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Sample records for olive olea europea

  1. Enzymatic hydrolysis of oleuropein from Olea europea (olive) leaf extract and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jiao-Jiao; Wang, Cheng-Zhang; Ye, Jian-Zhong; Tao, Ran; Zhang, Yu-Si

    2015-01-01

    Oleuropein (OE), the main polyphenol in olive leaf extract, is likely to decompose into hydroxytyrosol (HT) and elenolic acid under the action of light, acid, base, high temperature. In the enzymatic process, the content of OE in olive leaf extract and enzyme are key factors that affect the yield of HT. A selective enzyme was screened from among 10 enzymes with a high OE degradation rate. A single factor (pH, temperature, time, enzyme quantity) optimization process and a Box-Behnken design were studied for the enzymatic hydrolysis of 81.04% OE olive leaf extract. Additionally, enzymatic hydrolysis results with different substrates (38.6% and 81.04% OE) were compared and the DPPH antioxidant properties were also evaluated. The result showed that the performance of hydrolysis treatments was best using hemicellulase as a bio-catalyst, and the high purity of OE in olive extract was beneficial to biotransform OE into HT. The optimal enzymatic conditions for achieving a maximal yield of HT content obtained by the regression were as follows: pH 5, temperature 55 °C and enzyme quantity 55 mg. The experimental result was 11.31% ± 0.15%, and the degradation rate of OE was 98.54%. From the present investigation of the antioxidant activity determined by the DPPH method, the phenol content and radical scavenging effect were both decreased after enzymatic hydrolysis by hemicellulase. However, a high antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate extract enzymatic hydrolysate (IC50 = 41.82 ?g/mL) was demonstated. The results presented in this work suggested that hemicellulase has promising and attractive properties for industrial production of HT, and indicated that HT might be a valuable biological component for use in pharmaceutical products and functional foods. PMID:25679050

  2. [Hypersensitivity to pollen of Olea europea in patients with pollen allergy in Zadar County, Croatia].

    PubMed

    Skitareli?, Natasa; Mazzi, Antun; Skitareli?, Neven; Misuli?, Josko; Vuleti?, Ana

    2010-06-01

    Olive pollen is one of the most common respiratory allergens in the Mediterranean countries. The aim of this study was to establish the frequency of hypersensitivity to the pollen of Olea europea in pollen allergic patients in the County of Zadar. The study included 671 patients with pollen allergy; 61 % were male and 39 % female. 53.5 % were children aged from 4 to 14 years and 46.5 % adolescents and adults from 15 to 59 years. We took their case history, clinically examined them, and tested using the skin prick test and enzymo-immunologic UniCAP test for specific IgE antibodies. For statistical analysis we used the chi-square test. Hypersensitivity to Olea europea pollen was confirmed in 8.8 % patients with pollen allergy. Among them, the most prevalent symptom was rhinitis (58 %). Most hypersensitive patients were urban residents. Only 3 % patients lived on an island. Judging by available data, our findings show the lowest hypersensitivity to olive pollen in the Mediterranean. A comparison with our two earlier studies did not show any fluctuation in this kind of hypersensitivity. PMID:20587396

  3. Effect of olive leaf (Olea europea L.) extracts on protein and lipid oxidation of long-term frozen n-3 fatty acids-enriched pork patties.

    PubMed

    Botsoglou, Evropi; Govaris, Alexander; Ambrosiadis, Ioannis; Fletouris, Dimitrios; Botsoglou, Nikolas

    2014-10-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated the protective effects of olive leaf extracts on the oxidation of pork patties from n-3 fatty acid-enriched meat during refrigerated storage. The target of the present study was to examine these effects during frozen storage. Results showed that frozen storage accelerated (P=0.05) both lipid and protein oxidation in pork patties, but an addition of olive leaf extract at 200mg gallic acid equivalent/kg improved sensory attributes by delaying oxidation of lipids (reduction (P=0.05) of conjugated dienes, hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde), and of proteins (reduction (P=0.05) of protein carbonyls and inhibition (P=0.05) of the decrease of protein sulfhydryls). PMID:24950084

  4. Hg contents in soils and olive-tree (Olea Europea, L.) leaves from an area affected by elemental mercury pollution (Jódar, SE Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; María Esbrí, José; Amorós, José Angel; Lorenzo, Saturnino; Fernández-Calderón, Sergio; Higueras, Pablo; Perez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad

    2014-05-01

    Data from soil and olive tree leaves around a decommissioned chlor-alkali plant are presented in this communication. The factory was active in the period 1977-1991, producing during these years a heavily pollution of Guadalquivir River and hydrargyrism in more than local 45 workers. It is located at 7 km South of Jódar, a locality with some 12,120 inhabitants. Mercury usage was general in this type of plants, but at present it is being replaced by other types of technologies, due to the risks of mercury usage in personal and environment. A soil geochemistry survey was carried out in the area, along with the analysis of olive-tree leaves (in the plots with this culture) from the same area. 73 soil samples were taken at two different depths (0-15 cm and 15-30 cm), together with 41 olive tree samples. Mercury content of geologic and biologic samples was determined by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Zeeman Effect, using a Lumex RA-915+ device with the RP-91C pyrolysis attachment. Air surveys were carried our using a RA-915M Lumex portable analytical device. Soil mercury contents were higher in topsoil than in the deeper soil samples, indicating that incorporation of mercury was due to dry and wet deposition of mercury vapors emitted from the plant. Average content in topsoil is 564.5 ng g-1. Hg contents in olive-tree leaves were in the range 46 - 453 ng g-1, with an average of 160.6 ng g-1. This level is slightly lower than tolerable level for agronomic crops established by Kabata-Pendias (2001) in 200 ng g-1. We have also compared soil and leaf contents for each sampling site, finding a positive and significant correlation (R=0.49), indicating that Hg contents in the leaves are linked to Hg contents in the soils. BAC (Bioaccumulation Absorption Coefficient, calculated as ratio between soil and leaf concentration) is 0.28 (consistent with world references, BAC = 0.7), considered "medium" in comparison with other mineral elements. Main conclusions of this research work are the following: i) The Jódar decommissioned chlor-alkali plant is still a mercury source 20 years after its cease of activities without any reclamation measures; ii) The activity of the plant has produced an important dissemination of mercury in the surrounding environment; and iii) The corresponding pollution levels, in particular in soils, may suppose a risk to the main crops of the area (olive trees present significant accumulation of Hg in leaf).

  5. Biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, in Israel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera oleae, the olive fruit fly (OFF), is a key pest of olives in most olive-growing countries in the Mediterranean basin and elsewhere. It significantly reduces yields and degrades the quality of the oil extracted from infested fruit. Olive growers have traditionally used systemic organopho...

  6. Characterization of Libyan olive, olea europaea L., cultivars using morpholigical data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) consumption and production are important socially and economically in Libya. Olive cultivars that are adapted to local conditions produce olives that have high quality and quantities of oil. Many of the important Libyan olive cultivars were included in this research. One goa...

  7. Olive plants (Olea europaea L.) as a bioindicator for pollution.

    PubMed

    Eliwa, Amal Mohamed; Kamel, Ehab Abdel-Razik

    2013-06-15

    In the present work, olive plant (Olea europaea L.) was used as a biological indicator for pollution in which, molecular and physiological parameters were studied. Olive plants were collected from polluted and non-polluted areas in Jeddah - Saudi Arabia, traffic area as an air polluted area, sewage treatment station as water polluted area, industrial area as solid waste polluted, costal area as marine polluted area and an area without a direct source of pollution far away from the city center, which was used as control. These changes conducted with nucleic acid content, minerals content, pigments and some growth parameters. Results showed significant reductions in DNA and RNA contents under all polluted sites. Mineral contents were varied widely depending on the different pollutants and locations of olive plant. Generally, micro-elements varied (increase/decrease) significantly within collected samples and the source of pollution. All growth parameters were decreased significantly within the studied samples of all pollutant areas except the relative water content was increased. The content of chlorophyll a has decreased highly significantly in all polluted leaves. While the content of chlorophyll b has increased significantly in all polluted leaves especially in air polluted leaves. The total content of carotenoid pigments has decreased highly significantly in all polluted leaves. It was concluded that olive plant can be used as a biological indicator to the environmental pollutants. PMID:24494523

  8. Biology, behavior, and olive orchard IPM of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) fifteen years after invasion in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae L., has become a key pest in California commercial olive orchards used for canned fruit and oil since it was first discovered in 1998. Elucidation of the biology and behavior of olive fruit fly in relation to its host has been a key factor in development...

  9. Identification of leaf volatiles from olive (Olea europaea) and their possible role in the ovipositional preferences of olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Cunha, Sara C; Baptista, Paula; Pereira, José Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is a monophagous pest that displays an oviposition preference among cultivars of olive (Olea europaea L.). To clarify the oviposition preference, the olive leaf volatiles of three olive cultivars (Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana) were assessed by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS) at six different periods of olive fruit maturation and degrees of infestation. A total of 39 volatiles were identified, mainly esters and alcohols, with a minor percentage of aldehydes, ketones and terpenic compounds, including sesquiterpenes. At sampling dates with higher degrees of infestation, cv. Cobrançosa had, simultaneously, significantly lower infestation degrees and higher volatile amounts than the other two cultivars, with a probable deterrent effect for oviposition. The green leaf volatiles (GLVs) (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol acetate) were the main compounds identified in all cultivars, together with toluene. The abundance of GLVs decreased significantly throughout maturation, without significant differences among cultivars, while toluene showed a general increase and positive correlation with olive fly infestation levels. The results obtained could broaden our understanding of the roles of various types and amounts of olive volatiles in the environment, especially in olive fly host selection and cultivar preference. PMID:26603276

  10. A survey of natural and introduced parasitoids of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Israel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive cultivation occupies eight million hectares worldwide, with over ten million tons of olives annually (90% in the Mediterranean Basin). The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a key pest of olive fruit, causing up to 50% in crop loss. Increasing biological control by n...

  11. Role of ?-copaene in the susceptibility of olive fruits to Bactrocera oleae (Rossi).

    PubMed

    de Alfonso, Ignacio; Vacas, Sandra; Primo, Jaime

    2014-12-10

    The influence of ?-copaene as a fruit volatile in the susceptibility of Olea europaea L. to the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) has been investigated. By studies on the relative area of volatile components from different cultivars, a positive correlation was found between the abundance of ?-copaene in the samples and the corresponding degree of fruit infestation. SPME-GC-MS analysis of volatiles from uninfested fruits of O. europaea L. cv. Serrana were performed over two years to determine the variation of ?-copaene throughout the different phenological stages. The results suggested that this sesquiterpene has a significant effect on cultivar susceptibility and may act as an oviposition promoter. Further analysis by chiral GC showed that olive fruits release both ?-copaene enantiomers. Bioassays on each enantiomer revealed that fruits with increased amounts of (+)-?-copaene favor oviposition of B. oleae females, whereas the increase of (-)-?-copaene affords no statistically significant differences in host preference. PMID:25408316

  12. Volatile constituents of commercial imported and domestic black-ripe table olives (Olea europaea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile constituents of commercial black-ripe table olives (Olea europaea) from the United States, Spain, Egypt and Morocco were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Dynamic headspace sampling was used to isolate a variety of aldehydes, alcohols, esters, ...

  13. Diversity and ecology of natural enemies of olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, in South Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent establishment in North America of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmel.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), has renewed interest in classical biological control of this pest. Previous surveys conducted in Africa and Asia during the 20th century demonstrated a greater natural enemy diversity in s...

  14. Isolation, annotation and applications of expressed sequence tags from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae.

    PubMed

    Tsoumani, K T; Augustinos, A A; Kakani, E G; Drosopoulou, E; Mavragani-Tsipidou, P; Mathiopoulos, K D

    2011-01-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major pest of the olive tree. Despite its importance, very little genetic and molecular knowledge is available. The present study is a first attempt to identify and characterize B. oleae expressed sequence tags (ESTs). One hundred and ninety-five randomly selected cDNA clones were isolated and the obtained sequences were annotated through BLASTX similarity searches. A set of 159 unique putative transcripts were functionally assigned using Gene Ontology terms in broad categories of biological process, molecular function and cellular component based on D. melanogaster matches. Moreover, the cytogenetic location of 35 ESTs was determined by in situ hybridization to B. oleae polytene chromosomes. The resulting low-resolution EST map more than doubles the available entry points to the insect's genome and can assist syntenic comparisons with other distant species. The deduced codon usage of the isolated ESTs suggested a conserved pattern of B. oleae with its closest relatives. Additionally, the comparative analysis of B. oleae ESTs with the homologous D. melanogaster genes led to the development of 17 nuclear EPIC-PCR markers for the amplification of intron sequences of 11 Tephritidae species. Sequencing analysis of several cross-amplified intron sequences revealed a high degree of conservation among Bactrocera species and a varying transferability of the generated markers across the examined genera, suggesting that this method can provide a useful tool for the clarification of phylogenetic relationships among different species, particularly in cases of species complexes. PMID:20978910

  15. Mitochondrial haplotypes reveal olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) population substructure in the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    van Asch, Barbara; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando; da Costa, Luís Teixeira

    2012-06-01

    The olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) is the most important olive tree (Olea europaea) pest. In the Mediterranean basin, where 98 % of its main hosts are concentrated, it causes major agricultural losses, due to its negative effect on production and quality of both olive and olive oil. Previous phylogeographic analyses have established that Mediterranean olive fly populations are distinct from other Old World populations, but did not agree on the specific population substructure within this region. In order to achieve a higher resolution of the diversity of olive fly populations, particularly in Central and Western Mediterranean (home to 70 % of the world production), we comparatively analyzed a set of samples from Portugal in the context of published mitochondrial sequences across the species' worldwide range. Strong evidence of population substructure was found in the Central and Western Mediterranean area, with two clearly separate phylogenetic branches. Together with previously published data, our results strongly support the existence of at least three distinct Mediterranean populations of the olive fly, raise the possibility of additional regional substructure and suggest specific avenues for future research. This knowledge can be instrumental in the development of better management and control strategies for a major pest of Mediterranean agriculture. PMID:22825843

  16. Genomic structure, organization and localization of the acetylcholinesterase locus of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae.

    PubMed

    Kakani, E G; Trakala, M; Drosopoulou, E; Mavragani-Tsipidou, P; Mathiopoulos, K D

    2013-02-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), encoded by the ace gene, is a key enzyme of cholinergic neurotransmission. Insensitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE) has been shown to be responsible for resistance to OPs and CBs in a number of arthropod species, including the most important pest of olives trees, the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae. In this paper, the organization of the B. oleae ace locus, as well as the structural and functional features of the enzyme, are determined. The organization of the gene was deduced by comparison to the ace cDNA sequence of B. oleae and the organization of the locus in Drosophila melanogaster. A similar structure between insect ace gene has been found, with conserved exon-intron positions and junction sequences. The B. oleae ace locus extends for at least 75 kb, consists of ten exons with nine introns and is mapped to division 34 of the chromosome arm IIL. Moreover, according to bioinformatic analysis, the Bo AChE exhibits all the common features of the insect AChE. Such structural and functional similarity among closely related AChE enzymes may implicate similarities in insecticide resistance mechanisms. PMID:22967668

  17. Valuable Nutrients and Functional Bioactives in Different Parts of Olive (Olea europaea L.)—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Rahele; Anwar, Farooq; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    The Olive tree (Olea europaea L.), a native of the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia, is now widely cultivated in many other parts of the world for production of olive oil and table olives. Olive is a rich source of valuable nutrients and bioactives of medicinal and therapeutic interest. Olive fruit contains appreciable concentration, 1–3% of fresh pulp weight, of hydrophilic (phenolic acids, phenolic alchohols, flavonoids and secoiridoids) and lipophilic (cresols) phenolic compounds that are known to possess multiple biological activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic, cardiotonic, laxative, and antiplatelet. Other important compounds present in olive fruit are pectin, organic acids, and pigments. Virgin olive oil (VOO), extracted mechanically from the fruit, is also very popular for its nutritive and health-promoting potential, especially against cardiovascular disorders due to the presence of high levels of monounsaturates and other valuable minor components such as phenolics, phytosterols, tocopherols, carotenoids, chlorophyll and squalene. The cultivar, area of production, harvest time, and the processing techniques employed are some of the factors shown to influence the composition of olive fruit and olive oil. This review focuses comprehensively on the nutrients and high-value bioactives profile as well as medicinal and functional aspects of different parts of olives and its byproducts. Various factors affecting the composition of this food commodity of medicinal value are also discussed. PMID:22489153

  18. Seasonal pheromone trap catches of male Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northern California: asynchrony with host (olive tree) phenology?

    PubMed

    Villamil, Soledad C; Lewis, Edwin E; Zalom, Frank G

    2013-12-01

    Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae, Dacinae) is an oligophagous species that feeds only on cultivated olives (Olea europaea L.) and its close relatives. Synchrony of seasonal activity patterns of B. oleae, the olive fruit fly with its host's phenology is therefore expected. The objective of this study was to monitor the male olive fruit fly response to female sex pheromone in the field. White sticky traps were deployed year round for 3 yr in an olive orchard in Oroville, CA. They were checked periodically, and flies captured were counted and sexed. Although males were captured regularly, the numbers of females captured on pheromone traps were negligible. Food-baited traps and water-baited traps were deployed to show the presence of flies in the field. Our hypothesis that males would respond to pheromone when females were available and olive fruits were susceptible for oviposition was partially supported. There were two peaks of high male captures in pheromone traps: spring and fall. In spring, females were available and mature but few acceptable olives were available for oviposition (no new crop olives yet). In fall, females were present but many of the new crop olives were already infested. The food baited traps confirmed the presence of flies in the field even when very few were being captured in the pheromone-baited traps. Traps containing only water caught only two flies showing that water alone or the trap type in itself was not attractive to flies. PMID:24468560

  19. Organophosphate resistance in olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, populations in Greece and Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Skouras, Panagiotis J; Margaritopoulos, John T; Seraphides, Nicos A; Ioannides, Ioannis M; Kakani, Evi G; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D; Tsitsipis, John A

    2007-01-01

    The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most important pest of olives in countries around the Mediterranean basin. Its control has been based mostly on bait sprays with organophosphate insecticides (usually dimethoate or fenthion) for about 40 years. In the present study, the resistance status of olive fruit fly populations to dimethoate was examined in Greece and Cyprus over 2 years. Thirty-one populations from various regions of Greece, nine from Cyprus and one laboratory susceptible strain, which served as a control, were assayed by topical application of dimethoate. Considerable variation in the resistance levels to dimethoate was recorded in the populations of B. oleae, with resistance ratios ranging from 6.3 to 64.4 (ED(50) values 12.5-128.7 ng dimethoate per insect). The highest resistance ratios were found in populations from Crete, and the lowest in those from Cyprus. This variation could be attributed to different selection pressures from insecticidal applications among populations from the various regions. Migration of resistant genotypes, either autonomous or via commerce, may also be involved. PMID:17103369

  20. Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology of Olea europaea (Olive)

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, Muhammad Ali; Khan, Afsar; Hanif, Muhammad; Farooq, Umar; Perveen, Shagufta

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the Review. To grasp the fragmented information available on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Olea europaea to explore its therapeutic potential and future research opportunities. Material and Methods. All the available information on O. europaea was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, Scirus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science) and a library search. Results. Ethnomedical uses of O. europaea are recorded throughout the world where it has been used to treat various ailments. Phytochemical research had led to the isolation of flavonoids, secoiridoids, iridoids, flavanones, biophenols, triterpenes, benzoic acid derivatives, isochromans, and other classes of secondary metabolites from O. europaea. The plant materials and isolated components have shown a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities like antidiabetic, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihypertensive, anticancer, antihyperglycemic, antinociceptive, gastroprotective, and wound healing activities. Conclusions. O. europaea emerged as a good source of traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The outcomes of phytochemical and pharmacological studies reported in this review will further expand its existing therapeutic potential and provide a convincing support to its future clinical use in modern medicine. PMID:25802541

  1. Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology of Olea europaea (Olive).

    PubMed

    Hashmi, Muhammad Ali; Khan, Afsar; Hanif, Muhammad; Farooq, Umar; Perveen, Shagufta

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the Review. To grasp the fragmented information available on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Olea europaea to explore its therapeutic potential and future research opportunities. Material and Methods. All the available information on O. europaea was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, Scirus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science) and a library search. Results. Ethnomedical uses of O. europaea are recorded throughout the world where it has been used to treat various ailments. Phytochemical research had led to the isolation of flavonoids, secoiridoids, iridoids, flavanones, biophenols, triterpenes, benzoic acid derivatives, isochromans, and other classes of secondary metabolites from O. europaea. The plant materials and isolated components have shown a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities like antidiabetic, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihypertensive, anticancer, antihyperglycemic, antinociceptive, gastroprotective, and wound healing activities. Conclusions. O. europaea emerged as a good source of traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The outcomes of phytochemical and pharmacological studies reported in this review will further expand its existing therapeutic potential and provide a convincing support to its future clinical use in modern medicine. PMID:25802541

  2. 454 Pyrosequencing of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Transcriptome in Response to Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Bazakos, Christos; Manioudaki, Maria E.; Sarropoulou, Elena; Spano, Thodhoraq; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the most important crops in the Mediterranean region. The expansion of cultivation in areas irrigated with low quality and saline water has negative effects on growth and productivity however the investigation of the molecular basis of salt tolerance in olive trees has been only recently initiated. To this end, we investigated the molecular response of cultivar Kalamon to salinity stress using next-generation sequencing technology to explore the transcriptome profile of olive leaves and roots and identify differentially expressed genes that are related to salt tolerance response. Out of 291,958 obtained trimmed reads, 28,270 unique transcripts were identified of which 35% are annotated, a percentage that is comparable to similar reports on non-model plants. Among the 1,624 clusters in roots that comprise more than one read, 24 were differentially expressed comprising 9 down- and 15 up-regulated genes. Respectively, inleaves, among the 2,642 clusters, 70 were identified as differentially expressed, with 14 down- and 56 up-regulated genes. Using next-generation sequencing technology we were able to identify salt-response-related transcripts. Furthermore we provide an annotated transcriptome of olive as well as expression data, which are both significant tools for further molecular studies in olive. PMID:26576008

  3. Cardiac and Vascular Synergic Protective Effect of Olea europea L. Leaves and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Flower Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Micucci, Matteo; Malaguti, Marco; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Aldini, Rita; Angeletti, Andrea; Chiarini, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta; Hrelia, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the cardiovascular effects of an Olea europea L. leaf extract (OEE), of a Hibiscus sabdariffa L. flower extract (HSE), and of their 13?:?2?w/w mixture in order to assess their cardiac and vascular activity. Both extracts were fully characterized in their bioactive compounds by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The study was performed using primary vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effect of the extracts and their mixture and isolated guinea-pig left and right atria and aorta to evaluate the inotropic and chronotropic activities and vasorelaxant properties. In cultured HUVECs, OEE and HSE reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and improved cell viability, following oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner. OEE and HSE exerted negative inotropic and vasorelaxant effects without any chronotropic property. Interestingly, the mixture exerted higher cytoprotective effects and antioxidant activities. Moreover, the mixture exerted an inotropic effect similar to each single extract, while it revealed an intrinsic negative chronotropic activity different from the single extract; its relaxant activity was higher than that of each single extract. In conclusion OEE and HSE mixture has a good potential for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical application, thanks to the synergistic effects of the single phytochemicals. PMID:26180582

  4. Cardiac and Vascular Synergic Protective Effect of Olea europea L. Leaves and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Flower Extracts.

    PubMed

    Micucci, Matteo; Malaguti, Marco; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Aldini, Rita; Angeletti, Andrea; Chiarini, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta; Hrelia, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the cardiovascular effects of an Olea europea L. leaf extract (OEE), of a Hibiscus sabdariffa L. flower extract (HSE), and of their 13?:?2?w/w mixture in order to assess their cardiac and vascular activity. Both extracts were fully characterized in their bioactive compounds by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The study was performed using primary vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effect of the extracts and their mixture and isolated guinea-pig left and right atria and aorta to evaluate the inotropic and chronotropic activities and vasorelaxant properties. In cultured HUVECs, OEE and HSE reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and improved cell viability, following oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner. OEE and HSE exerted negative inotropic and vasorelaxant effects without any chronotropic property. Interestingly, the mixture exerted higher cytoprotective effects and antioxidant activities. Moreover, the mixture exerted an inotropic effect similar to each single extract, while it revealed an intrinsic negative chronotropic activity different from the single extract; its relaxant activity was higher than that of each single extract. In conclusion OEE and HSE mixture has a good potential for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical application, thanks to the synergistic effects of the single phytochemicals. PMID:26180582

  5. Identification of new polymorphic regions and differentiation of cultivated olives (Olea europaea L.) through plastome sequence comparison

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The cultivated olive (Olea europaea L.) is the most agriculturally important species of the Oleaceae family. Although many studies have been performed on plastid polymorphisms to evaluate taxonomy, phylogeny and phylogeography of Olea subspecies, only few polymorphic regions discriminating among the agronomically and economically important olive cultivars have been identified. The objective of this study was to sequence the entire plastome of olive and analyze many potential polymorphic regions to develop new inter-cultivar genetic markers. Results The complete plastid genome of the olive cultivar Frantoio was determined by direct sequence analysis using universal and novel PCR primers designed to amplify all overlapping regions. The chloroplast genome of the olive has an organisation and gene order that is conserved among numerous Angiosperm species and do not contain any of the inversions, gene duplications, insertions, inverted repeat expansions and gene/intron losses that have been found in the chloroplast genomes of the genera Jasminum and Menodora, from the same family as Olea. The annotated sequence was used to evaluate the content of coding genes, the extent, and distribution of repeated and long dispersed sequences and the nucleotide composition pattern. These analyses provided essential information for structural, functional and comparative genomic studies in olive plastids. Furthermore, the alignment of the olive plastome sequence to those of other varieties and species identified 30 new organellar polymorphisms within the cultivated olive. Conclusions In addition to identifying mutations that may play a functional role in modifying the metabolism and adaptation of olive cultivars, the new chloroplast markers represent a valuable tool to assess the level of olive intercultivar plastome variation for use in population genetic analysis, phylogenesis, cultivar characterisation and DNA food tracking. PMID:20868482

  6. Olive Volatiles from Portuguese Cultivars Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana: Role in Oviposition Preference of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Cunha, Sara C.; Baptista, Paula; Pereira, José Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), a serious threat to the olive crop worldwide, displays ovipositon preference for some olive cultivars but the causes are still unclear. In the present work, three Portuguese olive cultivars with different susceptibilities to olive fly (Cobrançosa, Madural, and Verdeal Transmontana) were studied, aiming to determine if the olive volatiles are implicated in this interaction. Olive volatiles were assessed by SPME-GC-MS in the three cultivars during maturation process to observe possible correlations with olive fly infestation levels. Overall, 34 volatiles were identified in the olives, from 7 chemical classes (alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, ketones, sesquiterpenes, and terpenes). Generally, total volatile amounts decrease during maturation but toluene, the main compound, increased in all cultivars, particularly in those with higher susceptibility to olive fly. Sesquiterpenes also raised, mainly ?-copaene. Toluene and ?-copaene, recognized oviposition promoters to olive fly, were correlated with the infestation level of cvs. Madural and Verdeal Trasnmontana (intermediate and highly susceptible cultivars respectively), while no correlations were established with cv. Cobrançosa (less susceptible). No volatiles with inverse correlation were observed. Volatile composition of olives may be a decisive factor in the olive fly choice to oviposit and this could be the basis for the development of new control strategies for this pest. PMID:25985460

  7. Olive Volatiles from Portuguese Cultivars Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana: Role in Oviposition Preference of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Cunha, Sara C; Baptista, Paula; Pereira, José Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), a serious threat to the olive crop worldwide, displays ovipositon preference for some olive cultivars but the causes are still unclear. In the present work, three Portuguese olive cultivars with different susceptibilities to olive fly (Cobrançosa, Madural, and Verdeal Transmontana) were studied, aiming to determine if the olive volatiles are implicated in this interaction. Olive volatiles were assessed by SPME-GC-MS in the three cultivars during maturation process to observe possible correlations with olive fly infestation levels. Overall, 34 volatiles were identified in the olives, from 7 chemical classes (alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, ketones, sesquiterpenes, and terpenes). Generally, total volatile amounts decrease during maturation but toluene, the main compound, increased in all cultivars, particularly in those with higher susceptibility to olive fly. Sesquiterpenes also raised, mainly ?-copaene. Toluene and ?-copaene, recognized oviposition promoters to olive fly, were correlated with the infestation level of cvs. Madural and Verdeal Trasnmontana (intermediate and highly susceptible cultivars respectively), while no correlations were established with cv. Cobrançosa (less susceptible). No volatiles with inverse correlation were observed. Volatile composition of olives may be a decisive factor in the olive fly choice to oviposit and this could be the basis for the development of new control strategies for this pest. PMID:25985460

  8. The Bactrocera oleae genome: localization of nine genes on the polytene chromosomes of the olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Drosopoulou, Elena; Nakou, Ifigeneia; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope

    2014-10-01

    Four homologous and five heterologous gene-specific sequences have been mapped by in situ hybridization on the salivary gland polytene chromosomes of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae. The nine genes were dispersed on four of the five autosomal chromosomes, thus enriching the available set of chromosome landmarks for this major agricultural pest. Present data further supports the proposed chromosome homologies among B. oleae, Ceratitis capitata, and Drosophila melanogaster and the idea of the conservation of chromosomal element identity throughout dipteran evolution. PMID:25723592

  9. Analysis of the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae Transcriptome and Phylogenetic Classification of the Major Detoxification Gene Families.

    PubMed

    Pavlidi, Nena; Dermauw, Wannes; Rombauts, Stephane; Chrisargiris, Antonis; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2013-01-01

    The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae has a unique ability to cope with olive flesh, and is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. Its control has been largely based on the use of chemical insecticides, however, the selection of insecticide resistance against several insecticides has evolved. The study of detoxification mechanisms, which allow the olive fruit fly to defend against insecticides, and/or phytotoxins possibly present in the mesocarp, has been hampered by the lack of genomic information in this species. In the NCBI database less than 1,000 nucleotide sequences have been deposited, with less than 10 detoxification gene homologues in total. We used 454 pyrosequencing to produce, for the first time, a large transcriptome dataset for B. oleae. A total of 482,790 reads were assembled into 14,204 contigs. More than 60% of those contigs (8,630) were larger than 500 base pairs, and almost half of them matched with genes of the order of the Diptera. Analysis of the Gene Ontology (GO) distribution of unique contigs, suggests that, compared to other insects, the assembly is broadly representative for the B. oleae transcriptome. Furthermore, the transcriptome was found to contain 55 P450, 43 GST-, 15 CCE- and 18 ABC transporter-genes. Several of those detoxification genes, may putatively be involved in the ability of the olive fruit fly to deal with xenobiotics, such as plant phytotoxins and insecticides. In summary, our study has generated new data and genomic resources, which will substantially facilitate molecular studies in B. oleae, including elucidation of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic, as well as other important aspects of olive fruit fly biology. PMID:23824998

  10. Analysis of the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae Transcriptome and Phylogenetic Classification of the Major Detoxification Gene Families

    PubMed Central

    Rombauts, Stephane; Chrisargiris, Antonis; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

    2013-01-01

    The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae has a unique ability to cope with olive flesh, and is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. Its control has been largely based on the use of chemical insecticides, however, the selection of insecticide resistance against several insecticides has evolved. The study of detoxification mechanisms, which allow the olive fruit fly to defend against insecticides, and/or phytotoxins possibly present in the mesocarp, has been hampered by the lack of genomic information in this species. In the NCBI database less than 1,000 nucleotide sequences have been deposited, with less than 10 detoxification gene homologues in total. We used 454 pyrosequencing to produce, for the first time, a large transcriptome dataset for B. oleae. A total of 482,790 reads were assembled into 14,204 contigs. More than 60% of those contigs (8,630) were larger than 500 base pairs, and almost half of them matched with genes of the order of the Diptera. Analysis of the Gene Ontology (GO) distribution of unique contigs, suggests that, compared to other insects, the assembly is broadly representative for the B. oleae transcriptome. Furthermore, the transcriptome was found to contain 55 P450, 43 GST-, 15 CCE- and 18 ABC transporter-genes. Several of those detoxification genes, may putatively be involved in the ability of the olive fruit fly to deal with xenobiotics, such as plant phytotoxins and insecticides. In summary, our study has generated new data and genomic resources, which will substantially facilitate molecular studies in B. oleae, including elucidation of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic, as well as other important aspects of olive fruit fly biology. PMID:23824998

  11. Agistemus aimogastaensis sp. n. (Acari, Actinedida, Stigmaeidae), a recently discovered predator of eriophyid mites Aceria oleae and Oxycenus maxwelli, in olive orchards in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Leiva, Sergio; Fernandez, Nestor; Theron, Pieter; Rollard, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Agistemus aimogastaensis, is described with the aid of optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy. This mite is an important predator of two eriophyid mites (Aceria oleae and Oxycenus maxwelli) in olive orchards (Olea europaea, variety Arauco) in La Rioja Province. The problems related to eriophyids in olive orchards in Argentina are highlighted and photos of the damage on leaves and fruit are included. PMID:23825448

  12. Acetobacter tropicalis is a major symbiont of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae).

    PubMed

    Kounatidis, Ilias; Crotti, Elena; Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Sacchi, Luciano; Rizzi, Aurora; Chouaia, Bessem; Bandi, Claudio; Alma, Alberto; Daffonchio, Daniele; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2009-05-01

    Following cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques, we investigated the microbiota associated with Bactrocera oleae, one of the major agricultural pests in olive-producing countries. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene libraries and ultrastructural analyses revealed the presence of several bacterial taxa associated with this insect, among which Acetobacter tropicalis was predominant. The recent increased detection of acetic acid bacteria as symbionts of other insect model organisms, such as Anopheles stephensi (G. Favia et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:9047-9051, 2007) or Drosophila melanogaster (C. R. Cox and M. S. Gilmore, Infect. Immun. 75:1565-1576, 2007), prompted us to investigate the association established between A. tropicalis and B. oleae. Using an A. tropicalis-specific PCR assay, the symbiont was detected in all insects tested originating from laboratory stocks or field-collected from different locations in Greece. This acetic acid bacterium was successfully established in cell-free medium, and typing analyses, carried out on a collection of isolates, revealed that different A. tropicalis strains are present in fly populations. The capability to colonize and lodge in the digestive system of both larvae and adults and in Malpighian tubules of adults was demonstrated by using a strain labeled with a green fluorescent protein. PMID:19304818

  13. In vitro propagation of olive (Olea europaea L.) by nodal segmentation of elongated shoots.

    PubMed

    Lambardi, Maurizio; Ozudogru, Elif Aylin; Roncasaglia, Romano

    2013-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.), long-living, ever-green fruit tree of the Old World, has been part of a traditional landscape in the Mediterranean area for centuries. Both the fruits consumed after processing and the oil extracted from the fruits are among the main components of the Mediterranean diet, widely used for salads and cooking, as well as for preserving other food. Documentations show that the ancient use of this beautiful tree also includes lamp fuel production, wool treatment, soap production, medicine, and cosmetics. However, unlike the majority of the fruit species, olive propagation is still a laborious practice. As regards traditional propagation, rooting of cuttings and grafting stem segments onto rootstocks are possible, former being achieved only when the cuttings are collected in specific periods (spring or beginning of autumn), and latter only when skilled grafters are available. In both the cases, performance of the cultivars varies considerably. The regeneration of whole plants from ovules, on the other hand, is used only occasionally. Micropropagation of olive is not easy mainly due to explant oxidation, difficulties in explant disinfection, and labor-oriented establishment of in vitro shoot cultures. However today, the progress in micropropagation technology has made available the complete protocols for several Mediterranean cultivars. This chapter describes a micropropagation protocol based on the segmentation of nodal segments obtained from elongated shoots. PMID:23179688

  14. Soil fluoride spiking effects on olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali).

    PubMed

    Zouari, M; Ben Ahmed, C; Fourati, R; Delmail, D; Ben Rouina, B; Labrousse, P; Ben Abdallah, F

    2014-10-01

    A pot experiment under open air conditions was carried out to investigate the uptake, accumulation and toxicity effects of fluoride in olive trees (Olea europaea L.) grown in a soil spiked with inorganic sodium fluoride (NaF). Six different levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100mM NaF) of soil spiking were applied through NaF to irrigation water. At the end of the experiment, total fluoride content in soil was 20 and 1770mgFkg(-1) soil in control and 100mM NaF treatments, respectively. The comparative distribution of fluoride partitioning among the different olive tree parts showed that the roots accumulated the most fluoride and olive fruits were minimally affected by soil NaF spiking as they had the lowest fluoride content. In fact, total fluoride concentration varied between 12 and 1070µgFg(-1) in roots, between 9 and 570µgFg(-1) in shoots, between 12 and 290µgFg(-1) in leaves, and between 10 and 29µgFg(-1) in fruits, respectively for control and 100mM NaF treatments. Indeed, the fluoride accumulation pattern showed the following distribution: roots>shoots>leaves>fruits. On the other hand, fluoride toxicity symptoms such as leaf necrosis and leaf drop appeared only in highly spiked soils (60, 80 and 100mM NaF). PMID:25042248

  15. Somatic Embryogenesis in Olive (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris).

    PubMed

    Rugini, Eddo; Silvestri, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Protocols for olive somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos and mature tissues have been described for both Olea europaea sub. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris. Immature zygotic embryos (no more than 75 days old), used after fruit collection or stored at 12-14 °C for 2-3 months, are the best responsive explants and very slightly genotype dependent, and one single protocol can be effective for a wide range of genotypes. On the contrary, protocols for mature zygotic embryos and for mature tissue of cultivars are often genotype specific, so that they may require many adjustments according to genotypes. The use of thidiazuron and cefotaxime seems to be an important trigger for induction phase particularly for tissues derived from cultivars. Up to now, however, the application of this technique for large-scale propagation is hampered also by the low rate of embryo germination; it proves nonetheless very useful for genetic improvement. PMID:26619870

  16. Human absorption and metabolism of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol ingested as olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract.

    PubMed

    de Bock, Martin; Thorstensen, Eric B; Derraik, José G B; Henderson, Harold V; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2013-11-01

    Phenolic compounds derived from the olive plant (Olea europaea L.), particularly hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, have many beneficial effects in vitro. Olive leaves are the richest source of olive phenolic compounds, and olive leaf extract (OLE) is now a popular nutraceutical taken either as liquid or capsules. To quantify the bioavailability and metabolism of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol when taken as OLE, nine volunteers (five males) aged 42.8 ± 7.4 years were randomized to receive either capsulated or liquid OLE as a single lower (51.1 mg oleuropein, 9.7 mg hydroxytyrosol) or higher (76.6 mg oleuropein, 14.5 mg hydroxytyrosol) dose, and then the opposite strength (but same formulation) a week later. Plasma and urine samples were collected at fixed intervals for 24 h post-ingestion. Phenolic content was analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Conjugated metabolites of hydroxytyrosol were the primary metabolites recovered in plasma and urine after OLE ingestion. Peak oleuropein concentrations in plasma were greater following ingestion of liquid than capsule preparations (0.47 versus 2.74 ng/mL; p = 0.004), but no such effect was observed for peak concentrations of conjugated (sulfated and glucuronidated) hydroxytyrosol (p = 0.94). However, the latter peak was reached earlier with liquid preparation (93 versus 64 min; p = 0.031). There was a gender effect on the bioavailability of phenolic compounds, with males displaying greater plasma area under the curve for conjugated hydroxytyrosol (11,600 versus 2550 ng/mL; p = 0.048). All conjugated hydroxytyrosol metabolites were recovered in the urine within 8 h. There was wide inter-individual variation. OLE effectively delivers oleuropein and hydroxytrosol metabolites to plasma in humans. PMID:23766098

  17. Symbiotic bacteria enable olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) to exploit intractable sources of nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Ben-Yosef, M; Pasternak, Z; Jurkevitch, E; Yuval, B

    2014-12-01

    Insects are often associated with symbiotic micro-organisms, which allow them to utilize nutritionally marginal diets. Adult fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) associate with extracellular bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae) that inhabit their digestive tract. These flies obtain nutrients by foraging for plant exudates, honeydew and bird droppings scattered on leaves and fruit—a nutritional niche which offers ample amounts of carbohydrates, but low quantities of available nitrogen. We identified the bacteria resident in the gut of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae)—a worldwide pest of olives and examined their contribution to nitrogen metabolism in the adult insect. By suppressing bacteria in the gut and monitoring female fecundity, we demonstrate that bacteria contribute essential amino acids and metabolize urea into an available nitrogen source for the fly, thus significantly elevating egg production. In an ecological context, bacteria were found to be beneficial to females subsisting on bird droppings, but not on honeydew—two natural food sources. We suggest that a main gut bacterium (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola) forms an inseparable, essential part of this fly's nutritional ecology. The evolution of this symbiosis has allowed adult flies to utilize food substrates which are low or imbalanced in assimilable nitrogen and thereby to overcome the nitrogen limitations of their natural diet. PMID:25403559

  18. Nutrition Metabolism Plays an Important Role in the Alternate Bearing of the Olive Tree (Olea europaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Turktas, Mine; Inal, Behcet; Okay, Sezer; Erkilic, Emine Gulden; Dundar, Ekrem; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel; Unver, Turgay

    2013-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits) are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between ”on year” and “off year” leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree. PMID:23555820

  19. Classical biological control of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera olea (Diptera: Tephritidae), using the exotic parasitoie, Psyttalia lounsburyi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in France.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is an important pest of olives which is worldwide distributed and responsible for economic losses of approximately US$800 million per year. Since the 2000s both economical and environmental concerns have raised interested in clas...

  20. Effects of fly attack (Bactrocera oleae) on the phenolic profile and selected chemical parameters of olive oil.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana Maria; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Bendini, Alessandra; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Del Carlo, Michele; Compagnone, Dario; Cichelli, Angelo

    2008-06-25

    The phenolic fraction of virgin olive oil influences both its quality and oxidative stability. One of the principal threats of the quality of olive fruit is the olive fly ( Bactrocera oleae) as it alters the chemical composition. The attack of this olive pest has been studied in order to evaluate its influence on the quality of virgin olive oil (free acidity, peroxide value, fatty acid composition, water content, oxidative stability, phenols, and antioxidant power of phenolic fraction). The study was performed using several virgin olive oils obtained from olives with different degrees of fly infestation. They were acquired in different Italian industrial mills from the Abruzzo region. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of phenolic profiles were performed by capillary electrophoresis-diode array detection, and electrochemical evaluation of the antioxidant power of the phenolic fraction was also carried out. These analyses demonstrated that the degree of fly attack was positively correlated with free acidity ( r = 0.77, p < 0.05) and oxidized products ( r = 0.58, p < 0.05), and negatively related to the oxidative stability index ( r = -0.54, p < 0.05) and phenolic content ( r = -0.50, p < 0.05), mainly with secoiridoid compounds. However, it has been confirmed that the phenolic fraction of olive oil depends on several parameters and that a clear correlation does not exist between the percentages of fly attack and phenolic content. PMID:18522402

  1. Domestication of olive fly through a multi-regional host shift to cultivated olives: comparative dating using complete mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Nardi, F; Carapelli, A; Boore, J L; Roderick, G K; Dallai, R; Frati, F

    2010-11-01

    The evolutionary history of the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, was reconstructed in a phylogenetic and coalescent framework using full mitochondrial genome data from 21 individuals covering the entire worldwide distribution of the species. Special attention was given to reconstructing the timing of the processes under study. The early subdivision of the olive fly reflects the Quaternary differentiation between Olea europea subsp. europea in the Mediterranean area and the two lineages of Olea europea subsp. cuspidata in Africa and Asia, pointing to an early and close association between the olive fly and its host. The geographic structure and timing of olive fly differentiation in the Mediterranean indicates a clear connection with the post-glacial recolonization of wild olives in the area, and is irreconcilable with the early historical process of domestication and spread of the cultivated olive from its Levantine origin. Therefore, we suggest an early co-history of the olive fly with its wild host during the Quaternary and post-glacial periods and a multi-regional shift of olive flies to cultivated olives as these cultivars gradually replaced wild olives in historical times. PMID:20723608

  2. Metabarcoding Analysis of Fungal Diversity in the Phyllosphere and Carposphere of Olive (Olea europaea).

    PubMed

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Li Destri Nicosia, Maria Giulia; Cacciola, Santa Olga; Droby, Samir; Schena, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    The fungal diversity associated with leaves, flowers and fruits of olive (Olea europaea) was investigated in different phenological stages (May, June, October and December) using an implemented metabarcoding approach. It consisted of the 454 pyrosequencing of the fungal ITS2 region and the subsequent phylogenetic analysis of relevant genera along with validated reference sequences. Most sequences were identified up to the species level or were associated with a restricted number of related taxa enabling supported speculations regarding their biological role. Analyses revealed a rich fungal community with 195 different OTUs. Ascomycota was the dominating phyla representing 93.6% of the total number of detected sequences followed by unidentified fungi (3.6%) and Basidiomycota (2.8%). A higher level of diversity was revealed for leaves compared to flowers and fruits. Among plant pathogens the genus Colletotrichum represented by three species (C. godetiae syn. C. clavatum, C. acutatum s.s and C. karstii) was the most abundant on ripe fruits but it was also detected in other organs. Pseudocercospora cladosporioides was detected with a high frequency in all leaf samples and to a less extent in ripe fruits. A much lower relative frequency was revealed for Spilocaea oleagina and for other putative pathogens including Fusarium spp., Neofusicoccum spp., and Alternaria spp. Among non-pathogen taxa, Aureobasidium pullulans, the species complex of Cladosporium cladosporioides and Devriesia spp. were the most represented. This study highlights the existence of a complex fungal consortium including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on olive productions. PMID:26132745

  3. Metabarcoding Analysis of Fungal Diversity in the Phyllosphere and Carposphere of Olive (Olea europaea)

    PubMed Central

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Li Destri Nicosia, Maria Giulia; Cacciola, Santa Olga; Droby, Samir; Schena, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    The fungal diversity associated with leaves, flowers and fruits of olive (Olea europaea) was investigated in different phenological stages (May, June, October and December) using an implemented metabarcoding approach. It consisted of the 454 pyrosequencing of the fungal ITS2 region and the subsequent phylogenetic analysis of relevant genera along with validated reference sequences. Most sequences were identified up to the species level or were associated with a restricted number of related taxa enabling supported speculations regarding their biological role. Analyses revealed a rich fungal community with 195 different OTUs. Ascomycota was the dominating phyla representing 93.6% of the total number of detected sequences followed by unidentified fungi (3.6%) and Basidiomycota (2.8%). A higher level of diversity was revealed for leaves compared to flowers and fruits. Among plant pathogens the genus Colletotrichum represented by three species (C. godetiae syn. C. clavatum, C. acutatum s.s and C. karstii) was the most abundant on ripe fruits but it was also detected in other organs. Pseudocercospora cladosporioides was detected with a high frequency in all leaf samples and to a less extent in ripe fruits. A much lower relative frequency was revealed for Spilocaea oleagina and for other putative pathogens including Fusarium spp., Neofusicoccum spp., and Alternaria spp. Among non-pathogen taxa, Aureobasidium pullulans, the species complex of Cladosporium cladosporioides and Devriesia spp. were the most represented. This study highlights the existence of a complex fungal consortium including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on olive productions. PMID:26132745

  4. Molecular characterization of genetic diversity, structure, and differentiation in the olive (Olea europaea L.) germplasm collection of the united states department of agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifteen microsatellite loci were used to genotype 108 accessions of cultivated olive, Olea europaea L. ssp. europaea var. europaea, and eight of O. europaea L. ssp. cuspidata (Wall. ex G. Don) Ciferri from the germplasm collection of the United States Department of Agriculture in Davis, California. ...

  5. Olive Fruit Fly (Bactrocera oleae) Population Dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean: Influence of Exogenous Uncertainty on a Monophagous Frugivorous Insect

    PubMed Central

    Ordano, Mariano; Engelhard, Izhar; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Nemny-Lavy, Esther; Blum, Moshe; Yasin, Sami; Lensky, Itamar M.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.; Nestel, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite of the economic importance of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the large amount of biological and ecological studies on the insect, the factors driving its population dynamics (i.e., population persistence and regulation) had not been analytically investigated until the present study. Specifically, our study investigated the autoregressive process of the olive fly populations, and the joint role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors molding the population dynamics of the insect. Accounting for endogenous dynamics and the influences of exogenous factors such as olive grove temperature, the North Atlantic Oscillation and the presence of potential host fruit, we modeled olive fly populations in five locations in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Our models indicate that the rate of population change is mainly shaped by first and higher order non-monotonic, endogenous dynamics (i.e., density-dependent population feedback). The olive grove temperature was the main exogenous driver, while the North Atlantic Oscillation and fruit availability acted as significant exogenous factors in one of the five populations. Seasonal influences were also relevant for three of the populations. In spite of exogenous effects, the rate of population change was fairly stable along time. We propose that a special reproductive mechanism, such as reproductive quiescence, allows populations of monophagous fruit flies such as the olive fly to remain stable. Further, we discuss how weather factors could impinge constraints on the population dynamics at the local level. Particularly, local temperature dynamics could provide forecasting cues for management guidelines. Jointly, our results advocate for establishing monitoring programs and for a major focus of research on the relationship between life history traits and populations dynamics. PMID:26010332

  6. Psyttalia ponerophaga (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as a potential biological control agent of olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California.

