the highest phenol concentration followed by Arbequina, Picual, and Verdial. A coordinated response between PAL, PPO, and the concentration of total phenols in the four cultivars was found. Also, specific changes were shown over the course of ripening, indicating a regulation of PAL, PPO, and phenol concentration in the olive-tree leaves during fruit ripening. PMID:21047129

Ortega-García, Francisca; Peragón, Juan

2010-12-01

86

Characterisation of chlorophyll oxidation mediated by peroxidative activity in olives (Olea europaea L.) cv. Hojiblanca.  

PubMed

The oxidation of chlorophyll a (chl a) catalysed by peroxidase (POD) from mesocarp of the olive fruit (Olea europaea L., cv Hojiblanca) in the presence of H2O2 and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), is characterised via the individualised quantification of the products of the enzymatic reaction using a new methodology of HPLC-UV spectrometry. This innovation has allowed the discovery that, in addition to 13(2) OH chl a and 15(1) OH lactone chl a, which are the first products of POD on chl a, the reaction process sequentially creates another series of oxidised chlorophyll derivatives which have not been previously described. Their origins have been linked to POD activity in the presence of 2,4-DCP. Likewise, a study of the effect of the concentration of the various cosubstrates on the POD reaction rate demonstrated that the correct establishment of the relative concentrations of the same ([H2O2]/[2,4-DCP]/[Chl]=1:3:0.02) is crucial to explaining inhibition effects by substrates and carrying out optimum measurements. Therefore, new essential parameters for the determination of POD activity on a chlorophyll substrate are established. PMID:23561174

Vergara-Domínguez, Honorio; Roca, María; Gandul-Rojas, Beatriz

2013-08-15

87

The dual function of ovo/shavenbaby in germline and epidermis differentiation is conserved between Drosophila melanogaster and the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae.  

PubMed

The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (B. oleae) is a major olive damaging pest in the Mediterranean area. As a first molecular analysis of a developmental gene in this insect, we characterised the ovo/shavenbaby (ovo/svb) gene. In Drosophila, ovo/svb encodes a family of transcription regulators with two distinct functions: ovo is required for female germline differentiation and svb controls morphogenesis of epidermal cells. Here, we report the cloning and characterisation of ovo/svb in B. oleae, showing that the ovo genomic organisation and complex pattern of germline transcription have been conserved between distantly related Dipterae. We further show that B. oleae svb embryonic expression precisely prefigures the pattern of larval trichomes, supporting the conclusion that regulatory changes in svb transcription underlie evolutionary diversification of trichome patterns seen among Dipterae. PMID:12826096

Khila, Abderrahman; El Haidani, Ahmed; Vincent, Alain; Payre, François; Souda, Saad Ibn

2003-07-01

88

Spiroacetal biosynthesis: (+/-)-1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane in Bactrocera cacuminata and Bactrocera oleae (Olive Fruit Fly).  

PubMed

[reaction: see text] A biosynthetic scheme rationalizing the formation of (+/-)-1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane (5) in the fruit fly species Bactrocera cacuminata and Bactrocera oleae (olive fruit fly) is presented. Incorporation studies with deuterium-labeled keto aldehyde (10), 1,5-nonanediol (11), and 1,5,9-nonanetriol (12), and our previous finding that both oxygen atoms of 5 originate from dioxygen, are strongly evidentiary. The racemic condition of the natural spiroacetal 5 is accounted for, and inter alia, it is demonstrated that dihydropyran (18) is not an important intermediate en route to 5. PMID:15760167

Schwartz, Brett D; McErlean, Christopher S P; Fletcher, Mary T; Mazomenos, Basilis E; Konstantopoulou, Maria A; Kitching, William; De Voss, James J

2005-03-17

89

Bioactive properties of the main triterpenes found in olives, virgin olive oil, and leaves of Olea europaea.  

PubMed

Oleanolic acid, maslinic acid, uvaol, and erythrodiol are the main triterpenes present in olives, olive tree leaves, and virgin olive oil. Their concentration in virgin olive oil depends on the quality of the olive oil and the variety of the olive tree. These triterpenes are described to present different properties, such as antitumoral activity, cardioprotective activity, anti-inflammatory activity, and antioxidant protection. Olive oil triterpenes are a natural source of antioxidants that could be useful compounds for the prevention of multiple diseases related to cell oxidative damage. However, special attention has to be paid to the concentrations used, because higher concentration may lead to cytotoxic or biphasic effects. This work explores all of the bioactive properties so far described for the main triterpenes present in virgin olive oil. PMID:24279741

Sánchez-Quesada, Cristina; López-Biedma, Alicia; Warleta, Fernando; Campos, María; Beltrán, Gabriel; Gaforio, José J

2013-12-18

90

Isolation of a hydroxytyrosol-rich extract from olive leaves ( Olea Europaea L.) and evaluation of its antioxidant properties and bioactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, a phenol extract of high hydroxytyrosol (OLPE) content was obtained from olive leaves (Olea europaea L.), and subsequently tested under different contexts. The method used to obtain the OLPE basically involved two steps: the\\u000a use of strongly-acid aqueous steam, generated from 10% HCl (v\\/v) at 100°C, to directly hydrolyse the native complex phenols\\u000a from integral olive leaves,

Antonella De Leonardis; Alessandra Aretini; Gabriele Alfano; Vincenzo Macciola; Giancarlo Ranalli

2008-01-01

91

Production of glucose and bioactive aglycone by chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis of purified oleuropein from Olea Europea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure-grade oleuropein, a bitter, hypotensive, phenolic glucoside, was obtained from organic extracts of olive plant leaves\\u000a by two Chromatographic steps. The purified compound was characterized by spectroscopic NMR and FAB-MS methods. The glucoside\\u000a underwent chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis. Aglycone was characterized by spectroscopic methods (1H-NMR and FAB-MS). Glucose was measured by enzymatic methods. The enzymatic hydrolysis of oleuropein was carried

Renato Capasso; Antonio Evidente; Carla Visca; Liloana Gianfreda; Michele Maremonti; GUIDO GRECO JR

1997-01-01

92

Effect of acetone feeding on alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a clear connection between the presence of acetone in larval diet and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity in laboratory raised populations of Bactrocera oleae. ADH activity of B. oleae is depressed in acetone-impregnated diets. At the same time the change of activity is accompanied by a change in the relative proportions of the

N Cosmidis; M Loukas; V Peppa; G Goulielmos; E Zouros

2002-01-01

93

Psyttalia ponerophaga (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as a potential biological control agent of olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California.  

PubMed

The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is a newly invasive, significant threat to California's olive industry. As part of a classical biological control programme, Psyttalia ponerophaga (Silvestri) was imported to California from Pakistan and evaluated in quarantine. Biological parameters that would improve rearing and field-release protocols and permit comparisons to other olive fruit fly biological control agents were measured. Potential barriers to the successful establishment of P. ponerophaga, including the geographic origins of parasitoid and pest populations and constraints imposed by fruit size, were also evaluated as part of this investigation. Under insectary conditions, all larval stages except neonates were acceptable hosts. Provided a choice of host ages, the parasitoids' host-searching and oviposition preferences were a positive function of host age, with most offspring reared from hosts attacked as third instars. Immature developmental time was a negative function of tested temperatures, ranging from 25.5 to 12.4 days at 22 and 30 degrees C, respectively. Evaluation of adult longevity, at constant temperatures ranging from 15 to 34 degrees C, showed that P. ponerophaga had a broad tolerance of temperature, living from 3 to 34 days at 34 and 15 degrees C, respectively. Lifetime fecundity was 18.7 +/- 2.8 adult offspring per female, with most eggs deposited within 12 days after adult eclosion. Olive size affected parasitoid performance, with lower parasitism levels on hosts feeding in larger olives. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to field manipulation and selection of parasitoid species for olive fruit fly biological control in California and worldwide. PMID:17524155

Sime, K R; Daane, K M; Kirk, A; Andrews, J W; Johnson, M W; Messing, R H

2007-06-01

94

Molecular differentiation of the Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti) species complex (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated with olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Psyttalia (Braconidae: Opiinae) contains several species being used or considered for use in the biological control of various fruit-infesting tephritid pests, most notably olive fly, Bactrocera oleae and Medfly, Ceratitis capitata. There is continued interest in obtaining more effective tephritid parasitoids, and much attention has focused on one particular group of closely related species from subsaharan Africa, the

Paul F. Rugman-Jones; Robert Wharton; Tom van Noort; Richard Stouthamer

2009-01-01

95

Comparison of some chemical parameters of a naturally debittered olive (Olea europaea L.) type with regular olive varieties.  

PubMed

Some olives grown in Karaburun peninsula in the west part of Turkey and mostly coming from Erkence variety lose their bitterness while still on the tree and are called Hurma among locals. This olive type does not require further processing to remove the bitter compounds. In this study, sugar, organic acid and fatty acid profiles of Hurma, Erkence (not naturally debittered) and Gemlik (commonly consumed as table olive) olives were determined throughout 8weeks of maturation period for two consecutive harvest seasons, and the results were analysed by principal component analysis (PCA). PCA of sugar and organic acid data revealed a differentiation in terms of harvest year but not on variety. Hurma olive is separated from others due to its fatty acid profile, and it has higher linoleic acid content compared to others. This might be an indication of increased desaturase enzyme activity for Hurma olives during natural debittering phase. PMID:24837927

Aktas, Ayse Burcu; Ozen, Banu; Tokatli, Figen; Sen, Ilknur

2014-10-15

96

Olea Europea-derived phenolic products attenuate antinociceptive morphine tolerance: an innovative strategic approach to treat cancer pain.  

PubMed

Morphine and related opioid drugs are currently the major drugs for severe pain. Their clinical utility is limited in the management of severe cancer pain due to the rapid development of tolerance. Restoring opioid efficacy is therefore of great clinical importance. A great body of evidence suggests the key role of free radicals and posttranslational modulation in the development of tolerance to the analgesic activity of morphine. Epidemiological studies have shown a relationship between the Mediterranean diet and a reduced incidence of pathologies such as coronary heart disease and cancer. A central hallmark of this diet is the high consumption of virgin olive oil as the main source of fat which contains antioxidant components in the non-saponifiable fraction, including phenolic compounds absent in seed oils. Here, we show that in a rodent model of opiate tolerance, removal of the free radicals with phenolic compounds of olive oil such as hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein reinstates the analgesic action of morphine. Chronic injection of morphine in mice led to the development of tolerance and this was associated with increased nitrotyrosin and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation together with nitration and deactivation of MnSOD in the spinal cord. Removal of free radicals by hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein blocked morphine tolerance by inhibiting nitration and MDA formation and replacing the MnSOD activity. The phenolic fraction of virgin olive oil exerts antioxidant activities in vivo and free radicals generation occurring during chronic morphine administration play a crucial role in the development of opioid tolerance. Our data suggest novel therapeutic approach in the management of chronic cancer pain, in particular for those patients who require long-term opioid treatment for pain relief without development of tolerance. PMID:24750796

Muscoli, C; Lauro, F; D'Agostino, C; Ilari, S; Giancotti, L A; Gliozzi, M; Costa, N; Carresi, C; Musolino, V; Casale, F; Ventrice, D; Oliverio, E; Palma, E; Nistico', S; Procopio, A; Mollace, V

2014-01-01

97

Chloroplast-DNA variation in cultivated and wild olive (Olea europaea L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymorphism in the lengths of restriction fragments of the whole cpDNA molecule was studied in cultivated olive and in oleaster\\u000a (wild olive) over the whole Mediterranean Basin. Seventy two olive cultivars, 89 very old trees cultivated locally, and 101\\u000a oleasters were scored for ten endonucleases. Moreover, maternal inheritance of cpDNA in olive was shown by analysing the progeny\\u000a of a

M. Amane; R. Lumaret; V. Hany; N. Ouazzani; C. Debain; G. Vivier; M. F. Deguilloux

1999-01-01

98

Measurement and modeling of evapotranspiration of olive ( Olea europaea L.) orchards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient irrigation management requires a good quantification of evapotranspiration. In the case of olive orchards, which are the dominant crop in vast areas of southern Europe, very little information exists on evaporation. Measurements of aerodynamic conductance and evaporation above and below an olive orchard allowed the calibration of a transpiration model of olive trees based on the Penman–Monteith equation. The

F. J Villalobos; F Orgaz; L Testi; E Fereres

2000-01-01

99

Nutritional composition of lentil straw, vetch hay, olive leaves, and saltbush leaves and their digestibility as measured in fat-tailed sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several less researched forages from various Mediterranean plants may be superior, or at least equivalent, in forage value to barley (Hordeum vulgare) straw. These include lentil (Lens culinaris) straw, vetch (Vicia sativa) hay, dried olive (Olea europea L.) leaves, and saltbush (Atriplex halimus). Using in vitro, in sacco and in vivo methods, we tested (i) the nutritional composition, (ii) digestibility

S. Abbeddou; S. Rihawi; H. D. Hess; L. Iñiguez; A. C. Mayer; M. Kreuzer

2011-01-01

100

Oil, protein, antioxidants and free radical scavenging activity of stone from wild olive trees (Olea europaea L.).  

PubMed

The wild olive trees or oleaster (var. sylvestris) and the cultivated olive trees (var. europaea) constitute the two botanical varieties of Olea europaea L. from Mediterranean. In this study, a partial chemical profile was conducted including the total lipids, the fatty acid profiles, soluble proteins, polyphenols, flavanoids contents and antioxidants activities of stone from six oleaster trees. The comparison was made by two olive cultivars cultivated in the same region. The oleaster and cultivar stones were richer in oil content having an average of 8.99 and 7.38 % dry weight basis (DW), respectively. Qualitatively, all studied oils have the same fatty acids profile with the oleic acid C18:1n-9 as the major fatty acid. The oleaster stone oils were richer in monounsaturated fatty acids having an average of 64.87%. They, also, richer in protein content with an average of 198.86 mg/g DW.The globulin is the major fraction, followed by the albumin, the prolamin and the glutemin fractions. The oleaster stone extracts contain polyphenols, flavonoids with an average of 151.14 and 11.91 mg gallic acid equivalent/100g of DW, respectively. The studied extracts showed antioxidant activity using the free radical scavenging activity determined by DPPH and ABTS. The unexploited oleaster stone seems to be a source of oil with good fatty acids balance, in protein and antioxidants metabolites and would be useful for the formulation of supplements and/or pharmaceutical ingredients. PMID:23625423

Hannachi, Hédia; Elfalleh, Walid; Marzouk, Sizaiem

2013-05-01

101

Construction of Core Collections Suitable for Association Mapping to Optimize Use of Mediterranean Olive (Olea europaea L.) Genetic Resources  

PubMed Central

Phenotypic characterisation of germplasm collections is a decisive step towards association mapping analyses, but it is particularly expensive and tedious for woody perennial plant species. Characterisation could be more efficient if focused on a reasonably sized subset of accessions, or so-called core collection (CC), reflecting the geographic origin and variability of the germplasm. The questions that arise concern the sample size to use and genetic parameters that should be optimized in a core collection to make it suitable for association mapping. Here we investigated these questions in olive (Olea europaea L.), a perennial fruit species. By testing different sampling methods and sizes in a worldwide olive germplasm bank (OWGB Marrakech, Morocco) containing 502 unique genotypes characterized by nuclear and plastid loci, a two-step sampling method was proposed. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index was found to be the best criterion to be maximized in the first step using the Core Hunter program. A primary core collection of 50 entries (CC50) was defined that captured more than 80% of the diversity. This latter was subsequently used as a kernel with the Mstrat program to capture the remaining diversity. 200 core collections of 94 entries (CC94) were thus built for flexibility in the choice of varieties to be studied. Most entries of both core collections (CC50 and CC94) were revealed to be unrelated due to the low kinship coefficient, whereas a genetic structure spanning the eastern and western/central Mediterranean regions was noted. Linkage disequilibrium was observed in CC94 which was mainly explained by a genetic structure effect as noted for OWGB Marrakech. Since they reflect the geographic origin and diversity of olive germplasm and are of reasonable size, both core collections will be of major interest to develop long-term association studies and thus enhance genomic selection in olive species.

El Bakkali, Ahmed; Haouane, Hicham; Moukhli, Abdelmajid; Costes, Evelyne; Van Damme, Patrick; Khadari, Bouchaib

2013-01-01

102

Construction of core collections suitable for association mapping to optimize use of Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L.) genetic resources.  

PubMed

Phenotypic characterisation of germplasm collections is a decisive step towards association mapping analyses, but it is particularly expensive and tedious for woody perennial plant species. Characterisation could be more efficient if focused on a reasonably sized subset of accessions, or so-called core collection (CC), reflecting the geographic origin and variability of the germplasm. The questions that arise concern the sample size to use and genetic parameters that should be optimized in a core collection to make it suitable for association mapping. Here we investigated these questions in olive (Olea europaea L.), a perennial fruit species. By testing different sampling methods and sizes in a worldwide olive germplasm bank (OWGB Marrakech, Morocco) containing 502 unique genotypes characterized by nuclear and plastid loci, a two-step sampling method was proposed. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index was found to be the best criterion to be maximized in the first step using the Core Hunter program. A primary core collection of 50 entries (CC50) was defined that captured more than 80% of the diversity. This latter was subsequently used as a kernel with the Mstrat program to capture the remaining diversity. 200 core collections of 94 entries (CC94) were thus built for flexibility in the choice of varieties to be studied. Most entries of both core collections (CC50 and CC94) were revealed to be unrelated due to the low kinship coefficient, whereas a genetic structure spanning the eastern and western/central Mediterranean regions was noted. Linkage disequilibrium was observed in CC94 which was mainly explained by a genetic structure effect as noted for OWGB Marrakech. Since they reflect the geographic origin and diversity of olive germplasm and are of reasonable size, both core collections will be of major interest to develop long-term association studies and thus enhance genomic selection in olive species. PMID:23667437

El Bakkali, Ahmed; Haouane, Hicham; Moukhli, Abdelmajid; Costes, Evelyne; Van Damme, Patrick; Khadari, Bouchaib

2013-01-01

103

Performance and water requirement of young olives (Olea europaea L.) in the harsh environment of Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the harsh environmental conditions of Kuwait, plants are frequently exposed to high temperatures, low relative humidity and drought. Because water resources available for agriculture are limited, an efficient irrigation strategy is vital for sustainable olive production. In view of these facts, a study to determine the behavior and water requirement of young olive plants under Kuwait's environmental conditions was

Narayana R. Bhat; Habibah Al-Manaie; Majda K. Suleiman; Laila Al-Mulla; Franco Famiani; Gladson DCruz; Binson Thomas

2012-01-01

104

Performance and water requirement of young olives (Olea europaea L.) in the harsh environment of Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the harsh environmental conditions of Kuwait, plants are frequently exposed to high temperatures, low relative humidity and drought. Because water resources available for agriculture are limited, an efficient irrigation strategy is vital for sustainable olive production. In view of these facts, a study to determine the behavior and water requirement of young olive plants under Kuwait's environmental conditions was

Narayana R. Bhat; Habibah Al-Manaie; Majda K. Suleiman; Laila Al-Mulla; Franco Famiani; Gladson DCruz; Binson Thomas

2011-01-01

105

BIOCHEMICAL AND IMMUNOCYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF VITELLOGENESIS IN THE OLIVE FRUIT FLY DACUS (BACTROCERA) OLEAE (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis and selective accumulation of the major yolk proteins in the developing oocytes of the speciesDacus oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) was studied biochemically and by immunoelectron microscopy. In the hemolymph of adult females, two yolk proteins precursors (or vitellogenins) have been detected. They each exhibit a similar molecular weight and isoelectric point to their respective mature yolk proteins (or vitellins), while

Ioannis P Trougakos; Klea Lamnissou; Lukas H Margaritis

1999-01-01

106

Evaluation of the impact on entomocoenosis of active agents allowed in organic olive farming against Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin, 1790).  

PubMed

Several attempts for evaluating environmental impact of active agents allowed in organic olive farming against Bactrocera oleae have been made, but very few studies were performed contemporaneously on more than one of them. Insects were chosen as indicators because they are known to react very quickly to environmental perturbations, mainly at the community level. In fact, the coenosis is the functional unit interacting with biotic and abiotic environmental parameters. Seven taxa, known for their sensitivity to habitat alterations, were sampled and grouped in functional groups: predators and parasitoids, phytophagouses and pollinators. The coenotic balance between these two functional groups was analyzed. The study was carried out in an organic olive orchard in the municipality of Terranova da Sibari, Cosenza, Southern Italy. The tested active agents (Azadirachtin, Rotenone, Copper Oxychloride) were sprayed twice (end of September and middle October). During the treatments the population dynamics of all the taxa were knocked-down. No one tested compound seems to be harmless to the entomocoenosis, particularly on phytophagouses and pollinators. In truly organic farming it is necessary to provide natural refuge areas to beneficial insects (i.e. pest antagonists) in which no active agents are sprayed and alternative preys could be found. PMID:17763034

Iannotta, Nino; Belfiore, Tiziana; Brandmayr, Pittro; Noce, Maria E; Scalercio, Stefano

2007-01-01

107

A lipoxygenase with dual positional specificity is expressed in olives (Olea europaea L.) during ripening.  

PubMed

Plant lipoxygenases (LOXs) are a class of widespread dioxygenases catalysing the hydroperoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Although multiple isoforms of LOX have been detected in a wide range of plants, their physiological roles remain to be clarified. With the aim to clarify the occurrence of LOXs in olives and their contribution to the elaboration of the olive oil aroma, we cloned and characterized the first cDNA of the LOX isoform which is expressed during olive development. The open reading frame encodes a polypeptide of 864 amino acids. This olive LOX is a type-1 LOX which shows a high degree of identity at the peptide level towards hazelnut (77.3%), tobacco (76.3%) and almond (75.5%) LOXs. The recombinant enzyme shows a dual positional specificity, as it forms both 9- and 13-hydroperoxide of linoleic acid in a 2:1 ratio, and would be defined as 9/13-LOX. Although a LOX activity was detected throughout the olive development, the 9/13-LOX is mainly expressed at late developmental stages. Our data suggest that there are at least two Lox genes expressed in black olives, and that the 9/13-LOX is associated with the ripening and senescence processes. However, due to its dual positional specificity and its expression pattern, its contribution to the elaboration of the olive oil aroma might be considered. PMID:19268561

Palmieri-Thiers, Cynthia; Canaan, Stéphane; Brunini, Virginie; Lorenzi, Vannina; Tomi, Félix; Desseyn, Jean-Luc; Garscha, Ulrike; Oliw, Ernst H; Berti, Liliane; Maury, Jacques

2009-05-01

108

Genetic Biodiversity of Italian Olives (Olea europaea) Germplasm Analyzed by SSR Markers  

PubMed Central

The olive is an important fruit species cultivated for oil and table olives in Italy and the Mediterranean basin. The conservation of cultivated plants in ex situ collections is essential for the optimal management and use of their genetic resources. The largest ex situ olive germplasm collection consists of approximately 500 Italian olive varieties and corresponding to 85% of the total Italian olive germplasm is maintained at the Consiglio per la Ricerca e sperimentazione per l'Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per l'Olivicoltura e l'Industria Olearia (CRA-OLI), in Italy. In this work, eleven preselected nuclear microsatellite markers were used to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flows with the aim of assembling a core collection. The dendrogram obtained utilizing the unweighted pair group method highlights the presence of homonymy and synonymy in olive tree datasets analyzed in this study. 439 different unique genotype profiles were obtained with this combination of 11 loci nSSR, representing 89.8% of the varieties analyzed. The remaining 10.2% comprises different variety pairs in which both accessions are genetically indistinguishable. Clustering analysis performed using BAPS software detected seven groups in Italian olive germplasm and gene flows were determined among identified clusters. We proposed an Italian core collection of 23 olive varieties capturing all detected alleles at microsatellites. The information collected in this study regarding the CRA-OLI ex situ collection can be used for breeding programs, for germplasm conservation, and for optimizing a strategy for the management of olive gene pools.

Vendramin, Giuseppe Giovanni; Chiappetta, Adriana

2014-01-01

109

Genetic biodiversity of Italian olives (Olea europaea) germplasm analyzed by SSR markers.  

PubMed

The olive is an important fruit species cultivated for oil and table olives in Italy and the Mediterranean basin. The conservation of cultivated plants in ex situ collections is essential for the optimal management and use of their genetic resources. The largest ex situ olive germplasm collection consists of approximately 500 Italian olive varieties and corresponding to 85% of the total Italian olive germplasm is maintained at the Consiglio per la Ricerca e sperimentazione per l'Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per l'Olivicoltura e l'Industria Olearia (CRA-OLI), in Italy. In this work, eleven preselected nuclear microsatellite markers were used to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flows with the aim of assembling a core collection. The dendrogram obtained utilizing the unweighted pair group method highlights the presence of homonymy and synonymy in olive tree datasets analyzed in this study. 439 different unique genotype profiles were obtained with this combination of 11 loci nSSR, representing 89.8% of the varieties analyzed. The remaining 10.2% comprises different variety pairs in which both accessions are genetically indistinguishable. Clustering analysis performed using BAPS software detected seven groups in Italian olive germplasm and gene flows were determined among identified clusters. We proposed an Italian core collection of 23 olive varieties capturing all detected alleles at microsatellites. The information collected in this study regarding the CRA-OLI ex situ collection can be used for breeding programs, for germplasm conservation, and for optimizing a strategy for the management of olive gene pools. PMID:24723801

Muzzalupo, Innocenzo; Vendramin, Giuseppe Giovanni; Chiappetta, Adriana

2014-01-01

110

Characterization of Two Alcohol Dehydrogenase ( Adh ) Loci from the Olive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera ( Dacus ) oleae and Implications for Adh Duplication in Dipteran Insects  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   We report the cloning and structural characterization of two Adh loci of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae. Each of the two genes, named Adh1 and Adh2, consists of three exons and two introns for a total length of 1981 and 988 nucleotides, respectively. Their deduced amino\\u000a acid sequences of 257 and 258 residues exhibit a 77% identity and

George N. Goulielmos; Nickolaos Cosmidis; Michael Loukas; Spyros Tsakas; Eleftherios Zouros

2001-01-01

111

Tracing the History of an Enzyme Polymorphism: The Case of Alcohol Dehydrogenase2 (Adh2) of the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae, previous studies have described a one-locus three-allele electrophoretic polymorphism of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase and provided evidence that the polymorphism is under the influence of selection. A recent study has shown that this species carries a two-locus duplication for alcohol dehydrogenase. Here, we show that the polymorphism maps at one of the duplicated

George N. Goulielmos; Nickolaos Cosmidis; Marianna E. Theodorakopoulou; Michael Loukas; Eleftherios Zouros

2003-01-01

112

Resistance-associated point mutations of organophosphate insensitive acetylcholinesterase, in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2.2-kb full length cDNA containing an ORF encoding a putative acetylcholinesterase (AChE) precursor of 673 amino acid residues was obtained by a com- bined degenerate PCR and RACE strategy from an organophosphate-susceptible Bactrocera oleae strain. A comparison of cDNA sequences of individual insects from susceptible and resistant strains, coupled with an enzyme inhibition assay with omethoate, indicated a novel

J. G. Vontas; M. J. Hejazi; N. J. Hawkes; N. Cosmidis; M. Loukas; J. Hemingway

2002-01-01

113

Assessment of susceptibility of olive cultivars to the Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin, 1790) and Camarosporium dalmaticum (Thüm.) Zachos & Tzav.-Klon. attacks in Calabria (Southern Italy).  

PubMed

Within the framework of research concerning the application of techniques alternative to chemical pesticides for control of parasites, the C.R.A. Experimental Institute for Olive Growing for many years has been performing a large investigation in order to detect sources of genetic resistance in olive germplasm. In the present study we observed the behavior related to the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) infestation and Camarosporium dalmaticum infection of ten olive cultivars farmed under the same agronomic and climatic conditions in Calabria, Southern Italy. The sampling and the data collecting were carried out in three different ripening times. The drupe amount of oleuropein and cyanidine was detected by laboratory analyses in order to verify a possible correlation between these molecules and the level of infestation/infection of the above-mentioned parasites. The obtained data were submitted to analysis of variance. In relation to the fungal infection the results displayed that cvs Tonda nera dolce showed the lowest susceptibility, while the cv Giarraffa turned out to be the most susceptible. The less susceptible cultivars to the phytophagous were Tonda nera dolce and Bhardi Tirana. Since the less susceptible cultivar to olive fly attacks are the same observed in relation to the susceptibility to olive fruit rot, it is suggested a relation between the olive fly infestation and the fungal infection. It suggests the utility to achieve these results both to transfer directly to the farmers' world and to emphasize ecosystem health and biodiversity conservation. PMID:17763035

Iannotta, Nino; Noce, Maria E; Ripa, Vincenzo; Scalercio, Stefano; Vizzarri, Veronica

2007-01-01

114

Effect of ripening on texture, microstructure and cell wall polysaccharide composition of olive fruit (Olea europaea).  

PubMed

Olive fruits at the green, cherry and black stages were used to investigate the structural and microstructural changes in tissues during ripening. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) tissue fracture of green olives resulted in cell wall breakage of epicarp and mesocarp cells. Tissue fracture resulted in fewer broken cells in cherry than in green olives and even less in black olive tissues. Cell separation occurred in the middle lamella region in some of the cells of the cherry fruit and in most of the black olive cells. Solubilization and loss of pectic polysaccharides, mainly the arabinan moiety, and glucuronoxylans occurred in the green to cherry stages. The pulp cell wall constituent polysaccharides, pectic polysaccharides, cellulose, glucuronoxylans and xyloglucans, were degraded and/or solubilized at the cherry to black ripening stages. The resultant depolymerization of the pectic polymers, especially those of the middle lamella region, was consistent with the progressive cell separation at the different ripening stages by SEM. This showed that partial solubilization of pectic, hemicellulosic and cellulosic polysaccharides within the cell wall matrix weakened the cell wall structures, preventing the breaking of cells when the tissues were fractured. PMID:11299008

Mafra, Isabel; Lanza, Barbara; Reis, Ana; Marsilio, Vincenzo; Campestre, Cristina; De Angelis, Mario; Coimbra, Manuel A.

2001-04-01

115

Analytical approaches for the characterization and identification of olive (Olea europaea) oil proteins.  

PubMed

Proteins in olive oil have been scarcely investigated probably due to the difficulty of working with such a lipidic matrix and the dramatically low abundance of proteins in this biological material. Additionally, this scarce information has generated contradictory results, thus requiring further investigations. This work treats this subject from a comprehensive point of view and proposes the use of different analytical approaches to delve into the characterization and identification of proteins in olive oil. Different extraction methodologies, including capture via combinational hexapeptide ligand libraries (CPLLs), were tried. A sequence of methodologies, starting with off-gel isoelectric focusing (IEF) followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using an ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) column, was applied to profile proteins from olive seed, pulp, and oil. Besides this, and for the first time, a tentative identification of oil proteins by mass spectrometry has been attempted. PMID:24128378

Esteve, Clara; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Marina, María Luisa; García, María Concepción; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

2013-10-30

116

Tracing the history of an enzyme polymorphism: the case of alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (Adh-2) of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae.  

PubMed

In the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae, previous studies have described a one-locus three-allele electrophoretic polymorphism of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase and provided evidence that the polymorphism is under the influence of selection. A recent study has shown that this species carries a two-locus duplication for alcohol dehydrogenase. Here, we show that the polymorphism maps at one of the duplicated loci, Adh2, and identify the nucleotide and, therefore, the inferred amino acid differences among the three allozymes. At the amino acid level, the polymorphism is of the simplest possible form: there is no intra-allozyme variation, and interallozyme differences are restricted to one amino acid for two pairs of alleles and to two amino acids for the third pair. Consideration of the amino acid residues at the sites that segregate in B. oleae in four congeneric species and the phylogenetic trees produced from the nucleotide sequences of the Adh2 gene of these species point to the same allozyme as the ancestral form of the polymorphism. Interestingly, this allozyme comprises less than 1% of the gene pool of present-day natural populations of B. oleae, where the other two allozymes appear to form a stable polymorphism. Previous studies have shown that the frequency of the rare allozyme rises rapidly in laboratory colonies maintained on artificial diet and declines again when the artificial diet is replaced with olive fruit, the natural substrate of B. oleae. The geographical distribution of several congeneric species suggests that B. oleae originated in the Indian subcontinent, where the olive tree is practically absent. The poor performance of the ancestral allele on the olive fruit suggests the possibility that the decline of this allele and the concomitant rise of the presently common alleles might be associated with the expansion of the insect's geographical distribution to areas where the olive tree has become its main and perhaps sole host. The estimated age of the polymorphism is compatible with this hypothesis, but firmer support could be difficult to obtain. PMID:12644551

Goulielmos, George N; Cosmidis, Nickolaos; Theodorakopoulou, Marianna E; Loukas, Michael; Zouros, Eleftherios

2003-03-01

117

Pigment metabolism of 'Sikitita' olive ( Olea europaea L.): a new cultivar obtained by cross-breeding.  

PubMed

The new olive cultivar 'Sikitita' was obtained from a cross between the 'Picual' and 'Arbequina' varieties. 'Sikitita' was selected for its features, making it particularly suited to high-density olive hedgerow orchards. From the standpoint of chloroplast pigment metabolism, the fruits of the 'Picual' and 'Arbequina' varieties have significant differences. It is therefore extremely interesting to analyze the descendants of both cultivars. With regard to chlorophyll catabolism, 'Sikitita' has proven to be a cultivar with low pigmentation and low levels of chlorophyllase activity. This is contrary to the findings obtained to date, where varieties with low pigmentation are a consequence of high chlorophyllase activity ('Arbequina') and highly pigmented fruits are due to low chlorophyllase activity ('Picual'). 'Arbequina' was, until recently, the only cultivar described that had developed a carotenogenic process, despite its anthocyanic ripening. However, from its father ('Arbequina'), the 'Sikitita' cultivar has inherited the pool of enzymes necessary to esterify xanthophylls at the chromoplast level. This makes 'Sikitita' a very interesting cultivar, with potential chemotaxonomic differences (such as esterified xanthophylls in the olive oils), and demonstrates the interest in genetic improvement programs for olive cultivars with different organoleptic characteristics. PMID:21319806

Roca, María; León, Lorenzo; de la Rosa, Raúl

2011-03-01

118

Biochemical Differences Between Products of the ADH Locus in Olive Fruit Fly (Bactrocera oleae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purified alcohol dehydrogenases from olive fruitflies of genotypes SS, II, and SI were biochemicallycompared. The enzymes were found to differ in thespecific activity, in the influence of pH andtemperature on activity, and in the affinity with differentsubstrate-alcohols. The probable relationships of thesefindings with the dramatic changes in allele frequenciesobserved when natural populations are introduced in the laboratory are discussed.

Vasiliki Mazi; Nikos Cosmidis; Michael Loukas; Yannis Clonis; Eleftherios Zouros

1998-01-01

119

Behavior of storage lipids during development and germination of olive ( Olea europaea L . ) pollen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.?The presence of abundant oil bodies in the mature olive pollen grain has led us to focus on the behavior of these lipid bodies during pollen development and in vitro pollen germination. The appearance, increase, and accumulation of lipid bodies have been determined by following the sequential development of the pollen grain. Semithin slices of anthers and pollen grains were

M. I. Rodríguez-García; M. M'rani-Alaoui; M. C. Fernández

2003-01-01

120

Analyzing diurnal and age-related pheromone emission of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae by sequential SPME-GCMS analysis.  

PubMed

The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), uses 1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane ("olean"), produced primarily by females, as a sex pheromone. We used sequential solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GCMS) analysis to show that female olive flies release about 1000 ng of pheromone at the onset of scotophase for several weeks, while males release about 1/100 as much during the first week after eclosion. The present research demonstrates details of employing SPME-GCMS with the partially known pheromone system of the olive fruit fly as a model for pheromone identification and diurnal release patterns in insects, especially fruit flies. The sequential SPME-GCMS method will readily allow detection and semi-quantification of semiochemicals released by insects in minute amounts throughout the diurnal cycle. PMID:22941675

Levi-Zada, Anat; Nestel, David; Fefer, Daniela; Nemni-Lavy, Esther; Deloya-Kahane, Inbal; David, Maayan

2012-08-01

121

The efficacy of kaolin particle film on oil quality indices of olive trees (Olea europaea L.) cv 'Zard' grown under warm and semi-arid region of Iran.  

PubMed

Kaolin particle film (0%, 3% and 6%; w/v), as an antitranspirant treatment, was applied to mature 'Zard' olive trees (Olea europaea L.). Olive oil was extracted from harvested fruit and fatty acid composition and other oil quality indices of the fruit assessed over crop seasons. Kaolin increased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, but decreased peroxide and iodine values, and UV absorbance extinction coefficients, of the oil. The highest palmitic acid was observed in the oil obtained from untreated trees (17%). Kaolin increased oleic acid up to 65% and 64% in the first and second crop seasons, respectively, but decreased linoleic and linolenic acid contents. Monounsaturated acids (65%) and oleic acid/linoleic acid ratios (4) were higher in oil obtained from kaolin treated than untreated trees. Therefore it can be expected that extracted olive oil from kaolin treated trees has a higher oxidative stability and shelf life than untreated trees. PMID:25053025

Khaleghi, Esmaeil; Arzani, Kazem; Moallemi, Norollah; Barzegar, Mohsen

2015-01-01

122

Variability of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds in a segregating progeny from a single cross in Olea europaea L. and sensory and nutritional quality implications.  

PubMed

Virgin olive oil phenolic compounds are responsible for its nutritional and sensory quality. The synthesis of phenolic compounds occurs when enzymes and substrates meet as olive fruit is crushed during the industrial process to obtain the oil. The genetic variability of the major phenolic compounds of virgin olive oil was studied in a progeny of the cross of Picual x Arbequina olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.). They belong to four different groups: compounds that included tyrosol or hydroxytyrosol in their molecules, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Data of phenolics in the oils showed that the progeny displayed a large degree of variability, widely transgressing the genitor levels. This high variability can be of interest on breeding programs. Thus, multivariate analysis allowed to identify genotypes within the progeny particularly interesting in terms of phenolic composition and deduced organoleptic and nutritional quality. The present study has demonstrated that it is possible to obtain enough degree of variability with a single cross of olive cultivars for compounds related to the nutritional and organoleptic properties of virgin olive oil. PMID:24651694

Pérez, Ana G; León, Lorenzo; Pascual, Mar; Romero-Segura, Carmen; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; de la Rosa, Raúl; Sanz, Carlos

2014-01-01

123

Variability of Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds in a Segregating Progeny from a Single Cross in Olea europaea L. and Sensory and Nutritional Quality Implications  

PubMed Central

Virgin olive oil phenolic compounds are responsible for its nutritional and sensory quality. The synthesis of phenolic compounds occurs when enzymes and substrates meet as olive fruit is crushed during the industrial process to obtain the oil. The genetic variability of the major phenolic compounds of virgin olive oil was studied in a progeny of the cross of Picual x Arbequina olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.). They belong to four different groups: compounds that included tyrosol or hydroxytyrosol in their molecules, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Data of phenolics in the oils showed that the progeny displayed a large degree of variability, widely transgressing the genitor levels. This high variability can be of interest on breeding programs. Thus, multivariate analysis allowed to identify genotypes within the progeny particularly interesting in terms of phenolic composition and deduced organoleptic and nutritional quality. The present study has demonstrated that it is possible to obtain enough degree of variability with a single cross of olive cultivars for compounds related to the nutritional and organoleptic properties of virgin olive oil.

Perez, Ana G.; Leon, Lorenzo; Pascual, Mar; Romero-Segura, Carmen; Sanchez-Ortiz, Araceli; de la Rosa, Raul; Sanz, Carlos

2014-01-01

124

An in vitro nutritive evaluation of olive tree (Olea europaea) pruning residues as affected by cutting regimen.  

PubMed

Nutritive values of the branches from Olea europaea trees cut at 25, 50, 75 or 100 cm distance from the tip were evaluated by determination of the in vitro digestible organic matter (IVDOM), metabolizable energy (ME), net energy lactation (NEL), and presence nutritional and anti-nutritional components. The values of nutritive components, nitrogen forms, IVDOM, ME and NEL declined and concentrations of crude fiber and cell wall constituents increased with the increase in cutting length. Total phenols, hydrolysable tannins and condensed tannins amounted to 70, 17 and 0.6 g/kg DM, respectively. The addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG, 6000) to the plant samples incubated with rumen fluid at a ratio of (2:1 PEG:substrate) increased the values of IVDOM, ME and NEL by 40 g/kg DM, 0.59 MJ/kg DM and 0.42 MJ/kg DM, respectively. IVDOM, ME and NEL were negatively correlated with crude fiber and cell wall constituents but positively correlated with nitrogen forms and non-fiber carbohydrates. Olive pruning branches in diameter<3 mm could be used as sources of feeds for small ruminants. PMID:22055100

Al-Masri, M R

2012-01-01

125

Geographical distribution and evolutionary history of organophosphate-resistant Ace alleles in the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae).  

