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Sample records for olive olea europea

  1. Olive Tree (Olea europeae L.) Leaves: Importance and Advances in the Analysis of Phenolic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Abaza, Leila; Taamalli, Amani; Nsir, Houda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are becoming increasingly popular because of their potential role in contributing to human health. Experimental evidence obtained from human and animal studies demonstrate that phenolic compounds from Olea europaea leaves have biological activities which may be important in the reduction in risk and severity of certain chronic diseases. Therefore, an accurate profiling of phenolics is a crucial issue. In this article, we present a review work on current treatment and analytical methods used to extract, identify, and/or quantify phenolic compounds in olive leaves. PMID:26783953

  2. Olive Tree (Olea europeae L.) Leaves: Importance and Advances in the Analysis of Phenolic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Abaza, Leila; Taamalli, Amani; Nsir, Houda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are becoming increasingly popular because of their potential role in contributing to human health. Experimental evidence obtained from human and animal studies demonstrate that phenolic compounds from Olea europaea leaves have biological activities which may be important in the reduction in risk and severity of certain chronic diseases. Therefore, an accurate profiling of phenolics is a crucial issue. In this article, we present a review work on current treatment and analytical methods used to extract, identify, and/or quantify phenolic compounds in olive leaves. PMID:26783953

  3. Enzymatic hydrolysis of oleuropein from Olea europea (olive) leaf extract and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jiao-Jiao; Wang, Cheng-Zhang; Ye, Jian-Zhong; Tao, Ran; Zhang, Yu-Si

    2015-01-01

    Oleuropein (OE), the main polyphenol in olive leaf extract, is likely to decompose into hydroxytyrosol (HT) and elenolic acid under the action of light, acid, base, high temperature. In the enzymatic process, the content of OE in olive leaf extract and enzyme are key factors that affect the yield of HT. A selective enzyme was screened from among 10 enzymes with a high OE degradation rate. A single factor (pH, temperature, time, enzyme quantity) optimization process and a Box-Behnken design were studied for the enzymatic hydrolysis of 81.04% OE olive leaf extract. Additionally, enzymatic hydrolysis results with different substrates (38.6% and 81.04% OE) were compared and the DPPH antioxidant properties were also evaluated. The result showed that the performance of hydrolysis treatments was best using hemicellulase as a bio-catalyst, and the high purity of OE in olive extract was beneficial to biotransform OE into HT. The optimal enzymatic conditions for achieving a maximal yield of HT content obtained by the regression were as follows: pH 5, temperature 55 °C and enzyme quantity 55 mg. The experimental result was 11.31% ± 0.15%, and the degradation rate of OE was 98.54%. From the present investigation of the antioxidant activity determined by the DPPH method, the phenol content and radical scavenging effect were both decreased after enzymatic hydrolysis by hemicellulase. However, a high antioxidant activity of the ethyl acetate extract enzymatic hydrolysate (IC50 = 41.82 μg/mL) was demonstated. The results presented in this work suggested that hemicellulase has promising and attractive properties for industrial production of HT, and indicated that HT might be a valuable biological component for use in pharmaceutical products and functional foods. PMID:25679050

  4. Biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, in Israel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera oleae, the olive fruit fly (OFF), is a key pest of olives in most olive-growing countries in the Mediterranean basin and elsewhere. It significantly reduces yields and degrades the quality of the oil extracted from infested fruit. Olive growers have traditionally used systemic organopho...

  5. Hg contents in soils and olive-tree (Olea Europea, L.) leaves from an area affected by elemental mercury pollution (Jódar, SE Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; María Esbrí, José; Amorós, José Angel; Lorenzo, Saturnino; Fernández-Calderón, Sergio; Higueras, Pablo; Perez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad

    2014-05-01

    Data from soil and olive tree leaves around a decommissioned chlor-alkali plant are presented in this communication. The factory was active in the period 1977-1991, producing during these years a heavily pollution of Guadalquivir River and hydrargyrism in more than local 45 workers. It is located at 7 km South of Jódar, a locality with some 12,120 inhabitants. Mercury usage was general in this type of plants, but at present it is being replaced by other types of technologies, due to the risks of mercury usage in personal and environment. A soil geochemistry survey was carried out in the area, along with the analysis of olive-tree leaves (in the plots with this culture) from the same area. 73 soil samples were taken at two different depths (0-15 cm and 15-30 cm), together with 41 olive tree samples. Mercury content of geologic and biologic samples was determined by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with Zeeman Effect, using a Lumex RA-915+ device with the RP-91C pyrolysis attachment. Air surveys were carried our using a RA-915M Lumex portable analytical device. Soil mercury contents were higher in topsoil than in the deeper soil samples, indicating that incorporation of mercury was due to dry and wet deposition of mercury vapors emitted from the plant. Average content in topsoil is 564.5 ng g-1. Hg contents in olive-tree leaves were in the range 46 - 453 ng g-1, with an average of 160.6 ng g-1. This level is slightly lower than tolerable level for agronomic crops established by Kabata-Pendias (2001) in 200 ng g-1. We have also compared soil and leaf contents for each sampling site, finding a positive and significant correlation (R=0.49), indicating that Hg contents in the leaves are linked to Hg contents in the soils. BAC (Bioaccumulation Absorption Coefficient, calculated as ratio between soil and leaf concentration) is 0.28 (consistent with world references, BAC = 0.7), considered "medium" in comparison with other mineral elements. Main conclusions of this research work are the following: i) The Jódar decommissioned chlor-alkali plant is still a mercury source 20 years after its cease of activities without any reclamation measures; ii) The activity of the plant has produced an important dissemination of mercury in the surrounding environment; and iii) The corresponding pollution levels, in particular in soils, may suppose a risk to the main crops of the area (olive trees present significant accumulation of Hg in leaf).

  6. Characterization of Libyan olive, olea europaea L., cultivars using morpholigical data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) consumption and production are important socially and economically in Libya. Olive cultivars that are adapted to local conditions produce olives that have high quality and quantities of oil. Many of the important Libyan olive cultivars were included in this research. One goa...

  7. Identification of leaf volatiles from olive (Olea europaea) and their possible role in the ovipositional preferences of olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Cunha, Sara C; Baptista, Paula; Pereira, José Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is a monophagous pest that displays an oviposition preference among cultivars of olive (Olea europaea L.). To clarify the oviposition preference, the olive leaf volatiles of three olive cultivars (Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana) were assessed by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS) at six different periods of olive fruit maturation and degrees of infestation. A total of 39 volatiles were identified, mainly esters and alcohols, with a minor percentage of aldehydes, ketones and terpenic compounds, including sesquiterpenes. At sampling dates with higher degrees of infestation, cv. Cobrançosa had, simultaneously, significantly lower infestation degrees and higher volatile amounts than the other two cultivars, with a probable deterrent effect for oviposition. The green leaf volatiles (GLVs) (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol acetate) were the main compounds identified in all cultivars, together with toluene. The abundance of GLVs decreased significantly throughout maturation, without significant differences among cultivars, while toluene showed a general increase and positive correlation with olive fly infestation levels. The results obtained could broaden our understanding of the roles of various types and amounts of olive volatiles in the environment, especially in olive fly host selection and cultivar preference. PMID:26603276

  8. A survey of natural and introduced parasitoids of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Israel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive cultivation occupies eight million hectares worldwide, with over ten million tons of olives annually (90% in the Mediterranean Basin). The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a key pest of olive fruit, causing up to 50% in crop loss. Increasing biological control by n...

  9. Diversity and ecology of natural enemies of olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, in South Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent establishment in North America of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmel.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), has renewed interest in classical biological control of this pest. Previous surveys conducted in Africa and Asia during the 20th century demonstrated a greater natural enemy diversity in s...

  10. Volatile constituents of commercial imported and domestic black-ripe table olives (Olea europaea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile constituents of commercial black-ripe table olives (Olea europaea) from the United States, Spain, Egypt and Morocco were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Dynamic headspace sampling was used to isolate a variety of aldehydes, alcohols, esters, ...

  11. Effects of Olea europea var. oleaster leaves in hypercholesterolemic insulin-resistant sand rats.

    PubMed

    Bennani-Kabchi, N; Fdhil, H; Cherrah, Y; Kehel, L; el Bouayadi, F; Amarti, A; Saïdi, M; Marquié, G

    1999-01-01

    Sand rats fed a hypercaloric diet manifest obesity and diabetes. We have used this model to develop hypercholesterolaemia and describe the beneficial action of Olea europea var. oleaster leaves. Twenty-eight sand rats submitted to a high cholesterol diet for four months were assigned to control and treated groups. Plant decoction at 10 per cent was given orally for two months. Results showed that the control group exhibited hyperglycaemia, glucose intolerance, hypercholesterolaemia and moderate hyperinsulinaemia. Light microscopic study showed thickening of capillary walls in skin, pancreas and kidney. The treatment produced hypoglycaemic (43 per cent, p < 0.001), antihyperglycaemic (48 per cent, p < 0.001) and hypoinsulinaemic (39 per cent, p < 0.01) activities. In addition, the plant presented a hypocholesterolaemic effect (47 per cent, p < 0.001) accompanied by lowering of oxidized LDL (30 per cent, p < 0.01). Accordingly, capillary wall thickening was reduced in skin and pancreas and completely prevented in kidney. The data demonstrate that oleaster leaves possess at least two active compounds to treat hypercholesterolaemia and diabetes. PMID:10709446

  12. Factors influencing phenolic compounds in table olives (Olea europaea).

    PubMed

    Charoenprasert, Suthawan; Mitchell, Alyson

    2012-07-25

    The Mediterranean diet appears to be associated with a reduced risk of several chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular and Alzheimer's diseases. Olive products (mainly olive oil and table olives) are important components of the Mediterranean diet. Olives contain a range of phenolic compounds; these natural antioxidants may contribute to the prevention of these chronic conditions. Consequently, the consumption of table olives and olive oil continues to increase worldwide by health-conscious consumers. There are numerous factors that can affect the phenolics in table olives including the cultivar, degree of ripening, and, importantly, the methods used for curing and processing table olives. The predominant phenolic compound found in fresh olive is the bitter secoiridoid oleuropein. Table olive processing decreases levels of oleuropein with concomitant increases in the hydrolysis products hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. Many of the health benefits reported for olives are thought to be associated with the levels of hydroxytyrosol. Herein the pre- and post-harvest factors influencing the phenolics in olives, debittering methods, and health benefits of phenolics in table olives are reviewed. PMID:22720792

  13. Molecular interactions between the olive and the fruit fly Bactrocera oleae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The fruit fly Bactrocera oleae is the primary biotic stressor of cultivated olives, causing direct and indirect damages that significantly reduce both the yield and the quality of olive oil. To study the olive-B. oleae interaction, we conducted transcriptomic and proteomic investigations of the molecular response of the drupe. The identifications of genes and proteins involved in the fruit response were performed using a Suppression Subtractive Hybridisation technique and a combined bi-dimensional electrophoresis/nanoLC-ESI-LIT-MS/MS approach, respectively. Results We identified 196 ESTs and 26 protein spots as differentially expressed in olives with larval feeding tunnels. A bioinformatic analysis of the identified non-redundant EST and protein collection indicated that different molecular processes were affected, such as stress response, phytohormone signalling, transcriptional control and primary metabolism, and that a considerable proportion of the ESTs could not be classified. The altered expression of 20 transcripts was also analysed by real-time PCR, and the most striking differences were further confirmed in the fruit of a different olive variety. We also cloned the full-length coding sequences of two genes, Oe-chitinase I and Oe-PR27, and showed that these are wound-inducible genes and activated by B. oleae punctures. Conclusions This study represents the first report that reveals the molecular players and signalling pathways involved in the interaction between the olive fruit and its most damaging biotic stressor. Drupe response is complex, involving genes and proteins involved in photosynthesis as well as in the production of ROS, the activation of different stress response pathways and the production of compounds involved in direct defence against phytophagous larvae. Among the latter, trypsin inhibitors should play a major role in drupe resistance reaction. PMID:22694925

  14. Prospects for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California with introduced parasitoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fly is currently regarded as a serious threat to olive production in California. With the establishment of B. oleae in California there has been renewed interest in classical, or introduction, biological control of the pest. In this paper we discuss the prospects of finding new, non-indigenou...

  15. The effect of gamma rays on the gonads of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae (Gmelin).

    PubMed

    Shehata, N F

    1983-02-01

    Pupae of the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae (Gmelin) 1 to 2 days before adult emergence were irradiated with the suitable sterilizing dose of 80 Gy gamma rays. At intervals of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days after adult emergence, anatomical and biometrical studies were performed to determine the extent of recovery of D. oleae gonads during one month of adult life. There were some indications of gonad recovery after two weeks. This recovery was observed as a decrease in the percentage deviation from the corresponding controls of 20-day-old adult gonad (especially those of males). Generally, female gonads are more sensitive to gamma-rays than those of males. PMID:6600730

  16. Seasonal pheromone trap catches of male Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northern California: asynchrony with host (olive tree) phenology?

    PubMed

    Villamil, Soledad C; Lewis, Edwin E; Zalom, Frank G

    2013-12-01

    Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae, Dacinae) is an oligophagous species that feeds only on cultivated olives (Olea europaea L.) and its close relatives. Synchrony of seasonal activity patterns of B. oleae, the olive fruit fly with its host's phenology is therefore expected. The objective of this study was to monitor the male olive fruit fly response to female sex pheromone in the field. White sticky traps were deployed year round for 3 yr in an olive orchard in Oroville, CA. They were checked periodically, and flies captured were counted and sexed. Although males were captured regularly, the numbers of females captured on pheromone traps were negligible. Food-baited traps and water-baited traps were deployed to show the presence of flies in the field. Our hypothesis that males would respond to pheromone when females were available and olive fruits were susceptible for oviposition was partially supported. There were two peaks of high male captures in pheromone traps: spring and fall. In spring, females were available and mature but few acceptable olives were available for oviposition (no new crop olives yet). In fall, females were present but many of the new crop olives were already infested. The food baited traps confirmed the presence of flies in the field even when very few were being captured in the pheromone-baited traps. Traps containing only water caught only two flies showing that water alone or the trap type in itself was not attractive to flies. PMID:24468560

  17. Characterization of Antioxidant Enzymes and Peroxisomes of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Fruits.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Huertas, Eduardo; Del Río, Luis Alfonso

    2014-10-01

    The presence of peroxisomes in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits and different antioxidant enzymes occurring in this plant tissue is reported for the first time. Ultrastructural analysis showed that olive cells were characterized by the presence of large vacuoles and lipid drops. Plastids, mitochondria and peroxisomes were placed near the cell wall, showing some type of association with it. Olive fruit peroxisomes were purified by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation, and catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase were found in peroxisomes. In olive fruit tissue the presence of a battery of antioxidant enzymes was demonstrated, including catalase, four superoxide dismutase (SOD) isozymes (mainly an Fe-SOD plus 2 Cu,Zn-SODs and a Mn-SOD), all the enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, reduced and oxidized glutathione, ascorbate, and four NADPH-recycling dehydrogenases. Knowing the full composition of antioxidants (enzymatic and non-enzumatic) in olive fruits is crucial to be able to understand the processes regulating the antioxidant composition of olive oil. PMID:26461362

  18. Characterization of antioxidant enzymes and peroxisomes of olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Huertas, Eduardo; del Río, Luis A

    2014-10-15

    The presence of peroxisomes in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits and different antioxidant enzymes occurring in this plant tissue is reported for the first time. Ultrastructural analysis showed that olive cells were characterized by the presence of large vacuoles and lipid drops. Plastids, mitochondria and peroxisomes were placed near the cell wall, showing some type of association with it. Olive fruit peroxisomes were purified by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation, and catalase, glutathione reductase and ascorbate peroxidase were found in peroxisomes. In olive fruit tissue the presence of a battery of antioxidant enzymes was demonstrated, including catalase, four superoxide dismutase isozymes (mainly an Fe-SOD plus 2 Cu,Zn-SOD and a Mn-SOD), all the enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, reduced and oxidized glutathione, ascorbate, and four NADPH-recycling dehydrogenases. The knowledge of the full composition of antioxidants (enzymatic and non-enzymatic) in olive fruits is crucial to be able to understand the processes regulating the antioxidant composition of olive oil. PMID:25105232

  19. Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology of Olea europaea (Olive)

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, Muhammad Ali; Khan, Afsar; Hanif, Muhammad; Farooq, Umar; Perveen, Shagufta

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the Review. To grasp the fragmented information available on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Olea europaea to explore its therapeutic potential and future research opportunities. Material and Methods. All the available information on O. europaea was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, Scirus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science) and a library search. Results. Ethnomedical uses of O. europaea are recorded throughout the world where it has been used to treat various ailments. Phytochemical research had led to the isolation of flavonoids, secoiridoids, iridoids, flavanones, biophenols, triterpenes, benzoic acid derivatives, isochromans, and other classes of secondary metabolites from O. europaea. The plant materials and isolated components have shown a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities like antidiabetic, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihypertensive, anticancer, antihyperglycemic, antinociceptive, gastroprotective, and wound healing activities. Conclusions. O. europaea emerged as a good source of traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The outcomes of phytochemical and pharmacological studies reported in this review will further expand its existing therapeutic potential and provide a convincing support to its future clinical use in modern medicine. PMID:25802541

  20. 454 Pyrosequencing of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Transcriptome in Response to Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Bazakos, Christos; Manioudaki, Maria E.; Sarropoulou, Elena; Spano, Thodhoraq; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the most important crops in the Mediterranean region. The expansion of cultivation in areas irrigated with low quality and saline water has negative effects on growth and productivity however the investigation of the molecular basis of salt tolerance in olive trees has been only recently initiated. To this end, we investigated the molecular response of cultivar Kalamon to salinity stress using next-generation sequencing technology to explore the transcriptome profile of olive leaves and roots and identify differentially expressed genes that are related to salt tolerance response. Out of 291,958 obtained trimmed reads, 28,270 unique transcripts were identified of which 35% are annotated, a percentage that is comparable to similar reports on non-model plants. Among the 1,624 clusters in roots that comprise more than one read, 24 were differentially expressed comprising 9 down- and 15 up-regulated genes. Respectively, inleaves, among the 2,642 clusters, 70 were identified as differentially expressed, with 14 down- and 56 up-regulated genes. Using next-generation sequencing technology we were able to identify salt-response-related transcripts. Furthermore we provide an annotated transcriptome of olive as well as expression data, which are both significant tools for further molecular studies in olive. PMID:26576008

  1. Identification and Characterization of the Iridoid Synthase Involved in Oleuropein Biosynthesis in Olive (Olea europaea) Fruits.

    PubMed

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Geu-Flores, Fernando; Kries, Hajo; Panara, Francesco; Baldoni, Luciana; O'Connor, Sarah E; Osbourn, Anne

    2016-03-11

    The secoiridoids are the main class of specialized metabolites present in olive (Olea europaea L.) fruit. In particular, the secoiridoid oleuropein strongly influences olive oil quality because of its bitterness, which is a desirable trait. In addition, oleuropein possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer activities. In accordance, obtaining high oleuropein varieties is a main goal of molecular breeding programs. Here we use a transcriptomic approach to identify candidate genes belonging to the secoiridoid pathway in olive. From these candidates, we have functionally characterized the olive homologue of iridoid synthase (OeISY), an unusual terpene cyclase that couples an NAD (P)H-dependent 1,4-reduction step with a subsequent cyclization, and we provide evidence that OeISY likely generates the monoterpene scaffold of oleuropein in olive fruits. OeISY, the first pathway gene characterized for this type of secoiridoid, is a potential target for breeding programs in a high value secoiridoid-accumulating species. PMID:26709230

  2. Identification of new polymorphic regions and differentiation of cultivated olives (Olea europaea L.) through plastome sequence comparison

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The cultivated olive (Olea europaea L.) is the most agriculturally important species of the Oleaceae family. Although many studies have been performed on plastid polymorphisms to evaluate taxonomy, phylogeny and phylogeography of Olea subspecies, only few polymorphic regions discriminating among the agronomically and economically important olive cultivars have been identified. The objective of this study was to sequence the entire plastome of olive and analyze many potential polymorphic regions to develop new inter-cultivar genetic markers. Results The complete plastid genome of the olive cultivar Frantoio was determined by direct sequence analysis using universal and novel PCR primers designed to amplify all overlapping regions. The chloroplast genome of the olive has an organisation and gene order that is conserved among numerous Angiosperm species and do not contain any of the inversions, gene duplications, insertions, inverted repeat expansions and gene/intron losses that have been found in the chloroplast genomes of the genera Jasminum and Menodora, from the same family as Olea. The annotated sequence was used to evaluate the content of coding genes, the extent, and distribution of repeated and long dispersed sequences and the nucleotide composition pattern. These analyses provided essential information for structural, functional and comparative genomic studies in olive plastids. Furthermore, the alignment of the olive plastome sequence to those of other varieties and species identified 30 new organellar polymorphisms within the cultivated olive. Conclusions In addition to identifying mutations that may play a functional role in modifying the metabolism and adaptation of olive cultivars, the new chloroplast markers represent a valuable tool to assess the level of olive intercultivar plastome variation for use in population genetic analysis, phylogenesis, cultivar characterisation and DNA food tracking. PMID:20868482

  3. Olive Volatiles from Portuguese Cultivars Cobranosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana: Role in Oviposition Preference of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Cunha, Sara C; Baptista, Paula; Pereira, Jos Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), a serious threat to the olive crop worldwide, displays ovipositon preference for some olive cultivars but the causes are still unclear. In the present work, three Portuguese olive cultivars with different susceptibilities to olive fly (Cobranosa, Madural, and Verdeal Transmontana) were studied, aiming to determine if the olive volatiles are implicated in this interaction. Olive volatiles were assessed by SPME-GC-MS in the three cultivars during maturation process to observe possible correlations with olive fly infestation levels. Overall, 34 volatiles were identified in the olives, from 7 chemical classes (alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, ketones, sesquiterpenes, and terpenes). Generally, total volatile amounts decrease during maturation but toluene, the main compound, increased in all cultivars, particularly in those with higher susceptibility to olive fly. Sesquiterpenes also raised, mainly ?-copaene. Toluene and ?-copaene, recognized oviposition promoters to olive fly, were correlated with the infestation level of cvs. Madural and Verdeal Trasnmontana (intermediate and highly susceptible cultivars respectively), while no correlations were established with cv. Cobranosa (less susceptible). No volatiles with inverse correlation were observed. Volatile composition of olives may be a decisive factor in the olive fly choice to oviposit and this could be the basis for the development of new control strategies for this pest. PMID:25985460

  4. Density and structure of Saissetia oleae (Hemiptera: Coccidae) populations on citrus and olives: relative importance of the two annual generations.

    PubMed

    Tena, Alejandro; Soto, Antonia; Vercher, Rosa; Garcia-Marí, Ferran

    2007-08-01

    Saissetia oleae (Olivier) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) populations were studied and compared in citrus (Citrus spp.) and olive (Olea europaea L.) groves to determine the number of generations, crawler emergence periods and changes in population density during the year. Ten citrus and four olive groves were sampled regularly between March 2003 and December 2005 in eastern Spain, covering an area of 10,000 km2. Each sample consisted of 16 branches and 64 leaves. Saissetia oleae populations presented a similar trend in both crops during the three years of study. Populations peaked in July, when crawlers emerged after the egg-laying period, and decreased during several months due to mortality of first instars in summer. A second crawler emergence period, with lower numbers and more variability from year to year, occurred between October and March. Populations did not increase during this period, probably because most eggs and crawlers perished during the winter and also because females that gave rise to this fall-winter generation were half as big and fecund as spring females. No differences were found between the size of mature females that had developed on citrus and on olives during the spring. Considering this population pattern, the best seasonal period to apply pesticides to control S. oleae would be at the end of July, when populations are synchronous, all crawlers have already emerged, and first instars predominate. PMID:17716461

  5. Agistemus aimogastaensis sp. n. (Acari, Actinedida, Stigmaeidae), a recently discovered predator of eriophyid mites Aceria oleae and Oxycenus maxwelli, in olive orchards in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Leiva, Sergio; Fernandez, Nestor; Theron, Pieter; Rollard, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Agistemus aimogastaensis, is described with the aid of optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy. This mite is an important predator of two eriophyid mites (Aceria oleae and Oxycenus maxwelli) in olive orchards (Olea europaea, variety Arauco) in La Rioja Province. The problems related to eriophyids in olive orchards in Argentina are highlighted and photos of the damage on leaves and fruit are included. PMID:23825448

  6. Cardiac and Vascular Synergic Protective Effect of Olea europea L. Leaves and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Flower Extracts.

    PubMed

    Micucci, Matteo; Malaguti, Marco; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Aldini, Rita; Angeletti, Andrea; Chiarini, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta; Hrelia, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the cardiovascular effects of an Olea europea L. leaf extract (OEE), of a Hibiscus sabdariffa L. flower extract (HSE), and of their 13 : 2 w/w mixture in order to assess their cardiac and vascular activity. Both extracts were fully characterized in their bioactive compounds by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The study was performed using primary vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effect of the extracts and their mixture and isolated guinea-pig left and right atria and aorta to evaluate the inotropic and chronotropic activities and vasorelaxant properties. In cultured HUVECs, OEE and HSE reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and improved cell viability, following oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner. OEE and HSE exerted negative inotropic and vasorelaxant effects without any chronotropic property. Interestingly, the mixture exerted higher cytoprotective effects and antioxidant activities. Moreover, the mixture exerted an inotropic effect similar to each single extract, while it revealed an intrinsic negative chronotropic activity different from the single extract; its relaxant activity was higher than that of each single extract. In conclusion OEE and HSE mixture has a good potential for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical application, thanks to the synergistic effects of the single phytochemicals. PMID:26180582

  7. Cardiac and Vascular Synergic Protective Effect of Olea europea L. Leaves and Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Flower Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Micucci, Matteo; Malaguti, Marco; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Aldini, Rita; Angeletti, Andrea; Chiarini, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta; Hrelia, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the cardiovascular effects of an Olea europea L. leaf extract (OEE), of a Hibiscus sabdariffa L. flower extract (HSE), and of their 13 : 2 w/w mixture in order to assess their cardiac and vascular activity. Both extracts were fully characterized in their bioactive compounds by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. The study was performed using primary vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) to investigate the antioxidant and cytoprotective effect of the extracts and their mixture and isolated guinea-pig left and right atria and aorta to evaluate the inotropic and chronotropic activities and vasorelaxant properties. In cultured HUVECs, OEE and HSE reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species formation and improved cell viability, following oxidative stress in dose-dependent manner. OEE and HSE exerted negative inotropic and vasorelaxant effects without any chronotropic property. Interestingly, the mixture exerted higher cytoprotective effects and antioxidant activities. Moreover, the mixture exerted an inotropic effect similar to each single extract, while it revealed an intrinsic negative chronotropic activity different from the single extract; its relaxant activity was higher than that of each single extract. In conclusion OEE and HSE mixture has a good potential for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical application, thanks to the synergistic effects of the single phytochemicals. PMID:26180582

  8. Profiling and functional classification of esterases in olive (Olea europaea) pollen during germination

    PubMed Central

    Rejón, Juan D.; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Rodríguez-García, María Isabel; Castro, Antonio J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims A pollen grain contains a number of esterases, many of which are released upon contact with the stigma surface. However, the identity and function of most of these esterases remain unknown. In this work, esterases from olive pollen during its germination were identifided and functionally characterized. Methods The esterolytic capacity of olive (Olea europaea) pollen was examined using in vitro and in-gel enzymatic assays with different enzyme substrates. The functional analysis of pollen esterases was achieved by inhibition assays by using specific inhibitors. The cellular localization of esterase activities was performed using histochemical methods. Key Results Olive pollen showed high levels of non-specific esterase activity, which remained steady after hydration and germination. Up to 20 esterolytic bands were identified on polyacrylamide gels. All the inhibitors decreased pollen germinability, but only diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DIFP) hampered pollen tube growth. Non-specific esterase activity is localized on the surface of oil bodies (OBs) and small vesicles, in the pollen intine and in the callose layer of the pollen tube wall. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was mostly observed in the apertures, exine and pollen coat, and attached to the pollen tube wall surface and to small cytoplasmic vesicles. Conclusions In this work, for the first time a systematic functional characterization of esterase enzymes in pollen from a plant species with wet stigma has been carried out. Olive pollen esterases belong to four different functional groups: carboxylesterases, acetylesterases, AChEs and lipases. The cellular localization of esterase activity indicates that the intine is a putative storage site for esterolytic enzymes in olive pollen. Based on inhibition assays and cellular localization of enzymatic activities, it can be concluded that these enzymes are likely to be involved in pollen germination, and pollen tube growth and penetration of the stigma. PMID:22922586

  9. In vitro propagation of olive (Olea europaea L.) by nodal segmentation of elongated shoots.

    PubMed

    Lambardi, Maurizio; Ozudogru, Elif Aylin; Roncasaglia, Romano

    2013-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.), long-living, ever-green fruit tree of the Old World, has been part of a traditional landscape in the Mediterranean area for centuries. Both the fruits consumed after processing and the oil extracted from the fruits are among the main components of the Mediterranean diet, widely used for salads and cooking, as well as for preserving other food. Documentations show that the ancient use of this beautiful tree also includes lamp fuel production, wool treatment, soap production, medicine, and cosmetics. However, unlike the majority of the fruit species, olive propagation is still a laborious practice. As regards traditional propagation, rooting of cuttings and grafting stem segments onto rootstocks are possible, former being achieved only when the cuttings are collected in specific periods (spring or beginning of autumn), and latter only when skilled grafters are available. In both the cases, performance of the cultivars varies considerably. The regeneration of whole plants from ovules, on the other hand, is used only occasionally. Micropropagation of olive is not easy mainly due to explant oxidation, difficulties in explant disinfection, and labor-oriented establishment of in vitro shoot cultures. However today, the progress in micropropagation technology has made available the complete protocols for several Mediterranean cultivars. This chapter describes a micropropagation protocol based on the segmentation of nodal segments obtained from elongated shoots. PMID:23179688

  10. Acetobacter tropicalis Is a Major Symbiont of the Olive Fruit Fly (Bactrocera oleae)▿

    PubMed Central

    Kounatidis, Ilias; Crotti, Elena; Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Sacchi, Luciano; Rizzi, Aurora; Chouaia, Bessem; Bandi, Claudio; Alma, Alberto; Daffonchio, Daniele; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2009-01-01

    Following cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques, we investigated the microbiota associated with Bactrocera oleae, one of the major agricultural pests in olive-producing countries. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene libraries and ultrastructural analyses revealed the presence of several bacterial taxa associated with this insect, among which Acetobacter tropicalis was predominant. The recent increased detection of acetic acid bacteria as symbionts of other insect model organisms, such as Anopheles stephensi (G. Favia et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:9047-9051, 2007) or Drosophila melanogaster (C. R. Cox and M. S. Gilmore, Infect. Immun. 75:1565-1576, 2007), prompted us to investigate the association established between A. tropicalis and B. oleae. Using an A. tropicalis-specific PCR assay, the symbiont was detected in all insects tested originating from laboratory stocks or field-collected from different locations in Greece. This acetic acid bacterium was successfully established in cell-free medium, and typing analyses, carried out on a collection of isolates, revealed that different A. tropicalis strains are present in fly populations. The capability to colonize and lodge in the digestive system of both larvae and adults and in Malpighian tubules of adults was demonstrated by using a strain labeled with a green fluorescent protein. PMID:19304818

  11. Valuable Nutrients and Functional Bioactives in Different Parts of Olive (Olea europaea L.)—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Rahele; Anwar, Farooq; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    The Olive tree (Olea europaea L.), a native of the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia, is now widely cultivated in many other parts of the world for production of olive oil and table olives. Olive is a rich source of valuable nutrients and bioactives of medicinal and therapeutic interest. Olive fruit contains appreciable concentration, 1–3% of fresh pulp weight, of hydrophilic (phenolic acids, phenolic alchohols, flavonoids and secoiridoids) and lipophilic (cresols) phenolic compounds that are known to possess multiple biological activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic, cardiotonic, laxative, and antiplatelet. Other important compounds present in olive fruit are pectin, organic acids, and pigments. Virgin olive oil (VOO), extracted mechanically from the fruit, is also very popular for its nutritive and health-promoting potential, especially against cardiovascular disorders due to the presence of high levels of monounsaturates and other valuable minor components such as phenolics, phytosterols, tocopherols, carotenoids, chlorophyll and squalene. The cultivar, area of production, harvest time, and the processing techniques employed are some of the factors shown to influence the composition of olive fruit and olive oil. This review focuses comprehensively on the nutrients and high-value bioactives profile as well as medicinal and functional aspects of different parts of olives and its byproducts. Various factors affecting the composition of this food commodity of medicinal value are also discussed. PMID:22489153

  12. Nutrition Metabolism Plays an Important Role in the Alternate Bearing of the Olive Tree (Olea europaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Turktas, Mine; Inal, Behcet; Okay, Sezer; Erkilic, Emine Gulden; Dundar, Ekrem; Hernandez, Pilar; Dorado, Gabriel; Unver, Turgay

    2013-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is widely known for its strong tendency for alternate bearing, which severely affects the fruit yield from year to year. Microarray based gene expression analysis using RNA from olive samples (on-off years leaves and ripe-unripe fruits) are particularly useful to understand the molecular mechanisms influencing the periodicity in the olive tree. Thus, we carried out genome wide transcriptome analyses involving different organs and temporal stages of the olive tree using the NimbleGen Array containing 136,628 oligonucleotide probe sets. Cluster analyses of the genes showed that cDNAs originated from different organs could be sorted into separate groups. The nutritional control had a particularly remarkable impact on the alternate bearing of olive, as shown by the differential expression of transcripts under different temporal phases and organs. Additionally, hormonal control and flowering processes also played important roles in this phenomenon. Our analyses provide further insights into the transcript changes between ”on year” and “off year” leaves along with the changes from unrpipe to ripe fruits, which shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the olive tree alternate bearing. These findings have important implications for the breeding and agriculture of the olive tree and other crops showing periodicity. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the development and use of an olive array to document the gene expression profiling associated with the alternate bearing in olive tree. PMID:23555820

  13. Symbiotic bacteria enable olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) to exploit intractable sources of nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Ben-Yosef, M; Pasternak, Z; Jurkevitch, E; Yuval, B

    2014-12-01

    Insects are often associated with symbiotic micro-organisms, which allow them to utilize nutritionally marginal diets. Adult fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) associate with extracellular bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae) that inhabit their digestive tract. These flies obtain nutrients by foraging for plant exudates, honeydew and bird droppings scattered on leaves and fruit—a nutritional niche which offers ample amounts of carbohydrates, but low quantities of available nitrogen. We identified the bacteria resident in the gut of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae)—a worldwide pest of olives and examined their contribution to nitrogen metabolism in the adult insect. By suppressing bacteria in the gut and monitoring female fecundity, we demonstrate that bacteria contribute essential amino acids and metabolize urea into an available nitrogen source for the fly, thus significantly elevating egg production. In an ecological context, bacteria were found to be beneficial to females subsisting on bird droppings, but not on honeydew—two natural food sources. We suggest that a main gut bacterium (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola) forms an inseparable, essential part of this fly's nutritional ecology. The evolution of this symbiosis has allowed adult flies to utilize food substrates which are low or imbalanced in assimilable nitrogen and thereby to overcome the nitrogen limitations of their natural diet. PMID:25403559

  14. A molecular linkage map of olive (Olea europaea L) based on RAPD, microsatellite, and SCAR markers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu-Biao; Collins, Graham; Sedgley, Margaret

    2004-02-01

    An integrated molecular linkage map of olive (Olea europaea L.) was constructed based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR), and microsatellite markers using the pseudo-testcross strategy. A mapping population of 104 individuals was generated from an F1 full-sib family of a cross between 'Frantoio' and 'Kalamata'. The hybridity of the mapping population was confirmed by genetic similarity and nonmetric multidimensional scaling. Twenty-three linkage groups were mapped for 'Kalamata', covering 759 cM of the genome with 89 loci and an average distance between loci of 11.5 cM. Twenty-seven linkage groups were mapped for 'Frantoio', covering 798 cM of the genome with 92 loci and an average distance between loci of 12.3 cM. For the integrated map, 15 linkage groups covered 879 cM of the genome with 101 loci and an average distance between loci of 10.2 cM. The size of the genomic DNA was estimated to be around 3000 cM. A sequence characterized amplified region marker linked to olive peacock disease resistance was mapped to linkage group 2 of the integrated map. These maps will be the starting point for studies on the structure, evolution, and function of the olive genome. When the mapping progeny pass through their juvenile phase and assume their adult characters, mapping morphological markers and identification of quantitative trait loci for adaptive traits will be the primary targets. PMID:15060599

  15. Metabarcoding Analysis of Fungal Diversity in the Phyllosphere and Carposphere of Olive (Olea europaea).

    PubMed

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Li Destri Nicosia, Maria Giulia; Cacciola, Santa Olga; Droby, Samir; Schena, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    The fungal diversity associated with leaves, flowers and fruits of olive (Olea europaea) was investigated in different phenological stages (May, June, October and December) using an implemented metabarcoding approach. It consisted of the 454 pyrosequencing of the fungal ITS2 region and the subsequent phylogenetic analysis of relevant genera along with validated reference sequences. Most sequences were identified up to the species level or were associated with a restricted number of related taxa enabling supported speculations regarding their biological role. Analyses revealed a rich fungal community with 195 different OTUs. Ascomycota was the dominating phyla representing 93.6% of the total number of detected sequences followed by unidentified fungi (3.6%) and Basidiomycota (2.8%). A higher level of diversity was revealed for leaves compared to flowers and fruits. Among plant pathogens the genus Colletotrichum represented by three species (C. godetiae syn. C. clavatum, C. acutatum s.s and C. karstii) was the most abundant on ripe fruits but it was also detected in other organs. Pseudocercospora cladosporioides was detected with a high frequency in all leaf samples and to a less extent in ripe fruits. A much lower relative frequency was revealed for Spilocaea oleagina and for other putative pathogens including Fusarium spp., Neofusicoccum spp., and Alternaria spp. Among non-pathogen taxa, Aureobasidium pullulans, the species complex of Cladosporium cladosporioides and Devriesia spp. were the most represented. This study highlights the existence of a complex fungal consortium including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on olive productions. PMID:26132745

  16. Metabarcoding Analysis of Fungal Diversity in the Phyllosphere and Carposphere of Olive (Olea europaea)

    PubMed Central

    Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Li Destri Nicosia, Maria Giulia; Cacciola, Santa Olga; Droby, Samir; Schena, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    The fungal diversity associated with leaves, flowers and fruits of olive (Olea europaea) was investigated in different phenological stages (May, June, October and December) using an implemented metabarcoding approach. It consisted of the 454 pyrosequencing of the fungal ITS2 region and the subsequent phylogenetic analysis of relevant genera along with validated reference sequences. Most sequences were identified up to the species level or were associated with a restricted number of related taxa enabling supported speculations regarding their biological role. Analyses revealed a rich fungal community with 195 different OTUs. Ascomycota was the dominating phyla representing 93.6% of the total number of detected sequences followed by unidentified fungi (3.6%) and Basidiomycota (2.8%). A higher level of diversity was revealed for leaves compared to flowers and fruits. Among plant pathogens the genus Colletotrichum represented by three species (C. godetiae syn. C. clavatum, C. acutatum s.s and C. karstii) was the most abundant on ripe fruits but it was also detected in other organs. Pseudocercospora cladosporioides was detected with a high frequency in all leaf samples and to a less extent in ripe fruits. A much lower relative frequency was revealed for Spilocaea oleagina and for other putative pathogens including Fusarium spp., Neofusicoccum spp., and Alternaria spp. Among non-pathogen taxa, Aureobasidium pullulans, the species complex of Cladosporium cladosporioides and Devriesia spp. were the most represented. This study highlights the existence of a complex fungal consortium including both phytopathogenic and potentially antagonistic microorganisms that can have a significant impact on olive productions. PMID:26132745

  17. Characterisation of chlorophyll oxidation mediated by peroxidative activity in olives (Olea europaea L.) cv. Hojiblanca.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Domínguez, Honorio; Roca, María; Gandul-Rojas, Beatriz

    2013-08-15

    The oxidation of chlorophyll a (chl a) catalysed by peroxidase (POD) from mesocarp of the olive fruit (Olea europaea L., cv Hojiblanca) in the presence of H2O2 and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), is characterised via the individualised quantification of the products of the enzymatic reaction using a new methodology of HPLC-UV spectrometry. This innovation has allowed the discovery that, in addition to 13(2) OH chl a and 15(1) OH lactone chl a, which are the first products of POD on chl a, the reaction process sequentially creates another series of oxidised chlorophyll derivatives which have not been previously described. Their origins have been linked to POD activity in the presence of 2,4-DCP. Likewise, a study of the effect of the concentration of the various cosubstrates on the POD reaction rate demonstrated that the correct establishment of the relative concentrations of the same ([H2O2]/[2,4-DCP]/[Chl]=1:3:0.02) is crucial to explaining inhibition effects by substrates and carrying out optimum measurements. Therefore, new essential parameters for the determination of POD activity on a chlorophyll substrate are established. PMID:23561174

  18. Molecular characterization of genetic diversity, structure, and differentiation in the olive (Olea europaea L.) germplasm collection of the united states department of agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifteen microsatellite loci were used to genotype 108 accessions of cultivated olive, Olea europaea L. ssp. europaea var. europaea, and eight of O. europaea L. ssp. cuspidata (Wall. ex G. Don) Ciferri from the germplasm collection of the United States Department of Agriculture in Davis, California. ...

  19. Olive Volatiles from Portuguese Cultivars Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana: Role in Oviposition Preference of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Cunha, Sara C.; Baptista, Paula; Pereira, José Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), a serious threat to the olive crop worldwide, displays ovipositon preference for some olive cultivars but the causes are still unclear. In the present work, three Portuguese olive cultivars with different susceptibilities to olive fly (Cobrançosa, Madural, and Verdeal Transmontana) were studied, aiming to determine if the olive volatiles are implicated in this interaction. Olive volatiles were assessed by SPME-GC-MS in the three cultivars during maturation process to observe possible correlations with olive fly infestation levels. Overall, 34 volatiles were identified in the olives, from 7 chemical classes (alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons, esters, ketones, sesquiterpenes, and terpenes). Generally, total volatile amounts decrease during maturation but toluene, the main compound, increased in all cultivars, particularly in those with higher susceptibility to olive fly. Sesquiterpenes also raised, mainly α-copaene. Toluene and α-copaene, recognized oviposition promoters to olive fly, were correlated with the infestation level of cvs. Madural and Verdeal Trasnmontana (intermediate and highly susceptible cultivars respectively), while no correlations were established with cv. Cobrançosa (less susceptible). No volatiles with inverse correlation were observed. Volatile composition of olives may be a decisive factor in the olive fly choice to oviposit and this could be the basis for the development of new control strategies for this pest. PMID:25985460

  20. Olive Fruit Fly (Bactrocera oleae) Population Dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean: Influence of Exogenous Uncertainty on a Monophagous Frugivorous Insect.

    PubMed

    Ordano, Mariano; Engelhard, Izhar; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Nemny-Lavy, Esther; Blum, Moshe; Yasin, Sami; Lensky, Itamar M; Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Nestel, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite of the economic importance of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the large amount of biological and ecological studies on the insect, the factors driving its population dynamics (i.e., population persistence and regulation) had not been analytically investigated until the present study. Specifically, our study investigated the autoregressive process of the olive fly populations, and the joint role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors molding the population dynamics of the insect. Accounting for endogenous dynamics and the influences of exogenous factors such as olive grove temperature, the North Atlantic Oscillation and the presence of potential host fruit, we modeled olive fly populations in five locations in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Our models indicate that the rate of population change is mainly shaped by first and higher order non-monotonic, endogenous dynamics (i.e., density-dependent population feedback). The olive grove temperature was the main exogenous driver, while the North Atlantic Oscillation and fruit availability acted as significant exogenous factors in one of the five populations. Seasonal influences were also relevant for three of the populations. In spite of exogenous effects, the rate of population change was fairly stable along time. We propose that a special reproductive mechanism, such as reproductive quiescence, allows populations of monophagous fruit flies such as the olive fly to remain stable. Further, we discuss how weather factors could impinge constraints on the population dynamics at the local level. Particularly, local temperature dynamics could provide forecasting cues for management guidelines. Jointly, our results advocate for establishing monitoring programs and for a major focus of research on the relationship between life history traits and populations dynamics. PMID:26010332

  1. Psyttalia ponerophaga (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as a potential biological control agent of olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California.

    PubMed

    Sime, K R; Daane, K M; Kirk, A; Andrews, J W; Johnson, M W; Messing, R H

    2007-06-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is a newly invasive, significant threat to California's olive industry. As part of a classical biological control programme, Psyttalia ponerophaga (Silvestri) was imported to California from Pakistan and evaluated in quarantine. Biological parameters that would improve rearing and field-release protocols and permit comparisons to other olive fruit fly biological control agents were measured. Potential barriers to the successful establishment of P. ponerophaga, including the geographic origins of parasitoid and pest populations and constraints imposed by fruit size, were also evaluated as part of this investigation. Under insectary conditions, all larval stages except neonates were acceptable hosts. Provided a choice of host ages, the parasitoids' host-searching and oviposition preferences were a positive function of host age, with most offspring reared from hosts attacked as third instars. Immature developmental time was a negative function of tested temperatures, ranging from 25.5 to 12.4 days at 22 and 30 degrees C, respectively. Evaluation of adult longevity, at constant temperatures ranging from 15 to 34 degrees C, showed that P. ponerophaga had a broad tolerance of temperature, living from 3 to 34 days at 34 and 15 degrees C, respectively. Lifetime fecundity was 18.7 +/- 2.8 adult offspring per female, with most eggs deposited within 12 days after adult eclosion. Olive size affected parasitoid performance, with lower parasitism levels on hosts feeding in larger olives. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to field manipulation and selection of parasitoid species for olive fruit fly biological control in California and worldwide. PMID:17524155

  2. Olive Fruit Fly (Bactrocera oleae) Population Dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean: Influence of Exogenous Uncertainty on a Monophagous Frugivorous Insect

    PubMed Central

    Ordano, Mariano; Engelhard, Izhar; Rempoulakis, Polychronis; Nemny-Lavy, Esther; Blum, Moshe; Yasin, Sami; Lensky, Itamar M.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.; Nestel, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite of the economic importance of the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) and the large amount of biological and ecological studies on the insect, the factors driving its population dynamics (i.e., population persistence and regulation) had not been analytically investigated until the present study. Specifically, our study investigated the autoregressive process of the olive fly populations, and the joint role of intrinsic and extrinsic factors molding the population dynamics of the insect. Accounting for endogenous dynamics and the influences of exogenous factors such as olive grove temperature, the North Atlantic Oscillation and the presence of potential host fruit, we modeled olive fly populations in five locations in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Our models indicate that the rate of population change is mainly shaped by first and higher order non-monotonic, endogenous dynamics (i.e., density-dependent population feedback). The olive grove temperature was the main exogenous driver, while the North Atlantic Oscillation and fruit availability acted as significant exogenous factors in one of the five populations. Seasonal influences were also relevant for three of the populations. In spite of exogenous effects, the rate of population change was fairly stable along time. We propose that a special reproductive mechanism, such as reproductive quiescence, allows populations of monophagous fruit flies such as the olive fly to remain stable. Further, we discuss how weather factors could impinge constraints on the population dynamics at the local level. Particularly, local temperature dynamics could provide forecasting cues for management guidelines. Jointly, our results advocate for establishing monitoring programs and for a major focus of research on the relationship between life history traits and populations dynamics. PMID:26010332

  3. Bioactive properties of the main triterpenes found in olives, virgin olive oil, and leaves of Olea europaea.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Quesada, Cristina; López-Biedma, Alicia; Warleta, Fernando; Campos, María; Beltrán, Gabriel; Gaforio, José J

    2013-12-18

    Oleanolic acid, maslinic acid, uvaol, and erythrodiol are the main triterpenes present in olives, olive tree leaves, and virgin olive oil. Their concentration in virgin olive oil depends on the quality of the olive oil and the variety of the olive tree. These triterpenes are described to present different properties, such as antitumoral activity, cardioprotective activity, anti-inflammatory activity, and antioxidant protection. Olive oil triterpenes are a natural source of antioxidants that could be useful compounds for the prevention of multiple diseases related to cell oxidative damage. However, special attention has to be paid to the concentrations used, because higher concentration may lead to cytotoxic or biphasic effects. This work explores all of the bioactive properties so far described for the main triterpenes present in virgin olive oil. PMID:24279741

  4. Immunoproteomic tools are used to identify masked allergens: Ole e 12, an allergenic isoflavone reductase from olive (Olea europaea) pollen.

    PubMed

    Castro, Lourdes; Crespo, Jesús F; Rodríguez, Julia; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Villalba, Mayte

    2015-12-01

    Proteins performing important biochemical activities in the olive tree (Olea europaea) pollen have been identified as allergens. One novel 37-kDa protein seems to be associated to the IgE-binding profile of a group of patients suffering allergy to peach and olive pollen. Three previously described olive pollen allergens exhibit very similar molecular mass. Our objective was to identify this allergen by using immunoproteomic approaches. After 2D-electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, peptide sequences from several IgE-binding spots, allowed identifying this new allergen, as well as cloning and DNA sequencing of the corresponding gene. The allergen, named Ole e 12, is a polymorphic isoflavone reductase-like protein of 308 amino acids showing 80% and 74% identity with birch and pear allergens, Bet v 6 and Pyr c 5, respectively. A prevalence of 33% in the selected population is in contrast to 4%-10% in groups of subjects suffering from pollinosis. Recombinant allergen was produced in Escherichia coli, and deeply characterised. Immunoblotting and ELISA detection as well as inhibition experiments were performed with polyclonal antisera and allergic patients' sera. The recombinant allergen retains the IgE reactivity of its natural counterpart. Close structural and immunological relationships between members of this protein family were supported by their IgG recognition in vegetable species. In summary, Ole e 12 is a minor olive pollen allergen, which gains relevance in patients allergic to peach with olive pollinosis. Proteomic approaches used to analyse this allergen provide useful tools to identify hidden allergens, relevant for several allergic populations and thus complete allergenic panels. PMID:26391288

  5. Comparison of some chemical parameters of a naturally debittered olive (Olea europaea L.) type with regular olive varieties.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Ayse Burcu; Ozen, Banu; Tokatli, Figen; Sen, Ilknur

    2014-10-15

    Some olives grown in Karaburun peninsula in the west part of Turkey and mostly coming from Erkence variety lose their bitterness while still on the tree and are called Hurma among locals. This olive type does not require further processing to remove the bitter compounds. In this study, sugar, organic acid and fatty acid profiles of Hurma, Erkence (not naturally debittered) and Gemlik (commonly consumed as table olive) olives were determined throughout 8weeks of maturation period for two consecutive harvest seasons, and the results were analysed by principal component analysis (PCA). PCA of sugar and organic acid data revealed a differentiation in terms of harvest year but not on variety. Hurma olive is separated from others due to its fatty acid profile, and it has higher linoleic acid content compared to others. This might be an indication of increased desaturase enzyme activity for Hurma olives during natural debittering phase. PMID:24837927

  6. Construction of core collections suitable for association mapping to optimize use of Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L.) genetic resources.

    PubMed

    El Bakkali, Ahmed; Haouane, Hicham; Moukhli, Abdelmajid; Costes, Evelyne; Van Damme, Patrick; Khadari, Bouchaib

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic characterisation of germplasm collections is a decisive step towards association mapping analyses, but it is particularly expensive and tedious for woody perennial plant species. Characterisation could be more efficient if focused on a reasonably sized subset of accessions, or so-called core collection (CC), reflecting the geographic origin and variability of the germplasm. The questions that arise concern the sample size to use and genetic parameters that should be optimized in a core collection to make it suitable for association mapping. Here we investigated these questions in olive (Olea europaea L.), a perennial fruit species. By testing different sampling methods and sizes in a worldwide olive germplasm bank (OWGB Marrakech, Morocco) containing 502 unique genotypes characterized by nuclear and plastid loci, a two-step sampling method was proposed. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index was found to be the best criterion to be maximized in the first step using the Core Hunter program. A primary core collection of 50 entries (CC50) was defined that captured more than 80% of the diversity. This latter was subsequently used as a kernel with the Mstrat program to capture the remaining diversity. 200 core collections of 94 entries (CC94) were thus built for flexibility in the choice of varieties to be studied. Most entries of both core collections (CC50 and CC94) were revealed to be unrelated due to the low kinship coefficient, whereas a genetic structure spanning the eastern and western/central Mediterranean regions was noted. Linkage disequilibrium was observed in CC94 which was mainly explained by a genetic structure effect as noted for OWGB Marrakech. Since they reflect the geographic origin and diversity of olive germplasm and are of reasonable size, both core collections will be of major interest to develop long-term association studies and thus enhance genomic selection in olive species. PMID:23667437

  7. Construction of Core Collections Suitable for Association Mapping to Optimize Use of Mediterranean Olive (Olea europaea L.) Genetic Resources

    PubMed Central

    El Bakkali, Ahmed; Haouane, Hicham; Moukhli, Abdelmajid; Costes, Evelyne; Van Damme, Patrick; Khadari, Bouchaib

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic characterisation of germplasm collections is a decisive step towards association mapping analyses, but it is particularly expensive and tedious for woody perennial plant species. Characterisation could be more efficient if focused on a reasonably sized subset of accessions, or so-called core collection (CC), reflecting the geographic origin and variability of the germplasm. The questions that arise concern the sample size to use and genetic parameters that should be optimized in a core collection to make it suitable for association mapping. Here we investigated these questions in olive (Olea europaea L.), a perennial fruit species. By testing different sampling methods and sizes in a worldwide olive germplasm bank (OWGB Marrakech, Morocco) containing 502 unique genotypes characterized by nuclear and plastid loci, a two-step sampling method was proposed. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index was found to be the best criterion to be maximized in the first step using the Core Hunter program. A primary core collection of 50 entries (CC50) was defined that captured more than 80% of the diversity. This latter was subsequently used as a kernel with the Mstrat program to capture the remaining diversity. 200 core collections of 94 entries (CC94) were thus built for flexibility in the choice of varieties to be studied. Most entries of both core collections (CC50 and CC94) were revealed to be unrelated due to the low kinship coefficient, whereas a genetic structure spanning the eastern and western/central Mediterranean regions was noted. Linkage disequilibrium was observed in CC94 which was mainly explained by a genetic structure effect as noted for OWGB Marrakech. Since they reflect the geographic origin and diversity of olive germplasm and are of reasonable size, both core collections will be of major interest to develop long-term association studies and thus enhance genomic selection in olive species. PMID:23667437

  8. [Therapeutic effect of Olea europea var. oleaster leaves on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in obese and prediabetic sand rats (Psammomys obesus)].

    PubMed

    Bennani-Kabchi, N; Fdhil, H; Cherrah, Y; El Bouayadi, F; Kehel, L; Marquie, G

    2000-07-01

    Sand rats develop obesity, insulin-resistance, hyperlipidemia and prediabetes, when given a standard laboratory chow diet. We have used this model to demonstrate the beneficial action of olea europea var. oleaster leaves to regulate unbalanced metabolism. 32 sand rats fed on hypercaloric diet during 7 months, were divided into 3 groups: controls (n=10), treated by plant (n=13) and treated by simvastatin (Zoco); hypocholesterolemic drug. The plant decoction prepared at 10% was given orally at the rate of 1.5 ml/100g during 3 months. Results show that the plant presents a hypocholesterolemic effect (42%) related to decreases in LDL and VLDL cholesterol. In addition, hypoglycemic (16%) and antihyperglycemic (40%) effects were observed accompanied by a 27% decrease in insulin. Chronic treatment with Zocor reduced total cholesterol (32%), LDL and VLDL cholesterol. Both of treatments produced no significantly reduction in plasma levels of triglycerides and HDL cholesterol. No noxions effect of this plant have been observed in usual doses. PMID:10915976

  9. Genome-wide identification of alternate bearing-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) in olive (Olea europaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alternate bearing is a widespread phenomenon among crop plants, defined as the tendency of certain fruit trees to produce a high-yield crop one year ("on-year"), followed by a low-yield or even no crop the following year ("off-year"). Several factors may affect the balance between such developmental phase-transition processes. Among them are the microRNA (miRNA), being gene-expression regulators that have been found to be involved as key determinants in several physiological processes. Results Six olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Ayvalik variety) small RNA libraries were constructed from fruits (ripe and unripe) and leaves (”on year” and ”off year” leaves in July and in November, respectively) and sequenced by high-throughput Illumina sequencing. The RNA was retrotranscribed and sequenced using the high-throughput Illumina platform. Bioinformatics analyses of 93,526,915 reads identified 135 conserved miRNA, belonging to 22 miRNA families in the olive. In addition, 38 putative novel miRNAs were discovered in the datasets. Expression of olive tree miRNAs varied greatly among the six libraries, indicating the contribution of diverse miRNA in balancing between reproductive and vegetative phases. Predicted targets of miRNA were categorized into 108 process ontology groups with significance abundance. Among those, potential alternate bearing-associated processes were found, such as development, hormone-mediated signaling and organ morphogenesis. The KEGG analyses revealed that the miRNA-targeted genes are involved in seven main pathways, belonging to carbohydrate metabolism and hormone signal-transduction pathways. Conclusion A comprehensive study on olive miRNA related to alternate bearing was performed. Regulation of miRNA under different developmental phases and tissues indicated that control of nutrition and hormone, together with flowering processes had a noteworthy impact on the olive tree alternate bearing. Our results also provide significant data on the miRNA-fruit development interaction and advance perspectives in the miRNA profile of the olive tree. PMID:23320600

  10. Evaluation of the impact on entomocoenosis of active agents allowed in organic olive farming against Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin, 1790).

    PubMed

    Iannotta, Nino; Belfiore, Tiziana; Brandmayr, Pittro; Noce, Maria E; Scalercio, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    Several attempts for evaluating environmental impact of active agents allowed in organic olive farming against Bactrocera oleae have been made, but very few studies were performed contemporaneously on more than one of them. Insects were chosen as indicators because they are known to react very quickly to environmental perturbations, mainly at the community level. In fact, the coenosis is the functional unit interacting with biotic and abiotic environmental parameters. Seven taxa, known for their sensitivity to habitat alterations, were sampled and grouped in functional groups: predators and parasitoids, phytophagouses and pollinators. The coenotic balance between these two functional groups was analyzed. The study was carried out in an organic olive orchard in the municipality of Terranova da Sibari, Cosenza, Southern Italy. The tested active agents (Azadirachtin, Rotenone, Copper Oxychloride) were sprayed twice (end of September and middle October). During the treatments the population dynamics of all the taxa were knocked-down. No one tested compound seems to be harmless to the entomocoenosis, particularly on phytophagouses and pollinators. In truly organic farming it is necessary to provide natural refuge areas to beneficial insects (i.e. pest antagonists) in which no active agents are sprayed and alternative preys could be found. PMID:17763034

  11. Feasibility of NIR Spectroscopy to detect olive fruit infested by Bactrocera oleae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly infestation is a significant problem for the milling process. In most cases, damage from insects is ‘hidden’, i.e. not visually detectable on the fruit surface. Consequently, traditional visual sorting techniques are generally inadequate for the detection and removal of olives with i...

  12. Novel qPCR systems for olive (Olea europaea L.) authentication in oils and food.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Gómez, Sonia; Busto, María D; Albillos, Silvia M; Ortega, Natividad

    2016-03-01

    The traceability of olive oil is an unresolved issue that remains a challenge. In this field, DNA-based techniques are very powerful tools for discrimination that are less negatively influenced by environmental conditions than other techniques. More specifically, quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) achieves a high degree of sensitivity, although the DNA that it can directly isolate from these oils presents drawbacks. Our study reports the analysis of eight systems, in order to determine their suitability for olive detection in oil and oil-derived foodstuffs. The eight systems were analyzed on the basis of their sensitivity and specificity in the qPCR assay, their relative sensitivity to olive DNA detection and DNA mixtures, their sensitivity and specificity to olive in vegetable oils and the detection of olive in commercial products. The results show that the PetN-PsbM system, designed in this study, is a suitable and reliable technique in relation to olive oil and olive ingredients in both food authentication and food safety processes. PMID:26471578

  13. Genetic Biodiversity of Italian Olives (Olea europaea) Germplasm Analyzed by SSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Vendramin, Giuseppe Giovanni; Chiappetta, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    The olive is an important fruit species cultivated for oil and table olives in Italy and the Mediterranean basin. The conservation of cultivated plants in ex situ collections is essential for the optimal management and use of their genetic resources. The largest ex situ olive germplasm collection consists of approximately 500 Italian olive varieties and corresponding to 85% of the total Italian olive germplasm is maintained at the Consiglio per la Ricerca e sperimentazione per l'Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per l'Olivicoltura e l'Industria Olearia (CRA-OLI), in Italy. In this work, eleven preselected nuclear microsatellite markers were used to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flows with the aim of assembling a core collection. The dendrogram obtained utilizing the unweighted pair group method highlights the presence of homonymy and synonymy in olive tree datasets analyzed in this study. 439 different unique genotype profiles were obtained with this combination of 11 loci nSSR, representing 89.8% of the varieties analyzed. The remaining 10.2% comprises different variety pairs in which both accessions are genetically indistinguishable. Clustering analysis performed using BAPS software detected seven groups in Italian olive germplasm and gene flows were determined among identified clusters. We proposed an Italian core collection of 23 olive varieties capturing all detected alleles at microsatellites. The information collected in this study regarding the CRA-OLI ex situ collection can be used for breeding programs, for germplasm conservation, and for optimizing a strategy for the management of olive gene pools. PMID:24723801

  14. Genetic biodiversity of Italian olives (Olea europaea) germplasm analyzed by SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Muzzalupo, Innocenzo; Vendramin, Giuseppe Giovanni; Chiappetta, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    The olive is an important fruit species cultivated for oil and table olives in Italy and the Mediterranean basin. The conservation of cultivated plants in ex situ collections is essential for the optimal management and use of their genetic resources. The largest ex situ olive germplasm collection consists of approximately 500 Italian olive varieties and corresponding to 85% of the total Italian olive germplasm is maintained at the Consiglio per la Ricerca e sperimentazione per l'Agricoltura, Centro di Ricerca per l'Olivicoltura e l'Industria Olearia (CRA-OLI), in Italy. In this work, eleven preselected nuclear microsatellite markers were used to assess genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flows with the aim of assembling a core collection. The dendrogram obtained utilizing the unweighted pair group method highlights the presence of homonymy and synonymy in olive tree datasets analyzed in this study. 439 different unique genotype profiles were obtained with this combination of 11 loci nSSR, representing 89.8% of the varieties analyzed. The remaining 10.2% comprises different variety pairs in which both accessions are genetically indistinguishable. Clustering analysis performed using BAPS software detected seven groups in Italian olive germplasm and gene flows were determined among identified clusters. We proposed an Italian core collection of 23 olive varieties capturing all detected alleles at microsatellites. The information collected in this study regarding the CRA-OLI ex situ collection can be used for breeding programs, for germplasm conservation, and for optimizing a strategy for the management of olive gene pools. PMID:24723801

  15. ( Z)-9-tricosene identified in rectal gland extracts of Bactrocera oleae males: first evidence of a male-produced female attractant in olive fruit fly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpita, Adriano; Canale, Angelo; Raffaelli, Andrea; Saba, Alessandro; Benelli, Giovanni; Raspi, Alfio

    2012-01-01

    It is well-known that Bactrocera oleae (olive fruit fly) females attract conspecific males by using 1,7-dioxaspiro[5,5]undecane ( 1) as the main component of their sex pheromone, and that 1 is produced in the female rectal gland. Although some authors have claimed that B. oleae males also attract females, to date no male-produced female attractants have been found in this species. In this paper, we report the first identification of a substance unique to males and able to attract females. The findings of the study include the following: (1) females responded in a bioassay to hexane extracts obtained from rectal glands of 15-day-old B. oleae males, (2) the presence of ( Z)-9-tricosene ( 2) was consistently and unambiguously identified in these extracts using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry methods, (3) in preliminary bioactivity tests, low doses (equivalent to a few males) of chemically and stereoisomerically pure synthetic ( Z)-9-tricosene ( 2) attracted olive fruit fly females. Interestingly, compound 2, commonly called muscalure, is also a well-known component of the house fly ( Musca domestica) sex pheromone.