    PubMed

    Sime, K R; Daane, K M; Kirk, A; Andrews, J W; Johnson, M W; Messing, R H

    2007-06-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is a newly invasive, significant threat to California's olive industry. As part of a classical biological control programme, Psyttalia ponerophaga (Silvestri) was imported to California from Pakistan and evaluated in quarantine. Biological parameters that would improve rearing and field-release protocols and permit comparisons to other olive fruit fly biological control agents were measured. Potential barriers to the successful establishment of P. ponerophaga, including the geographic origins of parasitoid and pest populations and constraints imposed by fruit size, were also evaluated as part of this investigation. Under insectary conditions, all larval stages except neonates were acceptable hosts. Provided a choice of host ages, the parasitoids' host-searching and oviposition preferences were a positive function of host age, with most offspring reared from hosts attacked as third instars. Immature developmental time was a negative function of tested temperatures, ranging from 25.5 to 12.4 days at 22 and 30 degrees C, respectively. Evaluation of adult longevity, at constant temperatures ranging from 15 to 34 degrees C, showed that P. ponerophaga had a broad tolerance of temperature, living from 3 to 34 days at 34 and 15 degrees C, respectively. Lifetime fecundity was 18.7 +/- 2.8 adult offspring per female, with most eggs deposited within 12 days after adult eclosion. Olive size affected parasitoid performance, with lower parasitism levels on hosts feeding in larger olives. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to field manipulation and selection of parasitoid species for olive fruit fly biological control in California and worldwide. PMID:17524155

  7. Olive Fruit Fly (Bactrocera oleae) Population Dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean: Influence of Exogenous Uncertainty on a Monophagous Frugivorous Insect.

    PubMed

    Ordano, Mariano; Engelhard, Izhar; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Nemny-Lavy, Esther; Blum, Moshe; Yasin, Sami; Lensky, Itamar M; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Nestel, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite of the economic importance of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the large amount of biological and ecological studies on the insect, the factors driving its population dynamics (i.e., population persistence and regulation) had not been analytically investigated until the present study. Specifically, our study investigated the autoregressive process of the olive fly populations, and the joint role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors molding the population dynamics of the insect. Accounting for endogenous dynamics and the influences of exogenous factors such as olive grove temperature, the North Atlantic Oscillation and the presence of potential host fruit, we modeled olive fly populations in five locations in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Our models indicate that the rate of population change is mainly shaped by first and higher order non-monotonic, endogenous dynamics (i.e., density-dependent population feedback). The olive grove temperature was the main exogenous driver, while the North Atlantic Oscillation and fruit availability acted as significant exogenous factors in one of the five populations. Seasonal influences were also relevant for three of the populations. In spite of exogenous effects, the rate of population change was fairly stable along time. We propose that a special reproductive mechanism, such as reproductive quiescence, allows populations of monophagous fruit flies such as the olive fly to remain stable. Further, we discuss how weather factors could impinge constraints on the population dynamics at the local level. Particularly, local temperature dynamics could provide forecasting cues for management guidelines. Jointly, our results advocate for establishing monitoring programs and for a major focus of research on the relationship between life history traits and populations dynamics. PMID:26010332

  8. Immunoproteomic tools are used to identify masked allergens: Ole e 12, an allergenic isoflavone reductase from olive (Olea europaea) pollen.

    PubMed

    Castro, Lourdes; Crespo, Jesús F; Rodríguez, Julia; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Villalba, Mayte

    2015-12-01

    Proteins performing important biochemical activities in the olive tree (Olea europaea) pollen have been identified as allergens. One novel 37-kDa protein seems to be associated to the IgE-binding profile of a group of patients suffering allergy to peach and olive pollen. Three previously described olive pollen allergens exhibit very similar molecular mass. Our objective was to identify this allergen by using immunoproteomic approaches. After 2D-electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, peptide sequences from several IgE-binding spots, allowed identifying this new allergen, as well as cloning and DNA sequencing of the corresponding gene. The allergen, named Ole e 12, is a polymorphic isoflavone reductase-like protein of 308 amino acids showing 80% and 74% identity with birch and pear allergens, Bet v 6 and Pyr c 5, respectively. A prevalence of 33% in the selected population is in contrast to 4%-10% in groups of subjects suffering from pollinosis. Recombinant allergen was produced in Escherichia coli, and deeply characterised. Immunoblotting and ELISA detection as well as inhibition experiments were performed with polyclonal antisera and allergic patients' sera. The recombinant allergen retains the IgE reactivity of its natural counterpart. Close structural and immunological relationships between members of this protein family were supported by their IgG recognition in vegetable species. In summary, Ole e 12 is a minor olive pollen allergen, which gains relevance in patients allergic to peach with olive pollinosis. Proteomic approaches used to analyse this allergen provide useful tools to identify hidden allergens, relevant for several allergic populations and thus complete allergenic panels. PMID:26391288

  9. Evaluation of the impact on entomocoenosis of active agents allowed in organic olive farming against Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin, 1790).

    PubMed

    Iannotta, Nino; Belfiore, Tiziana; Brandmayr, Pittro; Noce, Maria E; Scalercio, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    Several attempts for evaluating environmental impact of active agents allowed in organic olive farming against Bactrocera oleae have been made, but very few studies were performed contemporaneously on more than one of them. Insects were chosen as indicators because they are known to react very quickly to environmental perturbations, mainly at the community level. In fact, the coenosis is the functional unit interacting with biotic and abiotic environmental parameters. Seven taxa, known for their sensitivity to habitat alterations, were sampled and grouped in functional groups: predators and parasitoids, phytophagouses and pollinators. The coenotic balance between these two functional groups was analyzed. The study was carried out in an organic olive orchard in the municipality of Terranova da Sibari, Cosenza, Southern Italy. The tested active agents (Azadirachtin, Rotenone, Copper Oxychloride) were sprayed twice (end of September and middle October). During the treatments the population dynamics of all the taxa were knocked-down. No one tested compound seems to be harmless to the entomocoenosis, particularly on phytophagouses and pollinators. In truly organic farming it is necessary to provide natural refuge areas to beneficial insects (i.e. pest antagonists) in which no active agents are sprayed and alternative preys could be found. PMID:17763034

  10. Genome-wide identification of alternate bearing-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) in olive (Olea europaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alternate bearing is a widespread phenomenon among crop plants, defined as the tendency of certain fruit trees to produce a high-yield crop one year ("on-year"), followed by a low-yield or even no crop the following year ("off-year"). Several factors may affect the balance between such developmental phase-transition processes. Among them are the microRNA (miRNA), being gene-expression regulators that have been found to be involved as key determinants in several physiological processes. Results Six olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Ayvalik variety) small RNA libraries were constructed from fruits (ripe and unripe) and leaves (”on year” and ”off year” leaves in July and in November, respectively) and sequenced by high-throughput Illumina sequencing. The RNA was retrotranscribed and sequenced using the high-throughput Illumina platform. Bioinformatics analyses of 93,526,915 reads identified 135 conserved miRNA, belonging to 22 miRNA families in the olive. In addition, 38 putative novel miRNAs were discovered in the datasets. Expression of olive tree miRNAs varied greatly among the six libraries, indicating the contribution of diverse miRNA in balancing between reproductive and vegetative phases. Predicted targets of miRNA were categorized into 108 process ontology groups with significance abundance. Among those, potential alternate bearing-associated processes were found, such as development, hormone-mediated signaling and organ morphogenesis. The KEGG analyses revealed that the miRNA-targeted genes are involved in seven main pathways, belonging to carbohydrate metabolism and hormone signal-transduction pathways. Conclusion A comprehensive study on olive miRNA related to alternate bearing was performed. Regulation of miRNA under different developmental phases and tissues indicated that control of nutrition and hormone, together with flowering processes had a noteworthy impact on the olive tree alternate bearing. Our results also provide significant data on the miRNA-fruit development interaction and advance perspectives in the miRNA profile of the olive tree. PMID:23320600

  11. Feasibility of NIR Spectroscopy to detect olive fruit infested by Bactrocera oleae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly infestation is a significant problem for the milling process. In most cases, damage from insects is ‘hidden’, i.e. not visually detectable on the fruit surface. Consequently, traditional visual sorting techniques are generally inadequate for the detection and removal of olives with i...

  12. Novel qPCR systems for olive (Olea europaea L.) authentication in oils and food.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Gómez, Sonia; Busto, María D; Albillos, Silvia M; Ortega, Natividad

    2016-03-01

    The traceability of olive oil is an unresolved issue that remains a challenge. In this field, DNA-based techniques are very powerful tools for discrimination that are less negatively influenced by environmental conditions than other techniques. More specifically, quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) achieves a high degree of sensitivity, although the DNA that it can directly isolate from these oils presents drawbacks. Our study reports the analysis of eight systems, in order to determine their suitability for olive detection in oil and oil-derived foodstuffs. The eight systems were analyzed on the basis of their sensitivity and specificity in the qPCR assay, their relative sensitivity to olive DNA detection and DNA mixtures, their sensitivity and specificity to olive in vegetable oils and the detection of olive in commercial products. The results show that the PetN-PsbM system, designed in this study, is a suitable and reliable technique in relation to olive oil and olive ingredients in both food authentication and food safety processes. PMID:26471578

  13. ( Z)-9-tricosene identified in rectal gland extracts of Bactrocera oleae males: first evidence of a male-produced female attractant in olive fruit fly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpita, Adriano; Canale, Angelo; Raffaelli, Andrea; Saba, Alessandro; Benelli, Giovanni; Raspi, Alfio

    2012-01-01

    It is well-known that Bactrocera oleae (olive fruit fly) females attract conspecific males by using 1,7-dioxaspiro[5,5]undecane ( 1) as the main component of their sex pheromone, and that 1 is produced in the female rectal gland. Although some authors have claimed that B. oleae males also attract females, to date no male-produced female attractants have been found in this species. In this paper, we report the first identification of a substance unique to males and able to attract females. The findings of the study include the following: (1) females responded in a bioassay to hexane extracts obtained from rectal glands of 15-day-old B. oleae males, (2) the presence of ( Z)-9-tricosene ( 2) was consistently and unambiguously identified in these extracts using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry methods, (3) in preliminary bioactivity tests, low doses (equivalent to a few males) of chemically and stereoisomerically pure synthetic ( Z)-9-tricosene ( 2) attracted olive fruit fly females. Interestingly, compound 2, commonly called muscalure, is also a well-known component of the house fly ( Musca domestica) sex pheromone.

  14. (Z)-9-tricosene identified in rectal gland extracts of Bactrocera oleae males: first evidence of a male-produced female attractant in olive fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Carpita, Adriano; Canale, Angelo; Raffaelli, Andrea; Saba, Alessandro; Benelli, Giovanni; Raspi, Alfio

    2012-01-01

    It is well-known that Bactrocera oleae (olive fruit fly) females attract conspecific males by using 1,7-dioxaspiro[5,5]undecane (1) as the main component of their sex pheromone, and that 1 is produced in the female rectal gland. Although some authors have claimed that B. oleae males also attract females, to date no male-produced female attractants have been found in this species. In this paper, we report the first identification of a substance unique to males and able to attract females. The findings of the study include the following: (1) females responded in a bioassay to hexane extracts obtained from rectal glands of 15-day-old B. oleae males, (2) the presence of (Z)-9-tricosene (2) was consistently and unambiguously identified in these extracts using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry methods, (3) in preliminary bioactivity tests, low doses (equivalent to a few males) of chemically and stereoisomerically pure synthetic (Z)-9-tricosene (2) attracted olive fruit fly females. Interestingly, compound 2, commonly called muscalure, is also a well-known component of the house fly (Musca domestica) sex pheromone. PMID:22159636

  15. Assessment of susceptibility of olive cultivars to the Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin, 1790) and Camarosporium dalmaticum (Thüm.) Zachos & Tzav.-Klon. attacks in Calabria (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Iannotta, Nino; Noce, Maria E; Ripa, Vincenzo; Scalercio, Stefano; Vizzarri, Veronica

    2007-01-01

    Within the framework of research concerning the application of techniques alternative to chemical pesticides for control of parasites, the C.R.A. Experimental Institute for Olive Growing for many years has been performing a large investigation in order to detect sources of genetic resistance in olive germplasm. In the present study we observed the behavior related to the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) infestation and Camarosporium dalmaticum infection of ten olive cultivars farmed under the same agronomic and climatic conditions in Calabria, Southern Italy. The sampling and the data collecting were carried out in three different ripening times. The drupe amount of oleuropein and cyanidine was detected by laboratory analyses in order to verify a possible correlation between these molecules and the level of infestation/infection of the above-mentioned parasites. The obtained data were submitted to analysis of variance. In relation to the fungal infection the results displayed that cvs Tonda nera dolce showed the lowest susceptibility, while the cv Giarraffa turned out to be the most susceptible. The less susceptible cultivars to the phytophagous were Tonda nera dolce and Bhardi Tirana. Since the less susceptible cultivar to olive fly attacks are the same observed in relation to the susceptibility to olive fruit rot, it is suggested a relation between the olive fly infestation and the fungal infection. It suggests the utility to achieve these results both to transfer directly to the farmers' world and to emphasize ecosystem health and biodiversity conservation. PMID:17763035

  16. The efficacy of kaolin particle film on oil quality indices of olive trees (Olea europaea L.) cv 'Zard' grown under warm and semi-arid region of Iran.

    PubMed

    Khaleghi, Esmaeil; Arzani, Kazem; Moallemi, Norollah; Barzegar, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Kaolin particle film (0%, 3% and 6%; w/v), as an antitranspirant treatment, was applied to mature 'Zard' olive trees (Olea europaea L.). Olive oil was extracted from harvested fruit and fatty acid composition and other oil quality indices of the fruit assessed over crop seasons. Kaolin increased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, but decreased peroxide and iodine values, and UV absorbance extinction coefficients, of the oil. The highest palmitic acid was observed in the oil obtained from untreated trees (17%). Kaolin increased oleic acid up to 65% and 64% in the first and second crop seasons, respectively, but decreased linoleic and linolenic acid contents. Monounsaturated acids (65%) and oleic acid/linoleic acid ratios (4) were higher in oil obtained from kaolin treated than untreated trees. Therefore it can be expected that extracted olive oil from kaolin treated trees has a higher oxidative stability and shelf life than untreated trees. PMID:25053025

  17. Analyzing diurnal and age-related pheromone emission of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae by sequential SPME-GCMS analysis.

    PubMed

    Levi-Zada, Anat; Nestel, David; Fefer, Daniela; Nemni-Lavy, Esther; Deloya-Kahane, Inbal; David, Maayan

    2012-08-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), uses 1,7-dioxaspiro[5.5]undecane ("olean"), produced primarily by females, as a sex pheromone. We used sequential solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GCMS) analysis to show that female olive flies release about 1000 ng of pheromone at the onset of scotophase for several weeks, while males release about 1/100 as much during the first week after eclosion. The present research demonstrates details of employing SPME-GCMS with the partially known pheromone system of the olive fruit fly as a model for pheromone identification and diurnal release patterns in insects, especially fruit flies. The sequential SPME-GCMS method will readily allow detection and semi-quantification of semiochemicals released by insects in minute amounts throughout the diurnal cycle. PMID:22941675

  18. ReprOlive: a database with linked data for the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) reproductive transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Rosario; Zafra, Adoración; Seoane, Pedro; Castro, Antonio J; Guerrero-Fernández, Darío; Castillo-Castillo, Trinidad; Medina-García, Ana; Cánovas, Francisco M; Aldana-Montes, José F; Navas-Delgado, Ismael; Alché, Juan de Dios; Claros, M Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Plant reproductive transcriptomes have been analyzed in different species due to the agronomical and biotechnological importance of plant reproduction. Here we presented an olive tree reproductive transcriptome database with samples from pollen and pistil at different developmental stages, and leaf and root as control vegetative tissues http://reprolive.eez.csic.es). It was developed from 2,077,309 raw reads to 1,549 Sanger sequences. Using a pre-defined workflow based on open-source tools, sequences were pre-processed, assembled, mapped, and annotated with expression data, descriptions, GO terms, InterPro signatures, EC numbers, KEGG pathways, ORFs, and SSRs. Tentative transcripts (TTs) were also annotated with the corresponding orthologs in Arabidopsis thaliana from TAIR and RefSeq databases to enable Linked Data integration. It results in a reproductive transcriptome comprising 72,846 contigs with average length of 686 bp, of which 63,965 (87.8%) included at least one functional annotation, and 55,356 (75.9%) had an ortholog. A minimum of 23,568 different TTs was identified and 5,835 of them contain a complete ORF. The representative reproductive transcriptome can be reduced to 28,972 TTs for further gene expression studies. Partial transcriptomes from pollen, pistil, and vegetative tissues as control were also constructed. ReprOlive provides free access and download capability to these results. Retrieval mechanisms for sequences and transcript annotations are provided. Graphical localization of annotated enzymes into KEGG pathways is also possible. Finally, ReprOlive has included a semantic conceptualisation by means of a Resource Description Framework (RDF) allowing a Linked Data search for extracting the most updated information related to enzymes, interactions, allergens, structures, and reactive oxygen species. PMID:26322066

  19. ReprOlive: a database with linked data for the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) reproductive transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Rosario; Zafra, Adoración; Seoane, Pedro; Castro, Antonio J.; Guerrero-Fernández, Darío; Castillo-Castillo, Trinidad; Medina-García, Ana; Cánovas, Francisco M.; Aldana-Montes, José F.; Navas-Delgado, Ismael; Alché, Juan de Dios; Claros, M. Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Plant reproductive transcriptomes have been analyzed in different species due to the agronomical and biotechnological importance of plant reproduction. Here we presented an olive tree reproductive transcriptome database with samples from pollen and pistil at different developmental stages, and leaf and root as control vegetative tissues http://reprolive.eez.csic.es). It was developed from 2,077,309 raw reads to 1,549 Sanger sequences. Using a pre-defined workflow based on open-source tools, sequences were pre-processed, assembled, mapped, and annotated with expression data, descriptions, GO terms, InterPro signatures, EC numbers, KEGG pathways, ORFs, and SSRs. Tentative transcripts (TTs) were also annotated with the corresponding orthologs in Arabidopsis thaliana from TAIR and RefSeq databases to enable Linked Data integration. It results in a reproductive transcriptome comprising 72,846 contigs with average length of 686 bp, of which 63,965 (87.8%) included at least one functional annotation, and 55,356 (75.9%) had an ortholog. A minimum of 23,568 different TTs was identified and 5,835 of them contain a complete ORF. The representative reproductive transcriptome can be reduced to 28,972 TTs for further gene expression studies. Partial transcriptomes from pollen, pistil, and vegetative tissues as control were also constructed. ReprOlive provides free access and download capability to these results. Retrieval mechanisms for sequences and transcript annotations are provided. Graphical localization of annotated enzymes into KEGG pathways is also possible. Finally, ReprOlive has included a semantic conceptualisation by means of a Resource Description Framework (RDF) allowing a Linked Data search for extracting the most updated information related to enzymes, interactions, allergens, structures, and reactive oxygen species. PMID:26322066

  20. Phenolic compounds and antimicrobial activity of olive (Olea europaea L. Cv. Cobrançosa) leaves.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana Paula; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Marcelino, Filipa; Valentão, Patricia; Andrade, Paula B; Seabra, Rosa; Estevinho, Leticia; Bento, Albino; Pereira, José Alberto

    2007-01-01

    We report the determination of phenolic compounds in olive leaves by reversed-phase HPLC/DAD, and the evaluation of their in vitro activity against several microorganisms that may be causal agents of human intestinal and respiratory tract infections, namely gram positive (Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and fungi (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans). Seven phenolic compounds were identified and quantified: caffeic acid, verbascoside, oleuropein, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, rutin, apigenin 7-O-glucoside and luteolin 4'-O-glucoside. At low concentrations olive leaves extracts showed an unusual combined antibacterial and antifungal action, which suggest their great potential as nutraceuticals, particularly as a source of phenolic compounds. PMID:17873849

  1. Endophytic colonization and biocontrol performance of Pseudomonas fluorescens?PICF7 in olive (Olea europaea L.) are determined neither by pyoverdine production nor swimming motility.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-González, M Mercedes; Schilirò, Elisabetta; Prieto, Pilar; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2015-09-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens?PICF7 is an indigenous inhabitant of olive (Olea europaea L.) rhizosphere, able to display endophytic lifestyle in roots, to induce a wide range of defence responses upon colonization of this organ and to exert effective biological control against Verticillium wilt of olive (VWO) (Verticillium dahliae). We aimed to evaluate the involvement of specific PICF7 phenotypes in olive root colonization and VWO biocontrol effectiveness by generating mutants impaired in swimming motility (fliI) or siderophore pyoverdine production (pvdI). Besides, the performance of mutants with diminished in vitro growth in potato dextrose agar medium (gltA) and cysteine (Cys) auxotrophy was also assessed. Results showed that olive root colonization and VWO biocontrol ability of the fliI, pvdI and gltA mutants did not significantly differ from that displayed by the parental strain PICF7. Consequently, altered in vitro growth, swimming motility and pyoverdine production contribute neither to PICF7 VWO suppressive effect nor to its colonization ability. In contrast, the Cys auxotroph mutant showed reduced olive root colonization capacity and lost full biocontrol efficacy. Moreover, confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that all mutants tested were able to endophytically colonize root tissue to the same extent as wild-type PICF7, discarding these traits as relevant for its endophytic lifestyle. PMID:25471384

  2. De Novo Assembly and Functional Annotation of the Olive (Olea europaea) Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; González-Plaza, Juan José; Cañada, Andrés; Blanco, Ana María; García-López, Maria del Carmen; Rodríguez, José Manuel; Pedrola, Laia; Sicardo, M. Dolores; Hernández, M. Luisa; De la Rosa, Raúl; Belaj, Angjelina; Gil-Borja, Mayte; Luque, Francisco; Martínez-Rivas, José Manuel; Pisano, David G.; Trelles, Oswaldo; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Beuzón, Carmen R.

    2013-01-01

    Olive breeding programmes are focused on selecting for traits as short juvenile period, plant architecture suited for mechanical harvest, or oil characteristics, including fatty acid composition, phenolic, and volatile compounds to suit new markets. Understanding the molecular basis of these characteristics and improving the efficiency of such breeding programmes require the development of genomic information and tools. However, despite its economic relevance, genomic information on olive or closely related species is still scarce. We have applied Sanger and 454 pyrosequencing technologies to generate close to 2 million reads from 12 cDNA libraries obtained from the Picual, Arbequina, and Lechin de Sevilla cultivars and seedlings from a segregating progeny of a Picual × Arbequina cross. The libraries include fruit mesocarp and seeds at three relevant developmental stages, young stems and leaves, active juvenile and adult buds as well as dormant buds, and juvenile and adult roots. The reads were assembled by library or tissue and then assembled together into 81 020 unigenes with an average size of 496 bases. Here, we report their assembly and their functional annotation. PMID:23297299

  3. LTR retrotransposon dynamics in the evolution of the olive (Olea europaea) genome

    PubMed Central

    Barghini, Elena; Natali, Lucia; Giordani, Tommaso; Cossu, Rosa Maria; Scalabrin, Simone; Cattonaro, Federica; Šimková, Hana; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Morgante, Michele; Cavallini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Improved knowledge of genome composition, especially of its repetitive component, generates important information for both theoretical and applied research. The olive repetitive component is made up of two main classes of sequences: tandem repeats and retrotransposons (REs). In this study, we provide characterization of a sample of 254 unique full-length long terminal repeat (LTR) REs. In the sample, Ty1-Copia elements were more numerous than Ty3-Gypsy elements. Mapping a large set of Illumina whole-genome shotgun reads onto the identified retroelement set revealed that Gypsy elements are more redundant than Copia elements. The insertion time of intact retroelements was estimated based on sister LTR’s divergence. Although some elements inserted relatively recently, the mean insertion age of the isolated retroelements is around 18 million yrs. Gypsy and Copia retroelements showed different waves of transposition, with Gypsy elements especially active between 10 and 25 million yrs ago and nearly inactive in the last 7 million yrs. The occurrence of numerous solo-LTRs related to isolated full-length retroelements was ascertained for two Gypsy elements and one Copia element. Overall, the results reported in this study show that RE activity (both retrotransposition and DNA loss) has impacted the olive genome structure in more ancient times than in other angiosperms. PMID:25428895

  4. LTR retrotransposon dynamics in the evolution of the olive (Olea europaea) genome.

    PubMed

    Barghini, Elena; Natali, Lucia; Giordani, Tommaso; Cossu, Rosa Maria; Scalabrin, Simone; Cattonaro, Federica; Šimková, Hana; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Morgante, Michele; Cavallini, Andrea

    2015-02-01

    Improved knowledge of genome composition, especially of its repetitive component, generates important information for both theoretical and applied research. The olive repetitive component is made up of two main classes of sequences: tandem repeats and retrotransposons (REs). In this study, we provide characterization of a sample of 254 unique full-length long terminal repeat (LTR) REs. In the sample, Ty1-Copia elements were more numerous than Ty3-Gypsy elements. Mapping a large set of Illumina whole-genome shotgun reads onto the identified retroelement set revealed that Gypsy elements are more redundant than Copia elements. The insertion time of intact retroelements was estimated based on sister LTR's divergence. Although some elements inserted relatively recently, the mean insertion age of the isolated retroelements is around 18 million yrs. Gypsy and Copia retroelements showed different waves of transposition, with Gypsy elements especially active between 10 and 25 million yrs ago and nearly inactive in the last 7 million yrs. The occurrence of numerous solo-LTRs related to isolated full-length retroelements was ascertained for two Gypsy elements and one Copia element. Overall, the results reported in this study show that RE activity (both retrotransposition and DNA loss) has impacted the olive genome structure in more ancient times than in other angiosperms. PMID:25428895

  5. Identification and localization of a caleosin in olive (Olea europaea L.) pollen during in vitro germination

    PubMed Central

    Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Castro, Antonio J.; de Dios Alché, Juan; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Suárez, Cynthia; Rodríguez-García, María Isabel

    2010-01-01

    In plant organs and tissues, the neutral storage lipids are confined to discrete spherical organelles called oil bodies. Oil bodies from plant seeds contain 0.6–3% proteins, including oleosins, steroleosins, and caleosins. In this study, a caleosin isoform of ?30?kDa was identified in the olive pollen grain. The protein was mainly located at the boundaries of the oil bodies in the cytoplasm of the pollen grain and the pollen tube. In addition, caleosins were also visualized in the cytoplasm at the subapical zone, as well as in the tonoplast of vacuoles present in the pollen tube cytoplasm. The cellular behaviour of lipid bodies in the olive pollen was also monitored during in vitro germination. The number of oil bodies decreased 20-fold in the pollen grain during germination, whereas the opposite tendency occurred in the pollen tube, suggesting that oil bodies moved from one to the other. The data suggest that this pollen caleosin might have a role in the mobilization of oil bodies as well as in the reorganization of membrane compartments during pollen in vitro germination. PMID:20164143

  6. Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7, an indigenous root endophyte from olive (Olea europaea L.) and effective biocontrol agent against Verticillium dahliae

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7 is a native endophyte of olive roots. Previous studies have shown this motile, Gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium is an effective biocontrol agent against the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae, the causal agent of one of the most devastating diseases for olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivation. Here, we announce and describe the complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7 consisting of a circular chromosome of 6,136,735 bp that encodes 5,567 protein-coding genes and 88 RNA-only encoding genes. Genome analysis revealed genes predicting factors such as secretion systems, siderophores, detoxifying compounds or volatile components. Further analysis of the genome sequence of PICF7 will help in gaining insights into biocontrol and endophytism. PMID:25685259

  7. A centralised remote data collection system using automated traps for managing and controlling the population of the Mediterranean (Ceratitis capitata) and olive (Dacus oleae) fruit flies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philimis, Panayiotis; Psimolophitis, Elias; Hadjiyiannis, Stavros; Giusti, Alessandro; Perelló, Josep; Serrat, Albert; Avila, Pedro

    2013-08-01

    The present paper describes the development of a novel monitoring system (e-FlyWatch system) for managing and controlling the population of two of the world's most destructive fruit pests, namely the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae, Rossi - formerly Dacus oleae) and the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, also called medfly). The novel monitoring system consists of a) novel automated traps with optical and motion detection modules for capturing the flies, b) local stations including a GSM/GPRS module, sensors, flash memory, battery, antenna etc. and c) a central station that collects, stores and publishes the results (i.e. insect population in each field, sensor data, possible error/alarm data) via a web-based management software.The centralised data collection system provides also analysis and prediction models, end-user warning modules and historical analysis of infested areas. The e-FlyWatch system enables the SMEs-producers in the Fruit, Vegetable and Olive sectors to improve their production reduce the amount of insecticides/pesticides used and consequently the labour cost for spraying activities, and the labour cost for traps inspection.

  8. Ingestion toxicity of three Lamiaceae essential oils incorporated in protein baits against the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni; Conti, Barbara; Lenzi, Gabriele; Flamini, Guido; Francini, Alessandra; Cioni, Pier Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The ingestion toxicity of three Lamiaceae essential oils (EOs) - Hyptis suaveolens, Rosmarinus officinalis and Lavandula angustifolia - incorporated in protein baits was evaluated against Bactrocera oleae, a worldwide pest of olive fruits. In laboratory conditions, all the tested EOs showed dose-dependent toxicity on B. oleae, with mortality rates ranging from 12% (EO concentration: 0.01% w:v) to 100% (EO concentration: 1.75% w:v). Semi-field results highlighted the toxicity of L. angustifolia and H. suaveolens EOs, which exerted more than 60% of flies mortality at a concentration of 1.75% (w:v). Gas Chromatography-Electron Impact Mass Spectrometry analyses of the three EOs showed that H. suaveolens EO was dominated by monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the main chemical class in R. officinalis and L. angustifolia EOs. Further research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of these EOs plus food bait against the olive fruit fly in the open field. PMID:23594314

  9. Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract counteracts genotoxicity and oxidative stress of permethrin in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Türkez, Hasan; To?ar, Ba?ak

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of olive leaf extract (OLE) on genotoxicity and oxidative damage in cultured human blood cells treated with permethrin (PM) in the presence of a rat liver S9 mix containing cytochrome P 450 enzymes. Anti-genotoxic activities of OLE were studied using sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosome aberration (CA) tests and furthermore total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidative status (TOS) were examined to determine the oxidative damage. Our results clearly revealed that treatment with PM (200 mg/l) alone increased SCE and CA rates and TOS level, decreased TAC level in cultured human blood cells. The OLE alone at the all tested doses did not induce any significant changes in the genotoxicity endpoint. However OLE leads to increases of plasma TAC level in vitro. OLE starts showing this positive effect at 100 mg/l. The combined treatment showed significant improvements in cytogenetic and biochemical parameters tested. Moreover, this improvement was more pronounced in the group received the high dose of the OLE. It could be concluded that the ethanol extract of OLE induced its genoprotective effect via the increase in the antioxidant capacity, inhibition of oxidative stress and scavenging of free radicals. PMID:22008529

  10. Control mechanisms operating for lipid biosynthesis differ in oil-palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and olive (Olea europaea L.) callus cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Ramli, Umi S; Baker, Darren S; Quant, Patti A; Harwood, John L

    2002-01-01

    As a prelude to detailed flux control analysis of lipid synthesis in plants, we have examined the latter in tissue cultures from two important oil crops, olive (Olea europaea L.) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Temperature was used to manipulate the overall rate of lipid formation in order to characterize and validate the system to be used for analysis. With [1-14C]acetate as a precursor, an increase in temperature from 20 to 30 degrees C produced nearly a doubling of total lipid labelling. This increase in total lipids did not change the radioactivity in the intermediate acyl-(acyl carrier protein) or acyl-CoA pools, indicating that metabolism of these pools did not exert any significant constraint for overall synthesis. In contrast, there were some differences in the proportional labelling of fatty acids and of lipid classes at the two temperatures. The higher temperature caused a decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acid labelling and an increase in the proportion of triacylglycerol labelling in both calli. The intermediate diacylglycerol was increased in olive, but not in oil palm. Overall the data indicate the suitability of olive and oil-palm cultures for the study of lipid synthesis and indicate that de novo fatty acid synthesis may exert more flux control than complex lipid assembly. In olive, diacylglycerol acyltransferase may exert significant flux control when lipid synthesis is rapid. PMID:12023881

  11. Analysis of leaf water relations in leaves of two olive (Olea europaea) cultivars differing in tolerance to salinity.

    PubMed

    Gucci, R; Lombardini, L; Tattini, M

    1997-01-01

    One-year-old rooted cuttings of olive (Olea europaea L. cvs. Frantoio and Leccino) were grown either hydroponically or in soil in a greenhouse. Plants were exposed to NaCl treatments (0, 100, and 200 mM) for 35 days, followed by 30 to 34 days of relief from salt stress to determine whether previously demonstrated genotypic differences in tolerance to salinity were related to water relations parameters. Exposure to high salt concentrations resulted in reductions in predawn water potential (Psi(w)), osmotic potential at full turgor (Psi(piFT)), osmotic potential at turgor loss point (Psi(piTLP)), and relative water content (RWC) in both cultivars, regardless of the growth substrate. Leaf Psi(w) and RWC returned to values similar to those of controls by the end of the relief period. The effect of salinity on Psi(pi) appeared earlier in Leccino than in Frantoio. Values for Psi(piFT) were -2.50, -2.87, and -3.16 MPa for the 0, 100, and 200 mM salt-treated Frantoio plants, respectively, and -2.23, -2.87, and -3.37 MPa for the corresponding Leccino plants. Recovery of Psi(pi) was complete for plants in the 100 mM salt treatment, but not for plants in the 200 mM salt treatment, which maintained an increased pressure potential (Psi(pi)) compared to control plants. Net solute accumulation was higher in Leccino, the salt-sensitive cultivar, than in Frantoio. In controls of both cultivars, cations contributed 39.9 to 42.0% of the total Psi(piFT), mannitol and glucose contributed 27.1 to 30.8%, and other soluble carbohydrates contributed 3.1 to 3.6%. The osmotic contribution of Na(+) increased from 0.1-2.1% for non-treated plants to 8.6-15.5% and 15.6-20.0% for the 100 mM and 200 mM salt-treated plants, respectively. The mannitol contribution to Psi(piFT) reached a maximum of 9.1% at the end of the salinization period. We conclude that differences between the two cultivars in leaf water relations reflect differences in the exclusion capacities for Na(+) and Cl(-) ions. PMID:14759909

  12. Molecular characterization and chromosomal distribution of a species-specific transcribed centromeric satellite repeat from the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae.

    PubMed

    Tsoumani, Konstantina T; Drosopoulou, Elena; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D

    2013-01-01

    Satellite repetitive sequences that accumulate in the heterochromatin consist a large fraction of a genome and due to their properties are suggested to be implicated in centromere function. Current knowledge of heterochromatic regions of Bactrocera oleae genome, the major pest of the olive tree, is practically nonexistent. In our effort to explore the repetitive DNA portion of B. oleae genome, a novel satellite sequence designated BoR300 was isolated and cloned. The present study describes the genomic organization, abundance and chromosomal distribution of BoR300 which is organized in tandem, forming arrays of 298 bp-long monomers. Sequence analysis showed an AT content of 60.4%, a CENP-B like-motif and a high curvature value based on predictive models. Comparative analysis among randomly selected monomers demonstrated a high degree of sequence homogeneity (88%-97%) of BoR300 repeats, which are present at approximately 3,000 copies per haploid genome accounting for about 0.28% of the total genomic DNA, based on two independent qPCR approaches. In addition, expression of the repeat was also confirmed through RT-PCR, by which BoR300 transcripts were detected in both sexes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of BoR300 on mitotic metaphases and polytene chromosomes revealed signals to the centromeres of two out of the six chromosomes which indicated a chromosome-specific centromeric localization. Moreover, BoR300 is not conserved in the closely related Bactrocera species tested and it is also absent in other dipterans, but it's rather restricted to the B. oleae genome. This feature of species-specificity attributed to BoR300 satellite makes it a good candidate as an identification probe of the insect among its relatives at early development stages. PMID:24244494

  13. Molecular Characterization and Chromosomal Distribution of a Species-Specific Transcribed Centromeric Satellite Repeat from the Olive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera oleae

    PubMed Central

    Tsoumani, Konstantina T.; Drosopoulou, Elena; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D.

    2013-01-01

    Satellite repetitive sequences that accumulate in the heterochromatin consist a large fraction of a genome and due to their properties are suggested to be implicated in centromere function. Current knowledge of heterochromatic regions of Bactrocera oleae genome, the major pest of the olive tree, is practically nonexistent. In our effort to explore the repetitive DNA portion of B. oleae genome, a novel satellite sequence designated BoR300 was isolated and cloned. The present study describes the genomic organization, abundance and chromosomal distribution of BoR300 which is organized in tandem, forming arrays of 298 bp-long monomers. Sequence analysis showed an AT content of 60.4%, a CENP-B like-motif and a high curvature value based on predictive models. Comparative analysis among randomly selected monomers demonstrated a high degree of sequence homogeneity (88% – 97%) of BoR300 repeats, which are present at approximately 3,000 copies per haploid genome accounting for about 0.28% of the total genomic DNA, based on two independent qPCR approaches. In addition, expression of the repeat was also confirmed through RT-PCR, by which BoR300 transcripts were detected in both sexes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of BoR300 on mitotic metaphases and polytene chromosomes revealed signals to the centromeres of two out of the six chromosomes which indicated a chromosome-specific centromeric localization. Moreover, BoR300 is not conserved in the closely related Bactrocera species tested and it is also absent in other dipterans, but it’s rather restricted to the B. oleae genome. This feature of species-specificity attributed to BoR300 satellite makes it a good candidate as an identification probe of the insect among its relatives at early development stages. PMID:24244494

  14. Olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) was introduced from the Mediterranean region where there are records of infestations dating back to the third century BC. It is also found in eastern and southern Africa where native wild olive trees are found, and where

    E-print Network

    Ishida, Yuko

    Olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) was introduced from the Mediterranean region where of table fruit. Description The adult fly is about 3/16 inch long (4-5 mm), reddish- brown in color the tip and can be distinguished from those of other fruit flies (e.g. walnut husk fly) that have dark

  15. Colonization of olive trees (Olea europaea L.) with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus sp. modified the glycolipids biosynthesis and resulted in accumulation of unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Mechri, Beligh; Attia, Faouzi; Tekaya, Meriem; Cheheb, Hechmi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi colonization on photosynthesis, mineral nutrition, the amount of phospholipids and glycolipids in the leaves of olive (Olea europaea L.) trees was investigated. After six months of growth, the rate of photosynthesis, carboxylation efficiency, transpiration and stomatal conductance in mycorrhizal (M) plants was significantly higher than that of non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants. The inoculation treatment increased the foliar P and Mg but not N. The amount of glycolipids in the leaves of M plants was significantly higher than that of NM plants. However, the amount of phospholipids in the leaves of M plants was not significantly different to that in the leaves of NM plants. Also, we observed a significant increase in the level of ?-linolenic acid (C18:3?3) in glycolipids of M plants. This work supports the view that increased glycolipids level in the leaves of M plants could be involved, at least in part, in the beneficial effects of mycorrhizal colonization on photosynthesis performance of olive trees. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the effect of AM fungi on the amount of glycolipids in the leaves of mycorrhizal plants. PMID:25014256

  16. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) or Olea europaea (olive) leaves on oxidative stability of rabbit meat fortified with n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Trebušak, Tina; Levart, Alenka; Salobir, Janez; Pirman, Tatjana

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) or Olea europaea (olive tree) leaves on oxidative stability of rabbit meat fortified with n-3 fatty acids. Forty-eight slovenska kunka (SIKA) rabbits were divided into four homogeneous groups. The control group (CONT-) received diet with 6% palm fat; other groups received diet with 6% linseed oil and were either unsupplemented (CONT+) or supplemented with 1% of G. lucidum (REISHI) or O. europaea leaves (OLIVE). Rabbits were slaughtered and fatty acid composition, concentration of vitamin E and malondialdehyde (MDA) in back muscle were analyzed. The results showed that linseed oil addition improved fatty acid composition by increasing polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) proportion, decreasing proportion of saturated fatty acid (SFA) and reducing n-6/n-3 ratio in rabbit meat. Groups that were supplemented with linseed oil had lower content of ?-tocopherol and higher content of ?-tocopherol, compared to the CONT- group. The addition of potential antioxidants did not effectively prevent oxidation of rabbit meat. PMID:24334050

  17. Residues of rotenone, azadirachtin, pyrethrins and copper used to control Bactrocera oleae (Gmel.) in organic olives and oil.

    PubMed

    Simeone, V; Baser, N; Perrelli, D; Cesari, G; El Bilali, H; Natale, P

    2009-04-01

    Rotenone, azadirachtin, pyrethrins and copper fungicide decay curves were determined in olives and olive oil samples after experimental trials, consisting of one, two and three applications of each active ingredient, were carried out twice in 2005 and 2006. Rotenone, azadiracthin and pyrethrins were analyzed by extraction with acetonitrile and determined by liquid chromatography; copper was extracted into aqueous HCl and determined by chemical stripping. Pyrethrins were always found but in levels below the acceptable limits, whereas rotenone and copper residues always exceeded, after the pre-harvest interval, the maximum threshold allowed for olives. As regards residues in olive oil, rotenone was found in concentrations higher than those detected in olives. Copper accumulated in olives according to the number of applications, whereas, in oil, the residue was always lower than the maximum residue limit. The sensitivity of the method applied did not allow detection of azadirachtin. PMID:19680921

  18. Different flower-inducing conditions elicit different responses for free polyamine levels in olive (Olea europaea) leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In various plant species, polyamines have been implicated in regulating developmental phenomenon as well as responses to environmental stimuli. The role of polyamines in regulating developmental phenomenon, such as flowering, in olives is poorly understood, although seasonal changes and temperature...

  19. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestication of olive fruit, Olea europaea L., produced a better host for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), than wild olives, but fruit domestication reduced natural enemy efficiency. Important factors for selection of natural enemies for control of olive fruit fly include climate matchi...

  20. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Cayan, H.; Erener, G.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets. PMID:25656181

  1. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels.

    PubMed

    Cayan, H; Erener, G

    2015-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets. PMID:25656181

  2. Inhibition of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced PC12 cell apoptosis by olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract is performed by its main component oleuropein.

    PubMed

    Pasban-Aliabadi, Hamzeh; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Sheibani, Vahid; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Mehdizadeh, Anahita; Yaghoobi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2013-04-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is the most common progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive death of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Most neurodegenerative disease treatments are, at present, palliative. However, some natural herbal products have been shown to rescue neurons from death and apoptosis in some of neurodegenerative diseases. Not only Olea europaea L. olive oil, but also the leaves of this plant have been used for medical purposes. Olive leaf extract (OLE) is being used by people as a drink across the world and as an integral ingredient in their desire to maintain and improve their health. Here, we investigated the effects of OLE and its main phenolic component oleuropein on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced toxicity in rat adrenal pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells as an in vitro model of PD. Cell damage was induced by 150??M 6-OHDA. The cell survival rate was examined by MTT assay. Generation of intra-cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was studied using fluorescence spectrophotometry. Immunoblotting and DNA analysis were also employed to determine the levels of biochemical markers of apoptosis in the cells. The data showed that 6-OHDA could decrease the viability of the cells. In addition, intra-cellular ROS, activated caspase 3, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, as well as DNA fragmentation were significantly increased in 6-OHDA-treated cells. Incubation of cells with OLE (400 and 600??g/mL) and oleuropein (20 and 25??g/mL) could decrease cell damage and reduce biochemical markers of cell death. The results suggest that OLE and oleuropein have anti-oxidant protective effects against 6-OHDA-induced PC12 cell damage. The protective effects of OLE and oleuropein are correlative with their anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic properties and suggest their therapeutic potential in the treatment of PD. PMID:23394606

  3. Antioxidant activity and chemical components as potential anticancer agents in the olive leaf (Olea europaea L. cv Leccino.) decoction.

    PubMed

    De Marino, Simona; Festa, Carmen; Zollo, Franco; Nini, Antonella; Antenucci, Lina; Raimo, Gennaro; Iorizzi, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that a reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases is correlated with a regular consumption of fruits and vegetable, many of which are rich in polyphenols. The additive and synergistic effect of phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables may reduce chronic diseases related to oxidative stress in human body. Olea europaea L. leaf are rich in phenolic components, which have been proposed to play a role in cancer prevention. The purpose of this study was to identify the main components in the Olea europaea L. leaf (cv. Leccino) preserved during the decoction preparation, in order to delineate the antioxidant activities of the crude extracts and its isolated compounds by using different in vitro assays including DPPH radicalscavenging capacity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory effect and the ability to delay the linoleic acid peroxidation process (ALP). The aqueous decoction was partitioned obtaining four extracts and the n-butanol extract showed the highest antioxidant activity and the highest total phenolic content. Phytochemical investigation leads to the isolation of thirteen secondary metabolites including simple phenolics, flavonoids, secoiridoids whose structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data (1D and 2D NMR) and spectrometric techniques. A significant free radical scavenging effect against DPPH has been evidenced in fraxamoside (1) (EC50 62.6 µM) and taxifolin (5) (EC50 50.0 µM), isolated for the first time from the water decoction. The most active compound in the TAC evaluation, was the 3,4 dihydro-phenyl glycol (8) (0.90 caffeic acid equiv.) while taxifolin and fraxamoside resulted as the most efficient inhibitors of XO activity (IC50 2.7 and 5.2 µM, respectively). Secoxyloganin (4), oleuropein (2) and tyrosol (6) showed the highest ALP activity. This study adds to the growing body of data supporting the bioactivities of phytochemicals and their potential impact on human health. PMID:25102361

  4. Evaluation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Capacity to Alleviate Abiotic Stress of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Plants at Different Transplant Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bompadre, María Josefina; Pérgola, Mariana; Fernández Bidondo, Laura; Colombo, Roxana Paula; Silvani, Vanesa Analía; Pardo, Alejandro Guillermo; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; Godeas, Alicia Margarita

    2014-01-01

    The capacity of roots to sense soil physicochemical parameters plays an essential role in maintaining plant nutritional and developmental functions under abiotic stress. These conditions generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant tissues causing oxidation of proteins and lipids among others. Some plants have developed adaptive mechanisms to counteract such adverse conditions such as symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). AMF enhance plant growth and improve transplant survival by protecting host plants against environmental stresses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the alleviation of transplanting stress by two strains of Rhizophagus irregularis (GC2 and GA5) in olive. Our results show that olive plants have an additional energetic expense in growth due to an adaptative response to the growing stage and to the mycorrhizal colonization at the first transplant. However, at the second transplant the coinoculation improves olive plant growth and protects against oxidative stress followed by the GA5-inoculation. In conclusion, a combination of two AMF strains at the beginning of olive propagation produces vigorous plants successfully protected in field cultivation even with an additional cost at the beginning of growth. PMID:24688382

  5. Systemic responses in a tolerant olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivar upon root colonization by the vascular pathogen Verticillium dahliae

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Lama Cabanás, Carmen; Schilirò, Elisabetta; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Verticillium wilt of olive (VWO) is caused by the vascular pathogen Verticillium dahliae. One of the best VWO management measures is the use of tolerant cultivars; however, our knowledge on VWO tolerance/resistance genetics is very limited. A transcriptomic analysis was conducted to (i) identify systemic defense responses induced/repressed in aerial tissues of the tolerant cultivar Frantoio upon root colonization by V. dahliae, and (ii) determine the expression pattern of selected defense genes in olive cultivars showing differential susceptibility to VWO. Two suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA libraries, enriched in up-regulated (FU) and down-regulated (FD) genes respectively, were generated from “Frantoio” aerial tissues. Results showed that broad systemic transcriptomic changes are taking place during V. dahliae-“Frantoio” interaction. A total of 585 FU and 381 FD unigenes were identified, many of them involved in defense response to (a)biotic stresses. Selected genes were then used to validate libraries and evaluate their temporal expression pattern in “Frantoio.” Four defense genes were analyzed in cultivars Changlot Real (tolerant) and Picual (susceptible). An association between GRAS1 and DRR2 gene expression patterns and susceptibility to VWO was observed, suggesting that these transcripts could be further evaluated as markers of the tolerance level of olive cultivars to V. dahliae. PMID:26441865

  6. Antithrombotic effect of repeated doses of the ethanolic extract of local olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Dub, Abdallah M; Dugani, Aisha M

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of thromboembolic diseases is increasing, and they are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Mediterranean diet is known for its high content of olive products, especially olive oil, which has known cardiovascular health benefits, including those on blood pressure, cholesterol level, and thrombogenesis. All previous animal and clinical studies investigating the beneficial antithrombotic effects of olives have focused on olive oil and a few on olive leaves (OLEs). In this study, the ethanolic extract of OLE was evaluated for its antithrombotic activity in the rabbit model of thrombosis induced by ligature of the vena cava and intravenous administration of tissue thromboplastin. Pre-treatment with 100 or 200 mg/kg per day of the ethanolic extract for 8 weeks significantly prolonged the prothrombin time (PT) in comparison to the control group (12.10 ± 0.35 sec and 14.38 ± 0.29 sec vs. 10.8 ± 0.32 sec, p < 0.05 and 0.001, respectively). In comparison to the control group, the same doses had no statistically significant effect on thrombus weight (16.85 ± 0.67 mg, 16.32 ± 0.35 mg, and 17.81 ± 0.75 mg; p = 0.18 and 0.06) or on activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) (19.17 ± 0.33 sec, 19.12 ± 0.73 sec, and 18.97 ± 0.41 sec; p = 0.36 and 0.43, respectively). One important finding in this study concerns thrombus morphology. In the extract treatment groups, the thrombus was filament-like and did not adhere to blood vessel walls, whereas in the control group the thrombus was thick and almost completely occluded the vein. Therefore, these results suggest that OLE ethanolic extract can modify the extrinsic coagulation pathway as evidenced by the prolongation of PT and changes in thrombus morphology, enough to justify further research to evaluate its possible antithrombotic effects. PMID:23702352

  7. Frequencies of organophosphate resistance-associated mutations in the acetylcholinesterase gene of field collected olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) populations under different insecticide regimes.