PubMed

Acetylcholinesterase (Ace) is the molecular target of organophosphate (OP) insecticides, and two mutations that confer different levels of OP insensitivity have previously been identified in the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae. Numerous sensitive and two insensitive alleles (including one convergent acquisition) are described from the entire worldwide distribution of the fly. Most of the variation is harbored in the native range of the species and in the Middle East and consists of numerous low-frequency sensitive alleles. The insensitive alleles likely came to high frequency more recently in the Mediterranean region or in the Middle East, reaching frequencies as high as 100% in some populations, and determined a corresponding decline in overall genetic variation. We hypothesize that the major force that shaped the current distribution of resistant and non-resistant acetylcholinesterase alleles is natural selection, likely responsible for the high frequency of insensitive alleles in areas where organophosphates have been used extensively. We also discuss a role for historical contingency, that can explain why sensitive alleles are absent altogether in the species ancestral range and present in areas of recent expansion, such as California, despite the limited use of OPs. PMID:16835025

Nardi, Francesco; Carapelli, Antonio; Vontas, John G; Dallai, Romano; Roderick, George K; Frati, Francesco

2006-07-01

126

Water relations and drought-induced embolism in olive (Olea europaea) varieties 'Meski' and 'Chemlali' during severe drought.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of drought on the water relations, osmotic adjustment and xylem vulnerability to embolism of olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties, 'Meski' and 'Chemlali'. Two-year-old self-rooted cuttings growing in sand-filled pots in a greenhouse were subjected to water stress by withholding water for 60 days. Water relations and gas exchange measurements showed that 'Chemlali' was more drought resistant than 'Meski' and had a greater capacity for osmotic adjustment through solute accumulation. However, when water stress was acute, the effect of osmoregulation on leaf cell turgor was largely counteracted by xylem cavitation. Cavitation vulnerability curves showed that both varieties were highly resistant to embolism formation. The xylem water potential inducing 50% loss of stem conductivity approached -7 MPa in 'Meski' and only slightly less in 'Chemlali'. Although the difference between varieties in susceptibility to xylem embolism was small, it appears to account in large part for the difference between them in the ability to tolerate severe drought. PMID:18381277

Ennajeh, Mustapha; Tounekti, Taieb; Vadel, Ahmedou M; Khemira, Habib; Cochard, Hervé

2008-06-01

127

( Z)-9-tricosene identified in rectal gland extracts of Bactrocera oleae males: first evidence of a male-produced female attractant in olive fruit fly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well-known that Bactrocera oleae (olive fruit fly) females attract conspecific males by using 1,7-dioxaspiro[5,5]undecane ( 1) as the main component of their sex pheromone, and that 1 is produced in the female rectal gland. Although some authors have claimed that B. oleae males also attract females, to date no male-produced female attractants have been found in this species. In this paper, we report the first identification of a substance unique to males and able to attract females. The findings of the study include the following: (1) females responded in a bioassay to hexane extracts obtained from rectal glands of 15-day-old B. oleae males, (2) the presence of ( Z)-9-tricosene ( 2) was consistently and unambiguously identified in these extracts using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry methods, (3) in preliminary bioactivity tests, low doses (equivalent to a few males) of chemically and stereoisomerically pure synthetic ( Z)-9-tricosene ( 2) attracted olive fruit fly females. Interestingly, compound 2, commonly called muscalure, is also a well-known component of the house fly ( Musca domestica) sex pheromone.

Carpita, Adriano; Canale, Angelo; Raffaelli, Andrea; Saba, Alessandro; Benelli, Giovanni; Raspi, Alfio

2012-01-01

128

(Z)-9-tricosene identified in rectal gland extracts of Bactrocera oleae males: first evidence of a male-produced female attractant in olive fruit fly.  

PubMed

It is well-known that Bactrocera oleae (olive fruit fly) females attract conspecific males by using 1,7-dioxaspiro[5,5]undecane (1) as the main component of their sex pheromone, and that 1 is produced in the female rectal gland. Although some authors have claimed that B. oleae males also attract females, to date no male-produced female attractants have been found in this species. In this paper, we report the first identification of a substance unique to males and able to attract females. The findings of the study include the following: (1) females responded in a bioassay to hexane extracts obtained from rectal glands of 15-day-old B. oleae males, (2) the presence of (Z)-9-tricosene (2) was consistently and unambiguously identified in these extracts using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry methods, (3) in preliminary bioactivity tests, low doses (equivalent to a few males) of chemically and stereoisomerically pure synthetic (Z)-9-tricosene (2) attracted olive fruit fly females. Interestingly, compound 2, commonly called muscalure, is also a well-known component of the house fly (Musca domestica) sex pheromone. PMID:22159636

Carpita, Adriano; Canale, Angelo; Raffaelli, Andrea; Saba, Alessandro; Benelli, Giovanni; Raspi, Alfio

2012-01-01

129

SSR marker-based DNA fingerprinting and cultivar identification of olives (Olea europaea).  

PubMed

Four well-known commercial olive cultivars (Domat, Edremit, Gemlik, and Memecik) and six local cultivars (Ziraat, Isrange, Tuz, Patos, Yag, and Marantelli) from northeastern Turkey were analyzed for genetic diversity and relationships using seven SSR primers (DCA-4, DCA-09, DCA-11, DCA-16, DCA-17, GAPU-89, UDO-14). The number of markers ranged from 3 (DCA-04 and DCA-17) to 6 (DCA-11, DCA-16, GAPU-89), with an average of 4.57 alleles per primer. UPGMA cluster analysis based on a simple matching similarity matrix grouped cultivars into two main clusters. Three pairs of cultivars (Ziraat and Gemlik, Isrange and Tuz, and Patos and Yag) were thought to be different cultivars although they produced identical SSR profiles. The results indicate the efficiency of SSR markers for evaluation of genetic diversity in olives and identification of misnamed individuals of the same genotype. PMID:21476017

Ercisli, Sezai; Ipek, Ahmet; Barut, Erdogan

2011-10-01

130

Olive tree, Olea europaea L., leaves as a bioindicator of atmospheric PCB contamination.  

PubMed

Olive tree leaf samples were collected to investigate their possible use for biomonitoring of lipophilic toxic substances. The samples were analyzed for 28 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners. Twelve congeners were detected in the samples. PCB-60, 77, 81, 89, 105, 114, and 153 were the most frequently detected congeners ranging from 32 % for PCB-52 to 97 % for PCB-81. ?12PCBs concentration varied from below detection limit to 248 ng/g wet weight in the sampling area, while the mean congener concentrations ranged from 0.06 ng/g (PCB-128?+?167) to 64.2 ng/g wet weight (PCB-60). Constructed concentration maps showed that olive tree leaves can be employed for the estimation of spatial distrubution of these congeners. PMID:23589241

Sofuoglu, Sait C; Yayla, Burak; Kavcar, P?nar; Ates, Duygu; Turgut, Cafer; Sofuoglu, Aysun

2013-09-01

131

Photosynthetic activity during olive (Olea europaea) leaf development correlates with plastid biogenesis and Rubisco levels.  

PubMed

Olive leaves are known to mature slowly, reaching their maximum photosynthetic activity only after full leaf expansion. Poor assimilation rates, typical to young olive leaves, were previously associated with low stomata conductance. Yet, very little is known about chloroplast biogenesis throughout olive leaf development. Here, the photosynthetic activity and plastids development throughout leaf maturation is characterized by biochemical and ultrastructural analyses. Although demonstrated only low photosynthetic activity, the plastids found in young leaves accumulated both photosynthetic pigments and proteins required for photophosphorylation and carbon fixation. However, Rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase), which catalyzes the first major step of carbon fixation and one of the most abundant proteins in plants, could not be detected in the young leaves and only slowly accumulated throughout development. In fact, Rubisco levels seemed tightly correlated with the observed photosynthetic activities. Unlike Rubisco, numerous proteins accumulated in the young olive leaves. These included the early light induced proteins, which may be required to reduce the risk of photodamage, because of light absorption by photosynthetic pigments. Also, high levels of ribosomal L11 subunit, transcription factor elF-5A, Histones H2B and H4 were observed in the apical leaves, and in particular a plastidic-like aldolase, which accounted for approximately 30% of the total proteins. These proteins may upregulate in their levels to accommodate the high demand for metabolic energy in the young developing plant tissue, further demonstrating the complex sink-to-source relationship between young and photosynthetically active mature leaves. PMID:18636989

Maayan, Inbar; Shaya, Felix; Ratner, Kira; Mani, Yair; Lavee, Shimon; Avidan, Benjamin; Shahak, Yosepha; Ostersetzer-Biran, Oren

2008-11-01

132

Impact of sampling parameters on the radical scavenging potential of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves.  

PubMed

The impact of sampling parameters, that is, cultivar, leaf age, and sampling date, on the radical scavenging potential of olive leaf extracts was examined via the DPPH(*) and other assays. Total phenol content was estimated colorimetrically and by fluorometry, whereas phenol composition was assessed by RP-HPLC coupled with diode array, fluorometric, and MS detection systems. Oleuropein was not always the major leaf constituent. Considerable differences noted in individual phenol levels (hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein and other secoiridoids, verbascoside, and flavonoids) among samples were not reflected either in the total phenol content or in the radical scavenging potential of the extracts. It can be suggested that olive leaf is a robust source of radical scavengers throughout the year and that differentiation in the levels of individual components depends rather on sampling period than on cultivar or age. The latter does not present predictable regularity. Exploitation of all types of leaves expected in an olive tree shoot for the extraction of bioactive compounds is feasible. PMID:19334682

Papoti, Vassiliki T; Tsimidou, Maria Z

2009-05-13

133

Proteomic platform for the identification of proteins in olive (Olea europaea) pulp.  

PubMed

The nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil extracted mechanically from the ripe fruits of Olea europaea trees are attracting constantly more attention worldwide. The preparation of high-quality protein samples from plant tissues for proteomic analysis poses many challenging problems. In this study we employed a proteomic platform based on two different extraction methods, SDS and CHAPS based protocols, followed by two precipitation protocols, TCA/acetone and MeOH precipitation, in order to increase the final number of identified proteins. The use of advanced MS techniques in combination with the Swissprot and NCBI Viridiplantae databases and TAIR10 Arabidopsis database allowed us to identify 1265 proteins, of which 22 belong to O. europaea. The application of this proteomic platform for protein extraction and identification will be useful also for other proteomic studies on recalcitrant plant/fruit tissues. PMID:24120165

Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Foglia, Patrizia; Piovesana, Susy; Samperi, Roberto; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Laganà, Aldo

2013-10-24

134

De Novo Assembly and Functional Annotation of the Olive (Olea europaea) Transcriptome  

PubMed Central

Olive breeding programmes are focused on selecting for traits as short juvenile period, plant architecture suited for mechanical harvest, or oil characteristics, including fatty acid composition, phenolic, and volatile compounds to suit new markets. Understanding the molecular basis of these characteristics and improving the efficiency of such breeding programmes require the development of genomic information and tools. However, despite its economic relevance, genomic information on olive or closely related species is still scarce. We have applied Sanger and 454 pyrosequencing technologies to generate close to 2 million reads from 12 cDNA libraries obtained from the Picual, Arbequina, and Lechin de Sevilla cultivars and seedlings from a segregating progeny of a Picual × Arbequina cross. The libraries include fruit mesocarp and seeds at three relevant developmental stages, young stems and leaves, active juvenile and adult buds as well as dormant buds, and juvenile and adult roots. The reads were assembled by library or tissue and then assembled together into 81 020 unigenes with an average size of 496 bases. Here, we report their assembly and their functional annotation.

Munoz-Merida, Antonio; Gonzalez-Plaza, Juan Jose; Canada, Andres; Blanco, Ana Maria; Garcia-Lopez, Maria del Carmen; Rodriguez, Jose Manuel; Pedrola, Laia; Sicardo, M. Dolores; Hernandez, M. Luisa; De la Rosa, Raul; Belaj, Angjelina; Gil-Borja, Mayte; Luque, Francisco; Martinez-Rivas, Jose Manuel; Pisano, David G.; Trelles, Oswaldo; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Beuzon, Carmen R.

2013-01-01

135

Identification and localization of a caleosin in olive (Olea europaea L.) pollen during in vitro germination  

PubMed Central

In plant organs and tissues, the neutral storage lipids are confined to discrete spherical organelles called oil bodies. Oil bodies from plant seeds contain 0.6–3% proteins, including oleosins, steroleosins, and caleosins. In this study, a caleosin isoform of ?30?kDa was identified in the olive pollen grain. The protein was mainly located at the boundaries of the oil bodies in the cytoplasm of the pollen grain and the pollen tube. In addition, caleosins were also visualized in the cytoplasm at the subapical zone, as well as in the tonoplast of vacuoles present in the pollen tube cytoplasm. The cellular behaviour of lipid bodies in the olive pollen was also monitored during in vitro germination. The number of oil bodies decreased 20-fold in the pollen grain during germination, whereas the opposite tendency occurred in the pollen tube, suggesting that oil bodies moved from one to the other. The data suggest that this pollen caleosin might have a role in the mobilization of oil bodies as well as in the reorganization of membrane compartments during pollen in vitro germination.

Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Castro, Antonio J.; de Dios Alche, Juan; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Suarez, Cynthia; Rodriguez-Garcia, Maria Isabel

2010-01-01

136

De novo assembly and functional annotation of the olive (Olea europaea) transcriptome.  

PubMed

Olive breeding programmes are focused on selecting for traits as short juvenile period, plant architecture suited for mechanical harvest, or oil characteristics, including fatty acid composition, phenolic, and volatile compounds to suit new markets. Understanding the molecular basis of these characteristics and improving the efficiency of such breeding programmes require the development of genomic information and tools. However, despite its economic relevance, genomic information on olive or closely related species is still scarce. We have applied Sanger and 454 pyrosequencing technologies to generate close to 2 million reads from 12 cDNA libraries obtained from the Picual, Arbequina, and Lechin de Sevilla cultivars and seedlings from a segregating progeny of a Picual × Arbequina cross. The libraries include fruit mesocarp and seeds at three relevant developmental stages, young stems and leaves, active juvenile and adult buds as well as dormant buds, and juvenile and adult roots. The reads were assembled by library or tissue and then assembled together into 81 020 unigenes with an average size of 496 bases. Here, we report their assembly and their functional annotation. PMID:23297299

Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; González-Plaza, Juan José; Cañada, Andrés; Blanco, Ana María; García-López, Maria del Carmen; Rodríguez, José Manuel; Pedrola, Laia; Sicardo, M Dolores; Hernández, M Luisa; De la Rosa, Raúl; Belaj, Angjelina; Gil-Borja, Mayte; Luque, Francisco; Martínez-Rivas, José Manuel; Pisano, David G; Trelles, Oswaldo; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Beuzón, Carmen R

2013-02-01

137

Chlorophyll and carotenoid patterns in olive fruits, Olea europaea Cv. arbequina.  

PubMed

In olive fruits of the cultivar Arbequina, the chlorophyll pigments decrease significantly throughout ripening, while the carotenoids decrease more gradually and discontinuously. There is no degradation of the carotenoid fraction in stages before complete ripeness. The presence of esterified xanthophylls exclusively in this variety suggests that the chloroplast pigment metabolism is different from that in other olive varieties studied previously. There are increases of specific carotenoids, violaxanthin, neoxanthin, antheraxanthin, lutein epoxide, and esterified xanthophylls between the light green and yellowish green ripening stages. Such increases are related to the detection of precursor carotenoids (phytofluene and xi-carotene) in the yellowish green stage. Chlorophyllides (a and b) and alpha-carotene have also been detected exclusively in this variety. Quantitatively, the drastic change in color between light green and yellowish green ripening stages characteristic of this variety can be explained by the considerable reduction found in the chlorophylls/carotenoids ratio. The study of the pigments present in skin and pulp has shown that the pattern of carotenoid distribution differs depending on the fruit part concerned. PMID:10794611

Gandul-Rojas, B; Cepero, M R; Mínguez-Mosquera, M I

1999-06-01

138

Identification and localization of a caleosin in olive (Olea europaea L.) pollen during in vitro germination.  

PubMed

In plant organs and tissues, the neutral storage lipids are confined to discrete spherical organelles called oil bodies. Oil bodies from plant seeds contain 0.6-3% proteins, including oleosins, steroleosins, and caleosins. In this study, a caleosin isoform of approximately 30 kDa was identified in the olive pollen grain. The protein was mainly located at the boundaries of the oil bodies in the cytoplasm of the pollen grain and the pollen tube. In addition, caleosins were also visualized in the cytoplasm at the subapical zone, as well as in the tonoplast of vacuoles present in the pollen tube cytoplasm. The cellular behaviour of lipid bodies in the olive pollen was also monitored during in vitro germination. The number of oil bodies decreased 20-fold in the pollen grain during germination, whereas the opposite tendency occurred in the pollen tube, suggesting that oil bodies moved from one to the other. The data suggest that this pollen caleosin might have a role in the mobilization of oil bodies as well as in the reorganization of membrane compartments during pollen in vitro germination. PMID:20164143

Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Castro, Antonio J; Alché, Juan de Dios; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Suárez, Cynthia; Rodríguez-García, María Isabel

2010-03-01

139

Effect of Soil Plowing and Fertilization on the Susceptibility of Four Olive Cultivars to the Insect Bactrocera oleae and the Fungi Sphaeropsis dalmatica and Spilocaea oleagina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Susceptibility to the insectBactrocera oleae and the fungiSpilocaea oleagina andSphaeropsis dalmatica was investigated in four olive cultivars, two for table fruit production (Kalamon and Chondrolia Chalkidikis) and two for\\u000a oil production (Lianolia and Koroneiki). Cv. Chondrolia Chalkidikis was the most susceptible to all three pathogens, followed\\u000a by cv. Kalamon. Soil plowing and the organic fertilizer Bio-Trust® (10-3-6+8% MgCO3+10% CaCO8) increased

E. Navrozidis; Z. Zartaloudis; T. Thomidis; N. Karagiannidis; K. Roubos; Z. Michailides

2007-01-01

140

Control mechanisms operating for lipid biosynthesis differ in oil-palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and olive (Olea europaea L.) callus cultures.  

PubMed Central

As a prelude to detailed flux control analysis of lipid synthesis in plants, we have examined the latter in tissue cultures from two important oil crops, olive (Olea europaea L.) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Temperature was used to manipulate the overall rate of lipid formation in order to characterize and validate the system to be used for analysis. With [1-14C]acetate as a precursor, an increase in temperature from 20 to 30 degrees C produced nearly a doubling of total lipid labelling. This increase in total lipids did not change the radioactivity in the intermediate acyl-(acyl carrier protein) or acyl-CoA pools, indicating that metabolism of these pools did not exert any significant constraint for overall synthesis. In contrast, there were some differences in the proportional labelling of fatty acids and of lipid classes at the two temperatures. The higher temperature caused a decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acid labelling and an increase in the proportion of triacylglycerol labelling in both calli. The intermediate diacylglycerol was increased in olive, but not in oil palm. Overall the data indicate the suitability of olive and oil-palm cultures for the study of lipid synthesis and indicate that de novo fatty acid synthesis may exert more flux control than complex lipid assembly. In olive, diacylglycerol acyltransferase may exert significant flux control when lipid synthesis is rapid.

Ramli, Umi S; Baker, Darren S; Quant, Patti A; Harwood, John L

2002-01-01

141

A centralised remote data collection system using automated traps for managing and controlling the population of the Mediterranean (Ceratitis capitata) and olive (Dacus oleae) fruit flies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper describes the development of a novel monitoring system (e-FlyWatch system) for managing and controlling the population of two of the world's most destructive fruit pests, namely the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae, Rossi - formerly Dacus oleae) and the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, also called medfly). The novel monitoring system consists of a) novel automated traps with optical and motion detection modules for capturing the flies, b) local stations including a GSM/GPRS module, sensors, flash memory, battery, antenna etc. and c) a central station that collects, stores and publishes the results (i.e. insect population in each field, sensor data, possible error/alarm data) via a web-based management software.The centralised data collection system provides also analysis and prediction models, end-user warning modules and historical analysis of infested areas. The e-FlyWatch system enables the SMEs-producers in the Fruit, Vegetable and Olive sectors to improve their production reduce the amount of insecticides/pesticides used and consequently the labour cost for spraying activities, and the labour cost for traps inspection.

Philimis, Panayiotis; Psimolophitis, Elias; Hadjiyiannis, Stavros; Giusti, Alessandro; Perelló, Josep; Serrat, Albert; Avila, Pedro

2013-08-01

142

Peroxynitrite mediates programmed cell death both in papillar cells and in self-incompatible pollen in the olive (Olea europaea L.)  

PubMed Central

Programmed cell death (PCD) has been found to be induced after pollination both in papillar cells and in self-incompatible pollen in the olive (Olea europaea L.). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) are known to be produced in the pistil and pollen during pollination but their contribution to PCD has so far remained elusive. The possible role of ROS and NO was investigated in olive pollen–pistil interaction during free and controlled pollination and it was found that bidirectional interaction appears to exist between the pollen and the stigma, which seems to regulate ROS and NO production. Biochemical evidence strongly suggesting that both O2?? and NO are essential for triggering PCD in self-incompatibility processes was also obtained. It was observed for the first time that peroxynitrite, a powerful oxidizing and nitrating agent generated during a rapid reaction between O2?? and NO, is produced during pollination and that this is related to an increase in protein nitration which, in turn, is strongly associated with PCD. It may be concluded that peroxynitrite mediates PCD during pollen–pistil interaction in Olea europaea L. both in self-incompatible pollen and papillar cells.

Serrano, Irene; Romero-Puertas, Maria C.; Rodriguez-Serrano, Maria; Sandalio, Luisa M.; Olmedilla, Adela

2012-01-01

143

Control of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, (Diptera: Tephritidae) through mass trapping and mass releases of the parasitoid Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared on irradiated Mediterranean fruit fly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field studies were performed from 2002 to 2004 on Gökçeada Island, Turkey, to determine the effectiveness of releases of the larval–pupal parasitoid Psyttalia concolor Szepligeti against the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), alone and in combination with mass trapping, using EcoTraps®. For this, the parasitoid was reared on a factitious host, irradiated larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Preparatory to

Bahriye Hepdurgun; Tevfik Turanli; Aydin Zümreo?lu

2009-01-01

144

Evaluation of RNA extraction methods and identification of putative reference genes for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction expression studies on olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits.  

PubMed

Genome wide transcriptomic surveys together with targeted molecular studies are uncovering an ever increasing number of differentially expressed genes in relation to agriculturally relevant processes in olive (Olea europaea L). These data need to be supported by quantitative approaches enabling the precise estimation of transcript abundance. qPCR being the most widely adopted technique for mRNA quantification, preliminary work needs to be done to set up robust methods for extraction of fully functional RNA and for the identification of the best reference genes to obtain reliable quantification of transcripts. In this work, we have assessed different methods for their suitability for RNA extraction from olive fruits and leaves and we have evaluated thirteen potential candidate reference genes on 21 RNA samples belonging to fruit developmental/ripening series and to leaves subjected to wounding. By using two different algorithms, GAPDH2 and PP2A1 were identified as the best reference genes for olive fruit development and ripening, and their effectiveness for normalization of expression of two ripening marker genes was demonstrated. PMID:22703380

Nonis, Alberto; Vezzaro, Alice; Ruperti, Benedetto

2012-07-11

145

Changes in the phenolic composition of virgin olive oil from young trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Arbequina) grown under linear irrigation strategies.  

PubMed

This study reports the HPLC profiles of phenolic compounds of virgin olive oils obtained from young olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Arbequina) and how the application of a linear irrigation strategy affected these. Hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, vanillic acid, vanillin, 4-(acetoxyethyl)-1,2-dihydroxybenzene, p-coumaric acid, the dialdehydic form of elenolic acid linked to hydroxytyrosol and to tyrosol, lignans, and the oleuropein aglycon were found in all the oils. Hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, vanillic acid, and p-coumaric acid contents in the oils were unaffected by linear irrigation. The concentration of lignans was lower in the oils from the least irrigated treatment and the concentration of vanillin increased as the amount of irrigation water applied to olive trees increased. However, 4-(acetoxyethyl)-1,2-dihydroxybenzene, the dialdehydic form of elenolic acid linked to hydroxytyrosol and to tyrosol, and the oleuropein aglycon, all of them hydroxyphenyl derivatives, decreased as the level of irrigation water increased. The latter three compounds represented the most considerable part of the phenolic fraction of the oils and they were shown to be correlated to the oxidative stability, the bitter index (K(225)), and the bitter, pungent, and sweet sensory attributes. Linear irrigation strategy changed the profile of the oil phenolic compounds and, therefore, changed both the organoleptic properties and the antioxidant capacity of the product. PMID:11714351

Tovar, M J; Motilva, M J; Romero, M P

2001-11-01

146

Residues of rotenone, azadirachtin, pyrethrins and copper used to control Bactrocera oleae (Gmel.) in organic olives and oil.  

PubMed

Rotenone, azadirachtin, pyrethrins and copper fungicide decay curves were determined in olives and olive oil samples after experimental trials, consisting of one, two and three applications of each active ingredient, were carried out twice in 2005 and 2006. Rotenone, azadiracthin and pyrethrins were analyzed by extraction with acetonitrile and determined by liquid chromatography; copper was extracted into aqueous HCl and determined by chemical stripping. Pyrethrins were always found but in levels below the acceptable limits, whereas rotenone and copper residues always exceeded, after the pre-harvest interval, the maximum threshold allowed for olives. As regards residues in olive oil, rotenone was found in concentrations higher than those detected in olives. Copper accumulated in olives according to the number of applications, whereas, in oil, the residue was always lower than the maximum residue limit. The sensitivity of the method applied did not allow detection of azadirachtin. PMID:19680921

Simeone, V; Baser, N; Perrelli, D; Cesari, G; El Bilali, H; Natale, P

2009-04-01

147

Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, and their cross-species amplification in the Tephritidae family  

PubMed Central

Background The Tephritidae family of insects includes the most important agricultural pests of fruits and vegetables, belonging mainly to four genera (Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Anastrepha and Rhagoletis). The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major pest of the olive fruit. Currently, its control is based on chemical insecticides. Environmentally friendlier methods have been attempted in the past (Sterile Insect Technique), albeit with limited success. This was mainly attributed to the lack of knowledge on the insect's behaviour, ecology and genetic structure of natural populations. The development of molecular markers could facilitate the access in the genome and contribute to the solution of the aforementioned problems. We chose to focus on microsatellite markers due to their abundance in the genome, high degree of polymorphism and easiness of isolation. Results Fifty-eight microsatellite-containing clones were isolated from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, bearing a total of sixty-two discrete microsatellite motifs. Forty-two primer pairs were designed on the unique sequences flanking the microsatellite motif and thirty-one of them amplified a PCR product of the expected size. The level of polymorphism was evaluated against wild and laboratory flies and the majority of the markers (93.5%) proved highly polymorphic. Thirteen of them presented a unique position on the olive fly polytene chromosomes by in situ hybridization, which can serve as anchors to correlate future genetic and cytological maps of the species, as well as entry points to the genome. Cross-species amplification of these markers to eleven Tephritidae species and sequencing of thirty-one of the amplified products revealed a varying degree of conservation that declines outside the Bactrocera genus. Conclusion Microsatellite markers are very powerful tools for genetic and population analyses, particularly in species deprived of any other means of genetic analysis. The presented set of microsatellite markers possesses all features that would render them useful in such analyses. This could also prove helpful for species where SIT is a desired outcome, since the development of effective SIT can be aided by detailed knowledge at the genetic and molecular level. Furthermore, their presented efficacy in several other species of the Tephritidae family not only makes them useful for their analysis but also provides tools for phylogenetic comparisons among them.

Augustinos, Antonios A; Stratikopoulos, Elias E; Drosopoulou, Eleni; Kakani, Evdoxia G; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D

2008-01-01

148

Molecular characterization and chromosomal distribution of a species-specific transcribed centromeric satellite repeat from the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae.  

PubMed

Satellite repetitive sequences that accumulate in the heterochromatin consist a large fraction of a genome and due to their properties are suggested to be implicated in centromere function. Current knowledge of heterochromatic regions of Bactrocera oleae genome, the major pest of the olive tree, is practically nonexistent. In our effort to explore the repetitive DNA portion of B. oleae genome, a novel satellite sequence designated BoR300 was isolated and cloned. The present study describes the genomic organization, abundance and chromosomal distribution of BoR300 which is organized in tandem, forming arrays of 298 bp-long monomers. Sequence analysis showed an AT content of 60.4%, a CENP-B like-motif and a high curvature value based on predictive models. Comparative analysis among randomly selected monomers demonstrated a high degree of sequence homogeneity (88%-97%) of BoR300 repeats, which are present at approximately 3,000 copies per haploid genome accounting for about 0.28% of the total genomic DNA, based on two independent qPCR approaches. In addition, expression of the repeat was also confirmed through RT-PCR, by which BoR300 transcripts were detected in both sexes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of BoR300 on mitotic metaphases and polytene chromosomes revealed signals to the centromeres of two out of the six chromosomes which indicated a chromosome-specific centromeric localization. Moreover, BoR300 is not conserved in the closely related Bactrocera species tested and it is also absent in other dipterans, but it's rather restricted to the B. oleae genome. This feature of species-specificity attributed to BoR300 satellite makes it a good candidate as an identification probe of the insect among its relatives at early development stages. PMID:24244494

Tsoumani, Konstantina T; Drosopoulou, Elena; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D

2013-01-01

149

Transcript levels of CHL P gene, antioxidants and chlorophylls contents in olive (Olea europaea L.) pericarps: a comparative study on eleven olive cultivars harvested in two ripening stages.  

PubMed

The effects of ripening stage on the antioxidant content in olive pericarps were evaluated in eleven olive genotypes grown in the same bioagronomic conditions in Southern Italy. We examined the transcript levels of geranylgeranyl reductase (CHL P) gene and the content of tocopherols, phenolic compounds and chlorophylls in the pericarps. The examined genotypes showed an increase of CHL P transcripts during pericarps ripening. Significant differences were reported in the antioxidant proportions in the same cultivars at different pericarp ripening stage. We show an inverse correlation between phenols and tocopherols content. In particular, during the ripening phase, tocopherols increased rapidly in olive pericarps while phenolic compounds and chlorophyll levels declined significantly. The significant amounts of these antioxidants confirm the nutritional and medicinal value of olive drupes and its products (table olives and olive oil). We suggest, for the first time, a link between CHL P transcript levels and tocopherols content during the ripening of olive pericarps. Besides, we revealed that this trend of CHL P transcript levels during pericarps ripening is independent from the olive genotypes. PMID:21253861

Muzzalupo, Innocenzo; Stefanizzi, Francesca; Perri, Enzo; Chiappetta, Adriana Ada

2011-03-01

150

Validation of reference genes for gene expression analysis in olive (Olea europaea) mesocarp tissue by quantitative real-time RT-PCR  

PubMed Central

Background Gene expression analysis using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a robust method wherein the expression levels of target genes are normalised using internal control genes, known as reference genes, to derive changes in gene expression levels. Although reference genes have recently been suggested for olive tissues, combined/independent analysis on different cultivars has not yet been tested. Therefore, an assessment of reference genes was required to validate the recent findings and select stably expressed genes across different olive cultivars. Results A total of eight candidate reference genes [glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), serine/threonine-protein phosphatase catalytic subunit (PP2A), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1-alpha), polyubiquitin (OUB2), aquaporin tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP2), tubulin alpha (TUBA), 60S ribosomal protein L18-3 (60S RBP L18-3) and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein homolog 3 (PTB)] were chosen based on their stability in olive tissues as well as in other plants. Expression stability was examined by qRT-PCR across 12 biological samples, representing mesocarp tissues at various developmental stages in three different olive cultivars, Barnea, Frantoio and Picual, independently and together during the 2009 season with two software programs, GeNorm and BestKeeper. Both software packages identified GAPDH, EF1-alpha and PP2A as the three most stable reference genes across the three cultivars and in the cultivar, Barnea. GAPDH, EF1-alpha and 60S RBP L18-3 were found to be most stable reference genes in the cultivar Frantoio while 60S RBP L18-3, OUB2 and PP2A were found to be most stable reference genes in the cultivar Picual. Conclusions The analyses of expression stability of reference genes using qRT-PCR revealed that GAPDH, EF1-alpha, PP2A, 60S RBP L18-3 and OUB2 are suitable reference genes for expression analysis in developing Olea europaea mesocarp tissues, displaying the highest level of expression stability across three different olive cultivars, Barnea, Frantoio and Picual, however the combination of the three most stable reference genes do vary amongst individual cultivars. This study will provide guidance to other researchers to select reference genes for normalization against target genes by qPCR across tissues obtained from the mesocarp region of the olive fruit in the cultivars, Barnea, Frantoio and Picual.

2014-01-01

151

Evidence of early flower infection in olives ( Olea europaea ) by Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides causing anthracnose disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

New evidence is provided for early asymptomatic infection of flowers of olive varieties Barnea and Manzanillo byColletotrichum acutatum andC. gloeosporioides. Asymptomatic infection of olive flowers by these species ofColletotrichum and the likely quiescent behaviour of the pathogens resulting in symptomatic disease expression of mature fruits has not\\u000a been recorded anywhere previously.

V. Sergeeva; N. G. Nair; R. Spooner-Hart

2008-01-01

152

Recovery and stability of oleuropein and other phenolic compounds during extraction and processing of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenols in olive leaves, especially oleuropein, are of great interest to researchers, household consumers and commercial entities due to many health benefits of these compounds. Various processing and extraction methods were investigated to evaluate stability and recovery of oleuropein and other polyphenols from olive leaves. Brief thawing of frozen leaf samples (5 minutes) caused a sharp reduction in extractable oleuropein

Nasir S. A. Malik; Joe M. Bradford

153

Residues of rotenone, azadirachtin, pyrethrins and copper used to control Bactrocera oleae (Gmel.) in organic olives and oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rotenone, azadirachtin, pyrethrins and copper fungicide decay curves were determined in olives and olive oil samples after experimental trials, consisting of one, two and three applications of each active ingredient, were carried out twice in 2005 and 2006. Rotenone, azadiracthin and pyrethrins were analyzed by extraction with acetonitrile and determined by liquid chromatography; copper was extracted into aqueous HCl and

V. Simeone; N. Baser; D. Perrelli; G. Cesari; H. El Bilali; P. Natale

2009-01-01

154

Olive oil biophenols and women's health.  

PubMed

Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates from the Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein) it contains. They provide an exceptional antioxidative activity, removing harmful compounds from the body. Oxidants are essential in the genesis of many diseases and conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, Alzheimer disease, and premenstrual syndrome. Oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, has demonstrated a significant effect in the prevention of malignant diseases such as colon cancer and breast cancer. Biophenols from olive oil successfully suppress the synthesis of LDL, a protein that is crucial in the development of cardiovascular disease, by reducing blood pressure and the development of atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, there is strong evidence of the antimicrobic effect of the biphenols from olive oil that successfully destroy colonies of microorganisms which may cause respiratory tract, intestinal, and genital tract infections. PMID:22634935

Fistoni?, Ivan; Situm, Mirna; Bulat, Vedrana; Harapin, Mario; Fistoni?, Nikola; Verbanac, Donatella

2012-02-01

155

Influence of cultivar and fruit ripening on olive (Olea europaea) fruit protein content, composition, and antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

Proteins of olive fruit mesocarp are not very well-known at present. However, they have been shown to pass, at least partially, to the olive oil during its elaboration and therefore might be contributing to some of the special characteristics of this vegetable oil. In this study, protein content and composition were determined in olive fruits, cv. Arbequina and Picual, at three stages of ripening: green, spotted, and purple. Mesocarp proteins constituted 1.3-1.8% of the dry weight of the olive fruit, and cultivar and fruit ripening did not produce important changes in mesocarp protein content or composition. In addition, this composition was also similar to the amino acid composition of a 4.6-kDa polypeptide, which is the major protein component of olive oils and of oil bodies of olive fruit mesocarp, suggesting that this polypeptide is likely to be a major component of mesocarp proteins. There was, also, a relationship between the oil content of the olive fruit and the protein content determined, suggesting a stabilizing function of these proteins in the oil bodies of the olive fruit, analogously to the role suggested for oleosins. This stabilizing function does not seem to be extended to olive oils because when the polypeptides isolated were added at 20 ppm to soybean oil, the stability of the oil increased only slightly, suggesting that if these compounds play some role in the stability of the oils, this should be mostly a consequence of the possible interactions among these protein components and other olive oil antioxidant constituents. PMID:11559121

Zamora, R; Alaiz, M; Hidalgo, F J

2001-09-01

156

Polyphenol oxidase and its relationship with oleuropein concentration in fruits and leaves of olive (Olea europaea) cv. 'Picual' trees during fruit ripening.  

PubMed

Oleuropein, the main phenolic compound of olive fruit, has important antioxidant properties that are responsible for some of the nutritional properties of fruits and the defence mechanism of leaves. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity changes during fruit ripening in many plants. We studied the kinetics and molecular properties of PPO in fruits and leaves of olive (Olea europaea L.) cv. 'Picual' trees and the relationship between PPO and oleuropein concentration during fruit ripening. Polyphenol oxidase showed hyperbolic kinetics in fruits and leaves. Significant increases in PPO specific activity, V(max), K(m )and catalytic efficiency occurred during fruit ripening. Based on SDS-PAGE under partially denaturing conditions and in-gel staining with DL-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, PPO activity was found in one major protein of 55 and 50 kDA in fruits and leaves, respectively. During the last stages of fruit maturation, a second 36 kDa protein was observed in fruits but not in leaves, indicating that this protein could serve as a marker of the final phase of fruit maturation. Under fully denaturing conditions, only one 27.7 kDa immunoreactive band was detected in fruits. Both the amount of PPO activity and the amount of PPO protein increased significantly during fruit maturation. Immunohistochemical studies indicated that PPO is located in the epidermis, parenchyma and companion vascular cells of leaves as well as in the epidermis of fruit. During fruit maturation, oleuropein concentration measured by HPLC significantly decreased in fruits and increased in leaves. PMID:17938113

Ortega-García, Francisca; Blanco, Santos; Peinado, M Angeles; Peragón, Juan

2008-01-01

157

Colonization of olive trees (Olea europaea L.) with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus sp. modified the glycolipids biosynthesis and resulted in accumulation of unsaturated fatty acids.  

PubMed

The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi colonization on photosynthesis, mineral nutrition, the amount of phospholipids and glycolipids in the leaves of olive (Olea europaea L.) trees was investigated. After six months of growth, the rate of photosynthesis, carboxylation efficiency, transpiration and stomatal conductance in mycorrhizal (M) plants was significantly higher than that of non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants. The inoculation treatment increased the foliar P and Mg but not N. The amount of glycolipids in the leaves of M plants was significantly higher than that of NM plants. However, the amount of phospholipids in the leaves of M plants was not significantly different to that in the leaves of NM plants. Also, we observed a significant increase in the level of ?-linolenic acid (C18:3?3) in glycolipids of M plants. This work supports the view that increased glycolipids level in the leaves of M plants could be involved, at least in part, in the beneficial effects of mycorrhizal colonization on photosynthesis performance of olive trees. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the effect of AM fungi on the amount of glycolipids in the leaves of mycorrhizal plants. PMID:25014256

Mechri, Beligh; Attia, Faouzi; Tekaya, Meriem; Cheheb, Hechmi; Hammami, Mohamed

2014-09-01

158

Olive Fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera, Tephritidae) Activity and Fruit Infestation Under Mass Trapping in an Organic Table Olive Orchard in Crete, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive fly activity in a commercial organic table olive orchard was monitored for 80 weeks using McPhail traps for two successive years, a fruiting and a non-fruiting year. Mass traps were employed from the end of May to limit fruit damage. In the fruiting year fly activity increased steadily with a peak in June-July but there was very little activity

N. G. Volakakis; M. D. Eyre; E. M. Kabourakis

2012-01-01

159

Transcript Levels of CHL P Gene, Antioxidants and Chlorophylls Contents in Olive ( Olea europaea L.) Pericarps: A Comparative Study on Eleven Olive Cultivars Harvested in Two Ripening Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of ripening stage on the antioxidant content in olive pericarps were evaluated in eleven olive genotypes grown\\u000a in the same bioagronomic conditions in Southern Italy. We examined the transcript levels of geranylgeranyl reductase (CHL\\u000a P) gene and the content of tocopherols, phenolic compounds and chlorophylls in the pericarps. The examined genotypes showed\\u000a an increase of CHL P transcripts

Innocenzo Muzzalupo; Francesca Stefanizzi; Enzo Perri; Adriana Ada Chiappetta

2011-01-01

160

Effect of water deficit on leaf phenolic composition, gas exchange, oxidative damage and antioxidant activity of four Greek olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars.  

PubMed

The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is often exposed to severe water stress during the summer season. In this study, we determined the changes in total phenol content, oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol in the leaves of four olive cultivars ('Gaidourelia', 'Kalamon', 'Koroneiki' and 'Megaritiki') grown under water deficit conditions for two months. Furthermore, we investigated the photosynthetic performance in terms of gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence, as well as malondialdehyde content and antioxidant activity. One-year-old self-rooted plants were subjected to three irrigation treatments that received a water amount equivalent to 100% (Control, C), 66% (Field Capacity 66%, FC(66)) and 33% (Field Capacity 33%, FC(33)) of field capacity. Measurements were conducted 30 and 60 days after the initiation of the experiment. Net CO(2) assimilation rate, stomatal conductance and F(v)/F(m) ratio decreased only in FC(33) plants. Photosynthetic rate was reduced mainly due to stomatal closure, but damage to PSII also contributed to this decrease. Water stress induced the accumulation of phenolic compounds, especially oleuropein, suggesting their role as antioxidants. Total phenol content increased in FC(33) treatment and oleuropein presented a slight increase in FC(66) and a sharper one in FC(33) treatment. Hydroxytyrosol showed a gradual decrease as water stress progressed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased due to water stress, mostly after 60 days, while antioxidant activity increased for all cultivars in the FC(33) treatment. 'Gaidourelia' could be considered as the most tolerant among the tested cultivars, showing higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant activity and lower lipid peroxidation and photochemical damage after two months of water stress. The results indicated that water stress affected olive tree physiological and biochemical parameters and magnitude of this effect depended on genotype, the degree of water limitation and duration of treatment. However, the severity as well as the duration of water stress might exceed antioxidant capacity, since MDA levels and subsequent oxidative damage increased after two months of water deficit. PMID:22885895

Petridis, Antonios; Therios, Ioannis; Samouris, Georgios; Koundouras, Stefanos; Giannakoula, Anastasia

2012-11-01

161

Contribution of flavonoids to the overall radical scavenging activity of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf polar extracts.  

PubMed

The contribution of flavonoids to the overall radical scavenging activity of olive leaf polar extracts, known to be good sources of oleuropein related compounds, was examined. Off line and on line HPLC-DPPH(*) assays were employed, whereas flavonoid content was estimated colorimetrically. Individual flavonoid composition was first assessed by RP-HPLC coupled with diode array and fluorescence detectors and verified by LC-MS detection system. Olive leaf was found a robust source of flavonoids regardless sampling parameters (olive cultivar, leaf age or sampling date). Total flavonoids accounted for the 13-27% of the total radical scavenging activity assessed using the on line protocol. Luteolin 7-O-glucoside was one of the dominant scavengers (8-25%). Taking into consideration frequency of appearance the contribution of luteolin (3-13%) was considered important, too. Our findings support that olive leaf, except for oleuropein and related compounds, is also a stable source of bioactive flavonoids. PMID:20166722

Goulas, Vlassios; Papoti, Vassiliki T; Exarchou, Vassiliki; Tsimidou, Maria Z; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P

2010-03-24

162

Effect of Tea (Camellia sinensis) and Olive (Olea europaea L.) Leaves Extracts on Male Mice Exposed to Diazinon  

PubMed Central

The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination in male mice intoxicated with a sublethal concentration of diazinon. Exposure of mice to 6.5?mg/kg body weight of diazinon for seven weeks resulted in statistical increases of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, while the value of serum total protein was declined. Treating diazinon-intoxicated mice with tea and olive leaves extracts or their combination significantly attenuated the severe alterations in these hematobiochemical parameters. Moreover, the results indicated that the supplementation with combination of tea and olive leaves extracts led to more attenuation effect against diazinon toxicity. Additionally, these new findings suggest that the effect of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination against toxicity of diazinon may be due to antioxidant properties of their chemical constituents. Finally, the present study indicated that the extracts of tea and olive leaves and their combination can be considered as promising therapeutic agents against hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and metabolic disorders induced by diazinon and maybe by other toxicants and pathogenic factors.

