Science.gov

Sample records for on-farm generated poultry

  1. On-farm evaluation of aluminum sulfate (alum) as a poultry litter amendment: effects on litter properties.

    PubMed

    Sims, J T; Luka-McCafferty, N J

    2002-01-01

    Aluminum sulfate [alum; Al2(SO4)3] amendment of poultry litters has been suggested as a best management practice to help reduce the potential environmental effects of poultry production. Past research has shown that alum treatment reduced NH3 emissions from litters, decreased the loss in runoff of P and trace metals from litter-amended soils, improved poultry health, and reduced the costs of poultry production. We conducted a large scale, "on-farm" evaluation of alum as a poultry (broiler) litter amendment on the Delmarva peninsula to determine the effect of alum on (i) litter properties and elemental composition and (ii) the solubility of several elements in litter that are of particular concern for water quality (Al, As, Cu, P, and Zn). Alum was applied over a 16-mo period to 97 poultry houses on working poultry farms; 97 houses on other farms served as controls (no alum). Litter samples were analyzed initially and after approximately seven alum applications. We found that alum decreased litter pH and the water solubility of P, As, Cu, and Zn. Alum-treated houses also had higher litter total N, NH4-N, and total S concentrations and thus a greater overall fertilizer value than litters from the control houses. Higher litter NH4-N values also suggest that alum reduced NH3 losses from litters. Thus, alum appears to have promise as a best management practice (BMP) for poultry production. Future research should focus on the long-term transformations of P, Al, As, Cu, and Zn in soils amended with alum-treated litters. PMID:12469858

  2. Review of gaseous methods of killing poultry on-farm for disease control purposes.

    PubMed

    Raj, A B M; Sandilands, V; Sparks, N H C

    2006-08-19

    Poultry may need to be culled in the event of an outbreak of disease. Gassing has advantages over mechanical and electrical methods or overdoses of anaesthetics because large numbers can be killed simultaneously and little or no handling of the birds is required. However, gaseous killing methods may have welfare implications for the birds, which may find various gases more or less aversive, may undergo respiratory distress and/or experience convulsions, and may remain conscious for a considerable time before they die. In addition, the gases used may present health and safety risks to human operators, and be difficult to supply and deliver. PMID:16921011

  3. Pig, cattle and poultry farmers with a known interest in research have comparable perspectives on disease prevention and on-farm biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Laanen, M; Maes, D; Hendriksen, C; Gelaude, P; De Vliegher, S; Rosseel, Y; Dewulf, J

    2014-07-01

    To motivate farmers for the implementation of preventive measures for animal health, it is crucial to understand their perspective on disease prevention and on-farm biosecurity. To study this, an online questionnaire was conducted in which 218 pig, 279 cattle and 61 poultry farmers in Flanders, Belgium have participated. The participants are farmers known for their interest in research and are therefore probably better informed on these topics. Although approximately half of the respondents in all three sectors are convinced of the positive effect of biosecurity on reduction of diseases at their farms, the farmers estimated their own level of knowledge on biosecurity as being rather low. Less than 10% of the farmers in all three sectors were able to give a correct explanation of the term 'biosecurity', even though the participants are likely to be better informed than the average farmer. In general, pig, cattle and poultry farmers share comparable ideas on disease prevention and biosecurity. Cattle farmers perceived animal welfare as more important. Pig farmers indicated stability of the farm more important than farmers in the other sectors. Farmers indicate that little to no barriers are present for taking preventive measures. The often observed absence or limited implementation of biosecurity and disease prevention measures is therefore likely due to insufficient motivation. Across the species, farmers indicate that insufficient information on costs and especially revenues is a major holdback for investments in preventive measures. Not surprisingly, more information on the economic benefits of measures is indicated as the primary interest for taking measures in disease prevention. The veterinarian is seen as the main source of information concerning disease prevention and biosecurity, so it is important that veterinarians have sufficient knowledge on these topics and are able to communicate this to farmers. Especially since farmers indicate that receiving more

  4. Microbiological study of methane generation from poultry wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.J.H.

    1982-01-01

    Studies have been conducted to investigate the biological potential of methane generation from two types of poultry waste: broiler chicken litter and laying hen manure. Through the systematic study, thermophilic bacterial cultures were initiated and established to produce methane at their highest rates. It was found that different kinds of waste with different chemical compositions required different operational conditions to reach the individual maximal potential. The microbiology of the methane-producing bacteria in the poultry waste-based anaerobic digester was studied. An enriched thermophilic methane-producing culture was isolated. The methanogenic culture can use acetate, ethanol, methylamine, propionate, and H/sub 2/-CO/sub 2/, but not formate and methanol, for growth and methanogenesis. The methanogenic culture was found to be a mixed culture from which a thermophilic Methanococcus sp. and an unidentified rod-shaped microorganism were isolated. The two organisms produced methane symbiotically in the acetate medium.

  5. On-farm study of human contact networks to document potential pathways for avian influenza transmission between commercial poultry farms in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Burns, T E; Guerin, M T; Kelton, D; Ribble, C; Stephen, C

    2011-12-01

    Human movements associated with poultry farming create contact networks that might facilitate transmission of avian influenza (AI) between farms during outbreaks. In Canada, no information is available about how these networks connect poultry farms. The purpose of this study was to document human contacts between commercial poultry farms in Ontario, Canada, to learn how AI might be transmitted during outbreaks. We used face-to-face interviews with people entering the farm biosecurity perimeter on four layer, one turkey and three broiler breeder poultry farms in Ontario to collect information on between-farm contacts and biosecurity practices. Over a four-day study period on each farm, a median of 10.5 people entered the farm biosecurity perimeter (range 2-31). Ninety-six per cent (111/118) of people consented to be interviewed. Of these, fifty-three per cent (59/111) had contact with one or more (median 2, degree range 1-14) other poultry farms within 72 h. A median of 25 (range 7-65) human contacts linked study farms to other poultry farms. The mean distance of between-farm contacts was 53 km. Eighty-six per cent of people who answered the biosecurity questions (94/109) reported using one or more biosecurity practices. However, on 7/8 farms, at least one person reported that they did not use any biosecurity practices. Fifty per cent of social visitors used biosecurity, whereas 96% of all other people used biosecurity. Ninety-two per cent of people that entered the poultry barns (46/50) used one or more biosecurity practices, whereas 81% of people (48/59) that did not enter the poultry barns used one or more biosecurity practices. Because our study documented farm visitors who did not use any biosecurity practices and moved between commercial poultry farms, we suggest that rapid trace-out of human movements is as important as containment zoning to limiting disease spread during an outbreak of highly pathogenic AI in Ontario. PMID:21624106

  6. Biological potential of methane generation from poultry wastes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, J.C.H.

    1981-06-20

    Anaerobic digestion of animal waste is an attractive process because it degrades organic matter for pollution control and simultaneously produces methane gas for an alternate energy source. The biological potentials of methane generation from the two major kinds of poultry wastes, the litter of broiler chickens and the manure of laying hens have been systematically investigated. Using these wastes to prepare media for bacterial growth, thermophilic anaerobic cultures were initiated by inoculations of bacteria from different natural environments. After a period of acclimation, they were then challenged with various combinations of operational variables such as retention times, volatile solid concentrations, temperatures, and pH values. The most efficient culture and conditions were selected based on the highest gas rate. The results have demonstrated that the broiler litter is a substrate of very low potential. This seems due to the high content of wood shavings resistant to bacterial degradation. On the other hand, the layer manure is a high-potential substrate, which supported both a high methane rate (3.5 1/1/day) and a high methane yield (250 1/kg VS) under the selected conditions. Compared with other types of animal wastes, the manure of laying hens is one of the best substrates for methane production. Based on the data obtained in the laboratory, an anaerobic digester is under construction on the University research farm. A large digester will help answer other questions such as energy balance, economic evaluation and engineering design.

  7. 29 CFR 780.212 - Hatchery employees working on farms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hatchery employees working on farms. 780.212 Section 780... farms. The work of hatchery employees in connection with the maintenance of the quality of the poultry flock on farms is also part of the “raising” operations. This includes testing for disese,...

  8. 29 CFR 780.212 - Hatchery employees working on farms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hatchery employees working on farms. 780.212 Section 780... farms. The work of hatchery employees in connection with the maintenance of the quality of the poultry flock on farms is also part of the “raising” operations. This includes testing for disese,...

  9. 29 CFR 780.212 - Hatchery employees working on farms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hatchery employees working on farms. 780.212 Section 780... farms. The work of hatchery employees in connection with the maintenance of the quality of the poultry flock on farms is also part of the “raising” operations. This includes testing for disese,...

  10. 29 CFR 780.212 - Hatchery employees working on farms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hatchery employees working on farms. 780.212 Section 780... farms. The work of hatchery employees in connection with the maintenance of the quality of the poultry flock on farms is also part of the “raising” operations. This includes testing for disese,...

  11. 29 CFR 780.212 - Hatchery employees working on farms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hatchery employees working on farms. 780.212 Section 780... farms. The work of hatchery employees in connection with the maintenance of the quality of the poultry flock on farms is also part of the “raising” operations. This includes testing for disese,...

  12. Demonstration of a Small Modular BioPower System Using Poultry Litter

    SciTech Connect

    John P. Reardon; Art Lilley; Jim Wimberly; Kingsbury Browne; Kelly Beard; Jack Avens

    2002-05-22

    The purpose of this project was to assess poultry grower residue, or litter (manure plus absorbent biomass), as a fuel source for Community Power Corporation's small modular biopower system (SMB). A second objective was to assess the poultry industry to identify potential ''on-site'' applications of the SMB system using poultry litter residue as a fuel source, and to adapt CPC's existing SMB to generate electricity and heat from the poultry litter biomass fuel. Bench-scale testing and pilot testing were used to gain design information for the SMB retrofit. System design approach for the Phase II application of the SMB was the goal of Phase I testing. Cost estimates for an onsite poultry litter SMB were prepared. Finally, a market estimate was prepared for implementation of the on-farm SMB using poultry litter.

  13. Serotypes of Salmonella enterica Present in the Internal Organs of Mice Caught On-farm From 1995 – 1998.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : Salmonella enterica is a persistent and pervasive pathogen that impacts the safety of the food supply, especially in regards to poultry and poultry products. The house mouse Mus musculus is a recognized risk factor for introduction on-farm. More information is needed about Salmonella serotypes tha...

  14. On-Farm Small-Scale Waste Energy Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    2006-08-01

    This project is composed of three tasks: development of feedstock pocessing, handling, storage cost estimates, gasifier system development, and on-farm testing of the resulting gasification and power generation system.

  15. Salmonella sampling and recovery from on farm litter to fully processed carcasses – ability to detect salmonella vs. “salmonella-free”

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry are sampled often for Salmonella during growout on the farm and throughout the processing plant. While on farm sampling is not currently a regulatory requirement it can be useful in determining Salmonella status of each flock. On farm sampling can include varying types of both environmental ...

  16. Poultry Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheok, Adrian David

    Poultry are one of the most badly treated animals in the modern world. It has been shown that they have high levels of both cognition and feelings, and as a result there has been a recent trend of promoting poultry welfare. There is also a tradition of keeping poultry as pets in some parts of the world. However, in modern cities and societies, it is often difficult to maintain contact with pets, particularly for office workers. We propose and describe a novel cybernetics system to use mobile and Internet technology to improve human-pet interaction. It can also be used for people who are allergic to touching animals and thus cannot stroke them directly. This interaction encompasses both visualization and tactile sensation of real objects.

  17. Metagenomics and the poultry gut: using the next generation of nucleic acid sequencing to identify enteric viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteric disease syndromes such as Poult Enteritis Complex (PEC) in young turkeys and Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS) in chickens are a continual economic burden for poultry producers. The only reliable method to reproduce these syndromes in experimental birds is oral inoculation with crude preparat...

  18. Novel Approaches for Campylobacter Control in Poultry

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter is the most common bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis in the United States and many industrialized countries. Poultry, particularly chickens, is considered a major source of human campylobacteriosis. Thus, on-farm control of Campylobacter in poultry would reduce the risk of human exposure to this pathogen and have a significant impact on food safety and public health. To date, three general strategies have been proposed to control Campylobacter in poultry at the farm level: (1) reduction of environmental exposure (biosecurity measures), (2) an increase in poultry's host resistance to reduce Campylobacter carriage in the gut (e.g., competitive exclusion, vaccination, and host genetics selection), and (3) the use of antimicrobial alternatives to reduce and even eliminate Campylobacter from colonized chickens (e.g., bacteriophage therapy and bacteriocin treatment). Except for biosecurity measures, the other intervention approaches are currently not commercially available and are still under development. This review is focused on two promising strategies—vaccination and bacteriocin treatment. In particular, we extensively review recent research aimed at discovering and characterizing potent anti-Campylobacter bacteriocins to reduce Campylobacter load at the primary production level in poultry. PMID:19425824

  19. A critical review of biosecurity-based interventions and strategies to reduce Campylobacter on the poultry farm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The control of Campylobacter colonization in poultry flocks is an important public health strategy to control human campylobacteriosis. A critical review of potential controls for Campylobacter in poultry on farms was undertaken using a systematic approach. Our question was “What are the available a...

  20. Poultry litter moisture management to reduce ammonia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia generation in poultry houses results from the natural breakdown of litter (bedding material mixed with deposits of feces, feathers, spilled feed and water). Good management practices can reduce ammonia concentrations in poultry houses. This factsheet relates findings from a recent publicat...