    PubMed

    Ba?kurt, S Ibel; Do?aç, E; Ta?k?n, V; Ta?k?n, Belg In Göçmen

    2011-03-01

    In the present study, the frequencies of three organophosphate (OP) resistance-associated mutations in acetylcholinesterase gene of Bactrocera oleae (BoAce) populations collected from 8 different important olivegrowing areas in the west part of Turkey were determined. Populations were sampled from the areas that have been treated with only the pyrethroid ?-cypermethrin; pyrethroids plus OPs; deltamethrin with pheromone eco-traps, and no insecticide treatment applied areas for many years. For Ile214Val and Gly488Ser point mutations PCR-RFLP and for ?3Q deletion mutation PCR diagnostic tests were carried out. Seventy-two percent of the total individuals analyzed in the study were exhibited heterozygous genotype (RS) for both Ile214Val and Gly488Ser point and homozygous susceptible genotype (SS) for ?3Q deletion mutations. This RS/RS/SS combination together with RS/RR/SS with the frequency of 13% were the most common two combinations observed in all of the populations under different insecticide regimes, even in the populations under no insecticide pressure for many years. Independent evaluation of the three mutations resulted in 0.450, 0.534 and 0.037 frequency values for the resistant alleles of 214Val, 488Ser and ?3Q mutations, respectively. Among the studied populations, the frequencies of resistant alleles for the positions of 214 and 488 were not differed from each other. However, in 3 of the populations the frequency of the R allele of ?3Q was zero and it changed between 0.025 and 0.100 in the remaining five populations. Results of this study contributed to the distribution pattern of the two point mutations in Europe and a pattern for ?3Q mutation was determined for the first time in the field collected olive fly samples. PMID:21388916

  8. Susceptibility of Olive Fruit in Relation to Olive Fruit Fly Development and Ovipositional Period in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), females oviposited their first and last eggs in olive fruit, Olea europaea L., when females were 6 and 90 d-old, respectively. The highest mean numbers of eggs per day in 10 olive fruit (55) were oviposited by 28 d-old females, and peak egg production occ...

  9. Differences in the Neuroprotective Effect of Orally Administered Virgin Olive Oil (Olea europaea) Polyphenols Tyrosol and Hydroxytyrosol in Rats.

    PubMed

    De La Cruz, José Pedro; Ruiz-Moreno, Maria Isabel; Guerrero, Ana; Reyes, José Julio; Benitez-Guerrero, Adela; Espartero, José Luis; González-Correa, José Antonio

    2015-07-01

    The neuroprotective effect of virgin olive oil (VOO) polyphenols has been related to their antioxidant effect. The main objective was to analyze how tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol contribute to the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of VOO in a model of hypoxia-reoxygenation in rat brain slices. Rats were treated per os (po) (10 or 20 mg/kg/day) with hydroxytyrosol ethyl ether (HTEE), tyrosol ethyl ether (TEE), or 3,4-di-o-methylidene-hydroxytyrosol ethyl ether (MHTEE), used as a negative control for antioxidant effects. Lipid peroxidation was inhibited with HTEE, TEE, and MHTEE (from 5.0 ± 1.5 to 2.6 ± 1.5, 4.5 ± 1.5, and 4.8 ± 1.5 nmol/mg protein, respectively). However, all three compounds had similar neuroprotective effects: from 2.8 ± 0.07 to 1.8 ± 0.02 arbitrary units for HTEE, 1.4 ± 0.09 arbitrary units for TEE, and 1.3 ± 0.2 arbitrary units for MHTEE. All three compounds inhibited 3-nitrotyrosine production (from 3.7 ± 0.3 to 1.2 ± 0.03 nmol/0.1 g tissue for HTEE, 1.0 ± 0.2 nmol/0.1 g tissue for TEE, and 1.3 ± 0.1 nmol/0.1 g tissue for MHTEE), prostaglandin E2 production (from 55.7 ± 2.2 to 46.4 ± 1.9 pg/0.1 g tissue for HTEE, 24.7 ± 1.3 pg/0.1 g tissue for TEE, and 27.6 ± 2.6 pg/0.1 g tissue for MHTEE), whereas only HTEE inhibited IL1? production (from 35.7 ± 1.5 to 21.6 ± 0.8 pg/0.1 g tissue). Pearson correlation coefficients related neuroprotective effect with an antioxidant effect for HTEE (R = 0.72, p < 0.001), and inhibition of nitrosative stress (R = 0.78, 0.67, and 0.66 for HTEE, TEE, and MHTEE, respectively, p < 0.001) and inflammatory mediators (R = 0.72, 0.79, and 0.64 for HTEE, TEE, and MHTEE, respectively, p < 0.001) with all three compounds. PMID:26066316

  10. A survey of fruit-feeding insects and their parasitoids occurring on wild olives, Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata, in the Eastern Cape of South Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits of cultivated olives, O. e. europaea, and wild olives, O. e. cuspidata, were collected at nine locations in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, in 2003-2005 to investigate levels of pest infestation and to determine the parasitoids associated with them. Three species of Tephritidae (olive fruit f...

  11. LOX Gene Transcript Accumulation in Olive (Olea europaea L.) Fruits at Different Stages of Maturation: Relationship between Volatile Compounds, Environmental Factors, and Technological Treatments for Oil Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Muzzalupo, Innocenzo; Macchione, Barbara; Bucci, Cristina; Stefanizzi, Francesca; Perri, Enzo; Chiappetta, Adriana; Tagarelli, Antonio; Sindona, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The quality of olive oil is influenced by genetic and environmental factors and by the maturation state of drupes, but it is equally affected by technological treatments of the process. This work investigates the possible correlation between olive LOX gene transcript accumulation, evaluated in fruits collected at different stages of maturation, and chemical biomarkers of its activity. During olive fruit ripening, the same genotype harvested from two different farms shows a positive linear trend between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive oil aroma. Interestingly, a negative linear trend was observed between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive pastes obtained from olive fruits with and without malaxation. The changes in the olive LOX transcript accumulation reveal its environmental regulation and suggest differential physiological functions for the LOXs. PMID:22645430

  12. 7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of any variety of the species olea...

  13. 7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of any variety of the species olea...

  14. 7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of any variety of the species olea...

  15. 7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of any variety of the species olea...

  16. 7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of any variety of the species olea...

  17. The heat shock 70 genes of the olive pest Bactrocera oleae: genomic organization and molecular characterization of a transcription unit and its proximal promoter region.

    PubMed

    Drosopoulou, Elena; Chrysopoulou, Anastasia; Nikita, Venetia; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope

    2009-02-01

    A Bactrocera oleae genomic library was constructed and several genomic clones bearing hsp70 sequences were isolated. All clones were in situ hybridized on the major heat shock puff locus of the salivary gland polytene chromosomes. Restriction mapping of the isolated clones and genomic Southern hybridization indicated the presence of several putative hsp70 genes organized in a single cluster. Sequence analysis of an hsp70 transcription unit revealed a single 1905 nt long open reading frame that exhibits characteristic features of the inducible members of the HSP70 family. The presence and organization of many typical binding sites for the Heat Shock and GAGA factors suggest that the promoter of this gene is highly heat-inducible and could be used for conditional expression in transformation systems. PMID:19234568

  18. BIOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL CONTROL OF OLIVE FRUIT FLY IN CALIFORNIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), monitored with ChamP traps captured the highest numbers of adults in olive trees, Olea europaea, in October in an inland valley location, and in September in a coastal location. Significantly more adults were captured in Pherocon ® AM traps than ChamP tra...

  19. Response of Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and conditions in California olive orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), by the USDA-APHIS, PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europae...

  20. The effect of high temperature interruptions during inductive period on the extent of flowering and on metabolic responses in olives (Olea europaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of the duration of high temperature interruption and the timing of it’s occurrence during inductive period on the extent of inhibition of inflorescence production in ‘Arbequina’ olive trees was investigated. Trees kept under inductive conditions in different growth chambers were subjected...

  1. Phenological models to predict the main flowering phases of olive (Olea europaea L.) along a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient across the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Fátima; Fornaciari, Marco; Ruiz-Valenzuela, Luis; Galán, Carmen; Msallem, Monji; Dhiab, Ali Ben; la Guardia, Consuelo Díaz-de; Del Mar Trigo, María; Bonofiglio, Tommaso; Orlandi, Fabio

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop pheno-meteorological models to explain and forecast the main olive flowering phenological phases within the Mediterranean basin, across a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient that includes Tunisia, Spain, and Italy. To analyze the aerobiological sampling points, study periods from 13 years (1999-2011) to 19 years (1993-2011) were used. The forecasting models were constructed using partial least-squares regression, considering both the flowering start and full-flowering dates as dependent variables. The percentages of variance explained by the full-flowering models (mean 84 %) were greater than those explained by the flowering start models (mean 77 %). Moreover, given the time lag from the North African areas to the central Mediterranean areas in the main olive flowering dates, the regional full-flowering predictive models are proposed as the most useful to improve the knowledge of the influence of climate on the olive tree floral phenology. The meteorological parameters related to the previous autumn and both the winter and the spring seasons, and above all the temperatures, regulate the reproductive phenology of olive trees in the Mediterranean area. The mean anticipation of flowering start and full flowering for the future period from 2081 to 2100 was estimated at 10 and 12 days, respectively. One question can be raised: Will the olive trees located in the warmest areas be northward displaced or will they be able to adapt their physiology in response to the higher temperatures? The present study can be considered as an approach to design more detailed future bioclimate research. PMID:25060840

  2. Phenological models to predict the main flowering phases of olive ( Olea europaea L.) along a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient across the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Fátima; Fornaciari, Marco; Ruiz-Valenzuela, Luis; Galán, Carmen; Msallem, Monji; Dhiab, Ali Ben; la Guardia, Consuelo Díaz-de; del Mar Trigo, María; Bonofiglio, Tommaso; Orlandi, Fabio

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop pheno-meteorological models to explain and forecast the main olive flowering phenological phases within the Mediterranean basin, across a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient that includes Tunisia, Spain, and Italy. To analyze the aerobiological sampling points, study periods from 13 years (1999-2011) to 19 years (1993-2011) were used. The forecasting models were constructed using partial least-squares regression, considering both the flowering start and full-flowering dates as dependent variables. The percentages of variance explained by the full-flowering models (mean 84 %) were greater than those explained by the flowering start models (mean 77 %). Moreover, given the time lag from the North African areas to the central Mediterranean areas in the main olive flowering dates, the regional full-flowering predictive models are proposed as the most useful to improve the knowledge of the influence of climate on the olive tree floral phenology. The meteorological parameters related to the previous autumn and both the winter and the spring seasons, and above all the temperatures, regulate the reproductive phenology of olive trees in the Mediterranean area. The mean anticipation of flowering start and full flowering for the future period from 2081 to 2100 was estimated at 10 and 12 days, respectively. One question can be raised: Will the olive trees located in the warmest areas be northward displaced or will they be able to adapt their physiology in response to the higher temperatures? The present study can be considered as an approach to design more detailed future bioclimate research.

  3. Olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract induces apoptosis and monocyte/macrophage differentiation in human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells: insight into the underlying mechanism.

    PubMed

    Samet, Imen; Han, Junkyu; Jlaiel, Lobna; Sayadi, Sami; Isoda, Hiroko

    2014-01-01

    Differentiation therapy is an attractive approach aiming at reversing malignancy and reactivating endogenous differentiation programs in cancer cells. Olive leaf extract, known for its antioxidant activity, has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in several cancer cells. However, its differentiation inducing properties and the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of Chemlali Olive Leaf Extract (COLE) for its potential differentiation inducing effect on multipotent leukemia K562 cells. Results showed that COLE inhibits K562 cells proliferation and arrests the cell cycle at G0/G1, and then at G2/M phase over treatment time. Further analysis revealed that COLE induces apoptosis and differentiation of K562 cells toward the monocyte lineage. Microarray analysis was conducted to investigate the underlying mechanism of COLE differentiation inducing effect. The differentially expressed genes such as IFI16, EGR1, NFYA, FOXP1, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL8 confirmed the commitment of K562 cells to the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Thus our results provide evidence that, in addition to apoptosis, induction of differentiation is one of the possible therapeutic effects of olive leaf in cancer cells. PMID:24803988

  4. Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California table olives, USA: Invasion, distribution, and management implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), was discovered in California in late 1998. Thereafter, intensive research was conducted to develop pest control methods in table olives. The life history of olive fruit fly was elucidated, and the distribution and abundance of the adults determined through ...

  5. Effect of irrigation, nitrogen application, and a nitrification inhibitor on nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane emissions from an olive (Olea europaea L.) orchard.

    PubMed

    Maris, S C; Teira-Esmatges, M R; Arbonés, A; Rufat, J

    2015-12-15

    Drip irrigation combined with nitrogen (N) fertigation is applied in order to save water and improve nutrient efficiency. Nitrification inhibitors reduce greenhouse gas emissions. A field study was conducted to compare the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) associated with the application of N fertiliser through fertigation (0 and 50kgNha(-1)), and 50kgNha(-1)+nitrification inhibitor in a high tree density Arbequina olive orchard. Spanish Arbequina is the most suited variety for super intensive olive groves. This system allows reducing production costs and increases crop yield. Moreover its oil has excellent sensorial features. Subsurface drip irrigation markedly reduced N2O and N2O+N2 emissions compared with surface drip irrigation. Fertiliser application significantly increased N2O+N2, but not N2O emissions. Denitrification was the main source of N2O. The N2O losses (calculated as emission factor) ranging from -0.03 to 0.14% of the N applied, were lower than the IPCC (2007) values. The N2O+N2 losses were the largest, equivalent to 1.80% of the N applied, from the 50kgNha(-1)+drip irrigation treatment which resulted in water filled pore space >60% most of the time (high moisture). Nitrogen fertilisation significantly reduced CO2 emissions in 2011, but only for the subsurface drip irrigation strategies in 2012. The olive orchard acted as a net CH4 sink for all the treatments. Applying a nitrification inhibitor (DMPP), the cumulative N2O and N2O+N2 emissions were significantly reduced with respect to the control. The DMPP also inhibited CO2 emissions and significantly increased CH4 oxidation. Considering global warming potential, greenhouse gas intensity, cumulative N2O emissions and oil production, it can be concluded that applying DMPP with 50kgNha(-1)+drip irrigation treatment was the best option combining productivity with keeping greenhouse gas emissions under control. PMID:26367066

  6. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California with a Parasitoid Imported from Guatemala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), was imported into California from the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Moscamed, San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. The parasitoid did not develop in the seedhead fly, Cha...

  7. Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for Biological Control of Olive Fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, by the USDA-APHIS, PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. The maximu...

  8. Comparative uptake of trace elements in vines and olive trees over calcareous soils in western La Mancha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ángel Amorós, José; Higueras, Pablo; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; Jesús García, Francisco; Villaseñor, Begoña; Bravo, Sandra; Losilla, María Luisa; María Moreno, Marta

    2014-05-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and olive-tree (Olea europea L.) are very important cultures in Castilla-La Mancha for its extension and contribution to the regional economy. This study was carried out in the municipality of Carrión de Calatrava (Ciudad Real) where the variability of soils of different geological origin, with different evolutions giving a great diversity of soils. The metabolism of trace elements in plants has been extensively studied although each soil-plant system must be investigated, especially since small variations in composition can lead to marked differences. It can be stated that the composition of the plant reflects the environment where it is cultivated and the products of the plant (leaves, fruits, juices, etc…) will be influenced by the composition of the soil. The main aim of the work was to compare the uptake of 24 trace elements in grapevine and olive-tree cultivated in the same soil. Samples from surface soils and plant material (leaf) have been analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, obtaining trace elements in mg/kg. It can be concluded that the leaves of grapevines in the studied plots have shown content in elements: -Similar to the olive-tree in case of: Co, Ga, Y, Ta, Th, U y Nd. -Over to the olive-tree in: Sc, V, Cr, Ni, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, Ce, Hf y W. -Below to the olive-tree in: Cu, Zn, Cs y Pb. Keywords: woody culture soils, mineral nutrition, X-ray fluorescence.

  9. The historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet.

    PubMed

    Uyla?er, Vildan; Yildiz, Gökçen

    2014-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea) is widely cultivated for the production of both oil and table olives and very significant because of its economic value. Olive and olive oil, a traditional food product with thousands of years of history, are the essential components of the Mediterranean diet and are largely consumed in the world. Beside of their economical contribution to national economy, these are an important food in terms of their nutritional value. Olive and olive oil may have a role in the prevention of coronary heart disease and certain cancers because of their high levels of monosaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds. In addition, olives (Olea europaea L.) and olive oils provide a rich source of natural antioxidants. These make them both fairly stable against auto-oxidation and suitable for human health. The aim of this paper is to define the historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet. PMID:24499124

  10. Effects of Olive Metabolites on DNA Cleavage Mediated by Human Type II Topoisomerases.

    PubMed

    Vann, Kendra R; Sedgeman, Carl A; Gopas, Jacob; Golan-Goldhirsh, Avi; Osheroff, Neil

    2015-07-28

    Several naturally occurring dietary polyphenols with chemopreventive or anticancer properties are topoisomerase II poisons. To identify additional phytochemicals that enhance topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage, a library of 341 Mediterranean plant extracts was screened for activity against human topoisomerase II?. An extract from Phillyrea latifolia L., a member of the olive tree family, displayed high activity against the human enzyme. On the basis of previous metabolomics studies, we identified several polyphenols (hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, verbascoside, tyrosol, and caffeic acid) as potential candidates for topoisomerase II poisons. Of these, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, and verbascoside enhanced topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage. The potency of these olive metabolites increased 10-100-fold in the presence of an oxidant. Hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, and verbascoside displayed hallmark characteristics of covalent topoisomerase II poisons. (1) The activity of the metabolites was abrogated by a reducing agent. (2) Compounds inhibited topoisomerase II activity when they were incubated with the enzyme prior to the addition of DNA. (3) Compounds were unable to poison a topoisomerase II? construct that lacked the N-terminal domain. Because hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, and verbascoside are broadly distributed across the olive family, extracts from the leaves, bark, and fruit of 11 olive tree species were tested for activity against human topoisomerase II?. Several of the extracts enhanced enzyme-mediated DNA cleavage. Finally, a commercial olive leaf supplement and extra virgin olive oils pressed from a variety of Olea europea subspecies enhanced DNA cleavage mediated by topoisomerase II?. Thus, olive metabolites appear to act as topoisomerase II poisons in complex formulations intended for human dietary consumption. PMID:26132160

  11. Biological control of olive fruit fly by 2006 parasitoid releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor imported from Guatemala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, was reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala and imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. Releases of parasitoid adults in 2006 were ...

  12. Comparing the historic olive trees (Olea europaea L.) of Santa Cruz Island with contemporaneous trees in the Santa Barbara, CA area: a case study of diversity and structure in an introduced agricultural species conserved in situ

    E-print Network

    Soleri, D.; Koehmstedt, A.; Aradhya, M. K.; Polito, V.; Pinney, K.

    2010-01-01

    involved in the burgeoning olive oil business in CaliforniaEnthusiastic endorsements of olive oil production as aolive populations and individuals along with observations of their yield potential, fruit and oil

  13. Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) ovipositional preference and larval performance in several commercially important olive varieties in California.

    PubMed

    Burrack, Hannah Joy; Zalom, Frank G

    2008-06-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae),is an invasive pest of olives (Olea spp.) in the United States. The objectives of this study were to determine whether B. oleae exhibits ovipositional preference under California field conditions similar to that demonstrated in European populations and whether the resulting larvae fare better in preferred varieties. Female B. oleae exhibited strong ovipositional preference for certain varieties of the domesticated olive, Olea europaea L, and the resulting larvae performed better by some measures in preferred varieties than in lesser preferred varieties. Ovipositional preference was observed in the field from 2003 to 2005, and laboratory assays were conducted to evaluate larval performance in 2005 and 2006. Among the olive varieties tested, Sevillano, Manzanillo, and Mission olives were the most heavily infested during three consecutive years. The larval performance measurements used were pupal yield, pupal weight, larval developmental time, and pupal emergence time. Ovipositional preference and pupal yield do not seem associated. There were significant differences in pupal emergence time, but these also measures did not reflect ovipositional preference. Two measures on performance did seem related to ovipositional preference; there were significant effects of variety on pupal weight and larval developmental time. Pupae developing in Manzanillo and Sevillano olives were heavier than those developing in less preferred varieties, and larval developmental time was significantly shorter in Sevillano olives relative to the other varieties. Oviposition preference and enhanced larval performance has implications for the pest status of this invasive insect in California. PMID:18613575

  14. Genetic markers to distinguish between the Psyttalia lounsburyi populations which parasitize olive fruit flies in Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Psyttalia lounsburyi Loan (Hym.: Braconidae) is an African larval-pupal parasitoid of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae). The olive fruit fly is a key pest of cultivated olives throughout the Mediterranean region, and in California since its introduction into North America. Ol...

  15. Rearing, Importation, and Release of Psyttalia humilis for Biocontrol of Olive Fruit Fly in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control using imported parasitoids can be used to reduce olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), infestations in olives. In 2008-2010, we mass produced the olive fruit fly larval parasitoid, Psyttalia humilis = P. cf. concolor (Silvestri), at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Moscamed, laboratory in...

  16. Proteome Regulation during Olea europaea Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Linda; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldoni, Luciana; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Perrotta, Gaetano

    2013-01-01

    Background Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation of the biosynthesis of compounds affecting the quality of the drupes as well as the final composition of the olive oil. Proteomics offers the possibility to dig deeper into the major changes during fruit development, including the important phase of ripening, and to classify temporal patterns of protein accumulation occurring during these complex physiological processes. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we started monitoring the proteome variations associated with olive fruit development by using comparative proteomics coupled to mass spectrometry. Proteins extracted from drupes at three different developmental stages were separated on 2-DE and subjected to image analysis. 247 protein spots were revealed as differentially accumulated. Proteins were identified from a total of 121 spots and discussed in relation to olive drupe metabolic changes occurring during fruit development. In order to evaluate if changes observed at the protein level were consistent with changes of mRNAs, proteomic data produced in the present work were compared with transcriptomic data elaborated during previous studies. Conclusions/Significance This study identifies a number of proteins responsible for quality traits of cv. Coratina, with particular regard to proteins associated to the metabolism of fatty acids, phenolic and aroma compounds. Proteins involved in fruit photosynthesis have been also identified and their pivotal contribution in oleogenesis has been discussed. To date, this study represents the first characterization of the olive fruit proteome during development, providing new insights into fruit metabolism and oil accumulation process. PMID:23349718

  17. Identification of potential sources of airborne Olea pollen in the Southwest Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, S.; Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Tormo-Molina, R.; Brandao, R.; Caeiro, E.; Silva-Palacios, I.; Gonzalo-Garijo, Á.; Smith, M.

    2012-04-01

    This study aims to determine the potential origin of Olea pollen recorded in Badajoz in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula during 2009-2011. This was achieved using a combination of daily average and diurnal (hourly) airborne Olea pollen counts recorded at Badajoz (southwestern Spain) and Évora (southeastern Portugal), an inventory of olive groves in the studied area and air mass trajectory calculations computed using the HYSPLIT model. Examining olive pollen episodes at Badajoz that had distinctly different diurnal cycles in olive pollen in relation to the mean, allowed us to identify three different scenarios where olive pollen can be transported to the city from either distant or nearby sources. Back trajectory analysis showed that olive pollen can be transported to Badajoz from the West on prevailing winds, either directly or on slow moving air masses, and from high densities of olive groves situated to the Southeast (e.g. Andalucía). Regional scale transport of olive pollen can result in increased nighttime concentrations of this important aeroallergen. This could be particularly important in Mediterranean countries where people can be outdoors during this time due to climate and lifestyle. Such studies are valuable for allergy sufferers and health care professionals because the information can be incorporated into forecasts, the outputs of which are used for avoiding exposure to aeroallergens and planning medication. The results of studies of this nature can also be used for examining gene flow in this important agricultural crop.

  18. Intraspecific larval competition in the olive fruit fly (Diptera: tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Burrack, Hannah Joy; Fornell, Angela M; Connell, Joseph H; O'Connell, Neil V; Phillips, Phil A; Vossen, Paul M; Zalom, Frank G

    2009-10-01

    Olive fruit flies [Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)] occur at densities in California that can result in intraspecific larval competition within infested fruit. Larval B. oleae densities tracked in the field at six location were found to be highly variable and related to the proportion of fruit infested and adult densities. Egg and larval distribution within the field was generally aggregated early in the season and trended toward random and uniform as the season progressed. To determine whether B. oleae experienced fitness consequences at a range of larval densities observed in the field, olive fruits were infested with one, two, four, and six eggs, and larval and pupal developmental time, pupal weight, and pupal yield were compared. At the highest egg density, all measures of performance were negatively impacted, resulting in fewer and lighter pupae that took longer to pupate and emerge as adults, and even when only two larvae was present per olive, resulting pupae were significantly smaller. Density did not impact the sex ratio of the resulting flies or survive to adults. As field surveys showed, larval densities ranged from 1 to 11 B. oleae per fruit at some sites, and our results suggest that, at high densities, B. oleae do experience competition for larval resources. The impact of intraspecific larval competition North American in field populations of B. oleae is unknown, but the potential for competition is present. PMID:19825295

  19. Response of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) to an attract-and-kill trap in greenhouse cage tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel attract and kill trap for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), was constructed with yellow corrugated plastic in a pan shape formed from a disk and collar. The pan trap components were tested under three different greenhouse temperatures and humidities, warm, hot...

  20. Olive fruit fly adult response to attract-and-kill bait stations in greenhouse cages with weathered bait spray and a commercial table olive orchard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An attract-and-kill trap for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) adults, and olive foliage sprayed with insecticidal bait spray were evaluated for efficacy after 1-4 weeks in outdoor weather. Adults caged for 1-3 days with weathered material on foliage and traps in the greenhouse resulted in h...

  1. Oleuropein in Olive and its Pharmacological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Syed Haris

    2010-01-01

    Olive from Olea europaea is native to the Mediterranean region and, both the oil and the fruit are some of the main components of the Mediterranean diet. The main active constituents of olive oil include oleic acid, phenolic constituents, and squalene. The main phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, give extra-virgin olive oil its bitter, pungent taste. The present review focuses on recent works that have analyzed the relationship between the major phenolic compound oleuropein and its pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-cancer activities, antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effect. PMID:21179340

  2. Whole-Organ analysis of calcium behaviour in the developing pistil of olive (Olea europaea L.) as a tool for the determination of key events in sexual plant reproduction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The pistil is a place where multiple interactions between cells of different types, origin, and function occur. Ca2+ is one of the key signal molecules in plants and animals. Despite the numerous studies on Ca2+ signalling during pollen-pistil interactions, which constitute one of the main topics of plant physiology, studies on Ca2+ dynamics in the pistil during flower formation are scarce. The purpose of this study was to analyze the contents and in situ localization of Ca2+ at the whole-organ level in the pistil of olive during the whole course of flower development. Results The obtained results showed significant changes in Ca2+ levels and distribution during olive pistil development. In the flower buds, the lowest levels of detectable Ca2+ were observed. As flower development proceeded, the Ca2+ amount in the pistil successively increased and reached the highest levels just after anther dehiscence. When the anthers and petals fell down a dramatic but not complete drop in calcium contents occurred in all pistil parts. In situ Ca2+ localization showed a gradual accumulation on the stigma, and further expansion toward the style and the ovary after anther dehiscence. At the post-anthesis phase, the Ca2+ signal on the stigmatic surface decreased, but in the ovary a specific accumulation of calcium was observed only in one of the four ovules. Ultrastructural localization confirmed the presence of Ca2+ in the intracellular matrix and in the exudate secreted by stigmatic papillae. Conclusions This is the first report to analyze calcium in the olive pistil during its development. According to our results in situ calcium localization by Fluo-3 AM injection is an effective tool to follow the pistil maturity degree and the spatial organization of calcium-dependent events of sexual reproduction occurring in developing pistil of angiosperms. The progressive increase of the Ca2+ pool during olive pistil development shown by us reflects the degree of pistil maturity. Ca2+ distribution at flower anthesis reflects the spatio-functional relationship of calcium with pollen-stigma interaction, progamic phase, fertilization and stigma senescence. PMID:22050767

  3. Temperature Effects on Olive Fruit Fly Infestation in the FlySim Cellular Automata Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore

    FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.

  4. Biocontrol of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) with Metarhizium brunneum and its extracts.

    PubMed

    Yousef, M; Lozano-Tovar, M D; Garrido-Jurado, I; Quesada-Moraga, E

    2013-06-01

    The susceptibility of preimaginal and adult olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to a strain of the mitosporic ascomycete Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and the insecticidal activity of its crude extract to olive fruit fly adults were investigated. Strain EAMb 09/01-Su caused 60% mortality to B. oleae adults, with average survival time (AST) of 8.8 d. In soil treatments against pupariating third-instar larvae, preimaginal B. oleae mortality reached 82.3%, whereas preimaginal mortality targeting puparia was 33.3%. The crude extract of EAMb 09/01-Su strain caused 80.0% adult mortality when administered per os, with AST of 27.7 h. The crude extract was demonstrated to be quite thermostable and photoresistant. These results indicate that M. brunneum EAMb 09/01-Su strain and its crude extract show potential to be used in an integrated pest management olive fruit fly management strategy targeting both adults and preimaginals. PMID:23865175

  5. Prediction of olive quality using FT-NIR spectroscopy in reflectance and transmittance modes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to use FT-NIR spectroscopy to predict the firmness, oil content and color of two olive (Olea europaea L) varieties (‘Ayvalik’ and ‘Gemlik’). Spectral measurements were performed on the intact olives for the wavelengths of 780-2500 nm in reflectance and for 800-1725...

  6. Nondestructive Olive Quality Detection Using FT-NIR Spectroscopy in Reflectance Mode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quality features (firmness, oil content and color in terms of hue and chroma) of two olive (Olea europaea L) varieties (‘Ayvalik’ and ‘Gemlik’) were predicted using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. Reflectance measurements of intact olives were performed using a bifurcated fibe...

  7. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF OLIVE FLY: BALANCING PARASITOID EFFECTIVENESS AGAINST NON-TARGET IMPACTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), has become an important pest of California olives, and is the target of a classical biological control program. We report here on the pre-release screening of imported parasitoids Hymenoptera:Braconidae), conducted in the University of California ...

  8. Comparative evaluation of two olive fruit fly parasitoids under varying abiotic conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) invaded California around 1998 and has become a major olive pest. Two larval parasitoids, Psyttalia lounsburyi (Silvestri) and P. humilis (Szépligeti) (both Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were introduced from Africa into California and p...

  9. Development of Biological and Cultural Control of Olive Fruit Fly in the Central Valley of California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The eastern side of the Central Valley of California where olives are grown for canning was surveyed for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), infestations. The pest was found for the first time in unusually high numbers in Merced. The a parasitic wasp, Psyttalia humilis (Silvestri), was import...

  10. OLIVE FRUIT FLY BIOLOGY AND CULTURAL CONTROL PRACTICES IN CALIFORNIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), first found in California, USA in 1998 was investigated in laboratory and field studies. Mortality of 1-5, 6-8, 9-11, and 12-14 d-old immature insects in olives was 19-75, 13-58, 5-27, and 0-7% when exposed to 15C and 60% relative humidity (RH), and was 14...

  11. Identification of potential sources of airborne Olea pollen in the Southwest Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Brandao, Rui; Caeiro, Elsa; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela; Smith, Matt

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to determine the potential origin of Olea pollen recorded in Badajoz in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula during 2009-2011. This was achieved using a combination of daily average and diurnal (hourly) airborne Olea pollen counts recorded at Badajoz (south-western Spain) and Évora (south-eastern Portugal), an inventory of olive groves in the studied area and air mass trajectory calculations computed using the HYSPLIT model. Examining olive pollen episodes at Badajoz that had distinctly different diurnal cycles in olive pollen in relation to the mean, allowed us to identify three different scenarios where olive pollen can be transported to the city from either distant or nearby sources during conditions with slow air mass movements. Back trajectory analysis showed that olive pollen can be transported to Badajoz from the West on prevailing winds, either directly or on slow moving air masses, and from high densities of olive groves situated to the Southeast (e.g. Andalucía). Regional scale transport of olive pollen can result in increased nighttime concentrations of this important aeroallergen. This could be particularly important in Mediterranean countries where people can be outdoors during this time due to climate and lifestyle. Such studies that examine sources and the atmospheric transport of pollen are valuable for allergy sufferers and health care professionals because the information can be incorporated into forecasts, the outputs of which are used for avoiding exposure to aeroallergens and planning medication. The results of studies of this nature can also be used for examining gene flow in this important agricultural crop.

  12. Mobility of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) late third instars and teneral adults in test arenas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mobility of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), late third instars before pupation, teneral adults before flight, and mature adults restricted from flight was studied under mulches in greenhouse cage tests, in horizontal pipes, vertical bottles and pipes filled with sand, and by observati...

  13. Evaluation of olive as a host of Xylella fastidiosa and associated sharpshooter vectors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) trees exhibiting leaf scorch and/or branch dieback symptoms in California were surveyed for the xylem-limited, fastidious bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Only ~17% of diseased trees tested positive for X. fastidiosa by PCR, and disease symptoms could not be attributed to X. fa...

  14. Classic biological control of olive fruit fly in California, USA: release and recovery of introduced parasitoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The establishment of olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) in California led to a classical biological program. This study reports the release and recovery of two solitary larval endoparasitoids, Psyttalia humilis Silvestri and Psyttalia lounsburyi (Silvestri) from sub-Saharan Africa, in two coa...

  15. Pest, Parasitoid, and Fruit Interactions in Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), and the imported parasitoid, P. humilis, required cool temperatures, high humidities, and food and water for prolonged survival (about 6 months for host) in laboratory and greenhouse tests. Life span was greatly shortened by high temperatures, low humiditi...

  16. 2008 Field Releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor for Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid Psytallia cf. concolor (Szépligeti) was reared on sterile Mediterranean fruit fly larvae at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Petapa Quarantine Laboratory in Guatemala and shipped to the USDA-ARS, Parlier for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in California. Improved ...

  17. Centennial olive trees as a reservoir of genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Díez, Concepción M.; Trujillo, Isabel; Barrio, Eladio; Belaj, Angjelina; Barranco, Diego; Rallo, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the oldest trees could be a powerful tool both for germplasm collection and for understanding the earliest origins of clonally propagated fruit crops. The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is a suitable model to study the origin of cultivars due to its long lifespan, resulting in the existence of both centennial and millennial trees across the Mediterranean Basin. Methods The genetic identity and diversity as well as the phylogenetic relationships among the oldest wild and cultivated olives of southern Spain were evaluated by analysing simple sequence repeat markers. Samples from both the canopy and the roots of each tree were analysed to distinguish which trees were self-rooted and which were grafted. The ancient olives were also put into chronological order to infer the antiquity of traditional olive cultivars. Key Results Only 9·6 % out of 104 a priori cultivated ancient genotypes matched current olive cultivars. The percentage of unidentified genotypes was higher among the oldest olives, which could be because they belong to ancient unknown cultivars or because of possible intra-cultivar variability. Comparing the observed patterns of genetic variation made it possible to distinguish which trees were grafted onto putative wild olives. Conclusions This study of ancient olives has been fruitful both for germplasm collection and for enlarging our knowledge about olive domestication. The findings suggest that grafting pre-existing wild olives with olive cultivars was linked to the beginnings of olive growing. Additionally, the low number of genotypes identified in current cultivars points out that the ancient olives from southern Spain constitute a priceless reservoir of genetic diversity. PMID:21852276

  18. Selective recognition of DNA from olive leaves and olive oil by PNA and modified-PNA microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Stefano; Calabretta, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Tullia; Sforza, Stefano; Arcioni, Sergio; Baldoni, Luciana; Corradini, Roberto; Marchelli, Rosangela

    2012-01-01

    PNA probes for the specific detection of DNA from olive oil samples by microarray technology were developed. The presence of as low as 5% refined hazelnut (Corylus avellana) oil in extra-virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L.) could be detected by using a PNA microarray. A set of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Actin gene of Olive was chosen as a model for evaluating the ability of PNA probes for discriminating olive cultivars. Both unmodified and C2-modified PNAs bearing an arginine side-chain were used, the latter showing higher sequence specificity. DNA extracted from leaves of three different cultivars (Ogliarola leccese, Canino and Frantoio) could be easily discriminated using a microarray with unmodified PNA probes, whereas discrimination of DNA from oil samples was more challenging, and could be obtained only by using chiral PNA probes. PMID:22772038

  19. REGULATION OF FLOWERING IN 'ARBEQUINA' OLIVES UNDER NON-CHILLING CONDITIONS: THE EFFECT OF HIGH DAYTIME TEMPERATURES ON BLOOMING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, we have shown that flowering and fruiting in ‘Arbequina’ cultivar of olives (Olea europaea) can be achieved in the absence of chilling temperatures (less than or equal to 7°C). In our previous studies we showed that absence of flowering in certain subtropical climates (e.g. southern Texa...

  20. Olive Fruit Fly, an Invasive Species in California, Mitigation by Cultural and Biological Control Based on Pest Biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly (OLF), Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), was first detected in California in 1998. Adults can live for 7 months and lay eggs at 12 d-old with a peak at 20 d. The larvae complete development in fruit 1cm in height. Hot and dry conditions can cause complete mortality of the immatures. Non-har...

  1. Efficacy of new mass-trapping devices against Bactrocera oleae (Diptera tephritidae) for minimizing pesticide input in agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Noce, Maria E; Belfiore, Tiziana; Scalercio, Stefano; Vizzarri, Veronica; Iannotta, Nino

    2009-06-01

    Decreasing pesticide use in olive groves is central to controlling pathogens and pests such as Bactrocera oleae. This has led to the development of mass trapping devices which not only minimize pesticide use but, with improved efficacy of attractants, also decrease costs associated with pest control and ensures that the quality of olive oil is safe for human consumption. This study was undertaken to test a new device which utilizes reduced quantities of both insecticide (lambda-cyalothrin) as well as the female olive fly pheromone (1,7-dioxaspiro-(5.5)-undecane). The new device was tested against an older device manufactured by the same company. The use of plastic polymers as substrate for encapsulating the pheromone allowed for a slower pheromone release, prolonging the efficacy and duration and thus reducing costs. The density of adult populations was monitored using yellow chromotropic traps that were checked every ten days and the degree of olive infestation, as determined by preimago stages, was assessed by analyzing 100 drupes per plot. Infestation analyses were performed every ten days. The control plot had the lowest density of adults and the highest drupe infestation rate. The new devices were more effective than the older devices in both attracting adults and controlling infestation of drupes. Moreover, the new devices containing reduced amounts of pheromone and insecticide were cheaper and exhibited longer functional efficacy. In addition to the slower release of attractants, the plastic polymers used in these newer devices were also more resistant to mechanical and weather degradations. Results demonstrate that mass trapping can indeed be an effective means of controlling B. oleae via eco-sustainable olive farming. PMID:20183048

  2. Olive fruit fly: managing an ancient pest in modern times.

    PubMed

    Daane, Kent M; Johnson, Marshall W

    2010-01-01

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major pest of commercial olives worldwide. Various aspects of its biology, ecology, management, and impact on olive production are highlighted. With the discovery of insecticidal resistance in some populations frequently treated with organophosphates, old and new control options are being investigated. The potential of biological control is examined. Surveys suggest that a small group of braconids in the Opiinae subfamily best represent the primary parasitoids attacking olive fruit fly in its native range. These species include Psyttalia lounsburyi, P. dacicida, P. concolor, P. ponerophaga, and Utetes africanus. Bracon celer, another braconid but in the Braconinae subfamily, is also reared from the fruit fly in its native range. The potential of these and other natural enemies is discussed with respect to olive fruit fly biology, commercial olive production, and biological constraints that may limit their success. We suggest that numerous species exist that should be further investigated as control agents for olive fruit fly in the many climatic regimes where the pest is found. PMID:19961328

  3. Cross-reactivity of Olea europaea with other Oleaceae species in allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Pajarón, M J; Vila, L; Prieto, I; Resano, A; Sanz, M L; Oehling, A K

    1997-08-01

    Cross-reactivity between pollen extracts of four species of Oleaceae was studied: olive (Olea europaea), ash (Fraxinus excelsior), privet (Ligustrum vulgare), and lilac (Syringa vulgaris). Thus, 51 patients and 13 atopic controls were studied, by means of intracutaneous skin tests, histamine-release tests against the four extracts, and specific IgE to O. europaea. The proteic content of the four extracts was assessed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting, and similarity of all the extracts studied was observed after electrophoresis and immunodetection. Six common bands were found to be responsible for the cross-reactivity, with apparent molecular weights of 49.6, 40, 36.7, 19.7, 16.7, and 14 kDa, respectively. The cross-reactivity was also corroborated by immunoblotting inhibition and FEIA inhibition. The patients had a similar response to the four allergenic extracts used, although the response to Olea was greatest. When the patients were compared by their geographic origin (northern or southern Spain, according to the distribution of areas of olive pollen influence), there were no significant differences between the two groups in skin reactivity, but a higher histamine release was observed for the four extracts in the southern group, although it was significant only for Fraxinus and Ligustrum. This work corroborated the practicality of the diagnostic methods used and the cross-reactivity between the four species studied, as demonstrated by the different methods used. Therefore, we suggest that only O. europaea extract be used in diagnosis and immunotherapy in Oleaceae pollen allergy. PMID:9284982

  4. The genetic polymorphisms and colonization process of olive fly populations in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dogaç, Ersin; Kandemir, ?rfan; Taskin, Vatan

    2013-01-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest of olives in olive growing regions worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean basin and North America. Despite the economic importance of the olive fly, the colonization route of this species is unclear. We used nuclear microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA to provide information about the population structure and invasion route of olive fly populations in Turkey, as representative of the Eastern Mediterranean region. Adult fly samples were collected from 38 sublocations covering all olive growing regions in Turkey. The simple sequence variability data revealed a significant genetic variability in olive fly populations and a certain degree of differentiation between Mediterranean and Aegean populations. Mediterranean populations harbor higher levels of microsatellite variation than Aegean populations, which points to the eastern part of the Mediterranean as the putative source of invasion. mtDNA results suggest olive flies from the western part of Turkey are closely related to Italo-Aegean flies of the Mediterranean basin and the olive fly populations have invaded the northern part of the Mediterranean basin through western Turkey. In addition, finding specific American haplotypes in high frequencies might indicate that Turkey is the possible source of American olive fly populations. In order to more precisely characterize the population structure and invasion routes of this organism, more DNA-based sequence analysis should be carried out worldwide. PMID:23457499

  5. Phenotypic comparisons between wild relatives and cultivars of kiwifruit, persimmon, mulberry, and olive at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Davis, CA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotypic traits were characterized for 23 wild species and 4 cultivars of 4 clonal fruit crops including, Kiwifruit (Actinidia), Persimmon (Diospyros), Mulberry (Morus) and Olive (Olea). Across all four crops, the wild species varied distinctly, especially when compared with the cultivars. The wil...

  6. Non-target host risk assessment of the idiobiont parasitoid Bracon celer (Hymenoptera:Bracondiae) for biological control of olive fly in California.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The non-target risk posed by the African fruit-fly parasitoid, Bracon celer Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), was assessed as part of a classical biological program for the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) in California, USA. Behavioral and reproductive ...

  7. Prevalence of Candidatus Erwinia dacicola in wild and laboratory olive fruit fly populations and across developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Estes, Anne M; Hearn, David J; Burrack, Hannah J; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Pierson, Elizabeth A

    2012-04-01

    The microbiome of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), a worldwide pest of olives (Olea europaea L.), has been examined for >100 yr as part of efforts to identify bacteria that are plant pathogens vectored by the fly or are beneficial endosymbionts essential for the fly's survival and thus targets for possible biological control. Because tephritid fruit flies feed on free-living bacteria in their environment, distinguishing between the transient, acquired bacteria of their diet and persistent, resident bacteria that are vertically transmitted endosymbionts is difficult. Several culture-dependent and -independent studies have identified a diversity of species in the olive fruit fly microbiome, but they have not distinguished the roles of the microbes. Candidatus Erwinia dacicola, has been proposed to be a coevolved endosymbiont of the olive fruit fly; however, this was based on limited samples from two Italian populations. Our study shows that C. Erwinia dacicola was present in all New and Old World populations and in the majority of individuals of all life stages sampled in 2 yr. Olive fruit flies reared on olives in the laboratory had frequencies of C. Erwinia dacicola similar to that of wild populations; however, flies reared on artificial diets containing antibiotics in the laboratory rarely had the endosymbiont. The relative abundance of C. Erwinia dacicola varied across development stages, being most abundant in ovipositing females and larvae. This uniform presence of C. Erwini dacicola suggests that it is a persistent, resident endosymbiont of the olive fruit fly. PMID:22506998

  8. Effect of olive fruit fly infestation on the quality of olive oil from Chemlali cultivar during ripening.

    PubMed

    Mraicha, Faten; Ksantini, Mohieddine; Zouch, Olfa; Ayadi, Mohamed; Sayadi, Sami; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2010-11-01

    Olive fruits are seriously deteriorated by pre and post harvest damage due to the attack of insects, such as Bactrocera olaea, which strongly alters the quality of olives. Olives from Chemlali cultivar were collected and divided into different groups according to the presence or absence of infestation (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 100%) by the olive fruit fly (B. olaea). The infestation of this pest has been studied to evaluate its influence on virgin olive oil quality (free acidity, K(232) and K(270), fatty acids composition, pigment concentration, organoleptic characteristics, phenolic content, and antioxidant power). Results showed that both attacks by B. oleae and maturity process affected the quantitative and qualitative composition of the oil. These analyses demonstrated that the degree of fly attack was positively correlated with free acidity, the values of this parameter increase from 0.6 to 1.5 and 3.4, at the infestation levels 10%, 15% and 100%, respectively (R(2)=0.7418, P<0.05), and negatively related to the phenolic content which was always lower at the 100% infestation level (R(2)=0.9155, P<0.05), and consequently, the organoleptic characteristics. In addition, the infestation by olive fly did not cause an important change in the fatty acid composition while it is clear that fatty acids levels change in relation to the fruit repining stage. The antioxidant activity decreased during maturation, it was correlated to the total phenol content and the fruit infestation level. PMID:20804813

  9. Chemical and Biological Investigation of Olive Mill Waste Water - OMWW Secoiridoid Lactones.

    PubMed

    Vougogiannopoulou, Konstantina; Angelopoulou, Maria T; Pratsinis, Harris; Grougnet, Raphaël; Halabalaki, Maria; Kletsas, Dimitris; Deguin, Brigitte; Skaltsounis, Leandros A

    2015-08-01

    Olive mill waste water is the major byproduct of the olive oil industry containing a range of compounds related to Olea europaea and olive oil constituents. Olive mill waste water comprises an important environmental problem in olive oil producing countries, but it is also a valuable material for the isolation of high added value compounds. In this study, an attempt to investigate the secoiridoid content of olive mill waste water is described with the aid of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization (±)-high-resolution mass spectrometry and centrifugal partition chromatography methods. In total, seven secoiridoid lactones were isolated, four of which are new natural products. This is the first time that a conjugate of hydroxytyrosol and a secoiridoid lactone has been isolated from olive mill waste water and structurally characterized. Furthermore, the range of isolated compounds allowed for the proposal of a hypothesis for the biotransformation of olive secoiridoids during the production of olive mill waste water. Finally, the ability of the representative compounds to reduce the intracellular reactive oxygen species was assessed with the dichlorofluorescein assay in conjunction with the known antioxidant agent hydroxytyrosol. PMID:26218340

  10. Aromatized to Find Mates: ?-Pinene Aroma Boosts the Mating Success of Adult Olive Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Gerofotis, Christos D.; Ioannou, Charalampos S.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Contrary to other Tephritidae, female but also male olive flies, Bactrocera oleae release pheromones during their sexual communication. Alpha-pinene, a common plant volatile found in high amounts in unripe olive fruit and leaves has been detected as one of the major components of the female pheromone. However, possible effects of ?-pinene and that of other host volatiles on the mating behavior of the olive fly have not been investigated. Methodology Using wild olive flies, reared on olive fruit for 3 generations in the laboratory, we explored whether exposure of male and female olive flies to ?-pinene affects their sexual performance. Results Exposure of sexually mature adult olive flies to the aroma of ?-pinene significantly increases the mating performance over non-exposed individuals. Interestingly, exposure to ?-pinene boosts the mating success of both males and female olive flies. Conclusions This is the first report of such an effect on the olive fly, and the first time that a single plant volatile has been reported to induce such a phenomenon on both sexes of a single species. We discuss the possible associated mechanism and provide some practical implications. PMID:24260571

  11. Marked Genetic Differentiation between Western Iberian and Italic Populations of the Olive Fly: Southern France as an Intermediate Area

    PubMed Central

    van Asch, Barbara; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando Trindade; da Costa, Luís Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest affecting the olive industry, to which it is estimated to cause average annual losses in excess of one billion dollars. As with other insects with a wide distribution, it is generally accepted that the understanding of B. oleae population structure and dynamics is fundamental for the design and implementation of effective monitoring and control strategies. However, and despite important advances in the past decade, a clear picture of B. oleae's population structure is still lacking. In the Mediterranean basin, where more than 95% of olive production is concentrated, evidence from several studies suggests the existence of three distinct sub-populations, but the geographical limits of their distributions, and the level of interpenetration and gene flow among them remain ill-characterized. Here we use mitochondrial haplotype analysis to show that one of the Mediterranean mitochondrial lineages displays geographically correlated substructure and demonstrate that Italic populations, though markedly distinct from their Iberian and Levantine counterparts are more diverse than previously described. Finally, we show that this distinction does not result from extant hypothetical geographic limits imposed by the Alps or the Pyrenees nor, more generally, does it result from any sharp boundary, as intermixing is observed in a broad area, albeit at variable levels. Instead, Bayesian phylogeographic analysis suggests the interplay between isolation-mediated differentiation during glacial periods and bi-directional dispersal and population intermixing in the interglacials has played a major role in shaping current olive fly population structure. PMID:25951107

  12. Marked Genetic Differentiation between Western Iberian and Italic Populations of the Olive Fly: Southern France as an Intermediate Area.

