These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Olive (Olea europea) and privet (Ligustrum vulgare) pollen allergens. Identification and cross-reactivity with grass pollen proteins.  

PubMed

Protein blotting studies showed that three olive pollen components with mol. wts approximately 18-19, 20 and 40 kD can be considered to be major allergens. For privet pollen, the highest recognition frequencies were for allergens of mol. wts approximately 20, approximately 19, approximately 40 and approximately 70 kD. When results with the 62 subjects examined were separated into groups corresponding to their geographical locations, viz. Italy, France and Australia, subjects sensitized to olive, but not other pollens (some Italian subjects), were found to show higher frequencies of recognition of major olive allergens than subjects sensitized to olive pollen via cross-reacting allergens from unrelated pollen sources (the Australian and French subjects). Blotting, adsorption and elution and inhibition studies clearly demonstrated allergenic cross-reactivity (that is, antigenic cross-reactivity detected by IgE antibodies) between olive, privet, ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and couch grass (Bermuda grass: Cynodon dactylon) pollen components. As with our previous findings with birch pollen, we conclude that the presence of pollen-reactive IgE antibodies may not necessarily be a true reflection of the sensitizing pollen species. PMID:1528191

Baldo, B A; Panzani, R C; Bass, D; Zerboni, R

1992-10-01

2

Lipoxygenase activity in olive ( Olea europaea ) fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work was designed to characterize lipoxygenase activity in olive fruit pulp, in order to determine its significance\\u000a in the biosynthesis of virgin olive oil aroma. Lipoxygenase activity has been detected in particulate fractions of enzyme\\u000a extracts from olive pulp subjected to differential centrifugation. The activity in different membrane fractions showed similar\\u000a properties, with optimal pH in the range

Joaquín J. Salas; Mark Williams; John L. Harwood; Juan Sánchez

1999-01-01

3

Developmental events in differentiating floral buds of four olive ( Olea europaea L.) cultivars during late winter to early spring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is a very important evergreen fruit tree because of the high interest of olive oil and table olives in the human diet. Differentiation of olive floral buds during winter is strictly related to flowering during spring and finally to fruit production during autumn–winter. In order to determine which are the developmental events in differentiating

Christina K. Kitsaki; Evagelos Andreadis; Dimitris L. Bouranis

2010-01-01

4

Polyploidy in the Olive Complex (Olea europaea): Evidence from Flow Cytometry and Nuclear Microsatellite Analyses  

E-print Network

(Olea europaea). A particularly high genomic diversity has been found in north-west Africa. However in the diversification of the olive complex in north-west Africa. The fact that polyploidy is found in narrow endemic in north-west Africa w

Alvarez, Nadir

5

Influence of temperature and rainfall on timing of olive (Olea europaea) flowering in southern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study concerns the flowering of the olive (Olea europaea) in a large southern Italian area. It was carried out using the “volumetric” method of pollen sampling and the analysis of the meteorological parameters of temperature and rainfall. The results show that flowering occurs mainly in May, with the maximum values in the second half of the month. Meteorological analysis

Tommaso Bonofiglio; Fabio Orlandi; Carlo Sgromo; Bruno Romano; Marco Fornaciari

2008-01-01

6

Tomato fruits as an alternative host for a laboratory strain of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nature, oviposition and larval growth of the olive fruit flyBactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) occur only in the mesocarp of fruits of the genusOlea, including the cultivated olive. Here we report on its growth in tomatoes, in the laboratory, as affected by a number of\\u000a factors. Caged flies from a colony reared for more than 100 generations on an

E. I. Navrozidis; M. E. Tzanakakis

2005-01-01

7

Factors influencing phenolic compounds in table olives (Olea europaea).  

PubMed

The Mediterranean diet appears to be associated with a reduced risk of several chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular and Alzheimer's diseases. Olive products (mainly olive oil and table olives) are important components of the Mediterranean diet. Olives contain a range of phenolic compounds; these natural antioxidants may contribute to the prevention of these chronic conditions. Consequently, the consumption of table olives and olive oil continues to increase worldwide by health-conscious consumers. There are numerous factors that can affect the phenolics in table olives including the cultivar, degree of ripening, and, importantly, the methods used for curing and processing table olives. The predominant phenolic compound found in fresh olive is the bitter secoiridoid oleuropein. Table olive processing decreases levels of oleuropein with concomitant increases in the hydrolysis products hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. Many of the health benefits reported for olives are thought to be associated with the levels of hydroxytyrosol. Herein the pre- and post-harvest factors influencing the phenolics in olives, debittering methods, and health benefits of phenolics in table olives are reviewed. PMID:22720792

Charoenprasert, Suthawan; Mitchell, Alyson

2012-07-25

8

Valuable Nutrients and Functional Bioactives in Different Parts of Olive (Olea europaea L.)--A Review  

PubMed Central

The Olive tree (Olea europaea L.), a native of the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia, is now widely cultivated in many other parts of the world for production of olive oil and table olives. Olive is a rich source of valuable nutrients and bioactives of medicinal and therapeutic interest. Olive fruit contains appreciable concentration, 1–3% of fresh pulp weight, of hydrophilic (phenolic acids, phenolic alchohols, flavonoids and secoiridoids) and lipophilic (cresols) phenolic compounds that are known to possess multiple biological activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic, cardiotonic, laxative, and antiplatelet. Other important compounds present in olive fruit are pectin, organic acids, and pigments. Virgin olive oil (VOO), extracted mechanically from the fruit, is also very popular for its nutritive and health-promoting potential, especially against cardiovascular disorders due to the presence of high levels of monounsaturates and other valuable minor components such as phenolics, phytosterols, tocopherols, carotenoids, chlorophyll and squalene. The cultivar, area of production, harvest time, and the processing techniques employed are some of the factors shown to influence the composition of olive fruit and olive oil. This review focuses comprehensively on the nutrients and high-value bioactives profile as well as medicinal and functional aspects of different parts of olives and its byproducts. Various factors affecting the composition of this food commodity of medicinal value are also discussed. PMID:22489153

Ghanbari, Rahele; Anwar, Farooq; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Saari, Nazamid

2012-01-01

9

Molecular interactions between the olive and the fruit fly Bactrocera oleae  

PubMed Central

Background The fruit fly Bactrocera oleae is the primary biotic stressor of cultivated olives, causing direct and indirect damages that significantly reduce both the yield and the quality of olive oil. To study the olive-B. oleae interaction, we conducted transcriptomic and proteomic investigations of the molecular response of the drupe. The identifications of genes and proteins involved in the fruit response were performed using a Suppression Subtractive Hybridisation technique and a combined bi-dimensional electrophoresis/nanoLC-ESI-LIT-MS/MS approach, respectively. Results We identified 196 ESTs and 26 protein spots as differentially expressed in olives with larval feeding tunnels. A bioinformatic analysis of the identified non-redundant EST and protein collection indicated that different molecular processes were affected, such as stress response, phytohormone signalling, transcriptional control and primary metabolism, and that a considerable proportion of the ESTs could not be classified. The altered expression of 20 transcripts was also analysed by real-time PCR, and the most striking differences were further confirmed in the fruit of a different olive variety. We also cloned the full-length coding sequences of two genes, Oe-chitinase I and Oe-PR27, and showed that these are wound-inducible genes and activated by B. oleae punctures. Conclusions This study represents the first report that reveals the molecular players and signalling pathways involved in the interaction between the olive fruit and its most damaging biotic stressor. Drupe response is complex, involving genes and proteins involved in photosynthesis as well as in the production of ROS, the activation of different stress response pathways and the production of compounds involved in direct defence against phytophagous larvae. Among the latter, trypsin inhibitors should play a major role in drupe resistance reaction. PMID:22694925

2012-01-01

10

Characterization of antioxidant enzymes and peroxisomes of olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits.  

PubMed

The presence of peroxisomes in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits and different antioxidant enzymes occurring in this plant tissue is reported for the first time. Ultrastructural analysis showed that olive cells were characterized by the presence of large vacuoles and lipid drops. Plastids, mitochondria and peroxisomes were placed near the cell wall, showing some type of association with it. Olive fruit peroxisomes were purified by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation, and catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase were found in peroxisomes. In olive fruit tissue the presence of a battery of antioxidant enzymes was demonstrated, including catalase, four superoxide dismutase isozymes (mainly an Fe-SOD plus 2 Cu,Zn-SOD and a Mn-SOD), all the enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, reduced and oxidized glutathione, ascorbate, and four NADPH-recycling dehydrogenases. The knowledge of the full composition of antioxidants (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) in olive fruits is crucial to be able to understand the processes regulating the antioxidant composition of olive oil. PMID:25105232

Lopez-Huertas, Eduardo; del Río, Luis A

2014-10-15

11

Partial purification and characterization of peroxidase from olives ( Olea europaea cv. Koroneiki)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme peroxidase (POD) activity was extracted from olives (Olea europaea cv. Koroneiki) and was partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and gel permeation chromatography (Sephacryl\\u000a S 300). Further characterization of the POD was performed using the ammonium sulfate purified fraction. POD showed a molecular\\u000a mass of 44 ± 2 kDa and it expressed catalytic activity with 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS),\\u000a N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD) and

Evaggelia D. Tzika; Theodore G. Sotiroudis; Vassiliki Papadimitriou; Aristotelis Xenakis

2009-01-01

12

The Peculiar Landscape of Repetitive Sequences in the Olive (Olea europaea L.) Genome  

PubMed Central

Analyzing genome structure in different species allows to gain an insight into the evolution of plant genome size. Olive (Olea europaea L.) has a medium-sized haploid genome of 1.4 Gb, whose structure is largely uncharacterized, despite the growing importance of this tree as oil crop. Next-generation sequencing technologies and different computational procedures have been used to study the composition of the olive genome and its repetitive fraction. A total of 2.03 and 2.3 genome equivalents of Illumina and 454 reads from genomic DNA, respectively, were assembled following different procedures, which produced more than 200,000 differently redundant contigs, with mean length higher than 1,000 nt. Mapping Illumina reads onto the assembled sequences was used to estimate their redundancy. The genome data set was subdivided into highly and medium redundant and nonredundant contigs. By combining identification and mapping of repeated sequences, it was established that tandem repeats represent a very large portion of the olive genome (?31% of the whole genome), consisting of six main families of different length, two of which were first discovered in these experiments. The other large redundant class in the olive genome is represented by transposable elements (especially long terminal repeat-retrotransposons). On the whole, the results of our analyses show the peculiar landscape of the olive genome, related to the massive amplification of tandem repeats, more than that reported for any other sequenced plant genome. PMID:24671744

Barghini, Elena; Natali, Lucia; Cossu, Rosa Maria; Giordani, Tommaso; Pindo, Massimo; Cattonaro, Federica; Scalabrin, Simone; Velasco, Riccardo; Morgante, Michele; Cavallini, Andrea

2014-01-01

13

Natural mortality of immature stages of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in traditional olive groves from North-Eastern Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 2006 to 2008, we studied the natural mortality of olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), eggs and larvae as collected in fruit on the tree, in two to five ‘traditional’ olive groves of Trás-os-Montes (North Eastern Portugal), per year. We also studied the fate of 2,044 puparia that were buried in the soil from November to May for two seasons,

Fátima M. Gonçalves; M. Conceição Rodrigues; José A. Pereira; Howard Thistlewood; Laura M. Torres

2012-01-01

14

Identification of new polymorphic regions and differentiation of cultivated olives (Olea europaea L.) through plastome sequence comparison  

PubMed Central

Background The cultivated olive (Olea europaea L.) is the most agriculturally important species of the Oleaceae family. Although many studies have been performed on plastid polymorphisms to evaluate taxonomy, phylogeny and phylogeography of Olea subspecies, only few polymorphic regions discriminating among the agronomically and economically important olive cultivars have been identified. The objective of this study was to sequence the entire plastome of olive and analyze many potential polymorphic regions to develop new inter-cultivar genetic markers. Results The complete plastid genome of the olive cultivar Frantoio was determined by direct sequence analysis using universal and novel PCR primers designed to amplify all overlapping regions. The chloroplast genome of the olive has an organisation and gene order that is conserved among numerous Angiosperm species and do not contain any of the inversions, gene duplications, insertions, inverted repeat expansions and gene/intron losses that have been found in the chloroplast genomes of the genera Jasminum and Menodora, from the same family as Olea. The annotated sequence was used to evaluate the content of coding genes, the extent, and distribution of repeated and long dispersed sequences and the nucleotide composition pattern. These analyses provided essential information for structural, functional and comparative genomic studies in olive plastids. Furthermore, the alignment of the olive plastome sequence to those of other varieties and species identified 30 new organellar polymorphisms within the cultivated olive. Conclusions In addition to identifying mutations that may play a functional role in modifying the metabolism and adaptation of olive cultivars, the new chloroplast markers represent a valuable tool to assess the level of olive intercultivar plastome variation for use in population genetic analysis, phylogenesis, cultivar characterisation and DNA food tracking. PMID:20868482

2010-01-01

15

Density and structure of Saissetia oleae (Hemiptera: Coccidae) populations on citrus and olives: relative importance of the two annual generations.  

PubMed

Saissetia oleae (Olivier) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) populations were studied and compared in citrus (Citrus spp.) and olive (Olea europaea L.) groves to determine the number of generations, crawler emergence periods and changes in population density during the year. Ten citrus and four olive groves were sampled regularly between March 2003 and December 2005 in eastern Spain, covering an area of 10,000 km2. Each sample consisted of 16 branches and 64 leaves. Saissetia oleae populations presented a similar trend in both crops during the three years of study. Populations peaked in July, when crawlers emerged after the egg-laying period, and decreased during several months due to mortality of first instars in summer. A second crawler emergence period, with lower numbers and more variability from year to year, occurred between October and March. Populations did not increase during this period, probably because most eggs and crawlers perished during the winter and also because females that gave rise to this fall-winter generation were half as big and fecund as spring females. No differences were found between the size of mature females that had developed on citrus and on olives during the spring. Considering this population pattern, the best seasonal period to apply pesticides to control S. oleae would be at the end of July, when populations are synchronous, all crawlers have already emerged, and first instars predominate. PMID:17716461

Tena, Alejandro; Soto, Antonia; Vercher, Rosa; Garcia-Marí, Ferran

2007-08-01

16

Analysis of the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae Transcriptome and Phylogenetic Classification of the Major Detoxification Gene Families  

PubMed Central

The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae has a unique ability to cope with olive flesh, and is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. Its control has been largely based on the use of chemical insecticides, however, the selection of insecticide resistance against several insecticides has evolved. The study of detoxification mechanisms, which allow the olive fruit fly to defend against insecticides, and/or phytotoxins possibly present in the mesocarp, has been hampered by the lack of genomic information in this species. In the NCBI database less than 1,000 nucleotide sequences have been deposited, with less than 10 detoxification gene homologues in total. We used 454 pyrosequencing to produce, for the first time, a large transcriptome dataset for B. oleae. A total of 482,790 reads were assembled into 14,204 contigs. More than 60% of those contigs (8,630) were larger than 500 base pairs, and almost half of them matched with genes of the order of the Diptera. Analysis of the Gene Ontology (GO) distribution of unique contigs, suggests that, compared to other insects, the assembly is broadly representative for the B. oleae transcriptome. Furthermore, the transcriptome was found to contain 55 P450, 43 GST-, 15 CCE- and 18 ABC transporter-genes. Several of those detoxification genes, may putatively be involved in the ability of the olive fruit fly to deal with xenobiotics, such as plant phytotoxins and insecticides. In summary, our study has generated new data and genomic resources, which will substantially facilitate molecular studies in B. oleae, including elucidation of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic, as well as other important aspects of olive fruit fly biology. PMID:23824998

Rombauts, Stephane; Chrisargiris, Antonis; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Vontas, John

2013-01-01

17

In vitro propagation of olive (Olea europaea L.) by nodal segmentation of elongated shoots.  

PubMed

Olive (Olea europaea L.), long-living, ever-green fruit tree of the Old World, has been part of a traditional landscape in the Mediterranean area for centuries. Both the fruits consumed after processing and the oil extracted from the fruits are among the main components of the Mediterranean diet, widely used for salads and cooking, as well as for preserving other food. Documentations show that the ancient use of this beautiful tree also includes lamp fuel production, wool treatment, soap production, medicine, and cosmetics. However, unlike the majority of the fruit species, olive propagation is still a laborious practice. As regards traditional propagation, rooting of cuttings and grafting stem segments onto rootstocks are possible, former being achieved only when the cuttings are collected in specific periods (spring or beginning of autumn), and latter only when skilled grafters are available. In both the cases, performance of the cultivars varies considerably. The regeneration of whole plants from ovules, on the other hand, is used only occasionally. Micropropagation of olive is not easy mainly due to explant oxidation, difficulties in explant disinfection, and labor-oriented establishment of in vitro shoot cultures. However today, the progress in micropropagation technology has made available the complete protocols for several Mediterranean cultivars. This chapter describes a micropropagation protocol based on the segmentation of nodal segments obtained from elongated shoots. PMID:23179688

Lambardi, Maurizio; Ozudogru, Elif Aylin; Roncasaglia, Romano

2013-01-01

18

Proteolysis, histopathological effects, and immunohistopathological localization of delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki in the midgut of lepidopteran olive tree pathogenic insect Prays oleae.  

PubMed

Considering the fact that Prays oleae is one of the most pathogenic insects to the olive tree in the Mediterranean basin, particularly in Tunisia, the mode of action of Cry insecticidal toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki in Prays oleae midgut was investigated. The proteolysis of Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins in the midgut was a key step in determining their potency against Prays oleae. The latter's proteases activated the delta-endotoxins early, yielding stable toxins. The in vitro and in vivo binding of these toxins to Prays oleae larvae midgut was studied immunohistochemically, evidencing a midgut columnar cell vacuolization, microvilli damage, and then a pass of epithelium cell content into the larvae midgut. Moreover, Bacillus thuringiensis toxins were shown to bind to the apical microvilli of the midgut epithelial cells. The in vitro study of the interaction of Prays oleae midgut proteins with biotinylated Bacillus thuringiensis toxins allowed the prediction of four suitable receptor proteins in Prays oleae. PMID:17435280

Rouis, S; Chakroun, M; Saadaoui, I; Jaoua, S

2007-02-01

19

Human absorption and metabolism of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol ingested as olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract.  

PubMed

Phenolic compounds derived from the olive plant (Olea europaea L.), particularly hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, have many beneficial effects in vitro. Olive leaves are the richest source of olive phenolic compounds, and olive leaf extract (OLE) is now a popular nutraceutical taken either as liquid or capsules. To quantify the bioavailability and metabolism of oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol when taken as OLE, nine volunteers (five males) aged 42.8 ± 7.4 years were randomized to receive either capsulated or liquid OLE as a single lower (51.1 mg oleuropein, 9.7 mg hydroxytyrosol) or higher (76.6 mg oleuropein, 14.5 mg hydroxytyrosol) dose, and then the opposite strength (but same formulation) a week later. Plasma and urine samples were collected at fixed intervals for 24 h post-ingestion. Phenolic content was analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Conjugated metabolites of hydroxytyrosol were the primary metabolites recovered in plasma and urine after OLE ingestion. Peak oleuropein concentrations in plasma were greater following ingestion of liquid than capsule preparations (0.47 versus 2.74 ng/mL; p = 0.004), but no such effect was observed for peak concentrations of conjugated (sulfated and glucuronidated) hydroxytyrosol (p = 0.94). However, the latter peak was reached earlier with liquid preparation (93 versus 64 min; p = 0.031). There was a gender effect on the bioavailability of phenolic compounds, with males displaying greater plasma area under the curve for conjugated hydroxytyrosol (11,600 versus 2550 ng/mL; p = 0.048). All conjugated hydroxytyrosol metabolites were recovered in the urine within 8 h. There was wide inter-individual variation. OLE effectively delivers oleuropein and hydroxytrosol metabolites to plasma in humans. PMID:23766098

de Bock, Martin; Thorstensen, Eric B; Derraik, José G B; Henderson, Harold V; Hofman, Paul L; Cutfield, Wayne S

2013-11-01

20

Molecular studies in olive ( Olea europaea L.): overview on DNA markers applications and recent advances in genome analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the oldest agricultural tree crops worldwide and is an important source of oil with beneficial properties for\\u000a human health. This emblematic tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin, which has conserved a very wide germplasm estimated in\\u000a more than 1,200 cultivars, is a diploid species (2n = 2x = 46) that is present in two forms, namely wild

T. Bracci; M. Busconi; C. Fogher; L. Sebastiani

2011-01-01

21

Effect of the herbicides terbuthylazine and glyphosate on photosystem II photochemistry of young olive (Olea europaea) plants.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to understand the effect produced by the addition of the herbicides terbuthylazine (N(2)-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N(4)-ethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) and glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) on photosystem II photochemistry of young plants of Olea europaea L. under greenhouse conditions. The effect of soil amendment with an organic residue from olive oil production was also assessed. Terbuthylazine reduced the efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry of plants due to chronic photoinhibition, and this effect was counterbalanced by soil amendment with the organic waste, whereas the photosystem II photochemistry of olive plants was not affected by glyphosate or by glyphosate and organic waste addition. In this study, we have shown that the soil application of terbuthylazine is a source of indirect phytotoxicity for olive plants. We have also observed that the olive plants were not affected by higher amounts of glyphosate in the soil. PMID:21517077

Cañero, Ana I; Cox, Lucía; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Hermosín, María C; Cornejo, Juan

2011-05-25

22

Environmental effect on ABA concentration and water potential in olive leaves ( Olea europaea L. cv “Koroneiki”) under non-irrigated field conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

How does the olive tree respond to environmental stress in the Mediterranean climate under non-irrigated field conditions with respect to leaf abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations and water status? To answer this question we determined simultaneously ABA concentration and water potential (?l) in olive leaves (Olea europaea L. cv “Koroneiki”) during three successive years and related them to environmental parameters. The

C. K. Kitsaki; J. B. Drossopoulos

2005-01-01

23

The dual function of ovo/shavenbaby in germline and epidermis differentiation is conserved between Drosophila melanogaster and the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae.  

PubMed

The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (B. oleae) is a major olive damaging pest in the Mediterranean area. As a first molecular analysis of a developmental gene in this insect, we characterised the ovo/shavenbaby (ovo/svb) gene. In Drosophila, ovo/svb encodes a family of transcription regulators with two distinct functions: ovo is required for female germline differentiation and svb controls morphogenesis of epidermal cells. Here, we report the cloning and characterisation of ovo/svb in B. oleae, showing that the ovo genomic organisation and complex pattern of germline transcription have been conserved between distantly related Dipterae. We further show that B. oleae svb embryonic expression precisely prefigures the pattern of larval trichomes, supporting the conclusion that regulatory changes in svb transcription underlie evolutionary diversification of trichome patterns seen among Dipterae. PMID:12826096

Khila, Abderrahman; El Haidani, Ahmed; Vincent, Alain; Payre, François; Souda, Saad Ibn

2003-07-01

24

Olive (Olea europaea L.) tree nitrogen status is a key factor for olive oil quality.  

PubMed

The influence of macronutrient status on olive oil properties was studied for three years. Data were analyzed by a multivariate model considering N, P, K, and fruiting year as explanatory factors. Oil quality parameters were primarily associated with N concentration in leaves and fruits which increased with N in irrigation solution. The effect of P on oil quality was mainly indirect since increased P availability increased N accumulation. The potassium level had negligible effects. The oil phenolic content decreased linearly as a function of increased leaf N, indicating protein-phenol competition in leaves. The overall saturation level of the fatty acids decreased with fruit N, resulting in increased polyunsaturated fatty acids. Free fatty acids increased with increased levels of fruit N. High fruit load tended to reduce fruit N and subsequently improve oil quality. The effect of N on oil properties depended solely on its concentration in leaves or fruits, regardless of the cause. PMID:24245487

Erel, Ran; Kerem, Zohar; Ben-Gal, Alon; Dag, Arnon; Schwartz, Amnon; Zipori, Isaac; Basheer, Loai; Yermiyahu, Uri

2013-11-27

25

Effects of water deficit on the vegetative response, yield and oil quality of olive trees ( Olea europaea L., cv Coratina) grown under intensive cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was carried out in a young high-density olive grove (556plantsha?1—Olea europaea L., cv Coratina) located in Southern Italy to evaluate the effect of different soil water availability on the vegetative and productive performances of olive trees also looking into the quality of the resulting oils. Trials were carried out over a 3-year period on trees subjected to irrigation

Assunta Maria Palese; Vitale Nuzzo; Fabio Favati; Angiolina Pietrafesa; Giuseppe Celano; Cristos Xiloyannis

2010-01-01

26

Isolation of a hydroxytyrosol-rich extract from olive leaves ( Olea Europaea L.) and evaluation of its antioxidant properties and bioactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, a phenol extract of high hydroxytyrosol (OLPE) content was obtained from olive leaves (Olea europaea L.), and subsequently tested under different contexts. The method used to obtain the OLPE basically involved two steps: the\\u000a use of strongly-acid aqueous steam, generated from 10% HCl (v\\/v) at 100°C, to directly hydrolyse the native complex phenols\\u000a from integral olive leaves,

Antonella De Leonardis; Alessandra Aretini; Gabriele Alfano; Vincenzo Macciola; Giancarlo Ranalli

2008-01-01

27

Construction of Core Collections Suitable for Association Mapping to Optimize Use of Mediterranean Olive (Olea europaea L.) Genetic Resources  

PubMed Central

Phenotypic characterisation of germplasm collections is a decisive step towards association mapping analyses, but it is particularly expensive and tedious for woody perennial plant species. Characterisation could be more efficient if focused on a reasonably sized subset of accessions, or so-called core collection (CC), reflecting the geographic origin and variability of the germplasm. The questions that arise concern the sample size to use and genetic parameters that should be optimized in a core collection to make it suitable for association mapping. Here we investigated these questions in olive (Olea europaea L.), a perennial fruit species. By testing different sampling methods and sizes in a worldwide olive germplasm bank (OWGB Marrakech, Morocco) containing 502 unique genotypes characterized by nuclear and plastid loci, a two-step sampling method was proposed. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index was found to be the best criterion to be maximized in the first step using the Core Hunter program. A primary core collection of 50 entries (CC50) was defined that captured more than 80% of the diversity. This latter was subsequently used as a kernel with the Mstrat program to capture the remaining diversity. 200 core collections of 94 entries (CC94) were thus built for flexibility in the choice of varieties to be studied. Most entries of both core collections (CC50 and CC94) were revealed to be unrelated due to the low kinship coefficient, whereas a genetic structure spanning the eastern and western/central Mediterranean regions was noted. Linkage disequilibrium was observed in CC94 which was mainly explained by a genetic structure effect as noted for OWGB Marrakech. Since they reflect the geographic origin and diversity of olive germplasm and are of reasonable size, both core collections will be of major interest to develop long-term association studies and thus enhance genomic selection in olive species. PMID:23667437

El Bakkali, Ahmed; Haouane, Hicham; Moukhli, Abdelmajid; Costes, Evelyne; Van Damme, Patrick; Khadari, Bouchaib

2013-01-01

28

Phenolic profiles of Portuguese olive fruits ( Olea europaea L.): Influences of cultivar and geographical origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenolic compounds present in 29 samples of olive fruits were analysed by reversed-phase HPLC\\/DAD and\\/or HPLC-DAD\\/ESI-MS\\/MS. All samples were collected during the normal picking period for olive oil production, in north and central Portugal, and were obtained from 18 different olive cultivars.Two different extraction methods were necessary for the complete quantification of phenolic compounds, a methanolic extraction and an

Ana F. Vinha; Federico Ferreres; Branca M. Silva; Patr??cia Valentão; Ana Gonçalves; José A. Pereira; M. Beatriz Oliveira; Rosa M. Seabra; Paula B. Andrade

2005-01-01

29

Genetic Biodiversity of Italian Olives (Olea europaea) Germplasm Analyzed by SSR Markers  

PubMed Central

The olive is an important fruit species cultivated for oil and table olives in Italy and the Mediterranean basin. The conservation of cultivated plants in ex situ collections is essential for the optimal management and use of their genetic resources. The largest ex situ olive germplasm collection consists of approximately 500 Italian olive varieties and corresponding to 85% of the total Italian olive germplasm is maintained at the Consiglio per la Ricerca e sperimentazione per l'Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per l'Olivicoltura e l'Industria Olearia (CRA-OLI), in Italy. In this work, eleven preselected nuclear microsatellite markers were used to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flows with the aim of assembling a core collection. The dendrogram obtained utilizing the unweighted pair group method highlights the presence of homonymy and synonymy in olive tree datasets analyzed in this study. 439 different unique genotype profiles were obtained with this combination of 11 loci nSSR, representing 89.8% of the varieties analyzed. The remaining 10.2% comprises different variety pairs in which both accessions are genetically indistinguishable. Clustering analysis performed using BAPS software detected seven groups in Italian olive germplasm and gene flows were determined among identified clusters. We proposed an Italian core collection of 23 olive varieties capturing all detected alleles at microsatellites. The information collected in this study regarding the CRA-OLI ex situ collection can be used for breeding programs, for germplasm conservation, and for optimizing a strategy for the management of olive gene pools. PMID:24723801

Vendramin, Giuseppe Giovanni; Chiappetta, Adriana

2014-01-01

30

Ultrasound-assisted solid liquid extraction (USLE) of olive fruit ( Olea europaea) phenolic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method of ultrasound-assisted solid liquid extraction (USLE) of olive fruit phenols is described. Phenolics were extracted using high intensity probe ultrasonication and analysed by HPLC-DAD-FLD-MS\\/MS. Four USLE parameters – sonication time (4, 15, 20, 30min), temperature (25, 45°C), solvent composition (80%, 100% methanol) and extraction steps (1–5) were studied and optimised on the basis of nine major olive

T. Jerman; P. Trebše; B. Mozeti? Vodopivec

2010-01-01

31

Factors affecting the contents of iridoid oleuropein in olive leaves (Olea europaea L.).  

PubMed

In this study, for the first time, the impact of the genetic factor on the contents of oleuropein in olive leaves was not only evaluated but the influence exerted by the color/age of leaves (green, green-yellowish, and yellow) and the collecting period (spring or autumn) was also evaluated. A repetitive high-resolution gas chromatographic quantitation method and an accurate high-performance liquid chromatographic method were developed. These analytical methods gave results showing a highly linear relationship. Samples of olive leaves were taken from seven major Italian olive cultivars, such as Dritta, Leccino, Caroleo, Coratina, Castiglionese, Nebbio, and Grossa di Cassano. Such a vegetal raw material could actually be exploited for recovering oleuropein, considered to be a high-added value molecule. This could be converted into hydrxytyrosol, a compound known to possess strong bioactive properties. Olive leaves showed considerable contents of oleuropein, which with some cultivars were even higher with respect to those present in the corresponding olive fruits (reported in the literature). The amounts of oleuropein in the collected leaves were markedly modified by the color/age and genetic factors, whereas meaningless variations were ascribable to the quantitation method and the collecting period factors. Various chemometrics, applied to the obtained analytical data, appeared to be effective in discriminating the samples on the basis of the above-examined experimental factors, thus confirming how these should be taken into account in future industrial recovery of oleuropein from olive leaves. PMID:16417301

Ranalli, Alfonso; Contento, Stefania; Lucera, Lucia; Di Febo, Moira; Marchegiani, Donato; Di Fonzo, Vittoria

2006-01-25

32

( Z)-9-tricosene identified in rectal gland extracts of Bactrocera oleae males: first evidence of a male-produced female attractant in olive fruit fly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well-known that Bactrocera oleae (olive fruit fly) females attract conspecific males by using 1,7-dioxaspiro[5,5]undecane ( 1) as the main component of their sex pheromone, and that 1 is produced in the female rectal gland. Although some authors have claimed that B. oleae males also attract females, to date no male-produced female attractants have been found in this species. In this paper, we report the first identification of a substance unique to males and able to attract females. The findings of the study include the following: (1) females responded in a bioassay to hexane extracts obtained from rectal glands of 15-day-old B. oleae males, (2) the presence of ( Z)-9-tricosene ( 2) was consistently and unambiguously identified in these extracts using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry methods, (3) in preliminary bioactivity tests, low doses (equivalent to a few males) of chemically and stereoisomerically pure synthetic ( Z)-9-tricosene ( 2) attracted olive fruit fly females. Interestingly, compound 2, commonly called muscalure, is also a well-known component of the house fly ( Musca domestica) sex pheromone.

Carpita, Adriano; Canale, Angelo; Raffaelli, Andrea; Saba, Alessandro; Benelli, Giovanni; Raspi, Alfio

2012-01-01

33

The efficacy of kaolin particle film on oil quality indices of olive trees (Olea europaea L.) cv 'Zard' grown under warm and semi-arid region of Iran.  

PubMed

Kaolin particle film (0%, 3% and 6%; w/v), as an antitranspirant treatment, was applied to mature 'Zard' olive trees (Olea europaea L.). Olive oil was extracted from harvested fruit and fatty acid composition and other oil quality indices of the fruit assessed over crop seasons. Kaolin increased chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, but decreased peroxide and iodine values, and UV absorbance extinction coefficients, of the oil. The highest palmitic acid was observed in the oil obtained from untreated trees (17%). Kaolin increased oleic acid up to 65% and 64% in the first and second crop seasons, respectively, but decreased linoleic and linolenic acid contents. Monounsaturated acids (65%) and oleic acid/linoleic acid ratios (4) were higher in oil obtained from kaolin treated than untreated trees. Therefore it can be expected that extracted olive oil from kaolin treated trees has a higher oxidative stability and shelf life than untreated trees. PMID:25053025

Khaleghi, Esmaeil; Arzani, Kazem; Moallemi, Norollah; Barzegar, Mohsen

2015-01-01

34

Quality, stability and radical scavenging activity of olive oils after Chétoui olives (Olea europaea L.) storage under modified atmospheres.  

PubMed

At the industrial scale, the major source of olive oil deterioration is the poor handling of the raw material during the time separating harvesting from processing. The objective of this work was to verify the effect of modified atmospheres and cold storage in relation to quality parameters of the extracted oils. Olives (cv Chétoui) intended for oil extraction, were stored for 21 days at two different temperatures (ambient temperature 14?±?2?°C and 5?°C) and under two different modified atmospheres 21% O? - 0% CO? and 2% O? - 5% CO?. Oils quality was ascertained with analytical parameters: free fatty acids, peroxide value, K???, K??? as suggested by European regulation. Oxidative stability, total phenols content, radical scavenging activity and fatty acids composition were carried out in order to measure the hydrolytic and oxidative degradation of oils. Olive oils quality parameters were significantly affected by treatments with especially a beneficial effect on primary oxidation indicators and free acidity. Most efficient treatments, with regard to oils phenolic content and involved parameters, were 21% O? - 0% CO? at ambient temperature (636.25?mg ca/kg) and 2% O? - 5% CO? under 5?°C (637.50?mg ca/kg). Those two treatments improved individually oil samples phenolic content of 25% but not at the same storage period. PMID:22859649

Ben Yahia, L; Baccouri, B; Ouni, Y; Hamdi, S

2012-08-01

35

Olea Europea-derived phenolic products attenuate antinociceptive morphine tolerance: an innovative strategic approach to treat cancer pain.  

PubMed

Morphine and related opioid drugs are currently the major drugs for severe pain. Their clinical utility is limited in the management of severe cancer pain due to the rapid development of tolerance. Restoring opioid efficacy is therefore of great clinical importance. A great body of evidence suggests the key role of free radicals and posttranslational modulation in the development of tolerance to the analgesic activity of morphine. Epidemiological studies have shown a relationship between the Mediterranean diet and a reduced incidence of pathologies such as coronary heart disease and cancer. A central hallmark of this diet is the high consumption of virgin olive oil as the main source of fat which contains antioxidant components in the non-saponifiable fraction, including phenolic compounds absent in seed oils. Here, we show that in a rodent model of opiate tolerance, removal of the free radicals with phenolic compounds of olive oil such as hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein reinstates the analgesic action of morphine. Chronic injection of morphine in mice led to the development of tolerance and this was associated with increased nitrotyrosin and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation together with nitration and deactivation of MnSOD in the spinal cord. Removal of free radicals by hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein blocked morphine tolerance by inhibiting nitration and MDA formation and replacing the MnSOD activity. The phenolic fraction of virgin olive oil exerts antioxidant activities in vivo and free radicals generation occurring during chronic morphine administration play a crucial role in the development of opioid tolerance. Our data suggest novel therapeutic approach in the management of chronic cancer pain, in particular for those patients who require long-term opioid treatment for pain relief without development of tolerance. PMID:24750796

Muscoli, C; Lauro, F; D'Agostino, C; Ilari, S; Giancotti, L A; Gliozzi, M; Costa, N; Carresi, C; Musolino, V; Casale, F; Ventrice, D; Oliverio, E; Palma, E; Nistico', S; Procopio, A; Mollace, V

2014-01-01

36

Variations in bulk canopy conductance of an irrigated olive ( Olea europaea L.) orchard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of transpiration (Ep) and bulk canopy conductance (Gc) of an irrigated olive orchard during three years are presented here. Transpiration was obtained subtracting the hourly soil evaporation (Es, calculated with a specific model) from the total evapotranspiration of the orchard measured with eddy covariance. Gc was obtained inverting the Penman–Monteith model for the transpiration flux. The orchard Gc showed

Luca Testi; Francisco Orgaz; Francisco J. Villalobos

2006-01-01

37

Behavior of storage lipids during development and germination of olive ( Olea europaea L . ) pollen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.?The presence of abundant oil bodies in the mature olive pollen grain has led us to focus on the behavior of these lipid bodies during pollen development and in vitro pollen germination. The appearance, increase, and accumulation of lipid bodies have been determined by following the sequential development of the pollen grain. Semithin slices of anthers and pollen grains were

M. I. Rodríguez-García; M. M'rani-Alaoui; M. C. Fernández

2003-01-01

38

Variability of Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds in a Segregating Progeny from a Single Cross in Olea europaea L. and Sensory and Nutritional Quality Implications  

PubMed Central

Virgin olive oil phenolic compounds are responsible for its nutritional and sensory quality. The synthesis of phenolic compounds occurs when enzymes and substrates meet as olive fruit is crushed during the industrial process to obtain the oil. The genetic variability of the major phenolic compounds of virgin olive oil was studied in a progeny of the cross of Picual x Arbequina olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.). They belong to four different groups: compounds that included tyrosol or hydroxytyrosol in their molecules, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Data of phenolics in the oils showed that the progeny displayed a large degree of variability, widely transgressing the genitor levels. This high variability can be of interest on breeding programs. Thus, multivariate analysis allowed to identify genotypes within the progeny particularly interesting in terms of phenolic composition and deduced organoleptic and nutritional quality. The present study has demonstrated that it is possible to obtain enough degree of variability with a single cross of olive cultivars for compounds related to the nutritional and organoleptic properties of virgin olive oil. PMID:24651694

Perez, Ana G.; Leon, Lorenzo; Pascual, Mar; Romero-Segura, Carmen; Sanchez-Ortiz, Araceli; de la Rosa, Raul; Sanz, Carlos

2014-01-01

39

Variability of virgin olive oil phenolic compounds in a segregating progeny from a single cross in Olea europaea L. and sensory and nutritional quality implications.  

PubMed

Virgin olive oil phenolic compounds are responsible for its nutritional and sensory quality. The synthesis of phenolic compounds occurs when enzymes and substrates meet as olive fruit is crushed during the industrial process to obtain the oil. The genetic variability of the major phenolic compounds of virgin olive oil was studied in a progeny of the cross of Picual x Arbequina olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.). They belong to four different groups: compounds that included tyrosol or hydroxytyrosol in their molecules, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Data of phenolics in the oils showed that the progeny displayed a large degree of variability, widely transgressing the genitor levels. This high variability can be of interest on breeding programs. Thus, multivariate analysis allowed to identify genotypes within the progeny particularly interesting in terms of phenolic composition and deduced organoleptic and nutritional quality. The present study has demonstrated that it is possible to obtain enough degree of variability with a single cross of olive cultivars for compounds related to the nutritional and organoleptic properties of virgin olive oil. PMID:24651694

Pérez, Ana G; León, Lorenzo; Pascual, Mar; Romero-Segura, Carmen; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; de la Rosa, Raúl; Sanz, Carlos

2014-01-01

40

Characterization of a caleosin expressed during olive (Olea europaea L.) pollen ontogeny  

PubMed Central

Background The olive tree is an oil-storing species, with pollen being the second most active site in storage lipid biosynthesis. Caleosins are proteins involved in storage lipid mobilization during seed germination. Despite the existence of different lipidic structures in the anther, there are no data regarding the presence of caleosins in this organ to date. The purpose of the present work was to characterize a caleosin expressed in the olive anther over different key stages of pollen ontogeny, as a first approach to unravel its biological function in reproduction. Results A 30 kDa caleosin was identified in the anther tissues by Western blot analysis. Using fluorescence and transmission electron microscopic immunolocalization methods, the protein was first localized in the tapetal cells at the free microspore stage. Caleosins were released to the anther locule and further deposited onto the sculptures of the pollen exine. As anthers developed, tapetal cells showed the presence of structures constituted by caleosin-containing lipid droplets closely packed and enclosed by ER-derived cisternae and vesicles. After tapetal cells lost their integrity, the caleosin-containing remnants of the tapetum filled the cavities of the mature pollen exine, forming the pollen coat. In developing microspores, this caleosin was initially detected on the exine sculptures. During pollen maturation, caleosin levels progressively increased in the vegetative cell, concurrently with the number of oil bodies. The olive pollen caleosin was able to bind calcium in vitro. Moreover, PEGylation experiments supported the structural conformation model suggested for caleosins from seed oil bodies. Conclusions In the olive anther, a caleosin is expressed in both the tapetal and germ line cells, with its synthesis independently regulated. The pollen oil body-associated caleosin is synthesized by the vegetative cell, whereas the protein located on the pollen exine and its coating has a sporophytic origin. The biological significance of the caleosin in the reproductive process in species possessing lipid-storing pollen might depend on its subcellular emplacement. The pollen inner caleosin may be involved in OB biogenesis during pollen maturation. The protein located on the outside might rather play a function in pollen-stigma interaction during pollen hydration and germination. PMID:21884593

2011-01-01

41

Identification and localization of a caleosin in olive (Olea europaea L.) pollen during in vitro germination  

PubMed Central

In plant organs and tissues, the neutral storage lipids are confined to discrete spherical organelles called oil bodies. Oil bodies from plant seeds contain 0.6–3% proteins, including oleosins, steroleosins, and caleosins. In this study, a caleosin isoform of ?30?kDa was identified in the olive pollen grain. The protein was mainly located at the boundaries of the oil bodies in the cytoplasm of the pollen grain and the pollen tube. In addition, caleosins were also visualized in the cytoplasm at the subapical zone, as well as in the tonoplast of vacuoles present in the pollen tube cytoplasm. The cellular behaviour of lipid bodies in the olive pollen was also monitored during in vitro germination. The number of oil bodies decreased 20-fold in the pollen grain during germination, whereas the opposite tendency occurred in the pollen tube, suggesting that oil bodies moved from one to the other. The data suggest that this pollen caleosin might have a role in the mobilization of oil bodies as well as in the reorganization of membrane compartments during pollen in vitro germination. PMID:20164143

Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Castro, Antonio J.; de Dios Alche, Juan; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Suarez, Cynthia; Rodriguez-Garcia, Maria Isabel

2010-01-01

42

Secoiridoid type of antiallergic substances in olive waste materials of three Japanese varieties of Olea europaea.  

PubMed

2-Hydroxy-3-ethylidene-5-(methoxycarbonyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran-4-acetic acid 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl ester (3,4-DHPEA-EA) is a kind of secoiridoid first found in three Japanese olive pomaces: Mission, Lucca, and Manzanillo. These varieties showed high activity of 3,4-DHPEA-EA as an antiallergic active substance with IC50 at 33.5 ± 0.6 ?g/mL. Because 3,4-DHPEA-EA was the most abundant among the active substances in the pomaces and the activity of 3,4-DHPEA-EA was greater than that of hydroxytyrosol and elenolic acid, 3,4-DHPEA-EA, which has the ester linkage of hydroxytyrosol and elenolic acid, should be essential for antiallergic activity. Although a trace amount (1.04 mg/kg) of luteolin in the pomace showed the highest antiallergic activity with IC50 at 0.752 ± 0.1 ?g/mL, we concluded that the entire antiallergic effect derives from the abundance of 3,4-DHPEA-EA, especially in the green olive pomace of the Mission variety in October, which showed the highest level of 3,4-DHPEA-EA (5033 ± 118 mg/kg). Therefore, the Mission variety had the most effective antiallergy property. PMID:25029390

Sato, Akihiko; Shinozaki, Noboru; Tamura, Hirotoshi

2014-08-01

43

Ingestion toxicity of three Lamiaceae essential oils incorporated in protein baits against the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera Tephritidae).  

PubMed

The ingestion toxicity of three Lamiaceae essential oils (EOs) - Hyptis suaveolens, Rosmarinus officinalis and Lavandula angustifolia - incorporated in protein baits was evaluated against Bactrocera oleae, a worldwide pest of olive fruits. In laboratory conditions, all the tested EOs showed dose-dependent toxicity on B. oleae, with mortality rates ranging from 12% (EO concentration: 0.01% w:v) to 100% (EO concentration: 1.75% w:v). Semi-field results highlighted the toxicity of L. angustifolia and H. suaveolens EOs, which exerted more than 60% of flies mortality at a concentration of 1.75% (w:v). Gas Chromatography-Electron Impact Mass Spectrometry analyses of the three EOs showed that H. suaveolens EO was dominated by monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the main chemical class in R. officinalis and L. angustifolia EOs. Further research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of these EOs plus food bait against the olive fruit fly in the open field. PMID:23594314

Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni; Conti, Barbara; Lenzi, Gabriele; Flamini, Guido; Francini, Alessandra; Cioni, Pier Luigi

2013-01-01

44

Peroxynitrite mediates programmed cell death both in papillar cells and in self-incompatible pollen in the olive (Olea europaea L.)  

PubMed Central

Programmed cell death (PCD) has been found to be induced after pollination both in papillar cells and in self-incompatible pollen in the olive (Olea europaea L.). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) are known to be produced in the pistil and pollen during pollination but their contribution to PCD has so far remained elusive. The possible role of ROS and NO was investigated in olive pollen–pistil interaction during free and controlled pollination and it was found that bidirectional interaction appears to exist between the pollen and the stigma, which seems to regulate ROS and NO production. Biochemical evidence strongly suggesting that both O2?? and NO are essential for triggering PCD in self-incompatibility processes was also obtained. It was observed for the first time that peroxynitrite, a powerful oxidizing and nitrating agent generated during a rapid reaction between O2?? and NO, is produced during pollination and that this is related to an increase in protein nitration which, in turn, is strongly associated with PCD. It may be concluded that peroxynitrite mediates PCD during pollen–pistil interaction in Olea europaea L. both in self-incompatible pollen and papillar cells. PMID:22140239

Serrano, Irene; Romero-Puertas, Maria C.; Rodriguez-Serrano, Maria; Sandalio, Luisa M.; Olmedilla, Adela

2012-01-01

45

Radical-Scavenging Compounds from Olive Tree (Olea europaea L.) Wood.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to complete knowledge on the chemical composition and radical-scavenging activity of olive tree wood. Two new monoterpene glycosides, (-)-oleuropeic acid 6'-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl ester (6a) and (-)-perillic acid 1'-O-?-d-primeverosyl ester (8), together with the known compounds (-)-oleuropeic acid (1), (-)-olivil (2), the aldehydic form of oleuropein aglycone (3), (+)-1-hydroxypinoresinol 1-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (4), (-)-oleuropeic acid 1'-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl ester (5), (-)-oleuropeic acid 6'-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl ester (6b), and (-)-olivil 4-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (7) were isolated from an ethyl acetate extract. The radical scavengers found (2-4 and 7) were detected and isolated with the help of the online HPLC-DAD-DPPH/ABTS technique. Compounds 2-4 and 7 displayed a higher antioxidative effect against the free radical DPPH than the reference BHT and lower than hydroxytyrosol, whereas compounds 1, 5, 6a, 6b, and 8 showed no activity. PMID:24328093

Pérez-Bonilla, Mercedes; Salido, Sofía; van Beek, Teris A; Altarejos, Joaquín

2014-01-01

46

Control mechanisms operating for lipid biosynthesis differ in oil-palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and olive (Olea europaea L.) callus cultures.  