  1. Economic epidemiology of avian influenza on smallholder poultry farms☆

    PubMed Central

    Boni, Maciej F.; Galvani, Alison P.; Wickelgren, Abraham L.; Malani, Anup

    2013-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is often controlled through culling of poultry. Compensating farmers for culled chickens or ducks facilitates effective culling and control of HPAI. However, ensuing price shifts can create incentives that alter the disease dynamics of HPAI. Farmers control certain aspects of the dynamics by setting a farm size, implementing infection control measures, and determining the age at which poultry are sent to market. Their decisions can be influenced by the market price of poultry which can, in turn, be set by policy makers during an HPAI outbreak. Here, we integrate these economic considerations into an epidemiological model in which epidemiological parameters are determined by an outside agent (the farmer) to maximize profit from poultry sales. Our model exhibits a diversity of behaviors which are sensitive to (i) the ability to identify infected poultry, (ii) the average price of infected poultry, (iii) the basic reproductive number of avian influenza, (iv) the effect of culling on the market price of poultry, (v) the effect of market price on farm size, and (vi) the effect of poultry density on disease transmission. We find that under certain market and epidemiological conditions, culling can increase farm size and the total number of HPAI infections. Our model helps to inform the optimization of public health outcomes that best weigh the balance between public health risk and beneficial economic outcomes for farmers. PMID:24161559

  2. Xanthophylls in Poultry Feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breithaupt, Diemar R.

    Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).

  3. On-farm energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Nagelvoort, B.C.

    1981-01-01

    Manufacture of biogas by manure fermentation, use of digested solids as bedding material for cows and calves, and the use of liquids containing 85% nutrients present in the digested manure as fertilizer are reported. The digester system provides electricity for the entire farm and milk-bottling facilities, an average of approximately 100 kW/h is being produced at an overall engine-generator efficiency of approximately 25%. From the manure of approximately 800 cows more than 60,000 cu.ft gas is obtained at a retention period of approximately 22 days.

  4. Detecting parent of origin and dominant QTL in a two-generation commercial poultry pedigree using variance component methodology

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Suzanne J; Pong-Wong, Ricardo; Haley, Christopher S; Knott, Sara A; De Koning, Dirk-Jan

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Variance component QTL methodology was used to analyse three candidate regions on chicken chromosomes 1, 4 and 5 for dominant and parent-of-origin QTL effects. Data were available for bodyweight and conformation score measured at 40 days from a two-generation commercial broiler dam line. One hundred dams were nested in 46 sires with phenotypes and genotypes on 2708 offspring. Linear models were constructed to simultaneously estimate fixed, polygenic and QTL effects. Different genetic models were compared using likelihood ratio test statistics derived from the comparison of full with reduced or null models. Empirical thresholds were derived by permutation analysis. Results Dominant QTL were found for bodyweight on chicken chromosome 4 and for bodyweight and conformation score on chicken chromosome 5. Suggestive evidence for a maternally expressed QTL for bodyweight and conformation score was found on chromosome 1 in a region corresponding to orthologous imprinted regions in the human and mouse. Conclusion Initial results suggest that variance component analysis can be applied within commercial populations for the direct detection of segregating dominant and parent of origin effects. PMID:19284678

  5. Engineering and economic feasibility of using poultry litter as a fuel to generate electric power at Maryland`s Eastern Correctional Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Estomin, S.L.; Walters, G.; Prasad, A.; Ross, J.

    1998-02-16

    This report presents an analysis of the engineering, environmental, and economic feasibility of the Eastern Correctional Institute (ECI) meeting its electric power and thermal requirements by relying on poultry litter as a fuel. In addition to satisfying all or a portion of the utility requirements of ECI, a maximum/medium security prison located in Princess Anne, Maryland, the use of poultry litter as a fuel would reduce the amount of poultry waste currently used on the Eastern Shore as fertilizer. Based on the engineering and environmental assessments conducted, three alternative scenarios to satisfy ECI`s electric power supply and thermal requirements using poutlry litter as a fuel were developed. For all scenarios, as well as a base case defined by current operations at ECI, 20-year life-cycle costs were estimated based on projections of usage, capital costs, fuel costs, labor costs, and other relevant factors.

  6. Artificial insemination in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial insemination is a relative simple yet powerful tool geneticists can employ for the propagation of economically important traits in livestock and poultry. In this chapter, we address the fundamental methods of the artificial insemination of poultry, including semen collection, semen evalu...

  7. Repeated Poultry Litter Application Builds Cotton Soil Productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is a bulky mix of mainly chicken manure and bedding materials. It is generated in huge amounts on a continuous basis in the Mid South and southeastern US. This necessitates yearly application to crops as a way of managing the constant supply. Manures including poultry litter applied ...

  8. On-farm agro-economic effects of fertilizing cropland with poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As animal feeding operations increase in size, public and regulatory pressure is being exerted on the animal industry to develop and implement appropriate by-product utilization practices. One such practice is offsite application of litter and manure as fertilizer for cultivated crop production. How...

  9. On-farm agro-economic effects of fertilizing cropland with poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As animal feeding operations increase in size, public and regulatory pressure is being exerted on the animal industry to develop and implement appropriate uses for the wastes produced. One option is applying the litter and manure waste as fertilizer for cultivated crop production. However, this prac...

  10. Poultry Plant Noise Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A demonstration conducted last winter at the Tip Top Poultry Plant intended to show poultry plant managers from all over the U.S. potential solutions to the problem of plant noise. Plastic covers used over sound absorbing materials need to meet cleanability requirements, high- pressure water cleaning and other harsh maintenance procedures peculiar to the poultry processing industry. For the demonstration, Fiber Flex, Inc. manufactured and donated 750 noise panels; Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation donated the fiberglas cores; and the cover material was purchased from Howe and Bainbridge. The Engineering Experiment Station (EES) conducted before and after noise surveys and is evaluating the effect of noise reduction on turnover and productivity in the demonstration plant. EES plans to conduct a noise abatement workshop and update a handbook to help poultry processors with noise problems. EES study and demonstration may be applicable to other food processing plants where similar sanitary constraints exist.

  11. Poultry Industry Energy Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The poultry industry, a multi-billion dollar business in the United States, uses great amounts of energy in such operations as broiler growing, feed manufacturing, poultry processing and packing. Higher costs and limited supply of fuels common to the industry are predicted, so poultry producers are seeking ways to reduce energy expenditure. NASA is providing assistance to Delmarva Poultry Industry, Inc., an association of some 4,000 growers and suppliers in one of the nation's largest poultry production areas. Delmarva is the East Coast peninsula that includes Delaware and parts of Maryland and Virginia. The upper right photo shows a weather station in the Delmarva area (wind indicator on the pole, other instruments in the elevated box). The station is located at the University of Maryland's Broiler Sub-station, Salisbury; Maryland, where the university conducts research on poultry production and processing. The sub-station is investigating ways of conserving energy in broiler production and also exploring the potential of solar collectors as an alternative energy source. For these studies, it is essential that researchers have continuous data on temperature, pressure, wind speed and direction, solar intensity and cloud cover. Equipment to acquire such data was loaned and installed by NASA's Wallops Flight Center, Wallops Island, Virginia.

  12. On-farm energy production: an idea whose time has come

    SciTech Connect

    Sheaffer, J.

    1981-01-01

    Benefits from fermentation of agricultural wastes, such as biogas manufacturing, alcohol produced by waste heat from engine-generator, bedding/soil amendment/refeed value of solid effluent, fertilizer value of liquid effluent, pollution control, and reduction in weight to be taken to the field are discussed. The technical and financial problems encountered with on-farm energy production are described.

  13. Economics of on-farm sunflower processing

    SciTech Connect

    Helgeson, D.L.; Schaffner, L.W.

    1982-01-01

    Sunflower oil is being researched as an extender or substitute for diesel fuel. Sunflower seed as a high oil content and an acre will produce about 60 gallons. Each Btu used to produce the seed and process sunflower oil will return about 5.78 Btu's. The price relationship per Btu of diesel to sunflower oil was 1:4.00 in 1979. This ratio declined to 1:1.80 in 1981. The on-farm processing cost for 4800 gallons varied from $2.82 to $4.33 per gallon for three press sizes analyzed. Operating these presses 300 days annually the cost per gallon varied from $1.74 to $2.99. 1 figure, 8 tables.

  14. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. 94.26 Section 94.26 Animals and... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. Argentina and the Mexican States... Newcastle disease (END), supplement their meat supply by the importation of fresh (chilled or...

  15. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. 94.26 Section 94.26 Animals and... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. Argentina and the Mexican States... Newcastle disease (END), supplement their meat supply by the importation of fresh (chilled or...

  16. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. 94.26 Section 94.26 Animals and... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. Argentina and the Mexican States... Newcastle disease (END), supplement their meat supply by the importation of fresh (chilled or...

  17. 9 CFR 94.26 - Restrictions on importation of live poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. 94.26 Section 94.26 Animals and... poultry, poultry meat, and other poultry products from specified regions. Argentina and the Mexican States... Newcastle disease (END), supplement their meat supply by the importation of fresh (chilled or...

  18. On-farm Production and Utilization of AM Fungus Inoculum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On-farm production of arbuscular mycorrhizal [AM] fungus inoculum can make the benefits to crop growth and yield of inoculation with AM fungi available to more farmers by reducing costs. This article details the step by step procedure and management decisions that are needed for the on-farm product...

  19. TESTING AND EVALUATION OF ON-FARM ALCOHOL PRODUCTION FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol is the most important of biomass derived fuels in the short term. The bulk of the production will come from large (20 to 600M gallons/year) units with the remainder being produced on-farm in small (less than 6,000 gallons/year) units. The on-farm production of alcohol pre...

  20. Conducting On-Farm Animal Research: Procedures & Economic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Pervaiz; Knipscheer, Hendrik C.

    This book is intended to give animal scientists elementary tools to perform on-farm livestock analysis and to provide crop-oriented farming systems researchers with methods for conducting animal research. Chapter 1 describes farming systems research as a systems approach to on-farm animal research. Chapter 2 outlines some important…

  1. Aspergillus fumigatus in Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Arné, Pascal; Thierry, Simon; Wang, Dongying; Deville, Manjula; Le Loc'h, Guillaume; Desoutter, Anaïs; Féménia, Françoise; Nieguitsila, Adélaïde; Huang, Weiyi; Chermette, René; Guillot, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus remains a major respiratory pathogen in birds. In poultry, infection by A. fumigatus may induce significant economic losses particularly in turkey production. A. fumigatus develops and sporulates easily in poor quality bedding or contaminated feedstuffs in indoor farm environments. Inadequate ventilation and dusty conditions increase the risk of bird exposure to aerosolized spores. Acute cases are seen in young animals following inhalation of spores, causing high morbidity and mortality. The chronic form affects older birds and looks more sporadic. The respiratory tract is the primary site of A. fumigatus development leading to severe respiratory distress and associated granulomatous airsacculitis and pneumonia. Treatments for infected poultry are nonexistent; therefore, prevention is the only way to protect poultry. Development of avian models of aspergillosis may improve our understanding of its pathogenesis, which remains poorly understood. PMID:21826144

  2. Prevalence of vancomycin resistant enterococci on poultry farms established after the ban of avoparcin.

    PubMed

    Sørum, Marit; Holstad, Gudmund; Lillehaug, Atle; Kruse, Hilde

    2004-12-01

    Fecal samples from poultry on farms established after the ban of avoparcin (study farms) and from poultry on farms previously exposed to avoparcin (control farms) were examined for the presence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). The samples were collected during the autumn and winter of 2001-2002. One isolate from each positive sample was selected, identified to species level, and examined for the presence of the vanA gene. The concentration of VRE and generic enterococci in the samples were also determined. In addition, the susceptibility to the ionophoric coccidiostat narasin was examined in a number of enterococcal isolates from poultry and in some enterococci of porcine origin that had not been exposed to narasin. VanA-type VRE was detected in samples from 64% of the study farms and 96% of the control farms. However, the concentration of VRE in the control samples was about six times larger than in the samples from the study farms. The minimum inhibitory concentration values for narasin differed between the poultry (1-4 mg/liter) and the porcine (0.25-0.5 mg/liter) isolates, indicating a decreased susceptibility towards narasin among enterococci from poultry. PMID:15666863

  3. Lower Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Enterococci on U.S. Conventional Poultry Farms that Transitioned to Organic Practices

    PubMed Central

    Hulet, R. Michael; Zhang, Guangyu; McDermott, Patrick; Kinney, Erinna L.; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Joseph, Sam W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: In U.S. conventional poultry production, antimicrobials are used for therapeutic, prophylactic, and nontherapeutic purposes. Researchers have shown that this can select for antibiotic-resistant commensal and pathogenic bacteria on poultry farms and in poultry-derived products. However, no U.S. studies have investigated on-farm changes in resistance as conventional poultry farms transition to organic practices and cease using antibiotics. Objective: We investigated the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus on U.S. conventional poultry farms that transitioned to organic practices. Methods: Poultry litter, feed, and water samples were collected from 10 conventional and 10 newly organic poultry houses in 2008 and tested for Enterococcus. Enterococcus (n = 259) was identified using the Vitek® 2 Compact System and tested for susceptibility to 17 antimicrobials using the Sensititre™ microbroth dilution system. Data were analyzed using SAS software (version 9.2), and statistical associations were derived based on generalized linear mixed models. Results: Litter, feed, and water samples were Enterococcus positive. The percentages of resistant Enterococcus faecalis and resistant Enterococcus faecium were significantly lower (p < 0.05) among isolates from newly organic versus conventional poultry houses for two (erythromycin and tylosin) and five (ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, penicillin, and tetracycline) antimicrobials, respectively. Forty-two percent of E. faecalis isolates from conventional poultry houses were multidrug resistant (MDR; resistant to three or more antimicrobial classes), compared with 10% of isolates from newly organic poultry houses (p = 0.02); 84% of E. faecium isolates from conventional poultry houses were MDR, compared with 17% of isolates from newly organic poultry houses (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the voluntary removal of antibiotics from large-scale U.S. poultry farms that transition to

  4. Microbiological pathogens: Live poultry considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry products continue to be implicated as the predominate source of food-borne pathogens worldwide. Most food-borne pathogen contamination from poultry originates from ante mortem poultry infections. This book section will address several potential areas of concern regarding the microbial ecolog...

  5. Combustion Of Poultry-Derived Fuel in a CFBC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lufei; Anthony, Edward J.