Al-Attar, Atef M.; Abu Zeid, Isam M.

2013-01-01

163

Effect of tea (Camellia sinensis) and olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves extracts on male mice exposed to diazinon.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination in male mice intoxicated with a sublethal concentration of diazinon. Exposure of mice to 6.5 mg/kg body weight of diazinon for seven weeks resulted in statistical increases of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, while the value of serum total protein was declined. Treating diazinon-intoxicated mice with tea and olive leaves extracts or their combination significantly attenuated the severe alterations in these hematobiochemical parameters. Moreover, the results indicated that the supplementation with combination of tea and olive leaves extracts led to more attenuation effect against diazinon toxicity. Additionally, these new findings suggest that the effect of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination against toxicity of diazinon may be due to antioxidant properties of their chemical constituents. Finally, the present study indicated that the extracts of tea and olive leaves and their combination can be considered as promising therapeutic agents against hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and metabolic disorders induced by diazinon and maybe by other toxicants and pathogenic factors. PMID:23691503

Al-Attar, Atef M; Abu Zeid, Isam M

2013-01-01

164

Evaluation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi capacity to alleviate abiotic stress of olive (Olea europaea L.) plants at different transplant conditions.  

PubMed

The capacity of roots to sense soil physicochemical parameters plays an essential role in maintaining plant nutritional and developmental functions under abiotic stress. These conditions generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant tissues causing oxidation of proteins and lipids among others. Some plants have developed adaptive mechanisms to counteract such adverse conditions such as symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). AMF enhance plant growth and improve transplant survival by protecting host plants against environmental stresses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the alleviation of transplanting stress by two strains of Rhizophagus irregularis (GC2 and GA5) in olive. Our results show that olive plants have an additional energetic expense in growth due to an adaptative response to the growing stage and to the mycorrhizal colonization at the first transplant. However, at the second transplant the coinoculation improves olive plant growth and protects against oxidative stress followed by the GA5-inoculation. In conclusion, a combination of two AMF strains at the beginning of olive propagation produces vigorous plants successfully protected in field cultivation even with an additional cost at the beginning of growth. PMID:24688382

Bompadre, María Josefina; Pérgola, Mariana; Fernández Bidondo, Laura; Colombo, Roxana Paula; Silvani, Vanesa Analía; Pardo, Alejandro Guillermo; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; Godeas, Alicia Margarita

2014-01-01

165

Evaluation of commercial traps of various designs for capturing the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attractiveness of six different traps, one hand-made and five commercially available, on olive fruit fly adults, was compared in the field. Experiments were undertaken at three different localities of Messinia Co., SW Greece, with varying conditions of fruit load and pest population density. The Glass-Plastic Elkofon Trap attracted more adult flies than any other type of trap. Satisfactory catches

Panagiotis A. Eliopoulos

2007-01-01

166

Evaluation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Capacity to Alleviate Abiotic Stress of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Plants at Different Transplant Conditions  

PubMed Central

The capacity of roots to sense soil physicochemical parameters plays an essential role in maintaining plant nutritional and developmental functions under abiotic stress. These conditions generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant tissues causing oxidation of proteins and lipids among others. Some plants have developed adaptive mechanisms to counteract such adverse conditions such as symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). AMF enhance plant growth and improve transplant survival by protecting host plants against environmental stresses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the alleviation of transplanting stress by two strains of Rhizophagus irregularis (GC2 and GA5) in olive. Our results show that olive plants have an additional energetic expense in growth due to an adaptative response to the growing stage and to the mycorrhizal colonization at the first transplant. However, at the second transplant the coinoculation improves olive plant growth and protects against oxidative stress followed by the GA5-inoculation. In conclusion, a combination of two AMF strains at the beginning of olive propagation produces vigorous plants successfully protected in field cultivation even with an additional cost at the beginning of growth.

Bompadre, Maria Josefina; Pergola, Mariana; Fernandez Bidondo, Laura; Colombo, Roxana Paula; Silvani, Vanesa Analia; Pardo, Alejandro Guillermo; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; Godeas, Alicia Margarita

2014-01-01

167

Inhibition of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced PC12 cell apoptosis by olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract is performed by its main component oleuropein.  

PubMed

Parkinson disease (PD) is the most common progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive death of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Most neurodegenerative disease treatments are, at present, palliative. However, some natural herbal products have been shown to rescue neurons from death and apoptosis in some of neurodegenerative diseases. Not only Olea europaea L. olive oil, but also the leaves of this plant have been used for medical purposes. Olive leaf extract (OLE) is being used by people as a drink across the world and as an integral ingredient in their desire to maintain and improve their health. Here, we investigated the effects of OLE and its main phenolic component oleuropein on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced toxicity in rat adrenal pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells as an in vitro model of PD. Cell damage was induced by 150??M 6-OHDA. The cell survival rate was examined by MTT assay. Generation of intra-cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was studied using fluorescence spectrophotometry. Immunoblotting and DNA analysis were also employed to determine the levels of biochemical markers of apoptosis in the cells. The data showed that 6-OHDA could decrease the viability of the cells. In addition, intra-cellular ROS, activated caspase 3, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, as well as DNA fragmentation were significantly increased in 6-OHDA-treated cells. Incubation of cells with OLE (400 and 600??g/mL) and oleuropein (20 and 25??g/mL) could decrease cell damage and reduce biochemical markers of cell death. The results suggest that OLE and oleuropein have anti-oxidant protective effects against 6-OHDA-induced PC12 cell damage. The protective effects of OLE and oleuropein are correlative with their anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic properties and suggest their therapeutic potential in the treatment of PD. PMID:23394606

Pasban-Aliabadi, Hamzeh; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Sheibani, Vahid; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Mehdizadeh, Anahita; Yaghoobi, Mohammad Mehdi

2013-04-01

168

Antithrombotic effect of repeated doses of the ethanolic extract of local olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves in rabbits  

PubMed Central

The incidence of thromboembolic diseases is increasing, and they are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Mediterranean diet is known for its high content of olive products, especially olive oil, which has known cardiovascular health benefits, including those on blood pressure, cholesterol level, and thrombogenesis. All previous animal and clinical studies investigating the beneficial antithrombotic effects of olives have focused on olive oil and a few on olive leaves (OLEs). In this study, the ethanolic extract of OLE was evaluated for its antithrombotic activity in the rabbit model of thrombosis induced by ligature of the vena cava and intravenous administration of tissue thromboplastin. Pre-treatment with 100 or 200 mg/kg per day of the ethanolic extract for 8 weeks significantly prolonged the prothrombin time (PT) in comparison to the control group (12.10±0.35 sec and 14.38±0.29 sec vs. 10.8±0.32 sec, p<0.05 and 0.001, respectively). In comparison to the control group, the same doses had no statistically significant effect on thrombus weight (16.85±0.67 mg, 16.32±0.35 mg, and 17.81±0.75 mg; p=0.18 and 0.06) or on activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) (19.17±0.33 sec, 19.12±0.73 sec, and 18.97±0.41 sec; p=0.36 and 0.43, respectively). One important finding in this study concerns thrombus morphology. In the extract treatment groups, the thrombus was filament-like and did not adhere to blood vessel walls, whereas in the control group the thrombus was thick and almost completely occluded the vein. Therefore, these results suggest that OLE ethanolic extract can modify the extrinsic coagulation pathway as evidenced by the prolongation of PT and changes in thrombus morphology, enough to justify further research to evaluate its possible antithrombotic effects.

Dub, Abdallah M.; Dugani, Aisha M.

2013-01-01

169

Fate of a Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi Type III Secretion System Mutant in Olive Plants (Olea europaea L.)?†  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi strain NCPPB 3335 is a model bacterial pathogen for studying the molecular basis of disease production in woody hosts. We report the sequencing of the hrpS-to-hrpZ region of NCPPB 3335, which has allowed us to determine the phylogenetic position of this pathogen with respect to previously sequenced Pseudomonas syringae hrp clusters. In addition, we constructed a mutant of NCPPB 3335, termed T3, which carries a deletion from the 3? end of the hrpS gene to the 5? end of the hrpZ operon. Despite its inability to multiply in olive tissues and to induce tumor formation in woody olive plants, P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi T3 can induce knot formation on young micropropagated olive plants. However, the necrosis and formation of internal open cavities previously reported in knots induced by the wild-type strain were not observed in those induced by P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi T3. Tagging of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi T3 with green fluorescent protein (GFP) allowed real-time monitoring of its behavior on olive plants. In olive plant tissues, the wild-type strain formed aggregates that colonized the intercellular spaces and internal cavities of the hypertrophic knots, while the mutant T3 strain showed a disorganized distribution within the parenchyma of the knot. Ultrastructural analysis of knot sections revealed the release of extensive outer membrane vesicles from the bacterial cell surface of the P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi T3 mutant, while the wild-type strain exhibited very few vesicles. This phenomenon has not been described before for any other bacterial phytopathogen during host infection.

Perez-Martinez, Isabel; Rodriguez-Moreno, Luis; Lambertsen, Lotte; Matas, Isabel M.; Murillo, Jesus; Tegli, Stefania; Jimenez, Antonio J.; Ramos, Cayo

2010-01-01

170

Cloning and structural characterization of the 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase locus of the medfly Ceratitis capitata and the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae.  

PubMed

The pentose phosphate cycle is considered as a major source of NADPH and pentose needed for nucleic acid biosynthesis. 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), an enzyme participating in this cycle, catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of 6PGD to ribulose 5-phosphate with the subsequent release of CO(2) and the reduction of NADP. We have determined the genomic sequences of 6PGD of two species of Tephritidae, the medfly Ceratitis capitata and olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae, and constructed a three-dimensional model of 6PGD of C. capitata based on the homologous known sheep structure. In a comparative study of 6PGD sequences from seven species, all the conserved and variable sites of the enzyme were analyzed and the regions of functional importance were localized, an attempt promoted also by the direct involvement of the enzyme in various human diseases. The enzymes between the two species of Tephritidae have a very high homology and further examination of the variable positions with respect to the highly conserved binding site residues enabled their grouping in three distinct categories, with possible association to dimer formation, functional specificity, and antigenicity. Moreover, placement of sequence differences on the 3-D model suggests probable sites accommodating variations appearing at the allozymic variants of both species. PMID:16459157

Goulielmos, George N; Cosmidis, Nikos; Eliopoulos, Elias; Loukas, Michael; Zouros, Eleftherios

2006-03-17

171

Influence of phenols mass fraction in olive (Olea europaea L.) paste on volatile compounds in Buža cultivar virgin olive oil.  

PubMed

The influence of the phenolic content in olive paste of cv. Buža increased by the addition of an aqueous solution of phenolic extract of freeze-dried olive pulp (cv. Istarska bjelica) on the final products of the lipoxygenase pathway in oil was studied. Increases by 12, 38, and 56% for ripe fruits (maturity index = 4.0) and by 38% for unripe fruits (maturity index = 1.2) were examined. Phenols in the olive paste were determined according to the HPLC method, whereas volatiles in oil were determined according to SPME-GC-MS. A significant negative effect on Z-3-hexenal and E-2-hexen-1-ol (Tukey's test, p < 0.05) was found for ripe fruits (average decreases of 55 and 60%, respectively), but not for the unripe sample. Positive effects in both ripening levels were found for Z-3-hexenyl acetate (average increase of 68% for ripe and a double increase for unripe fruits) and total C5 compounds (average increase of 32% for ripe and an increase of 30% for unripe fruits). PMID:23718881

Germek, Valerija Majeti?; Koprivnjak, Olivera; Butinar, Bojan; Pizzale, Lorena; Bu?ar-Miklav?i?, Milena; Conte, Lanfranco S

2013-06-26

172

Isolation and characterization of terpene synthases potentially involved in flavor development of ripening olive (Olea europaea) fruits.  

PubMed

The flavor and taste of fruits are often determined by terpenes. We identified three cDNAs encoding putative terpene synthases from olive fruits of cv. Frantoio and Grignano. Heterologous expression in a bacterial system demonstrated that one of the terpene synthases, OeGES1, was an active monoterpene synthase that converted geranyl diphosphate to the monoterpene alcohol geraniol. The transcript accumulation pattern of this gene showed a peak during fruit ripening in both genotypes, indicating that the enzyme may be involved in the production of monoterpene flavor compounds in olive fruit. Although the putative terpene synthases OeTPS2 and OeTPS3 clustered with ?-farnesene synthases and angiosperm monoterpene synthases, no detectable in vitro activity was found after expression in a bacterial system. Nevertheless, their transcripts sharply accumulated during fruit ripening starting from véraison. PMID:22475500

Vezzaro, Alice; Krause, Sandra T; Nonis, Alberto; Ramina, Angelo; Degenhardt, Jörg; Ruperti, Benedetto

2012-06-15

173

Antithrombotic effect of repeated doses of the ethanolic extract of local olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves in rabbits.  

PubMed

The incidence of thromboembolic diseases is increasing, and they are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Mediterranean diet is known for its high content of olive products, especially olive oil, which has known cardiovascular health benefits, including those on blood pressure, cholesterol level, and thrombogenesis. All previous animal and clinical studies investigating the beneficial antithrombotic effects of olives have focused on olive oil and a few on olive leaves (OLEs). In this study, the ethanolic extract of OLE was evaluated for its antithrombotic activity in the rabbit model of thrombosis induced by ligature of the vena cava and intravenous administration of tissue thromboplastin. Pre-treatment with 100 or 200 mg/kg per day of the ethanolic extract for 8 weeks significantly prolonged the prothrombin time (PT) in comparison to the control group (12.10 ± 0.35 sec and 14.38 ± 0.29 sec vs. 10.8 ± 0.32 sec, p < 0.05 and 0.001, respectively). In comparison to the control group, the same doses had no statistically significant effect on thrombus weight (16.85 ± 0.67 mg, 16.32 ± 0.35 mg, and 17.81 ± 0.75 mg; p = 0.18 and 0.06) or on activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) (19.17 ± 0.33 sec, 19.12 ± 0.73 sec, and 18.97 ± 0.41 sec; p = 0.36 and 0.43, respectively). One important finding in this study concerns thrombus morphology. In the extract treatment groups, the thrombus was filament-like and did not adhere to blood vessel walls, whereas in the control group the thrombus was thick and almost completely occluded the vein. Therefore, these results suggest that OLE ethanolic extract can modify the extrinsic coagulation pathway as evidenced by the prolongation of PT and changes in thrombus morphology, enough to justify further research to evaluate its possible antithrombotic effects. PMID:23702352

Dub, Abdallah M; Dugani, Aisha M

2013-01-01

174

Biocontrol potential of a Bacillus subtilis strain against Bactrocera oleae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the Mediterranean basin, pest infestation of the olive tree especially by Bactrocera oleae is a serious economic problem. In this study, we have isolated 115 bacterial strains from various ecological niches, and\\u000a tested their ability to protect the olive fruits against Bactrocera oleae. Among these strains, culture supernatant (CS) of one bacterial strain displayed the highest rate of larval

Mohammed Mostakim; Soumya El abed; Mohamed Iraqui; Kawtar Fikri Benbrahim; Abdellah Houari; Abdelilah Soussi Gounni; Saad Koraichi Ibnsouda

175

Development of the cotyledon cells during olive (Olea europaea L.) in vitro seed germination and seedling growth.  

PubMed

The structural changes occurred in differentiating olive cotyledon cells into mesophyll cells are described. Using histological and immunocytological methods as well as microscopic observations, we showed that in the cells of mature embryo, large electron-dense proteins bodies (PBs) are surrounded by numerous oil bodies (OBs). After 3 days of in vitro germination, the presence of large PBs originated by fusion of smaller PBs was observed. It was also detected a close spatial proximity between PBs and OBs, likely as a reflection of interconnected metabolic pathways. Between the 3rd and the 12th day of germination, the formation of a large vacuolar compartment takes place accompanied by a decrease in the PBs and OBs number. This was coincident with a progressive decrease in the amount of the 11S-type seed storage proteins (SSPs), showed in situ and after Western blot analysis of crude protein extracts. After 26 days germination, the cellular organization became typical for a leaf mesophyll cell, with well-differentiated chloroplasts surrounding a large central vacuole. Our results suggest that the olive cotyledon storage reserves are mobilized gradually until the seedling becomes autotrophic. Moreover, the specific accumulation of storage proteins in the intravacuolar material suggests that these structures may operate as a shuttle for SSPs and/or products of their degradation into the cytoplasm, where finally they supply amino acids for the differentiating mesophyll cells. PMID:21104420

Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Jiménez-López, José Carlos; Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; de Dios Alché, Juan; Rodríguez-García, María Isabel

2011-10-01

176

Effect of agronomical practices on carpology, fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties, in olive (Olea europaea L.).  

PubMed

We examined whether some agronomical practices (i.e. organic vs. conventional) affect olive fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties. Fruit characteristics (i.e. fresh and dry weight of pulp and pit, oil content on a fresh and dry weight basis) did not differ. Oil chemical traits did not differ except for increased content of polyphenols in the organic treatments, and some changes in the acidic composition. Sensory analysis revealed increased bitterness (both cultivars) and pungency (Frantoio) and decreased sweetness (Frantoio) in the organic treatment. Fruit metabolomic analysis with HRMAS-NMR indicated significant changes in some compounds including glycocholate, fatty acids, NADPH, NADP+, some amino acids, thymidine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid, 5,6-dihydrouracil, hesanal, cis-olefin, ?-D-glucose, propanal and some unassigned species. The results suggest that agronomical practices may have effects on fruit composition that may be difficult to detect unless a broad-spectrum analysis is used. PMID:24767050

Rosati, Adolfo; Cafiero, Caterina; Paoletti, Andrea; Alfei, Barbara; Caporali, Silvia; Casciani, Lorena; Valentini, Massimiliano

2014-09-15

177

Frequencies of organophosphate resistance-associated mutations in the acetylcholinesterase gene of field collected olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) populations under different insecticide regimes.  

PubMed

In the present study, the frequencies of three organophosphate (OP) resistance-associated mutations in acetylcholinesterase gene of Bactrocera oleae (BoAce) populations collected from 8 different important olivegrowing areas in the west part of Turkey were determined. Populations were sampled from the areas that have been treated with only the pyrethroid ?-cypermethrin; pyrethroids plus OPs; deltamethrin with pheromone eco-traps, and no insecticide treatment applied areas for many years. For Ile214Val and Gly488Ser point mutations PCR-RFLP and for ?3Q deletion mutation PCR diagnostic tests were carried out. Seventy-two percent of the total individuals analyzed in the study were exhibited heterozygous genotype (RS) for both Ile214Val and Gly488Ser point and homozygous susceptible genotype (SS) for ?3Q deletion mutations. This RS/RS/SS combination together with RS/RR/SS with the frequency of 13% were the most common two combinations observed in all of the populations under different insecticide regimes, even in the populations under no insecticide pressure for many years. Independent evaluation of the three mutations resulted in 0.450, 0.534 and 0.037 frequency values for the resistant alleles of 214Val, 488Ser and ?3Q mutations, respectively. Among the studied populations, the frequencies of resistant alleles for the positions of 214 and 488 were not differed from each other. However, in 3 of the populations the frequency of the R allele of ?3Q was zero and it changed between 0.025 and 0.100 in the remaining five populations. Results of this study contributed to the distribution pattern of the two point mutations in Europe and a pattern for ?3Q mutation was determined for the first time in the field collected olive fly samples. PMID:21388916

Ba?kurt, S Ibel; Do?aç, E; Ta?k?n, V; Ta?k?n, Belg In Göçmen

2011-03-01

178

Food supplementation with an olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract reduces blood pressure in borderline hypertensive monozygotic twins.  

PubMed

Hypertension is a harmful disease factor that develops unnoticed over time. The treatment of hypertension is aimed at an early diagnosis followed by adequate lifestyle changes rather than pharmacological treatment. The olive leaf extract EFLA943, having antihypertensive actions in rats, was tested as a food supplement in an open study including 40 borderline hypertensive monozygotic twins. Twins of each pair were assigned to different groups receiving 500 or 1000 mg/day EFLA943 for 8 weeks, or advice on a favourable lifestyle. Body weight, heart rate, blood pressure, glucose and lipids were measured fortnightly. Blood pressure changed significantly within pairs, depending on the dose, with mean systolic differences of < or =6 mmHg (500 mg vs control) and < or =13 mmHg (1000 vs 500 mg), and diastolic differences of < or =5 mmHg. After 8 weeks, mean blood pressure remained unchanged from baseline in controls (systolic/diastolic: 133 +/- 5/77 +/- 6 vs 135 +/- 11/80 +/- 7 mmHg) and the low-dose group (136 +/- 7/77 +/- 7 vs 133 +/- 10/76 +/- 7), but had significantly decreased for the high dose group (137 +/- 10/80 +/- 10 vs 126 +/- 9/76 +/- 6). Cholesterol levels decreased for all treatments with significant dose-dependent within-pair differences for LDL-cholesterol. None of the other parameters showed significant changes or consistent trends. Concluding, the study confirmed the antihypertensive and cholesterol-lowering action of EFLA943 in humans. PMID:18729245

Perrinjaquet-Moccetti, Tania; Busjahn, Andreas; Schmidlin, Caesar; Schmidt, Annette; Bradl, Barbara; Aydogan, Cem

2008-09-01

179

LOX Gene transcript accumulation in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits at different stages of maturation: relationship between volatile compounds, environmental factors, and technological treatments for oil extraction.  

PubMed

The quality of olive oil is influenced by genetic and environmental factors and by the maturation state of drupes, but it is equally affected by technological treatments of the process. This work investigates the possible correlation between olive LOX gene transcript accumulation, evaluated in fruits collected at different stages of maturation, and chemical biomarkers of its activity. During olive fruit ripening, the same genotype harvested from two different farms shows a positive linear trend between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive oil aroma. Interestingly, a negative linear trend was observed between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive pastes obtained from olive fruits with and without malaxation. The changes in the olive LOX transcript accumulation reveal its environmental regulation and suggest differential physiological functions for the LOXs. PMID:22645430

Muzzalupo, Innocenzo; Macchione, Barbara; Bucci, Cristina; Stefanizzi, Francesca; Perri, Enzo; Chiappetta, Adriana; Tagarelli, Antonio; Sindona, Giovanni

2012-01-01

180

LOX Gene Transcript Accumulation in Olive (Olea europaea L.) Fruits at Different Stages of Maturation: Relationship between Volatile Compounds, Environmental Factors, and Technological Treatments for Oil Extraction  

PubMed Central

The quality of olive oil is influenced by genetic and environmental factors and by the maturation state of drupes, but it is equally affected by technological treatments of the process. This work investigates the possible correlation between olive LOX gene transcript accumulation, evaluated in fruits collected at different stages of maturation, and chemical biomarkers of its activity. During olive fruit ripening, the same genotype harvested from two different farms shows a positive linear trend between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive oil aroma. Interestingly, a negative linear trend was observed between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive pastes obtained from olive fruits with and without malaxation. The changes in the olive LOX transcript accumulation reveal its environmental regulation and suggest differential physiological functions for the LOXs.

Muzzalupo, Innocenzo; Macchione, Barbara; Bucci, Cristina; Stefanizzi, Francesca; Perri, Enzo; Chiappetta, Adriana; Tagarelli, Antonio; Sindona, Giovanni

2012-01-01

181

The effect of a hydro-alcoholic extract of olive fruit on reproductive argons in male sprague-dawley rat.  

PubMed

Background: Olive (Olea europea), from the Oleaceae family, is known as a phytoestrogen plant compound, containing Lignans and phenoliccompounds. Some studies have shown phytoestrogens to have spermatogenesis-decreasing effects. Objective: The present study investigated the effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of olive fruit on reproductive argons in male rats. Materials and Methods: The hydro-alcoholic olive (Olea europaea) extract was given orally to three experimental groups of rats in 50, 150, and 450 mg/kg in 48 days. The vehicle group was fed with normal saline and nothing was given to the control group (each group with 8 rats). After 49 days reproductive indicators i.e., sperm count, sperm motility, the weight of prostate, testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle were measured. Results: The results showed a significant decrease in the weights of the left testicle, seminal vesicle, testosterone hormone, sperm count and sperm motility but there was no significant difference with regard to the weights of prostate and epididymis, and estradiol hormone. Conclusion: This study suggests that olive extract may have deleterious effects on fertility factors; therefore, after further studies, it may be used as a contraceptive in males. PMID:24639759

Najafizadeh, Parvaneh; Dehghani, Farzaneh; Panjeh Shahin, Mohammadreza; Hamzei Taj, Sommaye

2013-04-01

182

The effect of yield, harvest time and fruit size on the oil content in fruits of irrigated olive trees ( Olea europaea), cvs. Barnea and Manzanillo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil content in olive fruits of different sizes from irrigated high (‘on’) and low (‘off’) yielding olive trees of cvs. Barnea and Manzanillo were determined at different stages of fruit maturation. The fruit size range at all stages of maturation is significantly higher on low yielding ‘off’ trees than on high yielding ‘on’ trees. The oil content in the

Shimon Lavee; Maria Wodner

2004-01-01

183

Phenolics profiles of olive fruits (Olea europaea L.) and oils from Ayval?k, Domat and Gemlik varieties at different ripening stages.  

PubMed

Phenolic compounds in olive fruit and oils obtained from Ayval?k, Domat and Gemlik olive varieties collected at different ripening periods were evaluated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Gallic acid and p-cumaric acid were identified for Ayval?k and Domat at each period of ripening, respectively. In addition, gallic acid, p-cumaric acid, sinapinic and apigenin acids were detected in Gemlik olive fruit. Hydroxytyrosol, rutin, oleoropein, luteolin, tyrosol, vanilic acid and gallic acid in Ayval?k olive fruit in all ripening periods were determined. The tyrasol contents varied between 0.18 to 1.57mg/kg. Luteolin contents of olive oils ranged at the levels between 0.12 to 2.28mg/kg. In contrast, oils had the lowest syringic, p-cumaric, chlorogenic and ferulic acids. Vanillic acid contents of oils ranged between 0.08 to 2.38mg/kg. PMID:23017390

Da?delen, Ayhan; Tümen, Gülendam; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Dündar, Ekrem

2013-01-01

184

Screening and comparing tocopherols in the rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties using high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Rapeseed and virgin olive oils are a good source of tocopherols. Tocopherols are the most important compounds having antioxidant activity in both crops. Little is known about the tocopherol contents of rapeseed and olive oil grown in Turkey. The aims of this research were to investigate some new rapeseed varieties and olive genotypes grown in northwest Turkey and to compare the tocopherol fractions and contents of both crops. For rapeseed, the data were collected in two growing seasons (2004-2005, 2005-2006) from a field experiment with 19 new rapeseed varieties. For olives, virgin olive oils produced from 21 different varieties were examined in the 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 growing seasons. The separation and identification of tocopherols and the analysis of their contents were successfully achieved using the high-performance liquid chromatographic method. According to the obtained results, gamma-tocopherol (44.200-118.900 mg/kg) was the major fraction of total tocopherol, followed by alpha-tocopherol (19.300-68.500 mg/kg) and delta-tocopherol (0.00-2.600 mg/kg) for rapeseeds. Regarding olive varieties, the alpha-tocopherol content changed between 52.000 and 194.750 mg/kg, followed by gamma-tocopherol ranging from 0.00 to 39.750 mg/kg. The total tocopherol content ranged between 83.900 and 173.800 mg/kg for rapeseed and between 52.100 and 213.075 mg/kg for olives. This study revealed that an important variability exists for tocopherol content and composition in rapeseed and olive varieties. PMID:19086241

Seker, Murat; Gül, Muhammet Kemal; Ipek, Meryem; Toplu, Celil; Kaleci, Nilüfer

2008-09-01

185

Differences in abscisic acid concentration in roots and leaves of two young Olive ( Olea europaea L.) cultivars in response to water deficit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation between two olive cultivars were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay\\u000a in roots and leaves, leaf water potential (?l), stomatal conductance (g\\u000a s) as well as photosynthetic rate (A) were also determined in well-watered (WW) and water-stressed (WS) plants of two olive\\u000a cultivars ‘Chemlali’ and ‘Chetoui’. ‘Chemlali’ was able to maintain higher leaf CO2 assimilation

Mokhtar Guerfel; Alexandros Beis; Tasos Zotos; Dalenda Boujnah; Mokhtar Zarrouk; Angelos Patakas

2009-01-01

186

Olive trees protected from the olive bark beetle, Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Bernard 1788) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) with a pyrethroid insecticide: Effect on the insect community of the olive grove  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field studies were performed in two successive years, 2005 and 2006, in different olive groves of the province of Granada (South-eastern Spain) by spraying olive trees (Olea europaea) with a pyrethroid insecticide, deltamethrin, for the control of the olive bark beetle Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Bernard 1788) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae). Three olive groves received each year three treatments in June consisting of

Francisca Ruano; Mercedes Campos; A. Juan Sánchez-Raya; Aránzazu Peña

2010-01-01

187

Comparative uptake of trace elements in vines and olive trees over calcareous soils in western La Mancha  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and olive-tree (Olea europea L.) are very important cultures in Castilla-La Mancha for its extension and contribution to the regional economy. This study was carried out in the municipality of Carrión de Calatrava (Ciudad Real) where the variability of soils of different geological origin, with different evolutions giving a great diversity of soils. The metabolism of trace elements in plants has been extensively studied although each soil-plant system must be investigated, especially since small variations in composition can lead to marked differences. It can be stated that the composition of the plant reflects the environment where it is cultivated and the products of the plant (leaves, fruits, juices, etc…) will be influenced by the composition of the soil. The main aim of the work was to compare the uptake of 24 trace elements in grapevine and olive-tree cultivated in the same soil. Samples from surface soils and plant material (leaf) have been analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, obtaining trace elements in mg/kg. It can be concluded that the leaves of grapevines in the studied plots have shown content in elements: -Similar to the olive-tree in case of: Co, Ga, Y, Ta, Th, U y Nd. -Over to the olive-tree in: Sc, V, Cr, Ni, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, Ce, Hf y W. -Below to the olive-tree in: Cu, Zn, Cs y Pb. Keywords: woody culture soils, mineral nutrition, X-ray fluorescence.

Ángel Amorós, José; Higueras, Pablo; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; Jesús García, Francisco; Villaseñor, Begoña; Bravo, Sandra; Losilla, María Luisa; María Moreno, Marta

2014-05-01

188

Time course of pentacyclic triterpenoids from fruits and leaves of olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cv. Picual and cv. Cornezuelo during ripening.  

PubMed

Pentacyclic triterpenoids are plant secondary metabolites of great interest for health and disease prevention. HPLC-UV/vis was used to determine the concentration of the pentacyclic triterpenoids present in fruits and leaves of Picual and Cornezuelo olive tree cultivars. Maslinic acid (MA) and oleanolic acid (OA) are the only two compounds present in fruits, MA being the more abundant. In leaves, in addition to MA and OA, uvaol (UO), and erythrodiol (EO) are found, with OA being the most abundant. In this work, the changes in the concentrations of these compounds during ripening as well as the effect of Jaén-style table-olive processing are reported. The amount of MA and OA found in Picual and Cornezuelo olives after processing was 1.26 ± 0.06, 1.30 ± 0.06, 0.31 ± 0.02, and 0.23 ± 0.01 mg per fruit, respectively. These results enable us to calculate the average intake of pentacyclic triterpenoids and reinforce the importance of table olives as a source of healthy compounds. PMID:23768136

Peragón, Juan

2013-07-10

189

Phenolic and volatile compounds of extra virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L. Cv. Cornicabra) with regard to fruit ripening and irrigation management.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of both the degree of ripening of the olive fruit and irrigation management-rain-fed, two different regulated deficit irrigations (RDI), the method proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (known as FAO), and 125 FAO (125% FAO)-on the phenolic and volatile composition of Cornicabra virgin olive oils obtained during two crop seasons. Secoiridoid phenolic derivatives greatly decreased upon increase of both irrigation and ripening, for example, the 3,4-DHPEA-EDA content decreased from 770 to 450 mg/kg through fruit ripening under rain-fed conditions and from 676 to 388 mg/kg from rain-fed conditions to FAO irrigation treatment (at a ripeness index of approximately 4). Moreover, secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol decreased more than those of tyrosol. The levels of major volatile components decreased in the course of ripening but were higher in irrigated olive oils: for example, the E-2-hexenal content ranged between 4.2 and 2.6 mg/kg (expressed as 4-methyl-2-pentanol) over fruit maturation under rain-fed conditions and between 8.0 and 3.5 mg/kg under FAO scheduling. It is important to note that where water was applied only from the beginning of August (RDI-2), when oil begins to accumulate in the fruit, the resulting virgin olive oil presented a phenol and volatile profile similar to those of the FAO and 125 FAO methods, but with a considerable reduction in the amount of water supplied to the olive orchard. PMID:16968073

Gómez-Rico, Aurora; Salvador, M Desamparados; La Greca, Marta; Fregapane, Giuseppe

2006-09-20

190

Effetti del trappolaggio massale sull'entomocenosi dell'ecosistema oliveto nel controllo di Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin, 1790)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMArY - Side-effects of mass trapping devices utilised against Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin, 1790) on the olive grove entomoceoenosis - In environmental sustainable olive farming, turned to be effective the use of mass trapping method for Bactrocera oleae control. This method is based on the use of devices placed in the field (150\\/ha) consisting in traps with contact insecticide and sexual

Nino IANNOTTA

191

Biological effects of the olive polyphenol, hydroxytyrosol: An extra view from genome-wide transcriptome analysis.  

PubMed

Epidemiological and clinical studies have established the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet, an important component of which are olives and olive oil derived from the olive tree (Olea Europea). It is now well-established that not only the major fatty acid constituents, but also the minor phenolic components, in olives and olive oil have important health benefits. Emerging research over the past decade has highlighted the beneficial effects of a range of phenolic compounds from olives and olive oil, particularly for cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome and inflammatory conditions. Mechanisms of action include potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Further, accumulating evidence indicates the potential of the polyphenols and potent antioxidants, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein in oncology. Numerous studies, both in vitro and in vivo, have demonstrated the anticancer effects of hydroxytyrosol which include chemopreventive and cell-specific cytotoxic and apoptotic effects. Indeed, the precise molecular mechanisms accounting for the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties are now becoming clear and this is, at least in part, due to high through-put gene transcription profiling. Initially, we constructed phylogenetic trees to visualize the evolutionary relationship of members of the Oleaceae family and secondly, between plants producing hydroxytyrosol to make inferences of potential similarities or differences in their medicinal properties and to identify novel plant candidates for the treatment and prevention of disease. Furthermore, given the recent interest in hydroxytyrosol as a potential anticancer agent and chemopreventative we utilized transcriptome analysis in the erythroleukemic cell line K562, to investigate the effects of hydroxytyrosol on three gene pathways: the complement system, The Warburg effect and chromatin remodeling to ascertain relevant gene candidates in the prevention of cancer. PMID:24392471

Nan, Jia Nancy; Ververis, Katherine; Bollu, Sameera; Rodd, Annabelle L; Swarup, Oshi; Karagiannis, Tom C

2014-01-01

192

Differential effects of oleuropein, a biophenol from Olea europaea, on anionic and zwiterionic phospholipid model membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oleuropein (Ole) is the major phenolic constituent of the olive leaf (Olea europaea) and it is also present in olive oil and fruit. In the last years several compounds from olive tree, oleuropein among them, have shown a variety of biological activities such as antimicrobial or antioxidant. A phospholipid model membrane system was used to study whether the Ole biological

Nuria Caturla; Laura Pérez-Fons; Amparo Estepa; Vicente Micol

2005-01-01

193

?-Glucosidase involvement in the formation and transformation of oleuropein during the growth and development of olive fruits (Olea europaea L. cv. Arbequina) grown under different farming practices.  

PubMed

The present study investigates oleuropein metabolism, as well as the involvement of ?-glucosidase during the growth, development, and ripening of olive fruit. The results show that in olive fruit the in vivo formation and transformation of oleuropein takes place in three different stages. The first one is characterized by a net accumulation of oleuropein and occurs in the immature fruit. In the second stage, associated with the green and light-green fruits, oleuropein content is maintained practically constant, and finally, a third stage that begins in the green-yellow fruit is characterized by a progressive decline of the oleuropein concentration. Our findings confirm that in the absence of ?-glucosidase the Damtoft-proposed pathway is active and that net synthesis of oleuropein is unquestionable. ?-Glucosidase activity plays a key role in the oleuropein metabolism catalyzing its in vivo hydrolysis. PMID:22475562

Gutierrez-Rosales, Francisca; Romero, María Paz; Casanovas, María; Motilva, María José; Mínguez-Mosquera, María Isabel

2012-05-01

194

Cellular localization and levels of pectins and arabinogalactan proteins in olive (Olea europaea L.) pistil tissues during development: implications for pollen-pistil interaction.  

PubMed

Cell wall components in the pistil are involved in cell-cell recognition, nutrition and regulation of pollen tube growth. The aim of this work was to study the level, whole-organ distribution, and subcellular localization of pectins and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) in the olive developing pistil. Western blot analyses and immunolocalization with fluorescence and electron microscopy were carried out using a battery of antibodies recognizing different types of pectin epitopes (JIM7, JIM5, LM5, and LM6) and one anti-AGPs antibody (JIM13). In the olive pistil, highest levels of acid esterified and de-esterified pectins were observed at pollination. Moreover, pollination was accompanied by a slight decrease of the galactose-rich pectins pool, whereas arabinose-rich pectins were more abundant at that time. An increased expression of AGPs was also observed during pollination, in comparison to the pistil at the pre-anthesis stage. After pollination, the levels of pectins and AGPs declined significantly. Inmunofluorescence localization of pectins showed their different localization in the olive pistil. Pectins with galactose residues were located mainly in the cortical zones of the pistil, similar to the neutral pectins, which were found in the parenchyma and epidermis. In turn, the neutral pectins, which contain arabinose residues and AGPs, were localized predominantly in the stigmatic exudate, in the cell wall of secretory cells of the stigma, as well as in the transmitting tissue of the pistil during the pollination period. The differences in localization of pectins and AGPs are discussed in relation to their roles during olive pistil developmental course. PMID:23065053

Suárez, Cynthia; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Castro, Antonio J; Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Majewska-Sawka, Anna; Rodríguez-García, María Isabel

2013-01-01

195

Olive (Olea europaea) Leaf Extract Induces Apoptosis and Monocyte/Macrophage Differentiation in Human Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia K562 Cells: Insight into the Underlying Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Differentiation therapy is an attractive approach aiming at reversing malignancy and reactivating endogenous differentiation programs in cancer cells. Olive leaf extract, known for its antioxidant activity, has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in several cancer cells. However, its differentiation inducing properties and the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of Chemlali Olive Leaf Extract (COLE) for its potential differentiation inducing effect on multipotent leukemia K562 cells. Results showed that COLE inhibits K562 cells proliferation and arrests the cell cycle at G0/G1, and then at G2/M phase over treatment time. Further analysis revealed that COLE induces apoptosis and differentiation of K562 cells toward the monocyte lineage. Microarray analysis was conducted to investigate the underlying mechanism of COLE differentiation inducing effect. The differentially expressed genes such as IFI16, EGR1, NFYA, FOXP1, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL8 confirmed the commitment of K562 cells to the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Thus our results provide evidence that, in addition to apoptosis, induction of differentiation is one of the possible therapeutic effects of olive leaf in cancer cells.

Han, Junkyu; Jlaiel, Lobna; Sayadi, Sami; Isoda, Hiroko

2014-01-01

196

Olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract induces apoptosis and monocyte/macrophage differentiation in human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells: insight into the underlying mechanism.  

PubMed

Differentiation therapy is an attractive approach aiming at reversing malignancy and reactivating endogenous differentiation programs in cancer cells. Olive leaf extract, known for its antioxidant activity, has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in several cancer cells. However, its differentiation inducing properties and the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of Chemlali Olive Leaf Extract (COLE) for its potential differentiation inducing effect on multipotent leukemia K562 cells. Results showed that COLE inhibits K562 cells proliferation and arrests the cell cycle at G0/G1, and then at G2/M phase over treatment time. Further analysis revealed that COLE induces apoptosis and differentiation of K562 cells toward the monocyte lineage. Microarray analysis was conducted to investigate the underlying mechanism of COLE differentiation inducing effect. The differentially expressed genes such as IFI16, EGR1, NFYA, FOXP1, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL8 confirmed the commitment of K562 cells to the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Thus our results provide evidence that, in addition to apoptosis, induction of differentiation is one of the possible therapeutic effects of olive leaf in cancer cells. PMID:24803988

Samet, Imen; Han, Junkyu; Jlaiel, Lobna; Sayadi, Sami; Isoda, Hiroko

2014-01-01

197

The heat shock 70 genes of the olive pest Bactrocera oleae: genomic organization and molecular characterization of a transcription unit and its proximal promoter region.  

PubMed

A Bactrocera oleae genomic library was constructed and several genomic clones bearing hsp70 sequences were isolated. All clones were in situ hybridized on the major heat shock puff locus of the salivary gland polytene chromosomes. Restriction mapping of the isolated clones and genomic Southern hybridization indicated the presence of several putative hsp70 genes organized in a single cluster. Sequence analysis of an hsp70 transcription unit revealed a single 1905 nt long open reading frame that exhibits characteristic features of the inducible members of the HSP70 family. The presence and organization of many typical binding sites for the Heat Shock and GAGA factors suggest that the promoter of this gene is highly heat-inducible and could be used for conditional expression in transformation systems. PMID:19234568

Drosopoulou, Elena; Chrysopoulou, Anastasia; Nikita, Venetia; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope

2009-02-01

198

Changes in the HPLC phenolic profile of virgin olive oil from young trees (Olea europaea L. Cv. Arbequina) grown under different deficit irrigation strategies.  