  16. Assessing ambient ozone injury in olive (Olea europaea L.) plants by using the antioxidant ethylenediurea (EDU) in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Basahi, J M; Ismail, I M; Haiba, N S; Hassan, I A; Lorenzini, G

    2016-06-01

    The antiozonant chemical, ethylenediurea (N-[2-(2-oxo-1-imidazolidinyl)ethyl]-N'-phenylurea, abbreviated as EDU), was applied as stem injections or soil drenches to 5-year-old containerized plants of olive (Olea europaea L. cultivar Kalamata) in growth chambers in order to assess its ameliorative effects against realistic ozone (O3) stress. Visible injury symptoms were reduced greatly in individuals treated with EDU, with injection applications having greater protection than soil drenches. EDU application caused increases in the measured ecophysiological parameters compared to untreated individuals. In particular, the stem injection protected plants against photosynthetic impairment (unchanged net photosynthetic rates and intercellular CO2 concentration, in comparison to plants grown in filtered air). EDU application increased the protection of PSII from ambient O3 oxidative stress, although it did not retain the proportion of redox state of QA, pigment composition of photosynthetic apparatus and size of light-harvesting complex of PSII. However, the stem injection of plants with EDU induced lower non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) values in comparison to ambient air (-2 %), indicating a better photoprotection of PSII in comparison to soil drench application. EDU application caused increases in the morphological and biometric parameters compared to individuals exposed to ambient air. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study highlighting the protection of Kalamata olive trees due to EDU in terms of growth, yield, visible injury, and photosynthetic performance. Furthermore, this study proved that EDU could be a low-cost and a low-technology efficient tool for assessing O3 effects on plant performances in the field in Saudi Arabia. PMID:27230423

  17. Proteomic platform for the identification of proteins in olive (Olea europaea) pulp.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Foglia, Patrizia; Piovesana, Susy; Samperi, Roberto; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Laganà, Aldo

    2013-10-24

    The nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil extracted mechanically from the ripe fruits of Olea europaea trees are attracting constantly more attention worldwide. The preparation of high-quality protein samples from plant tissues for proteomic analysis poses many challenging problems. In this study we employed a proteomic platform based on two different extraction methods, SDS and CHAPS based protocols, followed by two precipitation protocols, TCA/acetone and MeOH precipitation, in order to increase the final number of identified proteins. The use of advanced MS techniques in combination with the Swissprot and NCBI Viridiplantae databases and TAIR10 Arabidopsis database allowed us to identify 1265 proteins, of which 22 belong to O. europaea. The application of this proteomic platform for protein extraction and identification will be useful also for other proteomic studies on recalcitrant plant/fruit tissues. PMID:24120165

  18. Transcript Analysis and Regulative Events during Flower Development in Olive (Olea europaea L.).

    PubMed

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Cirilli, Marco; Galla, Giulio; Carbone, Fabrizio; Daddiego, Loretta; Facella, Paolo; Lopez, Loredana; Colao, Chiara; Mariotti, Roberto; Cultrera, Nicolò; Rossi, Martina; Barcaccia, Gianni; Baldoni, Luciana; Muleo, Rosario; Perrotta, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    The identification and characterization of transcripts involved in flower organ development, plant reproduction and metabolism represent key steps in plant phenotypic and physiological pathways, and may generate high-quality transcript variants useful for the development of functional markers. This study was aimed at obtaining an extensive characterization of the olive flower transcripts, by providing sound information on the candidate MADS-box genes related to the ABC model of flower development and on the putative genetic and molecular determinants of ovary abortion and pollen-pistil interaction. The overall sequence data, obtained by pyrosequencing of four cDNA libraries from flowers at different developmental stages of three olive varieties with distinct reproductive features (Leccino, Frantoio and Dolce Agogia), included approximately 465,000 ESTs, which gave rise to more than 14,600 contigs and approximately 92,000 singletons. As many as 56,700 unigenes were successfully annotated and provided gene ontology insights into the structural organization and putative molecular function of sequenced transcripts and deduced proteins in the context of their corresponding biological processes. Differentially expressed genes with potential regulatory roles in biosynthetic pathways and metabolic networks during flower development were identified. The gene expression studies allowed us to select the candidate genes that play well-known molecular functions in a number of biosynthetic pathways and specific biological processes that affect olive reproduction. A sound understanding of gene functions and regulatory networks that characterize the olive flower is provided. PMID:27077738

  19. Transcript Analysis and Regulative Events during Flower Development in Olive (Olea europaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Cirilli, Marco; Galla, Giulio; Carbone, Fabrizio; Daddiego, Loretta; Facella, Paolo; Lopez, Loredana; Colao, Chiara; Mariotti, Roberto; Cultrera, Nicolò; Rossi, Martina; Barcaccia, Gianni; Baldoni, Luciana; Muleo, Rosario; Perrotta, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    The identification and characterization of transcripts involved in flower organ development, plant reproduction and metabolism represent key steps in plant phenotypic and physiological pathways, and may generate high-quality transcript variants useful for the development of functional markers. This study was aimed at obtaining an extensive characterization of the olive flower transcripts, by providing sound information on the candidate MADS-box genes related to the ABC model of flower development and on the putative genetic and molecular determinants of ovary abortion and pollen-pistil interaction. The overall sequence data, obtained by pyrosequencing of four cDNA libraries from flowers at different developmental stages of three olive varieties with distinct reproductive features (Leccino, Frantoio and Dolce Agogia), included approximately 465,000 ESTs, which gave rise to more than 14,600 contigs and approximately 92,000 singletons. As many as 56,700 unigenes were successfully annotated and provided gene ontology insights into the structural organization and putative molecular function of sequenced transcripts and deduced proteins in the context of their corresponding biological processes. Differentially expressed genes with potential regulatory roles in biosynthetic pathways and metabolic networks during flower development were identified. The gene expression studies allowed us to select the candidate genes that play well-known molecular functions in a number of biosynthetic pathways and specific biological processes that affect olive reproduction. A sound understanding of gene functions and regulatory networks that characterize the olive flower is provided. PMID:27077738

  20. Variability of Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds in a Segregating Progeny from a Single Cross in Olea europaea L. and Sensory and Nutritional Quality Implications

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Ana G.; León, Lorenzo; Pascual, Mar; Romero-Segura, Carmen; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; de la Rosa, Raúl; Sanz, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Virgin olive oil phenolic compounds are responsible for its nutritional and sensory quality. The synthesis of phenolic compounds occurs when enzymes and substrates meet as olive fruit is crushed during the industrial process to obtain the oil. The genetic variability of the major phenolic compounds of virgin olive oil was studied in a progeny of the cross of Picual x Arbequina olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.). They belong to four different groups: compounds that included tyrosol or hydroxytyrosol in their molecules, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Data of phenolics in the oils showed that the progeny displayed a large degree of variability, widely transgressing the genitor levels. This high variability can be of interest on breeding programs. Thus, multivariate analysis allowed to identify genotypes within the progeny particularly interesting in terms of phenolic composition and deduced organoleptic and nutritional quality. The present study has demonstrated that it is possible to obtain enough degree of variability with a single cross of olive cultivars for compounds related to the nutritional and organoleptic properties of virgin olive oil. PMID:24651694

  1. ReprOlive: a database with linked data for the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) reproductive transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Rosario; Zafra, Adoración; Seoane, Pedro; Castro, Antonio J; Guerrero-Fernández, Darío; Castillo-Castillo, Trinidad; Medina-García, Ana; Cánovas, Francisco M; Aldana-Montes, José F; Navas-Delgado, Ismael; Alché, Juan de Dios; Claros, M Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Plant reproductive transcriptomes have been analyzed in different species due to the agronomical and biotechnological importance of plant reproduction. Here we presented an olive tree reproductive transcriptome database with samples from pollen and pistil at different developmental stages, and leaf and root as control vegetative tissues http://reprolive.eez.csic.es). It was developed from 2,077,309 raw reads to 1,549 Sanger sequences. Using a pre-defined workflow based on open-source tools, sequences were pre-processed, assembled, mapped, and annotated with expression data, descriptions, GO terms, InterPro signatures, EC numbers, KEGG pathways, ORFs, and SSRs. Tentative transcripts (TTs) were also annotated with the corresponding orthologs in Arabidopsis thaliana from TAIR and RefSeq databases to enable Linked Data integration. It results in a reproductive transcriptome comprising 72,846 contigs with average length of 686 bp, of which 63,965 (87.8%) included at least one functional annotation, and 55,356 (75.9%) had an ortholog. A minimum of 23,568 different TTs was identified and 5,835 of them contain a complete ORF. The representative reproductive transcriptome can be reduced to 28,972 TTs for further gene expression studies. Partial transcriptomes from pollen, pistil, and vegetative tissues as control were also constructed. ReprOlive provides free access and download capability to these results. Retrieval mechanisms for sequences and transcript annotations are provided. Graphical localization of annotated enzymes into KEGG pathways is also possible. Finally, ReprOlive has included a semantic conceptualisation by means of a Resource Description Framework (RDF) allowing a Linked Data search for extracting the most updated information related to enzymes, interactions, allergens, structures, and reactive oxygen species. PMID:26322066

  2. ReprOlive: a database with linked data for the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) reproductive transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Rosario; Zafra, Adoración; Seoane, Pedro; Castro, Antonio J.; Guerrero-Fernández, Darío; Castillo-Castillo, Trinidad; Medina-García, Ana; Cánovas, Francisco M.; Aldana-Montes, José F.; Navas-Delgado, Ismael; Alché, Juan de Dios; Claros, M. Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Plant reproductive transcriptomes have been analyzed in different species due to the agronomical and biotechnological importance of plant reproduction. Here we presented an olive tree reproductive transcriptome database with samples from pollen and pistil at different developmental stages, and leaf and root as control vegetative tissues http://reprolive.eez.csic.es). It was developed from 2,077,309 raw reads to 1,549 Sanger sequences. Using a pre-defined workflow based on open-source tools, sequences were pre-processed, assembled, mapped, and annotated with expression data, descriptions, GO terms, InterPro signatures, EC numbers, KEGG pathways, ORFs, and SSRs. Tentative transcripts (TTs) were also annotated with the corresponding orthologs in Arabidopsis thaliana from TAIR and RefSeq databases to enable Linked Data integration. It results in a reproductive transcriptome comprising 72,846 contigs with average length of 686 bp, of which 63,965 (87.8%) included at least one functional annotation, and 55,356 (75.9%) had an ortholog. A minimum of 23,568 different TTs was identified and 5,835 of them contain a complete ORF. The representative reproductive transcriptome can be reduced to 28,972 TTs for further gene expression studies. Partial transcriptomes from pollen, pistil, and vegetative tissues as control were also constructed. ReprOlive provides free access and download capability to these results. Retrieval mechanisms for sequences and transcript annotations are provided. Graphical localization of annotated enzymes into KEGG pathways is also possible. Finally, ReprOlive has included a semantic conceptualisation by means of a Resource Description Framework (RDF) allowing a Linked Data search for extracting the most updated information related to enzymes, interactions, allergens, structures, and reactive oxygen species. PMID:26322066

  3. Biogenesis of protein bodies during legumin accumulation in developing olive (Olea europaea L.) seed.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Lopez, Jose C; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Alché, Juan D; Rodríguez-García, Maria I

    2016-03-01

    Much of our current knowledge about seed development and differentiation regarding reserves synthesis and accumulation come from monocot (cereals) plants. Studies in dicotyledonous seeds differentiation are limited to a few species and in oleaginous species are even scarcer despite their agronomic and economic importance. We examined the changes accompanying the differentiation of olive endosperm and cotyledon with a focus on protein bodies (PBs) biogenesis during legumin protein synthesis and accumulation, with the aim of getting insights and a better understanding of the PBs' formation process. Cotyledon and endosperm undergo differentiation during seed development, where an asynchronous time-course of protein synthesis, accumulation, and differential PB formation patterns was found in both tissues. At the end of seed maturation, a broad population of PBs, particularly in cotyledon cells, was distinguishable in terms of number per cell and morphometric and cytochemical features. Olive seed development is a tissue-dependent process characterized by differential rates of legumin accumulation and PB formation in the main tissues integrating seed. One of the main features of the impressive differentiation process is the specific formation of a broad group of PBs, particularly in cotyledon cells, which might depend on selective accumulation and packaging of proteins and specific polypeptides into PBs. The nature and availability of the major components detected in the PBs of olive seed are key parameters in order to consider the potential use of this material as a suitable source of carbon and nitrogen for animal or even human use. PMID:25994087

  4. Endophytic colonization and biocontrol performance of Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 in olive (Olea europaea L.) are determined neither by pyoverdine production nor swimming motility.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-González, M Mercedes; Schilirò, Elisabetta; Prieto, Pilar; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2015-09-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 is an indigenous inhabitant of olive (Olea europaea L.) rhizosphere, able to display endophytic lifestyle in roots, to induce a wide range of defence responses upon colonization of this organ and to exert effective biological control against Verticillium wilt of olive (VWO) (Verticillium dahliae). We aimed to evaluate the involvement of specific PICF7 phenotypes in olive root colonization and VWO biocontrol effectiveness by generating mutants impaired in swimming motility (fliI) or siderophore pyoverdine production (pvdI). Besides, the performance of mutants with diminished in vitro growth in potato dextrose agar medium (gltA) and cysteine (Cys) auxotrophy was also assessed. Results showed that olive root colonization and VWO biocontrol ability of the fliI, pvdI and gltA mutants did not significantly differ from that displayed by the parental strain PICF7. Consequently, altered in vitro growth, swimming motility and pyoverdine production contribute neither to PICF7 VWO suppressive effect nor to its colonization ability. In contrast, the Cys auxotroph mutant showed reduced olive root colonization capacity and lost full biocontrol efficacy. Moreover, confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that all mutants tested were able to endophytically colonize root tissue to the same extent as wild-type PICF7, discarding these traits as relevant for its endophytic lifestyle. PMID:25471384

  5. Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7, an indigenous root endophyte from olive (Olea europaea L.) and effective biocontrol agent against Verticillium dahliae

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7 is a native endophyte of olive roots. Previous studies have shown this motile, Gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium is an effective biocontrol agent against the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae, the causal agent of one of the most devastating diseases for olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivation. Here, we announce and describe the complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7 consisting of a circular chromosome of 6,136,735 bp that encodes 5,567 protein-coding genes and 88 RNA-only encoding genes. Genome analysis revealed genes predicting factors such as secretion systems, siderophores, detoxifying compounds or volatile components. Further analysis of the genome sequence of PICF7 will help in gaining insights into biocontrol and endophytism. PMID:25685259

  6. LTR retrotransposon dynamics in the evolution of the olive (Olea europaea) genome

    PubMed Central

    Barghini, Elena; Natali, Lucia; Giordani, Tommaso; Cossu, Rosa Maria; Scalabrin, Simone; Cattonaro, Federica; Šimková, Hana; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Morgante, Michele; Cavallini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Improved knowledge of genome composition, especially of its repetitive component, generates important information for both theoretical and applied research. The olive repetitive component is made up of two main classes of sequences: tandem repeats and retrotransposons (REs). In this study, we provide characterization of a sample of 254 unique full-length long terminal repeat (LTR) REs. In the sample, Ty1-Copia elements were more numerous than Ty3-Gypsy elements. Mapping a large set of Illumina whole-genome shotgun reads onto the identified retroelement set revealed that Gypsy elements are more redundant than Copia elements. The insertion time of intact retroelements was estimated based on sister LTR’s divergence. Although some elements inserted relatively recently, the mean insertion age of the isolated retroelements is around 18 million yrs. Gypsy and Copia retroelements showed different waves of transposition, with Gypsy elements especially active between 10 and 25 million yrs ago and nearly inactive in the last 7 million yrs. The occurrence of numerous solo-LTRs related to isolated full-length retroelements was ascertained for two Gypsy elements and one Copia element. Overall, the results reported in this study show that RE activity (both retrotransposition and DNA loss) has impacted the olive genome structure in more ancient times than in other angiosperms. PMID:25428895

  7. LTR retrotransposon dynamics in the evolution of the olive (Olea europaea) genome.

    PubMed

    Barghini, Elena; Natali, Lucia; Giordani, Tommaso; Cossu, Rosa Maria; Scalabrin, Simone; Cattonaro, Federica; Šimková, Hana; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Morgante, Michele; Cavallini, Andrea

    2015-02-01

    Improved knowledge of genome composition, especially of its repetitive component, generates important information for both theoretical and applied research. The olive repetitive component is made up of two main classes of sequences: tandem repeats and retrotransposons (REs). In this study, we provide characterization of a sample of 254 unique full-length long terminal repeat (LTR) REs. In the sample, Ty1-Copia elements were more numerous than Ty3-Gypsy elements. Mapping a large set of Illumina whole-genome shotgun reads onto the identified retroelement set revealed that Gypsy elements are more redundant than Copia elements. The insertion time of intact retroelements was estimated based on sister LTR's divergence. Although some elements inserted relatively recently, the mean insertion age of the isolated retroelements is around 18 million yrs. Gypsy and Copia retroelements showed different waves of transposition, with Gypsy elements especially active between 10 and 25 million yrs ago and nearly inactive in the last 7 million yrs. The occurrence of numerous solo-LTRs related to isolated full-length retroelements was ascertained for two Gypsy elements and one Copia element. Overall, the results reported in this study show that RE activity (both retrotransposition and DNA loss) has impacted the olive genome structure in more ancient times than in other angiosperms. PMID:25428895

  8. De Novo Assembly and Functional Annotation of the Olive (Olea europaea) Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Mérida, Antonio; González-Plaza, Juan José; Cañada, Andrés; Blanco, Ana María; García-López, Maria del Carmen; Rodríguez, José Manuel; Pedrola, Laia; Sicardo, M. Dolores; Hernández, M. Luisa; De la Rosa, Raúl; Belaj, Angjelina; Gil-Borja, Mayte; Luque, Francisco; Martínez-Rivas, José Manuel; Pisano, David G.; Trelles, Oswaldo; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Beuzón, Carmen R.

    2013-01-01

    Olive breeding programmes are focused on selecting for traits as short juvenile period, plant architecture suited for mechanical harvest, or oil characteristics, including fatty acid composition, phenolic, and volatile compounds to suit new markets. Understanding the molecular basis of these characteristics and improving the efficiency of such breeding programmes require the development of genomic information and tools. However, despite its economic relevance, genomic information on olive or closely related species is still scarce. We have applied Sanger and 454 pyrosequencing technologies to generate close to 2 million reads from 12 cDNA libraries obtained from the Picual, Arbequina, and Lechin de Sevilla cultivars and seedlings from a segregating progeny of a Picual × Arbequina cross. The libraries include fruit mesocarp and seeds at three relevant developmental stages, young stems and leaves, active juvenile and adult buds as well as dormant buds, and juvenile and adult roots. The reads were assembled by library or tissue and then assembled together into 81 020 unigenes with an average size of 496 bases. Here, we report their assembly and their functional annotation. PMID:23297299

  9. A centralised remote data collection system using automated traps for managing and controlling the population of the Mediterranean (Ceratitis capitata) and olive (Dacus oleae) fruit flies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philimis, Panayiotis; Psimolophitis, Elias; Hadjiyiannis, Stavros; Giusti, Alessandro; Perelló, Josep; Serrat, Albert; Avila, Pedro

    2013-08-01

    The present paper describes the development of a novel monitoring system (e-FlyWatch system) for managing and controlling the population of two of the world's most destructive fruit pests, namely the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae, Rossi - formerly Dacus oleae) and the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, also called medfly). The novel monitoring system consists of a) novel automated traps with optical and motion detection modules for capturing the flies, b) local stations including a GSM/GPRS module, sensors, flash memory, battery, antenna etc. and c) a central station that collects, stores and publishes the results (i.e. insect population in each field, sensor data, possible error/alarm data) via a web-based management software.The centralised data collection system provides also analysis and prediction models, end-user warning modules and historical analysis of infested areas. The e-FlyWatch system enables the SMEs-producers in the Fruit, Vegetable and Olive sectors to improve their production reduce the amount of insecticides/pesticides used and consequently the labour cost for spraying activities, and the labour cost for traps inspection.

  10. Comparing the historic olive trees (Olea europaea L.) of Santa Cruz with contemporaneous trees in the Santa Barbara, CA area: a case study of diversity and structure in an introduced agricultural species conserved in situ

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historic populations of crop species outside their centers of origin and diversity, like the domestic olive (Olea europaea L.) in North America, are genetic resources for contemporary agriculture, including genotypes that could be adapted to, local conditions. The primary goal of this study was to d...

  11. Control mechanisms operating for lipid biosynthesis differ in oil-palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and olive (Olea europaea L.) callus cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Ramli, Umi S; Baker, Darren S; Quant, Patti A; Harwood, John L

    2002-01-01

    As a prelude to detailed flux control analysis of lipid synthesis in plants, we have examined the latter in tissue cultures from two important oil crops, olive (Olea europaea L.) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Temperature was used to manipulate the overall rate of lipid formation in order to characterize and validate the system to be used for analysis. With [1-14C]acetate as a precursor, an increase in temperature from 20 to 30 degrees C produced nearly a doubling of total lipid labelling. This increase in total lipids did not change the radioactivity in the intermediate acyl-(acyl carrier protein) or acyl-CoA pools, indicating that metabolism of these pools did not exert any significant constraint for overall synthesis. In contrast, there were some differences in the proportional labelling of fatty acids and of lipid classes at the two temperatures. The higher temperature caused a decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acid labelling and an increase in the proportion of triacylglycerol labelling in both calli. The intermediate diacylglycerol was increased in olive, but not in oil palm. Overall the data indicate the suitability of olive and oil-palm cultures for the study of lipid synthesis and indicate that de novo fatty acid synthesis may exert more flux control than complex lipid assembly. In olive, diacylglycerol acyltransferase may exert significant flux control when lipid synthesis is rapid. PMID:12023881

  12. Antioxidant activities of polyphenols extracted from olive (Olea europaea) of chamlal variety.

    PubMed

    Nadour, M; Michaud, P; Moulti-Mati, F

    2012-07-01

    The antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds from olive pulp (PCO) of chamlal variety and those of individual phenolic compounds were evaluated and compared with that of vitamin C (Vit C). The antioxidant activity was measured by the tests of iron reduction and scavenging hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Results showed that all the substances tested exhibit a reducing power. The PCO present activities of iron reduction and H(2)O(2) scavenging higher than those of Vit C. The protective effect of PCO against oxidation of lipids and proteins from erythrocyte membranes was studied. The measurement of malondialdehyde generated under oxidative stress conditions induced by hydroxyl radicals generating system revealed that PCO have the most significant protective activity against lipid peroxidation (IC(50)?=?49.27??1.91 ?g mL(-1)). Paradoxically, Vit C revealed a pro-oxidant effect. Proteins oxidation was evaluated using the H(2)O(2)/FeSO(4) system and electrophoresis. In the presence of PCO at 1 mg mL(-1), proteins of erythrocyte membranes were protected contrary to those treated with Vit C at the same concentration. PMID:22402836

  13. A De novo Transcriptomic Approach to Identify Flavonoids and Anthocyanins “Switch-Off” in Olive (Olea europaea L.) Drupes at Different Stages of Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Iaria, Domenico L.; Chiappetta, Adriana; Muzzalupo, Innocenzo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights A de novo transcriptome reconstruction of olive drupes was performed in two genotypesGene expression was monitored during drupe development in two olive cultivarsTranscripts involved in flavonoid and anthocyanin pathways were analyzed in Cassanese and Leucocarpa cultivarsBoth cultivar and developmental stage impact gene expression in Olea europaea fruits. During ripening, the fruits of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) undergo a progressive chromatic change characterized by the formation of a red-brown “spot” which gradually extends on the epidermis and in the innermost part of the mesocarp. This event finds an exception in the Leucocarpa cultivar, in which we observe a destabilized equilibrium between the metabolisms of chlorophyll and other pigments, particularly the anthocyanins whose switch-off during maturation promotes the white coloration of fruits. Despite its importance, genomic information on the olive tree is still lacking. Different RNA-seq libraries were generated from drupes of “Leucocarpa” and “Cassanese” olive genotypes, sampled at 100 and 130 days after flowering (DAF), and were used in order to identify transcripts involved in the main phenotypic changes of fruits during maturation and their corresponding expression patterns. A total of 103,359 transcripts were obtained and 3792 and 3064 were differentially expressed in “Leucocarpa” and “Cassanese” genotypes, respectively, during 100–130 DAF transition. Among them flavonoid and anthocyanin related transcripts such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), flavonol 3′-hydrogenase (F3′H), flavonol 3′5 ′-hydrogenase (F3′5′H), flavonol synthase (FLS), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS), UDP-glucose:anthocianidin: flavonoid glucosyltransferase (UFGT) were identified. These results contribute to reducing the current gap in information regarding metabolic processes, including those linked to fruit pigmentation in the olive. PMID:26834761

  14. Partial root zone drying: regulation of photosynthetic limitations and antioxidant enzymatic activities in young olive (Olea europaea) saplings.

    PubMed

    Aganchich, Badia; Wahbi, Said; Loreto, Francesco; Centritto, Mauro

    2009-05-01

    The effect of partial root drying (PRD) irrigation on split-root olive (Olea europaea L. cv Picholine marocaine) saplings was investigated. An irrigated control and two PRD regimes were applied (control: irrigation applied on both sides of the root system to keep the soil water content close to field capacity; PRD(50): irrigation applied at 50% of the control amount on one side of the root system and irrigation withheld from the other side, with irrigation regimes switched between the sides of the root system every 2 weeks; and PRD(100): irrigation applied at 100% of the control amount on one side and irrigation withheld on the other side, with irrigation regimes switched between the sides of the root system every 2 weeks. Only saplings in the PRD(50) regime were subjected to water-deficit irrigation. The PRD treatments significantly affected water relations and vegetative growth throughout the growing season. Predawn leaf water potential and relative water content differed significantly between the PRD(50) and PRD(100) saplings, leading to reduced stomatal conductance, carbon assimilation, shoot length and leaf number in PRD(50) saplings. However, the PRD(50) water-deficit treatment did not affect the capacity of the saplings to assimilate CO(2). Activities of superoxide dismutase, soluble and insoluble peroxidase (POX) and polyphenol oxidase were up-regulated by the PRD(50) and PRD(100) treatments compared with control values. The higher activities of both soluble and insoluble POX observed in PRD(50) saplings may reflect the greater inhibitory effect of this treatment on vegetative growth. Up-regulation of the detoxifying systems in the PRD(100) and PRD(50) saplings may have provided protection mechanisms against irreversible damage to the photosynthetic machinery, thereby allowing the photosynthetic apparatus to function and preventing the development of severe water stress. We also measured CO(2) assimilation rate/internal leaf CO(2) concentration (A/C(i)) after exposing the attached leaves to very low [CO(2)] (approximately 50 micromol mol(-1)) to force stomatal opening. These results confirmed that, under conditions of moderate water stress, the sum of the diffusional resistances (i.e., stomatal and mesophyll resistances) sets the limit to photosynthetic rates. Assessing photosynthetic capacity without removing the diffusional limitations may lead to an overestimation of the biochemical limitations to photosynthesis in sclerophyllous plants. PMID:19324696

  15. Differential Contribution of Endoplasmic Reticulum and Chloroplast ω-3 Fatty Acid Desaturase Genes to the Linolenic Acid Content of Olive (Olea europaea) Fruit.

    PubMed

    Hernández, M Luisa; Sicardo, M Dolores; Martínez-Rivas, José M

    2016-01-01

    Linolenic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid present in plant lipids, which plays key roles in plant metabolism as a structural component of storage and membrane lipids, and as a precursor of signaling molecules. The synthesis of linolenic acid is catalyzed by two different ω-3 fatty acid desaturases, which correspond to microsomal- (FAD3) and chloroplast- (FAD7 and FAD8) localized enzymes. We have investigated the specific contribution of each enzyme to the linolenic acid content in olive fruit. With that aim, we isolated two different cDNA clones encoding two ω-3 fatty acid desaturases from olive (Olea europaea cv. Picual). Sequence analysis indicates that they code for microsomal (OepFAD3B) and chloroplast (OepFAD7-2) ω-3 fatty acid desaturase enzymes, different from the previously characterized OekFAD3A and OekFAD7-1 genes. Functional expression in yeast of the corresponding OepFAD3A and OepFAD3B cDNAs confirmed that they encode microsomal ω-3 fatty acid desaturases. The linolenic acid content and transcript levels of olive FAD3 and FAD7 genes were measured in different tissues of Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including mesocarp and seed during development and ripening of olive fruit. Gene expression and lipid analysis indicate that FAD3A is the gene mainly responsible for the linolenic acid present in the seed, while FAD7-1 and FAD7-2 contribute mostly to the linolenic acid present in the mesocarp and, therefore, in the olive oil. These results also indicate the relevance of lipid trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and chloroplast in determining the linolenic acid content of membrane and storage lipids in oil-accumulating photosynthetic tissues. PMID:26514651

  16. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, and their cross-species amplification in the Tephritidae family

    PubMed Central

    Augustinos, Antonios A; Stratikopoulos, Elias E; Drosopoulou, Eleni; Kakani, Evdoxia G; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D

    2008-01-01

    Background The Tephritidae family of insects includes the most important agricultural pests of fruits and vegetables, belonging mainly to four genera (Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Anastrepha and Rhagoletis). The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major pest of the olive fruit. Currently, its control is based on chemical insecticides. Environmentally friendlier methods have been attempted in the past (Sterile Insect Technique), albeit with limited success. This was mainly attributed to the lack of knowledge on the insect's behaviour, ecology and genetic structure of natural populations. The development of molecular markers could facilitate the access in the genome and contribute to the solution of the aforementioned problems. We chose to focus on microsatellite markers due to their abundance in the genome, high degree of polymorphism and easiness of isolation. Results Fifty-eight microsatellite-containing clones were isolated from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, bearing a total of sixty-two discrete microsatellite motifs. Forty-two primer pairs were designed on the unique sequences flanking the microsatellite motif and thirty-one of them amplified a PCR product of the expected size. The level of polymorphism was evaluated against wild and laboratory flies and the majority of the markers (93.5%) proved highly polymorphic. Thirteen of them presented a unique position on the olive fly polytene chromosomes by in situ hybridization, which can serve as anchors to correlate future genetic and cytological maps of the species, as well as entry points to the genome. Cross-species amplification of these markers to eleven Tephritidae species and sequencing of thirty-one of the amplified products revealed a varying degree of conservation that declines outside the Bactrocera genus. Conclusion Microsatellite markers are very powerful tools for genetic and population analyses, particularly in species deprived of any other means of genetic analysis. The presented set of microsatellite markers possesses all features that would render them useful in such analyses. This could also prove helpful for species where SIT is a desired outcome, since the development of effective SIT can be aided by detailed knowledge at the genetic and molecular level. Furthermore, their presented efficacy in several other species of the Tephritidae family not only makes them useful for their analysis but also provides tools for phylogenetic comparisons among them. PMID:19099577

  17. Validation of reference genes for gene expression analysis in olive (Olea europaea) mesocarp tissue by quantitative real-time RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gene expression analysis using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a robust method wherein the expression levels of target genes are normalised using internal control genes, known as reference genes, to derive changes in gene expression levels. Although reference genes have recently been suggested for olive tissues, combined/independent analysis on different cultivars has not yet been tested. Therefore, an assessment of reference genes was required to validate the recent findings and select stably expressed genes across different olive cultivars. Results A total of eight candidate reference genes [glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), serine/threonine-protein phosphatase catalytic subunit (PP2A), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1-alpha), polyubiquitin (OUB2), aquaporin tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP2), tubulin alpha (TUBA), 60S ribosomal protein L18-3 (60S RBP L18-3) and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein homolog 3 (PTB)] were chosen based on their stability in olive tissues as well as in other plants. Expression stability was examined by qRT-PCR across 12 biological samples, representing mesocarp tissues at various developmental stages in three different olive cultivars, Barnea, Frantoio and Picual, independently and together during the 2009 season with two software programs, GeNorm and BestKeeper. Both software packages identified GAPDH, EF1-alpha and PP2A as the three most stable reference genes across the three cultivars and in the cultivar, Barnea. GAPDH, EF1-alpha and 60S RBP L18-3 were found to be most stable reference genes in the cultivar Frantoio while 60S RBP L18-3, OUB2 and PP2A were found to be most stable reference genes in the cultivar Picual. Conclusions The analyses of expression stability of reference genes using qRT-PCR revealed that GAPDH, EF1-alpha, PP2A, 60S RBP L18-3 and OUB2 are suitable reference genes for expression analysis in developing Olea europaea mesocarp tissues, displaying the highest level of expression stability across three different olive cultivars, Barnea, Frantoio and Picual, however the combination of the three most stable reference genes do vary amongst individual cultivars. This study will provide guidance to other researchers to select reference genes for normalization against target genes by qPCR across tissues obtained from the mesocarp region of the olive fruit in the cultivars, Barnea, Frantoio and Picual. PMID:24884716

  18. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) or Olea europaea (olive) leaves on oxidative stability of rabbit meat fortified with n-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Trebušak, Tina; Levart, Alenka; Salobir, Janez; Pirman, Tatjana

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) or Olea europaea (olive tree) leaves on oxidative stability of rabbit meat fortified with n-3 fatty acids. Forty-eight slovenska kunka (SIKA) rabbits were divided into four homogeneous groups. The control group (CONT-) received diet with 6% palm fat; other groups received diet with 6% linseed oil and were either unsupplemented (CONT+) or supplemented with 1% of G. lucidum (REISHI) or O. europaea leaves (OLIVE). Rabbits were slaughtered and fatty acid composition, concentration of vitamin E and malondialdehyde (MDA) in back muscle were analyzed. The results showed that linseed oil addition improved fatty acid composition by increasing polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) proportion, decreasing proportion of saturated fatty acid (SFA) and reducing n-6/n-3 ratio in rabbit meat. Groups that were supplemented with linseed oil had lower content of α-tocopherol and higher content of γ-tocopherol, compared to the CONT- group. The addition of potential antioxidants did not effectively prevent oxidation of rabbit meat. PMID:24334050

  19. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestication of olive fruit, Olea europaea L., produced a better host for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), than wild olives, but fruit domestication reduced natural enemy efficiency. Important factors for selection of natural enemies for control of olive fruit fly include climate matchi...

  20. Different flower-inducing conditions elicit different responses for free polyamine levels in olive (Olea europaea) leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In various plant species, polyamines have been implicated in regulating developmental phenomenon as well as responses to environmental stimuli. The role of polyamines in regulating developmental phenomenon, such as flowering, in olives is poorly understood, although seasonal changes and temperature...

  1. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels.

    PubMed

    Cayan, H; Erener, G

    2015-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets. PMID:25656181

  2. Identification and Assessment of the Potential Allergenicity of 7S Vicilins in Olive (Olea europaea L.) Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Lopez, Jose C.; Zafra, Adoración; Palanco, Lucía; Florido, José Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Olive seeds, which are a raw material of interest, have been reported to contain 11S seed storage proteins (SSPs). However, the presence of SSPs such as 7S vicilins has not been studied. In this study, following a search in the olive seed transcriptome, 58 sequences corresponding to 7S vicilins were retrieved. A partial sequence was amplified by PCR from olive seed cDNA and subjected to phylogenetic analysis with other sequences. Structural analysis showed that olive 7S vicilin contains 9 α-helixes and 22 β-sheets. Additionally, 3D structural analysis displayed good superimposition with vicilin models generated from Pistacia and Sesamum. In order to assess potential allergenicity, T and B epitopes present in these proteins were identified by bioinformatic approaches. Different motifs were observed among the species, as well as some species-specific motifs. Finally, expression analysis of vicilins was carried out in protein extracts obtained from seeds of different species, including the olive. Noticeable bands were observed for all species in the 15–75 kDa MW interval, which were compatible with vicilins. The reactivity of the extracts to sera from patients allergic to nuts was also analysed. The findings with regard to the potential use of olive seed as food are discussed. PMID:27034939

  3. Effect of Olive Leaf (Olea europaea) Powder on Laying Hens Performance, Egg Quality and Egg Yolk Cholesterol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Cayan, H.; Erener, G.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to measure the effects of olive leaf powder on performance, egg yield, egg quality and yolk cholesterol level of laying hens. A total of 120 Lohmann Brown laying hens of 22 weeks old were used in this experiment. The birds were fed on standard layer diets containing 0, 1%, 2%, or 3% olive leaf powder for 8 weeks. Egg weight and yield were recorded daily; feed intake weekly; egg quality and cholesterol content at the end of the trial. Olive leaf powder had no effect on feed intake, egg weight, egg yield and feed conversion ratio (p>0.05) while olive leaf powder increased final body weight of hens (p<0.05). Dietary olive leaf powder increased yellowness in yolk color (p<0.01) without affecting other quality parameters. Yolk cholesterol content was tended to decrease about 10% (p>0.05). To conclude, olive leaf powder can be used for reducing egg yolk cholesterol content and egg yolk coloring agent in layer diets. PMID:25656181

  4. Influence of calcium carbonate on extraction yield and quality of extra virgin oil from olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Coratina).

    PubMed

    Squeo, G; Silletti, R; Summo, C; Paradiso, V M; Pasqualone, A; Caponio, F

    2016-10-15

    The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of calcium carbonate (1%, 2%, and 4% of addition) at two different particle sizes (2.7μm and 5.7μm), added at the beginning of the malaxation phase, on both the extraction yield and the quality of oil obtained from Coratina olives at different ripening index. The results showed that calcium carbonate significantly increased the extraction yield of olive oil, more than affecting chemical indices. In particular, for less ripened olives, 1-2% of larger particle size calcium carbonate addiction determined a significant increase of the extraction effectiveness, ranging from 4.0 to 4.9%, while more ripened olives required higher amounts of coadjuvant (2-4% when using the larger particle size and 4% when using the smaller one), with a significant increase of the extraction yield up to 5%. Moreover, an increase of pungent perception was observed in some cases when adding calcium carbonate to more ripened olives. PMID:27173535

  5. Effect of Tea (Camellia sinensis) and Olive (Olea europaea L.) Leaves Extracts on Male Mice Exposed to Diazinon

    PubMed Central

    Al-Attar, Atef M.; Abu Zeid, Isam M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination in male mice intoxicated with a sublethal concentration of diazinon. Exposure of mice to 6.5 mg/kg body weight of diazinon for seven weeks resulted in statistical increases of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, while the value of serum total protein was declined. Treating diazinon-intoxicated mice with tea and olive leaves extracts or their combination significantly attenuated the severe alterations in these hematobiochemical parameters. Moreover, the results indicated that the supplementation with combination of tea and olive leaves extracts led to more attenuation effect against diazinon toxicity. Additionally, these new findings suggest that the effect of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination against toxicity of diazinon may be due to antioxidant properties of their chemical constituents. Finally, the present study indicated that the extracts of tea and olive leaves and their combination can be considered as promising therapeutic agents against hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and metabolic disorders induced by diazinon and maybe by other toxicants and pathogenic factors. PMID:23691503

  6. Effect of tea (Camellia sinensis) and olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves extracts on male mice exposed to diazinon.

    PubMed

    Al-Attar, Atef M; Abu Zeid, Isam M

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination in male mice intoxicated with a sublethal concentration of diazinon. Exposure of mice to 6.5 mg/kg body weight of diazinon for seven weeks resulted in statistical increases of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, while the value of serum total protein was declined. Treating diazinon-intoxicated mice with tea and olive leaves extracts or their combination significantly attenuated the severe alterations in these hematobiochemical parameters. Moreover, the results indicated that the supplementation with combination of tea and olive leaves extracts led to more attenuation effect against diazinon toxicity. Additionally, these new findings suggest that the effect of tea and olive leaves extracts and their combination against toxicity of diazinon may be due to antioxidant properties of their chemical constituents. Finally, the present study indicated that the extracts of tea and olive leaves and their combination can be considered as promising therapeutic agents against hepatotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and metabolic disorders induced by diazinon and maybe by other toxicants and pathogenic factors. PMID:23691503

  7. Cloning and structural characterization of the 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase locus of the medfly Ceratitis capitata and the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae.

    PubMed

    Goulielmos, George N; Cosmidis, Nikos; Eliopoulos, Elias; Loukas, Michael; Zouros, Eleftherios

    2006-03-17

    The pentose phosphate cycle is considered as a major source of NADPH and pentose needed for nucleic acid biosynthesis. 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), an enzyme participating in this cycle, catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of 6PGD to ribulose 5-phosphate with the subsequent release of CO(2) and the reduction of NADP. We have determined the genomic sequences of 6PGD of two species of Tephritidae, the medfly Ceratitis capitata and olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae, and constructed a three-dimensional model of 6PGD of C. capitata based on the homologous known sheep structure. In a comparative study of 6PGD sequences from seven species, all the conserved and variable sites of the enzyme were analyzed and the regions of functional importance were localized, an attempt promoted also by the direct involvement of the enzyme in various human diseases. The enzymes between the two species of Tephritidae have a very high homology and further examination of the variable positions with respect to the highly conserved binding site residues enabled their grouping in three distinct categories, with possible association to dimer formation, functional specificity, and antigenicity. Moreover, placement of sequence differences on the 3-D model suggests probable sites accommodating variations appearing at the allozymic variants of both species. PMID:16459157

  8. Evaluation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Capacity to Alleviate Abiotic Stress of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Plants at Different Transplant Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bompadre, María Josefina; Pérgola, Mariana; Fernández Bidondo, Laura; Colombo, Roxana Paula; Silvani, Vanesa Analía; Pardo, Alejandro Guillermo; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; Godeas, Alicia Margarita

    2014-01-01

    The capacity of roots to sense soil physicochemical parameters plays an essential role in maintaining plant nutritional and developmental functions under abiotic stress. These conditions generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant tissues causing oxidation of proteins and lipids among others. Some plants have developed adaptive mechanisms to counteract such adverse conditions such as symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). AMF enhance plant growth and improve transplant survival by protecting host plants against environmental stresses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the alleviation of transplanting stress by two strains of Rhizophagus irregularis (GC2 and GA5) in olive. Our results show that olive plants have an additional energetic expense in growth due to an adaptative response to the growing stage and to the mycorrhizal colonization at the first transplant. However, at the second transplant the coinoculation improves olive plant growth and protects against oxidative stress followed by the GA5-inoculation. In conclusion, a combination of two AMF strains at the beginning of olive propagation produces vigorous plants successfully protected in field cultivation even with an additional cost at the beginning of growth. PMID:24688382

  9. Recovery and stability of oleuropein and other phenolic compounds during extraction and processing of olive leaves (Olea europaeaL.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenols in olive leaves, especially oleuropein, are of great interest to researchers, household consumers and commercial entities due to many health benefits of these compounds. Various processing and extraction methods were investigated to evaluate stability and recovery of oleuropein and othe...

  10. Evaluation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi capacity to alleviate abiotic stress of olive (Olea europaea L.) plants at different transplant conditions.

    PubMed

    Bompadre, María Josefina; Pérgola, Mariana; Fernández Bidondo, Laura; Colombo, Roxana Paula; Silvani, Vanesa Analía; Pardo, Alejandro Guillermo; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; Godeas, Alicia Margarita

    2014-01-01

    The capacity of roots to sense soil physicochemical parameters plays an essential role in maintaining plant nutritional and developmental functions under abiotic stress. These conditions generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant tissues causing oxidation of proteins and lipids among others. Some plants have developed adaptive mechanisms to counteract such adverse conditions such as symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). AMF enhance plant growth and improve transplant survival by protecting host plants against environmental stresses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the alleviation of transplanting stress by two strains of Rhizophagus irregularis (GC2 and GA5) in olive. Our results show that olive plants have an additional energetic expense in growth due to an adaptative response to the growing stage and to the mycorrhizal colonization at the first transplant. However, at the second transplant the coinoculation improves olive plant growth and protects against oxidative stress followed by the GA5-inoculation. In conclusion, a combination of two AMF strains at the beginning of olive propagation produces vigorous plants successfully protected in field cultivation even with an additional cost at the beginning of growth. PMID:24688382

  11. The effect of abiotic stresses on carbohydrate status of olive shoots (Olea europaea L.) under in vitro conditions.

    PubMed

    Rejsková, Alzbeta; Patková, Lenka; Stodůlková, Eva; Lipavská, Helena

    2007-02-01

    Olive plants produce both sucrose and mannitol as major photosynthetic products. Contrary to previously studied celery [Vítová et al., Mannitol utilisation by celery (Apium graveolens) plants grown under different conditions in vitro. Plant Sci 2002; 163: 907-16], in vitro these carbohydrates were found to be able to sustain growth of olive shoots roughly to the same extent at all tested concentrations (1-9% w/v). We studied the involvement of the particular components of the endogenous carbohydrate spectrum in response to different abiotic stresses (osmotic stress, salinity, low temperature) in vitro. Salinity (100mM NaCl) caused a decrease of total soluble carbohydrates, while an increase was observed during low-temperature treatment (0 and 4 degrees C). Mannitol accumulated primarily under salinity (up to 40% of total soluble carbohydrates compared to 10-20% in controls). Only a small (two-fold) increase of proline content in salinity stressed plants indicates proline does not play a significant role in olive stress response. Low temperature led to an increase of the raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) proportion in total carbohydrates. We conclude that olive plants exploit the high diversity of the carbohydrate spectrum in specific response to different stresses. PMID:16436306

  12. Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. Flowers and Olea Europea L. Leaves Extract-Based Formulation for Hypertension Care: In Vitro Efficacy and Toxicological Profile.

    PubMed

    Micucci, Matteo; Angeletti, Andrea; Cont, Massimiliano; Corazza, Ivan; Aldini, Rita; Donadio, Elisa; Chiarini, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta

    2016-05-01

    Olea europaea L. leaves extract (Oe) and Hybiscus sabdariffa L. flowers extract (Hs) have calcium antagonistic properties. Aim of this work was to study the cardiovascular effects of Pres Phytum(®), a nutraceutical formulation containing a mixture of the two extracts and the excipients, and investigate its possible off-target effects, using in vitro biological assays on guinea pig isolated organs. Cardiovascular effects were assessed using guinea pig atria and aorta. The effects of Pres Phytum on spontaneous gastrointestinal, urinary, and respiratory tracts smooth muscle contractility were evaluated. Pres Phytum exerted a vasorelaxant effect (IC50 = 2.38 mg/mL) and a negative chronotropic effect (IC50 = 1.04 mg/mL) at concentrations lower than those producing smooth muscle spontaneous contractility alterations in the other organs. Compared to Pres Phytum, the mixture did not exert negative inotropic activity, while it maintained a negative chronotropic efficacy (IC50 = 1.04 mg/mL). These experimental data suggest a possible nutraceutical use of this food supplement for the management of preclinical hypertension. PMID:27152980

  13. Molecular characterization of three common olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars in Palestine, using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers

    PubMed Central

    Obaid, Ramiz; Abu-Qaoud, Hassan; Arafeh, Rami

    2014-01-01

    Eight accessions of olive trees from three common varieties in Palestine, Nabali Baladi, Nabali Mohassan and Surri, were genetically evaluated using five simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 17 alleles from 5 loci were observed in which 15 (88.2%) were polymorphic and 2 (11.8%) were monomorphic. An average of 3.4 alleles per locus was found ranging from 2.0 alleles with the primers GAPU-103 and DCA-9 to 5.0 alleles with U9932 and DCA-16. The smallest amplicon size observed was 50 bp with the primer DCA-16, whereas the largest one (450 bp) with the primer U9932. Cluster analysis with the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) showed three clusters: a cluster with four accessions from the ‘Nabali Baladi’ cultivar, another cluster with three accessions that represents the ‘Nabali Mohassen’ cultivar and finally the ‘Surri’ cultivar. The similarity coefficient for the eight olive tree samples ranged from a maximum of 100% between two accessions from Nabali Baladi and also in two other samples from Nabali Mohassan, to a minimum similarity coefficient (0.315) between the Surri and two Nabali Baladi accessions. The results in this investigation clearly highlight the genetic dissimilarity between the three main olive cultivars that have been misidentified and mixed up in the past, based on conventional morphological characters. PMID:26019564

  14. Systemic responses in a tolerant olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivar upon root colonization by the vascular pathogen Verticillium dahliae

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Lama Cabanás, Carmen; Schilirò, Elisabetta; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Verticillium wilt of olive (VWO) is caused by the vascular pathogen Verticillium dahliae. One of the best VWO management measures is the use of tolerant cultivars; however, our knowledge on VWO tolerance/resistance genetics is very limited. A transcriptomic analysis was conducted to (i) identify systemic defense responses induced/repressed in aerial tissues of the tolerant cultivar Frantoio upon root colonization by V. dahliae, and (ii) determine the expression pattern of selected defense genes in olive cultivars showing differential susceptibility to VWO. Two suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA libraries, enriched in up-regulated (FU) and down-regulated (FD) genes respectively, were generated from “Frantoio” aerial tissues. Results showed that broad systemic transcriptomic changes are taking place during V. dahliae-“Frantoio” interaction. A total of 585 FU and 381 FD unigenes were identified, many of them involved in defense response to (a)biotic stresses. Selected genes were then used to validate libraries and evaluate their temporal expression pattern in “Frantoio.” Four defense genes were analyzed in cultivars Changlot Real (tolerant) and Picual (susceptible). An association between GRAS1 and DRR2 gene expression patterns and susceptibility to VWO was observed, suggesting that these transcripts could be further evaluated as markers of the tolerance level of olive cultivars to V. dahliae. PMID:26441865

  15. Antithrombotic effect of repeated doses of the ethanolic extract of local olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Dub, Abdallah M.; Dugani, Aisha M.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of thromboembolic diseases is increasing, and they are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Mediterranean diet is known for its high content of olive products, especially olive oil, which has known cardiovascular health benefits, including those on blood pressure, cholesterol level, and thrombogenesis. All previous animal and clinical studies investigating the beneficial antithrombotic effects of olives have focused on olive oil and a few on olive leaves (OLEs). In this study, the ethanolic extract of OLE was evaluated for its antithrombotic activity in the rabbit model of thrombosis induced by ligature of the vena cava and intravenous administration of tissue thromboplastin. Pre-treatment with 100 or 200 mg/kg per day of the ethanolic extract for 8 weeks significantly prolonged the prothrombin time (PT) in comparison to the control group (12.10±0.35 sec and 14.38±0.29 sec vs. 10.8±0.32 sec, p<0.05 and 0.001, respectively). In comparison to the control group, the same doses had no statistically significant effect on thrombus weight (16.85±0.67 mg, 16.32±0.35 mg, and 17.81±0.75 mg; p=0.18 and 0.06) or on activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) (19.17±0.33 sec, 19.12±0.73 sec, and 18.97±0.41 sec; p=0.36 and 0.43, respectively). One important finding in this study concerns thrombus morphology. In the extract treatment groups, the thrombus was filament-like and did not adhere to blood vessel walls, whereas in the control group the thrombus was thick and almost completely occluded the vein. Therefore, these results suggest that OLE ethanolic extract can modify the extrinsic coagulation pathway as evidenced by the prolongation of PT and changes in thrombus morphology, enough to justify further research to evaluate its possible antithrombotic effects. PMID:23702352

  16. Antithrombotic effect of repeated doses of the ethanolic extract of local olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Dub, Abdallah M; Dugani, Aisha M

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of thromboembolic diseases is increasing, and they are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Mediterranean diet is known for its high content of olive products, especially olive oil, which has known cardiovascular health benefits, including those on blood pressure, cholesterol level, and thrombogenesis. All previous animal and clinical studies investigating the beneficial antithrombotic effects of olives have focused on olive oil and a few on olive leaves (OLEs). In this study, the ethanolic extract of OLE was evaluated for its antithrombotic activity in the rabbit model of thrombosis induced by ligature of the vena cava and intravenous administration of tissue thromboplastin. Pre-treatment with 100 or 200 mg/kg per day of the ethanolic extract for 8 weeks significantly prolonged the prothrombin time (PT) in comparison to the control group (12.10 ± 0.35 sec and 14.38 ± 0.29 sec vs. 10.8 ± 0.32 sec, p < 0.05 and 0.001, respectively). In comparison to the control group, the same doses had no statistically significant effect on thrombus weight (16.85 ± 0.67 mg, 16.32 ± 0.35 mg, and 17.81 ± 0.75 mg; p = 0.18 and 0.06) or on activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) (19.17 ± 0.33 sec, 19.12 ± 0.73 sec, and 18.97 ± 0.41 sec; p = 0.36 and 0.43, respectively). One important finding in this study concerns thrombus morphology. In the extract treatment groups, the thrombus was filament-like and did not adhere to blood vessel walls, whereas in the control group the thrombus was thick and almost completely occluded the vein. Therefore, these results suggest that OLE ethanolic extract can modify the extrinsic coagulation pathway as evidenced by the prolongation of PT and changes in thrombus morphology, enough to justify further research to evaluate its possible antithrombotic effects. PMID:23702352

  17. Effect of agronomical practices on carpology, fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties, in olive (Olea europaea L.).

    PubMed

    Rosati, Adolfo; Cafiero, Caterina; Paoletti, Andrea; Alfei, Barbara; Caporali, Silvia; Casciani, Lorena; Valentini, Massimiliano

    2014-09-15

    We examined whether some agronomical practices (i.e. organic vs. conventional) affect olive fruit and oil composition, and oil sensory properties. Fruit characteristics (i.e. fresh and dry weight of pulp and pit, oil content on a fresh and dry weight basis) did not differ. Oil chemical traits did not differ except for increased content of polyphenols in the organic treatments, and some changes in the acidic composition. Sensory analysis revealed increased bitterness (both cultivars) and pungency (Frantoio) and decreased sweetness (Frantoio) in the organic treatment. Fruit metabolomic analysis with HRMAS-NMR indicated significant changes in some compounds including glycocholate, fatty acids, NADPH, NADP+, some amino acids, thymidine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid, 5,6-dihydrouracil, hesanal, cis-olefin, β-D-glucose, propanal and some unassigned species. The results suggest that agronomical practices may have effects on fruit composition that may be difficult to detect unless a broad-spectrum analysis is used. PMID:24767050

  18. Susceptibility of Olive Fruit in Relation to Olive Fruit Fly Development and Ovipositional Period in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), females oviposited their first and last eggs in olive fruit, Olea europaea L., when females were 6 and 90 d-old, respectively. The highest mean numbers of eggs per day in 10 olive fruit (55) were oviposited by 28 d-old females, and peak egg production occ...

  19. Pomology observations, morphometric analysis, ultrastructural study and allelic profiles of "olivastra Seggianese" endocarps from ancient olive trees (Olea europaea L.).

    PubMed

    Milanesi, Claudio; Sorbi, Andrea; Paolucci, Elisa; Antonucci, Francesca; Menesatti, Paolo; Costa, Corrado; Pallottino, Federico; Vignani, Rita; Cimato, Antonio; Ciacci, Andrea; Cresti, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary studies of historical sources and remote sensing were used to identify ancient olive trees near archaeological sites and heritage buildings in the Orcia Valley (Siena, Italy). Distinctive characters were assessed by traditional pomological observation. Trees with similar characters were selected on the basis of the features of endocarps, the only structure that survives aerobic deterioration and conserves useful botanical information for centuries. Non-invasive morphometric analysis of endocarp size and shape established morphological variations in individuals of different populations. Plastid organization in the endocarp and location of DNA in the endocarp tegument were detected by morphological and ultrastructural observations using light and electron microscopy. Cytoplasmic markers with high polymorphism were used to test similarity of endocarp and leaf DNA within individuals and to confirm low variability and minimal divergence between individuals. The ancient trees studied showed the same allelic profiles and therefore belonged to a distinct cultivar. The traditional pomological descriptions of the trees, leaves and fruits, morphometric analysis of size, and shape elliptic Fourier analysis of endocarp outline, ultrastructural observations and allelic profiles of endocarp tegument delineated the general species-specific qualities of the cultivar "olivastra Seggianese" of the Orcia Valley. PMID:21262485

  20. Food supplementation with an olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract reduces blood pressure in borderline hypertensive monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Perrinjaquet-Moccetti, Tania; Busjahn, Andreas; Schmidlin, Caesar; Schmidt, Annette; Bradl, Barbara; Aydogan, Cem

    2008-09-01

    Hypertension is a harmful disease factor that develops unnoticed over time. The treatment of hypertension is aimed at an early diagnosis followed by adequate lifestyle changes rather than pharmacological treatment. The olive leaf extract EFLA943, having antihypertensive actions in rats, was tested as a food supplement in an open study including 40 borderline hypertensive monozygotic twins. Twins of each pair were assigned to different groups receiving 500 or 1000 mg/day EFLA943 for 8 weeks, or advice on a favourable lifestyle. Body weight, heart rate, blood pressure, glucose and lipids were measured fortnightly. Blood pressure changed significantly within pairs, depending on the dose, with mean systolic differences of < or =6 mmHg (500 mg vs control) and < or =13 mmHg (1000 vs 500 mg), and diastolic differences of < or =5 mmHg. After 8 weeks, mean blood pressure remained unchanged from baseline in controls (systolic/diastolic: 133 +/- 5/77 +/- 6 vs 135 +/- 11/80 +/- 7 mmHg) and the low-dose group (136 +/- 7/77 +/- 7 vs 133 +/- 10/76 +/- 7), but had significantly decreased for the high dose group (137 +/- 10/80 +/- 10 vs 126 +/- 9/76 +/- 6). Cholesterol levels decreased for all treatments with significant dose-dependent within-pair differences for LDL-cholesterol. None of the other parameters showed significant changes or consistent trends. Concluding, the study confirmed the antihypertensive and cholesterol-lowering action of EFLA943 in humans. PMID:18729245

  1. Differences in the Neuroprotective Effect of Orally Administered Virgin Olive Oil (Olea europaea) Polyphenols Tyrosol and Hydroxytyrosol in Rats.

    PubMed

    De La Cruz, José Pedro; Ruiz-Moreno, Maria Isabel; Guerrero, Ana; Reyes, José Julio; Benitez-Guerrero, Adela; Espartero, José Luis; González-Correa, José Antonio

    2015-07-01

    The neuroprotective effect of virgin olive oil (VOO) polyphenols has been related to their antioxidant effect. The main objective was to analyze how tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol contribute to the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of VOO in a model of hypoxia-reoxygenation in rat brain slices. Rats were treated per os (po) (10 or 20 mg/kg/day) with hydroxytyrosol ethyl ether (HTEE), tyrosol ethyl ether (TEE), or 3,4-di-o-methylidene-hydroxytyrosol ethyl ether (MHTEE), used as a negative control for antioxidant effects. Lipid peroxidation was inhibited with HTEE, TEE, and MHTEE (from 5.0 ± 1.5 to 2.6 ± 1.5, 4.5 ± 1.5, and 4.8 ± 1.5 nmol/mg protein, respectively). However, all three compounds had similar neuroprotective effects: from 2.8 ± 0.07 to 1.8 ± 0.02 arbitrary units for HTEE, 1.4 ± 0.09 arbitrary units for TEE, and 1.3 ± 0.2 arbitrary units for MHTEE. All three compounds inhibited 3-nitrotyrosine production (from 3.7 ± 0.3 to 1.2 ± 0.03 nmol/0.1 g tissue for HTEE, 1.0 ± 0.2 nmol/0.1 g tissue for TEE, and 1.3 ± 0.1 nmol/0.1 g tissue for MHTEE), prostaglandin E2 production (from 55.7 ± 2.2 to 46.4 ± 1.9 pg/0.1 g tissue for HTEE, 24.7 ± 1.3 pg/0.1 g tissue for TEE, and 27.6 ± 2.6 pg/0.1 g tissue for MHTEE), whereas only HTEE inhibited IL1β production (from 35.7 ± 1.5 to 21.6 ± 0.8 pg/0.1 g tissue). Pearson correlation coefficients related neuroprotective effect with an antioxidant effect for HTEE (R = 0.72, p < 0.001), and inhibition of nitrosative stress (R = 0.78, 0.67, and 0.66 for HTEE, TEE, and MHTEE, respectively, p < 0.001) and inflammatory mediators (R = 0.72, 0.79, and 0.64 for HTEE, TEE, and MHTEE, respectively, p < 0.001) with all three compounds. PMID:26066316

  2. Identification of olive (Olea europaea) pulp proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Esteve, Clara; Cañas, Benito; Moreno-Gordaliza, Estefanía; Del Río, Carmen; García, María Concepción; Marina, María Luisa

    2011-11-23

    Proteins in the pulp of olive ( Olea europaea ) constitute a minor fraction. They have been sparsely studied despite their suggested role in oil stability and olive allergenicity. The analysis of a pulp protein extract by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) showed a major band at 24 kDa that was subjected to tryptic in-gel digestion. Peptide extracts were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS and nanoLC-MS/MS. The use of different search engines enabled the assignment of a number of fragmentation spectra to peptide sequences, identifying a major band as a thaumatin-like protein and other low-abundant proteins such a drought-induced protein SDi-6-like, an acyl carrier protein, Cu/Zn and Mn superoxide dismutases, a small heat shock protein, and an ATP-dependent protease subunit. Many of the produced spectra did not give good matches in the database searches, due to the scarce presence of O. europaea entries in protein databases. Nevertheless, a huge number of spectra corresponded to peptides, which showed a high degree of homology with others from sequenced organisms. These results proved that database searching with MS/MS spectra constitutes a promising approach for the characterization of olive pulp proteins. PMID:21995844

  3. New drugs from ancient natural foods. Oleocanthal, the natural occurring spicy compound of olive oil: a brief history.