    Poultry farming generates large quantities of waste. Current disposal practice is to spread the poultry wastes onto farmland as fertilizer. However, as the factory farms for poultry grow both in numbers and size, the amount of poultry wastes generated has increased significandy in recent years. In consequence, excessive application of poultry wastes on farmland is resulting in more and more contaminants entering the surface water. One of the options being considered is the use of poultry waste as power plant fuel. Since poultry-derived fuel (PDF) is biomass, its co-firing will have the added advantage of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from power generation. To evaluate the combustion characteristics of co-firing PDF with coal, combustion tests of mixtures of coal and PDF were conducted in CanmetENERGY's pilot-scale CFBC. The goal of the tests was to verify that PDF can be co-fired with coal and, more importantly, that emissions from the combustion process are not adversely affected by the presence of PDF in the fuel feed. The test results were very promising and support the view that co-firing in an existing coal-fired CFBC is an effective method of utilizing this potential fuel, both resolving a potential waste disposal problem and reducing the amount of CO2 released by the boiler.

  6. Stunning Systems for Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry are stunned immediately prior to slaughter to facilitate automated processing, to minimize the subsequent death struggle and thereby minimize carcass damage and down grades, and to render the bird unconscious and incapable to perceive pain. A stunning method for slaughter should be consider...

  7. Respiratory Diseases of Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new Respiratory Diseases of Poultry CRIS will be established effective October 1, 2006. Initially, the disease agents to be studied will include Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Bordetella avium (BART) and Pasteurella multocida. The research will focus on development of more effective vacc...

  8. Poultry housing emissions perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns for climate change are expanding interest in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from all agricultural sectors; animal production systems are no exception. The focus of this overview is to compare emission factors among egg and meat bird poultry operations, specifically layer and broiler chicke...

  9. Agriculture. Poultry Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for poultry, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list.…

  10. INFLUENZA VIRUS IN POULTRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is normally found in wild birds, particularly in ducks and shorebirds, where it does not cause any perceptible clinical disease. However, poultry, including chickens and turkeys, are not normal hosts for avian influenza, but if the virus is introduced it can result in mi...

  11. Enteric viruses of poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the economic importance of the poultry gut, very little is known about the complex gut microbial community. Enteric disease syndromes such as Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS) in broiler chickens and Poult Enteritis Complex (PEC) in young turkeys are difficult to characterize and reproduce in ...

  12. Demonstration of a Small Modular Biopower System Using Poultry Litter-Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Reardon; Art Lilley

    2004-06-15

    On-farm conversion of poultry litter into energy is a unique market connected opportunity for commercialization of small modular bioenergy systems. The United States Department of Energy recognized the need in the poultry industry for alternative litter management as an opportunity for bioenergy. The DOE created a relevant topic in the December 2000 release of the small business innovative research (SBIR) grant solicitation. Community Power Corporation responded to this solicitation by proposing the development of a small modular gasification and gas cleanup system to produce separate value streams of clean producer gas and mineral rich solids. This phase II report describes our progress in the development of an on-farm litter to energy system.

  13. Assignment of serotype to Salmonella enterica isolates obtained from poultry and their environment in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pulido-Landínez, M; Sánchez-Ingunza, R; Guard, J; do Nascimento, V Pinheiro

    2013-01-01

    To assess diversity of Salmonella enterica serotypes present in poultry and their environment from southern Brazil, the Kauffmann–White–Le Minor (KWL) scheme was used to serotype a total of 155 isolates. Isolates were then re-examined with nested PCR and sequencing of the dkgB-linked intergenic sequence ribotyping (ISR) region that assesses single nucleotide polymorphisms occurring around a 5S ribosomal gene. Serotypes identified were Heidelberg (40·6%), Enteritidis (34·2%), Hadar (8·4%), Typhimurium (3·9%), Gallinarum (3·2%), Agona (1·3%), Cerro (1·3%), Livingstone (1·3%), Infantis (0·6%), Isangi (0·6%), Mbandaka (0·6%), Montevideo (0·6%) and Senftenberg (0·6%). Three unique ISRs were detected from four strains. Day old chicks yielded only S. Enteritidis, whereas S. Heidelberg was most often associated with poultry carcasses. Overall agreement between KWL and ISR was 85·2%, with disagreement possibly due to the ability of ISR to detect mixtures of serotypes in culture. Overall, ISR provided more information than did KWL about the ecology of Salm. enterica on-farm. The O-antigen group D Salm. enterica serovars such as Pullorum, Gallinarum and Enteritidis appear susceptible to overgrowth by other serotypes. Significance and Impact of the Study Single nucleotide polymorphisms found in a group of poultry-associated Salmonella isolates from southern Brazil provided evidence of mixtures of serovar group D serotypes on-farm and in single samples from birds. This finding suggests that co-infection and interserotype competition of Salmonella enterica in poultry could impact the incidence of disease in animals or humans. In addition, unique serotypes were identified on-farm that escaped characterization by antibody typing. Application of cost-efficient and highly discriminatory genomic methods for assigning serotype may alter concepts about the epidemiology of Salm. enterica on-farm and in foods. PMID:23734786

  14. Trace element losses in runoff due to subsurface-applied poultry litter on a coastal plain soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delmarva’s four poultry companies and 1,800 growers generated roughly 9 million tons of poultry litter in 2008. This litter is primarily used to fertilize farmland and support crop production (e.g., corn, soybeans and wheat). In this study, three poultry litter amendment treatments – broadcast (conv...

  15. Improved poultry house

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of energy and poultry production was explored in three areas: methane production from litter, broiler house insulation, and broiler house HVAC systems. The findings show that while a methane plant would not be popular with individual American poultry producers; the pay back in fuel and fertilizer, if the plant was located in close proximinity to the processing plant, would be favorable. Broiler house insulation has been dramatically improved since the outset of this study. Presently, all new installations in the survey area are the Environmental houses which are fully insulated. HVAC systems have had to keep pace with the introduction of better insulation. The new Environmental houses HVAC systems are fully automated and operating on a positive atmosphere principal. Ammonia and other problems have been kept in check while reducing air changes per house from a high of 7 per hour to as little as 3 per hour.

  16. Spring and Baby Poultry are Here!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Spring and Baby Poultry are Here! Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... do people get Salmonella infections from live baby poultry? Live poultry may have Salmonella germs in their ...

  17. 7 CFR 701.56 - Poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... losses in calendar year 2005 to a poultry house in an eligible county due to a 2005 hurricane. (b... hurricane. (f) Assistance is limited to poultry houses used to house poultry for commercial enterprises....

  18. Changes in poultry litter toxicity with simulated acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, G.; Krishnamurthy, S. )

    1991-01-01

    The Delmarva Peninsula on the Eastern Shore of Maryland ranks 4th in the nation in poultry production and generates 9,500 metric tons of poultry manure/litter per day. The poultry litter contains many macro and micro nutrients and is an excellent source of fertilizer. The litter also contains antibiotics, heavy metals, hormones and many microorganisms. Land application of this litter has been the only means of its utilization and disposal. With rainfall, surface water run-off (leachate), from land on which litter has been applied, reaches the Cheasapeake Bay from this region. This leachate with its high organic and inorganic salt contents and high biochemical oxygen demand can severely disrupt the aquatic life and cause fish kills. The objective of this research was to study the effect of simulated acid rain (pH 3, 4 and 5) on the toxicity of poultry litter extracts.

  19. Veterinary involvement in poultry production.

    PubMed

    Parker, Daniel

    2016-01-16

    The worldwide poultry sector is expected to grow substantially over the next few decades, as the world looks to feed a rapidly expanding population. In a further article in Veterinary Record's series looking at the state of different sectors of the veterinary profession, Daniel Parker looks at veterinary involvement in the poultry sector. PMID:26769809

  20. Microbiological pathogens: Live poultry considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food-borne illness is a significant worldwide public health problem. Salmonella is the predominate food-borne pathogen worldwide, and poultry and poultry products are, reportedly, a prevailing vehicle for salmonellosis. More recently, population-based active surveillance by investigators of the Fo...

  1. ON-FARM DISPOSAL OF SALINE DRAINAGE WATER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disposal of saline drainage water from irrigated agriculture is a significant world-wide problem. Researchers in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California developed an integrated on farm drainage water management system (IFDM) that can be used to solve this problem in an environmentally sound metho...

  2. Induction of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli and Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Strains after Adaptation to Disinfectant Commonly Used on Farms in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nhung, Nguyen T; Thuy, Cao T; Trung, Nguyen V; Campbell, James; Baker, Stephen; Thwaites, Guy; Hoa, Ngo T; Carrique-Mas, Juan

    2015-01-01

    In Vietnam, commercial disinfectants containing quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are commonly used in pig and poultry farms to maintain hygiene during production. We hypothesized that sustained exposure to sub-bactericidal concentrations of QAC-based disinfectants may result in increased levels of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among Enterobacteriacea due to the increase of efflux pump expression. To test this hypothesis we exposed six antimicrobial-susceptible Escherichia coli (E. coli) and six antimicrobial-susceptible non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolates to increasing concentrations of a commonly used commercial disinfectant containing a mix of benzalkonium chloride and glutaraldehyde. Over the 12-day experiment, strains exhibited a significant change in their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the disinfectant product (mean increase of 31% (SD ± 40)) (p = 0.02, paired Wilcoxon test). Increases in MIC for the disinfectant product were strongly correlated with increases in MIC (or decreases in inhibition zone) for all antimicrobials (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.71-0.83, all p < 0.01). The greatest increases in MIC (or decreases in inhibition zone) were observed for ampicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol, and the smallest for gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. The treatment of 155 representative E. coli isolates from farmed and wild animals in the Mekong Delta (Vietnam) with phenyl-arginine beta-naphthylamide (PAβN), a generic efflux pump inhibitor, resulted in reductions in the prevalence of AMR ranging from 0.7% to 3.3% in these organisms, indicating a small contribution of efflux pumps on the observed prevalence of AMR on farms. These results suggest that the mass usage of commercial disinfectants, many of which contain QACs, is potentially a contributing factor on the generation and maintenance of AMR in animal production in Vietnam. PMID:27025637

  3. Induction of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli and Non-Typhoidal Salmonella Strains after Adaptation to Disinfectant Commonly Used on Farms in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Nhung, Nguyen T.; Thuy, Cao T.; Trung, Nguyen V.; Campbell, James; Baker, Stephen; Thwaites, Guy; Hoa, Ngo T.; Carrique-Mas, Juan

    2015-01-01

    In Vietnam, commercial disinfectants containing quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are commonly used in pig and poultry farms to maintain hygiene during production. We hypothesized that sustained exposure to sub-bactericidal concentrations of QAC-based disinfectants may result in increased levels of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among Enterobacteriacea due to the increase of efflux pump expression. To test this hypothesis we exposed six antimicrobial-susceptible Escherichia coli (E. coli) and six antimicrobial-susceptible non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolates to increasing concentrations of a commonly used commercial disinfectant containing a mix of benzalkonium chloride and glutaraldehyde. Over the 12-day experiment, strains exhibited a significant change in their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the disinfectant product (mean increase of 31% (SD ± 40)) (p = 0.02, paired Wilcoxon test). Increases in MIC for the disinfectant product were strongly correlated with increases in MIC (or decreases in inhibition zone) for all antimicrobials (Pearson’s correlation coefficient 0.71–0.83, all p < 0.01). The greatest increases in MIC (or decreases in inhibition zone) were observed for ampicillin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol, and the smallest for gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. The treatment of 155 representative E. coli isolates from farmed and wild animals in the Mekong Delta (Vietnam) with phenyl-arginine beta-naphthylamide (PAβN), a generic efflux pump inhibitor, resulted in reductions in the prevalence of AMR ranging from 0.7% to 3.3% in these organisms, indicating a small contribution of efflux pumps on the observed prevalence of AMR on farms. These results suggest that the mass usage of commercial disinfectants, many of which contain QACs, is potentially a contributing factor on the generation and maintenance of AMR in animal production in Vietnam. PMID:27025637

  4. On-Farm Use of Ultrasonography for Bovine Respiratory Disease.

    PubMed

    Ollivett, Theresa L; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2016-03-01

    Thoracic ultrasonography (TUS) in young cattle has recently gained momentum as an accurate and practical tool for identifying the lung lesions associated with bovine respiratory disease. As cattle producers increasingly seek input from their veterinarians on respiratory health issues, bovine practitioners should consider adding TUS to their practice models. This article discusses the relevant literature regarding TUS in young cattle, current acceptable techniques, and practical on-farm applications. PMID:26922110

  5. Microbiological quality of litter from poultry houses in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry concentrated animal feeding operations generate approximately 1 kg of litter per broiler put to market. The majority of this litter is applied as a fertilizer to either forage or row crops. Though much is known about the fertilizer nutrient value associated with this manure, little is actu...

  6. Inorganic PM in poultry house using rice hull bedding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The persistence and long life expectancy of ammonia, odors and toxic pollutants from poultry houses may be due to the ability of suspended particulate matters (SPM) to serve as carriers for odorous compounds such as ammonium ions and volatile organic compounds. SPM is generated from the feed, anima...

  7. 7 CFR 3560.618 - Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing... HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.618 Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing. The management plan for...

  8. 7 CFR 3560.618 - Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing... HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.618 Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing. The management plan for...

  9. 7 CFR 3560.618 - Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing... HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.618 Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing. The management plan for...

  10. 7 CFR 701.156 - Poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to a poultry house in an eligible county due to a 2005 hurricane. (b) Claimants under this section... reconstruction and/or repair of a poultry house to the same size as before the hurricane. (f) Assistance...

  11. 7 CFR 701.156 - Poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to a poultry house in an eligible county due to a 2005 hurricane. (b) Claimants under this section... reconstruction and/or repair of a poultry house to the same size as before the hurricane. (f) Assistance...

  12. Injecting poultry litter into orchardgrass hay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional surface application of poultry litter leaves nutrients vulnerable to loss through volatilization and runoff. However, injection can increase capture of these nutrients in agricultural fields. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of poultry litter injection...

  13. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all...

  14. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all...

  15. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all...

  16. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all...