PubMed

The HPLC phenolic profile of virgin olive oils obtained from young olive trees (Arbequina cv.) grown under different deficit irrigation strategies was studied. Deficit irrigation (RDI) did not affect all the phenolic compounds in the same way. Lignans, vanillic acid, vanillin, and the unknown phenolic compound named P24 increased in the oils from the most irrigated treatments. The secoiridoid derivatives and the unknown phenolic compound named P19 increased in the oils from the most stressed irrigation treatments. The period of growth where a water stress significantly affects the phenolic profile of oils was between pit hardening and the first stages of fruit growth and oil accumulation, independently of the water applied during the previous period to harvest. The phenolic profile and those parameters related to phenol content, oxidative stability, and the bitter index were significantly affected only in the most severe RDI strategies. Other strategies produced important savings in irrigation requirements and an increase in the water use efficiency without noticeably affecting the phenolic profile. PMID:12207473

Romero, M Paz; Tovar, M Jesús; Girona, Joan; Motilva, M José

2002-09-11

199

The historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet.  

PubMed

The olive tree (Olea europaea) is widely cultivated for the production of both oil and table olives and very significant because of its economic value. Olive and olive oil, a traditional food product with thousands of years of history, are the essential components of the Mediterranean diet and are largely consumed in the world. Beside of their economical contribution to national economy, these are an important food in terms of their nutritional value. Olive and olive oil may have a role in the prevention of coronary heart disease and certain cancers because of their high levels of monosaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds. In addition, olives (Olea europaea L.) and olive oils provide a rich source of natural antioxidants. These make them both fairly stable against auto-oxidation and suitable for human health. The aim of this paper is to define the historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet. PMID:24499124

Uyla?er, Vildan; Yildiz, Gökçen

2014-01-01

200

Chryseobacterium oleae sp. nov., an efficient plant growth promoting bacterium in the rooting induction of olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cuttings and emended descriptions of the genus Chryseobacterium, C. daecheongense, C. gambrini, C. gleum, C. joostei, C. jejuense, C. luteum, C. shigense, C. taiwanense, C. ureilyticum and C. vrystaatense.  

PubMed

A novel non-motile, Gram-staining-negative, yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated CT348(T), isolated from the ectorhizosphere of an organic olive tree in Spain and characterised as an efficient plant growth promoting bacterium, was investigated to determine its taxonomic status. The isolate grew best in a temperature range of 5-35°C, at pH 5.0-8.0 and with 0-1% (w/v) NaCl. Chemotaxonomic and molecular characteristics of the isolate matched those described for members of the genus Chryseobacterium. The DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 38.2mol%. The strain contained a polyamine pattern with sym-homospermidine as the major compound and produced flexirubin-type pigments. MK-6 was the dominant menaquinone and the major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, C17:1?9c, iso-C17:0 3-OH and iso-C15:0 2-OH. The main polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and several unidentified lipids and aminolipids. The 16S rRNA gene showed 92.2-97.8% sequence identity with the members of the genus Chyseobacterium. Based on the phenotypic traits and DNA-DNA hybridizations with the type strains of the most closely related species, the isolate is shown to represent a novel species, Chyseobacterium oleae, type strain CT348(T) (=DSM 25575 =CCUG 63020). Emended descriptions of the genus Chryseobacterium and C. daecheongense, C. gambrini, C. gleum, C. joostei, C. jejuense, C. luteum, C. shigense, C. taiwanense, C. ureilyticum and C. vrystaatense are also proposed. PMID:24867808

Montero-Calasanz, Maria Del Carmen; Göker, Markus; Rohde, Manfred; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Schmid, Michael; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Tindall, Brian J; Camacho, Maria

2014-07-01

201

Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana and B. brongniartii strains and four wild-type fungal species against adults of Bactrocera oleae and Ceratitis capitata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The virulence of two isolates of the hyphomycete fungi, Beauveria bassianaand B. brongniartii, and additional fungal species isolated from diseased Bactrocera oleae pupae and Sesamia nonagrioideslarvae were assessed against adults of the olive fruit fly B. oleae and the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Contact and oral bioassays revealed that moderate to high mortality rates for the olive

M. A. Konstantopoulou; B. E. Mazomenos

2005-01-01

202

Insecticidal Activity of Strains of Bacillus thuringiensis on Larvae and Adults of Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Dipt. Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the key pest on olives in the Mediterranean area. The pest can destroy, in some cases, up to 70% of the olive production. Its control relies mainly on chemical treatments, sometimes applied by aircraft over vast areas, with their subsequent ecological and toxicological side effects. Bacillus thuringiensis is a spore-forming soil bacterium which produces

T. M. Alberola; S. Aptosoglou; M. Arsenakis; Y. Bel; G. Delrio; D. J. Ellar; J. Ferré; F. Granero; D. M. Guttmann; S. Koliais; M. J. Mart??nez-Sebastián; R. Prota; S. Rubino; A. Satta; G. Scarpellini; A. Sivropoulou; E. Vasara

1999-01-01

203

Tests on the effectiveness of kaolin and copper hydroxide in the control of Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repellent and antiovipositional products in the control of Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) finds a great interest in organic farming, because of the lack of effective products able to kill the olive fly preimmaginal stages. In 2003 in Castelvetrano (Trapani province, Sicily), tests on the effectiveness of Surround WP, a product containing 95% of kaolin, were carried out on three table olive

Virgilio Caleca; Roberto Rizzo

204

Olive Mill Waste as a Substitute Growing Medium Component in Tomato Seedling and Crop Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive (Olea europaea L.) mill waste disposal has led to a growing concern regarding the impact to the environment and human health. Several soil amendments have been used to improve the physical and chemical characteristics of root zone profiles and mixes. Olive mill waste (OW; olive stone and pulp) in ratios of 10%, 30%, or 50% was used for tomato

Eva Sofiadou; Nikos G. Tzortzakis

2012-01-01

205

Efficacy of new mass-trapping devices against Bactrocera oleae (Diptera tephritidae) for minimizing pesticide input in agroecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decreasing pesticide use in olive groves is central to controlling pathogens and pests such as Bactrocera oleae. This has led to the development of mass trapping devices which not only minimize pesticide use but, with improved efficacy of attractants, also decrease costs associated with pest control and ensures that the quality of olive oil is safe for human consumption. This

Maria E. Noce; Tiziana Belfiore; Stefano Scalercio; Veronica Vizzarri; Nino Iannotta

2009-01-01

206

The olive constituent oleuropein exhibits proteasome stimulatory properties in vitro and confers life span extension of human embryonic fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Normal human fibroblasts undergo replicative senescence due to both genetic and environmental factors. Senescence and aging can be further accelerated by exposure of cells to a variety of oxidative agents that contribute among other effects to the accumulation of damaged proteins. The proteasome, a multicatalytic nonlysosomal protease, has impaired function during aging, while its increased expression delays senescence in human fibroblasts. The aim of this study was to identify natural compounds that enhance proteasome activity and exhibit antiaging properties. We demonstrate that oleuropein, the major constituent of Olea europea leaf extract, olive oil and olives, enhances the proteasome activities in vitro stronger than other known chemical activators, possibly through conformational changes of the proteasome. Moreover, continuous treatment of early passage human embryonic fibroblasts with oleuropein decreases the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduces the amount of oxidized proteins through increased proteasome-mediated degradation rates and retains proteasome function during replicative senescence. Importantly, oleuropein-treated cultures exhibit a delay in the appearance of senescence morphology and their life span is extended by approximately 15%. In summary, these data demonstrate the beneficial effect of oleuropein on human fibroblasts undergoing replicative senescence and provide new insights towards enhancement of cellular antioxidant mechanisms by natural compounds that can be easily up-taken through normal diet. PMID:17518699

Katsiki, Magda; Chondrogianni, Niki; Chinou, Ioanna; Rivett, A Jennifer; Gonos, Efstathios S

2007-06-01

207

Evolution of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in virgin olive oil during fruit ripening.  

PubMed

Despite the potential of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in olive oil authentication, their metabolism in Olea europaea is poorly understood, and little is known about their biochemical regulation in olives as a function of ripening. To ascertain some metabolic relationships between sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and olive ripening, the content of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons was assessed in virgin olive oils from two olive varieties grown in the same geographical area and produced at different harvesting periods. During the ripening, the accumulation of sesquiterpenes in the olive itself, and thus in the oil, differed according to their molecular structure: bicyclic sesquiterpenes, showed decreasing concentrations the later the harvest, while acyclic farnesene-like compounds progressively increased through the olive ripening process. This is first evidence that the accumulation of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in olive, and hence in olive oil, is modulated during ripening. Therefore, the degree of ripening of olives should be taken into consideration when considering the sesquiterpenic profile of virgin olive oil for their authentication. PMID:20455560

Vichi, Stefania; Lazzez, Aida; Kamoun, Naziha Grati; López-Tamames, Elvira; Buxaderas, Susana

2010-06-01

208

Oleuropein in Olive and its Pharmacological Effects  

PubMed Central

Olive from Olea europaea is native to the Mediterranean region and, both the oil and the fruit are some of the main components of the Mediterranean diet. The main active constituents of olive oil include oleic acid, phenolic constituents, and squalene. The main phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, give extra-virgin olive oil its bitter, pungent taste. The present review focuses on recent works that have analyzed the relationship between the major phenolic compound oleuropein and its pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-cancer activities, antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effect.

Omar, Syed Haris

2010-01-01

209

Oleuropein in olive and its pharmacological effects.  

PubMed

Olive from Olea europaea is native to the Mediterranean region and, both the oil and the fruit are some of the main components of the Mediterranean diet. The main active constituents of olive oil include oleic acid, phenolic constituents, and squalene. The main phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, give extra-virgin olive oil its bitter, pungent taste. The present review focuses on recent works that have analyzed the relationship between the major phenolic compound oleuropein and its pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-cancer activities, antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effect. PMID:21179340

Omar, Syed Haris

2010-01-01

210

Temperature Effects on Olive Fruit Fly Infestation in the FlySim Cellular Automata Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.

Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore

211

Intraspecific larval competition in the olive fruit fly (Diptera: tephritidae).  

PubMed

Olive fruit flies [Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)] occur at densities in California that can result in intraspecific larval competition within infested fruit. Larval B. oleae densities tracked in the field at six location were found to be highly variable and related to the proportion of fruit infested and adult densities. Egg and larval distribution within the field was generally aggregated early in the season and trended toward random and uniform as the season progressed. To determine whether B. oleae experienced fitness consequences at a range of larval densities observed in the field, olive fruits were infested with one, two, four, and six eggs, and larval and pupal developmental time, pupal weight, and pupal yield were compared. At the highest egg density, all measures of performance were negatively impacted, resulting in fewer and lighter pupae that took longer to pupate and emerge as adults, and even when only two larvae was present per olive, resulting pupae were significantly smaller. Density did not impact the sex ratio of the resulting flies or survive to adults. As field surveys showed, larval densities ranged from 1 to 11 B. oleae per fruit at some sites, and our results suggest that, at high densities, B. oleae do experience competition for larval resources. The impact of intraspecific larval competition North American in field populations of B. oleae is unknown, but the potential for competition is present. PMID:19825295

Burrack, Hannah Joy; Fornell, Angela M; Connell, Joseph H; O'Connell, Neil V; Phillips, Phil A; Vossen, Paul M; Zalom, Frank G

2009-10-01

212

Follicular atresia during Dacus oleae oogenesis.  

PubMed

Programmed cell death, constitutes a common fundamental incident that occurs during oogenesis in a variety of different animals. It plays a significant role in the maturation process of the female gamete and also in the removal of abnormal and superfluous cells at certain checkpoints of development. In the present study, we demonstrate the existence of follicular atresia during mid-oogenesis in the olive fruit fly Dacus oleae (Tephritidae). The number of atretic follicles increases following the age of the fly, suggesting for the presence of an age-susceptible process. The atretic follicles contain nurse cells that exhibit chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and actin cytoskeleton alterations, as revealed by propidium iodide staining, TUNEL labeling and phalloidin-FITC staining. Conventional light and electron microscopy disclose that the nurse cell remnants are phagocytosed by the adjacent follicle cells. The follicular epithelium also eliminates the oocyte through phagocytosis, resulting to an egg chamber with no compartmentalized organization. The data presented herein are very similar compared to previous reported results in other Diptera species, strongly suggesting the occurrence of a phylogenetically conserved mechanism of follicular atresia. All these observations also support the notion that mid-oogenesis in D. oleae may be the critical regulation point at which superfluous and defective egg chambers are selectively eliminated before they reach maturity. PMID:16368106

Nezis, Ioannis P; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J; Margaritis, Lukas H; Papassideri, Issidora S

2006-03-01

213

A logistic radial basis function regression method for discrimination of cover crops in olive orchards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive (Olea europaea L.) is the main perennial Spanish crop. Soil management in olive orchards is mainly based on intensive and tillage operations, which have a great relevancy in terms of negative environmental impacts. Due to this reason, the European Union (EU) only subsidizes cropping systems which require the implementation of conservation agro-environmental techniques such as cover crops between the

César Hervás-Martínez; Pedro Antonio Gutiérrez; José Manuel Peña-Barragán; Montserrat Jurado-Expósito; Francisca López-Granados

2010-01-01

214

Identification of potential sources of airborne Olea pollen in the Southwest Iberian Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to determine the potential origin of Olea pollen recorded in Badajoz in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula during 2009-2011. This was achieved using a combination of daily average and diurnal (hourly) airborne Olea pollen counts recorded at Badajoz (southwestern Spain) and Évora (southeastern Portugal), an inventory of olive groves in the studied area and air mass trajectory calculations computed using the HYSPLIT model. Examining olive pollen episodes at Badajoz that had distinctly different diurnal cycles in olive pollen in relation to the mean, allowed us to identify three different scenarios where olive pollen can be transported to the city from either distant or nearby sources. Back trajectory analysis showed that olive pollen can be transported to Badajoz from the West on prevailing winds, either directly or on slow moving air masses, and from high densities of olive groves situated to the Southeast (e.g. Andalucía). Regional scale transport of olive pollen can result in increased nighttime concentrations of this important aeroallergen. This could be particularly important in Mediterranean countries where people can be outdoors during this time due to climate and lifestyle. Such studies are valuable for allergy sufferers and health care professionals because the information can be incorporated into forecasts, the outputs of which are used for avoiding exposure to aeroallergens and planning medication. The results of studies of this nature can also be used for examining gene flow in this important agricultural crop.

Fernández-Rodríguez, S.; Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Tormo-Molina, R.; Brandao, R.; Caeiro, E.; Silva-Palacios, I.; Gonzalo-Garijo, Á.; Smith, M.

2012-04-01

215

Application of olive mill wastewater to a Cretan olive orchard: Effects on soil properties, plant performance and the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of fresh olive mill wastewater (OMW) to the soil surface of an olive (Olea europaea, L.) orchard was studied as a low cost alternative method for the disposal of this waste. OMW were applied to a Cretan orchard with 20-year-old trees (cv. ‘Kalamata’) during winter time for 3 consecutive years, at a maximum annual rate of 420m3ha?1. The

K. Chartzoulakis; G. Psarras; M. Moutsopoulou; E. Stefanoudaki

2010-01-01

216

Identification of optimum preprocessing storage conditions to maintain quality of black ripe `Manzanillo' olives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black-ripe olives (Olea europaea cv. `Manzanillo'), used for processing into canned olives or oil were stored at 0, 2.2 and 5°C in air or 2 kPa O2 (balance N2). Olive samples were analyzed initially, and after 2, 4 and 6 weeks for fruit quality based on color, visual quality and fruit firmness, weight loss, water and oil content. Respiration rate,

I. Tayfun Agar; Betty Hess-Pierce; Mohamed M. Sourour; Adel A. Kader

1999-01-01

217

Modelling and measurement of radiation interception by olive canopies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the formulation, calibration and validation of a model to estimate photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) intercepted by olive (Olea europaea L.) canopies. The model calculates the PAR transmittance at any point located within the four central trees of the orchard. The spatial and time integration of this process allows calculation of PAR transmitted to the ground and, thus, the

M. J. Mariscal; F. Orgaz; F. J. Villalobos

2000-01-01

218

Olive flowering as an indicator of local climatic changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years many studies on climate change and its impacts have been published. In this investigation the flowering of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) in central Italy was related to climate and its usefulness as a bio-indicator for climatic change has been studied.

Orlandi, F.; Ruga, L.; Romano, B.; Fornaciari, M.

2005-07-01

219

Irrigation effects on daily and seasonal variations of trunk sap flow and leaf water relations in olive trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Irrigation effects on whole-plant sap flow and leaf-level water relations were characterised throughout a growing season in an experimental olive (Olea europaea L.) orchard. Atmospheric evaporative demand and soil moisture conditions for irrigated and non-irrigated olive trees were also monitored. Whole-plant water use in field-grown irrigated and rain fed olive trees was determined using a xylem sap flow method (compensation

R. Tognetti; R. d'Andria; G. Morelli; D. Calandrelli; F. Fragnito

2004-01-01

220

The effect of deficit irrigation on seasonal variations of plant water use in Olea europaea L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field experiment on olive trees (Olea europaea L.) was designed with the objective to search for an optimum irrigation scheduling by analyzing the possible effects of deficit irrigation. Treatments were: a non-irrigated control (rainfed) and three treatments that received seasonal water amount equivalent to 33 and 66% of crop evapotranspiration (ETC) in the period August–September (respectively 33II and 66II),

Roberto Tognetti; Riccardo d’Andria; Giovanni Morelli; Arturo Alvino

2005-01-01

221

Landscape effects on the complex of Bactrocera oleae parasitoids and implications for conservation biological control  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the parasitoid complex of Bactrocera oleae Rossi (Diptera: Tephritidae) in order to analyse the parasitism response to landscape structure at different spatial extents.\\u000a Olive fruits were sampled and incubated in the laboratory for insect emergence, thus allowing the calculation of parasitoid\\u000a emergence rates. A landscape analysis was performed in five concentric buffers, ranging from 0.5 to 2 km diameter

Luigi Boccaccio; Ruggero Petacchi

2009-01-01

222

Biocontrol of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) with Metarhizium brunneum and its extracts.  

PubMed

The susceptibility of preimaginal and adult olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to a strain of the mitosporic ascomycete Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and the insecticidal activity of its crude extract to olive fruit fly adults were investigated. Strain EAMb 09/01-Su caused 60% mortality to B. oleae adults, with average survival time (AST) of 8.8 d. In soil treatments against pupariating third-instar larvae, preimaginal B. oleae mortality reached 82.3%, whereas preimaginal mortality targeting puparia was 33.3%. The crude extract of EAMb 09/01-Su strain caused 80.0% adult mortality when administered per os, with AST of 27.7 h. The crude extract was demonstrated to be quite thermostable and photoresistant. These results indicate that M. brunneum EAMb 09/01-Su strain and its crude extract show potential to be used in an integrated pest management olive fruit fly management strategy targeting both adults and preimaginals. PMID:23865175

Yousef, M; Lozano-Tovar, M D; Garrido-Jurado, I; Quesada-Moraga, E

2013-06-01

223

Centennial olive trees as a reservoir of genetic diversity  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the oldest trees could be a powerful tool both for germplasm collection and for understanding the earliest origins of clonally propagated fruit crops. The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is a suitable model to study the origin of cultivars due to its long lifespan, resulting in the existence of both centennial and millennial trees across the Mediterranean Basin. Methods The genetic identity and diversity as well as the phylogenetic relationships among the oldest wild and cultivated olives of southern Spain were evaluated by analysing simple sequence repeat markers. Samples from both the canopy and the roots of each tree were analysed to distinguish which trees were self-rooted and which were grafted. The ancient olives were also put into chronological order to infer the antiquity of traditional olive cultivars. Key Results Only 9·6 % out of 104 a priori cultivated ancient genotypes matched current olive cultivars. The percentage of unidentified genotypes was higher among the oldest olives, which could be because they belong to ancient unknown cultivars or because of possible intra-cultivar variability. Comparing the observed patterns of genetic variation made it possible to distinguish which trees were grafted onto putative wild olives. Conclusions This study of ancient olives has been fruitful both for germplasm collection and for enlarging our knowledge about olive domestication. The findings suggest that grafting pre-existing wild olives with olive cultivars was linked to the beginnings of olive growing. Additionally, the low number of genotypes identified in current cultivars points out that the ancient olives from southern Spain constitute a priceless reservoir of genetic diversity.

Diez, Concepcion M.; Trujillo, Isabel; Barrio, Eladio; Belaj, Angjelina; Barranco, Diego; Rallo, Luis

2011-01-01

224

Paternity analysis using microsatellite markers to identify pollen donors in an olive grove  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive (Olea europaea L.) is a wind-pollinated, allogamous species that is generally not considered to be self-compatible. In addition, cross-incompatibilities exist between cultivars that can result in low fruit set if compatible pollinisers are not planted nearby. In this study, microsatellite markers were used to identify 17 genotypes that were potential pollen donors in a commercial olive orchard. DNA typing

Sonali Mookerjee; Jenny Guerin; Graham Collins; Chris Ford; Margaret Sedgley

2005-01-01

225

The influence of bearing cycles on olive oil production response to irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water requirements for olive oil production and the effects of deficit irrigation were determined while considering the relative\\u000a fruit loads on trees occurring as a result of biennial bearing cycles. Two Israeli olive (Olea europaea) varieties (Barnea and Souri) were evaluated for growth and yield parameters in a 4-year field study where five relative\\u000a irrigation rates were applied. Increasing irrigation

A. Ben-Gal; U. Yermiyahu; I. Zipori; E. Presnov; E. Hanoch; A. Dag

2011-01-01

226

Influence of salinity on root hydraulic properties of three olive varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivation of olive (Olea europaea L.) is highly encouraged in Mediterranean countries because of its limited water requirement and considerable salt tolerance, which however, varies strongly between varieties. Three varieties of olive, Barnea, Arbequina and Proline, were examined to validate their sensitivity to salt stress. Up to three levels of saline water (EC 1.2, 4.2,and 7.5dSm1) were used for irrigation

B. Rewald; C. Leuschner; Z. Wiesman; J. E. Ephrath

2011-01-01

227

Progress in table olive debittering: Degradation in vitro of oleuropein and its derivatives by Lactobacillus plantarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oleuropein, a bitter-tasting secoiridoid glycoside present in olive leaves and fruit (Olea europaea L.), is hydrolyzed by oleuropeinolyticLactobacillus plantarum strains. The work reports the results of a gas-chromatographic study of the oleuropein derivatives released by incubation\\u000a withL. plantarum B21, isolated from table olive brines, and byL. plantarum ATCC 8014. Process kinetics indicate that the bacterial strains initially hydrolyze the oleuropein

V. Marsilio; B. Lanza; N. Pozzi

1996-01-01

228

Olive oil by capillary electrophoresis: characterization and genuineness.  

PubMed

Olive oil, obtained from Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) fruits, is an important ingredient in the Mediterranean diet. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate olive oil analysis using capillary electrophoresis (CE). This review covers a selection of the literature published on this topic over the past decade. The current state of the art of the topic is evaluated, with special emphasis on separation conditions, analysis purpose, and analytes investigated. CE has been used to characterize or to carry out authenticity studies. Particular attention has been focused on the botanical origin because high-quality monovarietal olive oils have been recently introduced on the markets and their quality control requires the development of new and powerful analytical tools as well as new regulations to avoid fraud. CE represents a good compromise between sample throughput, sample volume, satisfactory characterization, and sustainability for the analysis of target compounds present in olive oils. PMID:23594110

Monasterio, Romina P; Fernández, María de los Ángeles; Silva, María Fernanda

2013-05-15

229

Selective recognition of DNA from olive leaves and olive oil by PNA and modified-PNA microarrays.  

PubMed

PNA probes for the specific detection of DNA from olive oil samples by microarray technology were developed. The presence of as low as 5% refined hazelnut (Corylus avellana) oil in extra-virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L.) could be detected by using a PNA microarray. A set of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Actin gene of Olive was chosen as a model for evaluating the ability of PNA probes for discriminating olive cultivars. Both unmodified and C2-modified PNAs bearing an arginine side-chain were used, the latter showing higher sequence specificity. DNA extracted from leaves of three different cultivars (Ogliarola leccese, Canino and Frantoio) could be easily discriminated using a microarray with unmodified PNA probes, whereas discrimination of DNA from oil samples was more challenging, and could be obtained only by using chiral PNA probes. PMID:22772038

Rossi, Stefano; Calabretta, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Tullia; Sforza, Stefano; Arcioni, Sergio; Baldoni, Luciana; Corradini, Roberto; Marchelli, Rosangela

2012-01-01

230

Selective recognition of DNA from olive leaves and olive oil by PNA and modified-PNA microarrays  

PubMed Central

PNA probes for the specific detection of DNA from olive oil samples by microarray technology were developed. The presence of as low as 5% refined hazelnut (Corylus avellana) oil in extra-virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L.) could be detected by using a PNA microarray. A set of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Actin gene of Olive was chosen as a model for evaluating the ability of PNA probes for discriminating olive cultivars. Both unmodified and C2-modified PNAs bearing an arginine side-chain were used, the latter showing higher sequence specificity. DNA extracted from leaves of three different cultivars (Ogliarola leccese, Canino and Frantoio) could be easily discriminated using a microarray with unmodified PNA probes, whereas discrimination of DNA from oil samples was more challenging, and could be obtained only by using chiral PNA probes.

Rossi, Stefano; Calabretta, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Tullia; Sforza, Stefano; Arcioni, Sergio; Baldoni, Luciana; Corradini, Roberto; Marchelli, Rosangela

2012-01-01

231

Nocellaralactone, a new monoterpenoid with anti-inflammatory activity, from Olea europaea L., cultivar Nocellara del Belice.  

PubMed

Nocellara del Belice, a cultivated variety (cultivar) of olive tree (Olea europæa L.), was examined with respect to the medium-polar compounds present in the wastewaters of olive oil extraction at the end of 2007. Charcoal-polyamide chromatography of obtained wastewaters showed the presence of the chemotaxonomical markers of Olea europaea. In addition a new compound was isolated which resulted to be a lactone related to oleuropein aglycone. We propose the name of nocellaralactone (NOC). This compound is also present in the leaves and it appears to be structurally, probably biogenetically, related to jasminanhydride, a monoterpenoid previously isolated from Jasminum grandiflorum. NOC showed a significant in vitro anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:24006848

Serrilli, Anna Maria; Frasca, Giuseppina; Rizza, Luisa; Bonina, Francesco Paolo; Bianco, Armandodoriano

2013-01-01

232

Olive fruit fly: managing an ancient pest in modern times.  

PubMed

Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major pest of commercial olives worldwide. Various aspects of its biology, ecology, management, and impact on olive production are highlighted. With the discovery of insecticidal resistance in some populations frequently treated with organophosphates, old and new control options are being investigated. The potential of biological control is examined. Surveys suggest that a small group of braconids in the Opiinae subfamily best represent the primary parasitoids attacking olive fruit fly in its native range. These species include Psyttalia lounsburyi, P. dacicida, P. concolor, P. ponerophaga, and Utetes africanus. Bracon celer, another braconid but in the Braconinae subfamily, is also reared from the fruit fly in its native range. The potential of these and other natural enemies is discussed with respect to olive fruit fly biology, commercial olive production, and biological constraints that may limit their success. We suggest that numerous species exist that should be further investigated as control agents for olive fruit fly in the many climatic regimes where the pest is found. PMID:19961328

Daane, Kent M; Johnson, Marshall W

2010-01-01

233

Nonsterol Triterpenoids as Major Constituents of Olea europaea  

PubMed Central

Plant triterpenoids represent a large and structurally diverse class of natural products. A growing interest has been focused on triterpenoids over the past decade due to their beneficial effects on human health. We show here that these bioactive compounds are major constituents of several aerial parts (floral bud, leaf bud, stem, and leaf) of olive tree, a crop exploited so far almost exclusively for its fruit and oil. O. europaea callus cultures were analyzed as well. Twenty sterols and twenty-nine nonsteroidal tetra- and pentacyclic triterpenoids belonging to seven types of carbon skeletons (oleanane, ursane, lupane, taraxerane, taraxastane, euphane, and lanostane) were identified and quantified by GC and GC-MS as free and esterified compounds. The oleanane-type compounds, oleanolic acid and maslinic acid, were largely predominant in all the organs tested, whereas they are practically absent in olive oil. In floral buds, they represented as much as 2.7% of dry matter. In callus cultures, lanostane-type compounds were the most abundant triterpenoids. In all the tissues analyzed, free and esterified triterpene alcohols exhibited different distribution patterns of their carbon skeletons. Taken together, these data provide new insights into largely unknown triterpene secondary metabolism of Olea europaea.

Stiti, Naim; Hartmann, Marie-Andree

2012-01-01

234

Bisphenol A and Dental Sealants: Olea's Response.  

PubMed Central

Comments on "Determination of bisphenol A and related aromatic compounds released from Bis-GMA-based composites and sealants by high performance liquid chromatography." by ulgar R, Olea-Serrano MF, Novillo-Fertrell A, Rivas A, Pazos P, Pedraza V, Navajas J-M, Olea N. Environ Health Perspect 108:21-27 (2000).

Olea, N

2000-01-01

235

Effect of AMF application on growth, productivity and susceptibility to Verticillium wilt of olives grown under desert conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on olive (Olea europaea) growth and development was followed for 4 years after transplanting in irrigated commer- cial orchards under arid conditions. Sites I and II were irrigated with saline water (EC=4.5 dS\\/m). In site I, the soil was infested with Verticillium dahliae and olive varieties 'Picual' (Verticillium susceptible) and 'Barnea' (relatively Verticillium

Yoram Kapulnik; Issac Zipori; Marina Hazanovsky; Smadar Wininger; Arnon Dag

2010-01-01

236

Olive trees protected from the olive bark beetle, Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Bernard 1788) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) with a pyrethroid insecticide: Effect on the insect community of the olive grove.  

PubMed

Field studies were performed in two successive years, 2005 and 2006, in different olive groves of the province of Granada (South-eastern Spain) by spraying olive trees (Olea europaea) with a pyrethroid insecticide, deltamethrin, for the control of the olive bark beetle Phloeotribus scarabaeoides (Bernard 1788) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae). Three olive groves received each year three treatments in June consisting of water (control) and two insecticide doses, which were halved the second year. From June to September six olives trees per site were inspected every 15d for feeding galleries in olive branches; the arthropods, collected in traps placed below the olive trees (three traps per site), were identified and counted. Results show that feeding galleries were significantly reduced, what proves that the pyrethroid insecticide efficiently protected the olive trees from the olive bark beetle with a single application and even at the lower dose employed in 2006. Some repellent effect may occur as deduced from the number of P. scarabaeoides individuals captured. Other individuals from the insect community were also affected to a great extent by insecticide application, though no statistical differences were found among the treatments due to the high variability in insect captures. Among the parasitoids, Scelionidae, Encyrtidae, Eurytomidae and Pteromalidae were captured in great numbers. Mirids were the predators whose numbers drastically increased in traps placed under the treated trees, while spiders and ants were less affected. A knock-down effect was noticed for some insect groups, for instance mirids and Euphyllura olivina. Approximately 80% of their captures corresponded to the first date of sampling after insecticide application. PMID:20413141

Ruano, Francisca; Campos, Mercedes; Sánchez-Raya, A Juan; Peña, Aránzazu

2010-06-01

237

The Genetic Polymorphisms and Colonization Process of Olive Fly Populations in Turkey  

PubMed Central

The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest of olives in olive growing regions worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean basin and North America. Despite the economic importance of the olive fly, the colonization route of this species is unclear. We used nuclear microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA to provide information about the population structure and invasion route of olive fly populations in Turkey, as representative of the Eastern Mediterranean region. Adult fly samples were collected from 38 sublocations covering all olive growing regions in Turkey. The simple sequence variability data revealed a significant genetic variability in olive fly populations and a certain degree of differentiation between Mediterranean and Aegean populations. Mediterranean populations harbor higher levels of microsatellite variation than Aegean populations, which points to the eastern part of the Mediterranean as the putative source of invasion. mtDNA results suggest olive flies from the western part of Turkey are closely related to Italo-Aegean flies of the Mediterranean basin and the olive fly populations have invaded the northern part of the Mediterranean basin through western Turkey. In addition, finding specific American haplotypes in high frequencies might indicate that Turkey is the possible source of American olive fly populations. In order to more precisely characterize the population structure and invasion routes of this organism, more DNA-based sequence analysis should be carried out worldwide.

Dogac, Ersin; Kandemir, Irfan; Taskin, Vatan

2013-01-01

238

The genetic polymorphisms and colonization process of olive fly populations in Turkey.  

PubMed

The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest of olives in olive growing regions worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean basin and North America. Despite the economic importance of the olive fly, the colonization route of this species is unclear. We used nuclear microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA to provide information about the population structure and invasion route of olive fly populations in Turkey, as representative of the Eastern Mediterranean region. Adult fly samples were collected from 38 sublocations covering all olive growing regions in Turkey. The simple sequence variability data revealed a significant genetic variability in olive fly populations and a certain degree of differentiation between Mediterranean and Aegean populations. Mediterranean populations harbor higher levels of microsatellite variation than Aegean populations, which points to the eastern part of the Mediterranean as the putative source of invasion. mtDNA results suggest olive flies from the western part of Turkey are closely related to Italo-Aegean flies of the Mediterranean basin and the olive fly populations have invaded the northern part of the Mediterranean basin through western Turkey. In addition, finding specific American haplotypes in high frequencies might indicate that Turkey is the possible source of American olive fly populations. In order to more precisely characterize the population structure and invasion routes of this organism, more DNA-based sequence analysis should be carried out worldwide. PMID:23457499

Dogaç, Ersin; Kandemir, ?rfan; Taskin, Vatan

2013-01-01

239

Genetic similarity among Tunisian olive cultivars and two unknown feral olive trees estimated through SSR markers.  

PubMed

We used eight informative microsatellite markers for fingerprinting and evaluation of genetic similarity among 15 Tunisian olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars and two feral unknown trees named Soulela 1 and Soulela 2. Thirty-one alleles were revealed, and the number of alleles per SSR varied from 2 (UDO12) to 6 (GAPU71A). Cluster analysis grouped cultivars into three main clusters. The two unknown varieties could not be reliably classified into any of these cultivar groups. SSR analysis indicated the presence of three erroneous denominations of cultivars. We resolved two synonymy cases (Zalmati and Chemlali; Rkhami and Chetoui) and one case of homonymy (Chemlali Tataouine). Genetic analyses of DNA extracted from leaves, oils, and embryos of the two unknown cultivars and the two major Tunisian olive cultivars (Chemlali and Chetoui) were also studied. We conclude that the reliable identification of these two feral cultivars needs to be addressed by a larger set of markers. PMID:24535154

Ben-Ayed, Rayda; Sans-Grout, Cinderella; Moreau, Fabienne; Grati-Kamoun, Naziha; Rebai, Ahmed

2014-06-01

240

Influence of saline drip-irrigation on fine root and sap-flow densities of two mature olive varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt stress is known to influence water use and carbon allocation in trees; however, information about the effects of salt exposure on water uptake and below-ground carbon investment is scant, especially for adult trees. Consequently, this study examined these variables in two mature olive varieties (Olea europaea L.) that differ in their NaCl tolerance: Barnea (tolerant) and Proline (sensitive). Trees

B. Rewald; S. Rachmilevitch; M. D. McCue; J. E. Ephrath

2011-01-01

241

Effect of olive fruit fly infestation on the quality of olive oil from Chemlali cultivar during ripening.  

PubMed

Olive fruits are seriously deteriorated by pre and post harvest damage due to the attack of insects, such as Bactrocera olaea, which strongly alters the quality of olives. Olives from Chemlali cultivar were collected and divided into different groups according to the presence or absence of infestation (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 100%) by the olive fruit fly (B. olaea). The infestation of this pest has been studied to evaluate its influence on virgin olive oil quality (free acidity, K(232) and K(270), fatty acids composition, pigment concentration, organoleptic characteristics, phenolic content, and antioxidant power). Results showed that both attacks by B. oleae and maturity process affected the quantitative and qualitative composition of the oil. These analyses demonstrated that the degree of fly attack was positively correlated with free acidity, the values of this parameter increase from 0.6 to 1.5 and 3.4, at the infestation levels 10%, 15% and 100%, respectively (R(2)=0.7418, P<0.05), and negatively related to the phenolic content which was always lower at the 100% infestation level (R(2)=0.9155, P<0.05), and consequently, the organoleptic characteristics. In addition, the infestation by olive fly did not cause an important change in the fatty acid composition while it is clear that fatty acids levels change in relation to the fruit repining stage. The antioxidant activity decreased during maturation, it was correlated to the total phenol content and the fruit infestation level. PMID:20804813

Mraicha, Faten; Ksantini, Mohieddine; Zouch, Olfa; Ayadi, Mohamed; Sayadi, Sami; Bouaziz, Mohamed

2010-11-01

242

Prays oleae Midgut Putative Receptor of Bacillus thuringiensis Vegetative Insecticidal Protein Vip3LB Differs from that of Cry1Ac Toxin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip) is a class of insecticidal proteins produced by many Bacillus thuringiensis strains during their vegetative growth stage. The vip3LB gene of B. thuringiensis strain BUPM95, which encodes a protein active against the Lepidoptera olive tree pathogenic insect Prays oleae, was cloned into pET-14b vector and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed Vip3LB protein, found in the

Lobna Abdelkefi-Mesrati; Souad Rouis; Sameh Sellami; Samir Jaoua

2009-01-01

243

Direct and mediated effects on Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera; Tephritidae) of natural polyphenols and some of related synthetic compounds: Structureactivity relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the main polyphenols occurring in olive oil vegetation waters (VW), catechol showed the most deterrent action on the oviposition ofBactrocera oleae (Gmelin); 4-methylcatechol was less active, whereas hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol were inactive. In contrast, synthetico-quinone was found to be stimulant at 7.5 × 10?2 M. Two other synthetic derivatives of catechol, diacetylcatechol and guaiacol, were also deterrent, suggesting these

Renato Capasso; Antonio Evidente; Ermenegildo Tremblay; Andrea Sala; Carmine Santoro; Gennaro Cristinzio; Francesco Scognamiglio

1994-01-01

244

Isolation and characterization of the Bactrocera oleae genes orthologous to the sex determining Sex-lethal and doublesex genes of Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we report the isolation and characterization of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae genes orthologous to the Drosophila melanogaster sex-determining genes Sex-lethal (Sxl) and doublesex (dsx). Fragments of the Sxl and dsx orthologous were isolated with RT-PCR. Genomic and cDNA clones were then obtained by screening a genomic library and separate male and female cDNA adult libraries using the

Dimitrios Lagos; M. Fernanda Ruiz; Lucas Sánchez; Katia Komitopoulou

2005-01-01

245

SNP Discovery by Illumina-Based Transcriptome Sequencing of the Olive and the Genetic Characterization of Turkish Olive Genotypes Revealed by AFLP, SSR and SNP Markers  

PubMed Central

Background The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is a diploid (2n?=?2x?=?46) outcrossing species mainly grown in the Mediterranean area, where it is the most important oil-producing crop. Because of its economic, cultural and ecological importance, various DNA markers have been used in the olive to characterize and elucidate homonyms, synonyms and unknown accessions. However, a comprehensive characterization and a full sequence of its transcriptome are unavailable, leading to the importance of an efficient large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery in olive. The objectives of this study were (1) to discover olive SNPs using next-generation sequencing and to identify SNP primers for cultivar identification and (2) to characterize 96 olive genotypes originating from different regions of Turkey. Methodology/Principal Findings Next-generation sequencing technology was used with five distinct olive genotypes and generated cDNA, producing 126,542,413 reads using an Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx. Following quality and size trimming, the high-quality reads were assembled into 22,052 contigs with an average length of 1,321 bases and 45 singletons. The SNPs were filtered and 2,987 high-quality putative SNP primers were identified. The assembled sequences and singletons were subjected to BLAST similarity searches and annotated with a Gene Ontology identifier. To identify the 96 olive genotypes, these SNP primers were applied to the genotypes in combination with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers. Conclusions/Significance This study marks the highest number of SNP markers discovered to date from olive genotypes using transcriptome sequencing. The developed SNP markers will provide a useful source for molecular genetic studies, such as genetic diversity and characterization, high density quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, association mapping and map-based gene cloning in the olive. High levels of genetic variation among Turkish olive genotypes revealed by SNPs, AFLPs and SSRs allowed us to characterize the Turkish olive genotype.

Kaya, Hilal Betul; Cetin, Oznur; Kaya, Hulya; Sahin, Mustafa; Sefer, Filiz; Kahraman, Abdullah; Tanyolac, Bahattin

2013-01-01

246

High Genetic Diversity Detected in Olives beyond the Boundaries of the Mediterranean Sea  

PubMed Central

Background Olive trees (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. europaea) naturally grow in areas spanning the Mediterranean basin and towards the East, including the Middle East. In the Iranian plateau, the presence of olives has been documented since very ancient times, though the early history of the crop in this area is shrouded in uncertainty. Methods The varieties presently cultivated in Iran and trees of an unknown cultivation status, surviving under extreme climate and soil conditions, were sampled from different provinces and compared with a set of Mediterranean cultivars. All samples were analyzed using SSR and chloroplast markers to establish the relationships between Iranian olives and Mediterranean varieties, to shed light on the origins of Iranian olives and to verify their contribution to the development of the current global olive variation. Results Iranian cultivars and ecotypes, when analyzed using SSR markers, clustered separately from Mediterranean cultivars and showed a high number of private alleles, on the contrary, they shared the same single chlorotype with the most widespread varieties cultivated in the Mediterranean. Conclusion We hypothesized that Iranian and Mediterranean olive trees may have had a common origin from a unique center in the Near East region, possibly including the western Iranian area. The present pattern of variation may have derived from different environmental conditions, distinct levels and selection criteria, and divergent breeding opportunities found by Mediterranean and Iranian olives.These unexpected findings emphasize the importance of studying the Iranian olive germplasm as a promising but endangered source of variation.

Sheikh-Hassani, Massoma; Ataei, Saeedeh; Cultrera, Nicolo G. M.; Pandolfi, Saverio; Baldoni, Luciana

2014-01-01

247

Analysis of olive fly invasion in California based on microsatellite markers.  