PubMed Central

As a prelude to detailed flux control analysis of lipid synthesis in plants, we have examined the latter in tissue cultures from two important oil crops, olive (Olea europaea L.) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Temperature was used to manipulate the overall rate of lipid formation in order to characterize and validate the system to be used for analysis. With [1-14C]acetate as a precursor, an increase in temperature from 20 to 30 degrees C produced nearly a doubling of total lipid labelling. This increase in total lipids did not change the radioactivity in the intermediate acyl-(acyl carrier protein) or acyl-CoA pools, indicating that metabolism of these pools did not exert any significant constraint for overall synthesis. In contrast, there were some differences in the proportional labelling of fatty acids and of lipid classes at the two temperatures. The higher temperature caused a decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acid labelling and an increase in the proportion of triacylglycerol labelling in both calli. The intermediate diacylglycerol was increased in olive, but not in oil palm. Overall the data indicate the suitability of olive and oil-palm cultures for the study of lipid synthesis and indicate that de novo fatty acid synthesis may exert more flux control than complex lipid assembly. In olive, diacylglycerol acyltransferase may exert significant flux control when lipid synthesis is rapid. PMID:12023881

Ramli, Umi S; Baker, Darren S; Quant, Patti A; Harwood, John L

2002-01-01

47

Molecular Characterization and Chromosomal Distribution of a Species-Specific Transcribed Centromeric Satellite Repeat from the Olive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera oleae  

PubMed Central

Satellite repetitive sequences that accumulate in the heterochromatin consist a large fraction of a genome and due to their properties are suggested to be implicated in centromere function. Current knowledge of heterochromatic regions of Bactrocera oleae genome, the major pest of the olive tree, is practically nonexistent. In our effort to explore the repetitive DNA portion of B. oleae genome, a novel satellite sequence designated BoR300 was isolated and cloned. The present study describes the genomic organization, abundance and chromosomal distribution of BoR300 which is organized in tandem, forming arrays of 298 bp-long monomers. Sequence analysis showed an AT content of 60.4%, a CENP-B like-motif and a high curvature value based on predictive models. Comparative analysis among randomly selected monomers demonstrated a high degree of sequence homogeneity (88% – 97%) of BoR300 repeats, which are present at approximately 3,000 copies per haploid genome accounting for about 0.28% of the total genomic DNA, based on two independent qPCR approaches. In addition, expression of the repeat was also confirmed through RT-PCR, by which BoR300 transcripts were detected in both sexes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of BoR300 on mitotic metaphases and polytene chromosomes revealed signals to the centromeres of two out of the six chromosomes which indicated a chromosome-specific centromeric localization. Moreover, BoR300 is not conserved in the closely related Bactrocera species tested and it is also absent in other dipterans, but it’s rather restricted to the B. oleae genome. This feature of species-specificity attributed to BoR300 satellite makes it a good candidate as an identification probe of the insect among its relatives at early development stages. PMID:24244494

Tsoumani, Konstantina T.; Drosopoulou, Elena; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D.

2013-01-01

48

Colonization of olive trees (Olea europaea L.) with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus sp. modified the glycolipids biosynthesis and resulted in accumulation of unsaturated fatty acids.  

PubMed

The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi colonization on photosynthesis, mineral nutrition, the amount of phospholipids and glycolipids in the leaves of olive (Olea europaea L.) trees was investigated. After six months of growth, the rate of photosynthesis, carboxylation efficiency, transpiration and stomatal conductance in mycorrhizal (M) plants was significantly higher than that of non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants. The inoculation treatment increased the foliar P and Mg but not N. The amount of glycolipids in the leaves of M plants was significantly higher than that of NM plants. However, the amount of phospholipids in the leaves of M plants was not significantly different to that in the leaves of NM plants. Also, we observed a significant increase in the level of ?-linolenic acid (C18:3?3) in glycolipids of M plants. This work supports the view that increased glycolipids level in the leaves of M plants could be involved, at least in part, in the beneficial effects of mycorrhizal colonization on photosynthesis performance of olive trees. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the effect of AM fungi on the amount of glycolipids in the leaves of mycorrhizal plants. PMID:25014256

Mechri, Beligh; Attia, Faouzi; Tekaya, Meriem; Cheheb, Hechmi; Hammami, Mohamed

2014-09-01

49

Effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) or Olea europaea (olive) leaves on oxidative stability of rabbit meat fortified with n-3 fatty acids.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) or Olea europaea (olive tree) leaves on oxidative stability of rabbit meat fortified with n-3 fatty acids. Forty-eight slovenska kunka (SIKA) rabbits were divided into four homogeneous groups. The control group (CONT-) received diet with 6% palm fat; other groups received diet with 6% linseed oil and were either unsupplemented (CONT+) or supplemented with 1% of G. lucidum (REISHI) or O. europaea leaves (OLIVE). Rabbits were slaughtered and fatty acid composition, concentration of vitamin E and malondialdehyde (MDA) in back muscle were analyzed. The results showed that linseed oil addition improved fatty acid composition by increasing polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) proportion, decreasing proportion of saturated fatty acid (SFA) and reducing n-6/n-3 ratio in rabbit meat. Groups that were supplemented with linseed oil had lower content of ?-tocopherol and higher content of ?-tocopherol, compared to the CONT- group. The addition of potential antioxidants did not effectively prevent oxidation of rabbit meat. PMID:24334050

Trebušak, Tina; Levart, Alenka; Salobir, Janez; Pirman, Tatjana

2014-03-01

50

13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the different components of epicuticular waxes of olive fruit (Olea europaea) Dritta cultivar.  

PubMed

(13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) was applied to determine the different components of apolar and polar fractions which were isolated by column chromatography from the crude chloroform-soluble waxes of olive fruits (Olea europaea) Dritta cultivar. (13)C NMR enabled the determination in the wax apolar fraction, of aliphatic aldehydes, and of benzyl, alkyl and glyceryl esters. In particular, the fatty acid composition of alkyl esters, comprising saturated and unsaturated oleic and linoleic acids, was determined. Acyl chain composition and the chain composition of 1,3- and 2-glycerol positions were also determined for triacylglycerols of olive fruit waxes. Oleanolic and maslinic acids were confirmed to be the major components of wax polar fraction. Complete assignments of (13)C NMR chemical shifts of oleanolic and maslinic acids as a mixture were achieved by using homonuclear correlation spectroscopy with gradient (g-COSY), attached proton test (APT), inverse-detected heteronuclear single-quantum coherence with gradient (g-HSQC), high-resolution heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy (HETCOR) for C-H directly attached pairs and C-H long-range-coupled experiments. PMID:18706324

Vlahov, Giovanna; Rinaldi, Giuseppe; Del Re, Paolo; Giuliani, Angela Alessia

2008-08-29

51

Validation of reference genes for gene expression analysis in olive (Olea europaea) mesocarp tissue by quantitative real-time RT-PCR  

PubMed Central

Background Gene expression analysis using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a robust method wherein the expression levels of target genes are normalised using internal control genes, known as reference genes, to derive changes in gene expression levels. Although reference genes have recently been suggested for olive tissues, combined/independent analysis on different cultivars has not yet been tested. Therefore, an assessment of reference genes was required to validate the recent findings and select stably expressed genes across different olive cultivars. Results A total of eight candidate reference genes [glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), serine/threonine-protein phosphatase catalytic subunit (PP2A), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1-alpha), polyubiquitin (OUB2), aquaporin tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP2), tubulin alpha (TUBA), 60S ribosomal protein L18-3 (60S RBP L18-3) and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein homolog 3 (PTB)] were chosen based on their stability in olive tissues as well as in other plants. Expression stability was examined by qRT-PCR across 12 biological samples, representing mesocarp tissues at various developmental stages in three different olive cultivars, Barnea, Frantoio and Picual, independently and together during the 2009 season with two software programs, GeNorm and BestKeeper. Both software packages identified GAPDH, EF1-alpha and PP2A as the three most stable reference genes across the three cultivars and in the cultivar, Barnea. GAPDH, EF1-alpha and 60S RBP L18-3 were found to be most stable reference genes in the cultivar Frantoio while 60S RBP L18-3, OUB2 and PP2A were found to be most stable reference genes in the cultivar Picual. Conclusions The analyses of expression stability of reference genes using qRT-PCR revealed that GAPDH, EF1-alpha, PP2A, 60S RBP L18-3 and OUB2 are suitable reference genes for expression analysis in developing Olea europaea mesocarp tissues, displaying the highest level of expression stability across three different olive cultivars, Barnea, Frantoio and Picual, however the combination of the three most stable reference genes do vary amongst individual cultivars. This study will provide guidance to other researchers to select reference genes for normalization against target genes by qPCR across tissues obtained from the mesocarp region of the olive fruit in the cultivars, Barnea, Frantoio and Picual. PMID:24884716

2014-01-01

52

Olive (Olea europaea L.) plant reactions to atmospheric pollutants and UV-B radiation: current state of the research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human activities have increased the number of environmental constraints for olive plants. Water, soil and air pollution are rapidly becoming important environmental concerns for plant growth and producti- vity. In addition to pollution problems, modifications in gaseous composition of the atmosphere, as well as terr e- strial solar radiation changes associated with pollution, are the new factors studied by olive

L. Sebastiani; A. Minnocci; R. Tognetti

53

Recovery and stability of oleuropein and other phenolic compounds during extraction and processing of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenols in olive leaves, especially oleuropein, are of great interest to researchers, household consumers and commercial entities due to many health benefits of these compounds. Various processing and extraction methods were investigated to evaluate stability and recovery of oleuropein and other polyphenols from olive leaves. Brief thawing of frozen leaf samples (5 minutes) caused a sharp reduction in extractable oleuropein

Nasir S. A. Malik; Joe M. Bradford

54

Characterization of two alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) loci from the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) oleae and implications for Adh duplication in dipteran insects.  

PubMed

We report the cloning and structural characterization of two Adh loci of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae. Each of the two genes, named Adh1 and Adh2, consists of three exons and two introns for a total length of 1981 and 988 nucleotides, respectively. Their deduced amino acid sequences of 257 and 258 residues exhibit a 77% identity and display the characteristics of the insect ADH enzymes, which belong to the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases family. The Adh genes of B. oleae are compared to the two genes of the Mediterranean fly, Ceratitis capitata, the only other species of the Tephritidae family in which the Adh genes have been studied. On the basis of amino acid divergence the four genes form two clusters each containing one gene from each species, as expected if there was one duplication event before speciation. On the basis of nucleotide sequence the four sequences form two clusters each containing the two sequences from the same species, as expected if there was a separate duplication event in each species. To help decide between the two alternatives, we compared at both the amino acid and DNA level the Adh genes of five Drosophila species that are known to carry two such genes and observed that, with only one exception at the amino acid level, conspecific loci cluster together. We conclude that the information we have at present does not allow a firm choice between the hypothesis of a single duplication event that occurred before the split of Bactrocera and Ceratitis from their common ancestor and the hypothesis of two independent duplication events, one in each of the two genera. PMID:11139292

Goulielmos, G N; Cosmidis, N; Loukas, M; Tsakas, S; Zouros, E

2001-01-01

55

Olive Fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera, Tephritidae) Activity and Fruit Infestation Under Mass Trapping in an Organic Table Olive Orchard in Crete, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive fly activity in a commercial organic table olive orchard was monitored for 80 weeks using McPhail traps for two successive years, a fruiting and a non-fruiting year. Mass traps were employed from the end of May to limit fruit damage. In the fruiting year fly activity increased steadily with a peak in June-July but there was very little activity

N. G. Volakakis; M. D. Eyre; E. M. Kabourakis

2012-01-01

56

Effect of Tea (Camellia sinensis) and Olive (Olea europaea L.) Leaves Extracts on Male Mice Exposed to Diazinon  

PubMed Central

The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination in male mice intoxicated with a sublethal concentration of diazinon. Exposure of mice to 6.5?mg/kg body weight of diazinon for seven weeks resulted in statistical increases of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, while the value of serum total protein was declined. Treating diazinon-intoxicated mice with tea and olive leaves extracts or their combination significantly attenuated the severe alterations in these hematobiochemical parameters. Moreover, the results indicated that the supplementation with combination of tea and olive leaves extracts led to more attenuation effect against diazinon toxicity. Additionally, these new findings suggest that the effect of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination against toxicity of diazinon may be due to antioxidant properties of their chemical constituents. Finally, the present study indicated that the extracts of tea and olive leaves and their combination can be considered as promising therapeutic agents against hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and metabolic disorders induced by diazinon and maybe by other toxicants and pathogenic factors. PMID:23691503

Al-Attar, Atef M.; Abu Zeid, Isam M.

2013-01-01

57

Antithrombotic effect of repeated doses of the ethanolic extract of local olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves in rabbits  

PubMed Central

The incidence of thromboembolic diseases is increasing, and they are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Mediterranean diet is known for its high content of olive products, especially olive oil, which has known cardiovascular health benefits, including those on blood pressure, cholesterol level, and thrombogenesis. All previous animal and clinical studies investigating the beneficial antithrombotic effects of olives have focused on olive oil and a few on olive leaves (OLEs). In this study, the ethanolic extract of OLE was evaluated for its antithrombotic activity in the rabbit model of thrombosis induced by ligature of the vena cava and intravenous administration of tissue thromboplastin. Pre-treatment with 100 or 200 mg/kg per day of the ethanolic extract for 8 weeks significantly prolonged the prothrombin time (PT) in comparison to the control group (12.10±0.35 sec and 14.38±0.29 sec vs. 10.8±0.32 sec, p<0.05 and 0.001, respectively). In comparison to the control group, the same doses had no statistically significant effect on thrombus weight (16.85±0.67 mg, 16.32±0.35 mg, and 17.81±0.75 mg; p=0.18 and 0.06) or on activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) (19.17±0.33 sec, 19.12±0.73 sec, and 18.97±0.41 sec; p=0.36 and 0.43, respectively). One important finding in this study concerns thrombus morphology. In the extract treatment groups, the thrombus was filament-like and did not adhere to blood vessel walls, whereas in the control group the thrombus was thick and almost completely occluded the vein. Therefore, these results suggest that OLE ethanolic extract can modify the extrinsic coagulation pathway as evidenced by the prolongation of PT and changes in thrombus morphology, enough to justify further research to evaluate its possible antithrombotic effects. PMID:23702352

Dub, Abdallah M.; Dugani, Aisha M.

2013-01-01

58

Fate of a Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi Type III Secretion System Mutant in Olive Plants (Olea europaea L.)?†  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi strain NCPPB 3335 is a model bacterial pathogen for studying the molecular basis of disease production in woody hosts. We report the sequencing of the hrpS-to-hrpZ region of NCPPB 3335, which has allowed us to determine the phylogenetic position of this pathogen with respect to previously sequenced Pseudomonas syringae hrp clusters. In addition, we constructed a mutant of NCPPB 3335, termed T3, which carries a deletion from the 3? end of the hrpS gene to the 5? end of the hrpZ operon. Despite its inability to multiply in olive tissues and to induce tumor formation in woody olive plants, P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi T3 can induce knot formation on young micropropagated olive plants. However, the necrosis and formation of internal open cavities previously reported in knots induced by the wild-type strain were not observed in those induced by P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi T3. Tagging of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi T3 with green fluorescent protein (GFP) allowed real-time monitoring of its behavior on olive plants. In olive plant tissues, the wild-type strain formed aggregates that colonized the intercellular spaces and internal cavities of the hypertrophic knots, while the mutant T3 strain showed a disorganized distribution within the parenchyma of the knot. Ultrastructural analysis of knot sections revealed the release of extensive outer membrane vesicles from the bacterial cell surface of the P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi T3 mutant, while the wild-type strain exhibited very few vesicles. This phenomenon has not been described before for any other bacterial phytopathogen during host infection. PMID:20363790

Perez-Martinez, Isabel; Rodriguez-Moreno, Luis; Lambertsen, Lotte; Matas, Isabel M.; Murillo, Jesus; Tegli, Stefania; Jimenez, Antonio J.; Ramos, Cayo

2010-01-01

59

Effect of agronomical practices on carpology, fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties, in olive (Olea europaea L.).  

PubMed

We examined whether some agronomical practices (i.e. organic vs. conventional) affect olive fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties. Fruit characteristics (i.e. fresh and dry weight of pulp and pit, oil content on a fresh and dry weight basis) did not differ. Oil chemical traits did not differ except for increased content of polyphenols in the organic treatments, and some changes in the acidic composition. Sensory analysis revealed increased bitterness (both cultivars) and pungency (Frantoio) and decreased sweetness (Frantoio) in the organic treatment. Fruit metabolomic analysis with HRMAS-NMR indicated significant changes in some compounds including glycocholate, fatty acids, NADPH, NADP+, some amino acids, thymidine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid, 5,6-dihydrouracil, hesanal, cis-olefin, ?-D-glucose, propanal and some unassigned species. The results suggest that agronomical practices may have effects on fruit composition that may be difficult to detect unless a broad-spectrum analysis is used. PMID:24767050

Rosati, Adolfo; Cafiero, Caterina; Paoletti, Andrea; Alfei, Barbara; Caporali, Silvia; Casciani, Lorena; Valentini, Massimiliano

2014-09-15

60

Sensibilización a Olea europaea en un grupo de pacientes de la Ciudad de México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Olea europaea (olive) which is original from Europe, was introduced to Mexico by the Spaniards in the 16 th century. In 1777 olive farming was prohibited, and plantations were destroyed. At present there are only few trees in Southern Mexico City. The aim of this study is to investigate sensitization to Olea europaea, clinical features, IgE levels, and concurrent

Blanca María; Morfin Maciel; Blanca María Castillo Morfín; Mercedes Barragán M

61

Separation and identification of phenolic compounds of extra virgin olive oil from Olea europaea L. by HPLC-DAD-SPE-NMR/MS. Identification of a new diastereoisomer of the aldehydic form of oleuropein aglycone.  

PubMed

The phenolic fraction of a monovarietal extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) from Olea europaea L. var. Cornezuelo was studied by the hyphenated HPLC-DAD-SPE-NMR/MS techniques. This survey led to the identification of 25 main compounds. One was identified as a new diastereoisomer of the aldehydic form of oleuropein aglycone (AOA) and characterized by 1D and 2D NMR techniques. The relative configuration of this new AOA was determined as 5R*,8S*,9S* on the basis of the results obtained from the combination of NOE experiments and Monte Carlo conformational search calculations. Assuming, as for the described diastereoisomers, that the new AOA comes from the natural oleuropein aglycone (OA), the absolute configuration was proposed as 5S,8R,9R. PMID:23654238

Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Parella, Teodor

2010-08-25

62

Effect of bruising on respiration, superficial color, and phenolic changes in fresh Manzanilla olives (Olea europaea pomiformis): development of treatments to mitigate browning.  

PubMed

The aim of the work was to study the postharvest changes in Manzanilla olives and to find treatments to mitigate damages because of bruises. The phenolic content in bruised and unbruised fruits exposed to air always decreased, but the loss in phenols and the respiratory activity were greater in bruised olives; these changes were related to the appearance of brown spots. Immersion of the picked fruits in a cold (8 °C) acidic solution (pH 3), ascorbic acid solution (100 mM), or sodium metabisulfite solution (100 mM) significantly reduced the loss in phenols in olives and led to lighter brown bruised areas. This immersion did not affect the behavior of the fruits during the lye treatment and the subsequent fermentation. In the final product, no influence on the surface color of unbruised olives was observed and there was a significant color improvement in the bruised areas of damaged olives. PMID:21469652

Segovia-Bravo, Kharla A; García-García, Pedro; López-López, Antonio; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio

2011-05-25

63

Effects of alkali neutralization with CO 2 on fermentation, chemical parameters and sensory characteristics in Spanish-style green olives ( Olea europaea L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aimed to study CO2 use as alkali neutralizing agent instead of the traditional washings with water, in Spanish-style green olives. Titratable acidity, pH, sugars and microbial populations were monitored during processing. CO2 treatment was effective in reducing water-soluble carbohydrate loss from the olives during washing step and affected combined acidity and lactic acid fermentation. The final pH of

Vincenzo Marsilio; Francesca Russi; Emilia Iannucci; Nadia Sabatini

2008-01-01

64

Microbial communities associated with the root system of wild olives ( Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris ) are good reservoirs of bacteria with antagonistic potential against Verticillium dahliae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild olive trees, namely oleaster, are considered the ancestor of cultivated olive and a unexplored source of genetic variability\\u000a that might contain important traits of agronomic and biotechnological interest. The longevity and genetic diversity of oleasters\\u000a may have favoured selection of specific and well adapted rhizosphere microbial populations that can constitute unique reservoirs\\u000a of microbial antagonists of Verticillium dahliae, the

Sergio Aranda; Miguel Montes-Borrego; Rafael M. Jiménez-Díaz; Blanca B. Landa

2011-01-01

65

The effect of a hydro-alcoholic extract of olive fruit on reproductive argons in male sprague-dawley rat  

PubMed Central

Background: Olive (Olea europea), from the Oleaceae family, is known as a phytoestrogen plant compound, containing Lignans and phenoliccompounds. Some studies have shown phytoestrogens to have spermatogenesis-decreasing effects. Objective: The present study investigated the effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of olive fruit on reproductive argons in male rats. Materials and Methods: The hydro-alcoholic olive (Olea europaea) extract was given orally to three experimental groups of rats in 50, 150, and 450 mg/kg in 48 days. The vehicle group was fed with normal saline and nothing was given to the control group (each group with 8 rats). After 49 days reproductive indicators i.e., sperm count, sperm motility, the weight of prostate, testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle were measured. Results: The results showed a significant decrease in the weights of the left testicle, seminal vesicle, testosterone hormone, sperm count and sperm motility but there was no significant difference with regard to the weights of prostate and epididymis, and estradiol hormone. Conclusion: This study suggests that olive extract may have deleterious effects on fertility factors; therefore, after further studies, it may be used as a contraceptive in males. PMID:24639759

Najafizadeh, Parvaneh; Dehghani, Farzaneh; Panjeh Shahin, Mohammadreza; Hamzei Taj, Sommaye

2013-01-01

66

Phenological models to predict the main flowering phases of olive (Olea europaea L.) along a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient across the Mediterranean region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the present study was to develop pheno-meteorological models to explain and forecast the main olive flowering phenological phases within the Mediterranean basin, across a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient that includes Tunisia, Spain, and Italy. To analyze the aerobiological sampling points, study periods from 13 years (1999-2011) to 19 years (1993-2011) were used. The forecasting models were constructed using partial least-squares regression, considering both the flowering start and full-flowering dates as dependent variables. The percentages of variance explained by the full-flowering models (mean 84 %) were greater than those explained by the flowering start models (mean 77 %). Moreover, given the time lag from the North African areas to the central Mediterranean areas in the main olive flowering dates, the regional full-flowering predictive models are proposed as the most useful to improve the knowledge of the influence of climate on the olive tree floral phenology. The meteorological parameters related to the previous autumn and both the winter and the spring seasons, and above all the temperatures, regulate the reproductive phenology of olive trees in the Mediterranean area. The mean anticipation of flowering start and full flowering for the future period from 2081 to 2100 was estimated at 10 and 12 days, respectively. One question can be raised: Will the olive trees located in the warmest areas be northward displaced or will they be able to adapt their physiology in response to the higher temperatures? The present study can be considered as an approach to design more detailed future bioclimate research.

Aguilera, Fátima; Fornaciari, Marco; Ruiz-Valenzuela, Luis; Galán, Carmen; Msallem, Monji; Dhiab, Ali Ben; la Guardia, Consuelo Díaz-de; del Mar Trigo, María; Bonofiglio, Tommaso; Orlandi, Fabio

2014-07-01

67

Chryseobacterium oleae sp. nov., an efficient plant growth promoting bacterium in the rooting induction of olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cuttings and emended descriptions of the genus Chryseobacterium, C. daecheongense, C. gambrini, C. gleum, C. joostei, C. jejuense, C. luteum, C. shigense, C. taiwanense, C. ureilyticum and C. vrystaatense.  

PubMed

A novel non-motile, Gram-staining-negative, yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated CT348(T), isolated from the ectorhizosphere of an organic olive tree in Spain and characterised as an efficient plant growth promoting bacterium, was investigated to determine its taxonomic status. The isolate grew best in a temperature range of 5-35°C, at pH 5.0-8.0 and with 0-1% (w/v) NaCl. Chemotaxonomic and molecular characteristics of the isolate matched those described for members of the genus Chryseobacterium. The DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 38.2mol%. The strain contained a polyamine pattern with sym-homospermidine as the major compound and produced flexirubin-type pigments. MK-6 was the dominant menaquinone and the major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, C17:1?9c, iso-C17:0 3-OH and iso-C15:0 2-OH. The main polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and several unidentified lipids and aminolipids. The 16S rRNA gene showed 92.2-97.8% sequence identity with the members of the genus Chyseobacterium. Based on the phenotypic traits and DNA-DNA hybridizations with the type strains of the most closely related species, the isolate is shown to represent a novel species, Chyseobacterium oleae, type strain CT348(T) (=DSM 25575 =CCUG 63020). Emended descriptions of the genus Chryseobacterium and C. daecheongense, C. gambrini, C. gleum, C. joostei, C. jejuense, C. luteum, C. shigense, C. taiwanense, C. ureilyticum and C. vrystaatense are also proposed. PMID:24867808

Montero-Calasanz, Maria del Carmen; Göker, Markus; Rohde, Manfred; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Schmid, Michael; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Tindall, Brian J; Camacho, Maria

2014-07-01

68

[Olive pollinosis in Japan].  

PubMed

Olive (Olea europaes) is the most important allergic tree in the Mediterranean area. That is widely distributed at Syodoshima in Japan. I observed olive pollination period and studied the patients with pollinosis. The patients were examined by skin test, measuring of specific IgE antibody and nasal provocation test with olive pollen extract. Allergic responses to olive pollen were found to be present in 16.3% of pollinosis patients. And cross-reactivity between olive and grass pollen (Dactylis glomerata) was suggested. Other literature reported the cross reactivity between the pollens of the Oleaceae family, containing olive, and grass family. From our study we suppose that Oleaceae pollens cause allergic reaction of Gramineae pollinosis patients in Japan. PMID:8857110

Miyahara, S

1995-11-01

69

Modeling Olive Crop Yield in Andalusia, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Andalusia (southern Spain) is the largest olive (Olea europaea L.) oil producing region in the world. Th is study sought to identify the main factors infl uencing olive fruit production in this region, by modeling pollen release as an index of fl owering intensity, fi eld fl oral phenology data, and meteorological data over the fruiting season in three main

C. Galán; H. García-Mozo; L. Vázquez; L. Ruiz; C. Díaz de la Guardia; E. Domínguez-Vilches

2008-01-01

70

Biological effects of the olive polyphenol, hydroxytyrosol: An extra view from genome-wide transcriptome analysis.  

PubMed

Epidemiological and clinical studies have established the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet, an important component of which are olives and olive oil derived from the olive tree (Olea Europea). It is now well-established that not only the major fatty acid constituents, but also the minor phenolic components, in olives and olive oil have important health benefits. Emerging research over the past decade has highlighted the beneficial effects of a range of phenolic compounds from olives and olive oil, particularly for cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome and inflammatory conditions. Mechanisms of action include potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Further, accumulating evidence indicates the potential of the polyphenols and potent antioxidants, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein in oncology. Numerous studies, both in vitro and in vivo, have demonstrated the anticancer effects of hydroxytyrosol which include chemopreventive and cell-specific cytotoxic and apoptotic effects. Indeed, the precise molecular mechanisms accounting for the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties are now becoming clear and this is, at least in part, due to high through-put gene transcription profiling. Initially, we constructed phylogenetic trees to visualize the evolutionary relationship of members of the Oleaceae family and secondly, between plants producing hydroxytyrosol to make inferences of potential similarities or differences in their medicinal properties and to identify novel plant candidates for the treatment and prevention of disease. Furthermore, given the recent interest in hydroxytyrosol as a potential anticancer agent and chemopreventative we utilized transcriptome analysis in the erythroleukemic cell line K562, to investigate the effects of hydroxytyrosol on three gene pathways: the complement system, The Warburg effect and chromatin remodeling to ascertain relevant gene candidates in the prevention of cancer. PMID:24392471

Nan, Jia Nancy; Ververis, Katherine; Bollu, Sameera; Rodd, Annabelle L; Swarup, Oshi; Karagiannis, Tom C

2014-01-01

71

The effects of olives harvest period and production year on olive mill wastewater properties - evaluation of Pleurotus strains as bioindicators of the effluent's toxicity.  

PubMed

Olive mill wastewater (OMW) generated during the oil extraction from Olea europea L. var. koroneiki olives was sampled at the beginning, the middle and the end of the harvesting season for three successive crop production years, and from four olive mills. OMW samples were examined in respect to their physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid composition of the lipid fraction, and adverse effects on biomass production of nine white-rot fungi of the basidiomycetous genus Pleurotus. Total N, nitrogen species, potassium and phosphate concentrations as well as total phenolics content of OMW samples were influenced by the crop year but not from the harvest period (albeit higher values for nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and potassium as well as total phenolics contents were obtained during ripening of olives), whereas protein concentration, total organic carbon and total solids were not significantly affected by the crop year or the harvest period. In addition, fatty acids composition, i.e. nC14:0, nC16:1?9cis, nC17:1?10cis, nC18:0, nC18:1?9cis, nC22:0 and nC24:0 varied significantly during different crop years and harvest periods. Olive fruits maturity and biannual alternate-bearing appear to play key-roles in the fatty acid variation detected in OMW samples. OMW toxicity as evaluated by the mycelium growth of Pleurotus strains was influenced significantly by the phenolic content of OMW samples obtained during three successive crop years; in contrast, the olives harvest period did not affect Pleurotus biomass production. Hence, experimental data indicated that selected Pleurotus strains could serve as bioindicators of OMW toxicity. Development of viable OMW detoxification processes as well as the exploitation of the effluent's fertilizing value are discussed in the light of the above findings. PMID:23399310

Ntougias, Spyridon; Gaitis, Fragiskos; Katsaris, Panagiotis; Skoulika, Stavroula; Iliopoulos, Nikiforos; Zervakis, Georgios I

2013-07-01

72

Antihyperglycemic activity of a TGR5 agonist isolated from Olea europaea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive tree (Olea europeaea) leaves are well known for their effect on metabolism in particular as a traditional anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive herbal drug. These properties are until now only attributed to oleuropein, the major secoiridoid of olive leaves. Here we describe the isolation and the identification of another constituent implicated in the anti-diabetic effect of this plant, i.e. oleanolic acid.

Hiroyuki Sato; Cédric Genet; Axelle Strehle; Charles Thomas; Annelise Lobstein; Alain Wagner; Charles Mioskowski; Johan Auwerx; Régis Saladin

2007-01-01

73

Comparative evaluation of two olive fruit fly parasitoids under varying abiotic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psyttalia lounsburyi (Silvestri) and P. humilis (Silvestri) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were evaluated in California for their potential to control the invasive olive fruit\\u000a fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Psyttalia lounsburyi is a specialist on B. oleae while P. humilis also attacks other tephritid species. Field cage trials, conducted from 2006 to 2009, were used to compare P. lounsburyi and two

Xin-geng WangMarshall; Marshall W. Johnson; Victoria Y. Yokoyama; Charles H. Pickett; Kent M. Daane

2011-01-01

74

Identification of potential sources of airborne Olea pollen in the Southwest Iberian Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to determine the potential origin of Olea pollen recorded in Badajoz in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula during 2009-2011. This was achieved using a combination of daily average and diurnal (hourly) airborne Olea pollen counts recorded at Badajoz (southwestern Spain) and Évora (southeastern Portugal), an inventory of olive groves in the studied area and air mass trajectory calculations computed using the HYSPLIT model. Examining olive pollen episodes at Badajoz that had distinctly different diurnal cycles in olive pollen in relation to the mean, allowed us to identify three different scenarios where olive pollen can be transported to the city from either distant or nearby sources. Back trajectory analysis showed that olive pollen can be transported to Badajoz from the West on prevailing winds, either directly or on slow moving air masses, and from high densities of olive groves situated to the Southeast (e.g. Andalucía). Regional scale transport of olive pollen can result in increased nighttime concentrations of this important aeroallergen. This could be particularly important in Mediterranean countries where people can be outdoors during this time due to climate and lifestyle. Such studies are valuable for allergy sufferers and health care professionals because the information can be incorporated into forecasts, the outputs of which are used for avoiding exposure to aeroallergens and planning medication. The results of studies of this nature can also be used for examining gene flow in this important agricultural crop.

Fernández-Rodríguez, S.; Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Tormo-Molina, R.; Brandao, R.; Caeiro, E.; Silva-Palacios, I.; Gonzalo-Garijo, Á.; Smith, M.

2012-04-01

75

Cloning and expression of the panallergen profilin and the major allergen (Ole e 1) from olive tree pollen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Olive tree (Olea europaea) pollen allergy is one of the main causes of allergy in Mediterranean countries and some areas of North America. Objective: To clone olive allergens and to characterize immunologically the purified recombinant allergens. Methods: Full-length complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) strands encoding olive allergens (Ole e 1) were cloned by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequenced. Recombinant

Juan A. Asturias; M. Carmen Arilla; Nuria Gómez-Bayón; Jorge Martínez; Alberto Martínez; Ricardo Palacios

1997-01-01

76

In vitro antifungal and anti-elastase activity of some aliphatic aldehydes from Olea europaea L. fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olea europaea preparations are traditionally employed in a variety of troubles, including skin infections. Olive extracts and some of their pure compounds have shown antimicrobial activity in vitro. The present study deals with the antifungal activity of some aliphatic aldehydes from olive fruit [hexanal, nonanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-heptenal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal] against Tricophyton mentagrophytes (6 strains), Microsporum canis (1 strains) and Candida

L. Battinelli; C. Daniele; M. Cristiani; G. Bisignano; A. Saija; G. Mazzanti

2006-01-01

77

Oleuropein in Olive and its Pharmacological Effects  

PubMed Central

Olive from Olea europaea is native to the Mediterranean region and, both the oil and the fruit are some of the main components of the Mediterranean diet. The main active constituents of olive oil include oleic acid, phenolic constituents, and squalene. The main phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, give extra-virgin olive oil its bitter, pungent taste. The present review focuses on recent works that have analyzed the relationship between the major phenolic compound oleuropein and its pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-cancer activities, antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effect. PMID:21179340

Omar, Syed Haris

2010-01-01

78

Temperature Effects on Olive Fruit Fly Infestation in the FlySim Cellular Automata Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.

Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore

79

Assessing Genetic Diversity in Olea europaea L. Using ISSR and SSR Markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olea europaea L. is one of the most economically important crops in the Mediterranean area, and known for having large genetic variability.\\u000a In order to assess the genetic diversity, DNA from 41 olive cultivars, present in the protected denomination of origin (PDO)\\u000a region of Trás-os-Montes, was screened using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and microsatellite (SSR) markers. Eleven\\u000a ISSR primers

Sónia Gomes; Paula Martins-Lopes; João Lopes; Henrique Guedes-Pinto

2009-01-01

80

Transpiration and root water uptake by olive trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the cultivated olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is known to be sclerophyllous and effective at tolerating drought, little is known of its short-term water-use dynamics for most studies have been based on longer-term, water-balance information. We present here, for the first time, heat-pulse measurements of the sap flux measured not only within the semi-trunk of an olive tree, but

Félix Moreno; J. Enrique Fernández; Brent E. Clothier; Steven R. Green

1996-01-01

81

Application of olive mill wastewater to a Cretan olive orchard: Effects on soil properties, plant performance and the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of fresh olive mill wastewater (OMW) to the soil surface of an olive (Olea europaea, L.) orchard was studied as a low cost alternative method for the disposal of this waste. OMW were applied to a Cretan orchard with 20-year-old trees (cv. ‘Kalamata’) during winter time for 3 consecutive years, at a maximum annual rate of 420m3ha?1. The

K. Chartzoulakis; G. Psarras; M. Moutsopoulou; E. Stefanoudaki

2010-01-01

82

Olive flowering as an indicator of local climatic changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years many studies on climate change and its impacts have been published. In this investigation the flowering of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) in central Italy was related to climate and its usefulness as a bio-indicator for climatic change has been studied.

Orlandi, F.; Ruga, L.; Romano, B.; Fornaciari, M.

2005-07-01

83

Modelling and measurement of radiation interception by olive canopies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the formulation, calibration and validation of a model to estimate photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) intercepted by olive (Olea europaea L.) canopies. The model calculates the PAR transmittance at any point located within the four central trees of the orchard. The spatial and time integration of this process allows calculation of PAR transmitted to the ground and, thus, the

M. J. Mariscal; F. Orgaz; F. J. Villalobos

2000-01-01

84

Long-term effectiveness of vivianite in reducing iron chlorosis in olive trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron (Fe) chlorosis is common in olive (Olea europaea L.) trees growing on highly calcareous soils in Southern Spain, where generally causes reduction in yield, size and commercial value of the olives. The objective of this research was to study the effectiveness of synthetic vivianite (Fe3(PO4)2cH2O) to reduce Fe chlorosis in olive. Experiments were established in three orchards with cultivars

R. Rosado; M. C. del Campillo; M. A. Martínez; V. Barrón; J. Torrent

2002-01-01

85

Identification of potential sources of airborne Olea pollen in the Southwest Iberian Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to determine the potential origin of Olea pollen recorded in Badajoz in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula during 2009-2011. This was achieved using a combination of daily average and diurnal (hourly) airborne Olea pollen counts recorded at Badajoz (south-western Spain) and Évora (south-eastern Portugal), an inventory of olive groves in the studied area and air mass trajectory calculations computed using the HYSPLIT model. Examining olive pollen episodes at Badajoz that had distinctly different diurnal cycles in olive pollen in relation to the mean, allowed us to identify three different scenarios where olive pollen can be transported to the city from either distant or nearby sources during conditions with slow air mass movements. Back trajectory analysis showed that olive pollen can be transported to Badajoz from the West on prevailing winds, either directly or on slow moving air masses, and from high densities of olive groves situated to the Southeast (e.g. Andalucía). Regional scale transport of olive pollen can result in increased nighttime concentrations of this important aeroallergen. This could be particularly important in Mediterranean countries where people can be outdoors during this time due to climate and lifestyle. Such studies that examine sources and the atmospheric transport of pollen are valuable for allergy sufferers and health care professionals because the information can be incorporated into forecasts, the outputs of which are used for avoiding exposure to aeroallergens and planning medication. The results of studies of this nature can also be used for examining gene flow in this important agricultural crop.

Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Brandao, Rui; Caeiro, Elsa; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela; Smith, Matt

2014-04-01

86

Chemical and physical properties of two-year short-rotation deciduous species. [Olea sp. , Populus deltoides, Platanus sp. , Alnus glutinosa, Paulownia tomentosa, Robina pseudoacacia, Acer saccharinum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following seven broadleaved species were tested: autumn olive (Olea sp.) eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), sycamore (Platanus species), black alder (Alnus glutinosa), royal paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa), black locust (Robina pseudoacacia) and silver maple (Acer saccharinum). The species and portions both significantly affected the chemical and the physical findings of the juvenile wood. The ages, which were tested in factorial combination

1982-01-01

87

Quality of Fruit and Oil of Black-Ripe Olives Is Influenced by Cultivar and Storage Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Black-ripe olives (Olea europaea cv. Ascolano, Manzanillo, Mission, and Sevillano), intended for oil extraction, were stored at 5 °C for 6-8 weeks to evaluate their postharvest physiology and quality changes. Also, samples of olives were placed at 20 °C for 2 weeks to determine the deterioration rate of four cultivars at ambient temperature. Fruit quality evaluations included color, visual quality,

I. Tayfun Agar; Betty Hess-Pierce; Mohamed M. Sourour; Adel A. Kader

1998-01-01

88

Anti-hyperglycemic activity of a TGR5 agonist isolated from Olea europaea.  

PubMed

Olive tree (Olea europeaea) leaves are well known for their effect on metabolism in particular as a traditional anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive herbal drug. These properties are until now only attributed to oleuropein, the major secoiridoid of olive leaves. Here we describe the isolation and the identification of another constituent implicated in the anti-diabetic effect of this plant, i.e. oleanolic acid. We show that this triterpene is an agonist for TGR5, a member of G-protein coupled receptor activated by bile acids and which mediates some of their various cellular and physiological effect. Oleanolic acid lowers serum glucose and insulin levels in mice fed with a high fat diet and it enhances glucose tolerance. Our data suggest that both oleuropein and oleanolic acid are involved in the anti-diabetic effect of olive leaves and further emphasize the potential role of TGR5 agonists to improve metabolic disorders. PMID:17825251

Sato, Hiroyuki; Genet, Cédric; Strehle, Axelle; Thomas, Charles; Lobstein, Annelise; Wagner, Alain; Mioskowski, Charles; Auwerx, Johan; Saladin, Régis

2007-11-01

89

Compatibility Relationships within and between Olive (Olea europaea L.) Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment was conducted in the Split area of Middle Dalmatia (Latitude: 43?52' N, Longitude: 16?51' E) during the 2005 flowering season. Twenty years old orchard received regular fertilization and summer irrigation. Four autochthonous cultivars 'Drobnica', 'Lastovka', 'Levantinka', 'Oblica', and two introduced cultivars 'Leccino' and 'Pendolino' were included in the study. The data about flowering period were obtained by visual

G. Vuletin Selak; S. Perica; M. Poljak; S. Goreta; M. Radunic; D. Hartl-Musinov

90

Paternity analysis using microsatellite markers to identify pollen donors in an olive grove  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive (Olea europaea L.) is a wind-pollinated, allogamous species that is generally not considered to be self-compatible. In addition, cross-incompatibilities exist between cultivars that can result in low fruit set if compatible pollinisers are not planted nearby. In this study, microsatellite markers were used to identify 17 genotypes that were potential pollen donors in a commercial olive orchard. DNA typing

Sonali Mookerjee; Jenny Guerin; Graham Collins; Chris Ford; Margaret Sedgley

2005-01-01

91

Sexual compatibility and floral biology of some olive cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen tube observation was used to assess the self- and cross-incompatibility of the olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars ‘Frantoio’, ‘Koroneiki’ and ‘Kalamata’. The pistils were harvested 1 week after hand pollination and stained with 0.1% aniline blue. The styles and ovules were separated, mounted in 80% glycerol and observed under a fluorescence microscope. All the cultivars studied were self-incompatible. ‘Frantoio’

E Seifi; J Guerin; B Kaiser; M Sedgley

2011-01-01

92

Olive oil by capillary electrophoresis: characterization and genuineness.  

PubMed

Olive oil, obtained from Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) fruits, is an important ingredient in the Mediterranean diet. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate olive oil analysis using capillary electrophoresis (CE). This review covers a selection of the literature published on this topic over the past decade. The current state of the art of the topic is evaluated, with special emphasis on separation conditions, analysis purpose, and analytes investigated. CE has been used to characterize or to carry out authenticity studies. Particular attention has been focused on the botanical origin because high-quality monovarietal olive oils have been recently introduced on the markets and their quality control requires the development of new and powerful analytical tools as well as new regulations to avoid fraud. CE represents a good compromise between sample throughput, sample volume, satisfactory characterization, and sustainability for the analysis of target compounds present in olive oils. PMID:23594110

Monasterio, Romina P; Fernández, María de los Ángeles; Silva, María Fernanda

2013-05-15

93

Selective recognition of DNA from olive leaves and olive oil by PNA and modified-PNA microarrays  

PubMed Central

PNA probes for the specific detection of DNA from olive oil samples by microarray technology were developed. The presence of as low as 5% refined hazelnut (Corylus avellana) oil in extra-virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L.) could be detected by using a PNA microarray. A set of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Actin gene of Olive was chosen as a model for evaluating the ability of PNA probes for discriminating olive cultivars. Both unmodified and C2-modified PNAs bearing an arginine side-chain were used, the latter showing higher sequence specificity. DNA extracted from leaves of three different cultivars (Ogliarola leccese, Canino and Frantoio) could be easily discriminated using a microarray with unmodified PNA probes, whereas discrimination of DNA from oil samples was more challenging, and could be obtained only by using chiral PNA probes. PMID:22772038

Rossi, Stefano; Calabretta, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Tullia; Sforza, Stefano; Arcioni, Sergio; Baldoni, Luciana; Corradini, Roberto; Marchelli, Rosangela

2012-01-01

94

Characterization of Olive-Leaf Phenolics by ESI-MS and Evaluation of their Antioxidant Capacities by the CAT Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive leaves are a very abundant vegetable material containing various phenolic compounds, such as secoiridoids and flavonoids,\\u000a that are expected to exert strong antioxidant capacity. However, little is known about the variation of olive-leaf phenolic\\u000a composition during maturation and its influence on antioxidant capacity. To answer this question, young and mature Olea Europaea L. leaves were submitted to successive extraction

Mickaël Laguerre; Luis Javier L?pez Giraldo; Georges Piombo; Maria Cruz Figueroa-Espinoza; Michel Pina; Mohamed Benaissa; Aurélia Combe; Anne Rossignol Castera; Jérôme Lecomte; Pierre Villeneuve

2009-01-01

95

Influence of carbon source and concentration on the in vitro development of olive zygotic embryos and explants raised from them  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of sucrose or mannitol on in vitro zygotic embryo germination, seedling development and explant propagation of olive tree (Olea europaea L.) was compared. Embryos germinated without sucrose in the medium but for adequate development of the seedlings to yield viable plants, a carbohydrate supply was necessary; both sucrose and mannitol were equally suitable for this purpose. However, when

J. L. García; J. Troncoso; R. Sarmiento; A. Troncoso

2002-01-01

96

Effects of water deficit on olive trees cv. Chemlali under field conditions in arid region in Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water scarcity in the Mediterranean basin in addition to the extension of irrigated lands is one of the main factors limiting agricultural development. The need for supplementary irrigation of the Chemlali olive cultivar (Olea europaea L.) during summer and autumn periods was investigated. Leaf water content, gas exchange parameters, fruit development and yield in rain-fed and in irrigated plants have

Chedlia Ben Ahmed; Bechir Ben Rouina; Mekki Boukhris

2007-01-01

97

Olive fruit fly: managing an ancient pest in modern times.  

PubMed

Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major pest of commercial olives worldwide. Various aspects of its biology, ecology, management, and impact on olive production are highlighted. With the discovery of insecticidal resistance in some populations frequently treated with organophosphates, old and new control options are being investigated. The potential of biological control is examined. Surveys suggest that a small group of braconids in the Opiinae subfamily best represent the primary parasitoids attacking olive fruit fly in its native range. These species include Psyttalia lounsburyi, P. dacicida, P. concolor, P. ponerophaga, and Utetes africanus. Bracon celer, another braconid but in the Braconinae subfamily, is also reared from the fruit fly in its native range. The potential of these and other natural enemies is discussed with respect to olive fruit fly biology, commercial olive production, and biological constraints that may limit their success. We suggest that numerous species exist that should be further investigated as control agents for olive fruit fly in the many climatic regimes where the pest is found. PMID:19961328

Daane, Kent M; Johnson, Marshall W

2010-01-01

98

Effect of crossbreeding on the chemical composition and biological characteristics of tunisian new olive progenies.  

PubMed

Olive fruit characteristics (weight, pulp/stone ratio, and oil and moisture content) and the iodine value (IV) of 31 new olive progenies (Olea europaea L.) were determined. To evaluate the effect of the genetic variability on these parameters, the new olive progenies, obtained through cross-pollination between Tunisian and Mediterranean olive cultivars, were planted in a selected grove guaranteeing the homogeneity of the pedologic and climatic conditions. A strong genetic effect and significant differences between genotypes were obtained for the IV and the fruit characteristics evaluated. Discriminant analysis was used to classify the new progenies as distinct from each other, based on their IV, and their pulp and stone weight. An almost full discrimination of the olives from different genotypes was only achieved when the fruit characteristics (pulp and stone weight) and the IV data were analyzed together. PMID:20232330

Rjiba, Imed; Dabbou, Samia; Gazzah, Nouredine; Hammami, Mohamed

2010-03-01

99

Genetic similarity among Tunisian olive cultivars and two unknown feral olive trees estimated through SSR markers.  