  17. 9 CFR 381.7 - Coverage of all poultry and poultry products processed in official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Coverage of all poultry and poultry... AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Administration; Application of Inspection and Other Requirements § 381.7 Coverage of all...

  18. Carbon Dioxide Efflux From Poultry Litter Applied Soils under Conservation Tillage Systems in North Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased carbon dioxide release from soils resulting from agricultural practices such as tillage and application of poultry litter in cotton production systems has generated concerns about contributions to global warming which negatively impacts natural ecosystems, weather patterns, and food produc...

  19. Effect of heating and aging of poultry litter on the persistence of enteric bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, K G; Tee, E; Tomkins, R B; Hepworth, G; Premier, R

    2011-01-01

    Food-borne illnesses have rarely been associated with the reuse of poultry litter as an organic fertilizer and soil amendment in agriculture. Yet farming practices in many countries have come under increased scrutiny because of heightened consumer awareness of food safety and environmental issues. This study was conducted to determine whether simple on-farm management practices could improve the microbiological safety of poultry litter. First, the effects of heat and moisture on the survival of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in poultry litter were investigated under laboratory conditions. Second, the persistence and regrowth of enteric bacteria were examined in poultry litter that had been aged for up to 12 wk in either a turned or static (unturned) windrow. Escherichia coli and Salmonella counts in poultry litter were reduced by >99% in 1 h at 55 or 65°C under laboratory conditions. At 35°C, both persisted longer under moist (65% wt/wt, wet basis) than dry (30% wt/wt) conditions. Poultry litter aged for 3 wk in a turned windrow, and up to 6 wk in a static windrow, supported increased E. coli densities when incubated in the laboratory at 37°C for 21 d. Peak temperatures >65°C were observed in both windrows within the first 3 wk of aging; after this point, the turned windrow was more consistently exposed to temperatures >45°C than the static windrow. By 12 wk, however, E. coli counts were very similar (3 to 3.6 log(10)) in the outside edge of both windrows. This study highlights the need for a better understanding of the interrelationship between spontaneous heating in organic waste streams, organic matter stabilization, and pathogen reduction. PMID:21177438

  20. Determinants of Knowledge and Biosecurity Preventive Behaviors for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Risk Among Chinese Poultry Farmers.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bin; Liu, Zong Ping

    2016-06-01

    Biosecurity measures are the first line of defense against highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) on farms. It is generally recognized that an individual's behavior can be influenced by the knowledge they possess. However, empirical study has not reported an association between poultry producers' awareness of HPAI symptoms and their actual biosecurity actions. The aim of this study is to classify knowledge items of HPAI by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and to examine the determinants of different types of knowledge and the effect of different types of knowledge on biosecurity preventive behaviors (BPBs). The survey (n = 297) was conducted using a questionnaire to measure the level of awareness of items related to HPAI and the actual adoption of BPBs among poultry farmers in the Chinese province of Jiangsu. The EFA revealed three main types of knowledge, which were categorized as avian influenza (AI) epidemic characteristics, primary biosecurity preventive knowledge (basic biosecurity preventive knowledge against AI), and essential biosecurity preventive knowledge (crucial biosecurity preventive knowledge against infection of AI). Multivariate regression showed that only poultry farmers' awareness of essential biosecurity preventive knowledge was positively associated with their actual BPBs. Additionally, educational attainment, number of years of experience raising poultry, farming operation size, and training were associated both with BPB and most of the knowledge factors or knowledge items. Training of existing poultry farmers is probably a feasible scheme; furthermore, the training should focus on the essential biosecurity preventive knowledge. On the other hand, policy initiatives to encourage large-scale poultry farming while discouraging small-scale backyard poultry husbandry would be an effective method of improving the management standards of rural poultry farming. PMID:27309291

  1. The uses and management of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The poultry industry is one of the largest and fastest growing agro-based industries in the world. There is an increasing demand for poultry meat mainly due to its acceptance by most societies and its relatively low cholesterol content. The poultry industry is currently facing numerous environmental...

  2. 7 CFR 701.156 - Poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry. 701.156 Section 701.156 Agriculture... Poultry. (a) Subject to the other eligibility provisions of this part except as provided explicitly in... to a poultry house in an eligible county due to a 2005 hurricane. (b) Claimants under this...

  3. 7 CFR 701.156 - Poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry. 701.156 Section 701.156 Agriculture... Poultry. (a) Subject to the other eligibility provisions of this part except as provided explicitly in... to a poultry house in an eligible county due to a 2005 hurricane. (b) Claimants under this...

  4. Viral enteric infections of poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteric diseases cause great economic losses to the poultry industry mostly from depressed weight gains, impaired feed efficiency, and decreased flock uniformity. Enteric syndromes have been described in both young turkeys and chickens and likely result from infection by a mixture of pathogenic age...

  5. Consumer acceptance of irradiated poultry.

    PubMed

    Hashim, I B; Resurreccion, A V; McWatters, K H

    1995-08-01

    A simulated supermarket setting (SSS) test was conducted to determine whether consumers (n = 126) would purchase irradiated poultry products, and the effects of marketing strategies on consumer purchase of irradiated poultry products. Consumer preference for irradiated poultry was likewise determined using a home-use test. A slide program was the most effective educational strategy in changing consumers' purchase behavior. The number of participants who purchased irradiated boneless, skinless breasts and irradiated thighs after the educational program increased significantly from 59.5 and 61.9% to 83.3 and 85.7% for the breasts and thighs, respectively. Using a label or poster did not increase the number of participants who bought irradiated poultry products. About 84% of the participants consider it either "somewhat necessary" or "very necessary" to irradiate raw chicken and would like all chicken that was served in restaurants or fast food places to be irradiated. Fifty-eight percent of the participants would always buy irradiated chicken if available, and an additional 27% would buy it sometimes. About 44% of the participants were willing to pay the same price for irradiated chicken as for nonirradiated. About 42% of participants were willing to pay 5% or more than what they were currently paying for nonirradiated chicken. Seventy-three percent or more of consumers who participated in the home-use test (n = 74) gave the color, appearance, and aroma of the raw poultry products a minimum rating of 7 (= like moderately). After consumers participated in a home-use test, 84 and 88% selected irradiated thighs and breasts, respectively, over nonirradiated in a second SSS test. PMID:7479506

  6. Prospects for phosphorus recovery from poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Szogi, A A; Vanotti, M B

    2009-11-01

    Land disposal of poultry litter is an environmental concern often associated to excess phosphorus (P) in soils and potential water pollution in regions with intense poultry production. Although poultry litter can be moved off the farm and traded as fertilizer, its transportation becomes less economical with increasing distances from the farm. Thus, new litter management alternatives are needed to reduce the environmental impact of P litter application to land. This paper summarizes established and emerging alternative technologies in the U.S. that facilitate handling, concentration, and transporting of litter P. Furthermore, it examines the potential integration of technologies into poultry litter management systems that could reduce poultry litter volume and increase P content in litter byproducts. The adoption of alternative technologies may encourage new opportunities to produce bio-energy, fertilizer, and other valuable P byproducts from poultry litter while reducing environmental impact and promoting sustainable poultry production. PMID:19394817

  7. Vegetable Contamination by the Fecal Bacteria of Poultry Manure: Case Study of Gardening Sites in Southern Benin

    PubMed Central

    Atidégla, Séraphin C.; Huat, Joël; Agbossou, Euloge K.; Saint-Macary, Hervé; Glèlè Kakai, Romain

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted in southern Benin to assess the contamination of vegetables by fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococci as one consequence of the intensification of vegetable cropping through fertilization with poultry manure. For this purpose, on-farm trials were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at Yodo-Condji and Ayi-Guinnou with three replications and four fertilization treatments including poultry manure and three vegetable crops (leafy eggplant, tomato, and carrot). Sampling, laboratory analyses, and counts of fecal bacteria in the samples were performed in different cropping seasons. Whatever the fertilization treatment, the logs of mean fecal bacteria count per g of fresh vegetables were variable but higher than AFNOR criteria. The counts ranged from 8 to 10 fecal coliforms, from 5 to 8 fecal streptococci, and from 2 to 6 Escherichia coli, whereas AFNOR criteria are, respectively, 0, 1, and 0. The long traditional use of poultry manure and its use during the study helped obtain this high population of fecal pathogens. Results confirmed that the contamination of vegetables by fecal bacteria is mainly due to the use of poultry manure. The use of properly composted poultry manure with innovative cropping techniques should help reduce the number and incidence of pathogens. PMID:27069914

  8. After the outbreak: how the British Columbia commercial poultry industry recovered after H7N3 HPAI.

    PubMed

    Bowes, Victoria A

    2007-03-01

    In spring 2004, an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), subtype H7N3, occurred in the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, Canada. The active outbreak lasted more than 90 days; 42 commercial poultry farms were identified as infected premises, and more than 17 million birds were culled. Through the depopulation of HPAI-positive farms and the strategic depopulation of adjacent test-negative farms, a total of 410 commercial poultry farms were emptied. The goals for the commercial poultry industry were to expedite restocking, reduce nonproductive downtime, negotiate equitable financial compensation, review and restructure emergency disease response plans, and identify and implement mitigation strategies. After the outbreak, multijurisdictional reviews identified the strengths and weaknesses of the outbreak control strategy. Lessons learned were incorporated into current emergency disease response protocols for both industry and government. The industry-led challenge to initial compensation values, especially for specialty poultry and breeder birds, resulted in a review of the federal Health of Animals Act. The British Columbia poultry industry, in collaboration with the British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, developed an Enhanced Biosecurity Initiative that included the identification of mandatory on-farm biosecurity standards for commercial producers, an educational biosecurity self-assessment guide, and provisions for a producer self-quarantine to be enacted upon the first suspicion of disease. PMID:17494573

  9. Vegetable Contamination by the Fecal Bacteria of Poultry Manure: Case Study of Gardening Sites in Southern Benin.

    PubMed

    Atidégla, Séraphin C; Huat, Joël; Agbossou, Euloge K; Saint-Macary, Hervé; Glèlè Kakai, Romain

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted in southern Benin to assess the contamination of vegetables by fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococci as one consequence of the intensification of vegetable cropping through fertilization with poultry manure. For this purpose, on-farm trials were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at Yodo-Condji and Ayi-Guinnou with three replications and four fertilization treatments including poultry manure and three vegetable crops (leafy eggplant, tomato, and carrot). Sampling, laboratory analyses, and counts of fecal bacteria in the samples were performed in different cropping seasons. Whatever the fertilization treatment, the logs of mean fecal bacteria count per g of fresh vegetables were variable but higher than AFNOR criteria. The counts ranged from 8 to 10 fecal coliforms, from 5 to 8 fecal streptococci, and from 2 to 6 Escherichia coli, whereas AFNOR criteria are, respectively, 0, 1, and 0. The long traditional use of poultry manure and its use during the study helped obtain this high population of fecal pathogens. Results confirmed that the contamination of vegetables by fecal bacteria is mainly due to the use of poultry manure. The use of properly composted poultry manure with innovative cropping techniques should help reduce the number and incidence of pathogens. PMID:27069914

  10. Bacteriological quality of on-farm manufactured goat cheese.

    PubMed Central

    Tham, W. A.; Hajdu, L. J.; Danielsson-Tham, M. L.

    1990-01-01

    The bacteriological quality of 198 ripened soft or semi-soft goat cheeses obtained from dairy farms and the retail trade was investigated. The cheeses were examined for total counts of aerobic bacteria, coliform bacteria (37 and 44 degrees C respectively), enterococci, coagulase positive staphylococci, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens. Cheeses obtained from dairy-farms were also determined for pH value. In terms of all tests performed, cheeses made of heat-treated milk with starter culture had the best prospects for fulfilling the criteria for 'fit for consumption'. Cheeses made of raw milk without starter culture made up the most unsatisfactory group from a food-hygiene point of view. Bacteriological guidelines for on-farm manufactured goat cheese are suggested. PMID:2106443

  11. Campylobacteriosis: the role of poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Skarp, C P A; Hänninen, M-L; Rautelin, H I K

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of human infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the main bacterial agents of gastrointestinal disease, has been increasing worldwide. Here, we review the role of poultry as a source and reservoir for Campylobacter. Contamination and subsequent colonization of broiler flocks at the farm level often lead to transmission of Campylobacter along the poultry production chain and contamination of poultry meat at retail. Yet Campylobacter prevalence in poultry, as well as the contamination level of poultry products, vary greatly between different countries so there are differences in the intervention strategies that need to be applied. Temporal patterns in poultry do not always coincide with those found in human infections. Studies in rural and urban areas have revealed differences in Campylobacter infections attributed to poultry, as poultry seems to be the predominant reservoir in urban, but not necessarily in rural, settings. Furthermore, foreign travel is considered a major risk factor in acquiring the disease, especially for individuals living in the northern European countries. Intervention strategies aimed at reducing Campylobacter colonization in poultry and focused at the farm level have been successful in reducing the number of Campylobacter cases in several countries. Increasing farm biosecurity and education of consumers are likely to limit the risk of infection. Overall, poultry is an important reservoir and source of human campylobacteriosis, although the contribution of other sources, reservoirs and transmission warrants more research. PMID:26686808

  12. Improving village poultry's survival rate through community-based poultry health management: evidence from Benin.

    PubMed

    Sodjinou, Epiphane; Henningsen, Arne; Koudande, Olorounto Delphin

    2013-01-01

    Community-based poultry health management (CBM) is a strategy for village poultry improvement based on the installment of "poultry interest groups" in experimental villages. These groups serve as a channel for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. The use of CBM is due to the fact that village poultry farming is practiced in a total or partial scavenging system which gives the impression that all the birds in the village belong to the same flock. Accordingly, actions that target all farmers of the same village may have a larger impact on the village poultry's survival rate than actions that target individual producers. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of CBM on the survival rate of village poultry. Based on data collected on 353 poultry keepers, the study shows that CBM significantly improves the survival rate of village poultry. The adoption of technologies--poultry vaccination, construction of henhouses, and improved feed--disseminated through the CBM also significantly improves the survival rate. The access to markets for inputs and veterinary services is also important in improving the survival rate of poultry. Finally, the study suggests that governments and development agencies can improve village poultry survival rates by investing in the dissemination of information regarding best husbandry management practices through approaches that rely on the community such as CBM because CBM groups serve as channels for the dissemination of village poultry improvement technologies. PMID:22618192

  13. Radiation decontamination of poultry viscera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamdar, S. N.; Harikumar, P.