PubMed

The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the main pest of the olive fruit and its expansion is exclusively restricted to the cultivation zone of the olive tree. Even though olive production has a century-old history in California, the olive fly was first detected in the Los Angeles area in 1998. Within 5 years of the first observation, the insect was reported from all olive cultivation areas of the state. Field-collected flies from five locations in California and another from Israel were analyzed on the basis of microsatellite polymorphisms in 10 microsatellite loci. These results were integrated with those of a previous study of olive fly populations around the European part of the Mediterranean basin. The analysis pointed to the eastern part of the Mediterranean as the putative source of the observed invasion. Moreover, samples from California were quite different from Mediterranean samples implying the participation of phenomena such as genetic drift during the invasion and expansion of the olive fly in California. PMID:19107137

Zygouridis, N E; Augustinos, A A; Zalom, F G; Mathiopoulos, K D

2009-04-01

248

Efficacy of new mass-trapping devices against Bactrocera oleae (Diptera tephritidae) for minimizing pesticide input in agroecosystems.  

PubMed

Decreasing pesticide use in olive groves is central to controlling pathogens and pests such as Bactrocera oleae. This has led to the development of mass trapping devices which not only minimize pesticide use but, with improved efficacy of attractants, also decrease costs associated with pest control and ensures that the quality of olive oil is safe for human consumption. This study was undertaken to test a new device which utilizes reduced quantities of both insecticide (lambda-cyalothrin) as well as the female olive fly pheromone (1,7-dioxaspiro-(5.5)-undecane). The new device was tested against an older device manufactured by the same company. The use of plastic polymers as substrate for encapsulating the pheromone allowed for a slower pheromone release, prolonging the efficacy and duration and thus reducing costs. The density of adult populations was monitored using yellow chromotropic traps that were checked every ten days and the degree of olive infestation, as determined by preimago stages, was assessed by analyzing 100 drupes per plot. Infestation analyses were performed every ten days. The control plot had the lowest density of adults and the highest drupe infestation rate. The new devices were more effective than the older devices in both attracting adults and controlling infestation of drupes. Moreover, the new devices containing reduced amounts of pheromone and insecticide were cheaper and exhibited longer functional efficacy. In addition to the slower release of attractants, the plastic polymers used in these newer devices were also more resistant to mechanical and weather degradations. Results demonstrate that mass trapping can indeed be an effective means of controlling B. oleae via eco-sustainable olive farming. PMID:20183048

Noce, Maria E; Belfiore, Tiziana; Scalercio, Stefano; Vizzarri, Veronica; Iannotta, Nino

2009-06-01

249

Drip irrigation, soil characteristics and the root distribution and root activity of olive trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out on the root distribution and root activity of the olive tree (Olea Europaea, L., var. manzanillo) as influenced by drip irrigation and by several soil characteristics such as texture and depth. The experiments were conducted in two plots within a drip-irrigated grove of 20-year-old trees planted at 7×7 m spacing. One soil was a sandy

J. E. Fernández; F. Moreno; F. Cabrera; J. L. Arrue; J. Martín-Aranda

1991-01-01

250

Microsatellite Analysis of Olive Fly Populations in the Mediterranean Indicates a Westward Expansion of the Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bactrocera oleae is the major insect pest of the olive fruit. Twelve microsatellite loci isolated from the genome of this insect were used in a Mediterranean-wide population analysis. These loci were highly polymorphic with a mean number of alleles per locus of 10.42 and a mean effective number of alleles of 2.76. The analysis was performed on a sample of

A. A. Augustinos; Z. Mamuris; E. E. Stratikopoulos; S. D’Amelio; A. Zacharopoulou; K. D. Mathiopoulos

2005-01-01

251

Olive phenolic compounds: metabolic and transcriptional profiling during fruit development  

PubMed Central

Background Olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits contain numerous secondary metabolites, primarily phenolics, terpenes and sterols, some of which are particularly interesting for their nutraceutical properties. This study will attempt to provide further insight into the profile of olive phenolic compounds during fruit development and to identify the major genetic determinants of phenolic metabolism. Results The concentration of the major phenolic compounds, such as oleuropein, demethyloleuropein, 3–4 DHPEA-EDA, ligstroside, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside and lignans, were measured in the developing fruits of 12 olive cultivars. The content of these compounds varied significantly among the cultivars and decreased during fruit development and maturation, with some compounds showing specificity for certain cultivars. Thirty-five olive transcripts homologous to genes involved in the pathways of the main secondary metabolites were identified from the massive sequencing data of the olive fruit transcriptome or from cDNA-AFLP analysis. Their mRNA levels were determined using RT-qPCR analysis on fruits of high- and low-phenolic varieties (Coratina and Dolce d’Andria, respectively) during three different fruit developmental stages. A strong correlation was observed between phenolic compound concentrations and transcripts putatively involved in their biosynthesis, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of the corresponding pathways. OeDXS, OeGES, OeGE10H and OeADH, encoding putative 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-P synthase, geraniol synthase, geraniol 10-hydroxylase and arogenate dehydrogenase, respectively, were almost exclusively present at 45 days after flowering (DAF), suggesting that these compounds might play a key role in regulating secoiridoid accumulation during fruit development. Conclusions Metabolic and transcriptional profiling led to the identification of some major players putatively involved in biosynthesis of secondary compounds in the olive tree. Our data represent the first step towards the functional characterisation of important genes for the determination of olive fruit quality.

2012-01-01

252

Genomic profiling of plastid DNA variation in the Mediterranean olive tree  

PubMed Central

Background Characterisation of plastid genome (or cpDNA) polymorphisms is commonly used for phylogeographic, population genetic and forensic analyses in plants, but detecting cpDNA variation is sometimes challenging, limiting the applications of such an approach. In the present study, we screened cpDNA polymorphism in the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) by sequencing the complete plastid genome of trees with a distinct cpDNA lineage. Our objective was to develop new markers for a rapid genomic profiling (by Multiplex PCRs) of cpDNA haplotypes in the Mediterranean olive tree. Results Eight complete cpDNA genomes of Olea were sequenced de novo. The nucleotide divergence between olive cpDNA lineages was low and not exceeding 0.07%. Based on these sequences, markers were developed for studying two single nucleotide substitutions and length polymorphism of 62 regions (with variable microsatellite motifs or other indels). They were then used to genotype the cpDNA variation in cultivated and wild Mediterranean olive trees (315 individuals). Forty polymorphic loci were detected on this sample, allowing the distinction of 22 haplotypes belonging to the three Mediterranean cpDNA lineages known as E1, E2 and E3. The discriminating power of cpDNA variation was particularly low for the cultivated olive tree with one predominating haplotype, but more diversity was detected in wild populations. Conclusions We propose a method for a rapid characterisation of the Mediterranean olive germplasm. The low variation in the cultivated olive tree indicated that the utility of cpDNA variation for forensic analyses is limited to rare haplotypes. In contrast, the high cpDNA variation in wild populations demonstrated that our markers may be useful for phylogeographic and populations genetic studies in O. europaea.

2011-01-01

253

Functional characterization of two 13-lipoxygenase genes from olive fruit in relation to the biosynthesis of volatile compounds of virgin olive oil.  

PubMed

Two LOX cDNA clones, Oep1LOX2 and Oep2LOX2, have been isolated from olive ( Olea europaea cv. Picual). Both deduced amino acid sequences showed significant similarity to known plant LOX2, and they contain an N-terminal chloroplastic transit peptide. Genomic Southern blot analyses suggest that at least three copies of Oep1LOX2 and one copy of Oep2LOX2 should be present in the olive genome. Linolenic acid proved to be the preferred substrate for both olive recombinant LOXs, and analyses of reaction products revealed that both enzymes produce primarily 13-hydroperoxides from linoleic and linolenic acids. Expression levels of both genes were measured in the mesocarp and seeds during development and ripening of Picual and Arbequina olive fruit along with the level of volatile compounds in the corresponding virgin olive oils. Biochemical and gene expression data suggest a major involvement of the Oep2LOX2 gene in the biosynthesis of virgin olive oil aroma compounds. PMID:19722522

Padilla, María N; Hernández, M Luisa; Sanz, Carlos; Martínez-Rivas, José M

2009-10-14

254

Expression analysis identifies FAD2-2 as the olive oleate desaturase gene mainly responsible for the linoleic acid content in virgin olive oil.  

PubMed

The effect of ripening stage and water regimen on oleate desaturase gene expression levels in the fruit of different olive ( Olea europaea L.) varieties was investigated to elucidate the contribution of each to the linoleic acid content in virgin olive oil. To this end, fatty acid analysis and quantitative real time PCR were performed using distinct olive tissues and different developmental stages from the Picual and Arbequina cultivars. The results showed that the olive FAD2-1, FAD2-2, and FAD6 genes were spatial and temporally regulated. In addition, the data indicated that FAD2-2 seems to be the main gene responsible for the linoleic acid content in the olive fruit mesocarp tissue. This conclusion was also confirmed when the study was extended to Hojiblanca, Picudo, and Manzanilla varieties. With regard to the water regimen, unlike the Picual cultivar, a small increase of linoleic acid was observed in the Arbequina variety cultivated with irrigation, which correlated well with the increase detected for the FAD2-2 gene expression level. All of these data strongly suggest that FAD2-2 is the main gene that determines the linoleic acid content in the virgin olive oil. PMID:19601663

Hernández, M Luisa; Padilla, María N; Mancha, Manuel; Martínez-Rivas, José M

2009-07-22

255

Metabolic control analysis reveals an important role for diacylglycerol acyltransferase in olive but not in oil palm lipid accumulation.  

PubMed

We applied metabolic control analysis to the Kennedy pathway for triacylglycerol formation in tissue cultures from the important oil crops, olive (Olea europaea L.) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). When microsomal fractions were incubated at 30 degrees C rather than 20 degrees C, there was an increase in triacylglycerol labelling. This increase was accompanied by a build up of diacylglycerol (DAG) radioactivity in olive but not in oil palm, suggesting that the activity of DAG acyltransferase (DAGAT) was becoming limiting in olive. We used 2-bromooctanoate as a specific inhibitor of DAGAT and showed that the enzyme had a flux control coefficient under the experimental conditions of 0.74 in olive but only 0.12 in oil palm. These data revealed important differences in the regulation of lipid biosynthesis in cultures from different plants and suggest that changes in the endogenous activity of DAGAT is unlikely to affect oil accumulation in oil palm crops. PMID:16279941

Ramli, Umi S; Salas, Joaquin J; Quant, Patti A; Harwood, John L

2005-11-01

256

Cross-reactivity of Olea europaea with other Oleaceae species in allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma.  

PubMed

Cross-reactivity between pollen extracts of four species of Oleaceae was studied: olive (Olea europaea), ash (Fraxinus excelsior), privet (Ligustrum vulgare), and lilac (Syringa vulgaris). Thus, 51 patients and 13 atopic controls were studied, by means of intracutaneous skin tests, histamine-release tests against the four extracts, and specific IgE to O. europaea. The proteic content of the four extracts was assessed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting, and similarity of all the extracts studied was observed after electrophoresis and immunodetection. Six common bands were found to be responsible for the cross-reactivity, with apparent molecular weights of 49.6, 40, 36.7, 19.7, 16.7, and 14 kDa, respectively. The cross-reactivity was also corroborated by immunoblotting inhibition and FEIA inhibition. The patients had a similar response to the four allergenic extracts used, although the response to Olea was greatest. When the patients were compared by their geographic origin (northern or southern Spain, according to the distribution of areas of olive pollen influence), there were no significant differences between the two groups in skin reactivity, but a higher histamine release was observed for the four extracts in the southern group, although it was significant only for Fraxinus and Ligustrum. This work corroborated the practicality of the diagnostic methods used and the cross-reactivity between the four species studied, as demonstrated by the different methods used. Therefore, we suggest that only O. europaea extract be used in diagnosis and immunotherapy in Oleaceae pollen allergy. PMID:9284982

Pajarón, M J; Vila, L; Prieto, I; Resano, A; Sanz, M L; Oehling, A K

1997-08-01

257

Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in relation to region, trap type, season, and availability of fruit.  

PubMed

Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), was monitored with adult captures by season and trap type, and was related to fruit volume and nonharvested fruit to elucidate the occurrence of the newly introduced pest in California. The highest numbers of adults captured in ChamP traps in olive trees, Olea europaea, were in October in an inland valley location, and in September in a coastal location. Comparisons of trap types showed that the number of olive fruit fly adults captured in Pherocon AM traps in a commercial orchard was significantly greater than in ChamP traps. A significantly greater number of females were captured in Pherocon AM traps with bait packets and pheromone lures than traps with pheromone lures alone, while a significantly greater number of adults and males were captured in traps with pheromone lures alone. Significantly more adults were captured in ChamP traps with bait packets and pheromone lures versus traps with bait packets alone. Fruit volume increased by four times from mid-June to mid-November. Olive fruit fly was found to oviposit on small olive fruit <1 cm3 shortly after fruit set, the maximum number of ovipositional sites per fruit occurred in October, and the greatest number of pupae and adults were reared from fruit collected in September and October. The highest numbers of pupae were collected from nonharvested fruit in March when high numbers of adults were captured in the same orchard. PMID:17195675

Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Miller, Gina T; Stewart-Leslie, Judy; Rice, Richard E; Phillips, Phil A

2006-12-01

258

Whole-tree water balance and indicators for short-term drought stress in non-bearing ‘Barnea’ olives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drainage-weighing lysimeters allowed monitoring of water balance components of non-bearing olive (Olea europaea cv Barnea) trees over a 3-month period including short-term events of controlled but severe water stress. The objective of the study was to evaluate a variety of soil and plant-based water status and drought stress monitoring methods on the basis of tree-scale evapotranspiration (ET). As the trees

Alon Ben-Gal; Dilia Kool; Nurit Agam; Gerardo E. van Halsema; Uri Yermiyahu; Ariel Yafe; Eugene Presnov; Ran Erel; Ahmed Majdop; Isaac Zipori; Eran Segal; Simon Rüger; Ulrich Zimmermann; Yafit Cohen; Victor Alchanatis; Arnon Dag

2010-01-01

259

Heat-pulse measurements of sap flow in olives for automating irrigation: tests, root flow and diagnostics of water stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compensation heat-pulse method for measuring sap flow is tested here in olive trees (Olea europaea L.). We describe a rigorous three-way examination of the robustness of the technique for this species, and examine the potential of the technique for an automatic control of the irrigation system. Two tests were carried out using heat-pulse gear inserted into the stem of

J. E. Fernandez; M. J. Palomo; A D??az-Espejo; B. E. Clothier; S. R. Green; I. F. Giron; F. Moreno

2001-01-01

260

Stomatal behaviour, leaf water status and photosynthetic response in field-grown olive trees under water deficit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stomatal behaviour, leaf water status and photosynthetic response in relation to long-term water deficit were investigated in southern Italy on young trees of Olive (Olea europaea) to clarify mechanisms of stomatal control. Trees were subjected to three irrigation treatments, T0, T33 and T66 that received 0, 33 and 66%, respectively, of crop evapotranspiration by a drip irrigation system. The prolonged

P. Giorio; G. Sorrentino; R. d’Andria

1999-01-01

261

Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California.  

PubMed

The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), by the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. Mean percentage parasitism of olive fruit fly third instars infesting fruit in field cages ranged from 7.0 in Grapevine to 59.7 in Santa Barbara and in free releases ranged from 0 in Grapevine to 10.6 in Santa Barbara after 4- to 6-d exposures. In the laboratory, more parasitoids developed to adults in olive fruit fly larvae that were 11-13 d old than in larvae 8-10 d old. Adult parasitoids lived significantly longer when provided with water than adults without water in environmental chambers at 5 degrees C, 85% RH; 15 degrees C, 65% RH; 25 degrees C, 25% RH; and 35 degrees C, 25% RH. Adult parasitoids lived for 48 d with honey for food and water and 32 d with food and sugar solution at 15 degrees C and 65% RH. Survival of adult parasitoids without food and water in greenhouse tests was approximately 4 d in a simulated coastal climate and 1 d in a simulated inland valley climate and was significantly increased by providing food and water. The parasitoid did not develop in the beneficial seedhead fly, Chaetorellia succinea (Costa), in yellow star thistle. The rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, larvae in green walnut husks was 28.4% in laboratory no-choice tests. In choice tests, the rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly versus olive fruit fly larvae in olives was 11.5 and 24.2%, respectively. PMID:18559183

Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Rendón, Pedro A; Sivinski, John

2008-06-01

262

Effect of non-crop vegetation types on conservation biological control of pests in olive groves.  

PubMed

Conservation biological control (CBC) is an environmentally sound potential alternative to the use of chemical insecticides. It involves modifications of the environment to promote natural enemy activity on pests. Despite many CBC studies increasing abundance of natural enemies, there are far fewer demonstrations of reduced pest density and very little work has been conducted in olive crops. In this study we investigated the effects of four forms of non-crop vegetation on the abundance of two important pests: the olive psyllid (Euphyllura olivina) and the olive moth (Prays oleae). Areas of herbaceous vegetation and areas of woody vegetation near olive crops, and smaller patches of woody vegetation within olive groves, decreased pest abundance in the crop. Inter-row ground covers that are known to increase the abundance of some predators and parasitoids had no effect on the pests, possibly as a result of lack of synchrony between pests and natural enemies, lack of specificity or intra-guild predation. This study identifies examples of the right types of diversity for use in conservation biological control in olive production systems. PMID:23904994

Paredes, Daniel; Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M; Campos, Mercedes

2013-01-01

263

Prays oleae midgut putative receptor of Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein Vip3LB differs from that of Cry1Ac toxin.  

PubMed

Vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip) is a class of insecticidal proteins produced by many Bacillus thuringiensis strains during their vegetative growth stage. The vip3LB gene of B. thuringiensis strain BUPM95, which encodes a protein active against the Lepidoptera olive tree pathogenic insect Prays oleae, was cloned into pET-14b vector and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed Vip3LB protein, found in the E. coli cytoplasmic fraction, was purified and used to produce anti-Vip3LB antibodies. Using the midgut extract of P. oleae, the purified Vip3LB bound to a 65-kDa protein, whereas Cry1Ac toxin bound to a 210-kDa midgut putative receptor. This result justifies the importance of the biological pest control agent Vip3LB that could be used as another alternative particularly in case of resistance to Cry toxins. PMID:19434523

Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Rouis, Souad; Sellami, Sameh; Jaoua, Samir

2009-09-01

264

Isolation, expression, and characterization of a 13-hydroperoxide lyase gene from olive fruit related to the biosynthesis of the main virgin olive oil aroma compounds.  

PubMed

A full-length cDNA clone (OepHPL) coding for hydroperoxide lyase was isolated from olive fruit ( Olea europaea cv. Picual). The deduced amino acid sequence shows significant similarity to known plant hydroperoxide lyases and contains a N-terminal sequence that displays structural features of a chloroplast transit peptide. Genomic Southern blot analysis indicates that at least one copy of OepHPL is present in the olive genome. The recombinant hydroperoxide lyase was specific for 13-hydroperoxide derivatives of linolenic and linoleic acids but did not use 9-hydroperoxy isomers as substrates. Analyses of reaction products revealed that this enzyme produces primarily (Z)-hex-3-enal, which partially isomerizes to (E)-hex-2-enal, from 13-hydroperoxylinolenic acid and hexanal from 13-hydroperoxylinoleic acid. Expression levels were measured in different tissues of Picual and Arbequina varieties, including mesocarp and seed during development and ripening of olive fruits. The involvement of this olive hydroperoxide lyase gene in the biosynthesis of virgin olive oil aroma compounds is discussed. PMID:20334343

Padilla, María N; Hernández, M Luisa; Pérez, Ana G; Sanz, Carlos; Martínez-Rivas, José M

2010-05-12

265

Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes occurring during olive development and ripening.  

PubMed

Since ancient times the olive tree (Olea europaea), an evergreen drought- and moderately salt-tolerant species, has been cultivated for its oil and fruit in the Mediterranean basin. Olive is unique among the commercial important oil crops for many reasons. Today, it ranks sixth in the world's production of vegetable oils. Due to its nutritional quality, olive oil has a high commercial value compared with most other plant oils. Olive oil has a well-balanced composition of fatty acids, with small amounts of palmitate, and it is highly enriched in the moneonic acid oleate. This makes it both fairly stable against auto-oxidation and suitable for human health. Nevertheless, it is the presence of minor components, in particular phenolics, contributing for oil's high oxidative stability, color and flavor, that makes olive oil unique among other oils. Moreover, as a result of their demonstrated roles in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, olive phenolics have gained much attention during the past years. Also unique to virgin olive oil is its characteristic aroma. This results from the formation of volatile compounds, namely, aldehydes and alcohols of six carbon atoms, which is triggered when olives are crushed during the process of oil extraction. The biochemistry of the olive tree is also singular. O. europaea is one of the few species able to synthesize both polyols (mannitol) and oligosaccharides (raffinose and stachyose) as the final products of the photosynthetic CO(2) fixation in the leaf. These carbohydrates, together with sucrose, can be exported from leaves to fruits to fulfill cellular metabolic requirements and act as precursors to oil synthesis. Additionally, developing olives contain active chloroplasts capable of fixing CO(2) and thus contributing to the carbon economy of the fruit. The overall quality of table olives and olive oil is influenced by the fruit ripening stage. Olive fruit ripening is a combination of physiological and biochemical changes influenced by several environmental and cultural conditions, even if most events are under strict genetic control. PMID:18571766

Conde, Carlos; Delrot, Serge; Gerós, Hernâni

2008-10-01

266

7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a) processed olives in hermetically sealed containers and heat sterilized under pressure, otherwise known as canned ripe olives and including the three distinct types, ripe, green...

2010-01-01

267

7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a) processed olives in hermetically sealed containers and heat sterilized under pressure, otherwise known as canned ripe olives and including the three distinct types, ripe, green...

2009-01-01

268

Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California: longevity, oviposition, and development in canning olives in the laboratory and greenhouse.  

PubMed

The biology of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), was studied in the laboratory, greenhouse, and in canning olives, Olea europaea L., in relation to California regional climates. Adults survived in laboratory tests at constant temperatures and relative humidities of 5 degrees C and 83%; 15 degrees C and 59%; 25 degrees C and 30%; and 35 degrees C and 29% for 15, 6, 3, and 2 d without provisions of food and water and for 37, 63, 25, and 4 d with provisions, respectively. In a divided greenhouse, adults survived for 8-11 d in the warm side (36 degrees C and 31% RH daytime); and in the cool side (26 degrees C and 63% RH daytime) 10 d without provisions and 203 d with provisions. A significantly greater number of adults survived in the cool side than the warm side, and with provisions than without. First and last eggs were oviposited in olive fruit when females were 6 and 90 d old, respectively. The highest number of eggs was 55 per day in 10 olive fruit oviposited by 10 28 d-old females, with maximum egg production by 13-37 d-old females. A significantly greater number of ovipositional sites occurred in all sizes of immature green fruit when exposed to adults in cages for 5 d than 2 d. Adults emerged from fruit with a height of > or = 1.0 cm or a volume of > or = 0.2 cm3. More than seven adults per 15 fruit emerged from field infested fruit with a height of 1.1 cm and volume of 0.1 cm3. Larval length was significantly different among the first, second, and third instars and ranged from 0.7 to 1.6, 2.4-4.3, and 4.8-5.6 mm at 14 degrees C; 0.8-1.1, 1.9-2.9, and 3.9-4.4 mm at 21 degrees C, and 0.7-1.3, 2.4-2.9, and 4.4-4.8 mm at 26 degrees C, respectively. Survival of pupae to the adult stage was significantly lower at 26 degrees C than 14 degrees C or 21 degrees C. The period of adult emergence began at 38, 14, and 11 d over a period of 8, 5, and 1 d at 14, 21, and 26 degrees C, respectively. Findings were related to the occurrence and control of California olive fruit fly infestations. PMID:22420271

Yokoyama, Victoria Y

2012-02-01

269

Immunological cross-reactivity between olive and grass pollen: implication of major and minor allergens  

PubMed Central

Background Grasses and olive trees are the most common sources of allergenic pollen worldwide. Although they share some allergens, there are few studies analyzing the in vitro cross-reactivity between them. The aim was to define the cross-reactivity between Olea europaea and Phleum pratense using well-characterized sera of allergic children from Madrid, Spain. Methods 66 patients (mean age 10.32+/?4.07 years) were included in the study. All suffered from rhinoconjuntivitis and/or asthma and had a positive skin test and/or specific IgE determination to olive and grass pollen. Serum sIgE to individual allergens was conducted and sIgE against different grass species and olive was also determined by ELISA. Inhibition assays were performed using two serum sources, containing, or not, sIgE to minor allergens. Mass spectrometry analysis was performed in both extracts. Results 59/66 (89.39%) children had a positive sIgE determination by ELISA to grasses and 57/66 (86.36%) to olive pollen. There was no significant correlation between sIgE levels to grass and olive. Inhibition assays demonstrated no cross-reactivity between P. pratense and olive pollen when using the pool containing mainly sIgE to major allergens, whereas minimal to moderate cross-reactivity was detected when the serum contained high sIgE titers to minor allergens. Proteomic analyses revealed the presence of 42 common proteins in grasses and olive pollens. Conclusion No in vitro cross-reactivity was observed when sIgE was mainly directed to major allergens. In our population, sensitization to olive and grasses is not due to cross-reactivity. The contribution of the major allergens seems to be determinant.

2014-01-01

270

Adams-Oliver syndrome.  

PubMed

A new-born male baby with typical features of Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS) is described. Adams-Oliver syndrome is the association of aplasia cutis congenita with terminal transverse limb reduction defects with or without cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita. The patient presented with brachydactyly involving all the digits of his hands and shortening of both big toes along with aplasia cutis on the scalp. There was no systemic involvement. The patient was placed on regular follow-up. PMID:24906278

Iftikhar, Nadia; Ahmad Ghumman, Faisal Iftikhar; Janjua, Shahbaz A; Ejaz, Amer; Butt, Umar Aftab

2014-05-01

271

The use of phenological data to calculate chilling units in Olea europaea L. in relation to the onset of reproduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to develop a practical method to evaluate the effective relationship between the amount of winter chilling and the response expressed as the spring reproductive re-starting dates in the olive ( Olea europaea L.). Two olive cultivars growing in a special olive orchard in Umbria (central Italy) were studied over a 3-year period (1998-2000): the cultivar Ascolana, typical of central Italy, and the cultivar Giarraffa, typical of southern Italy. The spring reproductive re-starts were assessed using data from detailed phenological observations made on 60 trees of each cultivar in an effort to establish the exact date of reproductive bud swelling. The chilling phenomenon was evaluated by using 341 functions derived from a formula developed by researchers at Utah State University to calculate chilling units. The mathematical functions are defined, and show the very close relationship between the amount of winter chilling and the spring reproductive response in the two cultivars in the orchard studied. The results can be used to define the relationship between local climate and plant development, and the mathematical approach can be used to draw maps that can show the suitability of different cultivars on the basis of local climatic conditions.

Orlandi, F.; Fornaciari, M.; Romano, B.

2002-02-01

272

Quarantine strategies for olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): low-temperature storage, brine, and host relations.  

PubMed

A dose-response relationship was not observed in olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), larvae exposed to acetic acid concentrations (0-2.5%) used in commercial brine solutions to cure olives. Immersion in a 1% acetic acid brine solution impeded emergence of the immature stages. A 1-wk exposure of olives infested with olive fruit fly larvae to low-temperature storage as a postharvest treatment at 0-1 degree C resulted in 8% survival of the population, and exposures of 2 through 5 wk further reduced pupal and adult emergence to <1.0%. One- to 2-wk exposures at 2-3 degrees C resulted in a significant decrease in survival from 20 to 3%, respectively, and longer durations of 3-5 wk reduced survival to <1.0%. Mean daily fruit pulp temperatures in olives in the top, middle, and bottom of plastic bins stored at 2-3 degrees C decreased by 5-8 degrees C from the first to the second day. Lowest temperatures were observed in the top, and highest temperatures were observed in the middle layer of fruit, which attained a mean temperature of 3.8 degrees C on day 5. Laboratory choice tests showed that olive fruit fly oviposited at a higher rate in late season Mission olives that were green than in fruit that were in the red blush maturity stage in tests with 1- and 3-4-d exposure periods, and an increase in duration of exposure was related to an increase in the total number of ovipositional sites. Higher percentages of olive fruit fly third instars, pupae, and adults were reared from green fruit than from fruit in the red blush stage after a 1-d exposure to oviposition. Manzanillo olives were more attractive for oviposition by olive fruit fly than Mission olives, and significantly more third instars, pupae, and adults developed in Manzanillo fruit than in Mission fruit in the red blush stage. These differences were related to the better quality and higher flesh content of the Manzanillo versus Mission olives used in the tests. PMID:15384334

Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Miller, Gina T

2004-08-01

273

Computational annotation of genes differentially expressed along olive fruit development  

PubMed Central

Background Olea europaea L. is a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean basin with a worldwide economical high impact. Differently from other fruit tree species, little is known about the physiological and molecular basis of the olive fruit development and a few sequences of genes and gene products are available for olive in public databases. This study deals with the identification of large sets of differentially expressed genes in developing olive fruits and the subsequent computational annotation by means of different software. Results mRNA from fruits of the cv. Leccino sampled at three different stages [i.e., initial fruit set (stage 1), completed pit hardening (stage 2) and veraison (stage 3)] was used for the identification of differentially expressed genes putatively involved in main processes along fruit development. Four subtractive hybridization libraries were constructed: forward and reverse between stage 1 and 2 (libraries A and B), and 2 and 3 (libraries C and D). All sequenced clones (1,132 in total) were analyzed through BlastX against non-redundant NCBI databases and about 60% of them showed similarity to known proteins. A total of 89 out of 642 differentially expressed unique sequences was further investigated by Real-Time PCR, showing a validation of the SSH results as high as 69%. Library-specific cDNA repertories were annotated according to the three main vocabularies of the gene ontology (GO): cellular component, biological process and molecular function. BlastX analysis, GO terms mapping and annotation analysis were performed using the Blast2GO software, a research tool designed with the main purpose of enabling GO based data mining on sequence sets for which no GO annotation is yet available. Bioinformatic analysis pointed out a significantly different distribution of the annotated sequences for each GO category, when comparing the three fruit developmental stages. The olive fruit-specific transcriptome dataset was used to query all known KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes) metabolic pathways for characterizing and positioning retrieved EST records. The integration of the olive sequence datasets within the MapMan platform for microarray analysis allowed the identification of specific biosynthetic pathways useful for the definition of key functional categories in time course analyses for gene groups. Conclusion The bioinformatic annotation of all gene sequences was useful to shed light on metabolic pathways and transcriptional aspects related to carbohydrates, fatty acids, secondary metabolites, transcription factors and hormones as well as response to biotic and abiotic stresses throughout olive drupe development. These results represent a first step toward both functional genomics and systems biology research for understanding the gene functions and regulatory networks in olive fruit growth and ripening.

Galla, Giulio; Barcaccia, Gianni; Ramina, Angelo; Collani, Silvio; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldoni, Luciana; Cultrera, Nicolo GM; Martinelli, Federico; Sebastiani, Luca; Tonutti, Pietro

2009-01-01

274

Paternity analysis using microsatellite markers to identify pollen donors in an olive grove.  

PubMed

Olive (Olea europaea L.) is a wind-pollinated, allogamous species that is generally not considered to be self-compatible. In addition, cross-incompatibilities exist between cultivars that can result in low fruit set if compatible pollinisers are not planted nearby. In this study, microsatellite markers were used to identify 17 genotypes that were potential pollen donors in a commercial olive orchard. DNA typing with the same primers was also applied to 800 olive embryos collected from five cultivars in the grove over 2 years of study. Pollen donors for the cultivars Barnea, Corregiola, Kalamata, Koroneiki, and Mission were estimated by paternity analysis, based on the parental contribution of alleles in the genotypes of the embryos. The exclusion probability for the marker set was 0.998 and paternity was assigned on the basis of the 'most likely method'. Different pollen donors were identified for each of the maternal cultivars indicating that cross-compatibilities and incompatibilities varied between the genotypes studied. Cross-pollination was the principal method of fertilization, as selfing was only observed in two of the embryos studied and both of these were from the cultivar Mission. This is the first report where these techniques have been applied to survey the pollination patterns in an olive grove. The results indicate that careful planning in orchard design is required for efficient pollination between olive cultivars. PMID:16133312

Mookerjee, Sonali; Guerin, Jenny; Collins, Graham; Ford, Chris; Sedgley, Margaret

2005-10-01

275

Activity assessment of Tunisian olive leaf extracts against the trophozoite stage of Acanthamoeba.  

PubMed

The olive tree (Olea europaea, Oleaceae) has historically provided huge economic and nutritional benefits to the Mediterranean basin. In fact, olive leaf extracts have also been used by native people of this area in folk medicine to treat fever and other diseases such as malaria. Recently, several studies have focused on the extraction of high-added-value compounds from olive leaves. However, no previous studies have been developed in order to evaluate the activity of these extracts against Acanthamoeba. In the present work, olive leaf extracts from five different Tunisian varieties of olive trees (Chemlali Tataouine, Zarrazi, Toffehi, Dhokkar, and Limouni) were obtained by using three different solvents, and their activity against the trophozoite stage of Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff was screened. The IC50/96 h (50% parasite growth inhibition) was chosen as the appropriate and comparable data to give as previously described. It could be observed that the amoebicidal activity was dose dependent. Trophozoite growth was inhibited by all the tested extracts with IC50 ranging from 8.234 ± 1.703 ?g/ml for the alcoholic mixture of the Dhokkar extract to 33.661 ± 1.398 ?g/ml for the methanolic extract of the Toffehi variety. The activity in fact was affected especially by the tested variety and not by the solvent extraction, the Dhokkar variety being the most active one as mentioned above. PMID:23681194

Sifaoui, Ines; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Martín-Navarro, Carmen Ma; Chammem, Nadia; Mejri, Mondher; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Abderabba, Manef; Piñero, José E

2013-08-01

276

Molecular cloning, functional characterization and transcriptional regulation of a 9-lipoxygenase gene from olive.  

PubMed

A lipoxygenase (LOX) cDNA clone (Oep2LOX1) has been isolated from olive fruit (Olea europaea cv. Picual). The deduced amino acid sequence displayed significant similarity to known plant LOX1 sequences. Genomic Southern blot analysis suggests that only one copy of Oep2LOX1 is present in the olive genome. Linolenic acid was the preferred substrate for the recombinant Oep2LOX1, which produced almost exclusively 9-hydroperoxide when linolenic acid was used as substrate, whereas a mixture of 9- and 13-hydroperoxides in a ratio 4:1 was formed from linoleic acid. Expression levels were measured in different tissues of Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including the mesocarp and seed during development and ripening of olive fruit. The results showed that Oep2LOX1 transcript level is spatially and temporally regulated. Besides, the transcriptional regulation of the Oep2LOX1 gene in response to different abiotic stresses was also investigated. Temperature, light and wounding regulate Oep2LOX1 gene expression in olive fruit mesocarp. The physiological role of the Oep2LOX1 gene during olive fruit ripening and in the stress response is discussed. PMID:22169502

Padilla, María N; Hernández, M Luisa; Sanz, Carlos; Martínez-Rivas, José M

2012-02-01

277

High summer temperatures affect the survival and reproduction of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

PubMed

The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an invasive pest in California. Identifying environmental constraints that affect the geographic distribution and abundance of any invasive insect pest is fundamental to its effective management. California's Central Valley, where most commercial olives are grown, is extremely hot during the summer, with maximum daily temperatures consistently >35.0 degrees C. This study examined the effects of two diurnal temperature regimens (low 18.3 degrees C, high 35.0 or 37.8 degrees C) reflecting summer conditions in the valley, and one control temperature regimen (low 18.3 degrees C, high 23.9 degrees C) on the fly's survival and reproductive success in the laboratory. The temperature regimen of 18.3-35.0 degrees C resulted in delayed egg maturation and reduced production of mature eggs compared with the control temperature regimen. Egg maturation was possible at the higher temperature regimen when females were provided with water and food, and egg-laying occurred during the cold phase of the temperature cycle. Access to olive fruit and oviposition itself further promoted egg maturation. Under exposure to the 18.3-35.0 degrees C temperature regimen, approximately 50% of eggs died, and the remainder that hatched died as first instars. No egg hatch occurred at the temperature treatment of 18.3-37.8 degrees C. We confirmed these laboratory results through field cage studies with adult B. oleae, conducted in the summer of 2007 and 2008. Under ambient summer temperatures, adult B. oleae survived for 1-2 wk, and females readily laid eggs when provided water and food. No offspring developed in midsummer of 2007, and <2% of the offspring developed to adults in summer 2008 trials. These results suggest that high summer temperatures limit the fly's abundance in California's Central Valley. PMID:19825305

Wang, Xin-Geng; Johnson, Marshall W; Daane, Kent M; Nadel, Hannah

2009-10-01

278

Changes in lipid composition, water relations and gas exchange in leaves of two young ‘Chemlali’ and ‘Chetoui’ olive trees in response to water stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparative responses of two young olive trees (Olea europaea L. ‘Chemlali’ and ‘Chetoui’) to drought stress were investigated during 1 month. Three-month-old own-rooted plants were subjected\\u000a to two irrigation treatments: WW (well watered plants that were irrigated with fresh water to maintain a soil water content\\u000a close to field capacity), and WS (water stressed plants by withholding water). Leaf water

Mokhtar Guerfel; Olfa Baccouri; Dalenda Boujnah; Mokhtar Zarrouk

2008-01-01

279

Selection of Lactobacillus plantarum strains to use as starters in fermented table olives: Oleuropeinase activity and phage sensitivity.  

PubMed

Fermented table olives (Olea europaea L.) are largely diffused in the Mediterranean area. Olives are picked at different stages of maturity and after harvesting, processed to eliminate the characteristic bitterness caused by the presence of the oleuropein glucoside and to become suitable for human consumption. The spontaneous fermentation of table olives mainly depends on lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and in particular on Lactobacillus plantarum which plays an important role in the degradation of oleuropein. The hydrolysis of oleuropein is attributed to the ?-glucosidase and esterase activities of the indigenous LAB microflora. This study investigated the potential of L. plantarum strains isolated from dairy products and olives to be used as starters for fermented table olives. Forty-nine strains were typed by RAPD-PCR and investigated for the presence of the ?-glucosidase (bglH) gene. The full sequence of the bglH gene was carried out. All the 49 L. plantarum strains were also tested for phage resistance. A total of six strains were selected on the basis of genotypic polymorphism, bglH gene sequence analysis, and phage resistance profile. These strains were further characterized to assess the acidifying capability, the growth at different temperatures, the tolerance to different NaCl concentrations, and the oleuropeinolytic activity. Although further characterizations are required, especially concerning the influence on sensory properties, L. plantarum proved to have the potential to be used as a debittering and fermentative agent in starter culture for fermented table olives. PMID:23498181

Zago, Miriam; Lanza, Barbara; Rossetti, Lia; Muzzalupo, Innocenzo; Carminati, Domenico; Giraffa, Giorgio

2013-05-01

280

Relationship between olive flowering and latitude in two Mediterranean countries (Italy and Tunisia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In phenological studies, the plant developments are analysed considering their relationships with seasonal meteorological conditions; moreover, the influences of geographical features on biological responses have to be also considered. Different studies analysed the influence of latitude on phenological phases to investigate the possible different magnitude of biological response. In our experience, this type of geographic evaluation was conducted considering one of the more important plant species of Mediterranean shrub, the olive ( Olea europaea L.) in fifteen olive monitoring stations, four located in Tunisia and eleven in Italy, from the southern Zarzis area at 33° to the northern Perugia area at 43° of latitude. The olive flowering phenomenon was studied, utilising an aerobiological monitoring method through appropriate pollen traps located inside olive groves from 1999 to 2008. The olive monitored pollen grains were recognised and evaluated to obtain daily pollen concentrations to define the flowering dates in the different study areas. The biometeorological statistical analysis showed the 7°C threshold temperature and the single triangle method for growing degree days (GDD) yearly computing as the better ones in comparison to others. Moreover, the regression analysis between the dates of full flowering and the GDD amounts at the different monitoring latitudes permitted us to evidence the biological response of olive species in geographic regions with different climate patterns. The specific biological response at different latitude was investigated, the slope results, as flowering days per heat amounts, evidenced that olive species behaviours are very constant in consequence to similar meteorological conditions independently to latitude variations. Averagely, the relationships between plant’s phenology, temperature trends and geographical features are very close, even if the yearly mesoscale meteorological variations force to consider, year by year, phenological advances or delays as local events.

Orlandi, F.; Msallem, M.; Bonofiglio, T.; Ben Dhiab, A.; Sgromo, C.; Romano, B.; Fornaciari, M.

2010-11-01

281

Aromadendrine, a new component of the flavonoid pattern of Olea europaea L. and its anti-inflammatory activity.  