PubMed

We used eight informative microsatellite markers for fingerprinting and evaluation of genetic similarity among 15 Tunisian olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars and two feral unknown trees named Soulela 1 and Soulela 2. Thirty-one alleles were revealed, and the number of alleles per SSR varied from 2 (UDO12) to 6 (GAPU71A). Cluster analysis grouped cultivars into three main clusters. The two unknown varieties could not be reliably classified into any of these cultivar groups. SSR analysis indicated the presence of three erroneous denominations of cultivars. We resolved two synonymy cases (Zalmati and Chemlali; Rkhami and Chetoui) and one case of homonymy (Chemlali Tataouine). Genetic analyses of DNA extracted from leaves, oils, and embryos of the two unknown cultivars and the two major Tunisian olive cultivars (Chemlali and Chetoui) were also studied. We conclude that the reliable identification of these two feral cultivars needs to be addressed by a larger set of markers. PMID:24535154

Ben-Ayed, Rayda; Sans-Grout, Cinderella; Moreau, Fabienne; Grati-Kamoun, Naziha; Rebai, Ahmed

2014-06-01

100

Using the dual approach of FAO-56 for partitioning ET into soil and plant1 components for olive orchards in a semi-arid region2  

E-print Network

transpiration and soil evaporation) of an olive (Olea europaea L.) orchard in the semi arid27 region of Tensift conditions.38 Since the dual approach predicts separately soil evaporation and plant transpiration, an39 an acceptable estimate of plant transpiration and soil42 evaporation. The associated RMSE of plant transpiration

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

101

Nontarget host risk assessment of the idiobiont parasitoid Bracon celer (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for biological control of olive fruit fly in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-target risk posed by an African parasitoid, Bracon celer Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), was assessed for a classical biological control program against olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae), in California, USA. Behavioral and reproductive responses to non-target tephritid species were tested with beneficial (Chaetorellia succinea [Costa] and Parafreutreta regalis Munro) (Tephritidae: Tephritinae) and native (Rhagoletis fausta [Osten Sacken])

Hannah Nadel; Kent M. Daane; Kim A. Hoelmer; Charles H. Pickett; Marshall W. Johnson

2009-01-01

102

Aromatized to Find Mates: ?-Pinene Aroma Boosts the Mating Success of Adult Olive Fruit Flies  

PubMed Central

Background Contrary to other Tephritidae, female but also male olive flies, Bactrocera oleae release pheromones during their sexual communication. Alpha-pinene, a common plant volatile found in high amounts in unripe olive fruit and leaves has been detected as one of the major components of the female pheromone. However, possible effects of ?-pinene and that of other host volatiles on the mating behavior of the olive fly have not been investigated. Methodology Using wild olive flies, reared on olive fruit for 3 generations in the laboratory, we explored whether exposure of male and female olive flies to ?-pinene affects their sexual performance. Results Exposure of sexually mature adult olive flies to the aroma of ?-pinene significantly increases the mating performance over non-exposed individuals. Interestingly, exposure to ?-pinene boosts the mating success of both males and female olive flies. Conclusions This is the first report of such an effect on the olive fly, and the first time that a single plant volatile has been reported to induce such a phenomenon on both sexes of a single species. We discuss the possible associated mechanism and provide some practical implications. PMID:24260571

Gerofotis, Christos D.; Ioannou, Charalampos S.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.

2013-01-01

103

Tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the olive oil flavor compounds.  

PubMed

A series of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, otherwise known as (2E)-alkenals, characterized from the olive Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) oil flavor was found to inhibit the oxidation of L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) catalyzed by mushroom tyrosinase, and the inhibition kinetics analyzed by a Lineweaver-Burk plot found that they are noncompetitive inhibitors. The inhibition mechanism presumably comes from their ability to form a Schiff base with a primary amino group in the enzyme. In addition, the hydrophobic alkyl chain length from the hydrophilic enal group seems to relate to their affinity to the enzyme, and this results in their inhibitory potency. PMID:10552852

Kubo, I; Kinst-Hori, I

1999-11-01

104

The use of phenological data to calculate chilling units in Olea europaea L. in relation to the onset of reproduction.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop a practical method to evaluate the effective relationship between the amount of winter chilling and the response expressed as the spring reproductive re-starting dates in the olive (Olea europaea L.). Two olive cultivars growing in a special olive orchard in Umbria (central Italy) were studied over a 3-year period (1998-2000): the cultivar Ascolana, typical of central Italy, and the cultivar Giarraffa, typical of southern Italy. The spring reproductive restarts were assessed using data from detailed phenological observations made on 60 trees of each cultivar in an effort to establish the exact date of reproductive bud swelling. The chilling phenomenon was evaluated by using 341 functions derived from a formula developed by researchers at Utah State University to calculate chilling units. The mathematical functions are defined, and show the very close relationship between the amount of winter chilling and the spring reproductive response in the two cultivars in the orchard studied. The results can be used to define the relationship between local climate and plant development, and the mathematical approach can be used to draw maps that can show the suitability of different cultivars on the basis of local climatic conditions. PMID:11931094

Orlandi, F; Fornaciari, M; Romano, B

2002-02-01

105

Irrigation of olive groves in Southern Italy with treated municipal wastewater: Effects on microbiological quality of soil and fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of municipal wastewater in agriculture requires a careful monitoring of a range of hygiene parameters. Yearly hygienic impact assessments on soil and fruit were made between 2000 and 2006 in an olive (Olea europaea L.) grove established near a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Southern Italy (Ferrandina–Basilicata region, 40°29? N, 16°28? E). The experimental grove was managed in

A. M. Palese; V. Pasquale; G. Celano; G. Figliuolo; S. Masi; C. Xiloyannis

2009-01-01

106

Genomic profiling of plastid DNA variation in the Mediterranean olive tree  

PubMed Central

Background Characterisation of plastid genome (or cpDNA) polymorphisms is commonly used for phylogeographic, population genetic and forensic analyses in plants, but detecting cpDNA variation is sometimes challenging, limiting the applications of such an approach. In the present study, we screened cpDNA polymorphism in the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) by sequencing the complete plastid genome of trees with a distinct cpDNA lineage. Our objective was to develop new markers for a rapid genomic profiling (by Multiplex PCRs) of cpDNA haplotypes in the Mediterranean olive tree. Results Eight complete cpDNA genomes of Olea were sequenced de novo. The nucleotide divergence between olive cpDNA lineages was low and not exceeding 0.07%. Based on these sequences, markers were developed for studying two single nucleotide substitutions and length polymorphism of 62 regions (with variable microsatellite motifs or other indels). They were then used to genotype the cpDNA variation in cultivated and wild Mediterranean olive trees (315 individuals). Forty polymorphic loci were detected on this sample, allowing the distinction of 22 haplotypes belonging to the three Mediterranean cpDNA lineages known as E1, E2 and E3. The discriminating power of cpDNA variation was particularly low for the cultivated olive tree with one predominating haplotype, but more diversity was detected in wild populations. Conclusions We propose a method for a rapid characterisation of the Mediterranean olive germplasm. The low variation in the cultivated olive tree indicated that the utility of cpDNA variation for forensic analyses is limited to rare haplotypes. In contrast, the high cpDNA variation in wild populations demonstrated that our markers may be useful for phylogeographic and populations genetic studies in O. europaea. PMID:21569271

2011-01-01

107

Olive phenolic compounds: metabolic and transcriptional profiling during fruit development  

PubMed Central

Background Olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits contain numerous secondary metabolites, primarily phenolics, terpenes and sterols, some of which are particularly interesting for their nutraceutical properties. This study will attempt to provide further insight into the profile of olive phenolic compounds during fruit development and to identify the major genetic determinants of phenolic metabolism. Results The concentration of the major phenolic compounds, such as oleuropein, demethyloleuropein, 3–4 DHPEA-EDA, ligstroside, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside and lignans, were measured in the developing fruits of 12 olive cultivars. The content of these compounds varied significantly among the cultivars and decreased during fruit development and maturation, with some compounds showing specificity for certain cultivars. Thirty-five olive transcripts homologous to genes involved in the pathways of the main secondary metabolites were identified from the massive sequencing data of the olive fruit transcriptome or from cDNA-AFLP analysis. Their mRNA levels were determined using RT-qPCR analysis on fruits of high- and low-phenolic varieties (Coratina and Dolce d’Andria, respectively) during three different fruit developmental stages. A strong correlation was observed between phenolic compound concentrations and transcripts putatively involved in their biosynthesis, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of the corresponding pathways. OeDXS, OeGES, OeGE10H and OeADH, encoding putative 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-P synthase, geraniol synthase, geraniol 10-hydroxylase and arogenate dehydrogenase, respectively, were almost exclusively present at 45 days after flowering (DAF), suggesting that these compounds might play a key role in regulating secoiridoid accumulation during fruit development. Conclusions Metabolic and transcriptional profiling led to the identification of some major players putatively involved in biosynthesis of secondary compounds in the olive tree. Our data represent the first step towards the functional characterisation of important genes for the determination of olive fruit quality. PMID:22963618

2012-01-01

108

Fine-scale ecological and economic assessment of climate change on olive in the Mediterranean Basin reveals winners and losers  

PubMed Central

The Mediterranean Basin is a climate and biodiversity hot spot, and climate change threatens agro-ecosystems such as olive, an ancient drought-tolerant crop of considerable ecological and socioeconomic importance. Climate change will impact the interactions of olive and the obligate olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae), and alter the economics of olive culture across the Basin. We estimate the effects of climate change on the dynamics and interaction of olive and the fly using physiologically based demographic models in a geographic information system context as driven by daily climate change scenario weather. A regional climate model that includes fine-scale representation of the effects of topography and the influence of the Mediterranean Sea on regional climate was used to scale the global climate data. The system model for olive/olive fly was used as the production function in our economic analysis, replacing the commonly used production-damage control function. Climate warming will affect olive yield and fly infestation levels across the Basin, resulting in economic winners and losers at the local and regional scales. At the local scale, profitability of small olive farms in many marginal areas of Europe and elsewhere in the Basin will decrease, leading to increased abandonment. These marginal farms are critical to conserving soil, maintaining biodiversity, and reducing fire risk in these areas. Our fine-scale bioeconomic approach provides a realistic prototype for assessing climate change impacts in other Mediterranean agro-ecosystems facing extant and new invasive pests. PMID:24706833

Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Ruti, Paolo Michele; Dell'Aquila, Alessandro

2014-01-01

109

Dried leaf extract of Olea europaea ameliorates islet-directed autoimmunity in mice.  

PubMed

The health-promoting effects of various constituents of the olive tree (Olea europaea) are mainly associated with hypoglycaemic and insulin-sensitising activities and have been widely demonstrated in the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. However, their biological activity in autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) is poorly characterised. Therefore, the influence of O. europaea-derived components present in dry olive leaf extract (DOLE) was examined in two established preclinical models of human T1D, which differ in some aspects of diabetogenesis: multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes in susceptible C57BL/6 and CBA/H mouse strains; cyclophosphamide-accelerated diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice. In both T1D models, in vivo administration of DOLE significantly reduced clinical signs of diabetes (hyperglycaemia and body weight loss) and led to complete suppression of histopathological changes in pancreatic islets. In line with these, insulin expression and release were restored in DOLE-treated mice. Interestingly, inducible NO synthase expression and NO production were significantly elevated in peripheral tissues but were down-regulated within the local environment of the endocrine pancreas. This interference was reflected in NO-mediated suppression of T lymphocyte proliferation and lower production of the proinflammatory cytokines interferon-gamma, IL-17 and TNF-alpha in the spleen, with subsequent blockade of beta-cell destruction. The results suggest that DOLE interferes with development of autoimmune diabetes by down-regulating production of proinflammatory and cytotoxic mediators. Therefore, the potential use of a DOLE-enriched diet for prophylaxis/treatment of human T1D, and possibly other autoimmune diseases, is worthy of further investigation. PMID:20025835

Cvjeti?anin, Tamara; Miljkovi?, Djordje; Stojanovi?, Ivana; Dekanski, Dragana; Stosi?-Grujici?, Stanislava

2010-05-01

110

Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California.  

PubMed

The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), by the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. Mean percentage parasitism of olive fruit fly third instars infesting fruit in field cages ranged from 7.0 in Grapevine to 59.7 in Santa Barbara and in free releases ranged from 0 in Grapevine to 10.6 in Santa Barbara after 4- to 6-d exposures. In the laboratory, more parasitoids developed to adults in olive fruit fly larvae that were 11-13 d old than in larvae 8-10 d old. Adult parasitoids lived significantly longer when provided with water than adults without water in environmental chambers at 5 degrees C, 85% RH; 15 degrees C, 65% RH; 25 degrees C, 25% RH; and 35 degrees C, 25% RH. Adult parasitoids lived for 48 d with honey for food and water and 32 d with food and sugar solution at 15 degrees C and 65% RH. Survival of adult parasitoids without food and water in greenhouse tests was approximately 4 d in a simulated coastal climate and 1 d in a simulated inland valley climate and was significantly increased by providing food and water. The parasitoid did not develop in the beneficial seedhead fly, Chaetorellia succinea (Costa), in yellow star thistle. The rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, larvae in green walnut husks was 28.4% in laboratory no-choice tests. In choice tests, the rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly versus olive fruit fly larvae in olives was 11.5 and 24.2%, respectively. PMID:18559183

Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Rendón, Pedro A; Sivinski, John

2008-06-01

111

Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Nociceptive Effects of Defatted Fruit Extract of Olea europaea  

PubMed Central

Fruits of Olea europaea L. have been used for centuries in folk medicine to treat many inflammatory diseases. In order to evaluate the anti-nociceptive activities of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of defatted fruits of O. europaea, formalin test was used and for evaluation of anti-inflammatory effects of the extract, the volume of paw edema was measured. The results revealed that both extracts did not exhibit significant analgesic activity in the first phase of formalin test, whereas methanolic extract at the 600 mg/Kg dose and aqueous extract at the 450 and 600 mg/Kg doses could inhibit induced pain in the second phase of formalin test. Furthermore, the results of paw edema volume measurement indicated that the aqueous extract has anti-inflammatory effects at dose of 600 mg/Kg. Induced anti-nociception by aqueous olive extract was not reversed by naloxone, which indicates that the opioid receptors are not involved in the analgesic effects of the extracts. The present data pointed out that the extracts of olive defatted fruit have anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in rats but further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism(s) of action and active components which are involved in analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:24711837

Sahranavard, Shamim; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Faizi, Mehrdad

2014-01-01

112

Effect of non-crop vegetation types on conservation biological control of pests in olive groves  

PubMed Central

Conservation biological control (CBC) is an environmentally sound potential alternative to the use of chemical insecticides. It involves modifications of the environment to promote natural enemy activity on pests. Despite many CBC studies increasing abundance of natural enemies, there are far fewer demonstrations of reduced pest density and very little work has been conducted in olive crops. In this study we investigated the effects of four forms of non-crop vegetation on the abundance of two important pests: the olive psyllid (Euphyllura olivina) and the olive moth (Prays oleae). Areas of herbaceous vegetation and areas of woody vegetation near olive crops, and smaller patches of woody vegetation within olive groves, decreased pest abundance in the crop. Inter-row ground covers that are known to increase the abundance of some predators and parasitoids had no effect on the pests, possibly as a result of lack of synchrony between pests and natural enemies, lack of specificity or intra-guild predation. This study identifies examples of the right types of diversity for use in conservation biological control in olive production systems. PMID:23904994

Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M.; Campos, Mercedes

2013-01-01

113

Changes in lipid composition, water relations and gas exchange in leaves of two young ‘Chemlali’ and ‘Chetoui’ olive trees in response to water stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparative responses of two young olive trees (Olea europaea L. ‘Chemlali’ and ‘Chetoui’) to drought stress were investigated during 1 month. Three-month-old own-rooted plants were subjected\\u000a to two irrigation treatments: WW (well watered plants that were irrigated with fresh water to maintain a soil water content\\u000a close to field capacity), and WS (water stressed plants by withholding water). Leaf water

Mokhtar Guerfel; Olfa Baccouri; Dalenda Boujnah; Mokhtar Zarrouk

2008-01-01

114

Isolation, expression, and characterization of a 13-hydroperoxide lyase gene from olive fruit related to the biosynthesis of the main virgin olive oil aroma compounds.  

PubMed

A full-length cDNA clone (OepHPL) coding for hydroperoxide lyase was isolated from olive fruit ( Olea europaea cv. Picual). The deduced amino acid sequence shows significant similarity to known plant hydroperoxide lyases and contains a N-terminal sequence that displays structural features of a chloroplast transit peptide. Genomic Southern blot analysis indicates that at least one copy of OepHPL is present in the olive genome. The recombinant hydroperoxide lyase was specific for 13-hydroperoxide derivatives of linolenic and linoleic acids but did not use 9-hydroperoxy isomers as substrates. Analyses of reaction products revealed that this enzyme produces primarily (Z)-hex-3-enal, which partially isomerizes to (E)-hex-2-enal, from 13-hydroperoxylinolenic acid and hexanal from 13-hydroperoxylinoleic acid. Expression levels were measured in different tissues of Picual and Arbequina varieties, including mesocarp and seed during development and ripening of olive fruits. The involvement of this olive hydroperoxide lyase gene in the biosynthesis of virgin olive oil aroma compounds is discussed. PMID:20334343

Padilla, María N; Hernández, M Luisa; Pérez, Ana G; Sanz, Carlos; Martínez-Rivas, José M

2010-05-12

115

Effects of Peganum harmala (Zygophyllaceae) seed extract on the olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and its larval parasitoid Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).  

PubMed

Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae) is an herb native to arid and semiarid regions of Central Asian deserts. This study investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of P. harmala seeds on the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), i.e., adult repellency, reproductive activity, and larval growth, as well as parasitism levels by Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti). Olive fruit treated with 2% extract reduced B. oleae oviposition. In choice tests, female B. oleae spent >99% of their time foraging on untreated fruit rather than P. harmala-treated fruit. These changes in ovipositional behavior resulted in a nearly 30-fold decrease in oviposition marks on treated fruit compared with untreated fruit during a 48 h exposure period. When female B. oleae were fed liquid diet containing 0.2% P. harmala extract, there was no effect on the number of ovipositional marks on exposed fruit, but up to 21.4% of the deposited eggs were deformed. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses of deformed eggs revealed that some protein bands were missing. Consequently, the number of offspring produced by treated females was lower than by untreated females. Neither the sex ratio nor body size of the fly's offspring were affected by adults fed diet containing 0.2% P. harmala extract. However, there was a slightly prolonged developmental time from egg to adult. Parasitism of larval B. oleae by P. concolor was not affected by infested fruit treatment with 2% P. harmala extract. P. harmala extracts as a potential control for insect pest species are discussed. PMID:20069853

Rehman, Junaid Ur; Wang, Xin-Geng; Johnson, Marshall W; Daane, Kent M; Jilani, Ghulam; Khan, Mir A; Zalom, Frank G

2009-12-01

116

Characterization and pathogenicity of Botryosphaeriaceae species collected from olive and other hosts in Spain and California.  

PubMed

Species in the family Botryosphaeriaceae are common pathogens causing fruit rot and dieback of many woody plants. In this study, 150 Botryosphaeriaceae isolates were collected from olive and other hosts in Spain and California. Representative isolates of each type were characterized based on morphological features and comparisons of DNA sequence data of three regions: internal transcribed spacer 5.8S, ?-tubulin, and elongation factor. Three main species were identified as Neofusicoccum mediterraneum, causing dieback of branches of olive and pistachio; Diplodia seriata, causing decay of ripe fruit and dieback of olive branches; and Botryosphaeria dothidea, causing dalmatian disease on unripe olive fruit in Spain. Moreover, the sexual stage of this last species was also found attacking olive branches in California. In pathogenicity tests using unripe fruit and branches of olive, D. seriata isolates were the least aggressive on the fruit and branches while N. mediterraneum isolates were the most aggressive on both tissues. Isolates of B. dothidea which cause dalmatian disease on fruit were not pathogenic on branches and only weakly aggressive on fruit. These results, together with the close association between the presence of dalmatian disease symptoms and the wound created by the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae), suggest that the fly is essential for the initiation of the disease on fruit. Isolates recovered from dalmatian disease symptoms had an optimum of 26°C for mycelial growth and 30°C for conidial germination, suggesting that the pathogen is well adapted to high summer temperatures. In contrast, the range of water activity in the medium for growth of dalmatian isolates was 0.93 to 1 MPa, which was similar to that for the majority of fungi. This study resolved long-standing questions of identity and pathogenicity of species within the family Botryosphaeriaceae attacking olive trees in Spain and California. PMID:20731532

Moral, Juan; Muñoz-Díez, Concepción; González, Nazaret; Trapero, Antonio; Michailides, Themis J

2010-12-01

117

Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Two Olive Cultivars in Response to NaCl-Stress  

PubMed Central

Background Olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivation is rapidly expanding and low quality saline water is often used for irrigation. The molecular basis of salt tolerance in olive, though, has not yet been investigated at a system level. In this study a comparative transcriptomics approach was used as a tool to unravel gene regulatory networks underlying salinity response in olive trees by simulating as much as possible olive growing conditions in the field. Specifically, we investigated the genotype-dependent differences in the transcriptome response of two olive cultivars, a salt-tolerant and a salt-sensitive one. Methodology/Principal Findings A 135-day long salinity experiment was conducted using one-year old trees exposed to NaCl stress for 90 days followed by 45 days of post-stress period during the summer. A cDNA library made of olive seedling mRNAs was sequenced and an olive microarray was constructed. Total RNA was extracted from root samples after 15, 45 and 90 days of NaCl-treatment as well as after 15 and 45 days of post-treatment period and used for microarray hybridizations. SAM analysis between the NaCl-stress and the post-stress time course resulted in the identification of 209 and 36 differentially expressed transcripts in the salt–tolerant and salt–sensitive cultivar, respectively. Hierarchical clustering revealed two major, distinct clusters for each cultivar. Despite the limited number of probe sets, transcriptional regulatory networks were constructed for both cultivars while several hierarchically-clustered interacting transcription factor regulators such as JERF and bZIP homologues were identified. Conclusions/Significance A systems biology approach was used and differentially expressed transcripts as well as regulatory interactions were identified. The comparison of the interactions among transcription factors in olive with those reported for Arabidopsis might indicate similarities in the response of a tree species with Arabidopsis at the transcriptional level under salinity stress. PMID:22952621

Bazakos, Christos; Manioudaki, Maria E.; Therios, Ioannis; Voyiatzis, Demetrios; Kafetzopoulos, Dimitris; Awada, Tala; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

2012-01-01

118

Paternity analysis using microsatellite markers to identify pollen donors in an olive grove.  

PubMed

Olive (Olea europaea L.) is a wind-pollinated, allogamous species that is generally not considered to be self-compatible. In addition, cross-incompatibilities exist between cultivars that can result in low fruit set if compatible pollinisers are not planted nearby. In this study, microsatellite markers were used to identify 17 genotypes that were potential pollen donors in a commercial olive orchard. DNA typing with the same primers was also applied to 800 olive embryos collected from five cultivars in the grove over 2 years of study. Pollen donors for the cultivars Barnea, Corregiola, Kalamata, Koroneiki, and Mission were estimated by paternity analysis, based on the parental contribution of alleles in the genotypes of the embryos. The exclusion probability for the marker set was 0.998 and paternity was assigned on the basis of the 'most likely method'. Different pollen donors were identified for each of the maternal cultivars indicating that cross-compatibilities and incompatibilities varied between the genotypes studied. Cross-pollination was the principal method of fertilization, as selfing was only observed in two of the embryos studied and both of these were from the cultivar Mission. This is the first report where these techniques have been applied to survey the pollination patterns in an olive grove. The results indicate that careful planning in orchard design is required for efficient pollination between olive cultivars. PMID:16133312

Mookerjee, Sonali; Guerin, Jenny; Collins, Graham; Ford, Chris; Sedgley, Margaret

2005-10-01

119

Paternity Analysis of the Olive Variety "Istrska Belica" and Identification of Pollen Donors by Microsatellite Markers  

PubMed Central

The leading olive variety in Slovenia is “Istrska belica” (Olea europaea L.), which currently represents 70% of all olive trees in productive orchards. Paternity analysis based on microsatellite markers was used for genotyping and identification of the potential pollen donors of “Istrska belica” and for assessing the proportion of self-fertilization in monovarietal olive orchards in the Slovene Istria. Seven microsatellite loci were used for genotyping thirty-one olive embryos from “Istrska belica” trees and for all potential pollen donor varieties, which are grown in the region and could participate as pollinators. Genotyping results and allele identification were performed using the FaMoz software. The most probable pollen donor was assigned to 39% of all analyzed embryos. Among all analyzed embryos no single case of self-fertilization was confirmed. According to the present results, the variety “Istrska belica” was in all cases fertilized by foreign pollen. The results will contribute to defining the new guidelines for farmers regarding the proper management and growing practice in monovarietal olive groves. PMID:25097869

Jakse, Jernej

2014-01-01

120

Diversity of auxin-producing bacteria associated to Pseudomonas savastanoi -induced olive knots.  

PubMed

Forty three strains were isolated from knots induced by Pseudomonas savastanoi in different olive cultivars. All the selected bacteria were shown to produce variable amounts of the plant growth hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Amplification of the intergenic transcribed spacers (ITS) between 16S and 23S rDNA genes, allowed the clustering of the isolates into seven distinct groups. All isolates from ITS group 1 were positive to the Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi specific iaa L gene as shown by PCR. Partial sequencing of 16S rDNA gene confirmed the identity of these isolates to Pseudomonas savastanoi strains and allowed to tentatively assign the other isolates from the remaining ITS groups to Pantoea oleae/agglomerans, Burkholderia cepacia, Pseudomonas putida, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Hafnia alvei. Identification of endophytic knot-derived isolates revealed association of various saprophytic and putative human pathogenic bacteria with P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi in knot environment of olive infected trees. PMID:18759227

Ouzari, Hadda; Khsairi, Amel; Raddadi, Noura; Jaoua, Leila; Hassen, Abdennaceur; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Daffonchio, Daniele; Boudabous, Abdellatif

2008-10-01

121

The Role of Staminate Flowers in the Breeding System of Olea europaea (Oleaceae): an Andromonoecious, Wind?pollinated Taxon  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Andromonoecy, as a breeding system, has generated a considerable body of theory in terms of sexual selection, but extended records comparing the performance of pollen grains from staminate versus hermaphrodite flowers are still sparse. The objective in this study was to elucidate the role of staminate flowers in the andromonoecious breeding system of olive (Olea europaea). • Methods To determine the meaning of staminate flowers, an evaluation was made of resource allocation to, and phenology of, staminate and hermaphrodite flowers in the cultivar ‘Mission’, and a comparison was made of the male function between both kinds of flowers. • Key Results Dry weight of hermaphrodite flowers was 19 % greater than dry weight of staminate flowers arising in comparable positions of the panicle. This difference was mainly due to pistil and petal weight; there were no significant differences in stamen weight. There were no significant differences between staminate and hermaphrodite flowers in either amount of pollen per anther, or pollen quality as determined by pollen viability, germinability or ability to fertilize other flowers. There was no significant link between gender and time of anthesis. However, position of the flower within the panicle correlated with time of anthesis and gender. Flowers at the apex and at primary pedicels tended to be hermaphrodite and open earlier, whereas flowers arising in secondary pedicels were mainly staminate and were commonly the last to reach anthesis. • Conclusions It is proposed that the main advantage provided by production of staminate flowers in olive is to enhance male fitness by increasing pollen output at the whole plant level, although a relict function of attracting pollinators cannot be completely discarded. PMID:15037451

CUEVAS, JULIÁN; POLITO, VITO S.

2004-01-01

122

Olive Fertility as Affected by Cross-Pollination and Boron  

PubMed Central

Self-compatibility of local olive (Olea europaea L.) accessions and of the cultivars “Frantoio” and “Leccino” was investigated in Garda Lake area, northern Italy. Intercompatibility was determined for “Casaliva,” “Frantoio,” and “Leccino,” as well as the effects of foliar Boron applications (0, 262, 525, or 1050?mg·L?1) applied about one week before anthesis on fruit set, shotberry set, and on in vitro pollen germination. Following self-pollination, fruit set was significantly lower and the occurrence of shot berries significantly higher than those obtained by open pollination. No significant effect of controlled cross-pollination over self-pollination on fruit set and shotberry set was detectable. B treatments increased significantly fruit set in “Frantoio” and “Casaliva” but not in “Leccino.” B sprays had no effect on shotberry set, suggesting that these parthenocarpic fruits did not strongly compete for resources allocation and did not take advantage of increased B tissue levels. Foliar B application enhanced in vitro pollen germination, and the optimal level was higher for pollen germination than for fruit set. Our results highlight the importance of olive cross pollination for obtaining satisfactory fruit set and the beneficial effect of B treatments immediately prior to anthesis, possibly by affecting positively the fertilisation process and subsequent plant source-sink relations linked to fruitlet retention. PMID:22919310

Spinardi, A.; Bassi, D.

2012-01-01

123

Olive fertility as affected by cross-pollination and boron.  

PubMed

Self-compatibility of local olive (Olea europaea L.) accessions and of the cultivars "Frantoio" and "Leccino" was investigated in Garda Lake area, northern Italy. Intercompatibility was determined for "Casaliva," "Frantoio," and "Leccino," as well as the effects of foliar Boron applications (0, 262, 525, or 1050 mg.L(-1)) applied about one week before anthesis on fruit set, shotberry set, and on in vitro pollen germination. Following self-pollination, fruit set was significantly lower and the occurrence of shot berries significantly higher than those obtained by open pollination. No significant effect of controlled cross-pollination over self-pollination on fruit set and shotberry set was detectable. B treatments increased significantly fruit set in "Frantoio" and "Casaliva" but not in "Leccino." B sprays had no effect on shotberry set, suggesting that these parthenocarpic fruits did not strongly compete for resources allocation and did not take advantage of increased B tissue levels. Foliar B application enhanced in vitro pollen germination, and the optimal level was higher for pollen germination than for fruit set. Our results highlight the importance of olive cross pollination for obtaining satisfactory fruit set and the beneficial effect of B treatments immediately prior to anthesis, possibly by affecting positively the fertilisation process and subsequent plant source-sink relations linked to fruitlet retention. PMID:22919310

Spinardi, A; Bassi, D

2012-01-01

124

Agricultural management systems affect the green lacewing community (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) in olive orchards in southern Spain.  

PubMed

Green lacewings are generalist predators whose conservation is important for pest control in olive orchards (Olea europaea L.) Sustainable farming practices, as opposed to conventional management techniques, are believed to foster the presence of natural enemies. This study therefore aims to analyze the effect of 1) herbicidal weed cover removal and insecticide applications, and 2) the general management systems used in the olive orchards of southern Spain on chrysopid assemblages and abundance. Green lacewing adults and larvae were collected from olive orchards under conventional, integrated, and organic management systems. In addition, chemical analyses of residues were carried out to determine the presence of insecticidal and herbicidal residues. Eight adult species and three genera of larvae were identified. No rare species were captured from the most intensively farmed orchard, which therefore recorded the most limited chrysopid diversity with a very marked dominance of Chrysoperla carnea s.l.. No effect of dimethoate treatments on Chrysoperla larvae or C. carnea s.l. adults was observed. However, the presence of insecticide residues was associated with the depletion of Dichochrysa larvae. The absence of herbicide treatments favored C. carnea s.l. adult presence on olive trees while larval abundance decreased. Dichochrysa larvae were more abundant when weed cover received no treatment. In relation to the management systems studied, no difference in Chrysoperla larval abundance was observed between conventional and organic orchards. However, Dichochrysa larvae were more abundant in orchards under organic management. PMID:23339790

Porcel, M; Ruano, F; Cotes, B; Peña, A; Campos, M

2013-02-01

125

Adams-Oliver syndrome.  

PubMed

A new-born male baby with typical features of Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS) is described. Adams-Oliver syndrome is the association of aplasia cutis congenita with terminal transverse limb reduction defects with or without cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita. The patient presented with brachydactyly involving all the digits of his hands and shortening of both big toes along with aplasia cutis on the scalp. There was no systemic involvement. The patient was placed on regular follow-up. PMID:24906278

Iftikhar, Nadia; Ahmad Ghumman, Faisal Iftikhar; Janjua, Shahbaz A; Ejaz, Amer; Butt, Umar Aftab

2014-05-01

126

Fungi isolated from olive ecosystems and screening of their potential biotechnological use.  

PubMed

This study investigated the fungi diversity of fresh olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits, olive paste (crushed olives) and olive pomace (solid waste) and screened and quantified enzymatic activities with biotechnological applications. Fungi were randomly isolated from olive cultivars from Castilla La Mancha region (Spain). Identification included comparison of their polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal DNA region, followed by nucleotide sequence analysis. Fourteen different species with DNA sequences of different similarities were identified, belonging to seven different genera (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizomucor, Mucor, Rhizopus, Lichtheimia and Galactomyces). Aspergillus fumigatus, followed by Galactomyces geotrichum, Penicillium commune and Rhizomucor variabilis var. regularior were the most frequent species. Specific enzyme screening was assayed on agar plates, using cellobiose, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), polygalacturonic acid and CaCl(2)/Tween 80 as substrates for ?-glucosidase, carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase), polygalacturonase and lipase, respectively. Species exhibiting the best activities were: Aspergillus fumigatus (for ?-glucosidase, CMCase and lipase); Rhizopus oryzae (for ?-glucosidase and lipase); Rhizomucor variabilis (for ?-glucosidase, CMCase and polygalacturonase); Mucor fragilis (?-glucosidase, CMCase and lipase); Galactomyces geotrichum (for ?-glucosidase, polygalacturonase and lipase) and Penicillium commune and Penicillium crustosum (for lipase). The species that had shown the best enzymatic activities were grown on hemicellulose, cellulose and pectin and some activities were quantified (xylanase, cellulase, ?-glucosidase and pectinase). An isolate of A. fumigatus and one of A. niger showed the best cellulase and xylanase activities, while no species presented good pectinase and ?-glucosidase activities. The selected species with potential enzymatic activities could be used for future applications of industrial interest. PMID:21689797

Baffi, Milla Alves; Romo-Sánchez, Sheila; Ubeda-Iranzo, Juan; Briones-Pérez, Ana Isabel

2012-02-15

127

Colonization process of olive tissues by Verticillium dahliae and its in planta interaction with the biocontrol root endophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7  

PubMed Central

Summary The colonization process of Olea europaea by the defoliating pathotype of Verticillium dahliae, and the in planta interaction with the endophytic, biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 were determined. Differential fluorescent protein tagging was used for the simultaneous visualization of P. fluorescens PICF7 and V. dahliae in olive tissues. Olive plants were bacterized with PICF7 and then transferred to V. dahliae?infested soil. Monitoring olive colonization events by V. dahliae and its interaction with PICF7 was conducted using a non?gnotobiotic system, confocal laser scanner microscopy and tissue vibratoming sections. A yellow fluorescently tagged V. dahliae derivative (VDAT?36I) was obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens?mediated transformation. Isolate VDAT?36I quickly colonized olive root surface, successfully invaded root cortex and vascular tissues via macro? and micro?breakages, and progressed to the aerial parts of the plant through xylem vessel cells. Strain PICF7 used root hairs as preferred penetration site, and once established on/in root tissues, hindered pathogen colonization. For the first time using this approach, the entire colonization process of a woody plant by V. dahliae is reported. Early and localized root surface and root endophytic colonization by P. fluorescens PICF7 is needed to impair full progress of verticillium wilt epidemics in olive. PMID:21255281

Prieto, Pilar; Navarro-Raya, Carmen; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Amyotte, Stefan G.; Dobinson, Katherine F.; Mercado-Blanco, Jesus

2009-01-01

128

Production of highly purified hydroxytyrosol from Olea europaea leaf extract biotransformed by hyperthermophilic ?-glycosidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large amount of highly purified hydroxytyrosol (91–94% in weight) is obtained in short time by a simple biotransformation of Olea europaea leaf extract by a partially purified hyperthermophilic ?-glycosidase immobilized on chitosan support. The biotransformation conditions have been modulated for increasing the hydroxytyrosol yield, whilst chitosan and chitin matrices are used as adsorbent materials in liquid phase hydroxytyrosol extraction

Raffaella Briante; Maurizio Patumi; Ferdinando Febbraio; Roberto Nucci

2004-01-01

129

Vulnerability to cavitation in Olea europaea current-year shoots: further evidence of an open-vessel artifact associated with centrifuge and air-injection techniques.  

PubMed

Different methods have been devised to analyze vulnerability to cavitation of plants. Although a good agreement between them is usually found, some discrepancies have been reported when measuring samples from long-vesseled species. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible artifacts derived from different methods and sample sizes. Current-year shoot segments of mature olive trees (Olea europaea), a long-vesseled species, were used to generate vulnerability curves (VCs) by bench dehydration, pressure collar and both static- and flow-centrifuge methods. For the latter, two different rotors were used to test possible effects of the rotor design on the curves. Indeed, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images were used to evaluate the functional status of xylem at different water potentials. Measurements of native embolism were used to validate the methods used. The pressure collar and the two centrifugal methods showed greater vulnerability to cavitation than the dehydration method. The shift in vulnerability thresholds in centrifuge methods was more pronounced in shorter samples, supporting the open-vessel artifact hypothesis as a higher proportion of vessels were open in short samples. The two different rotor designs used for the flow-centrifuge method revealed similar vulnerability to cavitation. Only the bench dehydration or HRCT methods produced VCs that agreed with native levels of embolism and water potential values measured in the field. PMID:24611594

Torres-Ruiz, José M; Cochard, Hervé; Mayr, Stefan; Beikircher, Barbara; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Celia M; Badel, Eric; Fernández, José Enrique

2014-11-01

130

IL RUOLO DELLE AUTONOMIE LOCALI NEL PROGETTO DI COSTITUZIONE EUROPEA  

E-print Network

IL RUOLO DELLE AUTONOMIE LOCALI NEL PROGETTO DI COSTITUZIONE EUROPEA Relazione tenuta dal prof. Ruggiero Cafari Panico* presso la Facoltà di Giurisprudenza dell'Università di Verona il 31marzo 2004 locali nel progetto di Costituzione. ­ 3. La riforma costituzionale, la legge La Loggia e il ruolo delle

Romeo, Alessandro

131

Suppression of leopard moth (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) populations in olive trees in Egypt through mating disruption.  

PubMed

The leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina (L.) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae), is a damaging pest for many fruit trees (e.g., apple [Malus spp.], pear [Pyrus spp.] peach [Prunus spp.], and olive [Olea]). Recently, it caused serious yield losses in newly established olive orchards in Egypt, including the death of young trees. Chemical and biological control have shown limited efficiency against this pest. Field tests were conducted in 2005 and 2006 to evaluate mating disruption (MD) for the control of the leopard moth, on heavily infested, densely planted olive plots (336 trees per ha). The binary blend of the pheromone components (E,Z)-2,13-octadecenyl acetate and (E,Z)-3,13-octadecenyl acetate (95:5) was dispensed from polyethylene vials. Efficacy was measured considering reduction of catches in pheromone traps, reduction of active galleries of leopard moth per tree and fruit yield in the pheromone-treated plots (MD) compared with control plots (CO). Male captures in MD plots were reduced by 89.3% in 2005 and 82.9% in 2006, during a trapping period of 14 and 13 wk, respectively. Application of MD over two consecutive years progressively reduced the number of active galleries per tree in the third year where no sex pheromone was applied. In all years, larval galleries outnumbered moth captures. Fruit yield from trees where sex pheromone had been applied in 2005 and 2006 increased significantly in 2006 (98.8 +/- 2.9 kg per tree) and 2007 (23 +/- 1.3 kg per tree) compared with control ones (61.0 +/- 3.9 and 10.0 +/- 0.6 kg per tree, respectively). Mating disruption shows promising for suppressing leopard moth infestation in olives. PMID:21061961

Hegazi, E M; Khafagi, W E; Konstantopoulou, M A; Schlyter, F; Raptopoulos, D; Shweil, S; Abd El-Rahman, S; Atwa, A; Ali, S E; Tawfik, H

2010-10-01

132

Thermal constraints on the productivity of the olive (Olea europaea L.) in the climates of olive-producing regions and of Texas  

E-print Network

are chance seedlings (6, 24). Climate in Texas Texas, the second largest of the United States, is a vast state, covering some 692, 400 kmz, an area larger than any European country ex- cept the Soviet Union. It extends from before 94' W to beyond 106' N... are chance seedlings (6, 24). Climate in Texas Texas, the second largest of the United States, is a vast state, covering some 692, 400 kmz, an area larger than any European country ex- cept the Soviet Union. It extends from before 94' W to beyond 106' N...

Denney, James Osborne

2012-06-07

133

A New Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne baetica n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae), Parasitizing Wild Olive in Southern Spain.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT High infection rates of wild olive (Olea europaea sp. sylvestris) feeder roots and soil infestation by a new root-knot nematode were found in sandy soil at Vejer de la Frontera (Cádiz), southern Spain. Morphometric traits and analyses of the nematode esterase electrophoretic pattern as well as of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-5.8S gene and D2-D3 fragment of the 28S gene of rDNA showed that specimens differed clearly from known root-knot nematodes. Studies of host-parasite relationships showed a typical susceptible reaction in naturally infected wild olive plants and in olive planting stocks (cvs. Arbequina and Picual) artificially inoculated with the nematode. However, the nematode did not reproduce in artificially inoculated chickpea, pea, and tomato. Because of the ability of this new nematode to infect wild and cultivated olives only, we suggest the common name, "Mediterranean olive root-knot nematode." The species is herein described and illustrated, and named as Meloidogyne baetica n. sp. The new root-knot nematode can be distinguished from other Meloidogyne spp. by (i) the perineal pattern, which is almost similar to that of M. artiellia, characterized by distinct inner striae forming two distinct longitudinal bands, extending throughout the perineum to just below the vulva; (ii) female excretory pore anterior to the level of stylet knobs, excretory pore distance from anterior end/length of stylet ratio extremely small (0.5 to 0.8); and (iii) second-stage juveniles with elongate-conoid tail. Phylogenetic trees derived from maximum parsimony analyses showed that M. baetica is closely related to M. artiellia, the cereal and legume root-knot nematode. PMID:18944092

Castillo, Pablo; Vovlas, Nicola; Subbotin, Sergei; Troccoli, Alberto

2003-09-01

134

The Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase gene may have evolved independently of the functionally homologous medfly, olive fly, and flesh fly genes.  

PubMed

cDNAs for alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isozymes were cloned and sequenced from two tephritid fruit flies, the medfly Ceratitis capitata and the olive fly Bactrocera oleae. Because of the high sequence divergence compared with the Drosophila sequences, the medfly cDNAs were cloned using sequence information from the purified proteins, and the olive fly cDNAs were cloned by functional complementation in yeast. The medfly peptide sequences are about 83% identical to each other, and the corresponding mRNAs have the tissue distribution shown by the corresponding isozymes, ADH-1 and ADH-2. The olive fly peptide sequence is more closely related to medfly ADH-2. The tephritid ADHs share less than 40% sequence identity with Drosophila ADH and ADH-related genes but are >57% identical to the ADH of the flesh fly Sarcophaga peregrina, a more distantly related species. To explain this unexpected finding, it is proposed that the ADH: genes of the family Drosophilidae may not be orthologous to the ADH: genes of the other two families, Tephritidae and Sarcophagidae. PMID:11230533

Brogna, S; Benos, P V; Gasperi, G; Savakis, C

2001-03-01

135

Infraestrut. Financiamiento publico procedente da Unin Europea X X  

E-print Network

I+D+i Docencia Relac.Soc. Xesti�n Infraestrut. Financiamiento publico procedente da Uni�n Europea X X Aposta dos poderes p�blicos polo investimento en I+D+i X X Estabilidade do financiamento p�blico auton�mico para o per�odo 2005-10 X X X X Demanda tecnol�xica por parte do sector empresarial pr�ximo X

Fraguela, Basilio B.

136

Pectin methylesterases of pollen tissue, a major allergen in olive tree.  

PubMed

Olive tree (Olea europaea) pollen is a main cause of allergy in Mediterranean areas and North America. A novel allergen, Ole e 11, has been detected by proteomic techniques. Protein bands binding IgE from allergic sera were excised from a 2D electrophoresis gel and analysed by Edman degradation and MALDI-TOF MS. Four peptides were sequenced and used for designing primers to clone the cDNA codifying the protein. Ole e 11 consists of a 342 amino acid length polypeptide with a molecular mass of 37.4 kDa and a pI of 7.8. The allergen was identified as a pectin methylesterase and showed low identity with other members of this family from foods such as those from carrot (23%), orange (25%) and tomato (24%), and higher identity with those from Arabidopsis thaliana (57%) and Salsola kali (54%) pollen. The protein was overproduced in Pichia pastoris, purified, and characterized as an active enzyme. CD analysis rendered 3%alpha-helix, 50%beta-sheet and 27%beta-turns for its secondary structure, which is in agreement with other pectin methylesterase structures. The recombinant protein was demonstrated to be immunologically equivalent to the natural form by immunoblotting, indirect ELISA and inhibition experiments, using polyclonal antiserum and sera from olive pollen allergic patients. The prevalence fluctuated between 55.9% and 75.6% in three different allergic populations. The availability of this new olive pollen allergen could improve the component-resolved diagnosis. Its allergenic relevance is stepped up by the biotechnological use of these enzymes to improve organoleptic properties in processing foods and further confirms the need to include it in an accurate diagnosis. PMID:20491902

Salamanca, Guillermo; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Quiralte, Joaquín; Moreno, Carmen; Pascual, Cristina Y; Barber, Domingo; Villalba, Mayte

2010-07-01

137

7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA... ; or (b) olives, packed in brine, and which have been fermented and cured, otherwise known as green...

2010-01-01

138

7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA... ; or (b) olives, packed in brine, and which have been fermented and cured, otherwise known as green...

2012-01-01

139

7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA... ; or (b) olives, packed in brine, and which have been fermented and cured, otherwise known as green...

2011-01-01

140

Characterization of Olive Waste Ashes as Fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Wet and dry olive cakes are the most important wastes generated when olive oil is produced. In recent years, both olive wastes\\u000a have been incinerated to produce electricity, and thereby large amounts of fly and bottom ash are generated. In this study,\\u000a physical, physicochemical, and chemical characteristics of olive waste ashes produced in Andalusian biomass power plants were\\u000a analyzed to

Rogelio Nogales; Gabriel Delgado; Mar Quirantes; Manuel Romero; Esperanza Romero; Eduarda Molina-Alcaide

141

Heft 127 Oliver Witt Erosionsstabilitt von  

E-print Network

Heft 127 Oliver Witt Erosionsstabilität von Gewässersedimenten und deren Bedeutung für den Erlangung der Würde eines Doktor-Ingenieurs (Dr.-Ing.) genehmigte Abhandlung Vorgelegt von Oliver Witt aus ausgewählter Stauhaltungen des Oberrheins von Dr.-Ing. Oliver Witt Eigenverlag des Instituts für Wasserbau der

Cirpka, Olaf Arie

142

Exploring Japanese olive oil consumer behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last two decades, olive oil consumption in Japan is showing an increasing trend due to dietary and health concerns. Traditional olive oil producer and exporter countries such as Italy, Spain and Tunisia have interest to reinforce and to increase their penetration in the Japanese market. This study examines Japanese olive oil consumer behaviour by the use of the

Nadhem Mtimet; Kenichi Kashiwagi; Lokman Zaibet; N. Masakazu

2008-01-01

143

Chemical and physical properties of two-year short-rotation deciduous species. [Olea sp. , Populus deltoides, Platanus sp. , Alnus glutinosa, Paulownia tomentosa, Robina pseudoacacia, Acer saccharinum  

SciTech Connect

The following seven broadleaved species were tested: autumn olive (Olea sp.) eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), sycamore (Platanus species), black alder (Alnus glutinosa), royal paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa), black locust (Robina pseudoacacia) and silver maple (Acer saccharinum). The species and portions both significantly affected the chemical and the physical findings of the juvenile wood. The ages, which were tested in factorial combination with the species, also showed a significant effect on both the chemical and the physical properties of wood. All of the results indicated that both chemical and physical properties did vary with species, among the portions of the wood, and according to the ages of the wood. From the portion standpoint, the bark had higher gross heat content, sulphur content, ash content and lignin content, and it was also higher in all three kinds of extractives contents. The wood portion was found to be rich in holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and pentosan. In considering the chemical and physical properties of juvenile wood among the species, eastern cottonwood was found to have the highest value for ash content and all of the three kinds of extractives content. Paulownia had the highest value for sulphur content. Black locust had highest gross heat content, holocellulose and alpha-cellulose contents. Silver maple had highest lignin content. Results from this study showed that these seven juvenile hardwood species can produce high biomass yields of fibre and energy when grown under intensive care in central and southern Illinois sites. The best species of these seven tested woods seem to be black locust, which could also serve as a raw material for the pulp and paper industry, as well as for a fuel for energy generation. However, further economic and energy efficiency analyses are needed before judging the feasibility of these short-rotation juvenile hardwood species.

Lee, C.S

1982-01-01

144

Olea europaea Linn. Fruit Pulp Extract Protects against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Hepatic Damage in Mice  

PubMed Central

The present study we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of Olea europaea fruit pulp extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in experimental mice. Further we explored the antioxidant potential of the extract to substantiate the hepatoprotective properties. Biochemical parameters were analyzed in the serum of experimental mice using respective diagnostic kits. Antioxidant activities were measured following alkyl and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. Compared with control groups, administration of the extract to carbon tetrachloride-treated mice significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. The carbon tetrachloride-treated morphological changes in hepatocyte architecture were also reversed by extract pretreatment. Further, the carbon tetrachloride-treated increased serum cholesterol levels such as triglyceride and low density/very low-density lipoprotein in the liver were reversed in acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride-treated mice. The extract was also found to significantly increase the serum level of high-density lipoproteins in carbon tetrachloride-treated mice. Furthermore, the extract showed significant in vitro antioxidant actions by scavenging the alkyl and hydroxyl free radicals, substantiating its use in hepatoprotection. The concentration of the extract necessary for 50% inhibition of alkyl and hydroxyl radicals was 72.41 and 52.24 ?g/ml, respectively. In conclusion, data from our study suggest that Olea europaea fruit pulp extract could prevent carbon tetrachloride-treated acute and chronic liver degeneration and attenuated the lipid levels elevated by carbon tetrachloride. The hepatoprotective activity exhibited by Olea europaea extract might possibly be through its antioxidant defense mechanisms. PMID:25284924

Kang, H.; Koppula, S.