    PubMed

    van Asch, Barbara; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando Trindade; da Costa, Luís Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest affecting the olive industry, to which it is estimated to cause average annual losses in excess of one billion dollars. As with other insects with a wide distribution, it is generally accepted that the understanding of B. oleae population structure and dynamics is fundamental for the design and implementation of effective monitoring and control strategies. However, and despite important advances in the past decade, a clear picture of B. oleae's population structure is still lacking. In the Mediterranean basin, where more than 95% of olive production is concentrated, evidence from several studies suggests the existence of three distinct sub-populations, but the geographical limits of their distributions, and the level of interpenetration and gene flow among them remain ill-characterized. Here we use mitochondrial haplotype analysis to show that one of the Mediterranean mitochondrial lineages displays geographically correlated substructure and demonstrate that Italic populations, though markedly distinct from their Iberian and Levantine counterparts are more diverse than previously described. Finally, we show that this distinction does not result from extant hypothetical geographic limits imposed by the Alps or the Pyrenees nor, more generally, does it result from any sharp boundary, as intermixing is observed in a broad area, albeit at variable levels. Instead, Bayesian phylogeographic analysis suggests the interplay between isolation-mediated differentiation during glacial periods and bi-directional dispersal and population intermixing in the interglacials has played a major role in shaping current olive fly population structure. PMID:25951107

  13. Effects of the olive tree leaf constituents on myocardial oxidative damage and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Efentakis, Panagiotis; Iliodromitis, Efstathios K; Mikros, Emmanuel; Papachristodoulou, Anastasia; Dagres, Nikolaos; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Andreadou, Ioanna

    2015-06-01

    The olive (Olea europaea) leaf is considered an important traditional herbal medicine utilized against infectious diseases, and for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension. Moreover, olive leaf constituents have been related to cardioprotection, probably due to their association with cellular redox modulating effects. The pathogenesis of certain common diseases, including those of the cardiovascular system, involves oxidative stress and tissue inflammation. Olive polyphenolic compounds, such as oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, or tyrosol, possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiatherosclerotic, anti-ischemic, and hypolipidemic effects on the myocardium as demonstrated by various in vitro and in vivo studies. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge on the role of the olive leaf constituents in the prevention of cardiac dysfunction and highlight future perspectives in their use as cardioprotective agents in therapeutics. PMID:26018920

  14. Representations of Oliver Kullmann

    E-print Network

    Kullmann, Oliver

    Representations of categories Oliver Kullmann Concrete categories Stronger representations categories Representations of categories Oliver Kullmann Computer Science Department University of Wales Oliver Kullmann Concrete categories Stronger representations Universal categories Algebraic

  15. Sex chromosomes and associated rDNA form a heterochromatic network in the polytene nuclei of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Drosopoulou, Elena; Nakou, Ifigeneia; Síchová, Jindra; Kubí?ková, Svatava; Marec, František; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope

    2012-06-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, has a diploid set of 2n = 12 chromosomes including a pair of sex chromosomes, XX in females and XY in males, but polytene nuclei show only five polytene chromosomes, obviously formed by five autosome pairs. Here we examined the fate of the sex chromosomes in the polytene complements of this species using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with the X and Y chromosome-derived probes, prepared by laser microdissection of the respective chromosomes from mitotic metaphases. Specificity of the probes was verified by FISH in preparations of mitotic chromosomes. In polytene nuclei, both probes hybridized strongly to a granular heterochromatic network, indicating thus underreplication of the sex chromosomes. The X chromosome probe (in both female and male nuclei) highlighted most of the granular mass, whereas the Y chromosome probe (in male nuclei) identified a small compact body of this heterochromatic network. Additional hybridization signals of the X probe were observed in the centromeric region of polytene chromosome II and in the telomeres of six polytene arms. We also examined distribution of the major ribosomal DNA (rDNA) using FISH with an 18S rDNA probe in both mitotic and polytene chromosome complements of B. oleae. In mitotic metaphases, the probe hybridized exclusively to the sex chromosomes. The probe signals localized a discrete rDNA site at the end of the short arm of the X chromosome, whereas they appeared dispersed over the entire dot-like Y chromosome. In polytene nuclei, the rDNA was found associated with the heterochromatic network representing the sex chromosomes. Only in nuclei with preserved nucleolar structure, the probe signals were scattered in the restricted area of the nucleolus. Thus, our study clearly shows that the granular heterochromatic network of polytene nuclei in B. oleae is formed by the underreplicated sex chromosomes and associated rDNA. PMID:22825842

  16. Symbiotic bacteria enable olive fly larvae to overcome host defences

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. We examined the interaction between larvae, their associated bacteria, and fruit chemical defence, hypothesizing that bacterial contribution to larval development is contingent on the phenology of fruit defensive chemistry. We demonstrate that larvae require their natural complement of bacteria (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola: Enterobacteriaceae) in order to develop in unripe olives. Conversely, when feeding on ripe fruit, larval development proceeds independently of these bacteria. Our experiments suggest that bacteria counteract the inhibitory effect of oleuropein—the principal phenolic glycoside in unripe olives. In light of these results, we suggest that the unique symbiosis in olive flies, compared with other frugivorous tephritids, is understood by considering the relationship between the fly, bacteria and fruit chemistry. When applied in an evolutionary context, this approach may also point out the forces which shaped symbioses across the Tephritidae. PMID:26587275

  17. Symbiotic bacteria enable olive fly larvae to overcome host defences.

    PubMed

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

    2015-07-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. We examined the interaction between larvae, their associated bacteria, and fruit chemical defence, hypothesizing that bacterial contribution to larval development is contingent on the phenology of fruit defensive chemistry. We demonstrate that larvae require their natural complement of bacteria (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola: Enterobacteriaceae) in order to develop in unripe olives. Conversely, when feeding on ripe fruit, larval development proceeds independently of these bacteria. Our experiments suggest that bacteria counteract the inhibitory effect of oleuropein-the principal phenolic glycoside in unripe olives. In light of these results, we suggest that the unique symbiosis in olive flies, compared with other frugivorous tephritids, is understood by considering the relationship between the fly, bacteria and fruit chemistry. When applied in an evolutionary context, this approach may also point out the forces which shaped symbioses across the Tephritidae. PMID:26587275

  18. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by Releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, Parasitoid Longevity in Presence of the Host, and Host Status of Walnut Husk Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin),...

  19. SNP Discovery by Illumina-Based Transcriptome Sequencing of the Olive and the Genetic Characterization of Turkish Olive Genotypes Revealed by AFLP, SSR and SNP Markers

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Hilal Betul; Cetin, Oznur; Kaya, Hulya; Sahin, Mustafa; Sefer, Filiz; Kahraman, Abdullah; Tanyolac, Bahattin

    2013-01-01

    Background The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is a diploid (2n?=?2x?=?46) outcrossing species mainly grown in the Mediterranean area, where it is the most important oil-producing crop. Because of its economic, cultural and ecological importance, various DNA markers have been used in the olive to characterize and elucidate homonyms, synonyms and unknown accessions. However, a comprehensive characterization and a full sequence of its transcriptome are unavailable, leading to the importance of an efficient large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery in olive. The objectives of this study were (1) to discover olive SNPs using next-generation sequencing and to identify SNP primers for cultivar identification and (2) to characterize 96 olive genotypes originating from different regions of Turkey. Methodology/Principal Findings Next-generation sequencing technology was used with five distinct olive genotypes and generated cDNA, producing 126,542,413 reads using an Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx. Following quality and size trimming, the high-quality reads were assembled into 22,052 contigs with an average length of 1,321 bases and 45 singletons. The SNPs were filtered and 2,987 high-quality putative SNP primers were identified. The assembled sequences and singletons were subjected to BLAST similarity searches and annotated with a Gene Ontology identifier. To identify the 96 olive genotypes, these SNP primers were applied to the genotypes in combination with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers. Conclusions/Significance This study marks the highest number of SNP markers discovered to date from olive genotypes using transcriptome sequencing. The developed SNP markers will provide a useful source for molecular genetic studies, such as genetic diversity and characterization, high density quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, association mapping and map-based gene cloning in the olive. High levels of genetic variation among Turkish olive genotypes revealed by SNPs, AFLPs and SSRs allowed us to characterize the Turkish olive genotype. PMID:24058483

  20. High Genetic Diversity Detected in Olives beyond the Boundaries of the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh-Hassani, Massoma; Ataei, Saeedeh; Cultrera, Nicolò G. M.; Pandolfi, Saverio; Baldoni, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Background Olive trees (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. europaea) naturally grow in areas spanning the Mediterranean basin and towards the East, including the Middle East. In the Iranian plateau, the presence of olives has been documented since very ancient times, though the early history of the crop in this area is shrouded in uncertainty. Methods The varieties presently cultivated in Iran and trees of an unknown cultivation status, surviving under extreme climate and soil conditions, were sampled from different provinces and compared with a set of Mediterranean cultivars. All samples were analyzed using SSR and chloroplast markers to establish the relationships between Iranian olives and Mediterranean varieties, to shed light on the origins of Iranian olives and to verify their contribution to the development of the current global olive variation. Results Iranian cultivars and ecotypes, when analyzed using SSR markers, clustered separately from Mediterranean cultivars and showed a high number of private alleles, on the contrary, they shared the same single chlorotype with the most widespread varieties cultivated in the Mediterranean. Conclusion We hypothesized that Iranian and Mediterranean olive trees may have had a common origin from a unique center in the Near East region, possibly including the western Iranian area. The present pattern of variation may have derived from different environmental conditions, distinct levels and selection criteria, and divergent breeding opportunities found by Mediterranean and Iranian olives.These unexpected findings emphasize the importance of studying the Iranian olive germplasm as a promising but endangered source of variation. PMID:24709858

  1. Analysis of olive fly invasion in California based on microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Zygouridis, N E; Augustinos, A A; Zalom, F G; Mathiopoulos, K D

    2009-04-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the main pest of the olive fruit and its expansion is exclusively restricted to the cultivation zone of the olive tree. Even though olive production has a century-old history in California, the olive fly was first detected in the Los Angeles area in 1998. Within 5 years of the first observation, the insect was reported from all olive cultivation areas of the state. Field-collected flies from five locations in California and another from Israel were analyzed on the basis of microsatellite polymorphisms in 10 microsatellite loci. These results were integrated with those of a previous study of olive fly populations around the European part of the Mediterranean basin. The analysis pointed to the eastern part of the Mediterranean as the putative source of the observed invasion. Moreover, samples from California were quite different from Mediterranean samples implying the participation of phenomena such as genetic drift during the invasion and expansion of the olive fly in California. PMID:19107137

  2. Phytochemical properties and anti-proliferative activity of Olea europaea L. leaf extracts against pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Chloe D; Vuong, Quan V; Sadeqzadeh, Elham; Stathopoulos, Costas E; Roach, Paul D; Scarlett, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Olea europaea L. leaves are an agricultural waste product with a high concentration of phenolic compounds; especially oleuropein. Oleuropein has been shown to exhibit anti-proliferative activity against a number of cancer types. However, they have not been tested against pancreatic cancer, the fifth leading cause of cancer related death in Western countries. Therefore, water, 50% ethanol and 50% methanol extracts of Corregiola and Frantoio variety Olea europaea L. leaves were investigated for their total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids and oleuropein content, antioxidant capacity and anti-proliferative activity against MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells. The extracts only had slight differences in their phytochemical properties, and at 100 and 200 ?g/mL, all decreased the viability of the pancreatic cancer cells relative to controls. At 50 ?g/mL, the water extract from the Corregiola leaves exhibited the highest anti-proliferative activity with the effect possibly due to early eluting HPLC peaks. For this reason, olive leaf extracts warrant further investigation into their potential anti-pancreatic cancer benefits. PMID:26193251

  3. The indole alkaloid meleagrin, from the olive tree endophytic fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, as a novel lead for the control of c-Met-dependent breast cancer proliferation, migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Mady, Mohamed S; Mohyeldin, Mohamed M; Ebrahim, Hassan Y; Elsayed, Heba E; Houssen, Wael E; Haggag, Eman G; Soliman, Randa F; El Sayed, Khalid A

    2016-01-15

    Fungi of the genus Penicillium produce unique and chemically diverse biologically active secondary metabolites, including indole alkaloids. The role of dysregulated hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, c-Met, in the development and progression of breast carcinoma is documented. The goal of this work is to explore the chemistry and bioactivity of the secondary metabolites of the endophytic Penicillium chrysogenum cultured from the leaf of the olive tree Olea europea, collected in its natural habitat in Egypt. This fungal extract showed good inhibitory activities against the proliferation and migration of several human breast cancer lines. The CH2Cl2 extract of P. chrysogenum mycelia was subjected to bioguided chromatographic separation to afford three known indole alkaloids; meleagrin (1), roquefortine C (2) and DHTD (3). Meleagrin inhibited the growth of the human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, MDA-468, BT-474, SK BR-3, MCF7 and MCF7-dox, while similar treatment doses were found to have no effect on the growth and viability of the non-tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells MCF10A. Meleagrin also showed excellent ATP competitive c-Met inhibitory activity in Z-Lyte assay, which was further confirmed via molecular docking studies and Western blot analysis. In addition, meleagrin treatment caused a dose-dependent inhibition of HGF-induced cell migration, and invasion of breast cancer cell lines. Meleagrin treatment potently suppressed the invasive triple negative breast tumor cell growth in an orthotopic athymic nude mice model, promoting this unique natural product from hit to a lead rank. The indole alkaloid meleagrin is a novel lead c-Met inhibitory entity useful for the control of c-Met-dependent metastatic and invasive breast malignancies. PMID:26692349

  4. Olive phenolic compounds: metabolic and transcriptional profiling during fruit development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits contain numerous secondary metabolites, primarily phenolics, terpenes and sterols, some of which are particularly interesting for their nutraceutical properties. This study will attempt to provide further insight into the profile of olive phenolic compounds during fruit development and to identify the major genetic determinants of phenolic metabolism. Results The concentration of the major phenolic compounds, such as oleuropein, demethyloleuropein, 3–4 DHPEA-EDA, ligstroside, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside and lignans, were measured in the developing fruits of 12 olive cultivars. The content of these compounds varied significantly among the cultivars and decreased during fruit development and maturation, with some compounds showing specificity for certain cultivars. Thirty-five olive transcripts homologous to genes involved in the pathways of the main secondary metabolites were identified from the massive sequencing data of the olive fruit transcriptome or from cDNA-AFLP analysis. Their mRNA levels were determined using RT-qPCR analysis on fruits of high- and low-phenolic varieties (Coratina and Dolce d’Andria, respectively) during three different fruit developmental stages. A strong correlation was observed between phenolic compound concentrations and transcripts putatively involved in their biosynthesis, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of the corresponding pathways. OeDXS, OeGES, OeGE10H and OeADH, encoding putative 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-P synthase, geraniol synthase, geraniol 10-hydroxylase and arogenate dehydrogenase, respectively, were almost exclusively present at 45 days after flowering (DAF), suggesting that these compounds might play a key role in regulating secoiridoid accumulation during fruit development. Conclusions Metabolic and transcriptional profiling led to the identification of some major players putatively involved in biosynthesis of secondary compounds in the olive tree. Our data represent the first step towards the functional characterisation of important genes for the determination of olive fruit quality. PMID:22963618

  5. Soil Properties and Olive Cultivar Determine the Structure and Diversity of Plant-Parasitic Nematode Communities Infesting Olive Orchards Soils in Southern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Palomares-Rius, Juan E.; Castillo, Pablo; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Navas-Cortés, Juan A.; Landa, Blanca B.

    2015-01-01

    This work has studied for the first time the structure and diversity of plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) infesting olive orchard soils in a wide-region in Spain that included 92 locations. It aims at determining which agronomical or environmental factors associated to the olive orchards are the main drivers of the PPNs community structure and diversity. Classical morphological and morphometric identification methods were used to determine the frequency and densities of PPNs. Thirteen families, 34 genera and 77 species of PPNs were identified. The highest diversity was found in Helicotylenchus genus, with six species previously reported in Spain and with H. oleae being a first report. Neodolichorhynchus microphasmis and Diptenchus sp., Diphtherophora sp., and Discotylenchus sp., usually considered fungal feeders, were also reported for the first time associated to olive rhizosphere. PPNs abundance ranged from 66 to 16,288 individuals/500-cm3 of soil with Helicotylenchus digonicus being the most prevalent species, followed by Filenchus sp., Merlinius brevidens and Xiphinema pachtaicum. Nematode abundance and diversity indexes were influenced by olive cultivar, and orchard and soil management practices; while olive variety and soil texture were the main factors driving PPN community composition. Soil physicochemical properties and climatic characteristics most strongly associated to the PPN community composition included pH, sand content and exchangeable K, and maximum and minimum average temperature of the sampled locations. Our data suggests that there is a high diversity of PPNs associated to olive in Southern Spain that can exert different damage to olive roots depending on the olive variety and their abundance. Further analysis to determine the resistance levels of most common olive varieties to the prevalent PPNs in Spain will help to choose the most appropriate ones for the establishment of new plantations. This choice will take into consideration the specific soils and environments where those olive varieties will be established. PMID:25625375

  6. Fine-scale ecological and economic assessment of climate change on olive in the Mediterranean Basin reveals winners and losers.

    PubMed

    Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Ruti, Paolo Michele; Dell'Aquila, Alessandro

    2014-04-15

    The Mediterranean Basin is a climate and biodiversity hot spot, and climate change threatens agro-ecosystems such as olive, an ancient drought-tolerant crop of considerable ecological and socioeconomic importance. Climate change will impact the interactions of olive and the obligate olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae), and alter the economics of olive culture across the Basin. We estimate the effects of climate change on the dynamics and interaction of olive and the fly using physiologically based demographic models in a geographic information system context as driven by daily climate change scenario weather. A regional climate model that includes fine-scale representation of the effects of topography and the influence of the Mediterranean Sea on regional climate was used to scale the global climate data. The system model for olive/olive fly was used as the production function in our economic analysis, replacing the commonly used production-damage control function. Climate warming will affect olive yield and fly infestation levels across the Basin, resulting in economic winners and losers at the local and regional scales. At the local scale, profitability of small olive farms in many marginal areas of Europe and elsewhere in the Basin will decrease, leading to increased abandonment. These marginal farms are critical to conserving soil, maintaining biodiversity, and reducing fire risk in these areas. Our fine-scale bioeconomic approach provides a realistic prototype for assessing climate change impacts in other Mediterranean agro-ecosystems facing extant and new invasive pests. PMID:24706833

  7. Fine-scale ecological and economic assessment of climate change on olive in the Mediterranean Basin reveals winners and losers

    PubMed Central

    Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Ruti, Paolo Michele; Dell’Aquila, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean Basin is a climate and biodiversity hot spot, and climate change threatens agro-ecosystems such as olive, an ancient drought-tolerant crop of considerable ecological and socioeconomic importance. Climate change will impact the interactions of olive and the obligate olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae), and alter the economics of olive culture across the Basin. We estimate the effects of climate change on the dynamics and interaction of olive and the fly using physiologically based demographic models in a geographic information system context as driven by daily climate change scenario weather. A regional climate model that includes fine-scale representation of the effects of topography and the influence of the Mediterranean Sea on regional climate was used to scale the global climate data. The system model for olive/olive fly was used as the production function in our economic analysis, replacing the commonly used production-damage control function. Climate warming will affect olive yield and fly infestation levels across the Basin, resulting in economic winners and losers at the local and regional scales. At the local scale, profitability of small olive farms in many marginal areas of Europe and elsewhere in the Basin will decrease, leading to increased abandonment. These marginal farms are critical to conserving soil, maintaining biodiversity, and reducing fire risk in these areas. Our fine-scale bioeconomic approach provides a realistic prototype for assessing climate change impacts in other Mediterranean agro-ecosystems facing extant and new invasive pests. PMID:24706833

  8. Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in relation to region, trap type, season, and availability of fruit.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Miller, Gina T; Stewart-Leslie, Judy; Rice, Richard E; Phillips, Phil A

    2006-12-01

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), was monitored with adult captures by season and trap type, and was related to fruit volume and nonharvested fruit to elucidate the occurrence of the newly introduced pest in California. The highest numbers of adults captured in ChamP traps in olive trees, Olea europaea, were in October in an inland valley location, and in September in a coastal location. Comparisons of trap types showed that the number of olive fruit fly adults captured in Pherocon AM traps in a commercial orchard was significantly greater than in ChamP traps. A significantly greater number of females were captured in Pherocon AM traps with bait packets and pheromone lures than traps with pheromone lures alone, while a significantly greater number of adults and males were captured in traps with pheromone lures alone. Significantly more adults were captured in ChamP traps with bait packets and pheromone lures versus traps with bait packets alone. Fruit volume increased by four times from mid-June to mid-November. Olive fruit fly was found to oviposit on small olive fruit <1 cm3 shortly after fruit set, the maximum number of ovipositional sites per fruit occurred in October, and the greatest number of pupae and adults were reared from fruit collected in September and October. The highest numbers of pupae were collected from nonharvested fruit in March when high numbers of adults were captured in the same orchard. PMID:17195675

  9. The Spider Assemblage of Olive Groves Under Three Management Systems.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Manuel; Pascual, Felipe; Campos, Mercedes; Pekár, Stano

    2015-06-01

    Olives, Olea europaea L., are one of the most important crops in Spain. They are currently produced under three management systems that involve different aspects of soil and pest management, productivity, and crop economy: organic, (integrated pest management-IPM), and conventional. Here, we studied how these systems affect the spiders, the natural enemies of olive grove pests, and performed a detailed analysis of their assemblage. The study was performed during one season in 18 olive groves in Andalusia, Spain, and included both ground-dwelling and canopy species. We found that the organic system supported a significantly higher level of abundance and diversity of canopy spiders than the IPM and conventional systems. Plowing had a negative effect on spider abundance and diversity. However, the presence of hedge vegetation had a positive effect on the spiders. The practices affected the guild structure differently, with some guilds supported by organic and others by IPM. It is suggested that sustainability (in terms of pest control) in olive grove agroecosystems may be obtained by maintaining hedge vegetation regardless of the management system. PMID:26313956

  10. Scolicidal effects of Olea europaea and Satureja khuzestanica extracts on protoscolices of hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Zibaei, Mohammad; Sarlak, Amanallah; Delfan, Bahram; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Azargoon, Alireza

    2012-03-01

    Treatment of hydatid disease is mainly surgical, with medical treatment being reserved as a coadjuvant treatment. Use of effective scolicidal agents during surgery of cystic echinococcosis is essential to reduce the recurrence rate. The goal of this study was to evaluate the in vitro scolicidal effects of hydroalcoholic extracts of Satureja khuzestanica leaves and aqueous extracts of Olea europaea leaves on hydatid cyst protoscolices. Echinococcus granulosus protoscolices were collected from the liver of sheep infected with the hydatid cyst. Various concentrations of plant extracts were used in different exposure times for viability assay of protoscolices. Among the olive leaf extracts tested, 0.1% and 0.01% concentrations had strong scolicidal effects in 120 min. S. khuzestanica 0.1% had very strong scolicidal effects in 30, 60, and 120 min of exposure times and the mortality rate decreased with the lower concentration. The finding have shown that the scolicidal activity of S. khuzestanica against cystic echinococosis protoscolices were more effective, while the O. europaea extract showed less effects. PMID:22451734

  11. Selection at 6-PGD locus in laboratory populations of Bactrocera oleae.

    PubMed

    Cosmidis, Nikos; Goulielmos, George; Eliopoulos, Elias; Loukas, Michael

    2008-10-01

    We have previously shown that laboratory populations of the olive fruitfly Bactrocera oleae come to equilibrium with allele frequencies at the 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD) locus markedly different from those of wild populations. In this study, we present new evidence from perturbation experiments in support of the notion that the locus is under selective pressure under laboratory conditions. Eleven populations were started with frequencies at the 6-PGD locus different from the laboratory equilibrium. Over 12 generations, the populations showed a return to the previous equilibrium, indicating a direct and powerful selection pressure on the naturally occurring allozymes of this locus. That is, a marked increase of the F allele followed by a compensatory decrease of allele I. Populations were set up to minimize the effects of associative overdominance, and we discuss the possible influence of this factor. Nucleotide sequence for the 6-PGD F and I alleles revealed two missense mutations at positions 501 and 730 leading to different amino acids among the two alleles. PMID:19061528

  12. The transformer gene in Bactrocera oleae: the genetic switch that determines its sex fate.

    PubMed

    Lagos, D; Koukidou, M; Savakis, C; Komitopoulou, K

    2007-04-01

    Transformer (tra) is the second gene of a regulatory cascade based on RNA splicing that determines sex in Drosophila melanogaster. Splicing of tra transcripts is regulated by the master gene Sex lethal and tra itself regulates splicing of the transcriptional regulator doublesex (dsx). We present the isolation and characterization of Botra, the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae orthologue to the Drosophila gene transformer. As in Drosophila, Botra transcripts are spliced in a sex-specific manner so that only females encode a functional polypeptide of 422 amino acids, whereas males encode presumably nonfunctional peptide(s). The identification of multiple TRA/TRA-2 binding sites within the Botra male-specific exons, suggests an autoregulation mechanism of tra, through TRA/TRA2 activities. The fundamental role of the TRA protein in sex determination of Bactrocera was investigated by RNA interference, where the introduction of Botra dsRNA into embryos resulted in complete transformation of XX flies into fertile males. PMID:17298554

  13. Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Rendón, Pedro A; Sivinski, John

    2008-06-01

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), by the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. Mean percentage parasitism of olive fruit fly third instars infesting fruit in field cages ranged from 7.0 in Grapevine to 59.7 in Santa Barbara and in free releases ranged from 0 in Grapevine to 10.6 in Santa Barbara after 4- to 6-d exposures. In the laboratory, more parasitoids developed to adults in olive fruit fly larvae that were 11-13 d old than in larvae 8-10 d old. Adult parasitoids lived significantly longer when provided with water than adults without water in environmental chambers at 5 degrees C, 85% RH; 15 degrees C, 65% RH; 25 degrees C, 25% RH; and 35 degrees C, 25% RH. Adult parasitoids lived for 48 d with honey for food and water and 32 d with food and sugar solution at 15 degrees C and 65% RH. Survival of adult parasitoids without food and water in greenhouse tests was approximately 4 d in a simulated coastal climate and 1 d in a simulated inland valley climate and was significantly increased by providing food and water. The parasitoid did not develop in the beneficial seedhead fly, Chaetorellia succinea (Costa), in yellow star thistle. The rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, larvae in green walnut husks was 28.4% in laboratory no-choice tests. In choice tests, the rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly versus olive fruit fly larvae in olives was 11.5 and 24.2%, respectively. PMID:18559183

  14. The main allergen of Olea europaea (Ole e I) is also present in other species of the Oleaceae family.

    PubMed

    Obispo, T M; Melero, J A; Carpizo, J A; Carreira, J; Lombardero, M

    1993-04-01

    Three major pollen allergens from Fraxinus excelsior, Ligustrum vulgare and Syringa vulgaris belonging to the Oleaceae family were purified. Monoclonal antibodies previously raised against the main allergen of Olea europaea (Ole e I) were used for their purification by affinity chromatography. The three new purified allergens were able to bind human IgE from serum of olive-allergic patients in a way analogous to Ole e I. Crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis of the four allergens, using anti-olive extract rabbit serum, showed a unique immunoprecipitation arc with the same characteristics. The four purified proteins had similar molecular weights on SDS-PAGE and the N-terminal sequences for the first 20 amino acids were identical. Furthermore, the concentration of the allergens could be determined using a two-side solid phase assay previously developed for the allergen Ole e I. Our results indicate that the four purified proteins share, to a great extent, antigenic and allergenic epitopes leading to cross-reactivities which could cause common clinical manifestations. We propose for the newly purified allergens the nomenclature of Fra e I, Lig v I and Syr v I. PMID:8319129

  15. Evidence of two lineages of the symbiont 'Candidatus Erwinia dacicola' in Italian populations of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) based on 16S rRNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Savio, Claudia; Mazzon, Luca; Martinez-Sañudo, Isabel; Simonato, Mauro; Squartini, Andrea; Girolami, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    The close association between the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and bacteria has been known for more than a century. Recently, the presence of a host-specific, hereditary, unculturable symbiotic bacterium, designated 'Candidatus Erwinia dacicola', has been described inside the cephalic organ of the fly, called the oesophageal bulb. In the present study, the 16S rRNA gene sequence variability of 'Ca. E. dacicola' was examined within and between 26 Italian olive fly populations sampled across areas where olive trees occur in the wild and areas where cultivated olive trees have been introduced through history. The bacterial contents of the oesophageal bulbs of 314 olive flies were analysed and a minimum of 781 bp of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. The corresponding host fly genotype was assessed by sequencing a 776 bp portion of the mitochondrial genome. Two 'Ca. E. dacicola' haplotypes were found (htA and htB), one being slightly more prevalent than the other (57%). The two haplotypes did not co-exist in the same individuals, as confirmed by cloning. Interestingly, the olive fly populations of the two main Italian islands, Sicily and Sardinia, appeared to be represented exclusively by the htB and htA haplotypes, respectively, while peninsular populations showed both bacterial haplotypes in different proportions. No significant correlation emerged between the two symbiont haplotypes and the 16 host fly haplotypes observed, suggesting evidence for a mixed model of vertical and horizontal transmission of the symbiont during the fly life cycle. PMID:21378134

  16. Classification Oliver Gray

    E-print Network

    Gasparim, Elizabeth

    Classification of N = 2 minimal models Oliver Gray What is a CFT? Classifying modular invariant of the N = 2 Virasoro unitary minimal models Oliver Gray Universit¨at Augsburg 17th December 2008 First Cuban Congress #12;Classification of N = 2 minimal models Oliver Gray What is a CFT? Classifying modular

  17. Oliver Kullmann Introduction

    E-print Network

    Kullmann, Oliver

    Topoi Oliver Kullmann Introduction Grothendieck topoi Topoi Exponentiation Characteristic maps Properties Topoi: Theory and Applications Oliver Kullmann1 1Computer Science, Swansea University, UK http://cs.swan.ac.uk/~csoliver Categorical logic seminar Swansea, March 19+23, 2012 #12;Topoi Oliver Kullmann Introduction Grothendieck topoi

  18. Oliver Kullmann Main results

    E-print Network

    Kullmann, Oliver

    Oliver Kullmann Main results Complement invariance Lean clause-sets Minimal unsatisfiability SAT and Outlook SAT and the Polya Permanent Problem Oliver Kullmann Computer Science Department Swansea University SAT 2007, Lisbon, May 30, 2007 SAT: Connecting combinatorics and linear algebra #12;Oliver Kullmann

  19. Generic SAT Oliver Kullmann

    E-print Network

    Kullmann, Oliver

    Generic SAT library Oliver Kullmann The SAT problem Definition and NPC SAT solvers Who we are, what Reading A generic library for SAT problems Higher-Order Unit Testing Oliver Kullmann University of Wales Swansea Computer Science Department ACCU Conference 2006 #12;Generic SAT library Oliver Kullmann The SAT

  20. SAT Algorithms Oliver Kullmann

    E-print Network

    Vollmer, Heribert

    SAT Algorithms Oliver Kullmann CNFs Clause-sets, assignments Properties Data structures algorithms Oliver Kullmann Computer Science Department University of Wales Swansea Complexity of Constraints Dagstuhl, October 3, 2006 SAT algorithms for boolean CNFs: Local search and DPLL #12;SAT Algorithms Oliver

  1. The OKlibrary Oliver Kullmann

    E-print Network

    Kullmann, Oliver

    The OKlibrary Oliver Kullmann The Maxima/Lisp level Overview External Sources The build system Planning and documentation Conclusions and Outlook Introducing the OKlibrary Oliver Kullmann Computer OKlibrary Oliver Kullmann The Maxima/Lisp level Overview External Sources The build system Planning

  2. The OKlibrary Oliver Kullmann

    E-print Network

    Kullmann, Oliver

    The OKlibrary Oliver Kullmann The Maxima/Lisp level Overview External Sources The test system Planning and documentation Conclusions and Outlook Introducing the OKlibrary Oliver Kullmann Computer" (IRE) for (generalised) SAT #12;The OKlibrary Oliver Kullmann The Maxima/Lisp level Overview External

  3. Effect of non-crop vegetation types on conservation biological control of pests in olive groves

    PubMed Central

    Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M.; Campos, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    Conservation biological control (CBC) is an environmentally sound potential alternative to the use of chemical insecticides. It involves modifications of the environment to promote natural enemy activity on pests. Despite many CBC studies increasing abundance of natural enemies, there are far fewer demonstrations of reduced pest density and very little work has been conducted in olive crops. In this study we investigated the effects of four forms of non-crop vegetation on the abundance of two important pests: the olive psyllid (Euphyllura olivina) and the olive moth (Prays oleae). Areas of herbaceous vegetation and areas of woody vegetation near olive crops, and smaller patches of woody vegetation within olive groves, decreased pest abundance in the crop. Inter-row ground covers that are known to increase the abundance of some predators and parasitoids had no effect on the pests, possibly as a result of lack of synchrony between pests and natural enemies, lack of specificity or intra-guild predation. This study identifies examples of the right types of diversity for use in conservation biological control in olive production systems. PMID:23904994

  4. High summer temperatures affect the survival and reproduction of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Geng; Johnson, Marshall W; Daane, Kent M; Nadel, Hannah

    2009-10-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an invasive pest in California. Identifying environmental constraints that affect the geographic distribution and abundance of any invasive insect pest is fundamental to its effective management. California's Central Valley, where most commercial olives are grown, is extremely hot during the summer, with maximum daily temperatures consistently >35.0 degrees C. This study examined the effects of two diurnal temperature regimens (low 18.3 degrees C, high 35.0 or 37.8 degrees C) reflecting summer conditions in the valley, and one control temperature regimen (low 18.3 degrees C, high 23.9 degrees C) on the fly's survival and reproductive success in the laboratory. The temperature regimen of 18.3-35.0 degrees C resulted in delayed egg maturation and reduced production of mature eggs compared with the control temperature regimen. Egg maturation was possible at the higher temperature regimen when females were provided with water and food, and egg-laying occurred during the cold phase of the temperature cycle. Access to olive fruit and oviposition itself further promoted egg maturation. Under exposure to the 18.3-35.0 degrees C temperature regimen, approximately 50% of eggs died, and the remainder that hatched died as first instars. No egg hatch occurred at the temperature treatment of 18.3-37.8 degrees C. We confirmed these laboratory results through field cage studies with adult B. oleae, conducted in the summer of 2007 and 2008. Under ambient summer temperatures, adult B. oleae survived for 1-2 wk, and females readily laid eggs when provided water and food. No offspring developed in midsummer of 2007, and <2% of the offspring developed to adults in summer 2008 trials. These results suggest that high summer temperatures limit the fly's abundance in California's Central Valley. PMID:19825305

  5. Olive leaf extract as a hypoglycemic agent in both human diabetic subjects and in rats.

    PubMed

    Wainstein, Julio; Ganz, Tali; Boaz, Mona; Bar Dayan, Yosefa; Dolev, Eran; Kerem, Zohar; Madar, Zecharia

    2012-07-01

    Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaves have been widely used in traditional remedies in European and Mediterranean countries as extracts, herbal teas, and powder. They contain several potentially bioactive compounds that may have hypoglycemic properties. To examine the efficacy of 500 mg oral olive leaf extract taken once daily in tablet form versus matching placebo in improving glucose homeostasis in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). In this controlled clinical trial, 79 adults with T2DM were randomized to treatment with 500 mg olive leaf extract tablet taken orally once daily or matching placebo. The study duration was 14 weeks. Measures of glucose homeostasis including Hba1c and plasma insulin were measured and compared by treatment assignment. In a series of animal models, normal, streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic, and sand rats were used in the inverted sac model to determine the mechanism through which olive leaf extract affected starch digestion and absorption. In the randomized clinical trial, the subjects treated with olive leaf extract exhibited significantly lower HbA1c and fasting plasma insulin levels; however, postprandial plasma insulin levels did not differ significantly by treatment group. In the animal models, normal and STZ diabetic rats exhibited significantly reduced starch digestion and absorption after treatment with olive leaf extract compared with intestine without olive leaf treatment. Reduced digestion and absorption was observed in both the mucosal and serosal sides of the intestine. Though reduced, the decline in starch digestion and absorption did not reach statistical significance in the sand rats. Olive leaf extract is associated with improved glucose homeostasis in humans. Animal models indicate that this may be facilitated through the reduction of starch digestion and absorption. Olive leaf extract may represent an effective adjunct therapy that normalizes glucose homeostasis in individuals with diabetes. PMID:22512698

  6. Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California: longevity, oviposition, and development in canning olives in the laboratory and greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y

    2012-02-01

    The biology of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), was studied in the laboratory, greenhouse, and in canning olives, Olea europaea L., in relation to California regional climates. Adults survived in laboratory tests at constant temperatures and relative humidities of 5 degrees C and 83%; 15 degrees C and 59%; 25 degrees C and 30%; and 35 degrees C and 29% for 15, 6, 3, and 2 d without provisions of food and water and for 37, 63, 25, and 4 d with provisions, respectively. In a divided greenhouse, adults survived for 8-11 d in the warm side (36 degrees C and 31% RH daytime); and in the cool side (26 degrees C and 63% RH daytime) 10 d without provisions and 203 d with provisions. A significantly greater number of adults survived in the cool side than the warm side, and with provisions than without. First and last eggs were oviposited in olive fruit when females were 6 and 90 d old, respectively. The highest number of eggs was 55 per day in 10 olive fruit oviposited by 10 28 d-old females, with maximum egg production by 13-37 d-old females. A significantly greater number of ovipositional sites occurred in all sizes of immature green fruit when exposed to adults in cages for 5 d than 2 d. Adults emerged from fruit with a height of > or = 1.0 cm or a volume of > or = 0.2 cm3. More than seven adults per 15 fruit emerged from field infested fruit with a height of 1.1 cm and volume of 0.1 cm3. Larval length was significantly different among the first, second, and third instars and ranged from 0.7 to 1.6, 2.4-4.3, and 4.8-5.6 mm at 14 degrees C; 0.8-1.1, 1.9-2.9, and 3.9-4.4 mm at 21 degrees C, and 0.7-1.3, 2.4-2.9, and 4.4-4.8 mm at 26 degrees C, respectively. Survival of pupae to the adult stage was significantly lower at 26 degrees C than 14 degrees C or 21 degrees C. The period of adult emergence began at 38, 14, and 11 d over a period of 8, 5, and 1 d at 14, 21, and 26 degrees C, respectively. Findings were related to the occurrence and control of California olive fruit fly infestations. PMID:22420271

  7. Effects of Peganum harmala (Zygophyllaceae) seed extract on the olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and its larval parasitoid Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Rehman, Junaid Ur; Wang, Xin-Geng; Johnson, Marshall W; Daane, Kent M; Jilani, Ghulam; Khan, Mir A; Zalom, Frank G

    2009-12-01

    Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae) is an herb native to arid and semiarid regions of Central Asian deserts. This study investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of P. harmala seeds on the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), i.e., adult repellency, reproductive activity, and larval growth, as well as parasitism levels by Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti). Olive fruit treated with 2% extract reduced B. oleae oviposition. In choice tests, female B. oleae spent >99% of their time foraging on untreated fruit rather than P. harmala-treated fruit. These changes in ovipositional behavior resulted in a nearly 30-fold decrease in oviposition marks on treated fruit compared with untreated fruit during a 48 h exposure period. When female B. oleae were fed liquid diet containing 0.2% P. harmala extract, there was no effect on the number of ovipositional marks on exposed fruit, but up to 21.4% of the deposited eggs were deformed. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses of deformed eggs revealed that some protein bands were missing. Consequently, the number of offspring produced by treated females was lower than by untreated females. Neither the sex ratio nor body size of the fly's offspring were affected by adults fed diet containing 0.2% P. harmala extract. However, there was a slightly prolonged developmental time from egg to adult. Parasitism of larval B. oleae by P. concolor was not affected by infested fruit treatment with 2% P. harmala extract. P. harmala extracts as a potential control for insect pest species are discussed. PMID:20069853

  8. Insecticidal activity of Citrus aurantium fruit, leaf, and shoot extracts against adult olive fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Siskos, E P; Konstantopoulou, M A; Mazomenos, B E; Jervis, M

    2007-08-01

    Solvent extracts of differing polarity from Citrus aurantium (L.) (Rutaceae) fruit, leaves, and shoots were evaluated for biological activity against adults of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Using a petri dish residual exposure bioassay, we found that the petroleum ether extract from fruit alone showed insecticidal activity against the flies. The extract of the three fruit tissues (flavedo [peel], albedo, and flesh) indicated that bioactivity was limited to the flavedo, and this activity was significantly higher than that of the whole fruit extract. The most effective extract was obtained when fresh flavedo was used, whereas extracts of oven-dried flavedo were inactive. Fruit maturity also affected bioactivity; extracts of ripe fruit were more effective than those of unripe fruit. Our results suggest that C. aurantium flavedo contains secondary metabolites with insecticidal activity against B. oleae adults. PMID:17849873

  9. Is ground cover vegetation an effective biological control enhancement strategy against olive pests?

    PubMed

    Paredes, Daniel; Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M; Campos, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Ground cover vegetation is often added or allowed to generate to promote conservation biological control, especially in perennial crops. Nevertheless, there is inconsistent evidence of its effectiveness, with studies reporting positive, nil or negative effects on pest control. This might arise from differences between studies at the local scale (e.g. orchard management and land use history), the landscape context (e.g. presence of patches of natural or semi-natural vegetation near the focal orchard), or regional factors, particularly climate in the year of the study. Here we present the findings from a long-term regional monitoring program conducted on four pest species (Bactrocera oleae, Prays oleae, Euphyllura olivina, Saissetia oleae) in 2,528 olive groves in Andalusia (Spain) from 2006 to 2012. Generalized linear mixed effect models were used to analyze the effect of ground cover on different response variables related to pest abundance, while accounting for variability at the local, landscape and regional scales. There were small and inconsistent effects of ground cover on the abundance of pests whilst local, landscape and regional variability explained a large proportion of the variability in pest response variables. This highlights the importance of local and landscape-related variables in biological control and the potential effects that might emerge from their interaction with practices, such as groundcover vegetation, implemented to promote natural enemy activity. The study points to perennial vegetation close to the focal crop as a promising alternative strategy for conservation biological control that should receive more attention. PMID:25646778

  10. Is Ground Cover Vegetation an Effective Biological Control Enhancement Strategy against Olive Pests?

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Daniel; Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M.; Campos, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Ground cover vegetation is often added or allowed to generate to promote conservation biological control, especially in perennial crops. Nevertheless, there is inconsistent evidence of its effectiveness, with studies reporting positive, nil or negative effects on pest control. This might arise from differences between studies at the local scale (e.g. orchard management and land use history), the landscape context (e.g. presence of patches of natural or semi-natural vegetation near the focal orchard), or regional factors, particularly climate in the year of the study. Here we present the findings from a long-term regional monitoring program conducted on four pest species (Bactrocera oleae, Prays oleae, Euphyllura olivina, Saissetia oleae) in 2,528 olive groves in Andalusia (Spain) from 2006 to 2012. Generalized linear mixed effect models were used to analyze the effect of ground cover on different response variables related to pest abundance, while accounting for variability at the local, landscape and regional scales. There were small and inconsistent effects of ground cover on the abundance of pests whilst local, landscape and regional variability explained a large proportion of the variability in pest response variables. This highlights the importance of local and landscape-related variables in biological control and the potential effects that might emerge from their interaction with practices, such as groundcover vegetation, implemented to promote natural enemy activity. The study points to perennial vegetation close to the focal crop as a promising alternative strategy for conservation biological control that should receive more attention. PMID:25646778

  11. In Vitro Culture Conditions and OeARF and OeH3 Expressions Modulate Adventitious Root Formation from Oleaster (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Gagliardi, Cinzia; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris, also named oleaster, is the wild form of olive and it is used as rootstock and pollen donor for many cultivated varieties. An efficient procedure for in vitro propagation of oleaster was established in this study. A zeatin concentration of 2.5?mg/L was effective to induce an appreciable vegetative growth. Also high rooting efficiency was obtained by using a short IBA pulse, followed by two different IBA concentrations in the culture medium. With the aim to enlarge knowledge on the molecular aspects of adventitious rooting, we also evaluated the transcriptional modulation of an ARFs member and HISTONE H3 genes, involved in auxin signaling and cell replication, respectively, during the root induction phase of cuttings. The obtained results suggest that the selected genes, as markers of the induction phase, could be very useful for setting up efficient culture conditions along the rooting process, thus increasing micropropagation efficiency. PMID:24587768

  12. In vitro culture conditions and OeARF and OeH3 expressions modulate adventitious root formation from oleaster (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) cuttings.

    PubMed

    Chiappetta, Adriana; Gagliardi, Cinzia; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris, also named oleaster, is the wild form of olive and it is used as rootstock and pollen donor for many cultivated varieties. An efficient procedure for in vitro propagation of oleaster was established in this study. A zeatin concentration of 2.5?mg/L was effective to induce an appreciable vegetative growth. Also high rooting efficiency was obtained by using a short IBA pulse, followed by two different IBA concentrations in the culture medium. With the aim to enlarge knowledge on the molecular aspects of adventitious rooting, we also evaluated the transcriptional modulation of an ARFs member and HISTONE H3 genes, involved in auxin signaling and cell replication, respectively, during the root induction phase of cuttings. The obtained results suggest that the selected genes, as markers of the induction phase, could be very useful for setting up efficient culture conditions along the rooting process, thus increasing micropropagation efficiency. PMID:24587768

  13. Characterization and pathogenicity of Botryosphaeriaceae species collected from olive and other hosts in Spain and California.

    PubMed

    Moral, Juan; Muñoz-Díez, Concepción; González, Nazaret; Trapero, Antonio; Michailides, Themis J

    2010-12-01

    Species in the family Botryosphaeriaceae are common pathogens causing fruit rot and dieback of many woody plants. In this study, 150 Botryosphaeriaceae isolates were collected from olive and other hosts in Spain and California. Representative isolates of each type were characterized based on morphological features and comparisons of DNA sequence data of three regions: internal transcribed spacer 5.8S, ?-tubulin, and elongation factor. Three main species were identified as Neofusicoccum mediterraneum, causing dieback of branches of olive and pistachio; Diplodia seriata, causing decay of ripe fruit and dieback of olive branches; and Botryosphaeria dothidea, causing dalmatian disease on unripe olive fruit in Spain. Moreover, the sexual stage of this last species was also found attacking olive branches in California. In pathogenicity tests using unripe fruit and branches of olive, D. seriata isolates were the least aggressive on the fruit and branches while N. mediterraneum isolates were the most aggressive on both tissues. Isolates of B. dothidea which cause dalmatian disease on fruit were not pathogenic on branches and only weakly aggressive on fruit. These results, together with the close association between the presence of dalmatian disease symptoms and the wound created by the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae), suggest that the fly is essential for the initiation of the disease on fruit. Isolates recovered from dalmatian disease symptoms had an optimum of 26°C for mycelial growth and 30°C for conidial germination, suggesting that the pathogen is well adapted to high summer temperatures. In contrast, the range of water activity in the medium for growth of dalmatian isolates was 0.93 to 1 MPa, which was similar to that for the majority of fungi. This study resolved long-standing questions of identity and pathogenicity of species within the family Botryosphaeriaceae attacking olive trees in Spain and California. PMID:20731532

  14. Paternity analysis of the olive variety "Istrska belica" and identification of pollen donors by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Baruca Arbeiter, Alenka; Jakše, Jernej; Bandelj, Dunja

    2014-01-01

    The leading olive variety in Slovenia is "Istrska belica" (Olea europaea L.), which currently represents 70% of all olive trees in productive orchards. Paternity analysis based on microsatellite markers was used for genotyping and identification of the potential pollen donors of "Istrska belica" and for assessing the proportion of self-fertilization in monovarietal olive orchards in the Slovene Istria. Seven microsatellite loci were used for genotyping thirty-one olive embryos from "Istrska belica" trees and for all potential pollen donor varieties, which are grown in the region and could participate as pollinators. Genotyping results and allele identification were performed using the FaMoz software. The most probable pollen donor was assigned to 39% of all analyzed embryos. Among all analyzed embryos no single case of self-fertilization was confirmed. According to the present results, the variety "Istrska belica" was in all cases fertilized by foreign pollen. The results will contribute to defining the new guidelines for farmers regarding the proper management and growing practice in monovarietal olive groves. PMID:25097869

  15. Paternity Analysis of the Olive Variety “Istrska Belica” and Identification of Pollen Donors by Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Jakše, Jernej

    2014-01-01

    The leading olive variety in Slovenia is “Istrska belica” (Olea europaea L.), which currently represents 70% of all olive trees in productive orchards. Paternity analysis based on microsatellite markers was used for genotyping and identification of the potential pollen donors of “Istrska belica” and for assessing the proportion of self-fertilization in monovarietal olive orchards in the Slovene Istria. Seven microsatellite loci were used for genotyping thirty-one olive embryos from “Istrska belica” trees and for all potential pollen donor varieties, which are grown in the region and could participate as pollinators. Genotyping results and allele identification were performed using the FaMoz software. The most probable pollen donor was assigned to 39% of all analyzed embryos. Among all analyzed embryos no single case of self-fertilization was confirmed. According to the present results, the variety “Istrska belica” was in all cases fertilized by foreign pollen. The results will contribute to defining the new guidelines for farmers regarding the proper management and growing practice in monovarietal olive groves. PMID:25097869

  16. Activity assessment of Tunisian olive leaf extracts against the trophozoite stage of Acanthamoeba.

    PubMed

    Sifaoui, Ines; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Martín-Navarro, Carmen Ma; Chammem, Nadia; Mejri, Mondher; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Abderabba, Manef; Piñero, José E

    2013-08-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea, Oleaceae) has historically provided huge economic and nutritional benefits to the Mediterranean basin. In fact, olive leaf extracts have also been used by native people of this area in folk medicine to treat fever and other diseases such as malaria. Recently, several studies have focused on the extraction of high-added-value compounds from olive leaves. However, no previous studies have been developed in order to evaluate the activity of these extracts against Acanthamoeba. In the present work, olive leaf extracts from five different Tunisian varieties of olive trees (Chemlali Tataouine, Zarrazi, Toffehi, Dhokkar, and Limouni) were obtained by using three different solvents, and their activity against the trophozoite stage of Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff was screened. The IC50/96 h (50% parasite growth inhibition) was chosen as the appropriate and comparable data to give as previously described. It could be observed that the amoebicidal activity was dose dependent. Trophozoite growth was inhibited by all the tested extracts with IC50 ranging from 8.234 ± 1.703 ?g/ml for the alcoholic mixture of the Dhokkar extract to 33.661 ± 1.398 ?g/ml for the methanolic extract of the Toffehi variety. The activity in fact was affected especially by the tested variety and not by the solvent extraction, the Dhokkar variety being the most active one as mentioned above. PMID:23681194

  17. Overwintering survival of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and two introduced parasitoids in California.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Geng; Levy, Karmit; Nadel, Hannah; Johnson, Marshall W; Blanchet, Arnaud; Argov, Yael; Pickett, Charles H; Daane, Kent M

    2013-06-01

    The overwintering survival and development of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), and the endoparasitoids, Psyttalia humilis Silvestri and P. lounsburyi (Silvestri), were investigated at sites in California's interior valley and coastal region. In the interior valley, adult flies survived up to 4-6 mo during the winter when food was provided. Adult female flies could oviposit in late fall and early winter on nonharvested fruit and, although egg survival was low (0.23-8.50%), a portion of the overwintered cohort developed into adults the following spring; percentage of survival was negatively correlated to daily minimum temperature. P. humilis and P. lounsburyi successfully oviposited into host larvae in late fall, and their progeny developed into adults the following spring, although with a low percentage (0-11.9%) survivorship. Overwintering survival of puparia of the olive fruit fly and immature larvae of P. humilis and P. lounsburyi (inside host puparia), buried in the soil, were tested at an interior valley and coastal site. Survival of olive fruit fly ranged from 0 to 60% and was affected by the trial date and soil moisture. Overwintering survival of both the fruit fly and tested parasitoids was lower at the colder interior valley than the coastal site; P. humilis immature stages had the highest mortality levels while B. oleae pupae had the lowest mortality levels. The spring emergence pattern of the tested insects was well predicted by a degree-day model. We discuss factors potentially impeding establishment of introduced olive fruit fly parasitoids in California and elsewhere. PMID:23726056

  18. Thriving at the limit: Differential reproductive performance in range-edge populations of a Mediterranean sclerophyll (Olea europaea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granado-Yela, Carlos; Balaguer, Luis; García-Verdugo, Carlos; Carrillo, Katty; Méndez, Marcos

    2013-10-01

    Peripheral populations are often lumped together on the assumption of thriving in marginal habitats where reproductive performance is compromised. We have tested this hypothesis in peripheral populations of wild olive tree (Olea europaea L.) presumably limited by different factors at the westernmost limit of the species range. Additionally, we hypothesized that differences in reproductive outcome among populations are better explained by site-specific environmental conditions (PAR, soil water, soil nutrients, air humidity and air temperature) than by differences in phenotypic traits (tree size and leaf traits). To test these hypotheses, we assessed the number of flowering trees, the flowering intensity, fruit set and seed viability in eight populations for three consecutive years. Our findings provided sufficient evidence to reject the first hypothesis. Peripheral populations that occur under oceanic conditions, resembling the Tertiary subtropical climate, consistently presented higher values for all components of reproductive performance than those at the thermal and rainfall tolerance limits. In support of our second hypothesis, the variation in reproductive performance among populations was primarily accounted for by local environmental conditions. Leaf traits, however, also explained reproductive variation but to a lesser extent. Finally, we found that small changes in tree size may cause large differences in reproductive performance. This close relationship between tree size and reproductive performance suggests that any impact on population size structure would likely jeopardize persistence and expansion at the range edge. Our results suggest that reproductive performance of wild olive trees was not shaped by the population geographic position within the species range, but by the interaction between local environment, as the main driver, and individual phenotypic traits.