    PubMed

    Scotece, Morena; Conde, Javier; Abella, Vanessa; Lopez, Veronica; Pino, Jesús; Lago, Francisca; Smith, Amos B; Gómez-Reino, Juan J; Gualillo, Oreste

    2015-04-01

    Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), a principal component of the Mediterranean diet (Med diet), is one of the most ancient known foods and has long been associated with health benefits. Many phenolic compounds extracted from Olea europea L. have attracted attention since their discovery. Among these phenolic constituents, oleocanthal has recently emerged as a potential therapeutic molecule for different diseases, showing relevant pharmacological properties in various pathogenic processes, including inflammation, cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we discuss and summarize the most recent pharmacological evidence for the medical relevance of oleocanthal, focusing our attention on its anti-inflammatory and chemotherapeutic roles. PMID:25448758

  4. A survey of fruit-feeding insects and their parasitoids occurring on wild olives, Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata, in the Eastern Cape of South Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruits of cultivated olives, O. e. europaea, and wild olives, O. e. cuspidata, were collected at nine locations in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, in 2003-2005 to investigate levels of pest infestation and to determine the parasitoids associated with them. Three species of Tephritidae (olive fruit f...

  5. LOX Gene Transcript Accumulation in Olive (Olea europaea L.) Fruits at Different Stages of Maturation: Relationship between Volatile Compounds, Environmental Factors, and Technological Treatments for Oil Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Muzzalupo, Innocenzo; Macchione, Barbara; Bucci, Cristina; Stefanizzi, Francesca; Perri, Enzo; Chiappetta, Adriana; Tagarelli, Antonio; Sindona, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The quality of olive oil is influenced by genetic and environmental factors and by the maturation state of drupes, but it is equally affected by technological treatments of the process. This work investigates the possible correlation between olive LOX gene transcript accumulation, evaluated in fruits collected at different stages of maturation, and chemical biomarkers of its activity. During olive fruit ripening, the same genotype harvested from two different farms shows a positive linear trend between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive oil aroma. Interestingly, a negative linear trend was observed between LOX relative transcript accumulation and the content of volatile compounds present in the olive pastes obtained from olive fruits with and without malaxation. The changes in the olive LOX transcript accumulation reveal its environmental regulation and suggest differential physiological functions for the LOXs. PMID:22645430

  6. Olive

    MedlinePlus

    ... teeth, ears, and urinary tract, and infections following surgery. Other uses include high blood pressure, diabetes, hay fever, improving kidney and digestive function, and increasing urine flow. Water extracts of olive fruit pulp are used for rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

  7. 7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of any variety of the species olea...

  8. 7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of any variety of the species olea...

  9. 7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of any variety of the species olea...

  10. 7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of any variety of the species olea...

  11. 7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of any variety of the species olea...

  12. The effect of the hexanic extracts of fig (Ficus carica) and olive (Olea europaea) fruit and nanoparticles of selenium on the immunogenicity of the inactivated avian influenza virus subtype H9N2

    PubMed Central

    Asl Najjari, Amir Hossein; Rajabi, Zolfaghar; Vasfi Marandi, Mehdi; Dehghan, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Influenza is a contagious viral disease that is seen in avian, human and other mammals, so its control is important. Vaccination against influenza virus subtype H9N2 is one of the ways in controlling program, for this reason several vaccines has been produced. Recently, application of inactivated oil-emulsion vaccines in poultry for controlling low pathogenic avian influenza is increasing. At present, oils that are used as adjuvant in commercial vaccines are mineral oils, which not only lack immunizing effect, but also produce some detriments. The aim of this study is the evaluation the immunogenicity of vegetable oils, which are more metabolizable and safer than mineral oils. In this study the efficacy of hexanic extracts of fig (Ficus carica) and olive (Olea europaea) fruit and also nano-selenium on the immunogenicity of the inactivated avian influenza virus subtype H9N2 was evaluated in broiler chickens. The results indicated that the prepared emulsions could elicit a little degree of immunity, but they could not inhibit the anamnestic response and infection. With regard to the results, it seems that the intact mixture of fig and olive fruit hexanic extracts could not be administered as an immunoadjuvant in the vaccine, and about nano-selenium. In spite of positive effect on the immunogenicity of avian influenza virus subtype H9N2, it still needs more work. PMID:26893813

  13. The effect of a hydro-alcoholic extract of olive fruit on reproductive argons in male sprague-dawley rat

    PubMed Central

    Najafizadeh, Parvaneh; Dehghani, Farzaneh; Panjeh Shahin, Mohammadreza; Hamzei Taj, Sommaye

    2013-01-01

    Background: Olive (Olea europea), from the Oleaceae family, is known as a phytoestrogen plant compound, containing Lignans and phenoliccompounds. Some studies have shown phytoestrogens to have spermatogenesis-decreasing effects. Objective: The present study investigated the effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of olive fruit on reproductive argons in male rats. Materials and Methods: The hydro-alcoholic olive (Olea europaea) extract was given orally to three experimental groups of rats in 50, 150, and 450 mg/kg in 48 days. The vehicle group was fed with normal saline and nothing was given to the control group (each group with 8 rats). After 49 days reproductive indicators i.e., sperm count, sperm motility, the weight of prostate, testis, epididymis, and seminal vesicle were measured. Results: The results showed a significant decrease in the weights of the left testicle, seminal vesicle, testosterone hormone, sperm count and sperm motility but there was no significant difference with regard to the weights of prostate and epididymis, and estradiol hormone. Conclusion: This study suggests that olive extract may have deleterious effects on fertility factors; therefore, after further studies, it may be used as a contraceptive in males. PMID:24639759

  14. Hydroxytyrosol rich extract from olive leaves modulates cell cycle progression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bouallagui, Zouhaier; Han, Junkuy; Isoda, Hiroko; Sayadi, Sami

    2011-01-01

    Throughout the history, olive (Olea europea L.) leaves have been heavily exploited for the prevention or the treatment of hypertension, carcinogenesis, diabetes, atherosclerosis and so many other traditional therapeutic uses. These activities are thought to be the output of olive micronutrients especially polyphenols. Hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein are considered as major polyphenolic compounds in olive leaf. In this work, a hydroxytyrosol rich olive leaves extract was investigated for potential anti-tumoral activities. In vitro cytotoxic effects against MCF-7 breast cancer cells were examined using MTT and neutral red tests. The anti-tumor activities were further investigated by flow cytometry and western blotting. Cytotoxicity assays resulted in a dose dependent growth inhibition of MCF-7 cells. This inhibition was due to the cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. The understanding of the molecular mechanism by which olive leaves extract arrested cell growth showed a down-expression of the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase Pin1 which in turn decreased the level of a G1 key protein; Cyclin D1. Additionally, olive leaves extract treatment up-regulated the AP1 transcription factor member, c-jun. Therefore, olive leaves extract will necessitate further deep investigation for a probable use as a cancer preventive food additive. PMID:20955751

  15. BIOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL CONTROL OF OLIVE FRUIT FLY IN CALIFORNIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), monitored with ChamP traps captured the highest numbers of adults in olive trees, Olea europaea, in October in an inland valley location, and in September in a coastal location. Significantly more adults were captured in Pherocon ® AM traps than ChamP tra...

  16. Response of Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and conditions in California olive orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), by the USDA-APHIS, PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europae...

  17. The effect of oleuropein from olive leaf (Olea europaea) extract on Ca(2+) homeostasis, cytotoxicity, cell cycle distribution and ROS signaling in HepG2 human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Liu, Yuan-Yuarn; Sun, Wei-Chih; Shieh, Pochuen; Kuo, Daih-Huang; Kuo, Chun-Chi; Jan, Chung-Ren; Liang, Wei-Zhe

    2016-05-01

    Oleuropein, a phenolic compound found in the olive leaf (Olea europaea), has been shown to have biological activities in different models. However, the effects of oleuropein on Ca(2+) homeostasis, cytotoxicity, cell cycle distribution and ROS signaling in liver cells have not been analyzed. Oleuropein induced [Ca(2+)]i rises only in HepG2 cells but not in AML12, HA22T or HA59T cells due to the different status of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase expression. In HepG2 cells, this Ca(2+) signaling response was reduced by removing extracellular Ca(2+), and was inhibited by the store-operated Ca(2+) channel blockers 2-APB and SKF96365. In Ca(2+)-free medium, pretreatment with the ER Ca(2+) pump inhibitor thapsigargin abolished oleuropein-induced [Ca(2+)]i rises. Oleuropein induced cell cycle arrest which was associated with the regulation of p53, p21, CDK1 and cyclin B1 levels. Furthermore, oleuropein elevated intracellular ROS levels but reduced GSH levels. Treatment with the intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM or the antioxidant NAC partially reversed oleuropein-induced cytotoxicity. Together, in HepG2 cells, oleuropein induced [Ca(2+)]i rises by releasing Ca(2+) from the ER and causing Ca(2+) influx through store-operated Ca(2+) channels. Moreover, oleuropein induced Ca(2+)-associated cytotoxicity that involved ROS signaling and cell cycle arrest. This compound may offer a potential therapy for treatment of human hepatoma. PMID:27016494

  18. Effect of freeze dried extract of Olea europaea on the pituitary-thyroid axis in rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Qarawi, A A; Al-Damegh, M A; ElMougy, S A

    2002-05-01

    The effect of an aqueous extract of olive (Olea europaea) leaf on the thyroid activity was studied. The results suggest a stimulatory action of the extract on the thyroid, unrelated to the pituitary. PMID:12164280

  19. The effect of high temperature interruptions during inductive period on the extent of flowering and on metabolic responses in olives (Olea europaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of the duration of high temperature interruption and the timing of it’s occurrence during inductive period on the extent of inhibition of inflorescence production in ‘Arbequina’ olive trees was investigated. Trees kept under inductive conditions in different growth chambers were subjected...

  20. Fate of a Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi Type III Secretion System Mutant in Olive Plants (Olea europaea L.)▿†

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Martínez, Isabel; Rodríguez-Moreno, Luis; Lambertsen, Lotte; Matas, Isabel M.; Murillo, Jesús; Tegli, Stefania; Jiménez, Antonio J.; Ramos, Cayo

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi strain NCPPB 3335 is a model bacterial pathogen for studying the molecular basis of disease production in woody hosts. We report the sequencing of the hrpS-to-hrpZ region of NCPPB 3335, which has allowed us to determine the phylogenetic position of this pathogen with respect to previously sequenced Pseudomonas syringae hrp clusters. In addition, we constructed a mutant of NCPPB 3335, termed T3, which carries a deletion from the 3′ end of the hrpS gene to the 5′ end of the hrpZ operon. Despite its inability to multiply in olive tissues and to induce tumor formation in woody olive plants, P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi T3 can induce knot formation on young micropropagated olive plants. However, the necrosis and formation of internal open cavities previously reported in knots induced by the wild-type strain were not observed in those induced by P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi T3. Tagging of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi T3 with green fluorescent protein (GFP) allowed real-time monitoring of its behavior on olive plants. In olive plant tissues, the wild-type strain formed aggregates that colonized the intercellular spaces and internal cavities of the hypertrophic knots, while the mutant T3 strain showed a disorganized distribution within the parenchyma of the knot. Ultrastructural analysis of knot sections revealed the release of extensive outer membrane vesicles from the bacterial cell surface of the P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi T3 mutant, while the wild-type strain exhibited very few vesicles. This phenomenon has not been described before for any other bacterial phytopathogen during host infection. PMID:20363790

  1. Phenological models to predict the main flowering phases of olive ( Olea europaea L.) along a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient across the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Fátima; Fornaciari, Marco; Ruiz-Valenzuela, Luis; Galán, Carmen; Msallem, Monji; Dhiab, Ali Ben; la Guardia, Consuelo Díaz-de; del Mar Trigo, María; Bonofiglio, Tommaso; Orlandi, Fabio

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop pheno-meteorological models to explain and forecast the main olive flowering phenological phases within the Mediterranean basin, across a latitudinal and longitudinal gradient that includes Tunisia, Spain, and Italy. To analyze the aerobiological sampling points, study periods from 13 years (1999-2011) to 19 years (1993-2011) were used. The forecasting models were constructed using partial least-squares regression, considering both the flowering start and full-flowering dates as dependent variables. The percentages of variance explained by the full-flowering models (mean 84 %) were greater than those explained by the flowering start models (mean 77 %). Moreover, given the time lag from the North African areas to the central Mediterranean areas in the main olive flowering dates, the regional full-flowering predictive models are proposed as the most useful to improve the knowledge of the influence of climate on the olive tree floral phenology. The meteorological parameters related to the previous autumn and both the winter and the spring seasons, and above all the temperatures, regulate the reproductive phenology of olive trees in the Mediterranean area. The mean anticipation of flowering start and full flowering for the future period from 2081 to 2100 was estimated at 10 and 12 days, respectively. One question can be raised: Will the olive trees located in the warmest areas be northward displaced or will they be able to adapt their physiology in response to the higher temperatures? The present study can be considered as an approach to design more detailed future bioclimate research.

  2. Viral properties, primary structure and phylogenetic analysis of the coat protein of an Olive latent virus 1 isolate from Olea europaea L.

    PubMed

    Flix, M R; Cardoso, J M S; Oliveira, S; Clara, M I E

    2005-03-01

    An Olive latent virus 1 isolate designated GM6, obtained from a Portuguese olive tree, was characterized and the coat protein gene sequenced and analysed. The purified virus particles showed to be isometric with ca. 30 nm in diameter and contained a single-stranded RNA species with ca. 3.7 kb. The dsRNA profile obtained from infected tissues showed three major species with ca. 3.7, 1.5 and 1.3 kbp. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed a major peptide with an apparent molecular mass of 32 kDa identified as the coat protein. A viral genome region containing the coat protein gene was amplified by RT-PCR and the cDNA was cloned and sequenced. The coat protein gene revealed to be 813 nucleotides long and encode a peptide with 270 amino acid residues and an estimated Mr of 29,851. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequence with that of other necroviruses showed a higher identity with OLV-1 tulip isolate (97.7%) than with OLV-1 citrus isolate (87.7%). The consensus pattern of the coat protein 'S' domain is conserved in GM6 isolate coat protein sequence, except in amino acid 151, leucine. This is the first report on the coat protein sequence of an OLV-1 olive isolate. PMID:15681070

  3. Olive (Olea europaea) Leaf Extract Induces Apoptosis and Monocyte/Macrophage Differentiation in Human Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia K562 Cells: Insight into the Underlying Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Han, Junkyu; Jlaiel, Lobna; Sayadi, Sami; Isoda, Hiroko

    2014-01-01

    Differentiation therapy is an attractive approach aiming at reversing malignancy and reactivating endogenous differentiation programs in cancer cells. Olive leaf extract, known for its antioxidant activity, has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in several cancer cells. However, its differentiation inducing properties and the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of Chemlali Olive Leaf Extract (COLE) for its potential differentiation inducing effect on multipotent leukemia K562 cells. Results showed that COLE inhibits K562 cells proliferation and arrests the cell cycle at G0/G1, and then at G2/M phase over treatment time. Further analysis revealed that COLE induces apoptosis and differentiation of K562 cells toward the monocyte lineage. Microarray analysis was conducted to investigate the underlying mechanism of COLE differentiation inducing effect. The differentially expressed genes such as IFI16, EGR1, NFYA, FOXP1, CXCL2, CXCL3, and CXCL8 confirmed the commitment of K562 cells to the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Thus our results provide evidence that, in addition to apoptosis, induction of differentiation is one of the possible therapeutic effects of olive leaf in cancer cells. PMID:24803988

  4. Absorption, Metabolism, and Excretion by Freely Moving Rats of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA and Related Polyphenols from Olive Fruits (Olea europaea)

    PubMed Central

    Kano, Shunsuke; Komada, Haruna; Yonekura, Lina; Sato, Akihiko; Nishiwaki, Hisashi; Tamura, Hirotoshi

    2016-01-01

    Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, oleuropein, and hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive fruits were newly evaluated after oral and intravenous administration in freely moving rats cannulated in the portal vein, jugular vein, and bile duct. Orally administered 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, an important bioactive compound in olive pomace, was readily absorbed and metabolized to hydroxytyrosol, homovanillic acid, and homovanillyl alcohol, as shown by dose-normalized 4 h area under the curve (AUC0→4 h/Dose) values of 27.7, 4.5, and 4.2 μM·min·kg/μmol, respectively, in portal plasma after oral administration. The parent compound 3,4-DHPEA-EDA was not observed in the portal plasma, urine, and bile after oral and intravenous administration. Additionally, hydroxytyrosol, homovanillic acid, and homovanillyl alcohol in the portal plasma after oral administration of hydroxytyrosol showed 51.1, 22.8, and 7.1 μM·min·kg/μmol AUC0→4 h/Dose, respectively. When oleuropein, a polar glucoside, was injected orally, oleuropein in the portal plasma showed 0.9 μM·min·kg/μmol AUC0→4 h/Dose. However, homovanillic acid was detected from oleuropein in only a small amount in the portal plasma. Moreover, the bioavailability of hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein for 4 hours was 13.1% and 0.5%, respectively. Because the amount of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA in olive fruits is about 2-3 times greater than that of hydroxytyrosol, the metabolites of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA will influence biological activities. PMID:26904279

  5. Absorption, Metabolism, and Excretion by Freely Moving Rats of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA and Related Polyphenols from Olive Fruits (Olea europaea).

    PubMed

    Kano, Shunsuke; Komada, Haruna; Yonekura, Lina; Sato, Akihiko; Nishiwaki, Hisashi; Tamura, Hirotoshi

    2016-01-01

    Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, oleuropein, and hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive fruits were newly evaluated after oral and intravenous administration in freely moving rats cannulated in the portal vein, jugular vein, and bile duct. Orally administered 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, an important bioactive compound in olive pomace, was readily absorbed and metabolized to hydroxytyrosol, homovanillic acid, and homovanillyl alcohol, as shown by dose-normalized 4 h area under the curve (AUC0→4 h/Dose) values of 27.7, 4.5, and 4.2 μM·min·kg/μmol, respectively, in portal plasma after oral administration. The parent compound 3,4-DHPEA-EDA was not observed in the portal plasma, urine, and bile after oral and intravenous administration. Additionally, hydroxytyrosol, homovanillic acid, and homovanillyl alcohol in the portal plasma after oral administration of hydroxytyrosol showed 51.1, 22.8, and 7.1 μM·min·kg/μmol AUC0→4 h/Dose, respectively. When oleuropein, a polar glucoside, was injected orally, oleuropein in the portal plasma showed 0.9 μM·min·kg/μmol AUC0→4 h/Dose. However, homovanillic acid was detected from oleuropein in only a small amount in the portal plasma. Moreover, the bioavailability of hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein for 4 hours was 13.1% and 0.5%, respectively. Because the amount of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA in olive fruits is about 2-3 times greater than that of hydroxytyrosol, the metabolites of 3,4-DHPEA-EDA will influence biological activities. PMID:26904279

  6. Effect of irrigation, nitrogen application, and a nitrification inhibitor on nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane emissions from an olive (Olea europaea L.) orchard.

    PubMed

    Maris, S C; Teira-Esmatges, M R; Arbonés, A; Rufat, J

    2015-12-15

    Drip irrigation combined with nitrogen (N) fertigation is applied in order to save water and improve nutrient efficiency. Nitrification inhibitors reduce greenhouse gas emissions. A field study was conducted to compare the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) associated with the application of N fertiliser through fertigation (0 and 50kgNha(-1)), and 50kgNha(-1)+nitrification inhibitor in a high tree density Arbequina olive orchard. Spanish Arbequina is the most suited variety for super intensive olive groves. This system allows reducing production costs and increases crop yield. Moreover its oil has excellent sensorial features. Subsurface drip irrigation markedly reduced N2O and N2O+N2 emissions compared with surface drip irrigation. Fertiliser application significantly increased N2O+N2, but not N2O emissions. Denitrification was the main source of N2O. The N2O losses (calculated as emission factor) ranging from -0.03 to 0.14% of the N applied, were lower than the IPCC (2007) values. The N2O+N2 losses were the largest, equivalent to 1.80% of the N applied, from the 50kgNha(-1)+drip irrigation treatment which resulted in water filled pore space >60% most of the time (high moisture). Nitrogen fertilisation significantly reduced CO2 emissions in 2011, but only for the subsurface drip irrigation strategies in 2012. The olive orchard acted as a net CH4 sink for all the treatments. Applying a nitrification inhibitor (DMPP), the cumulative N2O and N2O+N2 emissions were significantly reduced with respect to the control. The DMPP also inhibited CO2 emissions and significantly increased CH4 oxidation. Considering global warming potential, greenhouse gas intensity, cumulative N2O emissions and oil production, it can be concluded that applying DMPP with 50kgNha(-1)+drip irrigation treatment was the best option combining productivity with keeping greenhouse gas emissions under control. PMID:26367066

  7. Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for Biological Control of Olive Fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, by the USDA-APHIS, PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. The maximu...

  8. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California with a Parasitoid Imported from Guatemala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), was imported into California from the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Moscamed, San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. The parasitoid did not develop in the seedhead fly, Cha...

  9. Effects of Olive Metabolites on DNA Cleavage Mediated by Human Type II Topoisomerases.

    PubMed

    Vann, Kendra R; Sedgeman, Carl A; Gopas, Jacob; Golan-Goldhirsh, Avi; Osheroff, Neil

    2015-07-28

    Several naturally occurring dietary polyphenols with chemopreventive or anticancer properties are topoisomerase II poisons. To identify additional phytochemicals that enhance topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage, a library of 341 Mediterranean plant extracts was screened for activity against human topoisomerase IIα. An extract from Phillyrea latifolia L., a member of the olive tree family, displayed high activity against the human enzyme. On the basis of previous metabolomics studies, we identified several polyphenols (hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, verbascoside, tyrosol, and caffeic acid) as potential candidates for topoisomerase II poisons. Of these, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, and verbascoside enhanced topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage. The potency of these olive metabolites increased 10-100-fold in the presence of an oxidant. Hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, and verbascoside displayed hallmark characteristics of covalent topoisomerase II poisons. (1) The activity of the metabolites was abrogated by a reducing agent. (2) Compounds inhibited topoisomerase II activity when they were incubated with the enzyme prior to the addition of DNA. (3) Compounds were unable to poison a topoisomerase IIα construct that lacked the N-terminal domain. Because hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein, and verbascoside are broadly distributed across the olive family, extracts from the leaves, bark, and fruit of 11 olive tree species were tested for activity against human topoisomerase IIα. Several of the extracts enhanced enzyme-mediated DNA cleavage. Finally, a commercial olive leaf supplement and extra virgin olive oils pressed from a variety of Olea europea subspecies enhanced DNA cleavage mediated by topoisomerase IIα. Thus, olive metabolites appear to act as topoisomerase II poisons in complex formulations intended for human dietary consumption. PMID:26132160

  10. Biological effects of the olive polyphenol, hydroxytyrosol: An extra view from genome-wide transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Nan, Jia Nancy; Ververis, Katherine; Bollu, Sameera; Rodd, Annabelle L; Swarup, Oshi; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have established the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet, an important component of which are olives and olive oil derived from the olive tree (Olea Europea). It is now well-established that not only the major fatty acid constituents, but also the minor phenolic components, in olives and olive oil have important health benefits. Emerging research over the past decade has highlighted the beneficial effects of a range of phenolic compounds from olives and olive oil, particularly for cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome and inflammatory conditions. Mechanisms of action include potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Further, accumulating evidence indicates the potential of the polyphenols and potent antioxidants, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein in oncology. Numerous studies, both in vitro and in vivo, have demonstrated the anticancer effects of hydroxytyrosol which include chemopreventive and cell-specific cytotoxic and apoptotic effects. Indeed, the precise molecular mechanisms accounting for the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties are now becoming clear and this is, at least in part, due to high through-put gene transcription profiling. Initially, we constructed phylogenetic trees to visualize the evolutionary relationship of members of the Oleaceae family and secondly, between plants producing hydroxytyrosol to make inferences of potential similarities or differences in their medicinal properties and to identify novel plant candidates for the treatment and prevention of disease. Furthermore, given the recent interest in hydroxytyrosol as a potential anticancer agent and chemopreventative we utilized transcriptome analysis in the erythroleukemic cell line K562, to investigate the effects of hydroxytyrosol on three gene pathways: the complement system, The Warburg effect and chromatin remodeling to ascertain relevant gene candidates in the prevention of cancer. PMID:24392471

  11. The effects of olives harvest period and production year on olive mill wastewater properties - evaluation of Pleurotus strains as bioindicators of the effluent's toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Gaitis, Fragiskos; Katsaris, Panagiotis; Skoulika, Stavroula; Iliopoulos, Nikiforos; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2013-07-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) generated during the oil extraction from Olea europea L. var. koroneiki olives was sampled at the beginning, the middle and the end of the harvesting season for three successive crop production years, and from four olive mills. OMW samples were examined in respect to their physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid composition of the lipid fraction, and adverse effects on biomass production of nine white-rot fungi of the basidiomycetous genus Pleurotus. Total N, nitrogen species, potassium and phosphate concentrations as well as total phenolics content of OMW samples were influenced by the crop year but not from the harvest period (albeit higher values for nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and potassium as well as total phenolics contents were obtained during ripening of olives), whereas protein concentration, total organic carbon and total solids were not significantly affected by the crop year or the harvest period. In addition, fatty acids composition, i.e. nC14:0, nC16:1Δ9cis, nC17:1Δ10cis, nC18:0, nC18:1Δ9cis, nC22:0 and nC24:0 varied significantly during different crop years and harvest periods. Olive fruits maturity and biannual alternate-bearing appear to play key-roles in the fatty acid variation detected in OMW samples. OMW toxicity as evaluated by the mycelium growth of Pleurotus strains was influenced significantly by the phenolic content of OMW samples obtained during three successive crop years; in contrast, the olives harvest period did not affect Pleurotus biomass production. Hence, experimental data indicated that selected Pleurotus strains could serve as bioindicators of OMW toxicity. Development of viable OMW detoxification processes as well as the exploitation of the effluent's fertilizing value are discussed in the light of the above findings. PMID:23399310

  12. Biological control of olive fruit fly by 2006 parasitoid releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor imported from Guatemala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, was reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala and imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. Releases of parasitoid adults in 2006 were ...

  13. Characterization of the lipoxygenases in some olive cultivars and determination of their role in volatile compounds formation.

    PubMed

    Ridolfi, Marta; Terenziani, Stefano; Patumi, Maurizio; Fontanazza, Giuseppe

    2002-02-13

    Enzymatic extracts from olive pulp (Olea europea L.) were used to characterize lipoxygenase (LOX) activity in order to determine its role in the biogenesis of the volatile compounds that influence the aroma of extra virgin olive oil. The LOX activity was tested spectrophotometrically at an optimal pH of 6.0 in three olive cultivars, Ascolana Tenera, Kalamata, and FS17. The trend of the LOX activity was determined as a function of pH and temperature; the kinetic constants of the enzyme were also determined. The highest LOX activity was observed in the FS17 fruit, which had the highest concentrations of C(5) and C(6) compounds (aldehydes, alcohols, and ketones), followed by Kalamata and Ascolana T., respectively. Given the direct relationship between enzymatic activity and the quantity of aromas measured in the fruit, it is hypothesized that olive LOX is involved in the formation of C(5) and C(6) volatile compounds. To study the mechanism of the movement of the aromas from the fruit to the oil, which was obtained by simple mechanical extraction, the headspace of the oil for each cultivar was analyzed as well as the aromatic composition in order to compare it with the aromas of the fruit. PMID:11829653

  14. Olive fruits infested with olive fly larvae respond with an ethylene burst and the emission of specific volatiles.

    PubMed

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Kallenbach, Mario; Pompa, Andrea; De Marchis, Francesca; Rao, Rosa; Baldwin, Ian T; Bonaventure, Gustavo; Baldoni, Luciana

    2016-04-01

    Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae R.) is the most harmful insect pest of olive (Olea europaea L.) which strongly affects fruits and oil production. Despite the expanding economic importance of olive cultivation, up to now, only limited information on plant responses to B. oleae is available. Here, we demonstrate that olive fruits respond to B. oleae attack by producing changes in an array of different defensive compounds including phytohormones, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and defense proteins. Bactrocera oleae-infested fruits induced a strong ethylene burst and transcript levels of several putative ethylene-responsive transcription factors became significantly upregulated. Moreover, infested fruits induced significant changes in the levels of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid and C12 derivatives of the hydroperoxide lyase. The emission of VOCs was also changed quantitatively and qualitatively in insect-damaged fruits, indicating that B. oleae larval feeding can specifically affect the volatile blend of fruits. Finally, we show that larval infestation maintained high levels of trypsin protease inhibitors in ripe fruits, probably by affecting post-transcriptional mechanisms. Our results provide novel and important information to understand the response of the olive fruit to B. oleae attack; information that can shed light onto potential new strategies to combat this pest. PMID:25727685

  15. Phylogenetics of Olea (Oleaceae) based on plastid and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences: Tertiary climatic shifts and lineage differentiation times

    PubMed Central

    Besnard, Guillaume; Rubio de Casas, Rafael; Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Vargas, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The genus Olea (Oleaceae) includes approx. 40 taxa of evergreen shrubs and trees classified in three subgenera, Olea, Paniculatae and Tetrapilus, the first of which has two sections (Olea and Ligustroides). Olive trees (the O. europaea complex) have been the subject of intensive research, whereas little is known about the phylogenetic relationships among the other species. To clarify the biogeographical history of this group, a molecular analysis of Olea and related genera of Oleaceae is thus necessary. Methods A phylogeny was built of Olea and related genera based on sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 and four plastid regions. Lineage divergence and the evolution of abaxial peltate scales, the latter character linked to drought adaptation, were dated using a Bayesian method. Key Results Olea is polyphyletic, with O. ambrensis and subgenus Tetrapilus not sharing a most recent common ancestor with the main Olea clade. Partial incongruence between nuclear and plastid phylogenetic reconstructions suggests a reticulation process in the evolution of subgenus Olea. Estimates of divergence times for major groups of Olea during the Tertiary were obtained. Conclusions This study indicates the necessity of revising current taxonomic boundaries in Olea. The results also suggest that main lines of evolution were promoted by major Tertiary climatic shifts: (1) the split between subgenera Olea and Paniculatae appears to have taken place at the Miocene–Oligocene boundary; (2) the separation of sections Ligustroides and Olea may have occurred during the Early Miocene following the Mi-1 glaciation; and (3) the diversification within these sections (and the origin of dense abaxial indumentum in section Olea) was concomitant with the aridification of Africa in the Late Miocene. PMID:19465750

  16. Genetic markers to distinguish between the Psyttalia lounsburyi populations which parasitize olive fruit flies in Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Psyttalia lounsburyi Loan (Hym.: Braconidae) is an African larval-pupal parasitoid of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae). The olive fruit fly is a key pest of cultivated olives throughout the Mediterranean region, and in California since its introduction into North America. Ol...

  17. Rearing, Importation, and Release of Psyttalia humilis for Biocontrol of Olive Fruit Fly in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control using imported parasitoids can be used to reduce olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), infestations in olives. In 2008-2010, we mass produced the olive fruit fly larval parasitoid, Psyttalia humilis = P. cf. concolor (Silvestri), at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Moscamed, laboratory in...

  18. Comparative uptake of trace elements in vines and olive trees over calcareous soils in western La Mancha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ángel Amorós, José; Higueras, Pablo; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; Jesús García, Francisco; Villaseñor, Begoña; Bravo, Sandra; Losilla, María Luisa; María Moreno, Marta

    2014-05-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and olive-tree (Olea europea L.) are very important cultures in Castilla-La Mancha for its extension and contribution to the regional economy. This study was carried out in the municipality of Carrión de Calatrava (Ciudad Real) where the variability of soils of different geological origin, with different evolutions giving a great diversity of soils. The metabolism of trace elements in plants has been extensively studied although each soil-plant system must be investigated, especially since small variations in composition can lead to marked differences. It can be stated that the composition of the plant reflects the environment where it is cultivated and the products of the plant (leaves, fruits, juices, etc…) will be influenced by the composition of the soil. The main aim of the work was to compare the uptake of 24 trace elements in grapevine and olive-tree cultivated in the same soil. Samples from surface soils and plant material (leaf) have been analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, obtaining trace elements in mg/kg. It can be concluded that the leaves of grapevines in the studied plots have shown content in elements: -Similar to the olive-tree in case of: Co, Ga, Y, Ta, Th, U y Nd. -Over to the olive-tree in: Sc, V, Cr, Ni, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, Ce, Hf y W. -Below to the olive-tree in: Cu, Zn, Cs y Pb. Keywords: woody culture soils, mineral nutrition, X-ray fluorescence.

  19. Generation and Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags from Olea europaea L.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir Ozgenturk, Nehir; Oruç, Fatma; Sezerman, Ugur; Kuçukural, Alper; Vural Korkut, Senay; Toksoz, Feriha; Un, Cemal

    2010-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) is an important source of edible oil which was originated in Near-East region. In this study, two cDNA libraries were constructed from young olive leaves and immature olive fruits for generation of ESTs to discover the novel genes and search the function of unknown genes of olive. The randomly selected 3840 colonies were sequenced for EST collection from both libraries. Readable 2228 sequences for olive leaf and 1506 sequences for olive fruit were assembled into 205 and 69 contigs, respectively, whereas 2478 were singletons. Putative functions of all 2752 differentially expressed unique sequences were designated by gene homology based on BLAST and annotated using BLAST2GO. While 1339 ESTs show no homology to the database, 2024 ESTs have homology (under 80%) with hypothetical proteins, putative proteins, expressed proteins, and unknown proteins in NCBI-GenBank. 635 EST's unique genes sequence have been identified by over 80% homology to known function in other species which were not previously described in Olea family. Only 3.1% of total EST's was shown similarity with olive database existing in NCBI. This generated EST's data and consensus sequences were submitted to NCBI as valuable source for functional genome studies of olive. PMID:21197085

  20. Proteome Regulation during Olea europaea Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Linda; Alagna, Fiammetta; Baldoni, Luciana; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Perrotta, Gaetano

    2013-01-01

    Background Widespread in the Mediterranean basin, Olea europaea trees are gaining worldwide popularity for the nutritional and cancer-protective properties of the oil, mechanically extracted from ripe fruits. Fruit development is a physiological process with remarkable impact on the modulation of the biosynthesis of compounds affecting the quality of the drupes as well as the final composition of the olive oil. Proteomics offers the possibility to dig deeper into the major changes during fruit development, including the important phase of ripening, and to classify temporal patterns of protein accumulation occurring during these complex physiological processes. Methodology/Principal Findings In this work, we started monitoring the proteome variations associated with olive fruit development by using comparative proteomics coupled to mass spectrometry. Proteins extracted from drupes at three different developmental stages were separated on 2-DE and subjected to image analysis. 247 protein spots were revealed as differentially accumulated. Proteins were identified from a total of 121 spots and discussed in relation to olive drupe metabolic changes occurring during fruit development. In order to evaluate if changes observed at the protein level were consistent with changes of mRNAs, proteomic data produced in the present work were compared with transcriptomic data elaborated during previous studies. Conclusions/Significance This study identifies a number of proteins responsible for quality traits of cv. Coratina, with particular regard to proteins associated to the metabolism of fatty acids, phenolic and aroma compounds. Proteins involved in fruit photosynthesis have been also identified and their pivotal contribution in oleogenesis has been discussed. To date, this study represents the first characterization of the olive fruit proteome during development, providing new insights into fruit metabolism and oil accumulation process. PMID:23349718

  1. Morphological cladistic analysis of eight popular Olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars grown in Saudi Arabia using Numerical Taxonomic System for personal computer to detect phyletic relationship and their proximate fruit composition.

    PubMed

    Al-Ruqaie, I; Al-Khalifah, N S; Shanavaskhan, A E

    2016-01-01

    Varietal identification of olives is an intrinsic and empirical exercise owing to the large number of synonyms and homonyms, intensive exchange of genotypes, presence of varietal clones and lack of proper certification in nurseries. A comparative study of morphological characters of eight olive cultivars grown in Saudi Arabia was carried out and analyzed using NTSYSpc (Numerical Taxonomy System for personal computer) system segregated smaller fruits in one clade and the rest in two clades. Koroneiki, a Greek cultivar with a small sized fruit shared arm with Spanish variety Arbosana. Morphologic analysis using NTSYSpc revealed that biometrics of leaves, fruits and seeds are reliable morphologic characters to distinguish between varieties, except for a few morphologically very similar olive cultivars. The proximate analysis showed significant variations in the protein, fiber, crude fat, ash and moisture content of different cultivars. The study also showed that neither the size of fruit nor the fruit pulp thickness is a limiting factor determining crude fat content of olives. PMID:26858547

  2. Morphological cladistic analysis of eight popular Olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars grown in Saudi Arabia using Numerical Taxonomic System for personal computer to detect phyletic relationship and their proximate fruit composition

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ruqaie, I.; Al-Khalifah, N.S.; Shanavaskhan, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Varietal identification of olives is an intrinsic and empirical exercise owing to the large number of synonyms and homonyms, intensive exchange of genotypes, presence of varietal clones and lack of proper certification in nurseries. A comparative study of morphological characters of eight olive cultivars grown in Saudi Arabia was carried out and analyzed using NTSYSpc (Numerical Taxonomy System for personal computer) system segregated smaller fruits in one clade and the rest in two clades. Koroneiki, a Greek cultivar with a small sized fruit shared arm with Spanish variety Arbosana. Morphologic analysis using NTSYSpc revealed that biometrics of leaves, fruits and seeds are reliable morphologic characters to distinguish between varieties, except for a few morphologically very similar olive cultivars. The proximate analysis showed significant variations in the protein, fiber, crude fat, ash and moisture content of different cultivars. The study also showed that neither the size of fruit nor the fruit pulp thickness is a limiting factor determining crude fat content of olives. PMID:26858547

  3. Identification of potential sources of airborne Olea pollen in the Southwest Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, S.; Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Tormo-Molina, R.; Brandao, R.; Caeiro, E.; Silva-Palacios, I.; Gonzalo-Garijo, Á.; Smith, M.

    2012-04-01

    This study aims to determine the potential origin of Olea pollen recorded in Badajoz in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula during 2009-2011. This was achieved using a combination of daily average and diurnal (hourly) airborne Olea pollen counts recorded at Badajoz (southwestern Spain) and Évora (southeastern Portugal), an inventory of olive groves in the studied area and air mass trajectory calculations computed using the HYSPLIT model. Examining olive pollen episodes at Badajoz that had distinctly different diurnal cycles in olive pollen in relation to the mean, allowed us to identify three different scenarios where olive pollen can be transported to the city from either distant or nearby sources. Back trajectory analysis showed that olive pollen can be transported to Badajoz from the West on prevailing winds, either directly or on slow moving air masses, and from high densities of olive groves situated to the Southeast (e.g. Andalucía). Regional scale transport of olive pollen can result in increased nighttime concentrations of this important aeroallergen. This could be particularly important in Mediterranean countries where people can be outdoors during this time due to climate and lifestyle. Such studies are valuable for allergy sufferers and health care professionals because the information can be incorporated into forecasts, the outputs of which are used for avoiding exposure to aeroallergens and planning medication. The results of studies of this nature can also be used for examining gene flow in this important agricultural crop.

  4. Olive fruit fly adult response to attract-and-kill bait stations in greenhouse cages with weathered bait spray and a commercial table olive orchard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An attract-and-kill trap for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) adults, and olive foliage sprayed with insecticidal bait spray were evaluated for efficacy after 1-4 weeks in outdoor weather. Adults caged for 1-3 days with weathered material on foliage and traps in the greenhouse resulted in h...

  5. Temperature Effects on Olive Fruit Fly Infestation in the FlySim Cellular Automata Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Vincenzo; Baldacchini, Valerio; di Gregorio, Salvatore

    FlySim is a Cellular Automata model developed for simulating infestation of olive fruit flies (Bactrocera Oleae) on olive (Olea europaea) groves. The flies move into the groves looking for mature olives where eggs are spawn. This serious agricultural problem is mainly tackled by using chemical agents at the first signs of the infestation, but organic productions with no or few chemicals are strongly requested by the market. Oil made with infested olives is poor in quality, nor olives are suitable for selling in stores. The FlySim model simulates the diffusion of flies looking for mature olives and the growing of flies due to atmospheric conditions. Foreseeing an infestation is the best way to prevent it and to reduce the need of chemicals in agriculture. In this work we investigated the effects of temperature on olive fruit flies and resulting infestation during late spring and summer.

  6. Development of Biological and Cultural Control of Olive Fruit Fly in the Central Valley of California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The eastern side of the Central Valley of California where olives are grown for canning was surveyed for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), infestations. The pest was found for the first time in unusually high numbers in Merced. The a parasitic wasp, Psyttalia humilis (Silvestri), was import...

  7. Nondestructive Olive Quality Detection Using FT-NIR Spectroscopy in Reflectance Mode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quality features (firmness, oil content and color in terms of hue and chroma) of two olive (Olea europaea L) varieties (‘Ayvalik’ and ‘Gemlik’) were predicted using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. Reflectance measurements of intact olives were performed using a bifurcated fibe...

  8. Virulence of selected entomopathogenic fungi against the olive fruit fly and their potential for biocontrol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most serious pest of cultivated olives worldwide. Its recent invasion into North America, specifically California, has initiated renewed interest in management strategies for this pest. Research into classical biological control ha...

  9. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF OLIVE FLY: BALANCING PARASITOID EFFECTIVENESS AGAINST NON-TARGET IMPACTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), has become an important pest of California olives, and is the target of a classical biological control program. We report here on the pre-release screening of imported parasitoids Hymenoptera:Braconidae), conducted in the University of California ...

  10. Prediction of olive quality using FT-NIR spectroscopy in reflectance and transmittance modes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to use FT-NIR spectroscopy to predict the firmness, oil content and color of two olive (Olea europaea L) varieties (‘Ayvalik’ and ‘Gemlik’). Spectral measurements were performed on the intact olives for the wavelengths of 780-2500 nm in reflectance and for 800-1725...

  11. Comparative evaluation of two olive fruit fly parasitoids under varying abiotic conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) invaded California around 1998 and has become a major olive pest. Two larval parasitoids, Psyttalia lounsburyi (Silvestri) and P. humilis (Szépligeti) (both Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were introduced from Africa into California and p...

  12. Regional forecast model for the Olea pollen season in Extremadura (SW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Durán-Barroso, Pablo; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Maya-Manzano, José María; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela

    2016-02-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea) is a predominantly Mediterranean anemophilous species. The pollen allergens from this tree are an important cause of allergic problems. Olea pollen may be relevant in relation to climate change, due to the fact that its flowering phenology is related to meteorological parameters. This study aims to investigate airborne Olea pollen data from a city on the SW Iberian Peninsula, to analyse the trends in these data and their relationships with meteorological parameters using time series analysis. Aerobiological sampling was conducted from 1994 to 2013 in Badajoz (SW Spain) using a 7-day Hirst-type volumetric sampler. The main Olea pollen season lasted an average of 34 days, from May 4th to June 7th. The model proposed to forecast airborne pollen concentrations, described by one equation. This expression is composed of two terms: the first term represents the resilience of the pollen concentration trend in the air according to the average concentration of the previous 10 days; the second term was obtained from considering the actual pollen concentration value, which is calculated based on the most representative meteorological variables multiplied by a fitting coefficient. Due to the allergenic characteristics of this pollen type, it should be necessary to forecast its short-term prevalence using a long record of data in a city with a Mediterranean climate. The model obtained provides a suitable level of confidence to forecast Olea airborne pollen concentration.

  13. Olea europaea (Oleaceae) phylogeography based on chloroplast DNA polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Besnard, G.; Khadari, B.; Baradat, P.; Bervillé, A.

    2002-06-01

    Chloroplast DNA diversity in the olive ( Olea europaea L.) complex was studied using PCR-RFLP and microsatellite markers. Fifteen chlorotypes were distinguished. We constructed a cpDNA phylogenetic tree in which five clades were recognised and located in distinct geographic areas: clade A in Central and Southern Africa, clade C in Asia, clade M in North-West Africa, clade E1 in the Mediterranean Basin and Sahara, and clade E2 in West Mediterranea. Cultivated olive clustered with Mediterranean and Saharan wild forms (clades E1 and E2). Strong genetic differentiation for cpDNA markers was observed between eastern and western Mediterranean olives, suggesting that these areas have represented different glacial refugia. Humans most likely spread one eastern chlorotype, preponderant in cultivars, across the western Mediterranean Basin. Its presence in O. e. subsp. laperrinei from the Sahara suggests a possible Mediterranean olive origin in an African population, which may have overlapped in the Southern Mediterranean during the Quaternary. PMID:12582591

  14. Olive flowering as an indicator of local climatic changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandi, F.; Ruga, L.; Romano, B.; Fornaciari, M.

    2005-07-01

    In recent years many studies on climate change and its impacts have been published. In this investigation the flowering of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) in central Italy was related to climate and its usefulness as a bio-indicator for climatic change has been studied.

  15. Olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California: Longevity, oviposition, and development in canning olives in the laboratory and greenhouse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly adults, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), lived 11 d without food and water, and 8 d with food and water in the warm side of a greenhouse; and, in the cool side, adults lived 10 d without food and water, and percentage survival with food and water was about 50, 25, 10, 1, and 0 at 26, 46, 8...

  16. Identification of potential sources of airborne Olea pollen in the Southwest Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Brandao, Rui; Caeiro, Elsa; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela; Smith, Matt

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to determine the potential origin of Olea pollen recorded in Badajoz in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula during 2009-2011. This was achieved using a combination of daily average and diurnal (hourly) airborne Olea pollen counts recorded at Badajoz (south-western Spain) and Évora (south-eastern Portugal), an inventory of olive groves in the studied area and air mass trajectory calculations computed using the HYSPLIT model. Examining olive pollen episodes at Badajoz that had distinctly different diurnal cycles in olive pollen in relation to the mean, allowed us to identify three different scenarios where olive pollen can be transported to the city from either distant or nearby sources during conditions with slow air mass movements. Back trajectory analysis showed that olive pollen can be transported to Badajoz from the West on prevailing winds, either directly or on slow moving air masses, and from high densities of olive groves situated to the Southeast (e.g. Andalucía). Regional scale transport of olive pollen can result in increased nighttime concentrations of this important aeroallergen. This could be particularly important in Mediterranean countries where people can be outdoors during this time due to climate and lifestyle. Such studies that examine sources and the atmospheric transport of pollen are valuable for allergy sufferers and health care professionals because the information can be incorporated into forecasts, the outputs of which are used for avoiding exposure to aeroallergens and planning medication. The results of studies of this nature can also be used for examining gene flow in this important agricultural crop.

  17. Identification of potential sources of airborne Olea pollen in the Southwest Iberian Peninsula.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Fernández-Rodríguez S; Skjøth CA; Tormo-Molina R; Brandao R; Caeiro E; Silva-Palacios I; Gonzalo-Garijo A; Smith M

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to determine the potential origin of Olea pollen recorded in Badajoz in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula during 2009-2011. This was achieved using a combination of daily average and diurnal (hourly) airborne Olea pollen counts recorded at Badajoz (south-western Spain) and Évora (south-eastern Portugal), an inventory of olive groves in the studied area and air mass trajectory calculations computed using the HYSPLIT model. Examining olive pollen episodes at Badajoz that had distinctly different diurnal cycles in olive pollen in relation to the mean, allowed us to identify three different scenarios where olive pollen can be transported to the city from either distant or nearby sources during conditions with slow air mass movements. Back trajectory analysis showed that olive pollen can be transported to Badajoz from the West on prevailing winds, either directly or on slow moving air masses, and from high densities of olive groves situated to the Southeast (e.g. Andalucía). Regional scale transport of olive pollen can result in increased nighttime concentrations of this important aeroallergen. This could be particularly important in Mediterranean countries where people can be outdoors during this time due to climate and lifestyle. Such studies that examine sources and the atmospheric transport of pollen are valuable for allergy sufferers and health care professionals because the information can be incorporated into forecasts, the outputs of which are used for avoiding exposure to aeroallergens and planning medication. The results of studies of this nature can also be used for examining gene flow in this important agricultural crop.

  18. Identification of potential sources of airborne Olea pollen in the Southwest Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Brandao, Rui; Caeiro, Elsa; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Angela; Smith, Matt

    2014-04-01

    This study aims to determine the potential origin of Olea pollen recorded in Badajoz in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula during 2009-2011. This was achieved using a combination of daily average and diurnal (hourly) airborne Olea pollen counts recorded at Badajoz (south-western Spain) and Évora (south-eastern Portugal), an inventory of olive groves in the studied area and air mass trajectory calculations computed using the HYSPLIT model. Examining olive pollen episodes at Badajoz that had distinctly different diurnal cycles in olive pollen in relation to the mean, allowed us to identify three different scenarios where olive pollen can be transported to the city from either distant or nearby sources during conditions with slow air mass movements. Back trajectory analysis showed that olive pollen can be transported to Badajoz from the West on prevailing winds, either directly or on slow moving air masses, and from high densities of olive groves situated to the Southeast (e.g. Andalucía). Regional scale transport of olive pollen can result in increased nighttime concentrations of this important aeroallergen. This could be particularly important in Mediterranean countries where people can be outdoors during this time due to climate and lifestyle. Such studies that examine sources and the atmospheric transport of pollen are valuable for allergy sufferers and health care professionals because the information can be incorporated into forecasts, the outputs of which are used for avoiding exposure to aeroallergens and planning medication. The results of studies of this nature can also be used for examining gene flow in this important agricultural crop. PMID:23334443

  19. Antidiabetic effect of Olea europaea L. in normal and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Eidi, A; Eidi, M; Darzi, R

    2009-03-01

    The antidiabetic effect of an alcohol extract of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves was investigated in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The oral administration of the olive leaves extract (0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg body wt) for 14 days significantly decreased the serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, uric acid, creatinine, aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) while it increased the serum insulin in diabetic rats but not in normal rats (p < 0.05). A comparison was made between the action of olive leaves extract and glibenclamide (600 microg/kg), a known antidiabetic drug. The antidiabetic effect of the extract was more effective than that observed with glibenclamide. PMID:18844257

  20. Nonsterol Triterpenoids as Major Constituents of Olea europaea

    PubMed Central

    Stiti, Naïm; Hartmann, Marie-Andrée

    2012-01-01

    Plant triterpenoids represent a large and structurally diverse class of natural products. A growing interest has been focused on triterpenoids over the past decade due to their beneficial effects on human health. We show here that these bioactive compounds are major constituents of several aerial parts (floral bud, leaf bud, stem, and leaf) of olive tree, a crop exploited so far almost exclusively for its fruit and oil. O. europaea callus cultures were analyzed as well. Twenty sterols and twenty-nine nonsteroidal tetra- and pentacyclic triterpenoids belonging to seven types of carbon skeletons (oleanane, ursane, lupane, taraxerane, taraxastane, euphane, and lanostane) were identified and quantified by GC and GC-MS as free and esterified compounds. The oleanane-type compounds, oleanolic acid and maslinic acid, were largely predominant in all the organs tested, whereas they are practically absent in olive oil. In floral buds, they represented as much as 2.7% of dry matter. In callus cultures, lanostane-type compounds were the most abundant triterpenoids. In all the tissues analyzed, free and esterified triterpene alcohols exhibited different distribution patterns of their carbon skeletons. Taken together, these data provide new insights into largely unknown triterpene secondary metabolism of Olea europaea. PMID:22523691

  1. Mobility of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) late third instars and teneral adults in test arenas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mobility of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), late third instars before pupation, teneral adults before flight, and mature adults restricted from flight was studied under mulches in greenhouse cage tests, in horizontal pipes, vertical bottles and pipes filled with sand, and by observati...

  2. 2008 Field Releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor for Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid Psytallia cf. concolor (Szépligeti) was reared on sterile Mediterranean fruit fly larvae at the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Petapa Quarantine Laboratory in Guatemala and shipped to the USDA-ARS, Parlier for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in California. Improved ...

  3. Classic biological control of olive fruit fly in California, USA: release and recovery of introduced parasitoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The establishment of olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) in California led to a classical biological program. This study reports the release and recovery of two solitary larval endoparasitoids, Psyttalia humilis Silvestri and Psyttalia lounsburyi (Silvestri) from sub-Saharan Africa, in two coa...

  4. Evaluation of olive as a host of Xylella fastidiosa and associated sharpshooter vectors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) trees exhibiting leaf scorch and/or branch dieback symptoms in California were surveyed for the xylem-limited, fastidious bacterium Xylella fastidiosa. Only ~17% of diseased trees tested positive for X. fastidiosa by PCR, and disease symptoms could not be attributed to X. fa...

  5. Pest, Parasitoid, and Fruit Interactions in Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), and the imported parasitoid, P. humilis, required cool temperatures, high humidities, and food and water for prolonged survival (about 6 months for host) in laboratory and greenhouse tests. Life span was greatly shortened by high temperatures, low humiditi...

  6. Centennial olive trees as a reservoir of genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Díez, Concepción M.; Trujillo, Isabel; Barrio, Eladio; Belaj, Angjelina; Barranco, Diego; Rallo, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the oldest trees could be a powerful tool both for germplasm collection and for understanding the earliest origins of clonally propagated fruit crops. The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is a suitable model to study the origin of cultivars due to its long lifespan, resulting in the existence of both centennial and millennial trees across the Mediterranean Basin. Methods The genetic identity and diversity as well as the phylogenetic relationships among the oldest wild and cultivated olives of southern Spain were evaluated by analysing simple sequence repeat markers. Samples from both the canopy and the roots of each tree were analysed to distinguish which trees were self-rooted and which were grafted. The ancient olives were also put into chronological order to infer the antiquity of traditional olive cultivars. Key Results Only 9·6 % out of 104 a priori cultivated ancient genotypes matched current olive cultivars. The percentage of unidentified genotypes was higher among the oldest olives, which could be because they belong to ancient unknown cultivars or because of possible intra-cultivar variability. Comparing the observed patterns of genetic variation made it possible to distinguish which trees were grafted onto putative wild olives. Conclusions This study of ancient olives has been fruitful both for germplasm collection and for enlarging our knowledge about olive domestication. The findings suggest that grafting pre-existing wild olives with olive cultivars was linked to the beginnings of olive growing. Additionally, the low number of genotypes identified in current cultivars points out that the ancient olives from southern Spain constitute a priceless reservoir of genetic diversity. PMID:21852276

  7. OGDD (Olive Genetic Diversity Database): a microsatellite markers' genotypes database of worldwide olive trees for cultivar identification and virgin olive oil traceability.

    PubMed

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Ben Marzoug, Riadh; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea), whose importance is mainly due to nutritional and health features, is one of the most economically significant oil-producing trees in the Mediterranean region. Unfortunately, the increasing market demand towards virgin olive oil could often result in its adulteration with less expensive oils, which is a serious problem for the public and quality control evaluators of virgin olive oil. Therefore, to avoid frauds, olive cultivar identification and virgin olive oil authentication have become a major issue for the producers and consumers of quality control in the olive chain. Presently, genetic traceability using SSR is the cost effective and powerful marker technique that can be employed to resolve such problems. However, to identify an unknown monovarietal virgin olive oil cultivar, a reference system has become necessary. Thus, an Olive Genetic Diversity Database (OGDD) (http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/) is presented in this work. It is a genetic, morphologic and chemical database of worldwide olive tree and oil having a double function. In fact, besides being a reference system generated for the identification of unkown olive or virgin olive oil cultivars based on their microsatellite allele size(s), it provides users additional morphological and chemical information for each identified cultivar. Currently, OGDD is designed to enable users to easily retrieve and visualize biologically important information (SSR markers, and olive tree and oil characteristics of about 200 cultivars worldwide) using a set of efficient query interfaces and analysis tools. It can be accessed through a web service from any modern programming language using a simple hypertext transfer protocol call. The web site is implemented in java, JavaScript, PHP, HTML and Apache with all major browsers supported. Database URL: http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/. PMID:26827236

  8. OGDD (Olive Genetic Diversity Database): a microsatellite markers' genotypes database of worldwide olive trees for cultivar identification and virgin olive oil traceability

    PubMed Central

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Ben Marzoug, Riadh; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea), whose importance is mainly due to nutritional and health features, is one of the most economically significant oil-producing trees in the Mediterranean region. Unfortunately, the increasing market demand towards virgin olive oil could often result in its adulteration with less expensive oils, which is a serious problem for the public and quality control evaluators of virgin olive oil. Therefore, to avoid frauds, olive cultivar identification and virgin olive oil authentication have become a major issue for the producers and consumers of quality control in the olive chain. Presently, genetic traceability using SSR is the cost effective and powerful marker technique that can be employed to resolve such problems. However, to identify an unknown monovarietal virgin olive oil cultivar, a reference system has become necessary. Thus, an Olive Genetic Diversity Database (OGDD) (http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/) is presented in this work. It is a genetic, morphologic and chemical database of worldwide olive tree and oil having a double function. In fact, besides being a reference system generated for the identification of unkown olive or virgin olive oil cultivars based on their microsatellite allele size(s), it provides users additional morphological and chemical information for each identified cultivar. Currently, OGDD is designed to enable users to easily retrieve and visualize biologically important information (SSR markers, and olive tree and oil characteristics of about 200 cultivars worldwide) using a set of efficient query interfaces and analysis tools. It can be accessed through a web service from any modern programming language using a simple hypertext transfer protocol call. The web site is implemented in java, JavaScript, PHP, HTML and Apache with all major browsers supported. Database URL: http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/ PMID:26827236

  9. Evaluation of native plant flower characteristics for conservation biological control of Prays oleae.

    PubMed

    Nave, A; Gonçalves, F; Crespí, A L; Campos, M; Torres, L

    2016-04-01

    Several studies have shown that manipulating flowering weeds within an agroecosystem can have an important role in pest control by natural enemies, by providing them nectar and pollen, which are significant sources of nutrition for adults. The aim of this study was to assess if the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard, 1788) (Lepidoptera: Praydidae), and five of its main natural enemies, the parasitoid species Chelonus elaeaphilus Silvestri (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Apanteles xanthostigma (Haliday) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Ageniaspis fuscicollis (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Elasmus flabellatus (Fonscolombe) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), as well as the predator Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), can theoretically access the nectar from 21 flowering weeds that naturally occur in olive groves. Thus, the architecture of the flowers as well as the mouthpart structure and/or the head and thorax width of the pest and its enemies were analyzed. The results suggested that all beneficial insects were able to reach nectar of the plant species from Apiaceae family, i.e. Conopodium majus (Gouan) Loret, Daucus carota L. and Foeniculum vulgare Mill., as well as Asparagus acutifolius L., Echium plantagineum L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., Raphanus raphanistrum L., Lonicera hispanica Boiss. et Reut., Silene gallica L., Spergula arvensis L., Hypericum perforatum L., Calamintha baetica Boiss. et Reut, Malva neglecta Wallr. and Linaria saxatilis (L.) Chaz. P. oleae was not able to access nectar from five plant species, namely: Andryala integrifolia L., Chondrilla juncea L., Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter, Sonchus asper (L.) Hill and Lavandula stoechas L. PMID:26780918

  10. Selective recognition of DNA from olive leaves and olive oil by PNA and modified-PNA microarrays.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Stefano; Calabretta, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Tullia; Sforza, Stefano; Arcioni, Sergio; Baldoni, Luciana; Corradini, Roberto; Marchelli, Rosangela

    2012-01-01

    PNA probes for the specific detection of DNA from olive oil samples by microarray technology were developed. The presence of as low as 5% refined hazelnut (Corylus avellana) oil in extra-virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L.) could be detected by using a PNA microarray. A set of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Actin gene of Olive was chosen as a model for evaluating the ability of PNA probes for discriminating olive cultivars. Both unmodified and C2-modified PNAs bearing an arginine side-chain were used, the latter showing higher sequence specificity. DNA extracted from leaves of three different cultivars (Ogliarola leccese, Canino and Frantoio) could be easily discriminated using a microarray with unmodified PNA probes, whereas discrimination of DNA from oil samples was more challenging, and could be obtained only by using chiral PNA probes. PMID:22772038

  11. Selective recognition of DNA from olive leaves and olive oil by PNA and modified-PNA microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Stefano; Calabretta, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Tullia; Sforza, Stefano; Arcioni, Sergio; Baldoni, Luciana; Corradini, Roberto; Marchelli, Rosangela

    2012-01-01

    PNA probes for the specific detection of DNA from olive oil samples by microarray technology were developed. The presence of as low as 5% refined hazelnut (Corylus avellana) oil in extra-virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L.) could be detected by using a PNA microarray. A set of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Actin gene of Olive was chosen as a model for evaluating the ability of PNA probes for discriminating olive cultivars. Both unmodified and C2-modified PNAs bearing an arginine side-chain were used, the latter showing higher sequence specificity. DNA extracted from leaves of three different cultivars (Ogliarola leccese, Canino and Frantoio) could be easily discriminated using a microarray with unmodified PNA probes, whereas discrimination of DNA from oil samples was more challenging, and could be obtained only by using chiral PNA probes. PMID:22772038

  12. Effect of Extraction Conditions on the Antioxidant Activity of Olive Wood Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Bonilla, Mercedes; Salido, Sofía; Sánchez, Adolfo; van Beek, Teris A.; Altarejos, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    An investigation to optimize the extraction yield and the radical scavenging activity from the agricultural by-product olive tree wood (Olea europaea L., cultivar Picual) using six different extraction protocols was carried out. Four olive wood samples from different geographical origin, and harvesting time have been used for comparison purposes. Among the fifty olive wood extracts obtained in this study, the most active ones were those prepared with ethyl acetate, either through direct extraction or by successive liquid-liquid partitioning procedures, the main components being the secoiridoids oleuropein and ligustroside. An acid hydrolysis pretreatment of olive wood samples before extractions did not improve the results. In the course of this study, two compounds were isolated from the ethanolic extracts of olive wood collected during the olives' harvesting season and identified as (7′′R)-7′′-ethoxyoleuropein (1) and (7′′S)-7′′-ethoxyoleuropein (2). PMID:26904608

  13. Olive Fruit Fly, an Invasive Species in California, Mitigation by Cultural and Biological Control Based on Pest Biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive fruit fly (OLF), Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), was first detected in California in 1998. Adults can live for 7 months and lay eggs at 12 d-old with a peak at 20 d. The larvae complete development in fruit 1cm in height. Hot and dry conditions can cause complete mortality of the immatures. Non-har...