2014-01-01

145

Yeast dynamics during the fermentation of brined green olives treated in the field with kaolin and Bordeaux mixture to control the olive fruit fly.  

PubMed

The yeast microbiota associated with naturally fermented and inoculated green table olives, differently treated in the field with non-conventional repellent and antiovipositional products in the control of Bactrocera oleae, was analysed using a combination of culture-dependent and -independent molecular fingerprinting. The routine yeast isolation gave rise to 118 strains, whose identification was performed by PCR-RFLP of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Total DNA was extracted directly from the brine throughout fermentation by means of an experimental protocol that included the removal of Taq polymerase inhibitors. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) of 26S rRNA gene PCR amplicons highlighted the yeast community. Comparison of both culture-dependent and independent methods indicated that the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Candida diddensiae and Issatchenkia orientalis were dominant during fermentation despite the addition of the Lactobacillus plantarum starter used in brining. The resultant isolated species were unaffected by treatments in field, except for C. diddensiae whose growth was delayed by kaolin. PMID:21570143

Muccilli, Serena; Caggia, Cinzia; Randazzo, Cinzia L; Restuccia, Cristina

2011-07-15

146

Oliver stone's defense of JFK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oliver Stone and his film JFK were subjected to a scathing attack in the mainstream press. Stone, his direction of the film, his sources, and the conspiracy theory advanced by JFK were all subjected to harsh criticism. Nevertheless, his movie provoked renewed discussion and provoked calls for declassification of secret documents on the assassination. This essay addresses the question of

William L. Benoit; Dawn M. Nill

1998-01-01

147

"Oliver Twist": A Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide for public television's 3-part adaptation of Charles Dickens's "Oliver Twist" provides information that will help enrich students' viewing of the series, whether or not they read the novel. The guide includes a wide range of discussion and activity ideas; there is also a series Web site and a list of Web resources.…

Cashion, Carol; Fischer, Diana

148

Biogas production from olive pomace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas production from a slurry obtained by mixing finely ground olive pomace in water was investigated using anaerobic digesters of 1-l working volume at 37°C. A start-up culture was obtained from a local landfill area and was adopted to the slurry within 10 days at this temperature. The biogas generation rates were determined by varying the total solids (TS) concentration

Ali R Tekin; A. Co?kun Dalg?ç

2000-01-01

149

Pesticide residues in olive oil.  

PubMed

The attacks of pests and diseases and the presence of weeds make it necessary to apply pesticides to olive trees to ensure crop protection. Residues of these compounds may remain and contaminate the oil produced. For the analysis of pesticide residues in olive oil, the most common methods are multiresidue methods for fatty substrates, based on partitioning between hexane or light petroleum and acetonitrile. Recently, other methods have been applied, such as ready-to-use, disposable minicolumns or direct injection of oil into a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a precolumn with an oil recovery tank. Although several pesticides are registered in oil-producing countries for use on olive trees, available literature on the level and fate of residues is very limited. However, it is clear that fat-soluble pesticides tend to concentrate in the oil, both after full coverage and bait spraying, and their use close to harvest should therefore be avoided. Because it is sometimes necessary to use such pesticides late in autumn because of their effectiveness in cases of severe attack, residue trials should be carried out to determine the residue concentration in oil and to set a reasonable preharvest safety interval. Data produced by such trials would permit the establishment of MRLs (tolerances) in olive oil to cover cases where the residues, although relatively high, are not of toxicological significance for consumers (risk assessment). Such is the case with corn oil and the fat-soluble insecticide methyl pirimiphos, registered in the U.S. for use on corn. The U.S. EPA tolerance for methyl pirimiphos in corn is 8 mg/kg, whereas it is 11 times higher (88 mg/kg) for corn oil because it is known to concentrate in the oil. Similar provisions for olive oil, based on data from residue trials according to Good Agricultural Practice, the long-term toxicity of each pesticide as expressed by its ADI for man, and olive oil consumption patterns, would facilitate international trade of this commodity. On the other hand, because of the high dietary and health value of olive oil, it is desirable that toxic pesticide residues be kept as low as possible. Therefore, it would be preferable not to rely only on chemical pest control treatments but to develop and apply alternative plant protection techniques such as Integrated Pest Management (IPM).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7886254

Lentza-Rizos, C; Avramides, E J

1995-01-01

150

Cellular localization of ROS and NO in olive reproductive tissues during flower development  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) are involved in the signalling processes taking place during the interactions pollen-pistil in several plants. The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is an important crop in Mediterranean countries. It is a dicotyledonous species, with a certain level of self-incompatibility, fertilisation preferentially allogamous, and with an incompatibility system of the gametophytic type not well determined yet. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether relevant ROS and NO are present in the stigmatic surface and other reproductive tissues in the olive over different key developmental stages of the reproductive process. This is a first approach to find out the putative function of these signalling molecules in the regulation of the interaction pollen-stigma. Results The presence of ROS and NO was analyzed in the olive floral organs throughout five developmental stages by using histochemical analysis at light microscopy, as well as different fluorochromes, ROS and NO scavengers and a NO donor by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The "green bud" stage and the period including the end of the "recently opened flower" and the "dehiscent anther" stages displayed higher concentrations of the mentioned chemical species. The stigmatic surface (particularly the papillae and the stigma exudate), the anther tissues and the pollen grains and pollen tubes were the tissues accumulating most ROS and NO. The mature pollen grains emitted NO through the apertural regions and the pollen tubes. In contrast, none of these species were detected in the style or the ovary. Conclusion The results obtained clearly demonstrate that both ROS and NO are produced in the olive reproductive organs in a stage- and tissue- specific manner. The biological significance of the presence of these products may differ between early flowering stages (defence functions) and stages where there is an intense interaction between pollen and pistil which may determine the presence of a receptive phase in the stigma. The study confirms the enhanced production of NO by pollen grains and tubes during the receptive phase, and the decrease in the presence of ROS when NO is actively produced. PMID:20181244

2010-01-01

151

Adsorption of iron on crude olive stones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of crude olive stones, a residue of the olive-oil industry, for the adsorption of iron present in the industrial wastewaters was studied. Olive stones were used directly and characterized by mercuric porosimetry. The equilibrium adsorption capacity was higher when the particles size (from <1 to 4.8mm) decreased. The percentage of iron adsorption increased from 30 to 70% when

Leopoldo Martínez Nieto; Saloua Ben Driss Alami; Gassan Hodaifa; Catherine Faur; Salvador Rodríguez; José A. Giménez; Javier Ochando

2010-01-01

152

Lactic acid bacteria from fermented table olives.  

PubMed

Table olives are one of the main fermented vegetables in the world. Olives can be processed as treated or natural. Both have to be fermented but treated green olives have to undergo an alkaline treatment before they are placed in brine to start their fermentation. It has been generally established that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are responsible for the fermentation of treated olives. However, LAB and yeasts compete for the fermentation of natural olives. Yeasts play a minor role in some cases, contributing to the flavour and aroma of table olives and in LAB development. The main microbial genus isolated in table olives is Lactobacillus. Other genera of LAB have also been isolated but to a lesser extent. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus pentosus are the predominant species in most fermentations. Factors influencing the correct development of fermentation and LAB, such as pH, temperature, the amount of NaCl, the polyphenol content or the availability of nutrients are also reviewed. Finally, current research topics on LAB from table olives are reviewed, such as using starters, methods of detection and identification of LAB, their production of bacteriocins, and the possibility of using table olives as probiotics. PMID:22475936

Hurtado, Albert; Reguant, Cristina; Bordons, Albert; Rozès, Nicolas

2012-08-01

153

Olive knot and its pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive knot, caused by a pathogen or pathogens within the group of bacterial pathogens currently known as Pseudomonas savastanoi, is described. The ecology, transmission and methods of control of the pathogens are discussed. Strategies to minimise the\\u000a effects of infection are recommended and these depend on attention to specific details in programs for pruning, irrigation\\u000a and use of fertiliser. Introduction

J. M. Young

2004-01-01

154

Oliver Byrne's edition of Euclid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An unusual and attractive edition of Euclid was published in 1847 in England, edited by an otherwise unknown mathematician named Oliver Byrne. It covers the first 6 books of Euclid, which range through most of elementary plane geometry and the theory of proportions. What distinguishes Byrne's edition is that he attempts to present Euclid's proofs in terms of pictures, using as little text - and in particular as few labels - as possible.

Byrne, Oliver

2007-04-05

155

Electrocoagulation of olive mill wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt has been made to remove chemical oxygen demand (COD) from olive mill wastewaters (OMW) as well as oil-grease and turbidity in the presence of H2O2 and polialuminum chloride (PAC), as a coagulant-aid by an electrochemical method using either iron or aluminum as sacrificial electrodes. The effects of current density, electrode material and polarization, amount of hydrogen peroxide using

Ü. Tezcan Ün; S. U?ur; A. S. Koparal; Ü. Bak?r Ö?ütveren

2006-01-01

156

Olive leaf extracts protect cardiomyocytes against 4-hydroxynonenal-induced toxicity in vitro: comparison with oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and quercetin.  

PubMed

Olive (Olea europaea) leaf, an important traditional herbal medicine, displays cardioprotection that may be related to the cellular redox modulating effects of its polyphenolic constituents. This study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of the ethanolic and methanolic extracts of olive leaves compared to the effects of oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and quercetin as a positive standard in a carbonyl compound (4-hydroxynonenal)-induced model of oxidative damage to rat cardiomyocytes (H9c2). Cell viability was detected by the MTT assay; reactive oxygen species production was assessed by the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate method, and the mitochondrial membrane potential was determined using a JC-1 dye kit. Phospho-Hsp27 (Ser82), phospho-MAPKAPK-2 (Thr334), phospho-c-Jun (Ser73), cleaved-caspase-3 (cl-CASP3) (Asp175), and phospho-SAPK/JNK (Thr183/Tyr185) were measured by Western blotting. The ethanolic and methanolic extracts of olive leaves inhibited 4-hydroxynonenal-induced apoptosis, characterized by increased reactive oxygen species production, impaired viability (LD50: 25?µM), mitochondrial dysfunction, and activation of pro-apoptotic cl-CASP3. The ethanolic and methanolic extracts of olive leaves also inhibited 4-hydroxynonenal-induced phosphorylation of stress-activated transcription factors, and the effects of extracts on p-SAPK/JNK, p-Hsp27, and p-MAPKAPK-2 were found to be concentration-dependent and comparable with oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and quercetin. While the methanolic extract downregulated 4-hydroxynonenal-induced p-MAPKAPK-2 and p-c-Jun more than the ethanolic extract, it exerted a less inhibitory effect than the ethanolic extract on 4-hydroxynonenal-induced p-SAPK/JNK and p-Hsp27. cl-CASP3 and p-Hsp27 were attenuated, especially by quercetin. Experiments showed a predominant reactive oxygen species inhibitory and mitochondrial protecting ability at a concentration of 1-10?µg/mL of each extract, oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and quercetin. The ethanolic extract of olive leaves, which contains larger amounts of oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside, luteolin, and quercetin (by HPLC) than the methanolic one, has more protecting ability on cardiomyocyte viability than the methanolic extract or each phenolic compound against 4-hydroxynonenal-induced carbonyl stress and toxicity. PMID:25098929

Bali, Elif Burcu; Ergin, Volkan; Rackova, Lucia; Bayraktar, O?uz; Küçükboyaci, Nurgün; Karasu, Çimen

2014-08-01

157

Biological Properties of Olive Oil Phytochemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Referee: Dr. Joe Vinson, Chemistry Department, University of Scranton, Scranton, PA 18510 Olive oil is the principal source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, which has been associated with a lower incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers. Extra-virgin olive oil contains a considerable amount of phenolic compounds, for example, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, that are responsible for its peculiar

Francesco Visioli; Claudio Galli

2002-01-01

158

The Importance and Potential Uses of Olive Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since phenolic compounds have been known as strong antioxidants, studies on olive leaves have attracted the investigators due to the richness of phenolic compounds in olive leaves. Recently, olive leaves are used in medicine, cosmetics, and in pharmaceutical products. It has a high potential for industrial exploitation in the food industry. In this study, the importance of olive leaves is

Zafer Erbay; Filiz Icier

2010-01-01

159

Winner: Software - Make Your Very Own Virtual World With Olive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forterra's OLIVE software makes the business of virtual-world environments real. OLIVE creates virtual worlds for customers in health care, the military, and the media. One main difference between an OLIVE world and other virtual worlds is the OLIVE world's \\

David Kushner

2008-01-01

160

Treatment of Olive Oil Mill Wastewater With Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive oil mills produce a liquid waste called olive black water in the olive oil production process. In this study, olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) was analysed and then treated aerobically with fungi. Consequently, high chemical oxygen demand (COD), phenol and color reduction were obtained. High biomass yields and laccase enzyme activities were also determined.

161

Liquid chromatography with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometric detection of phenolic compounds from Olea europaea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results demonstrate the potential of electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry for the specific detection of phenolic species in olives. Phenolic compounds were detected with greater sensitivity in the negative ion mode, but results from positive and negative ion modes were complementary with the positive ion mode showing structurally significant fragments. This is demonstrated by the identification of oleuropein and isomers

D Ryan; K Robards; P Prenzler; D Jardine; T Herlt; M Antolovich

1999-01-01

162

Abstract Four hundred and four individuals belonging to the species Olea europaea were characterised using  

E-print Network

, genetic drift due to population re- gression during Quaternary glaciations, and founder ef- fects genetic linkage disequilibrium between cpDNA and mtDNA polymorphisms. Thus, four Mediterranean cyto Mediterranean population. Keywords CpDNA · Glacial refugee · MtDNA · Olive · Organellar genome association

Alvarez, Nadir

163

Application of compost of two-phase olive mill waste on olive grove: effects on soil, olive fruit and olive oil quality.  

PubMed

Composting is a method for preparing organic fertilizers that represents a suitable management option for the recycling of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) in agriculture. Four different composts were prepared by mixing TPOMW with different agro-industrial by-products (olive pruning, sheep manure and horse manure), which were used either as bulking agents or as N sources. The mature composts were added during six consecutive years to a typical "Picual" olive tree grove in the Jaén province (Spain). The effects of compost addition on soil characteristics, crop yield and nutritional status and also the quality of the olive oil were evaluated at the end of the experiment and compared to a control treated only with mineral fertilization. The most important effects on soil characteristics included a significant increase in the availability of N, P, K and an increase of soil organic matter content. The application of TPOMW compost produced a significant increase in olive oil content in the fruit. The compost amended plots had a 15% higher olive oil content than those treatment with inorganic fertilization. These organics amendments maintained the composition and quality of the olive oil. PMID:24810202

Fernández-Hernández, Antonia; Roig, Asunción; Serramiá, Nuria; Civantos, Concepción García-Ortiz; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A

2014-07-01

164

Effects of olive leaf polyphenols on male mouse brain NGF, BDNF and their receptors TrkA, TrkB and p75.  

PubMed

In this study, we evaluated, in the mouse, the effects of 20 mg/kg i.p. daily administration for 15 consecutive days of a blend of polyphenols, containing mostly oleuropein, extracted from the olive leaves (Olea europaea) on brain nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and on the expression of their receptors, TrkA, TrkB and p75. Polyphenols decreased the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and increased the levels of NGF and BDNF in the serum. In the brain, we found decreased levels of NGF and BDNF in the hippocampus and striatum but elevated levels of NGF in the olfactory lobes and hypothalamus and again BDNF potentiation in the olfactory lobes. No changes in TrkA, TrkB and p75 expression were observed. In conclusion, olive polyphenols may not only elicit an activation of the rodent olfactory system by increasing the levels of NGF and BDNF but also be stressing for the animal by reducing both the levels of hippocampal NGF/BDNF and serum GSH and increasing serum levels of NGF and BDNF. PMID:24865115

Carito, Valentina; Venditti, Alessandro; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Ceccanti, Mauro; Serrilli, Anna Maria; Chaldakov, George; Tarani, Luigi; De Nicolò, Sara; Fiore, Marco

2014-11-01

165

Regulation of photosynthesis and stomatal and mesophyll conductance under water stress and recovery in olive trees: correlation with gene expression of carbonic anhydrase and aquaporins  

PubMed Central

The hypothesis that aquaporins and carbonic anhydrase (CA) are involved in the regulation of stomatal (g s) and mesophyll (g m) conductance to CO2 was tested in a short-term water-stress and recovery experiment in 5-year-old olive plants (Olea europaea) growing outdoors. The evolution of leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and plant water status, and a quantitative analysis of photosynthesis limitations, were followed during water stress and recovery. These variables were correlated with gene expression of the aquaporins OePIP1.1 and OePIP2.1, and stromal CA. At mild stress and at the beginning of the recovery period, stomatal limitations prevailed, while the decline in g m accounted for up to 60% of photosynthesis limitations under severe water stress. However, g m was restored to control values shortly after rewatering, facilitating the recovery of the photosynthetic rate. CA was downregulated during water stress and upregulated after recovery. The use of structural equation modelling allowed us to conclude that both OePIP1.1 and OePIP2.1 expression could explain most of the variations observed for g s and g m. CA expression also had a small but significant effect on g m in olive under water-stress conditions. PMID:24799563

Perez-Martin, Alfonso; Michelazzo, Chiara; Torres-Ruiz, Jose M.; Flexas, Jaume; Fernandez, Jose E.; Sebastiani, Luca; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio

2014-01-01

166

Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity.  

PubMed

The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations. PMID:25236229

Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

2015-02-15

167

Cerebellar control of the inferior olive  

Microsoft Academic Search

A subpopulation of neurones in the cerebellar nuclei projects to the inferior olive, the source of the climbing fibre input\\u000a to the cerebellum. This nucleo-olivary projection follows the zonal and, probably also, the microzonal arrangement of the\\u000a cerebellum so that closed loops are formed between the neurones in the olive, the cerebellar cortex and the nuclei. The nucleo-olivary\\u000a pathway is

Fredrik Bengtsson; Germund Hesslow

2006-01-01

168

The Microbiology of Olive Mill Wastes  

PubMed Central

Olive mill wastes (OMWs) are high-strength organic effluents, which upon disposal can degrade soil and water quality, negatively affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning the microbial communities identified over the past 20 years in olive mill wastes using both culture-dependent and independent approaches. A database survey of 16S rRNA gene sequences (585 records in total) obtained from olive mill waste environments revealed the dominance of members of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Independent studies confirmed that OMW microbial communities' structure is cultivar dependant. On the other hand, the detection of fecal bacteria and other potential human pathogens in OMWs is of major concern and deserves further examination. Despite the fact that the degradation and detoxification of the olive mill wastes have been mostly investigated through the application of known bacterial and fungal species originated from other environmental sources, the biotechnological potential of indigenous microbiota should be further exploited in respect to olive mill waste bioremediation and inactivation of plant and human pathogens. The implementation of omic and metagenomic approaches will further elucidate disposal issues of olive mill wastes. PMID:24199199

Ntougias, Spyridon; Bourtzis, Kostas

2013-01-01

169

Osmotin induces cold protection in olive trees by affecting programmed cell death and cytoskeleton organization.  

PubMed

Osmotin is a pathogenesis-related protein exhibiting cryoprotective functions. Our aim was to understand whether it is involved in the cold acclimation of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.), a frost-sensitive species lacking dormancy. We exposed olive trees expressing tobacco osmotin gene under the 35S promoter (35S:osm) [in the same manner as wild type (wt) plants] to cold shocks in the presence/absence of cold acclimation, and monitored changes in programmed cell death (PCD), cytoskeleton, and calcium ([Ca2+]c) signalling. In the wt, osmotin was immunolocalized only in cold-acclimated plants, and in the tissues showing PCD. In the 35S:osm clones, the protein was detected also in the non-acclimated plants, and always in the tissues exhibiting PCD. In the non-acclimated wt protoplasts exposed to cold shock, a transient decrease in phallotoxin signal suggests a temporary disassembly of F-actin, a transient increase occurred instead in 35S:osm protoplasts exposed to the same shock. Transient increases in [Ca2+]c were observed only in the wt protoplasts. However, when F-actin was depolymerized by cytochalasin or latrunculin, and microtubules by colchicine, increase in [Ca2+]c also occurred in the 35S:osm protoplasts. Successive cold shocks caused transient rises in [Ca2+]c and transient decreases in the phallotoxin signal in wt protoplasts. No change occurred in [Ca2+]c occurred in the 35S:osm protoplasts. The phallotoxin signal transiently increased at the first shock, but did not change after the subsequent shocks, and an overall signal reduction occurred with shock repetition. Following acclimation, no cold shock-induced change in [Ca2+]c levels and F-actin signal occurred either in wt or 35S:osm protoplasts. The results show that osmotin is positively involved in the acclimation-related PCD, in blocking the cold-induced calcium signalling, and in affecting cytoskeleton in response to cold stimuli. PMID:17086398

D'Angeli, S; Altamura, M M

2007-04-01

170

Microbiological activity in stored olive oil.  

PubMed

The disappearance of the bitter taste of newly produced olive oil during storage is due to the enzymatic hydrolysis of the bitter-tasting secoiridoid compound known as oleuropein. Current knowledge attributes the enzymatic hydrolysis of the oleuropein to the beta-glucosidase present in the olives. The present study, however, has demonstrated for the first time that oleuropein present in olive oil can be hydrolysed by beta-glucosidase from the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida wickerhamii. The enzymatic analyses carried out directly on the untreated olive oil and on sterilized olive oil inoculated with the above-mentioned yeasts proved the beta-glucosidase activity through the hydrolysis of both the synthetic substrate p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) and the oleuropein. The absence of lipases in the isolated S. cerevisiae and C. wickerhamii examined lead us to believe that the yeasts contribute in a positive way towards the improvement of the organological quality of the oil without altering the composition of the triglycerides. PMID:11999107

Ciafardini, G; Zullo, B A

2002-05-01

171

Original article Impact of spreading olive mill wastewater on soil  

E-print Network

Original article Impact of spreading olive mill wastewater on soil characteristics: laboratory 2001) Abstract ­ A dynamic of soil pollution with olive mill wastewater (OMW) was investigated process forms an olive mill wastewater (OMW). The amount of this waste depends on the process used for oil

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

172

Chemical precipitation of aerobically treated olive mill wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major water pollution problem facing the Mediterranean region is because of the olive mill wastewater (OMW), produced after the extraction of olive oil. Laboratory scale experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of chemical treatment by the use of cationic polyacrylamide flocculant on raw olive mill effluent, coagulant aluminium sulphate(alum), precipitant calcium hydroxide (lime) blended with cationic polyacrylamide on

Anbu Clemensis Anbu Clemensis; Gregorio Martinez-Garcia; Robert G. J. Edyvean

2010-01-01

173

Phenolic profile and antioxidant activities of olive mill wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive trees play an important role in the Moroccan agro-economy, providing both employment and export revenue. However, the olive oil industry generates large amounts of wastes and wastewaters. The disposal of these polluting by-products is a significant environmental problem that needs an adequate solution. On one hand, the phytotoxic and antimicrobial effects of olive mill wastewaters are mainly due to

Abdelilah El-Abbassi; Hajar Kiai; Abdellatif Hafidi

174

Phenolic profile and antioxidant activities of olive mill wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive trees play an important role in the Moroccan agro-economy, providing both employment and export revenue. However, the olive oil industry generates large amounts of wastes and wastewaters. The disposal of these polluting by-products is a significant environmental problem that needs an adequate solution. On one hand, the phytotoxic and antimicrobial effects of olive mill wastewaters are mainly due to

Abdelilah El-Abbassi; Hajar Kiai; Abdellatif Hafidi

2012-01-01

175

Prsentation Oliver Gschwender 12.07. 2010 Social Media  

E-print Network

Präsentation ­ Oliver Gschwender 12.07. 2010 Social Media Zielgruppen · Studieninteressierte-sozialer-netzwerke.jpg #12;Präsentation ­ Oliver Gschwender 13.07.2010 Erwartungen und Ziele von Social Media · Nutzer wollen Social Media #12;Präsentation ­ Oliver Gschwender 13.07.2010 Inhalte von Social Media Inhaltliche

Ott, Albrecht

176

Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of hydroxytyrosol of Olea europaea on pain in gonarthrosis.  

PubMed

Hydroxytyrosol is mainly found in olive leaves after hydrolysis of oleuropein and has anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydroxytyrosol for alleviating the pain in patients with gonarthrosis. We conducted a double-blind clinical trial in which hydroxytyrosol or placebo was administered to adult patients with gonarthrosis for 4 weeks. The group administered hydroxytyrosol showed significant improvement in the Japanese Orthopedic Association score (pain measurement index) and the visual analog scale score compared to the placebo group. PMID:23746949

Takeda, Ryuji; Koike, Taisuke; Taniguchi, Itaru; Tanaka, Keiko

2013-07-15

177

Olive oil and cognition OLIVE OIL AND COGNITION:RESULTS FROM THE THREE-CITY STUDY1  

E-print Network

Olive oil and cognition 1 OLIVE OIL AND COGNITION:RESULTS FROM THE THREE-CITY STUDY1 2 Dem Ger Cogn oil and cognition24 inserm-00413995,version1-6Nov2009 Author manuscript, published in "Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 2009;28(4):357-364" DOI : 10.1159/000253483 #12;Olive oil and cognition 2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

178

Combustion Analysis of Different Olive Residues  

PubMed Central

The Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) techniques and concretely the study of the burning profile provide information that can be used to estimate the behaviour of the combustion of carbonous materials. Commonly, these techniques have been used for the study of carbons, but are also interesting for the analysis of biomass wastes, due to the different species present on the wastes affect directly to its thermal properties. In this work, techniques of thermal analysis have been applied to compare the behaviour of different wastes coming from olive oil mills. From these results, it is remarkable that the Concentrated Olive Mill Waste Water (COMWW) presents more unfavourable conditions for its combustion. PMID:19325766

Miranda, Teresa; Esteban, Alberto; Rojas, Sebastian; Montero, Irene; Ruiz, Antonio

2008-01-01

179

Performance of Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from irradiated host on olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California.  

PubMed

The parasitoid Psyttalia humilis (Silvestri) was reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), third instars irradiated at 0-70 Gy at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala, and shipped to the USDA, ARS, Parlier, CA. Irradiation dose did not affect the parasitoid's offspring sex ratio (53-62% females), percentage of unemerged adults (12-34%), number of progeny produced per female (1.4-1.8), and parasitism (19-24%). Host irradiation dose had no significant effect on the forewing length of female P. humilis and its parasitism on olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) and offspring sex ratio, but dissection of 1-wk-old female parasitoids reared from hosts irradiated with 70 Gy had a significantly lower number of mature eggs than females from nonirradiated hosts. Longevity of P. humilis adults decreased with increased temperature from 15 to 35°C, regardless of food provisions, gender, and host irradiation dose. Females survived 37-49 d at 15°C with water and food, and only 1-2 d at 35°C without food, whereas males lived shorter than females at all temperatures and food combinations tested. Adult P. humilis reared from fertile C. capitata and aspirated for dispensing in cups lived significantly longer after shipment than those specimens chilled and dispensed by weight. At 21 and 32°C, 50% of parasitoids departed release cages after 180 and 30 min, respectively, but none departed at 12°C. Thirteen shipments of P. humilis (2,980-21,922 parasitoids per shipment) were received between September and December 2009, and seven shipments (7,502-22,560 parasitoids per shipment) were received between October and December 2010 from San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala. Daily number of olive fruit fly adult and percentage female trap captures ranged <1-19 and 8-58% in 2009, and <1-11 and 0-42% in 2010, respectively. The number of parasitoids released ranged 848-12,257 in 2009 and 3,675-11,154 in 2010. Percentage parasitism of olive fruit fly third instars at all locations ranged 0-9% in 2009 and 0-36% in 2010. PMID:22732607

Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Wang, Xin-Geng; Aldana, Alicia; Cáceres, Carlos E; Yokoyama-Hatch, Hana A; Rendón, Pedro A; Johnson, Marshall W; Daane, Kent M

2012-06-01

180

Lipaemia and liver composition in pregnant rats consuming olive oil and olive oil used for frying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effect of the consumption of unused olive oil (polar content, 2 %; oleic acid, 78.9 mg\\/100 mg oil, and linoleic acid 7 mg\\/100 mg oil) and olive oil used discontinuously for frying potatoes 15 times (polar content, 9 %; oleic acid, 75.8 mg\\/100 mg oil and linoleic acid 6.2 mg\\/100 mg oil) was studied in pregnant rats with

S. López-Varela; F. J. Sánchez-Muniz

1997-01-01

181

publication 420-321 Autumn olive was introduced to the U.S. from Japan  

E-print Network

publication 420-321 Autumn olive was introduced to the U.S. from Japan and China in 1830 and disturbed areas. Autumn olive's drought tolerance and ability to fix nitrogen allow it to colonize readily-native and invasive. Russian olive can be differen- tiated from autumn olive by yellow olive fruits matur- ing

Liskiewicz, Maciej

182

What is Caf Scientifique? Dr. David Oliver  

E-print Network

What is Café Scientifique? Dr. David Oliver: Palliative Care- Not Just For The End of Life, restaurants and even theatres, but always outside a traditional academic context. Palliative care aims affected by the disease but also their family. It is often thought that involvement of a palliative care

Heinke, Dietmar

183

The rhetorical structure of Oliver stone's JFK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oliver Stone's JFK is a mythopoetic discourse that functions as cinematic rhetoric. Through the lens of the Adamic Myth, the author examines the film as a metaphoric interpretation or parable of the human condition. Members of the viewing audience are invited to participate in this mythic structure by emulating the actions of the protagonist, thus becoming instruments of sociopolitical change.

Martin J. Medhurst

1993-01-01

184

2000 Lakeshore Drive Oliver St. Pe' Center  

E-print Network

Rose Angelocci for Vocational Evaluations, A.T. Assessments and computer skills training: 504 History Established in 1986 by the late Oliver St. Pe', University of New Orleans Training, Resource the quality of life for individuals with disabilities is accomplished through training and other services

Li, X. Rong

185

Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. Digital Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Harvard Law School Library digitized its holdings of materials associated with Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., and his family. This website constitutes phase one of the project, and contains items that are related to his service in the 20th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment of the Union Army, including correspondence, telegrams, and a diary. Click on "Scrapbook" in the first bullet point on the homepage to see Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.'s, scrapbook from the Civil War. The inside cover, which is the second image, shows a handwritten inscription of 1864, and instructions that "the enclosed letters to be buried unread at my death - without fail." The Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. Visual Materials Collection includes "photographs, etchings, drawings, and paintings" of his parents and wife, and can be accessed by clicking a link in the third bullet point on the homepage. Finally, the link to the Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. Object Collection is provided in the fourth bullet point on the homepage, and objects in the collection include "Civil War uniform relics, family and personal effects, and a death mask."

186

The Spectrum of Olive Pollen Allergens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive pollen is one of the most important causes of seasonal respiratory allergy in Mediterranean countries, where this tree is intensely cultivated. Among the high number of protein allergens detected in this pollen, 8 – Ole e 1 to Ole e 8 – have been isolated and characterized. Ole e 1 is the most frequent sensitizing agent, affecting more than

Rosalía Rodríguez; Mayte Villalba; Rafael I. Monsalve; Eva Batanero

2001-01-01

187

Adrian Balint Michael Henn Oliver Gableske  

E-print Network

Adrian Balint Michael Henn Oliver Gableske July 1, 2009 A novel approach to combine a SLS-solver for the satisfiability problem | Balint, Henn, Gableske | July 1, 2009 Overview Introduction Motivation Preliminary Study-solver for the satisfiability problem | Balint, Henn, Gableske | July 1, 2009 Motivation for developing hybrid SAT-solver Major

Kullmann, Oliver

188

Statistical mechanics of nonlinear elasticity Oliver Penrose  

E-print Network

Statistical mechanics of nonlinear elasticity Oliver Penrose Department of Mathematics, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, Scotland, UK July 24, 2003 Running title: statistical mechanics Reviews classification numbers: 82B05 classical equilibrium statistical mechanics (general), 74B20

Penrose, Oliver

189

The Making of a Special "Oliver!"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How trainable mentally handicapped high school students very successfully adapted Charles Dickens's novel "Oliver Twist" into a musical play is described. The project, which involved the entire school as well as the community, shows that handicapped people are capable of artistic endeavors and growth when given the proper environment. (RM)

Beall, Lee

1985-01-01

190

Olive fermentation brine: biotechnological potentialities and valorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive fermentation brine causes an important local environmental problem in Mediterranean countries. Valorization is a relatively new concept in the field of industrial residue management, promoting the principle of sustainable development. One of the valorization objectives regarding food processing by-products is the recovery of fine chemicals and the production of value metabolites via chemical and biotechnological processes. In this article,

Imen Fendri; Mohamed Chamkha; Mohamed Bouaziz; Marc Labat; Sami Sayadi; Slim Abdelkafi

2012-01-01

191

Sorption of copper by olive mill residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on olive mill residues (OMR) as copper adsorbing material is reported in this work. A rough characterization of this waste material has been performed, by microanalysis and SEM pictures. Sorption tests with suspended OMR evidenced copper removal from solution, of about 60% in the investigated experimental conditions. The COD release in solution was also monitored during biosorption. Considering

F Vegliò; F Beolchini; M Prisciandaro

2003-01-01

192

Olive leaf extract inhibits lead poisoning-induced brain injury  

PubMed Central

Olive leaves have an antioxidant capacity, and olive leaf extract can protect the blood, spleen and hippocampus in lead-poisoned mice. However, little is known about the effects of olive leaf extract on lead-induced brain injury. This study was designed to determine whether olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury, and whether this effect is associated with antioxidant capacity. First, we established a mouse model of lead poisoning by continuous intragastric administration of lead acetate for 30 days. Two hours after successful model establishment, lead-poisoned mice were given olive leaf extract at doses of 250, 500 or 1 000 mg/kg daily by intragastric administration for 50 days. Under the transmission electron microscope, olive leaf extract attenuated neuronal and capillary injury and reduced damage to organelles and the matrix around the capillaries in the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex in the lead-poisoned mice. Olive leaf extract at a dose of 1 000 mg/kg had the greatest protective effect. Spectrophotometry showed that olive leaf extract significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, while it reduced malondialdehyde content, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining revealed that olive leaf extract dose-dependently decreased Bax protein expression in the cerebral cortex of lead-poisoned mice. Our findings indicate that olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury by increasing antioxidant capacity and reducing apoptosis. PMID:25206510

Wang, Yu; Wang, Shengqing; Cui, Wenhui; He, Jiujun; Wang, Zhenfu; Yang, Xiaolu

2013-01-01

193

7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes...avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes...grapefruit, kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety plums (fresh...

2010-01-01

194

Crystal Structures of Xanthomonas campestris OleA Reveal Features That Promote Head-to-Head Condensation of Two Long-Chain Fatty Acids  

SciTech Connect

OleA is a thiolase superfamily enzyme that has been shown to catalyze the condensation of two long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) substrates. The enzyme is part of a larger gene cluster responsible for generating long-chain olefin products, a potential biofuel precursor. In thiolase superfamily enzymes, catalysis is achieved via a ping-pong mechanism. The first substrate forms a covalent intermediate with an active site cysteine that is followed by reaction with the second substrate. For OleA, this conjugation proceeds by a nondecarboxylative Claisen condensation. The OleA from Xanthomonas campestris has been crystallized and its structure determined, along with inhibitor-bound and xenon-derivatized structures, to improve our understanding of substrate positioning in the context of enzyme turnover. OleA is the first characterized thiolase superfamily member that has two long-chain alkyl substrates that need to be bound simultaneously and therefore uniquely requires an additional alkyl binding channel. The location of the fatty acid biosynthesis inhibitor, cerulenin, that possesses an alkyl chain length in the range of known OleA substrates, in conjunction with a single xenon binding site, leads to the putative assignment of this novel alkyl binding channel. Structural overlays between the OleA homologues, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase and the fatty acid biosynthesis enzyme FabH, allow assignment of the two remaining channels: one for the thioester-containing pantetheinate arm and the second for the alkyl group of one substrate. A short {beta}-hairpin region is ordered in only one of the crystal forms, and that may suggest open and closed states relevant for substrate binding. Cys143 is the conserved catalytic cysteine within the superfamily, and the site of alkylation by cerulenin. The alkylated structure suggests that a glutamic acid residue (Glu117{beta}) likely promotes Claisen condensation by acting as the catalytic base. Unexpectedly, Glu117{beta} comes from the other monomer of the physiological dimer.

Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Frias, Janice A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M. (UMM)

2012-10-25

195

Crystal Structures of Xanthomonas Campestris OleA Reveal Features That Promote Head-to-Head Condensation of Two Long-Chain Fatty Acids  

PubMed Central

OleA is a thiolase superfamily enzyme which has been shown to catalyze the condensation of two long-chain fatty-acyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) substrates. The enzyme is part of a larger gene cluster responsible for generating long-chain olefin products – a potential biofuel precursor. In thiolase superfamily enzymes, catalysis is achieved via a ping-pong mechanism. The first substrate forms a covalent intermediate with an active site cysteine which is followed by reaction with the second substrate. For OleA, this conjugation proceeds by a non-decarboxylative Claisen condensation. The OleA from Xanthomonas campestris has been crystallized and its structure solved, along with inhibitor bound and xenon derivatized structures, to better understand substrate positioning in the context of enzyme turnover. OleA is the first characterized thiolase superfamily member that has two long-chain alkyl substrates that need to be bound simultaneously, and therefore uniquely requires an additional alkyl binding channel. The location of the fatty acid biosynthesis inhibitor, cerulenin, that possesses an alkyl chain length in the range of known OleA substrates, in conjunction with a single xenon binding site, leads to the putative assignment of this novel alkyl binding channel. Structural overlays between the OleA homologs, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase and the fatty acid biosynthesis enzyme FabH, allow assignment of the remaining two channels; one for the thioester-containing pantetheinate arm and the second for the alkyl group of one substrate. A short ?-hairpin region is ordered in only one of the crystal forms and that may suggest open and closed states relevant for substrate binding. Cys143 is the conserved catalytic cysteine within the superfamily, and the site of alkylation by cerulenin. The alkylated structure suggests that a glutamic acid residue (Glu117?) likely promotes Claisen condensation by acting as the catalytic base. Unexpectedly Glu117? comes from the other monomer of the physiological dimer. PMID:22524624

Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Frias, Janice A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

2012-01-01

196

Olives and Olive Oil Are Sources of Electrophilic Fatty Acid Nitroalkenes  

PubMed Central

Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and olives, key sources of unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean diet, provide health benefits to humans. Nitric oxide (•NO) and nitrite (NO2?)-dependent reactions of unsaturated fatty acids yield electrophilic nitroalkene derivatives (NO2-FA) that manifest salutary pleiotropic cell signaling responses in mammals. Herein, the endogenous presence of NO2-FA in both EVOO and fresh olives was demonstrated by mass spectrometry. The electrophilic nature of these species was affirmed by the detection of significant levels of protein cysteine adducts of nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA-cysteine) in fresh olives, especially in the peel. Further nitration of EVOO by NO2? under acidic gastric digestive conditions revealed that human consumption of olive lipids will produce additional nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2-cLA) and nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA). The presence of free and protein-adducted NO2-FA in both mammalian and plant lipids further affirm a role for these species as signaling mediators. Since NO2-FA instigate adaptive anti-inflammatory gene expression and metabolic responses, these redox-derived metabolites may contribute to the cardiovascular benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet. PMID:24454759

Schopfer, Francisco J.; Salvatore, Sonia R.; Sanchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Vitturi, Dario; Valderrama, Raquel; Barroso, Juan B.; Radi, Rafael; Freeman, Bruce A.; Rubbo, Homero

2014-01-01

197

Agricultural factors affecting Verticillium wilt in olive orchards in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the spread of Verticillium wilt in olive orchards, caused by the soil-borne pathogen Verticillium dahliae, is often related to intensive modern farming of highly productive cultivars, planted at high densities, usually irrigated,\\u000a and under a mechanised system. The effects of agricultural factors associated with olive orchards were investigated in an\\u000a important olive-growing area in southern Spain, as

E. Rodríguez; J. M. García-garrido; P. A. García; M. Campos

2008-01-01

198

An efficient regeneration system via somatic embryogenesis in olive  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive is one of the most important oil crops in the Mediterranean area. Biotechnological improvement of this species is hampered\\u000a by the recalcitrant nature of olive tissue regeneration in vitro. In this investigation, we have developed an efficient regeneration\\u000a system for juvenile olive explants via somatic embryogenesis. Embryogenic cultures were obtained at a rate of 25% by culturing\\u000a isolated radicles from

Sergio Cerezo; José A. Mercado; Fernando Pliego-Alfaro

2011-01-01

199

Traditional olive orchards on sloping land: sustainability or abandonment?  

PubMed

Traditional olive orchards account for a large share of the area under olives in the EU, particularly in marginal areas, like those analysed in the OLIVERO project. In general, traditional olive growing can be described as a low-intensity production system, associated with old (sometimes very old) trees, grown at a low density, giving small yields and receiving low inputs of labour and materials. Though such systems are environmentally sustainable, their economic viability has become an issue, since EU policies favour more intensive and competitive systems. Orchards that have not been intensified seem to be threatened by the recent reform of the EU olive and olive oil policy, as income support has been decoupled from production. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the present constraints to traditional olive growing, and to recommend some private and public interventions to prevent its abandonment. During the OLIVERO project, traditional olive production systems were identified and described in five target areas (Trás-os-Montes--Portugal, Cordoba and Granada/Jaen--Spain, Basilicata/Salerno--Italy, and West Crete--Greece). The causes and consequences of abandonment are discussed, based on the analysis of the costs and returns, which revealed that these systems are barely economically sustainable. Their viability is only assured if reduced opportunity costs for family labour are accepted, and the olive growing is part-time. Based on these results, recommendations are made to prevent the abandonment of traditional olive growing and to preserve its environmental benefits. PMID:17923250

Duarte, Filomena; Jones, Nádia; Fleskens, Luuk

2008-11-01

200

Steam-explosion pretreatment of olive cake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive cake was processed by steam-explosion under different steam conditions, followed by fractionation to separate the main\\u000a components. In the water-soluble fraction, the main compounds were carbohydrates. Glucose represented a significant part of\\u000a the total monosaccharide content, especially under conditions of mild severity, followed by arabinose, but the solubilization\\u000a of sugars occurred predominantly in the oligomeric fraction. Mannitol was also

B. Felizón; J. Fernández-Bolaños; A. Heredia; R. Guillén

2000-01-01

201

Fruit quality and olive leaf and stone addition affect Picual virgin olive oil triterpenic content.  

PubMed

The present research aimed to evaluate whether Picual virgin olive oil triterpenic compounds are affected by the addition of variable quantities of stones and leaves before processing or by fruit resting on the ground during 3 months. Results showed that stone addition did not influence triterpenic dialcohol content (uvaol and erythrodiol), whereas triterpenic acids (oleanolic and maslinic) increased significantly when 20 and 30% stones were added. Leaves added at 2% increased significantly oleanolic acid, maslinic acid, and erythrodiol content by 83, 41, and 36%, respectively. During fruit resting on the ground, olive oils showed no differences in uvaol content, a slight increase in erythrodiol, and a gradual increase in both oleanolic and maslinic acids, obtaining at the end of the experiment contents nearly 10- and 3-fold higher than control oils. These results confirm that olive oil triterpenic composition is modified by the factors analyzed. PMID:19702272

Allouche, Yosra; Uceda, Marino; Jiménez, Antonio; Aguilera, M Paz; Gaforio, José Juan; Beltrán, Gabriel

2009-10-14

202

Assessment of the anaerobic acidogenesis of wet olive cake from a two-phase olive oil mill  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the anaerobic acidogenesis of wet olive cake or olive mill solid waste (OMSW) from the two-phase olive oil mill industry was carried out. Eight different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) ranging from 50.0–10.7 days were studied. An increase of 935.7 % in total volatile fatty acids (VFA) over the initial acidic concentration in the OMSW (1.4 g L

Bárbara Rincón; Rafael Borja

2012-01-01

203

Effects of olive mill wastes added to olive grove soils on erosion and soil properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INTRODUCTION The increasing degradation of olive groves by effect of organic matter losses derived from intensive agricultural practices has promoted the use (by olive farmers) of olive mill wastes (olive leaves and alperujo) which contain large amounts of organic matter and are free of heavy metals and pathogenic microorganisms. In this work we compared the effects of these oil mill wastes on the decrease of soil erosion, also, we undertook the assessment of the organic carbon and nitrogen contents of soil, their distribution across the profile, the accumulation and Stratification ratios (SRs) of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN), and the C:N ratio, in Cambisols in Mediterranean olive groves treated with olive leaves and alperujo. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study area was a typical olive grove in southern Spain under conventional tillage (CT). Three plots were established. The first one was the control plot; the second one was treated with olive leaves (CTol) and the third one, with alperujo (CTa). 9 samples per plot were collected to examine the response of the soil 3 years after application of the wastes. Soil properties determined were: soil particle size, pH, bulk density, the available water capacity, SOC, TN and C:N ratio. SOC and N stock, expressed for a specific depth in Mg ha-1. Stratification ratios (SRs) (that can be used as an indicator of dynamic soil quality) for SOC and TN at three different depths were calculated. The erosion study was based on simulations of rain; that have been carried out in order to highlight differences in the phenomena of runoff and soil losses in the three plots considered. The effect of different treatments on soil properties was analyzed using a ANOVA, followed by an Anderson-Darling test. RESULTS Supplying the soil with the wastes significantly improved physical and chemical properties in the studied soils with respect to the control. C and N stocks increased, the SOC stock was 75.4 Mg ha-1 in CT, 91.5 Mg ha-1 in CTa and 136.3 Mg ha-1 in CTol; and the TN stock 12.1, 13.9 and 16.1 Mg ha-1 in CT, CTa and CTol, respectively. In addition, both oil mill wastes contributed to delay runoff generation and erosion, enhancing the infiltration of rainwater. Furthermore, application of the wastes improved soil quality (SRs of SOC were greater than 2). So the addition of these oil mill wastes to agricultural soils has become a viable solution to their disposal; not only do they enrich deficient soils with organic matter, but also improve their physical and chemical properties, even decrease soil erosion, especially olive leaves. REFERENCES Lozano-García, B., Parras-Alcántara, L., del Toro, M., 2011. The effects of agricultural management with oil mill by-products on surface soil properties, runoff and soil losses in southern Spain. Catena 85, 187-193. Lozano-García, B., Parras-Alcántara, L., 2013. Short-term effects of olive mill by-products on soil organic carbon, total N, C:N ratio and stratification ratios in a Mediterranean olive grove. Agriculture Ecosystem and Environment 165, 68-73.

Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

2014-05-01

204

Aumentan un 100% los estudiantes de Movilidad No Europea de la UA, los nuevos convenios y el presupuesto destinado a este programa  

E-print Network

Aumentan un 100% los estudiantes de Movilidad No Europea de la UA, los nuevos convenios y el vicerrector de Relaciones Internacionales de la UA, Juan Llopis, el director del Secretariado de Movilidad informativo con los estudiantes de la UA seleccionados para el programa propio de Movilidad No Europea. En

Escolano, Francisco

205

Biological and Molecular Characterization of Olive latent virus 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive latent virus 1 (OLV-1) belongs to the Necrovirus genus, Tombusviridae family and is pathogenic to olive, citrus and tulip plants. It is easily mechanically transmissible to indicator plants causing necrotic lesions and can be transmitted through the soil into the plant roots in the absence of biological vectors. Infected cells contain virus aggregates, inclusions made up of excess of

Maria do Rosário Félix; Joana M. S. Cardoso; Solange Oliveira; Maria Ivone; E. Clara

206

Ethanol production from lignocellulosic byproducts of olive oil extraction.  

