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Sample records for onboard coronas-photon mission

  1. Characteristics of EUV/XUV radiometer "PHOKA" onboard "CORONAS-PHOTON" mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, Alexey; Kotov, Yury; Yurov, Vitaly; Buslov, A. S.; Bessonov, Michael; Glyanenko, Alexander; Arkhangelsky, Andrey

    Instrument PHOKA intended for measuring interesting and important solar EUV/XUV radia-tion is placed onboard CORONAS-PHOTON satellite launched January 30, 2009. Instrument has three primary channels with sensitivity spectral bands 0.5-11 nm, (0.5-7)(27-37) nm and 116-125 nm for bright Ly-hydrogen line 121.6 nm. Absolute calibration of the channels was carried out before launch. Instrument PHOKA was switched on February 19, 2009. During the first stage of the experiment important information about functionality and parameters of the instrument, behavior of signals in channels and levels of background illuminations were obtained. Also we have obtained occultation profiles of EUV/XUV radiation absorption by Earth's atmosphere. The effective absorption heights during occultation measurements are presented for mentioned channels.

  2. TESIS experiment on XUV imaging spectroscopy of the Sun onboard the CORONAS-PHOTON satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzin, S. V.; Zhitnik, I. A.; Bogachev, S. A.; Shestov, S. V.; Bugaenko, O. I.; Suhodrev, N. K.; Pertsov, A. A.; Mitrofanov, A. V.; Ignat'ev, A. P.; Slemzin, V. A.

    We present a brief description of new complex of space telescopes and spectrographs, TESIS, which will be placed aboard the CORONAS-PHOTON satellite. The complex is intended for high-resolution imaging observation of full Sun in the coronal spectral lines and in the spectral lines of the solar transition region. TESIS will be launched at the end of 2007 - early of 2008. About 25 % of the daily TESIS images will be free for use and for downloading from the TESIS data center that is planned to open 2 months before the TESIS launching at http://www.tesis.lebedev.ru

  3. Instruments of RT-2 experiment onboard CORONAS-PHOTON and their test and evaluation V: onboard software, data structure, telemetry and telecommand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreekumar, S. S.; Vinod, P.; Samuel, Essy; Malkar, J. P.; Rao, A. R.; Hingar, M. K.; Madhav, V. P.; Debnath, D.; Kotoch, T. B.; Nandi, Anuj; Begum, S. Shaheda; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2011-02-01

    The onboard software and data communication in the RT-2 Experiment onboard the Coronas-Photon satellite is organized in a hierarchical way to effectively handle and communicate asynchronous data generated by the X-ray detectors. A flexible data handling system is organized in the X-ray detector packages themselves and the processing electronic device, namely RT-2/E, has the necessary intelligence to communicate with the three scientific payloads by issuing commands and receiving data. It has direct interfacing with the Satellite systems and issues commands to the detectors and processes the detector data before sending to the satellite systems. The onboard software is configured with several novel features like (a) device independent communication scheme, (b) loss-less data compression and (c) Digital Signal Processor. Functionality of the onboard software along with the data structure, command structure, complex processing scheme etc. are discussed in this paper.

  4. The Soft X-ray Spectrophotometer SphinX for the CORONAS-Photon Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Szymon, Gburek; Bakala, Jaroslaw; Kuzin, Sergey; Kotov, Yury; Farnik, Frantisek; Reale, Fabio

    The purpose, construction details and calibration results of the new design, Polish-led solar X-ray spectrophotometer SphinX will be presented. The instrument constitutes a part of the Russian TESIS X-ray and EUV complex aboard the forthcoming CORONAS-Photon solar mission to be launched later in 2008. SphinX uses Si-PIN detectors for high time resolution (down to 0.01 s) measurements of solar spectra in the energy range between 0.5 keV and 15 keV. The spectral resolution allows separating 256 individual energy channels in this range with particular groups of lines clearly distinguishable. Unprecedented accuracy of the instrument calibration at the XACT (Palermo) and BESSY (Berlin) synchrotron will allow for establishing the solar soft X-ray photometric reference system. The cross-comparison between SphinX and the other instruments presently in orbit like XRT on Hinode, RHESSI and GOES X-ray monitor, will allow for a precise determination of the coronal emission measure and temperature during both very low and very high activity periods. Examples of the detectors' ground calibration results as well as the calculated synthetic spectra will be presented. The operation of the instrument while in orbit will be discussed allowing for suggestions from other groups to be still included in mission planning.

  5. Set of instruments for solar EUV and soft X-ray monitoring onboard satellite Coronas-Photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, Yury; Kochemasov, Alexey; Kuzin, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Sylwester, Janusz; Yurov, Vitaly

    Coronas-Photon mission is the third satellite of the Russian Coronas program on solar activity observation. The main goal of the "Coronas-Photon" is the study of solar hard electromagnetic radiation in the wide energy range from UV up to high energy gamma-radiation (2000MeV). Scientific payload for solar radiation observation consists of three types of instruments: Monitors (Natalya-2M, Konus-RF, RT-2, Penguin-M, BRM, PHOKA, Sphin-X, SOKOL spectral and timing measurements of full solar disk radiation have timing in flare/burst mode up to one msec. Instruments Natalya-2M, Konus-RF, RT-2 will cover the wide energy range of hard X-rays and soft gamma-rays (15keV to 2000MeV) and will together constitute the largest area detectors ever used for solar observations. Detectors of gamma-ray monitors are based on structured inorganic scintillators. For X-ray and EUV monitors the scintillation phoswich detectors, gas proportional counter, CdZnTe assembly and filter-covered Si-diodes are used. Telescope-spectrometer TESIS for imaging solar spectroscopy in X-rays has angular resolution up to 1arcsec in three spectral lines. Satellite platform and scientific payload is under construction to be launched in autumn 2008. Satellite orbit is circular with initial height 550km and inclination 82.5degrees. Accuracy of the spacecraft orientation to the Sun is better 3arcmin. In the report the capability of PHOKA, SphinX, SOKOL and TESIS as well as the observation program are described and discussed.

  6. Astro-1 Mission Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In this photograph, the instruments of the Astro-1 Observatory are erected in the cargo bay of the Columbia orbiter. Astro-1 was launched aboard the the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia (STS-35) mission on December 2, 1990. The Astro Observatory was designed to explore the universe by observing and measuring the ultraviolet radiation from celestial objects. Astronomical targets of observation selected for Astro missions included planets, stars, star clusters, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, quasars, remnants of exploded stars (supernovae), clouds of gas and dust (nebulae), and the interstellar medium. Astro-1 used a Spacelab pallet system with an instrument pointing system and a cruciform structure for bearing the three ultraviolet instruments mounted in a parallel configuration. The three instruments were:The Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT), the Wisconsin Ultraviolet Photo-Polarimeter Experiment (WUPPE), and the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT). Also in the payload bay was the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT). Scientific return included approximately 1,000 photographs of the ultraviolet sky in the most extensive ultraviolet imagery ever attempted, the longest ultraviolet spectral observation of a comet ever made, and data never before seen on types of active galaxies called Seyfert galaxies. The mission also provided data on a massive supergiant star captured in outburst and confirmed that a spectral feature observed in the interstellar medium was due to graphite. In addition, Astro-1 acquired superb observations of the Jupiter magnetic interaction with one of its satellites.

  7. STS-65 Mission Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Donald Thomas conducts the Fertilization and Embryonic Development of Japanese Newt in Space (AstroNewt) experiment at the Aquatic Animal Experiment Unit (AAEU) inside the International Microgravity Laboratory-2 (IML-2) science module. The AstroNewt experiment aims to know the effects of gravity on the early developmental process of fertilized eggs using a unique aquatic animal, the Japanese red-bellied newt. The newt egg is a large single cell at the begirning of development. The Japanese newt mates in spring and autumn. In late autumn, female newts enter hibernation with sperm in their body cavity and in spring lay eggs and fertilize them with the stored sperm. The experiment takes advantage of this feature of the newt. Groups of newts were sent to the Kennedy Space Center and kept in hibernation until the mission. The AAEU cassettes carried four newts aboard the Space Shuttle. Two newts in one cassette are treated by hormone injection on the ground to simulate egg laying. The other two newts are treated on orbit by the crew. The former group started maturization of eggs before launch. The effects of gravity on that early process were differentiated by comparison of the two groups. The IML-2 was the second in a series of Spacelab flights designed to conduct research by the international science community in a microgravity environment. Managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, the IML-2 was launched on July 8, 1994 aboard the STS-65 Space Shuttle mission, Orbiter Columbia.

  8. STS-65 Mission Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Donald Thomas conducts the Fertilization and Embryonic Development of Japanese Newt in Space (AstroNewt) experiment at the Aquatic Animal Experiment Unit (AAEU) inside the International Microgravity Laboratory-2 (IML-2) science module. The AstroNewt experiment aims to know the effects of gravity on the early developmental process of fertilized eggs using a unique aquatic animal, the Japanese red-bellied newt. The newt egg is a large single cell at the begirning of development. The Japanese newt mates in spring and autumn. In late autumn, female newts enter hibernation with sperm in their body cavity and in spring lay eggs and fertilized them with the stored sperm. The experiment takes advantage of this feature of the newt. Groups of newts were sent to the Kennedy Space Center and kept in hibernation until the mission. The AAEU cassettes carried four newts aboard the Space Shuttle. Two newts in one cassette are treated by hormone injection on the ground to simulate egg laying. The other two newts are treated on orbit by the crew. The former group started maturization of eggs before launch. The effects of gravity on that early process were differentiated by comparison of the two groups. The IML-2 was the second in a series of Spacelab flights designed to conduct research by the international science community in a microgravity environment. Managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, the IML-2 was launch on July 8, 1994 aboard the STS-65 Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia mission.

  9. STS-65 Mission Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In this photograph, astronaut Carl Walz performs the Performance Assessment Workstation (PAWS) experiment at the flight deck of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia during the STS-65 mission. Present day astronauts are subject to a variety of stresses during spaceflight. These include microgravity, physical isolation, confinement, lack of privacy, fatigue, and changing work/rest cycles. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the effects of microgravity upon thinking skills critical to the success of operational tasks in space. The principle objective is to distinguish between the effects of microgravity on specific information-processing skills affecting performance and those of fatigue caused by long work periods. To measure these skills, the investigators use a set of computerized performance tests called the Performance Assessment Workstation, which is based on current theoretical models of human performance. The tests were selected by analyzing tasks related to space missions and their hypothesized sensitivity to microgravity. Multiple subjective measures of cumulative fatigue and changing mood states are also included for interpreting performance data.

  10. Skylab-4 Mission Onboard Photograph - Meal Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This Skylab-4 mission onboard photograph shows Astronaut Ed Gibson getting ready to prepare his meal in the crew wardroom. The tray contained heating elements for preparing the individual food packets. The food on Skylab was a great improvement over that on earlier spaceflights. It was no longer necessary to squeeze liquified food from plastic tubes. Skylab's kitchen was so equipped that each crewman could select his own menu and prepare it to his own taste.

  11. L-shell bifurcation of electron outer belt at the recovery phase of geomagnetic storm as observed by STEP-F and SphinX instruments onboard the CORONAS-Photon satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnik, Oleksiy; Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Podgorski, Piotr

    2016-07-01

    Radiation belts and sporadically arising volumes comprising enhanced charged particle fluxes in the Earth's magnetosphere are typically studied by space-borne telescopes, semiconductor, scintillation, gaseous and other types of detectors. Ambient and internal electron bremsstrahlung in hard X-ray arises as a result of interaction of precipitating particles with the atmosphere (balloon experiments) and with the satellite's housings and instrument boxes (orbital experiments). Theses emissions provide a number of new information on the physics of radiation belts. The energies of primary electrons and their spectra responsible for measured X-ray emissions remain usually unknown. Combined measurements of particle fluxes, and their bremsstrahlung by individual satellite instruments placed next to each other provide insight to respective processes. The satellite telescope of electrons and protons STEP-F and the solar X-ray spectrophotometer SphinX were placed in close proximity to each other aboard CORONAS-Photon, the low, circular and highly inclined orbit satellite. Based on joint analysis of the data we detected new features in the high energy particle distributions of the Earth's magnetosphere during deep minimum of solar activity [1-3]. In this research the bifurcation of Van Allen outer electron radiation belt during the weak geomagnetic storm and during passage of interplanetary shock are discussed. Outer belt bifurcation and growth of electron fluxes in a wide energy range were recorded by both instruments during the recovery phase of May 8, 2009 substorm. STEP-F recorded also barely perceptible outer belt splitting on August 5, 2009, after arrival of interplanetary shock to the Earth's magnetosphere bowshock. The STEP-F and SphinX data are compared with the space weather indexes, and with relativistic electron fluxes observed at geostationary orbit. We discuss possible mechanism of the phenomena consisting in the splitting of drift shells because of Earth

  12. Onboard autonomy on the Three Corner Sat Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, S.; Engelhardt, B.; Knight, R.; Rabideau, G.; Sherwood, R.

    2001-01-01

    Three Corner Sat (3CS) is a mission of three university nanosatellites scheduled for launch on September 2002. The 3CS misison will utilize significan onboard autonomy to perform onboard science data validation and replanning.

  13. Onboard autonomy on the Three Corner Sat mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, S. A.; Sherwood, R.

    2002-01-01

    In 2003, the student-built three satellite constellation Three Corner Sat (3CS) Mission will demonstrate onboard autonomy including: science data validation and prioritization, mission re-planning, and robust execution. Future observations will be planned onboard based on the quality of aquired science, available memory and power, and anticipated downlinks. These capabilities will allow 3CS to aquire additional science data if resources are available and to return only the highest quality science data.

  14. Observational capabilities of solar satellite "Coronas-Photon"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, Yu.

    Coronas-Photon mission is the third satellite of the Russian Coronas program on solar activity observation The main goal of the Coronas-Photon is the study of solar hard electromagnetic radiation in the wide energy range from UV up to high energy gamma-radiation sim 2000MeV Scientific payload for solar radiation observation consists of three type of instruments 1 monitors Natalya-2M Konus-RF RT-2 Penguin-M BRM Phoka Sphin-X Sokol for spectral and timing measurements of full solar disk radiation with timing in flare burst mode up to one msec Instruments Natalya-2M Konus-RF RT-2 will cover the wide energy range of hard X-rays and soft Gamma rays 15keV to 2000MeV and will together constitute the largest area detectors ever used for solar observations Detectors of gamma-ray monitors are based on structured inorganic scintillators with energy resolution sim 5 for nuclear gamma-line band to 35 for GeV-band PSD analysis is used for gamma neutron separation for solar neutron registration T 30MeV Penguin-M has capability to measure linear polarization of hard X-rays using azimuth are measured by Compton scattering asymmetry in case of polarization of an incident flux For X-ray and EUV monitors the scintillation phoswich detectors gas proportional counter CZT assembly and Filter-covered Si-diodes are used 2 Telescope-spectrometer TESIS for imaging solar spectroscopy in X-rays with angular resolution up to 1 in three spectral lines and RT-2 CZT assembly of CZT

  15. Skylab-3 Mission Onboard Photograph - Meal Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This photograph was taken during the Skylab-3 mission (2nd marned mission), showing Astronaut Owen Garriott enjoying his meal in the Orbital Workshop crew wardroom. The tray contained heating elements for preparing the individual food packets. The food on Skylab was a great improvement over that on earlier spaceflights. It was no longer necessary to squeeze liquified food from plastic tubes. Skylab's kitchen was so equipped that each crewman could select his own menu and prepare it to his own taste.

  16. STS-109 Shuttle Mission Onboard Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On the Space Shuttle Columbia's mid deck, the STS-109 crew of seven pose for the traditional in-flight portrait. From the left (front row), are astronauts Nancy J. Currie, mission specialist; Scott D. Altman, mission commander; and Duane G. Carey, pilot. Pictured on the back row from left to right are astronauts John M. Grunsfield, payload commander; and Richard M. Lirneham, James H. Newman, and Michael J. Massimino, all mission specialists. The 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program, the STS-109 mission launched March 1, 2002, and lasted 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes. The goal of the mission was the maintenance and upgrade of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Using Columbia's robotic arm, the telescope was captured and secured on a work stand in Columbia's payload bay where four members of the crew performed five space walks to complete system upgrades to the HST. The Marshall Space Flight Center had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST, which is the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit.

  17. Spacelab Life Science-1 Mission Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The laboratory module in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia was photographed during the Spacelab Life Science-1 (SLS-1) mission. SLS-1 was the first Spacelab mission dedicated solely to life sciences. The main purpose of the SLS-1 mission was to study the mechanisms, magnitudes, and time courses of certain physiological changes that occur during space flight, to investigate the consequences of the body's adaptation to microgravity and readjustment to Earth's gravity, and to bring the benefits back home to Earth. The mission was designed to explore the responses of the heart, lungs, blood vessels, kidneys, and hormone-secreting glands to microgravity and related body fluid shifts; examine the causes of space motion sickness; and study changes in the muscles, bones and cells. The five body systems being studied were: The Cardiovascular/Cardiopulmonary System (heart, lungs, and blood vessels), the Renal/Endocrine System (kidney and hormone-secreting organs), the Immune System (white blood cells), the Musculoskeletal System (muscles and bones), and the Neurovestibular System (brain and nerves, eyes, and irner ear). The SLS-1 was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia (STS-40) on June 5, 1995.

  18. Spacelab Life Science-1 Mission Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Spacelab Life Science -1 (SLS-1) was the first Spacelab mission dedicated solely to life sciences. The main purpose of the SLS-1 mission was to study the mechanisms, magnitudes, and time courses of certain physiological changes that occur during space flight, to investigate the consequences of the body's adaptation to microgravity and readjustment to Earth's gravity, and bring the benefits back home to Earth. The mission was designed to explore the responses of the heart, lungs, blood vessels, kidneys, and hormone-secreting glands to microgravity and related body fluid shifts; examine the causes of space motion sickness; and study changes in the muscles, bones, and cells. This photograph shows astronaut Rhea Seddon conducting an inflight study of the Cardiovascular Deconditioning experiment by breathing into the cardiovascular rebreathing unit. This experiment focused on the deconditioning of the heart and lungs and changes in cardiopulmonary function that occur upon return to Earth. By using noninvasive techniques of prolonged expiration and rebreathing, investigators can determine the amount of blood pumped out of the heart (cardiac output), the ease with which blood flows through all the vessels (total peripheral resistance), oxygen used and carbon dioxide released by the body, and lung function and volume changes. SLS-1 was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia (STS-40) on June 5, 1995.

  19. Onboard Autonomy on the Earth Observing One Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Robert L.; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Rabideau, Gregg; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; Hengemihle, Jerry; D'Agostino, Jeff; Shulman, Seth; Ungar, Stephen; Brakke, Thomas; Boyer, Darrell; Van Gaasbeck, Jim; Greeley, Ronald; Doggett, Thomas; Baker, Victor; Dohm, James; Ip, Felipe

    2004-01-01

    The Earth Observing One Spacecraft is currently flying The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) - onboard autonomy software to improve science return. The ASE software enables the spacecraft to autonomously detect and respond to science events occurring on the Earth. ASE includes software systems that perform science data analysis, mission planning, and run-time robust execution. In this article we describe the autonomy flight software and how it enables a new paradigm of autonomous science and mission operations.

  20. Revolutionary Deep Space Science Missions Enabled by Onboard Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Debban, Theresa; Yen, Chen wan; Sherwood, Robert; Castano, Rebecca; Cichy, Benjamin; Davies, Ashley; Brul, Michael; Fukunaga, Alex; Fukunaga, Alex; Doggett, Thomas; Williams, Kevin; Dohm, James

    2003-01-01

    Breakthrough autonomy technologies enable a new range of spire missions that acquire vast amounts of data and return only the most scientifically important data to Earth. These missions would monitor science phenomena in great detail (either with frequent observations or at extremely high spatial resolution) and onboard analyze the data to detect specific science events of interest. These missions would monitor volcanic eruptions, formation and movement of aeolian features. and atmospheric phenomena. The autonomous spacecraft would respond to science events by planning its future operations to revisit or perform complementary observations. In this paradigm, the spacecraft represents the scientists agent enabling optimization of the downlink data volume resource. This paper describes preliminary efforts to define and design such missions.

  1. Onboard Systems Record Unique Videos of Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Ecliptic Enterprises Corporation, headquartered in Pasadena, California, provided onboard video systems for rocket and space shuttle launches before it was tasked by Ames Research Center to craft the Data Handling Unit that would control sensor instruments onboard the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) spacecraft. The technological capabilities the company acquired on this project, as well as those gained developing a high-speed video system for monitoring the parachute deployments for the Orion Pad Abort Test Program at Dryden Flight Research Center, have enabled the company to offer high-speed and high-definition video for geosynchronous satellites and commercial space missions, providing remarkable footage that both informs engineers and inspires the imagination of the general public.

  2. Skylab-3 Mission Onboard Photograph - Astronaut Bean on Ergometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This Skylab-3 onboard photograph shows Astronaut Allen Bean on the ergometer, breathing into the metabolic analyzer. Skylab's Metabolic Activity experiment (M171), a medical evaluation facility, was designed to measure astronauts' metabolic changes while on long-term space missions. The experiment obtained information on astronauts' physiological capabilities and limitations and provided data useful in the design of future spacecraft and work programs. Physiological responses to physical activity was deduced by analyzing inhaled and exhaled air, pulse rate, blood pressure, and other selected variables of the crew while they performed controlled amounts of physical work with a bicycle ergometer.

  3. Scheduling Onboard Processing for the Proposed HyspIRI Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Mclaren, David; Rabideau, Gregg; Mandl, Daniel; Hengemihle, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The proposed Hyspiri mission is evaluating a X-band Direct Broadcast (DB) capability that would enable data to be delivered to ground stations virtually as it is acquired. However the HyspIRI VSWIR and TIR instruments will produce 1 Gbps data while the DB capability is 15 M bps for a 60x oversubscription. In order to address this data volume mismatch a DB concept has been developed thatdetermines which data to downlink based on both: 1. The type of surface the spacecraft is overflying and 2. Onboard processing of the data to detect events. For example when the spacecraft is overflying polar regions it might downlink a snow/ice product. Additionally the onboard software will search for thermal signatures indicative of a volcanic event or wild fire and downlink summary information (extent, spectra) when detected. The process of determining which products to generate when, based on request prioritization and onboard processing and downlink constraints is inherently a prioritized scheduling problem - we describe work to develop an automated solution to this problem.

  4. Spacelab-1 Mission Onboard Photograph-Vestibular Experiment in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    In this Spacelab-1 mission onboard photograph, astronaut Byron Lichtenberg performs a drop experiment, one of the Vestibular Experiments in Space investigations. The experiment examined spinal reflexes to determine whether they changed in microgravity. In Earth's environment, the otoliths signal the muscles to prepare for jolts associated with falling. During the flight, the normal reflex between the otoliths and the muscles was partially inhibited early in flight, declined further as the flight progressed, and returned to normal immediately after landing, suggesting that the brain ignored or reinterpreted otolith signals during space flight. Crewmembers reported a lack of awareness of position and location of feet, difficulty in maintaining balance, and a perception that falls were more sudden, faster, and harder than similar drops experienced in preflight. Crewmembers experienced illusions as they performed prescribed movement tests. When crew members viewed various targets and then pointed at them while blindfolded, their perception of target location and position of their own limbs was inaccurate in flight compared with similar tests on the ground. The Spacelab-1 was a multidisciplinary mission; that is, investigations were performed in several different fields of scientific research. The overall goal of the mission was to verify Spacelab performance through a variety of scientific experiments. The Spacelab-1 was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia for the STS-9 mission on November 28, 1983. The Marshall Space Flight Center had management responsibilities for the mission.

  5. Onboard magnetic field modeling for Solar Maximum Mission /SMM/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Headrick, R. D.; Markley, F. L.

    1977-01-01

    Analysis and simulation results are presented for magnetic field models for use in attitude acquisition onboard Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). A study was made of the degree of the spherical harmonic expansion of the magnetic field required, considering mission requirements, modeling errors, and magnetometer quantization and biases. It is shown that a fifth-degree field is sufficient to provide two-degree roll angle determination accuracy with a residual magnetic bias of 10 milligauss. Also, a spherical harmonic expansion for the McIlwain L-parameter is included for the first time. This parameter will be telemetered to ground with experimental data. The fifth-degree expansion will provide the L-parameter to within two percent of accepted values. The additional onboard computational burden is the storage of 36 coefficients and an increase of about 15% in computation time. Prototype flight code was developed which is anticipated to require about 2000 bytes of core storage and 30 milliseconds of computation time per orbit point on the NSSC-1 computer.

  6. Common observations of solar X-rays from SPHINX/CORONAS-PHOTON and XRS/MESSENGER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepa, Anna; Sylwester, Janusz; Sylwester, Barbara; Siarkowski, Marek; Mrozek, Tomasz; Gryciuk, Magdalena; Phillips, Kenneth

    SphinX was a soft X-ray spectrophotometer constructed in the Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences. The instrument was launched on 30 January 2009 aboard CORONAS-PHOTON satellite as a part of TESIS instrument package. SphinX measured total solar X-ray flux in the energy range from 1 to 15 keV during the period of very low solar activity from 20 February to 29 November 2009. For these times the solar detector (X-ray Spectrometer - XRS) onboard MESSENGER also observed the solar X-rays from a different vantage point. XRS measured the radiation in similar energy range. We present results of the comparison of observations from both instruments and show the preliminary results of physical analysis of spectra for selected flares.

  7. Autonomous Onboard Science Data Analysis for Comet Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David R.; Tran, Daniel Q.; McLaren, David; Chien, Steve A.; Bergman, Larry; Castano, Rebecca; Doyle, Richard; Estlin, Tara; Lenda, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Coming years will bring several comet rendezvous missions. The Rosetta spacecraft arrives at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014. Subsequent rendezvous might include a mission such as the proposed Comet Hopper with multiple surface landings, as well as Comet Nucleus Sample Return (CNSR) and Coma Rendezvous and Sample Return (CRSR). These encounters will begin to shed light on a population that, despite several previous flybys, remains mysterious and poorly understood. Scientists still have little direct knowledge of interactions between the nucleus and coma, their variation across different comets or their evolution over time. Activity may change on short timescales so it is challenging to characterize with scripted data acquisition. Here we investigate automatic onboard image analysis that could act faster than round-trip light time to capture unexpected outbursts and plume activity. We describe one edge-based method for detect comet nuclei and plumes, and test the approach on an existing catalog of comet images. Finally, we quantify benefits to specific measurement objectives by simulating a basic plume monitoring campaign.

  8. Onboard Atmospheric Modeling and Prediction for Autonomous Aerobraking Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolson, Robert H.; Prince, Jill L. H.

    2011-01-01

    Aerobraking has proven to be an effective means of increasing the science payload for planetary orbiting missions and/or for enabling the use of less expensive launch vehicles. Though aerobraking has numerous benefits, large operations cost have been required to maintain the aerobraking time line without violating aerodynamic heating or other constraints. Two operations functions have been performed on an orbit by orbit basis to estimate atmospheric properties relevant to aerobraking. The Navigation team typically solves for an atmospheric density scale factor using DSN tracking data and the atmospheric modeling team uses telemetric accelerometer data to recover atmospheric density profiles. After some effort, decisions are made about the need for orbit trim maneuvers to adjust periapsis altitude to stay within the aerobraking corridor. Autonomous aerobraking would reduce the need for many ground based tasks. To be successful, atmospheric modeling must be performed on the vehicle in near real time. This paper discusses the issues associated with estimating the planetary atmosphere onboard and evaluates a number of the options for Mars, Venus and Titan aerobraking missions.

