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Sample records for on-line sample-pretreatment schemes

  1. On-line sample preconcentration with chemical derivatization of bacterial biomarkers by capillary electrophoresis: a dual strategy for integrating sample pretreatment with chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Ptolemy, Adam S; Le Bihan, Marianne; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2005-11-01

    Simple, selective yet sensitive methods to quantify low-abundance bacterial biomarkers derived from complex samples are required in clinical, biological, and environmental applications. In this report, a new strategy to integrate sample pretreatment with chemical analysis is investigated using on-line preconcentration with chemical derivatization by CE and UV detection. Single-step enantioselective analysis of muramic acid (MA) and diaminopimelic acid (DAP) was achieved by CE via sample enrichment by dynamic pH junction with ortho-phthalaldehyde/N-acetyl-L-cysteine labeling directly in-capillary. The optimized method resulted in up to a 100-fold enhancement in concentration sensitivity compared to conventional off-line derivatization procedures. The method was also applied toward the detection of micromolar levels of MA and DAP excreted in the extracellular medium of Escherichia coli bacterial cell cultures. On-line preconcentration with chemical derivatization by CE represents a unique approach for conducting rapid, sensitive, and high-throughput analyses of other classes of amino acid and amino sugar metabolites with reduced sample handling, where the capillary functions simultaneously as a concentrator, microreactor, and chiral selector. PMID:16200529

  2. On-Line Schemes For Computing Rotation Angles For SVDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercegovac, Milos D.; Lang, Tomas

    1988-01-01

    Two floating-point radix-2 schemes using on-line arithmetic for implementing the direct two-angle method for SVDs are presented. The first scheme is an on-line variant of the cosine/sine approach and is the fastest of the schemes considered: it performs the 2x2 SVD step in about 2n clock cycles. However, it requires a relatively large number of modules; this number is reduced when some modules are reused, resulting in a time of 3n clock cycles. The number of modules of this on-line version is still larger than that of the conventional one, but this is compensated by the smaller number of bit-slices per module and by the digit-serial communication among modules. The corresponding speed-up ratios are of 5 and 3 with respect to a conventional arithmetic implementation. The second scheme uses an on-line CORDIC approach and performs the 2x2 SVD in about 7n clock cycles and is advantageous because it is more time-area efficient. It results in a speed-up of about 2.5 with respect to the conventional CORDIC implementation.

  3. On-line Adaptive and Intelligent Distance Relaying Scheme for Power Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Rahul; Samantaray, S. R.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Venkoparao, G. V.

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents an on-line sequential extreme learning machine (OS-ELM) based fast and accurate adaptive distance relaying scheme (ADRS) for transmission line protection. The proposed method develops an adaptive relay characteristics suitable to the changes in the physical conditions of the power systems. This can efficiently update the trained model on-line by partial training on the new data to reduce the model updating time whenever a new special case occurs. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated on simulation platform for test system with two terminal parallel transmission lines with complex mutual coupling. The test results, considering wide variations in operating conditions of the faulted power network, indicate that the proposed adaptive relay setting provides significant improvement in the relay performance.

  4. A storage scheme for the real-time database supporting the on-line commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Hong-bin; Jing, Yu-jian; Wang, Hui

    2013-07-01

    The modern SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data acquisition) systems have been applied to various aspects of everyday life. As the time goes on, the requirements of the applications of the systems vary. Thus the data structure of the real-time database, which is the core of a SCADA system, often needs modification. As a result, the commitment consisting of a sequence of configuration operations modifying the data structure of the real-time database is performed from time to time. Though it is simple to perform the off-line commitment by first stopping and then restarting the system, during which all the data in the real-time database are reconstructed. It is much more preferred or in some cases even necessary to perform the on-line commitment, during which the real-time database can still provide real-time service and the system continues working normally. In this paper, a storage scheme of the data in the real-time database is proposed. It helps the real-time database support its on-line commitment, during which real-time service is still available.

  5. Development of On-Line Spectroscopic pH Monitoring for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plants: Weak Acid Schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, Amanda J.; Hylden, Laura R.; Campbell, Emily L.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Peterson, James M.; Smith, Frances N.; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2015-05-19

    Knowledge of real-time solution properties and composition is a necessity for any spent nuclear fuel reprocessing method. Metal-ligand speciation in aqueous solutions derived from the dissolved commercial spent fuel is highly dependent upon the acid concentration/pH, which influences extraction efficiency and the resulting speciation in the organic phase. Spectroscopic process monitoring capabilities, incorporated in a counter current centrifugal contactor bank, provide a pathway for on-line real-time measurement of solution pH. The spectroscopic techniques are process-friendly and can be easily configured for on-line applications, while classic potentiometric pH measurements require frequent calibration/maintenance and have poor long-term stability in aggressive chemical and radiation environments. Our research is focused on developing a general method for on-line determination of pH of aqueous solutions through chemometric analysis of Raman spectra. Interpretive quantitative models have been developed and validated under the range of chemical composition and pH using a lactic acid/lactate buffer system. The developed model was applied to spectra obtained on-line during solvent extractions performed in a centrifugal contactor bank. The model predicted the pH within 11% for pH > 2, thus demonstrating that this technique could provide the capability of monitoring pH on-line in applications such as nuclear fuel reprocessing.

  6. An on-line equivalent system identification scheme for adaptive control. Ph.D. Thesis - Stanford Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliwa, S. M.

    1984-01-01

    A prime obstacle to the widespread use of adaptive control is the degradation of performance and possible instability resulting from the presence of unmodeled dynamics. The approach taken is to explicitly include the unstructured model uncertainty in the output error identification algorithm. The order of the compensator is successively increased by including identified modes. During this model building stage, heuristic rules are used to test for convergence prior to designing compensators. Additionally, the recursive identification algorithm as extended to multi-input, multi-output systems. Enhancements were also made to reduce the computational burden of an algorithm for obtaining minimal state space realizations from the inexact, multivariate transfer functions which result from the identification process. A number of potential adaptive control applications for this approach are illustrated using computer simulations. Results indicated that when speed of adaptation and plant stability are not critical, the proposed schemes converge to enhance system performance.

  7. A DSP-based position sensor elimination method with an on-line parameter identification scheme for permanent magnet synchronous motor drives

    SciTech Connect

    Wijenayake, A.H.; Bailey, J.M.; Naidu, M.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a Digital Signal Processor-based algorithm with an on-line parameter identification scheme for precision estimation of the rotor position and speed of a permanent magnet adjustable speed drive system by measuring stator currents, voltages and temperature. A modified d-q equivalent circuit model has been obtained to account for the core losses. Machine parameter variations due to saturation and temperature are included in the algorithm, which is valid for any speed, including zero speed. A simple hardware implementation to estimate the initial rotor position during the machine start-up and the implementation of position estimation algorithm, using a TMS320C25 DSP, is discussed. Because the estimation algorithm needs few instructions, it can easily be implemented in real-time vector control of permanent magnet synchronous drives. A complete vector-controlled drive system using an actively clamped resonant dc link inverter with the position estimator has been simulated, and results show that the estimated position is in close agreement with the actual rotor position of the machine.

  8. The potential of electrophoretic sample pretreatment techniques and new instrumentation for bioanalysis, with a focus on peptidomics and metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Lindenburg, Petrus W; Ramautar, Rawi; Hankemeier, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    This Review highlights the potential of new electromigration-based sample pretreatment techniques for bioanalysis. Sample pretreatment is a challenging part of the analytical workflow, especially in the fields of peptidomics and metabolomics, where the analytes are very diverse, both in physicochemical properties and in endogenous concentration. Electromigration-based techniques have several strengths, such as fast selective analyte concentration and that complementary information on the content of a sample can be obtained when compared with more conventional (chromatography-based) techniques. In the past decade, various new electromigration-based sample pretreatment techniques have been developed, and importantly, new instrumental setups. In this Review, we provide an introduction on electromigration and its strengths. Then, selected examples of electromigration-based sample pretreatment techniques and instrumentation are discussed, namely free-flow electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, isotachophoresis, electrodialysis, electromembrane extraction and electroextraction. Finally, the promising perspectives of electromigration-based sample pretreatment techniques are outlined. PMID:24256359

  9. Effect of sample pretreatment on the extraction of lemon (Citrus limon) components.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Escobar, Carlos A; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, María D

    2016-06-01

    A study on the key role of lemon sample pretreatment on the analytical results is here presented. The objective of the study was to analyze the differences between extracts obtained from lyophilized and air-dried samples-the most common sample pretreatment in citrus studies-in comparison to extracts from fresh samples. All the extracts were obtained with ultrasound assistance and analyzed by LC-QTOF MS/MS. The dataset, constituted by 74 tentative identified metabolites, was first evaluated by ANOVA, which showed significant differences in the concentration of 44 out of 74 metabolites (p≤0.01). Also, the pairwise mean comparison (Tukey HSD; p≤0.01) revealed that the concentration of metabolites in the extracts from fresh and air-dried samples was quite similar and differed from that in lyophilized samples. On the other hand, application of principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear discrimination between pretreatments, explaining 86.20% of the total variability. The results of this study suggest that the main differences between extracts could be attributed to the effect of freezing or heating on metabolic pathways, and not only to thermolability of the compounds. PMID:27130132

  10. Effect of sample pretreatment on the fractionation of arsenic in anoxic soils.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guanxing; Chen, Zongyu; Sun, Jichao; Liu, Fan; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Ying

    2015-06-01

    Using by sequential extraction procedures to obtain the chemical forms of arsenic in soils can provide useful information for the assessment of arsenic mobility and bioavailability in soils. However, sample pretreatments before the extraction probably have some effects on the fractionation of arsenic in soils. Impact of sample pretreatments (freeze-drying, oven-drying, air-drying, and the fresh soil) on the fractionation of arsenic in anoxic soils was investigated in this study. The results show that there are some differences for arsenic fractions in soils between by drying pretreatments and by the fresh soil, indicating that the redistribution among arsenic fractions in anoxic soils occurs after drying pretreatments. The redistribution of arsenic fractions in anoxic soils is ascribed to the oxidation of organic matter and sulfides, the crystallization of iron (hydr)oxides, the ageing process, and the diffusion of arsenic into micropores. The freeze-drying is the best drying method to minimize the effect on the fractionation of arsenic in anoxic soils, while air-drying is the worst one. Drying pretreatments are not recommended for the fractionation of arsenic in anoxic soils with high concentration of iron. PMID:25537285

  11. Evaluation of sample pretreatment methods for analysis of polonium isotopes in herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Sreejith, Sathyapriya R; Nair, Madhu G; Rao, D D

    2014-12-01

    Herbal infusions like ayurvedic aristas are widely consumed by Indian population for good health. With increasing awareness about radiological assessment, an effort was made to assess the radioactivity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides in herbal medicines. (210)Po is an important alpha particle emitter contributing to internal dose to man from ingestion. Though (210)Po can be spontaneously deposited on silver disk for alpha spectrometric measurements with less radiochemical step, great care has to be taken during the sample pretreatment step owing to the high volatility of polonium even at low temperatures. Aim of the study was to evaluate an appropriate sample pretreatment method for estimation of polonium in herbal medicines. (209)Po was used for radiochemical yield calculation. Conventional open vessel wet ashing, physical evaporation, freeze-drying and microwave digestion in a Teflon vessel were examined. The recovery ranged between 9 and 79%. The lowest recovery was obtained for the samples that were processed by open vessel digestion without any volume reduction. The recoveries were comparable for those samples that were freeze dried and subjected to HNO3 + HClO4 + H2O2 + HF acid digestion and microwave digested samples. (210)Po concentration in the samples ranged from 11.3 to 39.6 mBq/L. PMID:25176601

  12. Determination of free sulfite in wine by zone electrophoresis with isotachophoresis sample pretreatment on a column-coupling chip.

    PubMed

    Masár, Marián; Danková, Mariana; Olvecká, Eva; Stachurová, Adela; Kaniansky, Dusan; Stanislawski, Bernd

    2004-02-13

    This work deals with the determination of free sulfite in wine by zone electrophoresis (ZE) with on-line isotachophoresis (ITP) sample pretreatment on a column-coupling (CC) chip with conductivity detection. A rapid pre-column conversion of sulfite to hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS), to minimize oxidation losses of the analyte, was included into the developed analytical procedure, while ITP and ZE were responsible for specific analytical tasks in the separations performed on the CC chip. ITP, for example, eliminated the sample matrix from the separation compartment and, at the same time, provided a selective concentration of HMS before its transfer to the ZE stage of the separation. On the other hand, ZE served as a final separation (destacking) method and it was used under the separating conditions favoring a sensitive conductivity detection of HMS. In this way, ITP and ZE cooperatively contributed to a 900 microg/l concentration detectability for sulfite as attained for a 60 nl load of wine (a 15-fold wine dilution and the use of a 0.9 microl sample injection channel of the chip) and, consequently, to the determination of free sulfite when this was present in wine at the concentrations as low as 3 mg/l. The separations were carried out in a closed separation compartment of the chip with suppressed hydrodynamic and electroosmotic flows. Such transport conditions, minimizing fluctuations of the migration velocities of the separated constituents, made a frame for precise migration and quantitation data as achieved for HMS in both the model and wine samples. Ninety percent recoveries, as typically obtained for free sulfite in wine samples, indicate promising potentialities of the present method as far as the accuracies of the provided analytical results are concerned. PMID:14763730

  13. Simple and Sensitive Paper-Based Device Coupling Electrochemical Sample Pretreatment and Colorimetric Detection.

    PubMed

    Silva, Thalita G; de Araujo, William R; Muñoz, Rodrigo A A; Richter, Eduardo M; Santana, Mário H P; Coltro, Wendell K T; Paixão, Thiago R L C

    2016-05-17

    We report the development of a simple, portable, low-cost, high-throughput visual colorimetric paper-based analytical device for the detection of procaine in seized cocaine samples. The interference of most common cutting agents found in cocaine samples was verified, and a novel electrochemical approach was used for sample pretreatment in order to increase the selectivity. Under the optimized experimental conditions, a linear analytical curve was obtained for procaine concentrations ranging from 5 to 60 μmol L(-1), with a detection limit of 0.9 μmol L(-1). The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated using seized cocaine samples and an addition and recovery protocol. PMID:27103080

  14. A study on characteristic of different sample pretreatment methods to evaluate the entrapment efficiency of liposomes.

    PubMed

    Ran, Congcong; Chen, Dan; Xu, Meng; Du, Chaohui; Li, Qinglian; Jiang, Ye

    2016-08-15

    To examine how methods affect the evaluation of entrapment efficiency (EE) of liposomes, four different sample pretreatment methods were adopted in the experiment. The four sample pretreatment methods were size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), solid-phase extraction (SPE), centrifugation ultrafiltration (CF-UF) and hollow fiber centrifugal ultrafiltration (HF-CF-UF). Amphotericin B (AmB), which could self-associate to form aggregates in water is adopted as the model drugs in this paper. In the present work, it was found that the characterization results of four methods were quite different. The EE of liposome by SEC was about 93%, only 5-13% using C18 or HLB columns, and approximately 100% by CF-UF. The EE of HF-CF-UF reached up to nearly 99.0%. Further, this paper revealed the reasons making the difference of EE among four methods. Conventional SEC may distort the authentic of EE of liposomes with mainly employing some small liposomes or excessive water as eluent. For SPE, cholesterol on liposome surface could interact with the stationary phase making it hard to elute with water, and increase the risk of liposome leakage. While for CF-UF, concentration polarization was a main limitation hindering unentrapped drug to pass through membrane, making unentrapped drug undetectable in liposome. HF-CF-UF could truly reflect EE of liposomes with the concentration of unentrapped AmB lower than 25.0μg/mL. However, when the concentration was higher than 25.0μg/mL, AmB aggregates could be entrapped by hollow fiber. From the above analysis, this paper came to the conclusion that each method had its own feature in characterization. This study provided a reasonable guideline for choosing methods to character the EE of liposome. PMID:27322630

  15. [Sample pretreatment for the measurement of phthalate esters in complex matrices].

    PubMed

    Liang, Jing; Zhuang, Wan'e; Lin, Fang; Yao, Wensong

    2014-11-01

    Sample pretreatment methods for the measurement of phthalate esters (PAEs) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in various complex matrices, including sediment, soil, suspended particle matter, urban surface dust, Sinonovacula Constricta, cosmet- ic, leather, plastic and coastal/estuarine seawater, were proposed. The pretreatment which was appropriate for GC-MS detection was focused on the investigation and optimization of oper- ating parameters for the extraction and purification, such as the extraction solvent, the eluant and the adsorbent of solid phase extraction. The results of the study of pretreatment for various complex matrices showed that methylene chloride was the best solvent for the ultrasonic extraction when solid-liquid extraction was used; silica gel was the economical and practical adsorbent for solid-phase extraction for purification; C18 was the most commonly adsorbent for preconcentration of PAE in coastal/estuarine seawater sample; the mixed solution of n-hexane and ethyl acetate with a certain proportion was the suitable SPE eluent. Under the optimized conditions, the spiked recoveries were above 58% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 10.5% (n = 6). The detection limits (DL, 3σ) were in the range of 0.3 μg/kg (dibutyl phthalate)--5.2 μg/kg ( diisononyl phthalate) for sediment, and 6 ng/L (dipropyl phthalate)--67 ng/L (diisodecyl phthalate) for costal/estuarine seawater. The pretreatment meth- od for various complex matrices is prominent for the measurement of the 16 PAEs with GC-MS. PMID:25764660

  16. Extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry toward in situ analysis without sample pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Hu, Bin; Li, Jianqiang; Chen, Rong; Zhang, Xie; Chen, Huanwen

    2009-09-15

    A homemade novel nanoextractive electrospray ionization (nanoEESI) source has been characterized for in situ mass spectrometric analysis of ambient samples without sample pretreatment. The primary ions generated using a nanospray emitter interact with the neutral sample plume created by manually nebulizing liquid samples, allowing production of the analyte ions in the spatial cross section of the nanoEESI source. The performance of nanoEESI is experimentally investigated by coupling the nanoEESI source to a commercial LTQ mass spectrometer for rapid analysis of various ambient samples using positive/negative ion detection modes. Compounds of interest in actual samples such as aerosol drug preparations, beverages, milk suspensions, farmland water, and groundwater were unambiguously detected using tandem nanoEESI ion trap mass spectrometry. The limit of detection was low picogram per milliliter levels for the compounds tested. Acceptable relative standard deviation (RSD) values (5-10%) were obtained for direct measurement of analytes in complex matrixes, providing linear dynamic signal responses using manual sample introduction. A single sample analysis was completed within 1.2 s. Requiring no sheath gas for either primary ion production or neutral sample introduction, the nanoEESI has advantages including readiness for miniaturization and integration, simple maintenance, easy operation, and low cost. The experimental data demonstrate that the nanoEESI is a promising tool for high-throughput, sensitive, quantitative, in situ analysis of ambient complex samples, showing potential applications for in situ analysis in multiple disciplines including but not limited to pharmaceutical analysis, food quality control, pesticides residue detection, and homeland security. PMID:19673501

  17. Fabric phase sorptive extraction: Two practical sample pretreatment techniques for brominated flame retardants in water.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guiqi; Dong, Sheying; Zhang, Mengfei; Zhang, Haihan; Huang, Tinglin

    2016-09-15

    Sample pretreatment is the critical section for residue monitoring of hazardous pollutants. In this paper, using the cellulose fabric as host matrix, three extraction sorbents such as poly (tetrahydrofuran) (PTHF), poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly (dimethyldiphenylsiloxane) (PDMDPS), were prepared on the surface of the cellulose fabric. Two practical extraction techniques including stir bar fabric phase sorptive extraction (stir bar-FPSE) and magnetic stir fabric phase sorptive extraction (magnetic stir-FPSE) have been designed, which allow stirring of fabric phase sorbent during the whole extraction process. In the meantime, three brominated flame retardants (BFRs) [tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tetrabromobisphenol A bisallylether (TBBPA-BAE), tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2,3-dibromopropyl)ether (TBBPA-BDBPE)] in the water sample were selected as model analytes for the practical evaluation of the proposed two techniques using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Moreover, various experimental conditions affecting extraction process such as the type of fabric phase, extraction time, the amount of salt and elution conditions were also investigated. Due to the large sorbent loading capacity and unique stirring performance, both techniques possessed high extraction capability and fast extraction equilibrium. Under the optimized conditions, high recoveries (90-99%) and low limits of detection (LODs) (0.01-0.05 μg L(-1)) were achieved. In addition, the reproducibility was obtained by evaluating the intraday and interday precisions with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 5.1% and 6.8%, respectively. The results indicated that two pretreatment techniques were promising and practical for monitoring of hazardous pollutants in the water sample. Due to low solvent consumption and high repeated use performance, proposed techniques also could meet green analytical criteria. PMID:27300591

  18. Electrochemical dissolved oxygen removal from microfluidic streams for LOC sample pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Marei, Mohamed M; Roussel, Thomas J; Keynton, Robert S; Baldwin, Richard P

    2014-09-01

    Current water quality monitoring for heavy metal contaminants largely results in analytical snapshots at a particular time and place. Therefore, we have been interested in miniaturized and inexpensive sensors suitable for long-term, real-time monitoring of the drinking water distribution grid, industrial wastewater effluents, and even rivers and lakes. Among the biggest challenges for such sensors are the issues of in-field device calibration and sample pretreatment. Previously, we have demonstrated use of coulometric stripping analysis for calibration-free determination of copper and mercury. For more negatively reduced metals, O2 reduction interferes with stripping analysis; hence, most electroanalysis techniques rely on pretreatments to remove dissolved oxygen (DO). Current strategies for portable DO removal offer limited practicality, because of their complexity, and often cause inadvertent sample alterations. Therefore, we have designed an indirect in-line electrochemical DO removal device (EDOR), utilizing a silver cathode to reduce DO in a chamber that is fluidically isolated from the sample stream by an O2-permeable membrane. The resulting concentration gradient supports passive DO diffusion from the sample stream into the deoxygenation chamber. The DO levels in the sample stream were determined by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry at a custom thin-layer cell (TLC) detector. Results show removal of 98% of the DO in a test sample at flow rates approaching 50 μL/min and power consumption as low as 165 mW h L(-1) at steady state. Besides our specific stripping application, this device is well-suited for LOC applications where miniaturized DO removal and/or regulation are desirable. PMID:25082792

  19. Sample pretreatment in the determination of specific alpha emitters in drinking water using [Ba+Fe]-coprecipitation method.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Navarro, J A; Pujol, Ll; Suarez-Navarro, M J

    2015-02-01

    The [Ba+Fe]-coprecipitation method is applied to measure gross alpha activity for radiological examination of drinking water in the laboratory. This method collects all the alpha-emitting radionuclides of interest (natural alpha emitters and transuranium elements) in a precipitate on a filter. This paper describes an investigation of sample pretreatment of the precipitate collected by the [Ba+Fe]-coprecipitation method for gross alpha activity determination. The aim of this preliminary work is to be a starting point to develop simple and rapid radiochemical procedures for specific alpha emitters (polonium, radium, thorium, uranium, plutonium and americium), in contrast to the sophisticated, expensive and time-consuming alpha spectrometry method. The sample pretreatment aspects considered include quantitative [Ba+Fe]-coprecipitation, two methods for precipitate treatment (leaching and complete destruction of the filter), and the determination of the alpha-emitting proportions present in the barium sulfate precipitate and acid solution obtained after precipitate treatment. Furthermore, a radiochemical procedure for (226)Ra determination was performed and finally, the sample pretreatment proposed in this work was summarized. PMID:25474768

  20. Optimization of Plasma Sample Pretreatment for Quantitative Analysis Using iTRAQ Labeling and LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF

    PubMed Central

    Luczak, Magdalena; Marczak, Lukasz; Stobiecki, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Shotgun proteomic methods involving iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation) peptide labeling facilitate quantitative analyses of proteomes and searches for useful biomarkers. However, the plasma proteome's complexity and the highly dynamic plasma protein concentration range limit the ability of conventional approaches to analyze and identify a large number of proteins, including useful biomarkers. The goal of this paper is to elucidate the best approach for plasma sample pretreatment for MS- and iTRAQ-based analyses. Here, we systematically compared four approaches, which include centrifugal ultrafiltration, SCX chromatography with fractionation, affinity depletion, and plasma without fractionation, to reduce plasma sample complexity. We generated an optimized protocol for quantitative protein analysis using iTRAQ reagents and an UltrafleXtreme (Bruker Daltonics) MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometer. Moreover, we used a simple, rapid, efficient, but inexpensive sample pretreatment technique that generated an optimal opportunity for biomarker discovery. We discuss the results from the four sample pretreatment approaches and conclude that SCX chromatography without affinity depletion is the best plasma sample preparation pretreatment method for proteome analysis. Using this technique, we identified 1,780 unique proteins, including 1,427 that were quantified by iTRAQ with high reproducibility and accuracy. PMID:24988083

  1. Comparative Study of the Effect of Sample Pretreatment and Extraction on the Determination of Flavonoids from Lemon (Citrus limon)

    PubMed Central

    Ledesma-Escobar, Carlos A.; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, María D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Flavonoids have shown to exert multiple beneficial effects on human health, being also appreciated by both food and pharmaceutical industries. Citrus fruits are a key source of flavonoids, thus promoting studies to obtain them. Characteristics of these studies are the discrepancies among sample pretreatments and among extraction methods, and also the scant number of comparative studies developed so far. Objective Evaluate the effect of both the sample pretreatment and the extraction method on the profile of flavonoids isolated from lemon. Results Extracts from fresh, lyophilized and air-dried samples obtained by shaking extraction (SE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and superheated liquid extraction (SHLE) were analyzed by LC–QTOF MS/MS, and 32 flavonoids were tentatively identified using MS/MS information. ANOVA applied to the data from fresh and dehydrated samples and from extraction by the different methods revealed that 26 and 32 flavonoids, respectively, were significant (p≤0.01). The pairwise comparison (Tukey HSD; p≤0.01) showed that lyophilized samples are more different from fresh samples than from air-dried samples; also, principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear discrimination among sample pretreatment strategies and suggested that such differences are mainly created by the abundance of major flavonoids. On the other hand, pairwise comparison of extraction methods revealed that USAE and MAE provided quite similar extracts, being SHLE extracts different from the other two. In this case, PCA showed a clear discrimination among extraction methods, and their position in the scores plot suggests a lower abundance of flavonoids in the extracts from SHLE. In the two PCA the loadings plots revealed a trend to forming groups according to flavonoid aglycones. Conclusions The present study shows clear discrimination caused by both sample pretreatments and extraction methods. Under the studied

  2. Characterization and identification of gamma-irradiated sauces by electron spin resonance spectroscopy using different sample pretreatments.

    PubMed

    Akram, Kashif; Ahn, Jae-Jun; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2013-06-01

    Tomato ketchup, barbeque sauce, sweet chili sauce, and spaghetti sauce were gamma irradiated at 0, 1, 5, and 10 kGy. Electron spin resonance (ESR) technique was used to characterize the irradiated sauces, targeting radiation-induced cellulose radicals and using a modified sample pretreatment method. The samples were first washed with water, and then the residues were extracted with alcohol. The non-irradiated sauces exhibited the single central signal, whose intensity showed a significant increase on irradiation. The ESR spectra from the radiation-induced cellulose radicals, with two side peaks (g=2.02012 and g=1.98516) equally spaced (± 3 mT) from the central signal, were also observed in the irradiated sauces. The improvements in the central (natural) and radiation-induced (two side peaks corresponding to the cellulose radicals) signal intensities were obvious, when compared with routine freeze-drying and alcoholic-extraction techniques. PMID:23411320

  3. Recent advances in the determination of tocopherols in biological fluids: from sample pretreatment and liquid chromatography to clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Cervinkova, Barbora; Krcmova, Lenka Kujovska; Solichova, Dagmar; Melichar, Bohuslav; Solich, Petr

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin E comprises eight related compounds: α-, β-, γ-, δ-tocopherols and α-, β-, γ-, δ-tocotrienols. In the past, α-tocopherol has been the isomer that was studied most, and its anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects have been described. Therefore, many prevention trials have investigated the effect of α-tocopherol on human health. Current research studies have also defined the important roles of other tocopherols, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and cancer preventative effects. Knowledge of the individual tocopherols could help to understand their roles in various metabolic pathways. This review summarizes the recent trends in sample pretreatment, liquid chromatography and selected applications of the determination of tocopherols in various biological materials. The relationship between tocopherol isomers and serious diseases is also described. Graphical Abstract Article structure. PMID:26758599

  4. Optimization of sample pretreatment methods for simultaneous determination of dolasetron and hydrodolasetron in human plasma by HPLC-ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuming; Chen, Shuo; Chen, Jitao; Liu, Guozhu; Chen, Bo; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2012-10-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous determination of dolasetron and its major metabolite, hydrodolasetron, in human plasma. A new sample pretreatment method, i.e., salt induced phase separation extraction (SIPSE), was proposed and compared with four other methods, i.e., albumin precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction, hydrophobic solvent-induced phase separation extraction and subzero-temperature induced phase separation extraction. Among these methods, SIPSE showed the highest extraction efficiency and the lowest matrix interferences. The extraction recoveries obtained from the SIPSE method were all more than 96% for dolasetron, hydrodolasetron and ondansetron (internal standard). The SIPSE method is also very fast and easy because protein precipitation, analyte extraction and sample cleanup are combined into one simple process by mixing acetonitrile with plasma and partitioning with 2 mol/L sodium carbonate aqueous solution. The correlation coefficients of the calibration curves were all more than 0.997, in the range of 7.9-4750.0 ng/mL and 4.8-2855.1 ng/mL for dolasetron and hydrodolasetron, respectively. The limits of quantification were 7.9 and 4.8 ng/mL for dolasetron and hydrodolasetron, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day repeatability were all less than 10%. The method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of dolasetron. PMID:22645289

  5. Combination of a Sample Pretreatment Microfluidic Device with a Photoluminescent Graphene Oxide Quantum Dot Sensor for Trace Lead Detection.

    PubMed

    Park, Minsu; Ha, Hyun Dong; Kim, Yong Tae; Jung, Jae Hwan; Kim, Shin-Hyun; Kim, Do Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok

    2015-11-01

    A novel trace lead ion (Pb(2+)) detection platform by combining a microfluidic sample pretreatment device with a DNA aptamer linked photoluminescent graphene oxide quantum dot (GOQD) sensor was proposed. The multilayered microdevice included a microchamber which was packed with cation exchange resins for preconcentrating metal ions. The sample loading and recovery were automatically actuated by a peristaltic polydimethylsiloxane micropump with a flow rate of 84 μL/min. Effects of the micropump actuation time, metal ion concentration, pH, and the volumes of the sample and eluent on the metal ion capture and preconcentration efficiency were investigated on a chip. The Pb(2+) samples whose concentrations ranged from 0.48 nM to 1.2 μM were successfully recovered with a preconcentration factor value between 4 and 5. Then, the preconcentrated metal ions were quantitatively analyzed with a DNA aptamer modified GOQD. The DNA aptamer on the GOQD specifically captured the target Pb(2+) which can induce electron transfer from GOQD to Pb(2+) upon UV irradiation, thereby resulting in the fluorescence quenching of the GOQD. The disturbing effect of foreign anions on the Pb(2+) detection and the spiked Pb(2+) real samples were also analyzed. The proposed GOQD metal ion sensor exhibited highly sensitive Pb(2+) detection with a detection limit of 0.64 nM and a dynamic range from 1 to 1000 nM. The on-chip preconcentration of the trace metal ions from a large-volume sample followed by the metal ion detection by the fluorescent GOQD sensor can provide an advanced platform for on-site water pollution screening. PMID:26456631

  6. Ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase system, a sample pretreatment procedure prior to high-performance liquid chromatography of opium alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Li, Shehong; He, Chiyang; Liu, Huwei; Li, Kean; Liu, Feng

    2005-11-01

    An ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C4 mim]Cl)/salt aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) was presented as a simple, rapid and effective sample pretreatment technique coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for analysis of the major opium alkaloids in Pericarpium papaveris. To find optimal conditions, the partition behaviors of codeine and papaverine in ionic liquid/salt aqueous two-phase systems were investigated. Various factors were considered systematically, and the results indicated that both the pH value and the salting-out ability of salt had great influence on phase separation. The recoveries of codeine and papaverine were 90.0-100.2% and 99.3-102.0%, respectively, from aqueous samples of P. papaveris by the proposed method. PMID:16143571

  7. Evaluation of a Reactor On-Line Uncertainty Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Robert M.; He, Weidong

    2001-06-17

    Robust control designs were developed to better match experimental conditions available in the TRIGA reactor. A first-order weighting function is specified for each operating range in the robust design to limit the maximum tracking error. Inclusion of the performance-weighting function as the on-line filter is discussed as a possible on-line performance-monitoring method. The scheme to evaluate an on-line uncertainty monitoring system for a robust reactor controller is shown. TRIGA reactor experiments were conducted to evaluate on-line performance-monitoring techniques. It is concluded that the observed robust-control performance-monitoring characteristics can be incorporated in an on-line decision-making process to choose appropriate robust control selection and enforcement.

  8. Connecting to On-line Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Astrophysics Datacenter Executive Committee (ADEC)

    2004-05-01

    The Astrophysics Datacenter Executive Committee (ADEC) is coordinating the development of a system to facilitate the linking to on-line data. This system has three components: 1. Unique dataset identifiers. 2. A verification system for identifiers. 3. Permanent links to on-line data sets. 1. The ADEC has agreed on a naming scheme for data sets that allows for the unique identification of any data set. The ADEC data centers will clearly mark their data with these identifiers to allow the generation of links to these data. 2. Each data center has a utility that can check whether a data set identifier is a valid identifier at that center. A central verifier allows third parties access to these individual verifiers through a single portal. 3. The central verifier also provides permanent links to data sets through a central link forwarding system. This makes it possible to move data sets between data centers while maintaining the permanent links. The ADEC plans to first use this system to implement the linking from the literature to on-line data in a collaboration with the AAS and the University of Chicago Press for the AAS journals.

  9. [Optimization of sample pretreatment method for the determination of typical artificial sweeteners in soil by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Feng, Biting; Gan, Zhiwei; Hu, Hongwei; Sun, Hongwen

    2014-09-01

    The sample pretreatment method for the determination of four typical artificial sweeteners (ASs) including sucralose, saccharin, cyclamate, and acesulfame in soil by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was optimized. Different conditions of extraction, including four extractants (methanol, acetonitrile, acetone, deionized water), three kinds of ionic strength of sodium acetate solution (0.001, 0.01, 0.1 mol/L), four pH values (3, 4, 5 and 6) of 0.01 mol/L acetate-sodium acetate solution, four set durations of extraction (20, 40, 60, 120 min) and number of extraction times (1, 2, 3, 4 times) were compared. The optimal sample pretreatment method was finally set up. The sam- ples were extracted twice with 25 mL 0.01 mol/L sodium acetate solution (pH 4) for 20 min per cycle. The extracts were combined and then purified and concentrated by CNW Poly-Sery PWAX cartridges with methanol containing 1 mmol/L tris (hydroxymethyl) amino methane (Tris) and 5% (v/v) ammonia hydroxide as eluent. The analytes were determined by HPLC-MS/MS. The recoveries were obtained by spiked soil with the four artificial sweeteners at 1, 10, 100 μg/kg (dry weight), separately. The average recoveries of the analytes ranged from 86.5% to 105%. The intra-day and inter-day precisions expressed as relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 2.56%-5.94% and 3.99%-6.53%, respectively. Good linearities (r2 > 0.995) were observed between 1-100 μg/kg (dry weight) for all the compounds. The limits of detection were 0.01-0.21 kg/kg and the limits of quantification were 0.03-0.70 μg/kg for the analytes. The four artificial sweeteners were determined in soil samples from farmland contaminated by wastewater in Tianjin. This method is rapid, reliable, and suitable for the investigation of artificial sweeteners in soil. PMID:25752083

  10. Label-free optical biosensor for detection and quantification of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac in milk without any sample pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Rau, Sabrina; Hilbig, Urs; Gauglitz, Günter

    2014-05-01

    A label-free optical biosensor for detection and quantification of diclofenac in bovine milk has been developed. This was achieved by using reflectometric interference spectroscopy as detection method. In a first step, the immunosensor was developed and optimised in buffer concerning sensitivity, selectivity, stability and reproducibility. By comparing recovery rates—not only the good intra- but also the good inter-chip—reproducibility could be proven. Consequently, the assay was transferred in the more complex matrix milk. By utilising an optimised surface modification and evaluation method, matrix effects could successfully be prevented or circumvented. As a result, the developed immunosensor does not need sample pretreatment at all. By obtaining a limit of detection of 0.112 μg L(−1) (0.108 μg kg(−1)), the capability of the developed biosensor is comparable or better than those of standard detection methods. Moreover, the presented biosensor reaches the range of the maximum residue limit (0.1 μg kg(−1)) set by the European Union. Thus, for the first time, diclofenac was successfully quantified at relevant levels in milk by using an optical biosensor. PMID:24658575

  11. Simultaneous detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals including conjugates in municipal wastewater and sludge with enhanced sample pretreatment and UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bing; Ben, Weiwei; Yuan, Xiangjuan; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min; Qiang, Zhimin

    2015-08-01

    The co-existence of free and conjugated estrogens and the interference from complex matrices often lead to largely variable detected concentrations and sometimes even negative removal efficiencies of typical endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, a highly selective and sensitive method was developed for simultaneous extraction, elution, and detection of 12 EDCs (i.e., 4 free estrogens, 6 conjugated estrogens, and 2 phenolic compounds) in municipal wastewater and sludge. Sample pretreatment and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry detection were optimized to improve the detection selectivity and sensitivity. The results indicate that the additional purification process was highly effective in reducing the matrix interference, and the limits of quantification reached as low as 0.04-2.2 ng L(-1) in wastewater and 0.05-4.9 ng g(-1) in sludge for all target EDCs. The developed method was successfully applied to explore the behavior of target EDCs in a local WWTP. The conjugates occupied a considerable portion (4.3-76.9% in molar ratio) of each related estrogen in the influent. Most of the target EDCs could not be completely removed in WWTPs, thus posing a potential threat to aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26161687

  12. imFASP: An integrated approach combining in-situ filter-aided sample pretreatment with microwave-assisted protein digestion for fast and efficient proteome sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qun; Fang, Fei; Wu, Ci; Wu, Qi; Liang, Yu; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2016-03-17

    An integrated sample preparation method, termed "imFASP", which combined in-situ filter-aided sample pretreatment and microwave-assisted trypsin digestion, was developed for preparation of microgram and even nanogram amounts of complex protein samples with high efficiency in 1 h. For imFASP method, proteins dissolved in 8 M urea were loaded onto a filter device with molecular weight cut off (MWCO) as 10 kDa, followed by in-situ protein preconcentration, denaturation, reduction, alkylation, and microwave-assisted tryptic digestion. Compared with traditional in-solution sample preparation method, imFASP method generated more protein and peptide identifications (IDs) from preparation of 45 μg Escherichia coli protein sample due to the higher efficiency, and the sample preparation throughput was significantly improved by 14 times (1 h vs. 15 h). More importantly, when the starting amounts of E. coli cell lysate decreased to nanogram level (50-500 ng), the protein and peptide identified by imFASP method were improved at least 30% and 44%, compared with traditional in-solution preparation method, suggesting dramatically higher peptide recovery of imFASP method for trace amounts of complex proteome samples. All these results demonstrate that the imFASP method developed here is of high potential for high efficient and high throughput preparation of trace amounts of complex proteome samples. PMID:26920773

  13. Investigating effects of sample pretreatment on protein stability using size-exclusion chromatography and high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rakow, Tobias; El Deeb, Sami; Hahne, Thomas; El-Hady, Deia Abd; AlBishri, Hassan M; Wätzig, Hermann

    2014-09-01

    In this study, size-exclusion chromatography and high-resolution atomic absorption spectrometry methods have been developed and evaluated to test the stability of proteins during sample pretreatment. This especially includes different storage conditions but also adsorption before or even during the chromatographic process. For the development of the size exclusion method, a Biosep S3000 5 μm column was used for investigating a series of representative model proteins, namely bovine serum albumin, ovalbumin, monoclonal immunoglobulin G antibody, and myoglobin. Ambient temperature storage was found to be harmful to all model proteins, whereas short-term storage up to 14 days could be done in an ordinary refrigerator. Freezing the protein solutions was always complicated and had to be evaluated for each protein in the corresponding solvent. To keep the proteins in their native state a gentle freezing temperature should be chosen, hence liquid nitrogen should be avoided. Furthermore, a high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry method was developed to observe the adsorption of proteins on container material and chromatographic columns. Adsorption to any container led to a sample loss and lowered the recovery rates. During the pretreatment and high-performance size-exclusion chromatography, adsorption caused sample losses of up to 33%. PMID:24964383

  14. On-Line Communications Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternick, Barbara R.

    These summaries have been compiled to assist users in selecting terminals for use with the National Library of Medicine (NLM) on-line systems. The summaries describe the salient characteristics and approximate prices of a large number of hard copy and display devices. Many of the terminals listed may be modified by the addition of various options…

  15. Simplifying sample pretreatment: application of dried blood spot (DBS) method to blood samples, including postmortem, for UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Odoardi, Sara; Anzillotti, Luca; Strano-Rossi, Sabina

    2014-10-01

    The complexity of biological matrices, such as blood, requires the development of suitably selective and reliable sample pretreatment procedures prior to their instrumental analysis. A method has been developed for the analysis of drugs of abuse and their metabolites from different chemical classes (opiates, methadone, fentanyl and analogues, cocaine, amphetamines and amphetamine-like substances, ketamine, LSD) in human blood using dried blood spot (DBS) and subsequent UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. DBS extraction required only 100μL of sample, added with the internal standards and then three droplets (30μL each) of this solution were spotted on the card, let dry for 1h, punched and extracted with methanol with 0.1% of formic acid. The supernatant was evaporated and the residue was then reconstituted in 100μL of water with 0.1% of formic acid and injected in the UHPLC-MS/MS system. The method was validated considering the following parameters: LOD and LOQ, linearity, precision, accuracy, matrix effect and dilution integrity. LODs were 0.05-1ng/mL and LOQs were 0.2-2ng/mL. The method showed satisfactory linearity for all substances, with determination coefficients always higher than 0.99. Intra and inter day precision, accuracy, matrix effect and dilution integrity were acceptable for all the studied substances. The addition of internal standards before DBS extraction and the deposition of a fixed volume of blood on the filter cards ensured the accurate quantification of the analytes. The validated method was then applied to authentic postmortem blood samples. PMID:24814508

  16. On-line lower-order modeling via neural networks.

    PubMed

    Ho, H F; Rad, A B; Wong, Y K; Lo, W L

    2003-10-01

    This paper presents a novel method to determine the parameters of a first-order plus dead-time model using neural networks. The outputs of the neural networks are the gain, dominant time constant, and apparent time delay. By combining this algorithm with a conventional PI or PID controller, we also present an adaptive controller which requires very little a priori knowledge about the plant under control. The simplicity of the scheme for real-time control provides a new approach for implementing neural network applications for a variety of on-line industrial control problems. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and adaptive property of the proposed scheme. PMID:14582882

  17. On-line surfactant monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, K.I.; Neal, E.E.; Soran, P.D.; Smith, B.

    1995-04-01

    This group has developed a process to extract metal ions from dilute aqueous solutions. The process uses water soluble polymers to complex metal ions. The metal/polymer complex is concentrated by ultrafiltration and the metals are recovered by a pH adjustment that frees the metal ions. The metal ions pass through the ultrafiltration membrane and are recovered in a concentrated form suitable for reuse. Surfactants are present in one of the target waste streams. Surfactants foul the costly ultrafiltration membranes. It was necessary to remove the surfactants before processing the waste stream. This paper discusses an on-line device the authors fabricated to monitor the process stream to assure that all the surfactant had been removed. The device is inexpensive and sensitive to very low levels of surfactants.

  18. Microwave-assisted on-line derivatization for sensitive flow injection fluorometric determination of formaldehyde in some foods.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Zhi-Qi

    2009-11-15

    A rapid and sensitive flow injection fluorometry has been developed for the determination of formaldehyde based on the microwave on-line accelerating its Hantzsch reaction with cyclohexane-1,3-dione. Under the optimized conditions, the fluorescent intensity is proportional to formaldehyde content in the range from 0.05 ng/mL to 2.000 microg/mL. The detection limit (S/N=3) is 0.02 ng/mL and the analytical frequency is 28 injections per hour. The relative standard deviations are 2.2% and 3.1% for eleven injections of 0.100 and 0.001 microg/mL of formaldehyde, respectively. With the assistance of microwave irradiation, a best sensitive fluorometry was established for the determination of formaldehyde at a high analytical frequency. This method was successfully applied to food analysis without requiring any sample pretreatment, and the determination results were correlated well with those obtained by the standard method with a sample pretreatment of steam distillation. PMID:19782221

  19. New advances in on-line sample preconcentration by capillary electrophoresis using dynamic pH junction.

    PubMed

    Ptolemy, Adam S; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2008-12-01

    The small injection volumes and narrow dimensions characteristic of microseparation techniques place constraints on concentration sensitivity that is required for trace chemical analyses. On-line sample preconcentration techniques using dynamic pH junction and its variants have emerged as simple yet effective strategies for enhancing concentration sensitivity of weakly ionic species by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Dynamic pH junction offers a convenient format for electrokinetic focusing of dilute sample plugs directly in-capillary for improved detection without off-line sample pretreatment. In this report, we highlight new advances in dynamic pH junction which have been reported to enhance method performance while discussing challenges for future research. PMID:19082065

  20. Fe3O4@Graphene Oxide@Ag Particles for Surface Magnet Solid-Phase Extraction Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SMSPE-SERS): From Sample Pretreatment to Detection All-in-One.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Yi; Deng, Rong; Yang, Liyuan; Yu, Shihua; Xu, Shuping; Xu, Weiqing

    2016-06-01

    A multifunctional magnetic graphene surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate was fabricated successfully by the layer-by-layer assembly of silver and graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles (NPs) on the magnetic ferroferric oxide particles (Fe3O4@GO@Ag). This ternary particle possesses magnetic properties, SERS activity, and adsorption ability simultaneously. Owing to the multifunction of this Fe3O4@GO@Ag ternary complex, we put forward a new method called a surface magnetic solid-phase extraction (SMSPE) technique, for the SERS detections of pesticide residues on the fruit peels. SMSPE integrates many sample pretreatment procedures, such as surface extraction, separation sample, and detection, all-in-one. So this method shows great superiority in simplicity, rapidity, and high efficiency above other standard methods. The whole detection process can be finished within 20 min including the sample pretreatment and SERS detection. Owing to the high density of Ag NPs, the detection sensitivity is high enough that the lowest detectable concentrations are 0.48 and 40 ng/cm(2) for thiram and thiabendazole, which are much lower than the maximal residue limits in fruit prescribed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This multifunctional ternary particle and its corresponding analytical method have been proven to be applicable for practical samples and also valuable for other surface analysis. PMID:27191584

  1. On-Line Assessment: What, Why, How.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natal, Dottie

    Recent increases in the speed and accessibility of computers and networks have made it possible to administer tests on-line. On-line assessment can be conducted in a controlled setting, such as a testing center, or distributed over local area networks or the Internet to libraries and student homes, allowing students the flexibility to complete…

  2. On-line diagnosis of sequential systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundstrom, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    A model for on-line diagnosis was investigated for discrete-time systems, and resettable sequential systems. Generalized notions of a realization are discussed along with fault tolerance and errors. Further investigation into the theory of on-line diagnosis is recommended for three levels: binary state-assigned level, logical circuit level, and the subsystem-network level.

  3. Testing Claims for On-Line Conferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selfe, Cynthia L.; Meyer, Paul R.

    1991-01-01

    Describes an exploratory study of gender and power relationships on Megabyte University, one particular on-line conference. Finds that, although results of the study are not definite, they do suggest that gender and power are present to some extent even in on-line conferences. (MG)

  4. On-line control of the nonlinear dynamics for synchrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengtsson, J.; Martin, I. P. S.; Rowland, J. H.; Bartolini, R.