PubMed

The recent implementation of a new two-step centrifugation process for extracting olive oil in Spain has substantially reduced water consumption, thereby eliminating oil mill wastewater. However, a new high sugar content residue is still generated. In this work the two fractions present in the residue (olive pulp and fragmented stones) were assayed as substrate for ethanol production by the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. Pretreatment of fragmented olive stones by sulfuric acid-catalyzed steam explosion was the most effective treatment for increasing enzymatic digestibility; however, a pretreatment step was not necessary to bioconvert the olive pulp into ethanol. The olive pulp and fragmented olive stones were tested by the SSF process using a fed-batch procedure. By adding the pulp three times at 24-h intervals, 76% of the theoretical SSF yield was obtained. Experiments with fed-batch pretreated olive stones provided SSF yields significantly lower than those obtained at standard SSF procedure. The preferred SSF conditions to obtain ethanol from olives stones (61% of theoretical yield) were 10% substrate and addition of cellulases at 15 filter paper units/g of substrate. PMID:11963854

Ballesteros, I; Oliva, J M; Saez, F; Ballesteros, M

2001-01-01

207

Production of activated carbon from acorns and olive seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has been designed to produce activated carbon from acorns and olive seeds. The starting materials are low in cost and they are the cause of solid waste pollution problems in Jordan. A chemical procedure is used to produce the required activated carbon. The results indicate that activated carbon produced from acorns compares favorably with that from olive seeds

Walid K Lafi

2001-01-01

208

Dietary supplementation with olive oil influences iron concentrations in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the effect of corn oil diet and olive oil diet (5%\\/wt) on serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation levels, plasma lipid peroxides and liver iron levels of male Sprague Dawley rats. After three weeks, blood and liver samples were collected assayed. Rats fed the olive-oil supplemented diet had significantly lower levels of serum iron and transferrin

Kothapa N. Chetty; Ragene Conway; Katrina C. Harris; Waneene C. Dorsey; Dagne Hill; Srikrishna Chetty; Rajashekar Yerrapragada; Sushil Jain

1999-01-01

209

Nitrogen mineralization in soils amended with composted olive mill sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disposal of olive mill wastewater (OMW) is a critical pollution problem, especially in Mediterranean countries. OMW is produced at a rate of ca. 2 1 kg-1 of olives. OMW has a biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of 35–48 g kg-1. The evaporation of OMW in ponds produces large amounts of sludge (OMWS), which after being dried can be used as

Francisco Cabrera; Piedad Martín-Olmedo; Rafael López; José Manuel Murillo

2005-01-01

210

Olive Phenol Hydroxytyrosol Prevents Passive Smoking-Induced Oxidative Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Oxidative stress is involved in the onset of several degenerative disorders, and epidemiological studies indicate that a high intake of dietary antioxidants, as in the case of the Mediterranean basin, is protective. Olive mill waste waters (OMWWs) are a byproduct of olive oil production rich in phenolic antioxidants, such as hydroxytyrosol. We tested the effects of a low dose of

Francesco Visioli; Claudio Galli; Elena Plasmati; Serena Viappiani; Alicia Hernandez; Claudio Colombo; Angelo Sala

2010-01-01

211

Comparative study on chemical changes in olive juice and brine during green olive fermentation.  

PubMed

Changes in physicochemical characteristics, substrate depletion, and product formation during fermentation were followed in both brine and olive juice in order to achieve a complete knowledge of fermentation chemistry in Spanish-type green olives. Both spontaneous and controlled fermentations were investigated. Fermentation rate, irrespective of the type of fermentation, was lower in olive juice than in brine, but the main acid products eventually reached equilibrium. Final free acidity remained significantly (p < 0.05) higher, and combined acidity remained lower, in brine than in olive juice in both fermentations, but differences in final pH were not significant in controlled fermentation. Final concentrations of lactic and formic acids were significantly (p < 0. 05) higher, and those of ethanol and succinic acid were lower, in controlled fermentation than in spontaneous fermentation. Butanediol, attributable to Enterobacteriaceae growth, was formed only in the latter case. Calculated carbon recoveries were not significantly (p < 0.05) different in any case, giving a mean of some 78%. PMID:11141267

Sánchez, A H; de Castro, A; Rejano, L; Montaño, A

2000-12-01

212

Olive response to water availability: yield response functions, soil water content indicators and evaluation of adaptability to climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate evolution, with the foreseen increase of temperature and frequency of drought events during the summer, could cause significant changes in the availability of water resources specially in the Mediterranean region. European countries need to encourage sustainable agriculture practices, reducing inputs, especially of water, and minimizing any negative impact on crop quantity and quality. Olive is an important crop in the Mediterranean region that has traditionally been cultivated with no irrigation and is known to attain acceptable production under dry farming. Therefore this crop will not compete for foreseen reduced water resources. However, a good quantitative knowledge must be available about effects of reduced precipitation and water availability on yield. Yield response functions, coupled with indicators of soil water availability, provide a quantitative description of the cultivar- specific behavior in relation to hydrological conditions. Yield response functions of 11 olive cultivars, typical of Mediterranean environment, were determined using experimental data (unpublished or reported in scientific literature). The yield was expressed as relative yield (Yr); the soil water availability was described by means of different indicators: relative soil water deficit (RSWD), relative evapotranspiration (RED) and transpiration deficit (RTD). Crops can respond nonlinearly to changes in their growing conditions and exhibit threshold responses, so for the yield functions of each olive cultivar both linear regression and threshold-slope models were considered to evaluate the best fit. The level of relative yield attained in rain-fed conditions was identified and defined as the acceptable yield level (Yrrainfed). The value of the indicator (RSWD, RED and RTD) corresponding to Yrrainfed was determined for each cultivar and indicated as the critical value of water availability. The error in the determination of the critical value was estimated. By means of a simulation model of the water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, the indicators of soil water availability were calculated for different soil units in an area of Southern Italy, traditionally cultivated with olive. Simulations were performed for two climate scenarios: reference (1961-90) and future climate (2021-50). The potentiality of the indicators RSWD, RED and RTD to describe soil water availability was evaluated using simulated and experimental data. The analysis showed that RED values were correlated to RTD. The analysis demonstrated that RTD was more effective than RED in representing crop water availability RSWD is very well correlated to RTD and the degree of correlation depends of the period of deficit considered. The probability of adaptation of each cultivar was calculated for both climatic periods by comparing the critical values (and their error distribution) with soil availability indicators. Keywords: Olea europaea, soil water deficit, water availability critical value. The work was carried out within the Italian national project AGROSCENARI funded by the Ministry for Agricultural, Food and Forest Policies (MIPAAF, D.M. 8608/7303/2008)

Riccardi, Maria; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Basile, Angelo; Bonfante, Antonello; Menenti, Massimo; Monaco, Eugenia; De Lorenzi, Francesca

2013-04-01

213

Effects of the olive, extra virgin olive and canola oils on cisplatin-induced clastogenesis in Wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cisplatin is one of the mostly used antineoplastic drugs in the treatment of cancer, but its clastogenic potential has become of great interest. In patients treated with long-term cisplatin, genetic damage can be observed during chemotherapy or many years later. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible anticlastogenic effect of pretreatment with olive, extra virgin olive, canola

Cristina Márcia Wolf Evangelista; Lusânia Maria Greggi Antunes; Helo??sa D. C Francescato; Maria Lourdes Pires Bianchi

2004-01-01

214

Influence of fruit ripeness and salt concentration on the microbial processing of Arbequina table olives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arbequina table olives are processed as “naturally green olives”, they are directly placed in brine and fermentation starts spontaneously. Olives are harvested just before they change to ‘turning colour’. Different salt concentrations are used depending on the producer. The aim of the study was to evaluate how (i) the ripeness of the olive when it is harvested and (ii) the

Albert Hurtado; Cristina Reguant; Albert Bordons; Nicolas Rozès

2009-01-01

215

Oxidative stability of olive oil and its polyphenolic compounds after boiling vegetable process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in the stability and phenolic content of an extra-virgin olive oil and an olive oil following boiling operation in the presence of vegetables have been studied. After the boiling process, none of the olive oil samples was oxidized, independently of the olive oil quality used. However, in contrast with tocopherols, all polyphenolic components decreased in concentration with the

Lisete Silva; Barbara Garcia; Fátima Paiva-Martins

2010-01-01

216

Enhancement of biogas production from olive mill effluent (OME) by co-digestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olive oil has a healthy image during its consumption due to its oleic acid content, which may prevent some human diseases. Ironically, by-products of olive mill production such as olive mill effluent (OME) and olive cake pose a serious environmental risk where it is produced. In this study, feasibility of using some agro-industrial residue streams such as cheese whey

Nuri Azbar; Tugba Keskin; Aysegul Yuruyen

2008-01-01

217

Blends of olive oil and sunflower oil: characterisation and olive oil quantification using fatty acid composition and chemometric tools.  

PubMed

A method capable of recognising the percentage of olive oil in a blend is required to verify whether its labelling complies with the statements set out by the Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1019/2002. In this study an analytical methodology was developed in order to define blends of olive oil and sunflower oil, which contain 50% of olive oil, compared to blends with 40% and 60% of it, respectively. Methyl esters of fatty acids were analysed by GC-FID and processed through chemometric tools (PCA, TFA, SIMCA and PLS). A strong differentiation of blends according to the amount of olive oil contained and a quantification model with a standard error of prediction of 1.51% were obtained. As this issue represents a significant analytical challenge, variability associated with the fatty acid composition of olive oil was first studied. PMID:23442687

Monfreda, M; Gobbi, L; Grippa, A

2012-10-15

218

Performance of Hardwoods Planted With Autumn Olive After Removing Prior Cover  

Microsoft Academic Search

WhIte ash, white oak, and black walnut were planted with and without autumn olive on a site previously occupied by a lO-year-old stand of autumn olive. Seven years later, height, diameter, and foliar nitrogen were significantly greater In plots with autumn olive than In plots without autumn olive. White oak In plots previously occupied by autumn olive were larger In

Felix Ponder

219

La cittadinanza dell'Unione europea e il federalismo fiscale Relazione tenuta dal prof. Ruggiero Cafari Panico  

E-print Network

La cittadinanza dell'Unione europea e il federalismo fiscale Relazione tenuta dal prof. Ruggiero della Corte di giustizia - 3. Le norme costituzionali e il federalismo fiscale - 4. La tassa sul lusso puramente interne - 6. Conclusioni 1. Le norme fiscali nel trattato di Lisbona. Il trattato di Lisbona

Romeo, Alessandro

220

Programmed-cell-death hallmarks in incompatible pollen and papillar stigma cells of Olea europaea L. under free pollination.  

PubMed

Programmed cell death (PCD) is a process that occurs both in animals and in plants and is an essential element in developmental processes. Pollination is a key factor in fruit production and self-incompatibility is one of the main limiting factors of this process. PCD has recently been put forward as a possible cause of pollen-growth arrest. As far as the olive is concerned, no data have been published concerning the mechanisms involved in hindering the growth of pollen tubes in incompatible pollen. Thus, we have studied olive pistils excised from freely pollinated flowers at different stages before and during the progamic phase using different cytochemical techniques, including trypan blue staining. To discover whether the elimination of incompatible pollen might be associated to PCD, we applied different tests to the excised pistils: (1) TUNEL assay; (2) DNA degradation analysis; (3) detection of caspase-3-like activity. Once we had determined that PCD was involved in pollen selection after free pollination, we conducted experiments after controlled pollination in pistils excised from flowers: (a) developing in the absence of pollen; (b) pollinated with sterile pollen that does not germinate; (c) self-pollinated; (d) pollinated with compatible pollen. Our results demonstrate that the growth of tubes in incompatible pollen is halted in the stylar area in a way that suggests the intervention of PCD. Furthermore, any pollen, even if sterile, seemed to accelerate PCD in papillar cells in the olive. PMID:20352230

Serrano, Irene; Irene, Serrano; Pelliccione, Salvatore; Salvatore, Pelliccione; Olmedilla, Adela; Adela, Olmedilla

2010-06-01

221

Sorption of copper by olive mill residues.  

PubMed

A study on olive mill residues (OMR) as copper adsorbing material is reported in this work. A rough characterization of this waste material has been performed, by microanalysis and SEM pictures. Sorption tests with suspended OMR evidenced copper removal from solution, of about 60% in the investigated experimental conditions. The COD release in solution was also monitored during biosorption. Considering that it was significant, OMR washings with water were performed before biosorption. In this case the COD release in solution was reduced to less than 600 mg/L after two washings, while the OMR metal sorption properties did not change. Regenerated residues by acid solutions gave a copper removal of about 40%, in the same experimental conditions of the first adsorption test: regeneration with EDTA at different concentrations suggested that it presents a damage of adsorption active sites. On the other hand, the use of HCl and CaCl(2) led to completely regenerate the biosorbent material. Tests were also performed with a column filled with 80 g of OMR and the breakpoint was demonstrated to take place after that about 1L solution was treated in the investigated experimental conditions. Regeneration tests permitted to demonstrate that a concentration factor of about 2 can be obtained in no-optimized conditions, highlighting the possibility of using OMR for the treatment of metal bearing effluents. The main advantage of the process would be the "low cost" biosorbing material, considering that it represents a waste in the olive oil production. PMID:14604635

Vegliò, F; Beolchini, F; Prisciandaro, M

2003-12-01

222

Cardioprotective and neuroprotective roles of oleuropein in olive  

PubMed Central

Traditional diets of people living in the Mediterranean basin are, among other components, very rich in extra-virgin olive oil, the most typical source of visible fat. Olive is a priceless source of monounsaturated and di-unsaturated fatty acids, polyphenolic antioxidants and vitamins. Oleuropein is the main glycoside in olives and is responsible for the bitter taste of immature and unprocessed olives. Chemically, oleuropein is the ester of elenolic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl ethanol, which possesses beneficial effects on human health, such as antioxidant, antiatherogenic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The phenolic fraction extracted from the leaves of the olive tree, which contains significant amounts of oleuropein, prevents lipoprotein oxidation. In addition, oleuropein has shown cardioprotective effect against acute adriamycin cardiotoxicity and an anti-ischemic and hypolipidemic activities. Recently, oleuropein has shown neuroprotection by forming a non-covalent complex with the A? peptide, which is a key hallmark of several degenerative diseases like Alzheimer and Parkinson. Thus, a large mass of research has been accumulating in the area of olive oil, in the attempt to provide evidence for the health benefits of olive oil consumption and to scientifically support the widespread adoption of traditional Mediterranean diet as a model of healthy eating. These results provide a molecular basis for some of the benefits potentially coming from oleuropein consumption and pave the way to further studies on the possible pharmacological use of oleuropein to prevent or to slow down the cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23964170

Omar, Syed Haris

2010-01-01

223

Spectroscopic and density functional theory studies of 5,7,3?,5?-tetrahydroxyflavanone from the leaves of Olea ferruginea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

5,7,3?,5?-Tetrahydroxyflavanone (1) was isolated from the leaves of Olea ferruginea and a theoretical model was developed for obtaining the electronic and spectroscopic properties of 1. The geometric and electronic properties were calculated at B3LYP/6-311 G (d, p) level of Density Functional Theory (DFT). The theoretical data was in good agreement with the experimental one. The optimized geometric parameters of compound 1 were calculated for the first time. The theoretical vibrational frequencies of 1 were found to correlate with the experimental IR spectrum after a scaling factor of 0.9811. The UV and NMR spectral data computed theoretically were in good agreement with the experimental data. Electronic properties of the compound i.e., ionization potential (IP), electron affinity (EA), coefficients of HOMO and LUMO were estimated computationally for the first time which can be used to explain its antioxidant as well as other related activities and more active sites on it. The intermolecular interactions and their effects on IR frequencies, electronic and geometric parameters were simulated using water molecule as a model for hydrogen bonding with flavonoid hydroxyl groups.

Hashmi, Muhammad Ali; Khan, Afsar; Ayub, Khurshid; Farooq, Umar

2014-07-01

224

Air pollution effects on the leaf structure of two injury resistant species: Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Olea europaea L  

SciTech Connect

The release of toxic gases as well as of particulate pollutants into the atmosphere is a major side effect of the human industrial, agricultural and domestic activities. The impact of these compounds on the various life forms of our planet seems to be very serious. Investigations of plant species resistant to pollution-induced injuries do have a meaning. The introduction of these species will improve air quality and establish a moderate rate of primary productivity in the handicapped regions. That is why data concerning an evergreen sclerophyllous species which does not present structural modifications and organelle destruction although forced to be a dweller of a partition isle in a heavily polluted, traffic-loaded main street of the smog-suffering city of Athens, Greece, seemed very interesting. In this paper, further investigation is presented. Two common, species were studied. The first, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, a huge tree once imported to Europe from Australia as a marsh-drier in an effort to control malaria, is a drought enduring species mostly known for the essential oils accumulated in its leaves. The second, Olea europaea L. var oleaster Brot, is a sclerophyllous tree growing wild in chaparall formations in Greece.

Christodoulakis, N.S.; Koutsogeorgopoulou, L. (Univ. of Athens (Greece))

1991-09-01

225

Chemical composition of virgin olive oils according to the ripening in olives.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was the classification of olive oil according to the stage of ripeness of the olives used for its manufacture. A discriminant analysis was applied taking as dependent variables the fatty acids, triglycerides and sterols profile. The evolution of parameters of quality of the oils during ripening of the fruit has also been studied in three successive crops. The results of the classification shows that 88.5% of selected original grouped cases are correctly classified (85.7% green, 80% spotted and 78.9% ripe) and furthermore the validation classified the 69.6% of the unselected original cases. The most discriminating variables have been: avenasterol, linolenic acid, ?-sitosterol and gadoleico. Fig. 1 shows graphically the values of the canonical discriminant functions and the centroids of the intervals of three or the maturity index. PMID:23870997

Fuentes de Mendoza, Manuel; De Miguel Gordillo, Concepción; Marín Expóxito, Julia; Sánchez Casas, Jacinto; Martínez Cano, Manuel; Martín Vertedor, Daniel; Franco Baltasar, Ma Nieves

2013-12-01

226

Microbiota of table olive fermentations and criteria of selection for their use as starters  

PubMed Central

Fermentation is one of the oldest methods for preserving of olives applied worldwide for thousands of years. However, olive processing is a speculative area where whether olives are fermented products or pickled products produced by organic acids and salt. Although lactobacilli and yeasts play a major role in the process, literature survey indicates that lactobacilli are less relevant at least in some types of natural green olives during fermentation. There have been significant advances recently in understanding the process to produce olives, especially the role of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts including biofilm formation on olive surfaces by these organisms. The purpose of this paper is to review the latest developments regarding the microbiota of olives on the basis of olive types, their role on the fermentation process, the interaction between both group of microorganisms and the olive surface, the possibility to use starter cultures and the criteria to select appropriate cultures. PMID:23781216

Heperkan, Dilek

2013-01-01

227

7 CFR 52.3752 - Types of canned ripe olives.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1...

2010-01-01

228

Biosensor immunoassay for traces of hazelnut protein in olive oil  

PubMed Central

The fraudulent addition of hazelnut oil to more expensive olive oil not only causes economical loss but may also result in problems for allergic individuals as they may inadvertently be exposed to potentially allergenic hazelnut proteins. To improve consumer safety, a rapid and sensitive direct biosensor immunoassay, based on a highly specific monoclonal antibody, was developed to detect the presence of hazelnut proteins in olive oils. The sample preparation was easy (extraction with buffer); the assay time was fast (4.5 min only) and the limit of detection was low (0.08 ?g/g of hazelnut proteins in olive oil). Recoveries obtained with an olive oil mixed with different amounts of a hazelnut protein containing hazelnut oil varied between 93% and 109%. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00216-009-2720-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:19263041

Smits, Nathalie G. E.; Haasnoot, Willem

2009-01-01

229

Oliver Wendell Holmes Man of Medicine; Man of Letters  

PubMed Central

This biographical sketch portrays Oliver Wendell Holmes as a leading figure both in American medicine and in American literature. Particular attention is directed to his classic essay, “The Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever.” PMID:5325818

Parker, Virginia

1966-01-01

230

77 FR 61573 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for Kemp's Ridley, Olive Ridley...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Olive Ridley, Leatherback, and Hawksbill Sea Turtles AGENCY: National...olive ridley, leatherback, and hawksbill sea turtles. Public Solicitation...olive ridley, leatherback, and hawksbill sea turtles. The 5-year...

2012-10-10

231

I WITH AUTUMN-OLIVE OR BLACK ALDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal changes in soil nitrogen (N) mineralization rates were estimated in situ at two locations in plots of black walnut interplanted with N2-fixing autumn-olive or black alder. Soil N mineralization rates were highest in most plots at both sites in late summer. N mineralization rates in plots containing actinorhizal autumn-olive or black alder were higher throughout the growing season than

Mark W. Paschke; Jeffrey O. Dawson

232

The role of structural C--H compared with phenolic OH sites on the antioxidant activity of oleuropein and its derivatives as a great non-flavonoid family of the olive components: a DFT study.  

PubMed

Oleuropein and its derivatives are the main phenolic compounds of Olea europaea L. leaf and fruit. The structure-antioxidant activity relationship was considered for studying the radical scavenging activity of this non-flavonoid family of the olive components using density functional theory (DFT). The structure of these compounds were optimized employing the B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) and the role of some structural CH positions was compared with phenolic OH sites on radical scavenging. As a result, a radical unique position (C3) in the oleuropein, characterized by low BDE (Bond Dissociation Enthalpy), reasonable spin density and electron distribution, was identified. The experimental results of the previous publications of oleuropein for NO and OH scavenging confirmed the presence of this unique active site in its molecular structure. According to the results, 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) cannot find this non-marginal active site. Therefore, DPPH may not be a determinant assay for all antioxidant comparisons. Solvent effects were considered in all calculations using a Polarized Continuum Model (PCM) at the B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) level. Solvation calculations were carried out for benzene (?=2.3) to simulate the oil environment compared to gas phase. PMID:24996331

Hassanzadeh, Keyumars; Akhtari, Keivan; Hassanzadeh, Halaleh; Zarei, Seyed Amir; Fakhraei, Nahid; Hassanzadeh, Katayoun

2014-12-01

233

Genetic Diversity of the Coat Protein of Olive Mild Mosaic Virus (OMMV) and Tobacco Necrosis Virus D (TNV-D) Isolates and Its Structural Implications  

PubMed Central

The genetic variability among 13 isolates of Olive mild mosaic virus (OMMV) and of 11 isolates of Tobacco necrosis virus D (TNV-D) recovered from Olea europaea L. samples from various sites in Portugal, was assessed through the analysis of the coat protein (CP) gene sequences. This gene was amplified through reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cloned, and 5 clone sequences of each virus isolate, were analysed and compared, including sequences from OMMV and TNV-D isolates originally recovered from different hosts and countries and available in the GenBank, totalling 131 sequences. The encoded CP sequences consisted of 269 amino acids (aa) in OMMV and 268 in TNV-D. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the isolates showed a very low variability among OMMV isolates, 0.005 and 0.007, respectively, as well as among TNV-D isolates, 0.006 and 0.008. The maximum nucleotide distances of OMMV and TNV-D sequences within isolates were also low, 0.013 and 0.031, respectively, and close to that found between isolates, 0.018 and 0.034, respectively. In some cases, less variability was found in clone sequences between isolates than in clone sequences within isolates, as also shown through phylogenetic analysis. CP aa sequence identities among OMMV and TNV-D isolates ranged from 84.3% to 85.8%. Comparison between the CP genomic sequences of the two viruses, showed a relatively low variability, 0.199, and a maximum nucleotide distance between isolates of 0.411. Analysis of comparative models of OMMV and TNV-D CPs, showed that naturally occurring substitutions in their respective sequences do not seem to cause significant alterations in the virion structure. This is consistent with a high selective pressure to preserve the structure of viral capsid proteins. PMID:25350108

Varanda, Carla M. R.; Machado, Marco; Martel, Paulo; Nolasco, Gustavo; Clara, Maria I. E.; Félix, Maria R.

2014-01-01

234

78 FR 48412 - Approval of Subzone Status Milwaukee Electric Tool Corporation Olive Branch, Greenwood and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Milwaukee Electric Tool Corporation Olive Branch, Greenwood and Jackson, Mississippi On June 5, 2013, the Executive Secretary of...Corporation at its facilities in Olive Branch, Greenwood and Jackson, Mississippi. The application was processed in...

2013-08-08

235

Inoculated fermentation of green olives with potential probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures isolated from industrially fermented olives.  

PubMed

The performance of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282, previously isolated from industrially fermented table olives and screened in vitro for probiotic potential, was investigated as starter cultures in Spanish style fermentation of cv. Halkidiki green olives. Fermentation was undertaken at room temperature in two different initial salt concentrations (8% and 10%, w/v, NaCl) in the brines. The strains were inoculated as single and combined cultures and the dynamics of their population on the surface of olives was monitored for a period of 114 days. The survival of inoculated strains on olives was determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Both probiotic strains successfully colonized the olive surface at populations ranged from 6.0 to 7.0 log CFU/g throughout fermentation. PFGE analysis revealed that L. pentosus B281 presented higher colonization in both salt levels at the end of fermentation (81.2% and 93.3% in 8% and 10% NaCl brines, respectively). For L. plantarum B282 a high survival rate (83.3%) was observed in 8% NaCl brines, but in 10% NaCl the strain could not colonize the surface of olives. L. pentosus B281 also dominated over L. plantarum B282 in inoculated fermentations when the two strains were used as combined culture. The biochemical profile (pH, organic acids, volatile compounds) attained during fermentation and the sensory analysis of the final product indicated a typical lactic acid fermentation process of green olives. PMID:24290645

Blana, Vasiliki A; Grounta, Athena; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

2014-04-01

236

The effects of inferior olive lesion on strychnine seizure  

SciTech Connect

Bilateral inferior olive lesions, produced by systemic administration of the neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3AP) produce a proconvulsant state specific for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus. We have proposed that these phenomena are mediated through increased excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, through activation of glutamate receptors, in response to climbing fiber deafferentation. An increase in quisqualic acid (QA)-displaceable ({sup 3}H)AMPA ((RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) binding in cerebella from inferior olive-lesioned rats was observed, but no difference in ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding displaced by glutamate, kainic acid (KA) or glutamate diethylester (GDEE) was seen. The excitatory amino acid antagonists GDEE and MK-801 ((+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cyclo-hepten-5,10 imine) were tested as anticonvulsants for strychnine-induced seizures in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned and control rats. Neither drug effected seizures in control rats, however, both GDEE and MK-801 produced a leftward shift in the strychnine-seizure dose-response curve in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned rats. GDEE also inhibited strychnine-induced myoclonus in the lesioned group, while MK-801 had no effect on myoclonus. The decreased threshold for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus in the 3AP-inferior olive-lesioned rats may be due to an increase in glutamate receptors as suggested by the ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding data.

Anderson, M.C.; Chung, E.Y.; Van Woert, M.H. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

1990-10-01

237

7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109 Section 932... § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged...

2011-01-01

238

7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109 Section 932... § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged...

2010-01-01

239

7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109 Section 932... § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged...

2012-01-01

240

An Evaluation of Chemical Treatment and Burning on the Control of Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellate)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since ceasing extensive planting of autumn olive, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources has sought means to control the spread of autumn olive into open habitats. We conducted an evaluation of the effectiveness of 2 herbicides in combination with a prescribed burn to kill autumn olive at the Rose Lake Wildlife Research Area in East Lansing, Michigan. Sixteen clumps of

Michael L. Donovan; Sarah L. Mayhew; Bruce E. Warren; Vernon E. Stephens

2007-01-01

241

Hydrolytic enzyme activities of extracted humic substances during the vermicomposting of a lignocellulosic olive waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humic substances and three hydrolytic enzymes (?-glucosidase, phosphatase and urease) were extracted by neutral sodium pyrophosphate from an olive waste (dry olive cake), alone or mixed with municipal biosolids, during a nine month vermicomposting process. Easily degradable compounds decreased during the vermicomposting process because of microbial consumption. When municipal biosolids were added to dry olive cake, microbial activity increased and

E. Benitez; H. Sainz; R. Nogales

2005-01-01

242

Quality attributes of black olives as affected by different darkening methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olives can be darkened by different methods, some of which utilize chemicals and even dyes in some locations. The present study was carried out to evaluate the different darkening methods in terms of acceptance and safety of blackened olives. Olives were blackened naturally (on the tree) as well as artificially. For the latter, air oxidation was conducted on both mature

H. M. S. Ziena; M. M. Youssef; M. E. Aman

1997-01-01

243

Tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol are absorbed from moderate and sustained doses of virgin olive oil in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the absorption of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol from moderate and sustained doses of virgin olive oil consumption. The study also aimed to investigate whether these phenolic compounds could be used as biomarkers of virgin olive oil intake.Design and interventions: Ingestion of a single dose of virgin olive oil (50 ml). Thereafter, for a week, participants followed their usual

E Miró-Casas; M-I Covas; M Fitó; M Farré-Albadalejo; J Marrugat; R de la Torre

2003-01-01

244

Disposal of by-products in olive oil industry: waste-to-energy solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive oil production industry is characterized by relevant amounts of liquid and solid by-products [olive mill wastewater (OMW) and olive husk (OH)], and by economical, technical and organizational constraints that make difficult the adoption of environmentally sustainable waste disposal approaches.In this context, waste treatment technologies aimed at energy recovery represent an interesting alternative. In the paper, a technical and economical

Antonio C. Caputo; Federica Scacchia; Pacifico M. Pelagagge

2003-01-01

245

Oleuropein and derivatives from olives as Tau aggregation inhibitors.  

PubMed

Tau isoforms constitute a family of microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons of the central nervous system. They promote the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and modulate their stability, thus playing a key structural role in the distal portion of axons. In Alzheimer's disease and related tauopathies, Tau aggregation into fibrillary tangles contributes to intraneuronal and glial lesions. We report herein the ability of three natural phenolic derivatives obtained from olives and derived food products to prevent such Tau fibrillization in vitro, namely hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, and oleuropein aglycone. The latter was found to be more active than the reference Tau aggregation inhibitor methylene blue on both wild-type and P301L Tau proteins, inhibiting fibrillization at low micromolar concentrations. These findings might provide further experimental support for the beneficial nutritional properties of olives and olive oil as well as a chemical scaffold for the development of new drugs aiming at neurodegenerative tauopathies. PMID:21333710

Daccache, Anthony; Lion, Cedric; Sibille, Nathalie; Gerard, Melanie; Slomianny, Christian; Lippens, Guy; Cotelle, Philippe

2011-05-01

246

Air and noise pollution of a diesel engine fuelled with olive pomace oil methyl ester and petrodiesel blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive pomace oil derives from the oil left in the olive fruit pulp than remains after pressing extra virgin olive oil. To extract olive pomace oil, the pulp is treated with solvents. The resultant oil contains impurities and may undergo several heating and filtering processes to refine it to an acceptable standard. To make it satisfactory to consumers, it must

M. D. Redel-Macías; S. Pinzi; D. Leiva; A. J. Cubero-Atienza; M. P. Dorado

247

Olive Oil Production in Greece1 The 1981 accession of Greece into the EEC was significant for the  

E-print Network

Olive Oil Production in Greece1 The 1981 accession of Greece into the EEC was significant for the olive oil sector. Greece is covered by 1,025,748 hectares of olive groves. In the period of 1991 to 1996 to other crops due to the high level of CAP support and high olive-oil prices and d) the lack

Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

248

Olive Mill Wastes—A Growing Medium Component for Seedling and Crop Production of Lettuce and Chicory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive mill waste management has been a major issue of environmental concern for all olive oil–producing countries. Several soil amendments have been used to improve the physical and chemical characteristics of rootzone profiles and mixes. Olive mill waste (OW, olive stone and pulp) in different ratios (10%, 30%, or 50% v\\/v) was investigated for use in production of lettuce (Lactuca

Sofia Kelepesi; Nikos G. Tzortzakis

2009-01-01

249

Olive Oil Headspace Characterization by a Gas Sensor Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Olive oil quality is strictly correlated to the volatile compounds profile. Both quality and defects can be connected to the presence of specific volatile compounds in the oil headspace. In this paper, olive oil samples have been artificially modified by adding a number of compounds known to be typical of the more frequent defects: fusty, musty, muddy and rancid. Results demonstrate the sensitivity of the electronic nose to the compounds characterizing the defects and then the capability of the instrument to identify the defects in real samples.

Santonico, Marco; Gianni, Giacomo; Capuano, Rosamaria; Migliorini, Marzia; Catini, Alexandro; Dini, Francesca; Martinelli, Eugenio; Paolesse, Roberto; D'Amico, Arnaldo; Di Natale, Corrado

2011-09-01

250

Olive oil production in Hellenistic Greece: the interpretation of charred olive remains from the site of Tria Platania, Macedonia, Greece (fourth–second century b.c. )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hellenistic farm site of Tria Platania in Macedonia, Greece, has revealed large quantities of charred olive remains, indicative\\u000a of olive oil production from the fourth to the second century b.c. There, besides stones (the endocarp), new archaeobotanical elements such as olive pulp and flesh (the mesocarp) and kernels\\u000a (the seed) were recovered for the first time in the archaeobotanical

Evi Margaritis; Martin Jones

2008-01-01

251

Influence of fruit ripeness and salt concentration on the microbial processing of Arbequina table olives.  

PubMed

Arbequina table olives are processed as "naturally green olives", they are directly placed in brine and fermentation starts spontaneously. Olives are harvested just before they change to 'turning colour'. Different salt concentrations are used depending on the producer. The aim of the study was to evaluate how (i) the ripeness of the olive when it is harvested and (ii) the salt concentration of the brine influence the different microorganism populations in brine during the fermentation of Arbequina table olives. The results showed that the Enterobacteriaceae population lasted longer in black and turning colour olives than in green olives, whereas the growth of lactic acid bacteria was delayed in green olives. A higher salt concentration favoured the elimination of Enterobacteriaceae and hindered yeast growth. The main yeast species identified were Pichia anomala, Candida sorbosa and Candida boidinii, while Lactobacillus plantarum was the only lactic acid bacteria species involved in the process. In a sensory test, panellists preferred green olives and were not able to tell the laboratory-scale processed olives from a commercial sample, nor could they distinguish green olives from different brines. PMID:19835767

Hurtado, Albert; Reguant, Cristina; Bordons, Albert; Rozès, Nicolas

2009-12-01

252

Isolation of megaritolactones and other bioactive metabolites from 'megaritiki' table olives and debittering water.  

PubMed

'Megaritiki' is an olive cultivar widely used in Greece for the production of low polyphenol olive oil and table olives. To investigate possible metabolic differentiation in comparison with other varieties, the composition of 'Megaritiki' olive fruits and wastewaters from the debittering procedure was studied. Moreover, the recovery of bioactive metabolites from wastewater using adsorption resin was studied to exploit this byproduct. Metabolites in fruits and wastewaters were monitored using NMR spectroscopy. The major constituents of wastewater were hydroxytyrosol-4-O-glucoside, 11-methyl-oleoside, hydroxytyrosol, and tyrosol but not oleuropein. Furthermore, wastewater afforded rengyoxide and rengyoside B, which are for the first time isolated from olives. The final edible olives, besides hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, contained rengyoxide and cleroindicin C, which are the first isolated from the species, haleridone for the first time isolated from edible olives, and four metabolites, which are the first reported as natural products, megaritodilactone, megaritolactonic acid, methyl ester of megaritolactonic acid B, and megaritolactonol. PMID:24383986

Mousouri, Evgenia; Melliou, Eleni; Magiatis, Prokopios

2014-01-22

253

Robustifying Robust Estimators David J. Olive and Douglas M. Hawkins  

E-print Network

estimators that are easy to compute, and the applications for these estimators are numerous. KEY WORDS. This cross checking estimator is inconsistent since the probability that the "robust" and classicalRobustifying Robust Estimators David J. Olive and Douglas M. Hawkins Southern Illinois University

Olive, David

254

a walking tour of ALONG THE OLIVE WALK  

E-print Network

a walking tour of Caltech ALONG THE OLIVE WALK #12;2 The California Institute of Technology Medal of Technology. Welcome to Caltech! Caltech offers an unparalleled undergraduate education and research experience through joint programs with City of Hope, Huntington Memorial Hospital, Children

Stoltz, Brian M.

255

How Particle Physics Cut Nature At Its Joints Oliver Schulte  

E-print Network

How Particle Physics Cut Nature At Its Joints Oliver Schulte Department of Philosophy and School in particle physics. Discovering conservation laws has posed various challenges concerning Model of particle physics, I show that the standard family laws are the only ones that determine

Schulte, Oliver

256

Subcritical water extraction of mannitol from olive leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcritical water extraction was investigated as a novel and alternative technology in the food and pharmaceutical industry for the separation of mannitol from olive leaves and its results were compared with those of Soxhlet extraction. The effects of temperature, pressure, and flow rate of water and also momentum and mass transfer dimensionless variables such as Reynolds and Peclet Numbers on

S. M. Ghoreishi; R. Gholami Shahrestani

2009-01-01

257

Characterization of the Photosynthetic Competitiveness of Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata), a non-native invasive shrub in the United States, threatens to decrease biodiversity in natural areas throughout Southwestern Michigan. This study conducted at the ecological preserve at Pierce Cedar Creek Institute in Barry County, Michigan, sought to characterize the photosynthetic competitiveness of E. umbellata in comparison with several established native species. Photosynthesis rates of E. umbellata and

Michele R. Ritsema; David L. Dornbos

258

Development of new composite biosorbents from olive pomace wastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study olive pomace was used as a source of binding substances for the development of composite biosorbents to be used in heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions. The aim was to obtain biosorbent material with an increased concentration of binding sites. The effects of two different extraction procedures (one using only methanol and the other one hexane followed by methanol) on the binding properties of olive pomace were tested by potentiometric titrations and batch biosorption tests for copper and cadmium removal. Titration modelling evidenced that both kinds of extractions generated a solid with a reduced amount of protonatable sites. Biosorption tests were organized according to full factorial designs. Analysis of variance denoted that both kinds of extractions determined a statistically significant negative effect on metal biosorption. In the case of cadmium extractions also determined a significant decrease of selectivity with respect to olive pomace. When the acid-base and binding properties of the substances extracted were determined, they were adsorbed onto a synthetic resin (octadecylsilane) and calcium alginate beads. In this way two kinds of composite biosorbents have been obtained both having an increased concentration of binding substances with respect to native olive pomace, also working more efficiently in metal removal.

Pagnanelli, Francesca; Viggi, Carolina Cruz; Toro, Luigi

2010-06-01

259

Effective pollination period for 'Manzanillo' and 'Picual' olive trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The effective pollination periods (EPP) for 'Manzanillo' and 'Picual' olive trees have been determined in two consecutive years in irrigated orchards in California and Spain. The duration of the EPP was variable between year and cultivar. Fruit set declined gradually in response to sequential cross-pollination. Consistent differences with respect to the maximum levels of initial fruit set occurred between

J. CUEVAS; V. PINILLOS; V. S. POLITO

260

Olive oil consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical implications of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) derive from their potential to progress to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Inappropriate dietary fat intake, excessive intake of soft drinks, insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress results in increased free fatty acid delivery to the liver and increased hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation. An olive oil-rich diet decreases accumulation of TGs in the

Nimer Assy; Faris Nassar; Gattas Nasser; Maria Grosovski; Israel Faris Nassar; Eddie Wisse; M. Olive

2009-01-01

261

67. Historic American Buildings Survey John Oliver Brostrup, Photographer August ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

67. Historic American Buildings Survey John Oliver Brostrup, Photographer August 12,1936 1:35 P. M. VIEW OF C.C.C. BOYS SCREENING FOR ARTIFACTS. - General John Mason House, Analostan Island or Theodore Roosevelt Island, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

262

The Rotation Group of Rubik's Cube Oliver Knill  

E-print Network

The Rotation Group of Rubik's Cube Oliver Knill Roman E. Mdder ETH Zurich Revised by Robin S theory program "Cayley" is used to solve some problems asso ciated with Rubik's Cube, including the original problem of restoring the initial state of the cube. Project-No.: 003-021 Title: Rubik's Cube

Knill, Oliver

263

Virgin olive oil reduces blood pressure in hypertensive elderly subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & aims: Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors for coronary heart disease. Recent studies have pointed out the possibility that virgin olive oil (VOO) may lower blood pressure in hypertensive (HT) subjects. However, until the date there is scarce information regarding elderly people. The present study was designed to assess the effect of dietary VOO on

Javier S. Perona; Julio Cañizares; Emilio Montero; José M. Sánchez-Dom??nguez; Angel Catalá; Valentina Ruiz-Gutiérrez

2004-01-01

264

Is It Advisable to Store Olive Oil in PET Bottles?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the role of the container material on the quality of olive oil, literature results concerning the analytical definition of the quality of oils stored in PET or glass bottles were critically reviewed. The performance of active and passive barrier PET containers may move towards that of glass bottles. The influence of storage conditions was also considered: the main

Teresa Cecchi; Paolo Passamonti; Patrizio Cecchi

2009-01-01

265

Improvement of the storage process for cracked table olives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to improve the storage method for cracked table olives. First, a study was carried out of the washing phase in 5% (wt\\/vol) NaCl brine with ascorbic acid and sodium metabisulphite added to it. Its use removed half the proportion of the initial sugar content in the flesh and markedly decreased the content of polyphenols

F. N. Arroyo-López; J. Bautista-Gallego; M. C. Durán-Quintana; F. Rodríguez-Gómez; C. Romero-Barranco; A. Garrido-Fernández

2008-01-01

266

Packaging of Olive Oil: Quality Issues and Shelf Life Predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive oil has gained much appreciation among consumers worldwide leading to increased markets as well as greater consumer expectation and thus more challenges for the relevant food sector. By understanding the product, its interactions with the environment, and the protective role of the package, decisions can be made on the barrier properties required of the packaging materials to achieve the

Antonis Kanavouras; Pilar Hernandez-Munoz; Frank A. Coutelieris

2006-01-01

267

Interactive Visualization of Complex Plant Ecosystems Oliver Deussen1  

E-print Network

of a landscape in the future. In recent years, a number of plant generation systems have been developedInteractive Visualization of Complex Plant Ecosystems Oliver Deussen1 Carsten Colditz1 Marc a method for interactive rendering of large outdoor scenes. Complex polygonal plant models and whole plant

Reiterer, Harald

268

Fusing a Heterogeneous Alert Stream into Scenarios Oliver Dain  

E-print Network

Fusing a Heterogeneous Alert Stream into Scenarios£ Oliver Dain Massachusetts Institute 18th December 2001 Abstract An algorithm for fusing the alerts produced by multiple heterogeneous intrusion detection systems is pre- sented. The algorithm runs in realtime, combining the alerts

269

Fusing a Heterogeneous Alert Stream into Scenarios Oliver Dain  

E-print Network

Fusing a Heterogeneous Alert Stream into Scenarios£ Oliver Dain Massachusetts Institute 14th September 2001 Abstract An algorithm for fusing the alerts produced by multiple heterogeneous intrusion detection systems is pre- sented. The algorithm runs in realtime, combining the alerts

270

Comparative study of phytosterol derivatives in monovarietal olive oils.  

PubMed

Plant sterols and their derivatives are minor compounds that have been extensively studied in vegetable oils, mainly in olive oil, where they are closely related with its identity. The objective of this work is to determine the content of free and esterified steryl glucosides and their profiles in olive oil in relation to different geographical situation of olive orchards, cultivar, farming modality, and sampling time. The orchards under study were located in the outer ring of the submetropolitan area of Madrid (Spain), where olives from Cornicabra, Manzanilla Cacereña, Manzanilla Castellana, and Picual varieties were grown under traditional and organic modes, and harvested in four different samplings. Conclusions state that cultivar, farming mode, and light exposure do not have outstanding effects, whereas pedoclimate might affect the steryl glucoside presence in a substantial way. Further studies are being carried out presently in order to confirm such statement. Also glucoside derivative profiles are discussed, and reasons for differences with results in previous studies pointed out. PMID:24861171

Gómez-Coca, Raquel B; Fernandes, Gabriel D; Del Aguila-Sánchez, Chellah; Pérez-Camino, María Del Carmen; Moreda, Wenceslao

2014-06-18

271

Combined use of nitrogen and coatings to improve the quality of mechanically harvested Manzanilla olives.  

PubMed

The combined effect of an edible coating and a nitrogen atmosphere on the quality of Manzanilla olives mechanically harvested and processed as Spanish-style green olives was assessed. The percentage of olives free of any brown spots ranged between 35-50%, 10-25% and 50-65% for fruit directly processed, storage under nitrogen and coated and storage under nitrogen respectively. Moreover, olives stored in the open air developed brown spots due to the oxidation of oleuropein. By contrast, the anoxic conditions prevented oleuropein from undergoing enzymatic oxidation but not from its enzymatic hydrolysis. Hence, the phenolic derivative HyEDA was formed in olives stored under nitrogen, and this substance was rapidly oxidized in the open air to give rise to brown spots although to a lesser extent in the coated fruit. Therefore, the postharvest storage of coated olives under nitrogen can be a good method to prevent bruise damage in mechanically harvested fruit. PMID:25308641

Ramírez, Eva; Sánchez, Antonio H; Romero, Concepción; Brenes, Manuel

2015-03-15

272

Ultrasonic and thermal pretreatments to enhance the anaerobic bioconversion of olive husks.  

PubMed

Olive husks, typical solid by-products from the olive oil industry, were selected to carry out anaerobic digestion tests. Before digestion, olive husks were subjected to ultrasonic or thermal pretreatments in order to release the organic matter into solution. Both sonication and thermal pretreatment allowed to solubilize the particulate matter with 22% and 72% increase in soluble organics of olive husks, respectively. Nevertheless, such pretreatments caused the release of unwanted molecules in solution, with the related risks of inhibition of the methanogenic process. Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests on olive husks mixed with olive-mill wastewater and dairy wastewater, either pretreated or not, showed that ultrasound pretreatment resulted in 15% increase in volatile solids reduction and a 13% increase in biogas production, while after thermal pretreatment no benefits were observed. PMID:24035286

Gianico, A; Braguglia, C M; Mescia, D; Mininni, G

2013-11-01

273

Plant food supplements with anti-inflammatory properties: a systematic review (I).  

PubMed

Plant food supplements (PFS) receive great acceptance by European consumers. However, quality and efficacy of these products remain a question of concern. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize and critically evaluate the evidence for or against the efficacy of PFS for coping inflammatory conditions by considering epidemiological and human intervention studies. The review, which consists of two parts, considers Olea europea L., Camellia sinensis L., Vitis vinifera L., and Matricaria recutita L., which are herbal material frequently used also as food. The search retrieved 1251 publications. By applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the final number of papers was 91. Vitis vinifera L. showed promising results, but other trials should be performed in order to assessing the efficacy. Surprisingly, it was impossible to draw conclusions for the anti-inflammatory effect of Camellia sinensis L. as green tea. No studies were found on the leaves of Olea europea L. whereas more human trials are needed to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of olive oil. Only one study for Matricaria recutita L. was selected. In conclusion, it is advisable to conduct further studies with more homogeneous population and larger number of subjects by avoiding the heterogeneity of the herbal preparations considered. PMID:23320910

Dell'Agli, Mario; Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Badea, Mihaela; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Dima, Lorena; Bosisio, Enrica; Restani, Patrizia

2013-01-01

274

SCADENZA ENTE FINANZIATORE PROGRAMMA TITOLO NOTE 06/09/12 Commissione Europea VII Programma Quadro ARTEMIS Call Identifier: ARTEMIS-2012-1  

E-print Network

COOPERATION - NMP - Nanoscience, Nanotechnologies, Materials and New production Technologies - LARGE 2013 Call Identifier: FP7-NMP-2013- LARGE-7 23/10/12 Commissione Europea VII Programma Quadro COOPERATION - NMP - Nanoscience, Nanotechnologies, Materials and New production Technologies - SMALL 2013 Call Identifier: FP7-NMP

275

Liquid Hot Water Pretreatment of Olive Tree Pruning Residues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Olive tree pruning generates an abundant, renewable lignocellulose residue, which is usually burnt on fields to prevent propagation of vegetal diseases, causing economic costs and environmental concerns. As a first step in an alternative use to produce fuel ethanol, this work is aimed to study the pretreatment of olive tree pruning residues by liquid hot water. Pretreatment was carried out at seven temperature levels in the range 170-230°C for 10 or 60 min. Sugar recoveries in both solid and liquid fractions resulting from pretreatment as well as enzymatic hydrolysis yield of the solid were used to evaluate pretreatment performance. Results show that the enzyme accessibility of cellulose in the pretreated solid fraction increased with pretreatment time and temperature, although sugar degradation in the liquid fraction was concomitantly higher.

Cara, Cristóbal; Romero, Inmaculada; Oliva, Jose Miguel; Sáez, Felicia; Castro, Eulogio

276

Effects of the Olive-Derived Polyphenol Oleuropein on Human Health  

PubMed Central

The use of the products derived from the olive tree on human health dates back centuries. In several civilizations, the olive tree had and still has a very strong cultural and religious symbolism. Notably, the official seal and emblem of the World Health Organization features the rod of Asclepius over a world map surrounded by olive tree branches, chosen as a symbol of peace and health. Recently, accumulating experimental, clinical and epidemiological data have provided support to the traditional beliefs of the beneficial effect provided by olive derivates. In particular, the polyphenols present in olive leaves, olives, virgin (unrefined) olive oil and olive mill waste are potent antioxidant and radical scavengers with anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we review the positive impact on human health of oleuropein, the most prevalent polyphenol present in olives. In addition, we provide data collected in our laboratory on the role of oleuropein in counteracting lipid accumulation in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:25318054

Barbaro, Barbara; Toietta, Gabriele; Maggio, Roberta; Arciello, Mario; Tarocchi, Mirko; Galli, Andrea; Balsano, Clara

2014-01-01

277

Phenolic Compounds Profile of Cornicabra Virgin Olive Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the phenolic compounds profile of commercial Cornicabra virgin olive oils from five successive crop seasons (1995\\/1996 to 1999\\/2000; n ) 97), determined by solid phase extraction reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (SPE RP-HPLC), and its relationship with oxidative stability, processing conditions, and a preliminary study on variety classification. The median of total phenols content was 38 ppm

SERGIO GO Ä MEZ-ALONSO; DESAMPARADOS SALVADOR; GIUSEPPE FREGAPANE

278

Olive production systems on sloping land: prospects and scenarios.  