  9. Spacelab-2 (STS-51F Mission) Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This STS-51F mission onboard Photograph shows some of the Spacelab-2 instruments in the cargo bay of the Orbiter Challenger. The Plasma Diagnostics Package (PDP). shown at the end of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS), used instruments on a subsatellite to study natural plasma processes, orbiter-induced plasma processes, and beam plasma physics. Fourteen instruments were mounted on the PDP for measurements of various plasma characteristics. The X-ray Telescope (XRT), is at the front. The goal of this investigation was to image and examine the X-ray emissions from clusters of galaxies in order to study the mechanisms that cause high-temperature emissions and to determine the weight of galactic clusters. The Small Helium-Cooled Infrared Telescope (IRT) is at the right behind the XRT. The objective of this investigation was to measure and map diffused and discrete infrared astronomical sources while evaluating the Space Shuttle as a platform for infrared astronomy. At the same time, a new large superfluid helium dewar system for cooling the telescope was evaluated. The egg-shaped Cosmic Ray Nuclei experiment (CRNE) is shown at the rear. This investigation was to study the composition of high-energy cosmic rays by using a large instrument exposed to space for a considerable period of time. Spacelab-2 (STS-51F, 19th Shuttle mission) was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Challenger on July 29, 1985.

  10. Satellite project "CORONAS-PHOTON" for study of solar hard radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, Yu.; Cor-Phot Team

    "CORONAS-PHOTON" is the Russian mission for study of the solar hard electromagnetic radiation in the very wide energy range from Extreme UV up to high-energy gamma - radiation. GOAL OF PROJECT: The investigation of energy accumulation and its transformation into energy of accelerated particles processes during solar flares; the study of the acceleration mechanisms, propagation and interaction of fast particles in the solar atmosphere; the study of the solar activity correlation with physical-chemical processes in the Earth upper atmosphere. SCIENTIFIC PAYLOAD CAPABILITY Radiation / Energy region / Detector type: Full solar disk X- radiation / 2keV - 2000MeV / Prop. counter; NaI(Tl); Full solar disk X- and γ-radiation / NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na) phoswich; Full solar disk X- and γ-radiation and solar neutrons / 20 - 300MeV / YalO_3(Ce); CsI(Tl); Hard X-ray polarization in large flares / 20 - 150keV / p-terphenyl scatterer and CsI(Na) absorbers; Full solar disk EUV-radiation monitoring / 6 spectral windows in <10 - 130nm / Filtered photodiodes; Solar images in narrow spectral bands and monochromatic emission lines of hot plasma / Emission of HeII, SiXI, FeXXI, FeXXIII, MgXII ions / Multi-layer and Bregg spherical crystal quartz mirrors with CCDs; Additionally, the temporal and energy spectra of electrons (0.2-14MeV), protons (1-61MeV) and nuclei (Z<26, 2-50MeV/nuclon) at the satellite orbit will be registrated by several instruments. MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF SPACECRAFT: Spacecraft weight: 1900 kg; Orbit type: Circular; Scientific payload weight: 540 kg; Height: 500 km; Orientation to the Sun [arc min]: better 5; Inclination: 82.5 degree; Instability of orientation [deg/s]: less 0.005; Solar - synchronous orbit is under study. Launching date of "CORONAS-PHOTON" spacecraft is 2006.

  11. Spacecraft autonomy using onboard processing for a SAR constellation mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, R. L.; Chien, S.; Castano, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly onboard the Air Force TechSat 21 constellation of three spacecraft scheduled for launch in 2006. ASE uses onboard continuous planning, robust task and goal-based execution, model-based mode identification and reconfiguration, and onboard machine learning and pattem recognition to radically increase science retum by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. Demonstration of these capabilities in a flight environment will open up tremendous new opportunities in planetary science, space physics, and earth science that would be unreachable without this technology.

  12. NASA/GSFC Onboard Autonomy For The Swift Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ong, John

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work that NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is currently doing and has been involved in in developing onboard autonomy and automation. Emphasis is given to the work being done for the Swift observatory

  13. Onboard Classification of Hyperspectral Data on the Earth Observing One Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Schaffer, Steve; Rabideau, Gregg; Davies, Ashley Gerard; Doggett, Thomas; Greeley, Ronald; Ip, Felipe; Baker, Victor; Doubleday, Joshua; Castano, Rebecca; Mandl, Daniel; Frye, Stuart; Ong, Lawrence; Rogez, Francois; Oaida, Bogdan

    2009-01-01

    Remote-sensed hyperspectral data represents significant challenges in downlink due to its large data volumes. This paper describes a research program designed to process hyperspectral data products onboard spacecraft to (a) reduce data downlink volumes and (b) decrease latency to provide key data products (often by enabling use of lower data rate communications systems). We describe efforts to develop onboard processing to study volcanoes, floods, and cryosphere, using the Hyperion hyperspectral imager and onboard processing for the Earth Observing One (EO-1) mission as well as preliminary work targeting the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) mission.

  14. Spacecraft autonomy using onboard processing for a SAR constellation mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, R. L.; Chien, S.; Castano, R.; Rabideau, G.

    2002-01-01

    The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly onboard the Air Force TechSat 21 constellation of three spacecraft scheduled for launch in 2006. ASE uses onboard continuous planning, robust task and goal-based execution, model-based mode identification and reconfiguration, and onboard machine learning and pattern recognition to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. In this paper we discuss how these AI technologies are synergistically integrated in a hybrid multi-layer control architecture to enable a virtual spacecruft science agent. Demonstration of these capabilities in a flight environment will open up tremendous new opportunities in planetary science, space physics, and earth science that would be unreachable without this technology.

  15. Mission Operations of EO-1 with Onboard Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Daniel Q.

    2006-01-01

    Space mission operations are extremely labor and knowledge-intensive and are driven by the ground and flight systems. Inclusion of an autonomy capability can have dramatic effects on mission operations. We describe the prior, labor and knowledge intensive mission operations flow for the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft as well as the new autonomous operations as part of the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment.

  16. Evaluation of the use of on-board spacecraft energy storage for electric propulsion missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.; Palmer, F. M.

    1983-01-01

    On-board spacecraft energy storage represents an under utilized resource for some types of missions that also benefit from using relatively high specific impulse capability of electric propulsion. This resource can provide an appreciable fraction of the power required for operating the electric propulsion subsystem in some missions. The most probable mission requirement for utilization of this energy is that of geostationary satellites which have secondary batteries for operating at high power levels during eclipse. The study summarized in this report selected four examples of missions that could benefit from use of electric propulsion and on-board energy storage. Engineering analyses were performed to evaluate the mass saved and economic benefit expected when electric propulsion and on-board batteries perform some propulsion maneuvers that would conventionally be provided by chemical propulsion. For a given payload mass in geosynchronous orbit, use of electric propulsion in this manner typically provides a 10% reduction in spacecraft mass.

  17. High-cadence observations of CME initiation and plasma dynamics in the corona with TESIS on board CORONAS-Photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogachev, Sergey; Kuzin, Sergey; Zhitnik, I. A.; Bugaenko, O. I.; Goncharov, A. L.; Ignatyev, A. P.; Krutov, V. V.; Lomkova, V. M.; Mitrofanov, A. V.; Nasonkina, T. P.; Oparin, S. N.; Petzov, A. A.; Shestov, S. V.; Slemzin, V. A.; Soloviev, V. A.; Suhodrev, N. K.; Shergina, T. A.

    The TESIS is an ensemble of space instruments designed in Lebedev Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences for spectroscopic and imaging investigation of the Sun in EUV and soft X-ray spectral range with high spatial, temporal and spectral resolution. From 2009 January, when TESIS was launched onboard the Coronas-Photon satellite, it provided about 200 000 new images and spectra of the Sun, obtained during one of the deepest solar minimum in last century. Because of the wide field of view (4 solar radii) and high sensitivity, TESIS provided high-quality data on the origin and dynamics of eruptive prominences and CMEs in the low and intermediate solar corona. TESIS is also the first EUV instrument which provided high-cadence observations of coronal bright points and solar spicules with temporal resolution of a few seconds. We present first results of TESIS observations and discuss them from a scientific point of view.

  18. Mission Operations of Earth Observing-1 with Onboard Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabideau, Gregg; Tran, Daniel Q.; Chien, Steve; Cichy, Benjamin; Sherwood, Rob; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Shulman, Seth; Szwaczkowski, Joseph; Boyer, Darrell; VanGaasbeck, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Space mission operations are extremely labor and knowledge-intensive and are driven by the ground and flight systems. Inclusion of an autonomy capability can have dramatic effects on mission operations. We describe the past mission operations flow for the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft as well as the more autonomous operations to which we transferred as part of the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE).

  19. Onboard Processing of Electromagnetic Measurements for the Luna - Glob Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hruska, F.; Kolmasova, I.; Santolik, O.; Skalski, A.; Pronenko, V.; Belyayev, S.; Lan, R.; Uhlir, L.

    2013-12-01

    The LEMRA-L instrument (Long-wavelength Electro-Magnetic Radiation Analyzer) will be implemented on the LUNA-GLOB spacecraft. It will analyze the data of the three-axial flux gate (DC - 10Hz) and searchcoil (1Hz - 10kHz) magnetometers LEMI. It will measure intensity, polarization, and coherence properties of waves in plasmas of the solar wind, in the lunar wake and its boundaries, and study the magnetic anomalies. We will use new modern robust onboard analysis methods to estimate the wave coherence, sense of polarization, ellipticity, and wave-vector direction, and thus substantially compress the transmitted data volumes, while conserving the important scientific information. In the burst mode data set intended for studying nonlinear phenomena, we will conserve the continuous flux-gate magnetometer data and discrete snapshots of three axial waveform measurements. In the survey-mode data set, continuous flux-gate magnetometer data will be transmitted together with onboard analyzed and averaged spectral matrices from the higher-frequency wave measurements or with onboard calculated propagation and polarization parameters.

  20. On-board image compression for the RAE lunar mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. H.; Lynch, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements, design, implementation, and flight performance of an on-board image compression system for the lunar orbiting Radio Astronomy Explorer-2 (RAE-2) spacecraft are described. The image to be compressed is a panoramic camera view of the long radio astronomy antenna booms used for gravity-gradient stabilization of the spacecraft. A compression ratio of 32 to 1 is obtained by a combination of scan line skipping and adaptive run-length coding. The compressed imagery data are convolutionally encoded for error protection. This image compression system occupies about 1000 cu cm and consumes 0.4 W.

  1. The Lyman Alpha Imaging-Monitor Experiment (LAIME) for TESIS/CORONAS-PHOTON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damé, L.; Koutchmy, S.; Kuzin, S.; Lamy, P.; Malherbe, J.-M.; Noëns, J.-C.

    LAIME the Lyman Alpha Imaging-Monitor Experiment is a remarkably simple no mechanisms and compact 100x100x400 mm full Sun imager to be flown with TESIS on the CORONAS-PHOTON mission launch expected before mid-2008 As such it will be the only true chromospheric imager to be flown in the next years supporting TESIS EUV-XUV imaging SDO and the Belgian LYRA Lyman Alpha flux monitor on the ESA PROBA-2 microsatellite launch expected in September 2007 We will give a short description of this unique O60 mm aperture imaging telescope dedicated to the investigating of the magnetic sources of solar variability in the UV and chromospheric and coronal disruptive events rapid waves Moreton waves disparitions brusques of prominences filaments eruptions and CMEs onset The resolution pixel is 2 7 arcsec the field of view 1 4 solar radius and the acquisition cadence could be as high as 1 image minute The back thinned E2V CCD in the focal plane is using frame transfer to avoid shutter and mechanisms Further more the double Lyman Alpha filtering allows a 40 AA FWHM bandwidth and excellent rejection yet providing a vacuum seal design of the telescope MgF2 entrance window Structural stability of the telescope focal length 1 m is preserved by a 4-INVAR bars design with Aluminium compensation in a large pm 10 o around 20 o

  2. Spacecraft on-board SAR image generation for EOS-type missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, K. Y.; Arens, W. E.; Assal, H. M.; Vesecky, J. F.

    1987-01-01

    Spacecraft on-board synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image generation is an extremely difficult problem because of the requirements for high computational rates (usually on the order of Giga-operations per second), high reliability (some missions last up to 10 years), and low power dissipation and mass (typically less than 500 watts and 100 Kilograms). Recently, a JPL study was performed to assess the feasibility of on-board SAR image generation for EOS-type missions. This paper summarizes the results of that study. Specifically, it proposes a processor architecture using a VLSI time-domain parallel array for azimuth correlation. Using available space qualifiable technology to implement the proposed architecture, an on-board SAR processor having acceptable power and mass characteristics appears feasible for EOS-type applications.

  3. Skylab-3 Mission Onboard Photograph - Astronaut Bean working on Experiment S019

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This Skylab-3 mission onboard photograph shows Astronaut Alan Bean operating the Ultraviolet (UV) Stellar Astronomy experiment (S019) in the Skylab Airlock Module. The S019, a camera with a prism for UV star photography, studied the UV spectra of early-type stars and galaxies.

  4. STS-31 Mission Onboard Photograph-Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In this photograph, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was being deployed on April 25, 1990. The photograph was taken by the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC) mounted in a container on the port side of the Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery (STS-31 mission). The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit for 15 years or more. The HST provides fine detail imaging, produces ultraviolet images and spectra, and detects very faint objects. Two months after its deployment in space, scientists detected a 2-micron spherical aberration in the primary mirror of the HST that affected the telescope's ability to focus faint light sources into a precise point. This imperfection was very slight, one-fiftieth of the width of a human hair. A scheduled Space Service servicing mission (STS-61) in 1993 permitted scientists to correct the problem. During four spacewalks, new instruments were installed into the HST that had optical corrections. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Cornecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. Photo Credit: NASA/Smithsonian Institution/Lockheed Corporation.

  5. STS-64 Mission Onboard Photograph - Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Mark Lee (red stripe on extravehicular activity suit) tests the new backpack called Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER), a system designed for use in the event a crew member becomes untethered while conducting an EVA. The Lidar-In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) is shown in the foreground. The LITE payload employs lidar, which stands for light detection and ranging, a type of optical radar using laser pulses instead of radio waves to study Earth's atmosphere. Unprecedented views were obtained of cloud structures, storm systems, dust clouds, pollutants, forest burning, and surface reflectance. The STS-64 mission marked the first untethered U.S. EVA in 10 years, and was launched on September 9, 1994, aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

  6. Onboard Autonomy and Ground Operations Automation for the Intelligent Payload Experiment (IPEX) CubeSat Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Doubleday, Joshua; Ortega, Kevin; Tran, Daniel; Bellardo, John; Williams, Austin; Piug-Suari, Jordi; Crum, Gary; Flatley, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The Intelligent Payload Experiment (IPEX) is a cubesat manifested for launch in October 2013 that will flight validate autonomous operations for onboard instrument processing and product generation for the Intelligent Payload Module (IPM) of the Hyperspectral Infra-red Imager (HyspIRI) mission concept. We first describe the ground and flight operations concept for HyspIRI IPM operations. We then describe the ground and flight operations concept for the IPEX mission and how that will validate HyspIRI IPM operations. We then detail the current status of the mission and outline the schedule for future development.

  7. Spacelab-2 (STS-51F Mission) Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    While instruments on the pallets in the payload bay observed the universe, biological experiments were performed in the middeck of the Shuttle Orbiter Challenger. Studying life processes in a microgravity environment can shed new light on the functioning of biological systems on Earth. These investigations can also help us understand how living organisms react to prolonged weightlessness. One such experiment was the vitamin D metabolites and bone demineralization experiment. This investigation measured the vitamin d metabolite levels of crew members to gain information on the cause of bone demineralization and mineral imbalance that occur during prolonged spaceflight as well as on Earth. Research into the biochemical nature of vitamin D has shown that the D-metabolites play a major role in regulating the body's calcium and phosphorus levels. One major function of the most biologically active vitamin D metabolite is to regulate the amount of calcium absorbed from the diet and taken out of bones. This investigation had two phases. The first was the developmental phase, which included extensive testing before flight, and the second, or final phase, involved the postflight analysis of the crew's blood samples. This photograph shows a blood draw test kit and centrifuge used for the experiment aboard the Spacelab-2. Marshall Space Flight Center had management responsibilities of all Spacelab missions.

  8. On-board Attitude Determination System (OADS). [for advanced spacecraft missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, P.; Milillo, M.; Tate, V.; Wilson, J.; Yong, K.

    1978-01-01

    The requirements, capabilities and system design for an on-board attitude determination system (OADS) to be flown on advanced spacecraft missions were determined. Based upon the OADS requirements and system performance evaluation, a preliminary on-board attitude determination system is proposed. The proposed OADS system consists of one NASA Standard IRU (DRIRU-2) as the primary attitude determination sensor, two improved NASA Standard star tracker (SST) for periodic update of attitude information, a GPS receiver to provide on-board space vehicle position and velocity vector information, and a multiple microcomputer system for data processing and attitude determination functions. The functional block diagram of the proposed OADS system is shown. The computational requirements are evaluated based upon this proposed OADS system.

  9. The CORONAS-Photon/TESIS experiment on EUV imaging spectroscopy of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzin, S.; Zhitnik, I.; Bogachev, S.; Bugaenko, O.; Ignat'ev, A.; Mitrofanov, A.; Perzov, A.; Shestov, S.; Slemzin, V.; Suhodrev, N.

    The new experiment TESIS is developent for russian CORONAS-Photon mission launch is planned on the end of 2007 The experiment is aimed on the study of activity of the Sun in the phases of minimum rise and maximum of 24 th cycle of Solar activity by the method of XUV imaging spectroscopy The method is based on the registration full-Sun monochromatic images with high spatial and temporal resolution The scientific tasks of the experiment are i Investigation dynamic processes in corona flares CME etc with high spatial up to 1 and temporal up to 1 second resolution ii determination of the main plasma parameters like plasma electron and ion density and temperature differential emission measure etc iii study of the processes of appearance and development large scale long-life magnetic structures in the solar corona study of the fluency of this structures on the global activity of the corona iv study of the mechanisms of energy accumulation and release in the solar flares and mechanisms of transformation of this energy into the heating of the plasma and kinematics energy To get the information for this studies the TESIS will register full-Sun images in narrow spectral intervals and the monochromatic lines of HeII SiXI FeXXI-FeXXIII MgXII ions The instrument includes 5 independent channels 2 telescopes for 304 and 132 A wide-field 2 5 degrees coronograph 280-330A and 8 42 A spectroheliographs The detailed description of the TESIS experiment and the instrument is presented

  10. Preliminary Operational Results of the TDRSS Onboard Navigation System (TONS) for the Terra Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gramling, Cheryl; Lorah, John; Santoro, Ernest; Work, Kevin; Chambers, Robert; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Earth Observing System Terra spacecraft was launched on December 18, 1999, to provide data for the characterization of the terrestrial and oceanic surfaces, clouds, radiation, aerosols, and radiative balance. The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Onboard Navigation System (ONS) (TONS) flying on Terra provides the spacecraft with an operational real-time navigation solution. TONS is a passive system that makes judicious use of Terra's communication and computer subsystems. An objective of the ONS developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Guidance, Navigation and Control Center is to provide autonomous navigation with minimal power, weight, and volume impact on the user spacecraft. TONS relies on extracting tracking measurements onboard from a TDRSS forward-link communication signal and processing these measurements in an onboard extended Kalman filter to estimate Terra's current state. Terra is the first NASA low Earth orbiting mission to fly autonomous navigation which produces accurate results. The science orbital accuracy requirements for Terra are 150 meters (m) (3sigma) per axis with a goal of 5m (1 sigma) RSS which TONS is expected to meet. The TONS solutions are telemetered in real-time to the mission scientists along with their science data for immediate processing. Once set in the operational mode, TONS eliminates the need for ground orbit determination and allows for a smooth flow from the spacecraft telemetry to planning products for the mission team. This paper will present the preliminary results of the operational TONS solution available from Terra.

  11. STS-65 crew onboard portrait in IML-2 spacelab module with mission flag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In the spacelab science module aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, the seven crewmembers pose for the traditional onboard (inflight) crew portrait. Displayed in the background is a flag with the International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) insignia and Columbia inscribed along the edge. In the front row (left to right) are Mission Specialist (MS) Carl E. Walz and MS Donald A. Thomas. Behind them (left to right) are Payload Commander (PLC) Richard J. Hieb, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, Commander Robert D. Cabana, MS Leroy Chiao, and Pilot James D. Halsell, Jr. Mukai represents the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan. Crewmembers are wearing their mission polo shirts for the portrait. Inside this module, the crew conducted experiments in support of the IML-2 mission.

  12. The Envisat Mission Extension 2010- Implications for On-Ground and On-Board Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diekmann, Frank-Jugen; Mesples, Daniel; Ventimiglia, Luca; Milsson, M.; Kuijper, Dirk Berger, Jean-Noel

    2010-12-01

    ESA's Earth Observation (EO) satellite ENVISAT was launched in 2002 with a nominal mission lifetime of five years. Given the excellent performance of the platform and the nine actively controlled instruments, the mission was extended until the end of 2010, when most of the onboard hydrazine will be exhausted. A concept for extending the Envisat mission has been defined in 2008, which is based on an altitude lowering and a new orbit control concept which will allow a continuation of the routine operations until end of 2013. ESA's control centre ESOC in Darmstadt, Germany, will be responsible to implement the orbit change, conduct a mini-commissioning phase following the altitude lowering and resume nominal operations afterwards. The actual orbit change manoeuvres will be carefully planned and executed, aiming at an optimization of fuel consumption. The manoeuvre strategy will allow achieving a reliable estimate of the residual fuel after the thruster firing sequences. One of the immediate consequences after the Envisat orbit change will be S-Band interferences during overlapping ENVISAT and ERS-2 ground station passes, affecting commanding, telemetry and ranging for the two missions operated from ESOC. This will require a dynamic allocation of ground station facilities, also being used by other Earth Observation satellites operated from ESOC. The ENVISAT and ERS2 operators will be supported during this new operations phase by an automation tool taking care of a number of Envisat routine activities. This paper summarizes the Envisat orbit change activities, the impact on routine operations and the conflict resolution strategies.

  13. The ECLAIRs telescope onboard the SVOM mission for gamma-ray burst studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanne, Stéphane

    2008-05-01

    The X- and gamma-ray telescope ECLAIRs onboard the future mission for gamma-ray burst studies SVOM (Space-based multi-band astronomical Variable Objects Monitor) is foreseen to operate in orbit from 2013 on. ECLAIRs will provide fast and accurate GRB triggers to other onboard telescopes, as well as to the whole GRB community, in particular ground-based follow-up telescopes. With its very low energy threshold ECLAIRs is particularly well suited for the detection of highly redshifted GRB. The ECLAIRs X- and gamma-ray imaging camera (CXG), used for GRB detection and localization, is combined with a soft X-ray telescope (SXT) for afterglow observations and position refinement. The CXG is a 2D-coded mask imager with a 1024 cm2 detection plane made of 80×80 CdTe pixels, sensitive from 4 to 300 keV, with imaging capabilities up to about 120 keV and a localization accuracy better than 10 arcmin. The CXG permanently observes a 2 sr-wide field of the sky and provides photon data to the onboard science and triggering unit (UTS) which detects GRB by count-rate increases or by the appearance of a new source in cyclic sky images. The SXT is a mirror focusing X-ray telescope operating from 0.3 to 2 keV with a sensitivity of 1 mCrab for 100 s observations. The spacecraft slews within ~=3 min in order to place the GRB candidate into the 23×23 arcmin2 field of view of the SXT, after which it refines the GRB position to about 10 arcsec. GRB alerts are transmitted to ground-observers within tens of seconds via a VHF network and all detected photons are available hours later for detailed analysis. In this paper we present the ECLAIRs concepts, with emphasis on the expected performances.

  14. The ECLAIRs telescope onboard the SVOM mission for gamma-ray burst studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schanne, Stephane

    2008-05-22

    The X- and gamma-ray telescope ECLAIRs onboard the future mission for gamma-ray burst studies SVOM (Space-based multi-band astronomical Variable Objects Monitor) is foreseen to operate in orbit from 2013 on. ECLAIRs will provide fast and accurate GRB triggers to other onboard telescopes, as well as to the whole GRB community, in particular ground-based follow-up telescopes. With its very low energy threshold ECLAIRs is particularly well suited for the detection of highly redshifted GRB. The ECLAIRs X- and gamma-ray imaging camera (CXG), used for GRB detection and localization, is combined with a soft X-ray telescope (SXT) for afterglow observations and position refinement. The CXG is a 2D-coded mask imager with a 1024 cm{sup 2} detection plane made of 80x80 CdTe pixels, sensitive from 4 to 300 keV, with imaging capabilities up to about 120 keV and a localization accuracy better than 10 arcmin. The CXG permanently observes a 2 sr-wide field of the sky and provides photon data to the onboard science and triggering unit (UTS) which detects GRB by count-rate increases or by the appearance of a new source in cyclic sky images. The SXT is a mirror focusing X-ray telescope operating from 0.3 to 2 keV with a sensitivity of 1 mCrab for 100 s observations. The spacecraft slews within {approx_equal}3 min in order to place the GRB candidate into the 23x23 arcmin{sup 2} field of view of the SXT, after which it refines the GRB position to about 10 arcsec. GRB alerts are transmitted to ground-observers within tens of seconds via a VHF network and all detected photons are available hours later for detailed analysis. In this paper we present the ECLAIRs concepts, with emphasis on the expected performances.

  15. The ECLAIRs telescope onboard the SVOM mission for gamma-ray burst studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triou, Henri Emmanuel

    H. TRIOU on behalf of the ECLAIRs collaboration The X- and gamma-ray telescope ECLAIRs onboard the future mission for gamma-ray burst studies SVOM (Space-based multi-band astronomical Variable Objects Monitor) is foreseen to operate in orbit from 2012 on. ECLAIRs will provide fast and accurate GRB triggers to other onboard telescopes, as well as to the whole GRB community, in particular ground-based follow-up telescopes. With its very low energy threshold ECLAIRs is particularly well suited for the detection of highly redshifted GRB. ECLAIRs consists of a X- and gamma-ray imaging camera (CXG) observing a field of view of 2 sr. The CXG is a 2D-coded mask imager with a 1024 cm2 detection plane made of 80 x 80 CdTe pixels, sensitive from 4 keV to 300 keV, with imaging capabilities up to about 50 keV and a localization accuracy better than 10 arcmin. ECLAIRs includes also a triggering electronics which uses the CXG data and detects GRB as count-rate increases or the appearance of a new source in cyclic sky images. GRB alerts are transmitted to observers within tens of seconds via a VHF network and all detected photons are available hours later. In this talk we present the lastest ECLAIRs concepts, with emphasis on the expected performances.

  16. The ECLAIRs telescope onboard the SVOM mission for gamma-ray burst studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triou, Henri; Cordier, Bertrand; Gotz, Diego; Schanne, Stéphane; Tourrette, Thierry; Mandrou, Pierre; Pons, Roger; Godet, Olivier; Remoue, Nadège; Barret, Didier; Atteia, Jean-Luc; Jouret, Martine

    2009-08-01

    The X- and gamma-ray telescope ECLAIRs onboard the future mission for gamma-ray burst studies SVOM (Space-based multi-band astronomical Variable Objects Monitor) is foreseen to operate in orbit from 2014 on. ECLAIRs will provide fast and accurate GRB triggers to other onboard telescopes, as well as to the whole GRB community, in particular ground-based follow-up telescopes. With its very low energy threshold ECLAIRs is particularly well suited for the detection of highly redshifted GRB. ECLAIRs consists of a X- and gamma-ray imaging camera (CXG) observing in a field of view of 2 sr. The CXG is a 2D-coded mask imager with a 1024 cm2 detection plane made of 80 x 80 CdTe pixels, sensitive from 4 keV to 250 keV, with imaging capabilities up to about 50 keV and a localization accuracy better than 10 arcmin. ECLAIRs includes also a triggering electronics which uses the CXG data and detects GRB as countrate increases or the appearance of a new source in cyclic sky images. GRB alerts are transmitted to observers within tens of seconds via a VHF network and all detected photons are available hours later. In this talk we present the lastest ECLAIRs concepts, with emphasis on the expected performances.