    2015-07-01

    We propose a simple approach to the on-line control of the nonlinear dynamics in storage rings, based on compensation of the nonlinear resonance driving terms using beam losses as the main indicator of the strength of a resonance. The correction scheme is built on the analysis of the resonance driving terms in first perturbative order and on the possibility of using independent power supplies in the sextupole magnets, which is nowadays present in many synchrotron light sources. Such freedom allows the definition of "smart sextupole knobs" attacking each resonance separately. The compensation scheme has been tested at the Diamond light source and proved to be effective in opening up the betatron tune space, resonance free, available to the electron beam and to improve the beam lifetime.

  5. On-line chemical composition analyzer development

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report relates to the development of an on-line Raman analyzer for control of a distillation column. It is divided into: program issues, experimental control system evaluation, energy savings analysis, and reliability analysis. (DLC)

  6. On-Line Measurement of Aphasic Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packman, Ann; Ingham, Roger J.

    1978-01-01

    The spontaneous speech of five aphasic Ss (47-70 years old) was rated on-line by four clinicians to test the reliability of seven response categories (devised for the concurrent evaluation of aphasic speech). (Author/PHR)

  7. Simultaneous determination of some food additives in soft drinks and other liquid foods by flow injection on-line dialysis coupled to high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kritsunankul, Orawan; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2011-06-15

    Flow injection on-line dialysis was developed for sample pretreatment prior to the simultaneous determination of some food additives by high performance liquid chromatography (FID-HPLC). A liquid sample or mixed standard solution (900 μL) was injected into a donor stream (5%, w/v, sucrose) of FID system and was pushed further through a dialysis cell, while an acceptor solution (0.025 mol L(-1) phosphate buffer, pH 3.75) was held in the opposite side of the dialysis membrane. The dialysate was then flowed to an injection loop of the HPLC valve, where it was further injected into the HPLC system and analyzed under isocratic reverse-phase HPLC conditions and UV detection (230 nm). The order of elution of five food additives was acesulfame-K, saccharin, caffeine, benzoic acid and sorbic acid, respectively, with the analysis time of 14 min. On-line dialysis and HPLC analysis could be performed in parallel, providing sample throughput of 4.3h(-1). Dialysis efficiencies of five food additives were in ranges of 5-11%. Linear calibration graphs were in ranges of 10-100 mg L(-1) for acesulfame-K and saccharin, 10-250 mg L(-1) for benzoic acid and 10-500 mg L(-1) for caffeine and sorbic acid. Good precisions (RSD<5%) for all the additives were obtained. The proposed system was applied to soft drink and other liquid food samples. Acceptable percentage recoveries could be obtained by appropriate dilution of the sample before injecting into the system. The developed system has advantages of high degrees of automation for sample pretreatment, i.e., on-line sample separation and dilution and low consumption of chemicals and materials. PMID:21641449

  8. On-line handwritten text categorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña Saldarriaga, Sebastián; Viard-Gaudin, Christian; Morin, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    As new innovative devices, accepting or producing on-line documents, emerge, managing facilities for these kinds of documents such as topic spotting are required. This means that we should be able to perform text categorization of on-line documents. The textual data available in on-line documents can be extracted through online recognition, a process which produces noise, i.e. errors, in the resulting text. This work reports experiments on categorization of on-line handwritten documents based on their textual contents. We analyze the effect of the word recognition rate on the categorization performances, by comparing the performances of a categorization system over the texts obtained through on-line handwriting recognition and the same texts available as ground truth. Two categorization algorithms (kNN and SVM) are compared in this work. A subset of the Reuters-21578 corpus consisting of more than 2000 handwritten documents has been collected for this study. Results show that accuracy loss is not significant, and precision loss is only significant for recall values of 60%-80% depending on the noise levels.

  9. On-line atomic data access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, David R.; Nash, Jeffrey K.

    1996-07-01

    The need for atomic data is one which continues to expand in a wide variety of applications including fusion energy, astrophysics, laser-produced plasma research, and plasma processing. Modern computer database and communications technology enables this data to be placed on-line and obtained by users over the INTERNET. Presented here is a summary of the observations and conclusions regarding such on-line atomic data access derived from a forum held at the Tenth APS Topical Conference on Atomic Processes in Plasmas.

  10. On-line solid phase extraction of humic acid from environmental water and monitoring with flow-through chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jingya; Chen, Hui; Lu, Chao; Wang, Zhihua; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2012-04-21

    An on-line solid phase extraction device combined with flow-through chemiluminescence monitoring was presented for the enrichment and determination of humic acid (HA) in water samples. The chemiluminescence principle was based on the enhancement effect of HA on the Ce(IV)/H(2)SO(4)-rhodamine 6G chemiluminescence system. For sample pretreatment, the on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) material was packed into a cartridge which was then installed in the manifold. Experimental parameters including reagent concentration, flow rate and extraction time, were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the relative standard deviation was 3.6% for determining 2 mg L(-1) HA standard solution and the detection limit was 3 μg L(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of HA in the range of 0.1-35 mg L(-1). The results were validated by spike recovery experiments. The recovery was from 74.0% to 121%, which was good enough for the determination of HA in environmental waters. PMID:22382709

  11. Single-step enantioselective amino acid flux analysis by capillary electrophoresis using on-line sample preconcentration with chemical derivatization.

    PubMed

    Ptolemy, Adam S; Tran, Lara; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2006-07-15

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) represents a versatile platform for integrating sample pretreatment with chemical analysis because of its ability to tune analyte electromigration and band dispersion properties in discontinuous electrolyte systems. In this article, a single-step method that combines on-line sample preconcentration with in-capillary chemical derivatization is developed for rapid, sensitive, and enantioselective analysis of micromolar levels of amino acids that lack intrinsic chromophores by CE with UV detection. Time-resolved electrophoretic studies revealed two distinct stages of amino acid band narrowing within the original long sample injection plug occurring both prior to and after in-capillary labeling via zone passing by ortho-phthalaldehyde/N-acetyl l-cysteine (OPA/NAC). This technique enabled direct analysis of d-amino acids in a 95% enantiomeric excess mixture with sub-micromolar detection limits and minimal sample handling, where the capillary functions as a preconcentrator, microreactor, and chiral selector. On-line sample preconcentration with chemical derivatization CE (SPCD-CE) was applied to study the enantioselective amino acid flux in Escherichia coli bacteria cultures, which demonstrated a unique l-Ala efflux into the extracellular medium. New strategies for high-throughput analyses of low-abundance metabolites are important for understanding fundamental physiological processes in bacteria required for screening the efficacy of new classes of antibiotics as well as altered metabolism in genetically modified mutant strains. PMID:16753129

  12. Reflections of an On-Line Tutor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towndrow, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the relatively unexplored field of reflective journal writing by an on-line tutor, in this case working with a group of Chinese learners of English attending an intensive communication skills programme at a tertiary-level institution in Singapore. The results reported highlight the role of the reflective journal in…

  13. Student System, On-Line Admissions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stephen R.

    This report provides technical information on an on-line admissions system developed by Montgomery College. Part I, Systems Development, describes the background, objectives and responsibilities, system design, and reports generated by the system. Part II, Operating Instructions, describes input forms and controls, admission system functions, file…

  14. Student System, On-Line Registration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Mary Ellen

    This report provides technical information on an on-line student registration system developed by Montgomery College. Part I, Systems Development, describes the background, objectives and benefits, system design, and reports generated by the system. Part II, Operating Instructions, describes input forms, registration system functions, file…

  15. LUST ON-LINE CALCULATOR INTRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a suite of on-line calculators to assist in performing site assessment and modeling calculations for leaking underground storage tank sites (http://www.epa.gov/athens/onsite). The calculators are divided into four types: parameter estimation, models, scientific...

  16. Transformation invariant on-line target recognition.

    PubMed

    Iftekharuddin, Khan M

    2011-06-01

    Transformation invariant automatic target recognition (ATR) has been an active research area due to its widespread applications in defense, robotics, medical imaging and geographic scene analysis. The primary goal for this paper is to obtain an on-line ATR system for targets in presence of image transformations, such as rotation, translation, scale and occlusion as well as resolution changes. We investigate biologically inspired adaptive critic design (ACD) neural network (NN) models for on-line learning of such transformations. We further exploit reinforcement learning (RL) in ACD framework to obtain transformation invariant ATR. We exploit two ACD designs, such as heuristic dynamic programming (HDP) and dual heuristic dynamic programming (DHP) to obtain transformation invariant ATR. We obtain extensive statistical evaluations of proposed on-line ATR networks using both simulated image transformations and real benchmark facial image database, UMIST, with pose variations. Our simulations show promising results for learning transformations in simulated images and authenticating out-of plane rotated face images. Comparing the two on-line ATR designs, HDP outperforms DHP in learning capability and robustness and is more tolerant to noise. The computational time involved in HDP is also less than that of DHP. On the other hand, DHP achieves a 100% success rate more frequently than HDP for individual targets, and the residual critic error in DHP is generally smaller than that of HDP. Mathematical analyses of both our RL-based on-line ATR designs are also obtained to provide a sufficient condition for asymptotic convergence in a statistical average sense. PMID:21571610

  17. Key-linked on-line databases for clinical research.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas H

    2012-01-01

    Separating patient identification data from clinical data and/or information about biomaterial samples is an effective data protection measure, especially in clinical research employing "on-line", i.e., web-based, data capture. In this paper, we show that this specialised technique can be generalised into a network architecture of interconnected on-line databases potentially serving a variety of purposes. The basic idea of this approach consists of maintaining logical links, i.e., common record keys, between corresponding data structures in pairs of databases while keeping the actual key values hidden from clients. For client systems, simultaneous access to corresponding records is mediated by temporary access tokens. At the relational level, these links are represented by arbitrary unique record keys common to both databases. This architecture allows for integration of related data in different databases without replicating or permanently sharing this data in one place. Each participating on-line database can determine the degree of integration by specifying linkage keys only for those data structures that may be logically connected to other data. Logical links can de designed for specific use cases. In addition, each database controls user access by enforcing its own authorisation scheme. Another advantage is that individual database owners retain considerable leeway in adapting to changing local requirements without compromising the integration into the network. Beyond protecting individual subject identification data, this architecture permits splitting a cooperatively used data pool to achieve many kinds of objectives. Application examples could be clinical registries needing subject contact information for follow-up, biomaterial banks with or without genetic information, and automatic or assisted integration of data from electronic medical records into research data. PMID:22874246

  18. On-line handwriting analysis using wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikantan, Geetha; Srihari, Rohini K.

    1995-09-01

    Speech and Handwriting interfaces to computing devices have received increased attention recently as alternate human-computer media. Automatic recognition of unconstrained handwritten text must be provided as a capability in handwriting computer interfaces. Variation in writing styles of a single writer at different times and between multiple writers makes unconstrained on-line handwriting recognition a challenging task. On-line handwriting is recorded as a sequence of coordinates as the writer's pen moves along the recording device. Isolated character and word recognition have been addressed by several researchers. More recently, attention has been focussed on the recognition of unconstrained text streams. The dynamic changes in handwriting styles observed in everyday use requires development of methods that are adaptive to local variations. We present a novel application of wavelet-based analysis of pen position, velocity and acceleration time-sequences for segmentation and recognition of text components.

  19. On-line controlled documents: Lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrell, R.C.; Steele, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    Placing Controlled Documents on-line on a computer network seems like the solution to many problems, one being distribution, with a path toward a paperless office. However, many problems presented themselves as we were designing the system and placing the documents on-line. Although we planned and established a Process Management Team to help work out the bugs, we still encountered many obstacles in the process. This presentation will cover the ``trials and tribulations`` of placing Controlled Documents on a computer network at three different sites. We will discuss the process we went through, the problems we encountered, the software we used, and how we got management to buy into the process.

  20. The EINSTEIN On-Line Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, D. E.; Grant, C. S.; Andernach, H.

    The Einstein On-Line Service (EOLS) is a simple menu-driven system which provides an intuitive method of querying over one hundred database catalogs. In addition, the EOLS contains over 30 CD-ROMs of images from the Einstein X-ray Observatory which are available for downloading. The EOLS provides all of our databases to the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) and our documents which describe each table are written in the ADS format. In conjunction with the IAU working group on Radioastronomical Databases, the EOLS serves as an experimental platform for on-line access to radio source catalogs. The number of entries in these catalogs exceeds half a million.

  1. Patient monitoring: on-line computing

    PubMed Central

    Raison, John C. A.

    1970-01-01

    On-line computing represents a further extension of the senses of attendant staff in intensive care situations. Smaller computers will contribute as scientific processors, by extending the capability of instrumental systems or enabling new means of measurement and calculation. The fullest use of computer-aid will provide systems of data acquisition from multiple sources, rapid processing correlation, analysis in mathematical and diagnostic forms, and resultant output in simply intelligible displays: later, some direct control of therapy may be applied. PMID:5476133

  2. On-line diagnosis of unrestricted faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. F.; Sundstrom, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    A formal model for the study of on-line diagnosis is introduced and used to investigate the diagnosis of unrestricted faults. A fault of a system S is considered to be a transformation of S into another system S' at some time tau. The resulting faulty system is taken to be the system which looks like S up to time tau, and like S' thereafter. Notions of fault tolerance error are defined in terms of the resulting system being able to mimic some desired behavior as specified by a system similar to S. A notion of on-line diagnosis is formulated which involves an external detector and a maximum time delay within which every error caused by a fault in a prescribed set must be detected. It is shown that if a system is on-line diagnosable for the unrestricted set of faults then the detector is at least as complex, in terms of state set size, as the specification. The use of inverse systems for the diagnosis of unrestricted faults is considered. A partial characterization of those inverses which can be used for unrestricted fault diagnosis is obtained.

  3. Total on-line purchasing system (TOPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, N.

    1995-11-01

    The Information Management Division (IMD) at LLNL is developing a new purchasing system for the Procurement Department. The first major development of this new system is called, {open_quotes}Total On-Line Purchasing System{close_quotes} (TOPS). TOPS will help speed up the requisitioning process by having requisitions electronically entered by requesters and electronically sent to buyers to be put on Purchase Orders. The new purchasing system will use Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), to help increase transaction flows for shipping notices, RFQs, Quotes, Purchase Orders, and Invoices. ANSI X.12 is the EDI standard that this new EC will use.

  4. Dairy Herd On-line Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Satoshi

    As the business circumstances have become worse, computational breeding management based on the scientific matters has been needed for dairy farming in our country. In this connection it was urgent to construct the system which provided data effectively used in the fields for dairy farmers. The Federation has executed to provide dairy farming technical data promptly through its own on-line network being composed of middle sized general-purpose computer (main memory : 5MB, and fixed disk : 1100MB) and 22 terminals.

  5. On-line diagnosis of unrestricted faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. F.; Sundstrom, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    Attention is given to the formal development of the notion of a discrete-time system and the associated concepts of fault, result of a fault, and error. The considered concept of on-line diagnosis is formalized and a diagnosis using inverse machines is discussed. The case of an inverse which is lossless is investigated. It is found that in such a case the class of unrestricted faults can be diagnosed with a delay equal to the delay of losslessness of the inverse system.

  6. On-line and Mobil Learning Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, S. A.; Whittaker, T. M.; Jasmin, T.; Mooney, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    Introductory college-level science courses for non-majors are critical gateways to imparting not only discipline-specific information, but also the basics of the scientific method and how science influences society. They are also indispensable for student success to degree. On-line, web-based homework (whether on computers or mobile devices) is a rapidly growing use of the Internet and is becoming a major component of instruction in science, replacing delayed feedback from a few major exams. Web delivery and grading of traditional textbook-type questions is equally effective as having students write them out for hand grading, as measured by student performance on conceptual and problem solving exams. During this presentation we will demonstrate some of the interactive on-line activities used to teach concepts and how scientists approach problem solving, and how these activities have impacted student learning. Evaluation of the activities, including formative and summative, will be discussed and provide evidence that these interactive activities significantly enhance understanding of introductory meteorological concepts in a college-level science course. More advanced interactive activities are also used in our courses for department majors, some of these will be discussed and demonstrated. Bring your mobile devices to play along! Here is an example on teaching contouring: http://profhorn.aos.wisc.edu/wxwise/contour/index.html

  7. The EINSTEIN On-Line Service (EOLS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, D. E.; Stern Grant, C. P.; Andernach, H.

    1994-08-01

    In January 1989, SAO established an on-line service to help astronomers prepare ROSAT proposals by providing access to the preliminary source list from the ``Einstein Observatory Catalog of IPC X-ray Sources''. In the intervening years, we have updated the source list, added to the documentation, included many more Einstein databases as well as a number of tables from other wavebands, provided access to images for downloading from all of the Einstein CDROMs, and installed new software for more sophisticated filtering and retrieval. Although we have improved the functionality and made significant additions to the databases, we still maintain a simple menu interface accessible from any type of terminal. EOLS provides all of our databases to the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) and our documents which describe each table are thus written in the ADS format. In conjunction with the IAU working group on Archiving and Data Bases for Radio Astronomy, EOLS serves as an experimental platform for on-line access to the radio source lists collected by one of us (H.A.). The number of these entries exceeds half a million.

  8. Condenser on-line fouling monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, J.L.; Garey, J.F.; Wiebe, D.H.

    1994-12-31

    Biological and/or chemical fouling in utility condensers is a major cause of reduced efficiency and substantially affects availability and increases operational costs. Performance losses due to water side fouling are difficult to measure and, usually, quantitative assessment of the economic impact of condenser fouling is impossible. Plant operators typically examine steam backpressure and perform complex calculations for condenser cleanliness. These direct estimates are often imprecise due to inadequate instrumentation. In addition, these data provide information on overall condenser performance which may be influenced by a number of parameters which are independent of water side fouling. Indirect (side-stream) methods are also used to isolate/measure biological or chemical fouling in condensers. This approach is extremely useful to document site/seasonal fouling rates, and for the simultaneous evaluation of treatment options. In collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute, instrumentation has been developed which meets requirements for the direct, on-line measurement of condenser fouling. This monitor may be installed in any location within the condenser, does not interfere with routine plant operations, including on-line mechanical and chemical treatment methods, and provides continuous, real-time readings of the heat transfer efficiency of the instrumented tube. Three prototype assemblies were installed at the New England Power Company, Brayton Point Generating Station in 1993. This paper discusses the design, construction, preliminary test results, and subsequent data collected in 1994 with a redesigned system.

  9. On-Line Method and Apparatus for Coordinated Mobility and Manipulation of Mobile Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A simple and computationally efficient approach is disclosed for on-line coordinated control of mobile robots consisting of a manipulator arm mounted on a mobile base. The effect of base mobility on the end-effector manipulability index is discussed. The base mobility and arm manipulation degrees-of-freedom are treated equally as the joints of a kinematically redundant composite robot. The redundancy introduced by the mobile base is exploited to satisfy a set of user-defined additional tasks during the end-effector motion. A simple on-line control scheme is proposed which allows the user to assign weighting factors to individual degrees-of-mobility and degrees-of-manipulation, as well as to each task specification. The computational efficiency of the control algorithm makes it particularly suitable for real-time implementations. Four case studies are discussed in detail to demonstrate the application of the coordinated control scheme to various mobile robots.

  10. On-Line Modal State Monitoring of Slowly Time-Varying Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Erik A.; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Voulgaris, Petros G.

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring the dynamic response of structures is often performed for a variety of reasons. These reasons include condition-based maintenance, health monitoring, performance improvements, and control. In many cases the data analysis that is performed is part of a repetitive decision-making process, and in these cases the development of effective on-line monitoring schemes help to speed the decision-making process and reduce the risk of erroneous decisions. This report investigates the use of spatial modal filters for tracking the dynamics of slowly time-varying linear structures. The report includes an overview of modal filter theory followed by an overview of several structural system identification methods. Included in this discussion and comparison are H-infinity, eigensystem realization, and several time-domain least squares approaches. Finally, a two-stage adaptive on-line monitoring scheme is developed and evaluated.

  11. On-Line Texture Diagnostics for Coated Conductor Manufacture. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    White, M. K.

    2002-12-30

    This Phase I project was undertaken to assess the feasibility of implementing a particular diagnostic method for characterizing the crystallographic texture of high temperature superconductor (HTS) coated conductors on-line during their reel-to-reel continuous manufacture. Key factors in this technique were the use of an area detector to greatly reduce scan time, an x-ray mirror to enhance incident beam brightness, and an automation scheme for diffractometer control, tape motion control, and calculation and output of texture characterizations.

  12. An on-line contingency filtering scheme for dynamic security assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Chadalavada, V.; Ejebe, G.C.; Irisarri, G.D.; Tong, J.; Vittal, V.; Pieper, G.; McMullen, M.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the philosophy and development of a contingency screening system for the selection and ranking of dynamic security assessment. the most severe cases are identified and ranked high on the contingency list for more exact analysis. The non-severe cases are filtered out of the list. In the proposed system, a cascade of more restrictive filters is developed based on the sparse transient energy function method.

  13. On-line tritium production monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mihalczo, John T.

    1993-01-01

    A scintillation optical fiber system for the on-line monitoring of nuclear reactions in an event-by-event manner is described. In the measurement of tritium production one or more optical fibers are coated with enriched .sup.6 Li and connected to standard scintillation counter circuitry. A neutron generated .sup.6 Li(n )T reaction occurs in the coated surface of .sup.6 Li-coated fiber to produce energetic alpha and triton particles one of which enters the optical fiber and scintillates light through the fiber to the counting circuit. The coated optical fibers can be provided with position sensitivity by placing a mirror at the free end of the fibers or by using pulse counting circuits at both ends of the fibers.

  14. On-line tritium production monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mihalczo, J.T.

    1993-11-23

    A scintillation optical fiber system for the on-line monitoring of nuclear reactions in an event-by-event manner is described. In the measurement of tritium production one or more optical fibers are coated with enriched {sup 6}Li and connected to standard scintillation counter circuitry. A neutron generated {sup 6}Li(n)T reaction occurs in the coated surface of {sup 6}Li-coated fiber to produce energetic alpha and triton particles one of which enters the optical fiber and scintillates light through the fiber to the counting circuit. The coated optical fibers can be provided with position sensitivity by placing a mirror at the free end of the fibers or by using pulse counting circuits at both ends of the fibers. 5 figures.

  15. On-line process control monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    O'Rourke, Patrick E.; Van Hare, David R.; Prather, William S.

    1992-01-01

    An on-line, fiber-optic based apparatus for monitoring the concentration of a chemical substance at a plurality of locations in a chemical processing system comprises a plurality of probes, each of which is at a different location in the system, a light source, optic fibers for carrying light to and from the probes, a multiplexer for switching light from the source from one probe to the next in series, a diode array spectrophotometer for producing a spectrum from the light received from the probes, and a computer programmed to analyze the spectra so produced. The probes allow the light to pass through the chemical substance so that a portion of the light is absorbed before being returned to the multiplexer. A standard and a reference cell are included for data validation and error checking.

  16. NASDA's Advanced On-Line System (ADOLIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshikatsu; Hara, Hideo; Yamada, Shigeo; Hirata, Nobuyuki; Komatsu, Shigenori; Nishihata, Seiji; Oniyama, Akio

    1993-01-01

    Spacecraft operations including ground system operations are generally realized by various large or small scale group work which is done by operators, engineers, managers, users and so on, and their positions are geographically distributed in many cases. In face-to-face work environments, it is easy for them to understand each other. However, in distributed work environments which need communication media, if only using audio, they become estranged from each other and lose interest in and continuity of work. It is an obstacle to smooth operation of spacecraft. NASDA has developed an experimental model of a new real-time operation control system called 'ADOLIS' (ADvanced On-Line System) adopted to such a distributed environment using a multi-media system dealing with character, figure, image, handwriting, video and audio information which is accommodated to operation systems of a wide range including spacecraft and ground systems. This paper describes the results of the development of the experimental model.

  17. On-line resources for Xenopus.

    PubMed

    Bowes, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Since the advent of computational methods in biology, the quantity of biological data has grown exponentially. These data support genomic, genetic, developmental, and other forms of biological experimentation. The number of on-line resources has kept pace with the growth in data. Xenopus has perhaps lagged some of the other model organisms in developing resources, but is now quickly catching up. There are now a number of well-established and developing resources for Xenopus. This chapter looks beyond the widely known public databases, Genbank and the EBI, and describes how the researcher can use a number of central sites such as Xenbase, UniProtKB, and major genome browsers to navigate to a variety of different resources. PMID:22956109

  18. On-line Resources for Xenopus

    PubMed Central

    Bowes, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Summary Since the advent of computational methods in biology the quantity of biological data has grown exponentially. These data support genomic, genetic, developmental, and other forms of biological experimentation. The number of on-line resources has kept pace with the growth in data. Xenopus has perhaps lagged some of the other model organisms in developing resources but is now quickly catching up. There are now a number of well-established and developing resources for Xenopus. This chapter looks beyond the widely-known public databases, Genbank and the EBI, and describes how the researcher can use a number of central sites such as Xenbase, UniProtKB, and major genome browsers to navigate to a variety of different resources. PMID:22956109

  19. Recent Advances in On-Line Methods Based on Extraction for Speciation Analysis of Chromium in Environmental Matrices.

    PubMed

    Trzonkowska, Laura; Leśniewska, Barbara; Godlewska-Żyłkiewicz, Beata

    2016-07-01

    The biological activity of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) species, their chemical behavior, and toxic effects are dissimilar. The speciation analysis of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in environmental matrices is then of great importance and much research has been devoted to this area. This review presents recent developments in on-line speciation analysis of chromium in such samples. Flow systems have proved to be excellent tools for automation of sample pretreatment, separation/preconcentration of chromium species, and their detection by various instrumental techniques. Analytical strategies used in chromium speciation analysis discussed in this review are divided into categories based on selective extraction/separation of chromium species on solid sorbents and liquid-liquid extraction of chromium species. The most popular strategy is that based on solid-phase extraction. Therefore, this review shows the potential of novel materials designed and used for selective binding of chromium species. The progress in miniaturization of measurement systems is also presented. PMID:26186521

  20. On-line chemical composition analyzer development

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Garrison, A.A.; Muly, E.C.; Moore, C.F.

    1992-02-01

    The energy consumed in distillation processes in the United States represents nearly three percent of the total national energy consumption. If effective control of distillation columns can be accomplished, it has been estimated that it would result in a reduction in the national energy consumption of 0.3%. Real-time control based on mixture composition could achieve these savings. However, the major distillation processes represent diverse applications and at present there does not exist a proven on-line chemical composition sensor technology which can be used to control these diverse processes in real-time. This report presents a summary of the findings of the second phase of a three phase effort undertaken to develop an on-line real-time measurement and control system utilizing Raman spectroscopy. A prototype instrument system has been constructed utilizing a Perkin Elmer 1700 Spectrometer, a diode pumped YAG laser, two three axis positioning systems, a process sample cell land a personal computer. This system has been successfully tested using industrially supplied process samples to establish its performance. Also, continued application development was undertaken during this Phase of the program using both the spontaneous Raman and Surface-enhanced Raman modes of operation. The study was performed for the US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, whose mission is to conduct cost-shared R D for new high-risk, high-payoff industrial energy conservation technologies. Although this document contains references to individual manufacturers and their products, the opinions expressed on the products reported do not necessarily reflect the position of the Department of Energy.

  1. On-Line Instruction: Are the Outcomes the Same?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Louis L.; Holloman, Harold L., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Institutions of higher education are offering more and more on-line courses to students. Do students receive the same quality of instruction with an on-line class as an on-campus class? Specifically, is there a difference in students' outcomes between a face-to-face class and on-line class? This study addresses that question by collecting and…

  2. An Evaluation of On-Line Information Retrieval System Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Theodore

    This report presents a review and evaluation of three remote access on-line information retrieval systems and some ideas on what the capabilities of an ideal on-line information retrieval system should be. The three systems reviewed are the DDC Remote On-Line Retrieval System, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration RECON System, and the…

  3. A Distributed System for Learning Programming On-Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdu, Elena; Regueras, Luisa M.; Verdu, Maria J.; Leal, Jose P.; de Castro, Juan P.; Queiros, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Several Web-based on-line judges or on-line programming trainers have been developed in order to allow students to train their programming skills. However, their pedagogical functionalities in the learning of programming have not been clearly defined. EduJudge is a project which aims to integrate the "UVA On-line Judge", an existing on-line…

  4. On-line upgrade of program modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldrop, Raymond S.; Volz, Richard A.; Smith, Gary W.; Holzbacher-Valero, A. A.; Goldsack, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a taxonomy of problems that must be solved in order to achieve on-line upgradability of long-lived programs, and presents a solution to the fundamental problems in the taxonomy. The solutions are based upon AdaPT, a set of language extensions designed to aid in the distribution of a single Ada program. AdaPT introduces three major units, the public, the partition, and the node. Publics are primarily used to share type information. Partitions are the basic units of distribution while nodes are used to control the configuration of the program. Nodes and partitions can be created dynamically via the allocator. A node-level routine controls the replacement process. The controlling node creates a new instance of the routine being replaced; the run-time system must ensure that the new instance is the updated one. Once access to the new version has been established, all further calls to the module are redirected to the new version and the caller is informed of the change so that it may make subsequent calls directly. When a module is being upgraded, there is a transition period during which both the old and new versions are present. We require that clients of a potentially replaceable module 'check in' with the controlling node. The controlling node keeps track of the number of clients that have been redirected to the replacement. When all have been redirected, the old version can be deallocated.

  5. On-line and off-line data assimilation in palaeoclimatology: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsikaris, A.; Widmann, M.; Jungclaus, J.

    2015-01-01

    Different ensemble-based data assimilation (DA) approaches for palaeoclimate reconstructions have been recently undertaken, but no systematic comparison among them has been attempted. We compare an off-line and an on-line ensemble-based method, with the testing period being the 17th century, which led into the Maunder Minimum. We use a low-resolution version of Max Planck Institute for Meteorology Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) to assimilate the Past Global Changes (PAGES) 2k continental temperature reconstructions. In the off-line approach, the ensemble for the entire simulation period is generated first and then the ensemble is used in combination with the empirical information to produce the analysis. In contrast, in the on-line approach, the ensembles are generated sequentially for sub-periods based on the analysis of previous sub-periods. Both schemes perform better than the simulations without DA. The on-line method would be expected to perform better if the assimilation led to states of the slow components of the climate system that are close to reality and the system had sufficient memory to propagate this information forward in time. In our comparison, which is based on analysing correlations and differences between the analysis and the proxy-based reconstructions, we find similar skill for both methods on the continental and hemispheric scales. This indicates either a lack of control of the slow components in our setup or a lack of skill in the information propagation on decadal timescales. Additional experiments are however needed to check whether the conclusions reached in this particular setup are valid in other cases. Although the performance of the two schemes is similar and the on-line method is more difficult to implement, the temporal consistency of the analysis in the on-line method makes it in general preferable.

  6. On-line evaluation of multiloop digital controller performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieseman, Carol D.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to inform the Guidance and Control community of capabilities which were developed by the Aeroservoelasticity Branch to evaluate the performance of multivariable control laws, on-line, during wind-tunnel testing. The capabilities are generic enough to be useful for all kinds of on-line analyses involving multivariable control in experimental testing. Consequently, it was decided to present this material at this workshop even though it has been presented elsewhere. Topics covered include: essential on-line analysis requirements; on-line analysis capabilities; on-line analysis software; frequency domain procedures; controller performance evaluation frequency-domain flutter suppression; and plant determination.

  7. Students On-Line Atmospheric Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, D. C.; Moore, S. W.; Walters, S. C.

    2002-12-01

    Students On-Line Atmospheric Research (SOLAR) is one of NASA's educational outreach programs. SOLAR's primary role is to support educational outreach activities for NASA's Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III). SAGE III is the latest version of a series of solar occultation experiments, which include SAGE I and SAGE II. The SAGE III instrument was launched on a Russian METEOR 3M spacecraft in December 2001, and is now monitoring the global distribution of aerosols, ozone, clouds, and other important trace gases in the upper atmosphere. The SAGE measurements are critical to improving the understanding of global climate forcing as well as atmospheric chemical processes in the upper atmosphere. The SAGE experiment addresses interesting science problems related to the Earth's atmosphere. Many exciting science and technology topics from SAGE can be developed and incorporated into K-12 curriculum materials to enhance student interest in science. In addition, technologies employed by the SAGE measurement technique give rise to ideas for science projects that involve student participation. The SOLAR outreach program helps to bring these topics and ideas to the classroom by focusing on helping teachers become familiar with current research in the atmospheric sciences, and helping them integrate SOLAR developed educational materials into their curriculum. SOLAR gives special presentations at national and regional science teacher conferences and conducts an annual summer teacher workshop at the NASA Langley Research Center. Members of the SOLAR team also visit schools give classroom presentations and presentations to special student groups. This poster highlights some of the key features of the SOLAR program and presents descriptions of student projects, teacher workshops, and SOLAR resources.

  8. On-line pre-reduction of pentavalent arsenicals by thioglycolic acid for speciation analysis by selective hydride generation cryotrapping atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musil, Stanislav; Matoušek, Tomáš

    2008-06-01

    An improvement of current method of selective hydride generation based on pre-reduction for differentiation of tri- and pentavalent arsenicals is described, applied for the oxidation state specific speciation analysis of inorganic, mono-, di- and trimethylated arsenicals with minimum sample pretreatment using atomic absorption spectrometry with the multiatomizer. The preconcentration and separation of arsine, methylarsine, dimethylarsine and trimethylarsine are then carried out by means of cryotrapping. The presented study shows that 2% (m/v) L-cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate ( L-cys) currently used for off-line pre-reduction of pentavalent arsenicals can be substituted with 1% (m/v) thioglycolic acid (TGA). Much faster pre-reduction of pentavalent arsenicals at 25 °C with equal sensitivities as in the case of L-cys has been achieved with TGA. A setup for on-line pre-reduction by TGA has been optimized, with the application of segmented flow analysis for suppression of axial dispersion in the pre-reduction coil. Standard calibrations measured with or without on-line pre-reduction indicate uniform and equal sensitivities for all As forms. The possibility of standardization by water standards of single species (e.g. iAs(III)) for quantification of all other As forms in urine is demonstrated in the recovery study. Limits of detection were 100 ng l - 1 for iAs(III), 135 ng l - 1 for iAs(V) and 30 to 50 ng l - 1 for methylated arsenicals.

  9. On-line compensation of dead-time and inverter nonlinearity with disturbance voltage observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Beomseok; Kwon, Jung-Min; Kim, Jaehong

    2014-03-01

    This paper discusses and analyses a simple on-line compensation scheme for dead-time and inverter nonlinearity in the pulse width modulated (PWM) voltage source inverter (VSI). Dead-time effect and voltage drop in switching devices cause nonlinearity between reference and output voltage. In a conventional three-phase six-switch inverter, this nonideal condition adds extraneous harmonics that badly disturb voltage characteristics. In its turn, voltage disturbance causes distortion of the current waveform and degrades performance. In this paper, an on-line dead-time compensation method based on inverse dynamics control is proposed, and it is much simpler than conventional full/reduced order observation methods adopted in dead-time compensation. Disturbance voltages are observed on-line with no additional circuitry or off-line measurements. The observed disturbance voltages are fed back to the voltage reference for compensation. Stability problem of the proposed observer arisen from inverter delay and parameter mismatch was analysed. The proposed method is applied to a surface-mounted permanent-magnet synchronous motor (SPMSM) drive. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is validated by the experimental results.

  10. On-line estimation of error covariance parameters for atmospheric data assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dee, Dick P.

    1995-01-01

    A simple scheme is presented for on-line estimation of covariance parameters in statistical data assimilation systems. The scheme is based on a maximum-likelihood approach in which estimates are produced on the basis of a single batch of simultaneous observations. Simple-sample covariance estimation is reasonable as long as the number of available observations exceeds the number of tunable parameters by two or three orders of magnitude. Not much is known at present about model error associated with actual forecast systems. Our scheme can be used to estimate some important statistical model error parameters such as regionally averaged variances or characteristic correlation length scales. The advantage of the single-sample approach is that it does not rely on any assumptions about the temporal behavior of the covariance parameters: time-dependent parameter estimates can be continuously adjusted on the basis of current observations. This is of practical importance since it is likely to be the case that both model error and observation error strongly depend on the actual state of the atmosphere. The single-sample estimation scheme can be incorporated into any four-dimensional statistical data assimilation system that involves explicit calculation of forecast error covariances, including optimal interpolation (OI) and the simplified Kalman filter (SKF). The computational cost of the scheme is high but not prohibitive; on-line estimation of one or two covariance parameters in each analysis box of an operational bozed-OI system is currently feasible. A number of numerical experiments performed with an adaptive SKF and an adaptive version of OI, using a linear two-dimensional shallow-water model and artificially generated model error are described. The performance of the nonadaptive versions of these methods turns out to depend rather strongly on correct specification of model error parameters. These parameters are estimated under a variety of conditions, including

  11. DOE-EPRI On-Line Monitoring Implementation Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    E. Davis, R. Bickford

    2003-01-02

    Industry and EPRI experience at several plants has shown on-line monitoring to be very effective in identifying out-of-calibration instrument channels or indications of equipment-degradation problems. The EPRI implementation project for on-line monitoring has demonstrated the feasability of on-line monitoring at several participating nuclear plants. The results have been very enouraging, and substantial progress is anticipated in the coming years.

  12. Modeling a multivariable reactor and on-line model predictive control.

    PubMed

    Yu, D W; Yu, D L

    2005-10-01

    A nonlinear first principle model is developed for a laboratory-scaled multivariable chemical reactor rig in this paper and the on-line model predictive control (MPC) is implemented to the rig. The reactor has three variables-temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen with nonlinear dynamics-and is therefore used as a pilot system for the biochemical industry. A nonlinear discrete-time model is derived for each of the three output variables and their model parameters are estimated from the real data using an adaptive optimization method. The developed model is used in a nonlinear MPC scheme. An accurate multistep-ahead prediction is obtained for MPC, where the extended Kalman filter is used to estimate system unknown states. The on-line control is implemented and a satisfactory tracking performance is achieved. The MPC is compared with three decentralized PID controllers and the advantage of the nonlinear MPC over the PID is clearly shown. PMID:16294779

  13. On-Line Mirror Surfacing Monitored by X-ray Shearing Interferometry and X-ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, E.; Peverini, L.; Kozhevnikov, I. V.; Weitkamp, T.; David, C.

    2007-01-19

    We propose a novel fabrication scheme combining a mirror surfacing tool and an on-line metrology instrument, the latter capable of controlling both figure and finish of an X-ray mirror with an accuracy matching the challenging specifications of nanofocusing reflective optics for synchrotron and FEL X-ray beams. This approach will be complementary to the present technologies. The paper reviews some recent achievements and presents pertinent examples of on-line diagnostics performed at the ESRF BM05 beamline for which X-rays prove to be a unique probe.

  14. An expert system based intelligent control scheme for space bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    San, Ka-Yiu

    1988-01-01

    An expert system based intelligent control scheme is being developed for the effective control and full automation of bioreactor systems in space. The scheme developed will have the capability to capture information from various resources including heuristic information from process researchers and operators. The knowledge base of the expert system should contain enough expertise to perform on-line system identification and thus be able to adapt the controllers accordingly with minimal human supervision.

  15. A combination of positive dielectrophoresis driven on-line enrichment and aptamer-fluorescent silica nanoparticle label for rapid and sensitive detection of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Shangguan, Jingfang; Li, Yuhong; He, Dinggeng; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Zou, Zhen; Shi, Hui

    2015-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is an important human pathogen that causes several diseases ranging from superficial skin infections to life-threatening diseases. Here, a method combining positive dielectrophoresis (pDEP) driven on-line enrichment and aptamer-fluorescent silica nanoparticle label has been developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of S. aureus in microfluidic channels. An aptamer, having high affinity to S. aureus, is used as the molecular recognition tool and immobilized onto chloropropyl functionalized fluorescent silica nanoparticles through a click chemistry approach to obtain S. aureus aptamer-nanoparticle bioconjugates (Apt(S.aureus)/FNPs). The pDEP driven on-line enrichment technology was used for accumulating the Apt(S.aureus)/FNP labeled S. aureus. After incubating with S. aureus, the mixture of Apt(S.aureus)/FNP labeled S. aureus and Apt(S.aureus)/FNPs was directly introduced into the pDEP-based microfluidic system. By applying an AC voltage in a pDEP frequency region, the Apt(S.aureus)/FNP labelled S. aureus moved to the electrodes and accumulated in the electrode gap, while the free Apt(S.aureus)/FNPs flowed away. The signal that came from the Apt(S.aureus)/FNP labelled S. aureus in the focused detection areas was then detected. Profiting from the specificity of aptamer, signal amplification of FNP label and pDEP on-line enrichment, this assay can detect as low as 93 and 270 cfu mL(-1)S. aureus in deionized water and spiked water samples, respectively, with higher sensitivities than our previously reported Apt(S.aureus)/FNP based flow cytometry. Moreover, without the need for separation and washing steps usually required for FNP label involved bioassays, the total assay time including sample pretreatment was within 2 h. PMID:25963028

  16. On-Line and Off-Line Assessment of Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saraç, Seda; Karakelle, Sema

    2012-01-01

    The study investigates the interrelationships between different on-line and off-line measures for assessing metacognition. The participants were 47 fifth grade elementary students. Metacognition was assessed through two off-line and two on-line measures. The off-line measures consisted of a teacher rating scale and a self-report questionnaire. The…

  17. 45 CFR 502.8 - Documents on-line.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Documents on-line. 502.8 Section 502.8 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) FOREIGN CLAIMS SETTLEMENT COMMISSION OF THE... § 502.8 Documents on-line. Commission documents available in electronic format may be accessed via...

  18. On-Line Administrative Information Systems: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sire, Paul W.

    A case study approach is used to document the on-line information system developed by the Office of Management Information and Computing at the University of Vermont. Stanford University's Project INFO On-Line Administration Information System, OASIS, was chosen as a model. The administrative system is one of two on campus, the other designed for…

  19. Are On-Line Data Bases in Your Library's Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Jim

    1983-01-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: Today there are over 900 on-line data banks available for public access. Most microcomputers can use them through the aid of a modem and communication program. Major public information utilities that offer access to these on-line data bases are growing and expanding. The Source, a data base utility…

  20. On-Line Distance Learning: A Model for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Abdul W.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses issues related to open and distance-learning (ODL) in developing countries, using the virtual campus initiative of the Indira Gandhi National Open University (India) as an example and model of on-line program delivery and on-line, for-profit telelearning centers. Suggests strategies to enable open and distance-learning institutions to…

  1. Issues Affecting Teaching On-Line: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Kelvin

    This annotated bibliography identifies issues affecting the on-line teaching environment by assembling a variety of quantitative and qualitative studies. Studies in the bibliography are divided into two major categories: (1) topical studies, which contain papers that focus primarily on one issue affecting teaching on-line (student…

  2. Chat: The Missing Link in On-Line Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Thelma J.; Klotz, Jack

    As more courses in higher education move to an on-line format, a major concern that has arisen is the lack of personal interaction between the professor and student. The literature provides evidence that often on-line courses are configured and delivered in a style more often associated with independent study or correspondence work, i.e., students…

  3. On-Line Library Housekeeping Systems. A Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Caryl

    1971-01-01

    A general discussion of on-line procedures, batch and real-time updating, types of files and indexes, terminals, and the use of a general-purpose data management system as a vehicle for on-line operation is followed by an Appendix giving detailed information on each on the known systems. (14 references) (Author/NH)

  4. System Requirements for On-Line and Batch Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society for Information Science, Washington, DC. Special Interest Group on Computerized Retrieval Services.

    Three papers on system requirements for on-line and batch retrieval presented at the American Society for Information Science (ASIS) annual meeting are included here. At G.D. Searle, data for records related to pharmacology screening are used in a batch system, and an on-line system is used to search information on mutagenic, carcinogenic, and…

  5. On-Line Course Development: Engaging and Retaining Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruster, Benita G.

    2015-01-01

    As the number of on-line classes and the demand for on-line education continues to sky-rocket, it is critical that course developers and university faculty have the skills to effectively design curricula, to develop engaging learning opportunities, and to create responsive courses that meet individual student needs. This paper details three…

  6. Evidence on the Effectiveness of On-Line Homework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillard-Eggers, Jane; Wooten, Tommy; Childs, Brad; Coker, John

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the impact and effectiveness of on-line homework in principles of accounting classes. We surveyed students to determine their degree of satisfaction with on-line homework and their perceptions about its effectiveness in enhancing their learning. We also gathered data to determine the extent of online…

  7. Photometric on-line monitor for total oxidants in the ports purge cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, W.L.

    1990-12-01

    A proposed scheme for the continuous, on-line monitoring of the total concentration of oxidizing (fluorinating) gases in the top purge section of a gaseous diffusion cascade was evaluated using simulated process conditions in a laboratory. The scheme involves the reaction of the oxidizing gases in a sample stream with sodium chloride to produce chlorine, which is then measured with an ultraviolet photometer to yield a value for total oxidant concentration. This report describes the experimental apparatus used in studying this method and presents the resulting data and conclusions. The study found that the technique would work under some conditions, but would be troublesome and probably undependable if implemented as a real-time process monitor. During the study, it was discovered that the photometric approach could provide a measurement of total oxidant concentration without resorting to the salt reaction. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. On-line smoothing for an integrated navigation system with low-cost MEMS inertial sensors.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kai-Wei; Duong, Thanh Trung; Liao, Jhen-Kai; Lai, Ying-Chih; Chang, Chin-Chia; Cai, Jia-Ming; Huang, Shih-Ching

    2012-01-01

    The integration of the Inertial Navigation System (INS) and the Global Positioning System (GPS) is widely applied to seamlessly determine the time-variable position and orientation parameters of a system for navigation and mobile mapping applications. For optimal data fusion, the Kalman filter (KF) is often used for real-time applications. Backward smoothing is considered an optimal post-processing procedure. However, in current INS/GPS integration schemes, the KF and smoothing techniques still have some limitations. This article reviews the principles and analyzes the limitations of these estimators. In addition, an on-line smoothing method that overcomes the limitations of previous algorithms is proposed. For verification, an INS/GPS integrated architecture is implemented using a low-cost micro-electro-mechanical systems inertial measurement unit and a single-frequency GPS receiver. GPS signal outages are included in the testing trajectories to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method in comparison to conventional schemes. PMID:23443403

  9. An on-line replanning method for head and neck adaptive radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ahunbay, Ergun E.; Peng, Cheng; Godley, Andrew; Schultz, Christopher; Li, X. Allen

    2009-10-15

    Daily setup for head and neck (HN) radiotherapy (RT) can vary randomly due to neck rotation and anatomy change. These differences cannot be totally corrected by the current practice of image guided RT with translational repositioning. The authors present a novel rapid correction scheme that can be used on-line to correct both interfractional setup variation and anatomy change for HN RT. The scheme consists of two major steps: (1) Segment aperture morphing (SAM) and (2) segment weight optimization (SWO). SAM is accomplished by applying the spatial relationship between the apertures and the contours of the planning target and organs at risk (OARs) to the new target and OAR contours. The new target contours are transferred from planning target contours to the CT of the day by means of deformable registration (MIMVISTA). The dose distribution for each new aperture was generated using a planning system with a fast dose engine and hardware and was input into a newly developed SWO package using fast sequential quadratic programming. The entire scheme was tested based on the daily CT images acquired for representative HN IMRT cases treated with a linac and CT-on-Rails combo. It was found that the target coverage and/or OAR sparing was degraded based on the CT of the day with the current standard repositioning from rigid registration. This degradation can be corrected by the SAM/SWO scheme. The target coverage and OAR sparing for the SAM/SWO plans were found to be equivalent to the original plan. The SAM/SWO process took 5-8 min for the head and neck cases studied. The proposed aperture morphing with weight optimization is an effective on-line approach for correcting interfractional patient setup and anatomic changes for head and neck cancer radiotherapy.