PubMed

Leaves of Olea europaea, cultivar Nocellara del Belice, were examined with respect to the medium-polar fraction, obtained by an ethyl acetate extraction of the whole extract. In the medium polar fraction, we isolated the two hydroxy-phenyl-ethyl alcohols (hydroxyl-tyrosol and tyrosol) that are the main component of olives. In addition, we isolated a flavonoidic compound, aromadendrine, a dihydroflavonol yet known but quite rare in nature. It is the first time that aromadendrine is isolated in O. europaea and we studied the aromadendrine biological activity. In particular, the ability of aromadendrine to reduce the inflammation induced in normal keratinocytes using an in vitro cell model was evaluated. The results of the present research indicate aromadendrine as a novel component in O. europaea with effective activity against skin inflammation. PMID:22691108

Venditti, Alessandro; Serrilli, Anna Maria; Rizza, Luisa; Frasca, Giuseppina; Cardile, Venera; Bonina, Francesco Paolo; Bianco, Armandodoriano

2013-03-01

282

Sex chromosomes and associated rDNA form a heterochromatic network in the polytene nuclei of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

PubMed

The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, has a diploid set of 2n = 12 chromosomes including a pair of sex chromosomes, XX in females and XY in males, but polytene nuclei show only five polytene chromosomes, obviously formed by five autosome pairs. Here we examined the fate of the sex chromosomes in the polytene complements of this species using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with the X and Y chromosome-derived probes, prepared by laser microdissection of the respective chromosomes from mitotic metaphases. Specificity of the probes was verified by FISH in preparations of mitotic chromosomes. In polytene nuclei, both probes hybridized strongly to a granular heterochromatic network, indicating thus underreplication of the sex chromosomes. The X chromosome probe (in both female and male nuclei) highlighted most of the granular mass, whereas the Y chromosome probe (in male nuclei) identified a small compact body of this heterochromatic network. Additional hybridization signals of the X probe were observed in the centromeric region of polytene chromosome II and in the telomeres of six polytene arms. We also examined distribution of the major ribosomal DNA (rDNA) using FISH with an 18S rDNA probe in both mitotic and polytene chromosome complements of B. oleae. In mitotic metaphases, the probe hybridized exclusively to the sex chromosomes. The probe signals localized a discrete rDNA site at the end of the short arm of the X chromosome, whereas they appeared dispersed over the entire dot-like Y chromosome. In polytene nuclei, the rDNA was found associated with the heterochromatic network representing the sex chromosomes. Only in nuclei with preserved nucleolar structure, the probe signals were scattered in the restricted area of the nucleolus. Thus, our study clearly shows that the granular heterochromatic network of polytene nuclei in B. oleae is formed by the underreplicated sex chromosomes and associated rDNA. PMID:22825842

Drosopoulou, Elena; Nakou, Ifigeneia; Síchová, Jindra; Kubí?ková, Svatava; Marec, František; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope

2012-06-01

283

Isolation and characterization of the Bactrocera oleae genes orthologous to the sex determining Sex-lethal and doublesex genes of Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Here we report the isolation and characterization of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae genes orthologous to the Drosophila melanogaster sex-determining genes Sex-lethal (Sxl) and doublesex (dsx). Fragments of the Sxl and dsx orthologous were isolated with RT-PCR. Genomic and cDNA clones were then obtained by screening a genomic library and separate male and female cDNA adult libraries using the RT-PCR products as probes in both cases. B. oleae Sxl gene (BoSxl) expresses the same pattern of transcripts which encode for a single common polypeptide in both male and female flies. The gene shares a high degree of similarity in sequence and expression to its Ceratitis capitata orthologous and does not appear to play a key regulatory role in the sex-determining cascade. B. oleae dsx gene (Bodsx) expands in a chromosomal region of more than 50 kb, with 6 exons-5 introns, producing different sex-specific mRNAs, according to the Drosophila model. The cDNA sequences are almost identical to the gene orthologous of Bactrocera tryoni. Four repeat elements identical to the D. melanogaster TRA/TRA-2 binding sites have been found in the untranslated region of the female-specific exon 4, predicting a common regulatory splicing mechanism in all studied species of Diptera. PMID:15777677

Lagos, Dimitrios; Ruiz, M Fernanda; Sánchez, Lucas; Komitopoulou, Katia

2005-03-28

284

Inhibition of acid corrosion of carbon steel using aqueous extract of olive leaves.  

PubMed

The inhibitive action of the aqueous extract of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves toward the corrosion of C-steel in 2 M HCl solution was investigated using weight loss measurements, Tafel polarization, and cyclic voltammetry. It was found that the extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for the tested system. The inhibition efficiency increases with increasing extract concentration. The inhibitive action of the extract is discussed with a view to adsorption of its components onto the steel surface, making a barrier to mass and charge transfer. The adsorption of extract components onto the steel surface was found to be a spontaneous process and to follow the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. It was found also that such adsorption increases the activation energy of the corrosion process. The results of cyclic voltammetry showed that the presence of olive extract decreases the charge density in the transpassive region. The inhibition efficiency is greatly reduced as the temperature is increased. PMID:17628584

El-Etre, A Y

2007-10-15

285

Summer deficit-irrigation strategies in a hedgerow olive cv. Arbequina orchard: effect on oil quality.  

PubMed

Different irrigation treatments were applied to a superintensive orchard of 'Arbequina' olives ( Olea europaea L.) during three seasons (2007-2009) to examine the effect of the amount of water and the moment of irrigation in summer on the virgin olive oil (VOO) quality. A control was made (CON) with irrigation to maintain the root zone close to field capacity; two water deficit treatments were employed with irrigation at 30% of CON, either from the end of fruit drop to the end of July (DI-J) or from the end of July until the beginning of oil synthesis (DI-A); and other treatment was tested by irrigating 50% of CON in July and August (DI-JA). DI-J oils exhibited significantly higher oxidative stability, which coincided with significantly higher contents in phenol derivatives. Consequently, the selection of the moment and intensity of summer irrigation played an important role in the nutritional and sensory quality of the VOO. PMID:23972260

Gómez Del Campo, María; García, José M

2013-09-18

286

Oxidative stress in leaves of two olive cultivars under freezing conditions.  

PubMed

Olive is one of the most important cultivated Mediterranean plants. In order to determine the differences in frost resistance of two, two-year-old olive cultivars (Olea europaea cv. Leccino and cv. Oblica) growing on different types of nutrient substrates (soil and coconut fibres), the trees were exposed to low temperature (-5 °C) in the dark. It was shown that low temperature caused an increase in H2O2 concentration, level of lipid peroxidation and carbonyl protein content in both cultivars and on both nutrient substrates, respectively. The CAT and APX activities significantly varied depending on the cultivar, the nutrient substrate type and the time of exposure to low temperature. Cv. Oblica and cv. Leccino growing on coconut fibres showed a better antioxidative response to low temperature probably due to the higher nitrogen and phosphorus concentration established in this type of nutrient substrate. That positive antioxidative response determined on coconut fibres was more pronounced in leaves of cv. Leccino. PMID:24013895

Pfeiffer, Tanja Žuna; Štolfa, Ivna; Žani?, M; Pavi?i?, N; Cesar, Vera; Lepeduš, H

2013-09-01

287

Evidence of two lineages of the symbiont 'Candidatus Erwinia dacicola' in Italian populations of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) based on 16S rRNA gene sequences.  

PubMed

The close association between the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and bacteria has been known for more than a century. Recently, the presence of a host-specific, hereditary, unculturable symbiotic bacterium, designated 'Candidatus Erwinia dacicola', has been described inside the cephalic organ of the fly, called the oesophageal bulb. In the present study, the 16S rRNA gene sequence variability of 'Ca. E. dacicola' was examined within and between 26 Italian olive fly populations sampled across areas where olive trees occur in the wild and areas where cultivated olive trees have been introduced through history. The bacterial contents of the oesophageal bulbs of 314 olive flies were analysed and a minimum of 781 bp of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. The corresponding host fly genotype was assessed by sequencing a 776 bp portion of the mitochondrial genome. Two 'Ca. E. dacicola' haplotypes were found (htA and htB), one being slightly more prevalent than the other (57%). The two haplotypes did not co-exist in the same individuals, as confirmed by cloning. Interestingly, the olive fly populations of the two main Italian islands, Sicily and Sardinia, appeared to be represented exclusively by the htB and htA haplotypes, respectively, while peninsular populations showed both bacterial haplotypes in different proportions. No significant correlation emerged between the two symbiont haplotypes and the 16 host fly haplotypes observed, suggesting evidence for a mixed model of vertical and horizontal transmission of the symbiont during the fly life cycle. PMID:21378134

Savio, Claudia; Mazzon, Luca; Martinez-Sañudo, Isabel; Simonato, Mauro; Squartini, Andrea; Girolami, Vincenzo

2012-01-01

288

OeMST2 encodes a monosaccharide transporter expressed throughout olive fruit maturation.  

PubMed

In olive fruits, sugars are the main soluble components providing energy and acting as precursors for olive oil biosynthesis. Large quantities of glucose, fructose and galactose are often found in olive pulp. To analyze sugar transport processes in Olea europaea, a cDNA encoding a monosaccharide transporter, designated OeMST2 (Olea europaea monosaccharide transporter 2) was cloned. An open reading frame of 1,569 bp codes for a protein of 523 amino acids and a calculated molecular weight of 57.6 kDa. The protein is homologous to other sugar transporters identified so far in higher plants. Expression of this cDNA in an hxt-null Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain deficient in glucose transport restored its capacity to grow on and to transport glucose. The encoded protein showed high affinity for D-glucose (K(m), 25 microM) and was also able to recognize D-galactose and the analogs 3-O-methyl-D-glucose and 2-deoxy-D-glucose, but not D-fructose, D-arabinose, sucrose or D-mannitol. Maximal transport activity was high at acidic pH (5.0), and the initial D-[(14)C]glucose uptake rates were strongly inhibited by the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, confirming that OeMST2 is a H(+)/monosaccharide transporter. The expression of OeMST2 was studied during the ripening process. Transcript levels increased during fruit maturation, suggesting that OeMST2 takes part in the massive accumulation of monosaccharides in olive fruits. Monosaccharide:H(+) transport system activity and OeMST2 expression were negatively regulated by glucose in suspension-cultured cells. Glucose-mediated OeMST2 repression was impaired by mannoheptulose, suggesting the involvement of a hexokinase-dependent signaling pathway. PMID:17660519

Conde, Carlos; Agasse, Alice; Silva, Paulo; Lemoine, Rémi; Delrot, Serge; Tavares, Rui; Gerós, Hernâni

2007-09-01

289

Montonen-Olive Conjecture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ways in which the conjecture of Montonen and Olive might be realized are discussed. The interesting possibility of a ''self-dual'' model is considered. Finally, the Osborn formula for the mass spectrum in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory is addressed. (Atomind...

A. Salam J. Strathdee

1981-01-01

290

Changes in chloroplast pigments of olive varieties during fruit ripening.  

PubMed

Changes in chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments of five olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties destined for milling were investigated at six consecutive ripening stages. There was a manifest dependence between olive variety, moment of picking, and chloroplast pigment composition of the fruits. Although the content of chlorophylls and carotenoids differed with fruit variety, ripening always involved their gradual loss, which becames more pronounced with increased presence of anthocyanin compounds. The relative rates of disappearance of chlorophylls and carotenoids were markedly different between varieties, implying that the catabolism of these pigments takes place at a relative rate inherent to each variety. The varieties less rich in pigments showed the most extreme behavior. The highest relative rate of disappearance was observed in fruits of the Blanqueta variety, and the lowest was observed in those of Arbequina. The chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b ratio remained practically constant during ripening, with a value very similar for Hojiblanca, Picual, Cornicabra, and Blanqueta, but much higher for Arbequina, implying that the structure of the photosynthetic apparatus is different in the latter variety. In the five varieties studied, lutein was the slowest carotenoid to be degraded, so that its percentage in the fruits increased with ripening, whereas beta-carotene was the fastest to disappear. In ripe fruits covered with anthocyanins, chloroplast pigments were retained in both skin and pulp, with the rate of disappearance being much higher in the latter. PMID:11262037

Roca, M; Mínguez-Mosquera, M I

2001-02-01

291

Olive Fertility as Affected by Cross-Pollination and Boron  

PubMed Central

Self-compatibility of local olive (Olea europaea L.) accessions and of the cultivars “Frantoio” and “Leccino” was investigated in Garda Lake area, northern Italy. Intercompatibility was determined for “Casaliva,” “Frantoio,” and “Leccino,” as well as the effects of foliar Boron applications (0, 262, 525, or 1050?mg·L?1) applied about one week before anthesis on fruit set, shotberry set, and on in vitro pollen germination. Following self-pollination, fruit set was significantly lower and the occurrence of shot berries significantly higher than those obtained by open pollination. No significant effect of controlled cross-pollination over self-pollination on fruit set and shotberry set was detectable. B treatments increased significantly fruit set in “Frantoio” and “Casaliva” but not in “Leccino.” B sprays had no effect on shotberry set, suggesting that these parthenocarpic fruits did not strongly compete for resources allocation and did not take advantage of increased B tissue levels. Foliar B application enhanced in vitro pollen germination, and the optimal level was higher for pollen germination than for fruit set. Our results highlight the importance of olive cross pollination for obtaining satisfactory fruit set and the beneficial effect of B treatments immediately prior to anthesis, possibly by affecting positively the fertilisation process and subsequent plant source-sink relations linked to fruitlet retention.

Spinardi, A.; Bassi, D.

2012-01-01

292

Olive oil qualitative parameters after orchard irrigation with saline water.  

PubMed

The effect of irrigation with saline water on oil quality was studied in the two olive ( Olea europaea L.) cultivars Koroneiki and Mastoidis, which are the main varieties grown extensively on the island of Crete. Plants (5 years old) were grown outdoors in containers, filled with freely drained light soil. Four treatments were applied, differing in the NaCl added to the irrigation water as follows: 0 (control) 50, 100, and 150 mM NaCl. Drip irrigation was applied regularly, during the dry season (from April to October). Plants in all treatments were irrigated when the soil-water potential reached -40 kPa at a depth of 30 cm. Data showed that increased NaCl levels in irrigation water resulted in a decrease in oil content in the fruits and an increase in total phenols and their secoiridoid derivatives in olive oils from harvested fruits. Furthermore, changes also took place in the composition of fatty acids and triacylglycerol molecular species. The extent of alterations was different for the two varieties and greater in cv. Koroneiki. This fitted with agronomic evidence that cv. Koroneiki is less saline-tolerant than cv. Mastoidis. PMID:19173601

Stefanoudaki, Evagelia; Williams, Mark; Chartzoulakis, Kostas; Harwood, John

2009-02-25

293

Olive flowering phenology variation between different cultivars in Spain and Italy: modeling analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenology data are sensitive data to identify how plants are adapted to local climate and how they respond to climatic changes. Modeling flowering phenology allows us to identify the meteorological variables determining the reproductive cycle. Phenology of temperate of woody plants is assumed to be locally adapted to climate. Nevertheless, recent research shows that local adaptation may not be an important constraint in predicting phenological responses. We analyzed variations in flowering dates of Olea europaea L. at different sites of Spain and Italy, testing for a genetic differentiation of flowering phenology among olive varieties to estimate whether local modeling is necessary for olive or not. We build models for the onset and peak dates flowering in different sites of Andalusia and Puglia. Process-based phenological models using temperature as input variable and photoperiod as the threshold date to start temperature accumulation were developed to predict both dates. Our results confirm and update previous results that indicated an advance in olive onset dates. The results indicate that both internal and external validity were higher in the models that used the photoperiod as an indicator to start to cumulate temperature. The use of the unified model for modeling the start and peak dates in the different localities provides standardized results for the comparative study. The use of regional models grouping localities by varieties and climate similarities indicate that local adaptation would not be an important factor in predicting olive phenological responses face to the global temperature increase.

Garcia-Mozo, H.; Orlandi, F.; Galan, C.; Fornaciari, M.; Romano, B.; Ruiz, L.; Diaz de La Guardia, C.; Trigo, M. M.; Chuine, I.

2009-03-01

294

Agricultural management systems affect the green lacewing community (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) in olive orchards in southern Spain.  

PubMed

Green lacewings are generalist predators whose conservation is important for pest control in olive orchards (Olea europaea L.) Sustainable farming practices, as opposed to conventional management techniques, are believed to foster the presence of natural enemies. This study therefore aims to analyze the effect of 1) herbicidal weed cover removal and insecticide applications, and 2) the general management systems used in the olive orchards of southern Spain on chrysopid assemblages and abundance. Green lacewing adults and larvae were collected from olive orchards under conventional, integrated, and organic management systems. In addition, chemical analyses of residues were carried out to determine the presence of insecticidal and herbicidal residues. Eight adult species and three genera of larvae were identified. No rare species were captured from the most intensively farmed orchard, which therefore recorded the most limited chrysopid diversity with a very marked dominance of Chrysoperla carnea s.l.. No effect of dimethoate treatments on Chrysoperla larvae or C. carnea s.l. adults was observed. However, the presence of insecticide residues was associated with the depletion of Dichochrysa larvae. The absence of herbicide treatments favored C. carnea s.l. adult presence on olive trees while larval abundance decreased. Dichochrysa larvae were more abundant when weed cover received no treatment. In relation to the management systems studied, no difference in Chrysoperla larval abundance was observed between conventional and organic orchards. However, Dichochrysa larvae were more abundant in orchards under organic management. PMID:23339790

Porcel, M; Ruano, F; Cotes, B; Peña, A; Campos, M

2013-02-01

295

Spatial sap flow and xylem anatomical characteristics in olive trees under different irrigation regimes.  

PubMed

The compensation heat pulse (CHP) method is widely used to estimate sap flow and transpiration in conducting organs of woody plants. Previous studies have reported a natural azimuthal variability in sap flow, which could have practical implications in locating the CHP probes and integrating their output. Sap flow of several olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. 'Arbequina') previously grown under different irrigation treatments were monitored by the CHP method, and their xylem anatomical characteristics were analyzed from wood samples taken at the same location in which the probes were installed. A significant azimuthal variability in the sap flow was found in a well-irrigated olive tree monitored by eight CHP probes. The azimuthal variability was well related to crown architecture, but poorly to azimuthal differences in the xylem anatomical characteristics. Well-irrigated and deficit-irrigated olive trees showed similar xylem anatomical characteristics, but they differed in xylem growth and in the ratio of nocturnal-to-diurnal sap flow (N/D index). The results of this work indicate that transpiration cannot be accurately estimated by the CHP method in olive trees if a small number of sensors are employed and that the N/D index could be used as a sensitive water status indicator. PMID:21081652

López-Bernal, Álvaro; Alcántara, Esteban; Testi, Luca; Villalobos, Francisco J

2010-12-01

296

Olive cultivar origin is a major cause of polymorphism for Ole e 1 pollen allergen  

PubMed Central

Background Pollens from different olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars have been shown to differ significantly in their content in Ole e 1 and in their overall allergenicity. This allergen is, in addition, characterized by a high degree of polymorphism in its sequence. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the putative presence of divergences in Ole e 1 sequences from different olive cultivars. Results RNA from pollen individually collected from 10 olive cultivars was used to amplify Ole e 1 sequences by RT-PCR, and the sequences were analyzed by using different bioinformatics tools. Numerous nucleotide substitutions were detected throughout the sequences, many of which resulted in amino acid substitutions in the deduced protein sequences. In most cases variability within a single variety was much lower than among varieties. Key amino acid changes in comparison with "canonical" sequences previously described in the literature included: a) the substitution of C19-relevant to the disulphide bond structure of the protein-, b) the presence of an additional N-glycosylation motif, and c) point substitutions affecting regions of Ole e 1 already described like relevant for the immunogenicity/allergenicity of the protein. Conclusion Varietal origin of olive pollen is a major factor determining the diversity of Ole e 1 variants. We consider this information of capital importance for the optimal design of efficient and safe allergen formulations, and useful for the genetic engineering of modified forms of the allergen among other applications.

Hamman-Khalifa, AbdelMounim; Castro, Antonio Jesus; Jimenez-Lopez, Jose Carlos; Rodriguez-Garcia, Maria Isabel; Alche, Juan de Dios

2008-01-01

297

Insecticidal activity of Citrus aurantium fruit, leaf, and shoot extracts against adult olive fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

PubMed

Solvent extracts of differing polarity from Citrus aurantium (L.) (Rutaceae) fruit, leaves, and shoots were evaluated for biological activity against adults of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Using a petri dish residual exposure bioassay, we found that the petroleum ether extract from fruit alone showed insecticidal activity against the flies. The extract of the three fruit tissues (flavedo [peel], albedo, and flesh) indicated that bioactivity was limited to the flavedo, and this activity was significantly higher than that of the whole fruit extract. The most effective extract was obtained when fresh flavedo was used, whereas extracts of oven-dried flavedo were inactive. Fruit maturity also affected bioactivity; extracts of ripe fruit were more effective than those of unripe fruit. Our results suggest that C. aurantium flavedo contains secondary metabolites with insecticidal activity against B. oleae adults. PMID:17849873

Siskos, E P; Konstantopoulou, M A; Mazomenos, B E; Jervis, M

2007-08-01

298

Scolicidal Effects of Olea europaea and Satureja khuzestanica Extracts on Protoscolices of Hydatid Cysts  

PubMed Central

Treatment of hydatid disease is mainly surgical, with medical treatment being reserved as a coadjuvant treatment. Use of effective scolicidal agents during surgery of cystic echinococcosis is essential to reduce the recurrence rate. The goal of this study was to evaluate the in vitro scolicidal effects of hydroalcoholic extracts of Satureja khuzestanica leaves and aqueous extracts of Olea europaea leaves on hydatid cyst protoscolices. Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices were collected from the liver of sheep infected with the hydatid cyst. Various concentrations of plant extracts were used in different exposure times for viability assay of protoscolices. Among the olive leaf extracts tested, 0.1% and 0.01% concentrations had strong scolicidal effects in 120 min. S. khuzestanica 0.1% had very strong scolicidal effects in 30, 60, and 120 min of exposure times and the mortality rate decreased with the lower concentration. The finding have shown that the scolicidal activity of S. khuzestanica against cystic echinococosis protoscolices were more effective, while the O. europaea extract showed less effects.

Sarlak, Amanallah; Delfan, Bahram; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Azargoon, Alireza

2012-01-01

299

Scolicidal effects of Olea europaea and Satureja khuzestanica extracts on protoscolices of hydatid cysts.  

PubMed

Treatment of hydatid disease is mainly surgical, with medical treatment being reserved as a coadjuvant treatment. Use of effective scolicidal agents during surgery of cystic echinococcosis is essential to reduce the recurrence rate. The goal of this study was to evaluate the in vitro scolicidal effects of hydroalcoholic extracts of Satureja khuzestanica leaves and aqueous extracts of Olea europaea leaves on hydatid cyst protoscolices. Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices were collected from the liver of sheep infected with the hydatid cyst. Various concentrations of plant extracts were used in different exposure times for viability assay of protoscolices. Among the olive leaf extracts tested, 0.1% and 0.01% concentrations had strong scolicidal effects in 120 min. S. khuzestanica 0.1% had very strong scolicidal effects in 30, 60, and 120 min of exposure times and the mortality rate decreased with the lower concentration. The finding have shown that the scolicidal activity of S. khuzestanica against cystic echinococosis protoscolices were more effective, while the O. europaea extract showed less effects. PMID:22451734

Zibaei, Mohammad; Sarlak, Amanallah; Delfan, Bahram; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Azargoon, Alireza

2012-03-01

300

The transformer gene in Bactrocera oleae: the genetic switch that determines its sex fate.  

PubMed

Transformer (tra) is the second gene of a regulatory cascade based on RNA splicing that determines sex in Drosophila melanogaster. Splicing of tra transcripts is regulated by the master gene Sex lethal and tra itself regulates splicing of the transcriptional regulator doublesex (dsx). We present the isolation and characterization of Botra, the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae orthologue to the Drosophila gene transformer. As in Drosophila, Botra transcripts are spliced in a sex-specific manner so that only females encode a functional polypeptide of 422 amino acids, whereas males encode presumably nonfunctional peptide(s). The identification of multiple TRA/TRA-2 binding sites within the Botra male-specific exons, suggests an autoregulation mechanism of tra, through TRA/TRA2 activities. The fundamental role of the TRA protein in sex determination of Bactrocera was investigated by RNA interference, where the introduction of Botra dsRNA into embryos resulted in complete transformation of XX flies into fertile males. PMID:17298554

Lagos, D; Koukidou, M; Savakis, C; Komitopoulou, K

2007-04-01

301

Selection at 6-PGD locus in laboratory populations of Bactrocera oleae.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that laboratory populations of the olive fruitfly Bactrocera oleae come to equilibrium with allele frequencies at the 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD) locus markedly different from those of wild populations. In this study, we present new evidence from perturbation experiments in support of the notion that the locus is under selective pressure under laboratory conditions. Eleven populations were started with frequencies at the 6-PGD locus different from the laboratory equilibrium. Over 12 generations, the populations showed a return to the previous equilibrium, indicating a direct and powerful selection pressure on the naturally occurring allozymes of this locus. That is, a marked increase of the F allele followed by a compensatory decrease of allele I. Populations were set up to minimize the effects of associative overdominance, and we discuss the possible influence of this factor. Nucleotide sequence for the 6-PGD F and I alleles revealed two missense mutations at positions 501 and 730 leading to different amino acids among the two alleles. PMID:19061528

Cosmidis, Nikos; Goulielmos, George; Eliopoulos, Elias; Loukas, Michael

2008-10-01

302

Temporal matching among diurnal photosynthetic patterns within the crown of the evergreen sclerophyll Olea europaea L.  

PubMed

Trees are modular organisms that adjust their within-crown morphology and physiology in response to within-crown light gradients. However, whether within-plant variation represents a strategy for optimizing light absorption has not been formally tested. We investigated the arrangement of the photosynthetic surface throughout one day and its effects on the photosynthetic process, at the most exposed and most sheltered crown layers of a wild olive tree (Olea europaea L.). Similar measurements were made for cuttings taken from this individual and grown in a greenhouse at contrasted irradiance-levels (100 and 20% full sunlight). Diurnal variations in light interception, carbon fixation and carbohydrate accumulation in sun leaves were negatively correlated with those in shade leaves under field conditions when light intensity was not limiting. Despite genetic identity, these complementary patterns were not found in plants grown in the greenhouse. The temporal disparity among crown positions derived from specialization of the photosynthetic behaviour at different functional and spatial scales: architectural structure (crown level) and carbon budget (leaf level). Our results suggest that the profitability of producing a new module may not only respond to construction costs or light availability, but also rely on its spatio-temporal integration within the productive processes at the whole-crown level. PMID:21276011

Granado-Yela, C; García-Verdugo, C; Carrillo, K; Rubio DE Casas, R; Kleczkowski, L A; Balaguer, L

2011-05-01

303

The main allergen of Olea europaea (Ole e I) is also present in other species of the Oleaceae family.  

PubMed

Three major pollen allergens from Fraxinus excelsior, Ligustrum vulgare and Syringa vulgaris belonging to the Oleaceae family were purified. Monoclonal antibodies previously raised against the main allergen of Olea europaea (Ole e I) were used for their purification by affinity chromatography. The three new purified allergens were able to bind human IgE from serum of olive-allergic patients in a way analogous to Ole e I. Crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis of the four allergens, using anti-olive extract rabbit serum, showed a unique immunoprecipitation arc with the same characteristics. The four purified proteins had similar molecular weights on SDS-PAGE and the N-terminal sequences for the first 20 amino acids were identical. Furthermore, the concentration of the allergens could be determined using a two-side solid phase assay previously developed for the allergen Ole e I. Our results indicate that the four purified proteins share, to a great extent, antigenic and allergenic epitopes leading to cross-reactivities which could cause common clinical manifestations. We propose for the newly purified allergens the nomenclature of Fra e I, Lig v I and Syr v I. PMID:8319129

Obispo, T M; Melero, J A; Carpizo, J A; Carreira, J; Lombardero, M

1993-04-01

304

Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Nociceptive Effects of Defatted Fruit Extract of Olea europaea.  

PubMed

Fruits of Olea europaea L. have been used for centuries in folk medicine to treat many inflammatory diseases. In order to evaluate the anti-nociceptive activities of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of defatted fruits of O. europaea, formalin test was used and for evaluation of anti-inflammatory effects of the extract, the volume of paw edema was measured. The results revealed that both extracts did not exhibit significant analgesic activity in the first phase of formalin test, whereas methanolic extract at the 600 mg/Kg dose and aqueous extract at the 450 and 600 mg/Kg doses could inhibit induced pain in the second phase of formalin test. Furthermore, the results of paw edema volume measurement indicated that the aqueous extract has anti-inflammatory effects at dose of 600 mg/Kg. Induced anti-nociception by aqueous olive extract was not reversed by naloxone, which indicates that the opioid receptors are not involved in the analgesic effects of the extracts. The present data pointed out that the extracts of olive defatted fruit have anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in rats but further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism(s) of action and active components which are involved in analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:24711837

Sahranavard, Shamim; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Faizi, Mehrdad

2014-01-01

305

Olive oil phenols and neuroprotection.  

PubMed

Olive oil is a rich source of phenolic components which have a wide variety of beneficial health effects in vitro, in vivo, and clinically. The beneficial effects of olive oil phenols attributed to a variety of biological activities including free radical scavenging/antioxidant actions, anti-inflammatory effects, anti-carcinogenic properties, and anti-microbial activities. On the other hand, olive oil phenols have been shown to be some of neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia, spinal cord injury, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's diseases, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, aging, and peripheral neuropathy. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of olive oil phenols. PMID:23406576

Khalatbary, Ali Reza

2013-11-01

306

Effects of Peganum harmala (Zygophyllaceae) seed extract on the olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and its larval parasitoid Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).  

PubMed

Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae) is an herb native to arid and semiarid regions of Central Asian deserts. This study investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of P. harmala seeds on the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), i.e., adult repellency, reproductive activity, and larval growth, as well as parasitism levels by Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti). Olive fruit treated with 2% extract reduced B. oleae oviposition. In choice tests, female B. oleae spent >99% of their time foraging on untreated fruit rather than P. harmala-treated fruit. These changes in ovipositional behavior resulted in a nearly 30-fold decrease in oviposition marks on treated fruit compared with untreated fruit during a 48 h exposure period. When female B. oleae were fed liquid diet containing 0.2% P. harmala extract, there was no effect on the number of ovipositional marks on exposed fruit, but up to 21.4% of the deposited eggs were deformed. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses of deformed eggs revealed that some protein bands were missing. Consequently, the number of offspring produced by treated females was lower than by untreated females. Neither the sex ratio nor body size of the fly's offspring were affected by adults fed diet containing 0.2% P. harmala extract. However, there was a slightly prolonged developmental time from egg to adult. Parasitism of larval B. oleae by P. concolor was not affected by infested fruit treatment with 2% P. harmala extract. P. harmala extracts as a potential control for insect pest species are discussed. PMID:20069853

Rehman, Junaid Ur; Wang, Xin-Geng; Johnson, Marshall W; Daane, Kent M; Jilani, Ghulam; Khan, Mir A; Zalom, Frank G

2009-12-01

307

The Douglas Oliver Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This remarkable collection from the University of Hawaii Library's Pacific Collection brings together over 960 images taken by Professor Douglas Oliver. In the late 1930s, Professor Oliver conducted research on Bougainville in the Solomon Islands. Visitors can browse through his images by title, category, place, collection, or reference number. Some of the images include rare photographs of nuptials and other events or ceremonies that marked key events in the community. Many of the images include portraits of men in profile, along with scenes of family life. The site also contains a glossary of terms, which details everything from place names (like "Aku") to "Upi," the wearing of tall conical hats known as upes.

Oliver, Douglas L.

308

Fungi isolated from olive ecosystems and screening of their potential biotechnological use.  

PubMed

This study investigated the fungi diversity of fresh olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits, olive paste (crushed olives) and olive pomace (solid waste) and screened and quantified enzymatic activities with biotechnological applications. Fungi were randomly isolated from olive cultivars from Castilla La Mancha region (Spain). Identification included comparison of their polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal DNA region, followed by nucleotide sequence analysis. Fourteen different species with DNA sequences of different similarities were identified, belonging to seven different genera (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizomucor, Mucor, Rhizopus, Lichtheimia and Galactomyces). Aspergillus fumigatus, followed by Galactomyces geotrichum, Penicillium commune and Rhizomucor variabilis var. regularior were the most frequent species. Specific enzyme screening was assayed on agar plates, using cellobiose, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), polygalacturonic acid and CaCl(2)/Tween 80 as substrates for ?-glucosidase, carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase), polygalacturonase and lipase, respectively. Species exhibiting the best activities were: Aspergillus fumigatus (for ?-glucosidase, CMCase and lipase); Rhizopus oryzae (for ?-glucosidase and lipase); Rhizomucor variabilis (for ?-glucosidase, CMCase and polygalacturonase); Mucor fragilis (?-glucosidase, CMCase and lipase); Galactomyces geotrichum (for ?-glucosidase, polygalacturonase and lipase) and Penicillium commune and Penicillium crustosum (for lipase). The species that had shown the best enzymatic activities were grown on hemicellulose, cellulose and pectin and some activities were quantified (xylanase, cellulase, ?-glucosidase and pectinase). An isolate of A. fumigatus and one of A. niger showed the best cellulase and xylanase activities, while no species presented good pectinase and ?-glucosidase activities. The selected species with potential enzymatic activities could be used for future applications of industrial interest. PMID:21689797

Baffi, Milla Alves; Romo-Sánchez, Sheila; Ubeda-Iranzo, Juan; Briones-Pérez, Ana Isabel

2012-02-15

309

Hydrolysis of Oleuropein by Lactobacillus plantarum Strains Associated with Olive Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Oleuropein (Chemical Abstracts Service registry number 32619-42-4), a bitter-tasting secoiridoid glucoside commonly found in leaves of the olive tree as well as in olives (Olea europaea L.), was found to be hydrolyzed by the ?-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.2.1) produced by oleuropeinolytic Lactobacillus plantarum-type strains. Three strains, designated B17, B20, and B21, were isolated from the brine of naturally ripe olives not treated with alkali. These strains were rod-shaped forms, grown at a pH 3.5 limit, and tolerated 1% oleuropein and 8% NaCl in the growth medium. The ?-glucosidase produced hydrolyzed 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-?-d-glucopy-ranoside as well as oleuropein. The presence of 2% glucose in the medium inhibited activity by 40 to 50%, depending on the bacterial strain. Chromatographic analysis of the trimethylsilyl derivatives of the products obtained after 7 days of incubation at 30°C of strain B21 showed all the hydrolysis products of oleuropein, i.e., aglycone, iridoid monoterpen, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (hydroxytyrosol). Oleuropein and its aglycone after 21 days of incubation decreased to trace levels with the simultaneous increase in concentration of ?-3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol. Images

Ciafardini, G.; Marsilio, V.; Lanza, B.; Pozzi, N.

1994-01-01

310

In Vitro Culture Conditions and OeARF and OeH3 Expressions Modulate Adventitious Root Formation from Oleaster (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) Cuttings  

PubMed Central

Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris, also named oleaster, is the wild form of olive and it is used as rootstock and pollen donor for many cultivated varieties. An efficient procedure for in vitro propagation of oleaster was established in this study. A zeatin concentration of 2.5?mg/L was effective to induce an appreciable vegetative growth. Also high rooting efficiency was obtained by using a short IBA pulse, followed by two different IBA concentrations in the culture medium. With the aim to enlarge knowledge on the molecular aspects of adventitious rooting, we also evaluated the transcriptional modulation of an ARFs member and HISTONE H3 genes, involved in auxin signaling and cell replication, respectively, during the root induction phase of cuttings. The obtained results suggest that the selected genes, as markers of the induction phase, could be very useful for setting up efficient culture conditions along the rooting process, thus increasing micropropagation efficiency.

Gagliardi, Cinzia; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

2014-01-01

311

In vitro culture conditions and OeARF and OeH3 expressions modulate adventitious root formation from oleaster (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) cuttings.  

PubMed

Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris, also named oleaster, is the wild form of olive and it is used as rootstock and pollen donor for many cultivated varieties. An efficient procedure for in vitro propagation of oleaster was established in this study. A zeatin concentration of 2.5?mg/L was effective to induce an appreciable vegetative growth. Also high rooting efficiency was obtained by using a short IBA pulse, followed by two different IBA concentrations in the culture medium. With the aim to enlarge knowledge on the molecular aspects of adventitious rooting, we also evaluated the transcriptional modulation of an ARFs member and HISTONE H3 genes, involved in auxin signaling and cell replication, respectively, during the root induction phase of cuttings. The obtained results suggest that the selected genes, as markers of the induction phase, could be very useful for setting up efficient culture conditions along the rooting process, thus increasing micropropagation efficiency. PMID:24587768

Chiappetta, Adriana; Gagliardi, Cinzia; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

2014-01-01

312

Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase, and phenol concentration in fruits of Olea europaea L. cv. Picual, Verdial, Arbequina, and Frantoio during ripening.  

PubMed

The kinetics and protein-expression level of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in fruits of olive trees (Olea europaea) cv. Picual, Verdial, Arbequina, and Frantoio have been studied in relation to the concentration of total phenolic compounds, oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and tyrosol during fruit ripening. Frantoio was the variety that showed the highest total phenol concentration, the highest PAL activity, the lowest PPO activity, and the lowest protein levels. In contrast, Verdial was the variety that showed the lowest total phenol concentration, the least PAL activity, the greatest PPO activity, and the highest protein levels. Arbequina and Picual showed intermediate levels. These results suggest the existence of a coordinated response between PAL, PPO, and the concentration of total phenols over ripening in the four varieties. The concentration of total and specific phenols differed between varieties and specifically changed over ripening. PMID:19813730

Ortega-García, Francisca; Peragón, Juan

2009-11-11

313

Simulation of olive grove gross primary production by the combination of ground and multi-sensor satellite data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed and tested a methodology to estimate olive (Olea europaea L.) gross primary production (GPP) combining ground and multi-sensor satellite data. An eddy-covariance station placed in an olive grove in central Italy provided carbon and water fluxes over two years (2010-2011), which were used as reference to evaluate the performance of a GPP estimation methodology based on a Monteith type model (modified C-Fix) and driven by meteorological and satellite (NDVI) data. A major issue was related to the consideration of the two main olive grove components, i.e. olive trees and inter-tree ground vegetation: this issue was addressed by the separate simulation of carbon fluxes within the two ecosystem layers, followed by their recombination. In this way the eddy covariance GPP measurements were successfully reproduced, with the exception of two periods that followed tillage operations. For these periods measured GPP could be approximated by considering synthetic NDVI values which simulated the expected response of inter-tree ground vegetation to tillages.

Brilli, L.; Chiesi, M.; Maselli, F.; Moriondo, M.; Gioli, B.; Toscano, P.; Zaldei, A.; Bindi, M.

2013-08-01

314

Colonization process of olive tissues by Verticillium dahliae and its in planta interaction with the biocontrol root endophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7  

PubMed Central

Summary The colonization process of Olea europaea by the defoliating pathotype of Verticillium dahliae, and the in planta interaction with the endophytic, biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 were determined. Differential fluorescent protein tagging was used for the simultaneous visualization of P. fluorescens PICF7 and V. dahliae in olive tissues. Olive plants were bacterized with PICF7 and then transferred to V. dahliae?infested soil. Monitoring olive colonization events by V. dahliae and its interaction with PICF7 was conducted using a non?gnotobiotic system, confocal laser scanner microscopy and tissue vibratoming sections. A yellow fluorescently tagged V. dahliae derivative (VDAT?36I) was obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens?mediated transformation. Isolate VDAT?36I quickly colonized olive root surface, successfully invaded root cortex and vascular tissues via macro? and micro?breakages, and progressed to the aerial parts of the plant through xylem vessel cells. Strain PICF7 used root hairs as preferred penetration site, and once established on/in root tissues, hindered pathogen colonization. For the first time using this approach, the entire colonization process of a woody plant by V. dahliae is reported. Early and localized root surface and root endophytic colonization by P. fluorescens PICF7 is needed to impair full progress of verticillium wilt epidemics in olive.

Prieto, Pilar; Navarro-Raya, Carmen; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Amyotte, Stefan G.; Dobinson, Katherine F.; Mercado-Blanco, Jesus

2009-01-01

315

Thriving at the limit: Differential reproductive performance in range-edge populations of a Mediterranean sclerophyll (Olea europaea)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peripheral populations are often lumped together on the assumption of thriving in marginal habitats where reproductive performance is compromised. We have tested this hypothesis in peripheral populations of wild olive tree (Olea europaea L.) presumably limited by different factors at the westernmost limit of the species range. Additionally, we hypothesized that differences in reproductive outcome among populations are better explained by site-specific environmental conditions (PAR, soil water, soil nutrients, air humidity and air temperature) than by differences in phenotypic traits (tree size and leaf traits). To test these hypotheses, we assessed the number of flowering trees, the flowering intensity, fruit set and seed viability in eight populations for three consecutive years. Our findings provided sufficient evidence to reject the first hypothesis. Peripheral populations that occur under oceanic conditions, resembling the Tertiary subtropical climate, consistently presented higher values for all components of reproductive performance than those at the thermal and rainfall tolerance limits. In support of our second hypothesis, the variation in reproductive performance among populations was primarily accounted for by local environmental conditions. Leaf traits, however, also explained reproductive variation but to a lesser extent. Finally, we found that small changes in tree size may cause large differences in reproductive performance. This close relationship between tree size and reproductive performance suggests that any impact on population size structure would likely jeopardize persistence and expansion at the range edge. Our results suggest that reproductive performance of wild olive trees was not shaped by the population geographic position within the species range, but by the interaction between local environment, as the main driver, and individual phenotypic traits.

Granado-Yela, Carlos; Balaguer, Luis; García-Verdugo, Carlos; Carrillo, Katty; Méndez, Marcos

2013-10-01

316

Clay Improvement with Burned Olive Waste Ash  

PubMed Central

Olive oil is concentrated in the Mediterranean basin countries. Since the olive oil industries are incriminated for a high quantity of pollution, it has become imperative to solve this problem by developing optimized systems for the treatment of olive oil wastes. This study proposes a solution to the problem. Burned olive waste ash is evaluated for using it as clay stabilizer. In a laboratory, bentonite clay is used to improve olive waste ash. Before the laboratory, the olive waste is burned at 550°C in the high temperature oven. The burned olive waste ash was added to bentonite clay with increasing 1% by weight from 1% to 10%. The study consisted of the following tests on samples treated with burned olive waste ash: Atterberg Limits, Standard Proctor Density, and Unconfined Compressive Strength Tests. The test results show promise for this material to be used as stabilizer and to solve many of the problems associated with its accumulation.

Mutman, Utkan

2013-01-01

317

The influence of bearing cycles on olive oil quality response to irrigation.  

PubMed

Five rates of water application were applied in a 4 year study on olive (Olea europaea) varieties 'Barnea' and 'Souri'. Increased irrigation lead to increased tree-scale oil yields, lower polyphenol content, and, frequently, higher oil acidity. These effects were predominant in "off" years. The fatty acid profile was influenced primarily by bearing level and variety and secondarily by irrigation rate. The saturated to unsaturated fatty acid ratio was higher in "off" than in "on" years, and the monounsaturated fatty acid to polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio was higher in "on" years as a result of the fact that oleic and stearic acids were higher in "on" years, while palmitic, palmitoleic, and linoleic acids were greater in "off" years. Squalene was higher in 'Souri' than in 'Barnea' oils, was not affected by bearing cycle, and was consistently lower in oil from trees receiving the lowest irrigation level. PMID:21950468

Ben-Gal, Alon; Dag, Arnon; Basheer, Loai; Yermiyahu, Uri; Zipori, Isaac; Kerem, Zohar

2011-11-01

318

Microsatellite analysis of olive fly populations in the Mediterranean indicates a westward expansion of the species.  