  14. Olive fruit fly: managing an ancient pest in modern times.

    PubMed

    Daane, Kent M; Johnson, Marshall W

    2010-01-01

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major pest of commercial olives worldwide. Various aspects of its biology, ecology, management, and impact on olive production are highlighted. With the discovery of insecticidal resistance in some populations frequently treated with organophosphates, old and new control options are being investigated. The potential of biological control is examined. Surveys suggest that a small group of braconids in the Opiinae subfamily best represent the primary parasitoids attacking olive fruit fly in its native range. These species include Psyttalia lounsburyi, P. dacicida, P. concolor, P. ponerophaga, and Utetes africanus. Bracon celer, another braconid but in the Braconinae subfamily, is also reared from the fruit fly in its native range. The potential of these and other natural enemies is discussed with respect to olive fruit fly biology, commercial olive production, and biological constraints that may limit their success. We suggest that numerous species exist that should be further investigated as control agents for olive fruit fly in the many climatic regimes where the pest is found. PMID:19961328

  15. Pathogenicity of Four Species of Meloidogyne on Three Varieties of Olive Trees

    PubMed Central

    Lamberti, F.; Baines, R. C.

    1969-01-01

    'Ascolano' and 'Sevillano' olive trees, Olea europaea L., were highly susceptible to Meloidogyne javanica (Trueb) Chitwood, and growth of their tops was decreased greatly in tests in a glasshouse. Roots of 'Manzanillo' olive trees were galled moderately by M. javanica, and their tops weighed 6% less than those of noninoculated trees. 'Manzanillo' olive is considered highly tolerant to M. javanica. 'Ascolano' and 'Manzanillo' olive trees were highly susceptible to M. incognita (Kofoid &White) Chitwood. Their roots were galled moderately to severely, and growth of their tops were decreased between 13% and 44%. 'Ascolano' and 'Manzanillo' olive trees were considered to be highly resistant to M. arenaria (Neal) Chitwood and M. hapla Chitwood since no galls or mature females were found on their roots three and one-half months after inoculation. PMID:19325664

  16. Towards understanding temporal and spatial dynamics of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) infestations using decade-long agrometeorological time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchi, Susanna; Guidotti, Diego; Ricciolini, Massimo; Petacchi, Ruggero

    2016-04-01

    Insect dynamics depend on temperature patterns, and therefore, global warming may lead to increasing frequencies and intensities of insect outbreaks. The aim of this work was to analyze the dynamics of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), in Tuscany (Italy). We profited from long-term records of insect infestation and weather data available from the regional database and agrometeorological network. We tested whether the analysis of 13 years of monitoring campaigns can be used as basis for prediction models of B. oleae infestation. We related the percentage of infestation observed in the first part of the host-pest interaction and throughout the whole year to agrometeorological indices formulated for different time periods. A two-step approach was adopted to inspect the effect of weather on infestation: generalized linear model with a binomial error distribution and principal component regression to reduce the number of the agrometeorological factors and remove their collinearity. We found a consistent relationship between the degree of infestation and the temperature-based indices calculated for the previous period. The relationship was stronger with the minimum temperature of winter season. Higher infestation was observed in years following warmer winters. The temperature of the previous winter and spring explained 66 % of variance of early-season infestation. The temperature of previous winter and spring, and current summer, explained 72 % of variance of total annual infestation. These results highlight the importance of multiannual monitoring activity to fully understand the dynamics of B. oleae populations at a regional scale.

  17. The Genetic Polymorphisms and Colonization Process of Olive Fly Populations in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Dogaç, Ersin; Kandemir, İrfan; Taskin, Vatan

    2013-01-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest of olives in olive growing regions worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean basin and North America. Despite the economic importance of the olive fly, the colonization route of this species is unclear. We used nuclear microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA to provide information about the population structure and invasion route of olive fly populations in Turkey, as representative of the Eastern Mediterranean region. Adult fly samples were collected from 38 sublocations covering all olive growing regions in Turkey. The simple sequence variability data revealed a significant genetic variability in olive fly populations and a certain degree of differentiation between Mediterranean and Aegean populations. Mediterranean populations harbor higher levels of microsatellite variation than Aegean populations, which points to the eastern part of the Mediterranean as the putative source of invasion. mtDNA results suggest olive flies from the western part of Turkey are closely related to Italo-Aegean flies of the Mediterranean basin and the olive fly populations have invaded the northern part of the Mediterranean basin through western Turkey. In addition, finding specific American haplotypes in high frequencies might indicate that Turkey is the possible source of American olive fly populations. In order to more precisely characterize the population structure and invasion routes of this organism, more DNA-based sequence analysis should be carried out worldwide. PMID:23457499

  18. Synthesis of deuterium-labelled substrates for the study of oleuropein biosynthesis in Olea europaea callus cultures.

    PubMed

    Serrilli, Anna Maria; Maggi, Agnese; Casagrande, Valentina; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2016-04-01

    We propose the cell culture approach to investigate oleuropein (1) biogenesis in Olea europaea L. We suggest employing olive callus cultures to identify the iridoidic precursor of oleuropein. In fact, we confirmed that callus cells from olive shoot explants are able to produce key secoiridoid as 1. To enable this approach, we synthesised and characterised deuterium-labelled iridoidic precursors belonging both to the loganin and the 8-epiloganin series. These iridoids are [7,8-(2)H2]-7-deoxy-8-epi-loganin (2(D)), [8,10-(2)H2]-8-epi-loganin (4(D)) and [7,8-(2)H2]-7-deoxy-loganin (3(D)). PMID:26407195

  19. Boron deficiency and concentrations and composition of phenolic compounds in Olea europaea leaves: a combined growth chamber and field study.

    PubMed

    Liakopoulos, Georgios; Karabourniotis, George

    2005-03-01

    Boron deficiency is the most frequent micronutrient disorder in olive (Olea spp.) orchards. We tested the hypothesis that plant boron status affects phenolic metabolism, which, in turn, influences several ecophysiological traits of olive (Olea europaea L.) trees, by studying the effects of boron deficiency on leaf phenolic compounds of olive in a growth chamber experiment (CE) and a field experiment (FE). In the CE, a semi-hydroponic system was used to control nutrient supply. Plants received complete nutrient solution containing either 23 (control) or 0 microM H3BO3 (boron-deficient treatment). In the FE, boron-deficient trees were chosen based on visible boron-deficiency symptoms and analysis of their leaf boron concentration. Boron deficiency caused significant accumulation of phenolic compounds in leaves of CE plants (1.7 to 5.8 times more, depending on leaf age), but not in leaves of FE plants. However, in both experiments, the concentration of an unidentified phenolic compound, with a UV-spectrum resembling that of caffeic acid, increased in response to boron deficiency (by a factor of 40 to 184 in the CE and by a factor of three in the FE). Regression analysis showed that the concentration of this compound was negatively correlated to leaf boron concentration, irrespective of growth conditions and treatment. We conclude that, under field conditions, boron deficiency may not be the only factor determining the concentration of total phenolics, but it may be responsible for the accumulation of a distinct phenolic metabolite in olive leaves. PMID:15631979

  20. Phenotypic comparisons between wild relatives and cultivars of kiwifruit, persimmon, mulberry, and olive at the National Clonal Germplasm Repository, Davis, CA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenotypic traits were characterized for 23 wild species and 4 cultivars of 4 clonal fruit crops including, Kiwifruit (Actinidia), Persimmon (Diospyros), Mulberry (Morus) and Olive (Olea). Across all four crops, the wild species varied distinctly, especially when compared with the cultivars. The wil...

  1. Non-target host risk assessment of the idiobiont parasitoid Bracon celer (Hymenoptera:Bracondiae) for biological control of olive fly in California.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The non-target risk posed by the African fruit-fly parasitoid, Bracon celer Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), was assessed as part of a classical biological program for the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) in California, USA. Behavioral and reproductive ...

  2. Spatiotemporal analysis of olive flowering using geostatistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-02-01

    Analysis of flowering patterns in the olive (Olea europaea L.) are of considerable agricultural and ecological interest, and also provide valuable information for allergy-sufferers, enabling identification of the major sources of airborne pollen at any given moment by interpreting the aerobiological data recorded in pollen traps. The present spatiotemporal analysis of olive flowering in central Spain combined geostatistical techniques with the application of a Geographic Information Systems, and compared results for flowering intensity with airborne pollen records. The results were used to obtain continuous phenological maps which determined the pattern of the succession of the olive flowering. The results show also that, although the highest airborne olive-pollen counts were recorded during the greatest flowering intensity of the groves closest to the pollen trap, the counts recorded at the start of the pollen season were not linked to local olive groves, which had not yet begin to flower. To detect the remote sources of olive pollen several episodes of pollen recorded before the local flowering season were analysed using a HYSPLIT trajectory model and the findings showed that western, southern and southwestern winds transported pollen grains into the study area from earlier-flowering groves located outside the territory. PMID:25461089

  3. Chemical and Biological Investigation of Olive Mill Waste Water - OMWW Secoiridoid Lactones.

    PubMed

    Vougogiannopoulou, Konstantina; Angelopoulou, Maria T; Pratsinis, Harris; Grougnet, Raphaël; Halabalaki, Maria; Kletsas, Dimitris; Deguin, Brigitte; Skaltsounis, Leandros A

    2015-08-01

    Olive mill waste water is the major byproduct of the olive oil industry containing a range of compounds related to Olea europaea and olive oil constituents. Olive mill waste water comprises an important environmental problem in olive oil producing countries, but it is also a valuable material for the isolation of high added value compounds. In this study, an attempt to investigate the secoiridoid content of olive mill waste water is described with the aid of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization (±)-high-resolution mass spectrometry and centrifugal partition chromatography methods. In total, seven secoiridoid lactones were isolated, four of which are new natural products. This is the first time that a conjugate of hydroxytyrosol and a secoiridoid lactone has been isolated from olive mill waste water and structurally characterized. Furthermore, the range of isolated compounds allowed for the proposal of a hypothesis for the biotransformation of olive secoiridoids during the production of olive mill waste water. Finally, the ability of the representative compounds to reduce the intracellular reactive oxygen species was assessed with the dichlorofluorescein assay in conjunction with the known antioxidant agent hydroxytyrosol. PMID:26218340

  4. Marked Genetic Differentiation between Western Iberian and Italic Populations of the Olive Fly: Southern France as an Intermediate Area

    PubMed Central

    van Asch, Barbara; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando Trindade; da Costa, Luís Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest affecting the olive industry, to which it is estimated to cause average annual losses in excess of one billion dollars. As with other insects with a wide distribution, it is generally accepted that the understanding of B. oleae population structure and dynamics is fundamental for the design and implementation of effective monitoring and control strategies. However, and despite important advances in the past decade, a clear picture of B. oleae's population structure is still lacking. In the Mediterranean basin, where more than 95% of olive production is concentrated, evidence from several studies suggests the existence of three distinct sub-populations, but the geographical limits of their distributions, and the level of interpenetration and gene flow among them remain ill-characterized. Here we use mitochondrial haplotype analysis to show that one of the Mediterranean mitochondrial lineages displays geographically correlated substructure and demonstrate that Italic populations, though markedly distinct from their Iberian and Levantine counterparts are more diverse than previously described. Finally, we show that this distinction does not result from extant hypothetical geographic limits imposed by the Alps or the Pyrenees nor, more generally, does it result from any sharp boundary, as intermixing is observed in a broad area, albeit at variable levels. Instead, Bayesian phylogeographic analysis suggests the interplay between isolation-mediated differentiation during glacial periods and bi-directional dispersal and population intermixing in the interglacials has played a major role in shaping current olive fly population structure. PMID:25951107

  5. Marked Genetic Differentiation between Western Iberian and Italic Populations of the Olive Fly: Southern France as an Intermediate Area.

    PubMed

    van Asch, Barbara; Pereira-Castro, Isabel; Rei, Fernando Trindade; da Costa, Luís Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest affecting the olive industry, to which it is estimated to cause average annual losses in excess of one billion dollars. As with other insects with a wide distribution, it is generally accepted that the understanding of B. oleae population structure and dynamics is fundamental for the design and implementation of effective monitoring and control strategies. However, and despite important advances in the past decade, a clear picture of B. oleae's population structure is still lacking. In the Mediterranean basin, where more than 95% of olive production is concentrated, evidence from several studies suggests the existence of three distinct sub-populations, but the geographical limits of their distributions, and the level of interpenetration and gene flow among them remain ill-characterized. Here we use mitochondrial haplotype analysis to show that one of the Mediterranean mitochondrial lineages displays geographically correlated substructure and demonstrate that Italic populations, though markedly distinct from their Iberian and Levantine counterparts are more diverse than previously described. Finally, we show that this distinction does not result from extant hypothetical geographic limits imposed by the Alps or the Pyrenees nor, more generally, does it result from any sharp boundary, as intermixing is observed in a broad area, albeit at variable levels. Instead, Bayesian phylogeographic analysis suggests the interplay between isolation-mediated differentiation during glacial periods and bi-directional dispersal and population intermixing in the interglacials has played a major role in shaping current olive fly population structure. PMID:25951107

  6. Effects of the olive tree leaf constituents on myocardial oxidative damage and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Efentakis, Panagiotis; Iliodromitis, Efstathios K; Mikros, Emmanuel; Papachristodoulou, Anastasia; Dagres, Nikolaos; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Andreadou, Ioanna

    2015-06-01

    The olive (Olea europaea) leaf is considered an important traditional herbal medicine utilized against infectious diseases, and for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension. Moreover, olive leaf constituents have been related to cardioprotection, probably due to their association with cellular redox modulating effects. The pathogenesis of certain common diseases, including those of the cardiovascular system, involves oxidative stress and tissue inflammation. Olive polyphenolic compounds, such as oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, or tyrosol, possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiatherosclerotic, anti-ischemic, and hypolipidemic effects on the myocardium as demonstrated by various in vitro and in vivo studies. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge on the role of the olive leaf constituents in the prevention of cardiac dysfunction and highlight future perspectives in their use as cardioprotective agents in therapeutics. PMID:26018920

  7. Symbiotic bacteria enable olive fly larvae to overcome host defences.

    PubMed

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

    2015-07-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. We examined the interaction between larvae, their associated bacteria, and fruit chemical defence, hypothesizing that bacterial contribution to larval development is contingent on the phenology of fruit defensive chemistry. We demonstrate that larvae require their natural complement of bacteria (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola: Enterobacteriaceae) in order to develop in unripe olives. Conversely, when feeding on ripe fruit, larval development proceeds independently of these bacteria. Our experiments suggest that bacteria counteract the inhibitory effect of oleuropein-the principal phenolic glycoside in unripe olives. In light of these results, we suggest that the unique symbiosis in olive flies, compared with other frugivorous tephritids, is understood by considering the relationship between the fly, bacteria and fruit chemistry. When applied in an evolutionary context, this approach may also point out the forces which shaped symbioses across the Tephritidae. PMID:26587275

  8. Symbiotic bacteria enable olive fly larvae to overcome host defences

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. We examined the interaction between larvae, their associated bacteria, and fruit chemical defence, hypothesizing that bacterial contribution to larval development is contingent on the phenology of fruit defensive chemistry. We demonstrate that larvae require their natural complement of bacteria (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola: Enterobacteriaceae) in order to develop in unripe olives. Conversely, when feeding on ripe fruit, larval development proceeds independently of these bacteria. Our experiments suggest that bacteria counteract the inhibitory effect of oleuropein—the principal phenolic glycoside in unripe olives. In light of these results, we suggest that the unique symbiosis in olive flies, compared with other frugivorous tephritids, is understood by considering the relationship between the fly, bacteria and fruit chemistry. When applied in an evolutionary context, this approach may also point out the forces which shaped symbioses across the Tephritidae. PMID:26587275

  9. Unsaponifiable Fraction of Unripe Fruits of Olea europaea: An Interesting Source of Anti-inflammatory Constituents.

    PubMed

    Gelmini, Fabrizio; Ruscica, Massimiliano; Macchi, Chiara; Bianchi, Viviana; Maffei Facino, Roberto; Beretta, Giangiacomo; Magni, Paolo

    2016-02-01

    The unsaponifiable fraction of olive oil from unripe fruits of Olea europaea at different stages of maturation (from 20 to 32 weeks after flowering) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in order to select the time associated to the unsaponifiable fraction with the maximal yield in bioactive constituents. According to quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, the unsaponifiable fraction (2.46 % of the total oil) from olive fruits at the 22nd week was found to contain the maximal yield in anti-inflammatory constituents. Its composition was lanosterol (2.60 mg/g oil), stigmasterol (2.15), cycloartanol acetate (2.04), stigmastan-3,5-diene (2.01), obtusifoliol (1.93), cholesta-4,6-dien-3-one (1.42), α-amyrin (1.42), α-tocopherol (1.32), squalene (1.02), β-amyrin (0.57), and β-sitosterol (0.22). At later times, there was a decrease in the quantitative unsaponifiable fraction yield and a qualitative shift in the bioactive constituents. The 22nd week unsaponifiable fraction was subsequently incorporated into a topical preparation to be utilized for a small pilot clinical study in five patients affected by osteoarthrosis. According to clinical observation, the application of the ointment (three times daily for three weeks) attenuated hand and knee joint inflammatory features in all patients and was not associated to any adverse reactions. PMID:26544118

  10. High Genetic Diversity Detected in Olives beyond the Boundaries of the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh-Hassani, Massoma; Ataei, Saeedeh; Cultrera, Nicolò G. M.; Pandolfi, Saverio; Baldoni, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Background Olive trees (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. europaea) naturally grow in areas spanning the Mediterranean basin and towards the East, including the Middle East. In the Iranian plateau, the presence of olives has been documented since very ancient times, though the early history of the crop in this area is shrouded in uncertainty. Methods The varieties presently cultivated in Iran and trees of an unknown cultivation status, surviving under extreme climate and soil conditions, were sampled from different provinces and compared with a set of Mediterranean cultivars. All samples were analyzed using SSR and chloroplast markers to establish the relationships between Iranian olives and Mediterranean varieties, to shed light on the origins of Iranian olives and to verify their contribution to the development of the current global olive variation. Results Iranian cultivars and ecotypes, when analyzed using SSR markers, clustered separately from Mediterranean cultivars and showed a high number of private alleles, on the contrary, they shared the same single chlorotype with the most widespread varieties cultivated in the Mediterranean. Conclusion We hypothesized that Iranian and Mediterranean olive trees may have had a common origin from a unique center in the Near East region, possibly including the western Iranian area. The present pattern of variation may have derived from different environmental conditions, distinct levels and selection criteria, and divergent breeding opportunities found by Mediterranean and Iranian olives.These unexpected findings emphasize the importance of studying the Iranian olive germplasm as a promising but endangered source of variation. PMID:24709858

  11. Introducing cultivated trees into the wild: Wood pigeons as dispersers of domestic olive seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perea, Ramón; Gutiérrez-Galán, Alejandro

    2016-02-01

    Animals may disperse cultivated trees outside the agricultural land, favoring the naturalization or, even, the invasiveness of domestic plants. However, the ecological and conservation implications of new or unexplored mutualisms between cultivated trees and wild animals are still far from clear. Here, we examine the possible role of an expanding and, locally, overabundant pigeon species (Columba palumbus) as an effective disperser of domestic olive trees (Olea europaea), a widespread cultivated tree, considered a naturalized and invasive species in many areas of the world. By analyzing crop and gizzard content we found that olive fruits were an important food item for pigeons in late winter and spring. A proportion of 40.3% pigeons consumed olive seeds, with an average consumption of 7.8 seeds per pigeon and day. Additionally, most seed sizes (up to 0.7 g) passed undamaged through the gut and were dispersed from cultivated olive orchards to areas covered by protected Mediterranean vegetation, recording minimal dispersal distances of 1.8-7.4 km. Greenhouse experiments showed that seeds dispersed by pigeons significantly favored the germination and establishment in comparison to non-ingested seeds. The ability of pigeons to effectively disperse domestic olive seeds may facilitate the introduction of cultivated olive trees into natural systems, including highly-protected wild olive woodlands. We recommend harvesting ornamental olive trees to reduce both pigeon overpopulation and the spread of artificially selected trees into the natural environment.

  12. Biological Control of Olive Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) by Releases of Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in California, Parasitoid Longevity in Presence of the Host, and Host Status of Walnut Husk Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor, collected from tephritids infesting coffee in Kenya and reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, in Guatemala by USDA-APHIS, PPQ, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin),...

  13. Biophenols in table olives.

    PubMed

    Blekas, Georgios; Vassilakis, Constantinos; Harizanis, Constantinos; Tsimidou, Maria; Boskou, Dimitrios G

    2002-06-19

    Unprocessed olives are well-known sources of phenolic antioxidants with important biological properties. Processing methods to prepare table olives may cause a reduction of valuable phenols and may deprive the food of precious biological functions. The present work was undertaken to evaluate table olives produced in Greece as sources of biophenols. Commercially available olives were analyzed for their total phenol content by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and for individual phenols by RP-HPLC. Samples were Spanish-style green olives in brine, Greek-style naturally black olives in brine, and Kalamata olives in brine. Most of the types of olives analyzed were found to be good sources of phenols. Hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and luteolin were the prevailing phenols in almost all of the samples examined. High levels of hydroxytyrosol were determined mainly in Kalamata olives and Spanish-style green olives, cultivar Chalkidiki (250-760 mg/kg). PMID:12059143

  14. The indole alkaloid meleagrin, from the olive tree endophytic fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, as a novel lead for the control of c-Met-dependent breast cancer proliferation, migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Mady, Mohamed S; Mohyeldin, Mohamed M; Ebrahim, Hassan Y; Elsayed, Heba E; Houssen, Wael E; Haggag, Eman G; Soliman, Randa F; El Sayed, Khalid A

    2016-01-15

    Fungi of the genus Penicillium produce unique and chemically diverse biologically active secondary metabolites, including indole alkaloids. The role of dysregulated hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, c-Met, in the development and progression of breast carcinoma is documented. The goal of this work is to explore the chemistry and bioactivity of the secondary metabolites of the endophytic Penicillium chrysogenum cultured from the leaf of the olive tree Olea europea, collected in its natural habitat in Egypt. This fungal extract showed good inhibitory activities against the proliferation and migration of several human breast cancer lines. The CH2Cl2 extract of P. chrysogenum mycelia was subjected to bioguided chromatographic separation to afford three known indole alkaloids; meleagrin (1), roquefortine C (2) and DHTD (3). Meleagrin inhibited the growth of the human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, MDA-468, BT-474, SK BR-3, MCF7 and MCF7-dox, while similar treatment doses were found to have no effect on the growth and viability of the non-tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells MCF10A. Meleagrin also showed excellent ATP competitive c-Met inhibitory activity in Z-Lyte assay, which was further confirmed via molecular docking studies and Western blot analysis. In addition, meleagrin treatment caused a dose-dependent inhibition of HGF-induced cell migration, and invasion of breast cancer cell lines. Meleagrin treatment potently suppressed the invasive triple negative breast tumor cell growth in an orthotopic athymic nude mice model, promoting this unique natural product from hit to a lead rank. The indole alkaloid meleagrin is a novel lead c-Met inhibitory entity useful for the control of c-Met-dependent metastatic and invasive breast malignancies. PMID:26692349

  15. Olive phenolic compounds: metabolic and transcriptional profiling during fruit development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits contain numerous secondary metabolites, primarily phenolics, terpenes and sterols, some of which are particularly interesting for their nutraceutical properties. This study will attempt to provide further insight into the profile of olive phenolic compounds during fruit development and to identify the major genetic determinants of phenolic metabolism. Results The concentration of the major phenolic compounds, such as oleuropein, demethyloleuropein, 3–4 DHPEA-EDA, ligstroside, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside and lignans, were measured in the developing fruits of 12 olive cultivars. The content of these compounds varied significantly among the cultivars and decreased during fruit development and maturation, with some compounds showing specificity for certain cultivars. Thirty-five olive transcripts homologous to genes involved in the pathways of the main secondary metabolites were identified from the massive sequencing data of the olive fruit transcriptome or from cDNA-AFLP analysis. Their mRNA levels were determined using RT-qPCR analysis on fruits of high- and low-phenolic varieties (Coratina and Dolce d’Andria, respectively) during three different fruit developmental stages. A strong correlation was observed between phenolic compound concentrations and transcripts putatively involved in their biosynthesis, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of the corresponding pathways. OeDXS, OeGES, OeGE10H and OeADH, encoding putative 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-P synthase, geraniol synthase, geraniol 10-hydroxylase and arogenate dehydrogenase, respectively, were almost exclusively present at 45 days after flowering (DAF), suggesting that these compounds might play a key role in regulating secoiridoid accumulation during fruit development. Conclusions Metabolic and transcriptional profiling led to the identification of some major players putatively involved in biosynthesis of secondary compounds in the olive tree. Our data represent the first step towards the functional characterisation of important genes for the determination of olive fruit quality. PMID:22963618

  16. Genomic profiling of plastid DNA variation in the Mediterranean olive tree

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Characterisation of plastid genome (or cpDNA) polymorphisms is commonly used for phylogeographic, population genetic and forensic analyses in plants, but detecting cpDNA variation is sometimes challenging, limiting the applications of such an approach. In the present study, we screened cpDNA polymorphism in the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) by sequencing the complete plastid genome of trees with a distinct cpDNA lineage. Our objective was to develop new markers for a rapid genomic profiling (by Multiplex PCRs) of cpDNA haplotypes in the Mediterranean olive tree. Results Eight complete cpDNA genomes of Olea were sequenced de novo. The nucleotide divergence between olive cpDNA lineages was low and not exceeding 0.07%. Based on these sequences, markers were developed for studying two single nucleotide substitutions and length polymorphism of 62 regions (with variable microsatellite motifs or other indels). They were then used to genotype the cpDNA variation in cultivated and wild Mediterranean olive trees (315 individuals). Forty polymorphic loci were detected on this sample, allowing the distinction of 22 haplotypes belonging to the three Mediterranean cpDNA lineages known as E1, E2 and E3. The discriminating power of cpDNA variation was particularly low for the cultivated olive tree with one predominating haplotype, but more diversity was detected in wild populations. Conclusions We propose a method for a rapid characterisation of the Mediterranean olive germplasm. The low variation in the cultivated olive tree indicated that the utility of cpDNA variation for forensic analyses is limited to rare haplotypes. In contrast, the high cpDNA variation in wild populations demonstrated that our markers may be useful for phylogeographic and populations genetic studies in O. europaea. PMID:21569271

  17. Soil Properties and Olive Cultivar Determine the Structure and Diversity of Plant-Parasitic Nematode Communities Infesting Olive Orchards Soils in Southern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Palomares-Rius, Juan E.; Castillo, Pablo; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Navas-Cortés, Juan A.; Landa, Blanca B.

    2015-01-01

    This work has studied for the first time the structure and diversity of plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) infesting olive orchard soils in a wide-region in Spain that included 92 locations. It aims at determining which agronomical or environmental factors associated to the olive orchards are the main drivers of the PPNs community structure and diversity. Classical morphological and morphometric identification methods were used to determine the frequency and densities of PPNs. Thirteen families, 34 genera and 77 species of PPNs were identified. The highest diversity was found in Helicotylenchus genus, with six species previously reported in Spain and with H. oleae being a first report. Neodolichorhynchus microphasmis and Diptenchus sp., Diphtherophora sp., and Discotylenchus sp., usually considered fungal feeders, were also reported for the first time associated to olive rhizosphere. PPNs abundance ranged from 66 to 16,288 individuals/500-cm3 of soil with Helicotylenchus digonicus being the most prevalent species, followed by Filenchus sp., Merlinius brevidens and Xiphinema pachtaicum. Nematode abundance and diversity indexes were influenced by olive cultivar, and orchard and soil management practices; while olive variety and soil texture were the main factors driving PPN community composition. Soil physicochemical properties and climatic characteristics most strongly associated to the PPN community composition included pH, sand content and exchangeable K, and maximum and minimum average temperature of the sampled locations. Our data suggests that there is a high diversity of PPNs associated to olive in Southern Spain that can exert different damage to olive roots depending on the olive variety and their abundance. Further analysis to determine the resistance levels of most common olive varieties to the prevalent PPNs in Spain will help to choose the most appropriate ones for the establishment of new plantations. This choice will take into consideration the specific soils and environments where those olive varieties will be established. PMID:25625375

  18. Fine-scale ecological and economic assessment of climate change on olive in the Mediterranean Basin reveals winners and losers.

    PubMed

    Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Ruti, Paolo Michele; Dell'Aquila, Alessandro

    2014-04-15

    The Mediterranean Basin is a climate and biodiversity hot spot, and climate change threatens agro-ecosystems such as olive, an ancient drought-tolerant crop of considerable ecological and socioeconomic importance. Climate change will impact the interactions of olive and the obligate olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae), and alter the economics of olive culture across the Basin. We estimate the effects of climate change on the dynamics and interaction of olive and the fly using physiologically based demographic models in a geographic information system context as driven by daily climate change scenario weather. A regional climate model that includes fine-scale representation of the effects of topography and the influence of the Mediterranean Sea on regional climate was used to scale the global climate data. The system model for olive/olive fly was used as the production function in our economic analysis, replacing the commonly used production-damage control function. Climate warming will affect olive yield and fly infestation levels across the Basin, resulting in economic winners and losers at the local and regional scales. At the local scale, profitability of small olive farms in many marginal areas of Europe and elsewhere in the Basin will decrease, leading to increased abandonment. These marginal farms are critical to conserving soil, maintaining biodiversity, and reducing fire risk in these areas. Our fine-scale bioeconomic approach provides a realistic prototype for assessing climate change impacts in other Mediterranean agro-ecosystems facing extant and new invasive pests. PMID:24706833

  19. Aromatized to Find Mates: α-Pinene Aroma Boosts the Mating Success of Adult Olive Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Gerofotis, Christos D.; Ioannou, Charalampos S.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Contrary to other Tephritidae, female but also male olive flies, Bactrocera oleae release pheromones during their sexual communication. Alpha-pinene, a common plant volatile found in high amounts in unripe olive fruit and leaves has been detected as one of the major components of the female pheromone. However, possible effects of α-pinene and that of other host volatiles on the mating behavior of the olive fly have not been investigated. Methodology Using wild olive flies, reared on olive fruit for 3 generations in the laboratory, we explored whether exposure of male and female olive flies to α-pinene affects their sexual performance. Results Exposure of sexually mature adult olive flies to the aroma of α-pinene significantly increases the mating performance over non-exposed individuals. Interestingly, exposure to α-pinene boosts the mating success of both males and female olive flies. Conclusions This is the first report of such an effect on the olive fly, and the first time that a single plant volatile has been reported to induce such a phenomenon on both sexes of a single species. We discuss the possible associated mechanism and provide some practical implications. PMID:24260571

  20. Fine-scale ecological and economic assessment of climate change on olive in the Mediterranean Basin reveals winners and losers

    PubMed Central

    Ponti, Luigi; Gutierrez, Andrew Paul; Ruti, Paolo Michele; Dell’Aquila, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean Basin is a climate and biodiversity hot spot, and climate change threatens agro-ecosystems such as olive, an ancient drought-tolerant crop of considerable ecological and socioeconomic importance. Climate change will impact the interactions of olive and the obligate olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae), and alter the economics of olive culture across the Basin. We estimate the effects of climate change on the dynamics and interaction of olive and the fly using physiologically based demographic models in a geographic information system context as driven by daily climate change scenario weather. A regional climate model that includes fine-scale representation of the effects of topography and the influence of the Mediterranean Sea on regional climate was used to scale the global climate data. The system model for olive/olive fly was used as the production function in our economic analysis, replacing the commonly used production-damage control function. Climate warming will affect olive yield and fly infestation levels across the Basin, resulting in economic winners and losers at the local and regional scales. At the local scale, profitability of small olive farms in many marginal areas of Europe and elsewhere in the Basin will decrease, leading to increased abandonment. These marginal farms are critical to conserving soil, maintaining biodiversity, and reducing fire risk in these areas. Our fine-scale bioeconomic approach provides a realistic prototype for assessing climate change impacts in other Mediterranean agro-ecosystems facing extant and new invasive pests. PMID:24706833

  1. The use of phenological data to calculate chilling units in Olea europaea L. in relation to the onset of reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandi, F.; Fornaciari, M.; Romano, B.

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a practical method to evaluate the effective relationship between the amount of winter chilling and the response expressed as the spring reproductive re-starting dates in the olive ( Olea europaea L.). Two olive cultivars growing in a special olive orchard in Umbria (central Italy) were studied over a 3-year period (1998-2000): the cultivar Ascolana, typical of central Italy, and the cultivar Giarraffa, typical of southern Italy. The spring reproductive re-starts were assessed using data from detailed phenological observations made on 60 trees of each cultivar in an effort to establish the exact date of reproductive bud swelling. The chilling phenomenon was evaluated by using 341 functions derived from a formula developed by researchers at Utah State University to calculate chilling units. The mathematical functions are defined, and show the very close relationship between the amount of winter chilling and the spring reproductive response in the two cultivars in the orchard studied. The results can be used to define the relationship between local climate and plant development, and the mathematical approach can be used to draw maps that can show the suitability of different cultivars on the basis of local climatic conditions.

  2. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing of Olea europaea L. to Identify Genes Involved in the Development of the Pollen Tube

    PubMed Central

    Iaria, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    In olive (Olea europaea L.), the processes controlling self-incompatibility are still unclear and the molecular basis underlying this process are still not fully characterized. In order to determine compatibility relationships, using next-generation sequencing techniques and a de novo transcriptome assembly strategy, we show that pollen tubes from different olive plants, grown in vitro in a medium containing its own pistil and in combination pollen/pistil from self-sterile and self-fertile cultivars, have a distinct gene expression profile and many of the differentially expressed sequences between the samples fall within gene families involved in the development of the pollen tube, such as lipase, carboxylesterase, pectinesterase, pectin methylesterase, and callose synthase. Moreover, different genes involved in signal transduction, transcription, and growth are overrepresented. The analysis also allowed us to identify members in actin and actin depolymerization factor and fibrin gene family and member of the Ca2+ binding gene family related to the development and polarization of pollen apical tip. The whole transcriptomic analysis, through the identification of the differentially expressed transcripts set and an extended functional annotation analysis, will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of pollen germination and pollen tube growth in the olive. PMID:26998509

  3. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees.

    PubMed

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs. PMID:26802540

  4. Phytochemical properties and anti-proliferative activity of Olea europaea L. leaf extracts against pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Chloe D; Vuong, Quan V; Sadeqzadeh, Elham; Stathopoulos, Costas E; Roach, Paul D; Scarlett, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Olea europaea L. leaves are an agricultural waste product with a high concentration of phenolic compounds; especially oleuropein. Oleuropein has been shown to exhibit anti-proliferative activity against a number of cancer types. However, they have not been tested against pancreatic cancer, the fifth leading cause of cancer related death in Western countries. Therefore, water, 50% ethanol and 50% methanol extracts of Corregiola and Frantoio variety Olea europaea L. leaves were investigated for their total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids and oleuropein content, antioxidant capacity and anti-proliferative activity against MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cells. The extracts only had slight differences in their phytochemical properties, and at 100 and 200 μg/mL, all decreased the viability of the pancreatic cancer cells relative to controls. At 50 μg/mL, the water extract from the Corregiola leaves exhibited the highest anti-proliferative activity with the effect possibly due to early eluting HPLC peaks. For this reason, olive leaf extracts warrant further investigation into their potential anti-pancreatic cancer benefits. PMID:26193251

  5. The Spider Assemblage of Olive Groves Under Three Management Systems.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Manuel; Pascual, Felipe; Campos, Mercedes; Pekár, Stano

    2015-06-01

    Olives, Olea europaea L., are one of the most important crops in Spain. They are currently produced under three management systems that involve different aspects of soil and pest management, productivity, and crop economy: organic, (integrated pest management-IPM), and conventional. Here, we studied how these systems affect the spiders, the natural enemies of olive grove pests, and performed a detailed analysis of their assemblage. The study was performed during one season in 18 olive groves in Andalusia, Spain, and included both ground-dwelling and canopy species. We found that the organic system supported a significantly higher level of abundance and diversity of canopy spiders than the IPM and conventional systems. Plowing had a negative effect on spider abundance and diversity. However, the presence of hedge vegetation had a positive effect on the spiders. The practices affected the guild structure differently, with some guilds supported by organic and others by IPM. It is suggested that sustainability (in terms of pest control) in olive grove agroecosystems may be obtained by maintaining hedge vegetation regardless of the management system. PMID:26313956

  6. VOCs-Mediated Location of Olive Fly Larvae by the Braconid Parasitoid Psyttalia concolor: A Multivariate Comparison among VOC Bouquets from Three Olive Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Giunti, Giulia; Benelli, Giovanni; Conte, Giuseppe; Mele, Marcello; Caruso, Giovanni; Gucci, Riccardo; Flamini, Guido; Canale, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Herbivorous activity induces plant indirect defenses, as the emission of herbivorous-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), which could be used by parasitoids for host location. Psyttalia concolor is a larval pupal endoparasitoid, attacking a number of tephritid flies including B. oleae. In this research, we investigated the olfactory cues routing host location behavior of P. concolor towards B. oleae larvae infesting three different olive cultivars. VOCs from infested and healthy fruits were identified using GC-MS analyses. In two-choice behavioral assays, P. concolor females preferred infested olive cues, which also evoked ovipositional probing by female wasps. GC-MS analysis showed qualitative and quantitative differences among volatiles emitted by infested and healthy olives. Volatile emissions were peculiar for each cultivar analyzed. Two putative HIPVs were detected in infested fruits, regardless of the cultivar, the monoterpene (E)-β-ocimene, and the sesquiterpene (E-E)-α-farnesene. Our study adds basic knowledge to the behavioral ecology of P. concolor. From an applied point of view, the field application of the above-mentioned VOCs may help to enhance effectiveness of biological control programs and parasitoid mass-rearing techniques. PMID:26989691

  7. VOCs-Mediated Location of Olive Fly Larvae by the Braconid Parasitoid Psyttalia concolor: A Multivariate Comparison among VOC Bouquets from Three Olive Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Giunti, Giulia; Benelli, Giovanni; Conte, Giuseppe; Mele, Marcello; Caruso, Giovanni; Gucci, Riccardo; Flamini, Guido; Canale, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Herbivorous activity induces plant indirect defenses, as the emission of herbivorous-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), which could be used by parasitoids for host location. Psyttalia concolor is a larval pupal endoparasitoid, attacking a number of tephritid flies including B. oleae. In this research, we investigated the olfactory cues routing host location behavior of P. concolor towards B. oleae larvae infesting three different olive cultivars. VOCs from infested and healthy fruits were identified using GC-MS analyses. In two-choice behavioral assays, P. concolor females preferred infested olive cues, which also evoked ovipositional probing by female wasps. GC-MS analysis showed qualitative and quantitative differences among volatiles emitted by infested and healthy olives. Volatile emissions were peculiar for each cultivar analyzed. Two putative HIPVs were detected in infested fruits, regardless of the cultivar, the monoterpene (E)-β-ocimene, and the sesquiterpene (E-E)-α-farnesene. Our study adds basic knowledge to the behavioral ecology of P. concolor. From an applied point of view, the field application of the above-mentioned VOCs may help to enhance effectiveness of biological control programs and parasitoid mass-rearing techniques. PMID:26989691

  8. Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Rendón, Pedro A; Sivinski, John

    2008-06-01

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), by the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. Mean percentage parasitism of olive fruit fly third instars infesting fruit in field cages ranged from 7.0 in Grapevine to 59.7 in Santa Barbara and in free releases ranged from 0 in Grapevine to 10.6 in Santa Barbara after 4- to 6-d exposures. In the laboratory, more parasitoids developed to adults in olive fruit fly larvae that were 11-13 d old than in larvae 8-10 d old. Adult parasitoids lived significantly longer when provided with water than adults without water in environmental chambers at 5 degrees C, 85% RH; 15 degrees C, 65% RH; 25 degrees C, 25% RH; and 35 degrees C, 25% RH. Adult parasitoids lived for 48 d with honey for food and water and 32 d with food and sugar solution at 15 degrees C and 65% RH. Survival of adult parasitoids without food and water in greenhouse tests was approximately 4 d in a simulated coastal climate and 1 d in a simulated inland valley climate and was significantly increased by providing food and water. The parasitoid did not develop in the beneficial seedhead fly, Chaetorellia succinea (Costa), in yellow star thistle. The rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, larvae in green walnut husks was 28.4% in laboratory no-choice tests. In choice tests, the rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly versus olive fruit fly larvae in olives was 11.5 and 24.2%, respectively. PMID:18559183

  9. Impact of proline application on cadmium accumulation, mineral nutrition and enzymatic antioxidant defense system of Olea europaea L. cv Chemlali exposed to cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Zouari, Mohamed; Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Elloumi, Nada; Bellassoued, Khaled; Delmail, David; Labrousse, Pascal; Ben Abdallah, Ferjani; Ben Rouina, Bechir

    2016-06-01

    Proline plays an important role in plant response to various environmental stresses. However, its involvement in mitigation of heavy metal stress in plants remains elusive. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of exogenous proline (10 and 20mM) in alleviating cadmium induced inhibitory effects in young olive plants (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali) exposed to two Cd levels (10 and 30mg CdCl2kg(-1) soil). The Cd treatment induced substantial accumulation of Cd in both root and leaf tissues and a decrease in gas exchange, photosynthetic pigments contents, uptake of essential elements (Ca, Mg and K) and plant biomass. Furthermore, an elevation of antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxydase) and proline content in association with relatively high amounts of hydrogen peroxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and electrolyte leakage were observed. Interestingly, the application of exogenous proline alleviated the oxidative damage induced by Cd accumulation. In fact, Cd-stressed olive plants treated with proline showed an increase of antioxidant enzymes activities, photosynthetic activity, nutritional status, plant growth and oil content of olive fruit. Generally, it seems that proline supplementation alleviated the deleterious effects of young olive plants exposed to Cd stress. PMID:26946284

  10. Effect of non-crop vegetation types on conservation biological control of pests in olive groves

    PubMed Central

    Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M.; Campos, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    Conservation biological control (CBC) is an environmentally sound potential alternative to the use of chemical insecticides. It involves modifications of the environment to promote natural enemy activity on pests. Despite many CBC studies increasing abundance of natural enemies, there are far fewer demonstrations of reduced pest density and very little work has been conducted in olive crops. In this study we investigated the effects of four forms of non-crop vegetation on the abundance of two important pests: the olive psyllid (Euphyllura olivina) and the olive moth (Prays oleae). Areas of herbaceous vegetation and areas of woody vegetation near olive crops, and smaller patches of woody vegetation within olive groves, decreased pest abundance in the crop. Inter-row ground covers that are known to increase the abundance of some predators and parasitoids had no effect on the pests, possibly as a result of lack of synchrony between pests and natural enemies, lack of specificity or intra-guild predation. This study identifies examples of the right types of diversity for use in conservation biological control in olive production systems. PMID:23904994

  11. Mannitol transport and mannitol dehydrogenase activities are coordinated in Olea europaea under salt and osmotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Conde, Artur; Silva, Paulo; Agasse, Alice; Conde, Carlos; Gerós, Hernâni

    2011-10-01

    The intracellular accumulation of organic compatible solutes functioning as osmoprotectants, such as polyols, is an important response mechanism of several plants to drought and salinity. In Olea europaea a mannitol transport system (OeMaT1) was previously characterized as a key player in plant response to salinity. In the present study, heterotrophic sink models, such as olive cell suspensions and fruit tissues, and source leaves were used for analytical, biochemical and molecular studies. The kinetic parameters of mannitol dehydrogenase (MTD) determined in cells growing in mannitol, at 25°C and pH 9.0, were as follows: K(m), 54.5 mM mannitol; and V(max), 0.47 μmol h⁻¹ mg⁻¹ protein. The corresponding cDNA was cloned and named OeMTD1. OeMTD1 expression was correlated with MTD activity, OeMaT1 expression and carrier-mediated mannitol transport in mannitol- and sucrose-grown cells. Furthermore, sucrose-grown cells displayed only residual OeMTD activity, even though high levels of OeMTD1 transcription were observed. There is evidence that OeMTD is regulated at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. MTD activity and OeMTD1 expression were repressed after Na+, K+ and polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatments, in both mannitol- and sucrose-grown cells. In contrast, salt and drought significantly increased mannitol transport activity and OeMaT1 expression. Taken together, these studies support that olive trees cope with salinity and drought by coordinating mannitol transport with intracellular metabolism. PMID:21893515

  12. Olive orchard amended with olive mill wastewater: effects on olive fruit and olive oil quality.

    PubMed

    Mechri, B; Issaoui, M; Echbili, A; Chehab, H; Mariem, F B; Braham, M; Hammami, M

    2009-12-30

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of agronomic application of olive mill wastewater (OMW) in a field of olive trees on olive fruit and olive oil quality. Agronomic application of OMW increased significantly the fungal:bacteria ratio, whereas the root colonisation and the photosynthetic rates decreased significantly. Consequently, the oil content expressed as a percentage of dry weight, decreased significantly after agronomic application of OMW. Land spreading of OMW altered the relative proportion of individual olive fruit sugar and decreased significantly the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) of the fruit. A significant increase was observed in total phenol content of oil after agronomic application of OMW. alpha-Tocopherol content, on the contrary, decreased with OMW application. The fatty acid composition of the oil was not affected by the treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first report of change in the olive fruit and olive oil quality following agronomic application of OMW. PMID:19720463

  13. Characterization and pathogenicity of Botryosphaeriaceae species collected from olive and other hosts in Spain and California.

    PubMed

    Moral, Juan; Muñoz-Díez, Concepción; González, Nazaret; Trapero, Antonio; Michailides, Themis J

    2010-12-01

    Species in the family Botryosphaeriaceae are common pathogens causing fruit rot and dieback of many woody plants. In this study, 150 Botryosphaeriaceae isolates were collected from olive and other hosts in Spain and California. Representative isolates of each type were characterized based on morphological features and comparisons of DNA sequence data of three regions: internal transcribed spacer 5.8S, β-tubulin, and elongation factor. Three main species were identified as Neofusicoccum mediterraneum, causing dieback of branches of olive and pistachio; Diplodia seriata, causing decay of ripe fruit and dieback of olive branches; and Botryosphaeria dothidea, causing dalmatian disease on unripe olive fruit in Spain. Moreover, the sexual stage of this last species was also found attacking olive branches in California. In pathogenicity tests using unripe fruit and branches of olive, D. seriata isolates were the least aggressive on the fruit and branches while N. mediterraneum isolates were the most aggressive on both tissues. Isolates of B. dothidea which cause dalmatian disease on fruit were not pathogenic on branches and only weakly aggressive on fruit. These results, together with the close association between the presence of dalmatian disease symptoms and the wound created by the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae), suggest that the fly is essential for the initiation of the disease on fruit. Isolates recovered from dalmatian disease symptoms had an optimum of 26°C for mycelial growth and 30°C for conidial germination, suggesting that the pathogen is well adapted to high summer temperatures. In contrast, the range of water activity in the medium for growth of dalmatian isolates was 0.93 to 1 MPa, which was similar to that for the majority of fungi. This study resolved long-standing questions of identity and pathogenicity of species within the family Botryosphaeriaceae attacking olive trees in Spain and California. PMID:20731532

  14. Immunological cross-reactivity between olive and grass pollen: implication of major and minor allergens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Grasses and olive trees are the most common sources of allergenic pollen worldwide. Although they share some allergens, there are few studies analyzing the in vitro cross-reactivity between them. The aim was to define the cross-reactivity between Olea europaea and Phleum pratense using well-characterized sera of allergic children from Madrid, Spain. Methods 66 patients (mean age 10.32+/−4.07 years) were included in the study. All suffered from rhinoconjuntivitis and/or asthma and had a positive skin test and/or specific IgE determination to olive and grass pollen. Serum sIgE to individual allergens was conducted and sIgE against different grass species and olive was also determined by ELISA. Inhibition assays were performed using two serum sources, containing, or not, sIgE to minor allergens. Mass spectrometry analysis was performed in both extracts. Results 59/66 (89.39%) children had a positive sIgE determination by ELISA to grasses and 57/66 (86.36%) to olive pollen. There was no significant correlation between sIgE levels to grass and olive. Inhibition assays demonstrated no cross-reactivity between P. pratense and olive pollen when using the pool containing mainly sIgE to major allergens, whereas minimal to moderate cross-reactivity was detected when the serum contained high sIgE titers to minor allergens. Proteomic analyses revealed the presence of 42 common proteins in grasses and olive pollens. Conclusion No in vitro cross-reactivity was observed when sIgE was mainly directed to major allergens. In our population, sensitization to olive and grasses is not due to cross-reactivity. The contribution of the major allergens seems to be determinant. PMID:24940475

  15. Effects of Peganum harmala (Zygophyllaceae) seed extract on the olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and its larval parasitoid Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Rehman, Junaid Ur; Wang, Xin-Geng; Johnson, Marshall W; Daane, Kent M; Jilani, Ghulam; Khan, Mir A; Zalom, Frank G

    2009-12-01

    Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae) is an herb native to arid and semiarid regions of Central Asian deserts. This study investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of P. harmala seeds on the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), i.e., adult repellency, reproductive activity, and larval growth, as well as parasitism levels by Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti). Olive fruit treated with 2% extract reduced B. oleae oviposition. In choice tests, female B. oleae spent >99% of their time foraging on untreated fruit rather than P. harmala-treated fruit. These changes in ovipositional behavior resulted in a nearly 30-fold decrease in oviposition marks on treated fruit compared with untreated fruit during a 48 h exposure period. When female B. oleae were fed liquid diet containing 0.2% P. harmala extract, there was no effect on the number of ovipositional marks on exposed fruit, but up to 21.4% of the deposited eggs were deformed. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses of deformed eggs revealed that some protein bands were missing. Consequently, the number of offspring produced by treated females was lower than by untreated females. Neither the sex ratio nor body size of the fly's offspring were affected by adults fed diet containing 0.2% P. harmala extract. However, there was a slightly prolonged developmental time from egg to adult. Parasitism of larval B. oleae by P. concolor was not affected by infested fruit treatment with 2% P. harmala extract. P. harmala extracts as a potential control for insect pest species are discussed. PMID:20069853

  16. Paternity analysis using microsatellite markers to identify pollen donors in an olive grove.

    PubMed

    Mookerjee, Sonali; Guerin, Jenny; Collins, Graham; Ford, Chris; Sedgley, Margaret

    2005-10-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) is a wind-pollinated, allogamous species that is generally not considered to be self-compatible. In addition, cross-incompatibilities exist between cultivars that can result in low fruit set if compatible pollinisers are not planted nearby. In this study, microsatellite markers were used to identify 17 genotypes that were potential pollen donors in a commercial olive orchard. DNA typing with the same primers was also applied to 800 olive embryos collected from five cultivars in the grove over 2 years of study. Pollen donors for the cultivars Barnea, Corregiola, Kalamata, Koroneiki, and Mission were estimated by paternity analysis, based on the parental contribution of alleles in the genotypes of the embryos. The exclusion probability for the marker set was 0.998 and paternity was assigned on the basis of the 'most likely method'. Different pollen donors were identified for each of the maternal cultivars indicating that cross-compatibilities and incompatibilities varied between the genotypes studied. Cross-pollination was the principal method of fertilization, as selfing was only observed in two of the embryos studied and both of these were from the cultivar Mission. This is the first report where these techniques have been applied to survey the pollination patterns in an olive grove. The results indicate that careful planning in orchard design is required for efficient pollination between olive cultivars. PMID:16133312

  17. Is Ground Cover Vegetation an Effective Biological Control Enhancement Strategy against Olive Pests?

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Daniel; Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M.; Campos, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Ground cover vegetation is often added or allowed to generate to promote conservation biological control, especially in perennial crops. Nevertheless, there is inconsistent evidence of its effectiveness, with studies reporting positive, nil or negative effects on pest control. This might arise from differences between studies at the local scale (e.g. orchard management and land use history), the landscape context (e.g. presence of patches of natural or semi-natural vegetation near the focal orchard), or regional factors, particularly climate in the year of the study. Here we present the findings from a long-term regional monitoring program conducted on four pest species (Bactrocera oleae, Prays oleae, Euphyllura olivina, Saissetia oleae) in 2,528 olive groves in Andalusia (Spain) from 2006 to 2012. Generalized linear mixed effect models were used to analyze the effect of ground cover on different response variables related to pest abundance, while accounting for variability at the local, landscape and regional scales. There were small and inconsistent effects of ground cover on the abundance of pests whilst local, landscape and regional variability explained a large proportion of the variability in pest response variables. This highlights the importance of local and landscape-related variables in biological control and the potential effects that might emerge from their interaction with practices, such as groundcover vegetation, implemented to promote natural enemy activity. The study points to perennial vegetation close to the focal crop as a promising alternative strategy for conservation biological control that should receive more attention. PMID:25646778

  18. Is ground cover vegetation an effective biological control enhancement strategy against olive pests?

    PubMed

    Paredes, Daniel; Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M; Campos, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Ground cover vegetation is often added or allowed to generate to promote conservation biological control, especially in perennial crops. Nevertheless, there is inconsistent evidence of its effectiveness, with studies reporting positive, nil or negative effects on pest control. This might arise from differences between studies at the local scale (e.g. orchard management and land use history), the landscape context (e.g. presence of patches of natural or semi-natural vegetation near the focal orchard), or regional factors, particularly climate in the year of the study. Here we present the findings from a long-term regional monitoring program conducted on four pest species (Bactrocera oleae, Prays oleae, Euphyllura olivina, Saissetia oleae) in 2,528 olive groves in Andalusia (Spain) from 2006 to 2012. Generalized linear mixed effect models were used to analyze the effect of ground cover on different response variables related to pest abundance, while accounting for variability at the local, landscape and regional scales. There were small and inconsistent effects of ground cover on the abundance of pests whilst local, landscape and regional variability explained a large proportion of the variability in pest response variables. This highlights the importance of local and landscape-related variables in biological control and the potential effects that might emerge from their interaction with practices, such as groundcover vegetation, implemented to promote natural enemy activity. The study points to perennial vegetation close to the focal crop as a promising alternative strategy for conservation biological control that should receive more attention. PMID:25646778

  19. SNP Discovery by Illumina-Based Transcriptome Sequencing of the Olive and the Genetic Characterization of Turkish Olive Genotypes Revealed by AFLP, SSR and SNP Markers

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Hilal Betul; Cetin, Oznur; Kaya, Hulya; Sahin, Mustafa; Sefer, Filiz; Kahraman, Abdullah; Tanyolac, Bahattin

    2013-01-01

    Background The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is a diploid (2n = 2x = 46) outcrossing species mainly grown in the Mediterranean area, where it is the most important oil-producing crop. Because of its economic, cultural and ecological importance, various DNA markers have been used in the olive to characterize and elucidate homonyms, synonyms and unknown accessions. However, a comprehensive characterization and a full sequence of its transcriptome are unavailable, leading to the importance of an efficient large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery in olive. The objectives of this study were (1) to discover olive SNPs using next-generation sequencing and to identify SNP primers for cultivar identification and (2) to characterize 96 olive genotypes originating from different regions of Turkey. Methodology/Principal Findings Next-generation sequencing technology was used with five distinct olive genotypes and generated cDNA, producing 126,542,413 reads using an Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx. Following quality and size trimming, the high-quality reads were assembled into 22,052 contigs with an average length of 1,321 bases and 45 singletons. The SNPs were filtered and 2,987 high-quality putative SNP primers were identified. The assembled sequences and singletons were subjected to BLAST similarity searches and annotated with a Gene Ontology identifier. To identify the 96 olive genotypes, these SNP primers were applied to the genotypes in combination with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers. Conclusions/Significance This study marks the highest number of SNP markers discovered to date from olive genotypes using transcriptome sequencing. The developed SNP markers will provide a useful source for molecular genetic studies, such as genetic diversity and characterization, high density quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, association mapping and map-based gene cloning in the olive. High levels of genetic variation among Turkish olive genotypes revealed by SNPs, AFLPs and SSRs allowed us to characterize the Turkish olive genotype. PMID:24058483

  20. Control of the olive fruit fly using genetics-enhanced sterile insect technique

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major arthropod pest of commercial olive production, causing extensive damage to olive crops worldwide. Current control techniques rely on spraying of chemical insecticides. The sterile insect technique (SIT) presents an alternative, environmentally friendly and species-specific method of population control. Although SIT has been very successful against other tephritid pests, previous SIT trials on olive fly have produced disappointing results. Key problems included altered diurnal mating rhythms of the laboratory-reared insects, resulting in asynchronous mating activity between the wild and released sterile populations, and low competitiveness of the radiation-sterilised mass-reared flies. Consequently, the production of competitive, male-only release cohorts is considered an essential prerequisite for successful olive fly SIT. Results We developed a set of conditional female-lethal strains of olive fly (named Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal; RIDL®), providing highly penetrant female-specific lethality, dominant fluorescent marking, and genetic sterility. We found that males of the lead strain, OX3097D-Bol, 1) are strongly sexually competitive with wild olive flies, 2) display synchronous mating activity with wild females, and 3) induce appropriate refractoriness to wild female re-mating. Furthermore, we showed, through a large proof-of-principle experiment, that weekly releases of OX3097D-Bol males into stable populations of caged wild-type olive fly could cause rapid population collapse and eventual eradication. Conclusions The observed mating characteristics strongly suggest that an approach based on the release of OX3097D-Bol males will overcome the key difficulties encountered in previous olive fly SIT attempts. Although field confirmation is required, the proof-of-principle suppression and elimination of caged wild-type olive fly populations through OX3097D-Bol male releases provides evidence for the female-specific RIDL approach as a viable method of olive fly control. We conclude that the promising characteristics of OX3097D-Bol may finally enable effective SIT-based control of the olive fly. PMID:22713628

  1. Overwintering survival of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and two introduced parasitoids in California.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Geng; Levy, Karmit; Nadel, Hannah; Johnson, Marshall W; Blanchet, Arnaud; Argov, Yael; Pickett, Charles H; Daane, Kent M

    2013-06-01

    The overwintering survival and development of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), and the endoparasitoids, Psyttalia humilis Silvestri and P. lounsburyi (Silvestri), were investigated at sites in California's interior valley and coastal region. In the interior valley, adult flies survived up to 4-6 mo during the winter when food was provided. Adult female flies could oviposit in late fall and early winter on nonharvested fruit and, although egg survival was low (0.23-8.50%), a portion of the overwintered cohort developed into adults the following spring; percentage of survival was negatively correlated to daily minimum temperature. P. humilis and P. lounsburyi successfully oviposited into host larvae in late fall, and their progeny developed into adults the following spring, although with a low percentage (0-11.9%) survivorship. Overwintering survival of puparia of the olive fruit fly and immature larvae of P. humilis and P. lounsburyi (inside host puparia), buried in the soil, were tested at an interior valley and coastal site. Survival of olive fruit fly ranged from 0 to 60% and was affected by the trial date and soil moisture. Overwintering survival of both the fruit fly and tested parasitoids was lower at the colder interior valley than the coastal site; P. humilis immature stages had the highest mortality levels while B. oleae pupae had the lowest mortality levels. The spring emergence pattern of the tested insects was well predicted by a degree-day model. We discuss factors potentially impeding establishment of introduced olive fruit fly parasitoids in California and elsewhere. PMID:23726056

  2. In Vitro Culture Conditions and OeARF and OeH3 Expressions Modulate Adventitious Root Formation from Oleaster (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Gagliardi, Cinzia; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris, also named oleaster, is the wild form of olive and it is used as rootstock and pollen donor for many cultivated varieties. An efficient procedure for in vitro propagation of oleaster was established in this study. A zeatin concentration of 2.5 mg/L was effective to induce an appreciable vegetative growth. Also high rooting efficiency was obtained by using a short IBA pulse, followed by two different IBA concentrations in the culture medium. With the aim to enlarge knowledge on the molecular aspects of adventitious rooting, we also evaluated the transcriptional modulation of an ARFs member and HISTONE H3 genes, involved in auxin signaling and cell replication, respectively, during the root induction phase of cuttings. The obtained results suggest that the selected genes, as markers of the induction phase, could be very useful for setting up efficient culture conditions along the rooting process, thus increasing micropropagation efficiency. PMID:24587768

  3. In vitro culture conditions and OeARF and OeH3 expressions modulate adventitious root formation from oleaster (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) cuttings.

    PubMed

    Chiappetta, Adriana; Gagliardi, Cinzia; Bruno, Leonardo; Bitonti, Maria Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sylvestris, also named oleaster, is the wild form of olive and it is used as rootstock and pollen donor for many cultivated varieties. An efficient procedure for in vitro propagation of oleaster was established in this study. A zeatin concentration of 2.5 mg/L was effective to induce an appreciable vegetative growth. Also high rooting efficiency was obtained by using a short IBA pulse, followed by two different IBA concentrations in the culture medium. With the aim to enlarge knowledge on the molecular aspects of adventitious rooting, we also evaluated the transcriptional modulation of an ARFs member and HISTONE H3 genes, involved in auxin signaling and cell replication, respectively, during the root induction phase of cuttings. The obtained results suggest that the selected genes, as markers of the induction phase, could be very useful for setting up efficient culture conditions along the rooting process, thus increasing micropropagation efficiency. PMID:24587768

  4. Relationship between olive flowering and latitude in two Mediterranean countries (Italy and Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandi, F.; Msallem, M.; Bonofiglio, T.; Ben Dhiab, A.; Sgromo, C.; Romano, B.; Fornaciari, M.

    2010-11-01

    In phenological studies, the plant developments are analysed considering their relationships with seasonal meteorological conditions; moreover, the influences of geographical features on biological responses have to be also considered. Different studies analysed the influence of latitude on phenological phases to investigate the possible different magnitude of biological response. In our experience, this type of geographic evaluation was conducted considering one of the more important plant species of Mediterranean shrub, the olive ( Olea europaea L.) in fifteen olive monitoring stations, four located in Tunisia and eleven in Italy, from the southern Zarzis area at 33° to the northern Perugia area at 43° of latitude. The olive flowering phenomenon was studied, utilising an aerobiological monitoring method through appropriate pollen traps located inside olive groves from 1999 to 2008. The olive monitored pollen grains were recognised and evaluated to obtain daily pollen concentrations to define the flowering dates in the different study areas. The biometeorological statistical analysis showed the 7°C threshold temperature and the single triangle method for growing degree days (GDD) yearly computing as the better ones in comparison to others. Moreover, the regression analysis between the dates of full flowering and the GDD amounts at the different monitoring latitudes permitted us to evidence the biological response of olive species in geographic regions with different climate patterns. The specific biological response at different latitude was investigated, the slope results, as flowering days per heat amounts, evidenced that olive species behaviours are very constant in consequence to similar meteorological conditions independently to latitude variations. Averagely, the relationships between plant’s phenology, temperature trends and geographical features are very close, even if the yearly mesoscale meteorological variations force to consider, year by year, phenological advances or delays as local events.