  10. An on-line replanning method for head and neck adaptive radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ahunbay, Ergun E; Peng, Cheng; Godley, Andrew; Schultz, Christopher; Li, X Allen

    2009-10-01

    Daily setup for head and neck (HN) radiotherapy (RT) can vary randomly due to neck rotation and anatomy change. These differences cannot be totally corrected by the current practice of image guided RT with translational repositioning. The authors present a novel rapid correction scheme that can be used on-line to correct both interfractional setup variation and anatomy change for HN RT. The scheme consists of two major steps: (1) Segment aperture morphing (SAM) and (2) segment weight optimization (SWO). SAM is accomplished by applying the spatial relationship between the apertures and the contours of the planning target and organs at risk (OARs) to the new target and OAR contours. The new target contours are transferred from planning target contours to the CT of the day by means of deformable registration (MIMVISTA). The dose distribution for each new aperture was generated using a planning system with a fast dose engine and hardware and was input into a newly developed SWO package using fast sequential quadratic programming. The entire scheme was tested based on the daily CT images acquired for representative HN IMRT cases treated with a linac and CT-on-Rails combo. It was found that the target coverage and/or OAR sparing was degraded based on the CT of the day with the current standard repositioning from rigid registration. This degradation can be corrected by the SAM/SWO scheme. The target coverage and OAR sparing for the SAM/SWO plans were found to be equivalent to the original plan. The SAM/SWO process took 5-8 min for the head and neck cases studied. The proposed aperture morphing with weight optimization is an effective on-line approach for correcting interfractional patient setup and anatomic changes for head and neck cancer radiotherapy. PMID:19928108

  11. On-Line Allocation Of Robot Resources To Task Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Damian M.

    1989-02-01

    In this paper, I present an approach to representing plans that make on-line decisions about resource allocation. An on-line decision is the evaluation of a conditional expression involving sensory information as the plan is being executed. I use a plan representation called 7ZS10'1 1,12that has been especially designed for the domain of robot programming, and in particular, for the problem of on-line decisions. The resource allocation example is based on the robot assembly cell architecture outlined by Venkataraman and Lyons16. I begin by setting forth a definition of on-line decision making and some arguments as to why this form of decision making is important and useful. To set the context for the resource allocation example, I take some care in categorizing the types of on-line decision making and the approaches adopted by other workers so far. In particular, I justify a plan-based approach to the study of on-line decision making. From that, the focus shifts to one type of decision making: on-line allocation of robot resources to task plans. Robot resources are the physical manipulators (grippers, wrists, arms, feeders, etc) that are available to carry out the task. I formulate the assembly cell architecture of Venkataraman and Lyons16 as an R.S plan schema, and show how the on-line allocation specified in that architecture can be implemented. Finally, I show how considering the on-line allocation of logical resources, that is a physical resource plus some model information, can be used as a non-traditional approach to some problems in robot task planning.

  12. Practical experience with on-line ion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, G.J.

    1991-12-31

    Bettis is heavily involved in on-line ion chromatography and has gained much experience with the systems. This paper serves to pass that experience along to any users, current or prospective, that are interested in the systems. On-line IC is extremely dynamic and the developments over the past few years have helped to produce systems that can provide technical and productivity improvements. The potential uses of the systems are only beginning to be tapped. It is the information provided herein maybe useful to any interested in on-line ion chromatography.

  13. Preparing Students for Assessment in the On-Line Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Michele L.

    2002-01-01

    Advises professors with limited technological experience on how to use features of their existing computer networks to communicate assessment expectations to their on-line students. Explains how e-mail and Web postings can serve this purpose. (EV)

  14. Miniaturized supported liquid membrane device for selective on-line enrichment of basic drugs in plasma combined with capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Pálmarsdóttir, S; Thordarson, E; Edholm, L E; Jönsson, J A; Mathiasson, L

    1997-05-01

    A hollow fiber miniaturized supported liquid membrane (SLM) device for sample preparation is connected on-line with capillary electrophoresis and used for determination of a basic drug, bambuterol, in human plasma. The analyte is extracted from the outside of the hollow fiber (donor) through the liquid membrane (pores of the fiber impregnated with organic solvent) into the acceptor solution in the fiber lumen. The process is driven by differences in pH between the donor and acceptor solution. The whole volume of the acceptor solution can then be injected into the CZE capillary by using the double-stacking procedure for large volume-injection. Very clean extracts of low ionic strength are obtained from the SLM treatment, making this sample pretreatment method compatible with the CZE double-stacking procedure, which in turn makes it possible to inject large volumes of sample onto the separation capillary. Good performance of the whole procedure is demonstrated, and detection limits in the low nanomolar range were obtained in spite of the relatively weak UV absorbance of bambuterol. Extractions through the miniaturized SLM unit can be performed for 5-6 h without regenerating the fiber. The regeneration procedure was tested, and no relevant changes in the performance of the extraction could be found after seven regenerations, allowing the same fiber to be used for a week. PMID:9145027

  15. A multivariable control scheme for robot manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarokh, M.; Seraji, H.

    1991-01-01

    The article puts forward a simple scheme for multivariable control of robot manipulators to achieve trajectory tracking. The scheme is composed of an inner loop stabilizing controller and an outer loop tracking controller. The inner loop utilizes a multivariable PD controller to stabilize the robot by placing the poles of the linearized robot model at some desired locations. The outer loop employs a multivariable PID controller to achieve input-output decoupling and trajectory tracking. The gains of the PD and PID controllers are related directly to the linearized robot model by simple closed-form expressions. The controller gains are updated on-line to cope with variations in the robot model during gross motion and for payload change. Alternatively, the use of high gain controllers for gross motion and payload change is discussed. Computer simulation results are given for illustration.

  16. Improved dynamic ID-based authentication scheme for telecare medical information systems.

    PubMed

    Cao, Tianjie; Zhai, Jingxuan

    2013-04-01

    In order to protect users' identity privacy, Chen et al. proposed an efficient dynamic ID-based authentication scheme for telecare medical information systems. However, Chen et al.'s scheme has some weaknesses. In Chen et al.'s scheme, an attacker can track a user by a linkability attack or an off-line identity guessing attack. Chen et al.'s scheme is also vulnerable to an off-line password guessing attack and an undetectable on-line password guessing attack when user's smart card is stolen. In server side, Chen et al.'s scheme needs large computational load to authentication a legal user or reject an illegal user. To remedy the weaknesses in Chen et al.'s scheme, we propose an improved smart card based password authentication scheme. Our analysis shows that the improved scheme can overcome the weaknesses in Chen et al.'s scheme. PMID:23345091

  17. Connecting to On-line Data, a Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Astrophysics Datacenter Executive Committee (ADEC)

    2004-12-01

    The Astrophysics Datacenter Executive Committee (ADEC) has worked with the American Astronomical Society (AAS) and the University of Chicago Press (UChP) to implement links from the on-line literature to on-line data and vice versa. A first demonstration of this system is on-line in the Astrophysical Journal Supplement, Volume 154, Issue 1, a special issue about first results from Spitzer. Several of these on-line articles have links to on-line data. This linking system requires the collaboration of the data centers (marking data sets with unique identifiers, providing a verification system for identifiers, providing a systematic linking system to data sets), the ADS (providing a master verifier that connects the journal to the individual verifiers at the data centers, providing a linking server that allows stable links for the journals even if data sets move), and the AAS and the UChP (implementing LaTeX tags for identifiers, processing and verifying identifiers, implementing the links). Once the links are in place at the journal website, the publisher returns this information to the ADS and from there to the data centers in order to provide the data centers the information necessary to implement the opposite links from data sets to journal articles. The pipeline for this information flow is now fully in place and will be described in this poster. This work is supported by NASA under sevreal grants.

  18. An on-line NMR technique with a programmable processor

    SciTech Connect

    Razazian, K.; Dieckman, S.L.; Raptis, A.C.

    1995-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is used to determine molecular content of materials, mainly in laboratory measurements. The reduced cost of fast computer processors, together with recent break throughs in digital signal processor technology, has facilitated the on-line use of NMR by allowing modifications of the available technology. This paper describes a system and an algorithm for improving the on-line operations. It is base on the time-domain NMR signal detected by the controller and some prior knowledge of chemical signal patterns. The desired signal can be separated from a composite signal by using an adaptive line enhancer (ALE) filter. This technique would be useful for upgrading process procedures in on-line manufacturing.

  19. Fundamentals of on-line gauging for machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novini, Amir R.

    1991-09-01

    This paper addresses the major issues in the application of machine-vision technology as an in- process, noncontact gauging tool on the factory floor. This includes the following: (1) How can machine vision be used for an on-line gauging application? (2) What is means by the terms resolution, accuracy, repeatability, and tolerance? How do they relate to each other? (3) What are the imaging concerns, part-edge qualities, back lighting versus front lighting, TV camera usage, optical consideration, and telecentric lens (constant magnification lens)? (4) What is meant by subpixel resolution and accuracy? How can it be achieved? (5) What are the practical limits for on-line industrial machine vision gauging application? The above questions are put into perspective by examining existing applications of on-line machine-vision gauging systems.

  20. Making the most of on-line recruiting.

    PubMed

    Cappelli, P

    2001-03-01

    Ninety percent of large U.S. companies are already recruiting via the Internet. By simply logging on to the Web, company recruiters can locate vast numbers of qualified candidates for jobs at every level, screen them in minutes, and contact the most promising ones immediately. The payoffs can be enormous: it costs substantially less to hire someone on-line, and the time saved is equally great. In this article, Peter Cappelli examines some of the emerging service providers and technologies--matchmakers, job boards, hiring management systems software, and applicant-screening mechanisms that test skills and record interests. He also looks at some of the strategies companies are adopting as they enter on-line labor markets. Recruiting needs to be refashioned to resemble marketing, he stresses. Accordingly, smart companies are designing Web pages, and even product ads, with potential recruits in mind. They're giving line managers authority to hire so that candidates in cyberspace aren't lost. They're building internal on-line job networks to retain talent. Integrating recruiting efforts with overall marketing campaigns, especially through coordination and identification with the company's brand, is the most important thing companies can do to ensure success in on-line hiring. Along the way, Cappelli sounds two cautionary notes. First, a human touch, not electronic contact, is vital in the last steps of a successful hiring process. Second, companies must make sure that on-line testing and hiring criteria do not discriminate against women, disabled people, workers over 40, or members of minority groups. When competition for talent is fierce, companies that master the art and science of on-line recruiting will be the ones that attract and keep the best people. PMID:11246921

  1. An on-line SPE-HPLC method for effective sample preconcentration and determination of fenoxycarb and cis, trans-permethrin in surface waters.

    PubMed

    Šatínský, Dalibor; Naibrtová, Linda; Fernández-Ramos, Carolina; Solich, Petr

    2015-09-01

    A new on-line SPE-HPLC method using fused-core columns for on-line solid phase extraction and large volume sample injection for increasing the sensitivity of detection was developed for the determination of insecticides fenoxycarb and cis-, trans-permethrin in surface waters. The separation was carried out on fused-core column Phenyl-Hexyl (100×4.6 mm), particle size 2.7 µm with mobile phase acetonitrile:water in gradient mode at flow rate 1.0 mL min(-1), column temperature 45°C. Large volume sample injection (1500 µL) to the extraction dimension using short precolumn Ascentis Express RP C-18 (5×4.6 mm); fused-core particle size 2.7 µm allowed effective sample preconcentration and efficient ballast sample matrix removal. The washing mobile phase consisting of a mixture of acetonitrile:water; 30:70, (v/v) was pumped at flow rate of 0.5 mL min(-1) through the extraction precolumn to the waste. Time of the valve switch for transferring the preconcentrated sample zone from the extraction to the separation column was set at 3rd min. Elution of preconcentrated insecticides from the extraction precolumn and separation on the analytical column was performed in gradient mode. Linear gradient elution started from 40% of acetonitrile at time of valve switch from SPE column (3rd min) to 95% of acetonitrile at 7th min. Synthetic dye sudan I was chosen as an internal standard. UV detection at wavelength 225 nm was used and the method reached the limits of detection (LOD) at ng mL(-1) levels for both insecticides. The method showing on-line sample pretreatment and preconcentration with highly sensitive determination of insecticides was applied for monitoring of fenoxycarb and both permethrin isomers in different surface water samples in Czech Republic. The time of whole analysis including on-line extraction, interferences removal, chromatography separation and system equilibration was less than 8 min. PMID:26003701

  2. Psychology over the Internet: On-Line Experiences.

    PubMed

    García, V; Ahumada, L; Hinkelman, J; Muñoz, R F; Quezada, J

    2004-02-01

    The "International Symposium on Psychology over the Internet: On-Line Experiences" was held in Lima, Peru, July 2003, at the 29th InterAmerican Congress of Psychology. The main topic was the advantages and disadvantages of using this technology in the applied field of psychology. The Internet has been considered a new alternative for teaching-learning processes (virtual classroom); vocational assessment; counseling and orientation (virtual psychological consultation); and intervention focused on specific health-related problems. These experiences of on-line psychological services and their conclusions are briefly described herein. PMID:15006166

  3. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J

    2008-08-19

    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  4. Indirect visual cryptography scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiubo; Li, Tuo; Shi, Yishi

    2015-10-01

    Visual cryptography (VC), a new cryptographic scheme for image. Here in encryption, image with message is encoded to be N sub-images and any K sub-images can decode the message in a special rules (N>=2, 2<=K<=N). Then any K of the N sub-images are printed on transparency and stacked exactly, the message of original image will be decrypted by human visual system, but any K-1 of them get no information about it. This cryptographic scheme can decode concealed images without any cryptographic computations, and it has high security. But this scheme lacks of hidden because of obvious feature of sub-images. In this paper, we introduce indirect visual cryptography scheme (IVCS), which encodes sub-images to be pure phase images without visible strength based on encoding of visual cryptography. The pure phase image is final ciphertexts. Indirect visual cryptography scheme not only inherits the merits of visual cryptography, but also raises indirection, hidden and security. Meanwhile, the accuracy alignment is not required any more, which leads to the strong anti-interference capacity and robust in this scheme. System of decryption can be integrated highly and operated conveniently, and its process of decryption is dynamic and fast, which all lead to the good potentials in practices.

  5. Section BB Hatch Coating; Framing Plan on Line C Lodging ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section B-B Hatch Coating; Framing Plan on Line C Lodging Knees at Hatch; Elevation A-A Hull Framing; Section at Hatch Frame 36, Starboard Looking Aft; Midship Section Frame 37, Port Looking Aft - Steam Schooner WAPAMA, Kaiser Shipyard No. 3 (Shoal Point), Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  6. Searching CA Condensates, On-Line and Batch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminecki, Ronald M.; And Others

    Batch mode processing is compared, using cost-effectiveness, with on-line processing for computer-aided searching of chemical abstracts. Consideration for time, need, coverage, and adaptability are found to be the criteria by which a searcher selects a method, and sometimes both methods are used. There is a tradeoff between batch mode's slower…

  7. An On-Line Budget Information Retrieval System Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jesse L.

    Described is an On-Line Budget Information Retrieval System developed at Southern University at Baton Rouge to upgrade financial management capability. The system is designed to provide top administrators, deans, department heads, grant directors and finance or accounting staff with information less than 24 hours old. It is noted that the system…

  8. On-Line Text Processing: Introduction and Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, D.E.

    The objective of the current work program is to develop an on-line computer capability that would assist an information analyst in processing textual materials. The initial result of the work program is the design of a system for text processing and a computer implementation of a preliminary model of the system that strongly supports the validity…

  9. A New On-Line Resource for Psycholinguistic Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekely, Anna; Jacobsen, Thomas; D'Amico, Simona; Devescovi, Antonella; Andonoa, Elena; Herron, Daniel; Lu, Ching Ching; Pechmann, Thomas; Pleh, Csaba; Wicha, Nicole; Federmeier, Kara; Gerdjikova, Irina; Gutierrez, Gabriel; Hung, Daisy, Hsu, Jeanne; Iyer, Gowri; Kohnert, Kathryn; Mehotcheva, Teodora; Orozco-Figueroa, Araceli; Tzeng, Angela; Tzeng, Ovid; Arevalo, Analia; Vargha, Andras; Butler, Andrew C.; Buffington, Robert; Bates, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Picture naming is a widely used technique in psycholinguistic studies. Here, we describe new on-line resources that our project has compiled and made available to researchers on the world wide web at http://crl.ucsd.edu/~aszekely/ipnp/. The website provides access to a wide range of picture stimuli and related norms in seven languages. Picture…

  10. On-line fuzzy logic control of tube bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieh, Junghsen; Li, Wei Jie

    2005-11-01

    This paper describes the simulation and on-line fuzzy logic control of tube bending. By combining elasticity and plasticity theories, a conventional model was developed. The results from simulation were compared with those obtained from testing. The experimental data reveal that there exists certain level of uncertainty and nonlinearity in tube bending, and its variation could be significant. To overcome this, a on-line fuzzy logic controller with self-tuning capabilities was designed. The advantages of this on-line system are (1) its computational requirement is simple in comparison with more algorithmic-based controllers, and (2) the system does not need prior knowledge of material characteristics. The device includes an AC motor, a servo controller, a forming mechanism, a 3D optical sensor, and a microprocessor. This automated bending machine adopts primary and secondary errors between the actual response and desired output to conduct on-line rule reasoning. Results from testing show that the spring back angle can be effectively compensated by the self- tuning fuzzy system in a real-time fashion.

  11. Improving Linking from the Literature to On-line Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Henneken, E. A.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

    2003-12-01

    The ADS, in close collaboration with the Astrophysics Data Centers Executive Committee (ADEC) and the American Astronomical Society (AAS) has been working on improving the linking between the literature and on-line data by allowing authors to specify data that were used in the research described in journal articles. We are working with the ADEC on identifying data sets in a consistent manner. The ADEC has agreed that all NASA data centers will use data set identifiers of the form: ADS/facility#identifier where facility specifies the telescope that acquired the data and identifier is a data center selected identifier for a particular data set. The ADS is providing a registration service for facility names that identify data collections at the various data centers, a verification service that allows authors and editors to verify the existence of data set identifiers, and a linking service that allows journals to use permanent URLs for links to data sets that may move between data centers. Current plans of the ADEC-AAS collaboration call for including data set identifiers in the LaTeX manuscripts by the authors. The data set identifiers will be provided by the data centers with all data delivered. The editorial process will verify all data set identifiers and include links to the on-line data from the on-line articles. The identifiers used in each article will be made available to the ADS for linking to the on-line data from the ADS system as well.

  12. Personality Interactions and Scaffolding in On-Line Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nussbaum, E. Michael; Hartley, Kendall; Sinatra, Gale M.; Reynolds, Ralph E.; Bendixen, Lisa D.

    2004-01-01

    The potential of on-line discussions to prompt greater reflection of course material is often stymied by a tendency of students to agree with one another rather than to formulate counter-arguments. This article describes an experiment using note starters and elaborated cases to encourage counter-argumentation and examines interactions with…

  13. Gain Purchasing Power the Newfangled Way--On-Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    1999-01-01

    Examines how San Diego State University uses computers to cut purchasing costs and boost efficiency and whether their solution can work for other business-to-business needs. How the school developed the totally self-sustaining, on-line and on-time purchasing system is discussed, including solutions to start-up problems. (GR)

  14. On-Line Synthesis and Analysis by Mass Spectrometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Ryan M.; Pulliam, Christopher J.; Raab, Shannon A.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, students learn how to use ESI to accelerate chemical synthesis and to couple it with on-line mass spectrometry for structural analysis. The Hantzsch synthesis of symmetric 1,4-dihydropyridines is a classic example of a one-pot reaction in which multiple intermediates can serve to indicate the progress of the reaction…

  15. On-Line Information Retrieval as a Scientists Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, A. Stephanie; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The use of an on-line information retrieval system by the scientists themselves is described. MEDUSA was designed to allow physicians to interrogate the MEDLARS data base. A Brief description is given of the system and details of an experiment to test its effectiveness. (8 references) (Author)

  16. The Lesson Observation On-Line (Evidence Portfolio) Platform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, David G.

    2015-01-01

    At a time when teacher training is being moved to school-based programmes it is important to engage in a research-informed dialogue about creating more distinctive, and cost-effective 21st century models of teacher training. Three years ago I began feasibility field testing the Lesson Observation On-line (Evidence Portfolio) Platform [LOOP]…

  17. The On-Line Processing of Unaccusativity in Greek Agrammatism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peristeri, Eleni; Tsimpli, Ianthi-Maria; Tsapkini, Kyrana

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the on-line processing of unaccusative and unergative sentences in a group of eight Greek-speaking individuals diagnosed with Broca aphasia and a group of language-unimpaired subjects used as the baseline. The processing of unaccusativity refers to the reactivation of the postverbal trace by retrieving the mnemonic representation…

  18. EPA'S ON-LINE CALCULATORS AND TRAINING COURSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a suite of on-line calculators called "OnSite" for assessing transport of environmental contaminants int the subsurface. The calculators are available on the Internet at http://www.epa.gov/athens/onsite, and are divided into four categories: Parameter Estimate...

  19. On-Line IDCMS Evaluation of Different Categories of Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follettie, Joseph F.

    A manipulandum-referenced taxonomy for response categories appropriate to primary education is presented. The tenability of automatic on-line evaluation of the different types of response when processing equipment of the sort that probably will be available to Southwest Regional Laboratory is preliminarily evaluated. (Author/SK)

  20. On-Line Learning and the Implications for School Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Greg

    2011-01-01

    "Disrupting Class," published in 2008, is the story of how disruptive innovation, innovation that changes the business model organizations, will fundamentally change the American school system. The book's most startling prediction is that half of all high school classes will be on-line by 2019. In considering these predictions, the author began to…

  1. The Nearness of You: Students & Teachers Writing On-Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Christopher, Ed.; Wood, Susan Nelson, Ed.

    This book is a guide to using new computer technologies in innovative ways to teach writing, particularly imaginative writing. The book shows how on-line technology can be a positive tool in the classroom, if the focus is on the users of the technology and the technology is integrated into the curriculum. The book is divided into five sections and…

  2. Towards a Rhetoric of On-line Tutoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coogan, David

    Electronic mail-based tutoring of undergraduate writing students upsets the temporal basis of the face-to-face paradigm for writing tutorials. Taking place in real time in a specified place, the face-to-face tutorial session has a beginning, middle and end. Further, the session must have a tangible point. By contrast, in on-line tutoring, time is…

  3. An Experimental On-Line Information Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cautin, Harvey; And Others

    This paper reports an experiment in on-line retrieval using man-machine dialogue on a remote console. Message editing procedures and the use of two command languages are described. The system employs a PDP-8 computer for generating, proofreading, and editing messages, and an IBM 7040 computer for information retrieval processing. The symbolic…

  4. The On-Line Processing of Written Irony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filik, Ruth; Moxey, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    We report an eye-tracking study in which we investigate the on-line processing of written irony. Specifically, participants' eye movements were recorded while they read sentences which were either intended ironically, or non-ironically, and subsequent text which contained pronominal reference to the ironic (or non-ironic) phrase. Results showed…

  5. ON-LINE TOXICITY MONITORS AND WATERSHED EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Water Quality Early Warning System using On-line Toxicity Monitors (OTMs) has been deployed in the East Fork of the Little Miami River, Clermont County, OH. Living organisms have long been used to determine the toxicity of environmental samples. With advancements in electronic ...

  6. On-Line Pesticide Training with Narrated Powerpoint Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    UMaine Cooperative Extension is the primary educational delivery organization for pesticide recertification credits in Maine. Shrinking budgets and staff numbers are making traditional face-to-face delivery increasingly difficult to maintain. To address this issue, on-line pesticide applicator recertification training credits were developed. The…

  7. WMI2, the Student's On-Line Symbolic Calculator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacs, Zoltan

    2011-01-01

    Student activities focused on discovering mathematics play an important role in the teaching and learning process. WebMathematics Interactive (WMI2) was developed to offer a fast and user-friendly on-line web interface to enhance the quality of both theoretical and applied mathematics courses. For the teacher, in the classroom, it provides…

  8. BCN: On-Line Information Retrieval for the Masses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Edward J.

    On-line information retrieval systems will spread beyond its narrow scope with the widespread development of interactive communication capability in connection with cable television. There is a possibility of far better attention to the information needs of the non-specialist with a coordinated information source. The major problems of such a…

  9. The On-Line Audit Revisited: Yale University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weldon, Albert R., Jr.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Yale University's on-line examination of accounting and administrative systems is discussed. Program goals are to review financial management systems at the university to identify weaknesses in internal controls, and to fulfill all audit requirements of federal grants and contracts. After outlining the quarterly audit cycle, advantages of the…

  10. On-line diagnosis of sequential systems, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundstrom, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The theory and techniques applicable to the on-line diagnosis of sequential systems, were investigated. A complete model for the study of on-line diagnosis is developed. First an appropriate class of system models is formulated which can serve as a basis for a theoretical study of on-line diagnosis. Then notions of realization, fault, fault-tolerance and diagnosability are formalized which have meaningful interpretations in the the context of on-line diagnosis. The diagnosis of systems which are structurally decomposed and are represented as a network of smaller systems is studied. The fault set considered is the set of faults which only affect one component system is the network. A characterization of those networks which can be diagnosed using a purely combinational detector is achieved. A technique is given which can be used to realize any network by a network which is diagnosable in the above sense. Limits are found on the amount of redundancy involved in any such technique.

  11. Growing Academic Vocabulary with a Collaborative On-Line Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Tom; Horst, Marlise

    This paper examines how collaborative on-line databases can be used to meet the need for individualized instruction for academic vocabulary learners intending to do university work in English. It is argued that effective teaching and course design for preparing non-native English speaking students for study at English language universities must be…

  12. Bucknell On-Line Circulation System; A Library Staff View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivoire, Helena

    The Bucknell On-Line Circulation System (BLOCS) was designed to meet the requirements of a circulation system of the Ellen Clarke Bertrand Library of Bucknell University. The requirements for an automated system were, in sum: (1) a system whose operations were not only reliable but simple enough for student assistants (many of whom work only 10…

  13. On-Line NDE for Advanced Reactor Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, N.; Inanc, F.; Thompson, R. B.; Junker, W. R.; Ruddy, F. H.; Beatty, J. M.; Arlia, N. G.

    2003-03-01

    This expository paper introduces the concept of on-line sensor methodologies for monitoring the integrity of components in next generation power systems, and explains general benefits of the approach, while describing early conceptual developments of suitable NDE methodologies. The paper first explains the philosophy behind this approach (i.e. the design-for-inspectability concept). Specifically, we describe where and how decades of accumulated knowledge and experience in nuclear power system maintenance are utilized in Generation IV power system designs, as the designs are being actively developed, in order to advance their safety and economy. Second, we explain that Generation IV reactor design features call for the replacement of the current outage-based maintenance by on-line inspection and monitoring. Third, the model-based approach toward design and performance optimization of on-line sensor systems, using electromagnetic, ultrasonic, and radiation detectors, will be explained. Fourth, general types of NDE inspections that are considered amenable to on-line health monitoring will be listed. Fifth, we will describe specific modeling developments to be used for radiography, EMAT UT, and EC detector design studies.

  14. Facing regulatory challenges of on-line hemodiafiltration.

    PubMed

    Kümmerle, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    On-line hemodiafiltration (on-line HDF) is the result of a vision that triggered multifarious changes in very different areas. Driven by the idea to offer better medical treatment for renal patients, technological innovations were developed and established that also constituted new challenges in the field of regulatory affairs. The existing regulations predominantly addressed the quality and safety of those products needed to perform dialysis treatment which were supplied by industrial manufacturers. However, the complexity of treatment system required for the provision of on-line fluids demanded a holistic approach encompassing all components involved. Hence, focus was placed not only on single products, but much more on their interfacing, and the clinical infrastructure, in particular, had to undergo substantial changes. The overall understanding of the interaction between such factors, quite different in their nature, was crucial to overcome the arising regulatory obstacles. This essay describes the evolution of the on-line HDF procedure from the regulatory point of view. A simplified diagram demonstrates the path taken from the former regulatory understanding to the realization of necessary changes. That achievement was only possible through 'management of preview' and consequent promotion of technical and medical innovations as well as regulatory re-evaluations. PMID:22188690

  15. Assessment of an On-Line Educational Administration Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Lori

    2004-01-01

    An on-line education administration course was evaluated using Seven Lessons Learned by Graham, Cagiltay, Lim, Craner, and Duffy (2001 ) as the framework. The framework was found to be useful in revealing areas of strengths and weaknesses in offering virtual education administration courses. The evaluation provided information that clear…

  16. Using On-line Corpus To Facilitate Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yu-Chih

    The potential for on-line corpus in language teaching and learning has been the focus of attention on the part of teachers and researchers for some time now. The purpose of this study is to report on an Internet-based concordance approach to language learning and to investigate both qualitatively and quantitatively Taiwanese…

  17. Expanding Academic Vocabulary with an Interactive On-Line Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, Marlise; Cobb, Tom; Nicolae, Ioana

    2005-01-01

    University students used a set of existing and purpose-built on-line tools for vocabulary learning in an experimental ESL course. The resources included concordance, dictionary, cloze-builder, hypertext, and a database with interactive self-quizzing feature (all freely available at www.lextutor.ca). The vocabulary targeted for learning consisted…

  18. On-line mass storage system functional design document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earnest, D.

    1975-01-01

    A functional system definition for an on-line high density magnetic tape data storage system is provided. This system can be implemented in a multi-purpose, multi-host environment, and satisfy the requirements of economical data storage in the range of 2 to 50 billion bytes.

  19. Children's On-Line Processing of Scrambling in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Takaaki

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the on-line processing of scrambled sentences in Japanese by preschool children and adults using a combination of self-paced listening and speeded picture selection tasks. The effects of a filler-gap dependency, reversibility, and case markers were examined. The results show that both children and adults had difficulty in…

  20. On-Line Services in Medicine and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarn, Davis B.; Leiter, Joseph

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the development and operation of MEDLINE which was initiated by the National Library of Medicine in 1971. This is the first generally accessible, on-line, national and international information retrieval service, and allows almost instantaneous searching of over 400,000 citations from the world's biomedical serial literature. (JR)

  1. IOOS Data Portals and Uniform On-line Browse Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, M.; Currier, R. D.; Kobara, S.; Gayanilo, F.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System Regional Association (GCOOS-RA) is one of eleven Regional Associations organized under the NOAA-led U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) Program Office. Each of the RAs operate standards-based regional data portals designed to aggregate near real-time and historical observed data and modeled outputs from distributed providers and to offer these and derived products in standardized ways to a diverse set of users. The RA's portals are based on the IOOS Data and Communications Plan which describes the functional elements needed for an interoperable system. One of these elements is called "Uniform On-line Browse" which is an informational service designed primarily to visualize the inventory of a portal. An on-line browse service supports the end user's need to discover what parameters are available, to learn the spatial and temporal extend of the holdings, and to examine the character of the data (e.g, variability, gappiness, etc). These pieces of information help the end user decide if the data are fit for his/her purpose and to construct valid data requests. Note that on-line browse is a distinctly different activity than data analysis because it seeks to yield knowledge about the inventory and not about what the data mean. "Uniform" on-line browse is a service that takes advantage of the standardization of the data portal's data access points. Most portals represent station locations on a map. This is a view of the data inventory but these plots are rarely generated by pulling data through the standards-based services offered to the end users but through methods only available to the portal programmers. This work will present results of Uniform On-line browse tools developed within GCOOS-RA and their applicability to other RA portals.

  2. Automatic Delineation of On-Line Head-And-Neck Computed Tomography Images: Toward On-Line Adaptive Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Tiezhi . E-mail: tiezhi.zhang@beaumont.edu; Chi Yuwei; Meldolesi, Elisa; Yan Di

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: To develop and validate a fully automatic region-of-interest (ROI) delineation method for on-line adaptive radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: On-line adaptive radiotherapy requires a robust and automatic image segmentation method to delineate ROIs in on-line volumetric images. We have implemented an atlas-based image segmentation method to automatically delineate ROIs of head-and-neck helical computed tomography images. A total of 32 daily computed tomography images from 7 head-and-neck patients were delineated using this automatic image segmentation method. Manually drawn contours on the daily images were used as references in the evaluation of automatically delineated ROIs. Two methods were used in quantitative validation: (1) the dice similarity coefficient index, which indicates the overlapping ratio between the manually and automatically delineated ROIs; and (2) the distance transformation, which yields the distances between the manually and automatically delineated ROI surfaces. Results: Automatic segmentation showed agreement with manual contouring. For most ROIs, the dice similarity coefficient indexes were approximately 0.8. Similarly, the distance transformation evaluation results showed that the distances between the manually and automatically delineated ROI surfaces were mostly within 3 mm. The distances between two surfaces had a mean of 1 mm and standard deviation of <2 mm in most ROIs. Conclusion: With atlas-based image segmentation, it is feasible to automatically delineate ROIs on the head-and-neck helical computed tomography images in on-line adaptive treatments.

  3. Astronomy On-Line Programme Enters "hot Week"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-11-01

    World's Biggest Astronomy WWW-Event Attracts Thousands of Students The Astronomy On-line Programme (See ESO Press Release 09/96 of 18 June 1996) began officially on 1 October and is now about to enter its most intense phase, known as the Hot Week . On 18 - 22 November, an estimated 4000 astronomy-interested, mostly young people in Europe and on four other continents will get together during five days in what - not unexpected - has become the world's biggest astronomy event ever organised on the World Wide Web. This carefully structured Programme is carried out in collaboration between the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE), the European Southern Observatory and the European Commission, under the auspices of the Fourth European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture. The Programme has already had a most visible impact on the school education of natural sciences in various countries; for instance, the Internet-connection of schools has been advanced in some, in order to allow groups to participate. There have been numerous contacts among the groups across the borders and there are clear signs that many Astronomy On-line participants have progressed to use the impressive possibilities of the Web in an efficient and structured way. There has been a lively media interest in Astronomy On-line all over Europe and it is expected to increase during the next week. The current status of Astronomy On-line It is obvious that the pilot function of the Astronomy On-line Programme in the use of the Web has been very effective and that the associated dissemination of astronomical knowledge has been successful. At this time, more than 650 groups have registered with Astronomy On-line. Most come from 31 different European countries and a few dozen groups are located in North and South America as well as in Asia and Australia. Together they have experienced the steady build-up of Astronomy On-line over the past weeks, by means of numerous contributions from a

  4. On-line speciation analysis of inorganic arsenic in complex environmental aqueous samples by pervaporation sequential injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Boonjob, Warunya; Miró, Manuel; Kolev, Spas D

    2013-12-15

    A proof of concept of a novel pervaporation sequential injection (PSI) analysis method for automatic non-chromatographic speciation analysis of inorganic arsenic in complex aqueous samples is presented. The method is based on hydride generation of arsine followed by its on-line pervaporation-based membrane separation and CCD spectrophotometric detection. The concentrations of arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) are determined sequentially in a single sample zone. The leading section of the sample zone merges with a citric acid/citrate buffer solution (pH 4.5) for the selective reduction of As(III) to arsine while the trailing section of the sample zone merges with hydrochloric acid solution to allow the reduction of both As(III) and As(V) to arsine at pH lower than 1. Virtually identical analytical sensitivity is obtained for both As(III) and As(V) at this high acidity. The flow analyzer also accommodates in-line pH detector for monitoring of the acidity throughout the sample zone prior to hydride generation. Under optimal conditions the proposed PSI method is characterized by a limit of detection, linear calibration range and repeatability for As(III) of 22 μg L(-1) (3sblank level criterion), 50-1000 μg L(-1) and 3.0% at the 500 μg L(-1) level and for As(V) of 51 μg L(-1), 100-2000 μg L(-1) and 2.6% at the 500 μg L(-1) level, respectively. The method was validated with mixed As(III)/As(V) standard aqueous solutions and successfully applied to the determination of As(III) and As(V) in river water samples with elevated content of dissolved organic carbon and suspended particulate matter with no prior sample pretreatment. Excellent relative recoveries ranging from 98% to 104% were obtained for both As(III) and As(V). PMID:24209302

  5. Compact Spreader Schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J. -Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C.

    2014-07-25

    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  6. Nonstandard finite difference schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickens, Ronald E.

    1995-01-01

    The major research activities of this proposal center on the construction and analysis of nonstandard finite-difference schemes for ordinary and partial differential equations. In particular, we investigate schemes that either have zero truncation errors (exact schemes) or possess other significant features of importance for numerical integration. Our eventual goal is to bring these methods to bear on problems that arise in the modeling of various physical, engineering, and technological systems. At present, these efforts are extended in the direction of understanding the exact nature of these nonstandard procedures and extending their use to more complicated model equations. Our presentation will give a listing (obtained to date) of the nonstandard rules, their application to a number of linear and nonlinear, ordinary and partial differential equations. In certain cases, numerical results will be presented.

  7. The development of a virtual database to provide on-line access to a large archive of clinical data.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, L. E.; Huff, S. M.; Haug, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    The archival database of the HELP Hospital Information System at LDS Hospital is too large to be stored on line. The archival data are important for clinical and research applications. Demountable disk packs have been used to store the archival database. This method of storage has four significant disadvantages. A virtual database was developed to overcome the limitations of this data-management scheme. This virtual database enables the transparent use of appropriate low-cost network-based storage technology to provide on-line availability of the entire archive of clinical data. The virtual database successfully resolves the problems associated with disk packs, and opens the door to enhanced use of the data for clinical and research applications. PMID:1482943

  8. An Orbit And Dispersion Correction Scheme for the PEP II

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Y.; Donald, M.; Shoaee, H.; White, G.; Yasukawa, L.A.; /SLAC

    2011-09-01

    To achieve optimum luminosity in a storage ring it is vital to control the residual vertical dispersion. In the original PEP storage ring, a scheme to control the residual dispersion function was implemented using the ring orbit as the controlling element. The 'best' orbit not necessarily giving the lowest vertical dispersion. A similar scheme has been implemented in both the on-line control code and in the simulation code LEGO. The method involves finding the response matrices (sensitivity of orbit/dispersion at each Beam-Position-Monitor (BPM) to each orbit corrector) and solving in a least squares sense for minimum orbit, dispersion function or both. The optimum solution is usually a subset of the full least squares solution. A scheme of simultaneously correcting the orbits and dispersion has been implemented in the simulation code and on-line control system for PEP-II. The scheme is based on the eigenvector decomposition method. An important ingredient of the scheme is to choose the optimum eigenvectors that minimize the orbit, dispersion and corrector strength. Simulations indicate this to be a very effective way to control the vertical residual dispersion.

  9. On-line range prediction system, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levan, Nhan

    1988-01-01

    The on-line range prediction system is designed for providing a prediction of the target range in the case of a laser data dropout. It consists of real time implementation of a Kalman filter on an IBM PC/AT equipped with necessary hardware. The system was set up and tested at Crows Landing in the Fall of 1987. The improvements made on the on-line range prediction system during 1988 are examined. Solutions are proposed and discussed to the several problems encountered during system tests. Then, the improvements made on the filter software are explained, namely, accounting for the time lag and providing data continously. Finally, the ideas are mentioned that can be considered in the future.

  10. On-line object feature extraction for multispectral scene representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghassemian, Hassan; Landgrebe, David

    1988-01-01

    A new on-line unsupervised object-feature extraction method is presented that reduces the complexity and costs associated with the analysis of the multispectral image data and data transmission, storage, archival and distribution. The ambiguity in the object detection process can be reduced if the spatial dependencies, which exist among the adjacent pixels, are intelligently incorporated into the decision making process. The unity relation was defined that must exist among the pixels of an object. Automatic Multispectral Image Compaction Algorithm (AMICA) uses the within object pixel-feature gradient vector as a valuable contextual information to construct the object's features, which preserve the class separability information within the data. For on-line object extraction the path-hypothesis and the basic mathematical tools for its realization are introduced in terms of a specific similarity measure and adjacency relation. AMICA is applied to several sets of real image data, and the performance and reliability of features is evaluated.

  11. Training end-users: An on-line help package

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, M.

    1992-03-01

    No matter how wonderful your INGRES application, if the end users don`t know how to use the application it will not be utilized. This paper discusses an on-line help package implemented in our manufacturing database application in order to help our user community use the application. The Materials Fabrication Division (MFD) of Mechanical Engineering is a series of machining shops that do production jobs for the Laboratory. The Fabrication Control System (FCS) is the user interface to an INGRES database. FCS tracks jobs as they traverse the machine shops and FCS maintains the employee payroll. This interface consists of VIFRED forms, menus and EQUEL Fortran code. The on-line help package is an interactive system that responds to the users ``single key stroke`` request for information. The information retrieved is based upon which help key is used and the form or menu from which the request is generated.

  12. On-line analyzers to distributed control system linking

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, S.F.; Buchanan, B.R.; Sanders, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Analytical Development Section (ADS) of the Savannah River Laboratory is developing on-line analyzers to monitor various site processes. Data from some of the on-line analyzers (OLA's) will be used for process control by distributed control systems (DCS's) such as the Fisher PRoVOX. A problem in the past has been an efficient and cost effective way to get analyzer data onto the DCS data highway. ADS is developing a system to accomplish the linking of OLA's to PRoVOX DCS's. The system will be described, and results of operation in a research and development environment given. Plans for the installation in the production environment will be discussed.

  13. Digital video system for on-line portal verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leszczynski, Konrad W.; Shalev, Shlomo; Cosby, N. Scott

    1990-07-01

    A digital system has been developed for on-line acquisition, processing and display of portal images during radiation therapy treatment. A metal/phosphor screen combination is the primary detector, where the conversion from high-energy photons to visible light takes place. A mirror angled at 45 degrees reflects the primary image to a low-light-level camera, which is removed from the direct radiation beam. The image registered by the camera is digitized, processed and displayed on a CRT monitor. Advanced digital techniques for processing of on-line images have been developed and implemented to enhance image contrast and suppress the noise. Some elements of automated radiotherapy treatment verification have been introduced.

  14. Iodine magnetic moments measured by on-line nuclear orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, N. J.; Rikovska, J.; Green, V. R.; Shaw, T. L.; Krane, K. S.; Walker, P. M.; Grant, I. S.

    1987-03-01

    On-Line measurements of magnetic dipole moments of117 122I are interpreted using coupling of the odd particles to a deformed core. The results show interesting effects of g7/2, d5/2 orbital admixtures in the odd-A isotopes, which are close to spherical. The odd-odd isotopes118, 120I show clear examples of shape co-existence.

  15. On-line corrosion monitoring with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Roberge, P.R. . Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering); Sastri, V.S. )

    1994-10-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) has been found to be a rapid and accurate technique for measuring corrosion rates in the most difficult situations and for yielding information concerning the occurrence of localized corrosion. When used in the absence of potentiostatic control, the technique carries less instrumental overhead, and the danger of damaging the probe by accidental polarization is reduced. Results from two field tests were presented to illustrate the advantages of using EIS for on-line monitoring of general and localized corrosion.

  16. On-line estimation of inertia parameters of space debris for its tether-assisted removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Sharf, Inna; Misra, Arun; Huang, Panfeng

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for on-line inertia parameters estimation for a rigid space debris captured by a tethered system, based on a new dynamics model of the system where the base satellite (chaser) and the space debris (target) are modeled as rigid bodies and the attachment points of the tether are offset from the centers of mass of the two bodies. Parameters estimation of unknown debris is critical for subsequent tasks in the space debris remediation mission, in particular, for debris retrieval and de-orbiting. In the proposed algorithm, the chaser and target are modeled as rigid bodies, the latter with unknown inertia parameters. Then, the parameters identification problem is formulated and solved in three phases. First, a coarse estimate of the target mass is obtained during the post-capture phase, while the length of tether is much longer than the offsets of base and target satellite, and the rigid body model is degenerated to a mass point model. Then, with a proper tension control scheme and the coarse estimate used as an initial guess, the debris is retrieved smoothly and a precise mass estimate is achieved during the first half of the retrieval. Finally, when the tether is retrieved relatively short and the rigid body model is used, moments of inertia and the offsets of the space debris will be estimated with a proper tension control scheme for rigid body model.

  17. Review of trigger and on-line processors at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Lankford, A.J.

    1984-07-01

    The role of trigger and on-line processors in reducing data rates to manageable proportions in e/sup +/e/sup -/ physics experiments is defined not by high physics or background rates, but by the large event sizes of the general-purpose detectors employed. The rate of e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation is low, and backgrounds are not high; yet the number of physics processes which can be studied is vast and varied. This paper begins by briefly describing the role of trigger processors in the e/sup +/e/sup -/ context. The usual flow of the trigger decision process is illustrated with selected examples of SLAC trigger processing. The features are mentioned of triggering at the SLC and the trigger processing plans of the two SLC detectors: The Mark II and the SLD. The most common on-line processors at SLAC, the BADC, the SLAC Scanner Processor, the SLAC FASTBUS Controller, and the VAX CAMAC Channel, are discussed. Uses of the 168/E, 3081/E, and FASTBUS VAX processors are mentioned. The manner in which these processors are interfaced and the function they serve on line is described. Finally, the accelerator control system for the SLC is outlined. This paper is a survey in nature, and hence, relies heavily upon references to previous publications for detailed description of work mentioned here. 27 references, 9 figures, 1 table.

  18. Problem formulation, metrics, open government, and on-line collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, C. R.; Schofield, K.; Young, S.; Shaw, D.

    2010-12-01

    Problem formulation leading to effective environmental management, including synthesis and application of science by government agencies, may benefit from collaborative on-line environments. This is illustrated by two interconnected projects: 1) literature-based evidence tools that support causal assessment and problem formulation, and 2) development of output, outcome, and sustainability metrics for tracking environmental conditions. Specifically, peer-production mechanisms allow for global contribution to science-based causal evidence databases, and subsequent crowd-sourced development of causal networks supported by that evidence. In turn, science-based causal networks may inform problem formulation and selection of metrics or indicators to track environmental condition (or problem status). Selecting and developing metrics in a collaborative on-line environment may improve stakeholder buy-in, the explicit relevance of metrics to planning, and the ability to approach problem apportionment or accountability, and to define success or sustainability. Challenges include contribution governance, data-sharing incentives, linking on-line interfaces to data service providers, and the intersection of environmental science and social science. Degree of framework access and confidentiality may vary by group and/or individual, but may ultimately be geared at demonstrating connections between science and decision making and supporting a culture of open government, by fostering transparency, public engagement, and collaboration.

  19. Developing Effective On-Line Learning Resources in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaris, J. R.; Manduca, C. A.

    2004-12-01

    On-line learning resources provide a new opportunity for geoscience faculty to utilize technology and the web in their classes. Online activities allow faculty to integrate online data, web resources and new assessment techniques in their teaching while easing the management of large classes. Creating high-quality resources gives instructors a valuable opportunity to examine their teaching and activities and it also provides a new avenue for scholarly activity. Online resources are particularly suited to reuse by other faculty and sharing via the web. The On the Cutting Edge website "Developing Effective On-Line Learning Resources in the Geosciences" (http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/webdesign/index.html) provides resources and support for faculty creating online resources. The site brings together research from experts in the fields of educational design, website construction and resource reusability to address many of the critical issues in designing new online resources or adapting traditional materials to use on the web. The site has activities to help faculty envision what goals their resource is to achieve, then provides links to best-practice information and exemplary sites to help faculty design resources that achieve these goals. Finally, the site addresses how to structure a new resource to maximize its reusability and appeal to other faculty. This poster will provide faculty the opportunity to explore resources on educational aspects of designing on-line learning resources, technical aspects of usability, accessibility and web-site design, and information on assessment and reusability.

  20. Designing effective on-line continuing medical education.

    PubMed

    Zimitat, Craig

    2001-03-01

    The Internet, and new information and communication technologies available through the Internet, provides medical educators with an opportunity to develop unique on-line learning environments with real potential to improve physicians' knowledge and effect change in their clinical practice. There are approximately 100 websites offering on-line CME courses in the USA alone. However, few of these CME courses appear to be based on sound educational principles or CME research and may have little chance of achieving the broader goals of CME. The majority of these courses closely resemble their traditional counterparts (e.g. paper-based books are now electronic books) and appear to be mere substitutions for old-technology CME resources. Whilst some CME providers add unique features of the Internet to enrich their websites, they do not employ strategies to optimize the learning opportunities afforded by this new technology. The adoption of adult learning principles, reflective practice and problem-based approaches can be used as a foundation for sound CME course design. In addition, knowledge of Internet technology and the learning opportunities it affords, together with strategies to maintain participation and new assessment paradigms, are all needed for developing online CME. We argue for an evidence-based and strategic approach to the development of on-line CME courses designed to enhance physician learning and facilitate change in clinical behaviour. PMID:11371287

  1. Development of on-line measurement system for grinding machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiwen; Chen, Da X.

    1993-09-01

    In this paper a new type of intelligent on-line measurer is developed which is used for on-line measuring diametershape and place value of the axle. In the meter MCS-51''1 microcontroller is adopted. The sensor is an inductance transducer. The dynamic character of the sensor is analyzed in detail. That is say how the poor dynamic character of the meter make the on-line measuring error If the meter is a first-order system and the input function is a ramp function the respond error of the system to the input is analyzed. With this method the system error is compensated by the software. So the accuracy of the measuring result is high enough. In order to keep the measuring system work at worksite in normal condition the anti-interference techniques are adopted. In addition to hardware anti-interference technique is used the redundant programming technique and watchdog system are used too in the software. lastly the real measuring result is given.