PubMed

Bactrocera oleae is the major insect pest of the olive fruit. Twelve microsatellite loci isolated from the genome of this insect were used in a Mediterranean-wide population analysis. These loci were highly polymorphic with a mean number of alleles per locus of 10.42 and a mean effective number of alleles of 2.76. The analysis was performed on a sample of 671 flies collected from nineteen locations around the European part of the Mediterranean basin. Despite the high level of gene flow across the Mediterranean, results support the notion of a differentiation of three subpopulations: one of the Iberian Peninsula, one of Greece and Italy and one of Cyprus. In addition, the gradual decrease of heterozygosity from the Eastern to the Western part of the Mediterranean indicates a westward expansion of the species. PMID:16247695

Augustinos, A A; Mamuris, Z; Stratikopoulos, E E; D'Amelio, S; Zacharopoulou, A; Mathiopoulos, K D

2005-11-01

319

Suppression of leopard moth (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) populations in olive trees in Egypt through mating disruption.  

PubMed

The leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina (L.) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae), is a damaging pest for many fruit trees (e.g., apple [Malus spp.], pear [Pyrus spp.] peach [Prunus spp.], and olive [Olea]). Recently, it caused serious yield losses in newly established olive orchards in Egypt, including the death of young trees. Chemical and biological control have shown limited efficiency against this pest. Field tests were conducted in 2005 and 2006 to evaluate mating disruption (MD) for the control of the leopard moth, on heavily infested, densely planted olive plots (336 trees per ha). The binary blend of the pheromone components (E,Z)-2,13-octadecenyl acetate and (E,Z)-3,13-octadecenyl acetate (95:5) was dispensed from polyethylene vials. Efficacy was measured considering reduction of catches in pheromone traps, reduction of active galleries of leopard moth per tree and fruit yield in the pheromone-treated plots (MD) compared with control plots (CO). Male captures in MD plots were reduced by 89.3% in 2005 and 82.9% in 2006, during a trapping period of 14 and 13 wk, respectively. Application of MD over two consecutive years progressively reduced the number of active galleries per tree in the third year where no sex pheromone was applied. In all years, larval galleries outnumbered moth captures. Fruit yield from trees where sex pheromone had been applied in 2005 and 2006 increased significantly in 2006 (98.8 +/- 2.9 kg per tree) and 2007 (23 +/- 1.3 kg per tree) compared with control ones (61.0 +/- 3.9 and 10.0 +/- 0.6 kg per tree, respectively). Mating disruption shows promising for suppressing leopard moth infestation in olives. PMID:21061961

Hegazi, E M; Khafagi, W E; Konstantopoulou, M A; Schlyter, F; Raptopoulos, D; Shweil, S; Abd El-Rahman, S; Atwa, A; Ali, S E; Tawfik, H

2010-10-01

320

Oliver Wendell Holmes 1  

PubMed Central

The life of Oliver Wendell Holmes was selected as the subject for a lecture in the 1974 History of Medicine series at Yale University School of Medicine because, as the Latin subtitle of the essay suggests, he represents a fortunate and uncommon, but by no means unique, synthesis of the practical and aesthetic, of science and the humanities. An attempt has been made by the lecturer, employing frequent, but brief, excerpts from the works of several disinguished biographers as well as Doctor Holmes' own lectures, medical papers, essays and poems to delineate the elite heritage and the events that led this complex person transiently into the sudy of law, the profession in which his older son reached the pinnacle of the U.S. Supreme Court, and finally into medicine where a short period of private practice was followed by more than three decades of distinguished teaching is anatomy. His lifetime (1809-1894) spanned most of the nineteenth century, in the literary hisory of which he played a significant role. His writings reveal a remarkable, and sometimes prophetic, appreciation of the impact that burgeoning science and evolving social pressures and changes would have on the teaching and practice of medicine in the future—our present.

Lindskog, Gustaf E.

1974-01-01

321

Il quadro finanziario pluriennale dell'Unione e la costruzione del processo di integrazione europea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Il quadro finanziario pluriennale dell'Unione e la costruzione del processo di integrazione europea (di Silvano Presa) - ABSTRACT: This paper assesses how the eu budget is going to be shaped over the next decade in view of meeting the challenge of growth. Firstly, the paper briefly recalls the main features of the European Union’s public finances. Secondly, it highlights the

Silvano Presa

2005-01-01

322

Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Wild Olives from the North-western Mediterranean Assessed by SSR Markers  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims This study examines the pattern of genetic variability and genetic relationships of wild olive (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) populations in the north-western Mediterranean. Recent bottleneck events are also assessed and an investigation is made of the underlying population structure of the wild olive populations. Methods The genetic variation within and between 11 wild olive populations (171 individuals) was analysed with eight microsatellite markers. Conventional and Bayesian-based analyses were applied to infer genetic structure and define the number of gene pools in wild olive populations. Key Results Bayesian model-based clustering identified four gene pools, which was in overall concordance with the Factorial Correspondence Analysis and Fitch–Margoliash tree. Two gene pools were predominantly found in southern Spain and Italian islands, respectively, in samples gathered from undisturbed forests of the typical Mediterranean climate. The other two gene pools were mostly detected in the north-eastern regions of Spain and in continental Italy and belong to the transition region between the temperate and Mediterranean climate zones. Conclusions On the basis of these results, it can be assumed that the population structure of wild olives from the north-western Mediterranean partially reflects the evolutionary history of these populations, although hybridization between true oleasters and cultivated varieties in areas of close contact between the two forms must be assumed as well. The study indicates a degree of admixture in all the populations, and suggests some caution regarding genetic differentiation at the population level, making it difficult to identify clear-cut genetic boundaries between candidate areas containing either genuinely wild or feral germplasm.

Belaj, Angjelina; Munoz-Diez, Concepcion; Baldoni, Luciana; Porceddu, Andrea; Barranco, Diego; Satovic, Zlatko

2007-01-01

323

Octopamine--a single modulator with double action on the heart of two insect species (Apis mellifera macedonica and Bactrocera oleae): Acceleration vs. inhibition.  

PubMed

The effects of octopamine, the main cardioacceleratory transmitter in insects, were investigated, in the isolated hearts of the honeybee, Apis mellifera macedonica, and the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae. Octopamine induced a biphasic effect on the frequency and force of cardiac contractions acting as an agonist, with a strong acceleratory effect, at concentrations higher than 10(-12)M for the honeybee and higher than 50×10(-9)M for the olive fruit fly. The heart of the honeybee is far more sensitive than the heart of olive fruit fly. This unusual sensitivity is extended to the blockers of octopaminergic receptors, where phentolamine at 10(-5)M stopped the spontaneous contractions of the honeybee heart completely and permanently, while the same blocker at the same concentration caused only 50% inhibition in the heart of the olive fruit fly. Phentolamine and mianserin at low concentrations of 10(-7)M also blocked the heart octopaminergic receptors, but for a short period of time, of less than 15.0 min, while a partial recovery in heart contraction started in spite of the presence of the antagonist. The unusual response of the honeybee heart in the presence of phentolamine and/or mianserin suggests excitatory effects of octopamine via two different receptor subtypes. At lower concentrations, 10(-14)M, the agonist octopamine was converted to an antagonist, inducing a hyperpolarization in the membrane potential of the honeybee cardiac pacemaker cells and inhibiting the firing rate of the heart. The inhibitory effects of octopamine on certain parameters of the rhythmic bursts of the heart of the honeybee, were similar to those of mianserin and phentolamine, typical blockers of octopaminergic receptors. The heart of the olive fruit fly was 10(5) times less sensitive to octopamine, since a persistent inhibition of heart contractions occurred at 10(-9)M. In conclusion, the acceleration of the insect heart is achieved by increasing the levels of octopamine, while there is a passive but also an active decrease in heart activity due to the minimization of octopamine. PMID:21147117

Papaefthimiou, Chrisovalantis; Theophilidis, George

2011-02-01

324

Biogas production from olive pomace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas production from a slurry obtained by mixing finely ground olive pomace in water was investigated using anaerobic digesters of 1-l working volume at 37°C. A start-up culture was obtained from a local landfill area and was adopted to the slurry within 10 days at this temperature. The biogas generation rates were determined by varying the total solids (TS) concentration

Ali R Tekin; A. Co?kun Dalg?ç

2000-01-01

325

Oliver Cromwell : Man of Force  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oliver Cromwell was not born a genius like Napoleon and was well into the latter half of his unimpressive and quiet life by the time he was elected to the Long Parliament. Despite this, in slightly over a decade Cromwell became the strongest person in England. His rise to the top involved many steps and Cromwell never seemed to lose

Robert Ekkebus

2008-01-01

326

The Olive Fly Endosymbiont, "Candidatus Erwinia dacicola," Switches from an Intracellular Existence to an Extracellular Existence during Host Insect Development? †  

PubMed Central

As polyphagous, holometabolous insects, tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) provide a unique habitat for endosymbiotic bacteria, especially those microbes associated with the digestive system. Here we examine the endosymbiont of the olive fly [Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae)], a tephritid of great economic importance. “Candidatus Erwinia dacicola” was found in the digestive systems of all life stages of wild olive flies from the southwestern United States. PCR and microscopy demonstrated that “Ca. Erwinia dacicola” resided intracellularly in the gastric ceca of the larval midgut but extracellularly in the lumen of the foregut and ovipositor diverticulum of adult flies. “Ca. Erwinia dacicola” is one of the few nonpathogenic endosymbionts that transitions between intracellular and extracellular lifestyles during specific stages of the host's life cycle. Another unique feature of the olive fly endosymbiont is that unlike obligate endosymbionts of monophagous insects, “Ca. Erwinia dacicola” has a G+C nucleotide composition similar to those of closely related plant-pathogenic and free-living bacteria. These two characteristics of “Ca. Erwinia dacicola,” the ability to transition between intracellular and extracellular lifestyles and a G+C nucleotide composition similar to those of free-living relatives, may facilitate survival in a changing environment during the development of a polyphagous, holometabolous host. We propose that insect-bacterial symbioses should be classified based on the environment that the host provides to the endosymbiont (the endosymbiont environment).

Estes, Anne M.; Hearn, David J.; Bronstein, Judith L.; Pierson, Elizabeth A.

2009-01-01

327

Probabilities for survival of glassy-winged sharpshooter and olive fruit fly pests in urban yard waste piles.  

PubMed

Glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homolodisca coagulate) and olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) were introduced into unturned, chipped yard waste piles to evaluate their survival with time and depth within the piles. In all three trials, no pests lasted more than 14 d, and in no trial did pests survive more than 4d at the 30 and 100 cm depths. No survivors were found after 14 d in any of the treatments at any depth. Neither of the pests survived 100 cm after 2d. A mathematical model for describing pest survival probabilities is described. The model modifies time according to the Arrhenius equation in order to include heat effects on pest survival and can be used to determine exposure times necessary to eliminate these pests with a determined statistical probability. Model projections suggest that for conditions similar to this study, there is 99% confidence that all glassy-winged sharpshooter eggs would be eliminated from 1000 infected leaves in 6.1d at 15 cm depth and in 4.8d at 30 cm or below. Olive fruit fly larvae at these depths would require 4.8 and 4.1d, respectively, for 1000 infected olive fruits. Projected elimination times at the surface were longer, 6.5d for sharpshooter eggs and 14.3d for fruit fly larvae. PMID:17419052

Crohn, David M; Faber, Ben; Downer, A James; Daugovish, Oleg

2008-03-01

328

The olive fly endosymbiont, "Candidatus Erwinia dacicola," switches from an intracellular existence to an extracellular existence during host insect development.  

PubMed

As polyphagous, holometabolous insects, tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) provide a unique habitat for endosymbiotic bacteria, especially those microbes associated with the digestive system. Here we examine the endosymbiont of the olive fly [Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae)], a tephritid of great economic importance. "Candidatus Erwinia dacicola" was found in the digestive systems of all life stages of wild olive flies from the southwestern United States. PCR and microscopy demonstrated that "Ca. Erwinia dacicola" resided intracellularly in the gastric ceca of the larval midgut but extracellularly in the lumen of the foregut and ovipositor diverticulum of adult flies. "Ca. Erwinia dacicola" is one of the few nonpathogenic endosymbionts that transitions between intracellular and extracellular lifestyles during specific stages of the host's life cycle. Another unique feature of the olive fly endosymbiont is that unlike obligate endosymbionts of monophagous insects, "Ca. Erwinia dacicola" has a G+C nucleotide composition similar to those of closely related plant-pathogenic and free-living bacteria. These two characteristics of "Ca. Erwinia dacicola," the ability to transition between intracellular and extracellular lifestyles and a G+C nucleotide composition similar to those of free-living relatives, may facilitate survival in a changing environment during the development of a polyphagous, holometabolous host. We propose that insect-bacterial symbioses should be classified based on the environment that the host provides to the endosymbiont (the endosymbiont environment). PMID:19767463

Estes, Anne M; Hearn, David J; Bronstein, Judith L; Pierson, Elizabeth A

2009-11-01

329

Synthesis of haptens and development of an immunoassay for the olive fruit fly pheromone.  

PubMed

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the olive fruit fly pheromone, Bactrocera oleae Gmelin, was developed. The assay uses polyclonal antibodies, raised in rabbits, against (+/-)-beta-[3-(1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane)]propionic acid, 2 (hapten I), conjugated to the KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin) by the carbodiimide method. A second hapten, (+/-)-delta-[3-(1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane)]butylamine, 3 (hapten II), after conjugation to a biotin moiety, was used for indirect immobilization onto ELISA microwells precoated with the glycoprotein avidin. The developed ELISA method measures the synthetic olive fruit fly pheromone in concentrations ranging between 0.08 and 10 microg/mL and shows great promise for practical applications for pheromone detection in environmental and biological samples. The results obtained strongly indicate that this technique, to our knowledge the first insect pheromone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay so far reported, is a fast, sensitive, inexpensive, and highly convenient method for the analysis of a volatile and low molecular weight compound such as 1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane, 1. PMID:15237938

Neokosmidi, Afroditi; Ragoussis, Valentine; Zikos, Christos; Paravatou-Petsotas, Maria; Livaniou, Evangelia; Ragoussis, Nikitas; Evangelatos, Gregory

2004-07-14

330

Irrigation effects on quality, phenolic composition, and selected volatiles of virgin olive oils cv. Leccino.  

PubMed

Field-grown olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Leccino) were used over two growing seasons to determine the effect of deficit irrigation regimes on virgin olive oil (VOO) quality. Drip irrigation was managed to maintain a predawn leaf water potential (PLWP): (a) higher than -1.1 MPa (full irrigation: FI); (b) between -1.0 and -3.3 MPa (deficit irrigation: DI); (c) higher than -4.2 MPa (severe deficit irrigation: SI). The fruit yield and oil yield of DI trees were over 90% of those of FI treatments in both years, respectively, whereas yields of SI trees ranged from 61 to 76%. The irrigation regime had minor effects on the free acidity, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of VOO. The concentrations of phenols and o-diphenols in VOO were negatively correlated with PLWP. The concentrations of the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid linked to (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA), the isomer of the oleuropein aglycon (3,4-DHPEA-EA), and the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid linked to (p-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol (p-HPEA-EDA) were lower in FI than in SI treatments. The concentrations of lignans (+)-1-acetoxipinoresinol and (+)-1-pinoresinol were unaffected by the irrigation regime. The tree water status had a marked effect on the concentration of volatile compounds, such as the C(6)-saturated and unsaturated aldehydes, alcohols, and esters. PMID:17636938

Servili, Maurizio; Esposto, Sonia; Lodolini, Enrico; Selvaggini, Roberto; Taticchi, Agnese; Urbani, Stefania; Montedoro, Gianfrancesco; Serravalle, Matteo; Gucci, Riccardo

2007-08-01

331

Discrimination and classification of olive tree varieties and cultivation zones by biophenol contents.  

PubMed

The peak areas from a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array (HPLC-DAD) analysis of biophenols extracted from olive leaves have been used as chemotaxonomic markers to construct chemometric models in order to discriminate and classify (1) 13 varieties of Olea europaea olive trees, namely, Alameño, Arbequina, Azulillo, Chorna, Hojiblanca, Lechín, Manzanillo, Negrillo, Nevadillo, Ocal, Pierra, Sevillano, and Tempranillo, from the same cultivation zone and (2) Arbequina samples from six different geoghaphical origins, namely, Córdoba, Mallorca (north and south), Ciudad Real, Lleida, and Navarra. Models based on principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were used for discrimination between samples as a function of the tree varieties and cultivation zone, whereas K nearest neighbors (KNN) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) models were generated to classify the samples used to validate the models into one of the groups previously established by PCA and HCA. KNN classified correctly 93 and 92% of the samples into the variety and cultivation zone, respectively; meanwhile, the SIMCA models predicted 85 and 92%, respectively. PMID:17177490

Japón-Lujan, R; Ruiz-Jiménez, J; de Castro, M D Luque

2006-12-27

332

Soil water availability in rainfed cultivation affects more than cultivar some nutraceutical components and the sensory profile of virgin olive oil.  

PubMed

This research considered the varieties 'Frantoio' and 'Moraiolo' growing in rainfed olive trees (Olea europaea) and took place in Tuscany, central Italy. Soil moisture was monitored during the very meteorologically contrasting years 2002 and 2003 in two nearby olive groves. The plots had the same morphological and climatic conditions, but different soil types. Monocultivar oil samples were analyzed to determine fatty acids, minor polar compounds, and tocopherols content and were submitted to organoleptic analysis by a panel of trained tasters. The results highlighted that soil water regimen affects some nutraceutical components and the sensory evaluation of olive oil. Cultivar also affected yield components, polyphenols, and tocopherols content, but less than soil water availability. The plants on the soil inducing a relatively more intense and longer water deficit during summer (a Skeleti Calcaric Regosol) had an early ripening and gave the best results in terms of phenolic compounds and, consequently, antioxidant properties of the olive oil. The sensorial properties of the oil obtained from both cultivars on the Regosol were superior in both years of the trial. PMID:21714568

Bucelli, Pierluigi; Costantini, Edoardo A C; Barbetti, Roberto; Franchini, Elena

2011-08-10

333

Modelling of olive cake thin-layer drying process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive cake is a sub-product of the mechanical olive oil extraction industry, which consists of pit and pulp of the olive fruit, olive oil and vegetable water. It has been using for direct combustion in bakeries and olive oil mills due to its energy content. However, the initial moisture content of olive cake is approximately 44.78%±0.5 (wet basis), and this

Nalan A. Akgun; Ibrahim Doymaz

2005-01-01

334

Removal of total phenols from olive-mill wastewater using an agricultural by-product, olive pomace  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the sorption of total phenols, which are contained in olive-mill wastewater (OMWW), on solid by-products of olive pomace processing mills. Preliminary batch experiments were conducted using three different types of olive pomace, dried olive pomace (OP-1), dried and solvent extracted olive pomace (OP-2) and dried, solvent extracted and incompletely combusted olive pomace

Athanasios S. Stasinakis; Irene Elia; Anastasios V. Petalas; Constantinos P. Halvadakis

2008-01-01

335

Temporal and spatial gene expression of cytochrome B5 during flower and fruit development in olives.  

PubMed

We report the characterisation of two cytochrome b5 genes and their spatial and temporal patterns of expression during development in olive, Olea europaea. A PCR-generated probe, based on a tobacco cytochrome b5 sequence, was used to isolate two full-length cDNA clones (cytochrome b5-15 and cytochrome b5-38) from a library derived from 13 WAF olive fruits. The cDNAs encoded proteins of 17.0 and 17.7 kDa, which contained all the characteristic motifs of cytochromes b5 from other organisms and exhibited 63% identity and 85% similarity with each other. The olive cytochrome b5-15 cDNA was then used as a probe for more detailed analysis. Southern blotting revealed a gene family of at least 4-6 members while northern blotting and in situ hybridisation showed a highly specific pattern of gene expression. Very low levels of cytochrome b5 mRNA were detected in tissues characterised by high rates of lipid accumulation, such as young expanding leaves, maturing seeds and ripening mesocarp. The cytochrome b5 genes were not induced at 6 degrees C and their response to ABA was relatively slow compared with fatty acid desaturase genes. In contrast, high levels of cytochrome b5 gene expression were found in young fruits at the pattern formation (globular/heart) stage of embryogenesis and in vascular and transmitting tissues of male and female reproductive organs. The data are consistent with a major role for cytochrome b5 in developmental processes related to plant reproduction in addition to being an electron donor to microsomal desaturases. PMID:10394947

Martsinkovskaya, A I; Poghosyan, Z P; Haralampidis, K; Murphy, D J; Hatzopoulos, P

1999-05-01

336

Lactic acid bacteria from fermented table olives.  

PubMed

Table olives are one of the main fermented vegetables in the world. Olives can be processed as treated or natural. Both have to be fermented but treated green olives have to undergo an alkaline treatment before they are placed in brine to start their fermentation. It has been generally established that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are responsible for the fermentation of treated olives. However, LAB and yeasts compete for the fermentation of natural olives. Yeasts play a minor role in some cases, contributing to the flavour and aroma of table olives and in LAB development. The main microbial genus isolated in table olives is Lactobacillus. Other genera of LAB have also been isolated but to a lesser extent. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus pentosus are the predominant species in most fermentations. Factors influencing the correct development of fermentation and LAB, such as pH, temperature, the amount of NaCl, the polyphenol content or the availability of nutrients are also reviewed. Finally, current research topics on LAB from table olives are reviewed, such as using starters, methods of detection and identification of LAB, their production of bacteriocins, and the possibility of using table olives as probiotics. PMID:22475936

Hurtado, Albert; Reguant, Cristina; Bordons, Albert; Rozès, Nicolas

2012-08-01

337

Carotenoid levels during the period of growth and ripening in fruits of different olive varieties (Hojiblanca, Picual and Arbequina).  

PubMed

During fruit growth and development, carotenoid accumulation follows the same qualitative pattern in three olive varieties (Olea europaea L.). In the stage of ripening, the Arbequina variety is differentiated from Hojiblanca and Picual by its possession of esterified xanthophylls. The Chl a/b ratio is higher in Arbequina than in Hojiblanca and Picual throughout the life cycle of the fruit, while the percentage of lutein is always lower, and that of beta-carotene higher. Independent of the high (Hojiblanca and Picual) or low (Arbequina) pigment content, the chlorophyll/carotenoid ratio (a + b)/(x + c) is similar for the three varieties. There is evident carotenoid breakdown at the onset of ripening in the fruits of the Hojiblanca and Picual varieties, while in Arbequina there is a new period of carotenoid accumulation. As ripening proceeds in Arbequina fruits, a slow carotenoid-breakdown process is initiated. PMID:12806772

Roca, María; Mínguez-Mosquera, María Isabel

2003-05-01

338

Photopyroelectric Monitoring of Olive's Ripening Conditions and Olive Oil Quality Using Pulsed Wideband IR Thermal Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study is based on band absorption of radiation from pulsed wideband infrared (IR) thermal source (PWBS) in conjunction with polyvinylidene fluoride film (PVDF). It is the first time to be employed to monitor the ripening state of olive fruit. Olive's characteristics vary at different stages of ripening, and hence, cultivation of olives at the right time is important in ensuring the best oil quality and maximizes the harvest yield. The photopyroelectric (PPE) signal resulting from absorption of wideband infrared (IR) radiation by fresh olive juice indicates the ripening stage of olives, i.e., allows an estimate of the suitable harvest time. The technique was found to be very useful in discriminating between olive oil samples according to geographical region, shelf life, some storage conditions, and deliberate adulteration. Our results for monitoring oil accumulation in olives during the ripening season agree well with the complicated analytical studies carried out by other researchers.

Abu-Taha, M. I.; Sarahneh, Y.; Saleh, A. M.

339

Olea europaea leaf (Ph.Eur.) extract as well as several of its isolated phenolics inhibit the gout-related enzyme xanthine oxidase.  

PubMed

In Mediterranean folk medicine Olea europaea L. leaf (Ph.Eur.) preparations are used as a common remedy for gout. In this in vitro study kinetic measurements were performed on both an 80% ethanolic (v/v) Olea europaea leaf dry extract (OLE) as well as on nine of its typical phenolic constituents in order to investigate its possible inhibitory effects on xanthine oxidase (XO), an enzyme well known to contribute significantly to this pathological process. Dixon and Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis were used to determine K(i) values and the inhibition mode for the isolated phenolics, which were analysed by RP-HPLC for standardisation of OLE. The standardised OLE as well as some of the tested phenolics significantly inhibited the activity of XO. Among these, the flavone aglycone apigenin exhibited by far the strongest effect on XO with a K(i) value of 0.52 ?M. In comparison, the known synthetic XO inhibitor allopurinol, used as a reference standard, showed a K(i) of 7.3 ?M. Although the phenolic secoiridoid oleuropein, the main ingredient of the extract (24.8%), had a considerable higher K(i) value of 53.0 ?M, it still displayed a significant inhibition of XO. Furthermore, caffeic acid (K(i) of 11.5 ?M; 1.89% of the extract), luteolin-7-O-?-D-glucoside (K(i) of 15.0 ?M; 0.86%) and luteolin (K(i) of 2.9 ?M; 0.086%) also contributed significantly to the XO inhibiting effect of OLE. For oleuropein, a competitive mode of inhibition was found, while all other active substances displayed a mixed mode of inhibition. Tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside, and apigenin-7-O-?-D-glucoside, which makes up for 0.3% of the extract, were inactive in all tested concentrations. Regarding the pharmacological in vitro effect of apigenin-7-O-?-D-glucoside, it has to be considered that it is transformed into the active apigenin aglycone in the mammalian body, thus also contributing substantially to the anti-gout activity of olive leaves. For the first time, this study provides a rational basis for the traditional use of olive leaves against gout in Mediterranean folk medicine. PMID:21144719

Flemmig, J; Kuchta, K; Arnhold, J; Rauwald, H W

2011-05-15

340

Biological Properties of Olive Oil Phytochemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Referee: Dr. Joe Vinson, Chemistry Department, University of Scranton, Scranton, PA 18510 Olive oil is the principal source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, which has been associated with a lower incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers. Extra-virgin olive oil contains a considerable amount of phenolic compounds, for example, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, that are responsible for its peculiar

Francesco Visioli; Claudio Galli

2002-01-01

341

Antifungal Activity of Ozonized Olive Oil (Oleozone)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ozonized olive oil (Oleozone) on some pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis & Trichophyton rubrum), were tested. The olive oil was ozonized at Ozomaxe, Egypt, OZO- 3 VTT Cairo, Egypt by an ozone generator. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the agar dilution method. Oleozone showed antimicrobial activity against all species analysed,

NEVEEN S. I. GEWEELY

342

Interchromosomal Duplications on the Bactrocera oleae Y Chromosome Imply a Distinct Evolutionary Origin of the Sex Chromosomes Compared to Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Background Diptera have an extraordinary variety of sex determination mechanisms, and Drosophila melanogaster is the paradigm for this group. However, the Drosophila sex determination pathway is only partially conserved and the family Tephritidae affords an interesting example. The tephritid Y chromosome is postulated to be necessary to determine male development. Characterization of Y sequences, apart from elucidating the nature of the male determining factor, is also important to understand the evolutionary history of sex chromosomes within the Tephritidae. We studied the Y sequences from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae. Its Y chromosome is minute and highly heterochromatic, and displays high heteromorphism with the X chromosome. Methodology/Principal Findings A combined Representational Difference Analysis (RDA) and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) approach was used to investigate the Y chromosome to derive information on its sequence content. The Y chromosome is strewn with repetitive DNA sequences, the majority of which are also interdispersed in the pericentromeric regions of the autosomes. The Y chromosome appears to have accumulated small and large repetitive interchromosomal duplications. The large interchromosomal duplications harbour an importin-4-like gene fragment. Apart from these importin-4-like sequences, the other Y repetitive sequences are not shared with the X chromosome, suggesting molecular differentiation of these two chromosomes. Moreover, as the identified Y sequences were not detected on the Y chromosomes of closely related tephritids, we can infer divergence in the repetitive nature of their sequence contents. Conclusions/Significance The identification of Y-linked sequences may tell us much about the repetitive nature, the origin and the evolution of Y chromosomes. We hypothesize how these repetitive sequences accumulated and were maintained on the Y chromosome during its evolutionary history. Our data reinforce the idea that the sex chromosomes of the Tephritidae may have distinct evolutionary origins with respect to those of the Drosophilidae and other Dipteran families.

Gabrieli, Paolo; Gomulski, Ludvik M.; Bonomi, Angelica; Siciliano, Paolo; Scolari, Francesca; Franz, Gerald; Jessup, Andrew; Malacrida, Anna R.; Gasperi, Giuliano

2011-01-01

343

Mathematical models for supercritical extraction of olive husk oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive husk oil was extracted from olive husk under pressures of 12.0 to 18.0MPa and temperatures of 308 to 330K with supercritical carbon dioxide. Olive husk was supplied by an olive oil factory. The effects of pressure, temperature, extractor capacity and superficial velocity on the extraction rate of olive husk oil were studied. Extraction curves were evaluated by an empirical

M. M. Esqu??vel; M. G. Bernardo-Gil; M. B. King

1999-01-01

344

Olive classification according to external damage using image analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The external appearance of an olive’s skin is the most decisive factor in determining its quality as a fruit. This work tries to establish a hierarchical model based on the features extracted from images of olives reflecting their external defects. Seven commercial categories of olives, established by product experts, were used: undamaged olives, mussel-scale or ‘serpeta’, hail-damaged or ‘granizo’, mill

M. T. Riquelme; P. Barreiro; M. Ruiz-Altisent; C. Valero

2008-01-01

345

Climate change impact on the olive pollen season in Mediterranean areas of Italy: air quality in late spring from an allergenic point of view.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that there are many effects of climate change on aeroallergens, and thus on allergic diseases in humans. In the Mediterranean region, despite the importance of the olive tree for production, there is high allergenicity of olive pollen and related risks to human health. Aerobiological sampling techniques can be used to analyse the pollinosis phenomenon through determination of mean daily pollen concentrations per cubic metre of air. The present study was carried out from 1999 to 2008 in 16 olive-growing areas in Italy, to update the information on the pollinosis characteristics of Olea europaea in the study areas. The analysis of the average flowering season over the study period highlights a temporal scaling of pollen in the atmosphere that depends on the different climatic characteristics. This is mainly dependent on temperature, and in part, determined by latitude. Generally, the levels of O. europaea pollen in the atmosphere are higher from mid-April to the end of June, with the period of greatest risk to human health due to this olive pollen in this area currently limited primarily to the last 10 days of May. However, the pollen season can move, depending on the climate scenario considered, and data here can be used to determine potential time shifts in pollinosis that might cause more precocious asthma and allergy problems. The allergy season for this type of pollen might be significantly precocious in future decades (20-30 days earlier in the year), which will impact on the severity and duration of allergies attributable to olive tree pollen. PMID:22466251

Bonofiglio, Tommaso; Orlandi, Fabio; Ruga, Luigia; Romano, Bruno; Fornaciari, Marco

2013-01-01

346

Analytical determination of polyphenols in olive oils.  

PubMed

The increasing popularity of olive oil is mainly attributed to its high content of oleic acid, which may affect the plasma lipid/lipoprotein profiles, and its richness in phenolic compounds, which act as natural antioxidants and may contribute to the prevention of human disease. An overview of analytical methods for the measurement of polyphenols in olive oil is presented. In principle, the analytical procedure for the determination of individual phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil involves three basic steps: extraction from the oil sample, analytical separation, and quantification. A great number of procedures for the isolation of the polar phenolic fraction of virgin olive oil, utilizing two basic extraction techniques, LLE or SPE, have been included. The reviewed techniques are those based on spectrophotometric methods, as well as analytical separation (gas chromatography (GC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and capillary electrophoresis (CE)). Many reports in the literature determine the total amount of phenolic compounds in olive oils by spectrophometric analysis and characterize their phenolic patterns by capillary gas chromatography (CGC) and, mainly, by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC); however, CE has recently been applied to the analysis of phenolic compound of olive oil and has opened up great expectations, especially because of the higher resolution, reduced sample volume, and analysis duration. CE might represent a good compromise between analysis time and satisfactory characterization for some classes of phenolic compounds of virgin olive oils. PMID:16013811

Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegria; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Bendini, Alessandra; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Gallina-Toschi, Tullia; Fernandez-Gutiérrez, Alberto

2005-06-01

347

Application of compost of two-phase olive mill waste on olive grove: Effects on soil, olive fruit and olive oil quality.  

PubMed

Composting is a method for preparing organic fertilizers that represents a suitable management option for the recycling of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) in agriculture. Four different composts were prepared by mixing TPOMW with different agro-industrial by-products (olive pruning, sheep manure and horse manure), which were used either as bulking agents or as N sources. The mature composts were added during six consecutive years to a typical "Picual" olive tree grove in the Jaén province (Spain). The effects of compost addition on soil characteristics, crop yield and nutritional status and also the quality of the olive oil were evaluated at the end of the experiment and compared to a control treated only with mineral fertilization. The most important effects on soil characteristics included a significant increase in the availability of N, P, K and an increase of soil organic matter content. The application of TPOMW compost produced a significant increase in olive oil content in the fruit. The compost amended plots had a 15% higher olive oil content than those treatment with inorganic fertilization. These organics amendments maintained the composition and quality of the olive oil. PMID:24810202

Fernández-Hernández, Antonia; Roig, Asunción; Serramiá, Nuria; Civantos, Concepción García-Ortiz; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A

2014-07-01

348

Cellular localization of ROS and NO in olive reproductive tissues during flower development  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) are involved in the signalling processes taking place during the interactions pollen-pistil in several plants. The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is an important crop in Mediterranean countries. It is a dicotyledonous species, with a certain level of self-incompatibility, fertilisation preferentially allogamous, and with an incompatibility system of the gametophytic type not well determined yet. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether relevant ROS and NO are present in the stigmatic surface and other reproductive tissues in the olive over different key developmental stages of the reproductive process. This is a first approach to find out the putative function of these signalling molecules in the regulation of the interaction pollen-stigma. Results The presence of ROS and NO was analyzed in the olive floral organs throughout five developmental stages by using histochemical analysis at light microscopy, as well as different fluorochromes, ROS and NO scavengers and a NO donor by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The "green bud" stage and the period including the end of the "recently opened flower" and the "dehiscent anther" stages displayed higher concentrations of the mentioned chemical species. The stigmatic surface (particularly the papillae and the stigma exudate), the anther tissues and the pollen grains and pollen tubes were the tissues accumulating most ROS and NO. The mature pollen grains emitted NO through the apertural regions and the pollen tubes. In contrast, none of these species were detected in the style or the ovary. Conclusion The results obtained clearly demonstrate that both ROS and NO are produced in the olive reproductive organs in a stage- and tissue- specific manner. The biological significance of the presence of these products may differ between early flowering stages (defence functions) and stages where there is an intense interaction between pollen and pistil which may determine the presence of a receptive phase in the stigma. The study confirms the enhanced production of NO by pollen grains and tubes during the receptive phase, and the decrease in the presence of ROS when NO is actively produced.

2010-01-01

349

Yeast dynamics during the fermentation of brined green olives treated in the field with kaolin and Bordeaux mixture to control the olive fruit fly.  

PubMed

The yeast microbiota associated with naturally fermented and inoculated green table olives, differently treated in the field with non-conventional repellent and antiovipositional products in the control of Bactrocera oleae, was analysed using a combination of culture-dependent and -independent molecular fingerprinting. The routine yeast isolation gave rise to 118 strains, whose identification was performed by PCR-RFLP of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Total DNA was extracted directly from the brine throughout fermentation by means of an experimental protocol that included the removal of Taq polymerase inhibitors. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) of 26S rRNA gene PCR amplicons highlighted the yeast community. Comparison of both culture-dependent and independent methods indicated that the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Candida diddensiae and Issatchenkia orientalis were dominant during fermentation despite the addition of the Lactobacillus plantarum starter used in brining. The resultant isolated species were unaffected by treatments in field, except for C. diddensiae whose growth was delayed by kaolin. PMID:21570143

Muccilli, Serena; Caggia, Cinzia; Randazzo, Cinzia L; Restuccia, Cristina

2011-07-15

350

Give us the tools and we will do the job: symbiotic bacteria affect olive fly fitness in a diet-dependent fashion.  

PubMed

Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are intimately associated with bacteria throughout their life cycle, and both larvae and adults are morphologically adapted for housing bacteria in the digestive tract. We tested the hypothesis that these bacteria contribute to the adult fly's fitness in a diet-dependent fashion. We predicted that when dietary protein is superabundant, bacterial contribution will be minimal. Conversely, in the absence of protein, or when only non-essential amino acids are present (as in the fly's natural diet), we predicted that bacterial contribution to fitness will be significant. Accordingly, we manipulated diet and the presence of bacteria in female olive flies, and monitored fecundity--an indirect measure of fitness. Bacteria did not affect fecundity when females were fed a nutritionally poor diet of sucrose, or a protein-rich, nutritionally complete diet. However, when females were fed a diet containing non-essential amino acids as the sole source of amino nitrogen, egg production was significantly enhanced in the presence of bacteria. These results suggest that bacteria were able to compensate for the skewed amino acid composition of the diet and may be indispensable for wild adult olive flies that subsist mainly on nitrogen-poor resources such as honeydew. PMID:20071385

Ben-Yosef, Michael; Aharon, Yael; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

2010-05-22

351

Programmed cell death of follicular epithelium during the late developmental stages of oogenesis in the fruit flies Bactrocera oleae and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae) is mediated by autophagy.  

PubMed

In the present study, we describe the features of programmed cell death of ovarian follicle cells, occurring during the late developmental stages of oogenesis in the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae and the medfly, Ceratitis capitata. During stage 14, the follicle cells contain autophagic vacuoles, and they do not exhibit caspase activity in all parts of the egg chamber. Their nuclei are characterized by condensed chromatin, accompanied with high- but not low-molecular weight DNA fragmentation events exclusively detected in distinct cells of the anterior pole. These data argue for the presence of an autophagy-mediated cell death program in the ovarian follicle cell layer in both species. The above results are likely associated with the abundant phagocytosis observed at the entry of the lateral oviducts, where numerous cell bodies are massively engulfed by epithelial cells. We strongly believe that during the termination of the above Dipteran oogenesis, an efficient mechanism of absorption of the degenerated follicle cells is selectively activated, in order to prevent the blockage of the ovarioles and thus robustly support the physiological completion of the ovulation process. PMID:16573736

Nezis, Ioannis P; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J; Margaritis, Lukas H; Papassideri, Issidora S

2006-04-01

352

Microflora species and their volatile compounds affecting development of an alcohol dehydrogenase homozygous strain (Adh-I) of Bactrocera (Dacus) oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae).  

PubMed

Microflora species and volatiles emitted from artificial diets were examined from the larvae of three homozygous alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) strains of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) oleae (Gmelin), reared under identical conditions. Differences in volatile composition were detected when Adh-I homozygous larvae developed in a diet lacking the preservative p-hydroxybenzoic acid methyl ester (nipagin). Larval development of the Adh-I strain in the preservative-free diet was reduced by 50%, whereas pupal emergence was completely inhibited. The larval development and pupal emergence of Adh-F and Adh-S strains were not affected. Unique microorganisms with characteristic volatile profiles were isolated from the preservative-free diet of the Adh-I strain that were different from those, isolated from Adh-S, Adh-F, laboratory colony, and wild insect populations. Our results indicated that the variations in volatile composition of the artificial diets, and the inhibition of larval development and pupal emergence in Adh-I strain were related to changes in the microflora that developed in the diets of the Adh-I strain. PMID:16539118

Konstantopoulou, M A; Raptopoulos, D G; Stavrakis, N G; Mazomenos, B E

2005-12-01

353

Olive fermentation brine: biotechnological potentialities and valorization.  

PubMed

Olive fermentation brine causes an important local environmental problem in Mediterranean countries. Valorization is a relatively new concept in the field of industrial residue management, promoting the principle of sustainable development. One of the valorization objectives regarding food processing by-products is the recovery of fine chemicals and the production of value metabolites via chemical and biotechnological processes. In this article, recent research studies for the valorization of olive fermentation brine performed by several authors were reviewed. Special attention was paid to the metabolic products produced during table olive preparation. The selection of the corresponding valorization process will depend on the agricultural or industrial environment of the olive fermentation brine. Although some methods are strongly consolidated in this sector, other options, more respectful to the environment, should also be considered. PMID:23530329

Fendri, Imen; Chamkha, Mohamed; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Labat, Marc; Sayadi, Sami; Abdelkafi, Slim

2013-01-01

354

Mediterranean diet, olive oil and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive oil is an integral ingredient of the «Mediterranean diet» and accumulating evidence suggests that it may have a potential\\u000a role in lowering the risk of several types of cancers. The mechanisms by which the carcer-preventing effects of olive oil\\u000a can be performed, however, are not known. We recently hypothesized that a novel molecular explanation concerning the anti-cancer\\u000a actions of

Ramón Colomer; Javier A. Menéndez

2006-01-01

355

Pigments present in virgin olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The qualitative and quantitative control of pigments in ripe olives and in extracted virgin olive oil has increased our knowledge\\u000a of the influence on these compounds in the areas of ripening of the fruit, storage time in the factory and the oil extraction\\u000a process. As the harvesting time of the fruits increases, pigment content decreases. During storage, the presence of

M. Isabel Minguez-Mosquera; Beatriz Gandul-Rojas; Juan Garrido-Fernandez; Lourdes Gallardo-Guerrero

1990-01-01

356

Temporal and transient expression of olive enoyl-ACP reductase gene during flower and fruit development.  