  19. Relationship between olive flowering and latitude in two Mediterranean countries (Italy and Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandi, F.; Msallem, M.; Bonofiglio, T.; Ben Dhiab, A.; Sgromo, C.; Romano, B.; Fornaciari, M.

    2010-11-01

    In phenological studies, the plant developments are analysed considering their relationships with seasonal meteorological conditions; moreover, the influences of geographical features on biological responses have to be also considered. Different studies analysed the influence of latitude on phenological phases to investigate the possible different magnitude of biological response. In our experience, this type of geographic evaluation was conducted considering one of the more important plant species of Mediterranean shrub, the olive ( Olea europaea L.) in fifteen olive monitoring stations, four located in Tunisia and eleven in Italy, from the southern Zarzis area at 33° to the northern Perugia area at 43° of latitude. The olive flowering phenomenon was studied, utilising an aerobiological monitoring method through appropriate pollen traps located inside olive groves from 1999 to 2008. The olive monitored pollen grains were recognised and evaluated to obtain daily pollen concentrations to define the flowering dates in the different study areas. The biometeorological statistical analysis showed the 7°C threshold temperature and the single triangle method for growing degree days (GDD) yearly computing as the better ones in comparison to others. Moreover, the regression analysis between the dates of full flowering and the GDD amounts at the different monitoring latitudes permitted us to evidence the biological response of olive species in geographic regions with different climate patterns. The specific biological response at different latitude was investigated, the slope results, as flowering days per heat amounts, evidenced that olive species behaviours are very constant in consequence to similar meteorological conditions independently to latitude variations. Averagely, the relationships between plant’s phenology, temperature trends and geographical features are very close, even if the yearly mesoscale meteorological variations force to consider, year by year, phenological advances or delays as local events.

  20. Accumulation of flavonoids and phenolic compounds in olive tree roots in response to mycorrhizal colonization: A possible mechanism for regulation of defense molecules.

    PubMed

    Mechri, Beligh; Tekaya, Meriem; Cheheb, Hechmi; Attia, Faouzi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus promotes plant growth and can alter the production of primary and secondary metabolites. The aim of this work was to determine the influence of AM fungi colonization on the content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and soluble carbohydrates in olive (Olea europaea L.) tree roots. The results revealed that mycorrhizal plants had a higher content of flavonoids and total phenols. Analysis of sugar contents showed enhanced levels of sucrose and fructose in mycorrhizal roots, while glucose amounts stayed constant. The DPPH radical-scavenging activity of the mycorrhizal root methanolic extracts was higher than that of the non- mycorrhizal root methanolic extracts. These results indicated that olive tree roots contain significant amounts of phenolic compounds, important factors for antioxidant capacity, which can be substantially modified by colonization of olive trees with AM fungi. PMID:26276403

  1. The Olive Branch Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnack, William

    1984-01-01

    The first annual Olive Branch Awards, sponsored by the Writers' and Publishers Alliance and the Editors' Organizing Committee, were given to ten magazines, out of 60 that submitted entries. Winning entries are described briefly. (IM)

  2. 7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 ...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means...

  3. 7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 ...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means...

  4. 7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of...

  5. 7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of...

  6. 7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of...

  7. 7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of...

  8. 7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 ...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means...

  9. 7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 ...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means...

  10. 7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of...

  11. 7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 ...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means...

  12. Water deficit during pit hardening enhances phytoprostanes content, a plant biomarker of oxidative stress, in extra virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Collado-González, Jacinta; Pérez-López, David; Memmi, Houssem; Gijón, M Carmen; Medina, Sonia; Durand, Thierry; Guy, Alexandre; Galano, Jean-Marie; Ferreres, Federico; Torrecillas, Arturo; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel

    2015-04-15

    No previous information exists on the effects of water deficit on the phytoprostanes (PhytoPs) content in extra virgin olive oil from fruits of mature olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Cornicabra) trees during pit hardening. PhytoPs profile in extra virgin olive oil was characterized by the presence of 9-F1t-PhytoP, 9-epi-9-F1t-PhytoP, 9-epi-9-D1t-PhytoP, 9-D1t-PhytoP, 16-B1-PhytoP + ent-16-B1-PhytoP, and 9-L1-PhytoP + ent-9-L1-PhytoP. The qualitative and quantitative differences in PhytoPs content with respect to those reported by other authors indicate a decisive effect of cultivar, oil extraction technology, and/or storage conditions prone to autoxidation. The pit hardening period was critical for extra virgin olive oil composition because water deficit enhanced the PhytoPs content, with the concomitant potential beneficial aspects on human health. From a physiological and agronomical point of view, 9-F1t-PhytoP, 9-epi-9-F1t-PhytoP, and 16-B1-PhytoP + ent-16-B1-PhytoP could be considered as early candidate biomarkers of water stress in olive tree. PMID:25826384

  13. Plant genotype-specific archaeal and bacterial endophytes but similar Bacillus antagonists colonize Mediterranean olive trees.

    PubMed

    Müller, Henry; Berg, Christian; Landa, Blanca B; Auerbach, Anna; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Endophytes have an intimate and often symbiotic interaction with their hosts. Less is known about the composition and function of endophytes in trees. In order to evaluate our hypothesis that plant genotype and origin have a strong impact on both, endophytes of leaves from 10 Olea europaea L. cultivars from the Mediterranean basin growing at a single agricultural site in Spain and from nine wild olive trees located in natural habitats in Greece, Cyprus, and on Madeira Island were studied. The composition of the bacterial endophytic communities as revealed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and the subsequent PCoA analysis showed a strong correlation to the plant genotypes. The bacterial distribution patterns were congruent with the plant origins in "Eastern" and "Western" areas of the Mediterranean basin. Subsequently, the endophytic microbiome of wild olives was shown to be closely related to those of cultivated olives of the corresponding geographic origins. The olive leaf endosphere harbored mostly Proteobacteria, followed by Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The detection of a high portion of archaeal taxa belonging to the phyla Thaumarchaeota, Crenarchaeota, and Euryarchaeota in the amplicon libraries was an unexpected discovery, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR revealing an archaeal portion of up to 35.8%. Although the function of these Archaea for their host plant remains speculative, this finding suggests a significant relevance of archaeal endophytes for plant-microbe interactions. In addition, the antagonistic potential of culturable endophytes was determined; all isolates with antagonistic activity against the olive-pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb. belong to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. In contrast to the specific global structural diversity, BOX-fingerprints of the antagonistic Bacillus isolates were highly similar and independent of the olive genotype from which they were isolated. PMID:25784898

  14. Plant genotype-specific archaeal and bacterial endophytes but similar Bacillus antagonists colonize Mediterranean olive trees

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Henry; Berg, Christian; Landa, Blanca B.; Auerbach, Anna; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Endophytes have an intimate and often symbiotic interaction with their hosts. Less is known about the composition and function of endophytes in trees. In order to evaluate our hypothesis that plant genotype and origin have a strong impact on both, endophytes of leaves from 10 Olea europaea L. cultivars from the Mediterranean basin growing at a single agricultural site in Spain and from nine wild olive trees located in natural habitats in Greece, Cyprus, and on Madeira Island were studied. The composition of the bacterial endophytic communities as revealed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and the subsequent PCoA analysis showed a strong correlation to the plant genotypes. The bacterial distribution patterns were congruent with the plant origins in “Eastern” and “Western” areas of the Mediterranean basin. Subsequently, the endophytic microbiome of wild olives was shown to be closely related to those of cultivated olives of the corresponding geographic origins. The olive leaf endosphere harbored mostly Proteobacteria, followed by Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The detection of a high portion of archaeal taxa belonging to the phyla Thaumarchaeota, Crenarchaeota, and Euryarchaeota in the amplicon libraries was an unexpected discovery, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR revealing an archaeal portion of up to 35.8%. Although the function of these Archaea for their host plant remains speculative, this finding suggests a significant relevance of archaeal endophytes for plant–microbe interactions. In addition, the antagonistic potential of culturable endophytes was determined; all isolates with antagonistic activity against the olive-pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb. belong to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. In contrast to the specific global structural diversity, BOX-fingerprints of the antagonistic Bacillus isolates were highly similar and independent of the olive genotype from which they were isolated. PMID:25784898

  15. Effect of Olea ointment and Acetate Mafenide on burn wounds – A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Zahmatkesh, Mohsen; Manesh, Mohammad Jalili; Babashahabi, Ronak

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main goals in treating burns are to accelerate tissue renovation and prevent infection. Topical antibiotics are used in the treatment of burns, but they can cause side effects. Recently, a traditional ointment (Olea) has been used in Iran in the treatment of burns. This study examines the effect of topical honey ointment in healing of burn patients. Materials and Methods: In this randomized controlled trial (RCT), 30 hospitalized patients selected by conventional sampling (10 in Olea group and 20 in Acetate Mafenide ointment group) were evaluated. Inclusion criteria were: having second-degree burns and body surface area equal to or < 40%. One group was treated using topical Olea ointment and the other with Acetate Mafenide ointment (8.5%). Chi-square, Fisher exact test, and Kaplan–Meier were used. Significance level was considered as P < 0.05. Results: None of the patients in the Olea group needed surgery for debridement, while in the second group, 13 patients (65%) needed debridement (P = 0.001). In the Olea group, 1 patient (10%) and in the second group, 19 patients (95%) had positive cultures after 7 days (P < 0.001). The mean time of granulation tissue formation in the Olea group was 12 days (10.3–13.6) and in the other group, it was 17 days (13.3–20.6) (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Olea ointment is a useful treatment for burns, and it can prevent infections, accelerate tissue repair, and facilitate debridement. Therefore, using this ointment is recommended for the treatment of burns. PMID:26457099

  16. numbers and SAT Oliver Kullmann

    E-print Network

    Kullmann, Oliver

    Green-Tao numbers and SAT Oliver Kullmann Introduction Green-Tao numbers Transversal extensions The generic boolean translation Green-Tao numbers and SAT Oliver Kullmann Computer Science Department Swansea, 2010 #12;Green-Tao numbers and SAT Oliver Kullmann Introduction Green-Tao numbers Transversal

  17. The adjoint functor Oliver Kullmann

    E-print Network

    Kullmann, Oliver

    The adjoint functor theorem Oliver Kullmann Review Special morphisms Comma categories Universal: Ultrafilters The adjoint functor theorem Oliver Kullmann1 1Computer Science, University of Wales Swansea, UK adjoint functor theorem Oliver Kullmann Review Special morphisms Comma categories Universal arrows Natural

  18. The adjoint functor Oliver Kullmann

    E-print Network

    Kullmann, Oliver

    The adjoint functor theorem Oliver Kullmann Review Special morphisms Comma categories Universal: Ultrafilters The adjoint functor theorem Oliver Kullmann Computer Science Department University of Wales Swansea PhD Theory Seminar (Hauptseminar) Swansea, March 14, 2007 #12;The adjoint functor theorem Oliver

  19. Mathematik II/2 Oliver Ernst

    E-print Network

    Stollmann, Peter.

    Mathematik II/2 Numerik Oliver Ernst Professur Numerische Mathematik Sommersemester 2013 #12;Inhalt.4 Interpolation 3.5 Trigonometrische Interpolation 3.6 Die FFT 4 AbschlieÃ?ende Bemerkungen Oliver Ernst Interpolation 3.6 Die FFT 4 AbschlieÃ?ende Bemerkungen Oliver Ernst (Numerische Mathematik) Mathematik II/2

  20. numbers and SAT Oliver Kullmann

    E-print Network

    Kullmann, Oliver

    Green-Tao numbers and SAT Oliver Kullmann Introduction Green-Tao numbers Transversal extensions The generic boolean translation Green-Tao numbers and SAT Oliver Kullmann Computer Science Department Swansea University SAT 2010 Edinburgh, July 12, 2010 #12;Green-Tao numbers and SAT Oliver Kullmann Introduction Green

  1. Octopamine--a single modulator with double action on the heart of two insect species (Apis mellifera macedonica and Bactrocera oleae): Acceleration vs. inhibition.

    PubMed

    Papaefthimiou, Chrisovalantis; Theophilidis, George

    2011-02-01

    The effects of octopamine, the main cardioacceleratory transmitter in insects, were investigated, in the isolated hearts of the honeybee, Apis mellifera macedonica, and the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae. Octopamine induced a biphasic effect on the frequency and force of cardiac contractions acting as an agonist, with a strong acceleratory effect, at concentrations higher than 10(-12)M for the honeybee and higher than 50×10(-9)M for the olive fruit fly. The heart of the honeybee is far more sensitive than the heart of olive fruit fly. This unusual sensitivity is extended to the blockers of octopaminergic receptors, where phentolamine at 10(-5)M stopped the spontaneous contractions of the honeybee heart completely and permanently, while the same blocker at the same concentration caused only 50% inhibition in the heart of the olive fruit fly. Phentolamine and mianserin at low concentrations of 10(-7)M also blocked the heart octopaminergic receptors, but for a short period of time, of less than 15.0 min, while a partial recovery in heart contraction started in spite of the presence of the antagonist. The unusual response of the honeybee heart in the presence of phentolamine and/or mianserin suggests excitatory effects of octopamine via two different receptor subtypes. At lower concentrations, 10(-14)M, the agonist octopamine was converted to an antagonist, inducing a hyperpolarization in the membrane potential of the honeybee cardiac pacemaker cells and inhibiting the firing rate of the heart. The inhibitory effects of octopamine on certain parameters of the rhythmic bursts of the heart of the honeybee, were similar to those of mianserin and phentolamine, typical blockers of octopaminergic receptors. The heart of the olive fruit fly was 10(5) times less sensitive to octopamine, since a persistent inhibition of heart contractions occurred at 10(-9)M. In conclusion, the acceleration of the insect heart is achieved by increasing the levels of octopamine, while there is a passive but also an active decrease in heart activity due to the minimization of octopamine. PMID:21147117

  2. Combining PLS regression with portable NIR spectroscopy to on-line monitor quality parameters in intact olives for determining optimal harvesting time.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Espinosa, Antonio J

    2016-02-01

    This study presents a systematized method for predicting water content, fat content and free acidity in olive fruits by on-line NIR Spectroscopy combined with chemometric techniques (PCA, LDA and PLSR). Three cultivar varieties of Olea europaea - Hojiblanca cv., Picual cv. and Arbequina cv. - were monitored. Five olive cultivation areas of Southern Spain (Andalucia) and Southern Portugal (Alentejo) were studied in 2011 and 2012. 465 olive samples were collected during the ripening process (non-mature olives) and compared with other 203 samples of mature olives collected at the final ripening stage. NIR spectra were measured directly in the olive fruits in the wavelength region from 1000 to 2300nm in reflectance mode. The reference analyses were performed on the olive paste by oven drying for the moisture, by mini-Soxhlet extraction for the fat content and by acid titration of the oil extracted from the olive paste. Calibrations and predictive models were developed by Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) previous Principal Component and Linear Discriminant analyses (PCA and LDA) were employed as exploratory and clean-up tools of data sets. The final models obtained for the total samples showed acceptable statistics of prediction with R(2)=0.88, RMSEV%=4.88 and RMSEP%=4.98 for water content, R(2)=0.76, RMSECV%=19.5 and RMSEP%=20.0 for fat content and R(2)=0.83, RMSECV%=36.8 and RMSEP%=38.8 for free acidity. Regression coefficients were better for only one maturity state (ripe period) than for olive fruit with different composition (ripening period). All models obtained were applied to predict LQPs on a new set of samples with satisfactory results, a good prediction potential of the models. PMID:26653443

  3. Pentacyclic triterpene in Olea europaea L: A simultaneous determination by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Estela; Juan, M Emília; Calvo-Melià, Sara; Barbosa, José; Sanz-Nebot, Victoria; Planas, Joana M

    2015-09-01

    Pentacyclic triterpenes are gaining interest due to their beneficial health effects, as anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-tumoral, among others. In this study, an analytical LC-MS method was developed for the simultaneous determination of maslinic, oleanolic and ursolic acids along with erythrodiol and uvaol, which are the main triterpenic compounds present in the fruits and leaves of Olea europaea L. A Zorbax Eclipse PAH column at 30°C with mobile phase of water (17%) and methanol (83%) at 0.8mL/min conformed the optimal chromatographic conditions that allowed the separation of the compounds of interest, two pairs of which are isomers differing only in the position of one methyl group (oleanolic-ursolic and erythrodiol-uvaol). The ionization was performed in an APCI source at 450°C programmed in negative mode for the triterpenic acids, and in positive for the alcohols. An ion trap (LC-IT-MS) and a triple quadrupole (LC-QqQ-MS) were assessed for maximal sensitivity that was achieved with LC-QqQ-MS. The LODs of triterpenic acids were lower than 1nM, whereas for erythrodiol and uvaol were 4.5 and 7.5nM, respectively. The method was linear for the five analytes in the range of concentrations from 0.005 to 15?M with correlation coefficients exceeding 0.99. The precision and accuracy were ?9.90% and ?9.57%, respectively. The applicability of the validated method was assessed in the analysis of the pentacyclic triterpenes in Marfil table olives, after the optimization of the extraction procedure. The developed method constitutes the first step for future studies of triterpenic compounds present in foods that would allow establishing their effects on human health. PMID:26210113

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of genes encoding two microsomal oleate desaturases (FAD2) from olive.

    PubMed

    Hernández, M Luisa; Mancha, Manuel; Martínez-Rivas, José M

    2005-06-01

    Two different cDNA sequences, designated OepFAD2-1 and OepFAD2-2, encoding two microsomal oleate desaturases (FAD2) have been isolated from olive (Olea europaea cv. Picual) using a PCR approach. Both deduced amino acid sequences showed the three histidine boxes characteristic of all membrane-bound desaturases, and possess a C-terminal endoplasmic reticulum retention signal. Phylogenetic analysis shows that OepFAD2-1 and OepFAD2-2 are grouped with other plant FAD2 sequences. Functional expression of the corresponding FAD2 cDNAs in yeast confirmed that they encode microsomal oleate desaturases. Genomic Southern blot analysis is consistent with the presence of at least two copies of each OepFAD2 gene in the olive genome. OepFAD2-1 transcript was strongly detected in very young seeds and in leaves, showing low levels in mesocarps, while the transcript of the OepFAD2-2 gene was moderately expressed in developing seeds, ripening mesocarp and leaves. These expression data suggest differential functions for the two olive microsomal oleate desaturase genes, with FAD2-1 possibly responsible for the desaturation of reserve lipids in the young seed, while FAD2-2 may be mainly involved in storage lipid desaturation in the mature seeds and the mesocarp. PMID:15896817

  5. Hydrolysis of Oleuropein by Lactobacillus plantarum Strains Associated with Olive Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Ciafardini, G.; Marsilio, V.; Lanza, B.; Pozzi, N.

    1994-01-01

    Oleuropein (Chemical Abstracts Service registry number 32619-42-4), a bitter-tasting secoiridoid glucoside commonly found in leaves of the olive tree as well as in olives (Olea europaea L.), was found to be hydrolyzed by the ?-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.2.1) produced by oleuropeinolytic Lactobacillus plantarum-type strains. Three strains, designated B17, B20, and B21, were isolated from the brine of naturally ripe olives not treated with alkali. These strains were rod-shaped forms, grown at a pH 3.5 limit, and tolerated 1% oleuropein and 8% NaCl in the growth medium. The ?-glucosidase produced hydrolyzed 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-?-d-glucopy-ranoside as well as oleuropein. The presence of 2% glucose in the medium inhibited activity by 40 to 50%, depending on the bacterial strain. Chromatographic analysis of the trimethylsilyl derivatives of the products obtained after 7 days of incubation at 30°C of strain B21 showed all the hydrolysis products of oleuropein, i.e., aglycone, iridoid monoterpen, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (hydroxytyrosol). Oleuropein and its aglycone after 21 days of incubation decreased to trace levels with the simultaneous increase in concentration of ?-3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol. Images PMID:16349442

  6. Oleuropein-Enriched Olive Leaf Extract Affects Calcium Dynamics and Impairs Viability of Malignant Mesothelioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Carla; Clericuzio, Marco; Borghesi, Barbara; Cornara, Laura; Ribulla, Stefania; Gosetti, Fabio; Marengo, Emilio; Burlando, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a poor prognosis cancer in urgent need of alternative therapies. Oleuropein, the major phenolic of olive tree (Olea europaea L.), is believed to have therapeutic potentials for various diseases, including tumors. We obtained an oleuropein-enriched fraction, consisting of 60% w/w oleuropein, from olive leaves, and assessed its effects on intracellular Ca(2+) and cell viability in mesothelioma cells. Effects of the oleuropein-enriched fraction on Ca(2+) dynamics and cell viability were studied in the REN mesothelioma cell line, using fura-2 microspectrofluorimetry and MTT assay, respectively. Fura-2-loaded cells, transiently exposed to the oleuropein-enriched fraction, showed dose-dependent transient elevations of cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Application of standard oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, and of the inhibitor of low-voltage T-type Ca(2+) channels NNC-55-0396, suggested that the effect is mainly due to oleuropein acting through its hydroxytyrosol moiety on T-type Ca(2+) channels. The oleuropein-enriched fraction and standard oleuropein displayed a significant antiproliferative effect, as measured on REN cells by MTT cell viability assay, with IC50 of 22??g/mL oleuropein. Data suggest that our oleuropein-enriched fraction from olive leaf extract could have pharmacological application in malignant mesothelioma anticancer therapy, possibly by targeting T-type Ca(2+) channels and thereby dysregulating intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics. PMID:26693247

  7. Oleuropein-Enriched Olive Leaf Extract Affects Calcium Dynamics and Impairs Viability of Malignant Mesothelioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Carla; Clericuzio, Marco; Borghesi, Barbara; Cornara, Laura; Ribulla, Stefania; Gosetti, Fabio; Marengo, Emilio; Burlando, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a poor prognosis cancer in urgent need of alternative therapies. Oleuropein, the major phenolic of olive tree (Olea europaea L.), is believed to have therapeutic potentials for various diseases, including tumors. We obtained an oleuropein-enriched fraction, consisting of 60% w/w oleuropein, from olive leaves, and assessed its effects on intracellular Ca2+ and cell viability in mesothelioma cells. Effects of the oleuropein-enriched fraction on Ca2+ dynamics and cell viability were studied in the REN mesothelioma cell line, using fura-2 microspectrofluorimetry and MTT assay, respectively. Fura-2-loaded cells, transiently exposed to the oleuropein-enriched fraction, showed dose-dependent transient elevations of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Application of standard oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, and of the inhibitor of low-voltage T-type Ca2+ channels NNC-55-0396, suggested that the effect is mainly due to oleuropein acting through its hydroxytyrosol moiety on T-type Ca2+ channels. The oleuropein-enriched fraction and standard oleuropein displayed a significant antiproliferative effect, as measured on REN cells by MTT cell viability assay, with IC50 of 22??g/mL oleuropein. Data suggest that our oleuropein-enriched fraction from olive leaf extract could have pharmacological application in malignant mesothelioma anticancer therapy, possibly by targeting T-type Ca2+ channels and thereby dysregulating intracellular Ca2+ dynamics. PMID:26693247

  8. 7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means those olives which, pursuant to...

  9. 7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means those olives which, pursuant to...

  10. 7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means those olives which, pursuant to...

  11. 7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means those olives which, pursuant to...

  12. 7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means those olives which, pursuant to...

  13. The olive knot disease as a model to study the role of interspecies bacterial communities in plant disease

    PubMed Central

    Buonaurio, Roberto; Moretti, Chiaraluce; da Silva, Daniel Passos; Cortese, Chiara; Ramos, Cayo; Venturi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in studying interspecies bacterial interactions in diseases of animals and plants as it is believed that the great majority of bacteria found in nature live in complex communities. Plant pathologists have thus far mainly focused on studies involving single species or on their interactions with antagonistic competitors. A bacterial disease used as model to study multispecies interactions is the olive knot disease, caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi (Psv). Knots caused by Psv in branches and other aerial parts of the olive trees are an ideal niche not only for the pathogen but also for many other plant-associated bacterial species, mainly belonging to the genera Pantoea, Pectobacterium, Erwinia, and Curtobacterium. The non-pathogenic bacterial species Erwinia toletana, Pantoea agglomerans, and Erwinia oleae, which are frequently isolated inside the olive knots, cooperate with Psv in modulating the disease severity. Co-inoculations of these species with Psv result in bigger knots and better bacterial colonization when compared to single inoculations. Moreover, harmless bacteria co-localize with the pathogen inside the knots, indicating the formation of stable bacterial consortia that may facilitate the exchange of quorum sensing signals and metabolites. Here we discuss the possible role of bacterial communities in the establishment and development of olive knot disease, which we believe could be taking place in many other bacterial plant diseases. PMID:26113855

  14. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Halved. “Halved” olives are pitted olives in which each olive is cut lengthwise into two approximately equal parts. (d) Segmented. “Segmented” olives are pitted olives in which each olive is cut lengthwise... fairly uniform thickness prepared from pitted olives. (f) Chopped. “Chopped” olives are random-size...

  15. Can elevated CO(2) improve salt tolerance in olive trees?

    PubMed

    Melgar, Juan Carlos; Syvertsen, James P; García-Sánchez, Francisco

    2008-04-18

    We compared growth, leaf gas exchange characteristics, water relations, chlorophyll fluorescence, and Na(+) and Cl(-) concentration of two cultivars ('Koroneiki' and 'Picual') of olive (Olea europaea L.) trees in response to high salinity (NaCl 100mM) and elevated CO(2) (eCO(2)) concentration (700microLL(-1)). The cultivar 'Koroneiki' is considered to be more salt sensitive than the relatively salt-tolerant 'Picual'. After 3 months of treatment, the 9-month-old cuttings of 'Koroneiki' had significantly greater shoot growth, and net CO(2) assimilation (A(CO(2))) at eCO(2) than at ambient CO(2), but this difference disappeared under salt stress. Growth and A(CO(2)) of 'Picual' did not respond to eCO(2) regardless of salinity treatment. Stomatal conductance (g(s)) and leaf transpiration were decreased at eCO(2) such that leaf water use efficiency (WUE) increased in both cultivars regardless of saline treatment. Salt stress increased leaf Na(+) and Cl(-) concentration, reduced growth and leaf osmotic potential, but increased leaf turgor compared with non-salinized control plants of both cultivars. Salinity decreased A(CO(2)), g(s), and WUE, but internal CO(2) concentrations in the mesophyll were not affected. eCO(2) increased the sensitivity of PSII and chlorophyll concentration to salinity. eCO(2) did not affect leaf or root Na(+) or Cl(-) concentrations in salt-tolerant 'Picual', but eCO(2) decreased leaf and root Na(+) concentration and root Cl(-) concentration in the more salt-sensitive 'Koroneiki'. Na(+) and Cl(-) accumulation was associated with the lower water use in 'Koroneiki' but not in 'Picual'. Although eCO(2) increased WUE in salinized leaves and decreased salt ion uptake in the relatively salt-tolerant 'Koroneiki', growth of these young olive trees was not affected by eCO(2). PMID:17728014

  16. REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS California Olive Committee

    E-print Network

    Hernes, Peter J.

    1 REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS California Olive Committee 30 July 2010 The California Olive Committee (COC November 2010 Meeting of the UC Olive Workgroup (location to be announced) to review submitted concept

  17. Humanitarian NGOs: Dealing with authoritarian Oliver Walton

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    Humanitarian NGOs: Dealing with authoritarian regimes Oliver Walton; © Oliver Walton, 2015 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may with authoritarian regimes1 Oliver Walton Abstract This paper explores

  18. Achilles, a New Family of Transcriptionally Active Retrotransposons from the Olive Fruit Fly, with Y Chromosome Preferential Distribution.

    PubMed

    Tsoumani, Konstantina T; Drosopoulou, Elena; Bourtzis, Kostas; Gariou-Papalexiou, Aggeliki; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosomes have many unusual features relative to autosomes. The in depth exploration of their structure will improve our understanding of their origin and divergence (degeneration) as well as the evolution of genetic sex determination pathways which, most often are attributed to them. In Tephritids, the structure of Y chromosome, where the male-determining factor M is localized, is largely unexplored and limited data concerning its sequence content and evolution are available. In order to get insight into the structure and organization of the Y chromosome of the major olive insect pest, the olive fly Bactrocera oleae, we characterized sequences from a Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE)-isolated Y chromosome. Here, we report the discovery of the first olive fly LTR retrotransposon with increased presence on the Y chromosome. The element belongs to the BEL-Pao superfamily, however, its sequence comparison with the other members of the superfamily suggests that it constitutes a new family that we termed Achilles. Its ~7.5 kb sequence consists of the 5'LTR, the 5'non-coding sequence and the open reading frame (ORF), which encodes the polyprotein Gag-Pol. In situ hybridization to the B. oleae polytene chromosomes showed that Achilles is distributed in discrete bands dispersed on all five autosomes, in all centromeric regions and in the granular heterochromatic network corresponding to the mitotic sex chromosomes. The between sexes comparison revealed a variation in Achilles copy number, with male flies possessing 5-10 copies more than female (CI range: 18-38 and 12-33 copies respectively per genome). The examination of its transcriptional activity demonstrated the presence of at least one intact active copy in the genome, showing a differential level of expression between sexes as well as during embryonic development. The higher expression was detected in male germline tissues (testes). Moreover, the presence of Achilles-like elements in different species of the Tephritidae family suggests an ancient origin of this element. PMID:26398504

  19. Achilles, a New Family of Transcriptionally Active Retrotransposons from the Olive Fruit Fly, with Y Chromosome Preferential Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Tsoumani, Konstantina T.; Drosopoulou, Elena; Bourtzis, Kostas; Gariou-Papalexiou, Aggeliki; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D.

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosomes have many unusual features relative to autosomes. The in depth exploration of their structure will improve our understanding of their origin and divergence (degeneration) as well as the evolution of genetic sex determination pathways which, most often are attributed to them. In Tephritids, the structure of Y chromosome, where the male-determining factor M is localized, is largely unexplored and limited data concerning its sequence content and evolution are available. In order to get insight into the structure and organization of the Y chromosome of the major olive insect pest, the olive fly Bactrocera oleae, we characterized sequences from a Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE)-isolated Y chromosome. Here, we report the discovery of the first olive fly LTR retrotransposon with increased presence on the Y chromosome. The element belongs to the BEL-Pao superfamily, however, its sequence comparison with the other members of the superfamily suggests that it constitutes a new family that we termed Achilles. Its ~7.5 kb sequence consists of the 5’LTR, the 5’non-coding sequence and the open reading frame (ORF), which encodes the polyprotein Gag-Pol. In situ hybridization to the B. oleae polytene chromosomes showed that Achilles is distributed in discrete bands dispersed on all five autosomes, in all centromeric regions and in the granular heterochromatic network corresponding to the mitotic sex chromosomes. The between sexes comparison revealed a variation in Achilles copy number, with male flies possessing 5–10 copies more than female (CI range: 18–38 and 12–33 copies respectively per genome). The examination of its transcriptional activity demonstrated the presence of at least one intact active copy in the genome, showing a differential level of expression between sexes as well as during embryonic development. The higher expression was detected in male germline tissues (testes). Moreover, the presence of Achilles-like elements in different species of the Tephritidae family suggests an ancient origin of this element. PMID:26398504

  20. Colonization process of olive tissues by Verticillium dahliae and its in planta interaction with the biocontrol root endophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Pilar; Navarro?Raya, Carmen; Valverde?Corredor, Antonio; Amyotte, Stefan G.; Dobinson, Katherine F.; Mercado?Blanco, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    Summary The colonization process of Olea europaea by the defoliating pathotype of Verticillium dahliae, and the in planta interaction with the endophytic, biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 were determined. Differential fluorescent protein tagging was used for the simultaneous visualization of P. fluorescens PICF7 and V. dahliae in olive tissues. Olive plants were bacterized with PICF7 and then transferred to V. dahliae?infested soil. Monitoring olive colonization events by V. dahliae and its interaction with PICF7 was conducted using a non?gnotobiotic system, confocal laser scanner microscopy and tissue vibratoming sections. A yellow fluorescently tagged V. dahliae derivative (VDAT?36I) was obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens?mediated transformation. Isolate VDAT?36I quickly colonized olive root surface, successfully invaded root cortex and vascular tissues via macro? and micro?breakages, and progressed to the aerial parts of the plant through xylem vessel cells. Strain PICF7 used root hairs as preferred penetration site, and once established on/in root tissues, hindered pathogen colonization. For the first time using this approach, the entire colonization process of a woody plant by V. dahliae is reported. Early and localized root surface and root endophytic colonization by P. fluorescens PICF7 is needed to impair full progress of verticillium wilt epidemics in olive. PMID:21255281

  1. Characterization of olfactory sensilla of the olive fly: behavioral and electrophysiological responses to volatile organic compounds from the host plant and bacterial filtrate.

    PubMed

    Liscia, Anna; Angioni, Piera; Sacchetti, Patrizia; Poddighe, Simone; Granchietti, Aurelio; Setzu, Maria Dolores; Belcari, Antonio

    2013-07-01

    The responses of olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) antennal and palpal olfactory receptors to odors emitted by Pseudomonas putida bacterial filtrate and to volatiles from a host plant were evaluated using electrophysiological and behavioral bioassays. Morphological identification of olfactory receptors was also performed. The third antennal segment (flagellum) bears four types of multiporous sensilla: trichoid, short basiconica, clavate and grooved. Maxillary palps have mechanosensory bristles and multiporous basiconica sensilla. In wind-tunnel bioassays, olive fly responses to volatiles emitted by bacterial filtrate were higher than those to culture medium. Bacterial filtrate was more attractive than ammonium carbonate or a mixture of ethyl acetate and acetic acid in ethanol. GC-MS of bacterial filtrate identified some of the chemicals produced by bacterial activity, including methyl thiolacetate, ammonia, 2-pentanone, 2-heptanone, ethyl tiglate and methyl thiocyanate. Electrophysiological investigations proved that antennal sensilla are responsive to bacterial filtrate odor, methyl thiolacetate, olive leaves and olives, as well as to ?-pinene, while acetic acid elicited an inhibitory response. Electropalpgrams recorded a specific response to bacterial filtrate by mated males and females, as well as a dose-dependent response relationship to methyl thiolacetate by mated females. The identification of new active volatile compounds in the semiochemical system of the olive fly is promising for the development of innovative control strategies in area-wide management. PMID:23669464

  2. Chloroformic and Methanolic Extracts of Olea europaea L. Leaves Present Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities

    PubMed Central

    Chebbi Mahjoub, R; Khemiss, M.; Dhidah, M.; Dellaï, A.; Bouraoui, A.; Khemiss, F.

    2011-01-01

    Olea europaea L. is used in traditional medicine in the Mediterranean areas. Its natural products are used in the treatment of different disorders, like fighting fever and some infectious diseases such as malaria, the treatment of arrhythmia, and relief of intestinal spasms. The aim of the current study is to investigate the possible anti-inflammatory and anatinociceptive effects of methanol and chloroformic extracts prepared from leaves of Olea europaea L. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of the different extracts of Olea europaea leaves were assessed after intraperitoneal administration into rats and mice, using the carrageenan-induced paw edema model in rats to test the anti-inflammatory effect and the acetic acid-induced writhing in mice to test the analgesic effect. The chloroformic and methanolic leaves extracts, studied at the doses of 50, 100, and 200?mg/kg (Body Weight: BW), exhibited significant dose-dependent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that Olea europaea leaves extracts have anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. PMID:22084717

  3. Measuring and modelling interception loss by an isolated olive tree in a traditional olive grove - pasture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nóbrega, Cristina; Pereira, Fernando L.; Valente, Fernanda

    2015-04-01

    Water losses associated to the rainfall interception process by trees can be an important component of the local hydrologic balance and must be accounted for when implementing any sustainable water management programme. In many dry areas of the Mediterranean region where agro-forestry systems are common, those programmes are crucial to foster adequate water conservation measures. Recent studies have shown that the evaluation of interception loss in sparse forests or tree plantations should be made for individual trees, being the total value determined as the sum of the individual contributions. Following this approach, rainfall interception was measured and modelled over two years, in an isolated Olea europeaea L. tree, in a traditional low-density olive grove in Castelo Branco, central Portugal. Total interception loss over the experimental period was 243.5 mm, on a tree crown projected area basis, corresponding to 18.0% of gross rainfall (Pg). Modelling made for each rainfall event using the sparse version of the Gash model, slightly underestimated interception loss with a value of 240.5 mm, i.e., 17.8 % ofPg. Modelling quality, evaluated according to a number of criteria, was good, allowing the conclusion that the methodology used was adequate. Modelling was also made on a daily basis, i.e., assuming a single storm per rainday. In this case, interception loss was overestimated by 12%, mostly because 72% of all rainfall events lasted for more than a day.

  4. On the Use of Leaf Spectral Indices to Assess Water Status and Photosynthetic Limitations in Olea europaea L. during Water-Stress and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Pengsen; Wahbi, Said; Tsonev, Tsonko; Haworth, Matthew; Liu, Shirong; Centritto, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Diffusional limitations to photosynthesis, relative water content (RWC), pigment concentrations and their association with reflectance indices were studied in olive (Olea europaea) saplings subjected to water-stress and re-watering. RWC decreased sharply as drought progressed. Following rewatering, RWC gradually increased to pre-stress values. Photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), mesophyll conductance (gm), total conductance (gt), photochemical reflectance index (PRI), water index (WI) and relative depth index (RDI) closely followed RWC. In contrast, carotenoid concentration, the carotenoid to chlorophyll ratio, water content reflectance index (WCRI) and structural independent pigment index (SIPI) showed an opposite trend to that of RWC. Photosynthesis scaled linearly with leaf conductance to CO2; however, A measured under non-photorespiratory conditions (A1%O2) was approximately two times greater than A measured at 21% [O2], indicating that photorespiration likely increased in response to drought. A1%O2 also significantly correlated with leaf conductance parameters. These relationships were apparent in saturation type curves, indicating that under non-photorespiratory conditions, CO2 conductance was not the major limitations to A. PRI was significant correlated with RWC. PRI was also very sensitive to pigment concentrations and photosynthesis, and significantly tracked all CO2 conductance parameters. WI, RDI and WCRI were all significantly correlated with RWC, and most notably to leaf transpiration. Overall, PRI correlated more closely with carotenoid concentration than SIPI; whereas WI tracked leaf transpiration more effectively than RDI and WCRI. This study clearly demonstrates that PRI and WI can be used for the fast detection of physiological traits of olive trees subjected to water-stress. PMID:25136798

  5. Curriculum Vitae Nadia Bergamaschi Unione europea, 2002-2013 | http://europass.cedefop.europa.eu Pagina 1 / 6

    E-print Network

    Curriculum Vitae Nadia Bergamaschi © Unione europea, 2002-2013 | http://europass.cedefop.europa Sostituire con Nome (i) Cognome (i) © Unione europea, 2002-2013 | http://europass.cedefop.europa.eu Pagina 2 Nadia Bergamaschi © Unione europea, 2002-2013 | http://europass.cedefop.europa.eu Pagina 3 / 6 #12

  6. Sodium replacement of potassium in physiological processes of olive trees (var. Barnea) as affected by drought.

    PubMed

    Erel, Ran; Ben-Gal, Alon; Dag, Arnon; Schwartz, Amnon; Yermiyahu, Uri

    2014-10-01

    Potassium (K) is a macro-nutrient understood to play a role in the physiological performance of plants under drought. In some plant species, sodium (Na) can partially substitute K. Although a beneficial role of Na is well established, information regarding its nutritional role in trees is scant and its function under conditions of drought is not fully understood. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of K and its possible replacement by Na in olive's (Olea europaea L.) response to drought. Young and bearing olive trees were grown in soilless culture and exposed to gradual drought. In the presence of Na, trees were tolerant of extremely low K concentrations. Depletion of K and Na resulted in ?50% reduction in CO2 assimilation rate when compared with sufficiently fertilized control plants. Sodium was able to replace K and recover the assimilation rate to nearly optimum level. The inhibitory effect of K deficiency on photosynthesis was more pronounced under high stomatal conductance. Potassium was not found to facilitate drought tolerance mechanisms in olives. Moreover, stomatal control machinery was not significantly impaired by K deficiency, regardless of water availability. Under drought, leaf water potential was affected by K and Na. High environmental K and Na increased leaf starch content and affected the soluble carbohydrate profile in a similar manner. These results identify olive as a species capable of partly replacing K by Na. The nutritional effect of K and Na was shown to be independent of plant water status. The beneficial effect of Na on photosynthesis and carbohydrates under insufficient K indicates a positive role of Na in metabolism and photosynthetic reactions. PMID:25281842

  7. The Vine and Olive Colony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albinski, Nan Bowman

    1985-01-01

    Traces the historical sources of "Some Plant Olive Trees," a utopian novel by Emma Gelders Sterne, which offers a fictional account of the Vine and Olive colony, one of the most colorful yet least known utopian communities of the nineteenth century. (AYC)

  8. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a)...

  9. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a)...

  10. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a)...

  11. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a)...

  12. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a)...

  13. 7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23 Section 932.23 Agriculture...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating...

  14. 7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23 Section 932.23 Agriculture...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating...

  15. 7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23 Section 932.23 Agriculture...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating...

  16. 7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23 Section 932.23 Agriculture...VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating...

  17. 7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23 Section 932.23 Agriculture...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating...

  18. Root hairs play a key role in the endophytic colonization of olive roots by Pseudomonas spp. with biocontrol activity.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Pilar; Schilirò, Elisabetta; Maldonado-González, María Mercedes; Valderrama, Raquel; Barroso-Albarracín, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2011-08-01

    The use of indigenous bacterial root endophytes with biocontrol activity against soil-borne phytopathogens is an environmentally-friendly and ecologically-efficient action within an integrated disease management framework. The earliest steps of olive root colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 and Pseudomonas putida PICP2, effective biocontrol agents (BCAs) against Verticillium wilt of olive (Olea europaea L.) caused by the fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb., are here described. A gnotobiotic study system using in vitro propagated olive plants, differential fluorescent-protein tagging of bacteria, and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis have been successfully used to examine olive roots-Pseudomonas spp. interactions at the single-cell level. In vivo simultaneous visualization of PICF7 and PICP2 cells on/in root tissues enabled to discard competition between the two bacterial strains during root colonization. Results demonstrated that both BCAs are able to endophytically colonized olive root tissues. Moreover, results suggest a pivotal role of root hairs in root colonization by both biocontrol Pseudomonas spp. However, colonization of root hairs appeared to be a highly specific event, and only a very low number of root hairs were effectively colonized by introduced bacteria. Strains PICF7 and PICP2 can simultaneously colonize the same root hair, demonstrating that early colonization of a given root hair by one strain did not hinder subsequent attachment and penetration by the other. Since many environmental factors can affect the number, anatomy, development, and physiology of root hairs, colonization competence and biocontrol effectiveness of BCAs may be greatly influenced by root hair's fitness. Finally, the in vitro study system here reported has shown to be a suitable tool to investigate colonization processes of woody plant roots by microorganisms with biocontrol potential. PMID:21347721

  19. The olive fly endosymbiont, "Candidatus Erwinia dacicola," switches from an intracellular existence to an extracellular existence during host insect development.