  2. On-Line Fringe Tracking and Prediction at IOTA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Edward; Mah, Robert; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The Infrared/Optical Telescope Array (IOTA) is a multi-aperture Michelson interferometer located on Mt. Hopkins near Tucson, Arizona. To enable viewing of fainter targets, an on-line fringe tracking system is presently under development at NASA Ames Research Center. The system has been developed off-line using actual data from IOTA, and is presently undergoing on-line implementation at IOTA. The system has two parts: (1) a fringe tracking system that identifies the center of a fringe packet by fitting a parametric model to the data; and (2) a fringe packet motion prediction system that uses characteristics of past fringe packets to predict fringe packet motion. Combined, this information will be used to optimize on-line the scanning trajectory, resulting in improved visibility of faint targets. Fringe packet identification is highly accurate and robust (99% of the 4000 fringe packets were identified correctly, the remaining 1% were either out of the scan range or too noisy to be seen) and is performed in 30-90 milliseconds on a Pentium II-based computer. Fringe packet prediction, currently performed using an adaptive linear predictor, delivers a 10% improvement over the baseline of predicting no motion.

  3. Multi-parameter on-line coal bulk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    This was a four-year grant that was given a no cost extension for one more year. The purpose of the grant was to develop a pulsed neutron-based technique that could measure on-line all the major and minor elements in coal. Such measurements would allow the continuous monitoring of bulk parameters such as coal heating value (BTU/lb), volatile matter, moisture etc., deemed important to the coal industry. Such parameters, along with the continuous measurement of elements such as sulfur and sodium, are of major economic and environmental concern, and their measurement would assist in a more efficient use of the coal-fired boilers, as well as limiting emissions controlled by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. It was hoped that this study would lead to the development of a technique able to create a marketable product, an On-Line Elemental Coal Analyzer. The study was separated in the following major parts: (1) Devise an efficient system for the detection of gamma rays; (2) Prior to experimentation, perform modeling and simulations for items such as detector shielding, coal sample configuration, and neutron tube collimation; (3) Develop a computer code for data reduction and analysis; (4) Measure the elemental composition of various coal samples; and (5) Design a prototype, on-line elemental coal analyzer, based on the PFTNA principle.

  4. Check-Digit Schemes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Mary L.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the study of identification codes and check-digit schemes as a way to show students a practical application of mathematics and introduce them to coding theory. Examples include postal service money orders, parcel tracking numbers, ISBN codes, bank identification numbers, and UPC codes. (MKR)

  5. On-line dating: is it a new 'computer virus'? Connection between on-line partners, risky sex.

    PubMed

    2003-07-01

    A recent study shows a link between very high-risk sexual behavior and meeting sex partners on-line. Investigators theorize that the results may mean that traditional messages about the dangers of HIV are not reaching the younger, Internet-savvy crowd. But the study's results also may offer inspiration that the Internet itself might be a good medium to reach those people. PMID:12846195

  6. On-line and off-line data assimilation of palaeoclimate proxy data into a GCM using ensemble member selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsikaris, A.; Widmann, M.; Jungclaus, J.

    2014-08-01

    Different ensemble-based data assimilation (DA) approaches for palaeoclimate reconstructions have been recently followed, but no systematic comparison among them has been attempted. We compare an off-line and an on-line ensemble-based method, with the testing period being the 17th century, which led into the Maunder Minimum. We use a low-resolution version of Max Planck Institute for Meteorology's model MPI-ESM, to assimilate the PAGES 2K continental temperature reconstructions. In the off-line approach the ensemble for the entire simulation period is generated first and then the ensemble is used in combination with the empirical information to produce the analysis. In contrast, in the on-line approach the ensembles are generated sequentially for sub-periods based on the analysis of previous sub-periods. Both schemes perform better than the simulations without DA. The on-line method would be expected to perform better if the assimilation led to states of the slow components of the climate system that are close to reality and the system had sufficient memory to propagate this information forward in time. In our comparison, which is based on analysing correlations and differences between the analysis and the proxy-based reconstructions, we find similar skill for both methods on continental and the hemispheric scales. This indicates either a lack of control of the slow components in our setup or a lack of information propagation on decadal timescales. Although the skill is similar and the on-line method is more difficult to implement, the temporal consistency of the analysis in on-line method makes it in general preferable.

  7. Condenser on-line leak-detection system development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    Condenser tube leaks have been the number one source of impurities in most utility steam cycles. The impurities lead to corrosion of feedwater systems, boilers, and turbines. EPRI recommends sodium in the condensate be less than 3 ppb, which means less than one gallon leakage per day in some cases. The location of leaks requires isolation of the condenser water box and is costly because of power reduction. On-line detection using tracer can cut down the isolation time and, therefore, offers cost advantages to utilities. The on-line leak detection technique utilizes the concepts developed by EPRI for targeted chlorination''. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}), helium gases, and perfluorocarbon liquid were considered as tracers. Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the practicability of injecting water with dissolved SF{sub 6} gas, SF{sub 6} bubbles, and dissolved SF{sub 6} gas in perfluorocarbon liquid. Both static and dynamic tests were conducted in a condenser model. It was determined that water entrained with SF{sub 6} bubbles offered the most practical method of injection, followed by dissolved SF{sub 6} gas in perfluorocarbon. A conceptual design was developed that utilizes a water lance, a swivel arrangement in the waterbox manhole cover, a tracer targeting and mixing system, and a tracer gas detection system at the air ejector exhaust. A successful demonstration of targeted leak detection using a waterjet lance with SF{sub 6} was conducted at Carolina Power Light Company's Asheville Steam Electric Station Unit 1. A measurable artificially created leak was detected and located using this system with the condenser on-line. 2 refs., 39 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. A Refreshable, On-line Cache for HST Data Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraquelli, Dorothy A.; Ellis, Tracy A.; Ridgaway, Michael; DPAS Team

    2016-01-01

    We discuss upgrades to the HST Data Processing System, with an emphasis on the changes Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Archive users will experience. In particular, data are now held on-line (in a cache) removing the need to reprocess the data every time they are requested from the Archive. OTFR (on the fly reprocessing) has been replaced by a reprocessing system, which runs in the background. Data in the cache are automatically placed in the reprocessing queue when updated calibration reference files are received or when an improved calibration algorithm is installed. Data in the on-line cache are expected to be the most up to date version. These changes were phased in throughout 2015 for all active instruments.The on-line cache was populated instrument by instrument over the course of 2015. As data were placed in the cache, the flag that triggers OTFR was reset so that OTFR no longer runs on these data. "Hybrid" requests to the Archive are handled transparently, with data not yet in the cache provided via OTFR and the remaining data provided from the cache. Users do not need to make separate requests.Users of the MAST Portal will be able to download data from the cache immediately. For data not in the cache, the Portal will send the user to the standard "Retrieval Options Page," allowing the user to direct the Archive to process and deliver the data.The classic MAST Search and Retrieval interface has the same look and feel as previously. Minor changes, unrelated to the cache, have been made to the format of the Retrieval Options Page.

  9. On-line learning algorithms for locally recurrent neural networks.

    PubMed

    Campolucci, P; Uncini, A; Piazza, F; Rao, B D

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on on-line learning procedures for locally recurrent neural networks with emphasis on multilayer perceptron (MLP) with infinite impulse response (IIR) synapses and its variations which include generalized output and activation feedback multilayer networks (MLN's). We propose a new gradient-based procedure called recursive backpropagation (RBP) whose on-line version, causal recursive backpropagation (CRBP), presents some advantages with respect to the other on-line training methods. The new CRBP algorithm includes as particular cases backpropagation (BP), temporal backpropagation (TBP), backpropagation for sequences (BPS), Back-Tsoi algorithm among others, thereby providing a unifying view on gradient calculation techniques for recurrent networks with local feedback. The only learning method that has been proposed for locally recurrent networks with no architectural restriction is the one by Back and Tsoi. The proposed algorithm has better stability and higher speed of convergence with respect to the Back-Tsoi algorithm, which is supported by the theoretical development and confirmed by simulations. The computational complexity of the CRBP is comparable with that of the Back-Tsoi algorithm, e.g., less that a factor of 1.5 for usual architectures and parameter settings. The superior performance of the new algorithm, however, easily justifies this small increase in computational burden. In addition, the general paradigms of truncated BPTT and RTRL are applied to networks with local feedback and compared with the new CRBP method. The simulations show that CRBP exhibits similar performances and the detailed analysis of complexity reveals that CRBP is much simpler and easier to implement, e.g., CRBP is local in space and in time while RTRL is not local in space. PMID:18252525

  10. Hybridization schemes for clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, David J.

    The concept of an optimum hybridization scheme for cluster compounds is developed with particular reference to electron counting. The prediction of electron counts for clusters and the interpretation of the bonding is shown to depend critically upon the presumed hybridization pattern of the cluster vertex atoms. This fact has not been properly appreciated in previous work, particularly in applications of Stone's tensor surface harmonic (TSH) theory, but is found to be a useful tool when dealt with directly. A quantitative definition is suggested for the optimum cluster hybridization pattern based directly upon the ease of interpretation of the molecular orbitals, and results are given for a range of species. The relationship of this scheme to the detailed cluster geometry is described using Löwdin's partitioned perturbation theory, and the success and range of application of TSH theory are discussed.

  11. On-line composition with laser-based techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, F.T.; Hartford, A. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Current methods for determining the composition of coal gasification streams generally involve sampling, some treatment, and inherent delay times prior to analysis. Optical instrumentation, on the other hand, provides the potential for on-line, rapid-response monitoring of gasifier streams. Among the optical technques that appear quite promising for this application are coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), and synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence (SDLIF).

  12. Based on line scan CCD print image detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lifeng; Xie, Kai; Li, Tong

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a new method based on machine vision is proposed for the defects of the traditional manual inspection of the quality of printed matter. With the aid of on line array CCD camera for image acquisition, using stepper motor as a sampling of drive circuit. Through improvement of driving circuit, to achieve the different size or precision image acquisition. In the terms of image processing, the standard image registration algorithm then, because of the characteristics of CCD-image acquisition, rigid body transformation is usually used in the registration, so as to achieve the detection of printed image.

  13. Operation of an on-line substation diagnosis system

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Y.; Ono, T. ); Ibuki, K.; Taka, S. )

    1988-10-01

    On-line monitoring systems for substation equipment are expected to give an impact on the improvement of the reliability of the power system. A monitoring system was applied to one of the newly built substations. It monitors the 204 kV and 72 kV GIS's and the transformer in their normal operation condition. The basic philosophy of the monitoring system and the principle of the detection of the abnormality is introduced together with the record of its operation in the first year.

  14. Core on-line monitoring and computerized procedures systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gangloff, W.C.

    1986-04-01

    The availability of operating nuclear power plants has been affected significantly by the difficulty people have in coping with the complexity of the plants and the operating procedures. Two ways to use modern computer technology to ease the burden of coping are discussed in this paper, an on-line core monitoring system with predictive capability and a computerized procedures system using live plant data. These systems reduce human errors by presenting information rather than simply data, using the computer to manipulate the data, but leaving the decisions to the plant operator.

  15. Source reduction from chemical plants using on-line optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Pike, R.W.; Hertwig, T.A.

    1995-12-01

    An effective approach for source reduction in chemical plants has been demonstrated using on-line optimization with flowsheeting (ASPEN PLUS) for process optimization and parameter estimation and the Tjao-Biegler algorithm implemented in a mathematical programming language (GAMS/MINOS) for data reconciliation and gross error detection. Results for a Monsanto sulfuric acid plant with a Bailey distributed control system showed a 25% reduction in the sulfur dioxide emissions and a 17% improvement in the profit over the current operating conditions. Details of the methods used are described.

  16. On-line optimal NGL recovery in lean oil plants

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, P.N.; Papadopoulos, M.N. ); Gamez, J.P. )

    1993-04-01

    On-line, adaptive multivariable control (MVC) has been used to provide cost-effective solutions for optimal control of continuous processes. Such an approach has been implemented successfully in worldscale heavy chemical plants during the past four years. More recently, similar successful applications have been implemented in a gas processing facility involving the separation of CO[sub 2] from ethane, and in gas treating, fractionation and NGL recovery by cryogenic and refrigerated lean oil processes. This paper describes these two applications and results from the field testing in the Wyoming and Texas facilities.

  17. High-pressure on-line photolysis with NMR detection

    SciTech Connect

    Yonker, C.R.; Wallen, S.L.

    1996-06-01

    The investigation of the photoreversible fulgide Aberchrome-540 as a function of pressure and temperature with the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) detection is described. This technique demonstrates the novel combination of high-pressure NMR and laser photolysis with the use of fiber optics for the conversion of the fulgide on-line in the instrument. Investigation of the photolysis of Aberchrome-540 to 2.0 kbar and 120 degrees C is reported. Extension of this technique should allow the investigation of photo-initiated reaction kinetics and equilibria as a function of pressure and temperature with simultaneous structural characterization with NMR. {copyright} {ital 1996} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  18. NNDC (National Nuclear Data Center) on-line services documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Dunford, C.L.; Burrows, T.W.; Tuli, J.K.

    1987-03-31

    This document summarizes and describes how to access the on-line services available from the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) located at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The services are available free of cost to US Department of Energy, its contractors and others who support the NNDC or supply data to the NNDC. Four of the center's data bases are now accessible to non-NNDC scientists via remote connection to the center's VAX 11/780. To use this service, you must have a terminal with access by either a telephone line or the PHYSNET network. A VT100 terminal or a terminal with VT-100 emulation is recommended but not required.

  19. Anisotropic. cap alpha. -emission of on-line separated isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Wouters, J.; Vandeplassche, D.; van Walle, E.; Severijns, N.; Van Haverbeke, J.; Vanneste, L.

    1987-12-10

    The technical realization of particle detection at very low temperatures (4K) has made it possible to study for the first time the anisotropic ..cap alpha..-decay of oriented nuclei which have been produced, separated and implanted on line. The measured ..cap alpha..-angular distributions reveal surprising new results on nuclear aspects as well as in solid state physics. The nuclear structure information from these data questions the older ..cap alpha..-decay theoretical interpretation and urges for a reaxamination of the earliest work on anisotropic ..cap alpha..-decay.

  20. Anisotropic alpha emission from on-line separated isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Wouters, J.; Vandeplassche, D.; van Walle, E.; Severijns, N.; Vanneste, L.

    1986-05-05

    A systematic on-line nuclear-orientation study of heavy isotopes using anisotropic ..cap alpha.. emission is reported for the first time. The anisotrophies recorded for /sup 199/At, /sup 201/At, and /sup 203/At are remarkably pronounced and strongly varying. At lower neutron number the ..cap alpha.. particles are more preferentially emitted perpendicularly to the nuclear-spin direction. This may be interpreted in terms of the high sensitivity of the ..cap alpha..-emission probability to changes in the nuclear shape.

  1. On-line uranium determination using remote fiber fluorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malstrom, R. A.

    Remote Fiber Fluorimetry (RFF) is being developed at Savannah River Laboratory for the on-line determination of uranium in plant process streams. A prototype system suitable for plant use has been designed and is being built. RFF has four major components: a laser, an optical fiber, an optrode, and a detector. Essentially, an optical fiber carries laser radiation from a laser to a process sampling point. An optrode (the optical analog of an electrode) couples the laser light into a sample solution. Fluorescence from the sample is collected by the optrode and goes back through the same fiber to a detector.

  2. On-line Monitoring and Active Control for Transformer Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jiabi; Zhao, Tong; Tian, Chun; Wang, Xia; He, Zhenhua; Duan, Lunfeng

    This paper introduces the system for on-line monitoring and active noise control towards the transformer noise based on LabVIEW and the hardware equipment including the hardware and software. For the hardware part, it is mainly focused on the composition and the role of hardware devices, as well as the mounting location in the active noise control experiment. And the software part introduces the software flow chats, the measurement and analysis module for the sound pressure level including A, B, C weighting methods, the 1/n octave spectrum and the power spectrum, active noise control module and noise data access module.

  3. Beyond Scheme F

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, C.J.; Fisher, H.; Pepin, J.; Gillmann, R.

    1996-07-01

    Traffic classification techniques were evaluated using data from a 1993 investigation of the traffic flow patterns on I-20 in Georgia. First we improved the data by sifting through the data base, checking against the original video for questionable events and removing and/or repairing questionable events. We used this data base to critique the performance quantitatively of a classification method known as Scheme F. As a context for improving the approach, we show in this paper that scheme F can be represented as a McCullogh-Pitts neural network, oar as an equivalent decomposition of the plane. We found that Scheme F, among other things, severely misrepresents the number of vehicles in Class 3 by labeling them as Class 2. After discussing the basic classification problem in terms of what is measured, and what is the desired prediction goal, we set forth desirable characteristics of the classification scheme and describe a recurrent neural network system that partitions the high dimensional space up into bins for each axle separation. the collection of bin numbers, one for each of the axle separations, specifies a region in the axle space called a hyper-bin. All the vehicles counted that have the same set of in numbers are in the same hyper-bin. The probability of the occurrence of a particular class in that hyper- bin is the relative frequency with which that class occurs in that set of bin numbers. This type of algorithm produces classification results that are much more balanced and uniform with respect to Classes 2 and 3 and Class 10. In particular, the cancellation of errors of classification that occurs is for many applications the ideal classification scenario. The neural network results are presented in the form of a primary classification network and a reclassification network, the performance matrices for which are presented.

  4. Ionization Scheme Development at the ISOLDE RILIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedosseev, V. N.; Marsh, B. A.; Fedorov, D. V.; Köster, U.; Tengborn, E.

    2005-04-01

    The resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) of the ISOLDE on-line isotope separation facility is based on the method of laser step-wise resonance ionization of atoms in a hot metal cavity. The atomic selectivity of the RILIS complements the mass selection process of the ISOLDE separator magnets to provide beams of a chosen isotope with greatly reduced isobaric contamination. Using a system of dye lasers pumped by copper vapour lasers, ion beams of 24 elements have been generated at ISOLDE with ionization efficiencies in the range of 0.5-15%. As part of the ongoing RILIS development off-line resonance ionization spectroscopy studies carried out in 2003 and 2004 have determined the optimal three-step ionization schemes for scandium, antimony, dysprosium and yttrium.

  5. Fully On-line Introductory Physics with a Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatz, Michael

    We describe the development and implementation of a college-level introductory physics (mechanics) course and laboratory that is suited for both on-campus and on-line environments. The course emphasizes a ``Your World is Your Lab'' approach whereby students first examine and capture on video (using cellphones) motion in their immediate surroundings, and then use free, open-source software both to extract data from the video and to apply physics principles to build models that describe, predict, and visualize the observations. Each student reports findings by creating a video lab report and posting it online; these video lab reports are then distributed to the rest of the class for peer review. In this talk, we will discuss the student and instructor experiences in courses offered to three distinct audiences in different venues: (1) a Massively Open On-line Course (MOOC) for off-campus participants, (2) a flipped/blended course for on-campus students, and, most recently, (3) a fully-online course for off-campus students.

  6. On-line information sources on chemical substances.

    PubMed

    Castriotta, M; Dracos, A

    1994-01-01

    Information technology has brought about changes in the work patterns of researchers and scientists. After some hints on the on-line facilities needed to be connected to the international host computers, an analysis is made of some of the main automated sources available to retrieve information on chemical substances. Special emphasis is given to textual-numeric data banks, first reviewing the main chemical dictionaries, like Registry and Chemline, and then focusing on those sources that offer immediate information in case of emergency. Among the Toxnet files, produced and managed within the US National Library of Medicine Toxicology Information Program, play a very important role in offering publicly available data on toxicology and on hazardous chemicals. Therefore, the Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) and the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) are described for their relevance thereon. Other data banks produced in Europe, like the Environmental Chemicals Data Information Network (ECDIN) and the very specialized Major Hazard Incident Data Service (MHIDAS) are also briefly outlined. To integrate this overview on online information, the attention is then shifted on sources having the characteristic of reference databases: prestigious files covering the international scientific literature, as CA/Chemabs, Toxline/Toxlit, Embase, Medline are introduced. Implications of on-line technology in enhancing information access in the next future are discussed, pointing out the new tools created to meet the information needs of end-users. PMID:7762934

  7. Polar On-Line Acquisition Relay and Transmission System (POLARATS)

    SciTech Connect

    Yuracko, K.

    2004-07-15

    POLARATS (Polar On-Line Acquisition Relay And Transmission System) is being developed by YAHSGS LLC (YAHSGS) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide remote, unattended monitoring of environmental parameters under harsh environmental conditions. In particular, instrumental design and engineering is oriented towards protection of human health in the Arctic, and with the additional goal of advancing Arctic education and research. POLARATS will obtain and transmit environmental data from hardened monitoring devices deployed in locations important to understanding atmospheric and aquatic pollutant migration as it is biomagnified in Arctic food chains. An Internet- and personal computer (PC)-based educational module will provide real time sensor data, on-line educational content, and will be integrated with workbooks and textbooks for use in middle and high school science programs. The educational elements of POLARATS include an Internet-based educational module that will instruct students in the use of the data and how those data fit into changing Arctic environments and food chains. POLARATS will: (1) Enable students, members of the community, and scientific researchers to monitor local environmental conditions in real time over the Internet; and (2) Provide additional educational benefits through integration with middle- and high-school science curricula. Information will be relayed from POLARATS devices to classrooms and libraries along with custom-designed POLARATS teaching materials that will be integrated into existing curricula to enhance the educational benefits realized from the information obtained.

  8. On-line social interactions and executive functions

    PubMed Central

    Ybarra, Oscar; Winkielman, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    A successful social interaction often requires on-line and active construction of an ever-changing mental-model of another person’s beliefs, expectations, emotions, and desires. It also requires the ability to maintain focus, problem-solve, and flexibly pursue goals in a distraction-rich environment, as well as the ability to take-turns and inhibit inappropriate behaviors. Many of these tasks rely on executive functions (EF) – working memory, attention/cognitive control, and inhibition. Executive functioning has long been viewed as relatively static. However, starting with recent reports of successful cognitive interventions, this view is changing and now EFs are seen as much more open to both short- and long-term “training,” “warm-up,” and “exhaustion” effects. Some of the most intriguing evidence suggests that engaging in social interaction enhances performance on standard EF tests. Interestingly, the latest research indicates these EF benefits are selectively conferred by certain on-line, dynamic social interactions, which require participants to mentally engage with another person and actively construct a model of their mind. We review this literature and highlight its connection with evolutionary and cultural theories emphasizing links between intelligence and sociality. PMID:22509160

  9. On-line diagnosis of sequential systems, 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundstrom, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    A formal model is introduced which can serve as the basis for a theoretical investigation of on-line diagnosis. Within this model a fault of a system S is considered to be a transformation of S into another system S prime at some time tau. The resulting faulty system is taken to be the system which looks like S up to time tau and like S prime thereafter. The on-line diagnosis of systems which are structurally decomposed and represented as a network of smaller systems is also investigated. The fault set considered is the set of unrestricted component faults; namely, the set of faults which only affect one component of the network. A characterization of networks which can be diagnosed using a combinational detector is obtained. It is further shown that any network can be made diagnosable in the above sense through the addition of one component. In addition, a lower bound is obtained on the complexity of any component, the addition of which is sufficient to make a particular network combinationally diagnosable.

  10. Pulsed Neurton Elemental On-Line Material Analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Vourvopoulos, George

    2002-08-20

    An on-line material analyzer which utilizes pulsed neutron generation in order to determine the composition of material flowing through the apparatus. The on-line elemental material analyzer is based on a pulsed neutron generator. The elements in the material interact with the fast and thermal neutrons produced from the pulsed generator. Spectra of gamma-rays produced from fast neutrons interacting with elements of the material are analyzed and stored separately from spectra produced from thermal neutron reactions. Measurements of neutron activation takes place separately from the above reactions and at a distance from the neutron generator. A primary passageway allows the material to flow through at a constant rate of speed and operators to provide data corresponding to fast and thermal neutron reactions. A secondary passageway meters the material to allow for neutron activation analysis. The apparatus also has the capability to determine the density of the flowed material. Finally, the apparatus continually utilizes a neutron detector in order to normalize the yield of the gamma ray detectors and thereby automatically calibrates and adjusts the spectra data for fluctuations in neutron generation.

  11. Data warehousing features in Informix OnLine XPS

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaresan, P.

    1996-12-31

    The Data Warehousing application domain is an important area of focus for Informix`s OnLine XPS massively parallel server. Fast query processing is a central requirement in this domain. Use of indexes has traditionally been an important query processing technique, helping to reduce response times and increase throughput. The data warehousing environment, characterized by its load-query-refresh mode of operation, offers even greater scope for use of indexes. This talk will describe three new indexing related features in OnLine XPS which together provide significant performance benefits in a wide variety of situations. Bitmap indexes, along with multi-index scans, provide orders-of-magnitude improvement for queries typified by the Set Query Benchmark. Pushdown Semi-joins combine the benefits of multi-index scans with the scalability of hash joins to efficiently process star-joins. Finally, Generalized-key indexes expand the notion of what can be an index key and provide the ability to store various pre-computed results in an index. Optimizer extensions allow these features to be used in a mix-n-match fashion, thus maximizing the benefits of these features while minimizing the need for user level directives.

  12. Increased Cortical Thickness in Professional On-Line Gamers

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Gi Jung; Shin, Yong Wook; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Jin, Seong Nam

    2013-01-01

    Objective The bulk of recent studies have tested whether video games change the brain in terms of activity and cortical volume. However, such studies are limited by several factors including cross-sectional comparisons, co-morbidity, and short-term follow-up periods. In the present study, we hypothesized that cognitive flexibility and the volume of brain cortex would be correlated with the career length of on-line pro-gamers. Methods High-resolution magnetic resonance scans were acquired in twenty-three pro-gamers recruited from StarCraft pro-game teams. We measured cortical thickness in each individual using FreeSurfer and the cortical thickness was correlated with the career length and the performance of the pro-gamers. Results Career length was positively correlated with cortical thickness in three brain regions: right superior frontal gyrus, right superior parietal gyrus, and right precentral gyrus. Additionally, increased cortical thickness in the prefrontal cortex was correlated with winning rates of the pro-game league. Increased cortical thickness in the prefrontal and parietal cortices was also associated with higher performance of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Conclusion Our results suggest that in individuals without pathologic conditions, regular, long-term playing of on-line games is associated with volume changes in the prefrontal and parietal cortices, which are associated with cognitive flexibility. PMID:24474988

  13. Research of on-line detection system for power capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Junda; Qian, Zheng; Yu, Hao; Xia, Jiuyun

    2016-01-01

    The hidden danger exists in the power capacitor of power system due to long-time operation under the environment of high voltage. Thus, it is possible to induce serious fault, and the on-line detection system is urgently required. In this paper, two methods of the on-line detection system are compared in order to realize the better real-time condition detection. The first method is based on the STM microprocessor with an internal 12 bit A/D converter, which converts analog signals which is arrived from the sample circuit into digital signals, and then the FFT algorithm is used to accomplish the measurement of the voltage and current values of the capacitor. The second method is based on the special electric energy metering IC, which can obtain RMS (Root Mean Square) of voltage and current by processing the sampled data of the voltage and current, and store RMS of voltage and current in its certain registers. The operating condition of the capacitor can be obtained after getting the values of voltage and current. By comparing the measuring results of two methods, the second method could achieve a higher measurement accuracy and more simple construction.

  14. FEDIX on-line information service: Design, develop, test, and implement, an on-line research and education information service

    SciTech Connect

    Rodman, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    The FEDIX Annual Status Report provides details regarding an on-line information project designed, developed and implemented by Federal Information Exchange, Inc., a diversified information services company. This document details the project design activities, summarizes the developmental phases of the project and describes the implementation activities generated to fulfill the project's objectives. The information contained in this document illustrates FIE's continuing commitment to serve as the link that facilitates the dissemination of federal information to the education community. This report reviews the project accomplishments and describes intended service enhancements.

  15. Classification Schemes: Developments and Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pocock, Helen

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the growth, survival and future of library classification schemes. Concludes that to survive, a scheme must constantly update its policies, and readily adapt itself to accommodate growing disciplines and changing terminology. (AEF)

  16. ESCAP mobile training scheme.

    PubMed

    Yasas, F M

    1977-01-01

    In response to a United Nations resolution, the Mobile Training Scheme (MTS) was set up to provide training to the trainers of national cadres engaged in frontline and supervisory tasks in social welfare and rural development. The training is innovative in its being based on an analysis of field realities. The MTS team consisted of a leader, an expert on teaching methods and materials, and an expert on action research and evaluation. The country's trainers from different departments were sent to villages to work for a short period and to report their problems in fulfilling their roles. From these grass roots experiences, they made an analysis of the job, determining what knowledge, attitude and skills it required. Analysis of daily incidents and problems were used to produce indigenous teaching materials drawn from actual field practice. How to consider the problems encountered through government structures for policy making and decisions was also learned. Tasks of the students were to identify the skills needed for role performance by job analysis, daily diaries and project histories; to analyze the particular community by village profiles; to produce indigenous teaching materials; and to practice the role skills by actual role performance. The MTS scheme was tried in Nepal in 1974-75; 3 training programs trained 25 trainers and 51 frontline workers; indigenous teaching materials were created; technical papers written; and consultations were provided. In Afghanistan the scheme was used in 1975-76; 45 participants completed the training; seminars were held; and an ongoing Council was created. It is hoped that the training program will be expanded to other countries. PMID:12265562

  17. Using Steffe's Advanced Fraction Schemes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Andrea V.; Norton, Anderson H.

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing schemes, which are different from strategies, can help teachers understand their students' thinking about fractions. Using Steffe's advanced fraction schemes, the authors describe a progression of development that upper elementary and middle school students might follow in understanding fractions. Each scheme can be viewed as a…

  18. Sensor fusion for on-line monitoring of yoghurt fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cimander, Christian; Carlsson, Maria; Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik

    2002-11-13

    Measurement data from an electronic nose (EN), a near-infrared spectrometer (NIRS) and standard bioreactor probes were used to follow the course of lab-scale yoghurt fermentation. The sensor signals were fused using a cascade neural network: a primary network predicted quantitative process variables, including lactose, galactose and lactate; a secondary network predicted a qualitative process state variable describing critical process phases, such as the onset of coagulation or the harvest time. Although the accuracy of the neural network prediction was acceptable and comparable with the off-line reference assay, its stability and performance were significantly improved by correction of faulty data. The results demonstrate that on-line sensor fusion with the chosen analyzers improves monitoring and quality control of yoghurt fermentation with implications to other fermentation processes. PMID:12385712

  19. On-line single particle analysis of environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Prather, K.A.; Morrical, B.O.

    1995-12-01

    Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) is a major component in indoor and outdoor air pollution. It has been estimated that ETS accounts for approximately 2.7% of fine organic aerosol emissions in the Los Angeles area and the adverse health effects of cigarette emissions have been well documented. Particulate analysis by conventional analytical methods, such as GC/MS, do not provide information on individual aerosol particles due to the off-line collection and sampling procedures. Aerosol Time-Flight Mass Spectrometry is an on-line analytical technique that is uniquely capable of single particle analysis, simultaneously providing information on particle size and chemical composition. It will be demonstrated that this technique can be used to show how the chemical composition of ETS particles changes as a function of size. Data demonstrating the ability to monitor chemical composition and size change as a function of time will also be presented.

  20. Optical instrumentation for on-line analysis of chemical processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hartford, A. Jr.; Cremers, D.A.; Loree, T.R.; Quigley, G.P.

    1983-01-01

    Optical diagnostics provide the capability for nonintrusive, on-line, real time analysis of chemical process streams. Several laser-based methods for monitoring fossil energy processes have been evaluated. Among the instrumentation techniques which appear quite promising are coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS), laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence (SDLIF). A CARS diagnostic was implemented on a coal gasifier and was successfully employed to measure species concentrations and temperatures within the process stream. The LIBS approach has been used to identify total trace impurities (e.g., Na, K, and S) within a gasifier. Recently, individual components in mixtures of aromatics hydrocarbons have been resolved via the synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence. 9 figures.

  1. Issues for Bringing Electron Beam Irradiators On-Line

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, R.J.; Turman, B.N.

    1999-04-20

    Irradiation of red meat and poultry has been approved by the U.S. FDA, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's rule for processing red meat is out for comment. Looking beyond the current issues of packaging materials, labeling, and consumer acceptance, this paper reviews the next step of implementation and how to remove, or at least reduce, the barriers to utilization. Polls of the user community identified their requirements for electron beam or x-ray processing of meat or poultry and their concerns about implementation for on-line processing. These needs and issues are compared to the capabilities of the accelerator industry. The critical issues of beam utilization and dose uniformity, factors affecting floor space requirements, and treatment costs are examined.

  2. Holographic digital microscopy in on-line process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osanlou, Ardeshir

    2011-09-01

    This article investigates the feasibility of real-time three-dimensional imaging of microscopic objects within various emulsions while being produced in specialized production vessels. The study is particularly relevant to on-line process monitoring and control in chemical, pharmaceutical, food, cleaning, and personal hygiene industries. Such processes are often dynamic and the materials cannot be measured once removed from the production vessel. The technique reported here is applicable to three-dimensional characterization analyses on stirred fluids in small reaction vessels. Relatively expensive pulsed lasers have been avoided through the careful control of the speed of the moving fluid in relation to the speed of the camera exposure and the wavelength of the continuous wave laser used. The ultimate aim of the project is to introduce a fully robust and compact digital holographic microscope as a process control tool in a full size specialized production vessel.

  3. Enabling the On-Line Intrinsic Evolution of Analog Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Ferguson, Michael I.

    2005-01-01

    The intrinsic evolution of analog controllers to provide closed-loop control of the speed of a DC motor has been previously demonstrated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. A side fleet of the evolutionary process is that during evolution there are necessarily poor configurations to be evaluated that could cause damage to the plant. This paper concern the development and implementation of a safe Evolvable Analog Controller (EAC) architecture able to evolve controllers on-line even in the presence of these poor configurations. The EAC concept is discussed and experimental results are presented that show the feasibility of the approach This EAC architecture represents the first in a series of steps required to make deployment of an evolvable controller a reality.

  4. Enabling the On-line Intrinsic Evolution of Analog Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Ferguson, Michael I.

    2005-01-01

    The intrinsic evolution of analog controllers to provide closed-loop control of the speed of a DC motor has been previously demonstrated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. A side effect of the evolutionary process is that during evolution there are necessarily poor configurations to be evaluated that could cause damage to the plant, This paper concerns the development and implementation of a safe Evolvable Analog Controller (EAC) architecture able to evolve controllers on-line even in the presence of these poor configurations, The EAC concept is discussed and experimental results are presented that show the feasibility of the approach This EAC architecture represents the first in a series of steps required to make deployment of an evolvable controller a reality.

  5. PHEBUS on-line aerosol monitor development test program

    SciTech Connect

    Sprenger, M.H.; Pentecost, C.G.

    1992-03-01

    EG&G Idaho, Inc. developed an on-line aerosol monitor (OLAM) for the French PHEBUS Fission Product Project. Part of the development was to manufacture and test an OLAM prototype. This report presents the results of the testing which determined the mechanical integrity of the monitor at operating temperature and pressure and performed a preliminary test of the optical system. A series of twenty different tests was conducted during the prototype testing sequence. Since no leaks were detected, the OLAM demonstrated that it could provide a pressure boundary at required test conditions. The optical and electrical system also proved its integrity by exceeding the design requirement of less than 105 optical signal drift during an actual two-hour test sequence.

  6. PHEBUS on-line aerosol monitor development test program

    SciTech Connect

    Sprenger, M.H.; Pentecost, C.G.

    1992-03-01

    EG G Idaho, Inc. developed an on-line aerosol monitor (OLAM) for the French PHEBUS Fission Product Project. Part of the development was to manufacture and test an OLAM prototype. This report presents the results of the testing which determined the mechanical integrity of the monitor at operating temperature and pressure and performed a preliminary test of the optical system. A series of twenty different tests was conducted during the prototype testing sequence. Since no leaks were detected, the OLAM demonstrated that it could provide a pressure boundary at required test conditions. The optical and electrical system also proved its integrity by exceeding the design requirement of less than 105 optical signal drift during an actual two-hour test sequence.

  7. On-line monitoring of tan delta for substation equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Vujovic, P.; Fricker, R.K.

    1996-03-01

    The ageing and deterioration of oil-paper insulation in high voltage equipment can result in explosions which are not only costly, but also put human lives at risk. Tan delta measurement is a well accepted method of monitoring the quality of insulation of bushings and current transformers in laboratories and on site. The use of tan delta measurement has been extended to on-line continuous measurement of equipment in service and a comparative method of analysis has been developed for selecting units with values that indicate potentially dangerous levels of degradation of the insulation. A cost effective PC based system that does not require the use of a standard high-voltage capacitor for taking measurements has been installed at two substations for in-service tests and further development.

  8. Hopfield neural networks for on-line parameter estimation.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Hugo; Mendonça, Teresa; Rocha, Paula

    2009-05-01

    This paper addresses the problem of using Hopfield Neural Networks (HNNs) for on-line parameter estimation. As presented here, a HNN is a nonautonomous nonlinear dynamical system able to produce a time-evolving estimate of the actual parameterization. The stability analysis of the HNN is carried out under more general assumptions than those previously considered in the literature, yielding a weaker sufficient condition under which the estimation error asymptotically converges to zero. Furthermore, a robustness analysis is made, showing that, under the presence of perturbations, the estimation error converges to a bounded neighbourhood of zero, whose size decreases with the size of the perturbations. The results obtained are illustrated by means of two case studies, where the HNN is compared with two other methods. PMID:19386467

  9. On line quantification of crystal surfaces by stereo imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batur, Celal

    1992-01-01

    The shape of an interface while a crystal is growing inside a crystal growth furnace is an important measurement to assess the crystal quality on-line. If the crystal surface can be visualized by video or x ray imaging, the interface shape can be determined by the stereo image processing techniques. This paper presents a methodology to determine the shape of the solid-melt interface by stereo based imaging techniques while the crystal is growing inside a transparent furnace. The methodology generates qualitative shape information provided that a good pair of stereo images of the interface can be captured. For a quantitative shape description, i.e., for the determination of interface points with respect to a fixed coordinate frame, both cameras must be calibrated. This paper illustrates the methodology for qualitative shape determination of lead bromide crystal interface.

  10. Children's on-line processing of scrambling in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takaaki

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates the on-line processing of scrambled sentences in Japanese by preschool children and adults using a combination of self-paced listening and speeded picture selection tasks. The effects of a filler-gap dependency, reversibility, and case markers were examined. The results show that both children and adults had difficulty in comprehending scrambled sentences when they were provided as reversible sentences. The reversibility effect was significant for children, whereas the interaction of reversibility and a filler-gap dependency was significant for adults. However, this does not indicate that children's parsing is fundamentally different from that of adults. For those children who processed the nominative and accusative case markers equally fast, the reactivation of the dislocated constituent was observed in the gap position. These results suggest that children's processing is basically the same as adults' in that their sentence processing is incremental and they parse a gap to form a filler-gap dependency. PMID:22460686

  11. WMI2, the student's on-line symbolic calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Zoltán

    2011-06-01

    Student activities focused on discovering mathematics play an important role in the teaching and learning process. WebMathematics Interactive (WMI2) was developed to offer a fast and user-friendly on-line web interface to enhance the quality of both theoretical and applied mathematics courses. For the teacher, in the classroom, it provides immediate numerical computations, algebraic manipulations and graphical representations. For our students, WMI2 provides a unique classroom experience in their own Hungarian language that generates various mathematical representations. At home our students have a support system to help them explore mathematical concepts, test their mathematical knowledge and to assist them in their problem solving. WMI2 has been under continuous development since 2002 and has been in classroom use since 2007. It is freely available in 10 languages.

  12. On-line chiral analysis using the kinetic method.

    PubMed

    Bain, Ryan M; Yan, Xin; Raab, Shannon A; Ayrton, Stephen T; Flick, Tawnya G; Cooks, R Graham

    2016-04-21

    Chiral analysis of constituents in solution-phase reaction mixtures can be performed by tandem mass spectrometry using the kinetic method to determine the enantiomeric excess (ee). Simply diluting an aliquot of a reaction mixture, adjusting the pH, and adding reagents necessary to form a chiral cluster ion allows chiral analysis. The product of a stereospecific N-selective alkylation reaction, 2-(3-(2-methoxyethoxy)-5-oxo-1,6-naphthyridin-6(5H)-yl)propanoic acid, was monitored for ee during the course of reaction, and it showed the expected inversion without ee erosion. Base-catalyzed racemization of the reaction product showed the expected decrease in ee as the reaction proceeded. The base-catalyzed racemization of ibuprofen was monitored on-line, providing near real-time data on ee. PMID:26979554

  13. On-Line Robust Modal Stability Prediction using Wavelet Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Martin J.; Lind, Rick

    1998-01-01

    Wavelet analysis for filtering and system identification has been used to improve the estimation of aeroservoelastic stability margins. The conservatism of the robust stability margins is reduced with parametric and nonparametric time- frequency analysis of flight data in the model validation process. Nonparametric wavelet processing of data is used to reduce the effects of external disturbances and unmodeled dynamics. Parametric estimates of modal stability are also extracted using the wavelet transform. Computation of robust stability margins for stability boundary prediction depends on uncertainty descriptions derived from the data for model validation. The F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle aeroservoelastic flight test data demonstrates improved robust stability prediction by extension of the stability boundary beyond the flight regime. Guidelines and computation times are presented to show the efficiency and practical aspects of these procedures for on-line implementation. Feasibility of the method is shown for processing flight data from time- varying nonstationary test points.

  14. On-Line Safe Flight Envelope Determination for Impaired Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lombaerts, Thomas; Schuet, Stefan; Acosta, Diana; Kaneshige, John

    2015-01-01

    The design and simulation of an on-line algorithm which estimates the safe maneuvering envelope of aircraft is discussed in this paper. The trim envelope is estimated using probabilistic methods and efficient high-fidelity model based computations of attainable equilibrium sets. From this trim envelope, a robust reachability analysis provides the maneuverability limitations of the aircraft through an optimal control formulation. Both envelope limits are presented to the flight crew on the primary flight display. In the results section, scenarios are considered where this adaptive algorithm is capable of computing online changes to the maneuvering envelope due to impairment. Furthermore, corresponding updates to display features on the primary flight display are provided to potentially inform the flight crew of safety critical envelope alterations caused by the impairment.

  15. An expert system to perform on-line controller tuning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.

    1990-01-01

    An expert system which tunes a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller on-line for a single-input-single-output multiple-lag process with dead time is described. The expert system examines features of the previous transient responses and their corresponding sets of controller parameters. It determines a new set of controller gains to obtain a more desirable time response. This technique can be used to determine and implement a different set of PID gains for each operating regime and, once in steady state, the system can be used to find optimal parameters for load disturbance rejection. The expert system can be applied to any system of the specified form (aerospace, industrial, etc.) and can be expanded to include additional process models.

  16. On-line inspection system for train wheel dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Shanxi; Hong, Zhanyong; Lv, Guoqiang; Yang, Yongyue

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces three types of on-line inspection system for train wheel dimensions developed by the authors in recent years. The first system is an inspection line for semi-manufacturing wheel used for the wheels just after rolling. Then, the second system is used to inspecting the manufactured wheels at the end of the wheel manufacturing flow. Thirdly, a wheel profile measuring system that can be used for wheel monitoring instead of manual measurement with a hand-held gauge in rail maintenance operation has been developed in our lab. Finally, a RRS (reconfigurable, reusable and scalable) design principle for agile manufacturing and measurement/inspection system is discussed in this paper.

  17. An on-line computer system for histopathology reporting.

    PubMed

    Codling, B W; Macartney, J C; Curran, R C

    1977-12-01

    An on-line computer system was developed for issuing histopathology reports as part of an integrated hospital information system. Input is through a Cossor visual display unit with a typewriter keyboard to a Univac 418 III computer. Stored information is available to authorised hospital staff via similar visual display units located in the wards and laboratories. Existing programs and computer staff were used to provide the new service. It has resulted in better method, speedier communication, and saving of laboratory staff time. The system has yet to be fully tested but initial reactions are favourable and indicate that the investment in computer staff time and extra laboratory equipment will be cost effective. PMID:604358

  18. A versatile apparatus for on-line emission channeling experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, M. R.; Wahl, U.; Correia, J. G.; Unidade de Física e Aceleradores, IST Amorim, L. M.; Pereira, L. M. C.

    2013-07-15

    The concept and functionality of an apparatus dedicated to emission channeling experiments using short-lived isotopes on-line at ISOLDE/CERN is described. The setup is assembled in two functional blocks – (a) base stand including beam collimation, implantation and measurement chamber, cryogenic extension, and vacuum control system and (b) Panmure goniometer extension including maneuvering cradle and sample heating furnace. This setup allows for in situ implantation and sample analysis in the as-implanted state and upon cooling down to 50 K and during annealing up to 1200 K. The functionality of the setup will be illustrated with the example of establishing the lattice location of {sup 56}Mn probes implanted into GaAs.

  19. On-line visual control of grasping movements.

    PubMed

    Volcic, Robert; Domini, Fulvio

    2016-08-01

    Even though it is recognized that vision plays an important role in grasping movements, it is not yet fully understood how the visual feedback of the hand contributes to the on-line control. Visual feedback could be used to shape the posture of the hand and fingers, to adjust the trajectory of the moving hand, or a combination of both. Here, we used a dynamic perturbation method that altered the position of the visual feedback relative to the actual position of the thumb and index finger to virtually increase or decrease the visually sensed grip aperture. Subjects grasped objects in a virtual 3D environment with haptic feedback and with visual feedback provided by small virtual spheres anchored to the their unseen fingertips. We found that the effects of the visually perturbed grip aperture arose preeminently late in the movement when the hand was in the object's proximity. The on-line visual feedback assisted both the scaling of the grip aperture to properly conform it to the object's dimension and the transport of the hand to correctly position the digits on the object's surface. However, the extent of these compensatory adjustments was contingent on the viewing geometry. The visual control of the actual grip aperture was mainly observed when the final grasp axis orientation was approximately perpendicular to the viewing direction. On the contrary, when the final grasp axis was aligned with the viewing direction, the visual control was predominantly concerned with the guidance of the digit toward the visible final contact point. PMID:26996387

  20. PHENIX On-Line Distributed Computing System Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Desmond, Edmond; Haggerty, John; Kehayias, Hyon Joo; Purschke, Martin L.; Witzig, Chris; Kozlowski, Thomas

    1997-05-22

    PHENIX is one of the two large experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) currently under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The detector consists of 11 sub-detectors, that are further subdivided into 29 units (``granules``) that can be operated independently, which includes simultaneous data taking with independent data streams and independent triggers. The detector has 250,000 channels and is read out by front end modules, where the data is buffered in a pipeline while awaiting the level trigger decision. Zero suppression and calibration is done after the level accept in custom built data collection modules (DCMs) with DSPs before the data is sent to an event builder (design throughput of 2 Gb/sec) and higher level triggers. The On-line Computing Systems Group (ONCS) has two responsibilities. Firstly it is responsible for receiving the data from the event builder, routing it through a network of workstations to consumer processes and archiving it at a data rate of 20 MB/sec. Secondly it is also responsible for the overall configuration, control and operation of the detector and data acquisition chain, which comprises the software integration for several thousand custom built hardware modules. The software must furthermore support the independent operation of the above mentioned granules, which includes the coordination of processes that run in 60-100 VME processors and workstations. ONOS has adapted the Shlaer- Mellor Object Oriented Methodology for the design of the top layer software. CORBA is used as communication layer between the distributed objects, which are implemented as asynchronous finite state machines. We will give an overview of the PHENIX online system with the main focus on the system architecture, software components and integration tasks of the On-line Computing group ONCS and report on the status of the current prototypes.

  1. Chlorine isotope analysis of organic contaminants using GC-qMS: method optimization and comparison of different evaluation schemes.