PubMed

The ultimate objective of the EU Olivero project was to improve the quality of life of the rural population and to assure the sustainable use of the natural resources of land and water in the sloping and mountainous olive production systems (SMOPS) areas in Southern Europe. One specific objective was to develop, with end-users, alternative future scenarios for olive orchards in the five Olivero target areas. This paper discusses the development of these scenarios, and their socio-economic and environmental effects. After presenting the different production systems (SMOPS) and their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, a general overview is given of the medium- and long-term prospects. These have been validated by experts from the olive sector and foresee changes towards abandonment, intensification and organic production. On balance, the changes could lead to lower production of some target areas in future. An analysis of major external factors affecting the future development of SMOPS indicates there will be labour shortages and increased wage rates, reduced subsidies and constant or rising olive oil prices. On the basis of these assumptions, four future scenarios are developed for the five target areas, with the help of a Linear Programming simulation model. The results are presented for two target areas. For the Trás-os-Montes target area in Portugal, three of the four tested scenarios point to a high level of abandonment, while in the most positive scenario the areas under semi-intensive low input and organic SMOPS increase. In the Granada and Jaen target area in Spain, all scenarios hint at intensification, and only the orchards on the steepest slopes are likely to be abandoned. The direction and extent of environmental effects (erosion, fire risk, pollution, water use and biodiversity) differ per scenario, as do the extent of cross-compliance and agri-environmental measures. PMID:17913332

de Graaff, Jan; Duran Zuazo, Victor-Hugo; Jones, Nádia; Fleskens, Luuk

2008-11-01

279

Lactobacillus casei, dominant species in naturally fermented Sicilian green olives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of lactic acid bacteria in naturally fermented green olives, collected from different areas of Sicily. Both classical biochemical tests and PCR\\/Restriction Fragments Length Polymorphism (RFLP) of 16S rDNA were used to characterize the isolates. The identity of the isolates was obtained by the partial sequencing analysis of the 16S rDNA. The BioMerieux

Cinzia L. Randazzo; Cristina Restuccia; A. Daniele Romano; Cinzia Caggia

2004-01-01

280

Robust control charts in industrial production of olive oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acidity is one of the most important variables in the quality analysis and characterization of olive oil. During the industrial production we use individuals and moving range charts to monitor this variable, which is not always normal distributed. After a brief exploratory data analysis, where we use the bootstrap method, we construct control charts, before and after a Box-Cox transformation, and compare their robustness and performance.

Grilo, Luís M.; Mateus, Dina M. R.; Alves, Ana C.; Grilo, Helena L.

2014-10-01

281

Olive oil microemulsions: enzymatic activities and structural characteristics.  

PubMed

Microemulsions composed of olive oil, either extravirgin (EVOO) or refined (ROO), as the continuous oil phase, water as the dispersed phase, and a mixture of lecithin-propanol as the emulsifier were prepared and investigated as potential biocompatible media for biotransformations. The area of the microemulsion zone increased considerably by increasing the lecithin to propanol weight ratio in both EVOO- and ROO-based systems. However, the nature of the oil used does not seem to affect the ability of the system to incorporate water. The catalytic activities of two oxidizing enzymes that have been detected in virgin olive oil, namely, tyrosinase and peroxidase, and the activity of a proteolytic enzyme such as trypsin were studied in olive oil microemulsions. In all cases a reduced catalytic activity was observed when ROO was considered as the continuous oil phase. The interfacial properties of lecithin layers were studied by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy employing the nitroxide spin probe 5-doxylstearic acid. By varying the weight ratio of lecithin to propanol and the water content of the microemulsions, the mobility of the probe and the rigidity of the interface were altered. Droplet sizes were measured by dynamic light scattering. At higher water content of the system the size of the droplets was increased. When EVOO was considered as the oil phase, smaller aqueous droplets were formed. Lecithin-based olive oil microemulsions were also characterized with regard to the phenomenon of electrical percolation. At a water content above 3% (w/w) and a lecithin/propanol weight ratio of 2, a sharp increase in conductivity was observed, indicating a structural transition in the bicontinuous form. PMID:17279697

Papadimitriou, Vassiliki; Sotiroudis, Theodore G; Xenakis, Aristotelis

2007-02-13

282

Microsatellite markers for Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia; Elaeagnaceae)1  

PubMed Central

• Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for the plant species Elaeagnus angustifolia to assist in future investigations of genetic variability in its native and invasive ranges and the precise origins of the United States/Canada invasion. • Methods and Results: Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed. The number of alleles observed for each locus ranged from three to 11. • Conclusions: These microsatellites have sufficient potential variability to define population structure and origins of the Russian olive invasion. PMID:25202584

Gaskin, John F.; Hufbauer, Ruth A.; Bogdanowicz, Steven M.

2013-01-01

283

Evidence of olive mild mosaic virus transmission by Olpidium brassicae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmission of three strains of OMMV by an Olpidium sp. was evaluated and compared. The three strains were 1) an OMMV wild type (WT) recovered from olive trees, 2) an OMMV variant\\u000a (L11) obtained after 15 serial passages of single local lesions induced in Chenopodium murale plants, and 3) a construct OMMV\\/OMMVL11 in which the coat protein (CP) gene replaced

Carla M. R. Varanda; Marta S. M. R. Silva; Maria do Rosário F. Félix; Maria Ivone E. Clara

2011-01-01

284

Olive oil hydroxytyrosol protects human erythrocytes against oxidative damages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroxytyrosol, the major representative phenolic compound of virgin olive oil, is a dietary component. Its possible protective effect on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative alterations was investigated in human erythrocytes. Cells were pretreated with micromolar hydroxytyrosol concentrations and then exposed to H2O2 over different time intervals. Subsequently, erythrocytes were analyzed for oxidative hemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Our data demonstrate that hydroxytyrosol

Caterina Manna; Patrizia Galletti; Valeria Cucciolla; Gianfrancesco Montedoro; Vincenzo Zappia

1999-01-01

285

Joaquim Oliv Director de la School of Professional &  

E-print Network

2012/13 EEES MÁSTER EN TECNOLOGÍA Y GESTI�N DEL AGUA 2A EDICI�N #12;Joaquim Olivé Director de la agua con más de 140 años de experiencia. Agbar es un referente a nivel nacional e internacional con, desarrollar y poner a disposición el conocimiento y expertise de Agbar, ofreciendo a las empresas del agua y

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

286

Olive Oil Based Emulsions in Frozen Puff Pastry Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Puff pastry is an interesting food product having different industrial applications. It is obtained by laminating layers of dough and fats, mainly shortenings or margarine, having specific properties which provides required spreading characteristic and able to retain moisture into dough. To obtain these characteristics, pastry shortenings are usually saturated fats, however the current trend in food industry is mainly oriented towards unsatured fats such as olive oil, which are thought to be safer for human health. In the present work, a new product, based on olive oil, was studied as shortening replacer in puff pastry production. To ensure the desired consistency, for the rheological matching between fat and dough, a water-in-oil emulsion was produced based on olive oil, emulsifier and a hydrophilic thickener agent able to increase material structure. Obtained materials were characterized by rheological dynamic tests in linear viscoelastic conditions, aiming to setup process and material consistency, and rheological data were analyzed by using the weak gel model. Results obtained for tested emulsions were compared to theological properties of a commercial margarine, adopted as reference value for texture and stability. Obtained emulsions are characterized by interesting rheological properties strongly dependent on emulsifier characteristics and water phase composition. However a change in process temperature during fat extrusion and dough lamination seems to be necessary to match properly typical dough rheological properties.

Gabriele, D.; Migliori, M.; Lupi, F. R.; de Cindio, B.

2008-07-01

287

Endopathogenic lifestyle of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi in olive knots  

PubMed Central

Summary The endophytic phase of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi in olive stems and the structural and ultrastructural histogenesis of olive knots have been studied. Construction of a stable plasmid vector expressing the green fluorescent protein, in combination with the use of in vitro olive plants, allowed real?time monitoring of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi infection. The infection process was also examined by bright field and epifluorescence microscopy as well as by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Hypertrophy of the stem tissue was concomitant with the formation of bacterial aggregates, microcolonies and multilayer biofilms, over the cell surfaces and the interior of plasmolysed cells facing the air?tissue interface of internal opened fissures, and was followed by invasion of the outer layers of the hypertrophied tissue. Pathogenic invasion of the internal lumen of newly formed xylem vessels, which were connected with the stem vascular system, was also observed in late stages of infection. Ultrastructural analysis of knot sections showed the release of outer membrane vesicles from the pathogen surface, a phenomenon not described before for bacterial phytopathogens during host infection. This is the first real?time monitoring of P. savastanoi disease development and the first illustrated description of the ultrastructure of P. savastanoi?induced knots. PMID:21255279

Rodriguez-Moreno, Luis; Jimenez, Antonio J.; Ramos, Cayo

2009-01-01

288

Properties of lignin, cellulose, and hemicelluloses isolated from olive cake and olive stones: binding of water, oil, bile acids, and glucose.  

PubMed

A process based on a steam explosion pretreatment and alkali solution post-treatment was applied to fractionate olive stones (whole and fragmented, without seeds) and olive cake into their main constitutive polymers of cellulose (C), hemicelluloses (H), and lignin (L) under optimal conditions for each fraction according to earlier works. The chemical characterization (chromatographic method and UV and IR spectroscopy) and the functional properties (water- and oil-holding capacities, bile acid binding, and glucose retardation index) of each fraction were analyzed. The in vitro studies showed a substantial bile acid binding activity in the fraction containing lignin from olive stones (L) and the alkaline extractable fraction from olive cake (Lp). Lignin bound significantly more bile acid than any other fraction and an amount similar to that bound by cholestyramine (a cholesterol-lowering, bile acid-binding drug), especially when cholic acid (CA) was tested. These results highlight the health-promoting potential of lignin from olive stones and olive cake extracted from olive byproducts. PMID:25140731

Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo; Rubio-Senent, Fátima; Lama-Muñoz, Antonio; García, Aránzazu; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan

2014-09-10

289

?-cyclodextrin and caffeine complexes with natural polyphenols from olive and olive oils: NMR, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies.  

PubMed

Complexes of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and caffeine (Caf) with biophenols present in olive and olive oil (tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, homovanillic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and protocatechuic acid) were investigated by NMR spectroscopy and thermodynamical-molecular dynamic studies to verify the formation of supermolecular aggregates. The obtained results indicated that the investigated biophenols form inclusion complexes with ?-CD in a molar ratio of 1:1 in aqueous solution having binding constant values from 10- to 40-fold bigger than those of the corresponding complexes with Caf. Then, ?-CD preferentially encloses the biophenol molecule, decreasing its bitter taste and, at the same time, preserving it against chemical and physical decomposition reactions that occur during storage. PMID:21047064

Rescifina, Antonio; Chiacchio, Ugo; Iannazzo, Daniela; Piperno, Anna; Romeo, Giovanni

2010-11-24

290

High-performance liquid chromatography evaluation of phenols in olive fruit, virgin olive oil, vegetation waters, and pomace and 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic compounds are the most important antioxidants of virgin olive oil. This paper reports on the application of solid\\u000a phase extraction (SPE) in the separation of phenolic compounds from olive fruit, olive oil, and by-products of the mechanical\\u000a extraction of the oil and the complete spectroscopic characterization by nuclear magnetic resonance of demethyloleuropein\\u000a and verbascoside extracted from olive fruit. SPE

Maurizio Servili; Maura Baldioli; Roberto Selvaggini; Enrico Miniati; Alceo Macchioni; Gianfrancesco Montedoro

1999-01-01

291

Heavy metal accumulation in the mole, Talpa europea, and earthworms as an indicator of metal bioavailability in terrestrial environments  

SciTech Connect

Bioaccumulation studies in animals can supply valuable information to supplement the data obtained by chemical analysis of pollutants in abiotic samples. With respect to the terrestrial ecosystem, suitable indicator species in the decomposer subsystem can be identified on the basis of functional characteristics and trophic level. Investigations on metal behavior at the first trophic level, done in lumbricid earthworms showed that the potential for bioaccumulation depends on the degree of contamination as well as on the metal-binding capacity of the soil. The present study was performed to investigate metal behavior at a higher trophic level, and the mole (Talpa europea) was chosen a representative of the terrestrial decomposer subsystem. As earthworms are the preferred food of moles, they provide the major source of ingested metals to these animals. The food chain involving earthworms and moles provides an example of a critical pathway for potentially toxic non-essential metals such as cadmium and lead.

Ma, W.

1987-12-01

292

Implementation of Physicochemical and Sensory Analysis in Conjunction with Multivariate analysis towards Assessing Olive Oil Authentication\\/Adulteration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authenticity of products labeled as olive oils, and in particular as virgin olive oils, stands for a very important issue both in terms of its health and commercial aspects. In view of the continuously increasing interest in virgin olive oil therapeutic properties, the traditional methods of characterization and physical and sensory analysis were further enriched with more advanced and

Ioannis S. Arvanitoyannis; Antonios Vlachos

2007-01-01

293

Variability of Ole e 9 Allergen in Olive Pollen Extracts: Relevance of Minor Allergens in Immunotherapy Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Clustered severe adverse reactions to immunotherapy with olive pollen extracts have been occasionally reported in areas where olive trees are extensively grown. Allergic patients from these areas, in addition to the major olive pollen allergen Ole e 1, frequently recognize a recently described allergen, Ole e 9. Objective: We aimed to develop an immunoassay to measure Ole e 9

Oscar Duffort; Oscar Palomares; Manuel Lombardero; Mayte Villalba; Domingo Barber; Rosalía Rodríguez; Florentino Polo

2006-01-01

294

Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology: Christian N. L. Olivers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Christian N. L. Olivers, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology, is cited for outstanding research on visual attention and working memory. Olivers uses classic experimental designs in an innovative and sophisticated way to determine underlying mechanisms. He has formulated important theoretical…

American Psychologist, 2009

2009-01-01

295

Optimisation and characterisation of various extraction conditions of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in olive seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to optimise the extraction conditions of phenolic compounds to evaluate antioxidant extraction parameters and to identify the major free and bound phenolic compounds in olive seeds. The results obtained using methanol as an extraction solvent for olive seeds indicated that the optimised total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were obtained at an extraction time of 12?h,

Muhammad H. Alu’datt; Inteaz Alli; Khalil Ereifej; Mohammad N. Alhamad; Ahmad Alsaad; Taha Rababeh

2011-01-01

296

Process characteristics and products of olive kernel high temperature steam gasification (HTSG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploitation of olive kernel for bioenergy production, with respect to the green house gases (GHGs) mitigation, is the main aim of this work. In this study, olive kernels were used as a solid biofuel, and high temperature steam gasification (HTSG) was investigated, in the fixed bed unit at KTH Sweden, with regard to hydrogen maximization in the produced gasification gas.

V. Skoulou; A. Swiderski; W. Yang; A. Zabaniotou

2009-01-01

297

Chemical composition and oxidative stability of Tunisian monovarietal virgin olive oils with regard to fruit ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of virgin olive oil may be influenced by genotype and different agronomic (i.e. fruit ripeness degree, water supply) and technological factors. This article reports the evaluation of the influence of the olive ripening stage on the quality indices, the major and the minor components and the oxidative stability of the two main monovarietal Tunisian cultivars (cvv. Chétoui

Olfa Baccouri; Mokhtar Guerfel; Bechir Baccouri; Lorenzo Cerretani; Alessandra Bendini; Giovanni Lercker; Mokhtar Zarrouk; Douja Daoud Ben Miled

2008-01-01

298

The Origins of Racism: The Critical Theory of Oliver C. Cox  

E-print Network

Oliver C. Cox's theory of race relations and its impending problems in connection with the rise of capitalism have not been applied or addressed to the same extent as that of his contemporaries. Why does the work of Oliver Cox continue to be largely...

Klarlund, Susan E.

1994-04-01

299

Transpiration, crop coefficient and water use of Olive tree (cv. Cordovil) in Southern Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orchard olive transpiration, soil water status and stomatal response in relation to water deficit were investigated to clarify mechanisms of tree water uptake and stomatal control to improve the irrigation scheduling of low-density olive trees of cv. Cordovil grown in typical Mediterranean environment of Southern Portugal. Trees were subject to three irrigation treatments. Treatment A received 100% of crop evapotranspiration

F. L. Santos

2008-01-01

300

Vejetatif Development and Sprouting Rates of Domat Olive Cultivar on Different Clonal Rootstocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was done with aview to propagation Domat olive cultivar the most important table olive cultivar in Turkey, by grafting it on the clonal rootstocks. Cuttings from 4 wild types (D-9, D-14, D-36, D-43) and 2 cultivars (Gemlik and Manzanilla) were used as rootstocks. The cuttings of clonal rootstocks were rooted in a rooting unit adjustable for heat and

Ünal KAYA

301

Autumnal changes in tissue nitrogen of autumn olive, black alder and eastern cottonwood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to determine patterns of N change in tissues of autumn olive (Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb.) and black alder (Alnus glutinosa [L.] Gaertn.) during autumn in central Illinois, U.S.A. In the first study leaf nitrogen concentrations of autumn olive decreased 40% at an infertile minespoil site and 39% at a fertile prairie site throughout autumn whereas nitrogen concentrations

Benoit Côté; Christoph S. Vogel; Jeffrey O. Dawson

1989-01-01

302

NITROGEN LEACHING BELOW RIPARIAN AUTUMN OLIVE STANDS IN THE DORMANT SEASON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our research objective was to determine if excess nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) were leaching below the rooting zones of autumn olive stands during the dormant season. Autumn olive is a nitrogen fixer, through a symbiotic relationship with actinomycetes of the genus Frankia. It is an exotic woody shrub that was promoted for wildlife habitat but has become naturalized and

Jennie M. Church; Karl W. J. Williard; Sara G. Baer; John W. Groninger; James J. Zaczek

303

Making Sense of Olive Oil: Simple Experiments to Connect Sensory Observations with the Underlying Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the last decade, our understanding of the chemistry of olive oil has dramatically improved. Here, the essential chemistry of olive oil and its important minor constituents is described and related to the typical sensory categories used to rate and experience oils: color, aroma, bitterness, and pungency. We also describe experiments to explore…

Blatchly, Richard A.; Delen, Zeynep; O'Hara, Patricia B.

2014-01-01

304

The contribution of innovations in total factor productivity of organic olive enterprises  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper measures the contribution of innovations in total factor productivity(TFP) of organic olive farmers. By constructing an innovation variable instead of the use of a time trend, technical change is replaced by technical difference and TFP growth becomes TFP difference. Primary cross section data on organic olive enterprises from a Greek region is used in the application of the

C. C. Karafillis; Evaggelos Papanagiotou

2008-01-01

305

Reduction of total polyphenols in olive mill wastewater by physico?chemical purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of phenolic compounds in wastewater from olive oil manufacturers (i.e. olive mill wastewater, OMW) makes them highly toxic and ecologically noxious to the waterways into which they are dumped unprocessed, as is usually the case in Andalusia (Spain). In addition, direct unloading onto the ground may result in phytotoxic effects on account of the marked herbicidal character of

J. L. González; E. Bellido; C. Benftez

1994-01-01

306

Infrared machine vision system for the automatic detection of olive fruit quality.  

PubMed

External quality is an important factor in the extraction of olive oil and the marketing of olive fruits. The appearance and presence of external damage are factors that influence the quality of the oil extracted and the perception of consumers, determining the level of acceptance prior to purchase in the case of table olives. The aim of this paper is to report on artificial vision techniques developed for the online estimation of olive quality and to assess the effectiveness of these techniques in evaluating quality based on detecting external defects. This method of classifying olives according to the presence of defects is based on an infrared (IR) vision system. Images of defects were acquired using a digital monochrome camera with band-pass filters on near-infrared (NIR). The original images were processed using segmentation algorithms, edge detection and pixel value intensity to classify the whole fruit. The detection of the defect involved a pixel classification procedure based on nonparametric models of the healthy and defective areas of olives. Classification tests were performed on olives to assess the effectiveness of the proposed method. This research showed that the IR vision system is a useful technology for the automatic assessment of olives that has the potential for use in offline inspection and for online sorting for defects and the presence of surface damage, easily distinguishing those that do not meet minimum quality requirements. PMID:24148491

Guzmán, Elena; Baeten, Vincent; Pierna, Juan Antonio Fernández; García-Mesa, José A

2013-11-15

307

Rachel Mary Cardell-Oliver School of Computer Science and Software Engineering  

E-print Network

of Western Australia M002, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, 6009, Western Australia Phone: +61 8 6488 2231 Email.149, journal ranked 3/80 in Water Resources. [2] Rachel Cardell-Oliver and Garry Peach. Making sense of smart-Oliver. Smart proppant concept for monitoring hydraulic fractures. APPEA Journal of the Australian Petroleum

Cardell-Oliver, Rachel

308

21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102.37 Section 102.37 Food and Drugs ...Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or usual name of a...

2014-04-01

309

Effect of replacing pork backfat with olive oil on processing and quality characteristics of fermented sausages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five types of fermented sausages were manufactured by traditional methods as follows: (i) one control (C) using 24% beef meat, 43% pork meat and 33% pork backfat; (ii) two L treatments by replacing 10% and 20%, respectively of pork backfat with liquid olive oil; and (iii) two E treatments by replacing 10% and 20%, respectively of pork backfat with olive

J. G. Bloukas; E. D. Paneras; G. C. Fournitzis

1997-01-01

310

Lipoxygenase: Optimization of Extraction and Evaluation of its Contribution to Virgin Olive Oil Aroma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile compounds responsible for the pleasant aroma of virgin olive oil are mainly derived from products of the lipoxygenase pathway. Lipoxygenase activity was assessed in olive pulp extracts. An optimization of its extraction by a 2 experimental design was performed. Four parameters considered as influencing the extraction were optimised using minimum and maximum levels. The polyvinylpolypyrrolidone quantity seemed to

Faten Kotti; Kais Jaziri; Faten Arab; Yosra Mater; Samira Sifi; Noha Fares; Mohamed Hammami; Mohamed Gargouri

2010-01-01

311

Phytoavailability and extractability of potassium, magnesium and manganese in calcareous soil amended with olive oil wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land disposal of olive oil wastewater using it as a soil amendment requires a knowledge of the effects that its application may produce on the status of the mineral nutrients in the plant?soil system. A pot experiment using calcareous soil was performed in a growth chamber to examine the effects of olive oil wastewater on the availability and postharvest soil

M. Azcón; A. Polo

2000-01-01

312

Using Satellite Tracking to Optimize Protection of Long-Lived Marine Species: Olive Ridley Sea Turtle  

E-print Network

Turtle Conservation in Central Africa Sara M. Maxwell1¤ *, Greg A. Breed2 , Barry A. Nickel3 , Junior movements of olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) (n = 18) in Central Africa during two breeding Species: Olive Ridley Sea Turtle Conservation in Central Africa. PLoS ONE 6(5): e19905. doi:10

Costa, Daniel P.

313

Potential and limitations of improving olive orchard design and management through modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from Spanish and Italian olive orchards with different cultivars (“Manzanilla”, “Frantoio”, “Leccino”, “Razzola” and “Taggiasca”) growing in different environments (southern Spain; north, centre and south of Italy) were used to illustrate how models on water use and photosynthetic behaviour of the olive tree can be useful tools for choosing pruning intensity and canopy shape for optimum water use and

José Enrique Fernández; Antonio Diaz-Espejo; Riccardo DAndria; Luca Sebastiani; Roberto Tognetti

2008-01-01

314

Mixed messages and a missed opportunity: Australian news media coverage of Clare Oliver's campaign against solaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review television and print media coverage of the campaign to regulate solaria that was initiated by Clare Oliver before her death from melanoma in late 2007, and to investigate how the media constructed the aetiology of her disease. Design and setting: Frame analysis of all direct and attributed statements about the causes of, and responsibility for, Oliver's melanoma,

Ross MacKenzie; Michelle Imison; Simon Chapman; Simon Holding

2008-01-01

315

Probiotic table olives: Microbial populations adhering on olive surface in fermentation sets inoculated with the probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei IMPC2.1 in an industrial plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the dynamics of microbial populations adhering on the surface of debittered green olives cv. Bella di Cerignola in fermentation sets inoculated with the probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei IMPC2.1 in different brining conditions (4% and 8% (w\\/v) NaCl) at room temperature and 4°C. The probiotic strain successfully colonized the olive surface dominating the natural LAB population and decreasing

Palmira De Bellis; Francesca Valerio; Angelo Sisto; Stella Lisa Lonigro; Paola Lavermicocca

2010-01-01

316

Atmospheric fluidized bed gasification of untreated and leached olive residue, and co-gasification of olive residue, reed, pine pellets and Douglas fir wood chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

► The leaching affects the producer gas composition of gasification. ► The tar content in the producer gas was lowered due to leaching. ► The producer gas quality depends on the proportions of fuels. ► The tar content increased adding reed and wood to the leached olive residue. ► The olive residue is seen to be better fuel for gasification

Siim Link; Stelios Arvelakis; Aadu Paist; Andrew Martin; Truls Liliedahl; Krister SjÃstrÃm

2012-01-01

317

Oxidative DNA Damage Is Prevented by Extracts of Olive Oil, Hydroxytyrosol, and Other Olive Phenolic Compounds in Human Blood Mononuclear Cells and HL60 Cells1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ouraiminthisstudywastoprovidefurthersupporttothehypothesisthatphenoliccompoundsmayplayanimportantrolein theanticarcinogenicpropertiesofoliveoil.Wemeasuredtheeffectofoliveoilphenolsonhydrogenperoxide(H2O2)-induced DNA damage in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL60) using single- cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Hydroxytyrosol (3,4-dyhydroxyphenyl-ethanol (3,4-DHPEA)) and a complex mixture of phenols extracted from both virgin olive oil (OO-PE) and olive mill wastewater (WW-PE) reduced the DNA damage at concentrations as low as 1 mmol\\/L when coincubated in the medium

Roberto Fabiani; Patrizia Rosignoli; Angelo De Bartolomeo; Raffaela Fuccelli; Maurizio Servili; Gian Francesco Montedoro; Guido Morozzi

318

DNA protecting and genotoxic effects of olive oil related components in cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide.  

PubMed

In search for compounds, able to protect nuclear DNA in cells exposed to oxidative stress, extracts from olive leaves, olive fruits, olive oil and olive mill waste water were tested by using the "single cell gel electrophoresis" methodology (comet assay). Jurkat cells in culture were exposed to continuously generated hydrogen peroxide (11.8+/-1.5 microM per min) by direct addition into the growth medium of the appropriate amount of the enzyme "glucose oxidase" in the presence or absence of the tested total extracts. The protective effects of the tested extracts or isolated compounds were evaluated from their ability to decrease hydrogen peroxide-induced formation of single strand breaks in the nuclear DNA, while the toxic effects were estimated from the increase of DNA damage when the extracts or isolated compounds were incubated directly with the cells. Significant protection was observed in extracts from olive oil and olive mill waste water. However, above a concentration of 100 microg/ml olive oil extracts exerted DNA damaging effects by themselves in the absence of any H2O2. Extracts from olive leaves and olive fruits although protective, were also able to induce DNA damage by themselves. Main compounds isolated from the above described total extracts, like oleuropein glucoside, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol and caffeic acid, were tested in the same experimental system and found to exert cytotoxic (oleuropein glucoside), no effect (tyrosol) or protective effects (hydroxytyrosol and caffeic acid). In conclusion, cytoprotective as well as cytotoxic compounds with potential pharmaceutical properties were detected in extracts from olive oil related sources by using the comet assay methodology. PMID:16036359

Nousis, Lambros; Doulias, Paschalis-Thomas; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Bazios, Dimitrios; Agalias, Apostolos; Galaris, Dimitrios; Mitakou, Sofia

2005-07-01

319

Arbuscular Mycorhizal Fungi Associated with the Olive Crop across the Andalusian Landscape: Factors Driving Community Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Background In the last years, many olive plantations in southern Spain have been mediated by the use of self-rooted planting stocks, which have incorporated commercial AMF during the nursery period to facilitate their establishment. However, this was practised without enough knowledge on the effect of cropping practices and environment on the biodiversity of AMF in olive orchards in Spain. Methodology/Principal Findings Two culture-independent molecular methods were used to study the AMF communities associated with olive in a wide-region analysis in southern Spain including 96 olive locations. The use of T-RFLP and pyrosequencing analysis of rDNA sequences provided the first evidence of an effect of agronomic and climatic characteristics, and soil physicochemical properties on AMF community composition associated with olive. Thus, the factors most strongly associated to AMF distribution varied according to the technique but included among the studied agronomic characteristics the cultivar genotype and age of plantation and the irrigation regimen but not the orchard management system or presence of a cover crop to prevent soil erosion. Soil physicochemical properties and climatic characteristics most strongly associated to the AMF community composition included pH, textural components and nutrient contents of soil, and average evapotranspiration, rainfall and minimum temperature of the sampled locations. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed 33 AMF OTUs belonging to five families, with Archaeospora spp., Diversispora spp. and Paraglomus spp., being first records in olive. Interestingly, two of the most frequent OTUs included a diverse group of Claroideoglomeraceae and Glomeraceae sequences, not assigned to any known AMF species commonly used as inoculants in olive during nursery propagation. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggests that AMF can exert higher host specificity in olive than previously thought, which may have important implications for redirecting the olive nursery process in the future as well as to take into consideration the specific soils and environments where the mycorrhized olive trees will be established. PMID:24797669

Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Metsis, Madis; Landa, Blanca B.

2014-01-01

320

Chaos may enhance information transmission in the inferior olive  

PubMed Central

Despite unique well characterized neuronal properties, such as extensive electrical coupling and low firing rates, the role of the inferior olive (IO), which is the source of the climbing fiber inputs to cerebellar Purkinje cells, is still controversial. We propose that the IO stochastically recodes the high-frequency information carried by its synaptic inputs into stochastic, low-rate spikes in its climbing fiber output. Computer simulations of realistic IO networks showed that moderate electrical coupling produced chaotic firing, which maximized the input-output mutual information. This “chaotic resonance” may allow rich error signals to reach individual Purkinje cells, even at low firing rates, allowing efficient cerebellar learning. PMID:15070773

Schweighofer, Nicolas; Doya, Kenji; Fukai, Hidekazu; Chiron, Jean Vianney; Furukawa, Tetsuya; Kawato, Mitsuo

2004-01-01

321

[Bladder stone caused by olive oil following TVT operation].  

PubMed

Tension-free vaginal tape (TVT), a less-invasive variation of the suburethral sling, has been rapidly gaining popularity worldwide in the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence. We report on two cases of bladder stones composed of fatty acid calcium following TVT operations. Case 1: A 76-year-old woman with a history of hysterectomy due to cervical cancer was suffering from vault prolapse. The insertion of a ring pessary lead to the development of stress urinary incontinence, and she was referred to our hospital. As she was frail, sexually inactive, and elderly, she underwent partial colpocleisis (Le Fort operation) combined with a TVT operation. One-month postoperative videourodynamics and chain cystourethrography (CUG) using olive oil as the lubricant showed cure of incontinence and mild support of the urethra. Her maximum flow rate was 18.8 ml/s and no residual urine was observed. Six months postoperatively she developed postmiction pain and pyuria that were not improved by antibiotics. Cystoscopy showed a small bladder stone, whose removal cured cystitis. Case 2: A 49-year-old woman, with a history of abdominal hysterectomy due to myoma uteri, visited our hospital complaining of stress urinary incontinence. A periurethral collagen injection was only temporarily effective, and she underwent a TVT operation. A 1-month postoperative evaluation including chain CUG using olive oil as the lubricant showed cure of incontinence, mild support of the urethra, a maximum flow rate of 28.8 ml/s, and no residual urine. Two months postoperatively she developed miction pain and pyuria that were solved by removing a small bladder stone. Anti-incontinence surgery increases the risk of developing bladder stones due to either foreign bodies (bladder erosion) or obstruction. However, neither of our cases had these conditions; instead, both bladder stones were composed of fatty acid calcium that appeared to be related to the olive oil used as the lubricant in chain CUG. Only four cases (including ours) of bladder stones composed of fatty acid calcium have been documented, but they may indicate that care is necessary when using olive oil as a contrast medium or lubricant in the urinary tract. When a woman with a history of anti-incontinence surgery has persisting or recurrent cystitis, cystoscopy should be performed to exclude bladder erosion and stones. PMID:16083036

Kato, Kumiko; Hirata, Tomohiko; Suzuki, Koichi; Yoshida, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Shoji; Murase, Tatsuro

2005-07-01

322

Response of Olive View Hospital to Northridge and Whittier earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this paper is to study the response of the conventionally designed new Olive View Medical Center (OVMC) building at 16 km from the epicenter of the January 17, 1994 Northridge, California earthquake (Ms = 6.8). OVMC is on an alluvial deposit. The building was subjected to design level peak accelerations during the earthquake and suffered only limited structural and nonstructural damage. The recorded motions at different levels of the OVMC building as well as its associated free-field sites are analyzed using spectral analyses and system identification techniques. The new OVMC building was conservatively designed in 1976 with very high lateral load resisting capability - particularly as a reaction to the detrimental fate of the original Olive View Hospital that was heavily damaged during the 1971 San Fernando earthquake. The original hospital building was later razed. The replacement structure, the new cross-shaped OVMC building, experienced peak acceleration of 2.31g at the roof while its peak ground floor acceleration was 0.82g. The free-field peak acceleration was 0.91g. The lateral load resisting system of the OVMC building consists of concrete shear walls in the lower two stories and steel shear walls at the perimeter of the upper four stories. Spectral analysis shows that this stiff structure was not affected by the long duration pulses of the motions recorded at this site.

Celebi, M.

1997-01-01

323

[Characterisation and environnemental impacts of olive oil wastewater disposal].  

PubMed

The management of wastewater issued from olive oil extraction (locally named margine), continues to cause enormous problems due to the great quantities annually produced, and the contamination risks related to their high level of pollution and toxicity. The nearness of Agareb zone to the main olive oil production zone of Sfax and the existence of clayey outcrops are the main factors influencing the choice of this zone for the implantation of a site for the margine evaporation. The investigation and sampling works developed on the site have established the geological, hydrogeological, geotechnical and environmental characteristics. The permeable silty and sandy layers in the site favorized the infiltration of margine through and below the storage basins. This infiltration is particularly observed in the south part of the site where it has reached a depth of 4m at a distance of 20 m laterally. The chemical analysis of the substratum and infiltrated margine showed that the latter constituted a polluting source, its acidity may affect physical and geotechnical clay layer properties and causes pollutant migration in the subsoil. The wastewater infiltration in the underlying layers has caused the dissolution of salts and the modification of pH, nutrients contents and phenolic compound concentrations. The geotechnical investigations conducted on the site showed the instability of the embankments slopes separating the margine storage basins and the presence of sliding which may cause margine flow out from the storage basins and consequently the spreading of pollution on great areas. PMID:15747598

S'Habou, R; Zairi, M; Ben Dhia, H

2005-01-01

324

Bioactivity and phenolic composition from natural fermented table olives.  

PubMed

In the present work, the phenolic composition, and antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of twenty-four samples of naturally fermented table olives from the northeast of Portugal were evaluated. The analysis of phenolic composition was performed by HPLC/DAD, and ten compounds were identified, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside derivate and hydroxytyrosol glycol being the most abundant. Total phenolic content varied between 2.37 and 64.17 ?g mg(-1) of extract. The IC50 values from the antioxidant activity methods tested varied between 0.30 and 1.66 mg mL(-1) for reducing power, and between 0.13 and 0.83 mg mL(-1) for DPPH. The results obtained in the antioxidant activity were extremely significantly correlated with the main phenolic compounds as well as with the total phenolic content. A principal component analysis allowed grouping the samples according to their phenolic composition and antioxidant potential. Table olive extracts were able to inhibit some pathogenic microorganisms, mainly Gram-positive bacteria. Higher antimicrobial inhibition was recorded in the extracts rich in phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant potential. PMID:25266980

Malheiro, Ricardo; Mendes, Patrícia; Fernandes, Fátima; Rodrigues, Nuno; Bento, Albino; Pereira, José Alberto

2014-11-19

325

Evaluation of an aerobic treatment for olive mill wastewater detoxification.  

PubMed

Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is a by-product of the olive oil extraction industry. Its dumping creates severe environmental problems in the Mediterranean countries. The phytoxicity of OMWW is due to the phenolic substances and is evaluated through a genotoxicity method. An aerobic treatment of OMWW was conducted during 45 days. Different concentrations of raw and treated OMWW were tested using the Vicia faba micronuclei test. Results showed that raw OMWW induced significant micronuclei formation at 10% of OMWW dilution. At 20% of dilution, no mitosis was recorded. The 45 days aerobic treatment OMWW showed an important decrease in the genotoxicity and also in the toxicity that was observed at 10% and 20% OMWW dilution. This could be correlated with the biodegradation of 76% of the total phenols. Indeed, qualitative analysis by high performance liquid chromatography shows the disappearance of the majority of phenolic compounds after 45 days of treatment. This study was completed by an agricultural test with V. faba plant. Data showed significant growth yield of 36.3% and 29.9% after being irrigated with 5 and 10 t/ha, respectively. These results supported the positive role of aerobic treatment on OMWW and their capacity to ameliorate the agronomic potential of these effluents. PMID:25244133

El Hajjouji, Houda; El Fels, Loubna; Pinelli, Eric; Barje, Farid; El Asli, Abdelghani; Merlina, Georges; Hafidi, Mohamed

2014-12-01

326

Varietal Tracing of Virgin Olive Oils Based on Plastid DNA Variation Profiling  

PubMed Central

Olive oil traceability remains a challenge nowadays. DNA analysis is the preferred approach to an effective varietal identification, without any environmental influence. Specifically, olive organelle genomics is the most promising approach for setting up a suitable set of markers as they would not interfere with the pollinator variety DNA traces. Unfortunately, plastid DNA (cpDNA) variation of the cultivated olive has been reported to be low. This feature could be a limitation for the use of cpDNA polymorphisms in forensic analyses or oil traceability, but rare cpDNA haplotypes may be useful as they can help to efficiently discriminate some varieties. Recently, the sequencing of olive plastid genomes has allowed the generation of novel markers. In this study, the performance of cpDNA markers on olive oil matrices, and their applicability on commercial Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) oils were assessed. By using a combination of nine plastid loci (including multi-state microsatellites and short indels), it is possible to fingerprint six haplotypes (in 17 Spanish olive varieties), which can discriminate high-value commercialized cultivars with PDO. In particular, a rare haplotype was detected in genotypes used to produce a regional high-value commercial oil. We conclude that plastid haplotypes can help oil traceability in commercial PDO oils and set up an experimental methodology suitable for organelle polymorphism detection in the complex olive oil matrices. PMID:23950947

Perez-Jimenez, Marga; Besnard, Guillaume; Dorado, Gabriel; Hernandez, Pilar

2013-01-01

327

Development and stability evaluation of olive oil nanoemulsion using sucrose monoester laurate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoemulsion is a type of emulsion that consists of fine oil-in-water dispersions, with the droplets covering the size range of 20-200 nm. It can be achieved through emulsification process. One of the processes is through low energy emulsification method. Olive oil was chosen in this study due to its efficiency in treating skin problem. Olive oil nanophase gel (NPG) formulations were performed through various ratios of olive oil, sucrose laurate and glycerin. The particle sizes and stability of the prepared olive oil nanophase gel were evaluated and the optimal formulation was then selected for the development of olive oil nanoemulsion. This study proved that the composition of oil and surfactant play an important roles in influencing the nanophase gel droplet size. Nanophase gels containing olive oil in the concentration of 50 and 60 % show good stability at 4 °C and room temperature while it was less stable at 40 °C. Olive oil nanophase gels in the concentration of 50 % and 60 % with sucrose laurate 25 % in each formulation were good candidates to prepare nanoemulsion because they have the suitable droplets size and Polydispersing Index (PDI) when compared to other formulations. A mixture of NPG 50 % and water in the ratio of 40:60 and NPG 60 % and water in the ratio of 33.3:66.7 were used to produce nanoemulsions containing 20 % of oil with negative values of zeta potential (>60) which indicate the good stability of the nanoemulsions.

Eid, Ahmad M. M.; Baie, Saringat Haji; Arafat, Osama

2012-11-01

328

Efficacy of bioactive compounds from extra virgin olive oil to modulate atherosclerosis development.  

PubMed

As olive oil is the main source of calories in the Mediterranean diet, a great deal of research has been devoted to characterizing its role in atherosclerosis. Virgin olive oil is an oily matrix that contains hydrocarbons, mainly squalene; triterpenes such as uvaol, erythrodiol, oleanolic, and maslinic acid; phytosterols; and a wide range of phenolic compounds comprising simple phenols, flavonoids, secoiridoids, and lignans. In this review, we analyze the studies dealing with atherosclerosis and olive oil in several species. A protective role of virgin olive oil against atherosclerosis has been shown in ApoE-deficient mice and hamsters. In the former animal, sex, dose, and dietary cholesterol are modulators of the outcome. Contradictory findings have been reported for rabbits, a circumstance that could be due to the profusion of experimental designs, differing in terms of doses and animal strains, as well as sources of olive oils. This role has yet to be fully validated in humans. Minor components of olive oil have been shown to be involved in atherosclerosis protection. Nevertheless, evidence of the potential of isolated compounds or the right combination of them to achieve the antiatherosclerotic effect of virgin olive oil is inconclusive and will undoubtedly require further experimental support. PMID:22760979

Lou-Bonafonte, José M; Arnal, Carmen; Navarro, María A; Osada, Jesús

2012-07-01

329

Pesticide interactions with soils affected by olive oil mill wastewater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil pesticide sorption is well known to affect the fate of pesticides, their bioavailability and the potential to contaminate air and water. Soil - pesticide interactions may be strongly influenced by soil organic matter (SOM) and organic matter (OM)-rich soil amendments. One special OM source in soils is related to olive oil production residues that may include both solid and liquid wastes. In the Mediterranean area, the olive oil production is considered as an important field in the agricultural sector. Due to the significant rise in olive oil production, the amount of wastes is growing respectively. Olive oil mill waste water (OMWW) is the liquid byproduct in the so-called "three phase" technological process. Features of OMWW include the high content of fatty aliphatic components and polyphenols and their often-considered toxicity. One way of OMWW disposal is the land spreading, e.g., in olive orchards. The land application of OMWW (either controlled or not) is supposed to affect the multiple soil properties, including hydrophobicity and the potential of soils to interact with pesticides. Therefore, there is both basic and applied interest in elucidating the interactions between organic compounds and soils affected by OMWW. However, little is known about the impact of OMWW - soil interactions on sorption of organic compounds, and specifically, on sorption of agrochemicals. This paper reports an experimental study of sorption interactions of a series of organic compounds including widely used herbicides such as diuron and simazine, in a range of soils that were affected by OMWW (i) historically or (ii) in the controlled land disposal experiments. It is demonstrated that there is a distinct increase in apparent sorption of organic chemicals in soils affected by OMWW. In selected systems, this increase may be explained by increase in SOM content. However, the SOM quality places a role: the rise in organic compound - soil interactions may both exceed the SOM content increase and be less than that. Sorption interactions of herbicides with soils demonstrate a strong hysteresis (which is not expected to be related to a biodegradation). The data suggests that the OMWW - soil interaction seems to change the shape of the apparent sorption isotherms of organic sorbates, and, possibly, their sorption mechanisms: from a Langmuir-like sorption isotherm (describing the adsorptive interactions with a saturation of sorption sites) in the native soils to the sigmoidal or linear isotherms (expected for a partitioning into the bulk OM phases and their swelling) in the OMWW-amended soils. These results may have a significant impact on multiple agricultural and hydrological aspects, e.g., such as the application rate of herbicides in the field, and their possible release and the long term effect on groundwater. The authors acknowledge the support from the OLIVEOIL project (SCHA849/13) funded by DFG.

Keren, Yonatan; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda; Borisover, Mikhail

2013-04-01

330

Endogenous lipase catalyzed transesterification of olive oil fats. The formation of isomeric and oligomeric triacyleglycerols.  

PubMed

The role of lipase to catalyze hydrolysis and transesterification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) was evaluated in model systems as well as in virgin olive oil. Tandem mass spectrometry was applied in the identification of modified TAGs, ionized by electrospray, formed during the incubation of selected TAGs with mono and di carboxylic acids. The oligomerization of TAGs was observed in authentic olive oil samples and verified in model systems under catalysis exerted by lipase, whose presence in olive oil was already documented. The hydrolytic pathways taken under enzymatic treatment is balanced by the formation of TAG oligomers that should not alter the nutritional value of the aliment. PMID:22972793

Attya, Mohamed; Russo, Anna; Perri, Enzo; Sindona, Giovanni

2012-09-01

331

The analysis of the Conde de Tolosa and the Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe olive jar assemblage  

E-print Network

assorted foodstuffs and supplies. Documents Historical Archaeolo is employed as a guide for format and style. from the General Archives of the Indies at Sevil'le list various types of beans and olives as well as wine, olive oil, and tar that were... are present in olive jar assemblages scholars have speculated possible uses of the various jars. Glazed jars might have been used for light liquids such as wine, which would permeate unglazed vessel walls. Unglazed jars would be used for heavy liquids...

James, Stephen Robert

2012-06-07

332

Visible and near-infrared spectral signatures for adulteration assessment of extra virgin olive oil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of its high price, the extra virgin olive oil is frequently target for adulteration with lower quality oils. This paper presents an innovative optical technique capable of quantifying the adulteration of extra virgin olive oil caused by lowergrade olive oils. It relies on spectral fingerprinting the test liquid by means of diffuse-light absorption spectroscopy carried out by optical fiber technology in the wide 400-1700 nm spectral range. Then, a smart multivariate processing of spectroscopic data is applied for immediate prediction of adulterant concentration.

Mignani, A. G.; Ciaccheri, L.; Ottevaere, H.; Thienpont, H.; Conte, L.; Marega, M.; Cichelli, A.; Attilio, C.; Cimato, A.

2010-04-01

333

History of the invasive African olive tree in Australia and Hawaii: evidence for sequential bottlenecks and hybridization with the Mediterranean olive  

PubMed Central

Humans have introduced plants and animals into new continents and islands with negative effects on local species. This has been the case of the olive that was introduced in Australia, New Zealand and Pacific islands where it became invasive. Two subspecies were introduced in Australia, and each successfully invaded a specific area: the African olive in New South Wales (NSW) and the Mediterranean olive in South Australia. Here, we examine their origins and spread and analyse a large sample of native and invasive accessions with chloroplast and nuclear microsatellites. African olive populations from the invaded range exhibit two South African chlorotypes hence supporting an introduction from South Africa, while populations from South Australia exhibit chlorotypes of Mediterranean cultivars. Congruently, nuclear markers support the occurrence of two lineages in Australia but demonstrate that admixture took place, attesting that they hybridized early after introduction. Furthermore, using an approximate Bayesian computation framework, we found strong support for the serial introduction of the African olive from South Africa to NSW and then from NSW to Hawaii. The taxon experienced successive bottlenecks that did not preclude invasion, meaning that rapid decisions need to be taken to avoid naturalization where it has not established a large population yet. PMID:24567742

Besnard, Guillaume; Dupuy, Jeremy; Larter, Maximilien; Cuneo, Peter; Cooke, David; Chikhi, Lounes

2014-01-01

334

Curve numbers for olive orchard catchments in Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Curve Number (CN) method (Soil Conservation Service, 1972) is widely applied around the world to estimate direct runoff and the corresponding hydrograph of a rainfall event. Its efficient and simple computation, its complete parameterization for different soils, uses and managements and its good performance justify its application. Nevertheless, apart from Romero et al. (2007) who calculated CN-values at the plot scale, there is little information on the model performance in olive orchards at the catchment scale. In this work, the CN-model has been applied in three small catchments in Spain ranging between 6 and 8 ha with different soil types (regosol, luvisol and vertisol), topography (mean slopes between 9-15%) and management practices (non-tillage with a spontaneous grass cover, minimum tillage, conventional tillage). A rainfall-runoff dataset of 6 years have been used to test the usefulness of model as well as the accuracy of its reference parameterization (CNs and of initial substraction, Ia). CN-values were adjusted, optimized and compared with reference values for orchard crops while the sensitivity of the goodness of fit to Ia was described for each catchment. Classical equations based on the use of CN-percentiles 50, 10 and 90 for determining the antecedent moisture content (AMC) provided very good results with Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients of efficiency equal to 0.73 and 0.81 in two of the catchments with an annual rainfall higher than 600 mm. The third one -with an annual rainfall lower than 400 mm and spontaneous grass cover- showed a different pattern where a multiple linear regression dependant on precipitation and temperature features, represented notably better the rainfall-runoff relationships. Although fractions of Ia on the storage (S) equal to 0.15 and 0.25 allowed to optimize the adjustments of CN, the usual reference of 0.20 is quite appropriate. Finally, significant deviations were observed on reference-CNs for sandy soils that should be considered for hydrological calculations in olive orchard catchments. REFERENCES P. Romero, G. Castro, J.A. Gómez and E. Fereres. 2007. Curve Number Values for Olive Orchards under Different Soil Managemen. Soil Sicence Society of America Journal. Vol. 71 No. 6, p. 1758-1769 doi:10.2136/sssaj2007.0034

Taguas, Encarnación; Yuan, Yongping; Licciardello, Feliciana; Gómez, Jose

2014-05-01

335

ENTRY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE [ENTRY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE] Authors: Oliver Knill: March 2000 Literature: Peter Norvig,  

E-print Network

ENTRY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE [ENTRY ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE] Authors: Oliver Knill: March 2000 Literature: Peter Norvig, Paradigns of Artificial Intelligence Programming Daniel Juravsky and James Martin interface to a neural net simulator. artificial intelligence [artificial intelligence] (AI) is a field

Knill, Oliver

336

Modulating oxidoreductase activity modifies the phenolic content of virgin olive oil.  