  17. RELEC mission: Relativistic electron precipitation and TLE study on-board small spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasyuk, M. I.; Svertilov, S. I.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Garipov, G. K.; Balan, E. A.; Barinova, V. O.; Bogomolov, A. V.; Golovanov, I. A.; Iyudin, A. F.; Kalegaev, V. V.; Khrenov, B. A.; Klimov, P. A.; Kovtyukh, A. S.; Kuznetsova, E. A.; Morozenko, V. S.; Morozov, O. V.; Myagkova, I. N.; Osedlo, V. I.; Petrov, V. L.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Rozhkov, G. V.; Saleev, K. Yu.; Sigaeva, E. A.; Veden'kin, N. N.; Yashin, I. V.; Klimov, S. I.; Grechko, T. V.; Grushin, V. A.; Vavilov, D. I.; Korepanov, V. E.; Belyaev, S. V.; Demidov, A. N.; Ferencz, Cs.; Bodnár, L.; Szegedi, P.; Rothkaehl, H.; Moravski, M.; Park, I. H.; Lee, J.; Kim, J.; Jeon, J.; Jeong, S.; Park, A. H.; Papkov, A. P.; Krasnopejev, S. V.; Khartov, V. V.; Kudrjashov, V. A.; Bortnikov, S. V.; Mzhelskii, P. V.

    2016-02-01

    The main goal of the Vernov mission is the study of magnetospheric relativistic electron precipitation and its possible influence on the upper atmosphere as well as the observation of Transient Luminous Events (TLE) and Terrestrial Gamma Flashes (TGF) across a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The RELEC (Relativistic Electrons) instrument complex onboard the Vernov spacecraft includes two identical X- and gamma-ray detectors of high temporal resolution and sensitivity (DRGE-1 and DRGE-2), three axis position detectors for high-energy electrons and protons (DRGE-3), a UV TLE imager (MTEL), a UV detector (DUV), a low frequency analyser (LFA), a radio frequency analyser (RFA), and AN electronics module responsible for control and data collection (BE).

  18. Analysis of observational data from Extreme Ultra-Violet Camera onboard Chang'E-3 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yan; Wang, Hua-Ning; He, Han; He, Fei; Chen, Bo; Feng, Jian-Qing; Ping, Jin-Song; Shen, Chao; Xu, Rong-Lan; Zhang, Xiao-Xin

    2016-02-01

    The Extreme Ultra-Violet Camera (hereafter EUVC) is a scientific payload onboard the lander of the Chang'E-3 (hereafter CE-3) mission launched on December 1st, 2013. Centering on a spectral band around 30.4 nm, EUVC provides the global images of the Earth's plasmasphere from the meridian view, with a spatial resolution of 0.1 R_{oplus} in 150 × 150 pixels and a cadence of 10 minutes. Along with the data being publicly released online, some unsettled issues in the early stage have been clarified, including the geometrical preparations, the refined approach on the coefficient K for the background, and the alignment among the images. A demo of data after all the above processes is therefore presented as a guidance for users who are studying the structure and dynamics of the plasmasphere.

  19. Processing method of images obtained during the TESIS/CORONAS-PHOTON experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzin, S. V.; Shestov, S. V.; Bogachev, S. A.; Pertsov, A. A.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Reva, A. A.

    2011-04-01

    In January 2009, the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft was successfully launched. It includes a set of telescopes and spectroheliometers—TESIS—designed to image the solar corona in soft X-ray and EUV spectral ranges. Due to features of the reading system, to obtain physical information from these images, it is necessary to preprocess them, i.e., to remove the background, correct the white field, level, and clean. The paper discusses the algorithms and software developed and used for the preprocessing of images.

  20. Space Station Engineering and Technology Development. Proceedings of the Panel on Program Performance and Onboard Mission Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    An ad-hoc committee was asked to review the following questions relevant to the space station program: (1) onboard maintainability and repair; (2) in-space research and technology program and facility plans; (3) solar thermodynamic research and technology development program planning; (4) program performance (cost estimating, management, and cost avoidance); (5) onboard versus ground-based mission control; and (6) technology development road maps from IOC to the growth station. The objective of these new assignments is to provide NASA with advice on ways and means for improving the content, performance, and/or effectiveness of these elements of the space station program.

  1. MASCOT—The Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout Onboard the Hayabusa2 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Tra-Mi; Baturkin, Volodymyr; Grimm, Christian; Grundmann, Jan Thimo; Hobbie, Catherin; Ksenik, Eugen; Lange, Caroline; Sasaki, Kaname; Schlotterer, Markus; Talapina, Maria; Termtanasombat, Nawarat; Wejmo, Elisabet; Witte, Lars; Wrasmann, Michael; Wübbels, Guido; Rößler, Johannes; Ziach, Christian; Findlay, Ross; Biele, Jens; Krause, Christian; Ulamec, Stephan; Lange, Michael; Mierheim, Olaf; Lichtenheldt, Roy; Maier, Maximilian; Reill, Josef; Sedlmayr, Hans-Jürgen; Bousquet, Pierre; Bellion, Anthony; Bompis, Olivier; Cenac-Morthe, Celine; Deleuze, Muriel; Fredon, Stephane; Jurado, Eric; Canalias, Elisabet; Jaumann, Ralf; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Glassmeier, Karl Heinz; Hercik, David; Grott, Matthias; Celotti, Luca; Cordero, Federico; Hendrikse, Jeffrey; Okada, Tatsuaki

    2016-04-01

    On December 3rd, 2014, the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) launched successfully the Hayabusa2 (HY2) spacecraft to its journey to Near Earth asteroid (162173) Ryugu. Aboard this spacecraft is a compact landing package, MASCOT (Mobile Asteroid surface SCOuT), which was developed by the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) in collaboration with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Similar to the famous predecessor mission Hayabusa, Hayabusa2, will also study an asteroid and return samples to Earth. This time, however, the target is a C-type asteroid which is considered to be more primitive than (25143) Itokawa and provide insight into an even earlier stage of our Solar System. Upon arrival at asteroid Ryugu in 2018, MASCOT will be released from the HY2 spacecraft and gently descend by free fall from an altitude of about 100 m to the surface of the asteroid. After a few bounces, the lander will come to rest at the surface and perform its scientific investigations of the surface structure and mineralogical composition, the thermal behaviour and the magnetic properties by operating its four scientific instruments. Those include an IR imaging spectrometer (MicrOmega, IAS Paris), a camera (MASCAM, DLR Berlin), a radiometer (MARA, DLR Berlin) and a magnetometer (MASMAG, TU Braunschweig). In order to allow optimized payload operations the thermal design of MASCOT is required to cope with the contrasting requirements of the 4-year cruise in cold environment versus the hot conditions on the surface of the asteroid. Operations up to 2 asteroid days (˜16 hours) based on a primary battery are currently envisaged. A mobility mechanism allows locomotion on the surface. The mechanism is supported by an attitude and motion sensing system and an intelligent autonomy manager, which is implemented in the onboard software that enables MASCOT to operate fully independently when ground intervention is not available.

  2. The WISDOM Radar onboard the Rover of the ExoMars mission (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarletti, V.; Corbel, C.; Plettemeier, D.; Clifford, S. M.; Cais, P.; Hamran, S.

    2009-12-01

    The most fundamental and basic aspect of the geologic characterization of any environment is understanding its stratigraphy and structure - which provides invaluable insights into its origin, the processes and events by which it evolved, and (through the examination of superpositional and cross-cutting relationships) their relative timing. The WISDOM GPR onboard the Rover of the ESA ExoMars mission (2016) has the ability to investigate and characterize the nature of the subsurface remotely, providing high-resolution (several cm-scale) data on subsurface stratigraphy, structure, and the magnitude and scale of spatial heterogeneity, to depths in excess of 3 m. Unlike traditional imaging systems or spectrometers, which are limited to characterization of the visible surface, WISDOM can access what lies beneath - providing an understanding of the 3-dimensional geologic context of the landing site along the Rover path. WISDOM will address a variety of high-priority scientific objectives: (1) Understand the geology and geologic evolution of the landing site, including local lithology, stratigraphy and structure. (2) Characterize the 3-D electromagnetic properties of the Landing Site - including the scale and magnitude of spatial heterogeneity - for comparison with those measured at larger scales by MARSIS, SHARAD and any future orbital radars. (3) Understand the local distribution and state of shallow subsurface H2O and other volatiles, including the potential presence of segregated ground ice (as ice lenses and wedges), the persistent or transient occurrence of liquid water/brine, and deposits of methane hydrate and (4) identify the most promising locations for drilling that combine targets of high scientific interest. In addition to these objectives, there are also clear scientific and operational benefits when WISDOM is operated in concert with the rover’s drill and its associated analytical instruments, which will determine the compositional and physical properties

  3. Reflection grating spectrometer onboard the ESA x-ray multi-mirror (XMM) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Herder, Jan-Willem; Aarts, Henry J.; van den Berg, Marcel L.; Bixler, Jay V.; den Boggende, Antonius J.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Brinkman, Albert C.; Decker, Todd A.; Dubbeldam, Luc; Hailey, Charles J.; Jansen, Fred A.; Kahn, Steven M.; de Korte, Piet A.; Mauche, C. W.; Montesanti, Richard C.; Paerels, Frits B.; Spruijt, Hugo; Thomsen, K.; Verhoeve, P.; Zehnder, A.

    1994-09-01

    The Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) onboard the ESA satellite XMM (X-ray Multi Mirror mission) combines a high resolving power (approximately 400 at 0.5 keV) with a large effective area (approximately 200 cm(superscript 2)). The spectral range selected for RGS (5 - 35 angstroms) contains the K shell transitions of N, O, Ne, Mg, Al, Si and S as well as the important L shell transitions of FE. The resolving power allows the study of a wide variety of challenging scientific questions. Detailed temperature diagnostics are feasible as the ionization balance is a unique function of the distribution of the electron temperature. Density diagnostics are provided by studying He-like triplets where the ratio of the forbidden to intercombination lines varies with density. Other fields of interest include the determination of elemental abundances, the study of optical depth effects, velocity diagnostics by measuring Doppler shifts and the estimate of magnetic fields through the observation of Zeeman splitting. The resolving power is obtained by an array of 240 gratings placed behind the mirrors of the telescope, dispersing about half of the X-rays in two spectroscopic orders. The X-rays are recorded by an array of 9 large format CCDs. These CCDs are operated in the frame transfer mode. They are back illuminated as the quantum efficiency of front illuminated devices is poor at low energies because of their poly-silicon gate structure. To suppress dark current the CCDs are passively cooled. In order to obtain the effective area of about 200 cm(superscript 2), grating arrays and CCD cameras are placed behind two of the three XMM telescopes. A model of RGS was tested last autumn ('93) at the Panter long beam X-ray facility in Munich. The model consisted of a subset of four mirrors, eight representative gratings covering a small section of the inner mirror shells and a CCD camera containing three CCDs. The purpose of these tests was to verify the resolution and sensitivity of

  4. Concept for On-Board Safe Landing Target Selection and Landing for the Mars 2020 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugarolas, P.; Chen, A.; Johnson, A.; Casoliva, J.; Singh, G.; Stehura, A.; Way, D.; Dutta, S.

    2014-06-01

    We present a concept for a potential enhancement to Mars 2020 to enable landing on hazardous landing sites. It adds to MSL-EDL the capability to select and divert to a safe site through on-board terrain relative localization and target selection.

  5. Software design for the VIS instrument onboard the Euclid mission: a multilayer approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, E.; Di Giorgio, A. M.; Pezzuto, S.; Liu, S. J.; Giusi, G.; Li Causi, G.; Farina, M.; Cropper, M.; Denniston, J.; Niemi, S.

    2014-07-01

    The Euclid mission scientific payload is composed of two instruments: a VISible Imaging Instrument (VIS) and a Near Infrared Spectrometer and Photometer instrument (NISP). Each instrument has its own control unit. The Instrument Command and Data Processing Unit (VI-CDPU) is the control unit of the VIS instrument. The VI-CDPU is connected directly to the spacecraft by means of a MIL-STD-1553B bus and to the satellite Mass Memory Unit via a SpaceWire link. All the internal interfaces are implemented via SpaceWire links and include 12 high speed lines for the data provided by the 36 focal plane CCDs readout electronics (ROEs) and one link to the Power and Mechanisms Control Unit (VI-PMCU). VI-CDPU is in charge of distributing commands to the instrument sub-systems, collecting their housekeeping parameters and monitoring their health status. Moreover, the unit has the task of acquiring, reordering, compressing and transferring the science data to the satellite Mass Memory. This last feature is probably the most challenging one for the VI-CDPU, since stringent constraints about the minimum lossless compression ratio, the maximum time for the compression execution and the maximum power consumption have to be satisfied. Therefore, an accurate performance analysis at hardware layer is necessary, which could delay too much the design and development of software. In order to mitigate this risk, in the multilayered design of software we decided to design a middleware layer that provides a set of APIs with the aim of hiding the implementation of the HW connected layer to the application one. The middleware is built on top of the Operating System layer (which includes the Real-Time OS that will be adopted) and the onboard Computer Hardware. The middleware itself has a multi-layer architecture composed of 4 layers: the Abstract RTOS Adapter Layer (AOSAL), the Speci_c RTOS Adapter Layer (SOSAL), the Common Patterns Layer (CPL), the Service Layer composed of two subgroups which

  6. COVE, MARINA, and the Future of On-Board Processing (OBP) Platforms for CubeSat Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingree, P.; Bekker, D. L.; Bryk, M.; DeLucca, J.; Franklin, B.; Hancock, B.; Klesh, A. T.; Meehan, C.; Meshkaty, N.; Nichols, J.; Peay, C.; Rider, D. M.; Werne, T.; Wu, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The CubeSat On-board processing Validation Experiment (COVE), JPL's first CubeSat payload launched on October 28, 2011, features the Xilinx Virtex-5QV Single event Immune Reconfigurable FPGA (SIRF). The technology demonstration mission was to validate the SIRF device running an on-board processing (OBP) algorithm developed to reduce the data set by 2-orders of magnitude for the Multi-angle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (MSPI), an instrument under development at JPL (PI: D. Diner). COVE has a single data interface to the CubeSat flight computer that is used to transfer a static image taken from the CubeSat camera and store it to local memory where the FPGA then reads it to run the algorithm on it. In the next generation COVE design, called MARINA, developed for the GRIFEX CubeSat project, the OBP board is extended, using rigid-flex PCB technology, to provide an interface to a JPL-developed Read-Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC) hybridized to a detector developed by Raytheon. In this configuration the focal plane array (FPA) data can be streamed directly to the FPGA for data processing or for storage to local memory. The MARINA rigid-flex PCB design is integrated with a commercial camera lens to create a 1U instrument payload for integration with a CubeSat under development by the University of Michigan and planned for launch in 2014. In the GRIFEX technology demonstration, the limited on-board storage capacity is filled by high-rate FPA data in less than a second. The system is also limited by the CubeSat downlink data rate and several ground station passes are required to transmit this limited amount of data. While this system is sufficient to validate the ROIC technology on-orbit, the system cannot be operated in a way to perform continuous science observations due to the on-board storage and data downlink constraints. In order to advance the current platform to support sustained science observations, more on-board storage is needed. Radiation tolerant memory

  7. The JANUS camera onboard JUICE mission for Jupiter system optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Corte, Vincenzo; Schmitz, Nicole; Zusi, Michele; Castro, José Maria; Leese, Mark; Debei, Stefano; Magrin, Demetrio; Michalik, Harald; Palumbo, Pasquale; Jaumann, Ralf; Cremonese, Gabriele; Hoffmann, Harald; Holland, Andrew; Lara, Luisa Maria; Fiethe, Björn; Friso, Enrico; Greggio, Davide; Herranz, Miguel; Koncz, Alexander; Lichopoj, Alexander; Martinez-Navajas, Ignacio; Mazzotta Epifani, Elena; Michaelis, Harald; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Roatsch, Thomas; Rodrigo, Julio; Rodriguez, Emilio; Schipani, Pietro; Soman, Matthew; Zaccariotto, Mirco

    2014-08-01

    JANUS (Jovis, Amorum ac Natorum Undique Scrutator) is the visible camera selected for the ESA JUICE mission to the Jupiter system. Resources constraints, S/C characteristics, mission design, environment and the great variability of observing conditions for several targets put stringent constraints on instrument architecture. In addition to the usual requirements for a planetary mission, the problem of mass and power consumption is particularly stringent due to the long-lasting cruising and operations at large distance from the Sun. JANUS design shall cope with a wide range of targets, from Jupiter atmosphere, to solid satellite surfaces, exosphere, rings, and lightning, all to be observed in several color and narrow-band filters. All targets shall be tracked during the mission and in some specific cases the DTM will be derived from stereo imaging. Mission design allows a quite long time range for observations in Jupiter system, with orbits around Jupiter and multiple fly-bys of satellites for 2.5 years, followed by about 6 months in orbit around Ganymede, at surface distances variable from 104 to few hundreds km. Our concept was based on a single optical channel, which was fine-tuned to cover all scientific objectives based on low to high-resolution imaging. A catoptric telescope with excellent optical quality is coupled with a rectangular detector, avoiding any scanning mechanism. In this paper the present JANUS design and its foreseen scientific capabilities are discussed.

  8. Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Advancement of the MSPI On-Board Processing Platform for the ACE Decadal Survey Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Bekker, Dmitriy L.; Wilson, Thor O.

    2011-01-01

    The Xilinx Virtex-5QV is a new Single-event Immune Reconfigurable FPGA (SIRF) device that is targeted as the spaceborne processor for the NASA Decadal Survey Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) mission's Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (MSPI) instrument, currently under development at JPL. A key technology needed for MSPI is on-board processing (OBP) to calculate polarimetry data as imaged by each of the 9 cameras forming the instrument. With funding from NASA's ESTO1 AIST2 Program, JPL is demonstrating how signal data at 95 Mbytes/sec over 16 channels for each of the 9 multi-angle cameras can be reduced to 0.45 Mbytes/sec, thereby substantially reducing the image data volume for spacecraft downlink without loss of science information. This is done via a least-squares fitting algorithm implemented on the Virtex-5 FPGA operating in real-time on the raw video data stream.

  9. DSPACE hardware architecture for on-board real-time image/video processing in European space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponara, Sergio; Donati, Massimiliano; Fanucci, Luca; Odendahl, Maximilian; Leupers, Reiner; Errico, Walter

    2013-02-01

    The on-board data processing is a vital task for any satellite and spacecraft due to the importance of elaborate the sensing data before sending them to the Earth, in order to exploit effectively the bandwidth to the ground station. In the last years the amount of sensing data collected by scientific and commercial space missions has increased significantly, while the available downlink bandwidth is comparatively stable. The increasing demand of on-board real-time processing capabilities represents one of the critical issues in forthcoming European missions. Faster and faster signal and image processing algorithms are required to accomplish planetary observation, surveillance, Synthetic Aperture Radar imaging and telecommunications. The only available space-qualified Digital Signal Processor (DSP) free of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) restrictions faces inadequate performance, thus the development of a next generation European DSP is well known to the space community. The DSPACE space-qualified DSP architecture fills the gap between the computational requirements and the available devices. It leverages a pipelined and massively parallel core based on the Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) paradigm, with 64 registers and 8 operational units, along with cache memories, memory controllers and SpaceWire interfaces. Both the synthesizable VHDL and the software development tools are generated from the LISA high-level model. A Xilinx-XC7K325T FPGA is chosen to realize a compact PCI demonstrator board. Finally first synthesis results on CMOS standard cell technology (ASIC 180 nm) show an area of around 380 kgates and a peak performance of 1000 MIPS and 750 MFLOPS at 125MHz.

  10. Simultaneous Observation of High Temperature Plasma of Solar Corona By TESIS CORONAS-PHOTON and XRT Hinode.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reva, A.; Kuzin, S.; Bogachev, S.; Shestov, S.

    2012-05-01

    The Mg XII spectroheliograph is a part of instrumentation complex TESIS (satellite CORONAS-PHOTON). This instrument builds monochromatic images of hot plasma of the solar corona (λ = 8.42 Å, T>5 MK). The Mg XII spectroheliograph observed hot plasma in the non-flaring active-region NOAA 11019 during nine days. We reconstructed DEM of this active region with the help of genetic algorithm (we used data of the Mg XII spectroheliograph, XRT and EIT). Emission measure of the hot component amounts 1 % of the emission measure of the cool component.

  11. Maximizing Science Return from Future Mars Missions with Onboard Image Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, V. C.; Morris, R. L.; Bandari, E. B.; Roush, T. L.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed two new techniques to enhance science return and to decrease returned data volume for near-term Mars missions: 1) multi-spectral image compression and 2) autonomous identification and fusion of in-focus regions in an image series.

  12. Results of TLE and TGF Observation in RELEC Experiment onboard "Vernov" Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimov, Pavel; Garipov, Gali; Klimov, Stanislav; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Khrenov, Boris; Pozanenko, Alexei; Morozenko, Violetta; Iyudin, Anatoly; Bogomolov, Vitalij V.; Svertilov, Sergey; Panasyuk, Mikhail; Saleev, Kirill; Kaznacheeva, Margarita; Maximov, Ivan

    2016-07-01

    "Vernov" satellite with RELEC experiment onboard was launched on 2014 July, 8 into a polar solar-synchronous orbit. The payload includes DUV ultraviolet and red photometer and DRGE gamma-ray spectrometer providing measurements in 10-3000 keV energy range with four detectors. Both instruments directed to the atmosphere. Total area of DRGE detectors is ˜500 cm ^{2}. The data were recorded both in monitoring and gamma by gamma modes with timing accuracy ˜15 μs. Several TGF candidates with 10-40 gammas in a burst with duration <1 ms were detected. Analysis of data from other instruments on-board "Vernov" satellite shows the absence of significant electromagnetic pulses around correspondent time moments. Comparison with a world wide lightning location network (WWLLN) data base also indicates that there were no thunderstorms connected with most of detected TGF candidates. Possible connection of TGF candidates with electron precipitations is discussed. Observations of transient luminous events (TLEs) were made in UV (240-400 nm) and IR (>610 nm) wavelength bands. More than 8 thousands of flashes with duration between 1 and 128 ms were detected from the atmosphere. Time profiles of detected flashes are very diverse. There are single peak events with significant UV and IR signal, multi-peak structures visible in the both UV and IR channels and very complicated events mixed from UV and IR signals and UV flashes which can continue even during the whole waveform. In addition, there are flashes of various temporal duration and structure measured only in UV wavelength range. Number of UV photons released in the atmosphere varies in a wide range from 10 ^{20} to 10 ^{26}. Apart from the events detected in the thunderstorm regions over the continents, many flashes were observed outside of thunderstorm areas, above the ocean and even at rather high latitudes. Such events are not associated with the thunderstorm and lightning activity measured by WWLLN. Various types of UV and IR

  13. The DREAMS experiment on-board the Schiaparelli lander of ExoMars mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, F.

    2015-10-01

    The DREAMS package is a suite of sensors for the characterization of the Martian basic state meteorology and of the atmospheric electric properties at the landing site of the Entry, descent and landing Demonstration Module (EDM) of the ExoMars mission. The EDM will land on Meridiani Planum in October 2016, during the statistical dust storm season. This will allow DREAMS to investigate the status of the atmosphere of Mars during this particular season and also to understand the role of dust as a potential source of electrical phenomena on Mars. DREAMS will be the first instrument to perform a measurement of electric field on Mars. DREAMS FM has been completely developed and tested and it has been delivered to ESA for integration on the Schiaparelli lander of the ExoMars 2016 mission. Launch is foreseen for January 2016.

  14. Recent Results from the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) onboard the Van Allen Probes Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanekal, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Elkington, S. R.; Hoxie, V. C.; Li, X.; Spence, H. E.

    2013-05-01

    We describe recent results from the REPT instruments on board Van Allen Probes mission launched on 30 August 2012. The twin spacecraft comprising the Van Allen probes mission are identically instrumented and carry a comprehensive suite of sensors characterizing magnetospheric charged particle populations, electric and magnetic fields and plasma waves. The REPT instruments comprise a well-shielded silicon solid state detector stack, with a state of the art electronics and measure electrons of ~1.5 to > 20 MeV and protons of ~17 to > 100 MeV. The instruments were commissioned 3 days after launch and continue to provide high quality measurements. We describe the Van Allen probes and the REPT instrument and report on the new and unexpected features of the outer zone electron populations observed by REPT.

  15. Skylab-2 Mission Onboard Photograph - Astronaut Kerwin With Sleep Monitoring Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This photograph is of Astronaut Kerwin wearing the Sleep Monitoring cap (Experiment M133) taken during the Skylab-2 mission. The Sleep Monitoring Experiment was a medical evaluation designed to objectively determine the amount and quality of crew members' inflight sleep. The experiment monitored and recorded electroencephalographic (EEG) and electrooculographic (EOG) activity during astronauts' sleep periods. One of the astronauts was selected for this experiment and wore a fitted cap during his sleep periods.

  16. Coupling characterization and noise studies of the optical metrology system onboard the LISA Pathfinder mission

    SciTech Connect

    Hechenblaikner, Gerald; Gerndt, Ruediger; Johann, Ulrich; Luetzow-Wentzky, Peter; Wand, Vinzenz; Audley, Heather; Danzmann, Karsten; Garcia-Marin, Antonio; Heinzel, Gerhard; Nofrarias, Miquel; Steier, Frank

    2010-10-10

    We describe the first investigations of the complete engineering model of the optical metrology system (OMS), a key subsystem of the LISA Pathfinder science mission to space. The latter itself is a technological precursor mission to LISA, a spaceborne gravitational wave detector. At its core, the OMS consists of four heterodyne Mach-Zehnder interferometers, a highly stable laser with an external modulator, and a phase meter. It is designed to monitor and track the longitudinal motion and attitude of two floating test masses in the optical reference frame with (relative) precision in the picometer and nanorad range, respectively. We analyze sensor signal correlations and determine a physical sensor noise limit. The coupling parameters between motional degrees of freedom and interferometer signals are analytically derived and compared to measurements. We also measure adverse cross-coupling effects originating from system imperfections and limitations and describe algorithmic mitigation techniques to overcome some of them. Their impact on system performance is analyzed within the context of the Pathfinder mission.