    PubMed

    Jin, Biao; Laskov, Christine; Rolle, Massimo; Haderlein, Stefan B

    2011-06-15

    Compound-specific online chlorine isotope analysis of chlorinated hydrocarbons was evaluated and validated using gas chromatography coupled to a regular quadrupole mass spectrometer (GC-qMS). This technique avoids tedious off-line sample pretreatments, but requires mathematical data analysis to derive chlorine isotope ratios from mass spectra. We compared existing evaluation schemes to calculate chlorine isotope ratios with those that we modified or newly proposed. We also tested systematically important experimental procedures such as external vs. internal referencing schemes, and instrumental settings including split ratio, ionization energy, and dwell times. To this end, headspace samples of tetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE), and cis-dichloroethene (cDCE) at aqueous concentrations in the range of 20-500 μg/L (amount on-column range: 3.2-115 pmol) were analyzed using GC-qMS. The results (³⁷Cl/³⁵Cl ratios) showed satisfying to good precisions with relative standard deviations (n = 5) between 0.4‰ and 2.1‰. However, we found that the achievable precision considerably varies depending on the applied data evaluation scheme, the instrumental settings, and the analyte. A systematic evaluation of these factors allowed us to optimize the GC-qMS technique to determine chlorine isotope ratios of chlorinated organic contaminants. PMID:21612209

  2. Spectroscopic On-Line Monitoring for Process Control and Safeguarding of Radiochemical Streams in Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Casella, Amanda J.; Peterson, James M.; Johnsen, Amanda M.; Lines, Amanda M.; Thomas, Elizabeth M.

    2011-02-24

    There is a renewed interest worldwide to promote the use of nuclear power. The long term successful use of nuclear power is critically dependent upon adequate and safe processing and disposition of the spent nuclear fuel. Liquid-liquid extraction is a separation technique commonly employed for the processing of the dissolved spent nuclear fuel. Our approach is based on the prerequisite that real time monitoring of the solvent extraction flowsheets provides unique capability to quickly detect unwanted manipulations with fissile isotopes present in the radiochemical streams during reprocessing activities. Our ability to identify material intentionally diverted from a liquid-liquid solvent extraction contactor system was successfully tested using on-line process monitoring. A chemical diversion and detection from a solvent extraction scheme was demonstrated using a centrifugal contactor system operating with the simulant PUREX extraction system of Nd(NO3)3/nitric acid aqueous phase and TBP/dodecane organic phase. A portion of the feed from a counter-current extraction system was diverted while a continuous extraction experiment was underway; the spectroscopic on-line process monitoring system was simultaneously measuring the feed, raffinate and organic products streams. The amount observed to be diverted by on-line spectroscopic process monitoring was in excellent agreement with values based from known mass of sample directly taken (diverted) from system feed solution. We conclude that real-time spectroscopic process monitoring would be a useful tool for the IAEA to detect the diversion of nuclear material in a timely manner. This poster summarizes our methodology of on-line process monitoring and shows recent results of specific examples.

  3. A distributed fault-detection and diagnosis system using on-line parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, T.-H.; Merrill, W.; Duyar, A.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a model-based fault-detection and diagnosis system (FDD) is reviewed. The system can be used as an integral part of an intelligent control system. It determines the faults of a system from comparison of the measurements of the system with a priori information represented by the model of the system. The method of modeling a complex system is described and a description of diagnosis models which include process faults is presented. There are three distinct classes of fault modes covered by the system performance model equation: actuator faults, sensor faults, and performance degradation. A system equation for a complete model that describes all three classes of faults is given. The strategy for detecting the fault and estimating the fault parameters using a distributed on-line parameter identification scheme is presented. A two-step approach is proposed. The first step is composed of a group of hypothesis testing modules, (HTM) in parallel processing to test each class of faults. The second step is the fault diagnosis module which checks all the information obtained from the HTM level, isolates the fault, and determines its magnitude. The proposed FDD system was demonstrated by applying it to detect actuator and sensor faults added to a simulation of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The simulation results show that the proposed FDD system can adequately detect the faults and estimate their magnitudes.

  4. Rotation planar chromatography coupled on-line with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Llave, Jonathan J; De Apadoca, Marilyn F; Ford, Michael J

    2004-01-15

    The coupling of a rotation planar preparative thin-layer chromatography system on-line with mass spectrometry is demonstrated using a simple plumbing scheme and a self-aspirating heated nebulizer probe of a corona discharge atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source. The self-aspiration of the heated nebulizer delivers approximately 20 microL/min of the 3.0 mL/min eluate stream to the mass spectrometer, eliminating the need for an external pump in the system. The viability of the coupling is demonstrated with a three-dye mixture composed of fat red 7B, solvent green 3, and solvent blue 35 separated and eluted from a silica gel-coated rotor using toluene. The real-time characterization of the dyes eluting from the rotor is illustrated in positive ion full-scan mode. Other self-aspirating ion source systems including atmospheric pressure photoionization, electrospray ionization, and inductively coupled plasma ionization, for example, might be configured and used in a similar manner coupled to the chromatograph to expand the types of analytes that could be ionized, detected, and characterized effectively. PMID:14719901

  5. RECOMMENDED PRACTICES FOR ON-LINE MEASUREMENT OF RESIDUAL CHLORINE IN WASTEWATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides users with information that assists them in specifying, installing, calibrating, maintaining and monitoring the subsequent performance of on-line residual chlorine analyzers in wastewater treatment plants. An on-line residual chlorine analyzer must have, am...

  6. Effects of Requiring Students to Meet High Expectation Levels within an On-Line Homework Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, William J., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    On-line homework is becoming a larger part of mathematics classrooms each year. Thus, ways to maximize the effectiveness of on-line homework for both students and teachers must be investigated. This study sought to provide one possible answer to this aim, by requiring students to achieve at least 50% for any on-line homework assignment in order to…

  7. 21 CFR 870.4330 - Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor... Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor is a device used in conjunction with a blood gas sensor to measure the level of gases in the...

  8. 21 CFR 870.4330 - Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor... Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor is a device used in conjunction with a blood gas sensor to measure the level of gases in the...

  9. 21 CFR 870.4330 - Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor... Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor is a device used in conjunction with a blood gas sensor to measure the level of gases in the...

  10. 21 CFR 870.4330 - Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor... Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor is a device used in conjunction with a blood gas sensor to measure the level of gases in the...

  11. 21 CFR 870.4330 - Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor... Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor is a device used in conjunction with a blood gas sensor to measure the level of gases in the...

  12. On-Line Tutoring for Math Achievement Testing: A Controlled Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Carole R.; Walles, Rena; Arroyo, Ivon; Woolf, Beverly P.

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of a controlled evaluation of an interactive on-line tutoring system for high school math achievement test problem solving. High school students (N = 202) completed a math pre-test and were then assigned by teachers to receive interactive on-line multimedia tutoring or their regular classroom instruction. The on-line tutored…

  13. 77 FR 55811 - Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board On-line Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership Advisory Board On-line... Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Advisory Board will hold an open, on-line meeting via webcast on... their remote location. Questions regarding the on-line meeting should be sent to the...

  14. On Line Instruction: An Opportunity to Re-Examine and Re-Invent Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Irene

    2011-01-01

    One of the reasons the author agreed to teach a hybrid, on-line course last summer was specifically to either challenge or confirm her negative perceptions about on-line instruction. In order to continue to be an outspoken critic whenever administrators encouraged developing on-line courses for what she assumed were pecuniary considerations, she…

  15. On-line monitoring of methane in sewer air

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R.; Murthy, Sudhir; Johnson, Ian; Evans, Ted; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    Methane is a highly potent greenhouse gas and contributes significantly to climate change. Recent studies have shown significant methane production in sewers. The studies conducted so far have relied on manual sampling followed by off-line laboratory-based chromatography analysis. These methods are labor-intensive when measuring methane emissions from a large number of sewers, and do not capture the dynamic variations in methane production. In this study, we investigated the suitability of infrared spectroscopy-based on-line methane sensors for measuring methane in humid and condensing sewer air. Two such sensors were comprehensively tested in the laboratory. Both sensors displayed high linearity (R2 > 0.999), with a detection limit of 0.023% and 0.110% by volume, respectively. Both sensors were robust against ambient temperature variations in the range of 5 to 35°C. While one sensor was robust against humidity variations, the other was found to be significantly affected by humidity. However, the problem was solved by equipping the sensor with a heating unit to increase the sensor surface temperature to 35°C. Field studies at three sites confirmed the performance and accuracy of the sensors when applied to actual sewer conditions, and revealed substantial and highly dynamic methane concentrations in sewer air. PMID:25319343

  16. Self-checking on-line testable static RAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chau, Savio N. (Inventor); Rennels, David A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    This is a fault-tolerant random access memory for use in fault-tolerant computers. It comprises a plurality of memory chips each comprising a plurality of on-line testable and correctable memory cells disposed in rows and columns for holding individually addressable binary bits and provision for error detection incorporated into each memory cell for outputting an error signal whenever a transient error occurs therein. In one embodiment, each of the memory cells comprises a pair of static memory sub-cells for simultaneously receiving and holding a common binary data bit written to the memory cell and the error detection provision comprises comparator logic for continuously sensing and comparing the contents of the memory sub-cells to one another and for outputting the error signal whenever the contents do not match. In another embodiment, each of the memory cells comprises a static memory sub-cell and a dynamic memory sub-cell for simultaneously receiving and holding a common binary data bit written to the memory cell and the error detection provision comprises comparator logic for continuously sensing and comparing the contents of the static memory sub-cell to the dynamic memory sub-cell and for outputting the error signal whenever the contents do not match. Capability for correction of errors is also included.

  17. On-line milk spectrometry: analysis of bovine milk composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzer, Kyle; Kuennemeyer, Rainer; Woolford, Murray; Claycomb, Rod

    2005-04-01

    We present partial least squares (PLS) regressions to predict the composition of raw, unhomogenised milk using visible to near infrared spectroscopy. A total of 370 milk samples from individual quarters were collected and analysed on-line by two low cost spectrometers in the wavelength ranges 380-1100 nm and 900-1700 nm. Samples were collected from 22 Friesian, 17 Jersey, 2 Ayrshire and 3 Friesian-Jersey crossbred cows over a period of 7 consecutive days. Transmission spectra were recorded in an inline flowcell through a 0.5 mm thick milk sample. PLS models, where wavelength selection was performed using iterative PLS, were developed for fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cell content. The root mean square error of prediction (and correlation coefficient) for the nir and visible spectrometers respectively were 0.70%(0.93) and 0.91%(0.91) for fat, 0.65%(0.5) and 0.47%(0.79) for protein, 0.36%(0.49) and 0.45%(0.43) for lactose, and 0.50(0.54) and 0.48(0.51) for log10 somatic cells.

  18. Enterprise utilization of "always on-line" diagnostic study archive.

    PubMed

    McEnery, Kevin W; Suitor, Charles T; Thompson, Stephen K; Shepard, Jeffrey S; Murphy, William A

    2002-01-01

    To meet demands for enterprise image distribution, an "always on-line" image storage archive architecture was implemented before soft copy interpretation. It was presumed that instant availability of historical diagnostic studies would elicit a substantial utilization. Beginning November 1, 2000 an enterprise distribution archive was activated (Stentor, SanFrancisco, CA). As of August 8, 2001, 83,052 studies were available for immediate access without the need for retrieval from long-term archive. Image storage and retrieval logs for the period from June 12, 2001 to August 8, 2001 were analyzed. A total of 41,337 retrieval requests were noted for the 83,052 studies available as August 8, 2001. Computed radiography represented 16.8% of retrieval requests; digital radiography, 16.9%; computed tomography (CT), 44.5%; magnetic resonance (MR), 19.2%; and ultrasonography, 2.6%. A total of 51.5% of study retrievals were for studies less than 72 hours old. Study requests for cases greater than 100 days old represented 9.9% of all accessions, 9.7% of CT accessions, and 15.4% of MR accessions. Utilization of the archive indicates a substantial proportion of study retrievals for studies less than 72 hours after study completion. However, significant interest in historical CT and MR examinations was shown. PMID:12105703

  19. Gated Treatment Delivery Verification With On-Line Megavoltage Fluoroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tai An; Christensen, James D.; Gore, Elizabeth; Khamene, Ali; Boettger, Thomas; Li, X. Allen

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To develop and clinically demonstrate the use of on-line real-time megavoltage (MV) fluoroscopy for gated treatment delivery verification. Methods and Materials: Megavoltage fluoroscopy (MVF) image sequences were acquired using a flat panel equipped for MV cone-beam CT in synchrony with the respiratory signal obtained from the Anzai gating device. The MVF images can be obtained immediately before or during gated treatment delivery. A prototype software tool (named RTReg4D) was developed to register MVF images with phase-sequenced digitally reconstructed radiograph images generated from the treatment planning system based on four-dimensional CT. The image registration can be used to reposition the patient before or during treatment delivery. To demonstrate the reliability and clinical usefulness, the system was first tested using a thoracic phantom and then prospectively in actual patient treatments under an institutional review board-approved protocol. Results: The quality of the MVF images for lung tumors is adequate for image registration with phase-sequenced digitally reconstructed radiographs. The MVF was found to be useful for monitoring inter- and intrafractional variations of tumor positions. With the planning target volume contour displayed on the MVF images, the system can verify whether the moving target stays within the planning target volume margin during gated delivery. Conclusions: The use of MVF images was found to be clinically effective in detecting discrepancies in tumor location before and during respiration-gated treatment delivery. The tools and process developed can be useful for gated treatment delivery verification.

  20. An on-line archive of reconstructed hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Cannon, R C; Turner, D A; Pyapali, G K; Wheal, H V

    1998-10-01

    We have developed an on-line archive of neuronal geometry to encourage the use of realistic dendritic structures in morphometry and for neuronal modeling, located at web address www.neuro.soton.ac.uk. Initially we have included full three-dimensional representations of 87 neurons from the hippocampus, obtained following intracellular staining with biocytin and reconstruction using Neurolucida. The archive system includes a structure editor for correcting any departures from valid branching geometry and which allows simple errors in the digitisation to be corrected. The editor employs a platform-independent file format which enforces the constraints that there should be no isolated branches and no closed loops. It also incorporates software for interconversion between the archive format and those used by various neuronal reconstruction and modelling packages. The raw data from digitisation software can be included in the archive as well as edited reconstructions and any further information available. Cross-referenced tables and indexes are updated automatically and are sorted according to a number of fields including the cell type, contributor, submission date and published reference. Both the archive and the structure editor should facilitate the quantitative use of full three-dimensional reconstructions of neurons from the hippocampus and other brain regions. PMID:9821633

  1. EnviroNET: On-line information for LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauriente, Michael

    1993-01-01

    EnviroNET is an on-line, free-form database intended to provide a centralized repository for a wide range of technical information on environmentally induced interactions of use to Space Shuttle customers and spacecraft designers. It provides a user-friendly, menu-driven format on networks that are connected globally and is available twenty-four hours a day - every day. The information, updated regularly, includes expository text, tabular numerical data, charts and graphs, and models. The system pools space data collected over the years by NASA, USAF, other government research facilities, industry, universities, and the European Space Agency. The models accept parameter input from the user, then calculate and display the derived values corresponding to that input. In addition to the archive, interactive graphics programs are also available on space debris, the neutral atmosphere, radiation, magnetic fields, and the ionosphere. A user-friendly, informative interface is standard for all the models and includes a pop-up help window with information on inputs, outputs, and caveats. The system will eventually simplify mission analysis with analytical tools and deliver solutions for computationally intense graphical applications to do 'What if...' scenarios. A proposed plan for developing a repository of information from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) for a user group is presented.

  2. On line sensing of weld penetration using infrared thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.; Chin, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this research is to apply new sensing techniques, artificial intelligence, and robotics to improve the welding process through control of penetration depth and width parameters. By producing a constant depth and width of penetration through on line control, the quality and strength of welds may be improved to a new level of reliability previously unobtainable. Experimental data presented in this paper indicate that depth and width of penetration can be monitored by infrared thermography and hence controlled dynamically during the weld process. Infrared thermography is used to monitor surface temperature distributions in the vicinity of the molten metal pool. Characteristics of temperature distributions perpendicular to the direction of arc travel are analyzed and correlated with weld bead width and depth as measured by destructive examination after the weld production. The results show that there is a linear relationship between peak weld plate surface temperature and depth of penetration. Additionally, surface puddle width is found to be directly correlated to measured distance separating solidus temperatures of the molten metal as measured by infrared thermography.

  3. On-line optical sensors for industrial material inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cielo, Paolo G.

    1990-08-01

    In the modem computer-integrated material processing plant statistical process control plays an increasingly important role. A corresponding need for rugged and noninvasive on-line sensors capable of reliable and unattended performance is becoming more and more urgent. Optical sensors are often being adopted for such tasks not only because of their noncontact nature implying an easy adaptability to the automated inspection of continuously moving products at any temperature but also in view of their high response speed intrinsic resolution and increasing ruggedness. Properties which may be probed with optical devices include product features such as geometrical size and shape or surface integrity as well as process parameters such as temperature speed or vibration amplitude. This paper reviews a number of optical sensors which were recently developed at our institute for industrial material online inspection. Examples include surface defect detection 3-D lumber board scanning and infrared temperature measurement either in furnace or during spray deposition. The emphasis is on noncontact techniques well suited to automation and specifically adapted to each particular application with minimum perturbation of the industrial process. 1.

  4. On-line performance characteristics of a radiology PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Albert W. K.; Loloyan, Mansur; Lou, Shyhliang A.; Huang, H. K.

    1992-07-01

    We have experienced that system reliability and performance become primary concerns when we moved our PACS from a research and development laboratory to a clinical environment. Providing consistent uptime builds user confidence and fast service accelerates system acceptance. The fault-tolerant mechanism implemented in our PACS has minimized system downtime. This paper considers the performance issues of an on-line multimodal PACS. The intent of conducting performance measurements on individual PACS components such as the radiological imaging devices, archive devices, host computers, and communication networks is to compare the throughput rates of these components in a real-time clinical environment as a basis of evaluating the overall throughput of a PACS system. Our primary goal is to identify the major factors that degrade the performance of a PACS, and to establish new strategies so that fast service with minimal delay is provided to the clinic. Approximately 200-Gbyte data transactions including CT, MR and CR images from our PACS were analyzed. Results showed that PACS throughput was limited by two major factors: (1) low-speed data interface used in the radiological imaging devices and archive devices; (2) network degradation due to heavy network traffic. We concluded that PACS throughput could be improved by well- designed network architecture and image-routing strategy. However, device-dependent low- speed data interface limited PACS performance.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope on-line operations coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychenheim, David E.; Pepe, Joyce; Knapp, Debra

    2002-12-01

    An important aspect of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) operations is the ability to quickly disseminate and coordinate spacecraft commanding and ground system information for both routine spacecraft operations and Space Shuttle Servicing Missions. When deviating from preplanned activities all new spacecraft commanding, ground system and space system configurations must be reviewed, authorized and executed in an efficient manner. The information describing the changes must be disseminated to and coordinated by a large group of users. In the early years of the HST mission a paper-based Operational Request System was used. The system worked, but was cumbersome to efficiently coordinate with a large geographically dispersed group of users in a timely manner. As network and server technology matured, the HST Project developed an on-line interactive Operations Request System. This Operations Request System is a server-based system (access via HST Net) that provides immediate access to command and ground system information to both local and remotely based Instrument Engineers, Flight Operations Team Controllers, Subsystem Engineers and Project Management. This paper describes the various aspects of the system's submission, review, authorization and implementation processes. Also described is the methodology used to arrive at the current system design and the Graphical User Interface (GUI). This system has been used successfully for all routine and special HST operations for the last five years. This approach to operations coordination is adaptable to spacecraft of any complexity.

  6. On Line Sensing Of Weld Penetration Using Infrared Thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuwen; Chin, B. A.

    1986-10-01

    The objective of this research is to apply new sensing techniques, artificial intelligence, and robotics to improve the welding process through control of penetration depth and width parameters. By producing a constant depth and width of penetration through on line control, the quality and strength of welds may be improved to a new level of reliability previously unobtainable. Experimental data presented in this paper indicate that depth and width of penetration can be monitored by infrared thermography and hence controlled dynamically during the weld process. Infrared thermography is used to monitor surface temperature distributions in the vicinity of the molten metal pool. Characteristics of temperature distributions perpendicular to the direction of arc travel are analyzed and correlated with weld bead width and depth as measured by destructive examination after the weld production. The results show that there is a linear relationship between peak weld plate surface temperature and depth of penetration. Additionally, surface puddle width is found to be directly correlated to measured distance separating solidus temperatures of the molten metal as measured by infrared thermography.

  7. Using on-line altered auditory feedback treating Parkinsonian speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Emily; Verhagen, Leo; de Vries, Meinou H.

    2005-09-01

    Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease tend to have dysarthric speech that is hesitant, accelerated, and repetitive, and that is often resistant to behavior speech therapy. In this pilot study, the speech disturbances were treated using on-line altered feedbacks (AF) provided by SpeechEasy (SE), an in-the-ear device registered with the FDA for use in humans to treat chronic stuttering. Eight PD patients participated in the study. All had moderate to severe speech disturbances. In addition, two patients had moderate recurring stuttering at the onset of PD after long remission since adolescence, two had bilateral STN DBS, and two bilateral pallidal DBS. An effective combination of delayed auditory feedback and frequency-altered feedback was selected for each subject and provided via SE worn in one ear. All subjects produced speech samples (structured-monologue and reading) under three conditions: baseline, with SE without, and with feedbacks. The speech samples were randomly presented and rated for speech intelligibility goodness using UPDRS-III item 18 and the speaking rate. The results indicted that SpeechEasy is well tolerated and AF can improve speech intelligibility in spontaneous speech. Further investigational use of this device for treating speech disorders in PD is warranted [Work partially supported by Janus Dev. Group, Inc.].

  8. Improved on-line thoracic duct drainage for lymphocytapheresis.

    PubMed

    Sato, T; Koga, N; Nagano, T; Ohteki, H; Masuda, T; Agishi, T

    1991-12-01

    Lymphocytapheresis using thoracic duct drainage (TDD) is a recognized technique of extracorporeal immunomodulation for various autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and its clinical benefit has been reported and generally accepted. Lymphocytapheresis using TDD is very selective for removing lymphocytes (especially helper T-cells) but raises some problems such as hypoproteinemia due to the massive removal of lymph, and difficulties in repeated treatment. Along with the development of a new polyester fiber filter, we have developed a simple and effective method of lymphocytapheresis for wide adoption for these techniques. We performed lymphocytapheresis using TDD in patients with RA and previously reported its clinical efficacy indicated by the significantly lower number of peripheral lymphocytes and T4/T8 ratio. We present here our newly-developed on-line system designed to prevent hypoproteinemia. Furthermore we report on the advantages with a new subcutaneous vascular access device set up to manage the problems of repeated treatments. A small reservoir for keeping the thoracic duct open and returning lymph to the patient permitted sufficient lymph drainage and removal of lymphocytes and the clinical application of TDD is discussed. PMID:1783455

  9. On-line range images registration with GPGPU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Będkowski, J.; Naruniec, J.

    2013-03-01

    This paper concerns implementation of algorithms in the two important aspects of modern 3D data processing: data registration and segmentation. Solution proposed for the first topic is based on the 3D space decomposition, while the latter on image processing and local neighbourhood search. Data processing is implemented by using NVIDIA compute unified device architecture (NIVIDIA CUDA) parallel computation. The result of the segmentation is a coloured map where different colours correspond to different objects, such as walls, floor and stairs. The research is related to the problem of collecting 3D data with a RGB-D camera mounted on a rotated head, to be used in mobile robot applications. Performance of the data registration algorithm is aimed for on-line processing. The iterative closest point (ICP) approach is chosen as a registration method. Computations are based on the parallel fast nearest neighbour search. This procedure decomposes 3D space into cubic buckets and, therefore, the time of the matching is deterministic. First technique of the data segmentation uses accele-rometers integrated with a RGB-D sensor to obtain rotation compensation and image processing method for defining pre-requisites of the known categories. The second technique uses the adapted nearest neighbour search procedure for obtaining normal vectors for each range point.

  10. 3081/E processor and its on-line use

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, P.; Bricaud, B.; Gravina, M.; Kunz, P.F.; Oxoby, G.; Trang, Q.; Ferran, P.M.; Fucci, A.; Hinton, R.; Jacobs, D.

    1985-05-01

    The 3081/E is a second generation emulator of a mainframe IBM. One of it's applications will be to form part of the data acquisition system of the upgraded Mark II detector for data taking at the SLAC linear collider. Since the processor does not have direct connections to I/O devices a FASTBUS interface will be provided to allow communication with both SLAC Scanner Processors (which are responsible for the accumulation of data at a crate level) and the experiment's VAX 8600 mainframe. The 3081/E's will supply a significant amount of on-line computing power to the experiment (a single 3081/E is equivalent to 4 to 5 VAX 11/780's). A major advantage of the 3081/E is that program development can be done on an IBM mainframe (such as the one used for off-line analysis) which gives the programmer access to a full range of debugging tools. The processor's performance can be continually monitored by comparison of the results obtained using it to those given when the same program is run on an IBM computer. 9 refs.

  11. Laser Ultrasonic System for On-Line Steel Tube Gauging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monchalin, Jean-Pierre; Choquet, Marc; Padioleau, Christian; Néron, Christian; Lévesque, Daniel; Blouin, Alain; Corbeil, Christian; Talbot, Richard; Bendada, Abdelhakim; Lamontagne, Mario; Kolarik, Robert V.; Jeskey, Gerald V.; Dominik, Erich D.; Duly, Larry J.; Samblanet, Kenneth J.; Agger, Steven E.; Roush, Kenneth J.; Mester, Michael L.

    2003-03-01

    A laser-ultrasonic system has been installed on a seamless tubing production line of The Timken Company and is being used to measure on-line the wall thickness of tubes during processing. The seamless process consists essentially in forcing a mandrel through a hot cylindrical billet in rotation and typically results in fairly large wall thickness variations that should be minimized and controlled to respect specifications. The system includes a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser for generation of ultrasound by ablation, a long pulse very stable Nd-YAG laser for detection coupled to a confocal Fabry-Perot interferometer, a pyrometer to measure tube temperature and two laser Doppler velocimeters to measure the coordinates of the probing location at the tube surface. The laser, data acquisition and processing units are housed in a cabin off line and connected to a front coupling head located over the passing tube by optical fibers. The system has been integrated into the plant computer network and provides in real time thickness data to the plant operators. It allow much faster mill setups, has been used since its deployment for inspecting more than 100,000 tubes and has demonstrated very significant savings.

  12. How dependencies between successive examples affect on-line learning.

    PubMed

    Wiegerinck, W; Heskes, T

    1996-11-15

    We study the dynamics of on-line learning for a large class of neural networks and learning rules, including backpropagation for multilayer perceptrons. In this paper, we focus on the case where successive examples are dependent, and we analyze how these dependencies affect the learning process. We define the representation error and the prediction error. The representation error measures how well the environment is represented by the network after learning. The prediction error is the average error that a continually learning network makes on the next example. In the neighborhood of a local minimum of the error surface, we calculate these errors. We find that the more predictable the example presentation, the higher the representation error, i.e., the less accurate the asymptotic representation of the whole environment. Furthermore we study the learning process in the presence of a plateau. Plateaus are flat spots on the error surface, which can severely slow down the learning process. In particular, they are notorious in applications with multilayer perceptrons. Our results, which are confirmed by simulations of a multilayer perceptron learning a chaotic time series using backpropagation, explain how dependencies between examples can help the learning process to escape from a plateau. PMID:8888616

  13. On-line phase measuring profilometry for a rotating object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Cao, Yiping; Yang, Xin; Peng, Kuang

    2014-11-01

    On-line phase measuring profilometry (OPMP) for a rotating object is proposed. N frames of circular sinusoidal grating patterns are designed in advance, in which the transmittance along the radial direction is sinusoidal and there is a fixed shifting phase pitch of 2π/N between every adjacent two grating patterns along the radial direction. While the measured object is rotating, the designed grating patterns are projected onto the rotating object by digital light processing and the corresponding deformed patterns caused by the object at different positions are captured by a charge coupled device camera. By pixel matching and rotation transformation with special marks, N frames of the deformed patterns of the object at the same position can be extracted. Hence, the rotating object can be reconstructed by the extracted deformed patterns. The results of computer emulation and experiment show the feasibility and validity of the proposed OPMP. Either the maximum measurement absolute error is 0.118 mm or the maximum root mean square error is 0.077 mm in the measured region of 0 to 25 mm.

  14. On-line DNA analysis system with rapid thermal cycling

    DOEpatents

    Swerdlow, H.P.; Wittwer, C.T.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes an apparatus particularly suited for subjecting biological samples to any necessary sample preparation tasks, subjecting the sample to rapid thermal cycling, and then subjecting the sample to subsequent on-line analysis using one or more of a number of analytical techniques. The apparatus includes a chromatography device including an injection means, a chromatography pump, and a chromatography column. In addition, the apparatus also contains a capillary electrophoresis device consisting of a capillary electrophoresis column with an inlet and outlet end, a means of injection, and means of applying a high voltage to cause the differential migration of species of interest through the capillary column. Effluent from the liquid chromatography column passes over the inlet end of the capillary electrophoresis column through a tee structure and when the loading of the capillary electrophoresis column is desired, a voltage supply is activated at a precise voltage and polarity over a specific duration to cause sample species to be diverted from the flowing stream to the capillary electrophoresis column. A laser induced fluorescence detector preferably is used to analyze the products separated while in the electrophoresis column. 6 figs.

  15. On-line monitoring of methane in sewer air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R.; Murthy, Sudhir; Johnson, Ian; Evans, Ted; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-10-01

    Methane is a highly potent greenhouse gas and contributes significantly to climate change. Recent studies have shown significant methane production in sewers. The studies conducted so far have relied on manual sampling followed by off-line laboratory-based chromatography analysis. These methods are labor-intensive when measuring methane emissions from a large number of sewers, and do not capture the dynamic variations in methane production. In this study, we investigated the suitability of infrared spectroscopy-based on-line methane sensors for measuring methane in humid and condensing sewer air. Two such sensors were comprehensively tested in the laboratory. Both sensors displayed high linearity (R2 > 0.999), with a detection limit of 0.023% and 0.110% by volume, respectively. Both sensors were robust against ambient temperature variations in the range of 5 to 35°C. While one sensor was robust against humidity variations, the other was found to be significantly affected by humidity. However, the problem was solved by equipping the sensor with a heating unit to increase the sensor surface temperature to 35°C. Field studies at three sites confirmed the performance and accuracy of the sensors when applied to actual sewer conditions, and revealed substantial and highly dynamic methane concentrations in sewer air.

  16. On-line monitoring of methane in sewer air.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Sharma, Keshab R; Murthy, Sudhir; Johnson, Ian; Evans, Ted; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    Methane is a highly potent greenhouse gas and contributes significantly to climate change. Recent studies have shown significant methane production in sewers. The studies conducted so far have relied on manual sampling followed by off-line laboratory-based chromatography analysis. These methods are labor-intensive when measuring methane emissions from a large number of sewers, and do not capture the dynamic variations in methane production. In this study, we investigated the suitability of infrared spectroscopy-based on-line methane sensors for measuring methane in humid and condensing sewer air. Two such sensors were comprehensively tested in the laboratory. Both sensors displayed high linearity (R(2) > 0.999), with a detection limit of 0.023% and 0.110% by volume, respectively. Both sensors were robust against ambient temperature variations in the range of 5 to 35°C. While one sensor was robust against humidity variations, the other was found to be significantly affected by humidity. However, the problem was solved by equipping the sensor with a heating unit to increase the sensor surface temperature to 35°C. Field studies at three sites confirmed the performance and accuracy of the sensors when applied to actual sewer conditions, and revealed substantial and highly dynamic methane concentrations in sewer air. PMID:25319343

  17. On-Line Loss of Control Detection Using Wavelets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Martin J. (Technical Monitor); Thompson, Peter M.; Klyde, David H.; Bachelder, Edward N.; Rosenthal, Theodore J.

    2005-01-01

    Wavelet transforms are used for on-line detection of aircraft loss of control. Wavelet transforms are compared with Fourier transform methods and shown to more rapidly detect changes in the vehicle dynamics. This faster response is due to a time window that decreases in length as the frequency increases. New wavelets are defined that further decrease the detection time by skewing the shape of the envelope. The wavelets are used for power spectrum and transfer function estimation. Smoothing is used to tradeoff the variance of the estimate with detection time. Wavelets are also used as front-end to the eigensystem reconstruction algorithm. Stability metrics are estimated from the frequency response and models, and it is these metrics that are used for loss of control detection. A Matlab toolbox was developed for post-processing simulation and flight data using the wavelet analysis methods. A subset of these methods was implemented in real time and named the Loss of Control Analysis Tool Set or LOCATS. A manual control experiment was conducted using a hardware-in-the-loop simulator for a large transport aircraft, in which the real time performance of LOCATS was demonstrated. The next step is to use these wavelet analysis tools for flight test support.

  18. Virtual laboratories: Collaborative environments and facilities-on-line

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.E. Jr.; Cavallini, J.S.; Seweryniak, G.R.; Kitchens, T.A.; Hitchcock, D.A.; Scott, M.A.; Welch, L.C.; Aiken, R.J. |; Stevens, R.L.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has major research laboratories in a number of locations in the US, typically co-located with large research instruments or research facilities valued at tens of millions to even billions of dollars. Present budget exigencies facing the entire nation are felt very deeply at DOE, just as elsewhere. Advances over the last few years in networking and computing technologies make virtual collaborative environments and conduct of experiments over the internetwork structure a possibility. The authors believe that development of these collaborative environments and facilities-on-line could lead to a ``virtual laboratory`` with tremendous potential for decreasing the costs of research and increasing the productivity of their capital investment in research facilities. The majority of these cost savings would be due to increased productivity of their research efforts, better utilization of resources and facilities, and avoiding duplication of expensive facilities. A vision of how this might all fit together and a discussion of the infrastructure necessary to enable these developments is presented.

  19. On-line DNA analysis system with rapid thermal cycling

    DOEpatents

    Swerdlow, Harold P.; Wittwer, Carl T.

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus particularly suited for subjecting biological samples to any necessary sample preparation tasks, subjecting the sample to rapid thermal cycling, and then subjecting the sample to subsequent on-line analysis using one or more of a number of analytical techniques. The apparatus includes a chromatography device including an injection means, a chromatography pump, and a chromatography column. In addition, the apparatus also contains a capillary electrophoresis device consisting of a capillary electrophoresis column with an inlet and outlet end, a means of injection, and means of applying a high voltage to cause the differential migration of species of interest through the capillary column. Effluent from the liquid chromatography column passes over the inlet end of the capillary electrophoresis column through a tee structure and when the loading of the capillary electrophoresis column is desired, a voltage supply is activated at a precise voltage and polarity over a specific duration to cause sample species to be diverted from the flowing stream to the capillary electrophoresis column. A laser induced fluorescence detector preferably is used to analyze the products separated while in the electrophoresis column.

  20. The effect of family therapy on the changes in the severity of on-line game play and brain activity in adolescents with on-line game addiction

    PubMed Central

    Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Lee, Young Sik; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated whether a brief 3-week family therapy intervention would change patterns of brain activation in response to affection and gaming cues in adolescents from dysfunctional families who met criteria for on-line game addiction. Fifteen adolescents with on-line game addiction and fifteen adolescents without problematic on-line game play and an intact family structure were recruited. Over 3 weeks, families were asked to carry out homework assignments focused on increasing family cohesion for more than 1 hour/day and 4 days/week. Before therapy, adolescents with on-line game addiction demonstrated decreased activity as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) within the caudate, middle temporal gyrus, and occipital lobe in response to images depicting parental affection and increased activity of the middle frontal and inferior parietal in response scenes from on-line games, relative to healthy comparison subjects. Improvement in perceived family cohesion following 3 weeks of treatment was associated with an increase in the activity of the caudate nucleus in response to affection stimuli and was inversely correlated with changes in on-line game playing time. With evidence of brain activation changes in response to on-line game playing cues and images depicting parental love, the present findings suggest that family cohesion may be an important factor in the treatment of problematic on-line game playing. PMID:22698763

  1. An automatic system for on-line flash flood forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makin, I.; Rumyantsev, D.; Shemanayev, K.; Shkarbanov, R.

    2012-04-01

    The research group at Russian State Hydrometeorological University continues developing hydrologic software, called SLS+, which might be useful for background flash flood forecasting in poorly gauged regions. Now the SLS+ software has a user-friendly web interface for on-line background flash flood forecasting in training and operational (real time or near real time) modes, and allows issuing stream flow forecasts based on precipitation and evaporation data obtained either from archives, or from field sensors, respectively. The system currently includes two hydrological models, the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting model (USA) and Multi-Layer Conceptual Model (Russia). These models can be calibrated either manually, or automatically based on four calibration algorithms: Shuffled Complex Evolution algorithm (SCE), which is quite useful if (1) a number of calibrated parameters does not exceed 6-7 and boundaries of the parameter space are well defined and (2) the parameter space is not too wide; Basic Stepwise Line Search (SLS) algorithm, which is efficient and computationally "inexpensive", if an initial point for pattern optimization is well defined; SLS-2L algorithm (where 2L is an abbreviation for "two loops" or "two cycles"), which is used in regions with scarce soil data and allows first to predetermine the soil hydraulic parameters, and then use these parameters for the refined model parameterization; SLS-E algorithm (where E stands for "Ensemble generation"), which implies the generation of ensembles of one or several forcing processes (for instance, effective precipitation and evaporation) and model calibration for each of those ensembles. This method is primarily designed for models with undistracted parameters at a relatively low density of ground-based meteorological observation network. Currently the trial version of the system is available for testing upon request.

  2. On-line, adaptive state estimator for active noise control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Tae W.

    1994-01-01

    Dynamic characteristics of airframe structures are expected to vary as aircraft flight conditions change. Accurate knowledge of the changing dynamic characteristics is crucial to enhancing the performance of the active noise control system using feedback control. This research investigates the development of an adaptive, on-line state estimator using a neural network concept to conduct active noise control. In this research, an algorithm has been developed that can be used to estimate displacement and velocity responses at any locations on the structure from a limited number of acceleration measurements and input force information. The algorithm employs band-pass filters to extract from the measurement signal the frequency contents corresponding to a desired mode. The filtered signal is then used to train a neural network which consists of a linear neuron with three weights. The structure of the neural network is designed as simple as possible to increase the sampling frequency as much as possible. The weights obtained through neural network training are then used to construct the transfer function of a mode in z-domain and to identify modal properties of each mode. By using the identified transfer function and interpolating the mode shape obtained at sensor locations, the displacement and velocity responses are estimated with reasonable accuracy at any locations on the structure. The accuracy of the response estimates depends on the number of modes incorporated in the estimates and the number of sensors employed to conduct mode shape interpolation. Computer simulation demonstrates that the algorithm is capable of adapting to the varying dynamic characteristics of structural properties. Experimental implementation of the algorithm on a DSP (digital signal processing) board for a plate structure is underway. The algorithm is expected to reach the sampling frequency range of about 10 kHz to 20 kHz which needs to be maintained for a typical active noise control

  3. The Eclipsing Binary On-Line Atlas (EBOLA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradstreet, D. H.; Steelman, D. P.; Sanders, S. J.; Hargis, J. R.

    2004-05-01

    In conjunction with the upcoming release of \\it Binary Maker 3.0, an extensive on-line database of eclipsing binaries is being made available. The purposes of the atlas are: \\begin {enumerate} Allow quick and easy access to information on published eclipsing binaries. Amass a consistent database of light and radial velocity curve solutions to aid in solving new systems. Provide invaluable querying capabilities on all of the parameters of the systems so that informative research can be quickly accomplished on a multitude of published results. Aid observers in establishing new observing programs based upon stars needing new light and/or radial velocity curves. Encourage workers to submit their published results so that others may have easy access to their work. Provide a vast but easily accessible storehouse of information on eclipsing binaries to accelerate the process of understanding analysis techniques and current work in the field. \\end {enumerate} The database will eventually consist of all published eclipsing binaries with light curve solutions. The following information and data will be supplied whenever available for each binary: original light curves in all bandpasses, original radial velocity observations, light curve parameters, RA and Dec, V-magnitudes, spectral types, color indices, periods, binary type, 3D representation of the system near quadrature, plots of the original light curves and synthetic models, plots of the radial velocity observations with theoretical models, and \\it Binary Maker 3.0 data files (parameter, light curve, radial velocity). The pertinent references for each star are also given with hyperlinks directly to the papers via the NASA Abstract website for downloading, if available. In addition the Atlas has extensive searching options so that workers can specifically search for binaries with specific characteristics. The website has more than 150 systems already uploaded. The URL for the site is http://ebola.eastern.edu/.

  4. On-line Automated Performance Diagnosis on Thousands of Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, Philip C

    2006-01-01

    Performance analysis tools are critical for the effective use of large parallel computing resources, but existing tools have failed to address three problems that limit their scalability: (1) management and processing of the volume of performance data generated when monitoring a large number of application processes, (2) communication between a large number of tool components, and (3) presentation of performance data and analysis results for applications with a large number of processes. In this paper, we present a novel approach for finding performance problems in applications with a large number of processes that leverages our multicast and data aggregation infrastructure to address these three performance tool scalability barriers.First, we show how to design a scalable, distributed performance diagnosis facility. We demonstrate this design with an on-line, automated strategy for finding performance bottlenecks. Our strategy uses distributed, independent bottleneck search agents located in the tool agent processes that monitor running application processes. Second, we present a technique for constructing compact displays of the results of our bottleneck detection strategy. This technique, called the Sub-Graph Folding Algorithm, presents bottleneck search results using dynamic graphs that record the refinement of a bottleneck search. The complexity of the results graph is controlled by combining sub-graphs showing similar local application behavior into a composite sub-graph.Using an approach that combines these two synergistic parts, we performed bottleneck searches on programs with up to 1024 processes with no sign of tool resource saturation. With 1024 application processes, our visualization technique reduced a search results graph containing over 30,000 nodes to a single composite 44-node graph sub-graph showing the same qualitative performance information as the original graph.

  5. On-line identification of operational loads using exogenous inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanlanduit, S.; Guillaume, P.; Cauberghe, B.; Parloo, E.; De Sitter, G.; Verboven, P.

    2005-07-01

    When the FRF matrix describing the dynamical behavior of a structure is available, the operational loads can be determined by multiplying the pseudo-inverse of the FRF matrix by the operational responses (displacements, velocities or accelerations). In practice, however, the boundary conditions of the structure in operation deviate from the ones in laboratory conditions (due to e.g. aerodynamic loads, fuel consumption, temperature changes). This means that measurements during operation should be taken in order to obtain the correct FRF matrix. Unfortunately, it is not always possible to measure all operational loads acting on the structure (which is needed to calculate the FRFs). In this paper, a method is proposed that enables the on-line determination of operational forces. As input the method uses dynamical response measurements and the measurement of a known force (due to an exogenous excitation input) at one particular location (where it is possible to put an excitation device and a force sensor). A periodic signal is taken as the exogenous excitation. It is assumed that apart from the known force there is also an unknown force (at an unknown location) that is acting on the structure. As a first step in the procedure, the measured responses and the known (i.e. measured) force are compensated in order to eliminate the contribution due to the unknown force. From these compensated measurements the complete FRF matrix is calculated. Then, the forces are calculated from the original (uncompensated) responses and the inverted complete FRF matrix. The method is validated both on a simulation and measurements of a steel beam with an applied unknown impact excitation.

  6. On-line maintenance methodology development and its applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.; Jae, M.

    2012-07-01

    With the increasing economic pressures being faced and the potential for shortening outage times under the conditions of deregulated electricity markets in the world, licensees are motivated to get an increasing amount of the on-line maintenance (OLM). The benefits of the OLM includes increased system and plant reliability, reduction of plant equipment and system material condition deficiencies that could adversely impact operations, and reduction of work scope during plant refueling outages. In Korea, allowance guidelines of risk assessment is specified in the safety regulation guidelines 16.7 and 16.8 of the Korea Inst. of Nuclear Safety (KINS), which is 'General guidelines of Risk-informed application for requesting permission of changes' and 'Requesting permission of changes of Risk-informed application for Technical Specification'. We select the emergency diesel generator (EDG) of the Ulchin unit 3 and 4 for risk assessment analysis by applying configuration changes. The EDG which has plant safety level IE belongs to on-site standby power (A, B train EDG) in electric distribution system. The EDG is important component because it should maintain standby status during plant is operating, therefore we select the EDG for target component of risk assessment analysis. The risk assessment is limited to CDF. The risk assessment is performed by using AIMS-PSA Release2. We evaluate CDF by applying the configuration changes with some assumptions. Evaluation of the full power operation and Low power/Shut down operation was performed. This study has been performed for introducing a methodology and performing risk assessment. (authors)

  7. Plotting and Scheming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2 Click for larger view

    These two graphics are planning tools used by Mars Exploration Rover engineers to plot and scheme the perfect location to place the rock abrasion tool on the rock collection dubbed 'El Capitan' near Opportunity's landing site. 'El Capitan' is located within a larger outcrop nicknamed 'Opportunity Ledge.'

    The rover visualization team from NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif., initiated the graphics by putting two panoramic camera images of the 'El Capitan' area into their three-dimensional model. The rock abrasion tool team from Honeybee Robotics then used the visualization tool to help target and orient their instrument on the safest and most scientifically interesting locations. The blue circle represents one of two current targets of interest, chosen because of its size, lack of dust, and most of all its distinct and intriguing geologic features. To see the second target location, see the image titled 'Plotting and Scheming.'

    The rock abrasion tool is sensitive to the shape and texture of a rock, and must safely sit within the 'footprint' indicated by the blue circles. The rock area must be large enough to fit the contact sensor and grounding mechanism within the area of the outer blue circle, and the rock must be smooth enough to get an even grind within the abrasion area of the inner blue circle. If the rock abrasion tool were not grounded by its support mechanism or if the surface were uneven, it could 'run away' from its target. The rock abrasion tool is location on the rover's instrument deployment device, or arm.

    Over the next few martian days, or sols, the rover team will use these and newer, similar graphics created with more recent, higher-resolution panoramic camera images and super-spectral data from the miniature thermal emission spectrometer. These data will be used to pick the best

  8. Hampshire Probation Sports Counselling Scheme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Keith

    A sports counseling scheme for young people on criminal probation in Hampshire (England) was developed in the 1980s as a partnership between the Sports Council and the Probation Service. The scheme aims to encourage offenders, aged 14 and up, to make constructive use of their leisure time; to allow participants the opportunity to have positive…

  9. On-line Geoscience Data Resources for Today's Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwillie, A. M.; Ryan, W.; Carbotte, S.; Melkonian, A.; Coplan, J.; Arko, R.; O'Hara, S.; Ferrini, V.; Leung, A.; Bonckzowski, J.

    2008-12-01

    Broadening the experience of undergraduates can be achieved by enabling free, unrestricted and convenient access to real scientific data. With funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS) (http://www.marine-geo.org/) serves as the integrated data portal for various NSF-funded projects and provides free public access and preservation to a wide variety of marine and terrestrial data including rock, fluid, biology and sediment samples information, underway geophysical data and multibeam bathymetry, water column and multi-channel seismics data. Users can easily view the locations of cruise tracks, sample and station locations against a backdrop of a multi-resolution global digital elevation model. A Search For Data web page rapidly extracts data holdings from the database and can be filtered on data and device type, field program ID, investigator name, geographical and date bounds. The data access experience is boosted by the MGDS use of standardised OGC-compliant Web Services to support uniform programmatic interfaces. GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org/), a free MGDS data visualization tool, supports map-based dynamic exploration of a broad suite of geosciences data. Built-in land and marine data sets include tectonic plate boundary compilations, DSDP/ODP core logs, earthquake events, seafloor photos, and submersible dive tracks. Seamless links take users to data held by external partner repositories including PetDB, UNAVCO, IRIS and NGDC. Users can generate custom maps and grids and import their own data sets and grids. A set of short, video-style on-line tutorials familiarises users step- by-step with GeoMapApp functionality (http://www.geomapapp.org/tutorials/). Virtual Ocean (http://www.virtualocean.org/) combines the functionality of GeoMapApp with a 3-D earth browser built using the NASA WorldWind API for a powerful new data resource. MGDS education involvement (http://www.marine-geo.org/, go to Education tab

  10. A multisyringe flow-through sequential extraction system for on-line monitoring of orthophosphate in soils and sediments.