  5. The Olive Branch Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnack, William

    1984-01-01

    The first annual Olive Branch Awards, sponsored by the Writers' and Publishers Alliance and the Editors' Organizing Committee, were given to ten magazines, out of 60 that submitted entries. Winning entries are described briefly. (IM)

  6. Adams-Oliver syndrome.

    PubMed

    Iftikhar, Nadia; Ahmad Ghumman, Faisal Iftikhar; Janjua, Shahbaz A; Ejaz, Amer; Butt, Umar Aftab

    2014-05-01

    A new-born male baby with typical features of Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS) is described. Adams-Oliver syndrome is the association of aplasia cutis congenita with terminal transverse limb reduction defects with or without cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita. The patient presented with brachydactyly involving all the digits of his hands and shortening of both big toes along with aplasia cutis on the scalp. There was no systemic involvement. The patient was placed on regular follow-up. PMID:24906278

  7. Olive flowering phenology variation between different cultivars in Spain and Italy: modeling analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Mozo, H.; Orlandi, F.; Galan, C.; Fornaciari, M.; Romano, B.; Ruiz, L.; Diaz de La Guardia, C.; Trigo, M. M.; Chuine, I.

    2009-03-01

    Phenology data are sensitive data to identify how plants are adapted to local climate and how they respond to climatic changes. Modeling flowering phenology allows us to identify the meteorological variables determining the reproductive cycle. Phenology of temperate of woody plants is assumed to be locally adapted to climate. Nevertheless, recent research shows that local adaptation may not be an important constraint in predicting phenological responses. We analyzed variations in flowering dates of Olea europaea L. at different sites of Spain and Italy, testing for a genetic differentiation of flowering phenology among olive varieties to estimate whether local modeling is necessary for olive or not. We build models for the onset and peak dates flowering in different sites of Andalusia and Puglia. Process-based phenological models using temperature as input variable and photoperiod as the threshold date to start temperature accumulation were developed to predict both dates. Our results confirm and update previous results that indicated an advance in olive onset dates. The results indicate that both internal and external validity were higher in the models that used the photoperiod as an indicator to start to cumulate temperature. The use of the unified model for modeling the start and peak dates in the different localities provides standardized results for the comparative study. The use of regional models grouping localities by varieties and climate similarities indicate that local adaptation would not be an important factor in predicting olive phenological responses face to the global temperature increase.

  8. Olive cultivar origin is a major cause of polymorphism for Ole e 1 pollen allergen

    PubMed Central

    Hamman-Khalifa, AbdelMounim; Castro, Antonio Jesús; Jiménez-López, José Carlos; Rodríguez-García, María Isabel; Alché, Juan de Dios

    2008-01-01

    Background Pollens from different olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars have been shown to differ significantly in their content in Ole e 1 and in their overall allergenicity. This allergen is, in addition, characterized by a high degree of polymorphism in its sequence. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the putative presence of divergences in Ole e 1 sequences from different olive cultivars. Results RNA from pollen individually collected from 10 olive cultivars was used to amplify Ole e 1 sequences by RT-PCR, and the sequences were analyzed by using different bioinformatics tools. Numerous nucleotide substitutions were detected throughout the sequences, many of which resulted in amino acid substitutions in the deduced protein sequences. In most cases variability within a single variety was much lower than among varieties. Key amino acid changes in comparison with "canonical" sequences previously described in the literature included: a) the substitution of C19-relevant to the disulphide bond structure of the protein-, b) the presence of an additional N-glycosylation motif, and c) point substitutions affecting regions of Ole e 1 already described like relevant for the immunogenicity/allergenicity of the protein. Conclusion Varietal origin of olive pollen is a major factor determining the diversity of Ole e 1 variants. We consider this information of capital importance for the optimal design of efficient and safe allergen formulations, and useful for the genetic engineering of modified forms of the allergen among other applications. PMID:18218146

  9. Modeling olive pollen intensity in the Mediterranean region through analysis of emission sources.

    PubMed

    Rojo, J; Orlandi, F; Pérez-Badia, R; Aguilera, F; Ben Dhiab, A; Bouziane, H; Díaz de la Guardia, C; Galán, C; Gutiérrez-Bustillo, A M; Moreno-Grau, S; Msallem, M; Trigo, M M; Fornaciari, M

    2016-05-01

    Aerobiological monitoring of Olea europaea L. is of great interest in the Mediterranean basin because olive pollen is one of the most represented pollen types of the airborne spectrum for the Mediterranean region, and olive pollen is considered one of the major cause of pollinosis in this region. The main aim of this study was to develop an airborne-pollen map based on the Pollen Index across a 4-year period (2008-2011), to provide a continuous geographic map for pollen intensity that will have practical applications from the agronomical and allergological points of view. For this purpose, the main predictor variable was an index based on the distribution and abundance of potential sources of pollen emission, including intrinsic information about the general atmospheric patterns of pollen dispersal. In addition, meteorological variables were included in the modeling, together with spatial interpolation, to allow the definition of a spatial model of the Pollen Index from the main olive cultivation areas in the Mediterranean region. The results show marked differences with respect to the dispersal patterns associated to the altitudinal gradient. The findings indicate that areas located at an altitude above 300ma.s.l. receive greater amounts of olive pollen from shorter-distance pollen sources (maximum influence, 27km) with respect to areas lower than 300ma.s.l. (maximum influence, 59km). PMID:26874763

  10. Agricultural management systems affect the green lacewing community (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) in olive orchards in southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Porcel, M; Ruano, F; Cotes, B; Peña, A; Campos, M

    2013-02-01

    Green lacewings are generalist predators whose conservation is important for pest control in olive orchards (Olea europaea L.) Sustainable farming practices, as opposed to conventional management techniques, are believed to foster the presence of natural enemies. This study therefore aims to analyze the effect of 1) herbicidal weed cover removal and insecticide applications, and 2) the general management systems used in the olive orchards of southern Spain on chrysopid assemblages and abundance. Green lacewing adults and larvae were collected from olive orchards under conventional, integrated, and organic management systems. In addition, chemical analyses of residues were carried out to determine the presence of insecticidal and herbicidal residues. Eight adult species and three genera of larvae were identified. No rare species were captured from the most intensively farmed orchard, which therefore recorded the most limited chrysopid diversity with a very marked dominance of Chrysoperla carnea s.l.. No effect of dimethoate treatments on Chrysoperla larvae or C. carnea s.l. adults was observed. However, the presence of insecticide residues was associated with the depletion of Dichochrysa larvae. The absence of herbicide treatments favored C. carnea s.l. adult presence on olive trees while larval abundance decreased. Dichochrysa larvae were more abundant when weed cover received no treatment. In relation to the management systems studied, no difference in Chrysoperla larval abundance was observed between conventional and organic orchards. However, Dichochrysa larvae were more abundant in orchards under organic management. PMID:23339790

  11. Thriving at the limit: Differential reproductive performance in range-edge populations of a Mediterranean sclerophyll (Olea europaea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granado-Yela, Carlos; Balaguer, Luis; García-Verdugo, Carlos; Carrillo, Katty; Méndez, Marcos

    2013-10-01

    Peripheral populations are often lumped together on the assumption of thriving in marginal habitats where reproductive performance is compromised. We have tested this hypothesis in peripheral populations of wild olive tree (Olea europaea L.) presumably limited by different factors at the westernmost limit of the species range. Additionally, we hypothesized that differences in reproductive outcome among populations are better explained by site-specific environmental conditions (PAR, soil water, soil nutrients, air humidity and air temperature) than by differences in phenotypic traits (tree size and leaf traits). To test these hypotheses, we assessed the number of flowering trees, the flowering intensity, fruit set and seed viability in eight populations for three consecutive years. Our findings provided sufficient evidence to reject the first hypothesis. Peripheral populations that occur under oceanic conditions, resembling the Tertiary subtropical climate, consistently presented higher values for all components of reproductive performance than those at the thermal and rainfall tolerance limits. In support of our second hypothesis, the variation in reproductive performance among populations was primarily accounted for by local environmental conditions. Leaf traits, however, also explained reproductive variation but to a lesser extent. Finally, we found that small changes in tree size may cause large differences in reproductive performance. This close relationship between tree size and reproductive performance suggests that any impact on population size structure would likely jeopardize persistence and expansion at the range edge. Our results suggest that reproductive performance of wild olive trees was not shaped by the population geographic position within the species range, but by the interaction between local environment, as the main driver, and individual phenotypic traits.

  12. Cold perception and gene expression differ in Olea europaea seed coat and embryo during drupe cold acclimation.

    PubMed

    D'Angeli, S; Falasca, G; Matteucci, M; Altamura, M M

    2013-01-01

    FAD2 and FAD7 desaturases are involved in cold acclimation of olive (Olea europaea) mesocarp. There is no research information available on cold acclimation of seeds during mesocarp cold acclimation or on differences in the cold response of the seed coat and embryo. How FAD2 and FAD7 affect seed coat and embryo cold responses is unknown. Osmotin positively affects cold acclimation in olive tree vegetative organs, but its role in the seeds requires investigation. OeFAD2.1, OeFAD2.2, OeFAD7 and Oeosmotin were investigated before and after mesocarp acclimation by transcriptomic, lipidomic and immunolabelling analyses, and cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](cyt)) signalling, F-actin changes and seed development were investigated by epifluorescence/histological analyses. Transient [Ca(2+)](cyt) rises and F-actin disassembly were found in cold-shocked protoplasts from the seed coat, but not from the embryo. The thickness of the outer endosperm cuticle increased during drupe exposure to lowering of temperature, whereas the embryo protoderm always lacked cuticle. OeFAD2 transcription increased in both the embryo and seed coat in the cold-acclimated drupe, but linoleic acid (i.e. the product of FAD2 activity) increased solely in the seed coat. Osmotin was immunodetected in the seed coat and endosperm of the cold-acclimated drupe, and not in the embryo. The results show cold responsiveness in the seed coat and cold tolerance in the embryo. We propose a role for the seed coat in maintaining embryo cold tolerance by increasing endosperm cutinization through FAD2 and osmotin activities. PMID:23078289

  13. Population genetics of Mediterranean and Saharan olives: geographic patterns of differentiation and evidence for early generations of admixture

    PubMed Central

    Besnard, G.; El Bakkali, A.; Haouane, H.; Baali-Cherif, D.; Moukhli, A.; Khadari, B.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The olive (Olea europaea subsp. europaea) was domesticated in the Mediterranean area but its wild relatives are distributed over three continents, from the Mediterranean basin to South Africa and south-western Asia. Recent studies suggested that this crop originated in the Levant while a secondary diversification occurred in most westward areas. A possible contribution of the Saharan subspecies (subsp. laperrinei) has been highlighted, but the data available were too limited to draw definite conclusions. Here, patterns of genetic differentiation in the Mediterranean and Saharan olives are analysed to test for recent admixture between these taxa. Methods Nuclear microsatellite and plastid DNA (ptDNA) data were compiled from previous studies and completed for a sample of 470 cultivars, 390 wild Mediterranean trees and 270 Saharan olives. A network was reconstructed for the ptDNA haplotypes, while a Bayesian clustering method was applied to identify the main gene pools in the data set and then simulate and test for early generations of admixture between Mediterranean and Saharan olives. Key Results Four lineages of ptDNA haplotypes are recognized: three from the Mediterranean basin and one from the Sahara. Only one haplotype, primarily distributed in the Sahara, is shared between laperrinei and europaea. This haplotype is detected once in ‘Dhokar’, a cultivar from the Maghreb. Nuclear microsatellites show geographic patterns of genetic differentiation in the Mediterranean olive that reflect the primary origins of cultivars in the Levant, and indicate a high genetic differentiation between europaea and laperrinei. No first-generation hybrid between europaea and laperrinei is detected, but recent, reciprocal admixture between Mediterranean and Saharan subspecies is found in a few accessions, including ‘Dhokar’. Conclusions This study reports for the first time admixture between Mediterranean and Saharan olives. Although its contribution remains limited, Laperrine's olive has been involved in the diversification of cultivated olives. PMID:24013386

  14. SNP Discovery by GBS in Olive and the Construction of a High-Density Genetic Linkage Map.

    PubMed

    İpek, Ahmet; Yılmaz, Kübra; Sıkıcı, Pelin; Tangu, Nesrin Aktepe; Öz, Ayşe Tülin; Bayraktar, Murat; İpek, Meryem; Gülen, Hatice

    2016-06-01

    Genetic linkage maps are valuable tools for genetic, genomic, and crop breeding studies. Several genetic linkage maps were constructed for the olive (Olea europaea L.) genome, mainly using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. However, AFLPs and SSR markers were not enough to develop a high-density olive linkage map. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), a recently developed single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification methodology based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, has been demonstrated to be useful for the identification of a high number of SNP markers and the construction of high-density genetic linkage maps. In the present study, we identified a total of 10,941 SNPs from a cross between the olive cultivars 'Gemlik' and 'Edincik Su' using GBS and de novo SNP discovery implemented in the computer program "Stacks." A high-density genetic linkage map for the olive genome was constructed using 121 cross-pollinated full-sib F1 progeny and 5643 markers (21 SSRs, 203 AFLPs, and 5736 SNPs). This linkage map was composed of 25 linkage groups, covering 3049 cM of the olive genome, and the mean distance between the flanking markers was 0.53 cM. To the best of our knowledge, this map is the most saturated genetic linkage map in olive to date. We demonstrated that GBS is a valuable tool for the identification of thousands of SNPs for the construction of a saturated genetic linkage map in olive. The high-density genetic map developed in this study is a useful tool for locating quantitative trait loci and other economically important traits in the olive genome. PMID:26902470

  15. Assessment of the impact of climate change on the olive flowering in Calabria (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avolio, Elenio; Orlandi, Fabio; Bellecci, Carlo; Fornaciari, Marco; Federico, Stefano

    2012-02-01

    In phenological studies, plant development and its relationship with meteorological conditions are considered in order to investigate the influence of climatic changes on the characteristics of many crop species. In this work, the impact of climate change on the flowering of the olive tree ( Olea europaea L.) in Calabria, southern Italy, has been studied. Olive is one of the most important plant species in the Mediterranean area and, at the same time, Calabria is one of the most representative regions of this area, both geographically and climatically. The work is divided into two main research activities. First, the behaviour of olive tree in Calabria and the influence of temperature on phenological phases of this crop are investigated. An aerobiological method is used to determine the olive flowering dates through the analysis of pollen data collected in three experimental fields for an 11-year study period (1999-2009). Second, the study of climate change in Calabria at high spatial and temporal resolution is performed. A dynamical downscaling procedure is applied for the regionalization of large-scale climate analysis derived from general circulation models for two representative climatic periods (1981-2000 and 2081-2100); the A2 IPCC scenario is used for future climate projections. The final part of this work is the integration of the results of the two research activities to predict the olive flowering variation for the future climatic conditions. In agreement with our previous works, we found a significant correlation between the phenological phases and temperature. For the twenty-first century, an advance of pollen season in Calabria of about 9 days, on average, is expected for each degree of temperature rise. From phenological model results, on the basis of future climate predictions over Calabria, an anticipation of maximum olive flowering between 10 and 34 days is expected, depending on the area. The results of this work are useful for adaptation and mitigation strategies, and for making concrete assessments about biological and environmental changes.

  16. Plant genotype-specific archaeal and bacterial endophytes but similar Bacillus antagonists colonize Mediterranean olive trees.

    PubMed

    Müller, Henry; Berg, Christian; Landa, Blanca B; Auerbach, Anna; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Endophytes have an intimate and often symbiotic interaction with their hosts. Less is known about the composition and function of endophytes in trees. In order to evaluate our hypothesis that plant genotype and origin have a strong impact on both, endophytes of leaves from 10 Olea europaea L. cultivars from the Mediterranean basin growing at a single agricultural site in Spain and from nine wild olive trees located in natural habitats in Greece, Cyprus, and on Madeira Island were studied. The composition of the bacterial endophytic communities as revealed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and the subsequent PCoA analysis showed a strong correlation to the plant genotypes. The bacterial distribution patterns were congruent with the plant origins in "Eastern" and "Western" areas of the Mediterranean basin. Subsequently, the endophytic microbiome of wild olives was shown to be closely related to those of cultivated olives of the corresponding geographic origins. The olive leaf endosphere harbored mostly Proteobacteria, followed by Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The detection of a high portion of archaeal taxa belonging to the phyla Thaumarchaeota, Crenarchaeota, and Euryarchaeota in the amplicon libraries was an unexpected discovery, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR revealing an archaeal portion of up to 35.8%. Although the function of these Archaea for their host plant remains speculative, this finding suggests a significant relevance of archaeal endophytes for plant-microbe interactions. In addition, the antagonistic potential of culturable endophytes was determined; all isolates with antagonistic activity against the olive-pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb. belong to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. In contrast to the specific global structural diversity, BOX-fingerprints of the antagonistic Bacillus isolates were highly similar and independent of the olive genotype from which they were isolated. PMID:25784898

  17. Plant genotype-specific archaeal and bacterial endophytes but similar Bacillus antagonists colonize Mediterranean olive trees

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Henry; Berg, Christian; Landa, Blanca B.; Auerbach, Anna; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Endophytes have an intimate and often symbiotic interaction with their hosts. Less is known about the composition and function of endophytes in trees. In order to evaluate our hypothesis that plant genotype and origin have a strong impact on both, endophytes of leaves from 10 Olea europaea L. cultivars from the Mediterranean basin growing at a single agricultural site in Spain and from nine wild olive trees located in natural habitats in Greece, Cyprus, and on Madeira Island were studied. The composition of the bacterial endophytic communities as revealed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and the subsequent PCoA analysis showed a strong correlation to the plant genotypes. The bacterial distribution patterns were congruent with the plant origins in “Eastern” and “Western” areas of the Mediterranean basin. Subsequently, the endophytic microbiome of wild olives was shown to be closely related to those of cultivated olives of the corresponding geographic origins. The olive leaf endosphere harbored mostly Proteobacteria, followed by Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The detection of a high portion of archaeal taxa belonging to the phyla Thaumarchaeota, Crenarchaeota, and Euryarchaeota in the amplicon libraries was an unexpected discovery, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR revealing an archaeal portion of up to 35.8%. Although the function of these Archaea for their host plant remains speculative, this finding suggests a significant relevance of archaeal endophytes for plant–microbe interactions. In addition, the antagonistic potential of culturable endophytes was determined; all isolates with antagonistic activity against the olive-pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb. belong to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. In contrast to the specific global structural diversity, BOX-fingerprints of the antagonistic Bacillus isolates were highly similar and independent of the olive genotype from which they were isolated. PMID:25784898

  18. Paternity Analysis of the Olive Variety “Istrska Belica” and Identification of Pollen Donors by Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Jakše, Jernej

    2014-01-01

    The leading olive variety in Slovenia is “Istrska belica” (Olea europaea L.), which currently represents 70% of all olive trees in productive orchards. Paternity analysis based on microsatellite markers was used for genotyping and identification of the potential pollen donors of “Istrska belica” and for assessing the proportion of self-fertilization in monovarietal olive orchards in the Slovene Istria. Seven microsatellite loci were used for genotyping thirty-one olive embryos from “Istrska belica” trees and for all potential pollen donor varieties, which are grown in the region and could participate as pollinators. Genotyping results and allele identification were performed using the FaMoz software. The most probable pollen donor was assigned to 39% of all analyzed embryos. Among all analyzed embryos no single case of self-fertilization was confirmed. According to the present results, the variety “Istrska belica” was in all cases fertilized by foreign pollen. The results will contribute to defining the new guidelines for farmers regarding the proper management and growing practice in monovarietal olive groves. PMID:25097869

  19. Qualitative screening of phenolic compounds in olive leaf extracts by hyphenated liquid chromatography and preliminary evaluation of cytotoxic activity against human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Shaoping; Arráez-Roman, David; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Menéndez, Javier A; Menéndez-Gutiérrez, María P; Micol, Vicente; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2010-05-01

    In this work, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS) and electrospray ion trap multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MS(2)) has been applied to screen phenolic compounds in olive leaf extracts. The use of a small particle size C18 column (1.8 micro) provided great resolution and made separation of a lot of isomers possible. The structural characterization was based on accurate mass data obtained by ESI-TOF-MS, and the nature of fragmentation ions were further confirmed by ESI-IT-MS(2) when possible. In addition, we employed tetrazolium salt (MTT)-based assays to assess the effects of olive leaf extracts on the growth of human tumor-derived cells. Upon this approach, we achieved an accurate profile of olive leaf phenolics along with the identification of several important isomers of secoiridoids and flavonoids. This will allow a better understanding of the complete composition of olive-leaf-bioactive compounds as well as their involvement in Olea europaea L. biochemical pathways. Importantly, olive leaf extracts exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the metabolic status (cell viability) of three breast cancer models in vitro. Since the tumoricidal activity of the extracts should be mainly attributed to the identified olive leaf phenolics, these findings warrant further investigation at the structure-function molecular level to definitely establish the anticancer value of these phytochemicals. PMID:20238105

  20. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a) processed olives...

  1. 7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means those olives which, pursuant to...

  2. 7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means those olives which, pursuant to...

  3. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a) processed olives...

  4. 7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means those olives which, pursuant to...

  5. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a) processed olives...

  6. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a) processed olives...

  7. 7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means those olives which, pursuant to...

  8. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a) processed olives...

  9. 7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means those olives which, pursuant to...

  10. How Many Genes Are Selected in Populations of DACUS OLEAE

    PubMed Central

    Tsakas, S.; Krimbas, C. B.

    1975-01-01

    Three natural populations of Dacus oleae have been sampled for six electrophoretically detected polymorphic genes. The distributions of the allele frequencies in the different populations were analyzed by the method suggested by Lewontin and Krakauer (1973) (the variation in space one) in order to test for selective neutrality. This method, however, which in our case showed that one or more genes are or have been subjected to selection, does not permit estimation of the number of selected loci. An improvement of this method is proposed that permits a minimum estimation of the selected genes. About a third of them seem to be selected in our material. In our case however, where a cytological analysis is not possible, genes are not differentiated from possible inversions including these genes. PMID:1132685

  11. Fungi isolated from olive ecosystems and screening of their potential biotechnological use.

    PubMed

    Baffi, Milla Alves; Romo-Sánchez, Sheila; Ubeda-Iranzo, Juan; Briones-Pérez, Ana Isabel

    2012-02-15

    This study investigated the fungi diversity of fresh olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits, olive paste (crushed olives) and olive pomace (solid waste) and screened and quantified enzymatic activities with biotechnological applications. Fungi were randomly isolated from olive cultivars from Castilla La Mancha region (Spain). Identification included comparison of their polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal DNA region, followed by nucleotide sequence analysis. Fourteen different species with DNA sequences of different similarities were identified, belonging to seven different genera (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizomucor, Mucor, Rhizopus, Lichtheimia and Galactomyces). Aspergillus fumigatus, followed by Galactomyces geotrichum, Penicillium commune and Rhizomucor variabilis var. regularior were the most frequent species. Specific enzyme screening was assayed on agar plates, using cellobiose, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), polygalacturonic acid and CaCl(2)/Tween 80 as substrates for β-glucosidase, carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase), polygalacturonase and lipase, respectively. Species exhibiting the best activities were: Aspergillus fumigatus (for β-glucosidase, CMCase and lipase); Rhizopus oryzae (for β-glucosidase and lipase); Rhizomucor variabilis (for β-glucosidase, CMCase and polygalacturonase); Mucor fragilis (β-glucosidase, CMCase and lipase); Galactomyces geotrichum (for β-glucosidase, polygalacturonase and lipase) and Penicillium commune and Penicillium crustosum (for lipase). The species that had shown the best enzymatic activities were grown on hemicellulose, cellulose and pectin and some activities were quantified (xylanase, cellulase, β-glucosidase and pectinase). An isolate of A. fumigatus and one of A. niger showed the best cellulase and xylanase activities, while no species presented good pectinase and β-glucosidase activities. The selected species with potential enzymatic activities could be used for future applications of industrial interest. PMID:21689797

  12. Oleuropein-Enriched Olive Leaf Extract Affects Calcium Dynamics and Impairs Viability of Malignant Mesothelioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Carla; Clericuzio, Marco; Borghesi, Barbara; Cornara, Laura; Ribulla, Stefania; Gosetti, Fabio; Marengo, Emilio; Burlando, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a poor prognosis cancer in urgent need of alternative therapies. Oleuropein, the major phenolic of olive tree (Olea europaea L.), is believed to have therapeutic potentials for various diseases, including tumors. We obtained an oleuropein-enriched fraction, consisting of 60% w/w oleuropein, from olive leaves, and assessed its effects on intracellular Ca(2+) and cell viability in mesothelioma cells. Effects of the oleuropein-enriched fraction on Ca(2+) dynamics and cell viability were studied in the REN mesothelioma cell line, using fura-2 microspectrofluorimetry and MTT assay, respectively. Fura-2-loaded cells, transiently exposed to the oleuropein-enriched fraction, showed dose-dependent transient elevations of cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Application of standard oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, and of the inhibitor of low-voltage T-type Ca(2+) channels NNC-55-0396, suggested that the effect is mainly due to oleuropein acting through its hydroxytyrosol moiety on T-type Ca(2+) channels. The oleuropein-enriched fraction and standard oleuropein displayed a significant antiproliferative effect, as measured on REN cells by MTT cell viability assay, with IC50 of 22 μg/mL oleuropein. Data suggest that our oleuropein-enriched fraction from olive leaf extract could have pharmacological application in malignant mesothelioma anticancer therapy, possibly by targeting T-type Ca(2+) channels and thereby dysregulating intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics. PMID:26693247

  13. Oleuropein-Enriched Olive Leaf Extract Affects Calcium Dynamics and Impairs Viability of Malignant Mesothelioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Carla; Clericuzio, Marco; Borghesi, Barbara; Cornara, Laura; Ribulla, Stefania; Gosetti, Fabio; Marengo, Emilio; Burlando, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a poor prognosis cancer in urgent need of alternative therapies. Oleuropein, the major phenolic of olive tree (Olea europaea L.), is believed to have therapeutic potentials for various diseases, including tumors. We obtained an oleuropein-enriched fraction, consisting of 60% w/w oleuropein, from olive leaves, and assessed its effects on intracellular Ca2+ and cell viability in mesothelioma cells. Effects of the oleuropein-enriched fraction on Ca2+ dynamics and cell viability were studied in the REN mesothelioma cell line, using fura-2 microspectrofluorimetry and MTT assay, respectively. Fura-2-loaded cells, transiently exposed to the oleuropein-enriched fraction, showed dose-dependent transient elevations of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Application of standard oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, and of the inhibitor of low-voltage T-type Ca2+ channels NNC-55-0396, suggested that the effect is mainly due to oleuropein acting through its hydroxytyrosol moiety on T-type Ca2+ channels. The oleuropein-enriched fraction and standard oleuropein displayed a significant antiproliferative effect, as measured on REN cells by MTT cell viability assay, with IC50 of 22 μg/mL oleuropein. Data suggest that our oleuropein-enriched fraction from olive leaf extract could have pharmacological application in malignant mesothelioma anticancer therapy, possibly by targeting T-type Ca2+ channels and thereby dysregulating intracellular Ca2+ dynamics. PMID:26693247

  14. Hydrolysis of Oleuropein by Lactobacillus plantarum Strains Associated with Olive Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Ciafardini, G.; Marsilio, V.; Lanza, B.; Pozzi, N.

    1994-01-01

    Oleuropein (Chemical Abstracts Service registry number 32619-42-4), a bitter-tasting secoiridoid glucoside commonly found in leaves of the olive tree as well as in olives (Olea europaea L.), was found to be hydrolyzed by the β-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.2.1) produced by oleuropeinolytic Lactobacillus plantarum-type strains. Three strains, designated B17, B20, and B21, were isolated from the brine of naturally ripe olives not treated with alkali. These strains were rod-shaped forms, grown at a pH 3.5 limit, and tolerated 1% oleuropein and 8% NaCl in the growth medium. The β-glucosidase produced hydrolyzed 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-d-glucopy-ranoside as well as oleuropein. The presence of 2% glucose in the medium inhibited activity by 40 to 50%, depending on the bacterial strain. Chromatographic analysis of the trimethylsilyl derivatives of the products obtained after 7 days of incubation at 30°C of strain B21 showed all the hydrolysis products of oleuropein, i.e., aglycone, iridoid monoterpen, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol (hydroxytyrosol). Oleuropein and its aglycone after 21 days of incubation decreased to trace levels with the simultaneous increase in concentration of β-3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol. Images PMID:16349442

  15. Simulation of olive grove gross primary production by the combination of ground and multi-sensor satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilli, L.; Chiesi, M.; Maselli, F.; Moriondo, M.; Gioli, B.; Toscano, P.; Zaldei, A.; Bindi, M.

    2013-08-01

    We developed and tested a methodology to estimate olive (Olea europaea L.) gross primary production (GPP) combining ground and multi-sensor satellite data. An eddy-covariance station placed in an olive grove in central Italy provided carbon and water fluxes over two years (2010-2011), which were used as reference to evaluate the performance of a GPP estimation methodology based on a Monteith type model (modified C-Fix) and driven by meteorological and satellite (NDVI) data. A major issue was related to the consideration of the two main olive grove components, i.e. olive trees and inter-tree ground vegetation: this issue was addressed by the separate simulation of carbon fluxes within the two ecosystem layers, followed by their recombination. In this way the eddy covariance GPP measurements were successfully reproduced, with the exception of two periods that followed tillage operations. For these periods measured GPP could be approximated by considering synthetic NDVI values which simulated the expected response of inter-tree ground vegetation to tillages.

  16. Induction of growth inhibition and differentiation of human leukemia HL-60 cells by a Tunisian gerboui olive leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Abaza, Leila; Talorete, Terence P N; Yamada, Parida; Kurita, Yui; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Isoda, Hiroko

    2007-05-01

    Cancer protection associated with the consumption of olive products is well established, but not for leukemia. The protective effects of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves were investigated by incubating human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells with olive leaf extracts (OLEs) from seven principal Tunisian olive varieties, namely, Chemchali, Chemlali, Chétoui, Gerboui, Sayali, Zalmati and Zarrazi. The results showed significant growth inhibition of HL-60 cells incubated for 48 h with a 100-fold dilution of each OLE which had been obtained by incubating 10 g of dried leaves in 100 ml of 70% ethanol for one week with subsequent ultrafiltration. DNA fragmentation was observed in the cells incubated for 19 h with a 100-fold dilution of the Chemchali, Chemlali and Zalmati extracts. The results of a nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) assay revealed NBT reduction, a differentiation marker, by the OLE-treated cells after an overnight incubation. The Gerboui extract showed the highest NBT reduction ability at more than 90%. An HPLC analysis revealed the presence of apigenin 7-glucoside in the extract, which was found in subsequent experiments to be responsible for the Gerboui extract-mediated cell differentiation. PMID:17485840

  17. The olive knot disease as a model to study the role of interspecies bacterial communities in plant disease

    PubMed Central

    Buonaurio, Roberto; Moretti, Chiaraluce; da Silva, Daniel Passos; Cortese, Chiara; Ramos, Cayo; Venturi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in studying interspecies bacterial interactions in diseases of animals and plants as it is believed that the great majority of bacteria found in nature live in complex communities. Plant pathologists have thus far mainly focused on studies involving single species or on their interactions with antagonistic competitors. A bacterial disease used as model to study multispecies interactions is the olive knot disease, caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi (Psv). Knots caused by Psv in branches and other aerial parts of the olive trees are an ideal niche not only for the pathogen but also for many other plant-associated bacterial species, mainly belonging to the genera Pantoea, Pectobacterium, Erwinia, and Curtobacterium. The non-pathogenic bacterial species Erwinia toletana, Pantoea agglomerans, and Erwinia oleae, which are frequently isolated inside the olive knots, cooperate with Psv in modulating the disease severity. Co-inoculations of these species with Psv result in bigger knots and better bacterial colonization when compared to single inoculations. Moreover, harmless bacteria co-localize with the pathogen inside the knots, indicating the formation of stable bacterial consortia that may facilitate the exchange of quorum sensing signals and metabolites. Here we discuss the possible role of bacterial communities in the establishment and development of olive knot disease, which we believe could be taking place in many other bacterial plant diseases. PMID:26113855

  18. Effect of Olea ointment and Acetate Mafenide on burn wounds – A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Zahmatkesh, Mohsen; Manesh, Mohammad Jalili; Babashahabi, Ronak

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main goals in treating burns are to accelerate tissue renovation and prevent infection. Topical antibiotics are used in the treatment of burns, but they can cause side effects. Recently, a traditional ointment (Olea) has been used in Iran in the treatment of burns. This study examines the effect of topical honey ointment in healing of burn patients. Materials and Methods: In this randomized controlled trial (RCT), 30 hospitalized patients selected by conventional sampling (10 in Olea group and 20 in Acetate Mafenide ointment group) were evaluated. Inclusion criteria were: having second-degree burns and body surface area equal to or < 40%. One group was treated using topical Olea ointment and the other with Acetate Mafenide ointment (8.5%). Chi-square, Fisher exact test, and Kaplan–Meier were used. Significance level was considered as P < 0.05. Results: None of the patients in the Olea group needed surgery for debridement, while in the second group, 13 patients (65%) needed debridement (P = 0.001). In the Olea group, 1 patient (10%) and in the second group, 19 patients (95%) had positive cultures after 7 days (P < 0.001). The mean time of granulation tissue formation in the Olea group was 12 days (10.3–13.6) and in the other group, it was 17 days (13.3–20.6) (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Olea ointment is a useful treatment for burns, and it can prevent infections, accelerate tissue repair, and facilitate debridement. Therefore, using this ointment is recommended for the treatment of burns. PMID:26457099

  19. Oliver St John Gogarty.

    PubMed

    Clarke, R W

    1997-01-01

    Oliver St John Gogarty--Otolaryngologist to fashionable Edwardian Dublin--was a distinguished poet and a Senator in the fledgling Irish Free State after its establishment in 1922. He numbered amongst his acquaintances the poet William Butler Yeats, the novelist James Joyce and a host of political and literary persona who helped to shape modern Ireland. He was satirised as 'stately plump Buck Mulligan' in Joyce's novel Ulysses. PMID:9292124

  20. Multiple antimelanoma potential of dry olive leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Mijatovic, Sanja A; Timotijevic, Gordana S; Miljkovic, Djordje M; Radovic, Julijana M; Maksimovic-Ivanic, Danijela D; Dekanski, Dragana P; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava D

    2011-04-15

    Various constituents of the olive tree (Olea europaea) have been traditionally used in the treatment of infection, inflammation, prevention of chronic diseases, cardiovascular disorders and cancer. The anticancer potential of dry olive leaf extract (DOLE) represents the net effect of multilevel interactions between different biologically active compounds from the extract, cancer cells and conventional therapy. In this context, it was of primary interest to evaluate the influence of DOLE on progression of the highly malignant, immuno- and chemoresistant type of skin cancer-melanoma. DOLE significantly inhibited proliferation and subsequently restricted clonogenicity of the B16 mouse melanoma cell line in vitro. Moreover, late phase tumor treatment with DOLE significantly reduced tumor volume in a syngeneic strain of mice. DOLE-treated B16 cells were blocked in the G(0) /G(1) phase of the cell cycle, underwent early apoptosis and died by late necrosis. At the molecular level, the dying process started as caspase dependent, but finalized as caspase independent. In concordance, overexpression of antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, and diminished expression of their natural antagonists, Bim and p53, were observed. Despite molecular suppression of the proapoptotic process, DOLE successfully promoted cell death mainly through disruption of cell membrane integrity and late caspase-independent fragmentation of genetic material. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that DOLE possesses strong antimelanoma potential. When DOLE was applied in combination with different chemotherapeutics, various outcomes, including synergy and antagonism, were observed. This requires caution in the use of the extract as a supplementary antitumor therapeutic. PMID:20568104

  1. Colonization process of olive tissues by Verticillium dahliae and its in planta interaction with the biocontrol root endophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Pilar; Navarro‐Raya, Carmen; Valverde‐Corredor, Antonio; Amyotte, Stefan G.; Dobinson, Katherine F.; Mercado‐Blanco, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    Summary The colonization process of Olea europaea by the defoliating pathotype of Verticillium dahliae, and the in planta interaction with the endophytic, biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 were determined. Differential fluorescent protein tagging was used for the simultaneous visualization of P. fluorescens PICF7 and V. dahliae in olive tissues. Olive plants were bacterized with PICF7 and then transferred to V. dahliae‐infested soil. Monitoring olive colonization events by V. dahliae and its interaction with PICF7 was conducted using a non‐gnotobiotic system, confocal laser scanner microscopy and tissue vibratoming sections. A yellow fluorescently tagged V. dahliae derivative (VDAT‐36I) was obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens‐mediated transformation. Isolate VDAT‐36I quickly colonized olive root surface, successfully invaded root cortex and vascular tissues via macro‐ and micro‐breakages, and progressed to the aerial parts of the plant through xylem vessel cells. Strain PICF7 used root hairs as preferred penetration site, and once established on/in root tissues, hindered pathogen colonization. For the first time using this approach, the entire colonization process of a woody plant by V. dahliae is reported. Early and localized root surface and root endophytic colonization by P. fluorescens PICF7 is needed to impair full progress of verticillium wilt epidemics in olive. PMID:21255281

  2. Achilles, a New Family of Transcriptionally Active Retrotransposons from the Olive Fruit Fly, with Y Chromosome Preferential Distribution.

    PubMed

    Tsoumani, Konstantina T; Drosopoulou, Elena; Bourtzis, Kostas; Gariou-Papalexiou, Aggeliki; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosomes have many unusual features relative to autosomes. The in depth exploration of their structure will improve our understanding of their origin and divergence (degeneration) as well as the evolution of genetic sex determination pathways which, most often are attributed to them. In Tephritids, the structure of Y chromosome, where the male-determining factor M is localized, is largely unexplored and limited data concerning its sequence content and evolution are available. In order to get insight into the structure and organization of the Y chromosome of the major olive insect pest, the olive fly Bactrocera oleae, we characterized sequences from a Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE)-isolated Y chromosome. Here, we report the discovery of the first olive fly LTR retrotransposon with increased presence on the Y chromosome. The element belongs to the BEL-Pao superfamily, however, its sequence comparison with the other members of the superfamily suggests that it constitutes a new family that we termed Achilles. Its ~7.5 kb sequence consists of the 5'LTR, the 5'non-coding sequence and the open reading frame (ORF), which encodes the polyprotein Gag-Pol. In situ hybridization to the B. oleae polytene chromosomes showed that Achilles is distributed in discrete bands dispersed on all five autosomes, in all centromeric regions and in the granular heterochromatic network corresponding to the mitotic sex chromosomes. The between sexes comparison revealed a variation in Achilles copy number, with male flies possessing 5-10 copies more than female (CI range: 18-38 and 12-33 copies respectively per genome). The examination of its transcriptional activity demonstrated the presence of at least one intact active copy in the genome, showing a differential level of expression between sexes as well as during embryonic development. The higher expression was detected in male germline tissues (testes). Moreover, the presence of Achilles-like elements in different species of the Tephritidae family suggests an ancient origin of this element. PMID:26398504

  3. Pentacyclic triterpene in Olea europaea L: A simultaneous determination by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Estela; Juan, M Emília; Calvo-Melià, Sara; Barbosa, José; Sanz-Nebot, Victoria; Planas, Joana M

    2015-09-01

    Pentacyclic triterpenes are gaining interest due to their beneficial health effects, as anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-tumoral, among others. In this study, an analytical LC-MS method was developed for the simultaneous determination of maslinic, oleanolic and ursolic acids along with erythrodiol and uvaol, which are the main triterpenic compounds present in the fruits and leaves of Olea europaea L. A Zorbax Eclipse PAH column at 30°C with mobile phase of water (17%) and methanol (83%) at 0.8mL/min conformed the optimal chromatographic conditions that allowed the separation of the compounds of interest, two pairs of which are isomers differing only in the position of one methyl group (oleanolic-ursolic and erythrodiol-uvaol). The ionization was performed in an APCI source at 450°C programmed in negative mode for the triterpenic acids, and in positive for the alcohols. An ion trap (LC-IT-MS) and a triple quadrupole (LC-QqQ-MS) were assessed for maximal sensitivity that was achieved with LC-QqQ-MS. The LODs of triterpenic acids were lower than 1nM, whereas for erythrodiol and uvaol were 4.5 and 7.5nM, respectively. The method was linear for the five analytes in the range of concentrations from 0.005 to 15μM with correlation coefficients exceeding 0.99. The precision and accuracy were ≤9.90% and ≤9.57%, respectively. The applicability of the validated method was assessed in the analysis of the pentacyclic triterpenes in Marfil table olives, after the optimization of the extraction procedure. The developed method constitutes the first step for future studies of triterpenic compounds present in foods that would allow establishing their effects on human health. PMID:26210113

  4. Measuring and modelling interception loss by an isolated olive tree in a traditional olive grove - pasture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nóbrega, Cristina; Pereira, Fernando L.; Valente, Fernanda

    2015-04-01

    Water losses associated to the rainfall interception process by trees can be an important component of the local hydrologic balance and must be accounted for when implementing any sustainable water management programme. In many dry areas of the Mediterranean region where agro-forestry systems are common, those programmes are crucial to foster adequate water conservation measures. Recent studies have shown that the evaluation of interception loss in sparse forests or tree plantations should be made for individual trees, being the total value determined as the sum of the individual contributions. Following this approach, rainfall interception was measured and modelled over two years, in an isolated Olea europeaea L. tree, in a traditional low-density olive grove in Castelo Branco, central Portugal. Total interception loss over the experimental period was 243.5 mm, on a tree crown projected area basis, corresponding to 18.0% of gross rainfall (Pg). Modelling made for each rainfall event using the sparse version of the Gash model, slightly underestimated interception loss with a value of 240.5 mm, i.e., 17.8 % ofPg. Modelling quality, evaluated according to a number of criteria, was good, allowing the conclusion that the methodology used was adequate. Modelling was also made on a daily basis, i.e., assuming a single storm per rainday. In this case, interception loss was overestimated by 12%, mostly because 72% of all rainfall events lasted for more than a day.

  5. The Vine and Olive Colony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albinski, Nan Bowman

    1985-01-01

    Traces the historical sources of "Some Plant Olive Trees," a utopian novel by Emma Gelders Sterne, which offers a fictional account of the Vine and Olive colony, one of the most colorful yet least known utopian communities of the nineteenth century. (AYC)

  6. On the Use of Leaf Spectral Indices to Assess Water Status and Photosynthetic Limitations in Olea europaea L. during Water-Stress and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Pengsen; Wahbi, Said; Tsonev, Tsonko; Haworth, Matthew; Liu, Shirong; Centritto, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Diffusional limitations to photosynthesis, relative water content (RWC), pigment concentrations and their association with reflectance indices were studied in olive (Olea europaea) saplings subjected to water-stress and re-watering. RWC decreased sharply as drought progressed. Following rewatering, RWC gradually increased to pre-stress values. Photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), mesophyll conductance (gm), total conductance (gt), photochemical reflectance index (PRI), water index (WI) and relative depth index (RDI) closely followed RWC. In contrast, carotenoid concentration, the carotenoid to chlorophyll ratio, water content reflectance index (WCRI) and structural independent pigment index (SIPI) showed an opposite trend to that of RWC. Photosynthesis scaled linearly with leaf conductance to CO2; however, A measured under non-photorespiratory conditions (A1%O2) was approximately two times greater than A measured at 21% [O2], indicating that photorespiration likely increased in response to drought. A1%O2 also significantly correlated with leaf conductance parameters. These relationships were apparent in saturation type curves, indicating that under non-photorespiratory conditions, CO2 conductance was not the major limitations to A. PRI was significant correlated with RWC. PRI was also very sensitive to pigment concentrations and photosynthesis, and significantly tracked all CO2 conductance parameters. WI, RDI and WCRI were all significantly correlated with RWC, and most notably to leaf transpiration. Overall, PRI correlated more closely with carotenoid concentration than SIPI; whereas WI tracked leaf transpiration more effectively than RDI and WCRI. This study clearly demonstrates that PRI and WI can be used for the fast detection of physiological traits of olive trees subjected to water-stress. PMID:25136798

  7. On the use of leaf spectral indices to assess water status and photosynthetic limitations in Olea europaea L. during water-stress and recovery.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pengsen; Wahbi, Said; Tsonev, Tsonko; Haworth, Matthew; Liu, Shirong; Centritto, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Diffusional limitations to photosynthesis, relative water content (RWC), pigment concentrations and their association with reflectance indices were studied in olive (Olea europaea) saplings subjected to water-stress and re-watering. RWC decreased sharply as drought progressed. Following rewatering, RWC gradually increased to pre-stress values. Photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), mesophyll conductance (gm), total conductance (gt), photochemical reflectance index (PRI), water index (WI) and relative depth index (RDI) closely followed RWC. In contrast, carotenoid concentration, the carotenoid to chlorophyll ratio, water content reflectance index (WCRI) and structural independent pigment index (SIPI) showed an opposite trend to that of RWC. Photosynthesis scaled linearly with leaf conductance to CO2; however, A measured under non-photorespiratory conditions (A1%O2) was approximately two times greater than A measured at 21% [O2], indicating that photorespiration likely increased in response to drought. A1%O2 also significantly correlated with leaf conductance parameters. These relationships were apparent in saturation type curves, indicating that under non-photorespiratory conditions, CO2 conductance was not the major limitations to A. PRI was significant correlated with RWC. PRI was also very sensitive to pigment concentrations and photosynthesis, and significantly tracked all CO2 conductance parameters. WI, RDI and WCRI were all significantly correlated with RWC, and most notably to leaf transpiration. Overall, PRI correlated more closely with carotenoid concentration than SIPI; whereas WI tracked leaf transpiration more effectively than RDI and WCRI. This study clearly demonstrates that PRI and WI can be used for the fast detection of physiological traits of olive trees subjected to water-stress. PMID:25136798

  8. Correlation between airborne Olea europaea pollen concentrations and levels of the major allergen Ole e 1 in Córdoba, Spain, 2012-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaza, M. P.; Alcázar, P.; Galán, C.

    2016-04-01

    Olea europaea L. pollen is the second-largest cause of pollinosis in the southern Iberian Peninsula. Airborne-pollen monitoring networks provide essential data on pollen dynamics over a given study area. Recent research, however, has shown that airborne pollen levels alone do not always provide a clear indicator of actual exposure to aeroallergens. This study sought to evaluate correlations between airborne concentrations of olive pollen and Ole e 1 allergen levels in Córdoba (southern Spain), in order to determine whether atmospheric pollen concentrations alone are sufficient to chart changes in hay fever symptoms. The influence of major weather-related variables on local airborne pollen and allergen levels was also examined. Monitoring was carried out from 2012 to 2014. Pollen sampling was performed using a Hirst-type sampler, following the protocol recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network. A multi-vial cyclone sampler was used to collect aeroallergens, and allergenic particles were quantified by ELISA assay. Significant positive correlations were found between daily airborne allergen levels and atmospheric pollen concentrations, although there were occasions when allergen was detected before and after the pollen season and in the absence of airborne pollen. The correlation between the two was irregular, and pollen potency displayed year-on-year variations and did not necessarily match pollen-season-intensity.

  9. Root hairs play a key role in the endophytic colonization of olive roots by Pseudomonas spp. with biocontrol activity.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Pilar; Schilirò, Elisabetta; Maldonado-González, María Mercedes; Valderrama, Raquel; Barroso-Albarracín, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2011-08-01

    The use of indigenous bacterial root endophytes with biocontrol activity against soil-borne phytopathogens is an environmentally-friendly and ecologically-efficient action within an integrated disease management framework. The earliest steps of olive root colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 and Pseudomonas putida PICP2, effective biocontrol agents (BCAs) against Verticillium wilt of olive (Olea europaea L.) caused by the fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb., are here described. A gnotobiotic study system using in vitro propagated olive plants, differential fluorescent-protein tagging of bacteria, and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis have been successfully used to examine olive roots-Pseudomonas spp. interactions at the single-cell level. In vivo simultaneous visualization of PICF7 and PICP2 cells on/in root tissues enabled to discard competition between the two bacterial strains during root colonization. Results demonstrated that both BCAs are able to endophytically colonized olive root tissues. Moreover, results suggest a pivotal role of root hairs in root colonization by both biocontrol Pseudomonas spp. However, colonization of root hairs appeared to be a highly specific event, and only a very low number of root hairs were effectively colonized by introduced bacteria. Strains PICF7 and PICP2 can simultaneously colonize the same root hair, demonstrating that early colonization of a given root hair by one strain did not hinder subsequent attachment and penetration by the other. Since many environmental factors can affect the number, anatomy, development, and physiology of root hairs, colonization competence and biocontrol effectiveness of BCAs may be greatly influenced by root hair's fitness. Finally, the in vitro study system here reported has shown to be a suitable tool to investigate colonization processes of woody plant roots by microorganisms with biocontrol potential. PMID:21347721

  10. Chloroformic and Methanolic Extracts of Olea europaea L. Leaves Present Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities

    PubMed Central

    Chebbi Mahjoub, R; Khemiss, M.; Dhidah, M.; Dellaï, A.; Bouraoui, A.; Khemiss, F.

    2011-01-01

    Olea europaea L. is used in traditional medicine in the Mediterranean areas. Its natural products are used in the treatment of different disorders, like fighting fever and some infectious diseases such as malaria, the treatment of arrhythmia, and relief of intestinal spasms. The aim of the current study is to investigate the possible anti-inflammatory and anatinociceptive effects of methanol and chloroformic extracts prepared from leaves of Olea europaea L. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of the different extracts of Olea europaea leaves were assessed after intraperitoneal administration into rats and mice, using the carrageenan-induced paw edema model in rats to test the anti-inflammatory effect and the acetic acid-induced writhing in mice to test the analgesic effect. The chloroformic and methanolic leaves extracts, studied at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg (Body Weight: BW), exhibited significant dose-dependent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that Olea europaea leaves extracts have anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. PMID:22084717

  11. Olive School, Arlington Heights, Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rausch, Kathy

    1974-01-01

    Article stressed the need for a music teacher in an open school to have an openness to people and ideas. It also described the educational objectives at the Olive School in Arlington Heights, Illinois. (Author/RK)

  12. Isolation, molecular characterization and functional analysis of OeMT2, an olive metallothionein with a bioremediation potential.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Ekrem; Sonmez, Görkem Deniz; Unver, Turgay

    2015-02-01

    Metallothioneins are essential in plants for metal detoxification in addition to their other roles in plant life cycle. This study reports the characterization of an olive (Olea europaea L. cv. Ayvalik) metallothionein with respect to molecular and functional properties. A cDNA encoding a type 2 metallothionein from olive was isolated from a leaf cDNA library, characterized and named OeMT2 after its molecular and functional properties. OeMT2 was expressed in Escherichia coli, and a single protein band was confirmed by protein gel blot analysis. Metal tolerance ability of bacterial cells expressing OeMT2 was determined against 0.2 mM CdCl2, 0.4 mM CdCl2 and 1 mM CuSO4 in the growth medium. Metal ion contents of bacterial cells expressing OeMT2 were measured by ICP. Metal tolerance assays and ICP measurements suggested that OeMT2 effectively binds Cu and Cd. Molecular analysis of OeMT2 revealed two introns, three exons, a short 3' UTR and a long 5' UTR. Comparing the genomic sequences from 14 olive cultivars revealed OeMT2 had both intron and exon polymorphisms dividing the cultivars into three groups. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that OeMT2 expresses more or less the same amounts in all tissues of the olive tree examined. The genomic copy number of OeMT2 was also determined employing real-time PCR which suggested a single copy gene in the olive genome while three other MT2 members were determined from the draft olive genome sequences of Ayvalik cultivar and that of wild olive. This is the first report on molecular and functional characterization of an olive metallothionein and shows that OeMT2 expressed in E. coli has the capability of effectively binding toxic heavy metals. This may suggest that OeMT2 plays an important role in metal homeostasis in addition to a good potential for environmental and industrial usage. PMID:25204791

  13. Assessment of volatile compound profiles and the deduced sensory significance of virgin olive oils from the progeny of Picual×Arbequina cultivars.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Ana G; de la Rosa, Raúl; Pascual, Mar; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Romero-Segura, Carmen; León, Lorenzo; Sanz, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Volatile compounds are responsible for most of the sensory qualities of virgin olive oil and they are synthesized when enzymes and substrates come together as olive fruit is crushed during the industrial process to obtain the oil. Here we have studied the variability among the major volatile compounds in virgin olive oil prepared from the progeny of a cross of Picual and Arbequina olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.). The volatile compounds were isolated by SPME, and analyzed by HRGC-MS and HRGC-FID. Most of the volatile compounds found in the progeny's oil are produced by the enzymes in the so-called lipoxygenase pathway, and they may be clustered into different groups according to their chain length and polyunsaturated fatty acid origin (linoleic and linolenic acids). In addition, a group of compounds derived from amino acid metabolism and two terpenes also contributed significantly to the volatile fraction, some of which had significant odor values in most of the genotypes evaluated. The volatile compound content of the progeny was very varied, widely transgressing the progenitor levels, suggesting that in breeding programs it might be more effective to consider a larger number of individuals within the same cross than using different crosses with fewer individuals. Multivariate analysis allowed genotypes with particularly interesting volatile compositions to be identified and their flavor quality deduced. PMID:26199104

  14. 7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.23 Undersize olives and limited use...

  15. 7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.23 Undersize olives and limited use...

  16. 7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.23 Undersize olives and limited use...

  17. 7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.23 Undersize olives and limited use...

  18. 7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.23 Undersize olives and limited use...

  19. Clay Improvement with Burned Olive Waste Ash

    PubMed Central

    Mutman, Utkan

    2013-01-01

    Olive oil is concentrated in the Mediterranean basin countries. Since the olive oil industries are incriminated for a high quantity of pollution, it has become imperative to solve this problem by developing optimized systems for the treatment of olive oil wastes. This study proposes a solution to the problem. Burned olive waste ash is evaluated for using it as clay stabilizer. In a laboratory, bentonite clay is used to improve olive waste ash. Before the laboratory, the olive waste is burned at 550°C in the high temperature oven. The burned olive waste ash was added to bentonite clay with increasing 1% by weight from 1% to 10%. The study consisted of the following tests on samples treated with burned olive waste ash: Atterberg Limits, Standard Proctor Density, and Unconfined Compressive Strength Tests. The test results show promise for this material to be used as stabilizer and to solve many of the problems associated with its accumulation. PMID:23766671

  20. The olive tree: a paradigm for drought tolerance in Mediterranean climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofo, A.; Manfreda, S.; Dichio, B.; Fiorentino, M.; Xiloyannis, C.

    2007-09-01

    Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is commonly grown in the Mediterranean basin where prolonged droughts may occur during the vegetative period. This species has developed a series of physiological mechanisms to tolerate drought stress and grow under adverse climatic conditions that can be observed in numerous plants of the Mediterranean macchia. These mechanisms have been investigated through an experimental campaign carried out over both irrigated and drought-stressed plants in order to comprehend the plant response under stressed conditions and its ability to recover. Experimental results show that olive plants subjected to water deficit lower the water content and water potentials of their tissues, establishing a particularly high potential gradient between leaves and roots, and stop canopy growth but not photosynthetic activity and transpiration. This allows the continuous production of assimilates as well as their accumulation in the various plant parts, so creating a higher root/leaf ratio if compared to well-watered plants. Active and passive osmotic adjustment due to the accumulation of sugars (in particular mannitol and glucose), proline and other osmolytes has a key role in maintaining cell turgor and leaf activities. At severe drought-stress levels, the non-stomatal component of photosynthesis is inhibited and a light-dependent inactivation of the photosystem II occurs. Finally, the activities of some antioxidant enzymes involved in the scavenging of activated oxygen species and in other biochemical pathways, increase during a period of drought. The present paper provides an overview of the driving mechanisms adopted by olive trees to face drought stress with the aim of better understand plant-soil interactions.

  1. The olive tree: a paradigm for drought tolerance in Mediterranean climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofo, A.; Manfreda, S.; Fiorentino, M.; Dichio, B.; Xiloyannis, C.

    2008-02-01

    Olive trees (Olea europaea L.) are commonly grown in the Mediterranean basin where prolonged droughts may occur during the vegetative period. This species has developed a series of physiological mechanisms, that can be observed in several plants of the Mediterranean macchia, to tolerate drought stress and grow under adverse climatic conditions. These mechanisms have been investigated through an experimental campaign carried out over both irrigated and drought-stressed plants in order to comprehend the plant response under stressed conditions and its ability to recover. Experimental results show that olive plants subjected to water deficit lower the water content and water potentials of their tissues, establishing a particularly high potential gradient between leaves and roots, and stop canopy growth but not photosynthetic activity and transpiration. This allows the continuous production of assimilates as well as their accumulation in the various plant parts, so creating a higher root/leaf ratio if compared to well-watered plants. Active and passive osmotic adjustment due to the accumulation of carbohydrates (in particular mannitol and glucose), proline and other osmolytes have key roles in maintaining cell turgor and leaf activities. At severe drought-stress levels, the non-stomatal component of photosynthesis is inhibited and a light-dependent inactivation of the photosystem II occurs. Finally, the activities of some antioxidant enzymes involved in the scavenging of activated oxygen species and in other biochemical pathways increase during a period of drought. The present paper provides an overview of the driving mechanisms adopted by olive trees to face drought stress with the aim of better understanding plant-soil interactions.

  2. Oliver Wendell Holmes 1

    PubMed Central

    Lindskog, Gustaf E.

    1974-01-01

    The life of Oliver Wendell Holmes was selected as the subject for a lecture in the 1974 History of Medicine series at Yale University School of Medicine because, as the Latin subtitle of the essay suggests, he represents a fortunate and uncommon, but by no means unique, synthesis of the practical and aesthetic, of science and the humanities. An attempt has been made by the lecturer, employing frequent, but brief, excerpts from the works of several disinguished biographers as well as Doctor Holmes' own lectures, medical papers, essays and poems to delineate the elite heritage and the events that led this complex person transiently into the sudy of law, the profession in which his older son reached the pinnacle of the U.S. Supreme Court, and finally into medicine where a short period of private practice was followed by more than three decades of distinguished teaching is anatomy. His lifetime (1809-1894) spanned most of the nineteenth century, in the literary hisory of which he played a significant role. His writings reveal a remarkable, and sometimes prophetic, appreciation of the impact that burgeoning science and evolving social pressures and changes would have on the teaching and practice of medicine in the future—our present. PMID:4617425

  3. Biotechnological innovations for table olives.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; de Stefano, Fabio; Augello, Salvatore; Pignatiello, Stefano; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria

    2015-03-01

    The production of table olives is based on a relatively simple flow chart, including debittering and lactic fermentation. Producers' demand for innovation was the background to design and test some innovative and alternative approaches, i.e. the selection of suitable starter cultures (both lactic acid bacteria and yeasts), the production of functional olives inoculated with probiotic strains, the use of bioremediation (i.e. degradation of oleuropein by bacteria or yeasts), as well as the inoculation of functional starter cultures with a strong biopreservative effect. This article reports a brief description of the most important innovations, with a special focus on the role of traditional and innovative starter cultures. PMID:25578760

  4. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives means olives...

  5. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives means olives...

  6. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives means olives...

  7. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives means olives...

  8. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole” olives are those which have not been pitted. (b) Pitted. “Pitted” olives are those...

  9. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole” olives are those which have not been pitted. (b) Pitted. “Pitted” olives are those...

  10. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives means olives...

  11. "Oliver Twist": A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashion, Carol; Fischer, Diana

    This teacher's guide for public television's 3-part adaptation of Charles Dickens's "Oliver Twist" provides information that will help enrich students' viewing of the series, whether or not they read the novel. The guide includes a wide range of discussion and activity ideas; there is also a series Web site and a list of Web resources.…

  12. The Olive Fly Endosymbiont, “Candidatus Erwinia dacicola,” Switches from an Intracellular Existence to an Extracellular Existence during Host Insect Development▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Estes, Anne M.; Hearn, David J.; Bronstein, Judith L.; Pierson, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    As polyphagous, holometabolous insects, tephritid fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) provide a unique habitat for endosymbiotic bacteria, especially those microbes associated with the digestive system. Here we examine the endosymbiont of the olive fly [Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae)], a tephritid of great economic importance. “Candidatus Erwinia dacicola” was found in the digestive systems of all life stages of wild olive flies from the southwestern United States. PCR and microscopy demonstrated that “Ca. Erwinia dacicola” resided intracellularly in the gastric ceca of the larval midgut but extracellularly in the lumen of the foregut and ovipositor diverticulum of adult flies. “Ca. Erwinia dacicola” is one of the few nonpathogenic endosymbionts that transitions between intracellular and extracellular lifestyles during specific stages of the host's life cycle. Another unique feature of the olive fly endosymbiont is that unlike obligate endosymbionts of monophagous insects, “Ca. Erwinia dacicola” has a G+C nucleotide composition similar to those of closely related plant-pathogenic and free-living bacteria. These two characteristics of “Ca. Erwinia dacicola,” the ability to transition between intracellular and extracellular lifestyles and a G+C nucleotide composition similar to those of free-living relatives, may facilitate survival in a changing environment during the development of a polyphagous, holometabolous host. We propose that insect-bacterial symbioses should be classified based on the environment that the host provides to the endosymbiont (the endosymbiont environment). PMID:19767463

  13. Chemical and physical properties of two-year short-rotation deciduous species. [Olea sp. , Populus deltoides, Platanus sp. , Alnus glutinosa, Paulownia tomentosa, Robina pseudoacacia, Acer saccharinum

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.S

    1982-01-01

    The following seven broadleaved species were tested: autumn olive (Olea sp.) eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), sycamore (Platanus species), black alder (Alnus glutinosa), royal paulownia (Paulownia tomentosa), black locust (Robina pseudoacacia) and silver maple (Acer saccharinum). The species and portions both significantly affected the chemical and the physical findings of the juvenile wood. The ages, which were tested in factorial combination with the species, also showed a significant effect on both the chemical and the physical properties of wood. All of the results indicated that both chemical and physical properties did vary with species, among the portions of the wood, and according to the ages of the wood. From the portion standpoint, the bark had higher gross heat content, sulphur content, ash content and lignin content, and it was also higher in all three kinds of extractives contents. The wood portion was found to be rich in holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and pentosan. In considering the chemical and physical properties of juvenile wood among the species, eastern cottonwood was found to have the highest value for ash content and all of the three kinds of extractives content. Paulownia had the highest value for sulphur content. Black locust had highest gross heat content, holocellulose and alpha-cellulose contents. Silver maple had highest lignin content. Results from this study showed that these seven juvenile hardwood species can produce high biomass yields of fibre and energy when grown under intensive care in central and southern Illinois sites. The best species of these seven tested woods seem to be black locust, which could also serve as a raw material for the pulp and paper industry, as well as for a fuel for energy generation. However, further economic and energy efficiency analyses are needed before judging the feasibility of these short-rotation juvenile hardwood species.