    2008-04-01

    Application of gamma radiation for decontamination of poultry viscera was examined. Exposure to a dose of 20 kGy rendered the viscera sterile (<1 CFU/10 g tissue), while 5 and 10 kGy reduced the total bacterial count by 4 and 6 log 10 cycles, respectively, eliminating the coliforms to <1 CFU/g of tissue. Analysis of organoleptic and biochemical parameters [proximate composition, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), lipid peroxidation (TBARS value), and levels of TCA soluble peptides and proteolytic enzyme] showed that gamma irradiation (20 kGy) followed by storage at 4 °C for 62 days induced no significant change (except lipid peroxidation) in the acceptability of poultry viscera. However, storage at ambient temperature (26 °C) produced enhanced levels of TVBN and TCA soluble products accompanied by higher drip loss. Activities of proteolytic enzymes, except acid protease, did not show any significant change during post-irradiation storage at either temperature.

  14. Women and family poultry production in rural Africa.

    PubMed

    Gueye, E H

    2000-02-01

    Poultry production has existed for many generations in Africa, and almost every village household keeps chickens. The rural family poultry (RFP) are generally raised in free-range and/or backyard systems, which are traditional extensive husbandry systems. The development of an intensive poultry production has been the goal of the African government over the years. Despite efforts aiming for such goal, RFP is still very important in African countries that are both poor and net importers of food. It is a valuable asset because it can contribute significantly in alleviating poverty, securing food supply, and promoting gender equality. In view of this, interventions to improve RFP production systems should take into account the sociocultural issues, specifically gender-based aspects. It is noted that such interventions might, in addition to food security and poverty alleviation, also serve to promote gender equality. RFP development programs should be more women-friendly in order to facilitate women's participation, as RFP production in the region is generally a woman's business. Moreover, efforts to empower village women has to be envisaged cautiously as there is a serious risk of men taking over once the poultry sector becomes more profitable. PMID:12295964

  15. Biosecurity-Based Interventions and Strategies To Reduce Campylobacter spp. on Poultry Farms▿

    PubMed Central

    Newell, D. G.; Elvers, K. T.; Dopfer, D.; Hansson, I.; Jones, P.; James, S.; Gittins, J.; Stern, N. J.; Davies, R.; Connerton, I.; Pearson, D.; Salvat, G.; Allen, V. M.

    2011-01-01

    The prevention and control of Campylobacter colonization of poultry flocks are important public health strategies for the control of human campylobacteriosis. A critical review of the literature on interventions to control Campylobacter in poultry on farms was undertaken using a systematic approach. Although the focus of the review was on aspects appropriate to the United Kingdom poultry industry, the research reviewed was gathered from worldwide literature. Multiple electronic databases were employed to search the literature, in any language, from 1980 to September 2008. A primary set of 4,316 references was identified and scanned, using specific agreed-upon criteria, to select relevant references related to biosecurity-based interventions. The final library comprised 173 references. Identification of the sources of Campylobacter in poultry flocks was required to inform the development of targeted interventions to disrupt transmission routes. The approach used generally involved risk factor-based surveys related to culture-positive or -negative flocks, usually combined with a structured questionnaire. In addition, some studies, either in combination or independently, undertook intervention trials. Many of these studies were compromised by poor design, sampling, and statistical analysis. The evidence for each potential source and route of transmission on the poultry farm was reviewed critically, and the options for intervention were considered. The review concluded that, in most instances, biosecurity on conventional broiler farms can be enhanced and this should contribute to the reduction of flock colonization. However, complementary, non-biosecurity-based approaches will also be required in the future to maximize the reduction of Campylobacter-positive flocks at the farm level. PMID:21984249

  16. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been destroyed... poultry or eggs must certify on the forms that the poultry or eggs covered are, or are not, subject to...

  17. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been destroyed... poultry or eggs must certify on the forms that the poultry or eggs covered are, or are not, subject to...

  18. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been destroyed... poultry or eggs must certify on the forms that the poultry or eggs covered are, or are not, subject to...

  19. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been destroyed... poultry or eggs must certify on the forms that the poultry or eggs covered are, or are not, subject to...

  20. 9 CFR 56.7 - Mortgage against poultry or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mortgage against poultry or eggs. 56.7... PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA § 56.7 Mortgage against poultry or eggs. When poultry or eggs have been destroyed... poultry or eggs must certify on the forms that the poultry or eggs covered are, or are not, subject to...

  1. Color of Meat and Poultry

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... The Color of Meat and Poultry Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...

  2. Antibiotics in Canadian poultry productions and anticipated alternatives.

    PubMed

    Diarra, Moussa S; Malouin, François

    2014-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals has significantly increased animal health by lowering mortality and the incidence of diseases. Antibiotics also have largely contributed to increase productivity of farms. However, antibiotic usage in general and relevance of non-therapeutic antibiotics (growth promoters) in feed need to be reevaluated especially because bacterial pathogens of humans and animals have developed and shared a variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms that can easily be spread within microbial communities. In Canada, poultry production involves more than 2600 regulated chicken producers who have access to several antibiotics approved as feed additives for poultry. Feed recipes and mixtures vary greatly geographically and from one farm to another, making links between use of a specific antibiotic feed additive and production yields or selection of specific antibiotic-resistant bacteria difficult to establish. Many on-farm studies have revealed the widespread presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in broiler chickens. While some reports linked the presence of antibiotic-resistant organisms to the use of feed supplemented with antibiotics, no recent studies could clearly demonstrate the benefit of antimicrobial growth promoters on performance and production yields. With modern biosecurity and hygienic practices, there is a genuine concern that intensive utilization of antibiotics or use of antimicrobial growth promoters in feed might no longer be useful. Public pressure and concerns about food and environmental safety (antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant pathogens) have driven researchers to actively look for alternatives to antibiotics. Some of the alternatives include pre- and probiotics, organic acids and essential oils. We will describe here the properties of some bioactive molecules, like those found in cranberry, which have shown interesting polyvalent antibacterial and immuno-stimulatory activities. PMID:24987390

  3. Antibiotics in Canadian poultry productions and anticipated alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Diarra, Moussa S.; Malouin, François

    2014-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals has significantly increased animal health by lowering mortality and the incidence of diseases. Antibiotics also have largely contributed to increase productivity of farms. However, antibiotic usage in general and relevance of non-therapeutic antibiotics (growth promoters) in feed need to be reevaluated especially because bacterial pathogens of humans and animals have developed and shared a variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms that can easily be spread within microbial communities. In Canada, poultry production involves more than 2600 regulated chicken producers who have access to several antibiotics approved as feed additives for poultry. Feed recipes and mixtures vary greatly geographically and from one farm to another, making links between use of a specific antibiotic feed additive and production yields or selection of specific antibiotic-resistant bacteria difficult to establish. Many on-farm studies have revealed the widespread presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in broiler chickens. While some reports linked the presence of antibiotic-resistant organisms to the use of feed supplemented with antibiotics, no recent studies could clearly demonstrate the benefit of antimicrobial growth promoters on performance and production yields. With modern biosecurity and hygienic practices, there is a genuine concern that intensive utilization of antibiotics or use of antimicrobial growth promoters in feed might no longer be useful. Public pressure and concerns about food and environmental safety (antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant pathogens) have driven researchers to actively look for alternatives to antibiotics. Some of the alternatives include pre- and probiotics, organic acids and essential oils. We will describe here the properties of some bioactive molecules, like those found in cranberry, which have shown interesting polyvalent antibacterial and immuno-stimulatory activities. PMID:24987390

  4. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  5. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  6. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  7. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  8. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  9. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.156 Poultry meat content standards for...

  10. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.156 Poultry meat content standards for...

  11. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.156 Poultry meat content standards for...

  12. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.156 Poultry meat content standards for...

  13. 9 CFR 381.156 - Poultry meat content standards for certain poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry meat content standards for... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY... Definitions and Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.156 Poultry meat content standards for...

  14. The USDA Poultry Research Unit at Mississippi State: Impacting the Bottom Line of the Poultry Research.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS-Poultry Research Unit at Mississippi State has been addressing environmental, nutritional and mycoplasmal research for the poultry industry since 1965. Originally, the South Central Poultry Research Laboratory (SCPRL), it has been, from its inception, staffed with individuals whose col...

  15. 9 CFR 381.173 - Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Poultry). 381.173 Section 381.173 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions...

  16. 29 CFR 780.147 - Practices performed on farm products-special factors considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Practices performed on farm products-special factors... in Conjunction Withâ the Farming Operations § 780.147 Practices performed on farm products—special... commodities is incident to or in conjunction with the farming operations of a farmer or a farm, it is...

  17. 29 CFR 780.147 - Practices performed on farm products-special factors considered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Practices performed on farm products-special factors... in Conjunction Withâ the Farming Operations § 780.147 Practices performed on farm products—special... commodities is incident to or in conjunction with the farming operations of a farmer or a farm, it is...

  18. 7 CFR 3560.618 - Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing. 3560.618 Section 3560.618 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.618 Supplemental...

  19. 7 CFR 3560.618 - Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental requirements for on-farm labor housing. 3560.618 Section 3560.618 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.618 Supplemental...

  20. On-farm US irrigation pumping plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gilley, J.R.

    1981-03-01

    Over 473,000 on-farm pumping plants are being used to pump and deliver irrigation water in the United States. The distribution of these units by geographic regions and potential wind power zones was determined. Over 60 percent of the pumping units in the US are smaller than 37.3 kW (50 horsepower) in size and only 9.4 percent of the units are larger than 74.6 kW in size (100 horsepower). Over 49 percent of these pumps (231,440) are located in the six Great Plains States of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Texas. This area also has the largest potential wind power in the US during the primary irrigation season. Over 51 percent of the pumping units are located in wind zones having a potential average wind power greater than 250 W/m/sup 2/ at an elevation of 50 meters. However, only 6.5 percent of the units are located in the largest potential average wind power zone (> 400 W/m/sup 2/ at 50 meters). In general, those areas which have greater potential wind power, have larger sized pumping units.

  1. The management of phosphorus in poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter provides an important source of plant nutrients including nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur. The potential for phosphorus (P) surplus at the farm scale can increase when farming systems change from cropping to intensive poultry and animal production, as P...

  2. Research update on the poultry enteric viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry enteric disease is an ongoing economic problem for the poultry industry in the United States and abroad. The etiologies of the recognized enteric disease syndromes—Poult Enteritis Complex (PEC) and Poult Enteritis Mortality Syndrome (PEMS) in young turkeys, and Runting-Stunting Syndrome (RSS...

  3. Risk analysis of poultry feed costs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction and Aims. Poultry feed continues to be a significant expense in poultry production as the cost of corn and soybean meals remain elevated. Alternative meals are under investigation to reduce production costs while maintaining high feed conversion rates and body weight gain. Two promising...

  4. Subsurface band application of poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler litter is commonly used as a fertilizer on pastures and cropland. Poultry litter is typically land-applied by broadcasting the litter on the soil surface. Rain falling on soil to which poultry litter has been applied, may carry phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) nutrients from the soil into s...

  5. Prospects for phosphorus recovery from poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land disposal of poultry litter is an environmental concern in regions with intense poultry production because there is not enough land for crop utilization of its nutrients, especially phosphorus (P). This situation promotes soil P surplus and potential pollution of water resources. Although poultr...

  6. Meat and Poultry Processing. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide contains instructional materials for a program that provides students with job skills in meat and poultry processing. The curriculum consists of 10 units that cover the following material: orientation to meat and poultry processing; maintaining plant facilities; equipment and equipment maintenance; purchasing livestock for…

  7. 9 CFR 381.159 - Poultry rolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... subchapter, in 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or Subchapter B. In... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry rolls. 381.159 Section 381.159... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  8. Establishment of Rabbiteye Blueberries in Poultry Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter is abundant in the Southeast where there is also a growing blueberry production. Poultry litter has been used for fertilization of other crops such as cotton and grass with increased yields and growth. This study was conducted to determine if rabbiteye blueberries ‘Tifblue’ and ‘Pre...

  9. CONTAMINANT DETECTION ON POULTRY CARCASS SURFACES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A real-time imaging system has been developed to detect fecal contaminants on poultry carcasses. The system, which will require two to three multispectral cameras to fully image the outside of a poultry carcass, has shown promise in early trials. The system was developed from spectroscopic first p...

  10. Pet poultry training for veterinary practitioners.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Rocio; Faux, Cynthia; Dhillon, Singh A; Newberry, Ruth C; Moore, Dale A

    2010-01-01

    Keeping backyard poultry in urban areas is a burgeoning trend in the United States. As such, we believe urban pet poultry owners are increasingly likely to seek veterinary services from urban companion-animal practitioners. Traditionally, poultry species have been classified as production animals. Most small-animal practitioners have limited experience or knowledge of these species and hesitate to accept these animals at their practices. We developed a one-day course to train veterinarians in pet poultry (as opposed to commercial poultry) medicine. The course covers poultry examination, diseases, and treatments and provides an introduction to poultry breeds and behavior and the basics of nutrition and husbandry. We believe this type of continuing education program is important for veterinarians because they are often on the front line of human public health issues. In addition, courses of this type increase the number of veterinarians trained to spot serious avian diseases, including foreign diseases and diseases with zoonotic potential. Most important, veterinarians with this training develop the knowledge to contribute to the health and well-being of pet poultry along with their clients' other companion animals. PMID:21135406

  11. Minimization of Salmonella Contamination on Raw Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many reviews have discussed Salmonella in poultry and suggested best practices to minimize this organism on raw poultry meat. Despite years of research and conscientious control efforts by industry and regulatory agencies, human salmonellosis rates have declined only modestly and Salmonella is stil...