    PubMed

    Estes, Anne M; Hearn, David J; Bronstein, Judith L; Pierson, Elizabeth A

    2009-11-01

    As polyphagous, holometabolous insects, tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) provide a unique habitat for endosymbiotic bacteria, especially those microbes associated with the digestive system. Here we examine the endosymbiont of the olive fly [Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae)], a tephritid of great economic importance. "Candidatus Erwinia dacicola" was found in the digestive systems of all life stages of wild olive flies from the southwestern United States. PCR and microscopy demonstrated that "Ca. Erwinia dacicola" resided intracellularly in the gastric ceca of the larval midgut but extracellularly in the lumen of the foregut and ovipositor diverticulum of adult flies. "Ca. Erwinia dacicola" is one of the few nonpathogenic endosymbionts that transitions between intracellular and extracellular lifestyles during specific stages of the host's life cycle. Another unique feature of the olive fly endosymbiont is that unlike obligate endosymbionts of monophagous insects, "Ca. Erwinia dacicola" has a G+C nucleotide composition similar to those of closely related plant-pathogenic and free-living bacteria. These two characteristics of "Ca. Erwinia dacicola," the ability to transition between intracellular and extracellular lifestyles and a G+C nucleotide composition similar to those of free-living relatives, may facilitate survival in a changing environment during the development of a polyphagous, holometabolous host. We propose that insect-bacterial symbioses should be classified based on the environment that the host provides to the endosymbiont (the endosymbiont environment). PMID:19767463

  20. Probabilities for survival of glassy-winged sharpshooter and olive fruit fly pests in urban yard waste piles.

    PubMed

    Crohn, David M; Faber, Ben; Downer, A James; Daugovish, Oleg

    2008-03-01

    Glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homolodisca coagulate) and olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) were introduced into unturned, chipped yard waste piles to evaluate their survival with time and depth within the piles. In all three trials, no pests lasted more than 14 d, and in no trial did pests survive more than 4d at the 30 and 100 cm depths. No survivors were found after 14 d in any of the treatments at any depth. Neither of the pests survived 100 cm after 2d. A mathematical model for describing pest survival probabilities is described. The model modifies time according to the Arrhenius equation in order to include heat effects on pest survival and can be used to determine exposure times necessary to eliminate these pests with a determined statistical probability. Model projections suggest that for conditions similar to this study, there is 99% confidence that all glassy-winged sharpshooter eggs would be eliminated from 1000 infected leaves in 6.1d at 15 cm depth and in 4.8d at 30 cm or below. Olive fruit fly larvae at these depths would require 4.8 and 4.1d, respectively, for 1000 infected olive fruits. Projected elimination times at the surface were longer, 6.5d for sharpshooter eggs and 14.3d for fruit fly larvae. PMID:17419052

  1. Irrigation effects on quality, phenolic composition, and selected volatiles of virgin olive oils cv. Leccino.

    PubMed

    Servili, Maurizio; Esposto, Sonia; Lodolini, Enrico; Selvaggini, Roberto; Taticchi, Agnese; Urbani, Stefania; Montedoro, Gianfrancesco; Serravalle, Matteo; Gucci, Riccardo

    2007-08-01

    Field-grown olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Leccino) were used over two growing seasons to determine the effect of deficit irrigation regimes on virgin olive oil (VOO) quality. Drip irrigation was managed to maintain a predawn leaf water potential (PLWP): (a) higher than -1.1 MPa (full irrigation: FI); (b) between -1.0 and -3.3 MPa (deficit irrigation: DI); (c) higher than -4.2 MPa (severe deficit irrigation: SI). The fruit yield and oil yield of DI trees were over 90% of those of FI treatments in both years, respectively, whereas yields of SI trees ranged from 61 to 76%. The irrigation regime had minor effects on the free acidity, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of VOO. The concentrations of phenols and o-diphenols in VOO were negatively correlated with PLWP. The concentrations of the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid linked to (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA), the isomer of the oleuropein aglycon (3,4-DHPEA-EA), and the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid linked to (p-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol (p-HPEA-EDA) were lower in FI than in SI treatments. The concentrations of lignans (+)-1-acetoxipinoresinol and (+)-1-pinoresinol were unaffected by the irrigation regime. The tree water status had a marked effect on the concentration of volatile compounds, such as the C(6)-saturated and unsaturated aldehydes, alcohols, and esters. PMID:17636938

  2. Optimization of olive leaf extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction with response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    ?ahin, Selin; Saml?, Rüya

    2013-01-01

    In the present article, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of polyphenols from agricultural and industrial waste of olive oil and table oil productions, olive tree (Olea europaea) leaves were investigated. The aim of the study is to examine the extraction parameters such as solvent concentration (0-100% ethanol (EtOH), v/v), the ratio of solid to solvent (25-50mg/mL) and extraction time (20-60 min), and to obtain the best possible combinations of these parameters through response surface methodology (RSM). The extract yield was stated as mg extract per g of dried leaf (DL). Total phenolic content was expressed in gallic acid equivalent (GAE) per g of dried leaf. Free radical scavenging activity for the antioxidant capacity was tested by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The second order polynomial model gave a satisfactory description of the experimental data. 201.2158 mg extract/g DL, 25.0626 mg GAE/g DL, and 95.5610% in respect to inhibition of DPPH radical were predicted at the optimum operating conditions (500 mg solid to 10 mL solvent ratio, 60 min of extraction time and 50% EtOH composition), respectively. PMID:22964032

  3. Widespread Head-to-Head Hydrocarbon Biosynthesis in Bacteria and Role of OleA ? †

    PubMed Central

    Sukovich, David J.; Seffernick, Jennifer L.; Richman, Jack E.; Gralnick, Jeffrey A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies identified the oleABCD genes involved in head-to-head olefinic hydrocarbon biosynthesis. The present study more fully defined the OleABCD protein families within the thiolase, ?/?-hydrolase, AMP-dependent ligase/synthase, and short-chain dehydrogenase superfamilies, respectively. Only 0.1 to 1% of each superfamily represents likely Ole proteins. Sequence analysis based on structural alignments and gene context was used to identify highly likely ole genes. Selected microorganisms from the phyla Verucomicrobia, Planctomyces, Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were tested experimentally and shown to produce long-chain olefinic hydrocarbons. However, different species from the same genera sometimes lack the ole genes and fail to produce olefinic hydrocarbons. Overall, only 1.9% of 3,558 genomes analyzed showed clear evidence for containing ole genes. The type of olefins produced by different bacteria differed greatly with respect to the number of carbon-carbon double bonds. The greatest number of organisms surveyed biosynthesized a single long-chain olefin, 3,6,9,12,15,19,22,25,28-hentriacontanonaene, that contains nine double bonds. Xanthomonas campestris produced the greatest number of distinct olefin products, 15 compounds ranging in length from C28 to C31 and containing one to three double bonds. The type of long-chain product formed was shown to be dependent on the oleA gene in experiments with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 ole gene deletion mutants containing native or heterologous oleA genes expressed in trans. A strain deleted in oleABCD and containing oleA in trans produced only ketones. Based on these observations, it was proposed that OleA catalyzes a nondecarboxylative thiolytic condensation of fatty acyl chains to generate a ?-ketoacyl intermediate that can decarboxylate spontaneously to generate ketones. PMID:20418421

  4. Isolation, molecular characterization and functional analysis of OeMT2, an olive metallothionein with a bioremediation potential.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Ekrem; Sonmez, Görkem Deniz; Unver, Turgay

    2015-02-01

    Metallothioneins are essential in plants for metal detoxification in addition to their other roles in plant life cycle. This study reports the characterization of an olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Ayvalik) metallothionein with respect to molecular and functional properties. A cDNA encoding a type 2 metallothionein from olive was isolated from a leaf cDNA library, characterized and named OeMT2 after its molecular and functional properties. OeMT2 was expressed in Escherichia coli, and a single protein band was confirmed by protein gel blot analysis. Metal tolerance ability of bacterial cells expressing OeMT2 was determined against 0.2 mM CdCl2, 0.4 mM CdCl2 and 1 mM CuSO4 in the growth medium. Metal ion contents of bacterial cells expressing OeMT2 were measured by ICP. Metal tolerance assays and ICP measurements suggested that OeMT2 effectively binds Cu and Cd. Molecular analysis of OeMT2 revealed two introns, three exons, a short 3' UTR and a long 5' UTR. Comparing the genomic sequences from 14 olive cultivars revealed OeMT2 had both intron and exon polymorphisms dividing the cultivars into three groups. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that OeMT2 expresses more or less the same amounts in all tissues of the olive tree examined. The genomic copy number of OeMT2 was also determined employing real-time PCR which suggested a single copy gene in the olive genome while three other MT2 members were determined from the draft olive genome sequences of Ayvalik cultivar and that of wild olive. This is the first report on molecular and functional characterization of an olive metallothionein and shows that OeMT2 expressed in E. coli has the capability of effectively binding toxic heavy metals. This may suggest that OeMT2 plays an important role in metal homeostasis in addition to a good potential for environmental and industrial usage. PMID:25204791

  5. Olive School, Arlington Heights, Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rausch, Kathy

    1974-01-01

    Article stressed the need for a music teacher in an open school to have an openness to people and ideas. It also described the educational objectives at the Olive School in Arlington Heights, Illinois. (Author/RK)

  6. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8 Agriculture...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating...Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives...

  7. 7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Olive Regulation 1. 944.401 Section 944...FRUITS; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 944.401 Olive Regulation 1. (a) Definitions. (1) Canned ripe olives means olives in hermetically sealed...

  8. 7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Olive Regulation 1. 944.401 Section 944...FRUITS; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 944.401 Olive Regulation 1. (a) Definitions. (1) Canned ripe olives means olives in hermetically sealed...

  9. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8 Agriculture...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating...Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives...

  10. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8 Agriculture...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating...Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives...

  11. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8 Agriculture...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating...Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives...

  12. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8 Agriculture...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating...Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives...

  13. 7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Olive Regulation 1. 944.401 Section 944...FRUITS; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 944.401 Olive Regulation 1. (a) Definitions. (1) Canned ripe olives means olives in hermetically sealed...

  14. 7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Olive Regulation 1. 944.401 Section 944...FRUITS; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 944.401 Olive Regulation 1. (a) Definitions. (1) Canned ripe olives means olives in hermetically sealed...

  15. The olive tree: a paradigm for drought tolerance in Mediterranean climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofo, A.; Manfreda, S.; Dichio, B.; Fiorentino, M.; Xiloyannis, C.

    2007-09-01

    Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is commonly grown in the Mediterranean basin where prolonged droughts may occur during the vegetative period. This species has developed a series of physiological mechanisms to tolerate drought stress and grow under adverse climatic conditions that can be observed in numerous plants of the Mediterranean macchia. These mechanisms have been investigated through an experimental campaign carried out over both irrigated and drought-stressed plants in order to comprehend the plant response under stressed conditions and its ability to recover. Experimental results show that olive plants subjected to water deficit lower the water content and water potentials of their tissues, establishing a particularly high potential gradient between leaves and roots, and stop canopy growth but not photosynthetic activity and transpiration. This allows the continuous production of assimilates as well as their accumulation in the various plant parts, so creating a higher root/leaf ratio if compared to well-watered plants. Active and passive osmotic adjustment due to the accumulation of sugars (in particular mannitol and glucose), proline and other osmolytes has a key role in maintaining cell turgor and leaf activities. At severe drought-stress levels, the non-stomatal component of photosynthesis is inhibited and a light-dependent inactivation of the photosystem II occurs. Finally, the activities of some antioxidant enzymes involved in the scavenging of activated oxygen species and in other biochemical pathways, increase during a period of drought. The present paper provides an overview of the driving mechanisms adopted by olive trees to face drought stress with the aim of better understand plant-soil interactions.

  16. The olive tree: a paradigm for drought tolerance in Mediterranean climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofo, A.; Manfreda, S.; Fiorentino, M.; Dichio, B.; Xiloyannis, C.

    2008-02-01

    Olive trees (Olea europaea L.) are commonly grown in the Mediterranean basin where prolonged droughts may occur during the vegetative period. This species has developed a series of physiological mechanisms, that can be observed in several plants of the Mediterranean macchia, to tolerate drought stress and grow under adverse climatic conditions. These mechanisms have been investigated through an experimental campaign carried out over both irrigated and drought-stressed plants in order to comprehend the plant response under stressed conditions and its ability to recover. Experimental results show that olive plants subjected to water deficit lower the water content and water potentials of their tissues, establishing a particularly high potential gradient between leaves and roots, and stop canopy growth but not photosynthetic activity and transpiration. This allows the continuous production of assimilates as well as their accumulation in the various plant parts, so creating a higher root/leaf ratio if compared to well-watered plants. Active and passive osmotic adjustment due to the accumulation of carbohydrates (in particular mannitol and glucose), proline and other osmolytes have key roles in maintaining cell turgor and leaf activities. At severe drought-stress levels, the non-stomatal component of photosynthesis is inhibited and a light-dependent inactivation of the photosystem II occurs. Finally, the activities of some antioxidant enzymes involved in the scavenging of activated oxygen species and in other biochemical pathways increase during a period of drought. The present paper provides an overview of the driving mechanisms adopted by olive trees to face drought stress with the aim of better understanding plant-soil interactions.

  17. 7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.23 Undersize olives and limited use...

  18. 7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.23 Undersize olives and limited use...

  19. 7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.23 Undersize olives and limited use...

  20. 7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.23 Undersize olives and limited use...

  1. 7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.23 Undersize olives and limited use...

  2. Chemical and physical properties of two-year short-rotation deciduous species. [Olea sp. , Populus deltoides, Platanus sp. , Alnus glutinosa, Paulownia tomentosa, Robina pseudoacacia, Acer saccharinum

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.S

    1982-01-01

    The following seven broadleaved species were tested: autumn olive (Olea sp.) eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), sycamore (Platanus species), black alder (Alnus glutinosa), royal paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa), black locust (Robina pseudoacacia) and silver maple (Acer saccharinum). The species and portions both significantly affected the chemical and the physical findings of the juvenile wood. The ages, which were tested in factorial combination with the species, also showed a significant effect on both the chemical and the physical properties of wood. All of the results indicated that both chemical and physical properties did vary with species, among the portions of the wood, and according to the ages of the wood. From the portion standpoint, the bark had higher gross heat content, sulphur content, ash content and lignin content, and it was also higher in all three kinds of extractives contents. The wood portion was found to be rich in holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and pentosan. In considering the chemical and physical properties of juvenile wood among the species, eastern cottonwood was found to have the highest value for ash content and all of the three kinds of extractives content. Paulownia had the highest value for sulphur content. Black locust had highest gross heat content, holocellulose and alpha-cellulose contents. Silver maple had highest lignin content. Results from this study showed that these seven juvenile hardwood species can produce high biomass yields of fibre and energy when grown under intensive care in central and southern Illinois sites. The best species of these seven tested woods seem to be black locust, which could also serve as a raw material for the pulp and paper industry, as well as for a fuel for energy generation. However, further economic and energy efficiency analyses are needed before judging the feasibility of these short-rotation juvenile hardwood species.

  3. Oliver Wendell Holmes 1

    PubMed Central

    Lindskog, Gustaf E.

    1974-01-01

    The life of Oliver Wendell Holmes was selected as the subject for a lecture in the 1974 History of Medicine series at Yale University School of Medicine because, as the Latin subtitle of the essay suggests, he represents a fortunate and uncommon, but by no means unique, synthesis of the practical and aesthetic, of science and the humanities. An attempt has been made by the lecturer, employing frequent, but brief, excerpts from the works of several disinguished biographers as well as Doctor Holmes' own lectures, medical papers, essays and poems to delineate the elite heritage and the events that led this complex person transiently into the sudy of law, the profession in which his older son reached the pinnacle of the U.S. Supreme Court, and finally into medicine where a short period of private practice was followed by more than three decades of distinguished teaching is anatomy. His lifetime (1809-1894) spanned most of the nineteenth century, in the literary hisory of which he played a significant role. His writings reveal a remarkable, and sometimes prophetic, appreciation of the impact that burgeoning science and evolving social pressures and changes would have on the teaching and practice of medicine in the future—our present. PMID:4617425

  4. Correlations between morpho-anatomical changes and radial hydraulic conductivity in roots of olive trees under water deficit and rewatering.

    PubMed

    Tataranni, Giuseppe; Santarcangelo, Michele; Sofo, Adriano; Xiloyannis, Cristos; Tyerman, Stephen D; Dichio, Bartolomeo

    2015-12-01

    The effects of prolonged drought were studied on olive (Olea europaea L.; drought-sensitive cultivar Biancolilla and drought-tolerant cultivar Coratina) to examine how morpho-anatomical modifications in roots impact on root radial hydraulic conductivity (Lpr). Two-year-old self-rooted plants were subjected to a gradual water depletion. The levels of drought stress were defined by pre-dawn leaf water potentials (?w) of -1.5, -3.5 and -6.5?MPa. After reaching the maximum level of drought, plants were rewatered for 23 days. Progressive drought stress, for both cultivars, caused a strong reduction in Lpr (from 1.2 to 1.3?×?10(-5)?m?MPa(-1)?s(-1) in unstressed plants to 0.2-0.6?×?10(-5)?m?MPa(-1)?s(-1) in plants at ?w?=?-6.5?MPa), particularly evident in the more suberized (brown) roots, accompanied with decreases in stomatal conductance (gs). No significant differences in Lpr and gs between the two olive cultivars were observed. Epifluorescence microscopy and image analyses revealed a parallel increase of wall suberization that doubled in white stressed roots and tripled in brown ones when compared with unstressed plants. In drought-stressed plants, the number of suberized cellular layers from the endodermis towards the cortex increased from 1-2 to 6-7. Recovery in Lpr during rewatering was correlated to the physical disruption of hydrophobic barriers, while the time necessary to obtain new mature roots likely accounted for the observed delay in the complete recovery of gs. Radial hydraulic conductivity in olive roots was strongly influenced by soil and plant water availability and it was also modulated by structural root modifications, size, growth and anatomy. These findings could be important for maintaining an optimal water status in cultivated olive trees by scheduling efficient irrigation methods, saving irrigation water and obtaining yield of high quality. PMID:26446266

  5. Robust Multivariate Linear Regression David J. Olive

    E-print Network

    Olive, David

    Robust Multivariate Linear Regression David J. Olive Southern Illinois University May 3, 2013. KEY WORDS: outliers; prediction regions. David J. Olive is Associate Professor, Department: dolive@siu.edu. 1 #12;1 INTRODUCTION Olive (2013b), using results from Su and Cook (2012) and Kakizawa

  6. Heft 127 Oliver Witt Erosionsstabilitt von

    E-print Network

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    Heft 127 Oliver Witt Erosionsstabilität von Gewässersedimenten und deren Bedeutung für den Erlangung der Würde eines Doktor-Ingenieurs (Dr.-Ing.) genehmigte Abhandlung Vorgelegt von Oliver Witt aus ausgewählter Stauhaltungen des Oberrheins von Dr.-Ing. Oliver Witt Eigenverlag des Instituts für Wasserbau der

  7. Bootstrapping Hypotheses Tests David J. Olive

    E-print Network

    Olive, David

    Bootstrapping Hypotheses Tests David J. Olive Southern Illinois University June 4, 2015 Abstract It will be shown that applying the Olive (2013) large sample 100(1 - )% pre- diction region to the bootstrap sample, prediction region, variable selection David J. Olive is Professor, Department of Mathematics, Southern

  8. Oliver Dorn Lecturer of Applied Mathematics

    E-print Network

    Sidorov, Nikita

    1 Oliver Dorn Lecturer of Applied Mathematics School of Mathematics, University of Manchester Oxford Rd Manchester M13 9PL Alan Turing Building Room 1.110 E-mail oliver.dorn@manchester.ac.uk Phone, The Netherlands.) (PI: Oliver Dorn) · (2012/2013) Co-PI on the Building Global Engagements Grant "Manchester Image

  9. Elemental Fits are Dense David J. Olive

    E-print Network

    Olive, David

    Elemental Fits are Dense David J. Olive Southern Illinois University July 26, 2003 Abstract WORDS: Combinatorics; Elemental Sets; Outliers; Robust Estimation. David J. Olive is Assistant on the rate of bA,n. Hawkins and Olive (2002) proved that bo,n - OP (K-1/p n ). 2 Behavior of the Best

  10. A conversation with Oliver Smithies.

    PubMed

    Smithies, Oliver; Coffman, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Professor Oliver Smithies is the Weatherspoon Eminent Distinguished Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Along with Mario Capecchi and Martin Evans, Oliver was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in Physiology or Medicine in 2007 for his contributions to the development of gene targeting using homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. This technique has had an immense impact on biomedical research over the past two decades. Professor Smithies has had a long and distinguished career as a researcher and mentor. Here, he provides an entertaining and enlightening discussion of his life in science. PMID:25668016

  11. Biotechnological innovations for table olives.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; de Stefano, Fabio; Augello, Salvatore; Pignatiello, Stefano; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria

    2015-03-01

    The production of table olives is based on a relatively simple flow chart, including debittering and lactic fermentation. Producers' demand for innovation was the background to design and test some innovative and alternative approaches, i.e. the selection of suitable starter cultures (both lactic acid bacteria and yeasts), the production of functional olives inoculated with probiotic strains, the use of bioremediation (i.e. degradation of oleuropein by bacteria or yeasts), as well as the inoculation of functional starter cultures with a strong biopreservative effect. This article reports a brief description of the most important innovations, with a special focus on the role of traditional and innovative starter cultures. PMID:25578760

  12. Oliver Sacks in Mendeleev's Garden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, James L.

    2003-08-01

    After returning to New York, Oliver Sacks sent to us a preprint of Uncle Tungsten, which we had the pleasure of perusing for a whole year before publication. After the events of September 11, 2001, my wife and I anxiously awaited word that he was all right. We were relieved—and honored—when in early December we received an autographed copy of Uncle Tungsten (3). We will always treasure Oliver Sacks’s book, his remarkable story of chemistry, and our friendship with him.

  13. Antiallodynic and analgesic effects of maslinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid from Olea europaea.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Francisco R; Cobos, Enrique J; Entrena, José M; Parra, Andrés; García-Granados, Andrés; Baeyens, José M

    2013-04-26

    The effects of maslinic acid (1), a pentacyclic triterpenoid obtained from Olea europaea, were studied in several tests for nociception in mice. Systemic administration of 1 reduced acetic acid-induced writhing, the inflammatory phase of formalin-induced pain, and capsaicin-induced mechanical allodynia. However, it did not induce motor incoordination in the rotarod test. The topical administration of 1 also reduced the inflammatory phase of the formalin test, indicating that at least some of its effects are mediated peripherally. The present results demonstrate for the first time that maslinic acid induces antinociceptive and antiallodynic effects. PMID:23540838

  14. Yeast dynamics during the fermentation of brined green olives treated in the field with kaolin and Bordeaux mixture to control the olive fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Muccilli, Serena; Caggia, Cinzia; Randazzo, Cinzia L; Restuccia, Cristina

    2011-07-15

    The yeast microbiota associated with naturally fermented and inoculated green table olives, differently treated in the field with non-conventional repellent and antiovipositional products in the control of Bactrocera oleae, was analysed using a combination of culture-dependent and -independent molecular fingerprinting. The routine yeast isolation gave rise to 118 strains, whose identification was performed by PCR-RFLP of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Total DNA was extracted directly from the brine throughout fermentation by means of an experimental protocol that included the removal of Taq polymerase inhibitors. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) of 26S rRNA gene PCR amplicons highlighted the yeast community. Comparison of both culture-dependent and independent methods indicated that the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Candida diddensiae and Issatchenkia orientalis were dominant during fermentation despite the addition of the Lactobacillus plantarum starter used in brining. The resultant isolated species were unaffected by treatments in field, except for C. diddensiae whose growth was delayed by kaolin. PMID:21570143

  15. Give us the tools and we will do the job: symbiotic bacteria affect olive fly fitness in a diet-dependent fashion.

    PubMed

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Aharon, Yael; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

    2010-05-22

    Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are intimately associated with bacteria throughout their life cycle, and both larvae and adults are morphologically adapted for housing bacteria in the digestive tract. We tested the hypothesis that these bacteria contribute to the adult fly's fitness in a diet-dependent fashion. We predicted that when dietary protein is superabundant, bacterial contribution will be minimal. Conversely, in the absence of protein, or when only non-essential amino acids are present (as in the fly's natural diet), we predicted that bacterial contribution to fitness will be significant. Accordingly, we manipulated diet and the presence of bacteria in female olive flies, and monitored fecundity--an indirect measure of fitness. Bacteria did not affect fecundity when females were fed a nutritionally poor diet of sucrose, or a protein-rich, nutritionally complete diet. However, when females were fed a diet containing non-essential amino acids as the sole source of amino nitrogen, egg production was significantly enhanced in the presence of bacteria. These results suggest that bacteria were able to compensate for the skewed amino acid composition of the diet and may be indispensable for wild adult olive flies that subsist mainly on nitrogen-poor resources such as honeydew. PMID:20071385

  16. Early and delayed long-term transcriptional changes and short-term transient responses during cold acclimation in olive leaves.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Pérez, María de la O; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Valderrama, Raquel; Jiménez-Ruiz, Jaime; Muñoz-Merida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; Barroso, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Luque, Francisco

    2015-02-01

    Low temperature severely affects plant growth and development. To overcome this constraint, several plant species from regions having a cool season have evolved an adaptive response, called cold acclimation. We have studied this response in olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cv. Picual. Biochemical stress markers and cold-stress symptoms were detected after the first 24 h as sagging leaves. After 5 days, the plants were found to have completely recovered. Control and cold-stressed plants were sequenced by Illumina HiSeq 1000 paired-end technique. We also assembled a new olive transcriptome comprising 157,799 unigenes and found 6,309 unigenes differentially expressed in response to cold. Three types of response that led to cold acclimation were found: short-term transient response, early long-term response, and late long-term response. These subsets of unigenes were related to different biological processes. Early responses involved many cold-stress-responsive genes coding for, among many other things, C-repeat binding factor transcription factors, fatty acid desaturases, wax synthesis, and oligosaccharide metabolism. After long-term exposure to cold, a large proportion of gene down-regulation was found, including photosynthesis and plant growth genes. Up-regulated genes after long-term cold exposure were related to organelle fusion, nucleus organization, and DNA integration, including retrotransposons. PMID:25324298

  17. Dry Olive Leaf Extract Counteracts L-Thyroxine-Induced Genotoxicity in Human Peripheral Blood Leukocytes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Žukovec Topalovi?, Dijana; Živkovi?, Lada; ?abarkapa, Andrea; Djeli?, Ninoslav; Baji?, Vladan; Spremo-Potparevi?, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid hormones change the rate of basal metabolism, modulating the consumption of oxygen and causing production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to the development of oxidative stress and DNA strand breaks. Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf contains many potentially bioactive compounds, making it one of the most potent natural antioxidants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of L-thyroxine and to investigate antioxidative and antigenotoxic potential of the standardized oleuropein-rich dry olive leaf extract (DOLE) against hydrogen peroxide and L-thyroxine-induced DNA damage in human peripheral blood leukocytes by using the comet assay. Various concentrations of the extract were tested with both DNA damage inducers, under two different experimental conditions, pretreatment and posttreatment. Results indicate that L-thyroxine exhibited genotoxic effect and that DOLE displayed protective effect against thyroxine-induced genotoxicity. The number of cells with DNA damage, was significantly reduced, in both pretreated and posttreated samples (P < 0.05). Comparing the beneficial effect of all tested concentrations of DOLE, in both experimental protocols, it appears that extract was more effective in reducing DNA damage in the pretreatment, exhibiting protective role against L-thyroxine effect. This feature of DOLE can be explained by its capacity to act as potent free radical scavenger. PMID:25789081

  18. Response of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) to an attract-and-kill trap in greenhouse cage tests.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y

    2014-01-01

    A novel attract-and-kill trap for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), was constructed with yellow corrugated plastic in an inverted cylindrical pan shape formed from a disk and collar. The trap components were tested under three greenhouse temperatures and humidities of warm, hot, and very hot for attractiveness to caged young or older adults. A greater proportion of adults regardless of age were found underneath the devices including disks, cylindrical pans, and pans with pheromone lures and test units of cylindrical pans sprayed with water, insecticidal bait spray, and with lures. The effect was related to lower temperatures on the underside compared with the top and the intolerance of the pest to heat. A circular collar added to the perimeter of the disk that formed the top of the inverted cylinder made the attract-and-kill trap more attractive to adults than the disk alone. Pheromone lures or bait sprays did not increase adult attraction, so were not needed for efficacy. The cylindrical pan was especially attractive to adults when temperatures were high by providing shelter from the heat. At very high temperatures, the pan became unattractive, possibly due to heating of the construction materials. Cylindrical pans sprayed with water on the underside attracted the highest number of adults especially at high temperatures. Greenhouse tests showed that the inverted cylindrical pan design has potential as an attract-and-kill device for olive fruit fly control. PMID:25368094

  19. Dry olive leaf extract counteracts L-thyroxine-induced genotoxicity in human peripheral blood leukocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Topalovi?, Dijana Žukovec; Živkovi?, Lada; ?abarkapa, Andrea; Djeli?, Ninoslav; Baji?, Vladan; Dekanski, Dragana; Spremo-Potparevi?, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid hormones change the rate of basal metabolism, modulating the consumption of oxygen and causing production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to the development of oxidative stress and DNA strand breaks. Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf contains many potentially bioactive compounds, making it one of the most potent natural antioxidants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of L-thyroxine and to investigate antioxidative and antigenotoxic potential of the standardized oleuropein-rich dry olive leaf extract (DOLE) against hydrogen peroxide and L-thyroxine-induced DNA damage in human peripheral blood leukocytes by using the comet assay. Various concentrations of the extract were tested with both DNA damage inducers, under two different experimental conditions, pretreatment and posttreatment. Results indicate that L-thyroxine exhibited genotoxic effect and that DOLE displayed protective effect against thyroxine-induced genotoxicity. The number of cells with DNA damage, was significantly reduced, in both pretreated and posttreated samples (P < 0.05). Comparing the beneficial effect of all tested concentrations of DOLE, in both experimental protocols, it appears that extract was more effective in reducing DNA damage in the pretreatment, exhibiting protective role against L-thyroxine effect. This feature of DOLE can be explained by its capacity to act as potent free radical scavenger. PMID:25789081

  20. Early and delayed long-term transcriptional changes and short-term transient responses during cold acclimation in olive leaves

    PubMed Central

    Leyva-Pérez, María de la O; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Valderrama, Raquel; Jiménez-Ruiz, Jaime; Muñoz-Merida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; Barroso, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Luque, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature severely affects plant growth and development. To overcome this constraint, several plant species from regions having a cool season have evolved an adaptive response, called cold acclimation. We have studied this response in olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cv. Picual. Biochemical stress markers and cold-stress symptoms were detected after the first 24 h as sagging leaves. After 5 days, the plants were found to have completely recovered. Control and cold-stressed plants were sequenced by Illumina HiSeq 1000 paired-end technique. We also assembled a new olive transcriptome comprising 157,799 unigenes and found 6,309 unigenes differentially expressed in response to cold. Three types of response that led to cold acclimation were found: short-term transient response, early long-term response, and late long-term response. These subsets of unigenes were related to different biological processes. Early responses involved many cold-stress-responsive genes coding for, among many other things, C-repeat binding factor transcription factors, fatty acid desaturases, wax synthesis, and oligosaccharide metabolism. After long-term exposure to cold, a large proportion of gene down-regulation was found, including photosynthesis and plant growth genes. Up-regulated genes after long-term cold exposure were related to organelle fusion, nucleus organization, and DNA integration, including retrotransposons. PMID:25324298

  1. Scenography for “Oliver! : The Musical”

    E-print Network

    Gu, Nannan

    2015-05-31

    . The story of Oliver Twist is well known to audience from all over the world. The Victorian London is a mirror to all the developing Capitals. As an International student from China, I think this play is also interesting enough to bring Chinese audience, like...

  2. "Oliver Twist": A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashion, Carol; Fischer, Diana

    This teacher's guide for public television's 3-part adaptation of Charles Dickens's "Oliver Twist" provides information that will help enrich students' viewing of the series, whether or not they read the novel. The guide includes a wide range of discussion and activity ideas; there is also a series Web site and a list of Web resources.…

  3. Probabilistic Dialogue Modelling Oliver Lemon

    E-print Network

    Probabilistic Dialogue Modelling Oliver Lemon CSLI Stanford University lemon dialogue managers (see e.g. (Lemon et al., 1 This research was (partially) funded under the Wallenberg¨oping University, by the Wallenberg Foundation, Sweden. 2001; Lemon et al., 2002)) which use deterministic context

  4. Generation under Uncertainty Oliver Lemon

    E-print Network

    Generation under Uncertainty Oliver Lemon Heriot-Watt University Edinburgh, United Kingdom o.lemon and Lemon, 2010). The issue of uncertainty for refer- ring expression generation has been discussed be- fore you cannot know with certainty how they will respond to it (Rieser and Lemon, 2009; Rieser et al

  5. MEMORIAL DR. OLIVER "CECIL" COMPTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dr. Oliver "Cecil" Compton of Corvallis, Oregon, died Wednesday 10 August 2005, at Samaritan Heart of the Valley Care Center. He was 102. Dr. Compton was an Emeritus Professor of Oregon State University. This brief article gives a brief summary of his life and some of his academic activities in pomo...

  6. An Interview with Oliver Sacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Dale; Palo, Susan

    1989-01-01

    Presents an interview with Oliver Sachs. Discusses his approach to writing, including the physical pen-and-ink approach as opposed to using a word processor; his use of journals; his motivation for writing; his approach to revision; and his view of himself as a writer. (NH)

  7. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole” olives are those which have not been pitted. (b) Pitted. “Pitted” olives are those...

  8. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives means olives...

  9. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives means olives...

  10. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives means olives...

  11. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole” olives are those which have not been pitted. (b) Pitted. “Pitted” olives are those...

  12. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives means olives...

  13. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives means olives...

  14. Inhibitory effects of Olea ferruginea crude leaves extract against some bacterial and fungal pathogen.

    PubMed

    Amin, Adnan; Khan, Muhammad Ayaz; Shah, Swahid; Ahmad, Mushatq; Zafar, Muhammad; Hameed, Abdul

    2013-03-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of Olea ferruginea crude leaves extract that are commonly used as remedy to cure infections in the tribal (Khyber Agency) areas of Pakistan against some of bacterial and fungal pathogens. The crude n-hexane fraction was appreciably active against both gram positive and negative microorganisms (MIC ranged from 7.5 to 15 mg/ml) followed by butanol fraction (MIC 15 to 30 mg/ml). Conversely least biological activity was shown by chloroform (30mg/ml) and methanol (15 to 30mg/ml) crude fractions. The MBC observed for all crude fractions was same or 2 times higher when compared with MIC for all crude extract fractions. Likewise all the fractions showed activity against Aspergillus niger and maximum zones of inhibition were shown by the n-hexane fraction (14 ± (0.02), butanol (13 ± (0.02) followed by methanol (9 ± (0.05) and chloroform fractions (7 ± (0.02). These results clearly imitate the antibacterial and antifungal potential of Olea ferruginea and hence we recommend the whole plant for further futuristic studies. PMID:23455192

  15. Phenolic Compounds from Olea europaea L. Possess Antioxidant Activity and Inhibit Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Dekdouk, Nadia; Malafronte, Nicola; Russo, Daniela; Faraone, Immacolata; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Ameddah, Souad; Severino, Lorella; Milella, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic composition and biological activities of fruit extracts from Italian and Algerian Olea europaea L. cultivars were studied. Total phenolic and tannin contents were quantified in the extracts. Moreover 14 different phenolic compounds were identified, and their profiles showed remarkable quantitative differences among analysed extracts. Moreover antioxidant and enzymatic inhibition activities were studied. Three complementary assays were used to measure their antioxidant activities and consequently Relative Antioxidant Capacity Index (RACI) was used to compare and easily describe obtained results. Results showed that Chemlal, between Algerian cultivars, and Coratina, among Italian ones, had the highest RACI values. On the other hand all extracts and the most abundant phenolics were tested for their efficiency to inhibit ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase enzymes. Leccino, among all analysed cultivars, and luteolin, among identified phenolic compounds, were found to be the best inhibitors of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase enzymes. Results demonstrated that Olea europaea fruit extracts can represent an important natural source with high antioxidant potential and significant ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibitory effects. PMID:26557862

  16. Purification and Characterization of OleA from Xanthomonas campestris and Demonstration of a Non-decarboxylative Claisen Condensation Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Frias, JA; Richman, JE; Erickson, JS; Wackett, LP

    2011-03-25

    OleA catalyzes the condensation of fatty acyl groups in the first step of bacterial long-chain olefin biosynthesis, but the mechanism of the condensation reaction is controversial. In this study, OleA from Xanthomonas campestris was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The purified protein was shown to be active with fatty acyl-CoA substrates that ranged from C(8) to C(16) in length. With limiting myristoyl-CoA (C(14)), 1 mol of the free coenzyme A was released/mol of myristoyl-CoA consumed. Using [(14)C] myristoyl-CoA, the other products were identified as myristic acid, 2-myristoylmyristic acid, and 14-heptacosanone. 2-Myristoylmyristic acid was indicated to be the physiologically relevant product of OleA in several ways. First, 2-myristoylmyristic acid was the major condensed product in short incubations, but over time, it decreased with the concomitant increase of 14-heptacosanone. Second, synthetic 2-myristoylmyristic acid showed similar decarboxylation kinetics in the absence of OleA. Third, 2-myristoylmyristic acid was shown to be reactive with purified OleC and OleD to generate the olefin 14-heptacosene, a product seen in previous in vivo studies. The decarboxylation product, 14-heptacosanone, did not react with OleC and OleD to produce any demonstrable product. Substantial hydrolysis of fatty acyl-CoA substrates to the corresponding fatty acids was observed, but it is currently unclear if this occurs in vivo. In total, these data are consistent with OleA catalyzing a non-decarboxylative Claisen condensation reaction in the first step of the olefin biosynthetic pathway previously found to be present in at least 70 different bacterial strains.

  17. ISOLATION OF OLIVE ROCKFISH, SEBASTES SERRANOIDES, POPULATIONS OFF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

    E-print Network

    ISOLATION OF OLIVE ROCKFISH, SEBASTES SERRANOIDES, POPULATIONS OFF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA MILTON S. LOVE1 ABSTRACT Movements of the olive rockfish, Sebastes serronoides, off Santa Barbara, California indicated that fishing pressure had reduced olive rockfish populations to almost all prereproduc- tive

  18. Components of a standardised olive leaf dry extract (Ph. Eur.) promote hypothiocyanite production by lactoperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Flemmig, Jörg; Rusch, Dorothea; Czerwi?ska, Monika Ewa; Rauwald, Hans-Wilhelm; Arnhold, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    We investigated in vitro the ability of a standardised olive leaf dry extract (Ph. Eur.) (OLE) as well as of its single components to circumvent the hydrogen peroxide-induced inhibition of the hypothiocyanite-producing activity of lactoperoxidase (LPO). The rate of hypothiocyanite (?OSCN) formation by LPO was quantified by spectrophotometric detection of the oxidation of 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid (TNB). By using excess hydrogen peroxide, we forced the accumulation of inactive enzymatic intermediates which are unable to promote the two-electronic oxidation of thiocyanate. Both OLE and certain extract components showed a strong LPO-reactivating effect. Thereby an o-hydroxyphenolic moiety emerged to be essential for a good reactivity with the inactive LPO redox states. This basic moiety is found in the main OLE components oleuropein, oleacein, hydroxytyrosol, caffeic acid as well as in different other constituents including the OLE flavone luteolin. As LPO is a key player in the humoral immune response, these results propose a new mode of action regarding the well-known bacteriostatic and anti-inflammatory properties of the leaf extract of Olea europaea L. PMID:24657078

  19. Correlation between large-scale atmospheric fields and the olive pollen season in Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avolio, E.; Pasqualoni, L.; Federico, S.; Fornaciari, M.; Bonofiglio, T.; Orlandi, F.; Bellecci, C.; Romano, B.

    2008-11-01

    Olives are one of the largest crops in the Mediterranean and in central and southern Italy. This work investigates the correlation of the Olea europaea L. pollen season in Perugia, the capital city of the region of Umbria in central Italy, with atmospheric parameters. The aim of the study is twofold. First, we study the correlation between the pollen season and the surface air temperature of the spring and late spring in Perugia. Second, the correlation between the pollen season and large-scale atmospheric patterns is investigated. The average surface temperature in the spring and late spring has a clear impact on the pollen season in Perugia. Years with higher average temperatures have an earlier onset of the pollen season. In particular, a 1°C higher (lower) average surface temperature corresponds to an earlier (later) start of the pollen season of about 1 week. The correlation between the pollen season and large-scale atmospheric patterns of sea level pressure and 500-hPa geopotential height shows that the cyclonic activity in the Mediterranean is unequivocally tied to the pollen season in Perugia. A larger than average cyclonic activity in the Mediterranean Basin corresponds to a later than average pollen season. Larger than average cyclonic activity in Northern Europe and Siberia corresponds to an earlier than average pollen season. A possible explanation of this correlation, that needs further investigation to be proven, is given. These results can have a practical application by using the seasonal forecast of atmospheric general circulation models.

  20. A small deletion in the olive fly acetylcholinesterase gene associated with high levels of organophosphate resistance.

    PubMed

    Kakani, E G; Ioannides, I M; Margaritopoulos, J T; Seraphides, N A; Skouras, P J; Tsitsipis, J A; Mathiopoulos, K D

    2008-08-01

    Organophosphate resistance in the olive fly was previously shown to associate with two point mutations in the ace gene. The frequency of these mutations was monitored in Bactrocera oleae individuals of increasing resistance. In spite of the difference in resistance among the individuals, there was no correlation between mutation frequencies and resistance level, indicating that other factors may contribute to this variation. The search for additional mutations in the ace gene of highly resistant insects revealed a small deletion at the carboxyl terminal of the protein (termed Delta3Q). Significant correlation was shown between the mutation frequency and resistance level in natural populations. In addition, remaining activity of acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) after dimethoate inhibition was higher in genotypes carrying the mutation. These results strongly suggest a role of Delta3Q in high levels of organophosphate (OP) resistance. Interestingly, the carboxyl terminal of AChE is normally cleaved and substituted by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. We hypothesize that Delta3Q may improve GPI anchoring, thus increasing the amount of AChE that reaches the synaptic cleft. In this way, despite the presence of insecticide, enough enzyme would remain in the cleft for its normal role of acetylcholine hydrolysis, allowing the insect to survive. This provides a previously un-described mechanism of resistance. PMID:18625401

  1. A dehydrin gene isolated from feral olive enhances drought tolerance in Arabidopsis transgenic plants

    PubMed Central

    Chiappetta, Adriana; Muto, Antonella; Bruno, Leonardo; Woloszynska, Magdalena; Lijsebettens, Mieke Van; Bitonti, Maria B.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydrins belong to a protein family whose expression may be induced or enhanced by developmental process and environmental stresses that lead to cell dehydration. A dehydrin gene named OesDHN was isolated and characterized from oleaster (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea, var. sylvestris), the wild form of olive. To elucidate the contribution of OesDHN in the development of drought tolerance, its expression levels were investigated in oleaster plants during development and under drought stress condition. The involvement of OesDHN in plant stress response was also evaluated in Arabidopsis transgenic lines, engineered to overexpress this gene, and exposed to a controlled mild osmotic stress. OesDHN expression was found to be modulated during development and induced under mild drought stress in oleaster plants. In addition, the Arabidopsis transgenic plants showed a better tolerance to osmotic stress than wild-type plants. The results demonstrated that OesDHN expression is induced by drought stress and is able to confer osmotic stress tolerance. We suggest a role for OesDHN, as a putative functional marker of plant stress tolerance. PMID:26175736

  2. Sample preparation approaches for the analysis of pesticide residues in olives and olive oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural practices generally require the use of pesticides by olive growers for the best olive and olive oil production. Thus, analytical methods are needed to identify and quantify the pesticide residues that may be present, and ensure that the product complies with regulatory requirements. I...

  3. Obituary: In Memoriam: William I. Oliver

    E-print Network

    1995-04-01

    6 LATIN AMERICAN THEATRE REVIEW In Memoriam William I. Oliver "Bill" Oliver falleció en San José de Costa Rica el viernes 17 de marzo de 1995. Actor, director escénico, autor dramático, ensayista, traductor literario-dramático y pedagogo, el Dr.... William Irvin Oliver desarrolló su carrera artística y docente en el Departamento de Drama de la Universidad de California, Berkeley y alrededor de teatros profesionales y universitarios estadounidenses, así como también en el Instituto de la...

  4. KEVIN KELLY, OLIVER SCHULTE, VINCENT HENDRICKS RELIABLE BELIEF REVISION

    E-print Network

    Spirtes, Peter

    KEVIN KELLY, OLIVER SCHULTE, VINCENT HENDRICKS RELIABLE BELIEF REVISION ABSTRACT. Philosophical, OLIVER SCHULTE, VINCENT HENDRICKS In this paper, we provide a learning theoretic analysis of the e ects

  5. Olive leaf extracts protect cardiomyocytes against 4-hydroxynonenal-induced toxicity in vitro: comparison with oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and quercetin.

    PubMed

    Bali, Elif Burcu; Ergin, Volkan; Rackova, Lucia; Bayraktar, O?uz; Küçükboyaci, Nurgün; Karasu, Çimen

    2014-08-01

    Olive (Olea europaea) leaf, an important traditional herbal medicine, displays cardioprotection that may be related to the cellular redox modulating effects of its polyphenolic constituents. This study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of the ethanolic and methanolic extracts of olive leaves compared to the effects of oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and quercetin as a positive standard in a carbonyl compound (4-hydroxynonenal)-induced model of oxidative damage to rat cardiomyocytes (H9c2). Cell viability was detected by the MTT assay; reactive oxygen species production was assessed by the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate method, and the mitochondrial membrane potential was determined using a JC-1 dye kit. Phospho-Hsp27 (Ser82), phospho-MAPKAPK-2 (Thr334), phospho-c-Jun (Ser73), cleaved-caspase-3 (cl-CASP3) (Asp175), and phospho-SAPK/JNK (Thr183/Tyr185) were measured by Western blotting. The ethanolic and methanolic extracts of olive leaves inhibited 4-hydroxynonenal-induced apoptosis, characterized by increased reactive oxygen species production, impaired viability (LD50: 25?µM), mitochondrial dysfunction, and activation of pro-apoptotic cl-CASP3. The ethanolic and methanolic extracts of olive leaves also inhibited 4-hydroxynonenal-induced phosphorylation of stress-activated transcription factors, and the effects of extracts on p-SAPK/JNK, p-Hsp27, and p-MAPKAPK-2 were found to be concentration-dependent and comparable with oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and quercetin. While the methanolic extract downregulated 4-hydroxynonenal-induced p-MAPKAPK-2 and p-c-Jun more than the ethanolic extract, it exerted a less inhibitory effect than the ethanolic extract on 4-hydroxynonenal-induced p-SAPK/JNK and p-Hsp27. cl-CASP3 and p-Hsp27 were attenuated, especially by quercetin. Experiments showed a predominant reactive oxygen species inhibitory and mitochondrial protecting ability at a concentration of 1-10?µg/mL of each extract, oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and quercetin. The ethanolic extract of olive leaves, which contains larger amounts of oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside, luteolin, and quercetin (by HPLC) than the methanolic one, has more protecting ability on cardiomyocyte viability than the methanolic extract or each phenolic compound against 4-hydroxynonenal-induced carbonyl stress and toxicity. PMID:25098929

  6. Photopyroelectric Monitoring of Olive's Ripening Conditions and Olive Oil Quality Using Pulsed Wideband IR Thermal Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Taha, M. I.; Sarahneh, Y.; Saleh, A. M.

    The present study is based on band absorption of radiation from pulsed wideband infrared (IR) thermal source (PWBS) in conjunction with polyvinylidene fluoride film (PVDF). It is the first time to be employed to monitor the ripening state of olive fruit. Olive's characteristics vary at different stages of ripening, and hence, cultivation of olives at the right time is important in ensuring the best oil quality and maximizes the harvest yield. The photopyroelectric (PPE) signal resulting from absorption of wideband infrared (IR) radiation by fresh olive juice indicates the ripening stage of olives, i.e., allows an estimate of the suitable harvest time. The technique was found to be very useful in discriminating between olive oil samples according to geographical region, shelf life, some storage conditions, and deliberate adulteration. Our results for monitoring oil accumulation in olives during the ripening season agree well with the complicated analytical studies carried out by other researchers.

  7. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions §...

  8. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... including the three distinct types, ripe, green ripe, and tree-ripened; or (b) olives, packed in brine, and which have been fermented and cured, otherwise known as green olives....

  9. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... including the three distinct types, ripe, green ripe, and tree-ripened; or (b) olives, packed in brine, and which have been fermented and cured, otherwise known as green olives....

  10. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... including the three distinct types, ripe, green ripe, and tree-ripened; or (b) olives, packed in brine, and which have been fermented and cured, otherwise known as green olives....

  11. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... including the three distinct types, ripe, green ripe, and tree-ripened; or (b) olives, packed in brine, and which have been fermented and cured, otherwise known as green olives....

  12. Olive Banks (1923-2006): An Appreciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis, June

    2008-01-01

    This Appreciation of Olive Banks (1923-2006) draws upon her memoir published in Women's History Review, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1999, pp. 401-410, and upon the author's recollections of and correspondence with her. Born into a solidly working-class family, Olive Banks overcame the disadvantages of her social class background and gender to become an…

  13. AUTUMN OLIVE: A POTENTIAL ALTERNATIVE CROP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fruit of autumn olive has a pleasant sweet-tart flavor and could be used for a variety of fruit- based products, but has not been used commercially for human consumption in this country. Recent studies at the USDA Beltsville Phytonutrient Laboratory have shown that the fruit of Autumn olive is ...

  14. Oliver C. Schultheiss Implicit motives 1 Running head: IMPLICIT MOTIVES

    E-print Network

    Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    Oliver C. Schultheiss Implicit motives 1 Running head: IMPLICIT MOTIVES Implicit motives Oliver C-2, NIMH grant 1 R03 MH63069-01, and NSF grant BCS 0444301. #12;Oliver C. Schultheiss Implicit motives 2 the field and invest no effort into the task (Spangler, 1992). Individuals low in #12;Oliver C. Schultheiss

  15. 7 CFR 52.3752 - Types of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Types of canned ripe olives. 52.3752 Section 52.3752 Agriculture...States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles...Grades § 52.3752 Types of canned ripe olives. Canned ripe olives are processed...

  16. 7 CFR 52.3752 - Types of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Types of canned ripe olives. 52.3752 Section 52.3752 Agriculture...States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles...Grades § 52.3752 Types of canned ripe olives. Canned ripe olives are processed...

  17. 7 CFR 52.3752 - Types of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Types of canned ripe olives. 52.3752 Section 52.3752 Agriculture...States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles...Grades § 52.3752 Types of canned ripe olives. Canned ripe olives are processed...

  18. 7 CFR 52.3752 - Types of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Types of canned ripe olives. 52.3752 Section 52.3752 Agriculture...States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles...Grades § 52.3752 Types of canned ripe olives. Canned ripe olives are processed...

  19. 7 CFR 52.3752 - Types of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Types of canned ripe olives. 52.3752 Section 52.3752 Agriculture...States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles...Grades § 52.3752 Types of canned ripe olives. Canned ripe olives are processed...

  20. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole” olives are...

  1. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality of canned ripe olives of whole, pitted, halved, segmented, sliced,...

  2. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole” olives are...

  3. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality of canned ripe olives of whole, pitted, halved, segmented, sliced,...

  4. Secoiridoids delivered as olive leaf extract induce acute improvements in human vascular function and reduction of an inflammatory cytokine: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Lockyer, Stacey; Corona, Giulia; Yaqoob, Parveen; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Rowland, Ian

    2015-07-14

    The leaves of the olive plant (Olea europaea) are rich in polyphenols, of which oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol (HT) are most characteristic. Such polyphenols have been demonstrated to favourably modify a variety of cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of the present intervention was to investigate the influence of olive leaf extract (OLE) on vascular function and inflammation in a postprandial setting and to link physiological outcomes with absorbed phenolics. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, acute intervention trial was conducted with eighteen healthy volunteers (nine male, nine female), who consumed either OLE (51 mg oleuropein; 10 mg HT), or a matched control (separated by a 4-week wash out) on a single occasion. Vascular function was measured by digital volume pulse (DVP), while blood collected at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 h was cultured for 24 h in the presence of lipopolysaccharide in order to investigate effects on cytokine production. Urine was analysed for phenolic metabolites by HPLC. DVP-stiffness index and ex vivo IL-8 production were significantly reduced (P< 0.05) after consumption of OLE compared to the control. These effects were accompanied by the excretion of several phenolic metabolites, namely HT and oleuropein derivatives, which peaked in urine after 8-24 h. The present study provides the first evidence that OLE positively modulates vascular function and IL-8 production in vivo, adding to growing evidence that olive phenolics could be beneficial for health. PMID:26051429

  5. Regulation of photosynthesis and stomatal and mesophyll conductance under water stress and recovery in olive trees: correlation with gene expression of carbonic anhydrase and aquaporins

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Martin, Alfonso; Michelazzo, Chiara; Torres-Ruiz, Jose M.; Flexas, Jaume; Fernández, José E.; Sebastiani, Luca; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis that aquaporins and carbonic anhydrase (CA) are involved in the regulation of stomatal (g s) and mesophyll (g m) conductance to CO2 was tested in a short-term water-stress and recovery experiment in 5-year-old olive plants (Olea europaea) growing outdoors. The evolution of leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and plant water status, and a quantitative analysis of photosynthesis limitations, were followed during water stress and recovery. These variables were correlated with gene expression of the aquaporins OePIP1.1 and OePIP2.1, and stromal CA. At mild stress and at the beginning of the recovery period, stomatal limitations prevailed, while the decline in g m accounted for up to 60% of photosynthesis limitations under severe water stress. However, g m was restored to control values shortly after rewatering, facilitating the recovery of the photosynthetic rate. CA was downregulated during water stress and upregulated after recovery. The use of structural equation modelling allowed us to conclude that both OePIP1.1 and OePIP2.1 expression could explain most of the variations observed for g s and g m. CA expression also had a small but significant effect on g m in olive under water-stress conditions. PMID:24799563

  6. Role of hydraulic and chemical signals in leaves, stems and roots in the stomatal behaviour of olive trees under water stress and recovery conditions.