    PubMed

    Buanuam, Janya; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald; Shiowatana, Juwadee; Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor

    2007-03-15

    A fully automated flow-through microcolumn fractionation system with on-line post-extraction derivatization is proposed for monitoring of orthophosphate in solid samples of environmental relevance. The system integrates dynamic sequential extraction using 1.0moll(-1) NH(4)Cl, 0.1moll(-1) NaOH and 0.5moll(-1) HCl as extractants according to the Hieltjes-Lijklema (HL) scheme for fractionation of phosphorus associated with different geological phases, and on-line processing of the extracts via the Molybdenum Blue (MB) reaction by exploiting multisyringe flow injection as the interface between the solid containing microcolumn and the flow-through detector. The proposed flow assembly, capitalizing on the features of the multicommutation concept, implies several advantages as compared to fractionation analysis in the batch mode in terms of saving of extractants and MB reagents, shortening of the operational times from days to hours, highly temporal resolution of the leaching process and the capability for immediate decision for stopping or proceeding with the ongoing extraction. Very importantly, accurate determination of the various orthophosphate pools is ensured by minimization of the hydrolysis of extracted organic phosphorus and condensed inorganic phosphates within the time frame of the assay. The potential of the novel system for accommodation of the harmonized protocol from the Standards, Measurement and Testing (SMT) Program of the Commission of the European Communities for inorganic phosphorus fractionation was also addressed. Under the optimized conditions, the lowest detectable concentration at the 3sigma level was schemes regardless of the extracting media. The repeatability of the MB assay was better than 2.5% and the dynamic linear range extended up to 7.0mgPl(-1) in NH(4)Cl and NaOH media and 15mgPl(-1) whenever HCl is utilized as extractant for both the HL and SMT protocols. PMID:19071513

  11. Novel driving scheme for FLCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiin-chuan; Wang, Chi-Chang

    1996-03-01

    A frame change data driving scheme (FCDDS) for ferroelectric LCD(FLCD) of matrix- addressing is developed which uses only positive voltages for the row and column waveforms to achieve bipolar driving waveforms on the FLCD pixels. Thus the required supply voltage for the driver chips is half that of the conventional driving scheme. Each scan line is addressed in only twice the switching time (tau) (minimum response time of FLC) so that this scheme is suitable for high duty ratio panels. In order to meet this bistable electro-optic effect of FLCD and zero net dc voltage across each pixel of the liquid crystal, turning on and turning off pixels are done at different time slots and frame slots. This driving scheme can be easily implemented using commercially available STN LCD drivers plus a small external circuit or by making an ASIC which is a slight modification of the STN driver. Both methods are discussed.

  12. On the marginal stability of upwind schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gressier, J.; Moschetta, J.-M.

    Following Quirk's analysis of Roe's scheme, general criteria are derived to predict the odd-even decoupling. This analysis is applied to Roe's scheme, EFM Pullin's scheme, EIM Macrossan's scheme and AUSM Liou's scheme. Strict stability is shown to be desirable to avoid most of these flaws. Finally, the link between marginal stability and accuracy on shear waves is established.

  13. Relaxation schemes for Chebyshev spectral multigrid methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kang, Yimin; Fulton, Scott R.

    1993-01-01

    Two relaxation schemes for Chebyshev spectral multigrid methods are presented for elliptic equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The first scheme is a pointwise-preconditioned Richardson relaxation scheme and the second is a line relaxation scheme. The line relaxation scheme provides an efficient and relatively simple approach for solving two-dimensional spectral equations. Numerical examples and comparisons with other methods are given.

  14. Report on On-Line Trial Test for Fourth-Grade Students -- May 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbic, Srdjan; Tomic, Boris; Kartal, Vesna

    2010-01-01

    On-line trial testing for fourth-grade students was an exploratory study realized as a part of the project "Developing annual test of students' achievement in Nature & Society" realized by Institute for Education Quality and Evaluation. Main ideas of the study were to explore possibilities for on-line testing at national level in Serbia, and to…

  15. 7 CFR 42.135 - Normal, tightened or reduced on-line inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Normal, tightened or reduced on-line inspection. 42.135 Section 42.135 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS STANDARDS FOR CONDITION OF FOOD CONTAINERS On-Line Sampling and...

  16. 7 CFR 42.135 - Normal, tightened or reduced on-line inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Normal, tightened or reduced on-line inspection. 42.135 Section 42.135 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS STANDARDS FOR CONDITION OF FOOD CONTAINERS On-Line Sampling and...

  17. 7 CFR 42.135 - Normal, tightened or reduced on-line inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Normal, tightened or reduced on-line inspection. 42.135 Section 42.135 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS STANDARDS FOR CONDITION OF FOOD CONTAINERS On-Line Sampling and...

  18. 7 CFR 42.135 - Normal, tightened or reduced on-line inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Normal, tightened or reduced on-line inspection. 42.135 Section 42.135 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS STANDARDS FOR CONDITION OF FOOD CONTAINERS On-Line Sampling and...

  19. On-line performance monitoring of the natural draft cooling tower at Cardinal Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Michell, F.L.; Miller, M.J.

    1998-12-31

    The paper will provide an overview of the on-line performance monitoring system recently installed on the 630MW coal fired Unit 3 at the Cardinal Plant. Experience with using the on-line monitor to optimize performance of the major circulating water system components including the pumps, condensers and cooling tower will be discussed in the paper.

  20. 7 CFR 42.143 - Operating Characteristic (OC) curves for on-line sampling and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... sampling and inspection. 42.143 Section 42.143 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Miscellaneous § 42.143 Operating Characteristic (OC) curves for on-line sampling and inspection. (a) This section contains the Operating Characteristic (OC) curve for each of the on-line cumulative sum...

  1. 7 CFR 42.143 - Operating Characteristic (OC) curves for on-line sampling and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... sampling and inspection. 42.143 Section 42.143 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Miscellaneous § 42.143 Operating Characteristic (OC) curves for on-line sampling and inspection. (a) This section contains the Operating Characteristic (OC) curve for each of the on-line cumulative sum...

  2. International On-Line Reciprocal Peer Tutoring to Promote Modern Language Development in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Allen; Duran, David; Cunningham, Erika; Blanch, Silvia; Topping, Keith

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports data from an on-line peer tutoring project. In the project 78, 9-12-year-old students from Scotland and Catalonia peer tutored each other in English and Spanish via a managed on-line environment. Significant gains in first language (Catalonian pupils) modern language (Scottish pupils) and attitudes towards modern languages (both…

  3. High School Open On-Line Courses (HOOC): A Case Study from Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canessa, Enrique; Pisani, Armando

    2013-01-01

    The first implementation of complete high school, open on-line courses (HOOC) aiming to support the training and basic scientific knowledge of young students from the Liceo Ginnasio Dante Alighieri in Gorizia, Italy, is discussed. Using the open source and automated recording system openEyA, HOOC give a student the opportunity to watch on-line, at…

  4. BROWSER: An Automatic Indexing On-Line Text Retrieval System. Annual Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, J. H., Jr.

    The development and testing of the Browsing On-line With Selective Retrieval (BROWSER) text retrieval system allowing a natural language query statement and providing on-line browsing capabilities through an IBM 2260 display terminal is described. The prototype system contains data bases of 25,000 German language patent abstracts, 9,000 English…

  5. Students Reflecting on Test Performance and Feedback: An On-Line Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyfe, Georgina; Fyfe, Sue; Meyer, Jan; Ziman, Mel; Sanders, Kathy; Hill, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate students accessing on-line tests in Human Biology in three Western Australian universities were asked to complete an on-line post-test reflective survey about their perceptions of their test performance in light of automated feedback. The survey allowed pre-determined choices and comment text boxes relating to students'…

  6. College Students' Choice Modeling of Taking On-Line International Business Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    To understand students' choice behavior of taking on-line international business courses, a survey study is conducted to collect information regarding students' actual choices of taking on-line courses and potential factors that may have impacts on students' choices of online learning. Potential factors such as enrollment status, demographic…

  7. Analysis of ERIC On-Line File Searching Procedures and Guidelines for Searching. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourne, Charles P.; And Others

    In order to identify and explain the reasons for differences in average on-line search rates among terminal installations, the operations and performance of several facilities using the Lockheed DIALOG system for on-line searching of the ERIC data base were studied. Detailed examinations were made of such aspects as the DIALOG system response time…

  8. The Radical Model--A Painless Way To Teach On-Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romm, C.; Taylor, W.

    The information technology/information systems (IT/IS) education sector needs to come up with creative ways of thinking about on-line education. In this paper, the major themes in the literature on on-line education to date are highlighted with a view to identifying issues that are either missing or under-emphasized. Next, the "radical model of…

  9. Interactive On-Line Continuing Medical Education: Physicians' Perceptions and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargeant, Joan; Curran, Vernon; Jarvis-Selinger, Sandra; Ferrier, Suzanne; Allen, Michael; Kirby, Frances; Ho, Kendall

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Although research in continuing medical education (CME) demonstrates positive outcomes of on-line CME programs, the effectiveness of and learners' satisfaction with interpersonal interaction in on-line CME are lower. Defined as faculty-learner or learner-learner interpersonal interaction, this study explores physicians' perceptions…

  10. The Impact of Cognitive Style on Social Networks in On-Line Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jablokow, Kathryn; Vercellone-Smith, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    With the rise of e-Learning in engineering education, understanding the impact of individual differences on the ways students communicate and collaborate on-line has become increasingly important. The research described here investigates the influence of cognitive style on the interactions within student social networks in an on-line learning…

  11. Case Study: Collaborative Creation of an On-Line Degree Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Barbara L.; Norwood, Marcella; Ezell, Shirley; Waight, Consuelo

    2006-01-01

    Faculty collaboratively developed an on-line Bachelor of Science degree in Consumer Science and Merchandising (CSM). Part-time faculty and technical support services supported the four-member team. Small grants assisted in the creation and redesign of all CSM major courses for on-line delivery. Issues of appropriate learning strategies, student…

  12. Evaluation of On-Line Searching in MEDLARS (AIM-TWX) by Biomedical Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, F. Wilfrid

    The purpose of the investigation was to determine how effectively biomedical practitioners, with a minimum of introduction to the system, can conduct on-line searches to satisfy their own information needs. The searches were conducted on the Abridged Index Medicus data base as implemented on the on-line ELHILL system (AIM-TWX). ELHILL is the ORBIT…

  13. On-Line IDCMS Delivery of Different Types of Stimulus Sequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follettie, Joseph F.

    On line presentation of the items of a given stimulus sequence may or may not require on line retrieval of items and composition of the sequence. This paper sketches a preliminary taxonomy for auditory, visual, and mixed auditory stimulus sequences. It preliminarily assesses the capability of the Southwest Regional Laboratory Instructional…

  14. On-Line Literature Search and Full Articles in the NASA ADS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichhorn, G.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Murray, S. S.

    2001-01-01

    The ADS provides free world-wide on-line access to over 2.2 million abstracts and over 1 million scanned pages of the astronomical and planetary literature plus over 4 million links to other relevant on-line information at http://ads.harvard.edu. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. The Anatomy of Program Design for an On-Line Business Management Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Bonita

    2008-01-01

    How does one design an on-line course to bridge theory and practice? How can the feedback of on-going stakeholder (student and administration) be incorporated into the design process to enhance quality? This paper presents the theoretical underpinning of designing an on-line management course recognized as best practice for a "well organized…

  16. 7 CFR 42.135 - Normal, tightened or reduced on-line inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Normal, tightened or reduced on-line inspection. 42.135 Section 42.135 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS STANDARDS FOR CONDITION OF FOOD CONTAINERS On-Line Sampling and...

  17. Standardizing Evaluation of On-Line Continuing Medical Education: Physician Knowledge, Attitudes, and Reflection on Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casebeer, Linda; Kristofco, Robert E.; Strasser, Sheryl; Reilly, Michael; Krishnamoorthy, Periyakaruppan; Rabin, Andrew; Zheng, Shimin; Karp, Simone; Myers, Lloyd

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Physicians increasingly earn continuing medical education (CME) credits through on-line courses, but there have been few rigorous evaluations to determine their effects. The present study explores the feasibility of implementing standardized evaluation templates and tests them to evaluate 30 on-line CME courses. Methods: A time…

  18. Enhancing On-Line Teaching with Verbal Immediacy through Self-Determination Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlich, Stephen A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the use of instructor verbal immediacy behaviors for on-line classes. Specifically, it demonstrates how instructor verbal immediacy behaviors found in face-to-face classes can also be displayed for on-line classes. It is argued that self-determination theory describes identification of the student as an important role in the…

  19. High resolution schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harten, A.

    1983-01-01

    A class of new explicit second order accurate finite difference schemes for the computation of weak solutions of hyperbolic conservation laws is presented. These highly nonlinear schemes are obtained by applying a nonoscillatory first order accurate scheme to an appropriately modified flux function. The so-derived second order accurate schemes achieve high resolution while preserving the robustness of the original nonoscillatory first order accurate scheme. Numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the performance of these new schemes.

  20. Sensorless FOC Performance Improved with On-Line Speed and Rotor Resistance Estimator Based on an Artificial Neural Network for an Induction Motor Drive.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Villalobos, Jose M; Rodriguez-Resendiz, Juvenal; Rivas-Araiza, Edgar A; Martínez-Hernández, Moisés A

    2015-01-01

    Three-phase induction motor drive requires high accuracy in high performance processes in industrial applications. Field oriented control, which is one of the most employed control schemes for induction motors, bases its function on the electrical parameter estimation coming from the motor. These parameters make an electrical machine driver work improperly, since these electrical parameter values change at low speeds, temperature changes, and especially with load and duty changes. The focus of this paper is the real-time and on-line electrical parameters with a CMAC-ADALINE block added in the standard FOC scheme to improve the IM driver performance and endure the driver and the induction motor lifetime. Two kinds of neural network structures are used; one to estimate rotor speed and the other one to estimate rotor resistance of an induction motor. PMID:26131677

  1. Sensorless FOC Performance Improved with On-Line Speed and Rotor Resistance Estimator Based on an Artificial Neural Network for an Induction Motor Drive

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Villalobos, Jose M.; Rodriguez-Resendiz, Juvenal; Rivas-Araiza, Edgar A.; Martínez-Hernández, Moisés A.

    2015-01-01

    Three-phase induction motor drive requires high accuracy in high performance processes in industrial applications. Field oriented control, which is one of the most employed control schemes for induction motors, bases its function on the electrical parameter estimation coming from the motor. These parameters make an electrical machine driver work improperly, since these electrical parameter values change at low speeds, temperature changes, and especially with load and duty changes. The focus of this paper is the real-time and on-line electrical parameters with a CMAC-ADALINE block added in the standard FOC scheme to improve the IM driver performance and endure the driver and the induction motor lifetime. Two kinds of neural network structures are used; one to estimate rotor speed and the other one to estimate rotor resistance of an induction motor. PMID:26131677

  2. Improvement plans for the RHIC/AGS on-line model environments

    SciTech Connect

    Brown,K.A.; Ahrens, L.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Satogata, T.; Schoefer, V.; Tepikian, S.

    2009-08-31

    The on-line models for Relativistic Ion Collider (RHIC) and the RHIC pre-injectors (the AGS and the AGS Booster) can be thought of as containing our best collective knowledge of these accelerators. As we improve these on-line models we are building the framework to have a sophisticated model-based controls system. Currently the RHIC on-line model is an integral part of the controls system, providing the interface for tune control, chromaticity control, and non-linear chromaticity control. What we discuss in this paper is our vision of the future of the on-line model environment for RHIC and the RHIC preinjectors. Although these on-line models are primarily used as Courant-Snyder parameter calculators using live machine settings, we envision expanding these environments to encompass many other problem domains.

  3. Nonlinear secret image sharing scheme.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang-Ho; Lee, Gil-Je; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t⌈log2 m⌉ bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively. PMID:25140334

  4. Nonlinear Secret Image Sharing Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sang-Ho; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t⌈log2⁡m⌉ bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively. PMID:25140334

  5. Energy partitioning schemes: a dilemma.

    PubMed

    Mayer, I

    2007-01-01

    Two closely related energy partitioning schemes, in which the total energy is presented as a sum of atomic and diatomic contributions by using the "atomic decomposition of identity", are compared on the example of N,N-dimethylformamide, a simple but chemically rich molecule. Both schemes account for different intramolecular interactions, for instance they identify the weak C-H...O intramolecular interactions, but give completely different numbers. (The energy decomposition scheme based on the virial theorem is also considered.) The comparison of the two schemes resulted in a dilemma which is especially striking when these schemes are applied for molecules distorted from their equilibrium structures: one either gets numbers which are "on the chemical scale" and have quite appealing values at the equilibrium molecular geometries, but exhibiting a counter-intuitive distance dependence (the two-center energy components increase in absolute value with the increase of the interatomic distances)--or numbers with too large absolute values but "correct" distance behaviour. The problem is connected with the quick decay of the diatomic kinetic energy components. PMID:17328441

  6. Evaluation of Shiryaev-Roberts Procedure for On-line Environmental Radiation Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Mara Mae

    solutions containing at least 1.5 Bq/L of 99T c. For activity concentrations less than 1.5 Bq/L, the Gaussian SR method required as much as 40.8 mL less solution at 0.5 Bq/L to exceed the control limit than the CUSUM method. Both SR methods were able to consistently detect test solutions containing 0.1 Bq/L, unlike the Shewhart 3-sigma and CUSUM methods. Although the Poisson SR method required as much as 178 mL less solution to exceed the control limit than the Gaussian SR method, the Gaussian SR false positive of 0% was much lower than the Poisson SR false positive rate of 1.14%. A lower false positive rate made it easier to differentiate between a false positive and an increase in mean count rate caused by activity accumulating on the resin. The SR procedure is thus the ideal tool for low-level on-line radiation monitoring using extractive scintillating resin, because it needed less volume in most cases to detect an upward shift in the mean count rate than the Shewhart 3-sigma and CUSUM methods and consistently detected lower activity concentrations. The desired results for the monitoring scheme, however, need to be considered prior to choosing between the Poisson and Gaussian distribution to estimate the likelihood ratio, because each was advantageous under different circumstances. Once the control limit was exceeded, activity concentrations were estimated from the SR control chart using the slope of the control chart on a semi-logarithmic plot. Five of nine test solutions for the Poisson SR control chart produced concentration estimates within 30% of the actual value, but the worst case was 263.2% different than the actual value. The estimations for the Gaussian SR control chart were much more precise, with six of eight solutions producing estimates within 30%. Although the activity concentrations estimations were only mediocre for the Poisson SR control chart and satisfactory for the Gaussian SR control chart, these results demonstrate that a relationship exists

  7. Silica stationary phase-based on-line sample enrichment coupled with LC-MS/MS for the quantification of dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites in rat brain microdialysates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjeong; Lee, Jin-Gyeom; Yang, Chae Ha; Lee, Sooyeun

    2016-06-01

    Accurate measurement of trace levels of endogenous compounds remains challenging despite advancements in analytical technologies. In particular, monoamine neurotransmitters such as dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) are polar compounds with low molecular weights, which complicates the optimization of retention and detection on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Microdialysis is an important sampling technique to collect extracellular fluid from the brain of living animals. However, the very low basal concentrations of the neurotransmitters, small sample volume (maximum 30 μL) and the absence of matrix-matching calibrators are limitations of a microdialysate as an analytical sample. In the present study, an LC-MS/MS method was developed and fully validated for the quantification of DA, 5-HT and their main metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), in microdialysates from the rat nucleus accumbens shell. To improve the method sensitivity and accuracy, on-line sample enrichment using silica stationary phase was employed, before which any other sample pretreatment was not performed. The validation results proved the method to be selective, sensitive, accurate and precise, with acceptable linearity within calibration ranges. The lower limits of quantification were 0.025, 0.1, 0.5, 25 and 2.5 ng/mL for 5-HT, DA, 5-HIAA, HVA and DOPAC, respectively. This is a powerful analytical method to determine endogenous concentrations of those compounds in microdialysates from the rat nucleus accumbens and will be very useful to further study on the pathophysiological functions of monoamine neurotramsmitters in vivo. PMID:27155302

  8. Intelligent identification of wear mechanism via on-line ferrograph images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tonghai; Peng, Yeping; Sheng, Chenxing; Wu, Jiaoyi

    2014-03-01

    Condition based maintenance(CBM) issues a new challenge of real-time monitoring for machine health maintenance. Wear state monitoring becomes the bottle-neck of CBM due to the lack of on-line information acquiring means. The wear mechanism judgment with characteristic wear debris has been widely adopted in off-line wear analysis; however, on-line wear mechanism characterization remains a big problem. In this paper, the wear mechanism identification via on-line ferrograph images is studied. To obtain isolated wear debris in an on-line ferrograph image, the deposition mechanism of wear debris in on-line ferrograph sensor is studied. The study result shows wear debris chain is the main morphology due to local magnetic field around the deposited wear debris. Accordingly, an improved sampling route for on-line wear debris deposition is designed with focus on the self-adjustment deposition time. As a result, isolated wear debris can be obtained in an on-line image, which facilitates the feature extraction of characteristic wear debris. By referring to the knowledge of analytical ferrograph, four dimensionless morphological features, including equivalent dimension, length-width ratio, shape factor, and contour fractal dimension of characteristic wear debris are extracted for distinguishing four typical wear mechanisms including normal, cutting, fatigue, and severe sliding wear. Furthermore, a feed-forward neural network is adopted to construct an automatic wear mechanism identification model. By training with the samples from analytical ferrograph, the model might identify some typical characteristic wear debris in an on-line ferrograph image. This paper performs a meaningful exploratory for on-line wear mechanism analysis, and the obtained results will provide a feasible way for on-line wear state monitoring.

  9. FEDIX on-line information service: Design, develop, test, and implement an on-line research and education information service. Annual status report, September 1992--August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Rodman, J.A.

    1993-08-01

    Federal Information Exchange, Inc. (FIE) is a diversified information services company that is recognized as the major electronic link between the higher education community and the Federal government in the field of research administration. FIE provides a range of information related services to the government, academic and private sectors, including database management, software development and technical support. FEDIX is the on-line information service designed, developed and implemented by FIE to accomplish the following objectives: (1). Broaden the participation of the education community in Federal research and education programs by providing free and unrestricted on-line access to information from all participating Federal agencies; and (2). Provide the education community with on-line access to a single keyword-searchable system for research and educational funding opportunities at the participating Federal agencies.

  10. On-line interrogation of pebble bed reactor fuel using passive gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianwei

    The Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) is a helium-cooled, graphite-moderated high temperature nuclear power reactor. In addition to its inherently safe design, a unique feature of this reactor is its multipass fuel cycle in which graphite fuel pebbles (of varying enrichment) are randomly loaded and continuously circulated through the core until they reach their prescribed end-of-life burnup limit (˜80,000--100,000 MWD/MTU). Unlike the situation with conventional light water reactors (LWRs), depending solely on computational methods to perform in-core fuel management will be highly inaccurate. As a result, an on-line measurement approach becomes the only accurate method to assess whether a particular pebble has reached its end-of-life burnup limit. In this work, an investigation was performed to assess the feasibility of passive gamma-ray spectrometry assay as an approach for on-line interrogation of PBR fuel for the simultaneous determination of burnup and enrichment on a pebble-by-pebble basis. Due to the unavailability of irradiated or fresh pebbles, Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the gamma-ray spectra of the PBR fuel at various levels of burnup. A pebble depletion calculation was performed using the ORIGEN code, which yielded the gamma-ray source term that was introduced into the input of an MCNP simulation. The MCNP simulation assumed the use of a high-purity coaxial germanium detector. Due to the lack of one-group high temperature reactor cross sections for ORIGEN, a heterogeneous MCNP model was developed to describe a typical PBR core. Subsequently, the code MONTEBURNS was used to couple the MCNP model and ORIGEN. This approach allowed the development of the burnup-dependent, one-group spectral-averaged PBR cross sections to be used in the ORIGEN pebble depletion calculation. Based on the above studies, a relative approach for performing the measurements was established. The approach is based on using the relative activities of Np-239/I-132 in combination

  11. An intelligent robotics control scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlando, N. E.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of robot control is viewed at the level of communicating high-level commands produced by intelligent algorithms to the actuator/sensor controllers. Four topics are considered in the design of an integrated control and communications scheme for an intelligent robotic system: the use of abstraction spaces, hierarchical versus heterarchical control, distributed processing, and the interleaving of the steps of plan creation and plan execution. A scheme is presented for an n-level distributed hierarchical/heterarchical control system that effectively interleaves intelligent planning, execution, and sensory feedback. A three-level version of this scheme has been successfully implemented in the Intelligent Systems Research Lab at NASA Langley Research Center. This implementation forms the control structure for DAISIE (Distributed Artificially Intelligent System for Interacting with the Environment), a testbed system integrating AI software with robotics hardware.

  12. Fundamental Limitations in Advanced LC Schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailichenko, A. A.

    2010-11-04

    Fundamental limitations in acceleration gradient, emittance, alignment and polarization in acceleration schemes are considered in application for novel schemes of acceleration, including laser-plasma and structure-based schemes. Problems for each method are underlined whenever it is possible. Main attention is paid to the scheme with a tilted laser bunch.

  13. The ASDC Multi Mission Interactive Archive: on line analysis of the Swift/XRT data

    SciTech Connect

    Stratta, G.; Capalbi, M.; Perri, M.; Giommi, P.

    2010-10-15

    We present the Swift/XRT Interactive Archive and the On-line Analysis tool developed at the ASI Science Data Center (ASDC) as part of the Multi Mission Interactive Archive. The On-line Analysis enables to run the Swift/XRT software task ''xrtpipeline'' on any desired XRT observation present in the Swift data archive maintained at ASDC, directly on the web. On-line imaging (with XIMAGE), spectral (with XSPEC) and timing data analysis (with LCURVE) can be performed. At the same time, spectra, light curves, effective area, exposure map and response matrix are promptly available for download to the user for any off-line analysis.

  14. An artificial intelligence framework for on-line transient stability assessment of power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wehenkel, L.; VanCutsem, T.; Ribbens-Pavella, M.

    1989-05-01

    A new framework is proposed to tackle the on-line transient stability problem of power systems. Based on artificial intelligence, it successively makes use of an inductive inference method to automatically build decision rules, and a deductive inference method to apply them on-line. This paper attempts to lay the foundations of an inductive inference method, where the rules explicitly relate a system's stability with relevant static parameters of it. A simple but realistic power system is treated to illustrate important features of the method and to suggest how the derived decision rules could be used on-line.

  15. A scheme for symmetrization verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sancho, Pedro

    2011-08-01

    We propose a scheme for symmetrization verification in two-particle systems, based on one-particle detection and state determination. In contrast to previous proposals, it does not follow a Hong-Ou-Mandel-type approach. Moreover, the technique can be used to generate superposition states of single particles.

  16. Invisibly Sanitizable Digital Signature Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Kunihiko; Hanaoka, Goichiro; Imai, Hideki

    A digital signature does not allow any alteration of the document to which it is attached. Appropriate alteration of some signed documents, however, should be allowed because there are security requirements other than the integrity of the document. In the disclosure of official information, for example, sensitive information such as personal information or national secrets is masked when an official document is sanitized so that its nonsensitive information can be disclosed when it is requested by a citizen. If this disclosure is done digitally by using the current digital signature schemes, the citizen cannot verify the disclosed information because it has been altered to prevent the leakage of sensitive information. The confidentiality of official information is thus incompatible with the integrity of that information, and this is called the digital document sanitizing problem. Conventional solutions such as content extraction signatures and digitally signed document sanitizing schemes with disclosure condition control can either let the sanitizer assign disclosure conditions or hide the number of sanitized portions. The digitally signed document sanitizing scheme we propose here is based on the aggregate signature derived from bilinear maps and can do both. Moreover, the proposed scheme can sanitize a signed document invisibly, that is, no one can distinguish whether the signed document has been sanitized or not.

  17. Geophysical Inversion Through Hierarchical Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, A.; Huisman, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Geophysical investigation is a powerful tool that allows non-invasive and non-destructive mapping of subsurface states and properties. However, non-uniqueness associated with the inversion process prevents the quantitative use of these methods. One major direction researchers are going is constraining the inverse problem by hydrological observations and models. An alternative to the commonly used direct inversion methods are global optimization schemes (such as genetic algorithms and Monte Carlo Markov Chain methods). However, the major limitation here is the desired high resolution of the tomographic image, which leads to a large number of parameters and an unreasonably high computational effort when using global optimization schemes. Two innovative schemes are presented here. First, a hierarchical approach is used to reduce the computational effort for the global optimization. Solution is achieved for coarse spatial resolution, and this solution is used as the starting point for finer scheme. We show that the computational effort is reduced in this way dramatically. Second, we use a direct ERT inversion as the starting point for global optimization. In this case preliminary results show that the outcome is not necessarily beneficial, probably because of spatial mismatch between the results of the direct inversion and the true resistivity field.

  18. Improving on-line skills and knowledge. A randomized trial of teaching rural physicians to use on-line medical information.

    PubMed Central

    Kronick, Jonathan; Blake, Catherine; Munoz, Eeva; Heilbrunn, Lila; Dunikowski, Lynn; Milne, William Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the change in frequency and methods with which a pilot group of rural physicians consulted on-line medical resources before and after an educational intervention. DESIGN: Physicians were randomly assigned to an educational intervention or control group. Self-administered questionnaires were completed before and 3 months after the intervention. SETTING: Rural practices in southwestern Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty rural (defined as a population of 15000 or less) physicians in southwestern Ontario, with a computer with Internet access. INTERVENTIONS: Individualized 3-hour training session on using the World Wide Web to research patient-related questions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Frequency of access and comfort with on-line medical information were compared after intervention with baseline data using the Wilcoxon two-sample test. RESULTS: At follow up, the intervention group showed a significant improvement over the control group in their frequency of accessing the World Wide Web to address patient-related questions (P = .009), in their comfort level in using on-line databases (P = .032), and in their frequency of accessing on-line databases (P = .044). CONCLUSION: Rural physicians' comfort and competence in using computers to address patient problems can be improved by an individualized 3-hour training session. PMID:12675544

  19. On symmetric and upwind TVD schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, H. C.

    1985-01-01

    A class of explicit and implicit total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes for the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations was developed. They do not generate spurious oscillations across shocks and contact discontinuities. In general, shocks can be captured within 1 to 2 grid points. For the inviscid case, these schemes are divided into upwind TVD schemes and symmetric (nonupwind) TVD schemes. The upwind TVD scheme is based on the second-order TVD scheme. The symmetric TVD scheme is a generalization of Roe's and Davis' TVD Lax-Wendroff scheme. The performance of these schemes on some viscous and inviscid airfoil steady-state calculations is investigated. The symmetric and upwind TVD schemes are compared.

  20. On the security flaws in ID-based password authentication schemes for telecare medical information systems.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Dheerendra

    2015-01-01

    Telecare medical information systems (TMIS) enable healthcare delivery services. However, access of these services via public channel raises security and privacy issues. In recent years, several smart card based authentication schemes have been introduced to ensure secure and authorized communication between remote entities over the public channel for the (TMIS). We analyze the security of some of the recently proposed authentication schemes of Lin, Xie et al., Cao and Zhai, and Wu and Xu's for TMIS. Unfortunately, we identify that these schemes failed to satisfy desirable security attributes. In this article we briefly discuss four dynamic ID-based authentication schemes and demonstrate their failure to satisfy desirable security attributes. The study is aimed to demonstrate how inefficient password change phase can lead to denial of server scenario for an authorized user, and how an inefficient login phase causes the communication and computational overhead and decrease the performance of the system. Moreover, we show the vulnerability of Cao and Zhai's scheme to known session specific temporary information attack, vulnerability of Wu and Xu's scheme to off-line password guessing attack, and vulnerability of Xie et al.'s scheme to untraceable on-line password guessing attack. PMID:25486891

  1. Quantitative high-resolution on-line NMR spectroscopy in reaction and process monitoring.

    PubMed

    Maiwald, Michael; Fischer, Holger H; Kim, Young-Kyu; Albert, Klaus; Hasse, Hans

    2004-02-01

    On-line nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (on-line NMR) is a powerful technique for reaction and process monitoring. Different set-ups for direct coupling of reaction and separation equipment with on-line NMR spectroscopy are described. NMR spectroscopy can be used to obtain both qualitative and quantitative information from complex reacting multicomponent mixtures for equilibrium or reaction kinetic studies. Commercial NMR probes can be used at pressures up to 35 MPa and temperatures up to 400 K. Applications are presented for studies of equilibria and kinetics of complex formaldehyde-containing mixtures as well as homogeneously and heterogeneously catalyzed esterification kinetics. Direct coupling of a thin-film evaporator is described as an example for the benefits of on-line NMR spectroscopy in process monitoring. PMID:14729025

  2. On-line monitoring of mercury and hydrogen chloride in hot gases from coal gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, G.A.; Chriswell, C.D.; Eckels, D.E.; Buttermore, W.H.

    1993-09-01

    A variety of analytical techniques which may be applicable to monitoring Hg or HCl in METC gasifier streams were identified. Potential approaches for on-line analysis of Hg and HCl are discussed in detail.

  3. Adding Java and CGI Functionality to an On-Line Atlas of Anatomy for Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Quaresma, R.P.; Sabbatini, R.M.E.; Cardoso, S.H.; Ortale, J.R.; Rodrigues, E.A.; Kondo, A; Ubiali, G.L.P.

    1998-01-01

    The use of Java applications through applets, HTML facilities and CGI scripts provides useful interactivity to an on-line atlas of topographic anatomy via Internet, based on the Visible Human Project.

  4. Integration of On-Line and Off-Line Diagnostic Algorithms for Aircraft Engine Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the integration of on-line and off-line diagnostic algorithms for aircraft gas turbine engines. The on-line diagnostic algorithm is designed for in-flight fault detection. It continuously monitors engine outputs for anomalous signatures induced by faults. The off-line diagnostic algorithm is designed to track engine health degradation over the lifetime of an engine. It estimates engine health degradation periodically over the course of the engine s life. The estimate generated by the off-line algorithm is used to update the on-line algorithm. Through this integration, the on-line algorithm becomes aware of engine health degradation, and its effectiveness to detect faults can be maintained while the engine continues to degrade. The benefit of this integration is investigated in a simulation environment using a nonlinear engine model.

  5. On-line chemical composition analyzer development. Status report, February 1, 1993--April 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, A.A.

    1993-06-01

    This report relates to the development of an on-line Raman analyzer for control of a distillation column. It is divided into: program issues, experimental control system evaluation, energy savings analysis, and reliability analysis. (DLC)

  6. Education and Training for On-Line Use of Data Bases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Martha E.

    1977-01-01

    This paper discusses vehicles for education and training, tools and techniques for promotion, and details the information requirements of the processors, service managers, searchers, and end users of on-line data bases. (Author/KP)

  7. ON-LINE TOOLS FOR PROPER VERTICAL POSITIONING OF VERTICAL SAMPLING INTERVALS DURING SITE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents on-line tools for proper vertical positioning of vertical sampling intervals during site assessment. Proper vertical sample interval selection is critical for generate data on the vertical distribution of contamination. Without vertical delineation, th...

  8. First structures on RyantoRainbow Line. Hframe structure on Line 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    First structures on Ryan-to-Rainbow Line. H-frame structure on Line 1 (right) has historic porcelain suspension insulators and H-frame structure on Line 2 (center) has two historic porcelain insulators and one modern non-ceramic insulator. View to north - Ryan Hydroelectric Facility, Ryan-to-Rainbow 100 kV Transmission Line, West bank of Missouri River, northeast of Great Falls, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  9. On-Line Wavelength Calibration of Pulsed Laser for CO2 Differential Absorption LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Chengzhi; Ma, Xin; Han, Ge; Liang, Ailin; Gong, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) remote sensing is a promising technology for atmospheric CO2 detection. However, stringent wavelength accuracy and stability are required in DIAL system. Accurate on-line wavelength calibration is a crucial procedure for retrieving atmospheric CO2 concentration using the DIAL, particularly when pulsed lasers are adopted in the system. Large fluctuations in the intensities of a pulsed laser pose a great challenge for accurate on-line wavelength calibration. In this paper, a wavelength calibration strategy based on multi-wavelength scanning (MWS) was proposed for accurate on-line wavelength calibration of a pulsed laser for CO2 detection. The MWS conducted segmented sampling across the CO2 absorption line with appropriate number of points and range of widths by using a tunable laser. Complete absorption line of CO2 can be obtained through a curve fitting. Then, the on-line wavelength can be easily found at the peak of the absorption line. Furthermore, another algorithm called the energy matching was introduced in the MWS to eliminate the backlash error of tunable lasers during the process of on-line wavelength calibration. Finally, a series of tests was conducted to elevate the calibration precision of MWS. Analysis of tests demonstrated that the MWS proposed in this paper could calibrate the on-line wavelength of pulsed laser accurately and steadily.

  10. Subranging scheme for SQUID sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A readout scheme for measuring the output from a SQUID-based sensor-array using an improved subranging architecture that includes multiple resolution channels (such as a coarse resolution channel and a fine resolution channel). The scheme employs a flux sensing circuit with a sensing coil connected in series to multiple input coils, each input coil being coupled to a corresponding SQUID detection circuit having a high-resolution SQUID device with independent linearizing feedback. A two-resolution configuration (course and fine) is illustrated with a primary SQUID detection circuit for generating a fine readout, and a secondary SQUID detection circuit for generating a course readout, both having feedback current coupled to the respective SQUID devices via feedback/modulation coils. The primary and secondary SQUID detection circuits function and derive independent feedback. Thus, the SQUID devices may be monitored independently of each other (and read simultaneously) to dramatically increase slew rates and dynamic range.

  11. Stable maps and Quot schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Mihnea; Roth, Mike

    2003-06-01

    In this paper we study the relationship between two different compactifications of the space of vector bundle quotients of an arbitrary vector bundle on a curve. One is Grothendieck's Quot scheme, while the other is a moduli space of stable maps to the relative Grassmannian. We establish an essentially optimal upper bound on the dimension of the two compactifications. Based on that, we prove that for an arbitrary vector bundle, the Quot schemes of quotients of large degree are irreducible and generically smooth. We precisely describe all the vector bundles for which the same thing holds in the case of the moduli spaces of stable maps. We show that there are in general no natural morphisms between the two compactifications. Finally, as an application, we obtain new cases of a conjecture on effective base point freeness for pluritheta linear series on moduli spaces of vector bundles.

  12. A biometric signcryption scheme without bilinear pairing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingwen; Ren, Zhiyuan; Cai, Jun; Zheng, Wentao

    2013-03-01

    How to apply the entropy in biometrics into the encryption and remote authentication schemes to simplify the management of keys is a hot research area. Utilizing Dodis's fuzzy extractor method and Liu's original signcryption scheme, a biometric identity based signcryption scheme is proposed in this paper. The proposed scheme is more efficient than most of the previous proposed biometric signcryption schemes for that it does not need bilinear pairing computation and modular exponentiation computation which is time consuming largely. The analysis results show that under the CDH and DL hard problem assumption, the proposed scheme has the features of confidentiality and unforgeability simultaneously.

  13. Experimental Simulation of Active Control With On-line System Identification on Sound Transmission Through an Elastic Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    An adaptive control algorithm with on-line system identification capability has been developed. One of the great advantages of this scheme is that an additional system identification mechanism such as an additional uncorrelated random signal generator as the source of system identification is not required. A time-varying plate-cavity system is used to demonstrate the control performance of this algorithm. The time-varying system consists of a stainless-steel plate which is bolted down on a rigid cavity opening where the cavity depth was changed with respect to time. For a given externally located harmonic sound excitation, the system identification and the control are simultaneously executed to minimize the transmitted sound in the cavity. The control performance of the algorithm is examined for two cases. First, all the water was drained, the external disturbance frequency is swept with 1 Hz/sec. The result shows an excellent frequency tracking capability with cavity internal sound suppression of 40 dB. For the second case, the water level is initially empty and then raised to 3/20 full in 60 seconds while the external sound excitation is fixed with a frequency. Hence, the cavity resonant frequency decreases and passes the external sound excitation frequency. The algorithm shows 40 dB transmitted noise suppression without compromising the system identification tracking capability.

  14. Development of a RILIS ionisation scheme for gold at ISOLDE, CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, B. A.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Kosuri, P.

    2006-07-01

    At the ISOLDE on-line isotope separation facility, the resonance ionisation laser ion source (RILIS) can be used to ionise reaction products as they effuse from the target. The RILIS process of laser step-wise resonance ionisation of atoms in a hot metal cavity provides a highly element selective stage in the preparation of the radioactive ion beam. As a result, the ISOLDE mass separators can provide beams of a chosen isotope with greatly reduced isobaric contamination. With the addition of a new three-step ionisation scheme for gold, the RILIS is now capable of ionising 26 of the elements. The optimal scheme was determined during an extensive study of the atomic energy levels and auto-ionising states of gold, carried out by means of in-source resonance ionisation spectroscopy. Details of the ionisation scheme and a summary of the spectroscopy study are presented.

  15. Development of a RILIS ionisation scheme for gold at ISOLDE, CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, B. A.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Kosuri, P.

    At the ISOLDE on-line isotope separation facility, the resonance ionisation laser ion source (RILIS) can be used to ionise reaction products as they effuse from the target. The RILIS process of laser step-wise resonance ionisation of atoms in a hot metal cavity provides a highly element selective stage in the preparation of the radioactive ion beam. As a result, the ISOLDE mass separators can provide beams of a chosen isotope with greatly reduced isobaric contamination. With the addition of a new three-step ionisation scheme for gold, the RILIS is now capable of ionising 26 of the elements. The optimal scheme was determined during an extensive study of the atomic energy levels and auto-ionising states of gold, carried out by means of in-source resonance ionisation spectroscopy. Details of the ionisation scheme and a summary of the spectroscopy study are presented.

  16. EFFICIENCY PROBLEMS RELATED TO PERMANGANATE OXIDATION SCHEMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oxidation schemes for the in-situ destruction of chlorinated solvents, using potassium permanganate, are receiving considerable attention. Indication from field studies and from our own work are that permanganate oxidation schemes have inherent problems that could severely limit...

  17. On-Line Retrieval System Design; Part V of Scientific Report No. ISR-18, Information Storage and Retrieval...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Dept. of Computer Science.

    On-line retrieval system design is discussed in the two papers which make up Part Five of this report on Salton's Magical Automatic Retriever of Texts (SMART) project report. The first paper: "A Prototype On-Line Document Retrieval System" by D. Williamson and R. Williamson outlines a design for a SMART on-line document retrieval system using…

  18. A Web-Based Synchronous Collaborative Review Tool: A Case Study of an On-Line Graduate Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serce, Fatma Cemile; Yildirim, Soner

    2006-01-01

    On-line collaboration is an instructional method that facilitates collaboration in an on-line learning setting. To promote effective collaboration, it is vital to reveal both the student's and the instructor's point of view pertaining to effective on-line collaboration. In this study, the effectiveness of a learning management system in on-line…

  19. On-line and Model-based Approaches to the Visual Control of Action

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huaiyong; Warren, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Two general approaches to the visual control of action have emerged in last few decades, known as the on-line and model-based approaches. The key difference between them is whether action is controlled by current visual information or on the basis of an internal world model. In this paper, we evaluate three hypotheses: strong on-line control, strong model-based control, and a hybrid solution that combines on-line control with weak off-line strategies. We review experimental research on the control of locomotion and manual actions, which indicates that (a) an internal world model is neither sufficient nor necessary to control action at normal levels of performance; (b) current visual information is necessary and sufficient to control action at normal levels; and (c) under certain conditions (e.g. occlusion) action is controlled by less accurate, simple strategies such as heuristics, visual-motor mappings, or spatial memory. We conclude that the strong model-based hypothesis is not sustainable. Action is normally controlled on-line when current information is available, consistent with the strong on-line control hypothesis. In exceptional circumstances, action is controlled by weak, context-specific, off-line strategies. This hybrid solution is comprehensive, parsimonious, and able to account for a variety of tasks under a range of visual conditions. PMID:25454700

  20. On-Line CORDIC For Generalized Singular Value Decomposition(GSVD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong-A.; Lang, Tomas

    1989-05-01

    An on-line CORDIC implementation for computing the Generalized Singular Value Decomposition is presented. Among several algorithms, the implementation shown is based on Luk's parallel version for a triangular processor array, using odd-even ordering. To implement GSVD, the CORDIC approach is attractive compared with using conventional arithmetic units, such as square root, divider and multiplier. However, the CORDIC module is relatively slow because of the requirement of full precision computation to determine the direction of the angle and the variable shifter in the basic step. To avoid this, the use of redundant and on-line CORDIC has been proposed previously for SVD and matrix triangularization. This results in a significant speedup at some additional cost because of the variable scaling factor introduced. The extension of on-line CORDIC approach to the GSVD is presented. The advantages of this approach are more significant in GSVD because of the longer sequence of dependent operations. This makes the combination of the short step time of on-line CORDIC and the overlapping capability of on-line very attractive. By comparing it with conventional approach as well as CORDIC approach with full precision computation, we show that a speedup of about 5 can be achieved.

  1. Apportionment of urban aerosol sources in Chongqing (China) using synergistic on-line techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Yang, Fumo

    2016-04-01

    The sources of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) during wintertime at a background urban location in Chongqing (southwestern China) have been determined. Aerosol chemical composition analyses were performed using multiple on-line techniques, such as single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) for single particle chemical composition, on-line elemental carbon-organic carbon analyzer (on-line OC-EC), on-line X-ray fluorescence (XRF) for elements, and in-situ Gas and Aerosol Compositions monitor (IGAC) for water-soluble ions in PM2.5. All the datasets from these techniques have been adjusted to a 1-h time resolution for receptor model input. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) has been used for resolving aerosol sources. At least six sources, including domestic coal burning, biomass burning, dust, traffic, industrial and secondary/aged factors have been resolved and interpreted. The synergistic on-line techniques were helpful for identifying aerosol sources more clearly than when only employing the results from the individual techniques. This results are useful for better understanding of aerosol sources and atmospheric processes.

  2. ChemScan—an on-line ultraviolet spectral process analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beemster, Bernard J.; Schlager, Kenneth J.

    1996-03-01

    ChemScan is a product line of ultraviolet, on-line process analyzers that grew out of a NASA SBIR program targeted at on-line monitoring of plant nutrient solutions as part of the NASA CELSS program. The original goal for NASA was to provide on-line measurement of all the hydroponic plant nutrients necessary to develop and maintain a plant growth facility in space. Two different spectrometric techniques were applied to provide on-line measurements of all plant nutrients. One technology, ultraviolet absorption spectrometry, provided on-line measurements of nitrate, iron, and some of the transition metal nutrients. This technology not only demonstrated a capability to meet these CELSS needs but has now been incorporated into a family of commercial analytical instruments used for environmental process monitoring and control applications. A second technology, Liquid Atomic Emission Spectrometry (LAES), also originated in this same NASA SBIR, is still at an earlier stage of development and is expected to reach the market in the next 18-24 months.

  3. Research of on-line monitoring method for insulation condition of power transformer bushing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jiuyun; Qian, Zheng; Yu, Hao; Yao, Junda

    2016-01-01

    The power transformer is the key equipment of the power system; its insulation condition will directly influence the security and reliability of the power system. Thus, the on-line monitoring of power transformer is urgently required in order to guarantee the normal operation of the power system. Moreover, the dielectric loss factor is a significant parameter reflecting the condition of transformer bushing, so the on-line measurement of dielectric loss factor is really important. In this paper, the phase-to-phase comparison method is selected as the on-line monitoring method based on the overall analysis and discussion of the existing on-line monitoring methods. At first, the harmonic analysis method is utilized to calculate the dielectric loss of each phase of the three-phase transformer bushing, and then the differences of dielectric loss between every two phases are calculated and analyzed. So the insulation condition of each bushing could be achieved based on the careful analysis of different phase-to-phase dielectric loss. The simulation results of phase-to-phase comparison method are carried out in this paper, and the validity is verified. At last, this method is utilized in an actual equipment of on-line monitoring.

  4. A new logic-based alarm analyzer for on-line operational environment

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, H.; Liu, C.C.; Sforna, M.

    1996-08-01

    Existing fault diagnostic techniques for power systems are based on the operation of breakers using on-line alarm messages available from the Energy Management Systems (EMSs). Some utility systems also acquire, on-line, the information on relay operations in order to increase the precision of fault diagnosis. This paper proposes a new on-line fault diagnosis system called Intelligent Alarm Analyzer (IAA). This paper identifies the information from sequence-of-events recorders (SERs) at the substations that can be used in the EMS environment. The breaker operations together with the selected SER information provide sufficient data to help pinpoint the fault location(s) and malfunctioning device(s) on-line. The proposed IAA is capable of handling transmission line, busbar and transformer faults as well as relay and breaker malfunctions. The other unique feature of IAA is its logic-based algorithms implemented in an object-oriented software structure. Based on the testing with the actual data from ENEL, the Italian power system, the proposed implementation is highly efficient and promising for the on-line environment.