PubMed

The effect of modifying polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX) activity during the extraction of virgin olive oil has been assessed in terms of its influence on the phenolic profile of the oil produced. These enzymes were modified by adding exogenous enzyme or specific inhibitors during the milling and subsequent kneading step, studying the effect on specific phenolic compounds in the oils. PPO is the main enzyme involved in phenolic oxidation at the milling step whereas POX activity seems to be the main influence during the kneading step. The data obtained suggest it is possible to increase the nutritional and organoleptic quality of virgin olive oil by inhibiting these enzymes during olive fruit processing. Treatment with the PPO inhibitor tropolone produced a twofold increase in the phenolic fraction, which would therefore seem to be an interesting strategy to improve the nutritional and organoleptic properties of virgin olive oil. PMID:25308681

García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Romero-Segura, Carmen; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

2015-03-15

337

A Paleontological Perspective on Designing Adaptable Software Systems Oliver Stiemerling and Armin B. Cremers  

E-print Network

A Paleontological Perspective on Designing Adaptable Software Systems Oliver Stiemerling and Armin developed theory in paleontology and genetics to the design of adaptable software, i.e. systems whose

Nehaniv, Chrystopher

338

Ethanol production from olive oil extraction residue pretreated with hot water.  

PubMed

The olive pulp fraction contained in the residue generated in olive oil extraction by a two-step centrifugation process can be upgraded by using the cellulose fraction to produce ethanol and recovering high value phenols (tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol). Olive pulp was pretreated in a laboratory scale stirred autoclave at different temperatures (150-250 degrees C). Pretreatment was evaluated regarding cellulose recovery, enzymatic hydrolysis effectiveness, ethanol production by a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SSF), and phenols recovery in the filtrate. The pretreatment of olive pulp using water at temperatures between 200 degrees C and 250 degrees C enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis. Maximum ethanol production (11.9 g/L) was obtained after pretreating pulp at 210 degrees C in a SSF fed-batch procedure. Maximum hydroxytyrosol recovery was obtained in the liquid fraction when pretreated at 230 degrees C. PMID:12018295

Ballesteros, Ignacio; Oliva, José Miguel; Negro, Maria José; Manzanares, Paloma; Ballesteros, Mercedes

2002-01-01

339

h t t p : / / w w w . n p s . e d u PRESIDENT OLIVER'S  

E-print Network

events/functions as appropriate. (Optional--Command Addendum): President Oliver commanded a Patrol Squadron, a Patrol Wing, and as a Flag Officer, he was Commander Fleet Air Mediterranean, and NATO and was a White House Fellow. #12;

340

Inactivation of Kudoa septempunctata in Olive Flounder Meat by Liquid Freezing.  

PubMed

Kudoa septempunctata in olive flounder meat was inactivated using 3 distinct freezing methods? liquid freezing for 5 min, air blast freezing at ?30? for 5 h, and ?80? for 1 h. The fracture curve of olive flounder meat subjected to liquid freezing resembled that of meat stored at 4?, indicating that the structure of olive flounder muscle was well preserved. In contrast, air blast freezing induced the disappearance of the fracture point in the fracture curve, indicating that there was deterioration in the meat quality. Liquid freezing preserved the transparency of olive flounder meat to the same degree as that of meat stored at 4°C. However, air blast freezing induced meat cloudiness. These results indicate that liquid freezing can be used for K. septempunctata inactivation without affecting the meat quality. PMID:25252645

Ohnishi, Takahiro; Akuzawa, Sayuri; Furusawa, Hiroko; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Kamata, Yoichi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

2014-01-01

341

Fourier transform Raman spectrometry for the quantitative analysis of oil content and humidity in olives.  

PubMed

A method for the direct and fast determination of oil content and humidity in olives using Fourier transform Raman spectrometry is reported. The only sample preparation step required was crushing of the olives using a hammer mill. The crushed olives were placed in a dedicated sample cup, which was rotated excentrically to the horizontal laser beam during spectrum acquisition. This allowed us to sample an increased volume and thus compensate for sample inhomogeneities. In this way the reproducibility of Raman spectra taken from crushed olives was significantly improved. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression was used for the chemometric evaluation of the Raman spectra. Standard errors of prediction for the validation set of 0.81% for oil content (in the range 19.68-35.71%) and 1.54% for humidity (in the range 29.23-51.49%), both expressed as weight percentage referred to fresh matter, were obtained. PMID:14610962

Muik, Barbara; Lendl, Bernhard; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Ayora-Cañada, Maria José

2003-02-01

342

Detection of Virgin Olive Oil Adulteration Using Low Field Unilateral NMR  

PubMed Central

The detection of adulteration in edible oils is a concern in the food industry, especially for the higher priced virgin olive oils. This article presents a low field unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for the detection of the adulteration of virgin olive oil that can be performed through sealed bottles providing a non-destructive screening technique. Adulterations of an extra virgin olive oil with different percentages of sunflower oil and red palm oil were measured with a commercial unilateral instrument, the profile NMR-Mouse. The NMR signal was processed using a 2-dimensional Inverse Laplace transformation to analyze the transverse relaxation and self-diffusion behaviors of different oils. The obtained results demonstrated the feasibility of detecting adulterations of olive oil with percentages of at least 10% of sunflower and red palm oils. PMID:24469355

Xu, Zheng; Morris, Robert H.; Bencsik, Martin; Newton, Michael I.

2014-01-01

343

Endogenous enzymes involved in the transformation of oleuropein in spanish table olive varieties.  

PubMed

The main Spanish table olive varieties supplied by different olive cooperatives were investigated for their polyphenol compositions and the endogenous enzymes involved in their transformations during two growing seasons. Olives of the Manzanilla variety had the highest concentration in total polyphenols, followed by the Hojiblanca and Gordal varieties. The Gordal and Manzanilla cultivars showed the highest polyphenol oxidase activities. The Gordal cultivar presented a greater ?-glucosidase and esterase activity than the others. An important influence of pH and temperature on the optimal activity of these enzymes was also observed. The polyphenol oxidase activity increased with temperature, and peroxidase activity was optimal at 35 °C. The ?-glucosidase and esterase activities were at their maximum at 30 and 55 °C, respectively. The oxidase and ?-glucosidase activities were at their maximum at the pH of the raw fruit. These results will contribute to the knowledge of the enzyme transformation of oleuropein in natural table olives. PMID:25209163

Ramírez, Eva; Medina, Eduardo; Brenes, Manuel; Romero, Concepción

2014-10-01

344

Physico-chemical properties of Azizi' green pickled olives as affected by alkali process.  

PubMed

This work was carried out to study the effect of lye treatment at different concentrations (1.0, 2.0 and 2.5%) on some physical-chemical changes of green table olive 'Azizi' cultivar during fermentation process. Results indicated that lye treatment at 1% and 2% using sodium hydroxide were the more suitable concentration for processing green table olive 'Azizi' cultivar under Egyptian condition, where the quality in texture, colour, flavour and appearance was recorded. Statistical analysis revealed that there were significant differences in pH, NaCl content and acidity of green olive during the fermentation period as affected by lye treatment. A positive correlation was found between the sensorial properties of pickled olives. PMID:10555299

el-Makhzangy, A; Abdel-Rhman, A

1999-10-01

345

THINKING LIKE ARCHIMEDES WITH A 3D PRINTER OLIVER KNILL AND ELIZABETH SLAVKOVSKY  

E-print Network

, where 3D printing is becoming popular and affordable. 1. Introduction Archimedes, whose 2300th birthday education, 3D printing, Rapid prototyping, Greek mathematics. 1 #12;2 OLIVER KNILL AND ELIZABETH SLAVKOVSKY

Knill, Oliver

346

Potential of bioethanol production from olive mill solid wastes.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to screen endogenous microorganisms grown on olive mill solid wastes (OMSW) with the potential to ferment pentoses and produce ethanol. Two yeasts were isolated and identified as Issatchenkia orientalis, and Pichia galeiformis/manshurica. The adaptation of the strains displayed a positive impact on the fermentation process. In terms of xylose utilization and ethanol production, all strains were able to utilize xylose and produce xylitol but no ethanol was detected. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation process on hydrolysate undergo detoxification, strain I. orientalis showed the best efficiency in producing of ethanol when supplemented with glucose. Using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process following pretreatment of OMSW, the average ethanol yield was 3 g/100 g dry OMSW. Bioethanol production from OMSW is not economic despite the raw material is cheap. PMID:24275022

Abu Tayeh, Hiba; Najami, Naim; Dosoretz, Carlos; Tafesh, Ahmed; Azaizeh, Hassan

2014-01-01

347

Effect of selected antioxidants on the stability of virgin olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virgin unrefined olive oil was protected from oxidation with the antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene\\u000a (BHT), and tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) and in one case propyl gallate (PG). All the antioxidants improved the stability\\u000a of olive oil under accelerated conditions (oven test) and storage conditions at 50 C. In the oven test, where the type of\\u000a oil used was the

A. K. Kiritsakis; C. M. Stine; L. R. Dugan

1983-01-01

348

Recovery of Natural Antioxidants from Olive Mill Wastewater Using Genapol-X080  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of applying cloud point extraction (CPE) using Genapol X-080 as surfactant for the separation of phenolic\\u000a compounds from olive mill wastewater was examined. The ability of the surfactant to recover individual and mixtures of polyphenols\\u000a and tocopherols in various concentrations from aqueous solutions was tested before its application for the recovery of phenols\\u000a from olive mill wastewater. Many

Olga Gortzi; Stavros Lalas; Arhontoula Chatzilazarou; Evangelos Katsoyannos; Spyros Papaconstandinou; Euthalia Dourtoglou

2008-01-01

349

Irrigation scheduling for traditional, low-density olive orchards: Water relations and influence on oil characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was performed in a low-density olive orchard (69treesha?1) to study the recovery from water stress of olive trees under different irrigation managements. The effect of water stress on oil quality was also examined. The trees were subjected to one of four irrigation treatments: rain-fed conditions, irrigation with either 100% or 125% of the crop evapotranspiration (ETc) level, or

Alfonso Moriana; David Pérez-López; Aurora Gómez-Rico; María de los Desamparados Salvador; Nicolás Olmedilla; Francisco Ribas; Giuseppe Fregapane

2007-01-01

350

Greenhouse and field evaluation of fungicides for control of olive leaf spot in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive leaf spot, a major disease of olive worldwide, is difficult to control in regions with cool and moist weather conditions such as New Zealand. The fungicides, boscalid, captan, carbendazim, copper hydroxide, copper sulphate, difenoconazole, dodine, kresoxim-methyl and a kresoxim-methyl\\/copper hydroxide mixture, were tested for efficacy in greenhouse and field trials. Greenhouse studies showed that all fungicides significantly reduced disease

Friday O. Obanor; Marlene V. Jaspers; E. Eirian Jones; Monika Walter

2008-01-01

351

Solidphase extraction and gas chromatographic analysis of phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A careful investigation on the potential application of solid phase extraction (SPE)-gas chromatography procedure in the analysis of phenol compounds in virgin olive oils was carried out. In doped refined olive oil samples a comparison between liquid\\/liquid and SPE extraction evidenced higher recovery when the C18 sorbent phase was employed whereas, in the case of total suppression of residual sylanolic

Lolita Liberatore; Giuseppe Procida; Nicola d'Alessandro; Angelo Cichelli

2001-01-01

352

Comparison of Olive Oil and Dry-Clean Keeping Methods in Umbilical Cord Care as Microbiological  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of olive oil is one of the traditional practices used in umbilical cord care in Turkey. The study was conducted\\u000a experimentally, so as to compare microbiologically the efficacy of olive oil use and keeping the stump dry. Data were obtained\\u000a using a personal information form and an omphalitis follow-up form, as well as from cultures taken from the

Ayten ?entürk Erenel; Gül?en Vural; ?engül Yaman Efe; Semiha Özkan; Selda Özgen; Rabiye Ereno?lu

2010-01-01

353

Use of Geotrichum candidum for olive mill wastewater treatment in submerged and static culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lipases by Geotrichum candidum were performed in order to control the decolourisation and biodegradation of olive mill wastewater (OMW). Optimisation of different factors showed that dilution, carbon and ammonium concentrations significantly affected decolourisation and activities of ligniolytic peroxidases (LiP and MnP) on OMW. Moreover, addition of olive oil and agitation

N. Asses; L. Ayed; H. Bouallagui; I. Ben Rejeb; M. Gargouri; M. Hamdi

2009-01-01

354

Evaluation of vitamin E by HPLC in a variety of olive-based foodstuffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of vitamin E levels in a wide variety of olive-based foodstuffs was conducted. Vitamin E was determined by normal-phase\\u000a HPLC. The only form of vitamin E found in all commercial presentations of table olives was ?-tocopherol, with an average content\\u000a of 3.1 mg\\/100 g edible portion. A very low content (<0.4 mg\\/100 g edible portion) of ?-tocopherol was

Antonio López; Alfredo Montaño; Antonio Garrido

2005-01-01

355

Inhibition of the inferior olive during conditioned responses in the decerebrate ferret  

Microsoft Academic Search

Output from the interpositus nucleus can inhibit the inferior olive, probably via the GABA-ergic nucleo-olivary pathway. It has been suggested that the function of this inhibition might be to regulate synaptic plasticity resulting from parallel fibre\\/climbing fibre interaction in cerebellar Purkinje cells, by providing negative feedback information to the olive. Thus, when a learned response, generated by the interpositus nucleus,

Germund Hesslow; Magnus Ivarsson

1996-01-01

356

Determination of phenolic compounds in olives by reversed-phase chromatography and mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method based on extraction from freeze-dried material and clean up by solid-phase extraction was optimized for recovery of phenolic compounds from olive fruit. The extracted compounds were characterised by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using both ultraviolet, fluorescence and electrospray ionization mass spectral detection. Using this approach, oleuropein was confirmed as the major phenolic in olive fruit. Other compounds whose presence

Danielle Ryan; Kevin Robards; Shimon Lavee

1999-01-01

357

Olive oil by-product as a natural antioxidant in gilthead sea bream ( Sparus aurata ) nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study reported here was to evaluate the efficiency of a natural antioxidant substance in gilthead sea bream\\u000a (Sparus aurata) feeds. An olive oil by-product, olive mill vegetation water (VW), contains polyphenols, which have a strong antioxidant\\u000a activity. A 147-day growth trial was conducted (monofactorial balanced, 4 × 3) with diet as the experimental factor. Two diets\\u000a [isonitrogenous (crude

Benedetto Sicuro; Franco Daprà; Francesco Gai; Giovanni Battista Palmegiano; Roberta Schiavone; Loredana Zilli; Sebastiano Vilella

2010-01-01

358

Stability of encapsulated olive oil in the presence of caffeic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of microencapsulation and addition of the phenolic antioxidant caffeic acid (CA) on the storage stability of olive oil. Olive oil in the absence or presence of 300ppm CA was encapsulated in 1.5% w\\/w sodium alginate shells. Encapsulated oil (with\\/without added CA) and unencapsulated oil were stored at 20 or 37°C

D. Sun-Waterhouse; J. Zhou; G. M. Miskelly; R. Wibisono; S. S. Wadhwa

2011-01-01

359

Hybrids between olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus : karyotype, allozyme and RAPD analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hybrid between olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and stone flounder Kareius bicoloratus was produced by artificial insemination of olive flounder eggs with stone flounder sperm. Sinistral and dextral are two types\\u000a of hybrid progeny after metamorphosis. Karyotypes of both hybrid flounders are the same as those of the two parental species.\\u000a Of the 22 loci examined from 12 allozymes, 12

Feng You; Wei Wang; Dongdong Xu; Xiangping Zhu; Jing Ni; Zhihao Wu; Yongli Xu; Xincheng Wang; Peijun Zhang

2009-01-01

360

Effects of olive oil and its minor phenolic constituents on obesity-induced cardiac metabolic changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Olive oil and its minor constituents have been recommended as important dietary therapeutic interventions in preventive medicine. However, a question remains to be addressed: what are the effects of olive oil and its phenolic compounds on obesity-induced cardiac metabolic changes? METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups (n = 24\\/group): (C) receiving standard-chow; (Ob) receiving hypercaloric-chow. After

Geovana MX Ebaid; Fábio RF Seiva; Katiucha KHR Rocha; Gisele A Souza; Ethel LB Novelli

2010-01-01

361

Garlic induced alteration in liver mineral concentrations in corn oil and olive oil fed rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to compare the effects of 2% garlic (G) on liver mineral concentrations in rats fed with corn oil (C) or olive oil (O). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 4 per group) were fed AIN76A semi-purified diets containing either 5% corn oil or 5% olive oil replacing corn oil with or without 2% garlic for 21 days.

Kothapa N. Chetty; LeShanna Calahan; Robert Oliver; Srikrishna N. Chetty

2004-01-01

362

Use of the activation energy concept to estimate the quality reduction of packaged olive oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the probability of packaged olive oil not reaching the end of its shelf life, P\\u000a safe, was used as a quality factor to evaluate the time taken for olive oils stored at various conditions to reach the end of\\u000a their shelf lives. P\\u000a safe was used to comment on the activation energy required during the degradation

Frank Coutelieris; Antonis Kanavouras

2005-01-01

363

Production of fuel ethanol from steam-explosion pretreated olive tree pruning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work deals with the production of fuel ethanol from olive tree pruning. This raw material is a renewable, low cost, largely available, and lacking of economic alternatives agricultural residue. Olive tree pruning was submitted to steam explosion pre-treatment in the temperature range 190–240°C, with or without previous impregnation by water or sulphuric acid solutions. The influence of both pre-treatment

Cristóbal Cara; Encarnación Ruiz; Mercedes Ballesteros; Paloma Manzanares; M Negro; Eulogio Castro

2008-01-01

364

Phytotoxicity and fertilising potential of olive mill wastewaters for maize cultivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of organic wastes as agricultural amendment is an effective strategy to regenerate degraded soils and represents an\\u000a economical alternative that provides a local source of fertiliser. Olive mill wastewaters are widely known for their fertilising\\u000a value. However, they can still not be recommended as a safe practice because of their potential ecological risks. Here, the\\u000a effect of olive

Siham Hanifi; Ismail El Hadrami

2008-01-01

365

Effect of the olive oil phenol hydroxytyrosol on human hepatoma HepG2 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Scientific evidence suggests that olive oil’s beneficial effects are related to the high level of antioxidants, including\\u000a phenolic compounds such as hydroxytyrosol. In vivo studies have shown that olive oil HTy is bioavailable and its biological\\u000a activities, similar to those reported for other natural antioxidants such as quercetin, include prevention of LDL oxidation.\\u000a Previous studies from our laboratory have shown

Luis Goya; Raquel Mateos; Laura Bravo

2007-01-01

366

Hydroxytyrosol, a Natural Molecule Occurring in Olive Oil, Induces Cytochrome c-Dependent Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol (DPE), a naturally occurring phenolic antioxidant molecule found in olive oil, has been reported to exert several biological and pharmacological activities. We studied the effect of this compound on the proliferation and survival of HL60 cell line. Concentrations from 50 to 100 ?M DPE, comparable to its olive oil content, caused a complete arrest of HL60 cell proliferation and

Fulvio Della Ragione; Valeria Cucciolla; Adriana Borriello; Valentina Della Pietra; Gabriele Pontoni; Luigi Racioppi; Caterina Manna; Patrizia Galletti; Vincenzo Zappia

2000-01-01

367

Waste-to-energy possibilities for industrial olive and grape by-products in Extremadura  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olive and grape agro-industrial sectors have a major economic importance in Extremadura. Annual production of olive oil is more than 50×103t, and of wine is more than 3×106hectolitres. The large amounts of by-products are in most cases under-used, although they could be converted into a zero cost of the waste at the point of origin. In this context, the

A. R. Celma; S. Rojas; F. López-Rodríguez

2007-01-01

368

Physiological effects of natural olive oil antioxidants utilization in rainbow trout ( Onchorynchus mykiss ) feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive mill vegetation water (VW) is an olive oil by-product rich in polyphenols has powerful antioxidant effects. In light\\u000a of the interest on the research of novel natural antioxidants to use in fish feed, the aim of this research was to use VW\\u000a as a potential substitute for artificial antioxidants in rainbow trout diet as well as checking its effects

Benedetto Sicuro; Paola Badino; Franco Daprà; Francesco Gai; Marco Galloni; Rosangela Odore; Giovanni Battista Palmegiano; Elisabetta Macchi

2010-01-01

369

Efficacy of natamycin to control fungal growth in natural black olive fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of natamycin as a fungal control agent in natural black olive fermentation according to the traditional anaerobic system was studied. Black Conservolea olives were subjected to spontaneous fermentation in 8% (w\\/v) NaCl brine solution (control treatment) or brine supplemented with 0.01% (w\\/v) natamycin (active compound) for an overall period of 60 days. The changes in the microbial association

O. Hondrodimou; Y. Kourkoutas; E. Z. Panagou

2011-01-01

370

Effect of pedoclimatic conditions on the chemical composition of the Sigoise olive cultivar.  

PubMed

The present work focused on the quality and the chemical composition of monovarietal virgin olive oil from the Sigoise variety grown in two different locations in Tunisia, viz., a sub-humid zone (Béjaoua, Tunis) and an arid zone (Boughrara, Sfax). In addition to the quality characteristics (acidity, peroxide value, and the spectrophotometric indices K232 and K270) and the chemical composition (content of fatty acids, antioxidants, and volatile compounds) of the oil, the fruit characteristics of the olives were studied. Except for the content of the majority of the fatty acids, there were significant differences observed in the oil composition of olives that were cultivated in different locations. The content of total phenols and lipoxygenase (LOX) oxidation products was higher for olives grown at the higher altitude, whereas that of alpha-tocopherol, carotenes, and chlorophylls was higher for olives from the Boughrara region (lower altitude). Moreover, olives produced at the higher altitude showed a higher ripeness index and oil content than those cultivated at the lower altitude. PMID:20397230

Dabbou, Samia; Sifi, Samira; Rjiba, Imed; Esposto, Sonia; Taticchi, Agnese; Servili, Maurizio; Montedoro, Gian Francesco; Hammami, Mohamed

2010-04-01

371

Removal of aflatoxin B1 and inhibition of Aspergillus flavus growth by the use of Lactobacillus plantarum on olives.  

PubMed

Olives can be contaminated with a wide variety of molds (Aspergillus and/or Penicillium) that can be occurring naturally on fresh and processed olives and could support mycotoxin production. The aim of this work was to investigate aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production by fungi and its bioaccumulation in olives during storage and to study the impact of the application of Lactobacillus plantarum on the inhibition of mold development and production of AFB1. Two different treatments were applied: (i) olives with natural microflora and (ii) olives inoculated with Aspergillus flavus after elimination of natural microflora. AFB1 has been extracted from olives and quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography using a fluorescence detector. Results showed the absence of this metabolite in the olives for the season 2008 to 2009. In 2009 to 2010, AFB1 was detected at the level of 11 ?g/kg. The application of L. plantarum during the storage of olives favors the reduction of the level of AFB1 to 5.9 ?g/kg correlated with a decrease in the amount of molds (86.3%). The images obtained by environmental scanning electron microscopy showed that L. plantarum was able to adhere to the olive surface and probably produce a biofilm that inhibits the multiplication of yeast and fungi by oxygen competition. Results showed an increase of antioxidant activity and amount of total phenolic compounds of olives, respectively, by 24 and 8.6%. In many olives contaminated with A. flavus, AFB1 was present at an initial level of 5.15 ?g/kg and increased to 6.55 ?g/kg after 8 days of storage. The biological detoxification of AFB1 in olives by L. plantarum is confirmed by the reduction of the level of AFB1 to 2.12 ?g/kg on day 0 and its absence after 4 days of storage. PMID:25285494

Kachouri, Faten; Ksontini, Hamida; Hamdi, Moktar

2014-10-01

372

A Supervised Feature Extraction Method For GC-MS Data Based On PLS. Application To Olive Oil Adulteration Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Olive oil adulteration is often complicated and more than one test is necessary to determine olive oil authenticity. In particular, detection of hazelnut oil in admixtures has been difficult to confirm due to the similarity of the two oils. In this work a method to identify the olive oil adulteration is presented based on GC-MS analysis coupled with data analysis techniques and a feature selection step.

Burian, C.; Brezmes, J.; Correig, X.; Martinelli, E.; Di Natale, C.

2011-09-01

373

Original Contribution Postprandial LDL phenolic content and LDL oxidation are modulated by olive oil phenolic compounds in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive oil phenolic compounds are potent antioxidants in vitro, but evidence for antioxidant action in vivo is controversial. We examined the role of the phenolic compounds from olive oil on postprandial oxidative stress and LDL antioxidant content. Oral fat loads of 40 mL of similar olive oils, but with high (366 mg\\/kg), moderate (164 mg\\/kg), and low (2.7 mg\\/kg) phenolic

Maria-Isabel Covas; Karina de la Torre; MagiFarre ´-Albaladejo; Jari Kaikkonen; Carmen Lopez-Sabater; Maria A. Pujadas-Bastardes; Jesus Joglar; Tanja Weinbrenner; Rosa M. Lamuela-Raventosc; Rafael de la Torre

374

An experimental approach for tracing olive processing residues in the archaeobotanical record, with preliminary examples from Tell Tweini, Syria  

Microsoft Academic Search

To help the interpretation of possible olive processing residues at archaeological sites, this study examines the changes\\u000a which occur in pre- and post-charring breakage surfaces of olive stones at tissue level. Fresh olives were experimentally\\u000a broken before and after charring and heated to different temperatures (230, 330, 430°C) in oxidising and non-oxidising conditions.\\u000a The structures obtained by the experiment were

Elena MarinovaJan; Jan M. A. van der Valk; Soultana Maria Valamoti; Joachim Bretschneider

375

Neuroprotective effect of olive oil in the hippocampus CA1 neurons following ischemia: Reperfusion in mice  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Transient global ischemia induces selective, delayed neuronal death of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1. Oxidative Stress is considered to be involved in a number of human diseases including ischemia. Preliminary studies confirmed reduction of cell death in brain following treatment with antioxidants. Aim: According to this finding, we study the relationship between consumption of olive oil on cell death and memory disorder in brain ischemia. We studied the protective effect of olive oil against ischemia-reperfusion. Material and Methods: Experimental design includes three groups: Intact (n = 8), ischemic control (n = 8) and treatment groups with olive oil (n = 8). The mice treated with olive oil as pre-treatment for a week. Then, ischemia induced by common carotid artery ligation and following the reduction of inflammation [a week after ischemia], the mice post-treated with olive oil. Nissl staining applied for counting necrotic cells in hippocampus CA1. Tunnel kit was used to quantify apoptotic cell death while to short term memory scale, we apply y-maze and shuttle box tests and for detection the rate of apoptotic and treated cell, we used western blotting test for bax and bcl2 proteins. Results: High rate of apoptosis was seen in ischemic group that significantly associated with short-term memory loss. Cell death was significantly lower when mice treated with olive oil. The memory test results were adjusted with cell death results and bax and bcl2 expression in all groups’ comparison. Ischemia for 15 min induced cell death in hippocampus with more potent effect on CA1. Conclusion: Olive oil intake significantly reduced cell death and decreased memory loss. PMID:23914093

Zamani, M; Hassanshahi, J; Soleimani, M; Zamani, F

2013-01-01

376

Inhibition of the inferior olive during conditioned responses in the decerebrate ferret.  

PubMed

Output from the interpositus nucleus can inhibit the inferior olive, probably via the GABA-ergic nucleo-olivary pathway. It has been suggested that the function of this inhibition might be to regulate synaptic plasticity resulting from parallel fibre/climbing fibre interaction in cerebellar Purkinje cells, by providing negative feedback information to the olive. Thus, when a learned response, generated by the interpositus nucleus, reaches a sufficient amplitude, the olive would be inhibited and further learning blocked. This suggestion was tested in a classical conditioning paradigm. Decerebrate ferrets were trained using electrical skin stimulation of the forelimb as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and periorbital stimulation as the unconditioned stimulus (US). Climbing fibre responses evoked in Purkinje cells by the US were recorded as surface field potentials in the part of the c3 zone controlling eyeblink. It was found that the CS did not inhibit the olive at the beginning of training, but when conditioned responses were large, the olive was inhibited by the CS in some animals. After a number of unpaired CS presentations, which caused extinction of the conditioned response, the inhibition disappeared. The size of individual conditioned responses correlated negatively with the size of the climbing fibre responses evoked by the US. Climbing fibre responses evoked by direct stimulation of the olive were also inhibited. It was concluded that cerebellar output during performance of a conditioned response inhibits the inferior olive. The results thus support the hypothesis of a cerebellar locus of conditioning and are consistent with the proposed role of cerebello-olivary inhibition. PMID:8817254

Hesslow, G; Ivarsson, M

1996-06-01

377

Working towards the development of innovative ultrasound equipment for the extraction of virgin olive oil.  

PubMed

Malaxation has been recognized as one of the most critical points in the mechanical extraction process for virgin olive oil (VOO). It is a low and continuous kneading of olive paste at a carefully monitored temperature. Through this essential technological operation the small droplets of the oil formed during the milling merge into large drops that can be easily separated with a decanter centrifuge. During this technological phase, a complex and necessary bioprocess takes place in order to determine the quality and composition of the final product. The malaxer is a heat exchanger characterized by a low overall heat transfer coefficient because the ratio of surface area to volume is disadvantageous, so it is important to find an innovative technology to improve heat-exchange. As matter of fact, the malaxing step is the only discontinuous phase in a continuous extraction process. In the next future, the essential challenge of VOO industrial plant manufacturing sector is to design and build advanced machines in order to transform the discontinuous malaxing step in a continuous phase and improve the working capacity of the industrial plants. In order to reduce the malaxing time enhancing the quality of the product, two ultrasound-assisted virgin olive oil extraction processes were tested against the traditional method. The sonication treatment was applied on olives submerged in a water bath (before the crushing) and on olive paste (after the crushing). The ultrasound technology provides a reduction of the malaxing duration improving VOO yields and its minor compounds content. Better extractibility and higher minor compounds contents were obtained by sonicating the olives submerged in a water bath than olive paste. After experimental trials the results were employed to suggest innovative scaling up solutions of the process and new applications of ultrasounds in the VOO industry. PMID:23538120

Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Durante, Viviana; La Notte, Domenico

2013-09-01

378

Abnormal fermentations in table-olive processing: microbial origin and sensory evaluation  

PubMed Central

The process of transformation of table olives from tree to table is the result of complex biochemical reactions that are determined by the interactions between the indigenous microflora of the olives, together with a variety of contaminating microrganisms from different sources [fiber-glass fermenters, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tanks, pipelines, pumps, and water], with the compositional characteristics of the fruit. One of the most important aspects of improving the quality of table olives is the use of selected microorganisms to drive the fermentation. These can supplant the indigenous microflora and, in particular, the complementary microflora that are responsible for spoilage of canned olives. In this context, from a technological point of view, a well-characterized collection of microrganisms (lactic acid bacteria, yeast) that can be isolated from the matrix to be processed (the olive fruit) will provide the basis for the development of starter culture systems. These cultures can be fully compatible with the typical products and will guarantee high quality standards. Inoculation of the brine with such selected starter cultures will reduce the probability of spoilage, and help to achieve an improved and more predictable fermentation process. Control of the fermentation processes can thus occur through chemical, chemico-physical and microbiological approaches, and since 2008, also through organoleptic evaluation (COI/OT/MO/Doc. No 1. Method for the sensory analysis of table olives). This last has established the necessary criteria and procedures for sensory analysis of the negative, gustatory and kinaesthetic sensations of table olives, which can also be attributed to abnormal proliferation of microrganisms. It also sets out the system for commercial classification, through assessment of the median of the defect predominantly perceived. PMID:23675370

Lanza, Barbara

2013-01-01

379

Literature review on production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil enriched in bioactive compounds. Potential use of byproducts as alternative sources of polyphenols.  

PubMed

This review describes the olive oil production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) enriched in polyphenol and byproducts generated as sources of antioxidants. EVOO is obtained exclusively by mechanical and physical processes including collecting, washing, and crushing of olives, malaxation of olive paste, centrifugation, storage, and filtration. The effect of each step is discussed to minimize losses of polyphenols from large quantities of wastes. Phenolic compounds including phenolic acids, alcohols, secoiridoids, lignans, and flavonoids are characterized in olive oil mill wastewater, olive pomace, storage byproducts, and filter cake. Different industrial pilot plant processes are developed to recover phenolic compounds from olive oil byproducts with antioxidant and bioactive properties. The technological information compiled in this review will help olive oil producers to improve EVOO quality and establish new processes to obtain valuable extracts enriched in polyphenols from byproducts with food ingredient applications. PMID:23656613

Frankel, Edwin; Bakhouche, Abdelhakim; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

2013-06-01

380

A yearly spraying of olive mill wastewater on agricultural soil over six successive years: impact of different application rates on olive production, phenolic compounds, phytotoxicity and microbial counts.  

PubMed

Olive mill wastewater (OMW) spraying effects onto olive-tree fields were investigated. Three OMW levels (50, 100 and 200 m(3)ha(-1)year(-1)) were applied over six successive years. Olive-crop yields, phenolic compounds progress, phytotoxicity and microbial counts were studied at different soil depths. Olive yield showed improvements with OMW level applied. Soil polyphenolic content increased progressively in relation to OMW levels in all the investigated layers. However, no significant difference was noted in lowest treatment rate compared to the control field. In the soil upper-layers (0-40 cm), five phenolic compounds were identified over six consecutive years of OMW-spraying. In all the soil-layers, the radish germination index exceeded 85%. However, tomato germination test values decreased with the applied OMW amount. For all treatments, microbial counts increased with OMW quantities and spraying frequency. Matrix correlation showed a strong relationship between soil polyphenol content and microorganisms, and a negative one to tomato germination index. PMID:22647243

Magdich, Salwa; Jarboui, Raja; Rouina, Béchir Ben; Boukhris, Makki; Ammar, Emna

2012-07-15

381

Effects of olive oil wastes on river basins and an oligotrophic coastal marine ecosystem: A case study in Greece.  

PubMed

This work aims to contribute to the knowledge of the impacts of olive oil waste discharge to freshwater and oligotrophic marine environments, since the ecological impact of olive oil wastes in riverine and coastal marine ecosystems, which are the final repositories of the pollutants, is a great environmental problem on a global scale, mostly concerning all the Mediterranean countries with olive oil production. Messinia, in southwestern Greece, is one of the greatest olive oil production areas in Europe. During the last decade around 1.4×10(6)tons of olive oil mill wastewater has been disposed in the rivers of Messinia and finally entered the marine ecosystem of Messiniakos gulf. The pollution from olive oil mill wastewater in the main rivers of Messinia and the oligotrophic coastal zone of Messiniakos gulf and its effects on marine organisms were evaluated, before, during and after the olive oil production period. Elevated amounts of phenols (36.2-178mgL(-1)) and high concentrations of ammonium (7.29-18.9mmolL(-1)) and inorganic phosphorus (0.5-7.48mmolL(-1)) were measured in small streams where the liquid disposals from several olive oil industries were gathered before their discharge in the major rivers of Messinia. The large number of olive oil units has downgraded the riverine and marine ecosystems during the productive period and a period more than five months is needed for the recovery of the ecosystem. Statistical analysis showed that the enrichment of freshwater and the coastal zone of Messiniakos gulf in ammonia, nitrite, phenols, total organic carbon, copper, manganese and nickel was directly correlated with the wastes from olive oil. Toxicity tests using 24h LC50 Palaemonidae shrimp confirm that olive mill wastewater possesses very high toxicity in the aquatic environment. PMID:25112823

Pavlidou, A; Anastasopoulou, E; Dassenakis, Mu; Hatzianestis, I; Paraskevopoulou, V; Simboura, N; Rousselaki, E; Drakopoulou, P

2014-11-01

382

Thin Layer Drying Kinetics of By-Products from Olive Oil Processing  

PubMed Central

The thin-layer behavior of by-products from olive oil production was determined in a solar dryer in passive and active operation modes for a temperature range of 20–50 °C. The increase in the air temperature reduced the drying time of olive pomace, sludge and olive mill wastewater. Moisture ratio was analyzed to obtain effective diffusivity values, varying in the oil mill by-products from 9.136 × 10?11 to 1.406 × 10?9 m2/s in forced convection (ma = 0.22 kg/s), and from 9.296 × 10?11 to 6.277 × 10?10 m2/s in natural convection (ma = 0.042 kg/s). Diffusivity values at each temperature were obtained using the Fick’s diffusion model and, regardless of the convection, they increased with the air temperature. The temperature dependence on the effective diffusivity was determined by an Arrhenius type relationship. The activation energies were found to be 38.64 kJ/mol, 30.44 kJ/mol and 47.64 kJ/mol for the olive pomace, the sludge and the olive mill wastewater in active mode, respectively, and 91.35 kJ/mol, 14.04 kJ/mol and 77.15 kJ/mol in natural mode, in that order. PMID:22174639

Montero, Irene; Miranda, Teresa; Arranz, Jose Ignacio; Rojas, Carmen Victoria

2011-01-01

383

Cytoprotective effects of olive mill wastewater extract and its main constituent hydroxytyrosol in PC12 cells.  

PubMed

Evidence from epidemiological studies indicates that adherence to diets rich in secondary plant metabolites, such as polyphenols and phenolic acids, possibly reduces the risk of age-dependent neurodegeneration and subsequent cognitive decline. Olive mill wastewater is particularly rich in the ortho-diphenol hydroxytyrosol (HT) that can be recovered with ad hoc techniques. In a previous study, we showed that hydroxytyrosol-rich olive mill wastewater extract protects dissociated brain cells not only in vitro but also ex vivo after subchronic oral administration of the extract to mice. As plant extracts often contain constituents with potentially confounding activities, our present study aimed to test in vitro whether HT at concentrations present in olive mill wastewater extract is able to protect PC12 cells with similar efficiency. Following a short-term exposure (30min) to the compounds of interest, cells were subjected to oxidative or nitrosative stress by adding either ferrous iron or sodium nitroprusside to the cell culture medium for 18h, respectively. Cytotoxicity was assessed by measuring MTT reduction, cellular ATP levels and mitochondrial membrane potential in the absence and presence of HT or HT-rich olive mill wastewater extract. The results we obtained mainly confirm our previous observation of promising cytoprotection of brain cells by HT-rich olive mill wastewater extract in different stressor paradigms. Furthermore, correlation analyses revealed that the observed cytoprotective effects in PC12 cells are likely due to HT present in the extract. PMID:20600919

Schaffer, Sebastian; Müller, Walter E; Eckert, Gunter P

2010-10-01

384

Chemical, Biochemical, and Microbiological Properties of Soils from Abandoned and Extensively Cultivated Olive Orchards  

PubMed Central

The abandonment of olive orchards is a phenomenon of great importance triggered mainly by economic and social causes. The aim of this study was to investigate some chemical, biochemical, and microbiological properties in a soil of a southern olive grove abandoned for 25 years. In order to define the effect of the long-term land abandonment on soil properties, an adjacent olive grove managed according to extensive practices was taken as reference (essentially minimum tillage and no fertilization). Soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and pH were significantly higher in the abandoned olive grove due to the absence of tillage and the natural inputs of organic matter at high C/N ratio which, inter alia, increased the number of cellulolytic bacteria and stimulated the activity of ?-glucosidase, an indicator of a more advanced stage of soil evolution. The soil of the abandoned olive orchard showed a lower number of total bacteria and fungi and a lower microbial diversity, measured by means of the Biolog method, as a result of a sort of specialization trend towards low quality organic substrates. From this point of view, the extensive cultivation management seemed to not induce a disturbance to microbiological communities. PMID:24348166

Palese, A. M.; Magno, R.; Casacchia, T.; Curci, M.; Baronti, S.; Miglietta, F.; Crecchio, C.; Xiloyannis, C.; Sofo, A.

2013-01-01

385

Influence of olive leaf processing on the bioaccessibility of bioactive polyphenols.  

PubMed

Olive leaves are rich in bioactive compounds, which are beneficial for humans. The objective of this work was to assess the influence of processing conditions (drying and extraction) of olive leaves on the extract's bioaccessibility. Thus, extracts obtained from dried olive leaves (hot air drying at 70 and 120 °C or freeze-drying) by means of conventional or ultrasound-assisted extraction were subjected to in vitro digestion. Antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, and HPLC-DAD/MS/MS analysis were carried out during digestion. The dehydration treatment used for the olive leaves did not have a meaningful influence on bioaccessibility. The digestion process significantly (p<0.05) affected the composition of the extracts. Oleuropein and verbascoside were quite resistant to gastric digestion but were largely degraded in the intestinal phase. Nevertheless, luteolin-7-O-glucoside was the most stable polyphenol during the in vitro simulation (43% bioaccessibility). Therefore, this compound may be taken into consideration in further studies that focus on the bioactivity of olive leaf extracts. PMID:24926566

Ahmad-Qasem, Margarita H; Cánovas, Jaime; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Carreres, José E; Micol, Vicente; García-Pérez, José V

2014-07-01

386

Olive Pomace, a Source for Valuable Arabinan-Rich Pectic Polysaccharides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell wall polysaccharides account for nearly one third of olive pomace dry matter produced by the environment friendly biphasic system. These polysaccharides are mainly cellulose, glucuronoxylans, and arabinan-rich pectic polysaccharides, in equivalent proportions. The structural features of pectic polysaccharides are unique concerning the arabinan moiety due to the occurrence of a ?-(1?5)-terminally-linked arabinose residue. This odd feature tends to disappear with olive ripening and can be used as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of the stage of ripening of this fruit, as well as a marker for the presence of olive pulp in matrices containing pectic polysaccharides samples. These pectic polysaccharides have the ability to form elastic gels with calcium. The critical gelling calcium and galacturonic acid concentrations are higher than that observed for commercial citrus low-methoxyl pectic material. Nevertheless, they present a syneresis occurring for much higher calcium concentration and, consequently, show a much larger zone in which homogeneous gels are formed. In addition, olive pomace pectic polysaccharides gels are more resistant to temperature than the low-methoxyl pectin/calcium gels. These properties show that olive pomace can be a potential source of gelling pectic material with useful properties for particular applications.

Coimbra, Manuel A.; Cardoso, Susana M.; Lopes-da-Silva, José A.

387

Effect of temperature, wetness duration, and planting density on olive anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spp.  

PubMed

The influence of temperature, wetness duration, and planting density on infection of olive fruit by Colletotrichum acutatum and C. simmondsii was examined in laboratory and field experiments. Detached olive fruit of 'Arbequina', 'Hojiblanca', and 'Picual' were inoculated with conidia of several isolates of the pathogen and kept at constant temperatures of 5 to 35°C in humid chambers. Similarly, potted plants and stem cuttings with fruit were inoculated and subjected to wetness periods of 0 to 48 h. Infection occurred at 10 to 25°C, and disease severity was greater and the mean latent period was shorter at 17 to 20°C. Overall, C. acutatum was more virulent than C. simmondsii at temperatures <25°C. When temperature was not a limiting factor, disease severity increased with the wetness period from 0 to 48 h. Disease severity was modeled as a function of temperature and wetness duration; two critical fruit incidence thresholds were defined as 5 and 20%, with wetness durations of 1.0 and 12.2 h at the optimum temperature. In the field, anthracnose epidemics progressed faster in a super-high-density planting (1,904 olive trees/ha) than in the high-density plantings (204 to 816 olive trees/ha) and caused severe epidemics in the super-high-density planting even with the moderately resistant Arbequina. Data in this study will be useful for the development of a forecasting system for olive anthracnose epidemics. PMID:22957821

Moral, Juan; Jurado-Bello, José; Sánchez, M Isabel; de Oliveira, Rodrígues; Trapero, Antonio

2012-10-01

388

Nonthermal pasteurization of fermented green table olives by means of high hydrostatic pressure processing.  

PubMed

Green fermented olives cv. Halkidiki were subjected to different treatments of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing (400, 450, and 500?MPa for 15 or 30?min). Total viable counts, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts/moulds, and the physicochemical characteristics of the product (pH, colour, and firmness) were monitored right after the treatment and after 7 days of storage at 20(°)C to allow for recovery of injured cells. The treatments at 400?MPa for 15 and 30?min, 450?MPa for 15 and 30?min, and 500?MPa for 15?min were found insufficient as a recovery of the microbiota was observed. The treatment at 500?MPa for 30?min was effective in reducing the olive microbiota below the detection limit of the enumeration method after the treatment and after 1 week of storage and was chosen as being more appropriate for storing olives for an extended time period (5 months). After 5 months of storage at 20(°)C, no microbiota was detected in treated samples, while significant changes for both HHP treated and untreated olives were observed for colour parameters only (minor degradation). In conclusion, HHP treatment may introduce a reliable nonthermal pasteurization method to extend the microbiological shelf-life of fermented table olives. PMID:25243146

Argyri, Anthoula A; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Nychas, George-John E; Tassou, Chrysoula C

2014-01-01

389

Neuropharmacologic characterization of strychnine seizure potentiation in the inferior olive lesioned rat  

SciTech Connect

Cerebellar stimulation is associated with anticonvulsant activity in several animal models. There are two afferent inputs to cerebellar Purkinje cells: (1) parallel fibers, which relay mossy fiber input, from brainstem, spinal cord, cerebral cortex and cerebellum, and (2) climbing fibers, arising from the inferior olive. Both climbing and parallel fibers release excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters, which stimulate Purkinje cells and cause GABA release in the deep cerebellar nuclei. Climbing fibers also exert tonic inhibition over Purkinje cell activity by producing an absolute refractory period following stimulation, rendering Purkinje cells unresponsive to parallel fibers. Climbing fiber deafferentation by bilateral inferior olive lesions produced a specific decrease in threshold for strychnine-seizures in the rat. Inferior olive lesions produced no change in threshold to seizures induced by picrotoxin, bicuculline or pentylenetetrazole. Inferior olive lesions also produced abnormal motor behavior including, myoclonus, backward locomotion and hyperextension, which was significantly aggravated by strychnine, brucine, picrotoxin, bicuculline and pentylenetetrazole. Inferior olive lesions produced a significant increase in quisqualate sensitive ({sup 3}H)AMPA ((Rs)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) binding to cerebellar membranes. AMPA is a glutamate analog with high affinity for quisqualate sensitive receptors.

Anderson, M.C.

1988-01-01

390

Application of starter cultures to table olive fermentation: an overview on the experimental studies  

PubMed Central

Table olives are one of the oldest fermented foods and are considered as an important component of the Mediterranean diet, since their richness in monounsaturated fats (primarily oleic acid) and phenolic compounds may function as antioxidants in the human body; in the Western world they represent one of the most popular fermented vegetables but, despite its economic significance, table olive fermentation is still craft-based and empirical. In particular, such a type of fermentation results from the competitive activities among indigenous, contaminating microorganisms, the microbial balance depending on several intrinsic (pH, water activity, diffusion of nutrients from the drupe, and level of anti-microbial compounds) and extrinsic (temperature, oxygen availability, and salt concentration) factors. At present, to reduce the risk of spoilage and to achieve a more predictable process there is an increasing interest in developing starter cultures for table olives fermentation. Anyway, the application of starter cultures in the field of table olives is quite far from reaching the diffusion as it has in other sectors of food industry (e.g., dairy products and alcoholic beverages). This review focuses on experimental researches devoted to studying starter cultures for possible application to table olive fermentation both at artisan and industrial level. PMID:22833739

Corsetti, Aldo; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

2012-01-01

391

Control of Several Emissions during Olive Pomace Thermal Degradation.  