  12. Treating poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a USDA/ARS factsheet on how to treat poultry litter with aluminum sulfate (alum) to reduce ammonia emissions. Over half of the nitrogen excreted from chickens is lost to the atmosphere as ammonia before the manure is removed from the poultry houses. Research has shown that additions of alu...

  13. Avian influenza vaccines and vaccination for poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccines against avian influenza (AI) have had more limited use in poultry than vaccines against other poultry diseases such as Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis, and have been used more commonly in the developing world. Over the past 40 years, AI vaccines have been primarily based o...

  14. Carbon Dioxide Efflux from Soil with Poultry Litter Applications in Conventional and Conservation Tillage Systems in Northern Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased carbon dioxide release from soils resulting from agricultural practices such as tillage and application of poultry litter in cotton production systems has generated concerns about contributions to global warming which negatively impacts natural ecosystems, weather patterns, and food pro...

  15. Economic worry and the presence of safety hazards on farms.

    PubMed

    Hagel, Louise; Pahwa, Punam; Dosman, James A; Pickett, William

    2013-04-01

    In recent years the agricultural sector has experienced historical levels of economic challenges. Yet, the effects of these economic conditions on the physical safety of farm work environments remain poorly understood. We studied these possible etiological relationships in a cross-sectional analysis. A baseline survey of 2390 Saskatchewan farm operations was conducted in 2007. A single respondent from each farm provided information about the farm operation, its residents, perceptions of worry surrounding farm economic conditions, and the presence of six types of physical hazards. Binomial regression analyses were used to study the focal relationships between economics and safety while simultaneously adjusting for confounders at the farm level. Farms with high perceived levels of economic worry experienced elevations in risk for: the absence of well maintained buildings (RR 1.52; 95% CI: 1.27-1.87), the absence of safety shields on combines (RR 1.41; 95% CI: 1.05-1.89), and the absence of safety shields on augers (RR 1.15; 95% CI: 1.02-1.30). No apparent differences were observed by level of economic worry for the presence of ROPS on tractors, ladder safety cages on grain bins, and barriers around water hazards. We observed that financial conditions on farms appear to contribute to the decisions that farm operators make about safety. These are not innocuous choices as they in turn affect the health and safety of the entire population that works and lives in these occupational environments. Farm operators need to be supported in decisions to invest the physical safety of their farms. They also require evidence that investments in safety are indeed economically sensible and healthy management decisions. PMID:23434843

  16. The Poultry-Associated Microbiome: Network Analysis and Farm-to-Fork Characterizations

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, Brian B.; Morales, Cesar A.; Line, J.; Berrang, Mark E.; Meinersmann, Richard J.; Tillman, Glenn E.; Wise, Mark G.; Siragusa, Gregory R.; Hiett, Kelli L.; Seal, Bruce S.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial communities associated with agricultural animals are important for animal health, food safety, and public health. Here we combine high-throughput sequencing (HTS), quantitative-PCR assays, and network analysis to profile the poultry-associated microbiome and important pathogens at various stages of commercial poultry production from the farm to the consumer. Analysis of longitudinal data following two flocks from the farm through processing showed a core microbiome containing multiple sequence types most closely related to genera known to be pathogenic for animals and/or humans, including Campylobacter, Clostridium, and Shigella. After the final stage of commercial poultry processing, taxonomic richness was ca. 2–4 times lower than the richness of fecal samples from the same flocks and Campylobacter abundance was significantly reduced. Interestingly, however, carcasses sampled at 48 hr after processing harboured the greatest proportion of unique taxa (those not encountered in other samples), significantly more than expected by chance. Among these were anaerobes such as Prevotella, Veillonella, Leptrotrichia, and multiple Campylobacter sequence types. Retail products were dominated by Pseudomonas, but also contained 27 other genera, most of which were potentially metabolically active and encountered in on-farm samples. Network analysis was focused on the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter and revealed a majority of sequence types with no significant interactions with other taxa, perhaps explaining the limited efficacy of previous attempts at competitive exclusion of Campylobacter. These data represent the first use of HTS to characterize the poultry microbiome across a series of farm-to-fork samples and demonstrate the utility of HTS in monitoring the food supply chain and identifying sources of potential zoonoses and interactions among taxa in complex communities. PMID:23468931

  17. Microbiological biodiversity in poultry and paddy straw wastes in composting systems

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Sunita; Sharma, C.R.; Singh, Kamlesh

    2012-01-01

    Immense quantity of waste is generated in association with poultry meat egg and crop production. The potential risks due to disposal of these wastes are magnified as a result of dense refinement of poultry production and the decreasing amount of land available for waste disposal. The study aims at studying the microbiological biodiversity of poultry waste and paddy straw based co-composting system. The predominant microflora of the poultry manure were bacteria, fungi, enteric bacteria and spore forming bacteria whose population was high at the initiation of composting but decreased significantly as the compost approached maturity. The initial load of inherent enteric groups of bacteria in poultry waste, that also includes some pathogenic ones, is considerably reduced and some new vital groups contributed to compost quality as the microbiological biodiversity sets in the system and becomes stable. Major fraction of nitrogen of poultry waste was subjected to ammonia volatilization and a fraction of it conserved by co-composting it in conjunction with wastes having low nitrogen contents. In the treatment T1 and T5, where poultry manure and paddy straws alone were composted, 60 and 30 percent of organic carbon, respectively, was lost over a period of six months. Whereas in treatments T2,T3 and T4, poultry manure and paddy straw were co-composted in the ratio of 3:1, 2:2 and 1:3, respectively, 51.4,45.0 and 37.0 percent of carbon, respectively, was lost during decomposition. The C: N ratio in all the treatments decreased significantly to 18.3 for T1, 24.7 for T2, 27.0 for T3, 34.9 for T4 and 38.5 for T5 at the end of composting period. PMID:24031831

  18. Prediction of bulk milk fatty acid composition based on farming practices collected through on-farm surveys.

    PubMed

    Coppa, M; Ferlay, A; Chassaing, C; Agabriel, C; Glasser, F; Chilliard, Y; Borreani, G; Barcarolo, R; Baars, T; Kusche, D; Harstad, O M; Verbič, J; Golecký, J; Martin, B

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the fatty acid (FA) composition of bulk milk using data describing farming practices collected via on-farm surveys. The FA composition of 1,248 bulk cow milk samples and the related farming practices were collected from 20 experiments led in 10 different European countries at 44°N to 60°N latitude and sea level to 2,000 m altitude. Farming practice-based FA predictions [coefficient of determination (R(2)) >0.50] were good for C16:0, C17:0, saturated FA, polyunsaturated FA, and odd-chain FA, and very good (R(2) ≥0.60) for trans-11 C18:1, trans-10 + trans-11 C18:1, cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, total trans FA, C18:3n-3, n-6:n-3 ratio, and branched-chain FA. Fatty acids were predicted by cow diet composition and by the altitude at which milk was produced, whereas animal-related factors (i.e., lactation stage, breed, milk yield, and proportion of primiparous cows in the herd) were not significant in any of the models. Proportion of fresh herbage in the cow diet was the main predictor, with the highest effect in almost all FA models. However, models built solely on conserved forage-derived samples gave good predictions for odd-chain FA, branched-chain FA, trans-10 C18:1 and C18:3n-3 (R(2) ≥0.46, 0.54, 0.52, and 0.70, respectively). These prediction models could offer farmers a valuable tool to help improve the nutritional quality of the milk they produce. PMID:23664341

  19. Campylobacter in Poultry: Ecology and Potential Interventions.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Orhan; Kassem, Issmat I; Shen, Zhangqi; Lin, Jun; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Zhang, Qijing

    2015-06-01

    Avian hosts constitute a natural reservoir for thermophilic Campylobacter species, primarily Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, and poultry flocks are frequently colonized in the intestinal tract with high numbers of the organisms. Prevalence rates in poultry, especially in slaughter-age broiler flocks, could reach as high as 100% on some farms. Despite the extensive colonization, Campylobacter is essentially a commensal in birds, although limited evidence has implicated the organism as a poultry pathogen. Although Campylobacter is insignificant for poultry health, it is a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide, and contaminated poultry meat is recognized as the main source for human exposure. Therefore, considerable research efforts have been devoted to the development of interventions to diminish Campylobacter contamination in poultry, with the intention to reduce the burden of food-borne illnesses. During the past decade, significant advance has been made in understanding Campylobacter in poultry. This review summarizes the current knowledge with an emphasis on ecology, antibiotic resistance, and potential pre- and postharvest interventions. PMID:26473668

  20. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  1. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  2. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry from Canada. 93.216 Section 93... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS...

  3. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  4. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  5. 9 CFR 93.205 - Certificate for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certificate for poultry. 93.205... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  6. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  7. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  8. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  9. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry from Canada. 93.216 Section 93... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS...

  10. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  11. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry from Canada. 93.216 Section 93... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS...

  12. 9 CFR 93.219 - Declaration for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration for poultry. 93.219... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  13. 9 CFR 93.219 - Declaration for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Declaration for poultry. 93.219... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  14. 9 CFR 93.219 - Declaration for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Declaration for poultry. 93.219... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  15. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  16. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  17. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry from Canada. 93.216 Section 93... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS...

  18. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  19. 9 CFR 93.212 - Manure from quarantined poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined poultry. 93... OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...

  20. 9 CFR 93.219 - Declaration for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Declaration for poultry. 93.219... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  1. 9 CFR 93.216 - Poultry from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry from Canada. 93.216 Section 93... EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS...

  2. 9 CFR 93.219 - Declaration for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Declaration for poultry. 93.219... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  3. 9 CFR 93.205 - Certificate for poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certificate for poultry. 93.205... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  4. 9 CFR 93.210 - Poultry quarantine facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry quarantine facilities. 93.210... AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS;...

  5. 9 CFR 82.15 - Replacement birds and poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Replacement birds and poultry. 82.15... CHLAMYDIOSIS Newcastle Disease § 82.15 Replacement birds and poultry. Birds and poultry that have been destroyed because of a quarantine for Newcastle disease may not be replaced by birds or poultry...

  6. 9 CFR 381.400 - Nutrition labeling of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of poultry products... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.400 Nutrition labeling of poultry products. (a) Nutrition labeling must be provided for all poultry products intended...

  7. 9 CFR 381.400 - Nutrition labeling of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of poultry products... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.400 Nutrition labeling of poultry products. (a) Nutrition labeling must be provided for all poultry products intended...

  8. 9 CFR 381.400 - Nutrition labeling of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of poultry products... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.400 Nutrition labeling of poultry products. (a) Nutrition labeling shall be provided for all poultry products...

  9. Determination of Arsenic Species in Poultry Wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, B. P.; Bertsch, P. M.

    2001-05-01

    Two benzenearsenic compounds, p-arsanilic acid (p-ASA) and roxarsone (ROX), are commonly used feed additives in the poultry industry for disease prevention and increased weight gain. Because these compounds are not readily adsorbed by poultry, As in poultry litter can reach concentrations >41 mg/kg, which, for comparison, is the maximum allowable concentration for land application of sewage sludge according to USEPA 503 regulations. In contrast to land application of sewage sludge or industrial by-products such as fly ash, the potential for As loading of soil from poultry litter application has received little attention, despite the more prevalent use of poultry litter as a soil amendment. Furthermore, little is known concerning the biogeochemistry of these organo-arsenic compounds in soils. In incubation studies, we found that soil solution As concentrations were higher for poultry litter amendments when compared with fly ash amendments despite much higher As loading rates for the fly ashes. Further work has shown that >90% of total As can be solubilized from poultry litter through simple water extractions. In order to identify the two benzenearsenic feed additives we have developed ion chromatography methodology to separate As(III), As(V), MMA, DMA, p-ASA and ROX with element specific detection by ICP-MS. All species are well separated and detection limits are <50 ng/L for all species. Analysis of a water extraction of a poultry litter sample showed that the majority of soluble As was present as ROX but trace concentrations of As(V) and DMA were also identified along with an number of unknown As compounds. This methodology will prove useful in future studies of the fate and transport of p-ASA and ROX, and in identifying these compounds in watersheds where poultry litter has been extensively applied.

  10. Hepatitis Virus Infections in Poultry.

    PubMed

    Yugo, Danielle M; Hauck, Ruediger; Shivaprasad, H L; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Viral hepatitis in poultry is a complex disease syndrome caused by several viruses belonging to different families including avian hepatitis E virus (HEV), duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV-1, -2, -3), duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3, fowl adenoviruses (FAdV), and turkey hepatitis virus (THV). While these hepatitis viruses share the same target organ, the liver, they each possess unique clinical and biological features. In this article, we aim to review the common and unique features of major poultry hepatitis viruses in an effort to identify the knowledge gaps and aid the prevention and control of poultry viral hepatitis. Avian HEV is an Orthohepevirus B in the family Hepeviridae that naturally infects chickens and consists of three distinct genotypes worldwide. Avian HEV is associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome or big liver and spleen disease in chickens, although the majority of the infected birds are subclinical. Avihepadnaviruses in the family of Hepadnaviridae have been isolated from ducks, snow geese, white storks, grey herons, cranes, and parrots. DHBV evolved with the host as a noncytopathic form without clinical signs and rarely progressed to chronicity. The outcome for DHBV infection varies by the host's ability to elicit an immune response and is dose and age dependent in ducks, thus mimicking the pathogenesis of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and providing an excellent animal model for human HBV. DHAV is a picornavirus that causes a highly contagious virus infection in ducks with up to 100% flock mortality in ducklings under 6 wk of age, while older birds remain unaffected. The high morbidity and mortality has an economic impact on intensive duck production farming. Duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3 are astroviruses in the family of Astroviridae with similarity phylogenetically to turkey astroviruses, implicating the potential for cross-species infections between strains. Duck astrovirus (DAstV) causes

  11. 9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... United States in accordance with 9 CFR 381.196. (b) If processed, the poultry meat or other poultry... accompanying the poultry meat or other poultry products (required by 9 CFR 381.197) includes statements... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  12. 9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... United States in accordance with 9 CFR 381.196. (b) If processed, the poultry meat or other poultry... accompanying the poultry meat or other poultry products (required by 9 CFR 381.197) includes statements... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  13. 9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... United States in accordance with 9 CFR 381.196. (b) If processed, the poultry meat or other poultry... accompanying the poultry meat or other poultry products (required by 9 CFR 381.197) includes statements... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  14. 9 CFR 94.23 - Importation of poultry meat and other poultry products from Sinaloa and Sonora, Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... United States in accordance with 9 CFR 381.196. (b) If processed, the poultry meat or other poultry... accompanying the poultry meat or other poultry products (required by 9 CFR 381.197) includes statements... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  15. 21 CFR 579.40 - Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. 579.40 Section 579.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... § 579.40 Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients....