  5. Security analysis and improvement of a privacy authentication scheme for telecare medical information systems.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fan; Xu, Lili

    2013-08-01

    Nowadays, patients can gain many kinds of medical service on line via Telecare Medical Information Systems(TMIS) due to the fast development of computer technology. So security of communication through network between the users and the server is very significant. Authentication plays an important part to protect information from being attacked by malicious attackers. Recently, Jiang et al. proposed a privacy enhanced scheme for TMIS using smart cards and claimed their scheme was better than Chen et al.'s. However, we have showed that Jiang et al.'s scheme has the weakness of ID uselessness and is vulnerable to off-line password guessing attack and user impersonation attack if an attacker compromises the legal user's smart card. Also, it can't resist DoS attack in two cases: after a successful impersonation attack and wrong password input in Password change phase. Then we propose an improved mutual authentication scheme used for a telecare medical information system. Remote monitoring, checking patients' past medical history record and medical consultant can be applied in the system where information transmits via Internet. Finally, our analysis indicates that the suggested scheme overcomes the disadvantages of Jiang et al.'s scheme and is practical for TMIS. PMID:23818249

  6. Hybrid mesoporous materials for on-line preconcentration of Cr(VI) followed by one-step scheme for elution and colorimetric determination at ultratrace levels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Manuela L; Stripeikis, Jorge D; Tudino, Mabel B

    2009-01-15

    An hybrid mesoporous material synthesised in our laboratories for solid phase extraction (SPE) in flow through systems has been used for analytical purposes. The solid was obtained from mesoporous silica MCM-41 functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane by Sol-Gel methodology. In order to exploit the large sorption capacity of the material together with the possibility of modeling it for anions retention, a microcolumn (MC) filled with the solid was inserted in a flow system for preconcentration of Cr(VI) and its determination at ultratrace levels in natural waters. The analytical methodology involved a reverse flow injection system (rFI) holding a MC filled with the solid for the analyte extraction. Elution and colorimetric detection were carried out with 1-5 diphenylcarbazide (DPC) in sulfuric acid. DPC produced the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) together with the generation of a cationic red complex between Cr(III) and 1-5 diphenylcarbazone which was easily eluted and detected with a visible spectrophotometer. Moreover, the filling material got ready for the next sample loading remaining unspoiled for more than 300 cycles. The effect of several variables on the analytical signal as well as the influence of cationic and anionic interferences were discussed. Particular attention was given to sulfuric acid interference since it is the required media for the complex generation. Under optimal conditions, 99.8% of Cr(VI) recovery was obtained for a preconcentration time of 120s (sample and DPC flow rates=1 mL min(-1)) and an elution volume of 250 micro L. The limit of detection (3s) was found to be 0.09 microg L(-1) Cr(VI) with a relative standard deviation (n=10, 3 microg L(-1)) of 1.8. Since no Cr(III) was retained by the solid material and Cr(VI) was completely adsorbed, electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS) determinations of Cr(III) were also performed by simply measuring its concentration at the end of the microcolumn after Cr(VI) retention by the mesoporous solid. Applications to the determination of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) in natural waters and the validation of the methodology were also studied. PMID:19064093

  7. Pay scheme preferences and health policy objectives.

    PubMed

    Abelsen, Birgit

    2011-04-01

    This paper studies the preferences among healthcare workers towards pay schemes involving different levels of risk. It identifies which pay scheme individuals would prefer for themselves, and which they think is best in furthering health policy objectives. The paper adds, methodologically, a way of defining pay schemes that include different levels of risk. A questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 1111 dentists. Respondents provided information about their current and preferred pay schemes, and indicated which pay scheme, in their opinion, would best further overall health policy objectives. A total of 504 dentists (45%) returned the questionnaire, and there was no indication of systematic non-response bias. All public dentists had a current pay scheme based on a fixed salary and the majority of individuals preferred a pay scheme with more income risk. Their preferred pay schemes coincided with the ones believed to further stabilise healthcare personnel. The predominant current pay scheme among private dentists was based solely on individual output, and the majority of respondents preferred this pay scheme. In addition, their preferred pay schemes coincided with the ones believed to further efficiency objectives. Both public and private dentists believed that pay schemes, furthering efficiency objectives, had to include more performance-related pay than the ones believed to further stability and quality objectives. PMID:20565995

  8. Quantum Signature Scheme with Weak Arbitrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ming-Xing; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Yun, Deng; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we propose one quantum signature scheme with a weak arbitrator to sign classical messages. This scheme can preserve the merits in the original arbitrated scheme with some entanglement resources, and provide a higher efficiency in transmission and reduction the complexity of implementation. The arbitrator is costless and only involved in the disagreement case.

  9. Comparative study of numerical schemes of TVD3, UNO3-ACM and optimized compact scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Duck-Joo; Hwang, Chang-Jeon; Ko, Duck-Kon; Kim, Jae-Wook

    1995-01-01

    Three different schemes are employed to solve the benchmark problem. The first one is a conventional TVD-MUSCL (Monotone Upwind Schemes for Conservation Laws) scheme. The second scheme is a UNO3-ACM (Uniformly Non-Oscillatory Artificial Compression Method) scheme. The third scheme is an optimized compact finite difference scheme modified by us: the 4th order Runge Kutta time stepping, the 4th order pentadiagonal compact spatial discretization with the maximum resolution characteristics. The problems of category 1 are solved by using the second (UNO3-ACM) and third (Optimized Compact) schemes. The problems of category 2 are solved by using the first (TVD3) and second (UNO3-ACM) schemes. The problem of category 5 is solved by using the first (TVD3) scheme. It can be concluded from the present calculations that the Optimized Compact scheme and the UN03-ACM show good resolutions for category 1 and category 2 respectively.

  10. On-line interprofessional learning: introducing constructivism through enquiry-based learning and peer review.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Matthew; Ventura, Susie; Dando, Mark

    2004-08-01

    Interest in on-line methods of learning has accelerated in recent years. There has also been an interest in developing student-centred approaches to learning and interprofessional education. This paper illustrates the issues in designing a large (more than 700 students), on-line, inter-professional module for third year, undergraduate students drawn from nine professional healthcare courses and from four campus sites. It uses an enquiry-based learning approach. The learning theories of Piaget, Vygotsky and Schön are integrated with the on-line frameworks of Salmon and Collis et al., together with conclusions drawn from the literature and our own experiences, to produce a design that encourages students to learn through participation, re-iteration, peer-review and reflection. Consideration is given to improving student motivation and attitudes towards change, both in the design and the delivery of the module. PMID:15369969

  11. On-line analysis of reactor noise using time-series analysis

    SciTech Connect

    McGevna, V.G.

    1981-10-01

    A method to allow use of time series analysis for on-line noise analysis has been developed. On-line analysis of noise in nuclear power reactors has been limited primarily to spectral analysis and related frequency domain techniques. Time series analysis has many distinct advantages over spectral analysis in the automated processing of reactor noise. However, fitting an autoregressive-moving average (ARMA) model to time series data involves non-linear least squares estimation. Unless a high speed, general purpose computer is available, the calculations become too time consuming for on-line applications. To eliminate this problem, a special purpose algorithm was developed for fitting ARMA models. While it is based on a combination of steepest descent and Taylor series linearization, properties of the ARMA model are used so that the auto- and cross-correlation functions can be used to eliminate the need for estimating derivatives.

  12. Science outputs of the CDPP on-line analysis tool AMDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Génot, V.; Jacquey, C.; Budnik, E.; Bouchemit, M.; Gangloff, M.; Fedorov, A.; Lavraud, B.; André, N.; Fruit, G.; Louarn, P.; Harvey, C.; Pallier, E.; Penou, E.; Hitier, R.; Cecconi, B.; Dériot, F.; Heulet, D.; Pinçon, J.-L.; Besson, B.

    2010-12-01

    According to the Virtual Observatory paradigm the CDPP developed an on-line data mining tool, AMDA (Automated Multi-Dataset Analysis) : it is a web-based facilities for analyzing on-line space physics data coming from its own local database as well as remote ones (CDAWeb, CAA, MAPSKP, THEMIS database). This tool allows the user to perform on-line classical manipulations such as data visualization, parameter computation or data extraction. AMDA also offers innovative functionalities such as event searching using the data from multiple sources in either a visual or an automated way, the generation, exploitation and management of time-tables, or event lists. This presentation will focus on scientific analyses performed by AMDA users in recent years.

  13. Recent applications of on-line sample preconcentration techniques in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Fumihiko; Otsuka, Koji

    2014-03-28

    This review highlights recent developments and applications of on-line sample preconcentration techniques in capillary electrophoresis (CE) from 2010 to April 2013. Various preconcentration techniques based on the analyte velocity change in two or three discontinuous solutions system including field-amplified stacking, transient isotachophoresis, pH-mediated stacking, sweeping, and their modified and combined techniques have been employed to enrich and separate biological, environmental, food, toxicological, forensic and nanoparticle samples in CE. More than 170 published research articles collected from Scopus databases from the year 2010 described the on-line sample preconcentration techniques. This review provides comprehensive tables listing the applications of the on-line sample preconcentration techniques with categorizing by the fundamental preconcentration mechanism and application area. PMID:24210300

  14. Research on the Influence of Perceived Risk in Consumer On-line Purchasing Decision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Zhao; Yi, Li

    Perceived risk is an important factor that affects consumer's on-line shopping purchasing decision, through the perceived theories the consumer can know clearly which step owns higher risk in the whole shopping process, then learn how to prevent it, this process also strengthen the consumer confidence, thus lowering to know that the risk adjudicate to the feeling, so the essay has important and realistic meaning for further expand the electronic commerce. At first, investigate, collect, tidy up, analyze the questionnaire information, and thus get the primary data. Finally try to find out the influence of perceived risk to each stage of purchasing decision during consumer on-line shopping process with data and personal analytical. The paper is a complement to the local and existing perceived theories. The result of the study manifests that, the order of main perceived risks which felt by consumer during on-line shopping process are as follow: financial risk, the performance risk and service risk.

  15. Link community detection based on line graphs with a novel link similarity measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guishen; Huang, Lan; Wang, Yan; Pang, Wei; Ma, Qin

    2016-02-01

    Link community gradually unfolds its capacity in complex network research. In this paper, a novel link similarity measure on line graphs is proposed. This measure can be adapted to different types of networks with an adjustable parameter. We prove its value converges to a limit on line graphs with the relationship of the nonneighbor links taken into account. Based on this similarity measure, we propose a novel link community detection algorithm for link clustering on line graphs. The detection algorithm combines the novel link similarity measure with the classic Markov Cluster (MCL) Algorithm and determines the link community partitions by calculating an extended modularity measure. Extensive experiments on two types of complex networks demonstrate the effectiveness, reliability and rationality of our solution in contrast to the other two classical algorithms.

  16. REMPI-TOFMS for on-line monitoring and controlling the coffee roasting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorfner, Ralph; Ferge, Thomas; Yeretzian, Chahan; Zimmermann, Ralf; Kettrup, Antonius

    2001-08-01

    REMPI@266nm-TOFMS is used for on-line analysis of the coffee roasting process. Volatile and flavor active compounds of coffee were ionized by REMPI@266nm and monitored on-line and in real-time by TOFMS during the coffee roasting process. The phenol and 4-vinylguaiacol time-intensity profiles, for example, show typical behavior for different roasting temperatures and provide an indicator to the achieved degree of roasting. The impact of the moisture level of the green coffee beans on the time shift of a typical (commercial) roasting time, correlates with REMPI-TOFMS measurements and literature data.

  17. Line-on-Line Coincidence: A New Type of Epitaxy Found in Organic-Organic Heterolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannsfeld, Stefan C.; Leo, Karl; Fritz, Torsten

    2005-02-01

    We propose a new type of epitaxy, line-on-line coincidence (LOL), which explains the ordering in the organic-organic heterolayer system PTCDA on HBC on graphite. LOL epitaxy is similar to point-on-line coincidence (POL) in the sense that all overlayer molecules lie on parallel, equally spaced lines. The key difference to POL is that these lines are not restricted to primitive lattice lines of the substrate lattice. Potential energy calculations demonstrate that this new type of epitaxy is indeed characterized by a minimum in the overlayer-substrate interaction potential.

  18. Flight flutter testing technology at Grumman. [automated telemetry station for on line data reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perangelo, H. J.; Milordi, F. W.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis techniques used in the automated telemetry station (ATS) for on line data reduction are encompassed in a broad range of software programs. Concepts that form the basis for the algorithms used are mathematically described. The control the user has in interfacing with various on line programs is discussed. The various programs are applied to an analysis of flight data which includes unimodal and bimodal response signals excited via a swept frequency shaker and/or random aerodynamic forces. A nonlinear response error modeling analysis approach is described. Preliminary results in the analysis of a hard spring nonlinear resonant system are also included.

  19. Note: On-line weak signal detection via adaptive stochastic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Siliang; He, Qingbo Kong, Fanrang

    2014-06-15

    We design an instrument with a novel embedded adaptive stochastic resonance (SR) algorithm that consists of a SR module and a digital zero crossing detection module for on-line weak signal detection in digital signal processing applications. The two modules are responsible for noise filtering and adaptive parameter configuration, respectively. The on-line weak signal detection can be stably achieved in seconds. The prototype instrument exhibits an advance of 20 dB averaged signal-to-noise ratio and 5 times averaged adjust R-square as compared to the input noisy signal, in considering different driving frequencies and noise levels.

  20. Overview of on-line data processing for MST radars (keynote paper), part 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, D. T.

    1984-01-01

    The most important aspects of the processing of MST radar data are discussed. The important points of on-line data processing for MST radar are reviewed. The goals of the on-line and now almost exclusively digital processing, procedures are to achieve good altitude resolution and coverage, good frequency (Doppler shift) resolution, and good time resolution, while avoiding, the problems of range and frequency ambiguity (aliasing), ground clutter, and interference. Achieving optimum results requires pulse compression and some coherent integration. The first allows full utilization of the average power capability of the transmitter and the second reduces the computing requirements.

  1. Continuous On-Line Partial Discharge Monitor for Medium-Voltage Cable Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    M. Fenger

    2005-11-30

    Partial discharge (PD) assessment is one method of detecting cable conditions that predict approaching failure. While not all PDs in cable systems lead to failure, PDs within the cable's insulation can lead to relatively rapid failure. Accordingly, on-line PD assessment may be more useful than periodic PD assessment because the period of partial discharging at the end of a cable's life may be quite short. The research described in this report studied the feasibility of developing an on-line PD monitor for assessing both shielded and unshielded MV cables.

  2. On-line analysis of cracking in cortical bone under wedge penetration.

    PubMed

    Alam, Khurshid; Kerckhofs, Greet; Mitrofanov, Alexander V; Lomov, Stepan; Wevers, Martin; Silberschmidt, Vadim V

    2012-09-01

    Understanding the mechanism of crack propagation during bone cutting is necessary for the development of realistic bone cutting models. This article studies the on-line fractural behaviour of cortical bone caused by penetration with a sharp metallic wedge mounted on an on-line loading stage within an X-ray microfocus computed tomography system. The experimental results demonstrated anisotropy in crack propagation depending on the penetration direction with regard to the longitudinal bone axis and relate the crack growth to the extent of penetration. Scanning electron microscopy is performed to analyse the mechanism of cracking in the two phase microstructure of compact bone. PMID:23025172

  3. A dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme for EPON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiuyuan; Wu, Xiaojuan; Ma, Maode; Li, Wenming; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2008-11-01

    This paper analyses current bandwidth schemes and proposes a novel dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme for EPON. According the scheme, we define four kinds of multimedia services such as Unsolicited Request Service (URS), Realtime Service (rt-S), Non-Real-time Service (nrt-S) and Best Effort (BE). Different kinds of services have different Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. Our scheme considers the diverse QoS request, e.g., delay for rt-S, throughput for nrt-S and fairness for BE. The simulation results show this novel scheme can ensure the quality of service (QoS) and improve bandwidth utilization.

  4. High-Order Energy Stable WENO Schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaleev, Nail K.; Carpenter, Mark H.

    2008-01-01

    A new third-order Energy Stable Weighted Essentially NonOscillatory (ESWENO) finite difference scheme for scalar and vector linear hyperbolic equations with piecewise continuous initial conditions is developed. The new scheme is proven to be stable in the energy norm for both continuous and discontinuous solutions. In contrast to the existing high-resolution shock-capturing schemes, no assumption that the reconstruction should be total variation bounded (TVB) is explicitly required to prove stability of the new scheme. A rigorous truncation error analysis is presented showing that the accuracy of the 3rd-order ESWENO scheme is drastically improved if the tuning parameters of the weight functions satisfy certain criteria. Numerical results show that the new ESWENO scheme is stable and significantly outperforms the conventional third-order WENO finite difference scheme of Jiang and Shu in terms of accuracy, while providing essentially nonoscillatory solutions near strong discontinuities.

  5. Efficient implementation of weighted ENO schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Guang-Shan; Shu, Chi-Wang

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we further analyze, test, modify and improve the high order WENO (weighted essentially non-oscillatory) finite difference schemes of Liu, Osher and Chan. It was shown by Liu et al. that WENO schemes constructed from the r-th order (in L1 norm) ENO schemes are (r+1)-th order accurate. We propose a new way of measuring the smoothness of a numerical solution, emulating the idea of minimizing the total variation of the approximation, which results in a 5-th order WENO scheme for the case r = 3, instead of the 4-th order with the original smoothness measurement by Liu et al. This 5-th order WENO scheme is as fast as the 4-th order WENO scheme of Liu et al., and both schemes are about twice as fast as the 4-th order ENO schemes on vector supercomputers and as fast on serial and parallel computers. For Euler systems of gas dynamics, we suggest computing the weights from pressure and entropy instead of the characteristic values to simplify the costly characteristic procedure. The resulting WENO schemes are about twice as fast as the WENO schemes using the characteristic decompositions to compute weights, and work well for problems which do not contain strong shocks or strong reflected waves. We also prove that, for conservation laws with smooth solutions, all WENO schemes are convergent. Many numerical tests, including the 1D steady state nozzle flow problem and 2D shock entropy wave interaction problem, are presented to demonstrate the remarkable capability of the WENO schemes, especially the WENO scheme using the new smoothness measurement, in resolving complicated shock and flow structures. We have also applied Yang's artificial compression method to the WENO schemes to sharpen contact discontinuities.

  6. Scheme of thinking quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.

    2009-11-01

    A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field.

  7. A Finite Element Mesh Generation Code System with On-Line Graphic Display.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1980-05-30

    Version 00 LOOM-P is a two-dimensional mesh generation program which produces a best finite element mesh network for a reactor core geometry. This is an on-line automatic mesh generating program which can produce triangular mesh elements as an edit program to QMESH-RENUM.

  8. SAFARI, an On-Line Text-Processing System User's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin, P.G.; And Others.

    This report describes for the potential user a set of procedures for processing textual materials on-line. In this preliminary model an information analyst can scan through messages, reports, and other documents on a display scope and select relevant facts, which are processed linguistically and then stored in the computer in the form of logical…

  9. A Handbook for the Introduction of On-Line Bibliographic Search Services Into Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wax, David M.

    A handbook is provided for library administrators who are planning to install commercially available on-line interactive search services. It includes guidelines for selecting and organizing the service, staffing, training and orientation, preparing the service sites, promotion and user education, finance, data collection, and service evaluation.…

  10. Towards the development of an on-line model error identification system for land surface models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the complexity of potential error sources in land surface models, the accurate specification of model error parameters has emerged as a major challenge in the development of effective land data assimilation systems for hydrologic and hydro-climatic applications. While several on-line procedur...

  11. Setting Up On-Line Support Groups Using the Palace Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Betsy J.; Delmonico, David L.; Walsh, Jacqueline; L'Amoreaux, Nadene A.; Danninhirsh, Carrie; Thompson, Rebecca S.; Ingram, Albert I.; Evans, Alan D.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the process of setting up on-line support groups using The Palace, an Internet software that establishes a graphical room for the group. Describes the process of installing the software and illustrates operating it during the group. Discusses considerations for group planning including selection of leader, selection and orientation of…

  12. A Literature Survey of Operational and Emerging On-Line Library Circulation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Rob

    This document describes and compares on-line library circulation systems that have been reported as operational or developing, based on a non-comprehensive survey of published articles and public and restricted technical documentation. A checklist of components and features is used to tabulate if and how each system accommodates four selected…

  13. Flexible On-line Assessment and Feedback for Teaching Linear Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siew, Peg-Foo

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the advantages to using on-line assessment for both the instructor and the learner. Reports on the use of an online assessment tool that provides interactive feedback to students learning linear algebra. Measures success in terms of improved pass rate and students' satisfaction with the flexible learning opportunities that the tool…

  14. Marketing the Library in an On-Line University to Help Achieve Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    An entrepreneurial librarian takes the embedded librarian concept one step further at a completely on-line university and markets the virtual library to students, faculty and administration rather than wait for customers to come to the library. York and Vance (2009) make the observation that "one obstacle to marketing an embedded librarian…

  15. Preliminary evaluation of instruments for on-line characterization of coal-oil mixture fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, M. P.; Ekmann, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    Results of recent tests on coal-oil mixtures (COM) indicate that on-line continuous monitoring of key parameters - mass flow, coal content, and viscosity - is possible. Availability of this instrumentation can enhance the operation of control systems for COM preparation and combustion. Accurate measurement of density or coal content in COM is needed to monitor the reproducibility of preparation processes. Accurate mass flow measurements, coupled with data on the coal content, can be used to determine the instantaneous Btu input to a burner. Atomization characteristics, partly dependent on the fluid viscosity, can be adjusted using on-line viscometers linked to the fuel preheater. A number on-line instruments to measure mass flow, coal content or density, and viscosity in a flow system are examined. Instruments under study include a Micro Motion mass flow meter, which uses the Coriolis force exerted by a fluid flowing through a U-tube; n instrument manufactured by Aurburn International, Inc., which relies on the dielectric properties of COM to determine coal content: and a Brookfield on-line concentric cylinder viscometer.

  16. Designing On-Line Chinese Language Courses: New Roles for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Tongtao

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is threefold. Firstly, it will review the theories and practice of on-line learning and the need for new roles in the development of new media delivery systems. Secondly, the current status of university teachers will be analyzed within the context of the new roles. And thirdly, new roles for teachers and course designers…

  17. In Their Words: Connecting On-Line Weblogs to Developmental Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Garcia, Eddie C. M.; Harsono, Lidwina Stella; Li, Janice S.; Lipana, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to connect adolescents' communication within on-line weblogs or blogs to developmental processes. A total of 195 English language blogs written by self-identified 14- to 18-year-olds were selected; three entries from each blog were analysed, resulting in a sample of 585 entries. Blogger demographics, self-presentation, and blog…

  18. On-line high-precision stable hydrogen isotopic analyses on nanoliter water samples.

    PubMed

    Morrison, J; Brockwell, T; Merren, T; Fourel, F; Phillips, A M

    2001-08-01

    We describe a new on-line chromium reduction technique for the measurement of stable hydrogen (deltaD) isotopes in waters using continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The on-line Cr reduction method has low intersample memory effects (< 1%) and excellent precision and accuracy for deltaD (+/-0.5% and was used to analyze waters samples as small as 50 nL. The on-line Cr method has a number of significant advantages over conventional offline Zn and U reduction and on-line carbon-based pyrolysis techniques. A single Cr reactor can be used to analyze approximately 1,000 water samples using an injection volume of 0.5 microL, with an individual sample analysis time of 4 min. Intersample memory effects are negligible. The Cr reactor temperature of 1050 degree C is easily attainable on standard elemental analyzers and so does not require the specialized and costly high-temperature furnaces of carbon-based pyrolysis reactors. Furthermore, hydrogen isotopes in extremely small water samples in the 100-nL range or less can be easily measured; hence, this new method opens up a number of exciting application areas in earth and environmental sciences, for example, natural abundance deltaD measurements of individual fluid inclusions in geologic materials using a laser source and measurements of body fluids in physiological and metabolic research. PMID:11510820

  19. The Impact of Recurrent On-Line Synchronous Scientific Argumentation on Students' Argumentation and Conceptual Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chien-Hsien; She, Hsiao-Ching

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the impact of Recurrent On-Line Synchronous Scientific Argumentation learning on 8th grade students' scientific argumentation ability and conceptual change involving physical science. The control group (N = 76) were recruited to receive conventional instruction whereas the experimental group (N = 74) received the Recurrent…

  20. A Phenomenological Study of Gifted Adolescents and Their Engagement with One On-Line Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swicord, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Little research exists on the nature of the interactions between gifted students and the use of technology. Furthermore, no research has investigated the phenomenon of gifted adolescents using one internet-based program, the Renzulli Learning System (RLS). Renzulli Learning is an on-line educational profile with a matching database that provides…

  1. On-Line Mathematics Assessment: The Impact of Mode on Performance and Question Answering Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Martin; Green, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    The transition from paper-based to computer-based assessment raises a number of important issues about how mode might affect children's performance and question answering strategies. In this project 104 eleven-year-olds were given two sets of matched mathematics questions, one set on-line and the other on paper. Facility values were analyzed to…

  2. Searching for Information On-Line and Off-Line: Gender Differences among Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Marguerite; Taylor, Roger; Chi, Michelene T. H.

    2003-01-01

    There has been a national call for increased use of computers and technology in schools. Currently, however, little is known about how students use and learn from these new technologies. This study examines how students search for, browse, and learn specific information when performing an on-line (Web) versus an off-line (Library) search.…

  3. On Line Instruction: An Opportunity to Re-Examine and Re-Invent Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Irene

    2010-01-01

    Author recounts ten discoveries she made about on-line instruction that were beyond her field of vision when she was still viewing it though the lens of traditional classroom instruction. The discoveries include what she learned by reviewing the research in effective course design and a discourse analysis she conducted of the number and types of…

  4. A commercial tunable diode laser (TDL) system for on-line remote measurements of automobile emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Konradin; Ropertz, Alexander; Schwabe, Thomas; Fischer, Christian; van Haren, Gunther

    2004-11-01

    An innovative tunable diode laser (TDL) measurement system has been used for the on-line estimation of emissions of cars, driving through the measurement beam of the system. This paper describes the measurement principle and gives first measurement results, taken for different types of cars.

  5. 76 FR 7102 - Simplified Network Application Processing System, On-line Registration and Account Maintenance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 748 RIN 0694-AE98 Simplified Network Application Processing System, On-line Registration and Account Maintenance AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) amends the Export...

  6. An Evaluation of On-Line Assignment Submission, Marking, and Return

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Technology has made a significant impact on assessment, including its use to automate assignment submission. On-line assignment submission, marking, and return were introduced into a fourth-year engineering management unit for the first time, and a formal evaluation was undertaken to assess student perceptions of this new development. Nearly all…

  7. PORT: A Testbed Paradigm for On-line Digital Archive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Mary; Kloesel, Christian

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the Peirce On-line Resource Testbed (PORT), a digital archive of primary data. Highlights include knowledge processing testbeds for digital resource development; Peirce's pragmatism in operation; PORT and knowledge processing; obstacles to archive access; and PORT as a paradigm for critical control in knowledge processing. (AEF)

  8. Application of data acquisition systems for on-line definition and control of wind tunnel shape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, S. W. D.

    1979-01-01

    Improvements in wind tunnel design to reduce test and flight discrepancies are analyzed. Flexible wall streamlining, criteria for tunnel streamlining, and error assessment are discussed. It is concluded that the concept of self-streamlining wind tunnels is suited for on-line computer control.

  9. The On-Line ERIC Project at the National Library of Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, Ian S.

    This report describes the On-Line ERIC Project conducted jointly by the National Library of Australia and by IBM Australia Ltd. between March and May 1976. The Project involved a telecommunications network with video terminals and printers linking the National Library, the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology Central Library, and Macquarie…

  10. On-Line Grammaticality Judgments in French Children and Adults: A Crosslinguistic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kail, Michele

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the on-line processing of French sentences in a grammaticality judgment experiment. Three age groups of French children (mean age: 6;8, 8;6 and 10;10 years) and a group of adults were asked to detect grammatical violations as quickly as possible. Three factors were studied: the violation type: agreement violations (number and…

  11. Student Support Services and Success Factors for Adult On-Line Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer,Linda B; Hudson, Larry; Paugh, Robert

    A study examined a variety of student support services and four areas for student success from the viewpoint of World Wide Web-based learners in the University of Central Florida College of Education, Vocational Education area. A two-part on-line survey form was included in the exam files for adult learners in four Web-based courses during spring…

  12. The Seven Principles of Good Practice: A Framework for Evaluating On-Line Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bangert, Arthur W.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally, campus-based courses rely on student evaluations to provide instructors with feedback about their teaching effectiveness. However, current instructor evaluation instruments do not tap the essential teaching practices recommended for effective on-line teaching. This exploratory study used the Seven Principles of Good Practice of…

  13. Low-cost electronic microwave calibration for rapid on-line moisture sensing of seedcotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to improve rapid on-line moisture sensing of seedcotton in cotton gins, a means by which to establish a reliable wide-band electronic calibration is critically needed. This calibration is needed to center the circuit due to changes in the internal signal delays and attenuations caused by te...

  14. Taking the Epistemic Step: Toward a Model of On-Line Access to Conversational Implicatures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breheny, Richard; Ferguson, Heather J.; Katsos, Napoleon

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence showing that conversational implicatures are rapidly accessed in incremental utterance interpretation. To date, studies showing incremental access have focussed on implicatures related to linguistic triggers, such as "some" and "or". We discuss three kinds of on-line model that can account for this data. A model…

  15. Don't Waste Your Time Teaching in an On-Line Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potvin, Bernie L.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I address one question asked by teachers who teach online--"How can I build community among my learners in my class?" This paper provides an answer; in fact, it provides ten possible answers, in the form of ten models for teachers to use to build community in on-line courses. Each model has been tried and tested over ten…

  16. ON-LINE INTERACTIVE DISPLAYS IN APPLICATION TO LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS AND INFORMATION PROCESSING AND RETRIEVAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SIMMONS, R.F.

    AS COMPUTERS ARE USED FOR INCREASINGLY COMPLEX OPERATIONS SUCH AS RETRIEVING DOCUMENTS AND ANALYZING SENTENCES, IT BECOMES APPARENT THAT HUMAN DECISION-MAKING IS STILL AN ESSENTIAL ELEMENT OF THE PROCESS. THE USE OF THE ON-LINE INTERACTIVE CAPABILITY OF TODAY'S THIRD-GENERATION COMPUTERS SUPPORTED BY TYPEWRITER AND DISPLAY SCOPE TERMINALS MAKES…

  17. Understanding the Construction of the Teaching Discourse in an On-Line Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The study of interactions regarding on-line environments for education is an area of research that has being developing during the last years in order to know the type of interactions that take place in discussion forums. Interactions analysis is important in order to know and to understand knowledge construction process in a virtual space.…

  18. Verb Agreements during On-Line Sentence Processing in Alzheimer's Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, C.C.; Grossman, M.

    2005-01-01

    An on-line ''word detection'' paradigm was used to assess the comprehension of thematic and transitive verb agreements during sentence processing in individuals diagnosed with probable Alzheimer's Disease (AD, n=15) and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD, n=14). AD, FTD, and control participants (n=17) were asked to listen for a word in a sentence.…

  19. An Evaluation of On-Line, Interactive Tutorials Designed to Teach Practice Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seabury, Brett A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of two on-line-based programs designed to teach practice skills. One program teaches crisis intervention and the other teaches suicide assessment. The evaluation of the use of these programs compares outcomes for two groups of students, one using the interactive program outside a class context and the other using…

  20. The On-Line Yes/No Test as a Placement Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Michael; Carey, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the concurrent validity of an on-line Yes/No test of recognition vocabulary as a placement tool at an Australian English language school. Newly entering students (n = 88) completed a Yes/No test, which measured accuracy and speed of response, and a school placement battery consisting of grammar, writing, speaking and listening…

  1. On-Line vs. Face-to-Face Delivery of Information Technology Courses: Students' Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Said, Hazem; Kirgis, Lauren; Verkamp, Brian; Johnson, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates students' assessment of on-line vs face-to-face delivery of lecture-based information technology courses. The study used end-of-course surveys to examine students' ratings of five course quality indicators: Course Organization, Assessment and Grading Procedures, Instructor Performance, Positive Learning Experience, and…

  2. The Use of On Line Video Projection Techniques in Computer Augmented Lectures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, M. T.; And Others

    A new technique called computer augmented lectures (CAL) now in use at the University of Texas at Austin is discussed in this report. The technique is described as involving the integration of on-line interactive time-sharing computer terminals and theater-size video projectors for large screen display, the goal being to promote student learning…

  3. IN VIVO MEASUREMENT OF PHENYLGLUCUCURONIDE IN RAINBOW TROUT BY ON-LINE INJECTION MICRODIALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phenylglucuronide (PG) was measured in vivo in arterial blood of rainbow trout using on-line injection microdialysis. A microdialysis probe was surgically implanted in the dorsal aorta of spinally-transected trout. The trout were dosed continuously with PG for 24 h using a ventra...

  4. Managing the Transition into Higher Education: An On-Line Spiral Induction Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laing, Christopher; Robinson, Alan; Johnston, Veronique

    2005-01-01

    In helping students manage the transition into higher education, there must be (i) an understanding of the needs and expectations of the students, and (ii) a process that inducts the students into the needs and expectations of higher education. This premise underpins the on-line Spiral Induction Programme (onSIP) developed at Southampton…

  5. THE ONSITE ON-LINE CALCULATORS AND TRAINING FOR SUBSURFACE CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT SITE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a suite of on-line calculators called "OnSite" for assessing transport of environmental contaminants in the subsurface. The purpose of these calculators is to provide methods and data for common calculations used in assessing impacts from subsurface contaminatio...

  6. The S-Star Trial Bioinformatics Course: An On-line Learning Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Yun Ping; Hoog, Jan-Olov; Gardner, Phyllis; Ranganathan, Shoba; Andersson, Siv; Subbiah, Subramanian; Tan, Tin Wee; Hide, Winston; Weiss, Anthony S.

    2003-01-01

    The S-Star Trial Bioinformatics on-line course (www.s-star.org) is a global experiment in bioinformatics distance education. Six universities from five continents have participated in this project. One hundred and fifty students participated in the first trial course of which 96 followed through the entire course and 70 fulfilled the overall…

  7. Outcomes of On-Line Financial Education for Chronically Ill Rural Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Deborah C.; Haynes, George W.; Weinert, Clarann

    2011-01-01

    This research was part of a larger longitudinal study of chronically ill rural women to determine if computer technology could be effective in allowing the women to take control of their own well-being, including finances. The current study examined whether chronically ill rural women can effectively use on-line personal finance educational…

  8. On-Line Hyperspectral Transmittance Imaging for Internal Defect Detection of Pickling Cucumbers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral imaging technique under transmittance mode was investigated for detection of internal defect in pickling cucumbers such as carpel suture separation or hollow cucumbers caused by mechanical stress. A prototype of on-line hyperspectral transmittance imaging system was developed for real...

  9. In Search of On-Line Locality Effects in Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartek, Brian; Lewis, Richard L.; Vasishth, Shravan; Smith, Mason R.

    2011-01-01

    Many comprehension theories assert that increasing the distance between elements participating in a linguistic relation (e.g., a verb and a noun phrase argument) increases the difficulty of establishing that relation during on-line comprehension. Such "locality effects" are expected to increase reading times and are thought to reveal properties…

  10. Students' Reaction to WebCT: Implications for Designing On-Line Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Mohamed Eltahir

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing number of web-based and web-assisted course development tools and products that can be used to create on-line learning environment. The utility of these products, however, varies greatly depending on their feasibility, prerequisite infrastructure, technical features, interface, and course development and management tools. WebCT…

  11. English Collocation Learning through Corpus Data: On-Line Concordance and Statistical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohtake, Hiroshi; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Kawamoto, Takeshi; Morren, Brian; Ugawa, Yoshihiro; Kaneko, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    We developed an English Collocations On Demand system offering on-line corpus and concordance information to help Japanese researchers acquire a better command of English collocation patterns. The Life Science Dictionary Corpus consists of approximately 90,000,000 words collected from life science related research papers published in academic…

  12. Multifunctional ultrasonic sensor for on-line tool condition monitoring in turning operations

    SciTech Connect

    Nayfeh, T.H.; Abu-Zahra, N.H.

    1998-03-01

    Machining operations in automated manufacturing centers are, in general, under-performing by 20--80 percent. Optimizing these machining operations requires on-line knowledge of the cutting tool`s condition and the process state. Currently, this information is either not reliable or not available in a timely manner. This in part is due to the lack of suitable sensors which are able to measure on-line directly and accurately one or more of the relevant tool and process variables. A direct, active, ultrasonic method for on-line sensing of the tool condition and the process state in turning operations was developed in this work. Sensing is achieved by using an ultrasonic transducer operating at 10 MHz in a pulse-echo mode to send pulses through the cutting tool. The amplitude and propagation time of the reflected pulses are modulated by the tool nose, flank, temperature, and by the material in contact with the tools. This method has the potential to measure on-line several relevant process and cutting tool parameters directly and accurately through the use of a single sensor. These parameters are tool-workpiece contact, tool gradual wear, tool chipping and tool chatter.

  13. On-line signature verification method by Laplacian spectral analysis and dynamic time warping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changting; Peng, Liangrui; Liu, Changsong; Ding, Xiaoqing

    2013-12-01

    As smartphones and touch screens are more and more popular, on-line signature verification technology can be used as one of personal identification means for mobile computing. In this paper, a novel Laplacian Spectral Analysis (LSA) based on-line signature verification method is presented and an integration framework of LSA and Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) based methods for practical application is proposed. In LSA based method, a Laplacian matrix is constructed by regarding the on-line signature as a graph. The signature's writing speed information is utilized in the Laplacian matrix of the graph. The eigenvalue spectrum of the Laplacian matrix is analyzed and used for signature verification. The framework to integrate LSA and DTW methods is further proposed. DTW is integrated at two stages. First, it is used to provide stroke matching results for the LSA method to construct the corresponding graph better. Second, the on-line signature verification results by DTW are fused with that of the LSA method. Experimental results on public signature database and practical signature data on mobile phones proved the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. On-line preconcentration strategies for analyzing pesticides in fruits and vegetables by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Juan-García, Ana; Font, Guillermina; Picó, Yolanda

    2007-06-15

    Five pesticides (fludioxonil, procymidone, pyriproxyfen, dinoseb and carbendazim) were separated in reversed migration micellar electrokinetic chromatography (RM-MEKC) using 20 mmol l(-1) phosphate buffer at pH 2.3, containing 25 mmol l(-1) sodium dodecylsulfate and 10% methanol. Three on-line concentration strategies, sweeping (SW), normal stacking with reversed migration and a water plug (SRW) and stacking with reverse migration and removal of sample matrix using polarity switching (SRMM), were compared. About 10-, 30- and 50-fold increases in detection sensitivity, compared with standard hydrodynamic injection (5 s at 0.5 psi), were observed with SW, SRW and SRMM, respectively. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.002 to 0.03 microg ml(-1) using only the on-line preconcentration procedures without any off-line concentration of the extract. A solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure, for previous isolation and concentration of the analytes, was used in combination with any of the proposed on-line preconcentration strategies, which achieves the determination of pesticides at limits of quantification (LOQs) lower than 0.01 mg kg(-1). The recoveries obtained by SPE in samples spiked at 0.01 mg kg(-1) were between 70 and 100%, with RSDs between 10 and 18% using SRMM. Samples of fruits and vegetables were taken from the market, extracted by the proposed procedure and analyzed with RM-MEKC with the on-line strategies. PMID:17306816

  15. Recent Developments in On-Line Assessment of Steel Strip Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Meilland, P.; Kroos, J.; Buchholtz, O. W.; Hartmann, H.-J.

    2006-03-06

    On-line non-destructive assessment of steel strip properties is a subject of growing interest amongst European manufacturers, as it provides information all along the products length, without slowing down the production. Arcelor, Salzgitter and TKS recently undertook a collective effort to assess the performance of 3 systems for flat carbon steel strips mechanical properties at the exit of galvanizing lines.

  16. TH-C-BRE-01: IGART: Fast On-Line Planning for IGART

    SciTech Connect

    Oelfke, U; Raaymakers, B; Jia, X; Ahunbay, E; Li, X

    2014-06-15

    Cone beam CT IGRT provides on-line anatomical data of the patient at the treatment couch while new hybrid MRI radiotherapy systems promise to provide this data during the actual radiation delivery itself. To exploit these data, and account for tissue rotations, deformations and tumor regression during radiation therapy delivery, fast, on-line IMRT (re)planning is required.On-line IMRT re-planning needs to re-generate a similar patient specific dose distribution as done in the pre-treatment planning but then for the new state of the anatomy. For this the pre-treatment information has to be propagated to the actual treatment. A fast dose engine is required, which may be, in the case of MRI based IGRT, Monte Carlo based in order to account for the magnetic field induced dose effects. Then robust re-planning methods or class solutions should be available that account efficiently for both rigid and non-rigid anatomical changes while preserving the patient specific pre-treatment dose considerations. Preferably this is all fully automatic, but also fast interactive re-planning is an option, especially in hypo-fractionated (boost) radiotherapy. Learning Objectives: Preservation of pre-treatment prescriptions in the on-line IMRT re-planning Fast re-planning techniques and speed limitations for dose engines Pros and cons of interactive versus automatic re-planning.

  17. LIBRARY INFORMATION PROCESSING USING AN ON-LINE, REAL-TIME COMPUTER SYSTEM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HOLZBAUR, FREDERICK W.; FARRIS, EUGENE H.

    DIRECT MAN-MACHINE COMMUNICATION IS NOW POSSIBLE THROUGH ON-LINE, REAL-TIME TYPEWRITER TERMINALS DIRECTLY CONNECTED TO COMPUTERS. THESE TERMINAL SYSTEMS PERMIT THE OPERATOR, WHETHER ORDER CLERK, CATALOGER, REFERENCE LIBRARIAN OR TYPIST, TO INTERACT WITH THE COMPUTER IN MANIPULATING DATA STORED WITHIN IT. THE IBM ADMINISTRATIVE TERMINAL SYSTEM…

  18. ON-LINE MEASUREMENT OF NITROUS OXIDE FROM COMBUSTION SOURCES BY AUTOMATED GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses on-line measurement of nitrous oxide (N2O) from combustion sources by automated gas chromatography. ossil fuel combustion is suspected of contributing to measured increases in the ambient concentrations of N2O. haracterization of N2O emissions from fossil fuel...

  19. ON-LINE ZEEMAN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY FOR MERCURY ANALYSIS IN OIL SHALE GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication describes the development and initial testing of instrumentation for continuous on-line analytical measurement of mercury concentrations in complex gas streams or in ambient air, in the presence of smoke, organic vapors, and oil mist from oil shale processing pla...

  20. Theory of reliable systems. [reliability analysis and on-line fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. F.

    1974-01-01

    Research is reported in the program to refine the current notion of system reliability by identifying and investigating attributes of a system which are important to reliability considerations, and to develop techniques which facilitate analysis of system reliability. Reliability analysis, and on-line fault diagnosis are discussed.

  1. An on-line, intelligent plant economic advisor for total plant optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Bragham, M.; Hunt, M.; Caplan, J.

    1995-06-01

    A key aspect of the total plant optimization problem is the impact that plant operations personnel can have on overall plant efficiency. Usually, plant systems are operated on a system by system basis and operators are tasted primarily with keeping the plant on-line. Though many units have installed on-line performance monitoring systems to help improve thermal efficiency, operators are often relatively ill-informed of the impact their actions can have on plant economic performance. Additionally, the inter-relationships between plant sub-systems are rarely incorporated into operational strategies. In order to truly optimize total plant operation, the impact of, and the inter-relationships between thermal efficiency, plant emissions, and plant materials handling (e.g., waste disposal/sales) must all be simultaneously evaluated. This paper presents the development effort to date for the Plant Economic Optimization Advisor (PEOA). PEOA is an electronic performance support system (EPSS), currently under development by New York State Electric & Gas Corporation (NYSEG) and DHR Technologies, Inc. (DHR). PEOA provides users with on-line control strategies for least cost plant operation. PEOA uses innovative approaches for plant optimization, as well as an intelligent Operations Advisor to help operators achieve optimal plant operation. PEOA also includes on-line data monitoring and analysis tools. The system uses a client/server, object-oriented open architecture that integrates plant information systems and provides support for integration of legacy third party systems such as performance monitors.

  2. Author On-Line: Using Asynchronous Computer Conferencing To Support Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Linda; Heaney, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Author-On-Line (AOL) project that used asynchronous computer conferencing to support the teaching and learning of literacy with pupils aged 10-12 years from two schools in Ireland. Presents the AOL-APT model which summarizes the key components: Author, Pedagogy and Technology (APT); and discusses its value for online, social,…

  3. On Line Forums as a "Rescue Net" in an Open Inquiry Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zion, Michal

    2008-01-01

    The Biomind program is a new open inquiry program for Israeli biology high school students. The Biomind program is facilitated by diverse activities of asynchronous on-line forums for teachers and students. This research aims to analyse the discussions that occurred over a period of three years in these forums, in order to obtain a picture of the…

  4. Recent developments in production of radioactive ion beams with the selective laser ion source at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catherall, R.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Köster, U.; Lettry, J.; Suberlucq, G.; Marsh, B. A.; Tengborn, E.

    2004-05-01

    The resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) of the ISOLDE on-line isotope separation facility is based on the method of laser stepwise resonance ionization of atoms in a hot metal cavity. The atomic selectivity of the RILIS compliments the mass selection process of the ISOLDE separator magnets to provide beams of a chosen isotope with greatly reduced isobaric contamination. Using a system of dye lasers pumped by copper vapor lasers, ion beams of 22 elements have been generated at ISOLDE with ionization efficiencies in the range of 0.5%-30%. As part of the ongoing RILIS development, recent off-line resonance ionization spectroscopy studies have determined the optimal three-step ionization schemes for yttrium, scandium, and antimony.

  5. On-line concentration of neutral analytes for micellar electrokinetic chromatography. 5. Field-enhanced sample injection with reverse migrating micelles.

    PubMed

    Quirino, J P; Terabe, S

    1998-05-01

    Elementary conditions for the on-line concentration of neutral analytes by field-enhanced sample injection with reverse migrating micelles for micellar electrokinetic chromatography is presented. Acidic phosphate buffers containing micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate are utilized as both sample solvent and separation solution. After the capillary is conditioned with a separation solution, a water plug is hydrodynamically injected to achieve field enhancement at the injection end of the capillary during injection by application of voltage. A model is provided to give insight into the stacking scheme. Significant detector response improvements are confirmed experimentally. Moreover, utility of the technique for the analysis of a real sample is tested using urine spiked with testosterone and progesterone. PMID:21651282

  6. Problem-based learning in an on-line biotechnology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheaney, James Daniel

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is a pedagogical tool that uses a "real world" problem or situation as a context for learning. PBL encourages student development of critical thinking skills, a high professional competency, problem-solving ability, knowledge acquisition, the ability to work productively as a team member and make decisions in unfamiliar situations, and the acquisition of skills that support self-directed life-long learning, metacognition, and adaptation to change. However, little research has focused on the use of PBL in on-line "virtual" classes. We conducted two studies exploring the use of PBL in an on-line biotechnology course. In the first study, ethical, legal, social, and human issues were used as a motivation for learning about DNA testing technologies, applications, and bioethical issues. In the second study, we combined PBL pedagogy with a rich multimedia environment of streaming video interviews, physical artifacts, and extensive links to articles and databases to create a multidimensional immersive PBL environment called "Robert's World". In "Robert's World", a man is determining whether to undergo a pre-symptomatic DNA test for an untreatable, incurable, fatal genetic disease for which he has a family history. In both studies, design and implementation issues of the on-line PBL environment are discussed, as are differences between on-line PBL and face-to-face PBL. Both studies provide evidence to suggest that PBL stimulates higher-order learning in students. However, in both studies, student performance on an exam testing acquisition of lower-order factual learning was lower for PBL students than for students who learned the same material through a traditional lecture-based approach. Possible reasons for this lower level of performance are explored. Student feedback expressed engagement with the issues and material covered, with reservations about some aspects of the PBL format, such as the lack of flexibility provided in cooperative

  7. On-line coupling of volcanic ash and aerosols transport with multiscale meteorological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, Alejandro; Folch, Arnau; Jorba, Oriol

    2014-05-01

    Large explosive volcanic eruptions can inject significant amounts of tephra and aerosols (e.g. SO2) into the atmosphere inducing a multi-scale array of physical, chemical and biological feedbacks within the environment. Effective coupled Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models capable to forecast on-line the spatial and temporal distribution of volcanic ash and aerosols are necessary to assess the magnitude of these feedback effects. However, due to several limitations (users from different communities, operational constrains, computational power, etc.), tephra transport models and NWP models have evolved independently. Within the framework of NEMOH(an Initial Training Network of the European Commission FP7 Program), we aim to quantify the feedback effects of volcanic ash clouds and aerosols emitted during large-magnitude eruptions on regional meteorology. As a first step, we have focused on the differences between the off-line hypothesis, currently assumed by tephra transport models (e.g. FALL3D), and the on-line approach, where transport and sedimentation of volcanic ash is coupled on-line to the NMMB (Non-hydrostatic Multiscale Meteorological model on a B grid) meteorological model; the evolution of the WRF-NMME meteorological model. We compared the spatiotemporal transport of volcanic ash particles simulated with the on-line coupled FALL3D-NMMB/BSC-CTM model with those from the off-line FALL3D model, by using the 2011 Cordón-Caulle eruption as a test-case and validating results against satellite data. Additionally, this presentation introduces the forthcoming steps to implement a sulfate aerosol module within the chemical transport module of the FALL3D-NMMB/BSC-CTM model, in order to quantify the feedback effects on the atmospheric radiative budget, particularly during large-magnitude explosive volcanic eruptions. Keywords: volcanic ash, SO2, FALL3D, NMMB, meteorology, on-line coupling, NEMOH.