  17. Mission to Mars: the HiRISE camera on-board MRO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebben, Thomas H.; Bergstrom, James; Spuhler, Peter; Delamere, Alan; Gallagher, Dennis

    2007-09-01

    Following its launch in August, 2005 and a year of interplanetary cruise and aero-braking, the successful Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission is currently orbiting Mars and down-linking imagery from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera. The primary objectives of the MRO mission are to characterize the present climate of Mars, look for evidence of water-related activities, and characterize potential landing sites. After only four months in the Primary Science Phase (PSP) of the mission, MRO has returned more data than any other previous Mars mission. Approximately one-third of this data volume is from the HiRISE camera, built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation (BATC), for the University of Arizona (UofA), Department of Planetary Sciences. With a 0.5-meter primary mirror, the HiRISE instrument includes the largest optical telescope ever sent beyond Earth's orbit, and is producing images with unprecedented resolution. It has detected objects of less than one meter size from the nominal orbit of 250 x 320 km. The highest resolution images have a scale of 25 to 32 cm per pixel (1.0 microradian IFOV). HiRISE is a "push-broom" camera with a swath width of 6 km in a broad red spectral band and 1.2 km in blue-green and near infrared bands. There are 14 CCD detector chips (2048 x 128 TDI elements each) on the focal plane. The HiRISE camera was designed to minimize use of spacecraft resources. Even with a half-meter primary mirror, through the use of lightweight glass optics and graphite-composite structures the final mass of the instrument is only 64.2 kg. It maintains a nearly uniform telescope temperature of 20°C yet its orbital average power consumption is less than 60 W. An overview is given of the NASA MRO mission and the HiRISE instrument. Pre-launch activities are detailed and the launch time discussed. An account is given of the cruise events, along with a description of aerobraking and the primary science phase. A sample of

  18. MOMA Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer onboard the 2018 ExoMars Mission: results and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, A.; Pinnick, V. T.; Szopa, C.; Grand, N.; Humeau, O.; van Amerom, F. H.; Danell, R.; Freissinet, C.; Brinckerhoff, W.; Gonnsen, Z.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Coll, P.; Raulin, F.; Goesmann, F.

    2015-10-01

    The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) is a dual ion source linear ion trap mass spectrometer that was designed for the 2018 joint ESA-Roscosmos mission to Mars. The main scientific aim of the mission is to search for signs of extant or extinct life in the near subsurface of Mars by acquiring samples from as deep as 2 m below the surface. MOMA will be a key analytical tool in providing chemical (molecular and chiral) information from the solid samples, with particular focus on the characterization of organic content. The MOMA instrument, itself, is a joint venture for NASA and ESA to develop a mass spectrometer capable of analyzing samples from pyrolysis/chemical derivatization gas chromatography (GC) as well as ambient pressure laser desorption ionization (LDI). The combination of the two analytical techniques allows for the chemical characterization of a broad range of compounds, including volatile and non-volatile species. Generally, MOMA can provide information on elemental and molecular makeup, polarity, chirality and isotopic patterns of analyte species. Here we report on the current performance of the MOMA prototype instruments, specifically the demonstration of the gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS) mode of operation.

  19. Development and demonstration of an on-board mission planner for helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Owen L.; Desai, Mukund

    1988-01-01

    Mission management tasks can be distributed within a planning hierarchy, where each level of the hierarchy addresses a scope of action, and associated time scale or planning horizon, and requirements for plan generation response time. The current work is focused on the far-field planning subproblem, with a scope and planning horizon encompassing the entire mission and with a response time required to be about two minutes. The far-feld planning problem is posed as a constrained optimization problem and algorithms and structural organizations are proposed for the solution. Algorithms are implemented in a developmental environment, and performance is assessed with respect to optimality and feasibility for the intended application and in comparison with alternative algorithms. This is done for the three major components of far-field planning: goal planning, waypoint path planning, and timeline management. It appears feasible to meet performance requirements on a 10 Mips flyable processor (dedicated to far-field planning) using a heuristically-guided simulated annealing technique for the goal planner, a modified A* search for the waypoint path planner, and a speed scheduling technique developed for this project.

  20. OPSE metrology system onboard of the PROBA3 mission of ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loreggia, D.; Bemporad, A.; Capobianco, G.; Fineschi, S.; Focardi, M.; Landini, F.; Massone, G.; Nicolini, G.; Pancrazzi, M.; Romoli, M.; Cernica, I.; Purica, M.; Budianu, E.; Thizy, C.; Renotte, E.; Servaye, J. S.

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, ESA has assessed several mission involving formation flying (FF). The great interest in this topics is mainly driven by the need for moving from ground to space the location of next generation astronomical telescopes overcoming most of the critical problems, as example the construction of huge baselines for interferometry. In this scenario, metrology systems play a critical role. PROBA3 is an ESA technology mission devoted to in-orbit demonstration of the FF technique, with two satellites, an occulter and a main satellite housing a coronagraph named ASPIICS, kept at an average inter-distance by about 144m, with micron scale accuracy. The guiding proposal is to test several metrology solution for spacecraft alignment, with the important scientific return of having observation of Corona at never reached before angular field. The Shadow Position Sensors (SPS), and the Optical Position Emitters Sensors (OPSE) are two of the systems used for FF fine tracking. The SPS are finalized to monitor the position of the two spacecraft with respect to the Sun and are discussed in dedicated papers presented in this conference. The OPSE will monitor the relative position of the two satellites and consists of 3 emitters positioned on the rear surface of the occulter, that will be observed by the coronagraph itself. By following the evolution of the emitters images at the focal plane the alignment of the two spacecrafts is retrieved via dedicated centroiding algoritm. We present an overview of the OPSE system and of the centroiding approach.

  1. JANUS: the visible camera onboard the ESA JUICE mission to the Jovian system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Pasquale; Jaumann, Ralf; Cremonese, Gabriele; Hoffmann, Harald; Debei, Stefano; Della Corte, Vincenzo; Holland, Andrew; Lara, Luisa Maria

    2014-05-01

    The JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) mission [1] was selected in May 2012 as the first Large mission in the frame of the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. JUICE is now in phase A-B1 and its final adoption is planned by late 2014. The mission is aimed at an in-depth characterization of the Jovian system, with an operational phase of about 3.5 years. Main targets for this mission will be Jupiter, its satellites and rings and the complex relations within the system. Main focus will be on the detailed investigation of three of Jupiter's Galilean satellites (Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto), thanks to several fly-bys and 9 months in orbit around Ganymede. JANUS (Jovis, Amorum ac Natorum Undique Scrutator) is the camera system selected by ESA to fulfill the optical imaging scientific requirements of JUICE. It is being developed by a consortium involving institutes in Italy, Germany, Spain and UK, supported by respective Space Agencies, with the support of Co-Investigators also from USA, France, Japan and Israel. The Galilean satellites Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto show an increase in geologic activity with decreasing distance to Jupiter [e.g., 2]. The three icy Galilean satellites Callisto, Ganymede and Europa show a tremendous diversity of surface features and differ significantly in their specific evolutionary paths. Each of these moons exhibits its own fascinating geologic history - formed by competition and also combination of external and internal processes. Their origins and evolutions are influenced by factors such as density, temperature, composition (volatile compounds), stage of differentiation, volcanism, tectonism, the rheological reaction of ice and salts to stress, tidal effects, and interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere and space. These interactions are still recorded in the present surface geology. The record of geological processes spans from possible cryovolcanism through widespread tectonism to surface degradation and impact cratering

  2. MASCOT—The Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout Onboard the Hayabusa2 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Tra-Mi; Baturkin, Volodymyr; Grimm, Christian; Grundmann, Jan Thimo; Hobbie, Catherin; Ksenik, Eugen; Lange, Caroline; Sasaki, Kaname; Schlotterer, Markus; Talapina, Maria; Termtanasombat, Nawarat; Wejmo, Elisabet; Witte, Lars; Wrasmann, Michael; Wübbels, Guido; Rößler, Johannes; Ziach, Christian; Findlay, Ross; Biele, Jens; Krause, Christian; Ulamec, Stephan; Lange, Michael; Mierheim, Olaf; Lichtenheldt, Roy; Maier, Maximilian; Reill, Josef; Sedlmayr, Hans-Jürgen; Bousquet, Pierre; Bellion, Anthony; Bompis, Olivier; Cenac-Morthe, Celine; Deleuze, Muriel; Fredon, Stephane; Jurado, Eric; Canalias, Elisabet; Jaumann, Ralf; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Glassmeier, Karl Heinz; Hercik, David; Grott, Matthias; Celotti, Luca; Cordero, Federico; Hendrikse, Jeffrey; Okada, Tatsuaki

    2016-04-01

    On December 3rd, 2014, the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) launched successfully the Hayabusa2 (HY2) spacecraft to its journey to Near Earth asteroid (162173) Ryugu. Aboard this spacecraft is a compact landing package, MASCOT (Mobile Asteroid surface SCOuT), which was developed by the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) in collaboration with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Similar to the famous predecessor mission Hayabusa, Hayabusa2, will also study an asteroid and return samples to Earth. This time, however, the target is a C-type asteroid which is considered to be more primitive than (25143) Itokawa and provide insight into an even earlier stage of our Solar System.

  3. Performance of the MOMA Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer onboard the 2018 ExoMars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, Arnaud; Pinnick, Veronica; Szopa, Cyril; Grand, Noël; Freissinet, Caroline; Danell, Ryan; van Ameron, Friso; Arevalo, Ricardo; Brinckerhoff, William; Raulin, François; Mahaffy, Paul; Goesmann, Fred

    2015-04-01

    The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) is a dual ion source linear ion trap mass spectrometer that was designed for the 2018 joint ESA-Roscosmos mission to Mars. The main scientific aim of the mission is to search for signs of extant or extinct life in the near subsurface of Mars by acquir-ing samples from as deep as 2 m below the surface. MOMA will be a key analytical tool in providing chemical (molecular) information from the solid samples, with particular focus on the characterization of organic content. The MOMA instrument, itself, is a joint venture for NASA and ESA to develop a mass spectrometer capable of analyzing samples from pyrolysis gas chromatograph (GC) as well as ambient pressure laser desorption ionization (LDI). The combination of the two analytical techniques allows for the chemical characterization of a broad range of compounds, including volatile and non-volatile species. Generally, MOMA can provide in-formation on elemental and molecular makeup, po-larity, chirality and isotopic patterns of analyte spe-cies. Here we report on the current performance of the MOMA prototype instruments, specifically the demonstration of the gas chromatography-mass spec-trometry (GC-MS) mode of operation. Both instruments have been tested separately first and have been coupled in order to test the efficiency of the future MOMA GC-MS instrument. The main objective of the second step has been to test the quantitative response of both instruments while they are coupled and to characterize the combined instrument detection limit for several compounds. A final experiment has been done in order to test the feasibility of the separation and detection of a mixture contained in a soil sample introduced in the MOMA oven.

  4. Caliste-SO: the x-ray spectrometer unit of the STIX instrument onboard the Solar Orbiter space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meuris, Aline; Limousin, Olivier; Gevin, Olivier; Vassal, Marie-Cécile; Soufflet, Fabrice; Fiant, Nicolas; Bednarzik, Martin; Wild, Christopher; Stutz, Stefan; Birrer, Guy; Blondel, Claire; Le Mer, Isabelle; Huynh, Duc-Dat; Donati, Modeste; Grimm, Oliver; Commichau, Volker; Hurford, Gordon; Krucker, Säm.; Gonzalez, François; Billot, Marc

    2014-07-01

    Caliste-SO is a hybrid detector integrating in a volume of 12 × 14 × 18 mm3 a 1 mm-thick CdTe pixel detector, a frontend IDeF-X HD ASIC and passive parts to perform high resolution spectroscopy in the 4-200 keV energy range with high count rate capability (104-105 photons/s/cm2). The detector hybridization concept was designed by CEA and 3DPlus to realize CdTe cameras for space astronomy missions with various pixel patterns. For the STIX instrument onboard the Solar Orbiter mission, the imaging system is made by 32 collimators that sample the visibilities of the spatial Fourier transform and doesn't require fine pitch pixels. The Al-Schottky CdTe detectors produced by Acrorad are then patterned and tested by the Paul Scherrer Institute to produce 12 pixels surrounded by a guard ring within 1 cm2. Electrical and spectroscopic performance tests of the Caliste-SO samples are performed in France at key manufacturing steps, before sending the samples to the principal investigator to mount them in the Detector Electronics Module of STIX in front of each collimator. Four samples were produced in 2013 to be part of the STIX engineering model. Best pixels show an energy resolution of 0.7 keV FWHM at 6 keV (1 keV resolution requirement for STIX) and a low-level detection threshold below 3 keV (4 keV requirement for STIX). The paper describes the design and the production of Caliste-SO and focuses on main performance tests performed so far to characterize the spectrometer unit.

  5. The pre-flight calibration setup of the instrument SIMBIO-SYS onboard the mission BepiColombo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulet, F.; Rodriguez-Ferreira, J.; Arondel, A.; Dassas, K.; Eng, P.; Lami, P.; Langevin, Y.; Longval, Y.; Pradel, P.; Dami, M.

    2015-11-01

    BepiColombo, an European Space Agency (ESA) mission being conducted in cooperation with the Japan space agency, will explore Mercury with a set of eleven instruments onboard the spacecraft Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO). Among them, SIMBIO-SYS (Spectrometers and Imagers for MPO BepiColombo Integrated Observatory SYStem) is a complex instrument that will provide images and spectra in the 400-2000 nm wavelength range of the entire surface of Mercury. Pre-flight calibration of the SYMBIO-SYS instrument is mandatory for reliable scientific interpretation of images and spectra returned from the planet Mercury. This paper presents the calibration device designed and implemented for the specific requirements of this instrument. It mainly consists of a thermal vacuum chamber simulating the space environment, an optical bench collecting calibration sources and optical elements that simulate the conditions of Mercury observations, mechanical interfaces used for positioning the three channels inside the vacuum chamber, thermal interfaces to explore the operating temperatures, computer interfaces that allow to communicate with both the instrument and the calibration elements and synchronize the calibrations sequences with the status of the calibration device. As the major goal is the characterization of the radiometric performances of the three channels of SIMBIO-SYS, radiometric performances of the test setup evaluated by simulations and measurements are emphasized.

  6. Extra dose due to extravehicular activity during the NASA4 mission measured by an on-board TLD system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Hejja, I.; Lang, E.; Feher, I.

    1999-01-01

    A microprocessor-controlled on-board TLD system, 'Pille'96', was used during the NASA4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the extra dose to two astronauts in the course of their extravehicular activity (EVA). For the EVA dose measurements, CaSO4:Dy bulb dosemeters were located in specially designed pockets of the ORLAN spacesuits. During an EVA lasting 6 h, the dose ratio inside and outside Mir was measured. During the EVA, Mir crossed the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) three times. Taking into account the influence of these three crossings the mean EVA/internal dose rate ratio was 3.2. Internal dose mapping using CaSO4:Dy dosemeters gave mean dose rates ranging from 9.3 to 18.3 microGy h-1 at locations where the shielding effect was not the same. Evaluation results of the high temperature region of LiF dosemeters are given to estimate the mean LET.

  7. Extra dose due to extravehicular activity during the NASA4 mission measured by an on-board TLD system.

    PubMed

    Deme, S; Apathy, I; Hejja, I; Lang, E; Feher, I

    1999-01-01

    A microprocessor-controlled on-board TLD system, 'Pille'96', was used during the NASA4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the extra dose to two astronauts in the course of their extravehicular activity (EVA). For the EVA dose measurements, CaSO4:Dy bulb dosemeters were located in specially designed pockets of the ORLAN spacesuits. During an EVA lasting 6 h, the dose ratio inside and outside Mir was measured. During the EVA, Mir crossed the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) three times. Taking into account the influence of these three crossings the mean EVA/internal dose rate ratio was 3.2. Internal dose mapping using CaSO4:Dy dosemeters gave mean dose rates ranging from 9.3 to 18.3 microGy h-1 at locations where the shielding effect was not the same. Evaluation results of the high temperature region of LiF dosemeters are given to estimate the mean LET. PMID:11542227

  8. Summary of the results from the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment (LADEE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanyi, Mihaly

    2016-07-01

    The Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission (9/2013 - 4/2014) discovered a permanently present dust cloud engulfing the Moon. The size, velocity, and density distributions of the dust particles are consistent with ejecta clouds generated from the continual bombardment of the lunar surface by sporadic interplanetary dust particles. Intermittent density enhancements were observed during several of the annual meteoroid streams, especially during the Geminids. LDEX found no evidence of the expected density enhancements over the terminators where electrostatic processes were predicted to efficiently loft small grains. LDEX is an impact ionization dust detector, it captures coincident signals and full waveforms to reliably identify dust impacts. LDEX recorded average impact rates of approximately 1 and 0.1 hits/minute of particles with impact charges of q > 0.5 and q > 5 fC, corresponding to particles with radii of a > 0.3 and a> 0.7~μm, respectively. Several of the yearly meteor showers generated sustained elevated levels of impact rates, especially if their radiant direction intersected the lunar surface near the equatorial plane, greatly enhancing the probability of crossing their ejecta plumes. The characteristic velocities of dust particles in the cloud are on the order of ~100 m/s which we neglect compared to the typical spacecraft speeds of 1.6 km/s. Hence, with the knowledge of the spacecraft orbit and attitude, impact rates can be directly turned into particle densities as functions of time and position. LDEX observations are the first to identify the ejecta clouds around the Moon sustained by the continual bombardment of interplanetary dust particles. Most of the dust particles generated in impacts have insufficient energy to escape and follow ballistic orbits, returning to the surface, 'gardening' the regolith. Similar ejecta clouds are expected to engulf all airless planetary objects, including

  9. The EUV-observatory TESIS on board Coronas-Photon: scientific goals and initial plan of observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogachev, Sergey

    The TESIS a EUV-observatory for solar research from space will be launched in 2008 September on board the satellite Coronas-Photon from cosmodrome Plesetsk. TESIS is a project of Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Science with contribution from Space Research Center of Polish Academy of Science (the spectrometer SphinX). The experiment will focus on quasi-monochromatic imaging of the Sun and XUV spectroscopy of solar plasma. The scientific payload of TESIS contains five instruments: (1) Bragg crystal spectroheliometer for Sun monochromatic imaging in the line MgXII 8.42 A, (2) the normal-incidence Herschelian EUV telescopes with a resolution of 1.7 arc sec operated in lines FeXXII 133 A, FeIX 171 A and HeII 304 A, (3) the EUV imaging spectrometer, (4) the wide-field Ritchey-Chretien coronograph and (5) the X-ray spectrometer SphinX. The TESIS will focus on coordinated study of solar activity from the transition region to the outer corona up to 4 solar radii in wide temperature range from 5*104 to 2*107 K. We describe the scientific goals of the TESIS and its initial plan of observations.

  10. The DOSIS -Experiment onboard the Columbus Laboratory of the International Space Station -Overview and first mission results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Kürner, Christine; Burmeister, Sünke; Hajek, Michael; Bilski, Pawel; Horwacik, Tomasz; Vanhavere, Filip; Spurny, Frantisek; Jadrnickova, Iva; Pálfalvi, József K.; O'Sullivan, Denis; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Uchihori, Yukio; Kitamura, Hisashi; Kodaira, Satoshi; Yukihara, Eduardo; Benton, Eric; Zapp, Neal; Gaza, Ramona; Zhou, Dazhuang; Semones, Edward; Roed, Yvonne; Boehme, Matthias; Haumann, Lutz

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long dura-tion human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Accurate knowledge of the physical characteristics of the space radiation field in dependence on the solar activity, the orbital parameters and the different shielding configurations of the International Space Station ISS is therefore needed. The DOSIS (Dose Distribution inside the ISS) experiment, under the project and science lead of DLR, aims for the spatial and tempo-ral measurement of the radiation field parameters inside the European Columbus laboratory onboard the International Space Station. This goal is achieved by applying a combination of passive (Thermo-and Optical luminescence detectors and Nuclear track etch detectors) and active (silicon telescope) radiation detectors. The passive radiation detectors -so called pas-sive detector packages (PDP) are mounted at eleven positions within the Columbus laboratory -aiming for a spatial dose distribution measurement of the absorbed dose, the linear energy transfer spectra and the dose equivalent with an average exposure time of six months. Two active silicon telescopes -so called Dosimetry Telescopes (DOSTEL 1 and DOSTEL 2) together with a Data and Power Unit (DDPU) are mounted within the DOSIS Main Box at a fixed loca-tion beneath the European Physiology Module (EPM) rack. The DOSTEL 1 and DOSTEL 2 detectors are positioned at a 90 angle to each other for a precise measurement of the temporal and spatial variation of the radiation field, especially during crossing of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The DOSIS hardware was launched with the

  11. Onboard Processing of Multispectral and Hyperspectral Data of Volcanic Activity for Future Earth-Orbiting and Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Ashley Gerard; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel Q.; Doubleday, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Autonomous onboard processing of data allows rapid response to detections of dynamic, changing processes. Software that can detect volcanic eruptions from thermal emission has been used to retask the Earth Observing 1 spacecraft to obtain additional data of the eruption. Rapid transmission of these data to the ground, and the automatic processing of the data to generated images, estimates of eruption parameters and maps of thermal structure, has allowed these products to be delivered rapidly to volcanologists to aid them in assessing eruption risk and hazard. Such applications will enhance science return from future Earth-orbiting spacecraft and also from spacecraft exploring the Solar System, or beyond, which hope to image dynamic processes. Especially in the latter case, long communication times between the spacecraft and Earth exclude a rapid response to what may be a transient process - only using onboard autonomy can the spacecraft react quickly to such an event.

  12. Onboard Navigation Systems Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The space shuttle onboard navigation systems characteristics are described. A standard source of equations and numerical data for use in error analyses and mission simulations related to space shuttle development is reported. The sensor characteristics described are used for shuttle onboard navigation performance assessment. The use of complete models in the studies depend on the analyses to be performed, the capabilities of the computer programs, and the availability of computer resources.

  13. The DREAMS payload on-board the Entry and descent Demonstrator Module of the ExoMars mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, F.; Montmessin, F.; Debei, S.; Colombatti, G.; Harri, A.-M.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Wilson, C.; Aboudan, A.; Molfese, C.; Zaccariotto, M.; Mugnuolo, R.

    2012-04-01

    DREAMS (Dust characterization, Risk assessment and Environment Analyser on the Martian Surface) is the scientific payload selected by ESA and NASA for the accommodation on the Entry and descent Demonstrator Module (EDM) of the ExoMars mission to be launched in 2016. It is a meteorological station with the additional capability to perform measurements of the electric fields close to the surface of Mars. It is an autonomous system that includes its own battery for power supply. It is constituted by the following subsystems: MarsTem (thermometer), MetBaro (pressure sensor), MetHumi (humidity sensor), MetWind (2-D wind sensor), MicroARES (electric field sensor), ODS (optical depth sensor), a triaxial accelerometer (for attitude measurements), a CEU (Central Electronic Unit) and a battery. All systems in DREAMS have a solid heritage from other missions and have very high TRL. The ExoMars 2016 EDM mission is foreseen to reach Mars during the climatological dust storm season. DREAMS will have the unique chance of making scientific measurements able to characterize the martian environment in this dust loaded scenario. Even with low resources (volume, mass, energy) DREAMS will be able to perform novel measurements that will improve our understanding of the martian environment and dust cycle. DREAMS will perform: • Meteorological measurements by monitoring pressure, temperature, wind speed and direction, humidity and dust opacity during a martian sol at its landing site. • Characterization of the martian boundary layer. • Hazard monitoring by providing a comprehensive dataset to help engineers to quantify hazards for equipments and human crew: velocity of windblown dust, electrostatic charging, existence of discharges, and electromagnetic noise potentially affecting communications. • The first ever investigation of atmospheric electric phenomena on Mars. The DREAMS experiment gathers a wide consortium of institutions led by Italy, reflecting the current involvement

  14. The extreme UV imager telescope on-board the Solar Orbiter mission: overview of phase C and D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halain, J.-P.; Rochus, P.; Renotte, E.; Hermans, A.; Jacques, L.; Auchère, F.; Berghmans, D.; Harra, L.; Schühle, U.; Schmutz, W.; Zhukov, A.; Aznar Cuadrado, R.; Delmotte, F.; Dumesnil, C.; Gyo, M.; Kennedy, T.; Smith, P.; Tandy, J.; Mercier, R.; Verbeeck, C.

    2015-09-01

    The Solar Orbiter mission is composed of ten scientific instruments dedicated to the observation of the Sun's atmosphere and its heliosphere, taking advantage of an out-of ecliptic orbit and at perihelion reaching a proximity close to 0.28 A.U. On board Solar Orbiter, the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUI) will provide full-Sun image sequences of the solar corona in the extreme ultraviolet (17.1 nm and 30.4 nm), and high-resolution image sequences of the solar disk in the extreme ultraviolet (17.1 nm) and in the vacuum ultraviolet (121.6 nm). The EUI concept uses heritage from previous similar extreme ultraviolet instrument. Additional constraints from the specific orbit (thermal and radiation environment, limited telemetry download) however required dedicated technologies to achieve the scientific objectives of the mission. The development phase C of the instrument and its sub-systems has been successfully completed, including thermomechanical and electrical design validations with the Structural Thermal Model (STM) and the Engineering Model (EM). The instrument STM and EM units have been integrated on the respective spacecraft models and will undergo the system level tests. In parallel, the Phase D has been started with the sub-system qualifications and the flight parts manufacturing. The next steps of the EUI development will be the instrument Qualification Model (QM) integration and qualification tests. The Flight Model (FM) instrument activities will then follow with the acceptance tests and calibration campaigns.

  15. Doses due to the South Atlantic Anomaly during the Euromir'95 mission measured by an on-board TLD system.

    PubMed

    Deme, S; Reitz, G; Apathy, I; Hejja, I; Lang, E; Feher, I

    1999-01-01

    During the Euromir'95 mission, a specially designed microprocessor-controlled thermoluminescent detector (TLD) system, called the 'Pille'95', was used by ESA astronaut Thomas Reiter to measure the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir space station. One of the experiment's objectives was to determine the dose fraction on Mir due to the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) on an orbit inclined at 51.6 degrees and at an altitude of about 400 km. Using an hourly measuring period for 170 h in automatic mode, dose components both of galactic (independent of SAA) and SAA origin were determined. It was found that the maximum dose due to crossing the SAA was equal to 55 microGy. Averaging all the measurements it was calculated that the mean dose rate inside the Mir was 12-14 microGy h-1 and that half of this value was caused by the SAA. PMID:11542232

  16. Molecular characterization of a cometary nucleus composition with the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer of the COSAC experiment onboard the Philae lander of the Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szopa, Cyril; Gomes, Ricardo; Raulin, Francois; Sternberg, Robert; Coscia, David; Cabane, Michel; Meierhenrich, Uwe; Gautier, Thomas; Goesmann, Fred; Cosac Team

    2014-05-01

    One among the main goal of the Rosetta mission is to characterize the physical and chemical properties of the comet P46/Churyumov-Gerasimenko nucleus. With this aim, the mission will offer for the first time the capability to achieve in situ measurements at the cometary surface with the Philae lander. This characterization is all the more important that the properties of cometary nuclei surfaces are almost unknown whereas it is the source of the processes taking place in the cometary comae and tails. In this frame, the determination of the cometary nucleus molecular composition is of primary importance as it would allow to : i. give clues on the relationship between the molecules present in the nucleus and those detected from observations ; ii. determine the importance of comets in the delivery of inorganic and organic molecules to planetary surfaces ; iii. improve our knowledge of the connection between comets and materials present in the interstellar medium. The COmetary SAmpling and Composition experiment will be the molecular analyzer onboard the Philae lander. It is constituted of a solid sampler, a gas chromatograph and a mass spectrometer, that allow to analyze volatile compounds coming from both the cometary atmosphere and samples collected in the cometary regolith. In order to prepare the analysis and interpretation of the data to be collected after the landing of Philae, a series of calibration and tests were done in laboratory with the COSAC spare model or spare components of the GC. These were done in order to evaluate the health state of the gas chromatograph after almost 10 years spent in the interplanetary environment, and also to estimate the analytical performances of the instrument under realistic operation conditions to be used at the cometary surface. This contribution presents the results of these tests that will be usefull for the COSAC data analysis.