  16. 9 CFR 381.15 - Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain human food products containing poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... productâ of certain human food products containing poultry. 381.15 Section 381.15 Animals and Animal...; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Exemptions § 381.15 Exemption from definition of “poultry product” of certain...

  17. 9 CFR 381.150 - Requirements for the production of fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry breakfast strips. 381.150 Section 381.150... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Entry of Articles Into Official Establishments;...

  18. 21 CFR 579.40 - Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. 579.40 Section 579.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... § 579.40 Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients....

  19. Monitoring Campylobacter in the poultry production chain—from culture to genes and beyond.

    PubMed

    Josefsen, Mathilde H; Bhunia, Arun K; Engvall, Eva Olsson; Fachmann, Mette S R; Hoorfar, Jeffrey

    2015-05-01

    Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in poultry production. Standardized reference culture methods issued by national and international standardization organizations are time-consuming, cumbersome and not amenable to automation for screening of large numbers of samples. The ultimate goal for rapid monitoring of Campylobacter is to prevent contaminated meat from entering the food market. Currently, real-time PCR is fulfilling abovementioned criteria to a certain extent. Further development of real-time PCR, microarray PCR, miniaturized biosensors, chromatographic techniques and DNA sequencing can improve our monitoring capacity at a lower cost. Combined with innovative sampling and sample treatment, these techniques could become realistic options for on-farm and liquid-sample monitoring at slaughterhouses. PMID:25771343

  20. 9 CFR 381.159 - Poultry rolls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... subchapter, in 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter A or Subchapter B. In... use as binders in poultry rolls: transglutaminase enzyme at up to 65 ppm. When binding agents...

  1. Poultry litter toxicity comparison from various bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, G.; Kelly, P. )

    1992-01-01

    Poultry litter contains many toxic chemicals including Cu, As, Pb, Cd, Hg, Se and PCBs. Poultry litter leachate has been shown to be more toxic to marine luminescent organisms (Photobacterium phosphoreum) than other farm animal manures. A comparison of toxicity of the poultry litter leachate was undertaken using various bioassays. The EC{sub 50} (or LC{sub 50}) value for the leachate with the Microtox and Daphnia bioassays was 2.9 g/L/ Nitrobacter and Pseudomonas bioassays were not useful in determining the leachate toxicity because of the nutritional properties of the litter. Poultry litter leachate was found to be mutagenic to strains TA 97, TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 using the Ames Test.

  2. Proactive detection of bones in poultry processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, W. D. R.; Stewart, John

    2009-05-01

    Bones continue to be a problem of concern for the poultry industry. Most further processed products begin with the requirement for raw material with minimal bones. The current process for generating deboned product requires systems for monitoring and inspecting the output product. The current detection systems are either people palpitating the product or X-ray systems. The current performance of these inspection techniques are below the desired levels of accuracies and are costly. We propose a technique for monitoring bones that conduct the inspection operation in the deboning the process so as to have enough time to take action to reduce the probability that bones will end up in the final product. This is accomplished by developing active cones with built in illumination to backlight the cage (skeleton) on the deboning line. If the bones of interest are still on the cage then the bones are not in the associated meat. This approach also allows for the ability to practice process control on the deboning operation to keep the process under control as opposed to the current system where the detection is done post production and does not easily present the opportunity to adjust the process. The proposed approach shows overall accuracies of about 94% for the detection of the clavicle bones.

  3. On-farm production of arbuscular mycorrhizal funus inoculum in compost and vermiculite mixtures: results of on-farm demonstrations and impact of compost microbiological quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sustainability and profitability of many agricultural systems can be enhanced through the utilization of inoculum of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Inocula are commercially available, but inoculum can also be produced on-farm in mixtures of compost and vermiculite with a nurse host plant. Demon...

  4. Approaches to improve poultry vaccination using novel poultry adjuvants against coccidiosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this review, various new approaches to improve poultry adaptive immunity against coccidiosis through vaccination will be addressed using the recently published data. To improve poultry production and to meet the demands for the ever-increasing world human population, we need to develop new stra...

  5. Update on poultry viral diseases research conducted at Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory does intramural research for the United States Department of Agriculture on several poultry diseases. Following are some of the research accomplishments from last year. In the area of influenza research, we demonstrated that laying turkey hens inoculated wit...

  6. The pollutants from livestock and poultry farming in China-geographic distribution and drivers.

    PubMed

    Gan, Ling; Hu, Xisheng

    2016-05-01

    Livestock and poultry farming is a major source of agricultural pollution. However, our knowledge of the constraining factors of the geographic distribution of pollutants from livestock and poultry farming is still limited. In this study, using the optimized pollutant generation coefficients, we estimated the annual pollutant productions of eight livestock and poultry species at the provincial level in 2005 and 2013 and their growth rates during the study period in China; using canonical correlation analysis, we also explored the association between the eight pollutant measurements as dependent variables and 14 factors (including resource endowment, developmental level, and economic structure factors) as independent variables. Results indicate that there exist spatial disparity in the distribution of pollutants from livestock and poultry farming across regions, with provinces in the Huang-Huai-Hai region and the southwestern region accounting for approximately 50 % of the total productions in the nation. Cattle, pig, and poultry constitute the primary pollution sources in terms of livestock and poultry farming not only at the national level but also at the province level. While the species constitute and their respective growth rates of the pollutants can be also characterized by spatial disparity across regions, canonical correlation analysis shows that the observed regional patterns of the pollutants can be largely explained by the resource endowment factors (positive effects) and the developmental level factors (negative effects). In addition, we found that the development of livestock and poultry farming is negatively associated with the growing rate of both the resource endowment and the socioeconomic factors. This indicates that there exist different driving patterns in the gross and increment of the pollutant productions. Our research has significant implications for the appropriate environmental protection policy formulation and implementation in livestock

  7. How backyard poultry flocks influence the effort required to curtail avian influenza epidemics in commercial poultry flocks

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G.; Dunipace, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the evidence that the contribution of backyard poultry flocks to the on-going transmission dynamics of an avian influenza epidemic in commercial flocks is modest at best. Nevertheless, while disease control strategies need not involve the backyard flocks, an analysis of the contribution of each element of the next generation matrix to the basic reproduction number indicates that models which ignores the contribution of backyard flocks in estimating the effort required of strategies focused one host type (eg commercial flocks only) necessarily underestimate the level of effort to an extent that may matter to policy makers. PMID:21624777

  8. Consumer acceptability of interventions to reduce Campylobacter in the poultry food chain

    PubMed Central

    MacRitchie, L.A.; Hunter, C.J.; Strachan, N.J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing human Campylobacter cases has become a priority for the UK Government. However the public's views on acceptability of interventions to reduce Campylobacter in poultry production are poorly understood in the UK and in other countries around the world. The objective of the study was to investigate how increasing awareness and knowledge changes consumer acceptability of interventions that reduce human campylobacteriosis in the poultry food chain. This approach is readily applicable to other risks and associated interventions. It involved a survey of the views of consumers in the Grampian region in North East Scotland. This found that better hygiene practices on farm, freezing chicken meat and vaccination of chickens were acceptable to the majority of participants (95%, 53% & 52% respectively) whilst irradiation and chemical wash of chicken meat were acceptable to <50%. Increasing consumer awareness by providing information on the Campylobacter disease burden in humans increased the number of participants finding them acceptable. However, chemical wash and irradiation remained the least acceptable interventions, although highly effective at reducing Campylobacter, and were found to be never acceptable to >50% of respondents. It was found on average that food poisoning concern, previous awareness of Campylobacter and living in rural or urban areas had either no or little effect effect on the acceptability of interventions. Further, previous awareness of Campylobacter did not influence consumer concern of harmful bacteria on chicken meat. Overall, findings indicate that increasing consumer acceptability of the most effective interventions is likely to be a difficult process. PMID:24882947

  9. Consumer acceptability of interventions to reduce Campylobacter in the poultry food chain.

    PubMed

    MacRitchie, L A; Hunter, C J; Strachan, N J C

    2014-01-01

    Reducing human Campylobacter cases has become a priority for the UK Government. However the public's views on acceptability of interventions to reduce Campylobacter in poultry production are poorly understood in the UK and in other countries around the world. The objective of the study was to investigate how increasing awareness and knowledge changes consumer acceptability of interventions that reduce human campylobacteriosis in the poultry food chain. This approach is readily applicable to other risks and associated interventions. It involved a survey of the views of consumers in the Grampian region in North East Scotland. This found that better hygiene practices on farm, freezing chicken meat and vaccination of chickens were acceptable to the majority of participants (95%, 53% & 52% respectively) whilst irradiation and chemical wash of chicken meat were acceptable to <50%. Increasing consumer awareness by providing information on the Campylobacter disease burden in humans increased the number of participants finding them acceptable. However, chemical wash and irradiation remained the least acceptable interventions, although highly effective at reducing Campylobacter, and were found to be never acceptable to >50% of respondents. It was found on average that food poisoning concern, previous awareness of Campylobacter and living in rural or urban areas had either no or little effect effect on the acceptability of interventions. Further, previous awareness of Campylobacter did not influence consumer concern of harmful bacteria on chicken meat. Overall, findings indicate that increasing consumer acceptability of the most effective interventions is likely to be a difficult process. PMID:24882947

  10. Transport versus on-farm slaughter of bison: Physiological stress, animal welfare, and avoidable trim losses

    PubMed Central

    McCorkell, Robert; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Galbraith, Jayson; Schaefer, Al; Caulkett, Nigel; Boysen, Soren; Pajor, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Ranched bison are typically less acclimated to handling than are domesticated livestock, suggesting that they might be more vulnerable to handling and transportation stressors. Grain-finished bison were slaughtered on-farm (n = 11), or held for 48 h, transported to a research abattoir, held in lairage for 18 h, and then slaughtered (n = 11). An additional group (n = 10) was sampled at a conventional fixed location abattoir. Measures included serum cortisol and corticosterone concentrations during on-farm handling and exsanguination, serum glucose, creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and trim losses. Transport was associated with an increase in trim loss. On-farm, glucose was elevated, CPK was positively associated with handling order over 12 h, and corticosterone concentration, although lower than cortisol concentration, showed a greater response to prolonged disturbance. With appropriate on-farm handling facilities, the use of on-farm slaughter and mobile abattoir could avoid muscle damage and trim losses, and mitigate injuries sustained during handling and transport of bison. PMID:24155478

  11. Feasibility of mercury removal from simulated flue gas by activated chars made from poultry manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased emphasis on reduction of mercury emissions from coal fired electric power plants has resulted in environmental regulations that may in the future require application of activated carbons as mercury sorbents for mercury removal. At the same time, the quantity of poultry manure generated eac...

  12. Detection of organic residues on poultry processing equipment surfaces by LED-induced fluorescence imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic residues on equipment surfaces in poultry processing plants can generate cross- contamination and increase the risk of unsafe food for consumers. This research was aimed to investigate the potential of LED-induced fluorescence imaging technique for rapid inspection of stainless steel proces...

  13. Antibiotic Manipulation of Intestinal Microbiota to Identify Microbes Associated with Campylobacter Exclusion in Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of various subsets of poultry intestinal microbiota to protect turkeys from colonization by Campylobacter was investigated. Community subsets were generated in vivo by inoculation of day-old poults with the cecal contents of a Campylobacter-free adult turkey, followed by treatment with ...

  14. An overview of poultry industry in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    HUSSAIN, J.; RABBANI, I.; ASLAM, S.; AHMAD, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    The poultry sector is an important and vibrant segment of agriculture in Pakistan with a significant contribution to the national GDP (1.3%). Commercial poultry production in Pakistan started in the 1960’s and has been providing a significant portion of daily proteins to the Pakistani population ever since. During its evolution the industry enjoyed promotional policies of the Government, but has faced several challenges such as disease outbreaks and retail price fluctuations. Despite its important role in the country’s economy, not a single scientific study is available on its evolutionary history. The data available in this regard are scattered and lack reliability. This review is an effort to encompass the history of the overall growth of the poultry industry in Pakistan, its present status (2012 statistics) and future directions and challenges. This article may serve as the basic source of information on Pakistan’s poultry industry achievements. It will also guide poultry experts and policy makers for developing strategic planning for further growth of the industry. PMID:26696690

  15. Transformation of ionophore antimicrobials in poultry litter during pilot-scale composting.

    PubMed

    Munaretto, Juliana S; Yonkos, Lance; Aga, Diana S

    2016-05-01

    Ionophores are the second top selling class of antimicrobials used in food-producing animals in the United States. In chickens, ionophores are used as feed additives to control coccidiosis; up to 80% of administered ionophores are excreted in the litter. Because poultry litter is commonly used to fertilize agricultural fields, ionophore residues in litter have become contaminants of emerging concern. This study aims to develop a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantify ionophores, and identify their transformation products (TPs) in poultry litter after on-farm pilot-scale composting. The validation parameters of the optimized method showed good accuracy, ranging from 71 to 119% recovery and relative standard deviation (precision) of ≤19% at three different concentration levels (10, 50 and 100 μg/kg). Monensin, salinomycin and narasin, were detected in the poultry litter samples prior to composting at 290.0 ± 40, 426 ± 46, and 3113 ± 318 μg kg(-1), respectively. This study also aims to investigate the effect of different composting conditions on the removal of ionophores, such as the effect of turning or aeration. Results revealed a 13-68% reduction in ionophore concentrations after 150 d of composting, depending on whether the compost was aerated, turned, or subjected to a combination of both aeration and turning. Three transformation products and one metabolite of ionophores were identified in the composted litter using high-resolution liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QToF/MS). PMID:26874321

  16. Poultry litter incineration as a source of energy: reviewing the potential for impacts on environmental health and justice.