PubMed

Enoyl-ACP reductase is a catalytic component of the fatty acid synthetase (FAS) type II system in plants that is involved in the de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in plastids. A cDNA encoding an enoyl-ACP reductase responsible for the removal of the trans-unsaturated double bonds to form saturated acyl-ACP has been isolated from a library made from ripening fruits of Olea europaea L. The predicted protein contains 393 amino acid residues including a consensus chloroplast specific transit peptide. A strong homology was observed when olive enoyl-ACP reductase aligned with other plant sequences. Southern hybridization analysis revealed that enoyl-ACP reductase is encoded by a single gene in olives. Northern hybridization showed a transient expression of the enoyl-ACP reductase (ENR) gene at early stages of drupe (5-7 weeks after flowering, WAF), embryo and endosperm (13-16 WAF) while in mesocarp (13-19 WAF) the expression remained at high levels. In situ hybridization showed particularly prominent expression in the palisade and vascular tissue of young leaves, the tapetum, developing pollen grains and vascular tissue of anthers and to less extent in the embryo sac and transmitting tissue of the carpel. The distinctive spatial and temporal regulation of the ENR gene is consistent with major roles, not only in thylakoid membrane formation and fatty acid deposition, but also in the provision of precursor molecules for the biosynthesis of oxilipins that are important in plant tissues involved in transportation and reproduction. PMID:15763664

Poghosyan, Zaruhi P; Giannoulia, Katerina; Katinakis, Panagiotis; Murphy, Denis J; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis

2005-01-01

357

Obituary: John P. Oliver (1939-2011)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

John P. Oliver, an emeritus professor of astronomy at the University of Florida in Gainesville, passed away Thursday, February 10, 2011, after a courageous and long battle with renal cancer. He left behind memories of a life and career to envy. During his forty years of service to his profession and department, this unique astronomer distinguished himself as a research scientist and instrumentalist, creative software designer, gifted teacher and speaker, a vocal advocate of public outreach, and friend to all who knew him. Oliver was born in New Rochelle, New York, during late fall 1939 on November 24. His father, James P. Oliver, was a naval officer and his mother was the former Dorothy Armstrong Cambell. Oliver's early days were spent in various cities due to his father's military life but he eventually received a high school diploma from Princess Ann High School in Virginia. Oliver subsequently graduated with a bachelor of science degree in physics in 1963 from the prestigious Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy. Lick Observatory awarded him a graduate assistantship so he moved west to California where he met and, on November 2, 1963, married Barbara Kay McKenna, who became his lifelong love and partner. In California Oliver had the good fortune to work with several eminent astronomers. This included Albert E. Whifford, director of Lick Observatory and known for his work on interstellar reddening, and Merle F. Walker, an expert in photometry, who also helped establish Pluto's rotation period. His close relation with Lawrence H. Aller, one of the 20th century's memorable astronomers, known for his ability to combine observation, theory and education, and for his care and kindness, helped bind Oliver and astronomy together for life. Oliver would also join the technical staff of the Aerospace Corporation, become an acting director of the Pine Mountain Observatory (University of Oregon), and a research assistant at the University of California in Los Angeles. Eventually, he earned both a master's degree (1968) and Ph.D. (1974) in astronomy from this well-known institution. The brilliant and eminent astronomer Daniel M. Popper supervised Oliver's doctoral dissertation, "An Investigation of Eclipsing Binary Stars Exhibiting Calcium II Emission." This research suggested that many systems Oliver investigated belonged to a new category of variable eclipsing binary stars. Popper had previously defined this new class of stars based on spectral features and intended AR Lac to be its prototype. Instead, using Oliver's suggestion, this class became known as RS CVn variables. Rare among astronomers, Popper himself was fussy about errors of measurement-uncompromising about accurate, conscientious work and intolerant about careless research. Oliver was the only student to receive a Ph.D. under this authoritative and honest astronomer, a testament to Oliver's own talents. As a University of Florida faculty member and astronomer, Oliver occupied many roles, including service as associate department chair, director of the university's Rosemary Hill Observatory near Bronson, Florida, and both undergraduate and graduate coordinators. He made significant contributions to both the operation and instrumentation of telescopes at Rosemary Hill Observatory. The establishment of the observatory's 18-inch Ritchey-Crétien telescope as a working telescope was a major accomplishment for which he wrote its operational software and programs for high speed occultation observations of stars. In addition, he was responsible for both relocating the campus teaching observatory to its present site and its operation during the 1970s. Oliver taught thousands of students both basic astronomy and advanced topics in undergraduate and graduate courses including an important sequence of graduate courses on binary stars. Faculty and students also applauded his superb, advanced course on techniques of observational astronomy. In addition, he was always looking for new techniques to improve teaching. He was among the first to adopt new technologies in t

Cohen, Howard

2011-12-01

358

Antioxidant activity of olive pulp and olive oil phenolic compounds of the arbequina cultivar.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to characterize antioxidant activities of phenolic compounds that appear in olive pulp and olive oils using both radical scavenging and antioxidant activity tests. Antiradical and antioxidant activities of olive pulp and olive oil phenolic compounds were due mainly to the presence of a 3,4-dihydroxy moiety linked to an aromatic ring, and the effect depended on the polarity of the phenolic compound. Glucosides and more complex phenolics exhibited higher antioxidant activities toward oxidation of liposomes, whereas in bulk lipids aglycons were more potent antioxidants with the exception of oleuropein. Lignans acted as antioxidants only in liposomes, which could partly be due to their chelating activity, because liposome oxidation was initiated by cupric acetate. The antioxidant activity of virgin olive oil is principally due to the dialdehydic form of elenolic acid linked to hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA), a secoiridoid derivative (peak RT 36, structure unidentified), and luteolin. PMID:15769127

Morelló, José-Ramón; Vuorela, Satu; Romero, Maria-Paz; Motilva, Maria-José; Heinonen, Marina

2005-03-23

359

Sclerophylly and leaf anatomical traits of five field-grown olive cultivars growing under drought conditions.  

PubMed

Leaf-level morphological and structural adaptations to reduce water loss were examined in five olive (Olea europaea L.) tree cultivars (Arbequina, Blanqueta, Cobrançosa, Manzanilla and Negrinha) growing under field conditions with low water availability. Leaf measurements included leaf tissue thickness, stomatal density, leaf area, leaf mass per unit area, density of leaf tissue, relative water content, succulence, water saturation deficit, water content at saturation and cuticular transpiration rate. We found considerable genotypic differences among the cultivars. Negrinha, Manzanilla and Cobrançosa had more morphological and structural leaf adaptations to protect against water loss than the other cultivars. Manzanilla and Negrinha enhanced their sclerophylly by building parenchyma tissues and increasing protective structures like the upper cuticle and both the upper and lower epidermis. Cobrançosa exhibited good protection against water loss through high density of foliar tissue and by thick cuticle and trichome layers. Compared with the Negrinha, Manzanilla and Cobrançosa cultivars, Arbequina leaves had a thinner trichome layer, implying that the leaves were less protected against water loss; however, the development of smaller leaves may reduce water loss at the whole-plant level. Among cultivars, Blanqueta had the largest leaves and some anatomical traits that may lead to high water loss, especially from the adaxial surface. The mechanisms employed by the cultivars to cope with summer stress are discussed at the morpho-structural level. PMID:14676039

Bacelar, Eunice A; Correia, Carlos M; Moutinho-Pereira, José M; Gonçalves, Berta C; Lopes, João I; Torres-Pereira, José M G

2004-02-01

360

Correlation between large-scale atmospheric fields and the olive pollen season in Central Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Olives are one of the largest crops in the Mediterranean and in central and southern Italy. This work investigates the correlation of the Olea europaea L. pollen season in Perugia, the capital city of the region of Umbria in central Italy, with atmospheric parameters. The aim of the study is twofold. First, we study the correlation between the pollen season and the surface air temperature of the spring and late spring in Perugia. Second, the correlation between the pollen season and large-scale atmospheric patterns is investigated. The average surface temperature in the spring and late spring has a clear impact on the pollen season in Perugia. Years with higher average temperatures have an earlier onset of the pollen season. In particular, a 1°C higher (lower) average surface temperature corresponds to an earlier (later) start of the pollen season of about 1 week. The correlation between the pollen season and large-scale atmospheric patterns of sea level pressure and 500-hPa geopotential height shows that the cyclonic activity in the Mediterranean is unequivocally tied to the pollen season in Perugia. A larger than average cyclonic activity in the Mediterranean Basin corresponds to a later than average pollen season. Larger than average cyclonic activity in Northern Europe and Siberia corresponds to an earlier than average pollen season. A possible explanation of this correlation, that needs further investigation to be proven, is given. These results can have a practical application by using the seasonal forecast of atmospheric general circulation models.

Avolio, E.; Pasqualoni, L.; Federico, S.; Fornaciari, M.; Bonofiglio, T.; Orlandi, F.; Bellecci, C.; Romano, B.

2008-11-01

361

A small deletion in the olive fly acetylcholinesterase gene associated with high levels of organophosphate resistance.  

PubMed

Organophosphate resistance in the olive fly was previously shown to associate with two point mutations in the ace gene. The frequency of these mutations was monitored in Bactrocera oleae individuals of increasing resistance. In spite of the difference in resistance among the individuals, there was no correlation between mutation frequencies and resistance level, indicating that other factors may contribute to this variation. The search for additional mutations in the ace gene of highly resistant insects revealed a small deletion at the carboxyl terminal of the protein (termed Delta3Q). Significant correlation was shown between the mutation frequency and resistance level in natural populations. In addition, remaining activity of acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) after dimethoate inhibition was higher in genotypes carrying the mutation. These results strongly suggest a role of Delta3Q in high levels of organophosphate (OP) resistance. Interestingly, the carboxyl terminal of AChE is normally cleaved and substituted by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. We hypothesize that Delta3Q may improve GPI anchoring, thus increasing the amount of AChE that reaches the synaptic cleft. In this way, despite the presence of insecticide, enough enzyme would remain in the cleft for its normal role of acetylcholine hydrolysis, allowing the insect to survive. This provides a previously un-described mechanism of resistance. PMID:18625401

Kakani, E G; Ioannides, I M; Margaritopoulos, J T; Seraphides, N A; Skouras, P J; Tsitsipis, J A; Mathiopoulos, K D

2008-08-01

362

A consensus list of microsatellite markers for olive genotyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultivar identification is a primary concern for olive growers, breeders, and scientists. This study was aimed at examining\\u000a the SSR markers retrieved from the literature and currently used in olive study, in order to select those most effective in\\u000a characterizing the olive accessions and to make possible the comparison of data obtained by different laboratories. Olive\\u000a microsatellite profiles were assessed

Luciana Baldoni; Nicolò G. Cultrera; Roberto Mariotti; Claudia Ricciolini; Sergio Arcioni; Giovanni G. Vendramin; Anna Buonamici; Andrea Porceddu; Vania Sarri; Maria A. Ojeda; Isabel Trujillo; Luis Rallo; Angjelina Belaj; Enzo Perri; Amelia Salimonti; Innocenzo Muzzalupo; Alberto Casagrande; Orietta Lain; Rachele Messina; Raffaele Testolin

2009-01-01

363

Pyrolysis of exhausted olive husks coupled with two-stage thermal decomposition of aqueous olive oil mill effluents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the first stage of the proposed thermal decomposition process, the vegetation water concentrates are pyrolyzed along with the corresponding amount of olive stone obtained from the exhausted olive-husks. The salts separate into the wood charcoal bed whi...

G. Di Giacomo G. Del Re E. Bonfitto S. Iacoboni N. Brunetti

1989-01-01

364

Major phenolic compounds in olive oil: metabolism and health effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been postulated that the components in olive oil in the Mediterranean diet, a diet which is largely vegetarian in nature, can contribute to the lower incidence of coronary heart disease and prostate and colon cancers. The Mediterranean diet includes the consumption of large amounts of olive oil. Olive oil is a source of at least 30 phenolic compounds.

Kellie L Tuck; Peter J Hayball

2002-01-01

365

7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...respect to canned ripe olives, inspection and certification...importation. Any lot of olives which fails to meet...organization or processing into oil may be exported...shall not be applicable to olives imported for charitable...organizations or processing for oil, but shall be...

2011-01-01

366

Free Radical-Scavenging Properties of Olive Oil Polyphenols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants in the Mediterranean basin, such as vine and olive trees, have developed an array of antioxidant defences to protect themselves from environmental stress. Accordingly, the incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers is lower in the Mediterranean area, where olive oil is the dietary fat of choice. As opposed to other vegetable oils, extra virgin olive oil, which

Francesco Visioli; Giorgio Bellomo; Claudio Galli

1998-01-01

367

Production of highly purified hydroxytyrosol from Olea europaea leaf extract biotransformed by hyperthermophilic ?-glycosidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large amount of highly purified hydroxytyrosol (91–94% in weight) is obtained in short time by a simple biotransformation of Olea europaea leaf extract by a partially purified hyperthermophilic ?-glycosidase immobilized on chitosan support. The biotransformation conditions have been modulated for increasing the hydroxytyrosol yield, whilst chitosan and chitin matrices are used as adsorbent materials in liquid phase hydroxytyrosol extraction

Raffaella Briante; Maurizio Patumi; Ferdinando Febbraio; Roberto Nucci

2004-01-01

368

[Olive oil, immune system and infection].  

PubMed

Polyunsaturated fatty acids contribute to the suppression of immune system functions. For this reason, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been applied in the resolution of inflammatory disorders. Although the inhibition of several immune functions promotes beneficial effects on the human health, this state may lead to a significant reduction of immune protection against infectious microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites). Nevertheless, less attention has been paid to the action of olive oil in immunonutrition. Olive oil, a main constituent of the Mediterranean diet, is capable of modulating several immune functions, but it does not reduce host immune resistance to infectious microorganisms. Based on these criteria, we corroborate that olive oil administration may exert beneficial effects on the human health and especially on immune system, because it contributes to the reduction of typical inflammatory activity observed in patients suffering from autoimmune disorders, but without exacerbating the susceptibility to pathogen agents. The administration of olive oil in lipid emulsions may exert beneficial effects on the health and particularly on the immune system of immunocompromised patients. Therefore, this fact acquires a crucial importance in clinical nutrition. This review contributes to clarify the interaction between the administration of diets containing olive oil and immune system, as well as to determine the effect promoted by this essential component of Mediterranean diet in the immunomodulation against an infectious agent. PMID:20204249

Puertollano, M A; Puertollano, E; Alvarez de Cienfuegos, G; de Pablo Martínez, Manuel Antonio

2010-01-01

369

Combustion Analysis of Different Olive Residues  

PubMed Central

The Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) techniques and concretely the study of the burning profile provide information that can be used to estimate the behaviour of the combustion of carbonous materials. Commonly, these techniques have been used for the study of carbons, but are also interesting for the analysis of biomass wastes, due to the different species present on the wastes affect directly to its thermal properties. In this work, techniques of thermal analysis have been applied to compare the behaviour of different wastes coming from olive oil mills. From these results, it is remarkable that the Concentrated Olive Mill Waste Water (COMWW) presents more unfavourable conditions for its combustion.

Miranda, Teresa; Esteban, Alberto; Rojas, Sebastian; Montero, Irene; Ruiz, Antonio

2008-01-01

370

Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Olive Leaf Extracts from Greek Olive Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olive leaf phenolic composition of the Greek cultivars koroneiki, megaritiki and kalamon was determined using LC\\/MS. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of olive leaf extracts from the above three cultivars,\\u000a using solvents of increasing polarity (petroleum ether, dichloromethane, methanol and methanol\\/water: 60\\/40) was evaluated\\u000a using the stable free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. Furthermore the oxidative stability index (OSI) was compared

Kostas KiritsakisM; M. G. Kontominas; C. Kontogiorgis; D. Hadjipavlou-Litina; A. Moustakas; A. Kiritsakis

2010-01-01

371

Comparative fine structural analysis of the male reproductive accessory glands in Bactrocera oleae and Ceratitis capitata (Diptera, Tephritidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphology and ultrastructure of the male reproductive accessory glands from Bactrocera oleae and Ceratitis capitata were comparatively investigated. In both insects, there are two types of glands, mesoderm? and ectoderm?derived, which open in the ejaculatory duct. The mesoderm?derived glands are sac?like in B. oleae and very long tubules in C. capitata, whereas the ectodermic glands, generally branched finger?like structures,

Daniela Marchini; Giovanna Del Bene

2006-01-01

372

The floral biology of the olive  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of inflorescence number and distribution along the shoot on the level of fruit-set was studied using `ON' year olive trees with a high level of floral differentiation. Reduced levels and different inflorescence distribution patterns were created artificially by hand inflorescence thinning. In most cases, removal of up to 50% of the inflorescences had either no effect on the

S Lavee; L Rallo; H. F Rapoport; A Troncoso

1999-01-01

373

Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. Digital Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Harvard Law School Library digitized its holdings of materials associated with Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., and his family. This website constitutes phase one of the project, and contains items that are related to his service in the 20th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment of the Union Army, including correspondence, telegrams, and a diary. Click on "Scrapbook" in the first bullet point on the homepage to see Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.'s, scrapbook from the Civil War. The inside cover, which is the second image, shows a handwritten inscription of 1864, and instructions that "the enclosed letters to be buried unread at my death - without fail." The Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. Visual Materials Collection includes "photographs, etchings, drawings, and paintings" of his parents and wife, and can be accessed by clicking a link in the third bullet point on the homepage. Finally, the link to the Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. Object Collection is provided in the fourth bullet point on the homepage, and objects in the collection include "Civil War uniform relics, family and personal effects, and a death mask."

374

Olive fermentation brine: biotechnological potentialities and valorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive fermentation brine causes an important local environmental problem in Mediterranean countries. Valorization is a relatively new concept in the field of industrial residue management, promoting the principle of sustainable development. One of the valorization objectives regarding food processing by-products is the recovery of fine chemicals and the production of value metabolites via chemical and biotechnological processes. In this article,

Imen Fendri; Mohamed Chamkha; Mohamed Bouaziz; Marc Labat; Sami Sayadi; Slim Abdelkafi

2012-01-01

375

The Spectrum of Olive Pollen Allergens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive pollen is one of the most important causes of seasonal respiratory allergy in Mediterranean countries, where this tree is intensely cultivated. Among the high number of protein allergens detected in this pollen, 8 – Ole e 1 to Ole e 8 – have been isolated and characterized. Ole e 1 is the most frequent sensitizing agent, affecting more than

Rosalía Rodríguez; Mayte Villalba; Rafael I. Monsalve; Eva Batanero

2001-01-01

376

Chemical and physical properties of two-year short-rotation deciduous species. [Olea sp. , Populus deltoides, Platanus sp. , Alnus glutinosa, Paulownia tomentosa, Robina pseudoacacia, Acer saccharinum  

SciTech Connect

The following seven broadleaved species were tested: autumn olive (Olea sp.) eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), sycamore (Platanus species), black alder (Alnus glutinosa), royal paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa), black locust (Robina pseudoacacia) and silver maple (Acer saccharinum). The species and portions both significantly affected the chemical and the physical findings of the juvenile wood. The ages, which were tested in factorial combination with the species, also showed a significant effect on both the chemical and the physical properties of wood. All of the results indicated that both chemical and physical properties did vary with species, among the portions of the wood, and according to the ages of the wood. From the portion standpoint, the bark had higher gross heat content, sulphur content, ash content and lignin content, and it was also higher in all three kinds of extractives contents. The wood portion was found to be rich in holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and pentosan. In considering the chemical and physical properties of juvenile wood among the species, eastern cottonwood was found to have the highest value for ash content and all of the three kinds of extractives content. Paulownia had the highest value for sulphur content. Black locust had highest gross heat content, holocellulose and alpha-cellulose contents. Silver maple had highest lignin content. Results from this study showed that these seven juvenile hardwood species can produce high biomass yields of fibre and energy when grown under intensive care in central and southern Illinois sites. The best species of these seven tested woods seem to be black locust, which could also serve as a raw material for the pulp and paper industry, as well as for a fuel for energy generation. However, further economic and energy efficiency analyses are needed before judging the feasibility of these short-rotation juvenile hardwood species.

Lee, C.S

1982-01-01

377

Regulation of photosynthesis and stomatal and mesophyll conductance under water stress and recovery in olive trees: correlation with gene expression of carbonic anhydrase and aquaporins.  

PubMed

The hypothesis that aquaporins and carbonic anhydrase (CA) are involved in the regulation of stomatal (g s) and mesophyll (g m) conductance to CO2 was tested in a short-term water-stress and recovery experiment in 5-year-old olive plants (Olea europaea) growing outdoors. The evolution of leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and plant water status, and a quantitative analysis of photosynthesis limitations, were followed during water stress and recovery. These variables were correlated with gene expression of the aquaporins OePIP1.1 and OePIP2.1, and stromal CA. At mild stress and at the beginning of the recovery period, stomatal limitations prevailed, while the decline in g m accounted for up to 60% of photosynthesis limitations under severe water stress. However, g m was restored to control values shortly after rewatering, facilitating the recovery of the photosynthetic rate. CA was downregulated during water stress and upregulated after recovery. The use of structural equation modelling allowed us to conclude that both OePIP1.1 and OePIP2.1 expression could explain most of the variations observed for g s and g m. CA expression also had a small but significant effect on g m in olive under water-stress conditions. PMID:24799563

Perez-Martin, Alfonso; Michelazzo, Chiara; Torres-Ruiz, Jose M; Flexas, Jaume; Fernández, José E; Sebastiani, Luca; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio

2014-07-01

378

Regulation of photosynthesis and stomatal and mesophyll conductance under water stress and recovery in olive trees: correlation with gene expression of carbonic anhydrase and aquaporins  

PubMed Central

The hypothesis that aquaporins and carbonic anhydrase (CA) are involved in the regulation of stomatal (g s) and mesophyll (g m) conductance to CO2 was tested in a short-term water-stress and recovery experiment in 5-year-old olive plants (Olea europaea) growing outdoors. The evolution of leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and plant water status, and a quantitative analysis of photosynthesis limitations, were followed during water stress and recovery. These variables were correlated with gene expression of the aquaporins OePIP1.1 and OePIP2.1, and stromal CA. At mild stress and at the beginning of the recovery period, stomatal limitations prevailed, while the decline in g m accounted for up to 60% of photosynthesis limitations under severe water stress. However, g m was restored to control values shortly after rewatering, facilitating the recovery of the photosynthetic rate. CA was downregulated during water stress and upregulated after recovery. The use of structural equation modelling allowed us to conclude that both OePIP1.1 and OePIP2.1 expression could explain most of the variations observed for g s and g m. CA expression also had a small but significant effect on g m in olive under water-stress conditions.

Perez-Martin, Alfonso; Michelazzo, Chiara; Torres-Ruiz, Jose M.; Flexas, Jaume; Fernandez, Jose E.; Sebastiani, Luca; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio

2014-01-01

379

Trace-element measurements in atmospheric biomonitors—A look at the relative performance of INAA and PIXE on olive-tree bark  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of an ongoing evaluation of its suitability for atmospheric biomonitoring, bark from olive trees ( Olea europaea Linn.) has been collected and searched for trace elements by means of two nuclear-analytical techniques—instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The sampling for the present study was carried out across two separate sections of an established grid for air-quality surveys in mainland Portugal. The dual location comprises 58 collection sites—littoral-north (29 sites) and littoral-centre (29 sites). Both techniques are intrinsically accurate and may be seen to complement each other in the way that, as a whole, they yield 46 elements, with an overlap of 16 elements. Among the latter, this paper focuses on four of them and looks into their joint determination. Descriptive statistics for soil-related Al and Ti, and for sea-related Cl and Br, show results for each element to be fairly comparable. The degree of association between elemental patterns by either technique, as seen through nonparametric tests (Kendall's RK), is outstanding. No statistical evidence (Wilcoxon's T) for relative bias in correlated samples—consistently higher or lower results by one technique—could be found as well. As far as this study goes, INAA and PIXE may be used interchangeably for determining the present elements in olive-tree bark.

Pacheco, Adriano M. G.; Freitas, Maria do Carmo; Reis, Miguel A.

2003-06-01

380

Extra virgin olive oil polyphenolic extracts downregulate inflammatory responses in LPS-activated murine peritoneal macrophages suppressing NF?B and MAPK signalling pathways.  

PubMed

Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is obtained from the fruit of the olive tree Olea europaea L. Phenolic compounds present in EVOO have recognized anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the activity of the total phenolic fraction extracted from EVOO and the action mechanisms involved are not well defined. The present study was designed to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the polyphenolic extract (PE) from EVOO on LPS-stimulated peritoneal murine macrophages. Nitric oxide (NO) production was analyzed by the Griess method and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by fluorescence analysis. Moreover, changes in the protein expression of the pro-inflammatory enzymes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), as well as the role of nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF?B) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathways, were analyzed by Western blot. PE from EVOO reduced LPS-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses through decreasing NO and ROS generation. In addition, PE induced a significant down-regulation of iNOS, COX-2 and mPGES-1 protein expressions, reduced MAPK phosphorylation and prevented the nuclear NF?B translocation. This study establishes that PE from EVOO possesses anti-inflammatory activities on LPS-stimulated murine macrophages. PMID:24740524

Cárdeno, A; Sánchez-Hidalgo, M; Aparicio-Soto, M; Sánchez-Fidalgo, S; Alarcón-de-la-Lastra, C

2014-06-28

381

Foederatio Europea Orthodontica FEO: its history, its aims and commitments, its achievements, its future goals.  

PubMed

Created in 1996, the Foederatio Europea Orthodontica or European Federation of Orthodontics represents, today, 15 associations counting almost ten thousands European colleagues. Committed to establish and develop good relationships between the national scientific orthodontic societies of the European Continent and to pursue a common goal to communicate and share an up-to-date orthodontic information, it has undertaken, with a minimal budget (one Euro/orthodontist as annual fee), several actions including a valuable and user friendly internet site (www.Feoonline.com) - an annual award for the best scientific paper published in Europe - a list of excellent speakers ready to communicate, an objective support for the national association which is selected for hosting the general assembly and a newsletter on the web that will be soon published in national journals of the FEO members. Thanks to devoted professionals that have actively contribute in the founding and the management of the federation, FEO is now grown up and ready to plan and finalize, with the specially created think tank, new common actions and some exciting steps for the future. It is time for those that have been reluctant in the past, to join the group and be part of its further development. PMID:16552451

Dahan, José

2006-01-01

382

7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...grapefruit, kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety...grapes for processing; (3) Olives for processing into oil; (4) Grapefruit for...

2011-01-01

383

7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...grapefruit, kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety...grapes for processing; (3) Olives for processing into oil; (4) Grapefruit for...

2012-01-01

384

7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...  

...avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...grapefruit, kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety...grapes for processing; (3) Olives for processing into oil; (4) Grapefruit for...

2014-01-01

385

7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...grapefruit, kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety...grapes for processing; (3) Olives for processing into oil; (4) Grapefruit for...

2013-01-01

386

Widespread Head-to-Head Hydrocarbon Biosynthesis in Bacteria and Role of OleA ? †  

PubMed Central

Previous studies identified the oleABCD genes involved in head-to-head olefinic hydrocarbon biosynthesis. The present study more fully defined the OleABCD protein families within the thiolase, ?/?-hydrolase, AMP-dependent ligase/synthase, and short-chain dehydrogenase superfamilies, respectively. Only 0.1 to 1% of each superfamily represents likely Ole proteins. Sequence analysis based on structural alignments and gene context was used to identify highly likely ole genes. Selected microorganisms from the phyla Verucomicrobia, Planctomyces, Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were tested experimentally and shown to produce long-chain olefinic hydrocarbons. However, different species from the same genera sometimes lack the ole genes and fail to produce olefinic hydrocarbons. Overall, only 1.9% of 3,558 genomes analyzed showed clear evidence for containing ole genes. The type of olefins produced by different bacteria differed greatly with respect to the number of carbon-carbon double bonds. The greatest number of organisms surveyed biosynthesized a single long-chain olefin, 3,6,9,12,15,19,22,25,28-hentriacontanonaene, that contains nine double bonds. Xanthomonas campestris produced the greatest number of distinct olefin products, 15 compounds ranging in length from C28 to C31 and containing one to three double bonds. The type of long-chain product formed was shown to be dependent on the oleA gene in experiments with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 ole gene deletion mutants containing native or heterologous oleA genes expressed in trans. A strain deleted in oleABCD and containing oleA in trans produced only ketones. Based on these observations, it was proposed that OleA catalyzes a nondecarboxylative thiolytic condensation of fatty acyl chains to generate a ?-ketoacyl intermediate that can decarboxylate spontaneously to generate ketones.

Sukovich, David J.; Seffernick, Jennifer L.; Richman, Jack E.; Gralnick, Jeffrey A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.

2010-01-01

387

Bioactive derivatives from oleuropein by a biotransformation on Olea europaea leaf extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A very simple method is proposed to produce, using non-homogeneous hyperthermophilic ?-glycosidase immobilised on chitosan, 3,4-dihydroxy-phenylethanol (hydroxytyrosol), a commercially unavailable compound with well known biological properties which justify a potential commercial application. Leaf extracts from Olea europaea with high oleuropein content are selected as substrate for biotransformation. Under the biotransformation conditions, high amounts of hydroxytyrosol are collected within a short

Raffaella Briante; Francesco La Cara; Ferdinando Febbraio; Maurizio Patumi; Roberto Nucci

2002-01-01

388

A High Mobility Group Protein from the Dipteran Insects Ceratitis capitata and Bactrocera oleae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclei from Bactrocera oleae and Ceratitis capitata larvae contain a major protein that shares most of the characteristics of vertebrate high mobility group (HMG) proteins. Proteins are extracted from nuclei with 0.35 M NaCl, are soluble in 5% perchloric acid, are relatively small (molecular weight in the range of 10–16 kDa), and have both a high basic and a high

Vassiliki Aleporou-Marinou; Christina Deli; Yiannis Ninios; Barbara Agelopoulou; Haroula Marinou; Theocharis Patargias

2003-01-01

389

Components of olive oil and chemoprevention of colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

Olive oil contains a vast range of substances such as monounsaturated free fatty acids (e.g., oleic acid), hydrocarbon squalene, tocopherols, aroma components, and phenolic compounds. Higher consumption of olive oil is considered the hallmark of the traditional Mediterranean diet, which has been associated with low incidence and prevalence of cancer, including colorectal cancer. The anticancer properties of olive oil have been attributed to its high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids, squalene, tocopherols, and phenolic compounds. Nevertheless, there is a growing interest in studying the role of olive oil phenolics in carcinogenesis. This review aims to provide an overview of the relationship between olive oil phenolics and colorectal cancer, in particular summarizing the epidemiologic, in vitro, cellular, and animal studies on antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effects of olive oil phenolics. PMID:16370222

Hashim, Yumi Z H Y; Eng, M; Gill, Chris I R; McGlynn, Hugh; Rowland, Ian R

2005-11-01

390

Olive stone an attractive source of bioactive and valuable compounds.  

PubMed

The olive stone and seed are an important byproduct generated in the olive oil extraction and pitted table olive industries. As a lignocellulosic material, the hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin are the main components of olive stone as wells as protein, fat, phenols, free sugars and poliols composition. The main use of this biomass is as combustion to produce electric energy or heat. Other uses such as activated carbon, furfural production, plastic filled, abrasive and cosmetic or other potential uses such as biosorbent, animal feed or resin formation have been cited. In this article, an overview of the characterization and main uses of olive stone and seed are described for the first time. Also, this review discusses the potential use of this material based on each component. In this way, a new approach to the olive stone and seed by pretreating with a steam explosion followed by chemical fractionation is described. PMID:18160280

Rodríguez, Guillermo; Lama, Antonio; Rodríguez, Rocío; Jiménez, Ana; Guillén, Rafael; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan

2008-09-01

391

Olive leaf extract attenuates cardiac, hepatic, and metabolic changes in high carbohydrate-, high fat-fed rats.  

PubMed

Olive oil, an important component of the Mediterranean diet, produces cardioprotective effects, probably due to both oleic acid and the polyphenols such as oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. Our aim in this study was to assess whether a polyphenol-enriched extract from the leaves of Olea europaea L. with oleuropein as the major component attenuated the cardiovascular, hepatic, and metabolic signs of a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (HCHF) diet (carbohydrate, 52%; fat, 24%, 25% fructose in drinking water) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed either a cornstarch diet (CS) or a HCHF diet for a total of 16 wk. Diets of the treatment groups [CS+olive leaf extract (OLE) and HCHF+OLE] were supplemented with 3% OLE after 8 wk of being fed their respective CS or HCHF diets for a further 8 wk. After 16 wk, HCHF rats developed signs of metabolic syndrome, including elevated abdominal and hepatic fat deposition, collagen deposition in heart and liver, cardiac stiffness, and oxidative stress markers (plasma malondialdehyde and uric acid concentrations), with diminished aortic ring reactivity, abnormal plasma lipid profile, impaired glucose tolerance, and hypertension. Compared with HCHF rats, those in the HCHF+OLE group had improved or normalized cardiovascular, hepatic, and metabolic signs with the exception of elevated blood pressure. These results strongly suggest that an OLE containing polyphenols such as oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol reverses the chronic inflammation and oxidative stress that induces the cardiovascular, hepatic, and metabolic symptoms in this rat model of diet-induced obesity and diabetes without changing blood pressure. PMID:20335636

Poudyal, Hemant; Campbell, Fiona; Brown, Lindsay

2010-05-01

392

Saline water irrigation effects on antioxidant defense system and proline accumulation in leaves and roots of field-grown olive.  

PubMed

Field-grown olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali) were used over two growing seasons to determine the effects of different saline water irrigation levels on levels of proline and chlorophyll contents and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT). The plants were irrigated with fresh water (FW; ECe = 1.2 dS m(-1)) and saline water (SW; ECe = 7.5 dS m(-1)). Leaf water relations (relative water content, water potential), photosynthetic activity, and leaf chlorophyll content decreased under irrigation with saline water. In spring 2005, net photosynthesis of young leaves was 24.5 and 14.9 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in FW- and SW-treated plants, respectively. In old leaves, these rates were 20.2 and 12.2 micromol m(-2) s(-1), respectively. The relative reduction of net photosynthesis in SW-treated plants varied from 39 to 46% and from 39 to 61%, compared to FW-treated plants during the first and second crop seasons, respectively. The relative reduction of leaf chlorophyll (a + b) content under high water salinity level exceeds 50%, compared to FW-treated plants. However, proline content and activities of SOD, CAT, and APX increased under saline water irrigation. The increase of proline content was more important in leaves than in roots. In young leaves, the increment of antioxidant activities in SW-treated plants was 2.67, 3.61, and 1.85 times, respectively, for SOD, APX, and CAT, compared to FW-treated plants. From these results, interaction between antioxidant defense system and proline contents seems to be involved in the salt tolerance mechanisms of Chemlali olive tree. PMID:19924889

Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Ben Rouina, Bechir; Sensoy, Serhat; Boukhriss, Mekki; Ben Abdullah, Ferjani

2009-12-23

393

Influence of ecological cultivation on virgin olive oil quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of oil extracted from ecologically cultivated olives of the Picual variety was compared with oil extracted from\\u000a Picual olives cultivated using conventional methods. Olive trees were grown in a two-section plot. Fruits from each plot were\\u000a harvested at various stages of ripeness, and acidity value, peroxide index, ultraviolet absorption at 232 and 270 nm, stability\\u000a to oxidation, sensory

Francisca Gutiérrez; Teresa Arnaud; Miguel A. Albi

1999-01-01

394

Traditional olive orchards on sloping land: sustainability or abandonment?  

PubMed

Traditional olive orchards account for a large share of the area under olives in the EU, particularly in marginal areas, like those analysed in the OLIVERO project. In general, traditional olive growing can be described as a low-intensity production system, associated with old (sometimes very old) trees, grown at a low density, giving small yields and receiving low inputs of labour and materials. Though such systems are environmentally sustainable, their economic viability has become an issue, since EU policies favour more intensive and competitive systems. Orchards that have not been intensified seem to be threatened by the recent reform of the EU olive and olive oil policy, as income support has been decoupled from production. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the present constraints to traditional olive growing, and to recommend some private and public interventions to prevent its abandonment. During the OLIVERO project, traditional olive production systems were identified and described in five target areas (Trás-os-Montes--Portugal, Cordoba and Granada/Jaen--Spain, Basilicata/Salerno--Italy, and West Crete--Greece). The causes and consequences of abandonment are discussed, based on the analysis of the costs and returns, which revealed that these systems are barely economically sustainable. Their viability is only assured if reduced opportunity costs for family labour are accepted, and the olive growing is part-time. Based on these results, recommendations are made to prevent the abandonment of traditional olive growing and to preserve its environmental benefits. PMID:17923250

Duarte, Filomena; Jones, Nádia; Fleskens, Luuk

2008-11-01

395

Pentacyclic triterpenoids from olive fruit and leaf.  

PubMed

This work establishes a new procedure for the extraction and analysis of pentacyclic triterpenes, with which fruits and leaves from three Spanish olive cultivars ("Picual", "Hojiblanca", and "Arbequina") has been studied. The leaf contains important amounts of oleanolic acid (3.0-3.5% DW), followed by significant concentrations of maslinic acid and minor levels of ursolic acid, erythrodiol, and uvaol. The abundance and profile of triterpenoids change during the leaf ontogeny. In the fruit, triterpenes are exclusively located in the epicarp at concentrations 30-fold lower than that in the leaf. Maslinic acid is the main triterpenoid, only accompanied of oleanolic acid. Along the ripening the levels of these triterpenes decreased. All the analyzed leaves and fruits come from the same agricultural estate, with identical climate and culturing conditions. For this reason, the found differences could majorly be attributable to the genetic factors of the olive cultivars. PMID:20712364

Guinda, Angeles; Rada, Mirela; Delgado, Teresa; Gutiérrez-Adánez, Pilar; Castellano, José María

2010-09-01

396

Mobility of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) late third instars and teneral adults in test arenas.  

PubMed

The mobility of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), late third instars before pupation, teneral adults before flight, and mature adults restricted from flight were studied under mulches in greenhouse cage tests, in horizontal pipes, vertical bottles and pipes filled with sand, and by observation on smooth laboratory surfaces. Percentage adults emerging from pupae and percentage adult females that escaped soil, fabric, and paper mulches over a soil or sand substrate ranged from 63 to 83, and 40-53%, respectively. Percentage adults emerging from pupae and percentage adult females that walked through the open interior of 1.52-6.10-m horizontal pipes of 1.5-2.0-cm inner diameter ranged from 57 to 81, and 27-61%, respectively. Percentage adults emerging from pupae that escaped through sand depths of 2.5-10.2, and 12.7-20.3 cm, ranged from 68 to 87, and 12-88%; and percentage adult females that escaped ranged from 46 to 58, and 38-70%, respectively. In 15.4-cm-inner-diameter pipes filled with different heights of sand, the highest percentage of the total number of adults that emerged in the control were found from 0 to 20.3 cm, and ranged from 37 to 71%. Ten to 47% of adults were found from 20.3 cm to below the surface, and 6-21% escaped to the top of 20.3-50.8 cm high sand columns. In column heights of 55.9 and 61 cm, pressures at the bottom caused by the weight of the sand above were 91.4 and 99.7 g/cm(2), respectively, and a mean of <1 adult escaped to the top. Before pupation, the late third instars were found to travel continuously for 6.9 h over 23.9 m at a speed of 6.0 cm per min, when placed on a smooth surface, at 22.2°C. Teneral females and males that could not fly, made ?7 stops totaling 11-13 min, walked at a speed of 57-62 cm per min, and began a rest period of 83-84 min duration, at 85-89 min before flight. Males walked a distance of 13.1 m in 22 min, which was greater than females that walked for 9.6 m in 17 min, at 20-22°C and 35% RH. The mobility of the third instars and the teneral adults is discussed in relation to potential control techniques in olive orchards. PMID:23068175

Yokoyama, Victoria Y

2012-10-01

397

Steam-explosion pretreatment of olive cake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive cake was processed by steam-explosion under different steam conditions, followed by fractionation to separate the main\\u000a components. In the water-soluble fraction, the main compounds were carbohydrates. Glucose represented a significant part of\\u000a the total monosaccharide content, especially under conditions of mild severity, followed by arabinose, but the solubilization\\u000a of sugars occurred predominantly in the oligomeric fraction. Mannitol was also

B. Felizón; J. Fernández-Bolaños; A. Heredia; R. Guillén

2000-01-01

398

Studies in photooxidation of olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photooxidation of olive oil, bleached to remove most non-triglyceride components, was studied to elucidate the role of added\\u000a chlorophyll a, pheophytin a and b,?- and?-carotene, d-?-tocopherol and nickel dibutyldithiocarbamate.\\u000a \\u000a Chlorophyll functioned as a photosensitizer resulting in rapid oxidation of the oil and the added components and loss of color.?- and?-carotene acted essentially equally as singlet oxygen quenchers.?-tocopherol had little apparent

A. Kiritsakis; L. R. Dugan

1985-01-01

399

OLIVE-MILL WASTEWATER COMPOSTING: MICROBIOLOGICAL ASPECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen consumption, microbial growth, lignin and phenol degradation, urease, protease and nitrogenase activity were determined during the composting of an olive-mill wastewaters (OMW)–wheat straw mixture. Oxygen consumption, microbial growth and urease activity were greatly enhanced during the thermophilic phase, reaching their maximum in about three weeks. Casein-hydrolysing protease showed a high initial activity which sharply decreased after 2 weeks. At

E. Galli; L. Pasetti; F. Fiorelli; U. Tomati

1997-01-01

400

Squalene recovery from olive oil deodorizer distillates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive oil deodorization distillate contains squalene in a concentration range of 10 to 30 wt%. A process for its recovery\\u000a by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction is described. The process consists mainly of converting the free fatty acids and\\u000a the methyl and ethyl esters normally occurring in this by-product into their corresponding triglycerides. The latter are then\\u000a extracted with supercritical carbon

Paolo Bondioli; Carlo Mariani; Armando Lanzani; Enzo Fedeli; Adam Muller

1993-01-01

401

Growth and physiology of olive pioneer and fibrous roots exposed to soil moisture deficits.  

PubMed

In woody plants, pioneer roots are the main roots used to expand the root system horizontally and vertically whereas fibrous 'feeder' roots are chiefly used in the absorption of water and nutrients. Because of their different roles, we expected newly emerged pioneer and fibrous roots to respond differently to restrictions in soil moisture. We hypothesized that fibrous roots would exhibit greater growth plasticity and greater physiological impairment from soil moisture deficits, especially under heterogeneous conditions. We compared the responses of fibrous and pioneer roots of olive seedlings (Olea europaea) to localized and uniform soil moisture deficits in transparent containers in the greenhouse. In comparison with uniformly wet conditions, uniformly dry conditions caused reduced shoot photosynthesis and reduced shoot growth, but no significant effect on root morphology, root respiration (measured in aerated buffer solution using excised roots) or electrolyte leakage as a function of root age. Under heterogeneous soil moisture conditions, root growth tended to preferentially occur in the moist sector, especially in the pioneer roots. In comparison with pioneer roots in the moist sector, pioneer roots