PubMed

Biomass plays an important role as an energy source, being an interesting alternative to fossil fuels due to its environment-friendly and sustainable characteristics. However, due to the exposure of customers to emissions during biomass heating, evolved pollutants should be taken into account and controlled. Changing raw materials or mixing them with another less pollutant biomass could be a suitable step to reduce pollution. This work studied the thermal behaviour of olive pomace, pyrenean oak and their blends under combustion using thermogravimetric analysis. It was possible to monitor the emissions released during the process by coupling mass spectrometry analysis. The experiments were carried out under non-isothermal conditions at the temperature range 25-750 °C and a heating rate of 20 °C·min-1. The following species were analysed: aromatic compounds (benzene and toluene), sulphur emissions (sulphur dioxide), 1,4-dioxin, hydrochloric acid, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The results indicated that pollutants were mainly evolved in two different stages, which are related to the thermal degradation steps. Thus, depending on the pollutant and raw material composition, different emission profiles were observed. Furthermore, intensity of the emission profiles was related, in some cases, to the composition of the precursor. PMID:25314298

Miranda, Teresa; Nogales, Sergio; Román, Silvia; Montero, Irene; Arranz, José Ignacio; Sepúlveda, Francisco José

2014-01-01

392

Control of Several Emissions during Olive Pomace Thermal Degradation  

PubMed Central

Biomass plays an important role as an energy source, being an interesting alternative to fossil fuels due to its environment-friendly and sustainable characteristics. However, due to the exposure of customers to emissions during biomass heating, evolved pollutants should be taken into account and controlled. Changing raw materials or mixing them with another less pollutant biomass could be a suitable step to reduce pollution. This work studied the thermal behaviour of olive pomace, pyrenean oak and their blends under combustion using thermogravimetric analysis. It was possible to monitor the emissions released during the process by coupling mass spectrometry analysis. The experiments were carried out under non-isothermal conditions at the temperature range 25–750 °C and a heating rate of 20 °C·min?1. The following species were analysed: aromatic compounds (benzene and toluene), sulphur emissions (sulphur dioxide), 1,4-dioxin, hydrochloric acid, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The results indicated that pollutants were mainly evolved in two different stages, which are related to the thermal degradation steps. Thus, depending on the pollutant and raw material composition, different emission profiles were observed. Furthermore, intensity of the emission profiles was related, in some cases, to the composition of the precursor. PMID:25314298

Miranda, Teresa; Nogales, Sergio; Román, Silvia; Montero, Irene; Arranz, José Ignacio; Sepúlveda, Francisco José

2014-01-01

393

Olive oil mill wastewater for remediation of slag contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Two olive mill wastewaters (OMW) samples, OMWa and OMWb, containing different polyphenolic loads were used for decontaminating an unauthorized dump site in the Campania region, south Italy. In a bench-scale experiment, OMWa at pH 6.0 (OMWapH6.0) and 4.7 (OMWapH4.7), OMWb at pH 4.7 (OMWbpH4.7) and OMWa free of the polyphenolic moiety polyphenol-free OMWa (PF-OMWa) were added to the soil for a 96 h contact time. At 96 h, OMWapH4.7 was more effective than OMWapH6.0, with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn removal percentages of 30.7-68.1. Cd and Pb levels were 6.0 and 915 mg kg(-1), respectively, decreasing below the regulatory limits for industrial and commercial areas (15.0 and 1 × 10(3) mg kg(-1), respectively). A threefold decrease in Zn levels was also observed from 13.5 × 10(3) to 4.3 × 10(3) mg kg(-1). The metal removal efficiency of PF-OMWa dropped from 30.7 % to 15.6 % for Cd and from 37.9 % to 1.3 % for Pb. OMWbpH4.7 at 96 h was more efficient than OMWapH4.7, with mean removal percentages of 32.5 versus 7.8, respectively. PMID:24141737

Ferrara, Luciano; Panzella, Lucia; Napolitano, Alessandra; Giudicianni, Italo; d'Ischia, Marco; Arienzo, Michele

2013-12-01

394

Viral diseases of olive flounder in Korean hatcheries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to elucidate the state of diseases, especially viral diseases, and to prevent viral diseases from occurring in olive flounder hatcheries, a range of studies, including epidemiological study, were performed from 1997 to 2003. The location of the hatcheries investigated includes several representative sites in the east (Kangnung, Uljin, Pohang, Yangsan, Ulsan, Pusan), south (Wando, Changheung, Goheung, Yeosu, Namhae, Tongyeong, Geoje, Jeju) and west (Seosan, Kunsan, Gochang, Yeongkwang, Mokpo, Chindo) costal areas of the Korea Peninsula. A total of 2000 cases have been examined in 7 years, in which mortality caused by viral agents accounts for 22%, or 446 cases. Mortalities associated with viral infection considerably increased from 14% in 1997 to 27% in 2003. A variety of viral diseases were observed, and the occurrences of viral epidermal hyperplasia, viral ascites and viral deformity, viral nervous necrosis, and hirame rhabdoviral disease are 14%, 51%, 25%, and 8% respectively. By investigating the viral infection of broodstock flounder, the infection rate of marine birnavirus (MABV) in hatcheries was identified to be approximately 30%, therefore, it is highly necessary to acquire and keep non-infected broodstock fishes.

Oh, M.-J.; Jung, S.-J.; Kitamura, S.-I.; Kim, H.-Y.; Kang, S. Y.

2006-01-01

395

Effects of inferior olive lesion on fear-conditioned bradycardia  

PubMed Central

The inferior olive (IO) sends excitatory inputs to the cerebellar cortex and cerebellar nuclei through the climbing fibers. In eyeblink conditioning, a model of motor learning, the inactivation of or a lesion in the IO impairs the acquisition or expression of conditioned eyeblink responses. Additionally, climbing fibers originating from the IO are believed to transmit the unconditioned stimulus to the cerebellum in eyeblink conditioning. Studies using fear-conditioned bradycardia showed that the cerebellum is associated with adaptive control of heart rate. However, the role of inputs from the IO to the cerebellum in fear-conditioned bradycardia has not yet been investigated. To examine this possible role, we tested fear-conditioned bradycardia in mice by selective disruption of the IO using 3-acetylpyridine. In a rotarod test, mice with an IO lesion were unable to remain on the rod. The number of neurons of IO nuclei in these mice was decreased to ?40% compared with control mice. Mice with an IO lesion did not show changes in the mean heart rate or in heart rate responses to a conditioned stimulus, or in their responses to a painful stimulus in a tail-flick test. However, they did show impairment of the acquisition/expression of conditioned bradycardia and attenuation of heart rate responses to a pain stimulus used as an unconditioned stimulus. These results indicate that the IO inputs to the cerebellum play a key role in the acquisition/expression of conditioned bradycardia. PMID:24784584

Kotajima, Hiroko; Sakai, Kazuhisa; Hashikawa, Tsutomu

2014-01-01

396

Inherently Analog Quantity Representations in Olive Baboons (Papio anubis)  

PubMed Central

Strong evidence indicates that non-human primates possess a numerical representation system, but the inherent nature of that system is still debated. Two cognitive mechanisms have been proposed to account for non-human primate numerical performance: (1) a discrete object-file system limited to quantities <4, and (2) an analog system which represents quantities comparatively but is limited by the ratio between two quantities. To test the underlying nature of non-human primate quantification, we asked eight experiment-naive olive baboons (Papio anubis) to discriminate between number pairs containing small (<4), large (>4), or span (small vs. large) numbers of food items presented simultaneously or sequentially. The prediction from the object-file hypothesis is that baboons will only accurately choose the larger quantity in small pairs, but not large or span pairs. Conversely, the analog system predicts that baboons will be successful with all numbers, and that success will be dependent on numerical ratio. We found that baboons successfully discriminated all pair types at above chance levels. In addition, performance significantly correlated with the ratio between the numerical values. Although performance was better for simultaneous trials than sequential trials, evidence favoring analog numerical representation emerged from both conditions, and was present even in the first exposure to number pairs. Together, these data favor the interpretation that a single, coherent analog representation system underlies spontaneous quantitative abilities in primates. PMID:23653619

Barnard, Allison M.; Hughes, Kelly D.; Gerhardt, Regina R.; DiVincenti, Louis; Bovee, Jenna M.; Cantlon, Jessica F.

2013-01-01

397

Removal of phenols from the water effluents of olive presses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water effluents of olive presses contain a number of phenols that are hardly biodegradable and therefore constitute an environmental hazard, mainly in the Mediterranean countries. The present work presents the results obtained from the study of artificial solutions containing one kind of phenol, namely gallic acid that consists of the main type of phenols present. According to the experimental procedure, the phenol is removed from the water solution by absorption on different naturally occurring raw rock materials. The first material is caustic magnesia produced after the calcination of a magnesite sample from Macedonia, Greece, the second is a sample of sedimentary psammitic marl from the area of Chania, Crete, Greece, and the third solid absorbent is a bentonite sample from the island of Milos, Greece. According to the results obtained, magnesia seems to be by far the best absorbent, with an absorbing capacity of 3500 mg of phenol per gram, followed by the psammitic marl. The absorbing capacity of bentonite is almost negligible

Stamboliadis, Elias; Emejulu, Anthony; Pantelaki, Olga; Pentari, Despina; Petrakis, Evangelos

2012-11-01

398

Effects of Sunlight and Fire on Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata) Fruit Sugar Concentration: Do Burns Help or Hinder an Invasive Plant?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire has often been used as a control mechanism for invasive plant species, such as Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata). However, little is known about the impact of burning on Autumn Olive’s reproductive success. A contributing factor for plant reproductive success is seed dispersal which is hypothesized to be correlated with the sugar concentration of fruit. Research has demonstrated that fruits

Hilary Bultman; Danny Ackert

2011-01-01

399

Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi Strain DAPP-PG 722, Isolated in Italy from an Olive Plant Affected by Knot Disease.  

PubMed

Olive knot disease, caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi, seriously affects olive trees in the Mediterranean basin. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi DAPP-PG 722, a strain isolated in Italy from an olive plant affected by knot disease. PMID:25278521

Moretti, Chiaraluce; Cortese, Chiara; Passos da Silva, Daniel; Venturi, Vittorio; Ramos, Cayo; Firrao, Giuseppe; Buonaurio, Roberto

2014-01-01

400

Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi Strain DAPP-PG 722, Isolated in Italy from an Olive Plant Affected by Knot Disease  

PubMed Central

Olive knot disease, caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi, seriously affects olive trees in the Mediterranean basin. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi DAPP-PG 722, a strain isolated in Italy from an olive plant affected by knot disease. PMID:25278521

Cortese, Chiara; Passos da Silva, Daniel; Venturi, Vittorio; Ramos, Cayo; Firrao, Giuseppe; Buonaurio, Roberto

2014-01-01

401

Effective production of Pseudomonas fluorescens lipase by semi-batch culture with turbidity-dependent automatic feeding of both olive oil and iron ion  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic feeding system to supply olive oil in semi-batch culture was established by monitoring cell concentration with a laser turbidimeter combined with a microcomputer and a pulse motor. In this automatic feeding system, specific olive oil supply rate (g olive oil) · (g dry cell)-1 · h-1, q0, was changed in an appropriate range. Attempts were made to produce

Kazuto Ishihara; Takahiro Suzuki; Tsuneo Yamane; Shoichi Shimizu

1989-01-01

402

EVALUACIÓN GENÉTICA DE CLONES DE OLIVO EN EL DESIERTO DE ATACAMA, CHILE GENETIC EVALUATION OF OLIVE CLONES IN THE ATACAMA DESERT, CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

El olivo (Olea europaea L.) es una especie económicamente im- portante para países con clima mediterráneo y ha sido una al- ternativa apropiada y útil para los sistemas agrícolas intensivos en las zonas áridas de Chile. Por este motivo, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar los componentes de varianza, heredabilidad en sentido amplio y la predicción de valores gené-

Freddy Mora; Francisco Tapia; Antonio Ibacache; Elias Nunes-Martins; Carlos Alberto-Scapim

403

Modelling the spatial distribution of the erosive behaviour within an olive orchard microcatchment with a spontaneous grass cover in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive orchards located in mountainous or hilly landscapes in Southern Spain have been identified as one of the major sources of sediments water stream in the region. This communication will present a modelling study of the magnitude and spatial distribution of the sediment sources within a small olive orchard, 6.1 ha, forming a microcatchment in a mountainous area. The model

Encarnación V. Taguas; Cecilia Moral; José L. Ayuso; Rafael Pérez-Alcántara; José A. Gómez

2010-01-01

404

Modeling the spatial distribution of water erosion within a Spanish olive orchard microcatchment using the SEDD model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olive orchards located in mountainous or hilly landscapes in Southern Spain have been identified as one of the major sources of sediments for streams in the region. This paper presents a modeling study of the magnitude and spatial distribution of sources of sediment within a small 6.1ha olive orchard forming a microcatchment in a mountainous area. The model used was

E. V. Taguas; C. Moral; J. L. Ayuso; R. Pérez; J. A. Gómez

2011-01-01

405

A New Market for an Old Food: the U.S. Demand for Olive Oil , Daniel Sumner  

E-print Network

the health and culinary benefits of olive oil and the spread of Mediterranean diet contribute significantly to the rising demand. Keywords: olive oil, food demand, Mediterranean diet, health, dietary trend JEL and the Frank Buck Jr. Professor in the Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics at UC Davis

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

406

New Demand for Old Food: the U.S. Demand for Olive Oil Bo Xiong, William Matthews, Daniel Sumner  

E-print Network

of olive oil and the spread of Mediterranean diet contribute significantly to the rising demand in the United States. Keywords: olive oil, food demand, Mediterranean diet, health, food trends JEL Economics at UC Davis. The authors thank Julian Alston, Samir Mili, Sebastien Pouliot, and Luca Salvatici

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

407

Isolation, structure elucidation and antioxidant potential of the major phenolic and flavonoid compounds in brined olive drupes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because olives represent an important component of the Mediterranean diet, it is necessary to establish unequivocal identification and quantitation of the major potential antioxidant phenolic compounds they contain. The major phenolic antioxidants in two types of brined olives were isolated and purified by semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography. Structural analysis was conducted using UV spectrophotometry, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic

R. W Owen; R Haubner; W Mier; A Giacosa; W. E Hull; B Spiegelhalder; H Bartsch

2003-01-01

408

The Major Allergen of Olive Pollen Ole e 1 Is a Diagnostic Marker for Sensitization to Oleaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Trees of the family Oleaceae are important allergen sources, with a strongly varying geographic distribution. For example, olive pollen is an important allergen source in Mediterranean countries, whereas ash pollen dominates in Northern and Central Europe and North America. The aim of this study was to compare the profiles of olive and ash pollen allergens and to study the

Oscar Palomares; Ines Swoboda; Mayte Villalba; Nadia Balic; Susanne Spitzauer; Rosalía Rodríguez; Rudolf Valenta

2006-01-01

409

Genetic Responses Induced in Olive Roots upon Colonization by the Biocontrol Endophytic Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7  

PubMed Central

Knowledge on the genetic basis underlying interactions between beneficial bacteria and woody plants is still very limited, and totally absent in the case of olive. We aimed to elucidate genetic responses taking place during the colonization of olive roots by the native endophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, an effective biocontrol agent against Verticillium wilt of olive. Roots of olive plants grown under non-gnotobiotic conditions were collected at different time points after PICF7 inoculation. A Suppression Subtractive Hybridization cDNA library enriched in induced genes was generated. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis validated the induction of selected olive genes. Computational analysis of 445 olive ESTs showed that plant defence and response to different stresses represented nearly 45% of genes induced in PICF7-colonized olive roots. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis confirmed induction of lipoxygenase, phenylpropanoid, terpenoids and plant hormones biosynthesis transcripts. Different classes of transcription factors (i.e., bHLH, WRKYs, GRAS1) were also induced. This work highlights for the first time the ability of an endophytic Pseudomonas spp. strain to mount a wide array of defence responses in an economically-relevant woody crop such as olive, helping to explain its biocontrol activity. PMID:23144916

Schiliro, Elisabetta; Ferrara, Massimo; Nigro, Franco; Mercado-Blanco, Jesus

2012-01-01

410

World Oilseed Situation and Market Highlights, March 1987. Reference Tables on the Major Producers and Consumers of Olive Oil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication contains tables with historical data on the supply and distribution of olive oil in 35 producing and/or consuming countries. The tables give annual data for most countries from 1964/65 to date on pressed olive oil. The data has been the so...

1987-01-01

411

Phylogeography of olive ridley turtles ( Lepidochelys olivacea ) on the east coast of India: implications for conservation theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orissa, on the east coast of India, is one of the three mass nesting sites in the world for olive ridley turtles ( Lepidochelys olivacea ). This population is currently under threat as a result of fishery-related mortality; more than 100 000 olive ridleys have been counted dead in the last 10 years in Orissa. In general, the globally distributed

K. SHANKER; J. RAMADEVI; B. C. C HOUDHURY; L. SINGH; R. K. A GGARWAL

412

High hydrostatic pressure effects on mold flora, citrinin mycotoxin, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein phenolics and antioxidant activity of black table olives  

Microsoft Academic Search

High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) as a non-thermal technology is an effective tool for microbiologically safe and shelf-stable fruits. Mycotoxin citrinin (CIT) is a toxic secondary metabolite, especially produced from filamentous fungus Penicillium citrinum and is also produced by other species of Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Monascus that are able to develop on olive after harvest, during brine and storage of olives.

Özlem Toku?o?lu; Hami Alpas; Faruk Bozo?lu

2010-01-01

413

The impact of exogenous DNA on the structure of sperm of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).  

PubMed

Sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is a promising transgenic technology that relies on the capability of sperm to internalize exogenous DNA. In marine fish, however, the interaction between sperm and exogenous DNA appears to be deficient. Here, we demonstrated significant DNase activity in the seminal plasma of the olive flounder. When incubated with naked-DNA, the spermatozoa lost their structural integrity, including the head, mitochondria and flagellum, in an incubation time-dependent manner. However, internalization of a liposome-DNA complex resulted in the structural integrity of the spermatozoa being maintained, even when using incubation times of up to 50min. We concluded that in the olive flounder, SMGT is possible by integrating liposome-DNA complexes, rather than naked-DNA alone, into the sperm. In brief, removal of the seminal plasma and packaging the exogenous DNA were necessary for successful SMGT in the olive flounder. PMID:25042775

Xin, Nian; Liu, Tiantian; Zhao, Haitao; Wang, Zhenwei; Liu, Jinxiang; Zhang, Quanqi; Qi, Jie

2014-10-01

414

Development and Validation of a Mathematical Model for Olive Oil Oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical model describing the stability or the susceptibility to oxidation of extra virgin olive oil has been developed. The model has been resolved by an iterative method using differential finite method. It was validated by experimental data of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) oxidation. EVOO stability was tested by using a Rancimat at four different temperatures 60, 70, 80 and 90° C until peroxide accumulation reached 20 [meq/kg]. Peroxide formation is speed relatively slow; fits zero order reaction with linear regression coefficients varying from 0, 98 to 0, 99. The mathematical model was used to predict the shelf life of bulk conditioned olive oil. This model described peroxide accumulation inside a container in excess of oxygen as a function of time at various positions from the interface air/oil. Good correlations were obtained between theoretical and experimental values.

Rahmouni, K.; Bouhafa, H.; Hamdi, S.

2009-03-01

415

Influence of the neutralization step on the oxidative and thermal stability of acid olive oil.  

PubMed

This study elucidate the modification on oxidative and thermal stability of acid olive oils during the neutralization step. The neutralization of an acidified olive oil, chosen as model, was carried out by substituting lime (calcium hydroxide) for soda (sodium hydroxide) as the neutralizing agent. Resulting olive oil preserved almost 95% of their alpha-tocopherol content and had higher temperatures of thermal decomposition than oils neutralized with soda. Oils neutralized with lime had better oxidative stability since the losses of their natural antioxidants, particularly tocopherols, were very limited. The neutralization with soda was accompanied by a passage of epoxides and hydroperoxides (products of first stage of oxidation) to alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehydes and ketones (products of second stage of oxidation). These purposes were confirmed by thermal spectrophotometric analyses and the increase of the carbonyl value after neutralization. PMID:19491528

Essid, Kamel; Chtourou, Manef; Trabelsi, Mahmoud; Frikha, Mohamed Hédi

2009-01-01

416

Pigment, physicochemical, and microbiological changes related to the freshness of cracked table olives.  

PubMed

The changes in chloroplastic pigments, mineral nutrients, and characteristics related to freshness were studied during storage and packing of cracked seasoned olives. Cracking produced an initial loss in green pigments and color degradation. Later, storage caused a progressive degradation of chlorophylls and carotenoids, with a slower rate in refrigerated fruits (which preserved the greenish tones better), but after packing (and storage at room temperature), the differential effect disappeared and, at the end of the study, all olives showed similar pigment transformations, which were correlated with CIE a* and hue. Processing led to a Na content increase in olive flesh (and Ca and Zn, when added) but marked losses in the other mineral nutrients. Sodium metabisulfite and ZnCl? promoted LAB growth while inhibiting yeast, thus enhancing product stability, and erythorbic acid caused yeast growth and firmness deterioration. PMID:23528105

Gallardo-Guerrero, Lourdes; Gandul-Rojas, Beatriz; Moreno-Baquero, J M; López-López, Antonio; Bautista-Gallego, Joaquín; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio

2013-04-17

417

Linking Chemical Parameters to Sensory Panel Results through Neural Networks To Distinguish Olive Oil Quality.  

PubMed

A wide variety of olive oil samples from different origins and olive types has been chemically analyzed as well as evaluated by trained sensory panelists. Six chemical parameters have been obtained for each sample (free fatty acids, peroxide value, two UV absorption parameters (K232 and K268), 1,2-diacylglycerol content, and pyropheophytins) and linked to their quality using an artificial neural network-based model. Herein, the nonlinear algorithms were used to distinguish olive oil quality. Two different methods were defined to assess the statistical performance of the model (a K-fold cross-validation (K = 6) and three different blind tests), and both of them showed around a 95-96% correct classification rate. These results support that a relationship between the chemical and the sensory analyses exists and that the mathematical tool can potentially be implemented into a device that could be employed for various useful applications. PMID:25296536

Cancilla, John C; Wang, Selina C; Díaz-Rodríguez, Pablo; Matute, Gemma; Cancilla, John D; Flynn, Dan; Torrecilla, José S

2014-11-01

418

A rapid method to determine sterol, erythrodiol, and uvaol concentrations in olive oil.  

PubMed

A rapid, accurate, and efficient method for determining the sterol, uvaol, and erythrodiol concentrations was developed to meet International Olive Council (IOC) certification criteria for extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). The unsaponifiable fraction of the sample (0.2 g) was separated with a diatomaceous earth column, and the sterol and triterpenic dialcohols were isolated with a novel base-activated silica solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge cleanup protocol. The improved method and the IOC method provided identical pass/fail results (n = 34) for each of the six sterol and erythrodiol/uvaol IOC criteria used to assess olive oil. This method was validated, and recoveries of stigmasterol (88%) and ?-sitosterol (84%) were greater than previously published values obtained using the IOC method. This method requires approximately one-third the time required to complete the IOC method and has great utility for the rapid screening of EVOO to detect adulteration, false labeling, and an inferior product. PMID:23587059

Mathison, Brian; Holstege, Dirk

2013-05-15

419

Composition of pigments and colour changes in green table olives related to processing type.  

PubMed

Brownish colourations in Natural green table olives (non-treated with alkali) make this product less attractive to consumers than Spanish-style green table olives (treated with alkali), which develop a more appreciated bright golden-yellow colour. These colour differences were studied in relation to changes in the composition of chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments, as well as polyphenolic compounds and polyphenol oxidase enzyme (PPO) activity. Natural green olives showed a different chlorophyll profile than Spanish-style. However, all the chlorophyll pigments formed in both processing types were Mg-free derivatives (mostly pheophytins) with similar colourations, ranging from grey to green brownish. In the carotenoid fraction no appreciable differences were found between both processing types. The fruit's brownish colour was mainly due to polymeric substances with a size of >1000 daltons and polyphenolic nature, resulting from an enzymatic oxidation by PPO of the o-diphenolic compounds present in the fresh fruits. PMID:25053036

Ramírez, Eva; Gandul-Rojas, Beatriz; Romero, Concepción; Brenes, Manuel; Gallardo-Guerrero, Lourdes

2015-01-01

420

Atlas Linguarum Europea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using selected dialect maps and explanatory comments, the Atlas Linguarum Europae aims to describe dialect variations in Europe and thus produce a clear typology of the spoken languages and dialects. (Author)

Kruijsen, Joep

1977-01-01

421

[Virgin olive oil. From legend to scientific knowledge of the nutraceutical aspects].  

PubMed

Proper nutrition has been considered the basis of good health since ancient times. Hippocrates (460-377 BC), father of modern medicine in the western world, claimed that "good health implies an awareness of the powers of natural or processed foods", the Salernitan School (eleventh-twelfth centuries) maintained that "the doctor must observe what food consists of, how much, and when it must be eaten", while Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) believed that "a man's life depends on what he eats". We know that lipids are important in nutrition and extra-virgin olive oil plays a predominant role in this field, recognised for its high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids. An example of a "nutraceutic" or "functional" food right from infancy, it is one of the best medicaments for delaying aging, and is also a good source of phytochemicals including polyphenolic compounds, squalene, alpha-tocopherol, carotenoid that may contribute to its overall therapeutic characteristics. An integral ingredient of the Mediterranean diet, extra-virgin olive oil has always been considered a middle road between food and medicine and there is growing evidence that its health benefits include reduction of coronary heart disease risk factor, prevention of several types of cancer, and the modification of immune and inflammatory responses. The origins of the olive tree date back to the Eneolithical era, or Copper Age, in the sixth millennium BC. Having first appeared in Italy during the Bronze Age, the fruit and oil of the olive tree were widely used in nutrition, medicine, art, literature, and daily life during the Etruscan and Roman civilisations, and throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Mysteriously entwined with our own history, the olive tree has a human shape, strong, resilient, tenacious, filled with fruit, but also wounded, suffering and moving. Well-grounded reasons exist for considering olive oil the best nutritional gift we can offer ourselves as it preserves good health, improves the quality of our life and also makes it more enjoyable. PMID:17533893

Caramia, G

2006-01-01

422

Does wastewater from olive mills induce toxicity and water repellency in soil?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Olive oil mill wastewater is the effluent generated by the olive oil extraction process. It is the main waste product of this industry mainly being produced in the Mediterranean Basin. Because proper treatment options are rare it is often disposed into the environment, e.g. fields or wadies. Due to its high concentration of fatty acids and phytotoxic phenolic compounds and its high chemical and biological oxygen demand, olive oil mill wastewater becomes a serious environmental problem. In this screening study we investigated long-term effects of olive oil mill wastewater application on soil properties in several locations in the West Bank and Israel. We determined wettability via water drop penetration time and the contact angle as well as general soil properties including pH, EC, carbon content, and we conducted thermogravimetrical analyses in order to characterize the impact of the waste water on the quality of soil organic matter. Our results show that application of olive oil mill wastewater has various effects. We determined contact angles between 110 and 120° and water drop penetration times up to 1367 s indicating significant reduction in wettability. Furthermore, soil carbon and nitrogen content and water extractable organic matter increased as well as electric conductivity, which could be pointed out as a fertilizing effect. In contrast soil pH was significantly reduced. Conducting thermal analyses we observed an increase in the labile and refractory carbon fraction. Probably first one is responsible for induced water repellency. As a consequence the reduced wettability negatively affects soil quality. It would therefore be promising to minimize the hydrophobizing impacts without losing fertilizing effects of the olive oil mill wastewater.

Peikert, B.; Bandow, N.; Schaumann, G. E.

2012-04-01

423

Survival of food-borne pathogens on natural black table olives after post-processing contamination.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival of Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus on natural black olives during aerobic storage without brine and to conclude about the safety of this fermented food. Fermented black olives (pH 3.95; NaCl 6.02%) were artificially inoculated with 4 strains of Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis, 4 strains of S. enterica ser. Typhimurium, 3 strains of E. coli O157:H7, 3 strains of L. monocytogenes, and 3 strains of S. aureus either in monoculture or in mixed culture by submerging the fruits in a solution containing ca. 7.0 log CFU/ml of each target pathogen. The olives were subsequently stored aerobically at 4 and 20 °C, and the pathogens were recovered on selective media for a time period of 15 days. Enrichment was employed to define the presence/absence of the target pathogens when their counts were below the detection limit of direct plating. Results showed that the population of all pathogens presented a rapid decline within the first 2 days of storage depending on storage temperature, type of inoculation (monoculture or cocktail) and strain. Storage at 4 °C seemed to prolong the survival of certain strains of pathogens as compared to 20 °C by ca. 1 day. Enrichment revealed the absence (<1CFU/25 g) of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 from olive samples with the exception of all strains of L. monocytogenes at 4 °C and one strain at 20 °C that were detected by selective enrichment until the end of storage. The results of this study indicate that natural black olives are not a favorable environment to support the growth of the investigated pathogens after post-processing contamination provided that the olives have been subjected to proper fermentation process. PMID:23334099

Grounta, Athena; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

2013-02-15

424

Mound measurements - quantifying medium-term soil erosion under olive trees in Northern Jordan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last few decades many quantitative erosion studies have revealed that olive orchard expansion and increased mechanization in southern European countries have led to increased soil erosion under olive trees. Consequently, these studies have suggested different methods of mitigation. In light of the 2014 European trading zone expansion to countries east and south of the Mediterranean, a further intensification of olive plantations is postulated to meet market demands. To attain first medium-term estimates of erosion in Northern Jordan and its driving factors, a new method measuring olive mounds was implemented. Seven fields with clearly erosive structures were chosen throughout the Wadi Al-Arab catchment in Northern Jordan. Topographic measurements were used to reconstruct the historical and recent surface level and calculate the volume eroded since the planting of the trees. A total of 81 bulk density measurements and 14 tree cores allowed the estimation of the soil loss in tons per hectare. The combination of modified land use map and slope information helped to identify similar olive fields with high erosive potential. Results show that the method provides medium-term quantitative estimates for averaged soil loss consistent with some existing results from similar research areas in the Mediterranean. They clearly indicate the significant potential for erosion in olive orchards with around 95 ± 8 t ha- 1 yr- 1. Tillage practice and water erosion were identified as critical erosion processes, both depending on tillage characteristics, tillage timing, and soil parent material. The investigated fields represent about 19% of the catchment's surface area and are likely to contribute to the measured yearly sediment yield that fills up the Wadi Al-Arab reservoir with sediments.

Kraushaar, S.; Herrmann, N.; Ollesch, G.; Vogel, H.-J.; Siebert, C.

2014-05-01

425

La relazione che di seguito si unisce stata presentata in occasione del convegno tenutosi a Messina il 28-30 giugno 2007 sul tema 50 anni di integrazione europea: riflessioni e prospettive. Successivamente a tale  

E-print Network

tenutosi a Messina il 28- 30 giugno 2007 sul tema 50 anni di integrazione europea: riflessioni e precedere il testo della relazione da alcune considerazioni di carattere generale sul nuovo trattato di riforma. Il (progetto di) trattato di riforma ha visto finalmente la luce con l'approvazione in occasione

Romeo, Alessandro

426

Las políticas territoriales de desarrollo rural de la Unión Europea: un balance de veinte años en Castilla y León\\/The Territorial Rural Development Policies of the European Union: A Twenty-Year Balance in Castilla y León  

Microsoft Academic Search

La política específicamente agraria se ha mostrado insuficiente para dinamizar los espacios rurales de Castilla y León, cuyas características físicas y estructurales introducen limitaciones para la producción en el marco competitivo de la Unión Europea. Ante esta realidad, las políticas territoriales de desarrollo rural se presentan como la alternativa para aumentar la competitividad, apoyando la reconversión, diversificando las actividades económicas

PABLO GORDO GÓMEZ

2011-01-01

427

Comparison of Two Analytical Methods for Assessing Antioxidant Capacity of Rapeseed and Olive Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods were used for the determination\\u000a of antioxidant capacities (AC) of rapeseed oils at different steps of technological process and olive oils. The mean ORAC\\u000a and FRAP results obtained for rapeseed oils (1,106–160 and 552–95.6 ?mol TE\\/100 g) were higher than for olive oils (949–123\\u000a and 167–32.1 ?mol TE\\/100 g). Although,

Aleksandra Szyd?owska-Czerniak; György Karlovits; Csilla Dianoczki; Katalin Recseg; Edward Sz?yk

2008-01-01

428

Neuroimaging features in congenital trichomegaly: the Oliver-McFarlane syndrome.  

PubMed

A 23-year-old woman presented to our hospital with 9 months history of progressive ataxia, visual loss since childhood due to retinitis pigmentosa and primary amenorrhea. On examination, there were also sparse scalp hair, very long and curled upwards eyelashes and short stature. Oliver-McFarlane syndrome was suspected. Brain MRI disclosed cerebellar atrophy and hyperintense signal in corticospinal tracts on FLAIR and T2-weighted images. Therefore, brain imaging must be thoroughly investigated in patients with suspected Oliver-McFarlane syndrome, in order to determinate whether cerebellar atrophy and hyperintense signal in corticospinal tracts are part of this neurological condition. PMID:23621792

Luiz Pedroso, José; Rivero, René Leandro M; de Miranda, Victor Alexandre D; Avelino, Marcela Amaral; Dutra, Lívia Almeida; Ribeiro, Rodrigo Souza; Nunes, Karlo Faria; Manzano, Gilberto Mastrocola; Barsottini, Orlando G

2014-01-01

429

Wine And Olive Oil From An Early Minoan I Hilltop Fort.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aphrodite's Kephali is a small hilltop site in Eastern Crete. Its pottery indicates that it was inhabited during Early Minoan I (EM I), ca. 3200-2700 B.C. The fortified site has a considerable amount of storage, including nine pithoi. The analysis by gas chromatography of sherds from the site indicates that vessels contained olive oil and wine. These results are the earliest documented presence of both of these commodities in Crete. The evidence is important because the domestication of the olive and grape at this early period in Crete has been previously questioned.

Koh, A. J.; Betancourt, P. P.

430

Effect of the Previous Storage of Ripe Olives on the Oil Composition of Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work consists of a detailed study on the changes that occur in the oil of olives (Manzanilla and Hojiblanca cultivars)\\u000a when subjected to previous storage before their processing as ripe olives. Storage significantly (p 2\\/kg oil) and K\\u000a 270 (0.069 and 0.033) but decreased K\\u000a 232 (0.325 and 0.569). There was also a significant (p < 0.05) increment in polar compounds (3.17

Antonio Lopez-LopezFrancisco; Francisco Rodríguez-Gómez; Amparo Cortés-Delgado; Pedro García-García; Antonio Garrido-Fernández

2010-01-01

431

Olive tree phenology and climate variations in the Mediterranean area over the last two decades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flowering characteristics of plant species of economic interest and the influence of climate on them are of great importance considering the implications for fruit setting and the final harvest: Olive is one of the typical species of the Mediterranean habitat. We have investigated the timing of olive full flowering during the anthesis period and flowering intensity over a period of 20 years (1990-2009), in three major cultivation areas of the Mediterranean basin: Italy, Spain and Tunisia. The importance of these characteristics from a bioclimatic point of view is considered. The biological behaviour was studied to determine its main relationships with temperature and water availability, considering also the different sub-periods and the bio-climatic variations during the study period. The flowering dates and pollen emissions show different behaviours for the Spanish monitoring area in comparison with the other two olive cultivation areas. In the Italian and Tunisian areas, the flowering period over the last decade has become earlier by about 5 and 7 days, respectively, in comparison to the previous decade. Moreover, pollen emissions have decreased in Perugia (Italy) and Zarzis (Tunisia) over the period of 2000-2009, while in Cordoba (Spain), they showed their highest values from 2005 to 2009. The climate analysis has shown an increase in temperature, which results in an increase in the growing degree days for the growth of the olive flower structures, particularly in the more northern areas monitored. Although the olive tree is a parsimonious water consumer that is well adapted to xeric conditions, the increase in the potential evapotranspiration index over the last decade in the Italian and Tunisian olive areas might create problems for olive groves without irrigation, with a negative influence on the flowering intensity. Overall, in all of these Mediterranean monitoring areas, the summer water deficit is an increasingly more important parameter in comparison to the winter parameters, which confirms that the winter period is not as limiting as the summer period for olive tree cultivation in these Mediterranean areas.

Orlandi, Fabio; Garcia-Mozo, H.; Dhiab, A. Ben; Galán, C.; Msallem, M.; Fornaciari, M.

2013-04-01

432

Dietary olive oil prevents carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim  The specific purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary olive oil on hepatic fibrosis induced by chronic\\u000a administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in the mouse. In addition, the effects of oleic acid, a major component of olive oil, on activation of hepatic stellate\\u000a cells (HSCs) were investigated in vitro.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Mice were fed liquid diets containing either

Nobuyuki Tanaka; Hiroshi Kono; Kenichi Ishii; Naohiro Hosomura; Hideki Fujii

2009-01-01

433

Transcriptional Responses of Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) to Low Temperature  

PubMed Central

The olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is an economically important flatfish in marine aquaculture with a broad thermal tolerance ranging from 14 to 23°C. Cold-tolerant flounder that can survive during the winter season at a temperature of less than 14°C might facilitate the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the response to cold stress. In this study, the transcriptional response of flounder to cold stress (0.7±0.05°C) was characterized using RNA sequencing. Transcriptome sequencing was performed using the Illumina MiSeq platform for the cold-tolerant (CT) group, which survived under the cold stress; the cold-sensitive (CS) group, which could barely survive at the low temperature; and control group, which was not subjected to cold treatment. In all, 29,021 unigenes were generated. Compared with the unigene expression profile of the control group, 410 unigenes were up-regulated and 255 unigenes were down-regulated in the CT group, whereas 593 unigenes were up-regulated and 289 unigenes were down-regulated in the CS group. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses revealed that signal transduction, lipid metabolism, digestive system, and signaling molecules and interaction were the most highly enriched pathways for the genes that were differentially expressed under cold stress. All these pathways could be assigned to the following four biological functions for flounder that can survive under cold stress: signal response to cold stress, cell repair/regeneration, energy production, and cell membrane construction and fluidity. PMID:25279944

Hu, Jinwei; You, Feng; Wang, Qian; Weng, Shenda; Liu, Hui; Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Pei-Jun; Tan, Xungang

2014-01-01

434

Envelope coding in the lateral superior olive. II. Characteristic delays and comparison with responses in the medial superior olive.  

PubMed

1. Spike rates of cells in the cat's lateral superior olive (LSO) depend on interaural level differences (ILDs) and envelope interaural time differences (ITDs) of amplitude-modulated tones presented to both ears. We previously proposed that these sensitivities arise from a common mechanism, which is the IE binaural interaction (Inhibited by the contralateral and Excited by the ipsilateral ear). As a further test of that proposal and to gain a better understanding of the importance of this ITD-sensitivity, responses to monaural and binaural modulation are compared here over a range of modulation frequencies. 2. At low modulation frequencies, LSO-IE cells respond maximally when the envelopes of the amplitude-modulated stimuli at the two ears are out-of-phase by a half-cycle. This phase difference changes in a systematic way, which varies from cell to cell, when modulation frequency is increased. Mean interaural phase, measured over a range of modulation frequencies, was subjected to a characteristic delay analysis. Two measures were extracted: characteristic delay, which reflects differences in conduction delay between ipsi- and contralateral pathways, and characteristic phase, which reflects their sign of interaction. Most characteristic delays were within the physiological range of ITDs. There was a small bias toward positive delays, indicating a longer conduction time for the contralateral pathway. Characteristic phases were tightly distributed approximately 0.5 cycles, consistent with the proposed IE mechanism for ITD-sensitivity. 3. Increases in the modulation frequency of binaural stimuli beyond approximately 300 Hz consistently caused a profound decrease in average spike rate, as well as a decrease in the modulation of spike rate by ITD. The upper limit of ITD-sensitivity was 800 Hz. Sensitivity to envelope ITDs therefore is limited to a much lower range of frequencies than sensitivity to ITDs in fine-structure, e.g., as found in the medial superior olive (MSO), which operates up to several kilo Hertz. 4. A small sample of high-frequency EE cells (excited by both ears) in MSO also was tested with binaural amplitude-modulated stimuli. MSO-EE cells showed weak envelope ITD-sensitivity over a limited range of modulation frequencies. Consistent with the EE interaction, characteristic phases clustered approximately 0 cycles. 5. Mean interaural phase was compared with the phase of responses to monaural modulation. The difference between the ipsilateral and contralateral phases correlated well with the phase measured binaurally, both for LSO and MSO cells. 6. Many features of LSO-IE responses were mimicked by the simplest possible computer model, consisting of subtraction and rectification of low-pass filtered envelope waveforms. Differences between model and physiological results are suggestive of a temporal limitation in the binaural interaction that creates the ITD-sensitivity. 7. These results provide additional evidence for LSO ITD-sensitivity paralleling human psychophysical results. The stimulus boundaries within which ITD-sensitivity occurs suggest that it has a limited role in free-field conditions. It is traditionally thought that, to contribute to the perceived change in spatial location of a sound source, the LSO needs to show a change in overall firing rate summed across cells. This is achieved with small ILDs, but requires large ITDs, because the latter cue is less potent in single cells and has varied effects across cells by virtue of differences in characteristic delay. PMID:8899590

Joris, P X

1996-10-01

435

Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Increases the Resistance of LDL to Oxidation More than Refined Olive Oil in Free-Living Men with Peripheral Vascular Disease1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with peripheral vascular disease (Fontaine stage II) are characterized by ischemia of the lower extremities, atherosclerosis and alteration of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis. A randomized, two-period, crossover design was used to compare the effects of extra-virgin (VO) and refined olive (RO) oils on plasma lipids and lipoprotein composition and LDL oxidation susceptibility in free-living men with peripheral vascular disease.

M. Carmen Ramirez-Tortosa; Gloria Urbano; Maria Lopez-Jurado; Teresa Nestares; Maria C. Gomez; Amalia Mir; Eduardo Ros; Angel Gil

436

Identification of Throuba Thassos, a traditional Greek table olive variety, as a nutritional rich source of oleuropein.  

PubMed

The content of polyphenols in table olives is highly influenced by the olive variety and the debittering process applied on the fruits. Nine commercial types of Greek table olives were examined for their content in oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. A very simple extraction procedure and a chromatographic methodology were applied for the simultaneous quantitation of oleuropein (OE) and hydroxytyrosol (HT) in drupes, using boiling water extraction followed by direct HPLC analysis. Hydroxytyrosol was found in all the types of olives that were studied. Kalamata olives and Green "tsakistes" of the variety Megaritiki contained the highest quantity of hydroxytyrosol (1.8-2.0 mg/fruit) followed by Greek-style "chondrolies" with quantity 1.0 mg/fruit. Oleuropein was found in small quantities in two cases, but in the case of Throuba Thassos which is processed by dry salt in a traditional Greek way, oleuropein was found in important quantities (1.2 mg/fruit) recorded over a 4-year period. This is the most important finding of this study showing that this particular table olive type is a nutritional rich source of oleuropein. Additionally, assuming a usual consumption of 20 olive fruits per day, an approximate quantity of 25 mg of oleuropein per day can be considered as safe for human use, since it can be found in the usual diet. PMID:19957933

Zoidou, Evagelia; Melliou, Eleni; Gikas, Evagelos; Tsarbopoulos, Anthony; Magiatis, Prokopios; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

2010-01-13

437

Physiological investigations on the effect of olive and rosemary leaves extracts in male rats exposed to thioacetamide.  

PubMed

Physiologically, it is known that thioacetamide (TAA) toxicity is generally associated with hepatic fibrosis induction, complicated metabolic disorders and health problems. The capability of extracts of olive and rosemary leaves to attenuate the severe physiological disturbances induced by thioacetamide (TAA) intoxication in male rats has been evaluated. Healthy male Wistar rats were used in the present study and were divided randomly into eight groups. Rats of the first group were served as normal control. Rats of the second group were administrated with TAA. Rats of the third, fourth and fifth groups were exposed to TAA plus olive leaves extract, TAA plus rosemary leaves extract and TAA plus olive and rosemary leaves extracts respectively. The sixth, seventh and eighth groups were supplemented with olive leaves extract, rosemary leaves extract, and olive and rosemary leaves extracts respectively. After 12 weeks of experimental treatments, the levels of serum glucose, total protein, albumin and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly decreased, while the levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were statistically increased in rats exposed to TAA. Administration of the studied extracts inhibited the hematobiochemical parameters and improved the physiological disturbances induced by TAA intoxication. Additionally, most improvements were noted in rats administrated with rosemary leaves extract followed by olive and rosemary leaves extracts and olive leaves extract. These results suggested that the effect of these extracts might be due to their antioxidant activities against TAA toxicity. PMID:25313283

Al-Attar, Atef M; Shawush, Nessreen A

2014-11-01

438

Physico-chemical and microbiological characterization of spontaneous fermentation of Cellina di Nardò and Leccino table olives  

PubMed Central

Table olives are one of the most important traditional fermented vegetables in Europe and their world consumption is constantly increasing. In the Greek style, table olives are obtained by spontaneous fermentations, without any chemical debittering treatment. Evolution of sugars, organic acids, alcohols, mono, and polyphenol compounds and volatile compounds associated with the fermentative metabolism of yeasts and bacteria throughout the natural fermentation process of the two Italian olive cultivars Cellina di Nardò and Leccino were determined. A protocol was developed and applied aimed at the technological characterization of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast strains as possible candidate autochthonous starters for table olive fermentation from Cellina di Nardò and Leccino cultivars. The study of the main physic-chemical parameters and volatile compounds during fermentation helped to determine chemical descriptors that may be suitable for monitoring olive fermentation. In both the analyzed table olive cultivars, aldehydes proved to be closely related to the first stage of fermentation (30 days), while higher alcohols (2-methyl-1-propanol; 3-methyl-1-butanol), styrene, and o-cymene were associated with the middle stage of fermentation (90 days) and acetate esters with the final step of olive fermentation (180 days). PMID:25389422

Bleve, Gianluca; Tufariello, Maria; Durante, Miriana; Perbellini, Ezio; Ramires, Francesca A.; Grieco, Francesco; Cappello, Maria S.; De Domenico, Stefania; Mita, Giovanni; Tasioula-Margari, Maria; Logrieco, Antonio F.

2014-01-01

439

1H nuclear magnetic resonance study of olive oils commercially available as Italian products in the United States of America.  

PubMed

Multivariate analysis of (1)H NMR data has been used for the characterization of 12 blended olive oils commercially available in the U.S. as Italian products. Chemometric methods such as unsupervised Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allowed good discrimination and gave some affinity indications for the U.S. market olive oils compared to other single cultivars of extra virgin olive oil such as Coratina and Ogliarola from Apulia, one of Italy's leading olive oil producers, Picual (Spain), Kalamata (Greece) and Sfax (Tunisia). The olive oils commercially available as Italian products in the U.S. market clustered into 3 groups. Among them only the first (7 samples) and the second group (2 samples) showed PCA ranges similar to European references. Two oils of the third group (3 samples) were more similar to Tunisian references. In conclusion, our study revealed that most EVOO (extra virgin olive oils) tested were closer to Greek (in particular) and Spanish olive oils than Apulia EVOO. The PCA loadings disclose the components responsible for the discrimination as unsaturated (oleic, linoleic, linolenic) and saturated fatty acids. All are of great importance because of their nutritional value and differential effects on the oxidative stability of oils. It is evident that this approach has the potential to reveal the origin of EVOO, although the results support the need for a larger database, including EVOO from other Italian regions. PMID:22690321

Del Coco, Laura; Schena, Francesco Paolo; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

2012-05-01

440

Carbon abatement via treating the solid waste from the Australian olive industry in mobile pyrolysis units: LCA with uncertainty analysis.  

PubMed

The olive oil industry in Australia has been growing at a rapid rate over the past decade. It is forecast to continue growing due to the steady increase in demand for olive oil and olive products in the local and regional market. However, the olive oil extraction process generates large amounts of solid waste called olive husk which is currently underutilized. This paper uses life-cycle methodology to analyse the carbon emission reduction potential of utilizing olive husk as a feedstock in a mobile pyrolysis unit. Four scenarios, based on different combinations of pyrolysis technologies (slow versus fast) and end-use of products (land application versus energy utilization), are constructed. The performance of each scenario under conditions of uncertainty was also investigated. The results show that all scenarios result in significant carbon emission abatement. Processing olive husk in mobile fast pyrolysis units and the utilization of bio-oil and biochar as substitutes for heavy fuel oil and coal is likely to realize a carbon offset greater than 32.3 Gg CO2-eq annually in 90% of the time. Likewise, more than 3.2 Gg-C (11.8 Gg CO2-eq) per year could be sequestered in the soil in the form of fixed carbon if slow mobile pyrolysis units were used to produce biochar. PMID:23129610

El Hanandeh, Ali

2013-04-01