  17. Pre-launch calibrations of the Vis-IR Hyperspectral Imager (VIHI) onboard BepiColombo, the ESA mission to Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Filacchione, Gianrico; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Dami, Michele; Tommasi, Leonardo; Barbis, Alessandra; Ficai-Veltroni, Iacopo

    2013-09-01

    This paper reports the design, assembly and calibration activities relative to the internal calibration unit mounted on the Visible and Infrared Hyperspectral Imager (VIHI). VIHI is one of the three optical channels of the SIMBIO-SYS suite (Spectrometers and Imagers for MPO BepiColombo Integrated Observatory SYStem), one of the payload instruments onboard the probe BepiColombo/MPO, the ESA cornestone mission to be launched in 2016-2017 to Mercury. The activities reported include also the qualification tests of the commercial sources (a Welch-Allyn 1163 incandescence lamp and the NICHIA NJSW036BLT LED) selected. All the qualifications (Thermal, Vibration and Radiation tests) were successful, demonstrating the suitability of the commercial sources as Flight hardware. The performances of the ICU were verified during its mounting and alignment in the VIHI optical bench. The ICU satisfy the requirements of providing a spectral radiance of the same order of magnitude of the signal from Mercury and of guaranteeing a good degree of spatial uniformity across the spectrometer slit for the verification of the flat field in flight. The LED source provide an uniformity of the order of 10%, while the lamp signal drops by about 30% at the extreme edges of the FOV.

  18. The DOSIS -Experiment onboard the Columbus Laboratory of the International Space Station -First Mission Results from the Active DOSTEL Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmeister, Soenke; Berger, Thomas; Beaujean, Rudolf; Boehme, Matthias; Haumann, Lutz; Kortmann, Onno; Labrenz, Johannes; Reitz, Guenther

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long dura-tion human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Accurate knowledge of the physical characteristics of the space radiation field in dependence on the solar activity, the orbital parameters and the different shielding configurations of the International Space Station ISS is therefore needed. For the investigation of the spatial and temporal distribution of the radiation field inside the European COLUMBUS module the DLR experiment DOSIS (Dose Distribution Inside the ISS) was launched on July 15th 2009 with STS-127 to the ISS. The experimental package was transferred from the Space Shuttle into COLUMBUS on July 18th. It consists in a first part of a combination of passive detector packages (PDP) distributed at 11 locations inside the European Columbus Laboratory. The second part are two active radiation detectors (DOSTELs) with a DDPU (DOSIS Data and Power Unit) in a nomex pouch (DOSIS MAIN BOX) mounted at a fixed location beneath the European Physiology Module (EPM) inside COLUMBUS. After the successful installation the active part has been activated on the 18th July 2009. Each of the DOSTEL units consists of two 6.93 cm PIPS silicon detectors forming a telescope with an opening angle of 120. The two DOSTELs are mounted with their telescope axis perpendicular to each other to investigate anisotropies of the radiation field inside the COLUMBUS module especially during the passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and during Solar Particle Events (SPEs). The data from the DOSTEL units are transferred to ground via the EPM rack which is activated

  19. Mare Imbrium Regolith and Rock Information Retrieved from Imaging Spectrometer and Panorama Cameras onboard the Yutu Rover of Chang'E 3 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Jin, Weidong; Yuan, Ye; Yang, Yazhou; Wang, Ziwei; Xiao, Long

    2014-11-01

    The Chang’E 3 mission successfully landed on the Mare Imbrium region on December 14, 2013 and deployed the Yutu Rover to roam near the Chang’E A Crater. Although the rover roamed just over 100 meters before its premature failure, its onboard visible and near-infrared (VisNIR) imaging spectrometer was able to collect 4 spectra at 4 different sites which are the first in-situ lunar surface spectra ever taken. The onboard panorama cameras (PCAM) also photographed large amount of surface features since the Apollo era and some images have clearly shown the lunar opposition effect. The VisNIR spectrometer spans the wavelength from 450 to 2395 nm with a step of 5 nm. By performing radiometric and photometric calibrations, the absolute reflectance are obtained and it is found that the in-situ spectra are much bighter than that of the same area measured by the M3 instrument. The in-situ spectra also have a much deeper 1 μm absorption feature than that of the M3 spectra measured remotely. We conjecture that such differences are caused by the fact that the lander’s descent engines must have blown away the top-most layers which are much more mature than the exposed underlying layers. A comparison of the continuum-removed in-situ spectra with that of the mineral spectral library gives the concentrations of major lunar rock-forming minerals including olivine, pyroxenes and plagioclase at these 4 different sites. The phase curve retrieved from the PCAM shows a strong opposition surge below 10-deg phase angle and the phase reddening effect. We attempt to retrieve the regolith physical properties using both the Hapke and Shkuratov photometric models. At a close distance the PCAM also captured high resolution images of a 4-meter across boulder at the edge of the Chang’E A Crater. Centimeter-sized bright clasts on its surface may indicate its basaltic nature. By comparing the VisNIR spectra of its nearby regoliths with that of the Apollo samples, we believe this boulder

  20. SDO Onboard Ephemeris Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Kevin E.; Liu, Kuo-Chia

    2008-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft is a sun-pointing, semi-autonomous satellite that will allow nearly continuous observations of the Sun with a continuous science data downlink. The science requirements for this mission necessitate very strict sun-pointing requirements, as well as continuous ground station connectivity through high gain antennas (HGAs). For SDO s onboard attitude control system to successfully point the satellite at the Sun and the HGAs at the ground stations with the desired accuracy, in addition to the need for accurate sensors it must have good onboard knowledge of the ephemerides of the Sun, the spacecraft, and the ground station. This paper describes the minimum force models necessary for onboard ephemeris generation in support of an attitude control system. The forces that were considered include the Sun s point mass, Moon s point mass, solar radiation pressure (SRP), and the Earth s gravity with varying degree and order of terms of the geopotential.

  1. Selection of new innovation crystal for Mercury Gamma-ray and Neutron Spectrometer on-board MPO/BepiColombo mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, Alexander; Mitrofanov, Igor; Benkhoff, Johannes; Litvak, Maxim; McAuliffe, Jonathan; Mokrousov, Maxim; Owens, Alan; Quarati, Francesco; Shvetsov, Valery; Timoshenko, Gennady

    2015-04-01

    The Mercury Gamma-ray and Neutron Spectrometer (MGNS) was developed in Space Research Institute for detection the flux of neutron and gamma-ray from the Mercury subsurface on-board Mercury Polar Orbiter of ESA BepiColombo mission. The instrument consists of 3He proportional counters and organic scintillator for detection of neutron and also gamma-spectrometer based on scintillation crystal for detection of gamma-ray. For the gamma-ray spectrometer the LaBr3 crystal was selected, the best choice at the time of the instrument proposal in 2004. However, quite recently the European industry has developed the new crystal CeBr3, which could be much better than LaBr3 crystal for planetology. Such crystal with the necessary size of 3 inch became available in the stage of manufactory of Flight Spare Module of MGNS instrument. New CeBr3 crystal has much better signal-to-noise ratio than LaBr3 crystal in the energy band up to 3 MeV. Also, in the LaBr3 crystal, the important for planetology gamma-ray line of potassium at 1461 keV is overlapping with the background gamma-ray line of 138La isotope at 1473 keV. This CeBr3 crystal was integrated to MGNS instrument. We present the results of gamma-ray performance and environment tests of MGNS with CeBr3 crystal, and also comparison between LaBr3 and new CeBr3 crystals in context of space application for this instrument.

  2. X-ray spectrophotometer SphinX and particle spectrometer STEP-F of the satellite experiment CORONAS-PHOTON. Preliminary results of the joint data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnik, O. V.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, J.; Gburek, S.; Kowalinski, M.; Siarkowski, M.; Plocieniak, S.; Bakala, J.

    2012-04-01

    A joint analysis is carried out of data obtained with the help of the solar X-ray SphinX spectrophotometer and the electron and proton satellite telescope STEP-F in May 2009 in the course of the scientific space experiment CORONAS-PHOTON. In order to determine the energies and particle types, in the analysis of spectrophotometer records data are used on the intensities of electrons, protons, and secondary γ-radiation, obtained by the STEP-F telescope, which was located in close proximity to the SphinX spectrophotometer. The identical reaction of both instruments is noted at the intersection of regions of the Brazilian magnetic anomaly and the Earth's radiation belts. It is shown that large area photodiodes, serving as sensors of the X-ray spectrometer, reliably record electron fluxes of low and intermediate energies, as well as fluxes of the secondary gamma radiation from construction materials of detector modules, the TESIS instrument complex, and the spacecraft itself. The dynamics of electron fluxes, recorded by the SphinX spectrophotometer in the vicinity of a weak geomagnetic storm, supplements the information about the processes of radial diffusion of electrons, which was studied using the STEP-F telescope.

  3. Onboard photo: Astronauts at work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-87) mid-deck, Leonid Kadenyuk, Ukrainian payload specialist, works with the Brassica rapa plants being grown for the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment (CUE). Kadenyuk joined five astronauts for 16-days in Earth-orbit in support of the United States Microgravity Payload 4 (USMP-4) mission.

  4. Application of the Payload Data Processing and Storage System to MOSREM Multi-Processor On-Board System for Robotic Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameux, D.

    (TOS-MMA) section of the European Space Agency. Spacecraft autonomy requires massive processing power that is not available in nowadays space-qualified processors, nor will be for some time. On the other INTRODUCTION hand, leading civil/military processors and processing modules, though providing the numerical power needed To fulfil the growing needs of processing high for autonomy, cannot work reliably in the harsh space quantities of data on-board satellites, payload engineers environment. have come to a common approach. They design sets of data acquisition, storing and processing elements for on- ESA has defined in co-operation with Industry a board applications that form what ESA calls a Payload reference architecture for payload processing that Data Processing and Storage System (PDPSS). decomposes the global payload data processing system in nodes interconnected by high-speed serial links (SpaceWire). This architecture may easily integrate heterogeneous processors, thus providing the ideal framework for combining the environmental ruggedness of space processors (e.g. ERC32) with the shear computing power of industrial processors. This paper presents ESA's near future efforts for the development of an environmentally sound and high performance on-board computer system, composed of COTS and space-qualified hardware, in which the desired characteristics (high computing power and high Figure

  5. Web Design for Space Operations: An Overview of the Challenges and New Technologies Used in Developing and Operating Web-Based Applications in Real-Time Operational Support Onboard the International Space Station, in Astronaut Mission Planning and Mission Control Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Operations Planning Team, Mission Control Centre and Mission Automation Support Network (MAS) have all evolved over the years to use commercial web-based technologies to create a configurable electronic infrastructure to manage the complex network of real-time planning, crew scheduling, resource and activity management as well as onboard document and procedure management required to co-ordinate ISS assembly, daily operations and mission support. While these Web technologies are classified as non-critical in nature, their use is part of an essential backbone of daily operations on the ISS and allows the crew to operate the ISS as a functioning science laboratory. The rapid evolution of the internet from 1998 (when ISS assembly began) to today, along with the nature of continuous manned operations in space, have presented a unique challenge in terms of software engineering and system development. In addition, the use of a wide array of competing internet technologies (including commercial technologies such as .NET and JAVA ) and the special requirements of having to support this network, both nationally among various control centres for International Partners (IPs), as well as onboard the station itself, have created special challenges for the MCC Web Tools Development Team, software engineers and flight controllers, who implement and maintain this system. This paper presents an overview of some of these operational challenges, and the evolving nature of the solutions and the future use of COTS based rich internet technologies in manned space flight operations. In particular this paper will focus on the use of Microsoft.s .NET API to develop Web-Based Operational tools, the use of XML based service oriented architectures (SOA) that needed to be customized to support Mission operations, the maintenance of a Microsoft IIS web server onboard the ISS, The OpsLan, functional-oriented Web Design with AJAX

  6. Global-scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) Mission: Science from Geostationary Orbit on-board a Commercial Communications Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastes, R.; Deaver, T.; Krywonos, A.; Lankton, M. R.; McClintock, W. E.; Pang, R.

    2011-12-01

    Geostationary orbits are ideal for many science investigations of the Earth system on global scales. These orbits allow continuous observations of the same geographic region, enabling spatial and temporal changes to be distinguished and eliminating the ambiguity inherent to observations from low Earth orbit (LEO). Just as observations from geostationary orbit have revolutionized our understanding of changes in the troposphere, they will dramatically improve our understanding of the space environment at higher altitudes. However, geostationary orbits are infrequently used for science missions because of high costs. Geostationary satellites are large, typically weighing tons. Consequently, devoting an entire satellite to a science mission requires a large financial commitment, both for the spacecraft itself and for sufficient science instrumentation to justify a dedicated spacecraft. Furthermore, the small number of geostationary satellites produced for scientific missions increases the costs of each satellite. For these reasons, it is attractive to consider flying scientific instruments on satellites operated by commercial companies, some of whom have fleets of ~40 satellites. However, scientists' lack of understanding of the capabilities of commercial spacecraft as well as commercial companies' concerns about risks to their primary mission have impeded the cooperation necessary for the shared use of a spacecraft. Working with a commercial partner, the GOLD mission has successfully overcome these issues. Our experience indicates that there are numerous benefits to flying on commercial communications satellites (e.g., it is possible to downlink large amounts of data) and the costs are low if the experimental requirements adequately match the capabilities and available resources of the host spacecraft. Consequently, affordable access to geostationary orbit aboard a communications satellite now appears possible for science payloads.

  7. STS-65 onboard: IML-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-65) Mission specialist Leroy Chiao is seen in the International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) spacelab science moduel in front of Rack 3 and above center aisle equipment. Chiao has just made an observation of the goldfish container (silver apparatus on left beween his right hand and knee) . The Rack 3 Aquatic Animal Experiment Unit (AAEU) also contains Medaka and newts. Chiao joined five other NASA astronauts and a Japanese payload specialist for two weeks of experimenting.

  8. The ground support equipment for the E-NIS instrument on-board the ESA-Euclid Dark Energy Mission in the baseline configuration presented in phase A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifoglio, Massimo; Gianotti, Fulvio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Franceschi, Enrico; Nicastro, Luciano; Valenziano, Luca; Zerbi, Filippo Maria; Cimatti, Andrea

    2010-07-01

    Euclid is a high-precision survey mission to map the geometry of the Dark Universe. The Euclid Mission concept presented in the Assessment Phase Study Report1 was selected by ESA on February 2010 to undergo a competitive Definition Phase. Euclid is a candidate for launch in the first slice of the Cosmic Vision Plan (M1/M2), with a possible launch date of 2018. In this paper we refer to the instrument baseline configuration identified in the Assessment Phase. It consisted of a Korsch telescope with a primary mirror of 1.2 m diameter and a focal plane hosting 3 scientific instruments, each with a field of view of 0.5 deg2: (1) E-VIS: a CCD based optical imaging channel, (2) E-NIP: a NIR imaging photometry channel, and (3) E-NIS: a NIR slitless spectral channel. We present the conceptual design developed in the Assessment Phase study for the Ground Support Equipment required to support the assembly, integration and verification operations at instrument level for the E-NIS baseline configuration, with particular regards to the scientific and calibration activities.

  9. Design of the detector to observe the energetic charged particles: a part of the solar X-ray spectrophotometer ChemiX onboard Interhelio-Probe mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnik, Oleksiy; Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Bakala, Jaroslaw; Siarkowski, Marek; Evgen Kurbatov, mgr..

    2016-07-01

    Cosmic particle radiation may damages payload's electronics, optics, and sensors during of long-term scientific space mission especially the interplanetary ones. That is why it's extremely important to prevent failures of digital electronics, CCDs, semiconductor detectors at the times of passing through regions of enhanced charged particle fluxes. Well developed models of the Earth's radiation belts allow to predict and to protect sensitive equipment against disastrous influence of radiation due to energetic particle contained in the Van Allen belts. In the contrary interplanetary probes flying far away from our planet undergoes passages through clouds of plasma and solar cosmic rays not predictable by present models. Especially these concerns missions planned for non-ecliptic orbits. The practical approach to protect sensitive modules may be to measure the in situ particle fluxes with high time resolution and generation of alarm flags, which will switch off sensitive units of particular scientific equipment. The ChemiX (Chemical composition in X-rays) instrument is being developed by the Solar Physics Division of Polish Space Research Centre for the Interhelio-Probe interplanetary mission. Charged particle bursts can badly affect the regular measurements of X-ray spectra of solar origin. In order to detect presence of these enhanced particle fluxes the Background Particle Monitor (BPM) was developed constituting now a vital part of ChemiX. The BPM measurements of particle fluxes will assist to determine level of X-ray spectra contamination. Simultaneously BPM will measure the energy spectra of ambient particles. We present overall structure, design, technical and a scientific characteristic of BPM, particle sorts, and energy ranges to be registered. We describe nearly autonomous modular structure of BPM consisting of detector head, analogue and digital electronics modules, and of module of secondary power supply [1-3]. Detector head consists of three

  10. Planning and implementation of the on-comet operations of the instrument SD2 onboard the lander Philae of Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lizia, P.; Bernelli-Zazzera, F.; Ercoli-Finzi, A.; Mottola, S.; Fantinati, C.; Remetean, E.; Dolives, B.

    2016-08-01

    The lander Philae of the Rosetta mission landed on the surface of the comet 67 P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on November 12, 2014. Among the specific subsystems and instruments carried on Philae, the sampling, drilling and distribution (SD2) subsystem had the role of providing in-situ operations devoted to soil drilling, sample collection, and their distribution to three scientific instruments. After landing, a first sequence of scientific activities was carried out, relying mainly on the energy stored in the lander primary battery. Due to the limited duration and the communication delay, these activities had to be carried out automatically, with a limited possibility of developing and uploading commands from the ground. Philae's landing was not nominal and SD2 was operated in unexpected conditions: the lander was not anchored to the soil and leant on the comet surface shakily. Nevertheless, one sampling procedure was attempted. This paper provides an overview of SD2 operation planning and on-comet operations, and analyses SD2 achievements during the first science sequence of Philae's on-comet operations.

  11. Spectrophotometry, colors, and photometric properties of the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko nucleus from the OSIRIS instrument onboard the ROSETTA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasier, Sonia; Hasselmann, Pedro; Feller, Clement; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Lara, Luisa; Oklay, Nilda; Tubiana, Cecilia; Besse, Sebastien; Scholten, Frank; Sierks, Holger; Leyrat, Cedric; La Forgia, Fiorangela; Lazzarin, Monica; Pajola, Maurizio; Thomas, Nick; Pommerol, Antoine; Massironi, Matteo

    2015-04-01

    Rosetta is the cornerstone mission of the European Space Agency devoted to the study of Solar System minor bodies. Launched on 2 March 2004, Rosetta arrived on August 6, 2014, at the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko after 10 years of interplanetary journey. Rosetta is now in the main science escort phase of the comet after the successful delivery of the lander Philae on its surface on November 12, 2014. In this work we present the results on the 67P nucleus physical properties derived from the OSIRIS imaging system observations obtained in July- mid August 2014, during the comet approach phase and the first bound orbits. In this timeframe, OSIRIS has mapped the comet surface with a resolution up to 2 m/px with several filters covering the 250-1000 nm range, and at different phase angles (1.3-54 degrees). The images have been reduced using the OSIRIS standard pipeline, and then transformed into I/F reflectance. A 3D shape model of the nucleus, determined from the images obtained during the mapping phase, has been used to retrieve the illumination and geometric conditions of each image. Color cubes of the surface have been hence produced by stacking registered and photometrically corrected images. Globally, the nucleus has spectrophotometric properties in the NUV-VIS-NIR range similar to those of bare cometary nuclei, of primitive D-type asteroids such us Jupiter Trojans, and of the moderately red Transneptunians and Centaurs. No clear absorption bands have been detected so far at the resolution of the used filters. The global spectral slope, evaluated in the 535-880 nm range, varies between 11 %/(100 nm) at a phase angle of 1.3 degrees and 16 %/(100 nm) at a phase angle of 52 degrees, implying a significant phase reddening. Despite the different types of terrains and morphological features seen on the comet (Thomas et al. 2015), the nucleus shows small color variations, with the notable exception of the Hapi region (Sierks et al., 2015). This region is located

  12. Onboard photo: STS-56 ATLAS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-56) onboard photo of Mission Specialist Michael Foale working in the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-2). The ATLAS program was designed to measure the long term variability in the total energy radiated by the sun and determine the variability in the solar spectrum.

  13. Onboard Photo : STS-45 Atlas-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-45) onboard photo of Mission Specialist Kathryn Sullivan working in the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (Atlas-1) module. Atlas-1 flew in a series of Spacelab flights that measured long term variability in the total energy radiated by the Sun and determined the variability in the solar spectrum.

  14. Onboard photo: Astronauts at work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia's (STS-87) first ever Extravehicular Activity (EVA), astronaut Takao Doi works with a 156-pound crane carried onboard for the first time. The crane's inclusion and the work with it are part of a continuing preparation effort for future work on the International Space Station (ISS). The ongoing project allows for evaluation of tools and operating methods to be applied to the construction of the Space Station. This crane device is designed to aid future space walkers in transporting Orbital Replacement Units (ORU), with a mass up to 600 pounds (like the simulated battery pictured here), from translating carts on the exterior of ISS to various worksites on the truss structure. Earlier Doi, an international mission specialist representing Japan, and astronaut Winston E. Scott, mission specialist, had installed the crane in a socket along the middle port side of Columbia's cargo bay for the evaluation. The two began the crane operations after completing a contingency EVA to snag the free-flying Spartan 201 and berth it in the payload bay (visible in the background).

  15. Onboard hierarchical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunesi, Luca; Armbruster, Philippe

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate a suitable hierarchical networking solution to improve capabilities and performances of space systems, with significant recurrent costs saving and more efficient design & manufacturing flows. Classically, a satellite can be split in two functional sub-systems: the platform and the payload complement. The platform is in charge of providing power, attitude & orbit control and up/down-link services, whereas the payload represents the scientific and/or operational instruments/transponders and embodies the objectives of the mission. One major possibility to improve the performance of payloads, by limiting the data return to pertinent information, is to process data on board thanks to a proper implementation of the payload data system. In this way, it is possible to share non-recurring development costs by exploiting a system that can be adopted by the majority of space missions. It is believed that the Modular and Scalable Payload Data System, under development by ESA, provides a suitable solution to fulfil a large range of future mission requirements. The backbone of the system is the standardised high data rate SpaceWire network http://www.ecss.nl/. As complement, a lower speed command and control bus connecting peripherals is required. For instance, at instrument level, there is a need for a "local" low complexity bus, which gives the possibility to command and control sensors and actuators. Moreover, most of the connections at sub-system level are related to discrete signals management or simple telemetry acquisitions, which can easily and efficiently be handled by a local bus. An on-board hierarchical network can therefore be defined by interconnecting high-speed links and local buses. Additionally, it is worth stressing another important aspect of the design process: Agencies and ESA in particular are frequently confronted with a big consortium of geographically spread companies located in different countries, each one

  16. Using Onboard Telemetry for MAVEN Orbit Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Try; Trawny, Nikolas; Lee, Clifford

    2013-01-01

    Determination of the spacecraft state has been traditional done using radiometric tracking data before and after the atmosphere drag pass. This paper describes our approach and results to include onboard telemetry measurements in addition to radiometric observables to refine the reconstructed trajectory estimate for the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN). Uncertainties in the Mars atmosphere models, combined with non-continuous tracking degrade navigation accuracy, making MAVEN a key candidate for using onboard telemetry data to help complement its orbit determination process.

  17. Rapid Diagnostics of Onboard Sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starbird, Thomas W.; Morris, John R.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Maimone, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Keeping track of sequences onboard a spacecraft is challenging. When reviewing Event Verification Records (EVRs) of sequence executions on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER), operators often found themselves wondering which version of a named sequence the EVR corresponded to. The lack of this information drastically impacts the operators diagnostic capabilities as well as their situational awareness with respect to the commands the spacecraft has executed, since the EVRs do not provide argument values or explanatory comments. Having this information immediately available can be instrumental in diagnosing critical events and can significantly enhance the overall safety of the spacecraft. This software provides auditing capability that can eliminate that uncertainty while diagnosing critical conditions. Furthermore, the Restful interface provides a simple way for sequencing tools to automatically retrieve binary compiled sequence SCMFs (Space Command Message Files) on demand. It also enables developers to change the underlying database, while maintaining the same interface to the existing applications. The logging capabilities are also beneficial to operators when they are trying to recall how they solved a similar problem many days ago: this software enables automatic recovery of SCMF and RML (Robot Markup Language) sequence files directly from the command EVRs, eliminating the need for people to find and validate the corresponding sequences. To address the lack of auditing capability for sequences onboard a spacecraft during earlier missions, extensive logging support was added on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) sequencing server. This server is responsible for generating all MSL binary SCMFs from RML input sequences. The sequencing server logs every SCMF it generates into a MySQL database, as well as the high-level RML file and dictionary name inputs used to create the SCMF. The SCMF is then indexed by a hash value that is automatically included in all command

  18. CCSDS Time-Critical Onboard Networking Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkes, Steve; Schnurr, Rick; Marquart, Jane; Menke, Greg; Ciccone, Massimiliano

    2006-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is developing recommendations for communication services onboard spacecraft. Today many different communication buses are used on spacecraft requiring software with the same basic functionality to be rewritten for each type of bus. This impacts on the application software resulting in custom software for almost every new mission. The Spacecraft Onboard Interface Services (SOIS) working group aims to provide a consistent interface to various onboard buses and sub-networks, enabling a common interface to the application software. The eventual goal is reusable software that can be easily ported to new missions and run on a range of onboard buses without substantial modification. The system engineer will then be able to select a bus based on its performance, power, etc and be confident that a particular choice of bus will not place excessive demands on software development. This paper describes the SOIS Intra-Networking Service which is designed to enable data transfer and multiplexing of a variety of internetworking protocols with a range of quality of service support, over underlying heterogeneous data links. The Intra-network service interface provides users with a common Quality of Service interface when transporting data across a variety of underlying data links. Supported Quality of Service (QoS) elements include: Priority, Resource Reservation and Retry/Redundancy. These three QoS elements combine and map into four TCONS services for onboard data communications: Best Effort, Assured, Reserved, and Guaranteed. Data to be transported is passed to the Intra-network service with a requested QoS. The requested QoS includes the type of service, priority and where appropriate, a channel identifier. The data is de-multiplexed, prioritized, and the required resources for transport are allocated. The data is then passed to the appropriate data link for transfer across the bus. The SOIS supported data links may

  19. Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Tim; LeBlanc, Troy; Ulman, Brian; McDonald, Aaron; Gramm, Paul; Chang, Li-Min; Keerthi, Suman; Kivlovitz, Dov; Hadlock, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer (OSTPV) is a computer program for electronic display of mission plans and timelines, both aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in ISS ground control stations located in several countries. OSTPV was specifically designed both (1) for use within the limited ISS computing environment and (2) to be compatible with computers used in ground control stations. OSTPV supplants a prior system in which, aboard the ISS, timelines were printed on paper and incorporated into files that also contained other paper documents. Hence, the introduction of OSTPV has both reduced the consumption of resources and saved time in updating plans and timelines. OSTPV accepts, as input, the mission timeline output of a legacy, print-oriented, UNIX-based program called "Consolidated Planning System" and converts the timeline information for display in an interactive, dynamic, Windows Web-based graphical user interface that is used by both the ISS crew and ground control teams in real time. OSTPV enables the ISS crew to electronically indicate execution of timeline steps, launch electronic procedures, and efficiently report to ground control teams on the statuses of ISS activities, all by use of laptop computers aboard the ISS.