  14. Early and delayed long-term transcriptional changes and short-term transient responses during cold acclimation in olive leaves.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Pérez, María de la O; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Valderrama, Raquel; Jiménez-Ruiz, Jaime; Muñoz-Merida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; Barroso, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Luque, Francisco

    2015-02-01

    Low temperature severely affects plant growth and development. To overcome this constraint, several plant species from regions having a cool season have evolved an adaptive response, called cold acclimation. We have studied this response in olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cv. Picual. Biochemical stress markers and cold-stress symptoms were detected after the first 24 h as sagging leaves. After 5 days, the plants were found to have completely recovered. Control and cold-stressed plants were sequenced by Illumina HiSeq 1000 paired-end technique. We also assembled a new olive transcriptome comprising 157,799 unigenes and found 6,309 unigenes differentially expressed in response to cold. Three types of response that led to cold acclimation were found: short-term transient response, early long-term response, and late long-term response. These subsets of unigenes were related to different biological processes. Early responses involved many cold-stress-responsive genes coding for, among many other things, C-repeat binding factor transcription factors, fatty acid desaturases, wax synthesis, and oligosaccharide metabolism. After long-term exposure to cold, a large proportion of gene down-regulation was found, including photosynthesis and plant growth genes. Up-regulated genes after long-term cold exposure were related to organelle fusion, nucleus organization, and DNA integration, including retrotransposons. PMID:25324298

  15. Dry olive leaf extract counteracts L-thyroxine-induced genotoxicity in human peripheral blood leukocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Topalović, Dijana Žukovec; Živković, Lada; Čabarkapa, Andrea; Djelić, Ninoslav; Bajić, Vladan; Dekanski, Dragana; Spremo-Potparević, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid hormones change the rate of basal metabolism, modulating the consumption of oxygen and causing production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to the development of oxidative stress and DNA strand breaks. Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf contains many potentially bioactive compounds, making it one of the most potent natural antioxidants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of L-thyroxine and to investigate antioxidative and antigenotoxic potential of the standardized oleuropein-rich dry olive leaf extract (DOLE) against hydrogen peroxide and L-thyroxine-induced DNA damage in human peripheral blood leukocytes by using the comet assay. Various concentrations of the extract were tested with both DNA damage inducers, under two different experimental conditions, pretreatment and posttreatment. Results indicate that L-thyroxine exhibited genotoxic effect and that DOLE displayed protective effect against thyroxine-induced genotoxicity. The number of cells with DNA damage, was significantly reduced, in both pretreated and posttreated samples (P < 0.05). Comparing the beneficial effect of all tested concentrations of DOLE, in both experimental protocols, it appears that extract was more effective in reducing DNA damage in the pretreatment, exhibiting protective role against L-thyroxine effect. This feature of DOLE can be explained by its capacity to act as potent free radical scavenger. PMID:25789081

  16. Dry olive leaf extract counteracts L-thyroxine-induced genotoxicity in human peripheral blood leukocytes in vitro.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Topalović DŽ; Živković L; Čabarkapa A; Djelić N; Bajić V; Dekanski D; Spremo-Potparević B

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid hormones change the rate of basal metabolism, modulating the consumption of oxygen and causing production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to the development of oxidative stress and DNA strand breaks. Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf contains many potentially bioactive compounds, making it one of the most potent natural antioxidants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of L-thyroxine and to investigate antioxidative and antigenotoxic potential of the standardized oleuropein-rich dry olive leaf extract (DOLE) against hydrogen peroxide and L-thyroxine-induced DNA damage in human peripheral blood leukocytes by using the comet assay. Various concentrations of the extract were tested with both DNA damage inducers, under two different experimental conditions, pretreatment and posttreatment. Results indicate that L-thyroxine exhibited genotoxic effect and that DOLE displayed protective effect against thyroxine-induced genotoxicity. The number of cells with DNA damage, was significantly reduced, in both pretreated and posttreated samples (P < 0.05). Comparing the beneficial effect of all tested concentrations of DOLE, in both experimental protocols, it appears that extract was more effective in reducing DNA damage in the pretreatment, exhibiting protective role against L-thyroxine effect. This feature of DOLE can be explained by its capacity to act as potent free radical scavenger.

  17. Response of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) to an attract-and-kill trap in greenhouse cage tests.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y

    2014-01-01

    A novel attract-and-kill trap for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), was constructed with yellow corrugated plastic in an inverted cylindrical pan shape formed from a disk and collar. The trap components were tested under three greenhouse temperatures and humidities of warm, hot, and very hot for attractiveness to caged young or older adults. A greater proportion of adults regardless of age were found underneath the devices including disks, cylindrical pans, and pans with pheromone lures and test units of cylindrical pans sprayed with water, insecticidal bait spray, and with lures. The effect was related to lower temperatures on the underside compared with the top and the intolerance of the pest to heat. A circular collar added to the perimeter of the disk that formed the top of the inverted cylinder made the attract-and-kill trap more attractive to adults than the disk alone. Pheromone lures or bait sprays did not increase adult attraction, so were not needed for efficacy. The cylindrical pan was especially attractive to adults when temperatures were high by providing shelter from the heat. At very high temperatures, the pan became unattractive, possibly due to heating of the construction materials. Cylindrical pans sprayed with water on the underside attracted the highest number of adults especially at high temperatures. Greenhouse tests showed that the inverted cylindrical pan design has potential as an attract-and-kill device for olive fruit fly control. PMID:25368094

  18. Early and delayed long-term transcriptional changes and short-term transient responses during cold acclimation in olive leaves

    PubMed Central

    Leyva-Pérez, María de la O; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Valderrama, Raquel; Jiménez-Ruiz, Jaime; Muñoz-Merida, Antonio; Trelles, Oswaldo; Barroso, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Luque, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Low temperature severely affects plant growth and development. To overcome this constraint, several plant species from regions having a cool season have evolved an adaptive response, called cold acclimation. We have studied this response in olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cv. Picual. Biochemical stress markers and cold-stress symptoms were detected after the first 24 h as sagging leaves. After 5 days, the plants were found to have completely recovered. Control and cold-stressed plants were sequenced by Illumina HiSeq 1000 paired-end technique. We also assembled a new olive transcriptome comprising 157,799 unigenes and found 6,309 unigenes differentially expressed in response to cold. Three types of response that led to cold acclimation were found: short-term transient response, early long-term response, and late long-term response. These subsets of unigenes were related to different biological processes. Early responses involved many cold-stress-responsive genes coding for, among many other things, C-repeat binding factor transcription factors, fatty acid desaturases, wax synthesis, and oligosaccharide metabolism. After long-term exposure to cold, a large proportion of gene down-regulation was found, including photosynthesis and plant growth genes. Up-regulated genes after long-term cold exposure were related to organelle fusion, nucleus organization, and DNA integration, including retrotransposons. PMID:25324298

  19. Dry Olive Leaf Extract Counteracts L-Thyroxine-Induced Genotoxicity in Human Peripheral Blood Leukocytes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Žukovec Topalović, Dijana; Živković, Lada; Čabarkapa, Andrea; Djelić, Ninoslav; Bajić, Vladan; Spremo-Potparević, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid hormones change the rate of basal metabolism, modulating the consumption of oxygen and causing production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to the development of oxidative stress and DNA strand breaks. Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf contains many potentially bioactive compounds, making it one of the most potent natural antioxidants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of L-thyroxine and to investigate antioxidative and antigenotoxic potential of the standardized oleuropein-rich dry olive leaf extract (DOLE) against hydrogen peroxide and L-thyroxine-induced DNA damage in human peripheral blood leukocytes by using the comet assay. Various concentrations of the extract were tested with both DNA damage inducers, under two different experimental conditions, pretreatment and posttreatment. Results indicate that L-thyroxine exhibited genotoxic effect and that DOLE displayed protective effect against thyroxine-induced genotoxicity. The number of cells with DNA damage, was significantly reduced, in both pretreated and posttreated samples (P < 0.05). Comparing the beneficial effect of all tested concentrations of DOLE, in both experimental protocols, it appears that extract was more effective in reducing DNA damage in the pretreatment, exhibiting protective role against L-thyroxine effect. This feature of DOLE can be explained by its capacity to act as potent free radical scavenger. PMID:25789081

  20. Achilles, a New Family of Transcriptionally Active Retrotransposons from the Olive Fruit Fly, with Y Chromosome Preferential Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Tsoumani, Konstantina T.; Drosopoulou, Elena; Bourtzis, Kostas; Gariou-Papalexiou, Aggeliki; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D.

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosomes have many unusual features relative to autosomes. The in depth exploration of their structure will improve our understanding of their origin and divergence (degeneration) as well as the evolution of genetic sex determination pathways which, most often are attributed to them. In Tephritids, the structure of Y chromosome, where the male-determining factor M is localized, is largely unexplored and limited data concerning its sequence content and evolution are available. In order to get insight into the structure and organization of the Y chromosome of the major olive insect pest, the olive fly Bactrocera oleae, we characterized sequences from a Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE)-isolated Y chromosome. Here, we report the discovery of the first olive fly LTR retrotransposon with increased presence on the Y chromosome. The element belongs to the BEL-Pao superfamily, however, its sequence comparison with the other members of the superfamily suggests that it constitutes a new family that we termed Achilles. Its ~7.5 kb sequence consists of the 5’LTR, the 5’non-coding sequence and the open reading frame (ORF), which encodes the polyprotein Gag-Pol. In situ hybridization to the B. oleae polytene chromosomes showed that Achilles is distributed in discrete bands dispersed on all five autosomes, in all centromeric regions and in the granular heterochromatic network corresponding to the mitotic sex chromosomes. The between sexes comparison revealed a variation in Achilles copy number, with male flies possessing 5–10 copies more than female (CI range: 18–38 and 12–33 copies respectively per genome). The examination of its transcriptional activity demonstrated the presence of at least one intact active copy in the genome, showing a differential level of expression between sexes as well as during embryonic development. The higher expression was detected in male germline tissues (testes). Moreover, the presence of Achilles-like elements in different species of the Tephritidae family suggests an ancient origin of this element. PMID:26398504

  1. Sample preparation approaches for the analysis of pesticide residues in olives and olive oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural practices generally require the use of pesticides by olive growers for the best olive and olive oil production. Thus, analytical methods are needed to identify and quantify the pesticide residues that may be present, and ensure that the product complies with regulatory requirements. I...

  2. Composition of a Spanish sewage sludge and effects on treated soil and olive trees.

    PubMed

    Gascó, G; Lobo, M C

    2007-01-01

    The effects of sewage sludge (SL) application on the soil and olive trees (Olea europaea L., cultivar: cornicabra) were studied. The plants were grown in 8.5L pots and subjected to the following treatments: 0, 3.66, 7.32, 14.65, 29.3, 58.6, and 117.2 g SL kg(-1) soil that corresponded, respectively, to 0, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128 M g ha(-1) dry weight of sewage sludge. The application of SL at the rates 64 and 128 M g ha(-1) produced leaf tip burning and leaf drop after 120 days, although cumulative metal pollutant loading rates was below USEPA and European regulations. This toxicity symptom could be caused by the high sodium levels in the leaves (over 0.19%), which can damage olive tree development. The Na contents of leaves were well correlated with soil Na content (r2: 0.91). In general, SL rates significantly increased the level of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in soil and plants, but these concentrations were in the normal ranges, except for the Zn concentration, which was over the critical soil content for the rates of 32, 64, 128 Mg ha(-1) but not in the leaves. Results suggested that regulations about the utilization of sewage sludge on agricultural land should consider the limit values for salt, and not only metals, that may be added to soil, in order to minimize the risk of negative effects to plant health. PMID:17049835

  3. Exploration of mechanisms in nutriepigenomics: Identification of chromatin-modifying compounds from Olea Europaea.

    PubMed

    Bonvino, Natalie P; Ray, Nancy B; Luu, Vi T; Liang, Julia; Hung, Andrew; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2015-01-01

    Chemical modification of histones represents an important epigenetic mechanism critical for DNA metabolism including, transcription, replication and repair. A well-known example is maintenance of histone acetylation status by the opposing actions of histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase enzymes which add and remove acetyl groups on lysine residues on histone tails, respectively. Similarly, histone methyltransferase and histone demethylase enzymes are responsible for adding and removing methyl groups on histone tails, respectively. Further, there is accumulated evidence indicating a histone code where combinations of different chemical modifications on histone tails act in concert to regulate DNA metabolic events. Although numerous compounds have been developed to specifically alter the function of chromatin modifying enzymes (for example, histone deacetylase inhibitors are relatively well-investigated), we are only at the early stages of understanding the epigenetic effects of dietary compounds. Here we used in silico molecular modeling approaches combined with known experimental affinities for controls, to identify potential chromatin modifying compounds derived from Olea Europaea. Our findings indicate that various compounds derived from Olea Europaea have the ability to bind to the active site of different chromatin modifying enzymes, with an affinity analogous or higher than that for a known positive control. Further, we initiated the process of validating targets using in vitro binding and enzyme activity inhibition assays and provide initial findings of potential epigenetic effects in a clinical context. Overall, our findings can be considered as the first instalment of a comprehensive endeavour to catalogue and detail the epigenetic effects of compounds derived from Olea Europaea. PMID:26665212

  4. Olea europaea Linn. Fruit Pulp Extract Protects against Carbon Tetrachloride-induced Hepatic Damage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kang, H.; Koppula, S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of Olea europaea fruit pulp extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in experimental mice. Further we explored the antioxidant potential of the extract to substantiate the hepatoprotective properties. Biochemical parameters were analyzed in the serum of experimental mice using respective diagnostic kits. Antioxidant activities were measured following alkyl and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. Compared with control groups, administration of the extract to carbon tetrachloride-treated mice significantly reduced the elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. The carbon tetrachloride-treated morphological changes in hepatocyte architecture were also reversed by extract pretreatment. Further, the carbon tetrachloride-treated increased serum cholesterol levels such as triglyceride and low density/very low-density lipoprotein in the liver were reversed in acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride-treated mice. The extract was also found to significantly increase the serum level of high-density lipoproteins in carbon tetrachloride-treated mice. Furthermore, the extract showed significant in vitro antioxidant actions by scavenging the alkyl and hydroxyl free radicals, substantiating its use in hepatoprotection. The concentration of the extract necessary for 50% inhibition of alkyl and hydroxyl radicals was 72.41 and 52.24 μg/ml, respectively. In conclusion, data from our study suggest that Olea europaea fruit pulp extract could prevent carbon tetrachloride-treated acute and chronic liver degeneration and attenuated the lipid levels elevated by carbon tetrachloride. The hepatoprotective activity exhibited by Olea europaea extract might possibly be through its antioxidant defense mechanisms. PMID:25284924

  5. Correlation between large-scale atmospheric fields and the olive pollen season in Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avolio, E.; Pasqualoni, L.; Federico, S.; Fornaciari, M.; Bonofiglio, T.; Orlandi, F.; Bellecci, C.; Romano, B.

    2008-11-01

    Olives are one of the largest crops in the Mediterranean and in central and southern Italy. This work investigates the correlation of the Olea europaea L. pollen season in Perugia, the capital city of the region of Umbria in central Italy, with atmospheric parameters. The aim of the study is twofold. First, we study the correlation between the pollen season and the surface air temperature of the spring and late spring in Perugia. Second, the correlation between the pollen season and large-scale atmospheric patterns is investigated. The average surface temperature in the spring and late spring has a clear impact on the pollen season in Perugia. Years with higher average temperatures have an earlier onset of the pollen season. In particular, a 1°C higher (lower) average surface temperature corresponds to an earlier (later) start of the pollen season of about 1 week. The correlation between the pollen season and large-scale atmospheric patterns of sea level pressure and 500-hPa geopotential height shows that the cyclonic activity in the Mediterranean is unequivocally tied to the pollen season in Perugia. A larger than average cyclonic activity in the Mediterranean Basin corresponds to a later than average pollen season. Larger than average cyclonic activity in Northern Europe and Siberia corresponds to an earlier than average pollen season. A possible explanation of this correlation, that needs further investigation to be proven, is given. These results can have a practical application by using the seasonal forecast of atmospheric general circulation models.

  6. Components of a standardised olive leaf dry extract (Ph. Eur.) promote hypothiocyanite production by lactoperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Flemmig, Jörg; Rusch, Dorothea; Czerwińska, Monika Ewa; Rauwald, Hans-Wilhelm; Arnhold, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    We investigated in vitro the ability of a standardised olive leaf dry extract (Ph. Eur.) (OLE) as well as of its single components to circumvent the hydrogen peroxide-induced inhibition of the hypothiocyanite-producing activity of lactoperoxidase (LPO). The rate of hypothiocyanite (⁻OSCN) formation by LPO was quantified by spectrophotometric detection of the oxidation of 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid (TNB). By using excess hydrogen peroxide, we forced the accumulation of inactive enzymatic intermediates which are unable to promote the two-electronic oxidation of thiocyanate. Both OLE and certain extract components showed a strong LPO-reactivating effect. Thereby an o-hydroxyphenolic moiety emerged to be essential for a good reactivity with the inactive LPO redox states. This basic moiety is found in the main OLE components oleuropein, oleacein, hydroxytyrosol, caffeic acid as well as in different other constituents including the OLE flavone luteolin. As LPO is a key player in the humoral immune response, these results propose a new mode of action regarding the well-known bacteriostatic and anti-inflammatory properties of the leaf extract of Olea europaea L. PMID:24657078

  7. A dehydrin gene isolated from feral olive enhances drought tolerance in Arabidopsis transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Chiappetta, Adriana; Muto, Antonella; Bruno, Leonardo; Woloszynska, Magdalena; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Bitonti, Maria B

    2015-01-01

    Dehydrins belong to a protein family whose expression may be induced or enhanced by developmental process and environmental stresses that lead to cell dehydration. A dehydrin gene named OesDHN was isolated and characterized from oleaster (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea, var. sylvestris), the wild form of olive. To elucidate the contribution of OesDHN in the development of drought tolerance, its expression levels were investigated in oleaster plants during development and under drought stress condition. The involvement of OesDHN in plant stress response was also evaluated in Arabidopsis transgenic lines, engineered to overexpress this gene, and exposed to a controlled mild osmotic stress. OesDHN expression was found to be modulated during development and induced under mild drought stress in oleaster plants. In addition, the Arabidopsis transgenic plants showed a better tolerance to osmotic stress than wild-type plants. The results demonstrated that OesDHN expression is induced by drought stress and is able to confer osmotic stress tolerance. We suggest a role for OesDHN, as a putative functional marker of plant stress tolerance. PMID:26175736

  8. A dehydrin gene isolated from feral olive enhances drought tolerance in Arabidopsis transgenic plants

    PubMed Central

    Chiappetta, Adriana; Muto, Antonella; Bruno, Leonardo; Woloszynska, Magdalena; Lijsebettens, Mieke Van; Bitonti, Maria B.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydrins belong to a protein family whose expression may be induced or enhanced by developmental process and environmental stresses that lead to cell dehydration. A dehydrin gene named OesDHN was isolated and characterized from oleaster (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea, var. sylvestris), the wild form of olive. To elucidate the contribution of OesDHN in the development of drought tolerance, its expression levels were investigated in oleaster plants during development and under drought stress condition. The involvement of OesDHN in plant stress response was also evaluated in Arabidopsis transgenic lines, engineered to overexpress this gene, and exposed to a controlled mild osmotic stress. OesDHN expression was found to be modulated during development and induced under mild drought stress in oleaster plants. In addition, the Arabidopsis transgenic plants showed a better tolerance to osmotic stress than wild-type plants. The results demonstrated that OesDHN expression is induced by drought stress and is able to confer osmotic stress tolerance. We suggest a role for OesDHN, as a putative functional marker of plant stress tolerance. PMID:26175736

  9. Saturated hydrocarbon content in olive fruits and crude olive pomace oils.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Coca, Raquel B; Pérez-Camino, María Del Carmen; Moreda, Wenceslao

    2016-03-01

    Olive fruits contain an n-alkane series of saturated hydrocarbons mainly in the pulp. Lower amounts of a complex mixture of paraffins, unresolved by gas chromatography (UCM - unresolved complex mixture), have been found in cuticle, stone (woody shell and seed), olive leaves, and talc used as an aid to olive oil extraction. The amounts of both kinds of hydrocarbons are related to the olive cultivar and are transferred to oils in a proportion depending on the oil-obtaining process (centrifugation or solvent extraction). In olive oil obtained by centrifugation, only n-alkanes were detected. However, in olive oil extracted by second centrifugation, small amounts of UCM paraffins were detected together with the n-alkanes. Olive pomace oils showed a very variable content of both types of hydrocarbons according to the different obtaining process, such as double centrifugation, solvent extraction or centrifugation followed by solvent extraction. 'White mineral oil' used in oil extraction machinery is the source of the high concentrations of UCM paraffins found in some olive and olive pomace oils. In the case of second centrifugation olive oil, a maximum limit of 50 mg kg(-1) of UCM is suggested, whereas in the case of crude olive pomace oil, it amounts to 250 mg kg(-1) plus an additional minimum of 1.0 for the n-alkanes/UCM ratio. PMID:26679220

  10. Photopyroelectric Monitoring of Olive's Ripening Conditions and Olive Oil Quality Using Pulsed Wideband IR Thermal Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Taha, M. I.; Sarahneh, Y.; Saleh, A. M.

    The present study is based on band absorption of radiation from pulsed wideband infrared (IR) thermal source (PWBS) in conjunction with polyvinylidene fluoride film (PVDF). It is the first time to be employed to monitor the ripening state of olive fruit. Olive's characteristics vary at different stages of ripening, and hence, cultivation of olives at the right time is important in ensuring the best oil quality and maximizes the harvest yield. The photopyroelectric (PPE) signal resulting from absorption of wideband infrared (IR) radiation by fresh olive juice indicates the ripening stage of olives, i.e., allows an estimate of the suitable harvest time. The technique was found to be very useful in discriminating between olive oil samples according to geographical region, shelf life, some storage conditions, and deliberate adulteration. Our results for monitoring oil accumulation in olives during the ripening season agree well with the complicated analytical studies carried out by other researchers.

  11. From olive drupes to olive oil. An HPLC-orbitrap-based qualitative and quantitative exploration of olive key metabolites.

    PubMed

    Kanakis, Periklis; Termentzi, Aikaterini; Michel, Thomas; Gikas, Evagelos; Halabalaki, Maria; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the current study was the qualitative exploration and quantitative monitoring of key olive secondary metabolites in different production steps (drupes, paste, first and final oil) throughout a virgin olive oil production line. The Greek variety Koroneiki was selected as one of the most representative olives, which is rich in biological active compounds. For the first time, an HPLC-Orbitrap platform was employed for both qualitative and quantitative purposes. Fifty-two components belonging to phenyl alcohols, secoiridoids, flavonoids, triterpenes, and lactones were identified based on HRMS and HRMS/MS data. Nine biologically and chemically significant metabolites were quantitatively determined throughout the four production steps. Drupes and paste were found to be rich in several components, which are not present in the final oil. The current study discloses the chemical nature of different olive materials in a successive and integrated way and reveals new sources of high added value constituents of olives. PMID:24072502

  12. Olive Banks (1923-2006): An Appreciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis, June

    2008-01-01

    This Appreciation of Olive Banks (1923-2006) draws upon her memoir published in Women's History Review, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1999, pp. 401-410, and upon the author's recollections of and correspondence with her. Born into a solidly working-class family, Olive Banks overcame the disadvantages of her social class background and gender to become an

  13. Olive Banks (1923-2006): An Appreciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis, June

    2008-01-01

    This Appreciation of Olive Banks (1923-2006) draws upon her memoir published in Women's History Review, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1999, pp. 401-410, and upon the author's recollections of and correspondence with her. Born into a solidly working-class family, Olive Banks overcame the disadvantages of her social class background and gender to become an…

  14. AUTUMN OLIVE: A POTENTIAL ALTERNATIVE CROP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fruit of autumn olive has a pleasant sweet-tart flavor and could be used for a variety of fruit- based products, but has not been used commercially for human consumption in this country. Recent studies at the USDA Beltsville Phytonutrient Laboratory have shown that the fruit of Autumn olive is ...

  15. Olive leaf extracts protect cardiomyocytes against 4-hydroxynonenal-induced toxicity in vitro: comparison with oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and quercetin.

    PubMed

    Bali, Elif Burcu; Ergin, Volkan; Rackova, Lucia; Bayraktar, Oğuz; Küçükboyaci, Nurgün; Karasu, Çimen

    2014-08-01

    Olive (Olea europaea) leaf, an important traditional herbal medicine, displays cardioprotection that may be related to the cellular redox modulating effects of its polyphenolic constituents. This study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of the ethanolic and methanolic extracts of olive leaves compared to the effects of oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and quercetin as a positive standard in a carbonyl compound (4-hydroxynonenal)-induced model of oxidative damage to rat cardiomyocytes (H9c2). Cell viability was detected by the MTT assay; reactive oxygen species production was assessed by the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate method, and the mitochondrial membrane potential was determined using a JC-1 dye kit. Phospho-Hsp27 (Ser82), phospho-MAPKAPK-2 (Thr334), phospho-c-Jun (Ser73), cleaved-caspase-3 (cl-CASP3) (Asp175), and phospho-SAPK/JNK (Thr183/Tyr185) were measured by Western blotting. The ethanolic and methanolic extracts of olive leaves inhibited 4-hydroxynonenal-induced apoptosis, characterized by increased reactive oxygen species production, impaired viability (LD50: 25 µM), mitochondrial dysfunction, and activation of pro-apoptotic cl-CASP3. The ethanolic and methanolic extracts of olive leaves also inhibited 4-hydroxynonenal-induced phosphorylation of stress-activated transcription factors, and the effects of extracts on p-SAPK/JNK, p-Hsp27, and p-MAPKAPK-2 were found to be concentration-dependent and comparable with oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and quercetin. While the methanolic extract downregulated 4-hydroxynonenal-induced p-MAPKAPK-2 and p-c-Jun more than the ethanolic extract, it exerted a less inhibitory effect than the ethanolic extract on 4-hydroxynonenal-induced p-SAPK/JNK and p-Hsp27. cl-CASP3 and p-Hsp27 were attenuated, especially by quercetin. Experiments showed a predominant reactive oxygen species inhibitory and mitochondrial protecting ability at a concentration of 1-10 µg/mL of each extract, oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and quercetin. The ethanolic extract of olive leaves, which contains larger amounts of oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside, luteolin, and quercetin (by HPLC) than the methanolic one, has more protecting ability on cardiomyocyte viability than the methanolic extract or each phenolic compound against 4-hydroxynonenal-induced carbonyl stress and toxicity. PMID:25098929

  16. Olive leaf extracts protect cardiomyocytes against 4-hydroxynonenal-induced toxicity in vitro: comparison with oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and quercetin.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Bali EB; Ergin V; Rackova L; Bayraktar O; Küçükboyaci N; Karasu Ç

    2014-08-01

    Olive (Olea europaea) leaf, an important traditional herbal medicine, displays cardioprotection that may be related to the cellular redox modulating effects of its polyphenolic constituents. This study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of the ethanolic and methanolic extracts of olive leaves compared to the effects of oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and quercetin as a positive standard in a carbonyl compound (4-hydroxynonenal)-induced model of oxidative damage to rat cardiomyocytes (H9c2). Cell viability was detected by the MTT assay; reactive oxygen species production was assessed by the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate method, and the mitochondrial membrane potential was determined using a JC-1 dye kit. Phospho-Hsp27 (Ser82), phospho-MAPKAPK-2 (Thr334), phospho-c-Jun (Ser73), cleaved-caspase-3 (cl-CASP3) (Asp175), and phospho-SAPK/JNK (Thr183/Tyr185) were measured by Western blotting. The ethanolic and methanolic extracts of olive leaves inhibited 4-hydroxynonenal-induced apoptosis, characterized by increased reactive oxygen species production, impaired viability (LD50: 25 µM), mitochondrial dysfunction, and activation of pro-apoptotic cl-CASP3. The ethanolic and methanolic extracts of olive leaves also inhibited 4-hydroxynonenal-induced phosphorylation of stress-activated transcription factors, and the effects of extracts on p-SAPK/JNK, p-Hsp27, and p-MAPKAPK-2 were found to be concentration-dependent and comparable with oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and quercetin. While the methanolic extract downregulated 4-hydroxynonenal-induced p-MAPKAPK-2 and p-c-Jun more than the ethanolic extract, it exerted a less inhibitory effect than the ethanolic extract on 4-hydroxynonenal-induced p-SAPK/JNK and p-Hsp27. cl-CASP3 and p-Hsp27 were attenuated, especially by quercetin. Experiments showed a predominant reactive oxygen species inhibitory and mitochondrial protecting ability at a concentration of 1-10 µg/mL of each extract, oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and quercetin. The ethanolic extract of olive leaves, which contains larger amounts of oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside, luteolin, and quercetin (by HPLC) than the methanolic one, has more protecting ability on cardiomyocyte viability than the methanolic extract or each phenolic compound against 4-hydroxynonenal-induced carbonyl stress and toxicity.

  17. Antioxidants in Greek Virgin Olive Oils

    PubMed Central

    Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Tsimidou, Maria Z.

    2014-01-01

    Greece is ranked third after Spain and Italy in virgin olive oil production. The number of Greek olive cultivars—excluding clonal selections—is greater than 40; however, more than 90% of the acreage is cultivated with 20 cultivars, adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Greek virgin olive oils, produced mainly with traditional, non-intensive cultivation practices, are mostly of exceptional quality. The benefits of consuming virgin olive oil, originally attributed to its high oleic acid content, are now considered to be the combined result of several nutrient and non-nutrient phytochemicals. The present work summarizes available data regarding natural antioxidants in Greek virgin olive oils (VOO) namely, polar phenolic compounds, tocopherols, squalene, and triterpenic acids. The literature survey indicated gaps in information, which should be filled in the near future so that the intrinsic properties of this major agricultural product of Greece will be substantiated on a solid scientific basis. PMID:26784878

  18. Antioxidants in Greek Virgin Olive Oils.

    PubMed

    Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Tsimidou, Maria Z

    2014-01-01

    Greece is ranked third after Spain and Italy in virgin olive oil production. The number of Greek olive cultivars-excluding clonal selections-is greater than 40; however, more than 90% of the acreage is cultivated with 20 cultivars, adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Greek virgin olive oils, produced mainly with traditional, non-intensive cultivation practices, are mostly of exceptional quality. The benefits of consuming virgin olive oil, originally attributed to its high oleic acid content, are now considered to be the combined result of several nutrient and non-nutrient phytochemicals. The present work summarizes available data regarding natural antioxidants in Greek virgin olive oils (VOO) namely, polar phenolic compounds, tocopherols, squalene, and triterpenic acids. The literature survey indicated gaps in information, which should be filled in the near future so that the intrinsic properties of this major agricultural product of Greece will be substantiated on a solid scientific basis. PMID:26784878

  19. Olea europaea L. in the North Mediterranean Basin during the Pleniglacial and the Early-Middle Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrión, Yolanda; Ntinou, Maria; Badal, Ernestina

    2010-04-01

    The paper aims to define the natural distribution of Olea europaea L. var. sylvestris (Miller) Lehr. in the North Mediterranean basin during the Pleniglacial and the Early-Middle Holocene by means of the identification of its wood-charcoal and/or wood at prehistoric sites. For this purpose we have reviewed the previously available information and we have combined it with new wood-charcoal analyses data. We have taken under consideration the presence and frequency of O. europaea L. in the available wood-charcoal sequences, the characteristics of the accompanying flora, the associated chrono-cultural contexts, the broader biogeographical context and the AMS dates provided by Olea wood-charcoal or endocarps. According to the available evidence, during the Middle and Late Pleniglacial (ca 59-11.5 ka cal. BP), Olea would have persisted in thermophilous refugia located in the southern areas of the North Mediterranean basin, the southern Levant and the north of Africa. The Last Glacial Maximum (ca 22-18 ka cal. BP) probably reduced the distribution area of Olea. During the Preboreal and the Boreal (ca 11 500-8800 cal. BP) the species started to expand in the thermomediterranean bioclimatic level. In the western Mediterranean, during the Atlantic period (ca 8800-5600 cal. BP), the species became very abundant or dominant in the thermophilous plant formations and expanded to favorable enclaves outside the limits of the thermomediterranean level.

  20. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality of canned ripe olives of whole, pitted, halved, segmented, sliced,...

  1. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole” olives are...

  2. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole” olives are...

  3. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality of canned ripe olives of whole, pitted, halved, segmented, sliced,...

  4. 7 CFR 52.3752 - Types of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Types of canned ripe olives. 52.3752 Section 52.3752... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3752 Types of canned ripe olives. Canned ripe olives are processed as...

  5. 7 CFR 52.3752 - Types of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Types of canned ripe olives. 52.3752 Section 52.3752... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3752 Types of canned ripe olives. Canned ripe olives are processed as...

  6. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole” olives are...

  7. Inhibitory effects of Olea ferruginea crude leaves extract against some bacterial and fungal pathogen.

    PubMed

    Amin, Adnan; Khan, Muhammad Ayaz; Shah, Swahid; Ahmad, Mushatq; Zafar, Muhammad; Hameed, Abdul

    2013-03-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of Olea ferruginea crude leaves extract that are commonly used as remedy to cure infections in the tribal (Khyber Agency) areas of Pakistan against some of bacterial and fungal pathogens. The crude n-hexane fraction was appreciably active against both gram positive and negative microorganisms (MIC ranged from 7.5 to 15 mg/ml) followed by butanol fraction (MIC 15 to 30 mg/ml). Conversely least biological activity was shown by chloroform (30mg/ml) and methanol (15 to 30mg/ml) crude fractions. The MBC observed for all crude fractions was same or 2 times higher when compared with MIC for all crude extract fractions. Likewise all the fractions showed activity against Aspergillus niger and maximum zones of inhibition were shown by the n-hexane fraction (14 ± (0.02), butanol (13 ± (0.02) followed by methanol (9 ± (0.05) and chloroform fractions (7 ± (0.02). These results clearly imitate the antibacterial and antifungal potential of Olea ferruginea and hence we recommend the whole plant for further futuristic studies. PMID:23455192

  8. Phenolic Compounds from Olea europaea L. Possess Antioxidant Activity and Inhibit Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Dekdouk, Nadia; Malafronte, Nicola; Russo, Daniela; Faraone, Immacolata; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Ameddah, Souad; Severino, Lorella; Milella, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic composition and biological activities of fruit extracts from Italian and Algerian Olea europaea L. cultivars were studied. Total phenolic and tannin contents were quantified in the extracts. Moreover 14 different phenolic compounds were identified, and their profiles showed remarkable quantitative differences among analysed extracts. Moreover antioxidant and enzymatic inhibition activities were studied. Three complementary assays were used to measure their antioxidant activities and consequently Relative Antioxidant Capacity Index (RACI) was used to compare and easily describe obtained results. Results showed that Chemlal, between Algerian cultivars, and Coratina, among Italian ones, had the highest RACI values. On the other hand all extracts and the most abundant phenolics were tested for their efficiency to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Leccino, among all analysed cultivars, and luteolin, among identified phenolic compounds, were found to be the best inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Results demonstrated that Olea europaea fruit extracts can represent an important natural source with high antioxidant potential and significant α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects. PMID:26557862

  9. Purification and Characterization of OleA from Xanthomonas campestris and Demonstration of a Non-decarboxylative Claisen Condensation Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Frias, JA; Richman, JE; Erickson, JS; Wackett, LP

    2011-03-25

    OleA catalyzes the condensation of fatty acyl groups in the first step of bacterial long-chain olefin biosynthesis, but the mechanism of the condensation reaction is controversial. In this study, OleA from Xanthomonas campestris was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The purified protein was shown to be active with fatty acyl-CoA substrates that ranged from C(8) to C(16) in length. With limiting myristoyl-CoA (C(14)), 1 mol of the free coenzyme A was released/mol of myristoyl-CoA consumed. Using [(14)C] myristoyl-CoA, the other products were identified as myristic acid, 2-myristoylmyristic acid, and 14-heptacosanone. 2-Myristoylmyristic acid was indicated to be the physiologically relevant product of OleA in several ways. First, 2-myristoylmyristic acid was the major condensed product in short incubations, but over time, it decreased with the concomitant increase of 14-heptacosanone. Second, synthetic 2-myristoylmyristic acid showed similar decarboxylation kinetics in the absence of OleA. Third, 2-myristoylmyristic acid was shown to be reactive with purified OleC and OleD to generate the olefin 14-heptacosene, a product seen in previous in vivo studies. The decarboxylation product, 14-heptacosanone, did not react with OleC and OleD to produce any demonstrable product. Substantial hydrolysis of fatty acyl-CoA substrates to the corresponding fatty acids was observed, but it is currently unclear if this occurs in vivo. In total, these data are consistent with OleA catalyzing a non-decarboxylative Claisen condensation reaction in the first step of the olefin biosynthetic pathway previously found to be present in at least 70 different bacterial strains.

  10. Application of compost of two-phase olive mill waste on olive grove: effects on soil, olive fruit and olive oil quality.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Hernández, Antonia; Roig, Asunción; Serramiá, Nuria; Civantos, Concepción García-Ortiz; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A

    2014-07-01

    Composting is a method for preparing organic fertilizers that represents a suitable management option for the recycling of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) in agriculture. Four different composts were prepared by mixing TPOMW with different agro-industrial by-products (olive pruning, sheep manure and horse manure), which were used either as bulking agents or as N sources. The mature composts were added during six consecutive years to a typical "Picual" olive tree grove in the Jaén province (Spain). The effects of compost addition on soil characteristics, crop yield and nutritional status and also the quality of the olive oil were evaluated at the end of the experiment and compared to a control treated only with mineral fertilization. The most important effects on soil characteristics included a significant increase in the availability of N, P, K and an increase of soil organic matter content. The application of TPOMW compost produced a significant increase in olive oil content in the fruit. The compost amended plots had a 15% higher olive oil content than those treatment with inorganic fertilization. These organics amendments maintained the composition and quality of the olive oil. PMID:24810202

  11. Olive mill wastewater microconstituents composition according to olive variety and extraction process.

    PubMed

    Aggoun, Moufida; Arhab, Rabah; Cornu, Agnès; Portelli, Josiane; Barkat, Malika; Graulet, Benoît

    2016-10-15

    Olive oil production yields a considerable amount of wastewater, a powerful pollutant that is currently discarded but could be considered as a potential source of valuable natural products due to its content in phenolic compounds and other natural antioxidants. The aim of this work was to explore the variability in olive mill wastewater composition from Algerian olive oil mills considering extraction processes (traditional discontinuous press vs 3-phases centrifugal system) and olive varieties (Azerraj, Sigoise, Chemlal). Whereas pH, dry or organic matter content didn't vary, there was a significant difference in ash content according to extraction process and olive variety. Carotenoid content was 2.2-fold higher with 3-phases than with press systems whereas tocopherol content was not significantly different. Among the phenolic compounds quantified, tyrosol was usually the most abundant whereas oleuropein concentrations were highly variable. Differences in phenolic compound concentrations were more pronounced between olive varieties than between processes. PMID:27173536

  12. Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity.

    PubMed

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-02-15

    The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations. PMID:25236229

  13. Secoiridoids delivered as olive leaf extract induce acute improvements in human vascular function and reduction of an inflammatory cytokine: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Lockyer, Stacey; Corona, Giulia; Yaqoob, Parveen; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Rowland, Ian

    2015-07-14

    The leaves of the olive plant (Olea europaea) are rich in polyphenols, of which oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol (HT) are most characteristic. Such polyphenols have been demonstrated to favourably modify a variety of cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of the present intervention was to investigate the influence of olive leaf extract (OLE) on vascular function and inflammation in a postprandial setting and to link physiological outcomes with absorbed phenolics. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, acute intervention trial was conducted with eighteen healthy volunteers (nine male, nine female), who consumed either OLE (51 mg oleuropein; 10 mg HT), or a matched control (separated by a 4-week wash out) on a single occasion. Vascular function was measured by digital volume pulse (DVP), while blood collected at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 h was cultured for 24 h in the presence of lipopolysaccharide in order to investigate effects on cytokine production. Urine was analysed for phenolic metabolites by HPLC. DVP-stiffness index and ex vivo IL-8 production were significantly reduced (P< 0.05) after consumption of OLE compared to the control. These effects were accompanied by the excretion of several phenolic metabolites, namely HT and oleuropein derivatives, which peaked in urine after 8-24 h. The present study provides the first evidence that OLE positively modulates vascular function and IL-8 production in vivo, adding to growing evidence that olive phenolics could be beneficial for health. PMID:26051429

  14. Trace-element measurements in atmospheric biomonitors—A look at the relative performance of INAA and PIXE on olive-tree bark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, Adriano M. G.; Freitas, Maria do Carmo; Reis, Miguel A.

    2003-06-01

    As part of an ongoing evaluation of its suitability for atmospheric biomonitoring, bark from olive trees ( Olea europaea Linn.) has been collected and searched for trace elements by means of two nuclear-analytical techniques—instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The sampling for the present study was carried out across two separate sections of an established grid for air-quality surveys in mainland Portugal. The dual location comprises 58 collection sites—littoral-north (29 sites) and littoral-centre (29 sites). Both techniques are intrinsically accurate and may be seen to complement each other in the way that, as a whole, they yield 46 elements, with an overlap of 16 elements. Among the latter, this paper focuses on four of them and looks into their joint determination. Descriptive statistics for soil-related Al and Ti, and for sea-related Cl and Br, show results for each element to be fairly comparable. The degree of association between elemental patterns by either technique, as seen through nonparametric tests (Kendall's RK), is outstanding. No statistical evidence (Wilcoxon's T) for relative bias in correlated samples—consistently higher or lower results by one technique—could be found as well. As far as this study goes, INAA and PIXE may be used interchangeably for determining the present elements in olive-tree bark.

  15. Role of hydraulic and chemical signals in leaves, stems and roots in the stomatal behaviour of olive trees under water stress and recovery conditions.

    PubMed

    Torres-Ruiz, Jose M; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Perez-Martin, Alfonso; Hernandez-Santana, Virginia

    2015-04-01

    The control of plant transpiration by stomata under water stress and recovery conditions is of paramount importance for plant performance and survival. Although both chemical and hydraulic signals emitted within a plant are considered to play a major role in controlling stomatal dynamics, they have rarely been assessed together. The aims of this study were to evaluate (i) the dynamics of chemical and hydraulic signals at leaf, stem and root level, and (ii) their effect on the regulation of stomatal conductance (gs) during water stress and recovery. Measurements of gs, water potential, abscisic acid (ABA) content and loss of hydraulic functioning at leaf, stem and root level were conducted during a water stress and recovery period imposed on 1-year-old olive plants (Olea europaea L.). Results showed a strong hydraulic segmentation in olive plants, with higher hydraulic functioning losses in roots and leaves than in stems. The dynamics of hydraulic conductance of roots and leaves observed as water stress developed could explain both a protection of the hydraulic functionality of larger organs of the plant (i.e., branches, etc.) and a role in the down-regulation of gs. On the other hand, ABA also increased, showing a similar pattern to gs dynamics, and thus its effect on gs in response to water stress cannot be ruled out. However, neither hydraulic nor non-hydraulic factors were able to explain the delay in the full recovery of gs after soil water availability was restored. PMID:25030936

  16. Regulation of photosynthesis and stomatal and mesophyll conductance under water stress and recovery in olive trees: correlation with gene expression of carbonic anhydrase and aquaporins

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Martin, Alfonso; Michelazzo, Chiara; Torres-Ruiz, Jose M.; Flexas, Jaume; Fernández, José E.; Sebastiani, Luca; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis that aquaporins and carbonic anhydrase (CA) are involved in the regulation of stomatal (g s) and mesophyll (g m) conductance to CO2 was tested in a short-term water-stress and recovery experiment in 5-year-old olive plants (Olea europaea) growing outdoors. The evolution of leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and plant water status, and a quantitative analysis of photosynthesis limitations, were followed during water stress and recovery. These variables were correlated with gene expression of the aquaporins OePIP1.1 and OePIP2.1, and stromal CA. At mild stress and at the beginning of the recovery period, stomatal limitations prevailed, while the decline in g m accounted for up to 60% of photosynthesis limitations under severe water stress. However, g m was restored to control values shortly after rewatering, facilitating the recovery of the photosynthetic rate. CA was downregulated during water stress and upregulated after recovery. The use of structural equation modelling allowed us to conclude that both OePIP1.1 and OePIP2.1 expression could explain most of the variations observed for g s and g m. CA expression also had a small but significant effect on g m in olive under water-stress conditions. PMID:24799563

  17. Correlations between morpho-anatomical changes and radial hydraulic conductivity in roots of olive trees under water deficit and rewatering.

    PubMed

    Tataranni, Giuseppe; Santarcangelo, Michele; Sofo, Adriano; Xiloyannis, Cristos; Tyerman, Stephen D; Dichio, Bartolomeo

    2015-12-01

    The effects of prolonged drought were studied on olive (Olea europaea L.; drought-sensitive cultivar Biancolilla and drought-tolerant cultivar Coratina) to examine how morpho-anatomical modifications in roots impact on root radial hydraulic conductivity (Lpr). Two-year-old self-rooted plants were subjected to a gradual water depletion. The levels of drought stress were defined by pre-dawn leaf water potentials (Ψw) of -1.5, -3.5 and -6.5 MPa. After reaching the maximum level of drought, plants were rewatered for 23 days. Progressive drought stress, for both cultivars, caused a strong reduction in Lpr (from 1.2 to 1.3 × 10(-5) m MPa(-1) s(-1) in unstressed plants to 0.2-0.6 × 10(-5) m MPa(-1) s(-1) in plants at Ψw = -6.5 MPa), particularly evident in the more suberized (brown) roots, accompanied with decreases in stomatal conductance (gs). No significant differences in Lpr and gs between the two olive cultivars were observed. Epifluorescence microscopy and image analyses revealed a parallel increase of wall suberization that doubled in white stressed roots and tripled in brown ones when compared with unstressed plants. In drought-stressed plants, the number of suberized cellular layers from the endodermis towards the cortex increased from 1-2 to 6-7. Recovery in Lpr during rewatering was correlated to the physical disruption of hydrophobic barriers, while the time necessary to obtain new mature roots likely accounted for the observed delay in the complete recovery of gs. Radial hydraulic conductivity in olive roots was strongly influenced by soil and plant water availability and it was also modulated by structural root modifications, size, growth and anatomy. These findings could be important for maintaining an optimal water status in cultivated olive trees by scheduling efficient irrigation methods, saving irrigation water and obtaining yield of high quality. PMID:26446266

  18. The Microbiology of Olive Mill Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    Olive mill wastes (OMWs) are high-strength organic effluents, which upon disposal can degrade soil and water quality, negatively affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning the microbial communities identified over the past 20 years in olive mill wastes using both culture-dependent and independent approaches. A database survey of 16S rRNA gene sequences (585 records in total) obtained from olive mill waste environments revealed the dominance of members of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Independent studies confirmed that OMW microbial communities' structure is cultivar dependant. On the other hand, the detection of fecal bacteria and other potential human pathogens in OMWs is of major concern and deserves further examination. Despite the fact that the degradation and detoxification of the olive mill wastes have been mostly investigated through the application of known bacterial and fungal species originated from other environmental sources, the biotechnological potential of indigenous microbiota should be further exploited in respect to olive mill waste bioremediation and inactivation of plant and human pathogens. The implementation of omic and metagenomic approaches will further elucidate disposal issues of olive mill wastes. PMID:24199199

  19. The microbiology of olive mill wastes.

    PubMed

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Bourtzis, Kostas; Tsiamis, George

    2013-01-01

    Olive mill wastes (OMWs) are high-strength organic effluents, which upon disposal can degrade soil and water quality, negatively affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning the microbial communities identified over the past 20 years in olive mill wastes using both culture-dependent and independent approaches. A database survey of 16S rRNA gene sequences (585 records in total) obtained from olive mill waste environments revealed the dominance of members of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Independent studies confirmed that OMW microbial communities' structure is cultivar dependent. On the other hand, the detection of fecal bacteria and other potential human pathogens in OMWs is of major concern and deserves further examination. Despite the fact that the degradation and detoxification of the olive mill wastes have been mostly investigated through the application of known bacterial and fungal species originated from other environmental sources, the biotechnological potential of indigenous microbiota should be further exploited in respect to olive mill waste bioremediation and inactivation of plant and human pathogens. The implementation of omic and metagenomic approaches will further elucidate disposal issues of olive mill wastes. PMID:24199199

  20. 75 FR 22363 - United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... to decide. AMS published a Notice in the November 8, 2004, Federal Register (69 FR 64713) with a... then published a Notice in the June 2, 2008, Federal Register (73 FR 31426) with a sixty-day comment... Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Olive Oil and Olive-Pomace Oil...

  1. Modification of non-stomatal limitation and photoprotection due to K and Na nutrition of olive trees.

    PubMed

    Erel, Ran; Yermiyahu, Uri; Ben-Gal, Alon; Dag, Arnon; Shapira, Or; Schwartz, Amnon

    2015-04-01

    Potassium (K) is an essential macronutrient shown to play a fundamental role in photosynthetic processes and may facilitate photoinhibition resistance. In some plant species, sodium (Na) can partially substitute for K. Although photosynthetic enhancement has been well established, the mechanisms by which K or Na affects photosynthesis are not fully understood. Olive (Olea europaea L.) trees were previously shown to benefit from Na nutrition when K is limiting. In order to study the effect of K and Na on photosynthetic performance, we measured gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence in young olive trees supplied with either K, Na or no fertilizer, and subjected to manipulated levels of CO2, O2 and radiation. Light and CO2 response curves indicate substantially superior photosynthetic capacity of K-sufficient trees, while Na substitution generated intermediate results. The enhanced performance of K, and to a lesser extent, Na-supplied trees was found to be related mainly to modification of non-stomatal limitation. This indicates that K deficiency promotes inhibition of enzymatic-photochemical processes. Results indicate lower chlorophyll content and altered Rubisco activity as probable causes of photosynthetic impairment. Potassium deficiency was found to diminish photoprotection mechanisms due to reduced photosynthetic and photorespiratory capacity. The lower CO2 and O2 assimilation rate in K-deficient trees caused elevated levels of exited energy. Consequently, non-photochemical quenching, an alternative energy dispersion pathway, was increased. Nonetheless, K-deficient trees were shown to suffer from photodamage to photosystem-II. Sodium replacement considerably diminished the negative effect of K deficiency on photoprotection mechanisms. The overall impact of K and Na nutrition plays down any indirect effect on stomatal limitation and rather demonstrates the centrality of these elements in photochemical processes of photosynthesis and photoprotection. PMID:25659331

  2. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from olive oil in a masseur.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, M; Bruze, M

    1999-08-01

    Contact allergy to olive oil is considered rare. There are 20 cases of contact allergy to olive oil described, and 3 of these had an occupational hand eczema as a result of olive oil. We describe a masseur who was allergic to olive oil, resulting in an occupational hand eczema. Both patch tests and a use test with olive oil was undertaken. An oral provocation with olive oil was also performed. Both patch tests were positive, as was the use test after 2 days. The oral provocation test was negative. Despite contact allergy to olive oil being rare, sensitization occurs. The external use of olive oil should be discouraged, at least in masseurs, when used under occlusion, and in long-standing dermatoses. PMID:10426917

  3. Straight on view of northeast side of Olive Switching Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Straight on view of northeast side of Olive Switching Station from north side of San Fernando Road facing southwest - Olive Switching Station, 13355 San Fernando Road, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. Canopy light heterogeneity drives leaf anatomical, eco-physiological, and photosynthetic changes in olive trees grown in a high-density plantation.

    PubMed

    Larbi, Ajmi; Vázquez, Saúl; El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Msallem, Monji; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Morales, Fermín

    2015-02-01

    In the field, leaves may face very different light intensities within the tree canopy. Leaves usually respond with light-induced morphological and photosynthetic changes, in a phenomenon known as phenotypic plasticity. Canopy light distribution, leaf anatomy, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and pigment composition were investigated in an olive (Olea europaea, cvs. Arbequina and Arbosana) orchard planted with a high-density system (1,250 trees ha(-1)). Sampling was made from three canopy zones: a lower canopy (<1 m), a central one (1-2 m), and an upper one (>2 m). Light interception decreased significantly in the lower canopy when compared to the central and top ones. Leaf angle increased and photosynthetic rates and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) decreased significantly and progressively from the upper canopy to the central and the lower canopies. The largest leaf areas were found in the lower canopy, especially in the cultivar Arbequina. The palisade and spongy parenchyma were reduced in thickness in the lower canopy when compared to the upper one, in the former due to a decrease in the number of cell layers from three to two (clearly distinguishable in the light and fluorescence microscopy images). In both cultivars, the concentration of violaxanthin-cycle pigments and β-carotene was higher in the upper than in the lower canopy. Furthermore, the de-epoxidized forms zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin increased significantly in those leaves from the upper canopy, in parallel to the NPQ increases. In conclusion, olive leaves react with morphological and photosynthetic changes to within-crown light gradients. These results strengthen the idea of olive trees as "modular organisms" that adjust the modules morphology and physiology in response to light intensity. PMID:25344757

  5. Olive Oil and the Hallmarks of Aging.

    PubMed

    Fernández Del Río, Lucía; Gutiérrez-Casado, Elena; Varela-López, Alfonso; Villalba, José M

    2016-01-01

    Aging is a multifactorial and tissue-specific process involving diverse alterations regarded as the "hallmarks of aging", which include genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion and altered intracellular communication. Virtually all these hallmarks are targeted by dietary olive oil, particularly by virgin olive oil, since many of its beneficial effects can be accounted not only for the monounsaturated nature of its predominant fatty acid (oleic acid), but also for the bioactivity of its minor compounds, which can act on cells though both direct and indirect mechanisms due to their ability to modulate gene expression. Among the minor constituents of virgin olive oil, secoiridoids stand out for their capacity to modulate many pathways that are relevant for the aging process. Attenuation of aging-related alterations by olive oil or its minor compounds has been observed in cellular, animal and human models. How olive oil targets the hallmarks of aging could explain the improvement of health, reduced risk of aging-associated diseases, and increased longevity which have been associated with consumption of a typical Mediterranean diet containing this edible oil as the predominant fat source. PMID:26840281

  6. 77 FR 55468 - Oliver Hydro LLC; Notice Soliciting Scoping Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Oliver Hydro LLC; Notice Soliciting Scoping Comments Take notice that the...: December 14, 2011. d. Applicant: Oliver Hydro LLC. e. Name of Project: William Bacon Oliver Lock and...

  7. Isothermal microwave and microwave-convection drying of olive pomace

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive pomace is the residue produced when olives are pressed for oil. Valuable polyphenolic compounds can be extracted from olive pomace, but this material is more than 60% water (wet basis) and thus costly to transport and process in its original, wet form. The objective of this study was thus to ...

  8. 75 FR 9536 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased... increase the assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for the 2010 and subsequent fiscal years from $28.63 to $44.72 per assessable ton of olives handled. The Committee...

  9. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality...

  10. 76 FR 11937 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural... assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for 2011 and subsequent fiscal years from $44.72 to $16.61 per ton of olives handled. The Committee locally administers the...

  11. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality...

  12. 78 FR 24979 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural... assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for the 2013 and subsequent fiscal years from $31.32 to $21.16 per ton of assessable olives handled. The Committee locally administers...

  13. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality...

  14. Employment of High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography for the Quantification of Oleuropein in Olive Leaves and the Selection of a Suitable Solvent System for Its Isolation with Centrifugal Partition Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Boka, Vasiliki-Ioanna; Argyropoulou, Aikaterini; Gikas, Evangelos; Angelis, Apostolis; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

    2015-11-01

    A high-performance thin-layer chromatographic methodology was developed and validated for the isolation and quantitative determination of oleuropein in two extracts of Olea europaea leaves. OLE_A was a crude acetone extract, while OLE_AA was its defatted residue. Initially, high-performance thin-layer chromatography was employed for the purification process of oleuropein with fast centrifugal partition chromatography, replacing high-performance liquid-chromatography, in the stage of the determination of the distribution coefficient and the retention volume. A densitometric method was developed for the determination of the distribution coefficients, KC = CS/CM. The total concentrations of the target compound in the stationary phase (CS) and in the mobile phase (CM) were calculated by the area measured in the high-performance thin-layer chromatogram. The estimated Kc was also used for the calculation of the retention volume, VR, with a chromatographic retention equation. The obtained data were successfully applied for the purification of oleuropein and the experimental results confirmed the theoretical predictions, indicating that high-performance thin-layer chromatography could be an important counterpart in the phytochemical study of natural products. The isolated oleuropein (purity > 95%) was subsequently used for the estimation of its content in each extract with a simple, sensitive and accurate high-performance thin-layer chromatography method. The best fit calibration curve from 1.0 µg/track to 6.0 µg/track of oleuropein was polynomial and the quantification was achieved by UV detection at λ 240 nm. The method was validated giving rise to an efficient and high-throughput procedure, with the relative standard deviation % of repeatability and intermediate precision not exceeding 4.9% and accuracy between 92% and 98% (recovery rates). Moreover, the method was validated for robustness, limit of quantitation, and limit of detection. The amount of oleuropein for OLE_A, OLE_AA, and an aqueous extract of olive leaves was estimated to be 35.5% ± 2.7, 51.5% ± 1.4, and 12.5% ± 0.12, respectively. Statistical analysis proved that the method is repeatable and selective, and can be effectively applied for the estimation of oleuropein in olive leaves' extracts, and could potentially replace high-performance liquid chromatography methodologies developed so far. Thus, the phytochemical investigation of oleuropein could be based on high-performance thin-layer chromatography coupled with separation processes, such as fast centrifugal partition chromatography, showing efficacy and credibility. PMID:26580892

  15. In vivo and in vitro addition of dried olive extract in poultry.

    PubMed

    King, Annie J; Griffin, Johanna K; Roslan, Fahkirah

    2014-08-01

    A freeze-dried powder from organic olive (Olea europaea) juice extract, contains 8.82% polyphenols and a minimum of 2.5% hydroxytyrosol (3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol), an effective free radical scavenger and the major antioxidant in the byproduct (dried olive extract, DOE). Myricetin, a bioflavonoid extract from the bark powder of the bayberry tree (Myrica cerifera), also has many beneficial biological properties and antioxidative capacity. While well-known as antioxidants, the capacity of these compounds to retard lipid oxidation in foods containing unsaturated fatty acids has not been widely evaluated. Thus, a study was conducted to assess the capacity of DOE to (1) enhance the growth of poultry, (2) determine the effectiveness of DOE (administered in vivo) as an antioxidant in post-mortem tissue and further processed meat, and (3) compare the in vitro antioxidative capacity of hydroxytyrosol and myricetin. DOE was administered ad libitum in water at 6 and 12 mg per bird per day for 6 weeks in a factorial design: 3 diets (control plus two treatment levels) × 2 blocks × 2 replications. There was no enhancement of feed consumption, body weight (BW), or feed conversion by DOE; overall means for these measurements were 5.49 kg per bird, 3.32 kg per bird, and 1.65 g feed per g live BW, respectively. Diagnostic examinations of two birds per pen at the end of the study revealed no adverse effects due to consumption of DOE, a generally recognized as safe substance. The byproduct, administered in vivo, did not retard lipid oxidation in fresh, heated, or NaCl (1.0% w/w)/heated/stored meat as assessed by absorbance values for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances at 532 nm and 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl at 517 nm. Both the byproduct and hydroxytyrosol are highly water-soluble and may have been unavailable as an antioxidant in the tissue of broilers that did not consume water for 4-6 h prior to processing. As an additive in processed thigh meat, 6 and 12 mg of DOE (2.5% hydroxytyrosol) per 3 mg of meat, although not as effective as myricetin (95% purity), reduced oxidation. Further assessment revealed that hydroxytyrosol from the DOE, added at (1)/38 the concentration of myricetin, was almost 50% as effective. PMID:25007306

  16. Mobility of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) late third instars and teneral adults in test arenas.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y

    2012-10-01

    The mobility of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), late third instars before pupation, teneral adults before flight, and mature adults restricted from flight were studied under mulches in greenhouse cage tests, in horizontal pipes, vertical bottles and pipes filled with sand, and by observation on smooth laboratory surfaces. Percentage adults emerging from pupae and percentage adult females that escaped soil, fabric, and paper mulches over a soil or sand substrate ranged from 63 to 83, and 40-53%, respectively. Percentage adults emerging from pupae and percentage adult females that walked through the open interior of 1.52-6.10-m horizontal pipes of 1.5-2.0-cm inner diameter ranged from 57 to 81, and 27-61%, respectively. Percentage adults emerging from pupae that escaped through sand depths of 2.5-10.2, and 12.7-20.3 cm, ranged from 68 to 87, and 12-88%; and percentage adult females that escaped ranged from 46 to 58, and 38-70%, respectively. In 15.4-cm-inner-diameter pipes filled with different heights of sand, the highest percentage of the total number of adults that emerged in the control were found from 0 to 20.3 cm, and ranged from 37 to 71%. Ten to 47% of adults were found from 20.3 cm to below the surface, and 6-21% escaped to the top of 20.3-50.8 cm high sand columns. In column heights of 55.9 and 61 cm, pressures at the bottom caused by the weight of the sand above were 91.4 and 99.7 g/cm(2), respectively, and a mean of <1 adult escaped to the top. Before pupation, the late third instars were found to travel continuously for 6.9 h over 23.9 m at a speed of 6.0 cm per min, when placed on a smooth surface, at 22.2°C. Teneral females and males that could not fly, made ≍7 stops totaling 11-13 min, walked at a speed of 57-62 cm per min, and began a rest period of 83-84 min duration, at 85-89 min before flight. Males walked a distance of 13.1 m in 22 min, which was greater than females that walked for 9.6 m in 17 min, at 20-22°C and 35% RH. The mobility of the third instars and the teneral adults is discussed in relation to potential control techniques in olive orchards. PMID:23068175

  17. Obituary: John P. Oliver (1939-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Howard

    2011-12-01

    John P. Oliver, an emeritus professor of astronomy at the University of Florida in Gainesville, passed away Thursday, February 10, 2011, after a courageous and long battle with renal cancer. He left behind memories of a life and career to envy. During his forty years of service to his profession and department, this unique astronomer distinguished himself as a research scientist and instrumentalist, creative software designer, gifted teacher and speaker, a vocal advocate of public outreach, and friend to all who knew him. Oliver was born in New Rochelle, New York, during late fall 1939 on November 24. His father, James P. Oliver, was a naval officer and his mother was the former Dorothy Armstrong Cambell. Oliver's early days were spent in various cities due to his father's military life but he eventually received a high school diploma from Princess Ann High School in Virginia. Oliver subsequently graduated with a bachelor of science degree in physics in 1963 from the prestigious Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy. Lick Observatory awarded him a graduate assistantship so he moved west to California where he met and, on November 2, 1963, married Barbara Kay McKenna, who became his lifelong love and partner. In California Oliver had the good fortune to work with several eminent astronomers. This included Albert E. Whifford, director of Lick Observatory and known for his work on interstellar reddening, and Merle F. Walker, an expert in photometry, who also helped establish Pluto's rotation period. His close relation with Lawrence H. Aller, one of the 20th century's memorable astronomers, known for his ability to combine observation, theory and education, and for his care and kindness, helped bind Oliver and astronomy together for life. Oliver would also join the technical staff of the Aerospace Corporation, become an acting director of the Pine Mountain Observatory (University of Oregon), and a research assistant at the University of California in Los Angeles. Eventually, he earned both a master's degree (1968) and Ph.D. (1974) in astronomy from this well-known institution. The brilliant and eminent astronomer Daniel M. Popper supervised Oliver's doctoral dissertation, "An Investigation of Eclipsing Binary Stars Exhibiting Calcium II Emission." This research suggested that many systems Oliver investigated belonged to a new category of variable eclipsing binary stars. Popper had previously defined this new class of stars based on spectral features and intended AR Lac to be its prototype. Instead, using Oliver's suggestion, this class became known as RS CVn variables. Rare among astronomers, Popper himself was fussy about errors of measurement-uncompromising about accurate, conscientious work and intolerant about careless research. Oliver was the only student to receive a Ph.D. under this authoritative and honest astronomer, a testament to Oliver's own talents. As a University of Florida faculty member and astronomer, Oliver occupied many roles, including service as associate department chair, director of the university's Rosemary Hill Observatory near Bronson, Florida, and both undergraduate and graduate coordinators. He made significant contributions to both the operation and instrumentation of telescopes at Rosemary Hill Observatory. The establishment of the observatory's 18-inch Ritchey-Crétien telescope as a working telescope was a major accomplishment for which he wrote its operational software and programs for high speed occultation observations of stars. In addition, he was responsible for both relocating the campus teaching observatory to its present site and its operation during the 1970s. Oliver taught thousands of students both basic astronomy and advanced topics in undergraduate and graduate courses including an important sequence of graduate courses on binary stars. Faculty and students also applauded his superb, advanced course on techniques of observational astronomy. In addition, he was always looking for new techniques to improve teaching. He was among the first to adopt new technologies in the classroom, especially PowerPoint techniques for which he received university grants. Oliver's computer skills also allowed him to design several, simple but important programs to help students understand difficult subjects. A favorite, "Oliver's Orrery," clearly shows how different models of the solar system produce planetary motions, a program that remains unique. Research interests involved 3-mm radio astronomy, photometry of eclipsing binary systems, and the design of astronomical instruments and computer controlled telescopes. Oliver was the first visiting astronomer of the Copernicus Institute in Warsaw, Poland, where he helped participate in its establishment. He also held a joint appointment as Senior Research Scientist at UF's Institute for Space Science and Technology from 1988 to 1994. During this time he was a co-investigator on the Long Duration Exposure Facility/Interplanetary Dust Experiment and the Clementine Orbital Meteoroid and Debris Counter. These experiments obtained data on the impact flux of natural micrometeoroids and provided information on the population of small mass, man-made debris in near Earth space. Oliver was twice a NASA Faculty Research Fellow at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory where he developed models used to predict meteoroid impacts on space probes. He was always excited about discovering orbital debris clouds around the Earth. A favorite and special project from 1984 to 1988 was Oliver's involvement as co-investigator on UF's South Pole Optical Telescope where his knowledge of computer controlled instruments was vital. He visited the Amundsen-Scott South Pole station four times during Antarctic summers and the U.S. State Department and U.S. Navy awarded him the Antarctic Service Medal for activities in Antarctica in October 1986. This small, specialized instrument, the first stellar telescope located at Earth's South Pole, operated for several seasons evaluating observing conditions at in the visible region of the spectrum. In his last two years Oliver embarked on another unique project. In the North Irish town of Armagh, home of the Armagh Observatory, now stands a large, two-meter diameter "Celestial Sphere" made from solid polished grey granite. This impressive and beautiful star ball rests on one of four large base stones engraved to depict the story of the development of astronomy through the ages. On its surface, artist Brian Connolly has etched the brightest stars and other features of the sky in gold. The sphere is aligned north with the stars and correctly oriented toward the pole star. Although this artwork is the vision of the artist, Oliver provided the templates for the precise positions of stars and other heavenly features on the sphere. Oliver had a long interest in public programming and public schools. He actively worked with middle school science teachers, was a creator of "Conversations About Science and Mathematics" and was an innovator in large classroom teaching. He volunteered as a science- and engineering-fair judge for more than twenty years, finally stopping only about a year before his death. Members of the Alachua Astronomy Club, Inc., favorably knew him for his interesting, absorbing and clear presentations. Few could converse as well on the wide spectrum of knowledge that modern astronomy now entails. Predeceased by a son, Michael, he leaves behind his wife Barbara of forty-seven years, three children, Jennifer, Keith and Rebecca, two grandchildren, Elspeth and Moira, and a great granddaughter, Dorothy. Oliver also left behind dear friends, colleagues, students and a legacy difficult to match. He was proud of the department that he had helped shape during his long tenure at UF. Oliver was unique among many astronomers due to his abilities and flair as an excellent speaker and teacher, a superb instrumentalist and programmer, and as a talented research scientist with an unequaled passion and dedication to astronomy and his department.