    PubMed

    Stingone, Jeanette A; Wing, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Legislation in North Carolina has mandated obtaining renewable energy from the incineration of poultry waste, resulting in proposals for three poultry-litter-fueled power plants statewide. This article summarizes environmental health and environmental justice issues associated with incineration of poultry waste for the generation of electric power. Emissions from poultry waste incineration include particulate matter, dioxins, arsenic, bioaerosols and other toxins; various components are associated with cardiovascular disease, cancer, respiratory illness, and other diseases. Industrial farm animal production tends to be concentrated in low-income, rural communities, where residents may be more vulnerable to air pollutants due to pre-existing diseases, other exposures and stressors, and poor access to medical services. These communities lack the political clout to prevent citing of polluting facilities or to pressure industry and government to follow and enforce regulations. Policies intended to reduce reliance on fossil fuels have the potential to increase environmental injustices and threats to environmental health. PMID:21411424

  17. On-farm falls among youth less than 20 years old in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, K J; Goldcamp, E M; Myers, J R

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the magnitude and characteristics of fall-related injuries on U.S. farms for youth less than 20 years old for work and non-work exposures at a national level. To examine the problem, data from the Childhood Agricultural Injury Survey (CAIS) and Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) were used. Findings indicate that falls are an important contributor to on-farm injuries, with youth appearing to be at considerable risk. Thus, a reduction of the exposure of youth to fall-related hazards on farms is needed. Strategies such as providing safe play areas for young children and continuing efforts to prevent extra riders on farm equipment will help in reducing these hazardous fall exposures. PMID:15017803

  18. Natural antioxidants in meat and poultry products.

    PubMed

    Karre, Liz; Lopez, Keyla; Getty, Kelly J K

    2013-06-01

    In response to recent claims that synthetic antioxidants have the potential to cause toxicological effects and consumers' increased interest in purchasing natural products, the meat and poultry industry has been seeking sources of natural antioxidants. Due to their high phenolic compound content, fruits and other plant materials provide a good alternative to conventional antioxidants. Plum, grape seed extract, cranberry, pomegranate, bearberry, pine bark extract, rosemary, oregano, and other spices functions as antioxidants in meat and poultry products. Pomegranate, pine bark extract, cinnamon, and cloves have exhibited stronger antioxidant properties than some synthetic options. Plum products, grape seed extract, pine bark extract, rosemary, and some spices all have been shown to affect the color of finished meat or poultry products; however, in some products such as pork sausage or uncured meats, an increase in red color may be desired. When selecting a natural antioxidant, sensory and quality impact on the product should be considered to achieve desired traits. PMID:23501254

  19. Impacts of Farmers' Knowledge Increase on Farm Profit and Watershed Water Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, D.; Bennett, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    This study explores the impact that an increase in real-time data might have on farmers' nitrogen management, on-farm profit, and watershed water quality in the Midwestern US. In this study, an agent-based model (ABM) is used to simulate farmers' decisions about nitrogen application rate and timing in corn fields. SWAT (soil-water assessment tool) is used to generate a database that characterizes the response of corn yields to nitrogen fertilizer application and the dynamics of nitrogen loss under different scenarios of rainfall events. The database simulates a scenario where farmers would receive real-time feedback about the fate and impact of nitrogen applied to their fields from in-situ sensors. The ability to transform these data into optimal actions is simulated at multiple levels for farmer agents. In a baseline scenario, the farmer agent is only aware of the yield potential of the land field and single values of N rates for achieving the yield potential and is not aware of N loss from farm fields. Knowledge increase is represented by greater accuracy in predicting rainfall events, and the increase of the number of discrete points in a field-specific quadratic curve that captures crop yield response to various levels of nitrogen perceived by farmer agents. In addition, agents perceive N loss from farm fields at increased temporal resolutions. Correspondingly, agents make adjustments to the rate of N application for crops and the timing of fertilizer application given the rainfall events predictions. Farmers' decisions simulated by the ABM are input into SWAT to model nitrogen concentration in impacted streams. Farm profit statistics and watershed-level nitrogen loads are compared among different scenarios of knowledge increase. The hypothesis that the increase of farmers' knowledge benefits both farm profits and watershed water quality is tested through the comparison.

  20. Microbiological Spoilage of Meat and Poultry Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerveny, John; Meyer, Joseph D.; Hall, Paul A.

    Humankind has consumed animal protein since the dawn of its existence. The archaeological record shows evidence of animal protein consumption as early as 12,500 BC (Mann, 2005). Raw meat and poultry are highly perishable commodities subject to various types of spoilage depending on handling and storage conditions. Because of this high potential for spoilage, the historical record reveals that early civilizations used techniques such as salting, smoking, and drying to preserve meat (Mack, 2001; Bailey, 1986). Today, more than ever, because of the globalization of the food supply, and increasing demands from exacting consumers, the control of meat and poultry spoilage is essential.

  1. Molecular characterization of Salmonella paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg from poultry and retail chicken meat in Colombia by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Byrne, Barbara A; Hume, Michael; León, Maribel; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Enriqué; Vives Flores, Martha J; Clavijo, Viviana; Holguin, Ángela; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan J; Castellanos, Ricardo; Tafur, McAllister; Smith, Woutrina A

    2015-04-01

    Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ variant (also termed Salmonella Java) and Salmonella Heidelberg are pathogens of public health importance that are frequently isolated from poultry. As a step toward implementing the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistant Surveillance, this study characterized molecular patterns of Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg isolated from poultry farms, fecal samples, and retail chicken meat using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The objective of this study was to determine the genetic relationship among isolates and to determine potential geographically predominant genotypes. Based on PFGE analysis, both serovars exhibited high heterogeneity: the chromosomal DNA fingerprints of 82 Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ isolates revealed 42 PFGE patterns, whereas the 21 isolates of Salmonella Heidelberg revealed 10 patterns. Similar genotypes of both serovars were demonstrated to be present on farms and in retail outlets. For Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+, closely genetically related strains were found among isolates coming from different farms and different integrated poultry companies within two departments (Santander and Cundinamarca) and also from farms located in the two geographically distant departments. For Salmonella Heidelberg, there were fewer farms with genetically related isolates than for Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+. A possible dissemination of similar genotypes of both serovars along the poultry production chain is hypothesized, and some facilitating factors existing in Colombia are reviewed. PMID:25836408

  2. 9 CFR 93.204 - Import permits for poultry and for poultry test specimens for diagnostic purposes; and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...; deficiencies in the regulatory programs for the control or eradication of animal diseases and...

  3. 9 CFR 93.204 - Import permits for poultry and for poultry test specimens for diagnostic purposes; and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...; deficiencies in the regulatory programs for the control or eradication of animal diseases and...

  4. 9 CFR 93.204 - Import permits for poultry and for poultry test specimens for diagnostic purposes; and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...; deficiencies in the regulatory programs for the control or eradication of animal diseases and...

  5. 9 CFR 93.204 - Import permits for poultry and for poultry test specimens for diagnostic purposes; and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY...; deficiencies in the regulatory programs for the control or eradication of animal diseases and...

  6. 9 CFR 82.15 - Replacement birds and poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Replacement birds and poultry. 82.15...- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.15 Replacement birds and poultry. Birds and poultry that have been destroyed because of a quarantine for END may not be replaced by birds...

  7. 9 CFR 82.15 - Replacement birds and poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement birds and poultry. 82.15...- EASE (END) AND CHLAMYDIOSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.15 Replacement birds and poultry. Birds and poultry that have been destroyed because of a quarantine for END may not be replaced by birds...

  8. 9 CFR 381.73 - Quarantine of diseased poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased poultry. 381.73... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection §...

  9. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and processors sometimes enter into...

  10. 9 CFR 381.140 - Relabeling poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Relabeling poultry products. 381.140... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers §...

  11. 29 CFR 780.125 - Raising of poultry in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Raising of poultry in general. 780.125 Section 780.125... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.125 Raising of poultry in general. (a) The term “poultry” includes domesticated fowl and game birds. Ducks...

  12. 9 CFR 381.95 - Disposal of condemned poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposal of condemned poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Handling and Disposal of Condemned...

  13. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and processors sometimes enter into...

  14. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  15. 9 CFR 381.140 - Relabeling poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Relabeling poultry products. 381.140... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers §...

  16. 29 CFR 780.125 - Raising of poultry in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Raising of poultry in general. 780.125 Section 780.125... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.125 Raising of poultry in general. (a) The term “poultry” includes domesticated fowl and game birds. Ducks...

  17. 9 CFR 381.95 - Disposal of condemned poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disposal of condemned poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Handling and Disposal of Condemned...

  18. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  19. 9 CFR 381.73 - Quarantine of diseased poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased poultry. 381.73... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection §...

  20. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and processors sometimes enter into...

  1. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  2. Record of Some Chemical Residues in Poultry Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadelman, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    How pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and heavy metals might get into poultry meat or eggs is reviewed. Several case studies where chemicals were found in poultry products are discussed. It can be concluded that the poultry industry is striving and generally succeeding in producing safe and nutritious meat and eggs. (Author/EB)

  3. 9 CFR 381.73 - Quarantine of diseased poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased poultry. 381.73... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection §...

  4. 9 CFR 381.95 - Disposal of condemned poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of condemned poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Handling and Disposal of Condemned...

  5. 9 CFR 381.73 - Quarantine of diseased poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased poultry. 381.73... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection §...

  6. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  7. 9 CFR 381.75 - Poultry used for research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poultry used for research. 381.75... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection § 381.75...

  8. 9 CFR 381.75 - Poultry used for research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poultry used for research. 381.75... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection § 381.75...

  9. 29 CFR 780.125 - Raising of poultry in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Raising of poultry in general. 780.125 Section 780.125... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.125 Raising of poultry in general. (a) The term “poultry” includes domesticated fowl and game birds. Ducks...

  10. 9 CFR 381.73 - Quarantine of diseased poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quarantine of diseased poultry. 381.73... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection §...

  11. 9 CFR 381.140 - Relabeling poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relabeling poultry products. 381.140... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers §...

  12. 9 CFR 381.95 - Disposal of condemned poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposal of condemned poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Handling and Disposal of Condemned...

  13. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and processors sometimes enter into...

  14. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity...

  15. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and processors sometimes enter into...

  16. 9 CFR 381.140 - Relabeling poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relabeling poultry products. 381.140... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers §...

  17. 9 CFR 381.95 - Disposal of condemned poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disposal of condemned poultry products... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Handling and Disposal of Condemned...

  18. 9 CFR 381.75 - Poultry used for research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poultry used for research. 381.75... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Ante Mortem Inspection § 381.75...

  19. 9 CFR 381.140 - Relabeling poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Relabeling poultry products. 381.140... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Labeling and Containers §...

  20. 29 CFR 780.125 - Raising of poultry in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of poultry in general. 780.125 Section 780.125... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.125 Raising of poultry in general. (a) The term “poultry” includes domesticated fowl and game birds. Ducks...

  1. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208 Section 93.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Poultry § 93.208 Articles accompanying poultry....

  2. 9 CFR 93.208 - Articles accompanying poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Articles accompanying poultry. 93.208 Section 93.208 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Poultry § 93.208 Articles accompanying poultry....

  3. 9 CFR 82.15 - Replacement birds and poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Replacement birds and poultry. 82.15... DISEASE (END) AND CHLAMYDI-OSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.15 Replacement birds and poultry. Birds and poultry that have been destroyed because of a quarantine for END may not be replaced by...

  4. 9 CFR 82.15 - Replacement birds and poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Replacement birds and poultry. 82.15... DISEASE (END) AND CHLAMYDI-OSIS Exotic Newcastle Disease (END) § 82.15 Replacement birds and poultry. Birds and poultry that have been destroyed because of a quarantine for END may not be replaced by...

  5. Reducing Ammonia Emissions from Poultry Litter with Alum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum sulfate (alum) additions to poultry litter have been shown to reduce ammonia (NH3) volatilization. The objectives of this paper were to present data on the effects of alum treatment of poultry litter on: (1) the efficacy of reducing ammonia loss, (2) poultry production parameters, and (3) ...

  6. Practical Poultry Raising. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual M-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Kenneth M.

    This manual is designed to provide development workers with the information and tools needed to begin or to improve poultry production. Covered in the individual chapters are the following topics: the nature and scope of poultry production, assessment of local poultry selections, basic information about chickens, country chickens, poultry…

  7. Development of diagnostic assays to monitor novel poultry enteric viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gut plays a key role in poultry performance, but much remains to be discovered regarding the complex viral constituency present in the poultry intestinal tract. It is likely that certain enteric viruses may affect the overall health and performance of commercial poultry, and it is possible that...

  8. 9 CFR 381.400 - Nutrition labeling of poultry products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of poultry products... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.400 Nutrition labeling of poultry products. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 82165, Dec. 29, 2010. (a)...

  9. Salmonella prevalence in poultry varies greatly in emerging markets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry meat continues to be a significant source for human salmonellosis worldwide. Retail establishments serve as an end point sale for raw and processed poultry products. Food safety surveillance systems for raw poultry have been carried out mainly at the processing plants. That being said, it is...

  10. Poultry litter application increases carbon sequestration and soil quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter, a cheap source of nutrients, is widely available in the southeastern U.S. because of a large-scale poultry industry. Disposal of poultry litter is causing an increasing environmental concern because of groundwater contamination of nitrogen and phosphorus through leaching and surface ...