    PubMed

    Torres-Ruiz, Jose M; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Perez-Martin, Alfonso; Hernandez-Santana, Virginia

    2015-04-01

    The control of plant transpiration by stomata under water stress and recovery conditions is of paramount importance for plant performance and survival. Although both chemical and hydraulic signals emitted within a plant are considered to play a major role in controlling stomatal dynamics, they have rarely been assessed together. The aims of this study were to evaluate (i) the dynamics of chemical and hydraulic signals at leaf, stem and root level, and (ii) their effect on the regulation of stomatal conductance (gs) during water stress and recovery. Measurements of gs, water potential, abscisic acid (ABA) content and loss of hydraulic functioning at leaf, stem and root level were conducted during a water stress and recovery period imposed on 1-year-old olive plants (Olea europaea L.). Results showed a strong hydraulic segmentation in olive plants, with higher hydraulic functioning losses in roots and leaves than in stems. The dynamics of hydraulic conductance of roots and leaves observed as water stress developed could explain both a protection of the hydraulic functionality of larger organs of the plant (i.e., branches, etc.) and a role in the down-regulation of gs. On the other hand, ABA also increased, showing a similar pattern to gs dynamics, and thus its effect on gs in response to water stress cannot be ruled out. However, neither hydraulic nor non-hydraulic factors were able to explain the delay in the full recovery of gs after soil water availability was restored. PMID:25030936

  7. Gillespie-Mount Olive folio, Illinois 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Wallace, b. 1883.

    1926-01-01

    stream_source_info ChadOliverBIB-2008-index-Feb-21.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 224549 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ChadOliverBIB-2008-index-Feb-21.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859...-1 Center for the Bibliography of Science Fiction and Fantasy Cushing Library, Texas A&M University Chad Oliver: An Annotated Bibliography and Guide Compiled by Hal W. Hall Revised Edition, February 20, 2008 College...

  8. Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity.

    PubMed

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-02-15

    The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations. PMID:25236229

  9. The microbiology of olive mill wastes.

    PubMed

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Bourtzis, Kostas; Tsiamis, George

    2013-01-01

    Olive mill wastes (OMWs) are high-strength organic effluents, which upon disposal can degrade soil and water quality, negatively affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning the microbial communities identified over the past 20 years in olive mill wastes using both culture-dependent and independent approaches. A database survey of 16S rRNA gene sequences (585 records in total) obtained from olive mill waste environments revealed the dominance of members of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Independent studies confirmed that OMW microbial communities' structure is cultivar dependent. On the other hand, the detection of fecal bacteria and other potential human pathogens in OMWs is of major concern and deserves further examination. Despite the fact that the degradation and detoxification of the olive mill wastes have been mostly investigated through the application of known bacterial and fungal species originated from other environmental sources, the biotechnological potential of indigenous microbiota should be further exploited in respect to olive mill waste bioremediation and inactivation of plant and human pathogens. The implementation of omic and metagenomic approaches will further elucidate disposal issues of olive mill wastes. PMID:24199199

  10. Ethanol in Olive Fruit. Changes during Ripening.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Gabriel; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio; Sanchez-Ortiz, Araceli

    2015-06-10

    Ethanol is one of the precursors of ethyl esters, the virgin olive oil quality parameter for the "extra" category recently adopted by the European Union and International Olive Oil Council. Although ethyl ester content has great importance for virgin olive oil classification, the origin of ethanol is not clear. A possible source of ethanol may be the olive fruit itself while it remains on the tree. Variation of fruit ethanol content during ripening was studied for three different olive cultivars: 'Picual', 'Hojiblanca', and 'Arbequina'. Ethanol was measured in fruit homogenates by HS-SPME-GC-FID. The ethanol content varied between 0.56 and 58 mg/kg. 'Hojiblanca' fruits showed the highest ethanol concentration. For all of the cultivars, ethanol content of fruit increased during the ripening process, although a clear cultivar-dependent effect was observed because 'Hojiblanca' fruits showed the most significant raise. Therefore, results indicated that ethanol can be accumulated during fruit maturation on the olive tree. PMID:25998425

  11. The Microbiology of Olive Mill Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    Olive mill wastes (OMWs) are high-strength organic effluents, which upon disposal can degrade soil and water quality, negatively affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning the microbial communities identified over the past 20 years in olive mill wastes using both culture-dependent and independent approaches. A database survey of 16S rRNA gene sequences (585 records in total) obtained from olive mill waste environments revealed the dominance of members of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Independent studies confirmed that OMW microbial communities' structure is cultivar dependant. On the other hand, the detection of fecal bacteria and other potential human pathogens in OMWs is of major concern and deserves further examination. Despite the fact that the degradation and detoxification of the olive mill wastes have been mostly investigated through the application of known bacterial and fungal species originated from other environmental sources, the biotechnological potential of indigenous microbiota should be further exploited in respect to olive mill waste bioremediation and inactivation of plant and human pathogens. The implementation of omic and metagenomic approaches will further elucidate disposal issues of olive mill wastes. PMID:24199199

  12. Obituary: John P. Oliver (1939-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Howard

    2011-12-01

    John P. Oliver, an emeritus professor of astronomy at the University of Florida in Gainesville, passed away Thursday, February 10, 2011, after a courageous and long battle with renal cancer. He left behind memories of a life and career to envy. During his forty years of service to his profession and department, this unique astronomer distinguished himself as a research scientist and instrumentalist, creative software designer, gifted teacher and speaker, a vocal advocate of public outreach, and friend to all who knew him. Oliver was born in New Rochelle, New York, during late fall 1939 on November 24. His father, James P. Oliver, was a naval officer and his mother was the former Dorothy Armstrong Cambell. Oliver's early days were spent in various cities due to his father's military life but he eventually received a high school diploma from Princess Ann High School in Virginia. Oliver subsequently graduated with a bachelor of science degree in physics in 1963 from the prestigious Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy. Lick Observatory awarded him a graduate assistantship so he moved west to California where he met and, on November 2, 1963, married Barbara Kay McKenna, who became his lifelong love and partner. In California Oliver had the good fortune to work with several eminent astronomers. This included Albert E. Whifford, director of Lick Observatory and known for his work on interstellar reddening, and Merle F. Walker, an expert in photometry, who also helped establish Pluto's rotation period. His close relation with Lawrence H. Aller, one of the 20th century's memorable astronomers, known for his ability to combine observation, theory and education, and for his care and kindness, helped bind Oliver and astronomy together for life. Oliver would also join the technical staff of the Aerospace Corporation, become an acting director of the Pine Mountain Observatory (University of Oregon), and a research assistant at the University of California in Los Angeles. Eventually, he earned both a master's degree (1968) and Ph.D. (1974) in astronomy from this well-known institution. The brilliant and eminent astronomer Daniel M. Popper supervised Oliver's doctoral dissertation, "An Investigation of Eclipsing Binary Stars Exhibiting Calcium II Emission." This research suggested that many systems Oliver investigated belonged to a new category of variable eclipsing binary stars. Popper had previously defined this new class of stars based on spectral features and intended AR Lac to be its prototype. Instead, using Oliver's suggestion, this class became known as RS CVn variables. Rare among astronomers, Popper himself was fussy about errors of measurement-uncompromising about accurate, conscientious work and intolerant about careless research. Oliver was the only student to receive a Ph.D. under this authoritative and honest astronomer, a testament to Oliver's own talents. As a University of Florida faculty member and astronomer, Oliver occupied many roles, including service as associate department chair, director of the university's Rosemary Hill Observatory near Bronson, Florida, and both undergraduate and graduate coordinators. He made significant contributions to both the operation and instrumentation of telescopes at Rosemary Hill Observatory. The establishment of the observatory's 18-inch Ritchey-Crétien telescope as a working telescope was a major accomplishment for which he wrote its operational software and programs for high speed occultation observations of stars. In addition, he was responsible for both relocating the campus teaching observatory to its present site and its operation during the 1970s. Oliver taught thousands of students both basic astronomy and advanced topics in undergraduate and graduate courses including an important sequence of graduate courses on binary stars. Faculty and students also applauded his superb, advanced course on techniques of observational astronomy. In addition, he was always looking for new techniques to improve teaching. He was among the first to adopt new technologies in t

  13. Statistics 1: MATH11400 Oliver Johnson: maotj@bris.ac.uk

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Oliver

    Statistics 1: MATH11400 Oliver Johnson: maotj@bris.ac.uk Twitter: @BristOliver Statistics group, University of Bristol Teaching Block 2, 2015 Oliver Johnson (maotj@bris.ac.uk) Statistics 1: @BristOliver TB private study only. Oliver Johnson (maotj@bris.ac.uk) Statistics 1: @BristOliver TB 2 c UoB 2015 2 / 292

  14. Canopy light heterogeneity drives leaf anatomical, eco-physiological, and photosynthetic changes in olive trees grown in a high-density plantation.

    PubMed

    Larbi, Ajmi; Vázquez, Saúl; El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Msallem, Monji; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Morales, Fermín

    2015-02-01

    In the field, leaves may face very different light intensities within the tree canopy. Leaves usually respond with light-induced morphological and photosynthetic changes, in a phenomenon known as phenotypic plasticity. Canopy light distribution, leaf anatomy, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and pigment composition were investigated in an olive (Olea europaea, cvs. Arbequina and Arbosana) orchard planted with a high-density system (1,250 trees ha(-1)). Sampling was made from three canopy zones: a lower canopy (<1 m), a central one (1-2 m), and an upper one (>2 m). Light interception decreased significantly in the lower canopy when compared to the central and top ones. Leaf angle increased and photosynthetic rates and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) decreased significantly and progressively from the upper canopy to the central and the lower canopies. The largest leaf areas were found in the lower canopy, especially in the cultivar Arbequina. The palisade and spongy parenchyma were reduced in thickness in the lower canopy when compared to the upper one, in the former due to a decrease in the number of cell layers from three to two (clearly distinguishable in the light and fluorescence microscopy images). In both cultivars, the concentration of violaxanthin-cycle pigments and ?-carotene was higher in the upper than in the lower canopy. Furthermore, the de-epoxidized forms zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin increased significantly in those leaves from the upper canopy, in parallel to the NPQ increases. In conclusion, olive leaves react with morphological and photosynthetic changes to within-crown light gradients. These results strengthen the idea of olive trees as "modular organisms" that adjust the modules morphology and physiology in response to light intensity. PMID:25344757

  15. Monitoring endogenous enzymes during olive fruit ripening and storage: correlation with virgin olive oil phenolic profiles.

    PubMed

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2015-05-01

    The ability of olive endogenous enzymes ?-glucosidase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX), to determine the phenolic profile of virgin olive oil was investigated. Olives used for oil production were stored for one month at 20 °C and 4 °C and their phenolic content and enzymatic activities were compared to those of ripening olive fruits. Phenolic and volatile profiles of the corresponding oils were also analysed. Oils obtained from fruits stored at 4 °C show similar characteristics to that of freshly harvested fruits. However, the oils obtained from fruits stored at 20 °C presented the lowest phenolic content. Concerning the enzymatic activities, results show that the ?-glucosidase enzyme is the key enzyme responsible for the determination of virgin olive oil phenolic profile as the decrease in this enzyme activity after 3 weeks of storage at 20 °C was parallel to a dramatic decrease in the phenolic content of the oils. PMID:25529676

  16. Mobility of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) late third instars and teneral adults in test arenas.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y

    2012-10-01

    The mobility of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), late third instars before pupation, teneral adults before flight, and mature adults restricted from flight were studied under mulches in greenhouse cage tests, in horizontal pipes, vertical bottles and pipes filled with sand, and by observation on smooth laboratory surfaces. Percentage adults emerging from pupae and percentage adult females that escaped soil, fabric, and paper mulches over a soil or sand substrate ranged from 63 to 83, and 40-53%, respectively. Percentage adults emerging from pupae and percentage adult females that walked through the open interior of 1.52-6.10-m horizontal pipes of 1.5-2.0-cm inner diameter ranged from 57 to 81, and 27-61%, respectively. Percentage adults emerging from pupae that escaped through sand depths of 2.5-10.2, and 12.7-20.3 cm, ranged from 68 to 87, and 12-88%; and percentage adult females that escaped ranged from 46 to 58, and 38-70%, respectively. In 15.4-cm-inner-diameter pipes filled with different heights of sand, the highest percentage of the total number of adults that emerged in the control were found from 0 to 20.3 cm, and ranged from 37 to 71%. Ten to 47% of adults were found from 20.3 cm to below the surface, and 6-21% escaped to the top of 20.3-50.8 cm high sand columns. In column heights of 55.9 and 61 cm, pressures at the bottom caused by the weight of the sand above were 91.4 and 99.7 g/cm(2), respectively, and a mean of <1 adult escaped to the top. Before pupation, the late third instars were found to travel continuously for 6.9 h over 23.9 m at a speed of 6.0 cm per min, when placed on a smooth surface, at 22.2°C. Teneral females and males that could not fly, made ?7 stops totaling 11-13 min, walked at a speed of 57-62 cm per min, and began a rest period of 83-84 min duration, at 85-89 min before flight. Males walked a distance of 13.1 m in 22 min, which was greater than females that walked for 9.6 m in 17 min, at 20-22°C and 35% RH. The mobility of the third instars and the teneral adults is discussed in relation to potential control techniques in olive orchards. PMID:23068175

  17. Stemflow in low-density and hedgerow olive orchards in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Pedro D.; Valente, Fernanda; Pereira, Fernando L.; Abreu, Francisco G.

    2015-04-01

    Stemflow (Sf) is responsible for a localized water and solute input to soil around tree's trunks, playing an important eco-hydrological role in forest and agricultural ecosystems. Sf was monitored for seven months in 25 Olea europaea L. trees distributed in three orchards managed in two different ways, traditional low-density and super high density hedgerow. The orchards were located in central Portugal in the regions of Santarém (Várzea and Azóia) and Lisboa (Tapada). Seven olive varieties were analysed: Arbequina, Galega, Picual, Maçanilha, Cordovil, Azeiteira, Negrinha and Blanqueta. Measured Sf ranged from 7.5 to 87.2 mm (relative to crown-projected area), corresponding to 1.2 and 16.7% of gross rainfall (Pg). To understand better the variables that affect Sf and to be able to predict its value, linear regression models were fitted to these data. Whenever possible, the linear models were simplified using the backward stepwise algorithm based on the Akaike information criterion. For each tree, multiple linear regressions were adjusted between Sf and the duration, volume and intensity of rainfall episodes and maximum evaporation rate. In the low-density Várzea grove the more relevant explanatory variables were the three rainfall characteristics. In the super high density Azóia orchard only rainfall volume and intensity were considered relevant. In the low-density Tapada's grove all trees had a different sub-model with Pg being the only common variable. To try to explain differences between trees and to improve the quality of the modeling in each orchard, another set of explanatory variables was added: canopy volume, tree and trunk heights and trunk perimeter at the height of the first branches. The variables present in all sub-models were rainfall volume and intensity and the tree and trunk heights. Canopy volume and rainfall duration were also present in the sub-models of the two low-density groves (Tapada and Várzea). The determination coefficient (R2) of all models ranged from 0.5 to 0.76. The size of leaves was also analysed. Although there were significant differences between varieties and between trees of the same variety, they did not seem to affect the amount of Sf generated. Through analysis of bark storage capacity, it was found that older trees, with rough and thick bark, had higher trunk storage capacity and, therefore, originated less Sf. The results confirm the need for considering the contribution of stemflow when trying to correctly assess interception loss in olive orchards. Although the use of simple and general statistical models may be an attractive option, their precision may be small, making direct measurements or conceptual modelling preferable methods.

  18. In vivo and in vitro addition of dried olive extract in poultry.

    PubMed

    King, Annie J; Griffin, Johanna K; Roslan, Fahkirah

    2014-08-01

    A freeze-dried powder from organic olive (Olea europaea) juice extract, contains 8.82% polyphenols and a minimum of 2.5% hydroxytyrosol (3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol), an effective free radical scavenger and the major antioxidant in the byproduct (dried olive extract, DOE). Myricetin, a bioflavonoid extract from the bark powder of the bayberry tree (Myrica cerifera), also has many beneficial biological properties and antioxidative capacity. While well-known as antioxidants, the capacity of these compounds to retard lipid oxidation in foods containing unsaturated fatty acids has not been widely evaluated. Thus, a study was conducted to assess the capacity of DOE to (1) enhance the growth of poultry, (2) determine the effectiveness of DOE (administered in vivo) as an antioxidant in post-mortem tissue and further processed meat, and (3) compare the in vitro antioxidative capacity of hydroxytyrosol and myricetin. DOE was administered ad libitum in water at 6 and 12 mg per bird per day for 6 weeks in a factorial design: 3 diets (control plus two treatment levels) × 2 blocks × 2 replications. There was no enhancement of feed consumption, body weight (BW), or feed conversion by DOE; overall means for these measurements were 5.49 kg per bird, 3.32 kg per bird, and 1.65 g feed per g live BW, respectively. Diagnostic examinations of two birds per pen at the end of the study revealed no adverse effects due to consumption of DOE, a generally recognized as safe substance. The byproduct, administered in vivo, did not retard lipid oxidation in fresh, heated, or NaCl (1.0% w/w)/heated/stored meat as assessed by absorbance values for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances at 532 nm and 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl at 517 nm. Both the byproduct and hydroxytyrosol are highly water-soluble and may have been unavailable as an antioxidant in the tissue of broilers that did not consume water for 4-6 h prior to processing. As an additive in processed thigh meat, 6 and 12 mg of DOE (2.5% hydroxytyrosol) per 3 mg of meat, although not as effective as myricetin (95% purity), reduced oxidation. Further assessment revealed that hydroxytyrosol from the DOE, added at (1)/38 the concentration of myricetin, was almost 50% as effective. PMID:25007306

  19. Mediterranean Diet with Olive Oil Might Cut Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Mediterranean Diet With Olive Oil Might Cut Breast Cancer Risk: Study Odds were reduced 68 percent in ... olive oil may also reduce the risk of breast cancer. Researchers randomly assigned more than 4,200 women, ...

  20. Obtainment and characterization of a potential functional ingredient from olive.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Díaz-Rubio, M Elena; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2015-11-01

    Current olive oil production methods generate huge amounts of polluting waste, containing most of the health-related compounds in olive. Here, a new product is obtained from olive after pitting, drying and oil extraction, without generating waste. Its characterization showed the presence, within a single matrix, of more than 90% of the polyphenols present in olive, including hydroyxtyrosols (commonly not transferred to olive oil), dietary fiber, oleic acid and polyalcohols. This product is a potential new functional ingredient, consumption of which may lead to additive and/or synergic activities among its constituents; some of which already have approved health claims. Additionally, the olive oil obtained exhibits profiles of fatty acids and phenolic compounds similar to those of commercial olive oil. The procurement of this potential functional ingredient may represent a new approach to the revalorization of olive that additionally decreases waste. PMID:26471073

  1. Patricia Hersh, North Carolina State & Cornell University The Oliver Club

    E-print Network

    Lim, Seonhee

    Patricia Hersh, North Carolina State & Cornell University The Oliver Club Regular CW Complexes, November 4, 2010 at 4:25 PM in 406 Malott Hall www.math.cornell.edu/~oliver/ Refreshments will be served

  2. Straight on view of northeast side of Olive Switching Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Straight on view of northeast side of Olive Switching Station from north side of San Fernando Road facing southwest - Olive Switching Station, 13355 San Fernando Road, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. he olive is an exotic fruit crop in Texas. Olives are native to the Mediterranean Basin, which usually has mild, rainy

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    T he olive is an exotic fruit crop in Texas. Olives are native to the Mediterranean Basin, which freezes that can kill olives to the ground. The best area in Texas to attempt commercial olive produc Garden). The late Earnest Mortensen of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station brought olive trees

  4. Effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on chemical, oxidative and sensorial quality of marinated anchovy.

    PubMed

    Topuz, Osman Kadir; Yerlikaya, Pinar; Ucak, Ilknur; Gumus, Bahar; Büyükbenli, Hanife Aydan

    2014-07-01

    This study describes the potential use of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces as antioxidant, preservative and flavoring agent in fish marinades. The olive oil and sauces, produced from emulsifying of olive oil and pomegranate juice with gums, were blended with marinated anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) fillets. The aim of the present study was to produce a new polyphenol-rich marinade sauces by emulsifying pomegranate juice with olive oil in different proportions (25%, 35% and 50%v:v). In order to evaluate the effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on quality of anchovy marinades, the chemical (TVB-N and TMA), oxidative (peroxides value, K230, thiobarbituric acid and K270) and sensory analyses were carried out during storage at 4°C. The present study showed that saucing of anchovy marinades with olive oil-pomegranate sauce can retard the undesirable quality changes, prolong the lipid oxidation and improve the sensory properties. PMID:24518316

  5. Isothermal microwave and microwave-convection drying of olive pomace

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive pomace is the residue produced when olives are pressed for oil. Valuable polyphenolic compounds can be extracted from olive pomace, but this material is more than 60% water (wet basis) and thus costly to transport and process in its original, wet form. The objective of this study was thus to ...

  6. 77 FR 33104 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ...AMS-FV-11-0093; FV12-932-1 PR] Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for the 2012 and...61 to $31.32 per assessable ton of olives handled. The Committee locally...

  7. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753 Agriculture...States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles... § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole”...

  8. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753 Agriculture...States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles... § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole”...

  9. 75 FR 22211 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ...AMS-FV-09-0089; FV10-932-1 FR] Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for the 2010 and...63 to $44.72 per assessable ton of olives handled. The Committee locally...

  10. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756 Agriculture...States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles... § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the...

  11. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753 Agriculture...States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles... § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole”...

  12. EXTENSIONS OF LINKING SYSTEMS AND FUSION SYSTEMS BOB OLIVER

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Bob

    OLIVER Abstract. We correct two errors in the statement and proof of a theorem i* *n [BCGLO2, and Oliver [BLO ] of abstract link* *ing systems. The main theorem in this note (Theorem 9) describes how of linking systems, and by Andersen, Oliver, and Ventura [AOV ] to construct e* *xotic fusion and linking

  13. 75 FR 9536 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ...AMS-FV-09-0089; FV10-932-1 PR] Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for the 2010 and...63 to $44.72 per assessable ton of olives handled. The Committee locally...

  14. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756 Agriculture...States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles... § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the...

  15. PRICING EQUITY DEFAULT SWAPS CLAUDIO ALBANESE AND OLIVER CHEN

    E-print Network

    Albanese, Claudio

    PRICING EQUITY DEFAULT SWAPS CLAUDIO ALBANESE AND OLIVER CHEN Abstract. Pricing credit into consideration. This work was completed while Oliver Chen was visiting Imperial College. The authors were AND OLIVER CHEN Another typical trade is to enhance the yield of synthetic collateralized debt obli- gations

  16. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756 Agriculture...States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles... § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the...

  17. Robustifying Robust Estimators David J. Olive and Douglas M. Hawkins

    E-print Network

    Olive, David

    Robustifying Robust Estimators David J. Olive and Douglas M. Hawkins Southern Illinois University J. Olive is Associate Professor, Department of Mathematics, Southern Illinois Uni- versity, Mailcode are the FMCD estimator of Hawkins and Olive (1999), the Fast­MCD estimator of Rousseeuw and Van Driessen (1999

  18. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753 Agriculture...States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles... § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole”...

  19. Principles of Gating Mechanisms of Ion Channels Oliver Beckstein

    E-print Network

    Beckstein, Oliver

    Principles of Gating Mechanisms of Ion Channels Oliver Beckstein #12;#12;Principles of Gating Mechanisms of Ion Channels Oliver Beckstein Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics and Merton College, Oxford, Oxford. Copyright c 2004, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2012 Oliver Beckstein. First version 2005-05-29. Second

  20. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756 Agriculture...States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles... § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the...

  1. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756 Agriculture...States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles... § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the...

  2. 78 FR 45841 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ...AMS-FV-12-0076; FV13-932-1 FIR] Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for the 2013 and...32 to $21.16 per ton of assessable olives handled. The Committee locally...

  3. 78 FR 24979 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ...AMS-FV-12-0076; FV13-932-1 IR] Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for the 2013 and...32 to $21.16 per ton of assessable olives handled. The Committee locally...

  4. 77 FR 51684 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ...AMS-FV-11-0093; FV12-932-1 FR] Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for 2012 and subsequent...61 to $31.32 per assessable ton of olives handled. The Committee locally...

  5. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753 Agriculture...States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles... § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole”...

  6. 76 FR 35957 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ...AMS-FV-10-0115; FV11-932-1 FIR] Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for 2011 and subsequent...from $44.72 to $16.61 per ton of olives handled. The Committee locally...

  7. Oliver Layton, PhD Post-doctoral Fellow

    E-print Network

    Salvaggio, Carl

    Oliver Layton, PhD Post-doctoral Fellow The Perception and Action Lab Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Oliver Layton is a postdoctoral researcher in the Cognitive Science Department at Rensselaer. Oliver's research in the Perception and Action Lab with Dr. Brett Fajen focuses on two main thrusts

  8. 76 FR 11937 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...AMS-FV-10-0115; FV11-932-1 IR] Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment...assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for 2011 and subsequent...from $44.72 to $16.61 per ton of olives handled. The Committee locally...

  9. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality...

  10. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality...

  11. 76 FR 11937 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural... assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for 2011 and subsequent fiscal years from $44.72 to $16.61 per ton of olives handled. The Committee locally administers the...

  12. 75 FR 9536 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased... increase the assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for the 2010 and subsequent fiscal years from $28.63 to $44.72 per assessable ton of olives handled. The Committee...

  13. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality...

  14. A Resistant Estimator of Multivariate Location and David J. Olive

    E-print Network

    Olive, David

    A Resistant Estimator of Multivariate Location and Dispersion David J. Olive Southern Illinois. David J. Olive is Assistant Professor, Department of Mathematics, Southern Illinois University, Mailcode to depend strongly on the number of starts Kn used ­ see Hawkins and Olive (2002). Another important

  15. Response Transformations for Models with Additive David J. Olive

    E-print Network

    Olive, David

    Response Transformations for Models with Additive Errors David J. Olive Southern Illinois, Nonlinear Regression, Nonparametric Regression, Single Index Models. David J. Olive is Associate Professor: ch. 18), and Olive and Hawkins (2005). A second type of response plot is a plot of ^Yi = ^m

  16. Prsentation Oliver Gschwender 12.07. 2010 Social Media

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Matthias

    Präsentation ­ Oliver Gschwender 12.07. 2010 Social Media Zielgruppen · Studieninteressierte-sozialer-netzwerke.jpg #12;Präsentation ­ Oliver Gschwender 13.07.2010 Erwartungen und Ziele von Social Media · Nutzer wollen Social Media #12;Präsentation ­ Oliver Gschwender 13.07.2010 Inhalte von Social Media Inhaltliche

  17. 7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...respect to canned ripe olives, inspection and certification...importation. Any lot of olives which fails to meet...organization or processing into oil may be exported...shall not be applicable to olives imported for charitable...organizations or processing for oil, but shall be...

  18. Performance of Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from irradiated host on olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Wang, Xin-Geng; Aldana, Alicia; Cáceres, Carlos E; Yokoyama-Hatch, Hana A; Rendón, Pedro A; Johnson, Marshall W; Daane, Kent M

    2012-06-01

    The parasitoid Psyttalia humilis (Silvestri) was reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), third instars irradiated at 0-70 Gy at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala, and shipped to the USDA, ARS, Parlier, CA. Irradiation dose did not affect the parasitoid's offspring sex ratio (53-62% females), percentage of unemerged adults (12-34%), number of progeny produced per female (1.4-1.8), and parasitism (19-24%). Host irradiation dose had no significant effect on the forewing length of female P. humilis and its parasitism on olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) and offspring sex ratio, but dissection of 1-wk-old female parasitoids reared from hosts irradiated with 70 Gy had a significantly lower number of mature eggs than females from nonirradiated hosts. Longevity of P. humilis adults decreased with increased temperature from 15 to 35°C, regardless of food provisions, gender, and host irradiation dose. Females survived 37-49 d at 15°C with water and food, and only 1-2 d at 35°C without food, whereas males lived shorter than females at all temperatures and food combinations tested. Adult P. humilis reared from fertile C. capitata and aspirated for dispensing in cups lived significantly longer after shipment than those specimens chilled and dispensed by weight. At 21 and 32°C, 50% of parasitoids departed release cages after 180 and 30 min, respectively, but none departed at 12°C. Thirteen shipments of P. humilis (2,980-21,922 parasitoids per shipment) were received between September and December 2009, and seven shipments (7,502-22,560 parasitoids per shipment) were received between October and December 2010 from San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala. Daily number of olive fruit fly adult and percentage female trap captures ranged <1-19 and 8-58% in 2009, and <1-11 and 0-42% in 2010, respectively. The number of parasitoids released ranged 848-12,257 in 2009 and 3,675-11,154 in 2010. Percentage parasitism of olive fruit fly third instars at all locations ranged 0-9% in 2009 and 0-36% in 2010. PMID:22732607

  19. Combustion Analysis of Different Olive Residues

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Teresa; Esteban, Alberto; Rojas, Sebastián; Montero, Irene; Ruiz, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) techniques and concretely the study of the burning profile provide information that can be used to estimate the behaviour of the combustion of carbonous materials. Commonly, these techniques have been used for the study of carbons, but are also interesting for the analysis of biomass wastes, due to the different species present on the wastes affect directly to its thermal properties. In this work, techniques of thermal analysis have been applied to compare the behaviour of different wastes coming from olive oil mills. From these results, it is remarkable that the Concentrated Olive Mill Waste Water (COMWW) presents more unfavourable conditions for its combustion. PMID:19325766

  20. Evaluation of imported parasitoid fitness for biocontrol of olive fruit fly in California olives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A parasitoid, Psyttalia humilis (Silvestri), was reared on irradiated Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala, and imported into California for biological control of olive fruit ...

  1. Effect of amurca on olive oil quality during storage.

    PubMed

    Janakat, Sana; Al-Nabulsi, Anas; Hammad, Fwzieh; Holley, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Total phenolic compounds (TPC), antioxidant activity (AA), lipid peroxidation inhibition (percent) (LPOIP), free fatty acid and peroxide values were measured in olive oil samples over the period of 12 months in comparison with oil samples extracted from amurca (olive oil lees) and olive oil samples taken from the bottom of the canister (near amurca) after 12 months of storage. Olive oil samples taken over the period of 12 months possessed decreasing amounts of TPC, AA and LPOIP, which led to increased peroxide and free fatty acid values. In contrast, oil extracted from amurca and olive oil samples taken from the bottom of the container after 12 months of storage possessed significantly higher TPC, AA, LPOIP and consequently lower free fatty acid and peroxide values. These results show that the presence of naturally occurring amurca (sediment) in stored olive oil stabilizes olive oil quality during storage. PMID:25745252

  2. Sorting Olive Batches for the Milling Process Using Image Processing

    PubMed Central

    Puerto, Daniel Aguilera; Martínez Gila, Diego Manuel; Gámez García, Javier; Gómez Ortega, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The quality of virgin olive oil obtained in the milling process is directly bound to the characteristics of the olives. Hence, the correct classification of the different incoming olive batches is crucial to reach the maximum quality of the oil. The aim of this work is to provide an automatic inspection system, based on computer vision, and to classify automatically different batches of olives entering the milling process. The classification is based on the differentiation between ground and tree olives. For this purpose, three different species have been studied (Picudo, Picual and Hojiblanco). The samples have been obtained by picking the olives directly from the tree or from the ground. The feature vector of the samples has been obtained on the basis of the olive image histograms. Moreover, different image preprocessing has been employed, and two classification techniques have been used: these are discriminant analysis and neural networks. The proposed methodology has been validated successfully, obtaining good classification results. PMID:26147729

  3. Sorting Olive Batches for the Milling Process Using Image Processing.

    PubMed

    Aguilera Puerto, Daniel; Martínez Gila, Diego Manuel; Gámez García, Javier; Gómez Ortega, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The quality of virgin olive oil obtained in the milling process is directly bound to the characteristics of the olives. Hence, the correct classification of the different incoming olive batches is crucial to reach the maximum quality of the oil. The aim of this work is to provide an automatic inspection system, based on computer vision, and to classify automatically different batches of olives entering the milling process. The classification is based on the differentiation between ground and tree olives. For this purpose, three different species have been studied (Picudo, Picual and Hojiblanco). The samples have been obtained by picking the olives directly from the tree or from the ground. The feature vector of the samples has been obtained on the basis of the olive image histograms. Moreover, different image preprocessing has been employed, and two classification techniques have been used: these are discriminant analysis and neural networks. The proposed methodology has been validated successfully, obtaining good classification results. PMID:26147729

  4. The Making of a Special "Oliver!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beall, Lee

    1985-01-01

    How trainable mentally handicapped high school students very successfully adapted Charles Dickens's novel "Oliver Twist" into a musical play is described. The project, which involved the entire school as well as the community, shows that handicapped people are capable of artistic endeavors and growth when given the proper environment. (RM)

  5. Geometric Origin of Montonen-Olive Duality

    E-print Network

    Cumrun Vafa

    1997-07-14

    We show how $N=4, D=4$ duality of Montonen and Olive can be derived for all gauge groups using geometric engineering in the context of type II strings, where it reduces to T-duality. The derivation for the non-simply laced cases involves the use of some well known facts about orbifold conformal theories.

  6. Statistical mechanics of nonlinear elasticity Oliver Penrose

    E-print Network

    Penrose, Oliver

    Statistical mechanics of nonlinear elasticity Oliver Penrose Department of Mathematics, Heriot of nonlinear elasticity or nonlinear elasticity Abstract A method is suggested for defining a deformation-dependent free energy in microscopic terms for a deformed elastic solid and applied to a simple microscopic model

  7. BALANCED WORDS AND MAJORIZATION OLIVER JENKINSON

    E-print Network

    Jenkinson, Oliver

    BALANCED WORDS AND MAJORIZATION OLIVER JENKINSON Abstract. When expressed in terms of base-2 expanions, balanced words are majorized by other words of the same slope. Consequently they have smaller Theorem 1.2 below) that P(w) is as large as possible when w is balanced. By a balanced word2 we mean one

  8. photography Oliver Knill, July 11, 2007

    E-print Network

    Knill, Oliver

    Panorama photography Oliver Knill, July 11, 2007 The mathematics of #12;1. Panorama Cameras 2. Math parameters #12;Coordinates and camera types The mathematics of photography is most developed for perspective of photography #12;Art Albrecht Duerer,, 1471-1528 Art #12;Art Edme-Sebastien Jeaurat, Traite de perspective a l

  9. Curriculum Vitae Oliver C. Schultheiss, Dr. phil.

    E-print Network

    Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    Psychology, Motivation, and Affective Neuroscience Department of Psychology and Sport Sciences FriedrichCurriculum Vitae Oliver C. Schultheiss, Dr. phil. Professor of Psychology Chair for Experimental-Alexander University, Erlangen, Germany Last update: March 3, 2015 Work address: Institute of Psychology, Friedrich

  10. Pure Culture Fermentation of Green Olives1

    PubMed Central

    Etchells, J. L.; Borg, A. F.; Kittel, I. D.; Bell, T. A.; Fleming, H. P.

    1966-01-01

    The method previously developed by us for the pure-culture fermentation of brined cucumbers and other vegetables has been applied successfully to Manzanillo variety olives. Field-run grade fruit was processed first by conventional procedures to remove most of the bitterness. Then the relative abilities of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, Pediococcus cerevisiae, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides to become established and produce acid in both heat-shocked (74 C for 3 min) and unheated olives, brined at 4.7 to 5.9% NaCl (w/v basis), were evaluated. The heat-shock treatment not only proved effective in ridding the fruit of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining and inoculation, but also made the olives highly fermentable with respect to growth and acid production by the introduced culture, particularly L. plantarum. Of the four species used as inocula, L. plantarum was by far the most vigorous in fermentation ability. It consistently produced the highest levels of brine acidity (1.0 to 1.2% calculated as lactic acid) and the lowest pH values (3.8 to 3.9) during the fermentation of heat-shocked olives. Also, L. plantarum completely dominated fermentations when used in two-species (with P. cerevisiae) and three-species (with P. cerevisiae and L. brevis) combinations as inocula. In contrast, when L. plantarum was inoculated into the brines of unheated olives it failed to become properly established; the same was true for the other species tested, but even to a more pronounced degree. L. brevis was the only species used that failed to develop in brines of both heat-shocked and unheated olives. Modification of the curing brine by the addition of lactic acid at the outset, either with or without dextrose, led to a much earlier onset of fermentation with accompanying acid development, as compared to treatments with dextrose alone or nonadditive controls. Reasons for the marked improvement of the fermentability of Manzanillo olives receiving the prebrining heat-shock treatment are discussed. PMID:16349674

  11. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109... OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged olives, not oxidized in...

  12. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109... OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged olives, not oxidized in...

  13. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109... OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged olives, not oxidized in...

  14. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109... OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged olives, not oxidized in...

  15. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109... OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged olives, not oxidized in...

  16. X-RAY DETECTION OF AND SORTING OF OLIVES DAMAGED BY FRUIT FLY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An algorithm using a Bayesian classifier was developed to automatically detect olive fruit fly infestations in x-ray images of olives. The data set consisted of 249 olives with various degrees of infestation and 161 non-infested olives. Each olive was x-rayed on film and digital images were acquired...

  17. Crystal Structures of Xanthomonas campestris OleA Reveal Features That Promote Head-to-Head Condensation of Two Long-Chain Fatty Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Frias, Janice A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

    2012-10-25

    OleA is a thiolase superfamily enzyme that has been shown to catalyze the condensation of two long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) substrates. The enzyme is part of a larger gene cluster responsible for generating long-chain olefin products, a potential biofuel precursor. In thiolase superfamily enzymes, catalysis is achieved via a ping-pong mechanism. The first substrate forms a covalent intermediate with an active site cysteine that is followed by reaction with the second substrate. For OleA, this conjugation proceeds by a nondecarboxylative Claisen condensation. The OleA from Xanthomonas campestris has been crystallized and its structure determined, along with inhibitor-bound and xenon-derivatized structures, to improve our understanding of substrate positioning in the context of enzyme turnover. OleA is the first characterized thiolase superfamily member that has two long-chain alkyl substrates that need to be bound simultaneously and therefore uniquely requires an additional alkyl binding channel. The location of the fatty acid biosynthesis inhibitor, cerulenin, that possesses an alkyl chain length in the range of known OleA substrates, in conjunction with a single xenon binding site, leads to the putative assignment of this novel alkyl binding channel. Structural overlays between the OleA homologues, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase and the fatty acid biosynthesis enzyme FabH, allow assignment of the two remaining channels: one for the thioester-containing pantetheinate arm and the second for the alkyl group of one substrate. A short {beta}-hairpin region is ordered in only one of the crystal forms, and that may suggest open and closed states relevant for substrate binding. Cys143 is the conserved catalytic cysteine within the superfamily, and the site of alkylation by cerulenin. The alkylated structure suggests that a glutamic acid residue (Glu117{beta}) likely promotes Claisen condensation by acting as the catalytic base. Unexpectedly, Glu117{beta} comes from the other monomer of the physiological dimer.

  18. Crystal Structures of Xanthomonas campestris OleA Reveal Features That Promote Head-to-Head Condensation of Two Long-Chain Fatty Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Goblirsch, BR; Frias, JA; Wackett, LP; Wilmot, CM

    2012-05-22

    OleA is a thiolase superfamily enzyme that has been shown to catalyze the condensation of two long-chain fatty acylcoenzyme A (CoA) substrates. The enzyme is part of a larger gene cluster responsible for generating long-chain olefin products, a potential biofuel precursor. In thiolase superfamily enzymes, catalysis is achieved via a ping-pong mechanism. The first substrate forms a covalent intermediate with an active site cysteine that is followed by reaction with the second substrate. For OleA, this conjugation proceeds by a nondecarboxylative Claisen condensation. The OleA from Xanthomonas campestris has been crystallized and its structure determined, along with inhibitor-bound and xenon-derivatized structures, to improve our understanding of substrate positioning in the context of enzyme turnover. OleA is the first characterized thiolase superfamily member that has two long-chain alkyl substrates that need to be bound simultaneously and therefore uniquely requires an additional alkyl binding channel. The location of the fatty acid biosynthesis inhibitor, cerulenin, that possesses an alkyl chain length in the range of known OleA substrates, in conjunction with a single xenon binding site, leads to the putative assignment of this novel alkyl binding channel. Structural overlays between the OleA homologues, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase and the fatty acid biosynthesis enzyme FabH, allow assignment of the two remaining channels: one for the thioester-containing pantetheinate arm and the second for the alkyl group of one substrate. A short beta-hairpin region is ordered in only one of the crystal forms, and that may suggest open and closed states relevant for substrate binding. Cys143 is the conserved catalytic cysteine within the superfamily, and the site of alkylation by cerulenin. The alkylated structure suggests that a glutamic acid residue (Glu117 beta) likely promotes Claisen condensation by acting as the catalytic base. Unexpectedly, Glu117 beta comes from the other monomer of the physiological dimer.

  19. Crystal Structures of Xanthomonas Campestris OleA Reveal Features That Promote Head-to-Head Condensation of Two Long-Chain Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Frias, Janice A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

    2012-01-01

    OleA is a thiolase superfamily enzyme which has been shown to catalyze the condensation of two long-chain fatty-acyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) substrates. The enzyme is part of a larger gene cluster responsible for generating long-chain olefin products – a potential biofuel precursor. In thiolase superfamily enzymes, catalysis is achieved via a ping-pong mechanism. The first substrate forms a covalent intermediate with an active site cysteine which is followed by reaction with the second substrate. For OleA, this conjugation proceeds by a non-decarboxylative Claisen condensation. The OleA from Xanthomonas campestris has been crystallized and its structure solved, along with inhibitor bound and xenon derivatized structures, to better understand substrate positioning in the context of enzyme turnover. OleA is the first characterized thiolase superfamily member that has two long-chain alkyl substrates that need to be bound simultaneously, and therefore uniquely requires an additional alkyl binding channel. The location of the fatty acid biosynthesis inhibitor, cerulenin, that possesses an alkyl chain length in the range of known OleA substrates, in conjunction with a single xenon binding site, leads to the putative assignment of this novel alkyl binding channel. Structural overlays between the OleA homologs, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase and the fatty acid biosynthesis enzyme FabH, allow assignment of the remaining two channels; one for the thioester-containing pantetheinate arm and the second for the alkyl group of one substrate. A short ?-hairpin region is ordered in only one of the crystal forms and that may suggest open and closed states relevant for substrate binding. Cys143 is the conserved catalytic cysteine within the superfamily, and the site of alkylation by cerulenin. The alkylated structure suggests that a glutamic acid residue (Glu117?) likely promotes Claisen condensation by acting as the catalytic base. Unexpectedly Glu117? comes from the other monomer of the physiological dimer. PMID:22524624

  20. Olive leaf extract inhibits lead poisoning-induced brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Shengqing; Cui, Wenhui; He, Jiujun; Wang, Zhenfu; Yang, Xiaolu

    2013-08-01

    Olive leaves have an antioxidant capacity, and olive leaf extract can protect the blood, spleen and hippocampus in lead-poisoned mice. However, little is known about the effects of olive leaf extract on lead-induced brain injury. This study was designed to determine whether olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury, and whether this effect is associated with antioxidant capacity. First, we established a mouse model of lead poisoning by continuous intragastric administration of lead acetate for 30 days. Two hours after successful model establishment, lead-poisoned mice were given olive leaf extract at doses of 250, 500 or 1 000 mg/kg daily by intragastric administration for 50 days. Under the transmission electron microscope, olive leaf extract attenuated neuronal and capillary injury and reduced damage to organelles and the matrix around the capillaries in the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex in the lead-poisoned mice. Olive leaf extract at a dose of 1 000 mg/kg had the greatest protective effect. Spectrophotometry showed that olive leaf extract significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, while it reduced malondialdehyde content, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining revealed that olive leaf extract dose-dependently decreased Bax protein expression in the cerebral cortex of lead-poisoned mice. Our findings indicate that olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury by increasing antioxidant capacity and reducing apoptosis. PMID:25206510

  1. Olive leaf extract inhibits lead poisoning-induced brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Shengqing; Cui, Wenhui; He, Jiujun; Wang, Zhenfu; Yang, Xiaolu

    2013-01-01

    Olive leaves have an antioxidant capacity, and olive leaf extract can protect the blood, spleen and hippocampus in lead-poisoned mice. However, little is known about the effects of olive leaf extract on lead-induced brain injury. This study was designed to determine whether olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury, and whether this effect is associated with antioxidant capacity. First, we established a mouse model of lead poisoning by continuous intragastric administration of lead acetate for 30 days. Two hours after successful model establishment, lead-poisoned mice were given olive leaf extract at doses of 250, 500 or 1 000 mg/kg daily by intragastric administration for 50 days. Under the transmission electron microscope, olive leaf extract attenuated neuronal and capillary injury and reduced damage to organelles and the matrix around the capillaries in the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex in the lead-poisoned mice. Olive leaf extract at a dose of 1 000 mg/kg had the greatest protective effect. Spectrophotometry showed that olive leaf extract significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, while it reduced malondialdehyde content, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining revealed that olive leaf extract dose-dependently decreased Bax protein expression in the cerebral cortex of lead-poisoned mice. Our findings indicate that olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury by increasing antioxidant capacity and reducing apoptosis. PMID:25206510

  2. Polyamine-induced modulation of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signalling pathways and nitric oxide production during olive mature fruit abscission

    PubMed Central

    Parra-Lobato, Maria C.; Gomez-Jimenez, Maria C.

    2011-01-01

    After fruit ripening, many fruit-tree species undergo massive natural fruit abscission. Olive (Olea europaea L.) is a stone-fruit with cultivars such as Picual (PIC) and Arbequina (ARB) which differ in mature fruit abscission potential. Ethylene (ET) is associated with abscission, but its role during mature fruit abscission remains largely uncharacterized. The present study investigates the possible roles of ET and polyamine (PA) during mature fruit abscission by modulating genes involved in the ET signalling and biosynthesis pathways in the abscission zone (AZ) of both cultivars. Five ET-related genes (OeACS2, OeACO2, OeCTR1, OeERS1, and OeEIL2) were isolated in the AZ and adjacent cells (AZ–AC), and their expression in various olive organs and during mature fruit abscission, in relation to interactions between ET and PA and the expression induction of these genes, was determined. OeACS2, OeACO2, and OeEIL2 were found to be the only genes that were up-regulated in association with mature fruit abscission. Using the inhibition of ET and PA biosynthesis, it is demonstrated that OeACS2 and OeEIL2 expression are under the negative control of PA while ET induces their expression in AZ–AC. Furthermore, mature fruit abscission depressed nitric oxide (NO) production present mainly in the epidermal cells and xylem of the AZ. Also, NO production was differentially responsive to ET, PA, and different inhibitors. Taken together, the results indicate that PA-dependent ET signalling and biosynthesis pathways participate, at least partially, during mature fruit abscission, and that endogenous NO and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid maintain an inverse correlation, suggesting an antagonistic action of NO and ET in abscission signalling. PMID:21633085

  3. 7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. 932.150 Section 932.150 Agriculture...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations...quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum quality...

  4. 7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. 932.150 Section 932.150 Agriculture...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations...quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum quality...

  5. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh...for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh...Avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety...

  6. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type....

  7. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh...for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh...Avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety...

  8. 7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. 932.150 Section 932.150 Agriculture...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations...quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum quality...

  9. 78 FR 42122 - Bridge Builder Trust and Olive Street Investment Advisers, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ...812-14118] Bridge Builder Trust and Olive Street Investment Advisers, LLC; Notice...Builder Trust (the ``Trust'') and Olive Street Investment Advisers (the ``Adviser...91741; The Adviser: James A. Tricarico, Olive Street Investment Advisers, LLC,...

  10. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type....

  11. 7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. 932.150 Section 932.150 Agriculture...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations...quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum quality...

  12. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh...for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh...Avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety...

  13. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type....

  14. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type....

  15. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type....

  16. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh...for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh...Avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety...

  17. 7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. 932.150 Section 932.150 Agriculture...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations...quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum quality...

  18. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...grapefruit, kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety...grapes for processing; (3) Olives for processing into oil; (4) Grapefruit for...

  19. Olive stone an attractive source of bioactive and valuable compounds.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Guillermo; Lama, Antonio; Rodríguez, Rocío; Jiménez, Ana; Guillén, Rafael; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan

    2008-09-01

    The olive stone and seed are an important byproduct generated in the olive oil extraction and pitted table olive industries. As a lignocellulosic material, the hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin are the main components of olive stone as wells as protein, fat, phenols, free sugars and poliols composition. The main use of this biomass is as combustion to produce electric energy or heat. Other uses such as activated carbon, furfural production, plastic filled, abrasive and cosmetic or other potential uses such as biosorbent, animal feed or resin formation have been cited. In this article, an overview of the characterization and main uses of olive stone and seed are described for the first time. Also, this review discusses the potential use of this material based on each component. In this way, a new approach to the olive stone and seed by pretreating with a steam explosion followed by chemical fractionation is described. PMID:18160280

  20. The rotational spectrum of H32SOH and H34SOH above 1 THz Oliver Baum, Monika Koerber, Oliver Ricken, Gisbert Winnewisser, Sergei N. Yurchenko et al.

    E-print Network

    Giesen, Thomas

    The rotational spectrum of H32SOH and H34SOH above 1 THz Oliver Baum, Monika Koerber, Oliver Ricken://jcp.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;The rotational spectrum of H32 SOH and H34 SOH above 1 THz Oliver Baum,1,a Monika Koerber,1 Oliver

  1. Water deficit-induced changes in mesocarp cellular processes and the relationship between mesocarp and endocarp during olive fruit development.