  18. Evaluating the potential of LC coupled to three alternative detection systems (ESI-IT, APCI-TOF and DAD) for the targeted determination of triterpenic acids and dialcohols in olive tissues.

    PubMed

    Olmo-García, Lucía; Bajoub, Aadil; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría

    2016-04-01

    Herewith the development of a rapid and powerful LC methodology (with three different detectors) is presented to determine triterpenic acids and dialcohols in extracts from Olea europaea tissues (olive skin, pulp and leaves). After the proper optimization of the LC, DAD and MS conditions and the comprehensive characterization of the behavior of each analyte in ESI and APCI (with accurate m/z signals and, in ESI, with MS/MS data too), the method was fully validated. DAD, ESI-IT MS and APCI-QTOF MS were used as detection systems to give different alternatives to carry out the accurate determination of these analytes, evaluate their analytical performance, advantages and drawbacks, and check whether the quantitative results achieved by the three platforms were in good agreement. ESI-IT MS gave the lowest detection limits (3-455μg/L) followed by APCI-QTOF MS (22-408μg/L); in contrast, DAD (83-600μg/L) had the widest dynamic range. The RSD values for inter-day repeatability were found below 11.82% in all the cases. No statistically significant differences were found among the quantitative results from the three detectors. Olive leaves showed the highest concentration levels of ursolic acid (1.8mg/g), erythrodiol (1.6mg/g) and uvaol (1.2mg/g), whereas the olive skin was the richest matrix in terms of maslinic (80mg/g), betulinic (0.20mg/g), and oleanolic (26mg/g) acids. Concentration values of triterpenic acids were established by first time for skinless olive pulp, and were found around 65, 1.2, 55 and 4.4μg/g for maslinic, betulinic, oleanolic and ursolic acids, respectively. PMID:26838419

  19. Combustion Analysis of Different Olive Residues

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Teresa; Esteban, Alberto; Rojas, Sebastián; Montero, Irene; Ruiz, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) techniques and concretely the study of the burning profile provide information that can be used to estimate the behaviour of the combustion of carbonous materials. Commonly, these techniques have been used for the study of carbons, but are also interesting for the analysis of biomass wastes, due to the different species present on the wastes affect directly to its thermal properties. In this work, techniques of thermal analysis have been applied to compare the behaviour of different wastes coming from olive oil mills. From these results, it is remarkable that the Concentrated Olive Mill Waste Water (COMWW) presents more unfavourable conditions for its combustion. PMID:19325766

  20. Evaluation of imported parasitoid fitness for biocontrol of olive fruit fly in California olives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A parasitoid, Psyttalia humilis (Silvestri), was reared on irradiated Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala, and imported into California for biological control of olive fruit ...

  1. Sorting Olive Batches for the Milling Process Using Image Processing.

    PubMed

    Aguilera Puerto, Daniel; Martínez Gila, Diego Manuel; Gámez García, Javier; Gómez Ortega, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The quality of virgin olive oil obtained in the milling process is directly bound to the characteristics of the olives. Hence, the correct classification of the different incoming olive batches is crucial to reach the maximum quality of the oil. The aim of this work is to provide an automatic inspection system, based on computer vision, and to classify automatically different batches of olives entering the milling process. The classification is based on the differentiation between ground and tree olives. For this purpose, three different species have been studied (Picudo, Picual and Hojiblanco). The samples have been obtained by picking the olives directly from the tree or from the ground. The feature vector of the samples has been obtained on the basis of the olive image histograms. Moreover, different image preprocessing has been employed, and two classification techniques have been used: these are discriminant analysis and neural networks. The proposed methodology has been validated successfully, obtaining good classification results. PMID:26147729

  2. Sorting Olive Batches for the Milling Process Using Image Processing

    PubMed Central

    Puerto, Daniel Aguilera; Martínez Gila, Diego Manuel; Gámez García, Javier; Gómez Ortega, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The quality of virgin olive oil obtained in the milling process is directly bound to the characteristics of the olives. Hence, the correct classification of the different incoming olive batches is crucial to reach the maximum quality of the oil. The aim of this work is to provide an automatic inspection system, based on computer vision, and to classify automatically different batches of olives entering the milling process. The classification is based on the differentiation between ground and tree olives. For this purpose, three different species have been studied (Picudo, Picual and Hojiblanco). The samples have been obtained by picking the olives directly from the tree or from the ground. The feature vector of the samples has been obtained on the basis of the olive image histograms. Moreover, different image preprocessing has been employed, and two classification techniques have been used: these are discriminant analysis and neural networks. The proposed methodology has been validated successfully, obtaining good classification results. PMID:26147729

  3. Performance of Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from irradiated host on olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Wang, Xin-Geng; Aldana, Alicia; Cáceres, Carlos E; Yokoyama-Hatch, Hana A; Rendón, Pedro A; Johnson, Marshall W; Daane, Kent M

    2012-06-01

    The parasitoid Psyttalia humilis (Silvestri) was reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), third instars irradiated at 0-70 Gy at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala, and shipped to the USDA, ARS, Parlier, CA. Irradiation dose did not affect the parasitoid's offspring sex ratio (53-62% females), percentage of unemerged adults (12-34%), number of progeny produced per female (1.4-1.8), and parasitism (19-24%). Host irradiation dose had no significant effect on the forewing length of female P. humilis and its parasitism on olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) and offspring sex ratio, but dissection of 1-wk-old female parasitoids reared from hosts irradiated with 70 Gy had a significantly lower number of mature eggs than females from nonirradiated hosts. Longevity of P. humilis adults decreased with increased temperature from 15 to 35°C, regardless of food provisions, gender, and host irradiation dose. Females survived 37-49 d at 15°C with water and food, and only 1-2 d at 35°C without food, whereas males lived shorter than females at all temperatures and food combinations tested. Adult P. humilis reared from fertile C. capitata and aspirated for dispensing in cups lived significantly longer after shipment than those specimens chilled and dispensed by weight. At 21 and 32°C, 50% of parasitoids departed release cages after 180 and 30 min, respectively, but none departed at 12°C. Thirteen shipments of P. humilis (2,980-21,922 parasitoids per shipment) were received between September and December 2009, and seven shipments (7,502-22,560 parasitoids per shipment) were received between October and December 2010 from San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala. Daily number of olive fruit fly adult and percentage female trap captures ranged <1-19 and 8-58% in 2009, and <1-11 and 0-42% in 2010, respectively. The number of parasitoids released ranged 848-12,257 in 2009 and 3,675-11,154 in 2010. Percentage parasitism of olive fruit fly third instars at all locations ranged 0-9% in 2009 and 0-36% in 2010. PMID:22732607

  4. Ripening and storage conditions of Chétoui and Arbequina olives: Part I. Effect on olive oils volatiles profile.

    PubMed

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; Gargouri, Mohamed; Msallem, Monji; Vichi, Stefania

    2016-07-15

    The distinctive aroma of virgin olive oil is mainly attributed to its volatile profile including components responsible for positive attributes and others for sensory defects resulting from chemical oxidation and exogenous enzymes. For this reason, the evolution of volatile compounds from Chétoui and Arbequina virgin olive oils during olive ripening and storage (at 4 and 25°C during 4weeks) was investigated. The profile of volatile phenols during olive storage was also studied. Quantitative differences in the volatile compounds during olive storage at 4 and 25°C according to olive cultivar was determined. Concerning the volatile phenols, the Arbequina olives were the most affected by high storage temperature, as the formation of these compounds, especially 4-ethyl and 4-vinyl derivatives of phenol and guaiacol were more noticeable in Arbequina oils extracted from stored fruits at 25°C. PMID:26948650

  5. X-RAY DETECTION OF AND SORTING OF OLIVES DAMAGED BY FRUIT FLY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An algorithm using a Bayesian classifier was developed to automatically detect olive fruit fly infestations in x-ray images of olives. The data set consisted of 249 olives with various degrees of infestation and 161 non-infested olives. Each olive was x-rayed on film and digital images were acquired...

  6. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109... OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged olives, not oxidized in...

  7. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109... OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged olives, not oxidized in...

  8. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109... OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged olives, not oxidized in...

  9. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109... OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged olives, not oxidized in...

  10. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109... OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged olives, not oxidized in...

  11. Oliver Bloodstein: Reflections on a Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onslow, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Oliver Bloodstein arrived at the University of Iowa in 1941 to study under Wendell Johnson. There he began an influential career that included a seminal documentation of the development of stuttering, the development of the continuity hypothesis and the anticipatory struggle hypothesis, and the writing of five editions of the influential text "A…

  12. The Making of a Special "Oliver!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beall, Lee

    1985-01-01

    How trainable mentally handicapped high school students very successfully adapted Charles Dickens's novel "Oliver Twist" into a musical play is described. The project, which involved the entire school as well as the community, shows that handicapped people are capable of artistic endeavors and growth when given the proper environment. (RM)

  13. Characteristics and biodegradability of olive mill wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Karahan Özgün, Özlem; Pala Özkök, İlke; Kutay, Can; Orhon, Derin

    2016-05-01

    Olive mill wastewaters (OMWs) are mostly characterized by their high-organic content and complex organic compounds in addition to the phenolic compounds. European olive oil manufacturers have to cope up with the same wastewater treatment problem and the applied conventional treatment technologies for OMW were not proved to be very successful in each case. Olive mills are mostly small and medium-sized installations and OMW is generated during the three-four-month-long manufacturing season. The problem is not only the complex wastewater to be treated but also the scattered positioning of the olive mills, the seasonal wastewater generation and the size of the manufacturing facilities. The aim of the study is to identify the organic content of OMW and to assess the biological and chemical treatability of OMWs, in order to assist the development of integrated chemical-biological treatment schemes for best appropriate techniques implementation. The experimental studies show that separation of the particulate fraction improved the biodegradability or reduced the refractory and inhibitory effects of particulate organics. PMID:26507588

  14. OLIVE FRUIT FLY MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES FOR 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research topics include but are not limited to: a) maximization of the efficacy of GF-120 bait treatments used within olive groves; b) discovery, introduction, and establishment of parasitic wasps that attack OLF (i.e., classical biological control); c) development of phenology models for OLF and ol...

  15. Pure Culture Fermentation of Green Olives1

    PubMed Central

    Etchells, J. L.; Borg, A. F.; Kittel, I. D.; Bell, T. A.; Fleming, H. P.

    1966-01-01

    The method previously developed by us for the pure-culture fermentation of brined cucumbers and other vegetables has been applied successfully to Manzanillo variety olives. Field-run grade fruit was processed first by conventional procedures to remove most of the bitterness. Then the relative abilities of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, Pediococcus cerevisiae, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides to become established and produce acid in both heat-shocked (74 C for 3 min) and unheated olives, brined at 4.7 to 5.9% NaCl (w/v basis), were evaluated. The heat-shock treatment not only proved effective in ridding the fruit of naturally occurring, interfering, and competitive microbial groups prior to brining and inoculation, but also made the olives highly fermentable with respect to growth and acid production by the introduced culture, particularly L. plantarum. Of the four species used as inocula, L. plantarum was by far the most vigorous in fermentation ability. It consistently produced the highest levels of brine acidity (1.0 to 1.2% calculated as lactic acid) and the lowest pH values (3.8 to 3.9) during the fermentation of heat-shocked olives. Also, L. plantarum completely dominated fermentations when used in two-species (with P. cerevisiae) and three-species (with P. cerevisiae and L. brevis) combinations as inocula. In contrast, when L. plantarum was inoculated into the brines of unheated olives it failed to become properly established; the same was true for the other species tested, but even to a more pronounced degree. L. brevis was the only species used that failed to develop in brines of both heat-shocked and unheated olives. Modification of the curing brine by the addition of lactic acid at the outset, either with or without dextrose, led to a much earlier onset of fermentation with accompanying acid development, as compared to treatments with dextrose alone or nonadditive controls. Reasons for the marked improvement of the fermentability of Manzanillo olives receiving the prebrining heat-shock treatment are discussed. PMID:16349674

  16. Modeling olive-crop forecasting in Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Dhiab, Ali; Ben Mimoun, Mehdi; Oteros, Jose; Garcia-Mozo, Herminia; Domínguez-Vilches, Eugenio; Galán, Carmen; Abichou, Mounir; Msallem, Monji

    2016-01-01

    Tunisia is the world's second largest olive oil-producing region after the European Union. This paper reports on the use of models to forecast local olive crops, using data for Tunisia's five main olive-producing areas: Mornag, Jemmel, Menzel Mhiri, Chaal, and Zarzis. Airborne pollen counts were monitored over the period 1993-2011 using a Cour trap. Forecasting models were constructed using agricultural data (harvest size in tonnes of fruit/year) and data for several weather-related and phenoclimatic variables (rainfall, humidity, temperature, Growing Degree Days, and Chilling). Analysis of these data revealed that the amount of airborne pollen emitted over the pollen season as a whole (i.e., the Pollen Index) was the variable most influencing harvest size. Findings for all local models also indicated that the amount, timing, and distribution of rainfall (except during blooming) had a positive impact on final olive harvests. Air temperature also influenced final crop yield in three study provinces (Menzel Mhiri, Chaal, and Zarzis), but with varying consequences: in the model constructed for Chaal, cumulative maximum temperature from budbreak to start of flowering contributed positively to yield; in the Menzel Mhiri model, cumulative average temperatures during fruit development had a positive impact on output; in Zarzis, by contrast, cumulative maximum temperature during the period prior to flowering negatively influenced final crop yield. Data for agricultural and phenoclimatic variables can be used to construct valid models to predict annual variability in local olive-crop yields; here, models displayed an accuracy of 98, 93, 92, 91, and 88 % for Zarzis, Mornag, Jemmel, Chaal, and Menzel Mhiri, respectively.

  17. Triterpenes in the hexane extract of leaves of Olea europaea L.: analysis using 13C-NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Duquesnoy, Emilie; Castola, Vincent; Casanova, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Two neutral triterpenes and a triterpene acid were identified and quantified directly, in the absence of any purification steps, in a precipitate obtained during the industrial extraction of the leaves of Olea europaea L. using 13C-NMR spectroscopy (spectrometer operating at 4.7 T equipped with a 10 mm probe). The method was optimised in order to reduce the duration of analysis with a routine NMR spectrometer. Together with long-chain linear compounds, erythrodiol, uvaol and oleanolic acid accounted for 27.3, 18.3 and 12.5% of the precipitate, respectively. PMID:17623370

  18. Olive leaf extract inhibits lead poisoning-induced brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Shengqing; Cui, Wenhui; He, Jiujun; Wang, Zhenfu; Yang, Xiaolu

    2013-01-01

    Olive leaves have an antioxidant capacity, and olive leaf extract can protect the blood, spleen and hippocampus in lead-poisoned mice. However, little is known about the effects of olive leaf extract on lead-induced brain injury. This study was designed to determine whether olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury, and whether this effect is associated with antioxidant capacity. First, we established a mouse model of lead poisoning by continuous intragastric administration of lead acetate for 30 days. Two hours after successful model establishment, lead-poisoned mice were given olive leaf extract at doses of 250, 500 or 1 000 mg/kg daily by intragastric administration for 50 days. Under the transmission electron microscope, olive leaf extract attenuated neuronal and capillary injury and reduced damage to organelles and the matrix around the capillaries in the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex in the lead-poisoned mice. Olive leaf extract at a dose of 1 000 mg/kg had the greatest protective effect. Spectrophotometry showed that olive leaf extract significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, while it reduced malondialdehyde content, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining revealed that olive leaf extract dose-dependently decreased Bax protein expression in the cerebral cortex of lead-poisoned mice. Our findings indicate that olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury by increasing antioxidant capacity and reducing apoptosis. PMID:25206510

  19. The impact of fruit maturation on bioactive microconstituents, inhibition of serum oxidation and inflammatory markers in stimulated PBMCs and sensory characteristics of Koroneiki virgin olive oils from Messenia, Greece.

    PubMed

    Kaliora, Andriana C; Artemiou, Anna; Giogios, Ioannis; Kalogeropoulos, Nick

    2013-08-01

    Olive fruits from the Koroneiki cultivar (Olea europaea L.) grown in Messenia, Greece, were hand-picked from the same trees in progressive maturity stages, covering three months, and processed identically with a commercial olive mill and a three-phase decanter. Data on quality parameters, and antioxidant activity of the obtained oils were collected by employing the conventional analytical methods set by European Union Commission Regulation no. 61/2011. Additionally, the potential of oils' polar extract to inhibit total serum lipid oxidation and inflammatory markers in stimulated human mononuclear cells was assayed. The results showed that ripening caused an increase in monounsaturated and decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids, as well as an increase in phenolic compounds - mainly hydroxytyrosol - and in squalene. The extracts' ferric reducing power was in line with the increase of phenolic compounds. In later stages of maturation, lipoprotein oxidation was less potent and the decrease of inflammatory markers in stimulated human mononuclear cells was more powerful. Sensory evaluation detected differences in oils' "bitter" attributes, while the analysis of oils' volatiles revealed quantitative differences. PMID:23727843

  20. Monitoring endogenous enzymes during olive fruit ripening and storage: correlation with virgin olive oil phenolic profiles.

    PubMed

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2015-05-01

    The ability of olive endogenous enzymes β-glucosidase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX), to determine the phenolic profile of virgin olive oil was investigated. Olives used for oil production were stored for one month at 20 °C and 4 °C and their phenolic content and enzymatic activities were compared to those of ripening olive fruits. Phenolic and volatile profiles of the corresponding oils were also analysed. Oils obtained from fruits stored at 4 °C show similar characteristics to that of freshly harvested fruits. However, the oils obtained from fruits stored at 20 °C presented the lowest phenolic content. Concerning the enzymatic activities, results show that the β-glucosidase enzyme is the key enzyme responsible for the determination of virgin olive oil phenolic profile as the decrease in this enzyme activity after 3 weeks of storage at 20 °C was parallel to a dramatic decrease in the phenolic content of the oils. PMID:25529676

  1. Olives and Olive Oil Are Sources of Electrophilic Fatty Acid Nitroalkenes

    PubMed Central

    Schopfer, Francisco J.; Salvatore, Sonia R.; Snchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Vitturi, Dario; Valderrama, Raquel; Barroso, Juan B.; Radi, Rafael; Freeman, Bruce A.; Rubbo, Homero

    2014-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and olives, key sources of unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean diet, provide health benefits to humans. Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrite (NO2?)-dependent reactions of unsaturated fatty acids yield electrophilic nitroalkene derivatives (NO2-FA) that manifest salutary pleiotropic cell signaling responses in mammals. Herein, the endogenous presence of NO2-FA in both EVOO and fresh olives was demonstrated by mass spectrometry. The electrophilic nature of these species was affirmed by the detection of significant levels of protein cysteine adducts of nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA-cysteine) in fresh olives, especially in the peel. Further nitration of EVOO by NO2? under acidic gastric digestive conditions revealed that human consumption of olive lipids will produce additional nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2-cLA) and nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA). The presence of free and protein-adducted NO2-FA in both mammalian and plant lipids further affirm a role for these species as signaling mediators. Since NO2-FA instigate adaptive anti-inflammatory gene expression and metabolic responses, these redox-derived metabolites may contribute to the cardiovascular benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet. PMID:24454759

  2. Antagonistic activity of fungi of Olea europaea L. against Colletotrichum acutatum.

    PubMed

    Landum, Miguel C; Félix, Maria do Rosário; Alho, Joana; Garcia, Raquel; Cabrita, Maria João; Rei, Fernando; Varanda, Carla M R

    2016-02-01

    Fungi naturally present in olive trees were identified and tested for their antagonistic potential against Colletotrichum acutatum. A total of 14 isolates were identified, 12 belonged to genera Alternaria, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Anthrinium, Chaetomium, Diaporthe, Nigrospora, one to family Xylariaceae and one was unclassified. All fungal isolates showed some inhibitory action over the growth of C. acutatum during dual culture growth, however, when agar-diffusible tests were performed only five fungal isolates caused C. acutatum growth inhibition: Alternaria sp. isolate 2 (26.8%), the fungus from Xylariaceae family (14.3%), Alternaria sp. isolate 1 (10.7%); Diaporthe sp. (10.7%), Nigrospora oryzae (3.5%). Volatile substances produced by these isolates were identified through gas-chromatography techniques, as phenylethyl alcohol, 4-methylquinazoline, benzothiazole, benzyl alcohol, lilial, galaxolide, among others. These inhibitory volatiles could play a significant role in reduction of C. acutatum expansion in olive and their study as potential biocontrol agents should be further explored. PMID:26805623

  3. Evaluation of processing factors for selected organic contaminants during virgin olive oil production: Distribution of BTEXS during olives processing.

    PubMed

    López-Blanco, Rafael; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Rojas-Jiménez, Rubén; Robles-Molina, José; Ramos-Martos, Natividad; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2016-05-15

    The presence of BTEXS (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and styrene) in virgin olive oils can be attributed to environmental contamination, but also to biological processes during oil lipogenesis (styrene). In this work, the processing factor of BTEXS from olives to olive oil during its production was evaluated at lab-scale with an Abencor system. Benzene showed the lowest processing factor (15%), whereas toluene and xylenes showed an intermediate behavior (with 40-60% efficiency), and ethylbenzene and styrene were completely transferred (100%). In addition, an attempt to examine the contribution of potential sources to olives contamination with BTEXS was carried out for the first time. Two types of olives samples were classified according to their proximity to the contamination source (road). Although higher levels of BTEXS were found in samples close to roads, the concentrations were relatively low and do not constitute a major contribution to BTEXS usually detected in olive oil. PMID:26775971

  4. Sensory characterization of virgin olive oil-based cosmetic creams.

    PubMed

    Parente, Maria Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Boinbaser, Lucia; Roascio, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    The influence of olive oil concentration and sensory profile on the odor of virgin olive oil-based cosmetic creams was studied. Four olive oils were selected on the basis of different intensities of positive and defective odor attributes: two extra virgin olive oils, one virgin olive oil, and one ordinary virgin olive oil. Thirty cosmetic creams were prepared, by both cold and hot processing methods, using each of the above oils at concentrations of 3%, 5%, and 10%, in addition to mineral oil controls. A trained sensory panel evaluated the fruitiness and defectiveness intensities in the odor of creams, using unstructured 10-cm scales ranging from "none at all" to "much." The fruity and defective attributes perceived in the odor of creams were significantly influenced by the sensory profile of the starting olive oil, oil concentration, and preparation method. Overall, these findings suggest that virgin olive oils of only slightly fruity odor may be conveniently used for the preparation of cold-processed cosmetic creams, whereas ordinary virgin olive oils appear to be suitable for the preparation of cosmetic creams only by hot processing of the emulsion at a low oil concentration. PMID:24139435

  5. Multiple Biological Effects of Olive Oil By-products such as Leaves, Stems, Flowers, Olive Milled Waste, Fruit Pulp, and Seeds of the Olive Plant on Skin.

    PubMed

    Kishikawa, Asuka; Ashour, Ahmed; Zhu, Qinchang; Yasuda, Midori; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-06-01

    As olive oil production increases, so does the amount of olive oil by-products, which can cause environmental problems. Thus, new ways to utilize the by-products are needed. In the present study, five bioactive characteristics of olive oil by-products were assessed, namely their antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-melanogenesis, anti-allergic, and collagen-production-promoting activities. First, the extracts of leaves (May and October), stems (May and October), flowers, olive milled waste, fruit pulp and seeds were prepared using two safe solvents, ethanol and water. According to HPLC and LC/MS analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the ethanol extracts of the leaves (May and October), stems (May and October) and flowers contained oleuropein, and the ethanol extract of the stems showed the highest total phenol content. Oleuropein may contribute to the antioxidant and anti-melanogenesis activities of the leaves, stems, and flowers. However, other active compounds or synergistic effects present in the ethanol extracts are also likely to contribute to the anti-bacterial activity of the leaves and flowers, the anti-melanogenesis activity of some parts, the anti-allergic activity of olive milled waste, and the collagen-production-promoting activity of the leaves, stems, olive milled waste and fruit pulp. This study provides evidence that the by-products of olive oil have the potential to be further developed and used in the skin care industry. PMID:25779104

  6. Effects of olive mill wastes added to olive grove soils on erosion and soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2014-05-01

    INTRODUCTION The increasing degradation of olive groves by effect of organic matter losses derived from intensive agricultural practices has promoted the use (by olive farmers) of olive mill wastes (olive leaves and alperujo) which contain large amounts of organic matter and are free of heavy metals and pathogenic microorganisms. In this work we compared the effects of these oil mill wastes on the decrease of soil erosion, also, we undertook the assessment of the organic carbon and nitrogen contents of soil, their distribution across the profile, the accumulation and Stratification ratios (SRs) of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN), and the C:N ratio, in Cambisols in Mediterranean olive groves treated with olive leaves and alperujo. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study area was a typical olive grove in southern Spain under conventional tillage (CT). Three plots were established. The first one was the control plot; the second one was treated with olive leaves (CTol) and the third one, with alperujo (CTa). 9 samples per plot were collected to examine the response of the soil 3 years after application of the wastes. Soil properties determined were: soil particle size, pH, bulk density, the available water capacity, SOC, TN and C:N ratio. SOC and N stock, expressed for a specific depth in Mg ha-1. Stratification ratios (SRs) (that can be used as an indicator of dynamic soil quality) for SOC and TN at three different depths were calculated. The erosion study was based on simulations of rain; that have been carried out in order to highlight differences in the phenomena of runoff and soil losses in the three plots considered. The effect of different treatments on soil properties was analyzed using a ANOVA, followed by an Anderson-Darling test. RESULTS Supplying the soil with the wastes significantly improved physical and chemical properties in the studied soils with respect to the control. C and N stocks increased, the SOC stock was 75.4 Mg ha-1 in CT, 91.5 Mg ha-1 in CTa and 136.3 Mg ha-1 in CTol; and the TN stock 12.1, 13.9 and 16.1 Mg ha-1 in CT, CTa and CTol, respectively. In addition, both oil mill wastes contributed to delay runoff generation and erosion, enhancing the infiltration of rainwater. Furthermore, application of the wastes improved soil quality (SRs of SOC were greater than 2). So the addition of these oil mill wastes to agricultural soils has become a viable solution to their disposal; not only do they enrich deficient soils with organic matter, but also improve their physical and chemical properties, even decrease soil erosion, especially olive leaves. REFERENCES Lozano-García, B., Parras-Alcántara, L., del Toro, M., 2011. The effects of agricultural management with oil mill by-products on surface soil properties, runoff and soil losses in southern Spain. Catena 85, 187-193. Lozano-García, B., Parras-Alcántara, L., 2013. Short-term effects of olive mill by-products on soil organic carbon, total N, C:N ratio and stratification ratios in a Mediterranean olive grove. Agriculture Ecosystem and Environment 165, 68-73.

  7. VIEW OF WARRIOR RIVER, OLIVER LOCK AND DAM LOOKING NORTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WARRIOR RIVER, OLIVER LOCK AND DAM LOOKING NORTHEAST, LURLEEN WALLACE BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND, GULF MOBILE & OHIO RAILROAD BRIDGE IN FRONT OF LURLEEN WALLACE BRIDGE, NORTHPORT LEFT SIDE, TUSCALOOSA RIGHT SIDE, UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - William Baker Oliver Lock & Dam, Spans Warrior River between Tuscaloosa & Northport, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  8. Sustainable technologies for olive mill wastewater management (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The California olive oil industry produces more than 600 million gallons of wastewater each year. Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is considered a highly polluting effluent due to its high organic load and resistance to biological degradation. A current trend in OMWW management is to not only decrease e...

  9. 7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Olive Regulation 1. 944.401 Section 944.401 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FRUITS; IMPORT REGULATIONS § 944.401 Olive Regulation 1. (a)...

  10. 77 FR 33104 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule would... administers the marketing order which regulates the handling of olives grown in California. Assessments...

  11. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%–65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%–0.67% of total transfer rate). ‘Picual’ was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas ‘Changlot Real’ was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils. PMID:26959010

  12. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions.

    PubMed

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%-65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%-0.67% of total transfer rate). 'Picual' was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas 'Changlot Real' was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils. PMID:26959010

  13. Crystal Structures of Xanthomonas campestris OleA Reveal Features That Promote Head-to-Head Condensation of Two Long-Chain Fatty Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Goblirsch, BR; Frias, JA; Wackett, LP; Wilmot, CM

    2012-05-22

    OleA is a thiolase superfamily enzyme that has been shown to catalyze the condensation of two long-chain fatty acylcoenzyme A (CoA) substrates. The enzyme is part of a larger gene cluster responsible for generating long-chain olefin products, a potential biofuel precursor. In thiolase superfamily enzymes, catalysis is achieved via a ping-pong mechanism. The first substrate forms a covalent intermediate with an active site cysteine that is followed by reaction with the second substrate. For OleA, this conjugation proceeds by a nondecarboxylative Claisen condensation. The OleA from Xanthomonas campestris has been crystallized and its structure determined, along with inhibitor-bound and xenon-derivatized structures, to improve our understanding of substrate positioning in the context of enzyme turnover. OleA is the first characterized thiolase superfamily member that has two long-chain alkyl substrates that need to be bound simultaneously and therefore uniquely requires an additional alkyl binding channel. The location of the fatty acid biosynthesis inhibitor, cerulenin, that possesses an alkyl chain length in the range of known OleA substrates, in conjunction with a single xenon binding site, leads to the putative assignment of this novel alkyl binding channel. Structural overlays between the OleA homologues, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase and the fatty acid biosynthesis enzyme FabH, allow assignment of the two remaining channels: one for the thioester-containing pantetheinate arm and the second for the alkyl group of one substrate. A short beta-hairpin region is ordered in only one of the crystal forms, and that may suggest open and closed states relevant for substrate binding. Cys143 is the conserved catalytic cysteine within the superfamily, and the site of alkylation by cerulenin. The alkylated structure suggests that a glutamic acid residue (Glu117 beta) likely promotes Claisen condensation by acting as the catalytic base. Unexpectedly, Glu117 beta comes from the other monomer of the physiological dimer.

  14. Crystal Structures of Xanthomonas campestris OleA Reveal Features That Promote Head-to-Head Condensation of Two Long-Chain Fatty Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Goblirsch, Brandon R.; Frias, Janice A.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

    2012-10-25

    OleA is a thiolase superfamily enzyme that has been shown to catalyze the condensation of two long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) substrates. The enzyme is part of a larger gene cluster responsible for generating long-chain olefin products, a potential biofuel precursor. In thiolase superfamily enzymes, catalysis is achieved via a ping-pong mechanism. The first substrate forms a covalent intermediate with an active site cysteine that is followed by reaction with the second substrate. For OleA, this conjugation proceeds by a nondecarboxylative Claisen condensation. The OleA from Xanthomonas campestris has been crystallized and its structure determined, along with inhibitor-bound and xenon-derivatized structures, to improve our understanding of substrate positioning in the context of enzyme turnover. OleA is the first characterized thiolase superfamily member that has two long-chain alkyl substrates that need to be bound simultaneously and therefore uniquely requires an additional alkyl binding channel. The location of the fatty acid biosynthesis inhibitor, cerulenin, that possesses an alkyl chain length in the range of known OleA substrates, in conjunction with a single xenon binding site, leads to the putative assignment of this novel alkyl binding channel. Structural overlays between the OleA homologues, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase and the fatty acid biosynthesis enzyme FabH, allow assignment of the two remaining channels: one for the thioester-containing pantetheinate arm and the second for the alkyl group of one substrate. A short {beta}-hairpin region is ordered in only one of the crystal forms, and that may suggest open and closed states relevant for substrate binding. Cys143 is the conserved catalytic cysteine within the superfamily, and the site of alkylation by cerulenin. The alkylated structure suggests that a glutamic acid residue (Glu117{beta}) likely promotes Claisen condensation by acting as the catalytic base. Unexpectedly, Glu117{beta} comes from the other monomer of the physiological dimer.

  15. Quantitative assessment of different phenolic compounds in Texas olive oils versus foreign oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Texas Olive Ranch is the first one to produce olive oil and has the sole product in the Texas market place; several growers are now starting to cultivate olive at various sites in Texas. The quality of olive oil produced and pressed in Texas has never been explored. This study was conducted to inv...

  16. Effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on chemical, oxidative and sensorial quality of marinated anchovy.

    PubMed

    Topuz, Osman Kadir; Yerlikaya, Pinar; Ucak, Ilknur; Gumus, Bahar; Büyükbenli, Hanife Aydan

    2014-07-01

    This study describes the potential use of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces as antioxidant, preservative and flavoring agent in fish marinades. The olive oil and sauces, produced from emulsifying of olive oil and pomegranate juice with gums, were blended with marinated anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) fillets. The aim of the present study was to produce a new polyphenol-rich marinade sauces by emulsifying pomegranate juice with olive oil in different proportions (25%, 35% and 50%v:v). In order to evaluate the effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on quality of anchovy marinades, the chemical (TVB-N and TMA), oxidative (peroxides value, K230, thiobarbituric acid and K270) and sensory analyses were carried out during storage at 4°C. The present study showed that saucing of anchovy marinades with olive oil-pomegranate sauce can retard the undesirable quality changes, prolong the lipid oxidation and improve the sensory properties. PMID:24518316

  17. Olive response to water availability: yield response functions, soil water content indicators and evaluation of adaptability to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccardi, Maria; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Basile, Angelo; Bonfante, Antonello; Menenti, Massimo; Monaco, Eugenia; De Lorenzi, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    Climate evolution, with the foreseen increase of temperature and frequency of drought events during the summer, could cause significant changes in the availability of water resources specially in the Mediterranean region. European countries need to encourage sustainable agriculture practices, reducing inputs, especially of water, and minimizing any negative impact on crop quantity and quality. Olive is an important crop in the Mediterranean region that has traditionally been cultivated with no irrigation and is known to attain acceptable production under dry farming. Therefore this crop will not compete for foreseen reduced water resources. However, a good quantitative knowledge must be available about effects of reduced precipitation and water availability on yield. Yield response functions, coupled with indicators of soil water availability, provide a quantitative description of the cultivar- specific behavior in relation to hydrological conditions. Yield response functions of 11 olive cultivars, typical of Mediterranean environment, were determined using experimental data (unpublished or reported in scientific literature). The yield was expressed as relative yield (Yr); the soil water availability was described by means of different indicators: relative soil water deficit (RSWD), relative evapotranspiration (RED) and transpiration deficit (RTD). Crops can respond nonlinearly to changes in their growing conditions and exhibit threshold responses, so for the yield functions of each olive cultivar both linear regression and threshold-slope models were considered to evaluate the best fit. The level of relative yield attained in rain-fed conditions was identified and defined as the acceptable yield level (Yrrainfed). The value of the indicator (RSWD, RED and RTD) corresponding to Yrrainfed was determined for each cultivar and indicated as the critical value of water availability. The error in the determination of the critical value was estimated. By means of a simulation model of the water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, the indicators of soil water availability were calculated for different soil units in an area of Southern Italy, traditionally cultivated with olive. Simulations were performed for two climate scenarios: reference (1961-90) and future climate (2021-50). The potentiality of the indicators RSWD, RED and RTD to describe soil water availability was evaluated using simulated and experimental data. The analysis showed that RED values were correlated to RTD. The analysis demonstrated that RTD was more effective than RED in representing crop water availability RSWD is very well correlated to RTD and the degree of correlation depends of the period of deficit considered. The probability of adaptation of each cultivar was calculated for both climatic periods by comparing the critical values (and their error distribution) with soil availability indicators. Keywords: Olea europaea, soil water deficit, water availability critical value. The work was carried out within the Italian national project AGROSCENARI funded by the Ministry for Agricultural, Food and Forest Policies (MIPAAF, D.M. 8608/7303/2008)

  18. Blends of olive oil and sunflower oil: characterisation and olive oil quantification using fatty acid composition and chemometric tools.

    PubMed

    Monfreda, M; Gobbi, L; Grippa, A

    2012-10-15

    A method capable of recognising the percentage of olive oil in a blend is required to verify whether its labelling complies with the statements set out by the Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1019/2002. In this study an analytical methodology was developed in order to define blends of olive oil and sunflower oil, which contain 50% of olive oil, compared to blends with 40% and 60% of it, respectively. Methyl esters of fatty acids were analysed by GC-FID and processed through chemometric tools (PCA, TFA, SIMCA and PLS). A strong differentiation of blends according to the amount of olive oil contained and a quantification model with a standard error of prediction of 1.51% were obtained. As this issue represents a significant analytical challenge, variability associated with the fatty acid composition of olive oil was first studied. PMID:23442687

  19. New secoiridoid from olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Damak, Nahla; Allouche, Noureddine; Hamdi, Besma; Litaudon, Marc; Damak, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    A new secoiridoid, olenoside A (1a) and its known epimer olenoside B (1b), were isolated from olive mill wastewater as a mixture of two isomers. Their structures, 1-methyl-7-oxo-6,6a,8,8a-tetrahydro-1H,3H-pyrano[3,4-c]pyran-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester, were determined by spectroscopic methods including 2-D NMR. The structure of major compound 1a was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. PMID:21815725

  20. Temporal analysis reveals a key role for VTE5 in vitamin E biosynthesis in olive fruit during on-tree development

    PubMed Central

    Georgiadou, Egli C.; Ntourou, Thessaloniki; Goulas, Vlasios; Manganaris, George A.; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to generate a high resolution temporal mapping of the biosynthetic pathway of vitamin E in olive fruit (Olea europaea cv. “Koroneiki”) during 17 successive on-tree developmental stages. Fruit material was collected from the middle of June until the end of January, corresponding to 6–38 weeks after flowering (WAF). Results revealed a variable gene regulation pattern among 6–38 WAF studied and more pronounced levels of differential regulation of gene expression for the first and intermediate genes in the biosynthetic pathway (VTE5, geranylgeranyl reductase, HPPD, VTE2, HGGT and VTE3) compared with the downstream components of the pathway (VTE1 and VTE4). Notably, expression of HGGT and VTE2 genes were significantly suppressed throughout the developmental stages examined. Metabolite analysis indicated that the first and intermediate stages of development (6–22 WAF) have higher concentrations of tocochromanols compared with the last on-tree stages (starting from 24 WAF onwards). The concentration of α-tocopherol (16.15 ± 0.60−32.45 ± 0.54 mg/100 g F.W.) were substantially greater (up to 100-fold) than those of β-, γ-, and δ-tocopherols (0.13 ± 0.01−0.25 ± 0.03 mg/100 g F.W., 0.13 ± 0.01−0.33 ± 0.04 mg/100 g F.W., 0.14 ± 0.01−0.28 ± 0.01 mg/100 g F.W., respectively). In regard with tocotrienol content, only γ-tocotrienol was detected. Overall, olive fruits (cv. “Koroneiki”) exhibited higher concentrations of vitamin E until 22 WAF as compared with later WAF, concomitant with the expression profile of phytol kinase (VTE5), which could be used as a marker gene due to its importance in the biosynthesis of vitamin E. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the complete biosynthetic pathway of vitamin E in a fruit tree crop of great horticultural importance such as olive, linking molecular gene expression analysis with tocochromanol content. PMID:26557125

  1. Stemflow in low-density and hedgerow olive orchards in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Pedro D.; Valente, Fernanda; Pereira, Fernando L.; Abreu, Francisco G.

    2015-04-01

    Stemflow (Sf) is responsible for a localized water and solute input to soil around tree's trunks, playing an important eco-hydrological role in forest and agricultural ecosystems. Sf was monitored for seven months in 25 Olea europaea L. trees distributed in three orchards managed in two different ways, traditional low-density and super high density hedgerow. The orchards were located in central Portugal in the regions of Santarém (Várzea and Azóia) and Lisboa (Tapada). Seven olive varieties were analysed: Arbequina, Galega, Picual, Maçanilha, Cordovil, Azeiteira, Negrinha and Blanqueta. Measured Sf ranged from 7.5 to 87.2 mm (relative to crown-projected area), corresponding to 1.2 and 16.7% of gross rainfall (Pg). To understand better the variables that affect Sf and to be able to predict its value, linear regression models were fitted to these data. Whenever possible, the linear models were simplified using the backward stepwise algorithm based on the Akaike information criterion. For each tree, multiple linear regressions were adjusted between Sf and the duration, volume and intensity of rainfall episodes and maximum evaporation rate. In the low-density Várzea grove the more relevant explanatory variables were the three rainfall characteristics. In the super high density Azóia orchard only rainfall volume and intensity were considered relevant. In the low-density Tapada's grove all trees had a different sub-model with Pg being the only common variable. To try to explain differences between trees and to improve the quality of the modeling in each orchard, another set of explanatory variables was added: canopy volume, tree and trunk heights and trunk perimeter at the height of the first branches. The variables present in all sub-models were rainfall volume and intensity and the tree and trunk heights. Canopy volume and rainfall duration were also present in the sub-models of the two low-density groves (Tapada and Várzea). The determination coefficient (R2) of all models ranged from 0.5 to 0.76. The size of leaves was also analysed. Although there were significant differences between varieties and between trees of the same variety, they did not seem to affect the amount of Sf generated. Through analysis of bark storage capacity, it was found that older trees, with rough and thick bark, had higher trunk storage capacity and, therefore, originated less Sf. The results confirm the need for considering the contribution of stemflow when trying to correctly assess interception loss in olive orchards. Although the use of simple and general statistical models may be an attractive option, their precision may be small, making direct measurements or conceptual modelling preferable methods.

  2. Saltcedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act Science Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shafroth, Patrick B.; Brown, Curtis A.; Merritt, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The primary intent of this document is to provide the science assessment called for under The Saltcedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-320; the Act). A secondary purpose is to provide a common background for applicants for prospective demonstration projects, should funds be appropriated for this second phase of the Act. This document synthesizes the state-of-the-science on the following topics: the distribution and abundance (extent) of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) in the Western United States, potential for water savings associated with controlling saltcedar and Russian olive and the associated restoration of occupied sites, considerations related to wildlife use of saltcedar and Russian olive habitat or restored habitats, methods to control saltcedar and Russian olive, possible utilization of dead biomass following removal of saltcedar and Russian olive, and approaches and challenges associated with revegetation or restoration following control efforts. A concluding chapter discusses possible long-term management strategies, needs for additional study, potentially useful field demonstration projects, and a planning process for on-the-ground projects involving removal of saltcedar and Russian olive.

  3. Pinoresinol of olive oil decreases vitamin D intestinal absorption.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Margier, Marielle; Tagliaferri, Camille; Lebecque, Patrice; Georgé, Stéphane; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2016-09-01

    Enriching oils, such as olive oil, could be one solution to tackle the worldwide epidemic of vitamin D deficiency and to better fit with omega 3 (DHA) recommendations. However, data regarding the interactions occurring at the intestinal level between vitamin D and phenols from olive oil are scarce. We first determined the effect of polyphenols from a virgin olive oil, and a virgin olive oil enriched with DHA, on vitamin D absorption in rats. We then investigated the effects of 3 main olive oil phenols (oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and pinoresinol) on vitamin D uptake by Caco-2 cells. The presence of polyphenols in the olive oil supplemented with DHA inhibited vitamin D postprandial response in rats (-25%, p<0.05). Similar results were obtained with a mix of the 3 polyphenols delivered to Caco-2 cells. However, this inhibitory effect was due to the presence of pinoresinol only. As the pinoresinol content can highly vary between olive oils, the present results should be taken into account to formulate an appropriate oil product enriched in vitamin D. PMID:27041321

  4. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  5. Detection of fruit-fly infestation in olives using X-ray imaging: Algorithm development and prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An algorithm using a Bayesian classifier was developed to automatically detect olive fruit fly infestations in x-ray images of olives. The data set consisted of 249 olives with various degrees of infestation and 161 non-infested olives. Each olive was x-rayed on film and digital images were acquired...

  6. The activity of ozonated olive oil against Leishmania major promastigotes

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, Omid; Sazgarnia, Ameneh; Abbasi, Fatemeh; Layegh, Pouran

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a common and endemic disease in Khorasan province in North-East of Iran. The pentavalant antimony (Sb V) is the mainstay of treatment that has many side effects and resistance to the drug has been reported. The microbicidal effect of ozone was proven in different microorganisms. Since there is no study in this respect and to achieve a low cost and effective treatment, we decided to evaluate the efficacy of ozone against promastigotes of Leishmania major, in vitro. Materials and Methods: Ozonated olive oil was prepared after production of ozone by bubbling ozone-oxygen gas produced by ozone generator through olive oil until it solidified. Promastigotes of L. major were cultivated in two phasic media. After calculation of the number of promastigotes, they were incubated with ozonated olive oil (0, 0.626, 0.938, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 mcg/ml) at 28 °c for 24 hr. Parasites survival percentage was evaluated using MTS and microscopic assay, and then compared with Glucantime and non-ozonated olive oil. Results: According to the results, there were significant differences in parasites survival percentage between ozonated olive oil and non-ozonated olive oil, at similar concentrations (P<0.001). Ozonated olive oil was more effective than Glucantime. According to MTS results, Glucantime and ozonated olive oil gel concentrations that are required to inhibit the growth of L. major promastigotes by 50% (IC50), were 165 and 0.002 mg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: Ozonated olive oil has in vitro activity against the promastigotes of L. major and this effect is dose dependent. PMID:26523224

  7. Olive oil as a functional food: epidemiology and nutritional approaches.

    PubMed

    Stark, Aliza H; Madar, Zecharia

    2002-06-01

    Olive oil is an integral ingredient of the Mediterranean diet and accumulating evidence suggests that it may have health benefits that include reduction of risk factors of coronary heart disease, prevention of several varieties of cancers, and modification of immune and inflammatory responses. Olive oil appears to be an example of a functional food, with varied components that may contribute to its overall therapeutic characteristics. Olive oil is known for its high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids and is also a good source of phytochemicals including polyphenolic compounds, squalene, and alpha-tocopherol. PMID:12078915

  8. Reduction in pesticide residue levels in olives by ozonated and tap water treatments and their transfer into olive oil.

    PubMed

    Kırış, Sevilay; Velioglu, Yakup Sedat

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different wash times (2 and 5 min) with tap and ozonated water on the removal of nine pesticides from olives and the transfer ratios of these pesticides during olive oil production were determined. The reliability of the analytical methods was also tested. The applied methods of analysis were found to be suitable based on linearity, trueness, repeatability, selectivity and limit of quantification all the pesticides tested. All tap and ozonated water wash cycles removed a significant quantity of the pesticides from the olives, with a few exceptions. Generally, extending the wash time increased the pesticide reduction with ozonated water, but did not make significant differences with tap water. During olive oil processing, depending on the processing technique and physicochemical properties of the pesticides, eight of nine pesticides were concentrated into olive oil (processing factor > 1) with almost no significant difference between treatments. Imidacloprid did not pass into olive oil. Ozonated water wash for 5 min reduced chlorpyrifos, β-cyfluthrin, α-cypermethrin and imidacloprid contents by 38%, 50%, 55% and 61% respectively in olives. PMID:26565682

  9. Comparison of polyphenol extractions from olive pomace and solid fraction of olive mill waste water.

    PubMed

    Tercan, Sevgul; Seker, Mahmut

    2012-01-01

    The solid fraction of olive mill waste water (OMWW) was separated from OMWW and then the solutes in the solid fraction of OMWW were extracted with ethanol. The detection of polyphenols in the ethanol extract showed the presence of polyphenols in the solid fraction of OMWW. Effects of solvent-to-solid ratio, extraction and agitation time on the extraction of polyphenols from the solid fraction of OMWW were examined and the maximum amount of polyphenol was extracted from the solid fraction of OMWW with a solvent-to-solid ratio of 15 at 70 min of extraction and 10 min of agitation time. Percent yields and purities of the polyphenols extracted from solid fraction of OMWW were higher than those of the polyphenols extracted from olive pomace with ethanol at 70 min of extraction and 10 min of agitation time with solvent-to-solid ratio of 15. PMID:22085324

  10. Chemometric analysis for discrimination of extra virgin olive oils from whole and stoned olive pastes.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Michele; Restuccia, Donatella; Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Puoci, Francesco; Ragno, Gaetano

    2016-07-01

    Chemometric discrimination of extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) from whole and stoned olive pastes was carried out by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) data and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS1-DA) approach. Four Italian commercial EVOO brands, all in both whole and stoned version, were considered in this study. The adopted chemometric methodologies were able to describe the different chemical features in phenolic and volatile compounds contained in the two types of oil by using unspecific IR spectral information. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed in cluster analysis to capture data patterns and to highlight differences between technological processes and EVOO brands. The PLS1-DA algorithm was used as supervised discriminant analysis to identify the different oil extraction procedures. Discriminant analysis was extended to the evaluation of possible adulteration by addition of aliquots of oil from whole paste to the most valuable oil from stoned olives. The statistical parameters from external validation of all the PLS models were very satisfactory, with low root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and relative error (RE%). PMID:26920315

  11. Microbiota of table olive fermentations and criteria of selection for their use as starters

    PubMed Central

    Heperkan, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    Fermentation is one of the oldest methods for preserving of olives applied worldwide for thousands of years. However, olive processing is a speculative area where whether olives are fermented products or pickled products produced by organic acids and salt. Although lactobacilli and yeasts play a major role in the process, literature survey indicates that lactobacilli are less relevant at least in some types of natural green olives during fermentation. There have been significant advances recently in understanding the process to produce olives, especially the role of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts including biofilm formation on olive surfaces by these organisms. The purpose of this paper is to review the latest developments regarding the microbiota of olives on the basis of olive types, their role on the fermentation process, the interaction between both group of microorganisms and the olive surface, the possibility to use starter cultures and the criteria to select appropriate cultures. PMID:23781216

  12. Microbiota of table olive fermentations and criteria of selection for their use as starters.

    PubMed

    Heperkan, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    Fermentation is one of the oldest methods for preserving of olives applied worldwide for thousands of years. However, olive processing is a speculative area where whether olives are fermented products or pickled products produced by organic acids and salt. Although lactobacilli and yeasts play a major role in the process, literature survey indicates that lactobacilli are less relevant at least in some types of natural green olives during fermentation. There have been significant advances recently in understanding the process to produce olives, especially the role of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts including biofilm formation on olive surfaces by these organisms. The purpose of this paper is to review the latest developments regarding the microbiota of olives on the basis of olive types, their role on the fermentation process, the interaction between both group of microorganisms and the olive surface, the possibility to use starter cultures and the criteria to select appropriate cultures. PMID:23781216

  13. Microbiological characterization of table olives commercialized in Portugal in respect to safety aspects.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana Paula; Pereira, José Alberto; Bento, Albino; Estevinho, M Letícia

    2008-08-01

    Table olives are a traditional component of the Mediterranean diet and are largely consumed in the world. There are different trade treatments that originate different types of olives. The aim of the present work was to proceed to the microbiological characterization of table olives commercialized in the Portuguese market, with respect to their microbiological safety. The microbiological characterization was made in the olive pulp and packing brine of thirty-five table olives samples of different types and trade treatments, namely natural olives Cv. Galega (NOG), natural turning colour olives (NTCO), green olives (GO), black ripe olives (BO) and natural olives purchased in the traditional market and obtained from traditional producers (NOt). Simultaneously it was verified specific legislation of the table olives in what it concerns to labeling rules, pH values and the identification of isolated yeasts. In general, table olives consumed showed acceptable security with exception of four NOt samples that presented Staphylococcus aureus. In a considerable number of samples high number of microorganisms indicators of contaminations were observed that reveals the need of optimization the hygienic procedures during production process to improve the quality and safety of table olives. During the work seven yeasts were isolated from olive pulp and brine. PMID:18573303

  14. Evidence of oleuropein degradation by olive leaf protein extract.

    PubMed

    De Leonardis, Antonella; Macciola, Vincenzo; Cuomo, Francesca; Lopez, Francesco

    2015-05-15

    The enzymatic activity of raw protein olive leaf extract has been investigated in vivo, on olive leaf homogenate and, in vitro with pure oleuropein and other phenolic substrates. At least two types of enzymes were found to be involved in the degradation of endogenous oleuropein in olive leaves. As for the in vitro experiments, the presence of active polyphenoloxidase and β-glucosidase was determined by HPLC and UV-Visible spectroscopy. Interestingly, both the enzymatic activities were found to change during the storage of olive leaves. Specifically, the protein extracts obtained from fresh leaves showed the presence of both the enzymatic activities, because oleuropein depletion occurred simultaneously with the formation of the oleuropein aglycon, 3,4-DHPEA-EA. In comparison leaves subjected to the drying process showed a polyphenoloxidase activity leading exclusively to the formation of oxidation products responsible for the typical brown coloration of the reaction solution. PMID:25577121

  15. Oliver Wendell Holmes Man of Medicine; Man of Letters

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Virginia

    1966-01-01

    This biographical sketch portrays Oliver Wendell Holmes as a leading figure both in American medicine and in American literature. Particular attention is directed to his classic essay, “The Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever.” PMID:5325818

  16. Cellulolytic Bacteria Associated with Sloughing Spoilage of California Ripe Olives

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ishwarlal B.; Vaughn, Reese H.

    1973-01-01

    Sloughing spoilage of California ripe olives during processing is characterized by severe softening, skin rupture, and flesh sloughing. It was assumed that cellulolytic activity was responsible for skin rupture and sloughing of flesh, and so a deliberate search was made for cellulolytic bacteria from olives undergoing sloughing spoilage. A bacterium identified as Cellulomonas flavigena was highly cellulolytic, attacking filter paper, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) gel, and olive tissue. Other bacteria attacking CMC, but not filter paper, enhanced the activity of the Cellulomonas strain when grown in mixed culture, although they did not, in pure culture, have any effect on filter paper. These latter cultures (all degraded olive tissue) represented the genera Xanthomonas, Aerobacter, and Escherichia. Other noncellulolytic bacteria belonging to the genera Alcaligenes, Kurthia, and Micrococcus also were used for study of mixed culture fermentation of cellulose by C. flavigena. Cellobiose accumulation at levels of 1.0% (w/v) and above suppressed growth of C. flavigena. Images PMID:4568890

  17. Biosensor immunoassay for traces of hazelnut protein in olive oil

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Nathalie G. E.; Haasnoot, Willem

    2009-01-01

    The fraudulent addition of hazelnut oil to more expensive olive oil not only causes economical loss but may also result in problems for allergic individuals as they may inadvertently be exposed to potentially allergenic hazelnut proteins. To improve consumer safety, a rapid and sensitive direct biosensor immunoassay, based on a highly specific monoclonal antibody, was developed to detect the presence of hazelnut proteins in olive oils. The sample preparation was easy (extraction with buffer); the assay time was fast (4.5 min only) and the limit of detection was low (0.08 μg/g of hazelnut proteins in olive oil). Recoveries obtained with an olive oil mixed with different amounts of a hazelnut protein containing hazelnut oil varied between 93% and 109%. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00216-009-2720-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:19263041

  18. Soil amendment with olive mill wastes: impact on groundwater.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Maria Clementina; De Girolamo, Anna Maria; Volpe, Angela

    2013-12-15

    Two sets of soil lysimeters were amended with solid and liquid olive mill wastes and the composition of leachate was analysed. Five treatments were carried out using: olive mill wastewater (OMW) at two different rates (80 and 320 m(3)/ha); OMW pre-treated by catalytical digestion with MnO2; compost obtained by exhausted olive pomace; freshwater as the control. Electric conductivity, pH, potassium, total polyphenols and nitrates were monitored in the leachate as indexes of potential groundwater contamination. The study demonstrated that the impact of all the selected amendments on groundwater was the minimum. OMW was safely applied to soil even at four times the rate allowed by the Italian law, and pre-treatment by catalytical digestion was not necessary to further reduce the impact on groundwater. The application of olive pomace compost was equally safe. PMID:24178314

  19. 31. VIEW LOOKING INSIDE 'BRAVO' SILO OLIVE DRAB SHIELD, DRAWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW LOOKING INSIDE 'BRAVO' SILO OLIVE DRAB SHIELD, DRAWN IN DISTORTED WAY TO FIT ON STAIRWELL Everett Weinreb, photographer, April 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 7 CFR 52.3752 - Types of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... brown to black color. (b) Green-ripe type. “Green-ripe type” olives are those which have not been oxidized in processing; which range in color from yellow-green; green-yellow or other greenish casts;...

  1. 7 CFR 52.3752 - Types of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... brown to black color. (b) Green-ripe type. “Green-ripe type” olives are those which have not been oxidized in processing; which range in color from yellow-green; green-yellow or other greenish casts;...