  20. Enhancing Science and Automating Operations using Onboard Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Robert; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Davies, Ashley; Castano, Rebecca; Rabideau, Gregg; Mandl, Dan; Szwaczkowski, Joseph; Frye, Stuart; Shulman, Seth

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we will describe the evolution of the software from prototype to full time operation onboard Earth Observing One (EO-1). We will quantify the increase in science, decrease in operations cost, and streamlining of operations procedures. Included will be a description of how this software was adapted post-launch to the EO-1 mission, which had very limited computing resources which constrained the autonomy flight software. We will discuss ongoing deployments of this software to the Mars Exploration Rovers and Mars Odyssey Missions as well as a discussion of lessons learned during this project. Finally, we will discuss how the onboard autonomy has been used in conjunction with other satellites and ground sensors to form an autonomous sensor-web to study volcanoes, floods, sea-ice topography, and wild fires. As demonstrated on EO-1, onboard autonomy is a revolutionary advance that will change the operations approach on future NASA missions...

  1. Onboard processor technology review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benz, Harry F.

    1990-01-01

    The general need and requirements for the onboard embedded processors necessary to control and manipulate data in spacecraft systems are discussed. The current known requirements are reviewed from a user perspective, based on current practices in the spacecraft development process. The current capabilities of available processor technologies are then discussed, and these are projected to the generation of spacecraft computers currently under identified, funded development. An appraisal is provided for the current national developmental effort.

  2. Onboard image processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, D. R.; Samulon, A. S.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of onboard geometric correction of Thematic Mapper type imagery to make possible image registration is considered. Typically, image registration is performed by processing raw image data on the ground. The geometric distortion (e.g., due to variation in spacecraft location and viewing angle) is estimated by using a Kalman filter updated by correlating the received data with a small reference subimage, which has known location. Onboard image processing dictates minimizing the complexity of the distortion estimation while offering the advantages of a real time environment. In keeping with this, the distortion estimation can be replaced by information obtained from the Global Positioning System and from advanced star trackers. Although not as accurate as the conventional ground control point technique, this approach is capable of achieving subpixel registration. Appropriate attitude commands can be used in conjunction with image processing to achieve exact overlap of image frames. The magnitude of the various distortion contributions, the accuracy with which they can be measured in real time, and approaches to onboard correction are investigated.

  3. Two Years Onboard the MER Opportunity Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estlin, Tara; Anderson, Robert C.; Bornstein, Benjamin; Burl, Michael; Castano, Rebecca; Gaines, Daniel; Judd, Michele; Thompson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science (AEGIS) system provides automated data collection for planetary rovers. AEGIS is currently being used onboard the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission's Opportunity to provide autonomous targeting of the MER Panoramic camera. Prior to AEGIS, targeted data was collected in a manual fashion where targets were manually identified in images transmitted to Earth and the rover had to remain in the same location for one to several communication cycles. AEGIS enables targeted data to be rapidly acquired with no delays for ground communication. Targets are selected by AEGIS through the use of onboard data analysis techniques that are guided by scientist-specified objectives. This paper provides an overview of the how AEGIS has been used on the Opportunity rover, focusing on usage that occurred during a 21 kilometer historic trek to the Mars Endeavour crater.

  4. Rapid Onboard Data Product Generation with Multicore Processors and FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandl, D.; Sohlberg, R. A.; Cappelaere, P. G.; Frye, S. W.; Ly, V.; Handy, M.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Sullivan, D. V.; Bland, G.; Pastor, E.; Crago, S.; Flatley, C.; Shah, N.; Bronston, J.; Creech, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Intelligent Payload Module (IPM) is an experimental testbed with multicore processors and Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). This effort is being funded by the NASA Earth Science Technology Office as part of an Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) 2011 research grant to investigate the use of high performance onboard processing to create an onboard data processing pipeline that can rapidly process a subset of onboard imaging spectrometer data (1) through radiance to reflectance conversion (2) atmospheric correction (3) geolocation and co-registration and (4) level 2 data product generation. The requirements are driven by the mission concept for the HyspIRI NASA Decadal mission, although other NASA Decadal missions could use the same concept. The system is being set up to make use of the same ground and flight software being used by other satellites at NASA/GSFC. Furthermore, a Web Coverage Processing Service (WCPS) is installed as part of the flight software which enables a user on the ground to specify the desired algorithm to run onboard against the data in realtime. Benchmark demonstrations are being run and will be run through the three year effort on various platforms including a helicopter and various airplane platforms with various instruments to demonstrate various configurations that would be compatible with the HyspIRI mission and other similar missions. This presentation will lay out the demonstrations conducted to date along with any benchmark performance metrics and future demonstration efforts and objectives.Initial IPM Test Box

  5. Onboard Detection of Active Canadian Sulfur Springs: A Europa Analogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castano, Rebecca; Wagstaff, Kiri; Gleeson, Damhnait; Pappalardo, Robert; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Scharenbroich, Lucas; Moghaddam, Baback; Tang, Benyang; Bue, Brian; Doggett, Thomas; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    We discuss a current, ongoing demonstration of insitu onboard detection in which the Earth Observing-1 spacecraft detects surface sulfur deposits that originate from underlying springs by distinguishing the sulfur from the ice-rich glacial background, a good analogue for the Europan surface. In this paper, we describe the process of developing the onboard classifier for detecting the presence of sulfur in a hyperspectral scene, including the use of a training/testing set that is not exhaustively labeled, i.e.not all true positives are marked, and the selection of 12, out of 242, Hyperion instrument wavelength bands to use in the onboard detector. This study aims to demonstrate the potential for future missions to capture short-lived science events, make decisions onboard, identify high priority data for downlink and perform onboard change detection. In the future, such capability could help maximize the science return of downlink bandwidth-limited missions, addressing a significant constraint in all deep-space missions.

  6. Onboard Photo of Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This is an Apollo 17 onboard photo of an astronaut beside the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) on the lunar surface. Designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and built by the Boeing Company, the LRV was first used on the Apollo 15 mission and increased the range of astronauts' mobility and productivity on the lunar surface. This lightweight electric car had battery power sufficient for about 55 miles. It weighed 462 pounds (77 pounds on the Moon) and could carry two suited astronauts, their gear, cameras, and several hundred pounds of bagged samples. The LRV's mobility was quite high. It could climb and descend slopes of about 25 degrees.

  7. STS-110 and Expedition Four Crews Pose for Onboard Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Posed inside the Destiny Laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are the STS-110 and Expedition Four crews for a traditional onboard portrait From the left, bottom row, are astronauts Ellen Ochoa, STS mission specialist, Michael J. Bloomfield, STS mission commander, and Yury I Onufrienko, Expedition Four mission commander. From the left, middle row, are astronauts Daniel W. Bursch, Expedition Four flight engineer, Rex J. Walheim, STS mission specialist, and Carl E. Walz, Expedition Four flight engineer. From the left, top row, are astronauts Stephen N. Frick, STS pilot; Jerry L. Ross, Lee M.E. Morin, and Steven L. Smith, all mission specialists. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis on April 8, 2002, the STS-110 mission crew prepared the ISS for future space walks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long Starboard side S0 truss and preparing the Mobile Transporter. The mission served as the 8th ISS assembly flight.

  8. Onboard photo: STS-50 crew portrait with American flag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-50) crewmembers rally around the American flag in the United States Microgravity Laboratory-1 (USML-1). Pictured are (from top, left to right) pilot Kerneth D. Bowersox; payload specialist Lawrence J. Delucas; commander Richard N. Richards; payload commander Bonnie J. Dunbar; mission specialists Carl J. Meade and Ellen S. Baker; and payload specialist Eugene H. Trinh.

  9. Onboard Science and Applications Algorithm for Hyperspectral Data Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve A.; Davies, Ashley G.; Silverman, Dorothy; Mandl, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    An onboard processing mission concept is under development for a possible Direct Broadcast capability for the HyspIRI mission, a Hyperspectral remote sensing mission under consideration for launch in the next decade. The concept would intelligently spectrally and spatially subsample the data as well as generate science products onboard to enable return of key rapid response science and applications information despite limited downlink bandwidth. This rapid data delivery concept focuses on wildfires and volcanoes as primary applications, but also has applications to vegetation, coastal flooding, dust, and snow/ice applications. Operationally, the HyspIRI team would define a set of spatial regions of interest where specific algorithms would be executed. For example, known coastal areas would have certain products or bands downlinked, ocean areas might have other bands downlinked, and during fire seasons other areas would be processed for active fire detections. Ground operations would automatically generate the mission plans specifying the highest priority tasks executable within onboard computation, setup, and data downlink constraints. The spectral bands of the TIR (thermal infrared) instrument can accurately detect the thermal signature of fires and send down alerts, as well as the thermal and VSWIR (visible to short-wave infrared) data corresponding to the active fires. Active volcanism also produces a distinctive thermal signature that can be detected onboard to enable spatial subsampling. Onboard algorithms and ground-based algorithms suitable for onboard deployment are mature. On HyspIRI, the algorithm would perform a table-driven temperature inversion from several spectral TIR bands, and then trigger downlink of the entire spectrum for each of the hot pixels identified. Ocean and coastal applications include sea surface temperature (using a small spectral subset of TIR data, but requiring considerable ancillary data), and ocean color applications to track

  10. A space station onboard scheduling assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brindle, A. F.; Anderson, B. H.

    1988-01-01

    One of the goals for the Space Station is to achieve greater autonomy, and have less reliance on ground commanding than previous space missions. This means that the crew will have to take an active role in scheduling and rescheduling their activities onboard, perhaps working from preliminary schedules generated on the ground. Scheduling is a time intensive task, whether performed manually or automatically, so the best approach to solving onboard scheduling problems may involve crew members working with an interactive software scheduling package. A project is described which investigates a system that uses knowledge based techniques for the rescheduling of experiments within the Materials Technology Laboratory of the Space Station. Particular attention is paid to: (1) methods for rapid response rescheduling to accommodate unplanned changes in resource availability, (2) the nature of the interface to the crew, (3) the representation of the many types of data within the knowledge base, and (4) the possibility of applying rule-based and constraint-based reasoning methods to onboard activity scheduling.

  11. On-Board Preventive Maintenance: Analysis of Effectiveness Optimal Duty Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Ann T.; Chau, Savio N.; Alkalaj, Leon; Hecht, Herbert

    1996-01-01

    To maximize reliability of a spacecraft which performs long-life (over 10-year), deep-space mission (to outer planet), a fault-tolerant environment incorporating automatic on-board preventive maintenance is highly desirable.

  12. Onboard utilization of ground control points for image correction. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Operation of a navigation system, centered around image correction, was simulated and the system performance was analyzed. Onboard utilization of ground control points for image correction is summarized. Simulation results, and recommendations for future mission requirements are presented.

  13. Onboard Photo: ATLAS Payload in Cargo Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an STS-66 mission onboard photo showing the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) moving toward one of the solar science instruments for the third Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-3) mission in the cargo bay of the Orbiter Atlantis. During the ATLAS missions, international teams of scientists representing many disciplines combined their expertise to seek answers to complex questions about the atmospheric and solar conditions that sustain life on Earth. The ATLAS program specifically investigated how Earth's middle and upper atmospheres and climate are affected by by the sun and by products of industrial and agricultural activities on Earth. Thirteen ATLAS instruments supported experiments in atmospheric sciences, solar physics, space plasma physics, and astronomy. The instruments were mounted on two Spacelab pallets in the Space Shuttle payload bay. The ATLAS-3 mission continued a variety of atmospheric and solar studies, to improve understanding of the Earth's atmosphere and its energy input from the sun. A key scientific objective was to refine existing data on variations in the fragile ozone layer of the atmosphere. The Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis was launched on November 3, 1994 for the ATLAS-3 mission (STS-66). The ATLAS program was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  14. Onboard STS-65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Carl E. Walz, mission specialist, enters the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) science module in the cargo bay via the turnel connecting it to Columbia's cabin. Walz joined five other NASA astronauts and a Japanese payload specialist for more than two weeks of experimenting in Earth orbit.

  15. Onboard Autonomous Corrections for Accurate IRF Pointing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, J. L.; Betto, M.; Denver, T.

    2002-05-01

    Over the past decade, the Noise Equivalent Angle (NEA) of onboard attitude reference instruments, has decreased from tens-of-arcseconds to the sub-arcsecond level. This improved performance is partly due to improved sensor-technology with enhanced signal to noise ratios, partly due to improved processing electronics which allows for more sophisticated and faster signal processing. However, the main reason for the increased precision, is the application of onboard autonomy, which apart from simple outlier rejection also allows for removal of "false positive" answers, and other "unexpected" noise sources, that otherwise would degrade the quality of the measurements (e.g. discrimination between signals caused by starlight and ionizing radiation). The utilization of autonomous signal processing has also provided the means for another onboard processing step, namely the autonomous recovery from lost in space, where the attitude instrument without a priori knowledge derive the absolute attitude, i.e. in IRF coordinates, within fractions of a second. Combined with precise orbital state or position data, the absolute attitude information opens for multiple ways to improve the mission performance, either by reducing operations costs, by increasing pointing accuracy, by reducing mission expendables, or by providing backup decision information in case of anomalies. The Advanced Stellar Compass's (ASC) is a miniature, high accuracy, attitude instrument which features fully autonomous operations. The autonomy encompass all direct steps from automatic health checkout at power-on, over fully automatic SEU and SEL handling and proton induced sparkle removal, to recovery from "lost in space", and optical disturbance detection and handling. But apart from these more obvious autonomy functions, the ASC also features functions to handle and remove the aforementioned residuals. These functions encompass diverse operators such as a full orbital state vector model with automatic cloud

  16. Rapid Onboard Trajectory Design for Autonomous Spacecraft in Multibody Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumbauer, Eric Michael

    This research develops automated, on-board trajectory planning algorithms in order to support current and new mission concepts. These include orbiter missions to Phobos or Deimos, Outer Planet Moon orbiters, and robotic and crewed missions to small bodies. The challenges stem from the limited on-board computing resources which restrict full trajectory optimization with guaranteed convergence in complex dynamical environments. The approach taken consists of leveraging pre-mission computations to create a large database of pre-computed orbits and arcs. Such a database is used to generate a discrete representation of the dynamics in the form of a directed graph, which acts to index these arcs. This allows the use of graph search algorithms on-board in order to provide good approximate solutions to the path planning problem. Coupled with robust differential correction and optimization techniques, this enables the determination of an efficient path between any boundary conditions with very little time and computing effort. Furthermore, the optimization methods developed here based on sequential convex programming are shown to have provable convergence properties, as well as generating feasible major iterates in case of a system interrupt -- a key requirement for on-board application. The outcome of this project is thus the development of an algorithmic framework which allows the deployment of this approach in a variety of specific mission contexts. Test cases related to missions of interest to NASA and JPL such as a Phobos orbiter and a Near Earth Asteroid interceptor are demonstrated, including the results of an implementation on the RAD750 flight processor. This method fills a gap in the toolbox being developed to create fully autonomous space exploration systems.

  17. Digibaro pressure instrument onboard the Phoenix Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Kahanpää, H. H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M. M.; Haukka, H.; Savijarv1, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Phoenix Lander landed successfully on the Martian northern polar region. The mission is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Scout program. Pressure observations onboard the Phoenix lander were performed by an FMI (Finnish Meteorological Institute) instrument, based on a silicon diaphragm sensor head manufactured by Vaisala Inc., combined with MDA data processing electronics. The pressure instrument performed successfully throughout the Phoenix mission. The pressure instrument had 3 pressure sensor heads. One of these was the primary sensor head and the other two were used for monitoring the condition of the primary sensor head during the mission. During the mission the primary sensor was read with a sampling interval of 2 s and the other two were read less frequently as a check of instrument health. The pressure sensor system had a real-time data-processing and calibration algorithm that allowed the removal of temperature dependent calibration effects. In the same manner as the temperature sensor, a total of 256 data records (8.53 min) were buffered and they could either be stored at full resolution, or processed to provide mean, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values for storage on the Phoenix Lander's Meteorological (MET) unit.The time constant was approximately 3s due to locational constraints and dust filtering requirements. Using algorithms compensating for the time constant effect the temporal resolution was good enough to detect pressure drops associated with the passage of nearby dust devils.

  18. Hydrogen Gets Onboard

    SciTech Connect

    Gutowski, Maciej S.; Autrey, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    In this brief review we update progress in research efforts for on-board hydrogen storage for fuel cell powered vehicles. In addition to economic targets, the technological challenges are bounded by volumetric and gravimetric constraints. Specifically, an amoiunt of 4 kg of H2, required to propel a highly fuel efficient automobile for 500 kilometers, must fit into the space of a conventional gasoline tank. The volumetric constraints rule out compressed and liquefied H2 and teach us that hydrogen must be stored as a solid material, either by physi-sorption to high surface area materials or chemically bond (covalent or ionic) to light weight elements. Hydrogen stored on high surface area materials is weakly bound and general requires low temperatures to stabilize the hydrogen. On the other end, hydrogen covalently bound to light metals requires high temperatures to release the hydrogen. One interesting alterative is chemical hydrogen storage (CHS). CHS covers a broad range of materials but is defined as a process whereby the hydrogen is released by a chemical reaction. The reaction could be induced by hydrolysis, a reaction with water, or by thermolysis, heating to moderate temperatures to release hydrogen. The spent material can then be reprocessed or regenerated off-board. Battelle operates the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy.

  19. [STS-31 Onboard 16mm Photography Quick Release]. [Onboard Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This video features scenes shot by the crew of onboard activities including Hubble Space Telescope deploy, remote manipulator system (RMS) checkout, flight deck and middeck experiments, and Earth and payload bay views.

  20. Science Benefits of Onboard Spacecraft Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cangahuala, Al; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Owen, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Primitive bodies (asteroids and comets), which have remained relatively unaltered since their formation, are important targets for scientific missions that seek to understand the evolution of the solar system. Often the first step is to fly by these bodies with robotic spacecraft. The key to maximizing data returns from these flybys is to determine the spacecraft trajectory relative to the target body-in short, navigate the spacecraft- with sufficient accuracy so that the target is guaranteed to be in the instruments' field of view. The most powerful navigation data in these scenarios are images taken by the spacecraft of the target against a known star field (onboard astrometry). Traditionally, the relative trajectory of the spacecraft must be estimated hours to days in advance using images collected by the spacecraft. This is because of (1)!the long round-trip light times between the spacecraft and the Earth and (2)!the time needed to downlink and process navigation data on the ground, make decisions based on the result, and build and uplink instrument pointing sequences from the results. The light time and processing time compromise navigation accuracy considerably, because there is not enough time to use more accurate data collected closer to the target-such data are more accurate because the angular capability of the onboard astrometry is essentially constant as the distance to the target decreases, resulting in better "plane-of- sky" knowledge of the target. Excellent examples of these timing limitations are high-speed comet encounters. Comets are difficult to observe up close; their orbits often limit scientists to brief, rapid flybys, and their coma further restricts viewers from seeing the nucleus in any detail, unless they can view the nucleus at close range. Comet nuclei details are typically discernable for much shorter durations than the roundtrip light time to Earth, so robotic spacecraft must be able to perform onboard navigation. This onboard

  1. Formaldehyde chemistry in cometary ices: on the prospective detection of NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH, HOCH{sub 2}OH, and POM by the on-board ROSINA instrument of the Rosetta mission

    SciTech Connect

    Duvernay, F.; Danger, G.; Theulé, P.; Chiavassa, T.; Rimola, A. E-mail: albert.rimola@uab.cat

    2014-08-20

    The thermal reactivity of a water-dominated cometary ice analog containing H{sub 2}CO and NH{sub 3} is investigated by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and B3LYP calculations. Three products are characterized by these techniques: aminomethanol (NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OH), methyleneglycol (HOCH{sub 2}OH), and polyoxymethylene (POM, HO-(CH{sub 2}-O) {sub n}-H). Their formation strongly depends on the initial NH{sub 3}/H{sub 2}CO ratio. In addition, the influence of the initial ice composition on the thermal stability of POM has also been investigated. It is shown that POM formed during warming of the ices consists of short-chain polymers (i.e., oligomers of formaldehyde HO-(CH{sub 2}-O) {sub n}-H, n < 5), which are volatile at temperatures higher than 200 K. This suggests that gas-phase detection by the ROSINA instrument on board the Rosetta mission would be the most appropriate method to detect POM. Moreover, the mass spectra presented in this work might help in the interpretation of data that will be recorded by this instrument. Finally, a new scenario to explain the distributed source of formaldehyde observed in comets is discussed.

  2. Verification of ICESat-2/ATLAS Science Receiver Algorithm Onboard Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carabajal, C. C.; Saba, J. L.; Leigh, H. W.; Magruder, L. A.; Urban, T. J.; Mcgarry, J.; Schutz, B. E.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's ICESat-2 mission will fly the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimetry System (ATLAS) instrument on a 3-year mission scheduled to launch in 2016. ATLAS is a single-photon detection system transmitting at 532nm with a laser repetition rate of 10 kHz, and a 6 spot pattern on the Earth's surface. A set of onboard Receiver Algorithms will perform signal processing to reduce the data rate and data volume to acceptable levels. These Algorithms distinguish surface echoes from the background noise, limit the daily data volume, and allow the instrument to telemeter only a small vertical region about the signal. For this purpose, three onboard databases are used: a Surface Reference Map (SRM), a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and a Digital Relief Maps (DRMs). The DEM provides minimum and maximum heights that limit the signal search region of the onboard algorithms, including a margin for errors in the source databases, and onboard geolocation. Since the surface echoes will be correlated while noise will be randomly distributed, the signal location is found by histogramming the received event times and identifying the histogram bins with statistically significant counts. Once the signal location has been established, the onboard Digital Relief Maps (DRMs) will be used to determine the vertical width of the telemetry band about the signal. University of Texas-Center for Space Research (UT-CSR) is developing the ICESat-2 onboard databases, which are currently being tested using preliminary versions and equivalent representations of elevation ranges and relief more recently developed at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Global and regional elevation models have been assessed in terms of their accuracy using ICESat geodetic control, and have been used to develop equivalent representations of the onboard databases for testing against the UT-CSR databases, with special emphasis on the ice sheet regions. A series of verification checks have been implemented, including

  3. Gaia Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prusti, Timo

    2015-08-01

    The commissioning phase of the Gaia satellite was completed in July 2014 and we are well into the first year of routine phase operations out of the nominal 5 year mission. All subsystems are working and the operational parameters have been tuned for optimum science performance. A final upgrade of the on-board detection software is under testing. The aim is to be operational in the final configuration by summer 2015. The magnitude limit of the survey has been set to G=20.7 mag for astrometry and photometry. The spectroscopy magnitude limit is currently G_RVS=16.2 mag, but may be adjusted pending the new on-board software testing. The Science Alerts stream based on photometry has been started while preparations are underway for the first intermediate catalogue release by summer 2016. Examples of Gaia observations will be shown to indicate the scientific power of this ESA cornerstone mission.

  4. Integrated payload and mission planning, phase 3. Volume 3: Ground real-time mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    The payloads tentatively planned to fly on the first two Spacelab missions were analyzed to examine the cost relationships of providing mission operations support from onboard vs the ground-based Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). The quantitative results indicate that use of a POCC, with data processing capability, to support real-time mission operations is the most cost effective case.

  5. STS-65 Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Chiaki Mukai conducts the Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) experiment inside the International Microgravity Laboratory-2 (IML-2) mission science module. Dr. Chiaki Mukai is one of the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) astronauts chosen by NASA as a payload specialist (PS). She was the second NASDA PS who flew aboard the Space Shuttle, and was the first female astronaut in Asia. When humans go into space, the lack of gravity causes many changes in the body. One change is that fluids normally kept in the lower body by gravity shift upward to the head and chest. This is why astronauts' faces appear chubby or puffy. The change in fluid volume also affects the heart. The reduced fluid volume means that there is less blood to circulate through the body. Crewmembers may experience reduced blood flow to the brain when returning to Earth. This leads to fainting or near-fainting episodes. With the use of the LBNP to simulate the pull of gravity in conjunction with fluids, salt tablets can recondition the cardiovascular system. This treatment, called 'soak,' is effective up to 24 hours. The LBNP uses a three-layer collapsible cylinder that seals around the crewmember's waist which simulates the effects of gravity and helps pull fluids into the lower body. The data collected will be analyzed to determine physiological changes in the crewmembers and effectiveness of the treatment. The IML-2 was the second in a series of Spacelab flights designed by the international science community to conduct research in a microgravity environment Managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, the IML-2 was launched on July 8, 1994 aboard the STS-65 Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia mission.

  6. Effect of anomalies on data compression onboard a hyperspectral satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Shen-En; Bergeron, Martin; Levesque, Josee; Hollinger, Allan

    2005-08-01

    The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is developing a pre-operational spaceborne Hyperspectral Environment and Resource Observer (HERO). HERO will be a Canadian optical Earth observation mission that will address the stewardship of natural resources for sustainable development within Canada and globally. To deal with the challenge of extremely high data rate and the huge data volume generated onboard, CSA has developed two near lossless data compression techniques for use onboard a satellite. CSA is planning to place a data compressor onboard HERO using these techniques to reduce the requirement for onboard storage and to better match the available downlink capacity. Anomalies in the raw hyperspectral data can be caused by detector and instrument defects. This work focuses on anomalies that are caused by dead detector elements, frozen detector elements, overresponsive detector elements and saturation. This paper addresses the effect of these anomalies in raw hyperspectral imagery on data compression. The outcome of this work will help to decide whether or not an onboard data preprocessing to remove these anomalies is required before compression. Hyperspectral datacubes acquired using two hyperspectral sensors were tested. Statistical measures were used to evaluate the data compression performance with or without removing the anomalies. The effect of anomalies on compressed data was also evaluated using a remote sensing application.

  7. BASKET on-board software library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luntzer, Armin; Ottensamer, Roland; Kerschbaum, Franz

    2014-07-01

    The University of Vienna is a provider of on-board data processing software with focus on data compression, such as used on board the highly successful Herschel/PACS instrument, as well as in the small BRITE-Constellation fleet of cube-sats. Current contributions are made to CHEOPS, SAFARI and PLATO. The effort was taken to review the various functions developed for Herschel and provide a consolidated software library to facilitate the work for future missions. This library is a shopping basket of algorithms. Its contents are separated into four classes: auxiliary functions (e.g. circular buffers), preprocessing functions (e.g. for calibration), lossless data compression (arithmetic or Rice coding) and lossy reduction steps (ramp fitting etc.). The "BASKET" has all functionality that is needed to create an on-board data processing chain. All sources are written in C, supplemented by optimized versions in assembly, targeting popular CPU architectures for space applications. BASKET is open source and constantly growing

  8. SE83-9 'Chix in Space' student experimenter monitors STS-29 onboard activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Student experimenter John C. Vellinger watches monitor in the JSC Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 Customer Support Room (CSR) during the STS-29 mission. Crewmembers are working with his Student Experiment (SE) 83-9 Chicken Embryo Development in Space or 'Chix in Space' onboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. The student's sponsor is Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC).

  9. Study of the characteristics of the grains in the coma background and in the jets in comet 67P/C-G, as observed by VIRTIS-M onboard of the Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozzi, Gian-Paolo; Rinaldi, G.; Fink, U.; Doose, L.; Capaccioni, F.; Filacchione, G.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Erard, S.; Leyrat, C.; Arnold, G.; Blecka, M.; Capria, M. T.; Ciarniello, M.; Combi, M.; Faggi, S.; Irwin, P.; Migliorini, A.; Paolomba, E.; Piccioni, G.; Tosi, F.