  8. A flow injection flow cytometry system for on-line monitoring of bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, R; Natarajan, A; Srienc, F

    1999-03-01

    For direct and on-line study of the physiological states of cell cultures, a robust flow injection system has been designed and interfaced with flow cytometry (FI-FCM). The core of the flow injection system includes a microchamber designed for sample processing. The design of this microchamber allows not only an accurate on-line dilution but also on-line cell fixation, staining, and washing. The flow injection part of the system was tested by monitoring the optical density of a growing E.coli culture on-line using a spectrophotometer. The entire growth curve, from lag phase to stationary phase, was obtained with frequent sampling. The performance of the entire FI-FCM system is demonstrated in three applications. The first is the monitoring of green fluorescent protein fluorophore formation kinetics in E.coli by visualizing the fluorescence evolution after protein synthesis is inhibited. The data revealed a subpopulation of cells that do not become fluorescent. In addition, the data show that single-cell fluorescence is distributed over a wide range and that the fluorescent population contains cells that are capable of reaching significantly higher expression levels than that indicated by the population average. The second application is the detailed flow cytometric evaluation of the batch growth dynamics of E.coli expressing Gfp. The collected single-cell data visualize the batch growth phases and it is shown that a state of balanced growth is never reached by the culture. The third application is the determination of distribution of DNA content of a S. cerevisiae population by automatically staining cells using a DNA-specific stain. Reproducibility of the on-line staining reaction shows that the system is not restricted to measuring the native properties of cells; rather, a wider range of cellular components could be monitored after appropriate sample processing. The system is thus particularly useful because it operates automatically without direct operator

  9. Matroids and quantum-secret-sharing schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Sarvepalli, Pradeep; Raussendorf, Robert

    2010-05-15

    A secret-sharing scheme is a cryptographic protocol to distribute a secret state in an encoded form among a group of players such that only authorized subsets of the players can reconstruct the secret. Classically, efficient secret-sharing schemes have been shown to be induced by matroids. Furthermore, access structures of such schemes can be characterized by an excluded minor relation. No such relations are known for quantum secret-sharing schemes. In this paper we take the first steps toward a matroidal characterization of quantum-secret-sharing schemes. In addition to providing a new perspective on quantum-secret-sharing schemes, this characterization has important benefits. While previous work has shown how to construct quantum-secret-sharing schemes for general access structures, these schemes are not claimed to be efficient. In this context the present results prove to be useful; they enable us to construct efficient quantum-secret-sharing schemes for many general access structures. More precisely, we show that an identically self-dual matroid that is representable over a finite field induces a pure-state quantum-secret-sharing scheme with information rate 1.

  10. On-line air-tightness and insertion loss simultaneous detection method of high air-tightness fiber optic penetration connector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingchuan; Yang, Xiaoning; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Junfeng

    2015-08-01

    The high air-tightness multicore fiber optic penetration connector is a core component for the optical fiber sensing and communication technologies applied in the space environment simulator under the vacuum thermal environment. High air-tightness and insertion loss are the two key indexes of the fiber optic penetration connector. The air-tightness and insertion loss on-line synchronous detection method was proposed. First, established hardware-in-the-loop testing platform by using the vacuum pumping system, the vacuum vessel, the helium mass spectrometer leak detector and optical time-domain reflectmeter, then, described the air tightness and insertion loss on-line detection principle, finally, designed a detection test scheme and air-tightness and insertion loss were tested. Experimental results indicate that the leakage rate is lower than 1.0×10-7Pa•L/S, the minimum of which is1.0×10-10Pa•L/S and the insertion loss at wave length window 1550 nm is +/-0.07db, which is less than +/-0.1db. It can lay the data basis for the design of opto-mechanical combination and later period fine processing.

  11. Analysis of active control with on-line system identification on sound transmission through an elastic plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshigoe, Shozo; Teagle, Allen; Tsay, Ching-Hsu

    1995-05-01

    An adaptive control algorithm with on-line system identification capability has been developed. One of the great advantages of this scheme is that an additional system identification mechanism such as an additional uncorrelated random signal generator as the source of system identification [Eriksson and Allie, Acoust. Soc. Am. 85, 797 - 802 (1989)] is not required. A time varying plate-cavity system is used to demonstrate the control performance of this algorithm. The time varying plate-cavity system is used to demonstrate the control performance of this algorithm. The time varying system consists of a stainless steel plate which is simply supported on a rigid cavity where the cavity temperature can depend on time. For a given externally located harmonic sound excitation, the system identification and the control are simultaneously executed to minimize the transmitted sound in the cavity. The control performance of the algorithm is examined for two cases. Keeping the cavity temperature constant for the first case, the external disturbance frequency is swept with 2 Hz/second from below to above a resonance frequency of the plate-cavity system. The simulation shows an excellent frequency tracking capability with cavity internal sound suppression of 40 dB. For the second case, the cavity temperature is lowered to a half of its original value in 60 seconds while the external sound excitation is fixed with a frequency. Hence, the cavity resonant frequency decreased and passes the external sound excitation frequency. The algorithm shows 40 dB transmitted noise suppression without compromising the system identification tracking capability.

  12. A new lithium-ion battery internal temperature on-line estimate method based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J. G.; Sun, Z. C.; Wei, X. Z.; Dai, H. F.

    2015-01-01

    The power battery thermal management problem in EV (electric vehicle) and HEV (hybrid electric vehicle) has been widely discussed, and EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) is an effective experimental method to test and estimate the status of the battery. Firstly, an electrochemical-based impedance matrix analysis for lithium-ion battery is developed to describe the impedance response of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Then a method, based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement, has been proposed to estimate the internal temperature of power lithium-ion battery by analyzing the phase shift and magnitude of impedance at different ambient temperatures. Respectively, the SoC (state of charge) and temperature have different effects on the impedance characteristics of battery at various frequency ranges in the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy experimental study. Also the impedance spectrum affected by SoH (state of health) is discussed in the paper preliminary. Therefore, the excitation frequency selected to estimate the inner temperature is in the frequency range which is significantly influenced by temperature without the SoC and SoH. The intrinsic relationship between the phase shift and temperature is established under the chosen excitation frequency. And the magnitude of impedance related to temperature is studied in the paper. In practical applications, through obtaining the phase shift and magnitude of impedance, the inner temperature estimation could be achieved. Then the verification experiments are conduced to validate the estimate method. Finally, an estimate strategy and an on-line estimation system implementation scheme utilizing battery management system are presented to describe the engineering value.

  13. Showing Up to Class in Pajamas (or Less!): The Fantasies and Realities of On-Line Professional Development Courses for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abbie; Green, Tim

    2003-01-01

    Considers the current state of on-line course design and delivery. Discusses several advantages and disadvantages of on-line instruction. Concludes that teachers seeking professional development opportunities should give careful consideration to on-line possibilities. (SG)

  14. How can conceptual schemes change teaching?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickman, Per-Olof

    2012-03-01

    Lundqvist, Almqvist and Östman describe a teacher's manner of teaching and the possible consequences it may have for students' meaning making. In doing this the article examines a teacher's classroom practice by systematizing the teacher's transactions with the students in terms of certain conceptual schemes, namely the epistemological moves, educational philosophies and the selective traditions of this practice. In connection to their study one may ask how conceptual schemes could change teaching. This article examines how the relationship of the conceptual schemes produced by educational researchers to educational praxis has developed from the middle of the last century to today. The relationship is described as having been transformed in three steps: (1) teacher deficit and social engineering, where conceptual schemes are little acknowledged, (2) reflecting practitioners, where conceptual schemes are mangled through teacher practice to aid the choices of already knowledgeable teachers, and (3) the mangling of the conceptual schemes by researchers through practice with the purpose of revising theory.

  15. Rapid Parameterization Schemes for Aircraft Shape Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu

    2012-01-01

    A rapid shape parameterization tool called PROTEUS is developed for aircraft shape optimization. This tool can be applied directly to any aircraft geometry that has been defined in PLOT3D format, with the restriction that each aircraft component must be defined by only one data block. PROTEUS has eight types of parameterization schemes: planform, wing surface, twist, body surface, body scaling, body camber line, shifting/scaling, and linear morphing. These parametric schemes can be applied to two types of components: wing-type surfaces (e.g., wing, canard, horizontal tail, vertical tail, and pylon) and body-type surfaces (e.g., fuselage, pod, and nacelle). These schemes permit the easy setup of commonly used shape modification methods, and each customized parametric scheme can be applied to the same type of component for any configuration. This paper explains the mathematics for these parametric schemes and uses two supersonic configurations to demonstrate the application of these schemes.

  16. A cascaded coding scheme for error control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasami, T.; Lin, S.

    1985-01-01

    A cascaded coding scheme for error control was investigated. The scheme employs a combination of hard and soft decisions in decoding. Error performance is analyzed. If the inner and outer codes are chosen properly, extremely high reliability can be attained even for a high channel bit-error-rate. Some example schemes are studied which seem to be quite suitable for satellite down-link error control.

  17. Simulation of the Australian Mobilesat signalling scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Mushfiqur

    1990-01-01

    The proposed Australian Mobilesat system will provide a range of circuit switched voice/data services using the B-series satellites. The reliability of the signalling scheme between the Network Management Station (NMS) and the mobile terminal (MT) is of critical importance to the performance of the overall system. Simulation results of the performance of the signalling scheme under various channel conditions and coding schemes are presented.

  18. Quantum Authentication Scheme Based on Entanglement Swapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penghao, Niu; Yuan, Chen; Chong, Li

    2016-01-01

    Based on the entanglement swapping, a quantum authentication scheme with a trusted- party is proposed in this paper. With this scheme, two users can perform mutual identity authentication to confirm each other's validity. In addition, the scheme is proved to be secure under circumstances where a malicious attacker is capable of monitoring the classical and quantum channels and has the power to forge all information on the public channel.

  19. On-line gas chromatographic analysis of higher alcohol synthesis products from syngas.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Robert; Boutonnet, Magali; Järås, Sven

    2012-07-20

    An on-line gas chromatographic (GC) system has been developed for rapid and accurate product analysis in catalytic conversion of syngas (a mixture of H₂ and CO) to alcohols, so called "higher alcohol synthesis (HAS)". Conversion of syngas to higher alcohols is an interesting second step in the route of converting coal, natural gas and possibly biomass to liquid alcohol fuel and chemicals. The presented GC system and method are developed for analysis of the products formed from syngas using alkali promoted MoS₂ catalysts, however it is not limited to these types of catalysts. During higher alcohol synthesis not only the wanted short alcohols (∼C₂-C₅) are produced, but also a great number of other products in smaller or greater amounts, they are mainly short hydrocarbons (olefins, paraffins, branched, non-branched), aldehydes, esters and ketones as well as CO₂, H₂O. Trace amounts of sulfur-containing compounds can also be found in the product effluent when sulfur-containing catalysts are used and/or sulfur-containing syngas is feed. In the presented GC system, most of them can be separated and analyzed within 60 min without the use of cryogenic cooling. Previously, product analysis in "higher alcohol synthesis" has in most cases been carried out partly on-line and partly off-line, where the light gases (gases at room temp) are analyzed on-line and liquid products (liquid at room temp) are collected in a trap for later analysis off-line. This method suffers from many drawbacks compared to a complete on-line GC system. In this paper an on-line system using an Agilent 7890 gas chromatograph equipped with two flame ionization detectors (FID) and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD), together with an Agilent 6890 with sulfur chemiluminescence dual plasma detector (SCD) is presented. A two-dimensional GC system with Deans switch (heart-cut) and two capillary columns (HP-FFAP and HP-Al₂O₃) was used for analysis of the organic products on the FIDs. Light

  20. An effective method for on-line corrections of two-axes laser mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lala, P.; Pivo, K.

    A numerical technique for correcting the automatic laser tracking of low-altitude satellites for the effects of atmospheric drag on the satellite motion is proposed. The approximation method is based on geocentric rather than topocentric parameters and is simple enough to be implemented on a desk-top computer for on-line correction of both along-track and cross-track deviations by entering the error in the initial time. The results of numerical simulations for B-1300 and GEOS A are presented in a table, and the suitability of the method for on-line computer control of the two-axis azimuthal mount used at Ondrejov Observatory is indicated.

  1. Redundant array of independent disks: practical on-line archiving of nuclear medicine image data.

    PubMed

    Lear, J L; Pratt, J P; Trujillo, N

    1996-02-01

    While various methods for long-term archiving of nuclear medicine image data exist, none support rapid on-line search and retrieval of information. We assembled a 90-Gbyte redundant array of independent disks (RAID) system using 10-, 9-Gbyte disk drives. The system was connected to a personal computer and software was used to partition the array into 4-Gbyte sections. All studies (50,000) acquired over a 7-year period were archived in the system. Based on patient name/number and study date, information could be located within 20 seconds and retrieved for display and analysis in less than 5 seconds. RAID offers a practical, redundant method for long-term archiving of nuclear medicine studies that supports rapid on-line retrieval. PMID:8814767

  2. On-Line Tracking Controller for Brushless DC Motor Drives Using Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubaai, Ahmed

    1996-01-01

    A real-time control architecture is developed for time-varying nonlinear brushless dc motors operating in a high performance drives environment. The developed control architecture possesses the capabilities of simultaneous on-line identification and control. The dynamics of the motor are modeled on-line and controlled using an artificial neural network, as the system runs. The control architecture combines the experience and dependability of adaptive tracking systems with potential and promise of the neural computing technology. The sensitivity of real-time controller to parametric changes that occur during training is investigated. Such changes are usually manifested by rapid changes in the load of the brushless motor drives. This sudden change in the external load is simulated for the sigmoidal and sinusoidal reference tracks. The ability of the neuro-controller to maintain reasonable tracking accuracy in the presence of external noise is also verified for a number of desired reference trajectories.

  3. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor for monitoring drinking water quality

    PubMed Central

    Højris, Bo; Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Smith, Christian; Dahlqvist, Mathis

    2016-01-01

    Today, microbial drinking water quality is monitored through either time-consuming laboratory methods or indirect on-line measurements. Results are thus either delayed or insufficient to support proactive action. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor with a 10-minute time resolution has been developed. The sensor is based on 3D image recognition, and the obtained pictures are analyzed with algorithms considering 59 quantified image parameters. The sensor counts individual suspended particles and classifies them as either bacteria or abiotic particles. The technology is capable of distinguishing and quantifying bacteria and particles in pure and mixed suspensions, and the quantification correlates with total bacterial counts. Several field applications have demonstrated that the technology can monitor changes in the concentration of bacteria, and is thus well suited for rapid detection of critical conditions such as pollution events in drinking water. PMID:27040142

  4. On-line coupling of capillary gel electrophoresis with electrospray mass spectrometry for oligonucleotide analysis.

    PubMed

    Freudemann, T; von Brocke, A; Bayer, E

    2001-06-01

    Homooligodeoxyribonucleotides differing one nucleotide in length from 12- to 15-mer and from 17- to 20-mer were separated by size with capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) using an entangled polymer solution in coated capillaries. The resolved components were analyzed by on-line coupling of CGE with electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS), denoted as CGE/ES-MS, in the full-scan negative ion detection mode. Baseline separation was achieved for the 12-15-mer oligonucleotide mixtures. Both synthetic phosphodiester oligonucleotide mixtures as well as their phosphorothioate analogues, serving as model compounds for antisense oligonucleotides, could be analyzed by on-line CGE/ES-MS coupling. Terminally phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated synthetic failure sequences could be electrophoretically separated and mass spectrometically characterized as well. This methodology might be a useful tool for synthesis control of phosphodiester oligonucleotides as well as for analysis of phosphorothioate analogues as they are used in antisense drug development. PMID:11403304

  5. Correction factors for on-line microprobe analysis of multielement alloy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unnam, J.; Tenney, D. R.; Brewer, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    An on-line correction technique was developed for the conversion of electron probe X-ray intensities into concentrations of emitting elements. This technique consisted of off-line calculation and representation of binary interaction data which were read into an on-line minicomputer to calculate variable correction coefficients. These coefficients were used to correct the X-ray data without significantly increasing computer core requirements. The binary interaction data were obtained by running Colby's MAGIC 4 program in the reverse mode. The data for each binary interaction were represented by polynomial coefficients obtained by least-squares fitting a third-order polynomial. Polynomial coefficients were generated for most of the common binary interactions at different accelerating potentials and are included. Results are presented for the analyses of several alloy standards to demonstrate the applicability of this correction procedure.

  6. The development of an on-line ERM system for the research reactors in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hee Reyoung; Lee, Wanno; Kim, Eun Han; Choi, Geun Sik; Lee, Chang Woo

    2007-08-01

    A real-time on-line environmental radiation monitoring (ERM) system for the research reactor sites of Daejeon and Seoul is established. In the Daejeon site, a radio communication method with a radiofrequency of 468.8 MHz is used between the main computer and the six posts inside the Daejeon research reactor site. A general telephone communication method by a dial modem is applied between the main computer and a comparison point with one post outside the Daejeon research reactor site. In the Seoul site, a null modem communication method is employed between a sub-computer and the three posts inside the Seoul research reactor site, and a high-speed communication network such as ADSL is used between the sub-computer in the Seoul site and the main computer in the Daejeon site. Consequently, the real-time data from a total of 10 places is displayed on-line on a screen and it is statistically treated.

  7. On-line analysis capabilities developed to support the AFW wind-tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieseman, Carol D.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Mcgraw, Sandra M.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of on-line analysis tools were developed to support two active flexible wing (AFW) wind-tunnel tests. These tools were developed to verify control law execution, to satisfy analysis requirements of the control law designers, to provide measures of system stability in a real-time environment, and to provide project managers with a quantitative measure of controller performance. Descriptions and purposes of the developed capabilities are presented along with examples. Procedures for saving and transferring data for near real-time analysis, and descriptions of the corresponding data interface programs are also presented. The on-line analysis tools worked well before, during, and after the wind tunnel test and proved to be a vital and important part of the entire test effort.

  8. On-line analysis capabilities developed to support the AFW wind-tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieseman, Carol D.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Mcgraw, Sandra M.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of on-line analysis tools were developed to support two Active Flexible Wing wind-tunnel tests. These tools were developed to verify control law execution, to satisfy analysis requirements of the control law designers, to provide measures of system stability in a real-time environment, and to provide project managers with a quantitative measure of controller performance. Description and purposes of capabilities which were developed are presented in this paper along with examples. Procedures for saving and transferring data for near real-time analysis, and descriptions of the corresponding data interface programs are also presented. The on-line analysis tools worked well before, during, and after the wind-tunnel tests and proved to be a vital and important part of the entire test effort.

  9. On-Line "Chat Room" Tutorials—An Unusual Gender Bias in Computer Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimbrough, Doris R.

    1999-09-01

    Research into gender bias in attitudes, access, and effectiveness associated with computers has produced conflicting results, resulting in conflicting opinions as to whether a technological gender gap favoring male students exists. No previous study, however, has ever demonstrated a preference for female use of a particular computer application. This work describes gender differences in the use of on-line ("chat room") tutorials by non-traditional chemistry students enrolled in distance learning sections of a general chemistry course. Higher percentages of female students participated in the on-line tutorials and they participated with greater frequency than male students. Furthermore, the correlation between frequency of participation and course performance was higher among the female students. Various explanations for this unusual gender bias are offered, and the conclusion that the diversity of computer applications available today requires that research into gender bias refrain from viewing the computer as a single entity is supported.

  10. Development of On-Line Monitoring Systems for High Temperature Components in Power Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongcai; Jia, Jiuhong; Wang, Ning; Hu, Xiaoyin; Tu, Shan-Tung; Zhou, Shaoping; Wang, Zhengdong

    2013-01-01

    To accurately detect deformation and extend the component life beyond the original design limits, structural safety monitoring techniques have attracted considerable attention in the power and process industries for decades. In this paper an on-line monitoring system for high temperature pipes in a power plant is developed. The extension-based sensing devices are amounted on straight pipes, T-Joints and elbows of a main steam pipeline. During on-site monitoring for more than two years, most of the sensors worked reliably and steadily. However, the direct strain gauge could not work for long periods because of the high temperature environment. Moreover, it is found that the installation and connection of the extensometers can have a significant influence on the measurement results. The on-line monitoring system has a good alarming function which is demonstrated by detecting a steam leakage of the header. PMID:24233026

  11. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor for monitoring drinking water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Højris, Bo; Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Smith, Christian; Dahlqvist, Mathis

    2016-04-01

    Today, microbial drinking water quality is monitored through either time-consuming laboratory methods or indirect on-line measurements. Results are thus either delayed or insufficient to support proactive action. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor with a 10-minute time resolution has been developed. The sensor is based on 3D image recognition, and the obtained pictures are analyzed with algorithms considering 59 quantified image parameters. The sensor counts individual suspended particles and classifies them as either bacteria or abiotic particles. The technology is capable of distinguishing and quantifying bacteria and particles in pure and mixed suspensions, and the quantification correlates with total bacterial counts. Several field applications have demonstrated that the technology can monitor changes in the concentration of bacteria, and is thus well suited for rapid detection of critical conditions such as pollution events in drinking water.

  12. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor for monitoring drinking water quality.

    PubMed

    Højris, Bo; Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Smith, Christian; Dahlqvist, Mathis

    2016-01-01

    Today, microbial drinking water quality is monitored through either time-consuming laboratory methods or indirect on-line measurements. Results are thus either delayed or insufficient to support proactive action. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor with a 10-minute time resolution has been developed. The sensor is based on 3D image recognition, and the obtained pictures are analyzed with algorithms considering 59 quantified image parameters. The sensor counts individual suspended particles and classifies them as either bacteria or abiotic particles. The technology is capable of distinguishing and quantifying bacteria and particles in pure and mixed suspensions, and the quantification correlates with total bacterial counts. Several field applications have demonstrated that the technology can monitor changes in the concentration of bacteria, and is thus well suited for rapid detection of critical conditions such as pollution events in drinking water. PMID:27040142

  13. On-Line Monitoring and Control of Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Bryan, Samuel A.

    2008-05-23

    Techniques are needed to provide on-line monitoring and control of the radiochemical processes that are being developed and demonstrated under the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) initiative. The instrumentation used to monitor these processes must be robust and must be able to withstand harsh radiation and chemical environments. A new on-line monitoring system satisfying these requirements featuring Raman spectroscopy combined with a Coriolis and conductivity probes, has been recently developed by our research team. It provides immediate chemical data and flow parameters of high-level radioactive waste streams with high brine/high alkalinity generated during retrieval from Hanford nuclear waste storage tanks. We are currently applying similar methodology for monitoring the radiochemical streams generated at the spent fuel reprocessing plant. The nature of these strems calls for additional spectroscopic information, which can be gained by the utilization of UV-vis-NIR capabilities.

  14. On-line microdialysis sample cleanup for electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of nucleic acid samples

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Wu, Q.; Harms, A.C.; Smith, R.D.

    1996-09-15

    A major limitation of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for oligonucleotide analysis arises due to sodium adduction, a problem that increases with molecular weight. Sodium adduction can preclude useful measurements when limited sample sizes prevent off-line cleanup. A novel and generally useful on-line microdialysis technique is described for the rapid (nearly 1-5 min) DNA sample cleanup for ESI-MS. Mass spectra of oligonucleotides of different size and sequence showing no significant sodium adduct peaks were obtained using the on-line microdialysis system with sodium chloride concentrations as high as 250 mM. Signal-to-noise ratios were also greatly enhanced compared to direct infusion of the original samples. By using ammonium acetate as the dialysis buffer, it was also found that the noncovalent association of double-stranded oligonucleotides could be preserved during the microdialysis process, allowing analysis by ESI-MS. 33 refs., 6 figs.

  15. An equalized error backpropagation algorithm for the on-line training of multilayer perceptrons.

    PubMed

    Martens, J P; Weymaere, N

    2002-01-01

    The error backpropagation (EBP) training of a multilayer perceptron (MLP) may require a very large number of training epochs. Although the training time can usually be reduced considerably by adopting an on-line training paradigm, it can still be excessive when large networks have to be trained on lots of data. In this paper, a new on-line training algorithm is presented. It is called equalized EBP (EEBP), and it offers improved accuracy, speed, and robustness against badly scaled inputs. A major characteristic of EEBP is its utilization of weight specific learning rates whose relative magnitudes are derived from a priori computable properties of the network and the training data. PMID:18244454

  16. GEROM – Developing a Contemporary On-line Master’s Degree Curriculum in Gerontology

    PubMed Central

    Kokol, Peter; Blažun, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Demographic changes have profoundly influenced the structure of present and future populations in terms of the number of older people requiring nursing care, the nature and settings of the nursing care provided, and finally, each individual, e. g., nursing care providers. The aim of the paper is to present the results of the EU Erasmus project GEROM, which, among other things, resulted in an on-line gerontological master’s degree curriculum which is globally focused, flexible, innovative, diverse, contemporary and ICT-based. It focuses on meeting the needs of older people and their carers. An innovative aspect in the curriculum implementation is a virtual environment for clinical practice, enabling students to practice clinical and nursing interventions and diagnosing on-line, based on an adaptive, individualized and personalized blended-learning approach. During the pilot implementation of three randomly selected subjects, the students evaluated the program and were satisfied with both content and implementation. PMID:24199089

  17. [Techniques of on-line monitoring volatile organic compounds in ambient air with optical spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Du, Zhen-Hui; Zhai, Ya-Qiong; Li, Jin-Yi; Hu, Bo

    2009-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are harmful gaseous pollutants in the ambient air. The techniques of on-line monitoring VOCs are very significant for environment protection. Until now, there is no single technology that can meet all the needs of monitoring various VOCs. The characteristics and present situation of several optical methods, which can be applied to on-line monitoring VOCs, including non dispersive infrared (NDIR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), and laser spectroscopy were reviewed. Comparison was completed between the national standard methods and spectroscopic method for measuring VOCs. The main analysis was focused on the status and trends of tuning diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) technology. PMID:20210131

  18. On-line octane control with NIR analyzers. [Near InfraRed

    SciTech Connect

    Zetter, M.S. ); Politzer, B.A. )

    1993-03-01

    On-line octane monitoring at the blender offers substantial advantages in reformulating gasoline and minimizing octane giveaway'. Accurate, real-time measurement of octane number allows rapid adjustments to component feed streams, compensating for variability in the rest of the refining process. With tighter control of the blending operation, less off-spec product is produced, which is particularly important when blending directly into a pipeline. In blending to tankage, less reblending is required to achieve the desired octane specification, which increases both efficiency and equipment utilization. Once tighter octane control is achieved, the refiner can shift octane number targets closer to minimum specifications, thereby reducing octane giveaway. The paper describes on-line octane measurement; remote sensing spectrophotometer; in-line application; principles of operation; instrument calibration; technical performance; tangible economic savings; and future expansion.

  19. Robust RLS Methods for On-line Estimation of Power System Electromechanical Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ning; Pierre, John W.; Trudnowski, Daniel; Guttromson, Ross T.

    2007-08-01

    This paper proposes a Robust Recursive Least Square (RRLS) algorithm for on-line identification of power system modes based on measurement data. The measurement data can either be ambient or ringdown. Also, the mode estimation is provided in real-time. The validity of the proposed RRLS algorithm is demon-strated with both simulation data from a 17-machine model and field measurement data from a Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS). Comparison with the conventional Recursive Least Square (RLS) and Least Means Square (LMS) algorithms shows that the proposed RRLS algorithm can identify the modes from the combined ringdown and ambient signals with outliers and missing data in real time without noticeable performance degra-dation. An adaptive detrend algorithm is also proposed to remove the signal trend based on the RRLS algorithm. It is shown that the algorithm can keep up with the measurement data flow and work on-line to provide real time mode estimation.

  20. Development of on-line monitoring systems for high temperature components in power plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongcai; Jia, Jiuhong; Wang, Ning; Hu, Xiaoyin; Tu, Shan-Tung; Zhou, Shaoping; Wang, Zhengdong

    2013-01-01

    To accurately detect deformation and extend the component life beyond the original design limits, structural safety monitoring techniques have attracted considerable attention in the power and process industries for decades. In this paper an on-line monitoring system for high temperature pipes in a power plant is developed. The extension-based sensing devices are amounted on straight pipes, T-Joints and elbows of a main steam pipeline. During on-site monitoring for more than two years, most of the sensors worked reliably and steadily. However, the direct strain gauge could not work for long periods because of the high temperature environment. Moreover, it is found that the installation and connection of the extensometers can have a significant influence on the measurement results. The on-line monitoring system has a good alarming function which is demonstrated by detecting a steam leakage of the header. PMID:24233026

  1. Laboratory verification of on-line lithium analysis using ultraviolet absorption spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Beemster, B.J.; Schlager, K.J.; Schloegel, K.M.; Kahle, S.J.; Fredrichs, T.L.

    1992-12-31

    Several laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the capability of absorption spectrometry in the ultraviolet-visible wavelength range with the objective of developing methods for on-line analysis of lithium directly in the primary coolant of Pressurized Water Reactors using optical probes. Although initial laboratory tests seemed to indicate that lithium could be detected using primary absorption (detection of natural spectra unassisted by reagents), subsequent field tests demonstrated that no primary absorption spectra existed for lithium in the ultraviolet-visible wavelength range. A second series of tests that were recently conducted did, however, confirm results reported in the literature to the effect that reagents were available that will react with lithium to form chelates that possess detectable absorption and fluorescent signatures. These results point to the possible use of secondary techniques for on-line analysis of lithium.

  2. On-line monitoring of plutonium in mixed uranium-plutonium solutions. [Coprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K. J.; Rebagay, T. V.; Huff, G. A.

    1980-03-01

    The measurement of the total and isotopic plutonium concentrations in mixed uranium-plutonium solutions blended with highly radioactive fission product nuclides and other radionuclides (e.g., Cs-137 and Co-60) has been investigated at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). An on-line total and isotopic plutonium monitoring system is being tested for its ability to assay the plutonium abundances in solutions as might be found in the process streams of a light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel processing plant. The monitoring system is fully automated and designed to be maintained remotely. It is capable of near real-time inventory of plutonium in process streams and provides the basis for on-line computerized accounting of special nuclear materials.

  3. Physics of recent applications of PGNAA for on-line analysis of bulk minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozani, Tsahi

    1985-01-01

    In the last few years the coal, cement and other mineral industries are slowly but steadily coming to realize the potential economical, technological and environmental benefits from using nuclar and especially PGNAA techniques. This realization along with the great efforts and the technological developments of the last decade culminated in a successful production and operation of the last decade culminated in a successful production and operation of a family of on-line analyzer under the name ``Nucoalyzer.''

  4. An on-line, intelligent plant economic advisor for total plant optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Bangham, M.; Hunt, M.; Caplan, J.; Travers, T.; O`Dea, D.; Southard, P.; Vought, A.

    1994-12-31

    A key aspect of the total plant optimization problem is the impact that plant operators can have on overall plant efficiency. Usually, plant systems are operated on a system by system basis and operators are tasked primarily with keeping the plant on-line. Though many units have installed on-line performance monitoring systems to help improve thermal efficiency, operators are often relatively ill-informed of the impact their action can have on plant economic performance. Additionally, the inter-relationships between plant sub-systems are rarely incorporated into operational strategies. in order to truly optimize total plant operation, the impact of, and the inter-relationships between thermal efficiency, plant emissions, and plant materials handling (e.g., waste disposal/sales) must all be simultaneously evaluated. This paper presents the development effort to data for the Plant Economic Optimization Advisor (PEOA). PEOA is an electronic performance support system, currently under development by New York State Electric and Gas Corporation and DHR Technologies, Inc. PEOA provides users with on-line control strategies for achieving least cost plant operation. PEOA uses innovative approaches for plant optimization, as well as an Operations Advisor to guide operators toward optimal plant operation. PEOA also includes on-line data monitoring and analysis tools. The system uses a client/server, object-oriented open architecture that integrates plant information systems and provides support for integration of legacy third party systems, such as performance monitors. PEOA is designed as a low cost addition to legacy performance monitoring systems.

  5. On-line and off-line applications of photogrammetric stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggren, Henrik G. A.

    1993-12-01

    A photogrammetric station is a configuration of several video cameras which are used for automated 3D measuring of industrial objects. All measurements are performed from the image observations only, and the targets are natural features or projected light patterns. The first `on-line' applications are for car body orientation within a robotic sealing cell and for 3D verification of ship screws within a robotic machining step. The `off-line' applications are for object reconstructions for reverse engineering purposes.

  6. Developing an EEG-based on-line closed-loop lapse detection and mitigation system

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Te; Huang, Kuan-Chih; Wei, Chun-Shu; Huang, Teng-Yi; Ko, Li-Wei; Lin, Chin-Teng; Cheng, Chung-Kuan; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2014-01-01

    In America, 60% of adults reported that they have driven a motor vehicle while feeling drowsy, and at least 15–20% of fatal car accidents are fatigue-related. This study translates previous laboratory-oriented neurophysiological research to design, develop, and test an On-line Closed-loop Lapse Detection and Mitigation (OCLDM) System featuring a mobile wireless dry-sensor EEG headgear and a cell-phone based real-time EEG processing platform. Eleven subjects participated in an event-related lane-keeping task, in which they were instructed to manipulate a randomly deviated, fixed-speed cruising car on a 4-lane highway. This was simulated in a 1st person view with an 8-screen and 8-projector immersive virtual-reality environment. When the subjects experienced lapses or failed to respond to events during the experiment, auditory warning was delivered to rectify the performance decrements. However, the arousing auditory signals were not always effective. The EEG spectra exhibited statistically significant differences between effective and ineffective arousing signals, suggesting that EEG spectra could be used as a countermeasure of the efficacy of arousing signals. In this on-line pilot study, the proposed OCLDM System was able to continuously detect EEG signatures of fatigue, deliver arousing warning to subjects suffering momentary cognitive lapses, and assess the efficacy of the warning in near real-time to rectify cognitive lapses. The on-line testing results of the OCLDM System validated the efficacy of the arousing signals in improving subjects' response times to the subsequent lane-departure events. This study may lead to a practical on-line lapse detection and mitigation system in real-world environments. PMID:25352773

  7. Astronomy On-Line - the World's Biggest Astronomy Event on the World-Wide-Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, R.; West, R.; Naumann, M.; Madsen, C.

    This educational programme was organised in a collaboration between ESO, the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE) and the European Union (EU) during the 4th European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture. Astronomy On-Line brought together about 5000 students from all over Europe and other continents. Learning to use the vast resources of tomorrow's communication technology, they also experienced the excitement of real-time scientific adventure and the virtues of international collaboration.

  8. Multi-parameter on-line coal bulk analysis. Quarterly report, March 16--June 15, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Vourvopoulos, G.

    1997-12-31

    An on-line coal analyzer is being developed as a joint venture between the French company SODERN which specializes in the manufacturing of neutron generators and associated electronics and the John B. Long Company which specializes in coal sampling equipment. Progress this quarter is summarized under the following topical headings: Measurement layout; Detector temperature stabilization; Raw coal library; and Determination of Btu content from elemental concentrations.

  9. The use of 3-D sensing techniques for on-line collision-free path planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayward, V.; Aubry, S.; Jasiukajc, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The state of the art in collision prevention for manipulators with revolute joints, showing that it is a particularly computationally hard problem, is discussed. Based on the analogy with other hard or undecidable problems such as theorem proving, an extensible multi-resolution architecture for path planning, based on a collection of weak methods is proposed. Finally, the role that sensors can play for an on-line use of sensor data is examined.

  10. Profile of on-line anatomy information resources: design and instructional implications.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Brinkley, J F; Rosse, C

    2003-01-01

    This study is based on a review of 40 on-line anatomy web resources compiled from sites selected from our own searches as well as sites reviewed and published by an external group (Voiglio et al., 1999, Surg. Radiol. Anat. 21:65-68; Frasca et al., 2000, Surg. Radiol. Anat. 22:107-110). The purpose of our survey was to propose criteria by which anatomy educators could judge the characteristics of the currently available web-based resources for incorporation into the courses they teach. Each site was reviewed and scored based on a survey matrix that included four main categories: 1). site background information, 2). content components, 3). interactivity features, and 4). user interface design components. The average score of the reviewed sites was 3.3 of the total possible score of 10, indicating the limited use of computer-based design features by the majority of sites. We found, however, a number of programs in each of the survey categories that could serve as prototypes for designing future on-line anatomy resources. From the survey we conclude that various design features are less important than the comprehensiveness, depth, and logical organization of content. We suggest that the content should be sufficient for supporting explicitly defined educational objectives, which should target specific end-user populations. The majority of anatomy programs currently accessible on-line fall short of these requirements. There is a need for a coordinated and synergistic effort to generate a comprehensive anatomical information resource that is of sufficient quality and depth to support higher levels of learning beyond the memorization of structure names. Such a resource is a prerequisite for meaningful on-line anatomy education. PMID:12486740

  11. Average correlation functions in on-line testing of linear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mix, D. F.; Sheppard, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    This paper is a report on new methods for on-line testing of single-input/single-output linear and time-invariant systems. No interruption of system operation is necessary, since the signals used in this test procedure are the normal operating signals. Test results indicate that detectable system errors using finite amounts of data are well within tolerance for normal operation in all but the most stringent applications.

  12. Compact fibre Bragg grating-based thermometer for on-line temperature monitoring of drill bits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hey Tow, Kenny; Llera, Miguel; Le Floch, Sébastien; Salvadé, Yves; Thévenaz, Luc

    2016-05-01

    In this communication, a novel compact fibre Bragg grating-based thermometer for on-line temperature monitoring of drill bits is reported. Our proposed technique can potentially be used to optimize any drilling process, requiring the use of small drill bits, through direct temperature measurement at the drill bit instead of relying on indirect parameters (speed of rotation, applied force) in order to avoid an overheating as it is currently done nowadays.

  13. Developing an EEG-based on-line closed-loop lapse detection and mitigation system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Te; Huang, Kuan-Chih; Wei, Chun-Shu; Huang, Teng-Yi; Ko, Li-Wei; Lin, Chin-Teng; Cheng, Chung-Kuan; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2014-01-01

    In America, 60% of adults reported that they have driven a motor vehicle while feeling drowsy, and at least 15-20% of fatal car accidents are fatigue-related. This study translates previous laboratory-oriented neurophysiological research to design, develop, and test an On-line Closed-loop Lapse Detection and Mitigation (OCLDM) System featuring a mobile wireless dry-sensor EEG headgear and a cell-phone based real-time EEG processing platform. Eleven subjects participated in an event-related lane-keeping task, in which they were instructed to manipulate a randomly deviated, fixed-speed cruising car on a 4-lane highway. This was simulated in a 1st person view with an 8-screen and 8-projector immersive virtual-reality environment. When the subjects experienced lapses or failed to respond to events during the experiment, auditory warning was delivered to rectify the performance decrements. However, the arousing auditory signals were not always effective. The EEG spectra exhibited statistically significant differences between effective and ineffective arousing signals, suggesting that EEG spectra could be used as a countermeasure of the efficacy of arousing signals. In this on-line pilot study, the proposed OCLDM System was able to continuously detect EEG signatures of fatigue, deliver arousing warning to subjects suffering momentary cognitive lapses, and assess the efficacy of the warning in near real-time to rectify cognitive lapses. The on-line testing results of the OCLDM System validated the efficacy of the arousing signals in improving subjects' response times to the subsequent lane-departure events. This study may lead to a practical on-line lapse detection and mitigation system in real-world environments. PMID:25352773

  14. On-line failure detection and damping measurement of aerospace structures by random decrement signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, H. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Random decrement signatures of structures vibrating in a random environment are studied through use of computer-generated and experimental data. Statistical properties obtained indicate that these signatures are stable in form and scale and hence, should have wide application in one-line failure detection and damping measurement. On-line procedures are described and equations for estimating record-length requirements to obtain signatures of a prescribed precision are given.

  15. On-line stoichiometry and identification of metabolic state under dynamic process conditions.

    PubMed

    Herwig, C; Marison, I; von Stockar, U

    2001-11-01

    A method for the on-line calculation of conversion rates and yield coefficients under dynamic process conditions was developed. The method is based on cumulated mass balances using a moving average method. Elemental balances were used to test the measured cumulated quantities for gross errors and inappropriate stoichiometry definition followed by data reconciliation and estimation of non-measured conversion rates, using a bioprocess set-up including multiple on-line analysis techniques. The quantitative potential of the proposed method is demonstrated by executing transient experiments in aerobic cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on glucose. Rates and yield coefficients could be consistently quantified in shift-up, shift-down, and accelerostat experiments. The method shows the capability to describe quantitatively transient changes in metabolism including uncoupling of catabolism and anabolism, also for the case when multiple components of metabolism are not measured. The validity of the experiment can be evaluated on-line. Additionally, the method detects with high sensitivity inappropriate stoichiometry definition, such as a change in state of metabolism. It was shown that concentration values can be misleading for the identification of the metabolic state. In contrast, the proposed method provides a clear picture of the metabolic state and new physiological regulations could be revealed. Hence, the novelty of the proposed method is the on-line availability of consistent stoichiometric coefficients allowing a significant speed up in strain characterization and bioprocess development using minimal knowledge of the metabolism. Additionally, it opens up the use of transient experiments for physiological studies. PMID:11590607

  16. A reconfigurable on-line learning spiking neuromorphic processor comprising 256 neurons and 128K synapses

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Ning; Mostafa, Hesham; Corradi, Federico; Osswald, Marc; Stefanini, Fabio; Sumislawska, Dora; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    Implementing compact, low-power artificial neural processing systems with real-time on-line learning abilities is still an open challenge. In this paper we present a full-custom mixed-signal VLSI device with neuromorphic learning circuits that emulate the biophysics of real spiking neurons and dynamic synapses for exploring the properties of computational neuroscience models and for building brain-inspired computing systems. The proposed architecture allows the on-chip configuration of a wide range of network connectivities, including recurrent and deep networks, with short-term and long-term plasticity. The device comprises 128 K analog synapse and 256 neuron circuits with biologically plausible dynamics and bi-stable spike-based plasticity mechanisms that endow it with on-line learning abilities. In addition to the analog circuits, the device comprises also asynchronous digital logic circuits for setting different synapse and neuron properties as well as different network configurations. This prototype device, fabricated using a 180 nm 1P6M CMOS process, occupies an area of 51.4 mm2, and consumes approximately 4 mW for typical experiments, for example involving attractor networks. Here we describe the details of the overall architecture and of the individual circuits and present experimental results that showcase its potential. By supporting a wide range of cortical-like computational modules comprising plasticity mechanisms, this device will enable the realization of intelligent autonomous systems with on-line learning capabilities. PMID:25972778

  17. The Impact of On-line Searching on Document Supply Services at Individual Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosono, Kimio; Tanaka, Isao; Fukazawa, Yoshiko

    As use of on-line searching services has progressed in libraries, requests on primary materials have increased much more than before. For the purpose of clarifying this trend and countermeasures against it a survey by questionnaire was conducted in 1985. The respondants from totally 112 libraries are as follows ; 60 industrial libraries, 41 academic libraries and 11 libraries of research institutes and laboratories. It was shown that industrial libraries have received more requests on primary materials mostly resulting from on-line searching while the requests have not increased remarkably in academic libraries. Regardless the type of libraries, almost all libraries can not fully meet the requests with their own collection so that industrial libraries have to rely on external information services and academic libraries utilize interlibrary loan system. Requests are sent via on-line from industrial libraries, and by mail from academic libraries. In fact, any-libraries are not likely to review their material-collecting policy. Therefore it is urgent to establish the system which enables use of external information services or interlibrary loan system more than ever.

  18. Comparing the Happiness Effects of Real and On-Line Friends

    PubMed Central

    Helliwell, John F.; Huang, Haifang

    2013-01-01

    A recent large Canadian survey permits us to compare face-to-face (‘real-life’) and on-line social networks as sources of subjective well-being. The sample of 5,000 is drawn randomly from an on-line pool of respondents, a group well placed to have and value on-line friendships. We find three key results. First, the number of real-life friends is positively correlated with subjective well-being (SWB) even after controlling for income, demographic variables and personality differences. Doubling the number of friends in real life has an equivalent effect on well-being as a 50% increase in income. Second, the size of online networks is largely uncorrelated with subjective well-being. Third, we find that real-life friends are much more important for people who are single, divorced, separated or widowed than they are for people who are married or living with a partner. Findings from large international surveys (the European Social Surveys 2002–2008) are used to confirm the importance of real-life social networks to SWB; they also indicate a significantly smaller value of social networks to married or partnered couples. PMID:24019875

  19. On-line scalable image access for medical remote collaborative meetings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarando, Sebastian R.; Lucidarme, Olivier; Grenier, Philippe; Fetita, Catalin

    2015-03-01

    The increasing need of remote medical investigation services in the framework of collaborative multidisciplinary meetings (e.g. cancer follow-up) raises the challenge of on-line remote access of (large amount of) radiologic data in a limited period of time. This paper proposes a scalable compression framework of DICOM images providing low-latency display through low speed networks. The developed approach relies on useless information removal from images (i.e. not related with the patient body) and the exploitation of the JPEG2000 standard to achieve progressive quality encoding and access of the data. This mechanism also allows the efficient exploitation of any idle times (corresponding to on-line visual image analysis) to download the remaining data at lossless quality in a way transparent to the user, thus minimizing the perceived latency. The experiments performed in comparison with exchanging uncompressed or JPEGlossless compressed DICOM data, showed the benefit of the proposed approach for collaborative on-line remote diagnosis and follow-up services.

  20. Integrated on-line system for DNA sequencing by capillary electrophoresis: From template to called bases

    SciTech Connect

    Ton, H.; Yeung, E.S.

    1997-02-15

    An integrated on-line prototype for coupling a microreactor to capillary electrophoresis for DNA sequencing has been demonstrated. A dye-labeled terminator cycle-sequencing reaction is performed in a fused-silica capillary. Subsequently, the sequencing ladder is directly injected into a size-exclusion chromatographic column operated at nearly 95{degree}C for purification. On-line injection to a capillary for electrophoresis is accomplished at a junction set at nearly 70{degree}C. High temperature at the purification column and injection junction prevents the renaturation of DNA fragments during on-line transfer without affecting the separation. The high solubility of DNA in and the relatively low ionic strength of 1 x TE buffer permit both effective purification and electrokinetic injection of the DNA sample. The system is compatible with highly efficient separations by a replaceable poly(ethylene oxide) polymer solution in uncoated capillary tubes. Future automation and adaptation to a multiple-capillary array system should allow high-speed, high-throughput DNA sequencing from templates to called bases in one step. 32 refs., 5 figs.