  2. Origin assessment of EV olive oils by esterified sterols analysis.

    PubMed

    Giacalone, Rosa; Giuliano, Salvatore; Gulotta, Eleonora; Monfreda, Maria; Presti, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    In this study extra virgin olive oils of Italian and non-Italian origin (from Spain, Tunisia and blends of EU origin) were differentiated by GC-FID analysis of sterols and esterified sterols followed by chemometric tools. PCA allowed to highlight the high significance of esterified sterols to characterise extra virgin olive oils in relation to their origin. SIMCA provided a sensitivity and specificity of 94.39% and 91.59% respectively; furthermore, an external set of 54 extra virgin olive oils bearing a designation of Italian origin on the labelling was tested by SIMCA. Prediction results were also compared with organoleptic assessment. Finally, the poor correlation found between ethylesters and esterified sterols allowed to hazard the guess, worthy of further investigations, that esterified sterols may prove to be promising in studies of geographical discrimination: indeed they appear to be independent of those factors causing the formation of ethyl esters and related to olive oil production. PMID:26041193

  3. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds Present in Virgin Olive Oil

    PubMed Central

    Cicerale, Sara; Lucas, Lisa; Keast, Russell

    2010-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a traditional Mediterranean diet. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have demonstrated that olive oil phenolic compounds have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, antimicrobial activity and bone health. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the bioavailability and biological activities of olive oil phenolic compounds. PMID:20386648

  4. Guaianolide sesquiterpenes from Pulicaria crispa (Forssk.) Oliv.

    PubMed

    Stavri, Michael; Mathew, K T; Gordon, Andrew; Shnyder, Steven D; Falconer, Robert A; Gibbons, Simon

    2008-06-01

    A phytochemical study of the asteraceous herb Pulicaria crispa (Forssk.) Oliv. resulted in the characterisation of three guaianolide sesquiterpenes, 2alpha,4alpha-dihydroxy-7alphaH,8alphaH,10alphaH-guaia-1(5),11(13)-dien-8beta,12-olide (1), 1alpha,2alpha-epoxy-4beta-hydroxy-5alphaH,7alphaH,8alphaH,10alphaH-guaia-11(13)-en-8beta,12-olide (2) and 5,10-epi-2,3-dihydroaromatin (3). The structures were assigned on the basis of extensive 1 and 2D NMR experiments. Compound 3 exhibited weak antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium phlei with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.52 mM and cytotoxicity (IC50 of 5.8+/-0.2 microM) in a human bladder carcinoma cell line, EJ-138. PMID:18448140

  5. Mitigation of olive mill wastewater toxicity.

    PubMed

    Greco, Guido; Colarieti, M Letizia; Toscano, Giuseppe; Iamarino, Giuseppina; Rao, Maria A; Gianfreda, Liliana

    2006-09-01

    The toxicity of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) is commonly attributed to monomeric phenols. OMW were treated in an aerated, stirred reactor containing agricultural soil, where the oxidative polymerization of phenols took place. In 24 h, OMW monomeric phenols decreased by >90%. This resulted in a corresponding reduction in phytotoxicity, as measured by germination tests with tomato and English cress seeds, and in microbial toxicity, as measured by lag phase duration in Bacillus cereus batch growth. Soil germination capability after irrigation with OMW was assessed in long-term pot experiments. The relative germination percentage of tomato was higher when the soil was irrigated with treated OMW rather than with untreated ones, although it was lower than the control (e.g., soil irrigated with distilled water). At longer incubation times, a complete recovery of the soil germination capability was achieved with treated, but not with untreated, OMW. PMID:16939339

  6. Ozonated olive oils and the troubles.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. PMID:26401346

  7. Ozonated olive oils and the troubles

    PubMed Central

    Uysal, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. PMID:26401346

  8. Investigations into the genotoxic potential of olive extracts.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, David; Edwards, James; Woehrle, Tina; Beilstein, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The phenolic anti-oxidant 3-hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a major constituent of olives and olive oil. Published data showed it was negative in the Ames test at concentrations up to 5 μL per plate, but did induce chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes. HIDROX, an olive extract containing approximately 2.4% HT, was reported as both positive and equivocal in an Ames test in different papers from the same laboratory. Negative results for micronucleus induction in vivo in both an acute study and as part of a 90-day rat toxicity study were also reported for HIDROX. Given the widespread use and consumption of olives, olive oil and olive extracts, it was important to obtain more data. Here we confirm that pure HT, and an olive extract containing 15% HT, both induced micronuclei in cultured cells in vitro, but show that these responses were either due to high levels of cytotoxicity or to reaction of HT with culture medium components to produce hydrogen peroxide. Another extract (H40) containing 40% HT also induced micronuclei in vitro, probably via the same mechanism. However, both extracts were negative in robust Ames tests. The 15% HT formulated extract did not induce micronuclei in rat bone marrow after 4 weeks of dosing up to 561 mg HT/kg/day. H40 produced increased rat bone marrow micronucleus frequencies at 250 and 500 mg HT/kg/day in a 90-day toxicity study, but the results were questionable for various reasons. However, when two different batches of this extract were tested in acute micronucleus studies at doses up to 2000 mg HT/kg, giving plasma exposures that exceeded those in the 90-day study, negative results were obtained. Based on weight of evidence it is concluded that the olive extracts tested are not genotoxic at high doses in vivo, and any genotoxic risks for human consumers are negligible. PMID:25726171

  9. Olive bagasse and nutshell as gamma shielding material

    SciTech Connect

    İnaç, Esra; Baytaş, A. Filiz

    2013-12-16

    Gamma ray linear attenuation coefficients have been measured experimentally for olive bagasse and nutshell by using narrow beam geometry for Co-60 and the values have been compared with soil. These values have been used calculate mean free path, half value layer and tenth value layer parameters. Besides, effect of multi-layered systems (soil + olive bagasse and soil + nutshell) has been analyzed in terms of half value layer.

  10. Olive bagasse and nutshell as gamma shielding material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaç, Esra; Baytaş, A. Filiz

    2013-12-01

    Gamma ray linear attenuation coefficients have been measured experimentally for olive bagasse and nutshell by using narrow beam geometry for Co-60 and the values have been compared with soil. These values have been used calculate mean free path, half value layer and tenth value layer parameters. Besides, effect of multi-layered systems (soil + olive bagasse and soil + nutshell) has been analyzed in terms of half value layer.

  11. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activities of olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    El-Abbassi, Abdelilah; Kiai, Hajar; Hafidi, Abdellatif

    2012-05-01

    Olive trees play an important role in the Moroccan agro-economy, providing both employment and export revenue. However, the olive oil industry generates large amounts of wastes and wastewaters. The disposal of these polluting by-products is a significant environmental problem that needs an adequate solution. On one hand, the phytotoxic and antimicrobial effects of olive mill wastewaters are mainly due to their phenolic content. The hydrophilic character of the polyphenols results in the major proportion of natural phenols being separated into the water phase during the olive processing. On other hand, the health benefits arising from a diet containing olive oil have been attributed to its richness in phenolic compounds that act as natural antioxidants and are thought to contribute to the prevention of heart diseases and cancers. Olive mill wastewater (OMW) samples have been analysed in terms of their phenolic constituents and antioxidant activities. The total phenolic content, flavonoids, flavanols, and proanthocyanidins were determined. The antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of phenolic extracts and microfiltred samples was evaluated using different tests (iron(II) chelating activity, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH assays and lipid peroxidation test). The obtained results reveal the considerable antioxidant capacity of the OMW, that can be considered as an inexpensive potential source of high added value powerful natural antioxidants comparable to some synthetic antioxidants commonly used in the food industry. PMID:26434308

  12. Mechanisms of action of phenolic compounds in olive.

    PubMed

    Rafehi, Haloom; Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2012-06-01

    Olive oil, an oil rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFCs) and minor constituents including phenolic compounds, is a major component of the Mediterranean diet. The potential health benefits of the Mediterranean diet were highlighted by the seminal Seven Countries Study, and more contemporary research has identified olive oil as a major element responsible for these effects. It is emerging that the phenolic compounds are the most likely candidates accounting for the cardioprotective and cancer preventative effects of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). In particular, the phenolic compound, hydroxytyrosol has been identified as one of the most potent antioxidants found in olive oil. This review will briefly consider historical aspects of olive oil research and the biological properties of phenolic compounds in olive oil will be discussed. The focus of the discussion will be related to the mechanisms of action of hydroxytyrosol. Studies have demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in cancer cells. Further, research has shown that hydroxytyrosol can prevent cardiovascular disease by reducing the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells and preventing the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The molecular mechanisms accounting for these effects are reviewed. PMID:22607645

  13. Sensory intensity assessment of olive oils using an electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Veloso, Ana C A; Dias, Luís G; Rodrigues, Nuno; Pereira, José A; Peres, António M

    2016-01-01

    Olive oils may be commercialized as intense, medium or light, according to the intensity perception of fruitiness, bitterness and pungency attributes, assessed by a sensory panel. In this work, the capability of an electronic tongue to correctly classify olive oils according to the sensory intensity perception levels was evaluated. Cross-sensitivity and non-specific lipid polymeric membranes were used as sensors. The sensor device was firstly tested using quinine monohydrochloride standard solutions. Mean sensitivities of 14±2 to 25±6 mV/decade, depending on the type of plasticizer used in the lipid membranes, were obtained showing the device capability for evaluating bitterness. Then, linear discriminant models based on sub-sets of sensors, selected by a meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm, were established enabling to correctly classify 91% of olive oils according to their intensity sensory grade (leave-one-out cross-validation procedure). This capability was further evaluated using a repeated K-fold cross-validation procedure, showing that the electronic tongue allowed an average correct classification of 80% of the olive oils used for internal-validation. So, the electronic tongue can be seen as a taste sensor, allowing differentiating olive oils with different sensory intensities, and could be used as a preliminary, complementary and practical tool for panelists during olive oil sensory analysis. PMID:26695307

  14. The molecular biology of the olive fly comes of age

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Olive cultivation blends with the history of the Mediterranean countries since ancient times. Even today, activities around the olive tree constitute major engagements of several people in the countryside of both sides of the Mediterranean basin. The olive fly is, beyond doubt, the most destructive pest of cultivated olives. The female fly leaves its eggs in the olive fruit. Upon emergence, the larvae feed on the olive sap, thus destroying the fruit. If untreated, practically all olives get infected. The use of chemical insecticides constitutes the principal olive fly control approach. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), an environmentally friendly alternative control method, had been tried in pilot field applications in the 1970's, albeit with no practical success. This was mainly attributed to the low, non-antagonistic quality of the mixed-sex released insects. Many years of experience from successful SIT applications in related species, primarily the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, demonstrated that efficient SIT protocols require the availability of fundamental genetic and molecular information. Results Among the primary systems whose understanding can contribute towards novel SIT approaches (or its recently developed alternative RIDL: Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal) is the reproductive, since the ability to manipulate the reproductive system would directly affect the insect's fertility. In addition, the analysis of early embryonic promoters and apoptotic genes would provide tools that confer dominant early-embryonic lethality during mass-rearing. Here we report the identification of several genes involved in these systems through whole transcriptome analysis of female accessory glands (FAGs) and spermathecae, as well as male testes. Indeed, analysis of differentially expressed genes in these tissues revealed higher metabolic activity in testes than in FAGs/spermathecae. Furthermore, at least five olfactory-related genes were shown to be differentially expressed in the female and male reproductive systems analyzed. Finally, the expression profile of the embryonic serendipity-α locus and the pre-apoptotic head involution defective gene were analyzed during embryonic developmental stages. Conclusions Several years of molecular studies on the olive fly can now be combined with new information from whole transcriptome analyses and lead to a deep understanding of the biology of this notorious insect pest. This is a prerequisite for the development of novel embryonic lethality female sexing strains for successful SIT efforts which, combined with improved mass-reared conditions, give new hope for efficient SIT applications for the olive fly. PMID:25472866

  15. Freezing avoidance by supercooling in Olea europaea cultivars: the role of apoplastic water, solute content and cell wall rigidity.

    PubMed

    Arias, Nadia S; Bucci, Sandra J; Scholz, Fabian G; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2015-10-01

    Plants can avoid freezing damage by preventing extracellular ice formation below the equilibrium freezing temperature (supercooling). We used Olea europaea cultivars to assess which traits contribute to avoid ice nucleation at sub-zero temperatures. Seasonal leaf water relations, non-structural carbohydrates, nitrogen and tissue damage and ice nucleation temperatures in different plant parts were determined in five cultivars growing in the Patagonian cold desert. Ice seeding in roots occurred at higher temperatures than in stems and leaves. Leaves of cold acclimated cultivars supercooled down to -13 °C, substantially lower than the minimum air temperatures observed in the study site. During winter, leaf ice nucleation and leaf freezing damage (LT50 ) occurred at similar temperatures, typical of plant tissues that supercool. Higher leaf density and cell wall rigidity were observed during winter, consistent with a substantial acclimation to sub-zero temperatures. Larger supercooling capacity and lower LT50 were observed in cold-acclimated cultivars with higher osmotically active solute content, higher tissue elastic adjustments and lower apoplastic water. Irreversible leaf damage was only observed in laboratory experiments at very low temperatures, but not in the field. A comparative analysis of closely related plants avoids phylogenetic independence bias in a comparative study of adaptations to survive low temperatures. PMID:25737264

  16. Effect of Olea oleaster and Juniperus procera leaves extracts on thioacetamide induced hepatic cirrhosis in male albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Al-Attar, Atef M.; Alrobai, Ali A.; Almalki, Daklallah A.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Olea oleaster and Juniperus procera leaves extracts and their combination on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatic cirrhosis were investigated in male albino mice. One hundred sixty mice were used in this study and were randomly distributed into eight groups of 20 each. Mice of group 1 served as controls. Mice of group 2 were treated with TAA. Mice of group 3 were exposed to TAA and supplemented with O. oleaster leaves extracts. Mice of group 4 were treated with TAA and supplemented with J. procera leaves extracts. Mice of group 5 were subjected to TAA and supplemented with O. oleaster and J. procera leaves extracts. Mice of groups 6, 7 and 8 were supplemented with O. oleaster, J. procera, and O. oleaster and J. procera leaves extracts respectively. Administration of TAA for six and twelve weeks resulted in a decline in body weight gain and increased the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. Histopathological evaluations of hepatic sections from mice treated with TAA showed severe alterations including increase of fibrogenesis processes with structural damage. Treatment of mice with these extracts showed a pronounced attenuation in TAA induced hepatic cirrhosis associated with physiological and histopathological alterations. Finally, this study suggests that the supplementation of these extracts may act as antioxidant agents and could be an excellent adjuvant support in the therapy of hepatic cirrhosis. PMID:27081362

  17. Effect of Olea oleaster and Juniperus procera leaves extracts on thioacetamide induced hepatic cirrhosis in male albino mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Attar, Atef M; Alrobai, Ali A; Almalki, Daklallah A

    2016-05-01

    The effect of Olea oleaster and Juniperus procera leaves extracts and their combination on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatic cirrhosis were investigated in male albino mice. One hundred sixty mice were used in this study and were randomly distributed into eight groups of 20 each. Mice of group 1 served as controls. Mice of group 2 were treated with TAA. Mice of group 3 were exposed to TAA and supplemented with O. oleaster leaves extracts. Mice of group 4 were treated with TAA and supplemented with J. procera leaves extracts. Mice of group 5 were subjected to TAA and supplemented with O. oleaster and J. procera leaves extracts. Mice of groups 6, 7 and 8 were supplemented with O. oleaster, J. procera, and O. oleaster and J. procera leaves extracts respectively. Administration of TAA for six and twelve weeks resulted in a decline in body weight gain and increased the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. Histopathological evaluations of hepatic sections from mice treated with TAA showed severe alterations including increase of fibrogenesis processes with structural damage. Treatment of mice with these extracts showed a pronounced attenuation in TAA induced hepatic cirrhosis associated with physiological and histopathological alterations. Finally, this study suggests that the supplementation of these extracts may act as antioxidant agents and could be an excellent adjuvant support in the therapy of hepatic cirrhosis. PMID:27081362

  18. Air pollution effects on the leaf structure of two injury resistant species: Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Olea europaea L

    SciTech Connect

    Christodoulakis, N.S.; Koutsogeorgopoulou, L. )

    1991-09-01

    The release of toxic gases as well as of particulate pollutants into the atmosphere is a major side effect of the human industrial, agricultural and domestic activities. The impact of these compounds on the various life forms of our planet seems to be very serious. Investigations of plant species resistant to pollution-induced injuries do have a meaning. The introduction of these species will improve air quality and establish a moderate rate of primary productivity in the handicapped regions. That is why data concerning an evergreen sclerophyllous species which does not present structural modifications and organelle destruction although forced to be a dweller of a partition isle in a heavily polluted, traffic-loaded main street of the smog-suffering city of Athens, Greece, seemed very interesting. In this paper, further investigation is presented. Two common, species were studied. The first, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, a huge tree once imported to Europe from Australia as a marsh-drier in an effort to control malaria, is a drought enduring species mostly known for the essential oils accumulated in its leaves. The second, Olea europaea L. var oleaster Brot, is a sclerophyllous tree growing wild in chaparall formations in Greece.

  19. Anti-diabetic effect of Murraya koenigii (L) and Olea europaea (L) leaf extracts on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    El-Amin, Maha; Virk, Promy; Elobeid, Mai Abdel Rahman; Almarhoon, Zainab Mohammed; Hassan, Zeinab Korany; Omer, Sawsan Ali; Merghani, Nada Mohammed; Daghestani, Maha Hassan; Al-Olayan, Ebtisam Mohammed

    2013-03-01

    Phytotherapy has a promising future in the management of diabetes, considered to be less toxic and free from side effects as compared to the use of synthetic drugs. The aim of the present study was to assess the antidiabetic possible of orally administered aqueous extracts of Murraya koenigii (ML) and Olea europaea (OL) leaves (100 and 200 mg/kg doses), in streptozotocin (70 mg/kg) induced diabetic rats. Metformin was used as a standard drug. Blood glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine levels and body weight were estimated. ML and OL administration showed significant decrease (p>0.05) in cholesterol, triglyceride, and serum glucose levels (range 55.6%-64.6%) compared to the metformin (62.7%); however, there was no significant effect on body weight and serum creatinine. Our results suggest that both the ML and OL possess a potent antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effect, which may be due to the presence of antioxidants such as carbazole alkaloids and polyphenols. PMID:23455208

  20. Partitioning of olive oil antioxidants between oil and water phases.

    PubMed

    Rodis, Panayotis S; Karathanos, Vaios T; Mantzavinou, Antonia

    2002-01-30

    The partition coefficient (K(p)) of the natural phenolic antioxidant compounds in the olive fruit between aqueous and olive oil phases was determined. The antioxidants of olive oil are either present in the olive fruit or formed during the olive oil extraction process. The antioxidants impart stability to and determine properties of the oil and are valuable from the nutritional point of view. The olive oil antioxidants are amphiphilic in nature and are more soluble in the water than in the oil phase. Consequently, a large amount of the antioxidants is lost with the wastewater during processing. The determination of antioxidants was performed using HPLC, and the K(p) was estimated to be from as low as 0.0006 for oleuropein to a maximum of 1.5 for 3,4-DHPEA-EA (di-hydroxy-phenyl-ethanol-elenolic acid, oleuropein aglycon). Henry's law fitted very well to the experimental data. The partition coefficients were also estimated by applying the activity coefficients of the antioxidants in the two phases using a predictive group contribution method, the UNIFAC equation. The K(p) values estimated with UNIFAC method were of the same order of magnitude but varied from the experimental values. Nevertheless, this method may be a rough predictive tool for process optimization or design. Because the K(p) values were very low, some changes in the process are recommended in order to achieve a higher concentration of antioxidants in the oil. A temperature increase may lead to increasing the partition coefficient. Also, limiting the quantity of water during oil extraction could be a basis for designing alternative processes for increasing the antioxidant concentration in the olive oil. PMID:11804535

  1. Clinical, hematological and biochemical alterations in olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus following experimental infection by Vibrio scophthalmi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hematological analysis can provide key values for monitoring fish health conditions. There is no information available on hematological changes of olive flounder following infection by Vibrio scophthalmi. In this study, hematological and biochemical alterations were determined for olive flounder inf...

  2. The role of structural C--H compared with phenolic OH sites on the antioxidant activity of oleuropein and its derivatives as a great non-flavonoid family of the olive components: a DFT study.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh, Keyumars; Akhtari, Keivan; Hassanzadeh, Halaleh; Zarei, Seyed Amir; Fakhraei, Nahid; Hassanzadeh, Katayoun

    2014-12-01

    Oleuropein and its derivatives are the main phenolic compounds of Olea europaea L. leaf and fruit. The structure-antioxidant activity relationship was considered for studying the radical scavenging activity of this non-flavonoid family of the olive components using density functional theory (DFT). The structure of these compounds were optimized employing the B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) and the role of some structural CH positions was compared with phenolic OH sites on radical scavenging. As a result, a radical unique position (C3) in the oleuropein, characterized by low BDE (Bond Dissociation Enthalpy), reasonable spin density and electron distribution, was identified. The experimental results of the previous publications of oleuropein for NO and OH scavenging confirmed the presence of this unique active site in its molecular structure. According to the results, 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) cannot find this non-marginal active site. Therefore, DPPH may not be a determinant assay for all antioxidant comparisons. Solvent effects were considered in all calculations using a Polarized Continuum Model (PCM) at the B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) level. Solvation calculations were carried out for benzene (ε=2.3) to simulate the oil environment compared to gas phase. PMID:24996331

  3. Inoculated fermentation of green olives with potential probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures isolated from industrially fermented olives.

    PubMed

    Blana, Vasiliki A; Grounta, Athena; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

    2014-04-01

    The performance of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282, previously isolated from industrially fermented table olives and screened in vitro for probiotic potential, was investigated as starter cultures in Spanish style fermentation of cv. Halkidiki green olives. Fermentation was undertaken at room temperature in two different initial salt concentrations (8% and 10%, w/v, NaCl) in the brines. The strains were inoculated as single and combined cultures and the dynamics of their population on the surface of olives was monitored for a period of 114 days. The survival of inoculated strains on olives was determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Both probiotic strains successfully colonized the olive surface at populations ranged from 6.0 to 7.0 log CFU/g throughout fermentation. PFGE analysis revealed that L. pentosus B281 presented higher colonization in both salt levels at the end of fermentation (81.2% and 93.3% in 8% and 10% NaCl brines, respectively). For L. plantarum B282 a high survival rate (83.3%) was observed in 8% NaCl brines, but in 10% NaCl the strain could not colonize the surface of olives. L. pentosus B281 also dominated over L. plantarum B282 in inoculated fermentations when the two strains were used as combined culture. The biochemical profile (pH, organic acids, volatile compounds) attained during fermentation and the sensory analysis of the final product indicated a typical lactic acid fermentation process of green olives. PMID:24290645

  4. Olive oil exhibits osteoprotection in ovariectomized rats without estrogenic effects

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, XIAOHUA; HUANG, HUIJUAN; ZHENG, XIAOBING; LI, BAOHENG

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of olive oil on bone and uterus in ovariectomized rats. A total of 34 surgically ovariectomized or sham-operated virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: i) Sham-operated control rats (sham group); ii) Ovariectomized rats (OVX group); iii) Olive oil-supplemented ovariectomized rats (olive group); and iv) Diethylstilbestrol-supplemented ovariectomized rats (E2 group). At 12 weeks following left ventricular blood sacrificed to detect plasma estradiol (E2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 levels. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine was evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the left femur proximal 1/3 slices were observed using transmission electron microscopy. Uterine wet weight and the uterus index (ratio of uterine wet weight and body weight) were compared, and the uterine endometrium was observed using a light microscope. In the OVX group, serum E2 was significantly lower and IL-1β and IL-6 levels were significantly higher compared with the sham group. By contrast, serum E2 levels increased and IL-1β levels decreased in the olive group, but showed no significant difference compared with the sham group. The lumbar spine BMD in the olive group was increased compared with OVX group. Electron microscopy revealed sparse collagen fibers in the OVX group, with decreased density and multi-cavity, showing pathological features of osteoporosis. By contrast, the situation was improved in the E2 and olive groups, in which organelles such as the rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and Golgi apparatus were visible and active. Compared with the sham group rats, the uterine wet weight and uterine index decreased in the OVX and olive groups; however, no statistically significant difference was observed in the E2 group. Furthermore, endometrial hyperplasia was not observed in the olive group, which were apparently different from E2 group. The present results suggest that olive oil can effectively reduce bone loss in ovariectomized rats, and with no or only mild effects on the uterine endothelium. PMID:27168821

  5. Genetic Diversity of the Coat Protein of Olive Mild Mosaic Virus (OMMV) and Tobacco Necrosis Virus D (TNV-D) Isolates and Its Structural Implications

    PubMed Central

    Varanda, Carla M. R.; Machado, Marco; Martel, Paulo; Nolasco, Gustavo; Clara, Maria I. E.; Flix, Maria R.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic variability among 13 isolates of Olive mild mosaic virus (OMMV) and of 11 isolates of Tobacco necrosis virus D (TNV-D) recovered from Olea europaea L. samples from various sites in Portugal, was assessed through the analysis of the coat protein (CP) gene sequences. This gene was amplified through reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cloned, and 5 clone sequences of each virus isolate, were analysed and compared, including sequences from OMMV and TNV-D isolates originally recovered from different hosts and countries and available in the GenBank, totalling 131 sequences. The encoded CP sequences consisted of 269 amino acids (aa) in OMMV and 268 in TNV-D. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the isolates showed a very low variability among OMMV isolates, 0.005 and 0.007, respectively, as well as among TNV-D isolates, 0.006 and 0.008. The maximum nucleotide distances of OMMV and TNV-D sequences within isolates were also low, 0.013 and 0.031, respectively, and close to that found between isolates, 0.018 and 0.034, respectively. In some cases, less variability was found in clone sequences between isolates than in clone sequences within isolates, as also shown through phylogenetic analysis. CP aa sequence identities among OMMV and TNV-D isolates ranged from 84.3% to 85.8%. Comparison between the CP genomic sequences of the two viruses, showed a relatively low variability, 0.199, and a maximum nucleotide distance between isolates of 0.411. Analysis of comparative models of OMMV and TNV-D CPs, showed that naturally occurring substitutions in their respective sequences do not seem to cause significant alterations in the virion structure. This is consistent with a high selective pressure to preserve the structure of viral capsid proteins. PMID:25350108

  6. Evaluation of the in Vitro Anti-Atherogenic Properties of Lipid Fractions of Olive Pomace, Olive Pomace Enriched Fish Feed and Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Fed with Olive Pomace Enriched Fish Feed

    PubMed Central

    Nasopoulou, Constantina; Gogaki, Vassiliki; Stamatakis, Giorgos; Papaharisis, Leonidas; Demopoulos, Constantinos A.; Zabetakis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Given the pivotal role of Platelet-Activating-Factor (PAF) in atherosclerosis and the cardio-protective role of PAF-inhibitors derived from olive pomace, the inclusion of olive pomace in fish feed has been studied for gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). The aim of the current research was to elucidate the anti-atherogenic properties of specific HPLC lipid fractions obtained from olive pomace, olive pomace enriched fish feed and fish fed with the olive pomace enriched fish feed, by evaluating their in vitro biological activity against washed rabbit platelets. This in vitro study underlines that olive pomace inclusion in fish feed improves the nutritional value of both fish feed and fish possibly by enriching the marine lipid profile of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) with specific bioactive lipid compounds of plant origin. PMID:24084786

  7. The effects of inferior olive lesion on strychnine seizure

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.C.; Chung, E.Y.; Van Woert, M.H. )

    1990-10-01

    Bilateral inferior olive lesions, produced by systemic administration of the neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3AP) produce a proconvulsant state specific for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus. We have proposed that these phenomena are mediated through increased excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, through activation of glutamate receptors, in response to climbing fiber deafferentation. An increase in quisqualic acid (QA)-displaceable ({sup 3}H)AMPA ((RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) binding in cerebella from inferior olive-lesioned rats was observed, but no difference in ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding displaced by glutamate, kainic acid (KA) or glutamate diethylester (GDEE) was seen. The excitatory amino acid antagonists GDEE and MK-801 ((+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cyclo-hepten-5,10 imine) were tested as anticonvulsants for strychnine-induced seizures in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned and control rats. Neither drug effected seizures in control rats, however, both GDEE and MK-801 produced a leftward shift in the strychnine-seizure dose-response curve in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned rats. GDEE also inhibited strychnine-induced myoclonus in the lesioned group, while MK-801 had no effect on myoclonus. The decreased threshold for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus in the 3AP-inferior olive-lesioned rats may be due to an increase in glutamate receptors as suggested by the ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding data.

  8. Carbonyl trapping and antiglycative activities of olive oil mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Marta; Fiore, Alberto; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Morales, Francisco J

    2015-02-01

    The use of natural compounds as antiglycative agents to reduce the load of advanced glycation end products from diet is very promising. Olive mill wastewater is a by-product of the olive oil extraction processes with a high content of hydroxytyrosol, hydroxytyrosol derivatives and molecules containing o-dihydroxyl functions such as verbascoside. Two powders were obtained after the ultrafiltration and nanofiltration of olive mill wastewater, and successive spray drying with maltodextrin and acacia fiber. The samples were characterized by phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity. Antiglycative capacity was evaluated by in vitro BSA-glucose and BSA-methylglyoxal assays, formation of Amadori products and direct trapping of reactive dicarbonyls (methylglyoxal and glyoxal). Both ultrafiltered and nanofiltered olive mill wastewater powders had an activity comparable to quercetin and hydroxytyrosol against the inhibition of protein glycation (IC50 = 0.3 mg mL(-1)). The antiglycative activity of the powder was further investigated after separation by reverse phase solid extraction. Fractions extracted with the methanol content higher than 40% and rich in hydroxytyrosol and verbascoside exerted the highest reactivity against dicarbonyls. Data confirmed that the direct trapping of dicarbonyl compounds is the main route explaining the antiglycative action rather than of the already known antioxidant capacity. Results support further investigations to evaluate the technological feasibility to use olive mill wastewater powders as antiglycative ingredients in foods or in pharmacological preparations in future. PMID:25519075

  9. Olive oil consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Assy, Nimer; Nassar, Faris; Nasser, Gattas; Grosovski, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The clinical implications of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) derive from their potential to progress to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Inappropriate dietary fat intake, excessive intake of soft drinks, insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress results in increased free fatty acid delivery to the liver and increased hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation. An olive oil-rich diet decreases accumulation of TGs in the liver, improves postprandial TGs, glucose and glucagon-like peptide-1 responses in insulin-resistant subjects, and upregulates glucose transporter-2 expression in the liver. The principal mechanisms include: decreased nuclear factor-kappaB activation, decreased low-density lipoprotein oxidation, and improved insulin resistance by reduced production of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6) and improvement of jun N-terminal kinase-mediated phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1. The beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet is derived from monounsaturated fatty acids, mainly from olive oil. In this review, we describe the dietary sources of the monounsaturated fatty acids, the composition of olive oil, dietary fats and their relationship to insulin resistance and postprandial lipid and glucose responses in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, clinical and experimental studies that assess the relationship between olive oil and NAFLD, and the mechanism by which olive oil ameliorates fatty liver, and we discuss future perspectives. PMID:19370776

  10. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size..., grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from..., kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety plums (fresh prunes) for consumption by...

  11. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size..., grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from..., kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety plums (fresh prunes) for consumption by...

  12. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size..., grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from..., kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety plums (fresh prunes) for consumption by...

  13. Olive quick decline in Italy is associated with unique strain of Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive quick decline syndrome (OQDS) is a destructive new disease currently affecting approximately 20,000 acres of olive in southern Italy—an area approximately the size of California’s table olive production in California. Symptoms of OQDS include extensive branch and twig dieback, yellow and brown...

  14. 7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ripe olives. 932.150 Section 932.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.150 Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum quality requirements prescribed in § 932.52 (a)(1)...

  15. 7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ripe olives. 932.150 Section 932.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.150 Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum quality requirements prescribed in § 932.52 (a)(1)...

  16. 7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ripe olives. 932.150 Section 932.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.150 Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum quality requirements prescribed in § 932.52 (a)(1)...

  17. 7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ripe olives. 932.150 Section 932.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.150 Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum quality requirements prescribed in § 932.52 (a)(1)...

  18. 7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ripe olives. 932.150 Section 932.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.150 Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum quality requirements prescribed in § 932.52 (a)(1)...

  19. Olive mill wastewater membrane filtration fraction: Drying techniques and quality assessment of the dried product (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A current trend in olive mill wastewater (OMWW) management is to not only decrease environmental pollution but also utilize valuable co-products. Recovery of phenolics from OMWW could help olive oil processors add value to their co-product, increasing the sustainability of olive oil production. The ...

  20. Biological controls investigated to aid management of olive fruit fly in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The recent widespread and rapid establishment of the olive fruit fly in California made necessary immediate changes in existing olive IPM programs. After determining that resident natural enemies (various generalist predators and a previously unknown parasitoid) that have been found attacking olive...

  1. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or... olive oil shall be as follows: (a) A descriptive name for the product meeting the requirements of §...

  2. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or... olive oil shall be as follows: (a) A descriptive name for the product meeting the requirements of §...

  3. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or... olive oil shall be as follows: (a) A descriptive name for the product meeting the requirements of §...

  4. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or... olive oil shall be as follows: (a) A descriptive name for the product meeting the requirements of §...

  5. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or... olive oil shall be as follows: (a) A descriptive name for the product meeting the requirements of §...

  6. Availability of triazine herbicides in aged soils amended with olive oil mill waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive oil extraction generates a lot of organic waste, which can potentially cause adverse environmental impacts. Application of olive oil mill waste, alperujo, to the land could be an effective way to dispose of the waste. However, addition of olive oil mill wastes can modify the binding capacity o...

  7. Adaptive global synchrony of inferior olive neurons.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keum W; Singh, Sahjendra N

    2009-09-01

    This paper treats the question of global adaptive synchronization of inferior olive neurons (IONs) based on the immersion and invariance approach. The ION exhibits a variety of orbits as the parameter (termed the bifurcation parameter), which appears in its nonlinear functions, is varied. It is seen that once the bifurcation parameter exceeds a critical value, the stability of the equilibrium point of the ION is lost, and periodic orbits are born. The size and shape of the orbits depend on the value of the bifurcation parameter. It is assumed that bifurcation parameters of the IONs are not known. The orbits of IONs beginning from arbitrary initial conditions are not synchronized. For the synchronization of the IONs, a non-certainty equivalent adaptation law is derived. The control system has a modular structure consisting of an identifier and a control module. Using the Lyapunov approach, it is shown that in the closed-loop system, global synchronization of the neurons with a prescribed relative phase is accomplished, and the estimated bifurcation parameters converge to the true parameters. Unlike the certainty-equivalent adaptive control systems, an interesting feature of the designed control system is that whenever the estimated parameters coincide with the true values, the parameter estimates remain frozen thereafter, and the closed-loop system recovers the performance of the deterministic closed-loop system. Simulation results are presented which show that in the closed-loop system, the synchrony of neurons with prescribed phases is accomplished despite the uncertainties in the bifurcation parameters. PMID:19717895

  8. Hydrothermal carbonization of olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Poerschmann, J; Baskyr, I; Weiner, B; Koehler, R; Wedwitschka, H; Kopinke, F-D

    2013-04-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is an emerging technology to treat wet biomasses aimed at producing a biochar material. Herein, olive mill wastewater (OMW) was subjected to HTC. Mass balance considerations provide evidence that the yield of biochar is low (~30%, w/w), which is associated with a low fraction of carbohydrates in OMW. The combination of different preparation schemes, pre-chromatographic derivatization reactions and GC/MS analysis for the analysis of organic compounds in aqueous HTC-solutions allowed to identify and quantify a wide array of analytes which belong either to intrinsic constituents of OMW or to characteristic HTC-breakdown products. Biophenols, such as hydroxyl-tyrosol (OH-Tyr), tyrosol (Tyr) account for the most abundant members of the first group. Most abundant breakdown products include phenol and benzenediols as well as short-chain organic acids. Secoiridoids, such as decarbomethoxy ligostride aglycon and decarbomethoxy oleuropein aglycon, all of them being typical components of OMW, are less abundant in HTC-solutions. PMID:23475178

  9. Modeling Free Energies of Solvation in Olive Oil

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlin, Adam C.; Levitt, David G.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2009-01-01

    Olive oil partition coefficients are useful for modeling the bioavailability of drug-like compounds. We have recently developed an accurate solvation model called SM8 for aqueous and organic solvents (Marenich, A. V.; Olson, R. M.; Kelly, C. P.; Cramer, C. J.; Truhlar, D. G. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2007, 3, 2011) and a temperature-dependent solvation model called SM8T for aqueous solution (Chamberlin, A. C.; Cramer, C. J.; Truhlar, D. G. J. Phys. Chem. B 2008, 112, 3024). Here we describe an extension of SM8T to predict air–olive oil and water–olive oil partitioning for drug-like solutes as functions of temperature. We also describe the database of experimental partition coefficients used to parameterize the model; this database includes 371 entries for 304 compounds spanning the 291–310 K temperature range. PMID:19434923

  10. Olive oil phenolic compounds affect the release of aroma compounds.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Alessandro; Caporaso, Nicola; Villani, Veronica; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-08-15

    Twelve aroma compounds were monitored and quantified by dynamic headspace analysis after their addition in refined olive oil model systems with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) biophenols to simulate EVOO aroma. The influence of polyphenols on aroma release was studied under simulated mouth conditions by using human saliva, and SPME-GC/MS analysis. While few differences were observed in orthonasal assay (without saliva), interesting results were obtained for retronasal aroma. Biophenols caused generally the lowest headspace release of almost all volatile compounds. However, only ethyl esters and linalool concentrations were significantly lower in retronasal than orthonasal assay. Saliva also caused higher concentration of hexanal, probably due to hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) action on linoleyl hydroperoxides. Epicatechin was compared to EVOO phenolics and the behaviour was dramatically different, likely to be due to salivary protein-tannin binding interactions, which influenced aroma headspace release. These results were also confirmed using two extra virgin olive oils. PMID:25794752

  11. Fractionation of olive mill wastewaters by membrane separation techniques.

    PubMed

    Cassano, Alfredo; Conidi, Carmela; Giorno, Lidietta; Drioli, Enrico

    2013-03-15

    This study aims to evaluate the potential of an integrated membrane system in the treatment of olive mill wastewaters (OMWs) to produce a purified fraction enriched in low molecular weight polyphenols, a concentrated fraction of organic substances and a water stream which can be reused in the extractive process of olive oil. In particular, a sequence of two ultrafiltration (UF) processes followed by a final nanofiltration (NF) step was investigated on laboratory scale operating in selected process parameters. The produced fractions were analyzed for their total content of polyphenols, total antioxidant activity (TAA), free low molecular weight polyphenols and total organic carbon (TOC). The performance of selected membranes in terms of productivity, fouling index and selectivity toward compounds of interest was also evaluated and discussed. An integrated membrane process was proposed to achieve high levels of purification of OMWs and a water fraction which can be discharged in aquatic systems or to be reused in the olive oil extraction process. PMID:23376489

  12. The origins of the domestication of the olive tree.

    PubMed

    Breton, Catherine; Terral, Jean-Frédéric; Pinatel, Christian; Médail, Frédéric; Bonhomme, François; Bervillé, André

    2009-12-01

    The present diversity of the olive (crop) and oleaster (wild) tree was investigated with nuclear and cytoplasm markers. Patterns of diversity of the wild form inferred eleven ancestral populations in the East and the West of the Mediterranean basin. Patterns of diversity for cultivars are less clear, but we showed that cultivars admixed to nine groups that corresponded to oleaster ancestral populations. We inferred that nine domestication events took place in the olive, but these origins were blurred by gene flow from oleaster and by human displacements. These origins of domestication probably reflected different reasons and uses to domesticate the oleaster. PMID:19931842

  13. a Mixed Sensor Array for the Classification of Olive Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Natale, Corrado; Macagnano, Antonella; Mantini, Alessandro; Paolesse, Roberto; Siciliano, Pietro; Taurino, Antonella; Rella, Roberto; D'Amico, Arnaldo

    2000-12-01

    Electronic noses using in the same array different sensor technologies have yet been proposed as a method to increase discrimination performances. In this paper two arrays based on porphyrins coated QMB and sol-gel prepared SnO2 sensors are evaluated, compared and integrated. Olive oil has been considered as a selected case. In case of QMB sensors LSER model has been utilized to predict the sensitivity towards relevant compounds in olive oil headspace. An outer product analysis has been utilized to compare the performances of both arrays.

  14. The role of temperature in the onset of the Olea europaea L. pollen season in southwestern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galán, C.; García-Mozo, H.; Cariñanos, P.; Alcázar, P.; Domínguez-Vilches, E.

    Temperature is one of the main factors affecting the flowering of Mediterranean trees. In the case of Olea europaea L., a low-temperature period prior to bud development is essential to interrupt dormancy. After that, and once a base temperature is reached, the plant accumulates heat until flowering starts. Different methods of obtaining the best-forecast model for the onset date of the O. europaea pollen season, using temperature as the predictive parameter, are proposed in this paper. An 18-year pollen and climatic data series (1982-1999) from Cordoba (Spain) was used to perform the study. First a multiple-regression analysis using 15-day average temperatures from the period prior to flowering time was tested. Second, three heat-summation methods were used, determining the the quantities heat units (HU): accumulated daily mean temperature after deducting a threshold, growing degree-days (GDD): proposed by Snyder [J Agric Meteorol 35:353-358 (1985)] as a measure of physiological time, and accumulated maximum temperature. In the first two, the optimum base temperature selected for heat accumulation was 12.5°C. The multiple-regression equation for 1999 gives a 7-day delay from the observed date. The most accurate results were obtained with the GDD method, with a difference of only 4.7 days between predicted and observed dates. The average heat accumulation expressed as GDD was 209.9°C days. The HU method also gives good results, with no significant statistical differences between predictions and observations.

  15. Olea europaea leaf extract improves the treatment response of GBM stem cells by modulating miRNA expression

    PubMed Central

    Tezcan, Gulcin; Tunca, Berrin; Bekar, Ahmet; Budak, Ferah; Sahin, Saliha; Cecener, Gulsah; Egeli, Unal; Taskapılıoglu, Mevlut Ozgur; Kocaeli, Hasan; Tolunay, Sahsine; Malyer, Hulusi; Demir, Cevdet; Tumen, Gulendam

    2014-01-01

    The stem-like cells of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors (GSCs) are one of the important determinants of recurrence and drug resistance. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the anticancer effect of Olea europaea leaf extract (OLE) on GBM cell lines, the association between OLE and TMZ responses, and the effect of OLE and the OLE-TMZ combination in GSCs and to clarify the molecular mechanism of this effect on the expression of miRNAs related to cell death. The anti-proliferative activity of OLE and the effect of the OLE-TMZ combination were tested in the T98G, U-138MG and U-87MG GBM cell lines using WST-1 assay. The mechanism of cell death was analyzed with Annexin V/FITC and TUNEL assays. The effects of OLE on the expression levels of miR-181b, miR-153, miR-145 and miR-137 and potential mRNA targets were analyzed in GSCs using RT-qPCR. OLE exhibited anti-proliferative effects via apoptosis and necrosis in the GBM cell lines. In addition, OLE significantly induced the expression of miR-153, miR-145, and miR-137 and decreased the expression of the target genes of these miRNAs in GSCs (p < 0.05). OLE causes cell death in GBM cells with different TMZ responses, and this effect is synergistically increased when the cells are treated with a combination of OLE and TMZ. This is the first study to indicate that OLE may interfere with the pluripotency of GSCs by modulating miRNA expression. Further studies are required, but we suggest that OLE may have a potential for advanced therapeutic cancer drug studies in GBM. PMID:25232498

  16. Progressive limb ataxia following inferior olive lesions.

    PubMed

    Horn, K M; Deep, A; Gibson, A R

    2013-11-15

    Cerebellar climbing fibres originate in the inferior olive (IO). Temporary IO inactivation produces movement deficits. Does permanent inactivation produce similar deficits and, if so, do they recover? The excitotoxin, kainic acid, was injected into the rostral IO of three cats. Behaviour was measured during reaching and locomotion. Two cats were injected during the reaching task. Within minutes, grasping became difficult and the trajectories of the reaches showed higher arcing than normally seen. During locomotion, both cats showed head and trunk deviation to the injected side, walking paths curved to the injected side, and the paws were lifted higher than normal. Limbs contralateral to the injections became rigid. Within 1 day, posture had normalized, locomotion was unsteady and high lifting of the paws had reversed to a tendency to drag the dorsum of the paws. Passive body movement produced vestibular signs. Over a few days, locomotion normalized and vestibular signs disappeared. Reach trajectories were normal but grasping deficits persisted. Over the first week, the amplitude of limb lift during reaching and locomotion began to increase. The increase continued over time and, after several months, limb movements became severely ataxic. The effects followed the somatotopy of the rostral IO: a loss of cells in medial rostral IO only affected the forelimb, whereas a loss of cells in medial and lateral IO affected both forelimb and hindlimb. Deficits produced by IO lesions involve multiple mechanisms; some recover rapidly, some appear stable, and some worsen over time. The nature of the progressive deficit suggests a gradual loss of Purkinje cell inhibition on cerebellar nuclear cells. PMID:23027819

  17. Antimicrobial activity of olive oil, vinegar, and various beverages against foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Medina, Eduardo; Romero, Concepción; Brenes, Manuel; De Castro, Antonio

    2007-05-01

    The survival of foodborne pathogens in aqueous extracts of olive oil, virgin olive oil, vinegar, and several beverages was evaluated. Vinegar and aqueous extracts of virgin olive oil showed the strongest bactericidal activity against all strains tested. Red and white wines also killed most strains after 5 min of contact, black and green tea extracts showed weak antimicrobial activity under these conditions, and no effect was observed for the remaining beverages (fruit juices, Coca-Cola, dairy products, coffee, and beer). The phenolic compound content of the aqueous olive oil and virgin olive oil extracts could explain their antibacterial activity, which was also confirmed in mayonnaises and salads used as food models. Virgin olive oil in mayonnaises and salads reduced the counts of inoculated Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes by approximately 3 log CFU/g. Therefore, olive oil could be a hurdle component in certain processed foods and exert a protective effect against foodborne pathogens when contaminated foods are ingested. PMID:17536679

  18. Antithrombotic and Antiatherosclerotic Properties of Olive Oil and Olive Pomace Polar Extracts in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Tsantila, Nektaria; Karantonis, Haralabos C.; Perrea, Despina N.; Theocharis, Stamatios E.; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios G.; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi; Demopoulos, Constantinos A.

    2007-01-01

    Olive oil polar lipid (OOPL) extract has been reported to inhibit atherosclerosis development on rabbits. Olive pomace polar lipid (PPL) extract inhibits PAF activity in vitro and the most potent antagonist has been identified as a glycerylether-sn-2-acetyl glycolipid with common structural characteristics with the respective potent antagonist of OOPL. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PPL on early atherosclerosis development on rabbits and to compare it with the antiatherosclerotic effect of OOPL. OOPL and PPL inhibition potency, towards both PAF action and PAF binding, was tested in vitro on washed rabbit platelets. Consequently, rabbits were divided into three groups (A, B, and C). All groups were fed atherogenic diet for 22 days. Atherogenic diets in groups B and C were enriched with OOPL and PPL, respectively. At the end of the experimental time, rabbits were euthanized and aortic samples were examined histopathologically. OOPL and PPL inhibited PAF-induced aggregation, as well as specific PAF binding, with PPL being more potent. Free and bound PAF levels and PAF-AH activity were significantly elevated at the end of the experimental time. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were also found increased. Groups B and C exhibited significantly increased values of EC50 compared to group A. Histopathological examination revealed that the development of early atherosclerosis lesions in groups B and C were significantly inhibited compared to group A. Significant differences were noted in the early atherosclerosis lesions between groups B and C, thus indicating that PPL exhibit its anti-atherosclerotic activity by blocking PAF receptor. Specific PAF antagonists with similar in vitro and in vivo bioactivity to those that have been previously reported in OOPL exist in PPL. PMID:18253466

  19. Olive Oil and its Potential Effects on Alzheimer's Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, Shan; Zhang, G. P.

    Alzheimer's disease is a neuro-degenerative brain disease that is responsible for affecting the lives of hundreds of thousands of people every year. There has been no evidence to suggest a cure for the disease and the only existing treatments have very low rates of success in trial patients. This is largely due to the fact that the brain is one of the most undiscovered parts of the human body. Brain chemistry is highly complex and responds to its environment in random and radical ways. My research includes testing the reactionary outcomes of combining compounds of olive oil with the 20 basic amino acids. Regions around the world with olive oil based diets show a direct correlation to lower rates of Alzheimer's. Testing few compounds of olive oil with chemicals already found in the brain may yield to a better understanding as to why that is. I took the compounds tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, and oleocanthal, and combined them with the 20 basic amino acids and calculated the total energy of the new molecule. The molecules produced with acceptably low energy values will be the center of further research. These molecules could lead to truly understanding olive oil's effect on the brain, and ultimately, the cure or prevention of Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Olive Banks and the Collective Biography of British Feminism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Gaby

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers Olive Banks' work on charting the history and development of British feminism, and particularly her use of collective biography as a research and analytic tool. It is argued that while this has been seen as the least "fashionable" aspect of her work, it took forward C. Wright Mills' contention for one definition of sociology

  1. Feasibility of growing olives on selected sites along coastal Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five sites along the Texas coastline (Seadrift, Galveston, Brazoria, Santa Fe, and Orange) were evaluated for feasibility of growing olives in these areas. In addition, two non-coastal sites (Carrizo Springs and Weslaco) were also included in the study for comparative purposes. Flowering and fruit ...

  2. Transesterification of Waste Olive Oil by "Candida" Lipase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Xiangping; Vasudevan, Palligarnai T.

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel was produced by transesterification of waste olive oil with methanol and Novozym [R] 435. The effect of the molar ratio of methanol to triolein, mode of methanol addition, reaction temperature, and mixing speed on biodiesel yield was determined. The effect of different acyl acceptors and/or solvents on biodiesel yield was also evaluated.…

  3. 67. Historic American Buildings Survey John Oliver Brostrup, Photographer August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. Historic American Buildings Survey John Oliver Brostrup, Photographer August 12,1936 1:35 P. M. VIEW OF C.C.C. BOYS SCREENING FOR ARTIFACTS. - General John Mason House, Analostan Island or Theodore Roosevelt Island, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. Gold Olive Branch Left on the Moon by Neil Armstrong

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This is the gold replica of an olive branch, the traditional symbol of peace, left on the Moon's surface by Apollo 11 crewmembers. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, placed the small replica (less than half a foot in length) on the Moon. The gesture represented a wish for peace for all mankind.

  5. Olive Banks and the Collective Biography of British Feminism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Gaby

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers Olive Banks' work on charting the history and development of British feminism, and particularly her use of collective biography as a research and analytic tool. It is argued that while this has been seen as the least "fashionable" aspect of her work, it took forward C. Wright Mills' contention for one definition of sociology…

  6. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, WARRIOR RIVER, OLIVER LOCK IN RIGHT BACKGROUND, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, WARRIOR RIVER, OLIVER LOCK IN RIGHT BACKGROUND, GULF MOBILE & OHIO BRIDGE IN MIDDLE GROUND, LURLEEN WALLACE BRIDGE IN FRONT OF GULF MOBILE & OHIO. - Gulf, Mobile & Ohio Railroad Bridge, Spans Black Warrior River between Northport & Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  7. Healthy virgin olive oil: a matter of bitterness.

    PubMed

    Vitaglione, Paola; Savarese, Maria; Paduano, Antonello; Scalfi, Luca; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the pillar fat of Mediterranean diet. It is made from olive fruits and obtained by squeezing olives without any solvent extraction. Respect to the seed oils, an unique polar polyphenol-rich fraction gives VOO a bitter and pungent taste. The recent substantiation by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) of a health claim for VOO polyphenols may represent an efficient stimulus to get the maximum health benefit from one of the most valuable traditional product of Mediterranean countries educating consumers to the relationship between the VOO bitterness and its health effect. Agronomical practices and new processing technology to avoid phenolic oxidation and hydrolysis and to enhance the aromatic components of the VOO have been developed and they can be used to modulate taste and flavor to diversify the products on the market. VOOs having high concentration of phenol compounds are bitter and pungent therefore many people do not consume them, thus loosing the health benefits related to their intake. In this paper, the chemist's and nutritionist's point of view has been considered to address possible strategies to overcome the existing gap between the quality perceived by consumer and that established by expert tasters. Educational campaigns emphasizing the bitter-health link for olive oils should be developed. PMID:24915318

  8. 7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the current U.S. Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives (7 CFR part 52) including the terms size... provided in table I of 7 CFR 52.38: Provided further, That there is no off flavor in any sample unit. Table..., and Certain Other Processed Food Products (part 52 of this title). Application for inspection...

  9. 7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the current U.S. Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives (7 CFR part 52) including the terms size... provided in table I of 7 CFR 52.38: Provided further, That there is no off flavor in any sample unit. Table..., and Certain Other Processed Food Products (part 52 of this title). Application for inspection...

  10. Control of olive oil adulteration with copper-chlorophyll derivatives.

    PubMed

    Roca, María; Gallardo-Guerrero, Lourdes; Mínguez-Mosquera, María Isabel; Gandul Rojas, Beatriz

    2010-01-13

    The present work proposes an analytical method able to detect in an adulterated olive oil sample the addition of the copper complexes of chlorophylls (E 141i). The method consists of a pigment extraction in liquid phase and subsequent analysis by HPLC-DAD. The profile of chlorophyll pigments of an olive oil is determined essentially by its content in pheophytins (a and b), but in no case any copper derivative. Different samples of colorant E 141i have been analyzed, the natural coloring additives used to adulterate vegetable oils. The 99.59+/-0.52% of the chlorophyll pigments present in the different samples of E 141i colorant are not those of an olive oil (more than 75% are cupro-derivatives). Thus, the simple detection of one of the compounds in an olive oil indicates adulteration. The major chlorophyll derivative in all the E 141i colorants samples is Cu-pyropheophytin a and its limit of detection (LOD) defined at a signal-to-noise ratio of about 3 was 6.58 ng/g. PMID:20000773

  11. Transesterification of Waste Olive Oil by "Candida" Lipase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Xiangping; Vasudevan, Palligarnai T.

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel was produced by transesterification of waste olive oil with methanol and Novozym [R] 435. The effect of the molar ratio of methanol to triolein, mode of methanol addition, reaction temperature, and mixing speed on biodiesel yield was determined. The effect of different acyl acceptors and/or solvents on biodiesel yield was also evaluated.

  12. Effect of irrigation on quality attributes of olive oil.

    PubMed

    Stefanoudaki, Evagelia; Williams, Mark; Chartzoulakis, Kostas; Harwood, John

    2009-08-12

    Two irrigation treatments were applied to olive trees of the major commercial Cretan variety cv. Koroneiki, (a) irrigation with 0.4 evaporation class "A" pan and (b) rain-feed only, in two successive crop years to assess the effect of irrigation on olive oil quality. Olive fruits were harvested at their semiblack maturity stage. Data obtained indicated that irrigation increased fruit weight and oil content, but the standard quality indices (free fatty acids, peroxide value, K(232), and K(270)) of the oil were not affected significantly. However, irrigation affected some aspects of olive oil composition. There were changes in the proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), triacylglycerol molecular species, sterols, and aliphatic alcohols. Furthermore, the concentrations of the dialdehydic form of elenolic acid linked to 3,4-DHPEA (3,4-DHPEA-EDA) and the isomer of oleuropeine aglycon (3,4-DHPEA-EA) were higher in oils from non-irrigated trees. Tocopherol and total volatiles were higher in the oil produced from the non-irrigated trees. Such oil was graded more pungent when compared to oils produced from fruits of irrigated trees, although both oils were graded satisfactory by consumers. PMID:19722583

  13. Presence of toxic microbial metabolites in table olives

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Pradas, Eduardo; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé

    2015-01-01

    Table olives have an enormous importance in the diet and culture of many Mediterranean countries. Albeit there are different ways to produce this fermented vegetable, brining/salting, fermentation, and acidification are common practices for all of them. Preservation methods such as pasteurization or sterilization are frequently used to guarantee the stability and safety of fermented olives. However, final products are not always subjected to a heat treatment. Thus, microbiota is not always removed and appropriate levels of acidity and salt must be obtained before commercialization. Despite the physicochemical conditions not being favorable for the growth of foodborne pathogens, some illness outbreaks have been reported in the literature. Street markets, inappropriate manipulation and storage conditions were the origin of many of the samples in which foodborne pathogens or their metabolites were detected. Many authors have also studied the survival of pathogens in different styles of table olive elaboration, finding in general that olive environment is not appropriate for their presence. Inhibitory compounds such as polyphenols, low availability of nutrients, high salt content, low pH levels, bacteriocins, or the addition of preservatives act as hurdles against undesirable microorganisms, which contribute to obtaining a safe and good quality product. PMID:26379648

  14. 7 CFR 52.3752 - Types of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... treated and oxidized in processing to produce a typical dark brown to black color. (b) Green-ripe type. “Green-ripe type” olives are those which have not been oxidized in processing; which range in color from yellow-green; green-yellow or other greenish casts; and which may be mottled....

  15. Presence of toxic microbial metabolites in table olives.

    PubMed

    Medina-Pradas, Eduardo; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé

    2015-01-01

    Table olives have an enormous importance in the diet and culture of many Mediterranean countries. Albeit there are different ways to produce this fermented vegetable, brining/salting, fermentation, and acidification are common practices for all of them. Preservation methods such as pasteurization or sterilization are frequently used to guarantee the stability and safety of fermented olives. However, final products are not always subjected to a heat treatment. Thus, microbiota is not always removed and appropriate levels of acidity and salt must be obtained before commercialization. Despite the physicochemical conditions not being favorable for the growth of foodborne pathogens, some illness outbreaks have been reported in the literature. Street markets, inappropriate manipulation and storage conditions were the origin of many of the samples in which foodborne pathogens or their metabolites were detected. Many authors have also studied the survival of pathogens in different styles of table olive elaboration, finding in general that olive environment is not appropriate for their presence. Inhibitory compounds such as polyphenols, low availability of nutrients, high salt content, low pH levels, bacteriocins, or the addition of preservatives act as hurdles against undesirable microorganisms, which contribute to obtaining a safe and good quality product. PMID:26379648

  16. Yeasts in table olive processing: desirable or spoilage microorganisms?

    PubMed

    Arroyo-López, F N; Romero-Gil, V; Bautista-Gallego, J; Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Jiménez-Díaz, R; García-García, P; Querol, A; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2012-11-01

    Yeasts are unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms isolated from many foods, and are commonly found in table olive processing where they can play a double role. On one hand, these microorganisms can produce spoilage of fruits due to the production of bad odours and flavours, the accumulation of CO(2) leading to swollen containers, the clouding of brines, the softening of fruits and the degradation of lactic acid, which is especially harmful during table olive storage and packaging. But on the other hand, fortunately, yeasts also possess desirable biochemical activities (lipase, esterase, β-glucosidase, catalase, production of killer factors, etc.) with important technological applications in this fermented vegetable. Recently, the probiotic potential of olive yeasts has begun to be evaluated because many species are able to resist the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and show beneficial effects on the host. In this way, yeasts may improve consumers' health by decreasing cholesterol levels, inhibiting pathogens, degrading non assimilated compounds, producing antioxidants and vitamins, adhering to intestinal cells or by maintaining epithelial barrier integrity. Many yeast species, usually also found in table olive processing, such as Wicherhamomyces anomalus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranifaciens and Kluyveromyces lactis, have been reported to exhibit some of these properties. Thus, the selection of the most appropriate strains to be used as starters, alone or in combination with lactic acid bacteria, is a promising research line to develop in a near future which might improve the added value of the commercialized product. PMID:23141644

  17. 75 FR 22211 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... concerning this action was published in the Federal Register on March 3, 2010 (75 FR 9536). Copies of the... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment...

  18. 77 FR 51684 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... June 5, 2012 (77 FR 33104). Copies of the proposed rule were also mailed or sent via facsimile to all... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment...

  19. Year clustering analysis for modelling olive flowering phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oteros, J.; García-Mozo, H.; Hervás-Martínez, C.; Galán, C.

    2013-07-01

    It is now widely accepted that weather conditions occurring several months prior to the onset of flowering have a major influence on various aspects of olive reproductive phenology, including flowering intensity. Given the variable characteristics of the Mediterranean climate, we analyse its influence on the registered variations in olive flowering intensity in southern Spain, and relate them to previous climatic parameters using a year-clustering approach, as a first step towards an olive flowering phenology model adapted to different year categories. Phenological data from Cordoba province (Southern Spain) for a 30-year period (1982-2011) were analysed. Meteorological and phenological data were first subjected to both hierarchical and "K-means" clustering analysis, which yielded four year-categories. For this classification purpose, three different models were tested: (1) discriminant analysis; (2) decision-tree analysis; and (3) neural network analysis. Comparison of the results showed that the neural-networks model was the most effective, classifying four different year categories with clearly distinct weather features. Flowering-intensity models were constructed for each year category using the partial least squares regression method. These category-specific models proved to be more effective than general models. They are better suited to the variability of the Mediterranean climate, due to the different response of plants to the same environmental stimuli depending on the previous weather conditions in any given year. The present detailed analysis of the influence of weather patterns of different years on olive phenology will help us to understand the short-term effects of climate change on olive crop in the Mediterranean area that is highly affected by it.

  20. Detoxification of olive mill wastewater using superabsorbent polymers.

    PubMed

    Davies, L C; Novais, J M; Martins-Dias, S

    2004-01-01

    The detoxification of agro-industrial effluents using superabsorbent polymers is a new and innovative process. Olive mill wastewater constitutes a major environmental problem in Mediterranean countries due to the large volumes generated, the seasonality of the industry, and the high content of polyphenols and organic matter. The application of superabsorbent polymers allows olive mill wastewater to be used as a fertilizer, as it is immobilized, increasing the biological activity that decreases its phytotoxicity, thus making its water, organic matter and mineral content usable for plant nutrition. Various parameters that characterise olive mill wastewater were evaluated after absorption in 2 different superabsorbent polymers (SAP1 and SAP2). The organic matter was equally distributed in both phases, while there was a concentration of protein and sodium in solution. The K:Na ratio decreased from 70:1 to 2:1. The polyphenol desorption from the gel into solution was found to follow Fick's law. The mass transfer coefficients were 0.147 min(-1) and 0.0085 min(-1) for SAP1 and SAP2, respectively. Phytotoxicity tests were carried out with SAP2. Olive mill wastewater in SAP2 with polyphenol concentrations up to 200 mg l(-1) revealed no phytotoxicity, and even stimulated Lepidium sativum growth, while olive mill wastewater without superabsorbent polymer revealed growth inhibition for all concentrations tested. Caffeic acid degradation by the immobilised biomass followed zero order kinetics. Degradation constants of 0.087 mg l(-1) min(-1) gSAP2(-1) and 1.156 mg l(-1) min(-1) gSAP2(-1) were found. Fungi that developed in the plant growth medium were identified as Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. PMID:15027653