    2015-11-01

    We report observations of the coma of the comet 67P/C-G performed in the near-IR by VIRTIS-M during the escort phase in April 2015. We selected observations performed when the spacecraft was at about 150 km from the nucleus, in order to cover the greatest part of the coma.We have chosen observations: a) with a diffuse coma without any evident strong jets and b) with strong jets originating from the “neck” region of the nucleus.We analyzed the in changes intensity and spectral behavior of the coma along the projected nucleocentric distance, for both the diffuse coma and for the jets.The results show that:- The emission of the grains in the diffuse coma is going as 1/rho in the FoV of VIRTIS, (about 2 km), suggesting the absence of grain fragmentation or sublimation. In the region close to the surface, within about 400 m, there is an increase of the emission, which is probably due to instrumental scattered light from the nucleus that can hide the effects due to the grains acceleration.- Also for the grains in the jets there is no evidence of fragmentation or sublimation in the spectral region where the scattering of the solar radiation is the mechanism of emission. Instead in the thermal region there are strong variations between the regions close to the nucleus and the farther ones.The authors would like to thank ASI (I), CNES (F), DLR (D), NASA (USA) for supporting this research. VIRTIS was built by a consortium formed by Italy, France and Germany, under the scientific responsibility of the “Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziale” of INAF (I), which guides also the scientific operations. The consortium includes also the “Laboratoire d'études spatiales et d'instrumentation en Astrophysique” of the Observatoire de Paris (F), and the “Institut für Planetenforschung” of DLR (D). The authors wish to thank the Rosetta Science Ground Segment and the Rosetta Mission Operations Centre of ESA for their continuous support.

  10. Autonomous Onboard Point Source Detection by Small Exploration Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huffman, W.; Thompson, D. R.; Bue, B.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Boland, J.

    2015-12-01

    Small spacecraft platforms are a promising low-cost approach to accelerate exploration of small bodies, addressing the space community's interest in origin science, planetary resources, and planetary defense. However, they can be challenging platforms for detecting and imaging low brightness targets. Difficulties include constrained bandwidth, which limits the volume of data that can be downlinked; attitude instability, which limits exposure time; small instrument apertures, which reduce sensitivity; and cosmic ray contamination, which creates illusory sources. Mission designers can address all these problems simultaneously by shifting image analysis across the communications gap. Spacecraft can use onboard data analysis to detect sources directly, or downlink parsimonious summary products for detection on the ground. One promising approach is to acquire stacks of short consecutive exposures, and then coregister and coadd them onboard. This work analyzes a coaddition algorithm that is designed to be robust against small spacecraft challenges. We evaluate factors affecting performance, such as attitude control and camera noise systematics, in regimes typical of small spacecraft missions. We motivate the algorithm design by considering its application to NEAScout, a mission representing a new generation of small (sub-50 kg) exploration spacecraft having very small instrument apertures and data rates below 1 kbyte s-1. Here, onboard analysis allows detection and rendezvous with far smaller and fainter objects, dramatically reducing the cost and complexity of primitive bodies exploration.

  11. Onboard hydrogen generation for automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.; Cerini, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Problems concerning the use of hydrogen as a fuel for motor vehicles are related to the storage of the hydrogen onboard a vehicle. The feasibility is investigated to use an approach based on onboard hydrogen generation as a means to avoid these storage difficulties. Two major chemical processes can be used to produce hydrogen from liquid hydrocarbons and methanol. In steam reforming, the fuel reacts with water on a catalytic surface to produce a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. In partial oxidation, the fuel reacts with air, either on a catalytic surface or in a flame front, to yield a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. There are many trade-offs in onboard hydrogen generation, both in the choice of fuels as well as in the choice of a chemical process. Attention is given to these alternatives, the results of some experimental work in this area, and the combustion of various hydrogen-rich gases in an internal combustion engine.

  12. Real-time SAR image processing onboard a Venus orbiting spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    The potential use of real-time synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing to produce 200 meter resolution imagery onboard a 1983 Venus orbiter imaging radar spacecraft is described. The VOIR SAR processing requirements are defined in terms of a nominal baseline design evolving from a 1977 VOIR mission study. A candidate onboard SAR processor architecture compatible with the VOIR requirements is next detailed. Finally, implementation characteristics, based upon currently available integrated circuits, are estimated in terms of chip count, power, and weight.

  13. STS-30 aft flight deck onboard view of overhead window, Earth limb, cow photo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Since the beginning of manned space travel, astronauts have taken onboard with them items of person sentiment. During STS-30 onboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist Mark C. Lee brought along a photograph of a cow. The photo testifies to his background as one reared on a Wisconsin farm and is displayed on aft flight deck alongside an overhead window. Outside the window, some 160 nautical miles away, is the cloud-covered Earth surface.

  14. Onboarding the New Cancer Registrar.

    PubMed

    LeBeau, Meredith

    2016-01-01

    In the search for new registrars, we often find that applicants have no medical experience or knowledge of the cancer registry. This poster will illustrate an onboarding process on how to train and foster the professional development of a new cancer registrar (Figure 1). PMID:27556853

  15. Onboard Experiment Data Support Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An onboard array structure has been devised for end to end processing of data from multiple spaceborne sensors. The array constitutes sets of programmable pipeline processors whose elements perform each assigned function in 0.25 microseconds. This space shuttle computer system can handle data rates from a few bits to over 100 megabits per second.

  16. Generating artificial gravity onboard the Space Shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukley, Angie; Lawrence, Douglas; Clément, Gilles

    2007-02-01

    One of the most significant problems associated with long duration space missions is mitigating the harmful effects of microgravity on the human body. These effects include loss of bone, muscle mass, and red blood cells; fluid shifts; cardiovascular and sensory-motor deconditioning; and changes in the immune system. If the long-duration exploration missions currently envisioned are to be successfully achieved, countermeasures to address the deleterious effects of microgravity must be developed, tested, and proven. A possible experiment to determine what level of artificial gravity is required for human perception is explored in this paper and involves creating artificial gravity onboard the Space Shuttle. Two methods are examined using Matlab ® analysis and simulation studies. The first requires putting the Shuttle into an eccentric orbit about its nominal orbit that would generate the centripetal forces necessary to simulate a gravitational environment. The other is a tumble maneuver, similar to the standard maneuver performed prior to Shuttle re-entry. Results indicate that the later maneuver is well within the capability of the Space Shuttle orbital control system, while the former is not.

  17. Training Concept for Long Duration Space Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Keefe, William

    2008-01-01

    There has been papers about maintenance and psychological training for Long Duration Space Mission (LDSM). There are papers on the technology needed for LDSMs. Few are looking at how groundbased pre-mission training and on-board in-transit training must be melded into one training concept that leverages this technology. Even more importantly, fewer are looking at how we can certify crews pre-mission. This certification must ensure, before the crew launches, that they can handle any problem using on-board assets without a large ground support team.

  18. Optical Payload for the STARE Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, L; Riot, V; De Vries, W; Olivier, S S; Pertica, A; Bauman, B J; Phillion, D; Nikolaev, S

    2011-03-13

    Space-based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris (STARE) is a nano-sat based mission designed to better determine the trajectory of satellites and space debris in orbit around earth. In this paper, we give a brief overview of the mission and its place in the larger context of Space Situational Awareness (SSA). We then describe the details of the central optical payload, touching on the optical design and characterization of the on-board image sensor used in our Cubesat based prototype. Finally, we discuss the on-board star and satellite track detection algorithm central to the success of the mission.

  19. Onboard autonomous mineral detectors for Mars rovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, M. S.; Bornstein, B.; Castano, R.; Merrill, M.; Greenwood, J.

    2005-12-01

    Mars rovers and orbiters currently collect far more data than can be downlinked to Earth, which reduces mission science return; this problem will be exacerbated by future rovers of enhanced capabilities and lifetimes. We are developing onboard intelligence sufficient to extract geologically meaningful data from spectrometer measurements of soil and rock samples, and thus to guide the selection, measurement and return of these data from significant targets at Mars. Here we report on techniques to construct mineral detectors capable of running on current and future rover and orbital hardware. We focus on carbonate and sulfate minerals which are of particular geologic importance because they can signal the presence of water and possibly life. Sulfates have also been discovered at the Eagle and Endurance craters in Meridiani Planum by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity and at other regions on Mars by the OMEGA instrument aboard Mars Express. We have developed highly accurate artificial neural network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) based detectors capable of identifying calcite (CaCO3) and jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6) in the visible/NIR (350-2500 nm) spectra of both laboratory specimens and rocks in Mars analogue field environments. To train the detectors, we used a generative model to create 1000s of linear mixtures of library end-member spectra in geologically realistic percentages. We have also augmented the model to include nonlinear mixing based on Hapke's models of bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy. Both detectors perform well on the spectra of real rocks that contain intimate mixtures of minerals, rocks in natural field environments, calcite covered by Mars analogue dust, and AVIRIS hyperspectral cubes. We will discuss the comparison of ANN and SVM classifiers for this task, technical challenges (weathering rinds, atmospheric compositions, and computational complexity), and plans for integration of these detectors into both the Coupled Layer

  20. An Onboard ISS Virtual Reality Trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miralles, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Prior to the retirement of the Space Shuttle, many exterior repairs on the International Space Station (ISS) were carried out by shuttle astronauts, trained on the ground and flown to the station to perform these repairs. After the retirement of the shuttle, this is no longer an available option. As such, the need for the ISS crew members to review scenarios while on flight, either for tasks they already trained or for contingency operations has become a very critical subject. In many situations, the time between the last session of Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) training and an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) task might be 6 to 8 months. In order to help with training for contingency repairs and to maintain EVA proficiency while on flight, the Johnson Space Center Virtual Reality Lab (VRLab) designed an onboard immersive ISS Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT), incorporating a unique optical system and making use of the already successful Dynamic Onboard Ubiquitous Graphical (DOUG) graphics software, to assist crew members with current procedures and contingency EVAs while on flight. The VRT provides an immersive environment similar to the one experienced at the VRLab crew training facility at NASA Johnson Space Center. EVA tasks are critical for a mission since as time passes the crew members may lose proficiency on previously trained tasks. In addition, there is an increased need for unplanned contingency repairs to fix problems arising as the ISS ages. The need to train and re-train crew members for EVAs and contingency scenarios is crucial and extremely demanding. ISS crew members are now asked to perform EVA tasks for which they have not been trained and potentially have never seen before.

  1. Adequation of mini satellites to oceanic altimetry missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellaieche, G.; Aguttes, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Association of the mini satellite concept and oceanic altimetry missions is discussed. Mission definition and most constraining requirements (mesoscale for example) demonstrate mini satellites to be quite adequate for such missions. Progress in altimeter characteristics, orbit determination, and position reporting allow consideration of oceanic altimetry missions using low Earth orbit satellites. Satellite constellation, trace keeping and orbital period, and required payload characteristics are exposed. The mission requirements covering Sun synchronous orbit, service area, ground system, and launcher characteristics as well as constellation maintenance strategy are specified. Two options for the satellite, orbital mechanics, propulsion, onboard power and stabilizing subsystems, onboard management, satellite ground linkings, mechanical and thermal subsystems, budgets, and planning are discussed.

  2. Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, M.

    2004-01-01

    Two rovers with a sophisticated geological payload have been operating on the surface of Mars since January of 2004. Future missions and their related technology developments will benefit from the lessons learned during these surface operations. The planning cycle was dictated by the communications opportunities and the times of day that the rovers could operate, and the team and tools were tuned to optimize the mission return for that cycle time. The ability to traverse and to approach and perform in situ investigations on targets was limited in speed by the same cycle time, due to required human involvement in the related planning and risk decisions. In addition traverse was limited by the speed of the on-board terrain and hazard assessment, and in situ operations were limited by a lack of autonomy. Different planning cycles and levels of autonomy should be considered for future surface missions, which will result in different approaches to science decision making.

  3. The SpaceCube Family of Hybrid On-Board Science Data Processors: An Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flatley, T.

    2012-12-01

    SpaceCube is an FPGA based on-board hybrid science data processing system developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The goal of the SpaceCube program is to provide 10x to 100x improvements in on-board computing power while lowering relative power consumption and cost. The SpaceCube design strategy incorporates commercial rad-tolerant FPGA technology and couples it with an upset mitigation software architecture to provide "order of magnitude" improvements in computing power over traditional rad-hard flight systems. Many of the missions proposed in the Earth Science Decadal Survey (ESDS) will require "next generation" on-board processing capabilities to meet their specified mission goals. Advanced laser altimeter, radar, lidar and hyper-spectral instruments are proposed for at least ten of the ESDS missions, and all of these instrument systems will require advanced on-board processing capabilities to facilitate the timely conversion of Earth Science data into Earth Science information. Both an "order of magnitude" increase in processing power and the ability to "reconfigure on the fly" are required to implement algorithms that detect and react to events, to produce data products on-board for applications such as direct downlink, quick look, and "first responder" real-time awareness, to enable "sensor web" multi-platform collaboration, and to perform on-board "lossless" data reduction by migrating typical ground-based processing functions on-board, thus reducing on-board storage and downlink requirements. This presentation will highlight a number of SpaceCube technology developments to date and describe current and future efforts, including the collaboration with the U.S. Department of Defense - Space Test Program (DoD/STP) on the STP-H4 ISS experiment pallet (launch June 2013) that will demonstrate SpaceCube 2.0 technology on-orbit.; ;

  4. An onboard star identification algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Kong; Femiano, Michael

    The paper presents the autonomous Initial Stellar Acquisition (ISA) algorithm developed for the X-Ray Timing Explorer for prividing the attitude quaternion within the desired accuracy, based on the one-axis attitude knowledge (through the use of the Digital Sun Sensor, CCD Star Trackers, and the onboard star catalog, OSC). Mathematical analysis leads to an accurate measure of the performance of the algorithm as a function of various parameters, such as the probability of a tracked star being in the OSC, the sensor noise level, and the number of stars matched. It is shown that the simplicity, tractability, and robustness of the ISA algorithm, compared to a general three-axis attiude determination algorithm, make it a viable on-board solution.

  5. An onboard star identification algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha, Kong; Femiano, Michael

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents the autonomous Initial Stellar Acquisition (ISA) algorithm developed for the X-Ray Timing Explorer for prividing the attitude quaternion within the desired accuracy, based on the one-axis attitude knowledge (through the use of the Digital Sun Sensor, CCD Star Trackers, and the onboard star catalog, OSC). Mathematical analysis leads to an accurate measure of the performance of the algorithm as a function of various parameters, such as the probability of a tracked star being in the OSC, the sensor noise level, and the number of stars matched. It is shown that the simplicity, tractability, and robustness of the ISA algorithm, compared to a general three-axis attiude determination algorithm, make it a viable on-board solution.

  6. Space vehicle onboard command encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A flexible onboard encoder system was designed for the space shuttle. The following areas were covered: (1) implementation of the encoder design into hardware to demonstrate the various encoding algorithms/code formats, (2) modulation techniques in a single hardware package to maintain comparable reliability and link integrity of the existing link systems and to integrate the various techniques into a single design using current technology. The primary function of the command encoder is to accept input commands, generated either locally onboard the space shuttle or remotely from the ground, format and encode the commands in accordance with the payload input requirements and appropriately modulate a subcarrier for transmission by the baseband RF modulator. The following information was provided: command encoder system design, brassboard hardware design, test set hardware and system packaging, and software.

  7. Real-Time On-Board HMS/Inspection Capability for Propulsion and Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, Sarkis

    2005-01-01

    Presently, the evaluation of the health of space propulsion systems includes obtaining and analyzing limited flight data and extensive post flight performance, operational and inspection data. This approach is not practical for deep-space missions due to longer operational times, lack of in-space inspection facility, absence of timely ground commands and very long repair intervals. This paper identifies the on-board health- management/inspection needs of deep-space propulsion and thermodynamic power-conversion systems. It also describes technologies that could provide on-board inspection and more comprehensive health management for more successful missions.

  8. HypsIRI On-Board Science Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flatley, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Topics include On-board science data processing, on-board image processing, software upset mitigation, on-board data reduction, on-board 'VSWIR" products, HyspIRI demonstration testbed, and processor comparison.

  9. On-board multispectral classification study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewalt, D.

    1979-01-01

    The factors relating to onboard multispectral classification were investigated. The functions implemented in ground-based processing systems for current Earth observation sensors were reviewed. The Multispectral Scanner, Thematic Mapper, Return Beam Vidicon, and Heat Capacity Mapper were studied. The concept of classification was reviewed and extended from the ground-based image processing functions to an onboard system capable of multispectral classification. Eight different onboard configurations, each with varying amounts of ground-spacecraft interaction, were evaluated. Each configuration was evaluated in terms of turnaround time, onboard processing and storage requirements, geometric and classification accuracy, onboard complexity, and ancillary data required from the ground.

  10. Onboard Algorithms for Data Prioritization and Summarization of Aerial Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve A.; Hayden, David; Thompson, David R.; Castano, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Many current and future NASA missions are capable of collecting enormous amounts of data, of which only a small portion can be transmitted to Earth. Communications are limited due to distance, visibility constraints, and competing mission downlinks. Long missions and high-resolution, multispectral imaging devices easily produce data exceeding the available bandwidth. To address this situation computationally efficient algorithms were developed for analyzing science imagery onboard the spacecraft. These algorithms autonomously cluster the data into classes of similar imagery, enabling selective downlink of representatives of each class, and a map classifying the terrain imaged rather than the full dataset, reducing the volume of the downlinked data. A range of approaches was examined, including k-means clustering using image features based on color, texture, temporal, and spatial arrangement

  11. The data handling subsystem onboard the Exosat spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Cecca, A.; Camberale, R.

    1980-12-01

    Exosat (European X-Ray Observation Satellite) is an ESA scientific spacecraft due for launch in 1981 and now in the Engineering Model phase. Exosat will carry on board a sophisticated Data Handling Subsystem (DHS) which will include a general purpose digital computer (ESA-OBC). The functions performed by the DHS, as required by the mission, are not limited to the usual telemetry and telecommand, but also include on-board processing of scientific data whose maximum rate (about 160 Kb/s) has to be compressed, to be made compatible with the telemetry bit rate (4096 bps), without loss of information. As the OBC is fully reprogrammable from the ground via the telecommand link, on-board programs may also be altered in orbit.

  12. Virtualizing Super-Computation On-Board Uas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salami, E.; Soler, J. A.; Cuadrado, R.; Barrado, C.; Pastor, E.

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UAS, also known as UAV, RPAS or drones) have a great potential to support a wide variety of aerial remote sensing applications. Most UAS work by acquiring data using on-board sensors for later post-processing. Some require the data gathered to be downlinked to the ground in real-time. However, depending on the volume of data and the cost of the communications, this later option is not sustainable in the long term. This paper develops the concept of virtualizing super-computation on-board UAS, as a method to ease the operation by facilitating the downlink of high-level information products instead of raw data. Exploiting recent developments in miniaturized multi-core devices is the way to speed-up on-board computation. This hardware shall satisfy size, power and weight constraints. Several technologies are appearing with promising results for high performance computing on unmanned platforms, such as the 36 cores of the TILE-Gx36 by Tilera (now EZchip) or the 64 cores of the Epiphany-IV by Adapteva. The strategy for virtualizing super-computation on-board includes the benchmarking for hardware selection, the software architecture and the communications aware design. A parallelization strategy is given for the 36-core TILE-Gx36 for a UAS in a fire mission or in similar target-detection applications. The results are obtained for payload image processing algorithms and determine in real-time the data snapshot to gather and transfer to ground according to the needs of the mission, the processing time, and consumed watts.

  13. Maximizing Mission Science Return Through Use of Spacecraft Autonomy: Active Volcanism and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, A. G.; Chien, S.; Baker, V.; Castano, R.; Cichy, B.; Doggett, T.; Dohm, J. M.; Greeley, R.; Ip, F.; Rabideau, G.

    2005-01-01

    ASE has successfully demonstrated that a spacecraft can be driven by science analysis and autonomously controlled. ASE is available for flight on other missions. Mission hardware design should consider ASE requirements for available onboard data storage, onboard memory size and processor speed.

  14. Intelligent On-Board Processing in the Sensor Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, S.

    2005-12-01

    Most existing sensing systems are designed as passive, independent observers. They are rarely aware of the phenomena they observe, and are even less likely to be aware of what other sensors are observing within the same environment. Increasingly, intelligent processing of sensor data is taking place in real-time, using computing resources on-board the sensor or the platform itself. One can imagine a sensor network consisting of intelligent and autonomous space-borne, airborne, and ground-based sensors. These sensors will act independently of one another, yet each will be capable of both publishing and receiving sensor information, observations, and alerts among other sensors in the network. Furthermore, these sensors will be capable of acting upon this information, perhaps altering acquisition properties of their instruments, changing the location of their platform, or updating processing strategies for their own observations to provide responsive information or additional alerts. Such autonomous and intelligent sensor networking capabilities provide significant benefits for collections of heterogeneous sensors within any environment. They are crucial for multi-sensor observations and surveillance, where real-time communication with external components and users may be inhibited, and the environment may be hostile. In all environments, mission automation and communication capabilities among disparate sensors will enable quicker response to interesting, rare, or unexpected events. Additionally, an intelligent network of heterogeneous sensors provides the advantage that all of the sensors can benefit from the unique capabilities of each sensor in the network. The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) is developing a unique approach to data processing, integration and mining through the use of the Adaptive On-Board Data Processing (AODP) framework. AODP is a key foundation technology for autonomous internetworking capabilities to support situational awareness by

  15. On-Board Mining in the Sensor Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, S.; Conover, H.; Graves, S.; Ramachandran, R.; Rushing, J.

    2004-12-01

    On-board data mining can contribute to many research and engineering applications, including natural hazard detection and prediction, intelligent sensor control, and the generation of customized data products for direct distribution to users. The ability to mine sensor data in real time can also be a critical component of autonomous operations, supporting deep space missions, unmanned aerial and ground-based vehicles (UAVs, UGVs), and a wide range of sensor meshes, webs and grids. On-board processing is expected to play a significant role in the next generation of NASA, Homeland Security, Department of Defense and civilian programs, providing for greater flexibility and versatility in measurements of physical systems. In addition, the use of UAV and UGV systems is increasing in military, emergency response and industrial applications. As research into the autonomy of these vehicles progresses, especially in fleet or web configurations, the applicability of on-board data mining is expected to increase significantly. Data mining in real time on board sensor platforms presents unique challenges. Most notably, the data to be mined is a continuous stream, rather than a fixed store such as a database. This means that the data mining algorithms must be modified to make only a single pass through the data. In addition, the on-board environment requires real time processing with limited computing resources, thus the algorithms must use fixed and relatively small amounts of processing time and memory. The University of Alabama in Huntsville is developing an innovative processing framework for the on-board data and information environment. The Environment for On-Board Processing (EVE) and the Adaptive On-board Data Processing (AODP) projects serve as proofs-of-concept of advanced information systems for remote sensing platforms. The EVE real-time processing infrastructure will upload, schedule and control the execution of processing plans on board remote sensors. These plans

  16. IVIDIL experiment onboard the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevtsova, Valentina

    2010-09-01

    The experiment IVIDIL (Influence of Vibrations on Diffusion in Liquids) is scheduled to be performed in forthcoming fall 2009 onboard the ISS, inside the SODI instrument mounted in the Glovebox on the ESA Columbus module. It is planned to carry out 39 experimental runs with each of them lasting 18 h. The objective of the experiment is threefold. After each space experiment there is a discussion about the role of onboard g-jitters. One objective is to identify the limit level of vibrations below which g-jitter does not play a role for onboard experiments. This objective will be fulfilled by observing diffusive process under different imposed controlled vibrations. Second, to perform precise measurements of diffusion and thermodiffusion coefficients for two binary mixtures in the absence of buoyant convection. The measured values can be used as standards for ground experiments. Two aqueous solutions will be used as test fluids: two different concentrations of water-isopropanol (IPA) with positive and negative Soret effect. This objective also includes studying the influence of vibrations on the measured values of diffusion and thermodiffusion coefficients. Finally, to investigate vibration-induced convection and, particularly, heat and mass transfer under vibrations. Three International Teams are involved in the preparation of the experiment ( Shevtsova et al., 2007). ULB (MRC) is responsible for all aspects related to IVIDIL experimental definition, theoretical and numerical modeling and coordination of the entire project. Team from Ryerson University (led by Z. Saghir), Ontario, Canada and Russian team from Perm, ICMM UB RAS (led by T. Lyubimova) provide theoretical and numerical support. As being the coordinator, the author will present a general description of the experiment and outline some results obtained by MRC, ULB researchers only, i.e. by A. Mialdun, D. Melnikov, I. Ryzhkov, Yu. Gaponenko.

  17. Onboard photo: Astronauts at work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-65) Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai is ready to begin one of her busy twelve hour shifts as she enters the International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) spacelab science module via the spacelab turnel (note hatch opening behind her). The tunnel connects the IML-2 module with the Orbiter Vehicle's (OV) crew compartment. Mounted on a rack handrail and on a forward end cone bracket are video cameras that will record the two weeks of experimenting inside the module. Mukai is a representative from the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan.

  18. Low Cost Missions Operations on NASA Deep Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. J.; Kusnierkiewicz, D. J.; Bowman, A.; Harvey, R.; Ossing, D.; Eichstedt, J.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to lower mission operations costs on any long duration mission depends on a number of factors; the opportunities for science, the flight trajectory, and the cruise phase environment, among others. Many deep space missions employ long cruises to their final destination with minimal science activities along the way; others may perform science observations on a near-continuous basis. This paper discusses approaches employed by two NASA missions implemented by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to minimize mission operations costs without compromising mission success: the New Horizons mission to Pluto, and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatories (STEREO). The New Horizons spacecraft launched in January 2006 for an encounter with the Pluto system.The spacecraft trajectory required no deterministic on-board delta-V, and so the mission ops team then settled in for the rest of its 9.5-year cruise. The spacecraft has spent much of its cruise phase in a "hibernation" mode, which has enabled the spacecraft to be maintained with a small operations team, and minimized the contact time required from the NASA Deep Space Network. The STEREO mission is comprised of two three-axis stabilized sun-staring spacecraft in heliocentric orbit at a distance of 1 AU from the sun. The spacecraft were launched in October 2006. The STEREO instruments operate in a "decoupled" mode from the spacecraft, and from each other. Since STEREO operations are largely routine, unattended ground station contact operations were implemented early in the mission. Commands flow from the MOC to be uplinked, and the data recorded on-board is downlinked and relayed back to the MOC. Tools run in the MOC to assess the health and performance of ground system components. Alerts are generated and personnel are notified of any problems. Spacecraft telemetry is similarly monitored and alarmed, thus ensuring safe, reliable, low cost operations.

  19. Apollo experience report: Onboard navigational and alignment software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savely, R. T.; Cockrell, B. F.; Pines, S.

    1972-01-01

    The onboard navigational and alignment routines used during the nonthrusting phases of an Apollo mission are discussed as to their limitations, and alternate approaches that have more desirable capabilities are presented. A more efficient procedure for solving Kepler's equation, which is used in the calculation of Kepler's problem and Lambert's problem is included, and a sixth-order predictor scheme with a Runge-Kutta starter is recommended for numerical integration. The extension of the rendezvous navigation state to include angle biases and the use of a fixed coordinate system is also evaluated.