    PubMed

    Gucci, Riccardo; Lodolini, Enrico M; Rapoport, Hava F

    2009-12-01

    A field experiment was conducted during two consecutive growing seasons to determine and quantify the growth response of the olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Leccino) fruit and of its component tissues to tree water status. Pre-dawn leaf water potential (Psi(w)) and fruit volume were measured at about weekly intervals, and fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) of the fruit tissues at 15, 20 and 21 weeks after full bloom (AFB). Fruit anatomical sections were prepared at 8, 15 and 21 weeks AFB for area determinations and cell counts. Fruit volume of the well-watered trees (average Psi(w) = -0.97 MPa) increased rapidly and reached the greatest final size, that from the most stressed (average Psi(w) = -2.81 MPa) grew most slowly and were smallest. In general, equatorial transverse areas of the mesocarp increased with increasing Psi(w), and this response was more evident at 21 than at 15 weeks AFB. By 21 weeks AFB, the mesocarp of the well-watered trees reached values more than three times higher than those measured at 8 weeks AFB. The endocarp FW and DW did not increase between 15 and 21 weeks AFB. Within each sampling date the endocarp area, FW and DW responded weakly to Psi(w). The mesocarp-to-endocarp ratio (FW and DW) increased from 15 to 21 weeks AFB regardless of water status, mainly due to the mesocarp growth. In both years at 20 and 21 weeks AFB, low values of the mesocarp-to-endocarp ratio were found with Psi(w) below -2.5 MPa. Within the mesocarp, cell size was more responsive to water deficit than to cell number. At 8 weeks AFB, the number of cells in the mesocarp was unaffected by tree water deficit, whereas cell size decreased, although slightly, in fruits sampled from trees in which Psi(w) was < -3.0 MPa. At 21 weeks AFB, cell size showed a linear decrease with increasing level of water deficit, whereas the number of cells at 21 weeks AFB decreased as the Psi(w) decreased below -2.5 MPa and seemed unaffected above that range. Overall, the results clarify the complexity of the water-induced response of mesocarp and endocarp growth and cellular processes of olive fruits. PMID:19825868

  2. Effects of olive mill wastes added to olive grove soils on erosion and soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2014-05-01

    INTRODUCTION The increasing degradation of olive groves by effect of organic matter losses derived from intensive agricultural practices has promoted the use (by olive farmers) of olive mill wastes (olive leaves and alperujo) which contain large amounts of organic matter and are free of heavy metals and pathogenic microorganisms. In this work we compared the effects of these oil mill wastes on the decrease of soil erosion, also, we undertook the assessment of the organic carbon and nitrogen contents of soil, their distribution across the profile, the accumulation and Stratification ratios (SRs) of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN), and the C:N ratio, in Cambisols in Mediterranean olive groves treated with olive leaves and alperujo. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study area was a typical olive grove in southern Spain under conventional tillage (CT). Three plots were established. The first one was the control plot; the second one was treated with olive leaves (CTol) and the third one, with alperujo (CTa). 9 samples per plot were collected to examine the response of the soil 3 years after application of the wastes. Soil properties determined were: soil particle size, pH, bulk density, the available water capacity, SOC, TN and C:N ratio. SOC and N stock, expressed for a specific depth in Mg ha-1. Stratification ratios (SRs) (that can be used as an indicator of dynamic soil quality) for SOC and TN at three different depths were calculated. The erosion study was based on simulations of rain; that have been carried out in order to highlight differences in the phenomena of runoff and soil losses in the three plots considered. The effect of different treatments on soil properties was analyzed using a ANOVA, followed by an Anderson-Darling test. RESULTS Supplying the soil with the wastes significantly improved physical and chemical properties in the studied soils with respect to the control. C and N stocks increased, the SOC stock was 75.4 Mg ha-1 in CT, 91.5 Mg ha-1 in CTa and 136.3 Mg ha-1 in CTol; and the TN stock 12.1, 13.9 and 16.1 Mg ha-1 in CT, CTa and CTol, respectively. In addition, both oil mill wastes contributed to delay runoff generation and erosion, enhancing the infiltration of rainwater. Furthermore, application of the wastes improved soil quality (SRs of SOC were greater than 2). So the addition of these oil mill wastes to agricultural soils has become a viable solution to their disposal; not only do they enrich deficient soils with organic matter, but also improve their physical and chemical properties, even decrease soil erosion, especially olive leaves. REFERENCES Lozano-García, B., Parras-Alcántara, L., del Toro, M., 2011. The effects of agricultural management with oil mill by-products on surface soil properties, runoff and soil losses in southern Spain. Catena 85, 187-193. Lozano-García, B., Parras-Alcántara, L., 2013. Short-term effects of olive mill by-products on soil organic carbon, total N, C:N ratio and stratification ratios in a Mediterranean olive grove. Agriculture Ecosystem and Environment 165, 68-73.

  3. Multiple Biological Effects of Olive Oil By-products such as Leaves, Stems, Flowers, Olive Milled Waste, Fruit Pulp, and Seeds of the Olive Plant on Skin.

    PubMed

    Kishikawa, Asuka; Ashour, Ahmed; Zhu, Qinchang; Yasuda, Midori; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-06-01

    As olive oil production increases, so does the amount of olive oil by-products, which can cause environmental problems. Thus, new ways to utilize the by-products are needed. In the present study, five bioactive characteristics of olive oil by-products were assessed, namely their antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-melanogenesis, anti-allergic, and collagen-production-promoting activities. First, the extracts of leaves (May and October), stems (May and October), flowers, olive milled waste, fruit pulp and seeds were prepared using two safe solvents, ethanol and water. According to HPLC and LC/MS analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the ethanol extracts of the leaves (May and October), stems (May and October) and flowers contained oleuropein, and the ethanol extract of the stems showed the highest total phenol content. Oleuropein may contribute to the antioxidant and anti-melanogenesis activities of the leaves, stems, and flowers. However, other active compounds or synergistic effects present in the ethanol extracts are also likely to contribute to the anti-bacterial activity of the leaves and flowers, the anti-melanogenesis activity of some parts, the anti-allergic activity of olive milled waste, and the collagen-production-promoting activity of the leaves, stems, olive milled waste and fruit pulp. This study provides evidence that the by-products of olive oil have the potential to be further developed and used in the skin care industry. PMID:25779104

  4. TWISTED DIAGRAMS AND HOMOTOPY SHEAVES THOMAS HUTTEMANN AND OLIVER RONDIGS

    E-print Network

    TWISTED DIAGRAMS AND HOMOTOPY SHEAVES THOMAS H¨UTTEMANN AND OLIVER R¨ONDIGS Abstract. Twisted H¨UTTEMANN AND OLIVER R¨ONDIGS The twisted diagram Y - Z is a strict sheaf if its structure map F, and the structure maps act through specified "twisting" functors between these categories. Ex- amples include

  5. 7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Olive Regulation 1. 944.401 Section 944.401 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRUITS; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 944.401 Olive Regulation 1. (a)...

  6. Sustainable technologies for olive mill wastewater management (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The California olive oil industry produces more than 600 million gallons of wastewater each year. Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is considered a highly polluting effluent due to its high organic load and resistance to biological degradation. A current trend in OMWW management is to not only decrease e...

  7. VIEW OF WARRIOR RIVER, OLIVER LOCK AND DAM LOOKING NORTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WARRIOR RIVER, OLIVER LOCK AND DAM LOOKING NORTHEAST, LURLEEN WALLACE BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND, GULF MOBILE & OHIO RAILROAD BRIDGE IN FRONT OF LURLEEN WALLACE BRIDGE, NORTHPORT LEFT SIDE, TUSCALOOSA RIGHT SIDE, UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - William Baker Oliver Lock & Dam, Spans Warrior River between Tuscaloosa & Northport, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  8. Notes and records Feeding ecology of olive baboons (Papio anubis)

    E-print Network

    Rothman, Jessica M.

    Notes and records Feeding ecology of olive baboons (Papio anubis) in Kibale National Park, Uganda and nutritional ecology of baboons (Papio) has been widely documented (Norton et al., 1987; Whiten et al., 1991 & Schreier, 2008; Bentley-Condit, 2009), most research on olive baboons (P. anubis) has focused on savannah

  9. 7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Olive Regulation 1. 944.401 Section 944.401 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRUITS; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 944.401 Olive Regulation 1. (a)...

  10. Jan Peleska, Oliver Mller Testing on Target: Concepts and

    E-print Network

    Peleska, Jan - Fachbereich 3

    on HW faults #12;Jan Peleska, Oliver Möller HW/SW integration testing Test Engine Control of actuators x the environment are required · Complex simulations and checks are deployed on host computer (test engine) #12;Jan Peleska, Oliver Möller SWI-on-target testing Test Engine x(t) y(t) Test Procedures SUT HW with partial SW

  11. CV Dr. Oliver Neubauer 04/08/2014 CURRICULUM VITAE|DR. OLIVER NEUBAUER

    E-print Network

    -1090 Vienna, Austria Telephone number: +43 1 4277 ­ 54941 E-mail: oliver.neubauer@univie.ac.at Web of molecular-biological data CAREER HISTORY 2013/14: Guest Professor, Dep. of Nutritional Sciences, Univ Research Centre, Griffith Univ., Australia 2010­2011: University Assistant, Dep. of Nutritional Sciences

  12. Temporal analysis reveals a key role for VTE5 in vitamin E biosynthesis in olive fruit during on-tree development

    PubMed Central

    Georgiadou, Egli C.; Ntourou, Thessaloniki; Goulas, Vlasios; Manganaris, George A.; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to generate a high resolution temporal mapping of the biosynthetic pathway of vitamin E in olive fruit (Olea europaea cv. “Koroneiki”) during 17 successive on-tree developmental stages. Fruit material was collected from the middle of June until the end of January, corresponding to 6–38 weeks after flowering (WAF). Results revealed a variable gene regulation pattern among 6–38 WAF studied and more pronounced levels of differential regulation of gene expression for the first and intermediate genes in the biosynthetic pathway (VTE5, geranylgeranyl reductase, HPPD, VTE2, HGGT and VTE3) compared with the downstream components of the pathway (VTE1 and VTE4). Notably, expression of HGGT and VTE2 genes were significantly suppressed throughout the developmental stages examined. Metabolite analysis indicated that the first and intermediate stages of development (6–22 WAF) have higher concentrations of tocochromanols compared with the last on-tree stages (starting from 24 WAF onwards). The concentration of ?-tocopherol (16.15 ± 0.60?32.45 ± 0.54 mg/100 g F.W.) were substantially greater (up to 100-fold) than those of ?-, ?-, and ?-tocopherols (0.13 ± 0.01?0.25 ± 0.03 mg/100 g F.W., 0.13 ± 0.01?0.33 ± 0.04 mg/100 g F.W., 0.14 ± 0.01?0.28 ± 0.01 mg/100 g F.W., respectively). In regard with tocotrienol content, only ?-tocotrienol was detected. Overall, olive fruits (cv. “Koroneiki”) exhibited higher concentrations of vitamin E until 22 WAF as compared with later WAF, concomitant with the expression profile of phytol kinase (VTE5), which could be used as a marker gene due to its importance in the biosynthesis of vitamin E. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the complete biosynthetic pathway of vitamin E in a fruit tree crop of great horticultural importance such as olive, linking molecular gene expression analysis with tocochromanol content. PMID:26557125

  13. Quantitative assessment of different phenolic compounds in Texas olive oils versus foreign oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Texas Olive Ranch is the first one to produce olive oil and has the sole product in the Texas market place; several growers are now starting to cultivate olive at various sites in Texas. The quality of olive oil produced and pressed in Texas has never been explored. This study was conducted to inv...

  14. Air pollution effects on the leaf structure of two injury resistant species: Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Olea europaea L

    SciTech Connect

    Christodoulakis, N.S.; Koutsogeorgopoulou, L. )

    1991-09-01

    The release of toxic gases as well as of particulate pollutants into the atmosphere is a major side effect of the human industrial, agricultural and domestic activities. The impact of these compounds on the various life forms of our planet seems to be very serious. Investigations of plant species resistant to pollution-induced injuries do have a meaning. The introduction of these species will improve air quality and establish a moderate rate of primary productivity in the handicapped regions. That is why data concerning an evergreen sclerophyllous species which does not present structural modifications and organelle destruction although forced to be a dweller of a partition isle in a heavily polluted, traffic-loaded main street of the smog-suffering city of Athens, Greece, seemed very interesting. In this paper, further investigation is presented. Two common, species were studied. The first, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, a huge tree once imported to Europe from Australia as a marsh-drier in an effort to control malaria, is a drought enduring species mostly known for the essential oils accumulated in its leaves. The second, Olea europaea L. var oleaster Brot, is a sclerophyllous tree growing wild in chaparall formations in Greece.

  15. Freezing avoidance by supercooling in Olea europaea cultivars: the role of apoplastic water, solute content and cell wall rigidity.

    PubMed

    Arias, Nadia S; Bucci, Sandra J; Scholz, Fabian G; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2015-10-01

    Plants can avoid freezing damage by preventing extracellular ice formation below the equilibrium freezing temperature (supercooling). We used Olea europaea cultivars to assess which traits contribute to avoid ice nucleation at sub-zero temperatures. Seasonal leaf water relations, non-structural carbohydrates, nitrogen and tissue damage and ice nucleation temperatures in different plant parts were determined in five cultivars growing in the Patagonian cold desert. Ice seeding in roots occurred at higher temperatures than in stems and leaves. Leaves of cold acclimated cultivars supercooled down to -13?°C, substantially lower than the minimum air temperatures observed in the study site. During winter, leaf ice nucleation and leaf freezing damage (LT50 ) occurred at similar temperatures, typical of plant tissues that supercool. Higher leaf density and cell wall rigidity were observed during winter, consistent with a substantial acclimation to sub-zero temperatures. Larger supercooling capacity and lower LT50 were observed in cold-acclimated cultivars with higher osmotically active solute content, higher tissue elastic adjustments and lower apoplastic water. Irreversible leaf damage was only observed in laboratory experiments at very low temperatures, but not in the field. A comparative analysis of closely related plants avoids phylogenetic independence bias in a comparative study of adaptations to survive low temperatures. PMID:25737264

  16. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  17. Rapid authentication of olive oil adulteration by Raman spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ming-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Qi, Xiao-Hua; Ma, Han-Lu; Dong, Ying; Liu, Chun-Wei; Guo, Xun; Wang, Hong

    2009-07-22

    The authentication of olive oil and its adulteration with lower priced oils are still serious problems in the olive oil industry. In this study, a method based on the intensity ratio of the Raman spectroscopy vibration bands, especially on the intensity ratio of the cis ( ==C-H) and cis (C=C) bonds normalized by the band at 1441 cm(-1) (CH(2)), was established to authenticate genuine/fake olive oil. These intensity ratios of the vibration bands given in the form of a two-dimensional chart allow first the discrimination between the various grades of olive oil and the seed oils and then the detection of olive oil fraud by the line of y = 0.7, which is observed under most experiments and dot charts. This method can reliably distinguish the genuine olive oils from the olive oils containing 5% (volume percentage) or more of other edible oils, such as soybean oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower seed oil, or corn oil. Compared to the traditional principal component analysis method, this method is more intuitive, more precise, and easier to use. Moreover, this method also has the advantages of simplicity efficiency and has no need for sample preprocessing, being especially suitable for on-site testing in field applications. PMID:19537730

  18. Cardioprotective and neuroprotective roles of oleuropein in olive

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Syed Haris

    2010-01-01

    Traditional diets of people living in the Mediterranean basin are, among other components, very rich in extra-virgin olive oil, the most typical source of visible fat. Olive is a priceless source of monounsaturated and di-unsaturated fatty acids, polyphenolic antioxidants and vitamins. Oleuropein is the main glycoside in olives and is responsible for the bitter taste of immature and unprocessed olives. Chemically, oleuropein is the ester of elenolic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl ethanol, which possesses beneficial effects on human health, such as antioxidant, antiatherogenic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The phenolic fraction extracted from the leaves of the olive tree, which contains significant amounts of oleuropein, prevents lipoprotein oxidation. In addition, oleuropein has shown cardioprotective effect against acute adriamycin cardiotoxicity and an anti-ischemic and hypolipidemic activities. Recently, oleuropein has shown neuroprotection by forming a non-covalent complex with the A? peptide, which is a key hallmark of several degenerative diseases like Alzheimer and Parkinson. Thus, a large mass of research has been accumulating in the area of olive oil, in the attempt to provide evidence for the health benefits of olive oil consumption and to scientifically support the widespread adoption of traditional Mediterranean diet as a model of healthy eating. These results provide a molecular basis for some of the benefits potentially coming from oleuropein consumption and pave the way to further studies on the possible pharmacological use of oleuropein to prevent or to slow down the cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23964170

  19. Saltcedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act Science Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shafroth, Patrick B.; Brown, Curtis A.; Merritt, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The primary intent of this document is to provide the science assessment called for under The Saltcedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-320; the Act). A secondary purpose is to provide a common background for applicants for prospective demonstration projects, should funds be appropriated for this second phase of the Act. This document synthesizes the state-of-the-science on the following topics: the distribution and abundance (extent) of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) in the Western United States, potential for water savings associated with controlling saltcedar and Russian olive and the associated restoration of occupied sites, considerations related to wildlife use of saltcedar and Russian olive habitat or restored habitats, methods to control saltcedar and Russian olive, possible utilization of dead biomass following removal of saltcedar and Russian olive, and approaches and challenges associated with revegetation or restoration following control efforts. A concluding chapter discusses possible long-term management strategies, needs for additional study, potentially useful field demonstration projects, and a planning process for on-the-ground projects involving removal of saltcedar and Russian olive.

  20. The activity of ozonated olive oil against Leishmania major promastigotes

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, Omid; Sazgarnia, Ameneh; Abbasi, Fatemeh; Layegh, Pouran

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a common and endemic disease in Khorasan province in North-East of Iran. The pentavalant antimony (Sb V) is the mainstay of treatment that has many side effects and resistance to the drug has been reported. The microbicidal effect of ozone was proven in different microorganisms. Since there is no study in this respect and to achieve a low cost and effective treatment, we decided to evaluate the efficacy of ozone against promastigotes of Leishmania major, in vitro. Materials and Methods: Ozonated olive oil was prepared after production of ozone by bubbling ozone-oxygen gas produced by ozone generator through olive oil until it solidified. Promastigotes of L. major were cultivated in two phasic media. After calculation of the number of promastigotes, they were incubated with ozonated olive oil (0, 0.626, 0.938, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 mcg/ml) at 28 °c for 24 hr. Parasites survival percentage was evaluated using MTS and microscopic assay, and then compared with Glucantime and non-ozonated olive oil. Results: According to the results, there were significant differences in parasites survival percentage between ozonated olive oil and non-ozonated olive oil, at similar concentrations (P<0.001). Ozonated olive oil was more effective than Glucantime. According to MTS results, Glucantime and ozonated olive oil gel concentrations that are required to inhibit the growth of L. major promastigotes by 50% (IC50), were 165 and 0.002 mg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: Ozonated olive oil has in vitro activity against the promastigotes of L. major and this effect is dose dependent. PMID:26523224

  1. Reduction in pesticide residue levels in olives by ozonated and tap water treatments and their transfer into olive oil.

    PubMed

    K?r??, Sevilay; Velioglu, Yakup Sedat

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different wash times (2 and 5 min) with tap and ozonated water on the removal of nine pesticides from olives and the transfer ratios of these pesticides during olive oil production were determined. The reliability of the analytical methods was also tested. The applied methods of analysis were found to be suitable based on linearity, trueness, repeatability, selectivity and limit of quantification all the pesticides tested. All tap and ozonated water wash cycles removed a significant quantity of the pesticides from the olives, with a few exceptions. Generally, extending the wash time increased the pesticide reduction with ozonated water, but did not make significant differences with tap water. During olive oil processing, depending on the processing technique and physicochemical properties of the pesticides, eight of nine pesticides were concentrated into olive oil (processing factor > 1) with almost no significant difference between treatments. Imidacloprid did not pass into olive oil. Ozonated water wash for 5 min reduced chlorpyrifos, ?-cyfluthrin, ?-cypermethrin and imidacloprid contents by 38%, 50%, 55% and 61% respectively in olives. PMID:26565682

  2. Small branches of olive tree: a source of biophenols complementary to olive leaves.

    PubMed

    Japón-Lujan, R; Luque de Castro, M D

    2007-05-30

    The extraction of biophenols (BPs) from small branches (fibrous softwood) of olive tree accelerated by microwave assistance is proposed for the first time. Under optimal working conditions, no further extraction of the target analytes was achieved after 10 min, so complete removal of them within this interval was assumed (amounts ca. to 19000, 1000, 2000, 900, and 700 mg/kg of oleuropein, verbascoside, tyrosol, alpha-taxifolin, and hydroxytyrosol, respectively; the three last BPs are absent in branch-free olive leaves). The extracts required no cleanup or concentration prior to injection into a chromatograph-photodiode array detector assembly for individual separation-quantification. Extraction from this raw material was also implemented in continuous and discontinuous-continuous extractors using ultrasound assistance and superheated liquids, respectively, as auxiliary energies, and the results were compared with those obtained by microwave-assisted extraction. The simultaneous extraction of small branches and leaves from olive tree provided extracts with a higher variety of BPs, but either extracts richer in oleuropein and verbascoside without tyrosol, alpha-taxifolin, and hydroxytyrosol or rich in these three BPs can be obtained by separate extraction of leaves and branches, respectively. PMID:17488032

  3. Cellulolytic Bacteria Associated with Sloughing Spoilage of California Ripe Olives

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ishwarlal B.; Vaughn, Reese H.

    1973-01-01

    Sloughing spoilage of California ripe olives during processing is characterized by severe softening, skin rupture, and flesh sloughing. It was assumed that cellulolytic activity was responsible for skin rupture and sloughing of flesh, and so a deliberate search was made for cellulolytic bacteria from olives undergoing sloughing spoilage. A bacterium identified as Cellulomonas flavigena was highly cellulolytic, attacking filter paper, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) gel, and olive tissue. Other bacteria attacking CMC, but not filter paper, enhanced the activity of the Cellulomonas strain when grown in mixed culture, although they did not, in pure culture, have any effect on filter paper. These latter cultures (all degraded olive tissue) represented the genera Xanthomonas, Aerobacter, and Escherichia. Other noncellulolytic bacteria belonging to the genera Alcaligenes, Kurthia, and Micrococcus also were used for study of mixed culture fermentation of cellulose by C. flavigena. Cellobiose accumulation at levels of 1.0% (w/v) and above suppressed growth of C. flavigena. Images PMID:4568890

  4. Letters and networks : analysing Olive Schreiner's epistolary networks. 

    E-print Network

    Poustie, Sarah

    2014-07-01

    This thesis analyses letters and other archival material associated with Olive Schreiner (1855-1920) and her network(s) to conceptualise and theorise aspects of "letterness" and networks. Its premise is that such qualitative ...

  5. Bibliography by Liam Oliver Lair 1 Telling Our Stories

    E-print Network

    Bibliography by Liam Oliver Lair 1 Telling Our Stories: A Selection of Transvestite & Transsexual Institute collections, this annotated bibliography focuses on the autobiographical writings of transsexuals canonical and less well- known autobiographical writings by transsexual and transvestite individuals

  6. 73. Oliver Street Bridge. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. Oliver Street Bridge. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 73.08. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  7. 74. Oliver Street Bridge. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. Oliver Street Bridge. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 73.08. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  8. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds Present in Virgin Olive Oil

    PubMed Central

    Cicerale, Sara; Lucas, Lisa; Keast, Russell

    2010-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a traditional Mediterranean diet. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have demonstrated that olive oil phenolic compounds have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, antimicrobial activity and bone health. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the bioavailability and biological activities of olive oil phenolic compounds. PMID:20386648

  9. Evidence of oleuropein degradation by olive leaf protein extract.

    PubMed

    De Leonardis, Antonella; Macciola, Vincenzo; Cuomo, Francesca; Lopez, Francesco

    2015-05-15

    The enzymatic activity of raw protein olive leaf extract has been investigated in vivo, on olive leaf homogenate and, in vitro with pure oleuropein and other phenolic substrates. At least two types of enzymes were found to be involved in the degradation of endogenous oleuropein in olive leaves. As for the in vitro experiments, the presence of active polyphenoloxidase and ?-glucosidase was determined by HPLC and UV-Visible spectroscopy. Interestingly, both the enzymatic activities were found to change during the storage of olive leaves. Specifically, the protein extracts obtained from fresh leaves showed the presence of both the enzymatic activities, because oleuropein depletion occurred simultaneously with the formation of the oleuropein aglycon, 3,4-DHPEA-EA. In comparison leaves subjected to the drying process showed a polyphenoloxidase activity leading exclusively to the formation of oxidation products responsible for the typical brown coloration of the reaction solution. PMID:25577121

  10. Biosensor immunoassay for traces of hazelnut protein in olive oil

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Nathalie G. E.; Haasnoot, Willem

    2009-01-01

    The fraudulent addition of hazelnut oil to more expensive olive oil not only causes economical loss but may also result in problems for allergic individuals as they may inadvertently be exposed to potentially allergenic hazelnut proteins. To improve consumer safety, a rapid and sensitive direct biosensor immunoassay, based on a highly specific monoclonal antibody, was developed to detect the presence of hazelnut proteins in olive oils. The sample preparation was easy (extraction with buffer); the assay time was fast (4.5 min only) and the limit of detection was low (0.08 ?g/g of hazelnut proteins in olive oil). Recoveries obtained with an olive oil mixed with different amounts of a hazelnut protein containing hazelnut oil varied between 93% and 109%. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00216-009-2720-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:19263041

  11. Oliver Wendell Holmes Man of Medicine; Man of Letters

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Virginia

    1966-01-01

    This biographical sketch portrays Oliver Wendell Holmes as a leading figure both in American medicine and in American literature. Particular attention is directed to his classic essay, “The Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever.” PMID:5325818

  12. Origin assessment of EV olive oils by esterified sterols analysis.

    PubMed

    Giacalone, Rosa; Giuliano, Salvatore; Gulotta, Eleonora; Monfreda, Maria; Presti, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    In this study extra virgin olive oils of Italian and non-Italian origin (from Spain, Tunisia and blends of EU origin) were differentiated by GC-FID analysis of sterols and esterified sterols followed by chemometric tools. PCA allowed to highlight the high significance of esterified sterols to characterise extra virgin olive oils in relation to their origin. SIMCA provided a sensitivity and specificity of 94.39% and 91.59% respectively; furthermore, an external set of 54 extra virgin olive oils bearing a designation of Italian origin on the labelling was tested by SIMCA. Prediction results were also compared with organoleptic assessment. Finally, the poor correlation found between ethylesters and esterified sterols allowed to hazard the guess, worthy of further investigations, that esterified sterols may prove to be promising in studies of geographical discrimination: indeed they appear to be independent of those factors causing the formation of ethyl esters and related to olive oil production. PMID:26041193

  13. Microbiota of table olive fermentations and criteria of selection for their use as starters

    PubMed Central

    Heperkan, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    Fermentation is one of the oldest methods for preserving of olives applied worldwide for thousands of years. However, olive processing is a speculative area where whether olives are fermented products or pickled products produced by organic acids and salt. Although lactobacilli and yeasts play a major role in the process, literature survey indicates that lactobacilli are less relevant at least in some types of natural green olives during fermentation. There have been significant advances recently in understanding the process to produce olives, especially the role of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts including biofilm formation on olive surfaces by these organisms. The purpose of this paper is to review the latest developments regarding the microbiota of olives on the basis of olive types, their role on the fermentation process, the interaction between both group of microorganisms and the olive surface, the possibility to use starter cultures and the criteria to select appropriate cultures. PMID:23781216

  14. Olea europaea leaf extract improves the treatment response of GBM stem cells by modulating miRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Tezcan, Gulcin; Tunca, Berrin; Bekar, Ahmet; Budak, Ferah; Sahin, Saliha; Cecener, Gulsah; Egeli, Unal; Taskap?l?oglu, Mevlut Ozgur; Kocaeli, Hasan; Tolunay, Sahsine; Malyer, Hulusi; Demir, Cevdet; Tumen, Gulendam

    2014-01-01

    The stem-like cells of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors (GSCs) are one of the important determinants of recurrence and drug resistance. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the anticancer effect of Olea europaea leaf extract (OLE) on GBM cell lines, the association between OLE and TMZ responses, and the effect of OLE and the OLE-TMZ combination in GSCs and to clarify the molecular mechanism of this effect on the expression of miRNAs related to cell death. The anti-proliferative activity of OLE and the effect of the OLE-TMZ combination were tested in the T98G, U-138MG and U-87MG GBM cell lines using WST-1 assay. The mechanism of cell death was analyzed with Annexin V/FITC and TUNEL assays. The effects of OLE on the expression levels of miR-181b, miR-153, miR-145 and miR-137 and potential mRNA targets were analyzed in GSCs using RT-qPCR. OLE exhibited anti-proliferative effects via apoptosis and necrosis in the GBM cell lines. In addition, OLE significantly induced the expression of miR-153, miR-145, and miR-137 and decreased the expression of the target genes of these miRNAs in GSCs (p < 0.05). OLE causes cell death in GBM cells with different TMZ responses, and this effect is synergistically increased when the cells are treated with a combination of OLE and TMZ. This is the first study to indicate that OLE may interfere with the pluripotency of GSCs by modulating miRNA expression. Further studies are required, but we suggest that OLE may have a potential for advanced therapeutic cancer drug studies in GBM. PMID:25232498

  15. Olea europaea leaf extract improves the treatment response of GBM stem cells by modulating miRNA expression

    PubMed Central

    Tezcan, Gulcin; Tunca, Berrin; Bekar, Ahmet; Budak, Ferah; Sahin, Saliha; Cecener, Gulsah; Egeli, Unal; Taskap?l?oglu, Mevlut Ozgur; Kocaeli, Hasan; Tolunay, Sahsine; Malyer, Hulusi; Demir, Cevdet; Tumen, Gulendam

    2014-01-01

    The stem-like cells of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors (GSCs) are one of the important determinants of recurrence and drug resistance. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the anticancer effect of Olea europaea leaf extract (OLE) on GBM cell lines, the association between OLE and TMZ responses, and the effect of OLE and the OLE-TMZ combination in GSCs and to clarify the molecular mechanism of this effect on the expression of miRNAs related to cell death. The anti-proliferative activity of OLE and the effect of the OLE-TMZ combination were tested in the T98G, U-138MG and U-87MG GBM cell lines using WST-1 assay. The mechanism of cell death was analyzed with Annexin V/FITC and TUNEL assays. The effects of OLE on the expression levels of miR-181b, miR-153, miR-145 and miR-137 and potential mRNA targets were analyzed in GSCs using RT-qPCR. OLE exhibited anti-proliferative effects via apoptosis and necrosis in the GBM cell lines. In addition, OLE significantly induced the expression of miR-153, miR-145, and miR-137 and decreased the expression of the target genes of these miRNAs in GSCs (p < 0.05). OLE causes cell death in GBM cells with different TMZ responses, and this effect is synergistically increased when the cells are treated with a combination of OLE and TMZ. This is the first study to indicate that OLE may interfere with the pluripotency of GSCs by modulating miRNA expression. Further studies are required, but we suggest that OLE may have a potential for advanced therapeutic cancer drug studies in GBM. PMID:25232498

  16. Electric monopoles and the Montonen-Olive conjecture

    E-print Network

    M. Temple-Raston

    1993-11-10

    We introduce a topological field theory with a Bogomol'nyi structure permitting BPS electric, magnetic and dyonic monopoles. From the general arguments given by Montonen and Olive the particle spectrum and mass compare favourably with that of the intermediate vector bosons. In most, if not in all, of its essential features the topological field theory introduced here provides an example of a dual field theory, the existence of which was conjectured by Montonen and Olive.

  17. Olive bagasse and nutshell as gamma shielding material

    SciTech Connect

    ?naç, Esra; Bayta?, A. Filiz

    2013-12-16

    Gamma ray linear attenuation coefficients have been measured experimentally for olive bagasse and nutshell by using narrow beam geometry for Co-60 and the values have been compared with soil. These values have been used calculate mean free path, half value layer and tenth value layer parameters. Besides, effect of multi-layered systems (soil + olive bagasse and soil + nutshell) has been analyzed in terms of half value layer.

  18. Sensory intensity assessment of olive oils using an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Veloso, Ana C A; Dias, Luís G; Rodrigues, Nuno; Pereira, José A; Peres, António M

    2016-01-01

    Olive oils may be commercialized as intense, medium or light, according to the intensity perception of fruitiness, bitterness and pungency attributes, assessed by a sensory panel. In this work, the capability of an electronic tongue to correctly classify olive oils according to the sensory intensity perception levels was evaluated. Cross-sensitivity and non-specific lipid polymeric membranes were used as sensors. The sensor device was firstly tested using quinine monohydrochloride standard solutions. Mean sensitivities of 14±2 to 25±6mV/decade, depending on the type of plasticizer used in the lipid membranes, were obtained showing the device capability for evaluating bitterness. Then, linear discriminant models based on sub-sets of sensors, selected by a meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm, were established enabling to correctly classify 91% of olive oils according to their intensity sensory grade (leave-one-out cross-validation procedure). This capability was further evaluated using a repeated K-fold cross-validation procedure, showing that the electronic tongue allowed an average correct classification of 80% of the olive oils used for internal-validation. So, the electronic tongue can be seen as a taste sensor, allowing differentiating olive oils with different sensory intensities, and could be used as a preliminary, complementary and practical tool for panelists during olive oil sensory analysis. PMID:26695307

  19. 7 CFR 932.153 - Establishment of minimum quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses. 932.153 Section...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations...quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses. (a) Minimum...

  20. 7 CFR 932.153 - Establishment of minimum quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses. 932.153 Section...NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations...quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses. (a) Minimum...

  1. 78 FR 39707 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) Zone 44-Mt. Olive, New Jersey; Notification of Proposed Production...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ...Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) Zone 44--Mt. Olive, New Jersey; Notification of Proposed...Fragrance and Flavor Products); Mt. Olive, New Jersey Givaudan Fragrances Corporation...production activity for its facility in Mt. Olive, New Jersey. The notification...

  2. 7 CFR 932.153 - Establishment of minimum quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses. 932.153 Section...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations...quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses. (a) Minimum...

  3. 7 CFR 932.153 - Establishment of minimum quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses. 932.153 Section...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations...quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses. (a) Minimum...

  4. 7 CFR 932.153 - Establishment of minimum quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses. 932.153 Section...Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations...quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses. (a) Minimum...

  5. The role of structural C--H compared with phenolic OH sites on the antioxidant activity of oleuropein and its derivatives as a great non-flavonoid family of the olive components: a DFT study.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh, Keyumars; Akhtari, Keivan; Hassanzadeh, Halaleh; Zarei, Seyed Amir; Fakhraei, Nahid; Hassanzadeh, Katayoun

    2014-12-01

    Oleuropein and its derivatives are the main phenolic compounds of Olea europaea L. leaf and fruit. The structure-antioxidant activity relationship was considered for studying the radical scavenging activity of this non-flavonoid family of the olive components using density functional theory (DFT). The structure of these compounds were optimized employing the B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) and the role of some structural CH positions was compared with phenolic OH sites on radical scavenging. As a result, a radical unique position (C3) in the oleuropein, characterized by low BDE (Bond Dissociation Enthalpy), reasonable spin density and electron distribution, was identified. The experimental results of the previous publications of oleuropein for NO and OH scavenging confirmed the presence of this unique active site in its molecular structure. According to the results, 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) cannot find this non-marginal active site. Therefore, DPPH may not be a determinant assay for all antioxidant comparisons. Solvent effects were considered in all calculations using a Polarized Continuum Model (PCM) at the B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) level. Solvation calculations were carried out for benzene (?=2.3) to simulate the oil environment compared to gas phase. PMID:24996331

  6. Lipase production by yeasts from extra virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Ciafardini, G; Zullo, B A; Iride, A

    2006-02-01

    Newly produced olive oil has an opalescent appearance due to the presence of solid particles and micro-drops of vegetation water from the fruits. Some of our recent microbiological research has shown that a rich micro-flora is present in the suspended fraction of the freshly produced olive oil capable of improving the quality of the oil through the hydrolysis of the oleuropein. Present research however has, for the first time, demonstrated the presence of lipase-positive yeasts in some samples of extra virgin olive oil which can lower the quality of the oil through the hydrolysis of the triglycerides. The tests performed with yeasts of our collection, previously isolated from olive oil, demonstrated that two lipase-producing yeast strains named Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1525 and Williopsis californica 1639 were able to hydrolyse different specific synthetic substrates represented by p-nitrophenyl stearate, 4-nitrophenyl palmitate, tripalmitin and triolein as well as olive oil triglycerides. The lipase activity in S. cerevisiae 1525 was confined to the whole cells, whereas in W. californica 1639 it was also detected in the extracellular fraction. The enzyme activity in both yeasts was influenced by the ratio of the aqueous to the organic phase reaching its maximum value in S. cerevisiae 1525 when the water added to the olive oil was present in a ratio of 0.25% (v/v), whereas in W. californica 1639 the optimal ratio was 1% (v/v). Furthermore, the free fatty acids of olive oil proved to be good inducers of lipase activity in both yeasts. The microbiological analysis carried out on commercial extra virgin olive oil, produced in four different geographic areas, demonstrated that the presence of lipase-producing yeast varied from zero to 56% of the total yeasts detected, according to the source of oil samples. The discovery of lipase-positive yeasts in some extra virgin olive oils leads us to believe that yeasts are able to contribute in a positive or negative way towards the organological quality of the olive oil. PMID:16942987

  7. The molecular biology of the olive fly comes of age

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Olive cultivation blends with the history of the Mediterranean countries since ancient times. Even today, activities around the olive tree constitute major engagements of several people in the countryside of both sides of the Mediterranean basin. The olive fly is, beyond doubt, the most destructive pest of cultivated olives. The female fly leaves its eggs in the olive fruit. Upon emergence, the larvae feed on the olive sap, thus destroying the fruit. If untreated, practically all olives get infected. The use of chemical insecticides constitutes the principal olive fly control approach. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), an environmentally friendly alternative control method, had been tried in pilot field applications in the 1970's, albeit with no practical success. This was mainly attributed to the low, non-antagonistic quality of the mixed-sex released insects. Many years of experience from successful SIT applications in related species, primarily the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, demonstrated that efficient SIT protocols require the availability of fundamental genetic and molecular information. Results Among the primary systems whose understanding can contribute towards novel SIT approaches (or its recently developed alternative RIDL: Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal) is the reproductive, since the ability to manipulate the reproductive system would directly affect the insect's fertility. In addition, the analysis of early embryonic promoters and apoptotic genes would provide tools that confer dominant early-embryonic lethality during mass-rearing. Here we report the identification of several genes involved in these systems through whole transcriptome analysis of female accessory glands (FAGs) and spermathecae, as well as male testes. Indeed, analysis of differentially expressed genes in these tissues revealed higher metabolic activity in testes than in FAGs/spermathecae. Furthermore, at least five olfactory-related genes were shown to be differentially expressed in the female and male reproductive systems analyzed. Finally, the expression profile of the embryonic serendipity-? locus and the pre-apoptotic head involution defective gene were analyzed during embryonic developmental stages. Conclusions Several years of molecular studies on the olive fly can now be combined with new information from whole transcriptome analyses and lead to a deep understanding of the biology of this notorious insect pest. This is a prerequisite for the development of novel embryonic lethality female sexing strains for successful SIT efforts which, combined with improved mass-reared conditions, give new hope for efficient SIT applications for the olive fly. PMID:25472866

  8. Daniel Huson, Oliver Kohlbacher, Andrei Lupas, Kay Nieselt and Andreas Zell (eds.)

    E-print Network

    Spang, Rainer

    #12;#12;Daniel Huson, Oliver Kohlbacher, Andrei Lupas, Kay Nieselt and Andreas Zell (eds.) German@informatik.uni-tuebingen.de Prof. Dr. Oliver Kohlbacher Zentrum für Bioinformatik (ZBIT), Universität Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen

  9. Scroll wave drift along steps, troughs, and corners Hua Ke, Zhihui Zhang, and Oliver Steinbock

    E-print Network

    Steinbock, Oliver

    Scroll wave drift along steps, troughs, and corners Hua Ke, Zhihui Zhang, and Oliver Steinbock, and corners Hua Ke, Zhihui Zhang, and Oliver Steinbock Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State

  10. 78 FR 48412 - Approval of Subzone Status Milwaukee Electric Tool Corporation Olive Branch, Greenwood and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ...Approval of Subzone Status Milwaukee Electric Tool Corporation Olive Branch, Greenwood and Jackson, Mississippi On June 5, 2013...of Milwaukee Electric Tool Corporation at its facilities in Olive Branch, Greenwood and Jackson, Mississippi. The...

  11. Clinical, hematological and biochemical alterations in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus following experimental infection by Vibrio scophthalmi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hematological analysis can provide key values for monitoring fish health conditions. There is no information available on hematological changes of olive flounder following infection by Vibrio scophthalmi. In this study, hematological and biochemical alterations were determined for olive flounder inf...

  12. Carbonyl trapping and antiglycative activities of olive oil mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Marta; Fiore, Alberto; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Morales, Francisco J

    2015-02-01

    The use of natural compounds as antiglycative agents to reduce the load of advanced glycation end products from diet is very promising. Olive mill wastewater is a by-product of the olive oil extraction processes with a high content of hydroxytyrosol, hydroxytyrosol derivatives and molecules containing o-dihydroxyl functions such as verbascoside. Two powders were obtained after the ultrafiltration and nanofiltration of olive mill wastewater, and successive spray drying with maltodextrin and acacia fiber. The samples were characterized by phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity. Antiglycative capacity was evaluated by in vitro BSA-glucose and BSA-methylglyoxal assays, formation of Amadori products and direct trapping of reactive dicarbonyls (methylglyoxal and glyoxal). Both ultrafiltered and nanofiltered olive mill wastewater powders had an activity comparable to quercetin and hydroxytyrosol against the inhibition of protein glycation (IC50 = 0.3 mg mL(-1)). The antiglycative activity of the powder was further investigated after separation by reverse phase solid extraction. Fractions extracted with the methanol content higher than 40% and rich in hydroxytyrosol and verbascoside exerted the highest reactivity against dicarbonyls. Data confirmed that the direct trapping of dicarbonyl compounds is the main route explaining the antiglycative action rather than of the already known antioxidant capacity. Results support further investigations to evaluate the technological feasibility to use olive mill wastewater powders as antiglycative ingredients in foods or in pharmacological preparations in future. PMID:25519075

  13. The effects of inferior olive lesion on strychnine seizure

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.C.; Chung, E.Y.; Van Woert, M.H. )

    1990-10-01

    Bilateral inferior olive lesions, produced by systemic administration of the neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3AP) produce a proconvulsant state specific for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus. We have proposed that these phenomena are mediated through increased excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, through activation of glutamate receptors, in response to climbing fiber deafferentation. An increase in quisqualic acid (QA)-displaceable ({sup 3}H)AMPA ((RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) binding in cerebella from inferior olive-lesioned rats was observed, but no difference in ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding displaced by glutamate, kainic acid (KA) or glutamate diethylester (GDEE) was seen. The excitatory amino acid antagonists GDEE and MK-801 ((+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cyclo-hepten-5,10 imine) were tested as anticonvulsants for strychnine-induced seizures in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned and control rats. Neither drug effected seizures in control rats, however, both GDEE and MK-801 produced a leftward shift in the strychnine-seizure dose-response curve in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned rats. GDEE also inhibited strychnine-induced myoclonus in the lesioned group, while MK-801 had no effect on myoclonus. The decreased threshold for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus in the 3AP-inferior olive-lesioned rats may be due to an increase in glutamate receptors as suggested by the ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding data.

  14. The effects of inferior olive lesion on strychnine seizure.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M C; Chung, E Y; Van Woert, M H

    1990-10-01

    Bilateral inferior olive lesions, produced by systemic administration of the neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3AP) produce a proconvulsant state specific for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus. We have proposed that these phenomena are mediated through increased excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, through activation of glutamate receptors, in response to climbing fiber deafferentation. An increase in quisqualic acid (QA)-displaceable [3H]AMPA [(RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid] binding in cerebella from inferior olive-lesioned rats was observed, but no difference in [3H]AMPA binding displaced by glutamate, kainic acid (KA) or glutamate diethylester (GDEE) was seen. The excitatory amino acid antagonists GDEE and MK-801 [(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclo-hepten-5,10 imine] were tested as anticonvulsants for strychnine-induced seizures in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned and control rats. Neither drug effected seizures in control rats, however, both GDEE and MK-801 produced a leftward shift in the strychnine-seizure dose-response curve in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned rats. GDEE also inhibited strychnine-induced myoclonus in the lesioned group, while MK-801 had no effect on myoclonus. The decreased threshold for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus in the 3AP-inferior olive-lesioned rats may be due to an increase in glutamate receptors as suggested by the [3H]AMPA binding data. PMID:2125520

  15. alpha-tocopherol content of Greek virgin olive oils.

    PubMed

    Psomiadou, E; Tsimidou, M; Boskou, D

    2000-05-01

    alpha-Tocopherol, the main tocopherol homologue found in olive oil, was determined using normal phase HPLC. Ninety Greek virgin olive oils, selected according to a designed sampling protocol from different cultivars and regions all over Greece for three successive crop years, were analyzed. For a specific olive cultivar, which is widely used for the production of olive oil in Greece, additional measurements were made to study the effect of milling conditions on alpha-tocopherol concentration. Finally, a significant number of commercial olive oil samples (25) obtained from the retail market were analyzed. High concentrations of alpha-tocopherol were observed in most of the samples selected from various regions. Values ranging between 98 and 370 mg/kg were found (>200 mg/kg in 60% of samples). Extraction conditions were not found to influence alpha-tocopherol level. alpha-Tocopherol content of retail market samples was high, ranging from 120 to 250 mg/kg of oil (>180 mg/kg in 60% of samples). Storage of samples under domestic conditions for two years showed that good handling is quite important for retaining high alpha-tocopherol levels and for increasing, thus, the storage life and nutritional value of this exquisite oil. PMID:10820093

  16. Heavy metal accumulation in the mole, Talpa europea, and earthworms as an indicator of metal bioavailability in terrestrial environments

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, W.

    1987-12-01

    Bioaccumulation studies in animals can supply valuable information to supplement the data obtained by chemical analysis of pollutants in abiotic samples. With respect to the terrestrial ecosystem, suitable indicator species in the decomposer subsystem can be identified on the basis of functional characteristics and trophic level. Investigations on metal behavior at the first trophic level, done in lumbricid earthworms showed that the potential for bioaccumulation depends on the degree of contamination as well as on the metal-binding capacity of the soil. The present study was performed to investigate metal behavior at a higher trophic level, and the mole (Talpa europea) was chosen a representative of the terrestrial decomposer subsystem. As earthworms are the preferred food of moles, they provide the major source of ingested metals to these animals. The food chain involving earthworms and moles provides an example of a critical pathway for potentially toxic non-essential metals such as cadmium and lead.

  17. Evaluation of the in Vitro Anti-Atherogenic Properties of Lipid Fractions of Olive Pomace, Olive Pomace Enriched Fish Feed and Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Fed with Olive Pomace Enriched Fish Feed

    PubMed Central

    Nasopoulou, Constantina; Gogaki, Vassiliki; Stamatakis, Giorgos; Papaharisis, Leonidas; Demopoulos, Constantinos A.; Zabetakis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Given the pivotal role of Platelet-Activating-Factor (PAF) in atherosclerosis and the cardio-protective role of PAF-inhibitors derived from olive pomace, the inclusion of olive pomace in fish feed has been studied for gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). The aim of the current research was to elucidate the anti-atherogenic properties of specific HPLC lipid fractions obtained from olive pomace, olive pomace enriched fish feed and fish fed with the olive pomace enriched fish feed, by evaluating their in vitro biological activity against washed rabbit platelets. This in vitro study underlines that olive pomace inclusion in fish feed improves the nutritional value of both fish feed and fish possibly by enriching the marine lipid profile of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) with specific bioactive lipid compounds of plant origin. PMID:24084786

  18. 218?Thunderstorm-Related Asthma in Patients Sensitised to Olea Europaea Pollen: Twenty Emergency Department Visits for Asthmatic Symptoms in One Single Day

    PubMed Central

    Losappio, Laura; Heffler, Enrico; Contento, Francesco; Falco, Antonio; Cannito, Cosimo Damiano; Rolla, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Background Asthma exacerbation associated with thunderstorms has been reported in several countries. Common to all epidemics of thunderstorm-related asthma is a significant increase in atmospheric allergen load during and immediately after a thunderstorm. Sensitization to Alternaria species or to grass and parietaria pollens has been suggested to play a key role in thunderstorm-related asthma. The only reported event of thunderstorm-related asthma in Mediterranean area was attributed to sensitization to parietaria pollen. Methods Here we describe a series of 20 patients who accessed to an Emergency Department in Puglia (Italy) for sudden and severe dispnoea between the 27th and the 28th of May 2010 (between 15:36 and 5:02), just after a violent thunderstorm which occurred after a very warm morning (mean atmospheric temperature: 29°C). All patients have been subsequently visited by an allergist and underwent a complete allergological work-up which included skin prick tests and a careful clinical history record. Data from atmospheric pollen count were recorded. Results In the months between 10th of May and 10th of June 2010, a total of 86 accesses to same Emergency Department were recorded for asthma exacerbations, 20 of them during the studied day. Patients’ mean age was 44.25 ± 18.5 years (range: 9–81), 8/20 females, 2 smokers, 16 with a previous history of known respiratory allergy. All 20 patients were sensitized to Olea europaea pollen, 7 of which were monosensitized. Other sensitizations were: 10 patients to grass, 7 to parietaria, 5 to compositae, 5 to cypress, 5 to house dust mites, 3 to dog and 1 to cat danders. Mean atmospheric pollen count was 170 granules/m3 for Olea europaea and 60 granules/m3 for grass pollen. Conclusions This is, in our knowledge, the second thunderstorm-related asthma episode described in Mediterranean area and the first one in which sensitization to Olea europaea played a key-role. This result should focus the possibility that not only the increase of molds and grass pollen load after a thunderstorm may raise asthma exacerbations.

  19. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size..., grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from..., kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety plums (fresh prunes) for consumption by...

  20. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size..., grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from..., kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety plums (fresh prunes) for consumption by...