  20. On-Board Entry Trajectory Planning Expanded to Sub-orbital Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping; Shen, Zuojun

    2003-01-01

    A methodology for on-board planning of sub-orbital entry trajectories is developed. The algorithm is able to generate in a time frame consistent with on-board environment a three-degree-of-freedom (3DOF) feasible entry trajectory, given the boundary conditions and vehicle modeling. This trajectory is then tracked by feedback guidance laws which issue guidance commands. The current trajectory planning algorithm complements the recently developed method for on-board 3DOF entry trajectory generation for orbital missions, and provides full-envelope autonomous adaptive entry guidance capability. The algorithm is validated and verified by extensive high fidelity simulations using a sub-orbital reusable launch vehicle model and difficult mission scenarios including failures and aborts.

  1. AMO EXPRESS: A Command and Control Experiment for Crew Autonomy Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelius, Randy; Frank, Jeremy; Garner, Larry; Haddock, Angie; Stetson, Howard; Wang, Lui

    2015-01-01

    The Autonomous Mission Operations project is investigating crew autonomy capabilities and tools for deep space missions. Team members at Ames Research Center, Johnson Space Center and Marshall Space Flight Center are using their experience with ISS Payload operations and TIMELINER to: move earth based command and control assets to on-board for crew access; safely merge core and payload command procedures; give the crew single action intelligent operations; and investigate crew interface requirements.

  2. STS-44 crewmembers test flight equipment onboard KC-135 NASA 930

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-44 crewmembers take a break from testing flight equipment onboard KC-135 NASA 930 and tumble in the microgravity created during parabolic flight. Left to right are Mission Specialist (MS) Mario Runco, Jr, Payload Specialist Thomas J. Hennen (mustache), Commander Frederick D. Gregory, MS F. Story Musgrave (in background), MS James S. Voss, and Pilot Terence T. Henricks. The crew was experimenting with equipment they will operate during their mission aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104.

  3. Onboard multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campanella, S. Joseph; Sayegh, Soheil

    1987-01-01

    An investigation performed for NASA LeRC by COMSAT Labs, of a digitally implemented on-board demultiplexer/demodulator able to process a mix of uplink carriers of differing bandwidths and center frequencies and programmable in orbit to accommodate variations in traffic flow is reported. The processor accepts high speed samples of the signal carried in a wideband satellite transponder channel, processes these as a composite to determine the signal spectrum, filters the result into individual channels that carry modulated carriers and demodulate these to recover their digital baseband content. The processor is implemented by using forward and inverse pipeline Fast Fourier Transformation techniques. The recovered carriers are then demodulated using a single digitally implemented demodulator that processes all of the modulated carriers. The effort has determined the feasibility of the concept with multiple TDMA carriers, identified critical path technologies, and assessed the potential of developing these technologies to a level capable of supporting a practical, cost effective on-board implementation. The result is a flexible, high speed, digitally implemented Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) bulk demultiplexer/demodulator.

  4. Modeling the Influences of Electrostatic Discharge in Materials on a Failures of Onboard Electronic Equipment in under Microgcrogravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grichshenko, Valentina; Zhantayev, Zhumabek; Mukushev, Acemhan

    2016-07-01

    It is known, that during SV exploitation failures of automated systems happens as the result of complex influence of Space leading to SV's shorter life span, sometimes to their lose. All of the SV, functioning in the near-Earth Space (NES), subjected to influence of different Space factors. Causes and character of failure onboard equipment are different. Many researchers think that failures of onboard electronics connected to changing solar activity level. However, by the numerous onboard experiments established that even in the absence of solar burst in magnetostatic days there are registered failures of onboard electronics. In this paper discussed the results of modeling the impact of electrostatic discharge (ESD), occurring in the materials, on a failures of electronic onboard equipment in microgravity. The paper discusses the conditions of formation and influence of electrostatic discharge in microgravity on the elements of the onboard electronics in Space. Developed technique using circuit simulation in ISIS Proteus environment is discussed. Developed the recommendations for noise immunity of on-board equipment from ESD in Space. The results are used to predict the failure rate on-board electronics with the long term of space mission. Key words: microgravity, materials, failures, onboard electronics, Space

  5. Onboard utilization of ground control points for image correction. Volume 2: Analysis and simulation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An approach to remote sensing that meets future mission requirements was investigated. The deterministic acquisition of data and the rapid correction of data for radiometric effects and image distortions are the most critical limitations of remote sensing. The following topics are discussed: onboard image correction systems, GCP navigation system simulation, GCP analysis, and image correction analysis measurement.

  6. Onboard centralized frame tree database for intelligent space operations of the Mars Science Laboratory Rover.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won S; Diaz-Calderon, Antonio; Peters, Stephen F; Carsten, Joseph L; Leger, Chris

    2014-11-01

    Planetary surface science operations performed by robotic space systems frequently require pointing cameras at various objects and moving a robotic arm end effector tool toward specific targets. Earlier NASA Mars Exploration Rovers did not have the ability to compute actual coordinates for given object coordinate frame names and had to be provided with explicit coordinates. Since it sometimes takes hours to more than a day to get final approval of certain calculated coordinates for command uplink via the Earth-based mission operations procedures, a highly desired enhancement for future rovers was to have the onboard automated capability to compute the coordinates for a given frame name. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission is the first to have a centralized coordinate transform database to maintain the knowledge of spatial relations. This onboard intelligence significantly simplifies communication and control between Earth-based human mission operators and the robotic rover on Mars by supporting higher level abstraction of commands using object and target names instead of coordinates. More specifically, the spatial relations of many object frames are represented hierarchically in a tree data structure, called the frame tree. Individual frame transforms are populated by their respective modules that have specific knowledge of the frames. Through this onboard centralized frame tree database, client modules can query transforms between any two frames and support spacecraft commands that use any frames maintained in the frame tree. Various operational examples in the MSL mission that have greatly benefitted from this onboard centralized frame tree database are presented. PMID:25330473

  7. Autonomous Mission Operations Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy David

    2014-01-01

    As light time delays increase, the number of such situations in which crew autonomy is the best way to conduct the mission is expected to increase. However, there are significant open questions regarding which functions to allocate to ground and crew as the time delays increase. In situations where the ideal solution is to allocate responsibility to the crew and the vehicle, a second question arises: should the activity be the responsibility of the crew or an automated vehicle function? More specifically, we must answer the following questions: What aspects of mission operation responsibilities (Plan, Train, Fly) should be allocated to ground based or vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control in the presence of significant light-time delay between the vehicle and the Earth?How should the allocated ground based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed across the flight control team and ground system automation? How should the allocated vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed between the flight crew and onboard system automation?When during the mission should responsibility shift from flight control team to crew or from crew to vehicle, and what should the process of shifting responsibility be as the mission progresses? NASA is developing a roadmap of capabilities for Autonomous Mission Operations for human spaceflight. This presentation will describe the current state of development of this roadmap, with specific attention to in-space inspection tasks that crews might perform with minimum assistance from the ground.

  8. First light of SWAP on-board PROBA2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halain, Jean-Philippe; Berghmans, David; Defise, Jean-Marc; Renotte, Etienne; Thibert, Tanguy; Mazy, Emmanuel; Rochus, Pierre; Nicula, Bogdan; de Groof, Anik; Seaton, Dan; Schühle, Udo

    2010-07-01

    The SWAP telescope (Sun Watcher using Active Pixel System detector and Image Processing) is an instrument launched on 2nd November 2009 on-board the ESA PROBA2 technological mission. SWAP is a space weather sentinel from a low Earth orbit, providing images at 174 nm of the solar corona. The instrument concept has been adapted to the PROBA2 mini-satellite requirements (compactness, low power electronics and a-thermal opto-mechanical system). It also takes advantage of the platform pointing agility, on-board processor, Packetwire interface and autonomous operations. The key component of SWAP is a radiation resistant CMOS-APS detector combined with onboard compression and data prioritization. SWAP has been developed and qualified at the Centre Spatial de Liège (CSL) and calibrated at the PTBBessy facility. After launch, SWAP has provided its first images on 14th November 2009 and started its nominal, scientific phase in February 2010, after 3 months of platform and payload commissioning. This paper summarizes the latest SWAP developments and qualifications, and presents the first light results.

  9. Expected Navigation Flight Performance for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Corwin; Wright, Cinnamon; Long, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission consists of four formation-flying spacecraft placed in highly eccentric elliptical orbits about the Earth. The primary scientific mission objective is to study magnetic reconnection within the Earth s magnetosphere. The baseline navigation concept is the independent estimation of each spacecraft state using GPS pseudorange measurements (referenced to an onboard Ultra Stable Oscillator) and accelerometer measurements during maneuvers. State estimation for the MMS spacecraft is performed onboard each vehicle using the Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System, which is embedded in the Navigator GPS receiver. This paper describes the latest efforts to characterize expected navigation flight performance using upgraded simulation models derived from recent analyses.

  10. Planning for the V&V of infused software technologies for the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Fesq, Lorraine M.; Ingham, Michel D.; Klein, Suzanne L.; Nelson, Stacy D.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission is planning to make use of advanced software technologies in order to support fulfillment of its ambitious science objectives. The mission plans to adopt the Mission Data System (MDS) as the mission software architecture, and plans to make significant use of on-board autonomous capabilities for the rover software.

  11. Autonomous onboard crew operations: A review and developmental approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    A review of the literature generated by an intercenter mission approach and consolidation team and their contractors was performed to obtain background information on the development of autonomous operations concepts for future space shuttle and space platform missions. The Boeing 757/767 flight management system was examined to determine the relevance for transfer of the developmental approach and technology to the performance of the crew operations function. In specific, the engine indications and crew alerting system was studied to determine the relevance of this display for the performance of crew operations onboard the vehicle. It was concluded that the developmental approach and technology utilized in the aeronautics industry would be appropriate for development of an autonomous operations concept for the space platform.

  12. On-Board Propulsion System Analysis of High Density Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of the performance and density of on-board propellants on science payload mass of Discovery Program class missions is evaluated. A propulsion system dry mass model, anchored on flight-weight system data from the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous mission is used. This model is used to evaluate the performance of liquid oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxylammonium nitrate, and oxygen difluoride oxidizers with hydrocarbon and metal hydride fuels. Results for the propellants evaluated indicate that the state-of-art, Earth Storable propellants with high performance rhenium engine technology in both the axial and attitude control systems has performance capabilities that can only be exceeded by liquid oxygen/hydrazine, liquid oxygen/diborane and oxygen difluoride/diborane propellant combinations. Potentially lower ground operations costs is the incentive for working with nontoxic propellant combinations.

  13. On-board attitude determination for the Topex satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, C. J.; Ha, K.; Welch, R. V.; Kia, T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an overall technical description of the on-board attitude determination system for The Ocean Topography Experiment (Topex) satellite. The stellar-inertial attitude determination system being designed for the Topex satellite utilizes data from a three-axis NASA Standard DRIRU-II as well as data from an Advanced Star Tracer (ASTRA) and a Digital Fine Sun Sensor (DFSS). This system is a modified version of the baseline Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) concept used on the Landsat missions. Extensive simulation and analysis of the MMS attitude determination approach was performed to verify suitability for the Topex application. The modifications to this baseline attitude determination scheme were identified to satisfy the unique Topex mission requirements.

  14. HALCA's Onboard VLBI Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Wajima, Kiyoaki; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Murata, Yasuhiro; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kameno, Seiji; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Fujisawa, Kenta; Inoue, Makoto; Hirosawa, Haruto

    2000-12-01

    The first space VLBI satellite, HALCA, was launched on 1997 February 12. We report the characteristics of HALCA as an orbiting VLBI station with 8-m deployment antenna. It is required the high system gain, low system noise, and high stability of phase transfer. And the stabilities of system gain and system noise are needed for imaging of VLBI. HALCA achieved the requirement as a VLBI stations and has made almost 3 times longer baselines than ground global VLBI networks. It means observations with 3 times higher angular resolution have been carried out. We have measured aperture efficiencies of the deployment antenna, system noise temperatures, stability of onboard local oscillators, and stability of phase link. HALCA's onboard radio astronomy system has 1.60-1.73 GHz, 4.7-5.0 GHz, and 21.9-22.3 GHz receivers and two-channel high-rate samplers. Typical values of system noise temperature in orbit are 70 K and 90 K at 1.6 and 5 GHz respectively. At 22 GHz, the apparent system noise temperature is 400 K; however, this is mostly due to attenuation between the main antenna and the 22 GHz low noise amplifier. A reference tone signal is transmitted from a ground tracking station which is locked on a ground hydrogen maser oscillator. The internal phase stability of local oscillators is around 5deg r.m.s. at 5 GHz. The total gain of the receiving system and the bit distribution of the high-rate samplers have also been checked. With the exception of the 22 GHz attenuation, the in-orbit performance of the VLBI observing system matches the ground-test results very well.

  15. Improving multispectral satellite image compression using onboard subpixel registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albinet, Mathieu; Camarero, Roberto; Isnard, Maxime; Poulet, Christophe; Perret, Jokin

    2013-09-01

    Future CNES earth observation missions will have to deal with an ever increasing telemetry data rate due to improvements in resolution and addition of spectral bands. Current CNES image compressors implement a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) followed by a bit plane encoding (BPE) but only on a mono spectral basis and do not profit from the multispectral redundancy of the observed scenes. Recent CNES studies have proven a substantial gain on the achievable compression ratio, +20% to +40% on selected scenarios, by implementing a multispectral compression scheme based on a Karhunen Loeve transform (KLT) followed by the classical DWT+BPE. But such results can be achieved only on perfectly registered bands; a default of registration as low as 0.5 pixel ruins all the benefits of multispectral compression. In this work, we first study the possibility to implement a multi-bands subpixel onboard registration based on registration grids generated on-the-fly by the satellite attitude control system and simplified resampling and interpolation techniques. Indeed bands registration is usually performed on ground using sophisticated techniques too computationally intensive for onboard use. This fully quantized algorithm is tuned to meet acceptable registration performances within stringent image quality criteria, with the objective of onboard real-time processing. In a second part, we describe a FPGA implementation developed to evaluate the design complexity and, by extrapolation, the data rate achievable on a spacequalified ASIC. Finally, we present the impact of this approach on the processing chain not only onboard but also on ground and the impacts on the design of the instrument.

  16. MODIS On-Board Blackbody Function and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiaoxiong, Xiong; Wenny, Brian N.; Wu, Aisheng; Barnes, William

    2009-01-01

    Two MODIS instruments are currently in orbit, making continuous global observations in visible to long-wave infrared wavelengths. Compared to heritage sensors, MODIS was built with an advanced set of on-board calibrators, providing sensor radiometric, spectral, and spatial calibration and characterization during on-orbit operation. For the thermal emissive bands (TEB) with wavelengths from 3.7 m to 14.4 m, a v-grooved blackbody (BB) is used as the primary calibration source. The BB temperature is accurately measured each scan (1.47s) using a set of 12 temperature sensors traceable to NIST temperature standards. The onboard BB is nominally operated at a fixed temperature, 290K for Terra MODIS and 285K for Aqua MODIS, to compute the TEB linear calibration coefficients. Periodically, its temperature is varied from 270K (instrument ambient) to 315K in order to evaluate and update the nonlinear calibration coefficients. This paper describes MODIS on-board BB functions with emphasis on on-orbit operation and performance. It examines the BB temperature uncertainties under different operational conditions and their impact on TEB calibration and data product quality. The temperature uniformity of the BB is also evaluated using TEB detector responses at different operating temperatures. On-orbit results demonstrate excellent short-term and long-term stability for both the Terra and Aqua MODIS on-board BB. The on-orbit BB temperature uncertainty is estimated to be 10mK for Terra MODIS at 290K and 5mK for Aqua MODIS at 285K, thus meeting the TEB design specifications. In addition, there has been no measurable BB temperature drift over the entire mission of both Terra and Aqua MODIS.

  17. Extensibility of Human Asteroid Mission to Mars and Other Destinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Mark A.; Caram, Jose M.; Lopez, Pedro; Hinkel, Heather D.; Bowie, Jonathan T.; Abell, Paul A.; Drake, Bret G.; Martinez, Roland M.; Chodas, Paul W.; Hack, Kurt; Mazanek, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper will describe the benefits of execution of the Asteroid Redirect Mission as an early mission in deep space, demonstrating solar electric propulsion, deep space robotics, ground and on-board navigation, docking, and EVA. The paper will also discuss how staging in trans-lunar space and the elements associated with this mission are excellent building blocks for subsequent deep space missions to Mars or other destinations.

  18. Grand Challenge Problems in Real-Time Mission Control Systems for NASA's 21st Century Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfarr, Barbara B.; Donohue, John T.; Hughes, Peter M.

    1999-01-01

    Space missions of the 21st Century will be characterized by constellations of distributed spacecraft, miniaturized sensors and satellites, increased levels of automation, intelligent onboard processing, and mission autonomy. Programmatically, these missions will be noted for dramatically decreased budgets and mission development lifecycles. Current progress towards flexible, scaleable, low-cost, reusable mission control systems must accelerate given the current mission deployment schedule, and new technology will need to be infused to achieve desired levels of autonomy and processing capability. This paper will discuss current and future missions being managed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. It will describe the current state of mission control systems and the problems they need to overcome to support the missions of the 21st Century.

  19. Modeling and Simulation Reliable Spacecraft On-Board Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Nohpill

    1999-01-01

    The proposed project will investigate modeling and simulation-driven testing and fault tolerance schemes for Spacecraft On-Board Computing, thereby achieving reliable spacecraft telecommunication. A spacecraft communication system has inherent capabilities of providing multipoint and broadcast transmission, connectivity between any two distant nodes within a wide-area coverage, quick network configuration /reconfiguration, rapid allocation of space segment capacity, and distance-insensitive cost. To realize the capabilities above mentioned, both the size and cost of the ground-station terminals have to be reduced by using reliable, high-throughput, fast and cost-effective on-board computing system which has been known to be a critical contributor to the overall performance of space mission deployment. Controlled vulnerability of mission data (measured in sensitivity), improved performance (measured in throughput and delay) and fault tolerance (measured in reliability) are some of the most important features of these systems. The system should be thoroughly tested and diagnosed before employing a fault tolerance into the system. Testing and fault tolerance strategies should be driven by accurate performance models (i.e. throughput, delay, reliability and sensitivity) to find an optimal solution in terms of reliability and cost. The modeling and simulation tools will be integrated with a system architecture module, a testing module and a module for fault tolerance all of which interacting through a centered graphical user interface.

  20. Onboard Data Processors for Planetary Ice-Penetrating Sounding Radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, I. L.; Friesenhahn, R.; Gim, Y.; Wu, X.; Jordan, R.; Wang, C.; Clark, D.; Le, M.; Hand, K. P.; Plaut, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Among the many concerns faced by outer planetary missions, science data storage and transmission hold special significance. Such missions must contend with limited onboard storage, brief data downlink windows, and low downlink bandwidths. A potential solution to these issues lies in employing onboard data processors (OBPs) to convert raw data into products that are smaller and closely capture relevant scientific phenomena. In this paper, we present the implementation of two OBP architectures for ice-penetrating sounding radars tasked with exploring Europa and Ganymede. Our first architecture utilizes an unfocused processing algorithm extended from the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS, Jordan et. al. 2009). Compared to downlinking raw data, we are able to reduce data volume by approximately 100 times through OBP usage. To ensure the viability of our approach, we have implemented, simulated, and synthesized this architecture using both VHDL and Matlab models (with fixed-point and floating-point arithmetic) in conjunction with Modelsim. Creation of a VHDL model of our processor is the principle step in transitioning to actual digital hardware, whether in a FPGA (field-programmable gate array) or an ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit), and successful simulation and synthesis strongly indicate feasibility. In addition, we examined the tradeoffs faced in the OBP between fixed-point accuracy, resource consumption, and data product fidelity. Our second architecture is based upon a focused fast back projection (FBP) algorithm that requires a modest amount of computing power and on-board memory while yielding high along-track resolution and improved slope detection capability. We present an overview of the algorithm and details of our implementation, also in VHDL. With the appropriate tradeoffs, the use of OBPs can significantly reduce data downlink requirements without sacrificing data product fidelity. Through the development

  1. On-board fault management for autonomous spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesq, Lorraine M.; Stephan, Amy; Doyle, Susan C.; Martin, Eric; Sellers, Suzanne

    1991-01-01

    The dynamic nature of the Cargo Transfer Vehicle's (CTV) mission and the high level of autonomy required mandate a complete fault management system capable of operating under uncertain conditions. Such a fault management system must take into account the current mission phase and the environment (including the target vehicle), as well as the CTV's state of health. This level of capability is beyond the scope of current on-board fault management systems. This presentation will discuss work in progress at TRW to apply artificial intelligence to the problem of on-board fault management. The goal of this work is to develop fault management systems. This presentation will discuss work in progress at TRW to apply artificial intelligence to the problem of on-board fault management. The goal of this work is to develop fault management systems that can meet the needs of spacecraft that have long-range autonomy requirements. We have implemented a model-based approach to fault detection and isolation that does not require explicit characterization of failures prior to launch. It is thus able to detect failures that were not considered in the failure and effects analysis. We have applied this technique to several different subsystems and tested our approach against both simulations and an electrical power system hardware testbed. We present findings from simulation and hardware tests which demonstrate the ability of our model-based system to detect and isolate failures, and describe our work in porting the Ada version of this system to a flight-qualified processor. We also discuss current research aimed at expanding our system to monitor the entire spacecraft.

  2. An onboard computing system design for a remote sensing cubesat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2013-05-01

    Characterization activities related to near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) provide several societal benefits. This work can serve as a precursor to a human exploration mission, it can facilitate the assessment of targets for resource extraction, and it can serve as preparation for intervention against the threat posed by an Earth impactor (EI). One objective of ongoing work at the University of North Dakota is to develop the capabilities required for NEA characterization. A CubeSatclass spacecraft will serve to demonstrate and test these required technologies on-orbit. This 1U CubeSat, which is compliant with NASA ELaNA CubeSat Launch Initiative requirements, will be comprised of standard subsystems (excluding propulsion) and a payload consisting of a visible light camera, a limited radio science package and a GPS receiver. The craft will also feature extensive onboard computing capabilities to allow it to process data to perform mosaicking, super-resolution and rudimentary image feature identification and analysis. This paper focuses on the onboard computing subsystem of this spacecraft which consists of a standard flight computer based on the AMTEL AT91SAM9G20 chipset and a supplemental processing unit based on several GumStix computeron- module (COM) units. The key design requirement: having an always-on primary processing unit and supplemental capabilities (including a digital signal processor) that can be powered on for use only when required and how the current design meets these requirements is reviewed. A detailed review of the spacecraft's design and mission operations plan is presented. The numerous trades required to allow the requisite payload and onboard processing hardware to fit within the size and weight limitations posed by the 1U CubeSat form factor are discussed. Finally, the paper concludes with a review of the functionality provided by the spacecraft and the future capabilities that this functionality will facilitate.

  3. Approach guidance for outer planet pioneer missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1975-01-01

    Onboard optical approach guidance measurements for spin-stabilized Pioneer-type spacecraft are discussed. Approach guidance measurement accuracy requirements are outlined. The application concept and operation principle of the V-slit star tracker are discussed within the context of approach guidance measurements and measurables. It is shown that the accuracy of onboard optical approach guidance measurements is inherently coupled to the stability characteristics of the spacecraft spin axis. Geometrical and physical measurement parameters are presented for Pioneer entry probe missions to Uranus via Jupiter or Saturn flyby. The impact of these parameters on both sensor instrumentation and measurement system design is discussed. The need for sensing extended objects is shown. The feasibility of implementing an onboard approach guidance measurement system for Pioneer-type spacecraft is indicated. Two Pioneer 10 onboard measurement experiments performed in May-June 1974 are described.

  4. Mission Level Autonomy for USSV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stirb, Robert C.; Brizzolara, Robert

    2011-01-01

    On-water demonstration of a wide range of mission-proven, advanced technologies at TRL 5+ that provide a total integrated, modular approach to effectively address the majority of the key needs for full mission-level autonomous, cross-platform control of USV s. Wide baseline stereo system mounted on the ONR USSV was shown to be an effective sensing modality for tracking of dynamic contacts as a first step to automated retrieval operations. CASPER onboard planner/replanner successfully demonstrated realtime, on-water resource-based analysis for mission-level goal achievement and on-the-fly opportunistic replanning. Full mixed mode autonomy was demonstrated on-water with a seamless transition between operator over-ride and return to current mission plan. Autonomous cooperative operations for fixed asset protection and High Value Unit escort using 2 USVs (AMN1 & 14m RHIB) were demonstrated during Trident Warrior 2010 in JUN 2010

  5. On-board near-optimal climb-dash energy management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weston, A. R.; Cliff, E. M.; Kelley, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    On-board real time flight control is studied in order to develop algorithms which are simple enough to be used in practice, for a variety of missions involving three-dimensional flight. The intercept mission in symmetric flight is emphasized. Extensive computation is required on the ground prior to the mission but the ensuing on-board exploitation is extremely simple. The scheme takes advantage of the boundary layer structure common in singular perturbations, arising with the multiple time scales appropriate to aircraft dynamics. Energy modelling of aircraft is used as the starting point for the analysis. In the symmetric case, a nominal path is generated which fairs into the dash or cruise state. Previously announced in STAR as N84-16116

  6. On-board near-optimal climb-dash energy management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weston, A. R.; Cliff, E. M.; Kelley, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    On-board real time flight control is studied in order to develop algorithms which are simple enough to be used in practice, for a variety of missions involving three dimensional flight. The intercept mission in symmetric flight is emphasized. Extensive computation is required on the ground prior to the mission but the ensuing on-board exploitation is extremely simple. The scheme takes advantage of the boundary layer structure common in singular perturbations, arising with the multiple time scales appropriate to aircraft dynamics. Energy modelling of aircraft is used as the starting point for the analysis. In the symmetric case, a nominal path is generated which fairs into the dash or cruise state.

  7. An on-board near-optimal climb-dash energy management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weston, A. R.; Cliff, E. M.; Kelley, H. J.

    1982-01-01

    On-board real time flight control is studied in order to develop algorithms which are simple enough to be used in practice, for a variety of missions involving three dimensional flight. The intercept mission in symmetric flight is emphasized. Extensive computation is required on the ground prior to the mission but the ensuing on-board exploitation is extremely simple. The scheme takes advantage of the boundary layer structure common in singular perturbations, arising with the multiple time scales appropriate to aircraft dynamics. Energy modelling of aircraft is used as the starting point for the analysis. In the symmetric case, a nominal path is generated which fairs into the dash or cruise state. Feedback coefficients are found as functions of the remaining energy to go (dash energy less current energy) along the nominal path.

  8. An Onboard ISS Virtual Reality Trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miralles, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Prior to the retirement of the Space Shuttle, many exterior repairs on the International Space Station (ISS) were carried out by shuttle astronauts, trained on the ground and flown to the Station to perform these specific repairs. With the retirement of the shuttle, this is no longer an available option. As such, the need for ISS crew members to review scenarios while on flight, either for tasks they already trained for on the ground or for contingency operations has become a very critical issue. NASA astronauts prepare for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) or Spacewalks through numerous training media, such as: self-study, part task training, underwater training in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL), hands-on hardware reviews and training at the Virtual Reality Laboratory (VRLab). In many situations, the time between the last session of a training and an EVA task might be 6 to 8 months. EVA tasks are critical for a mission and as time passes the crew members may lose proficiency on previously trained tasks and their options to refresh or learn a new skill while on flight are limited to reading training materials and watching videos. In addition, there is an increased need for unplanned contingency repairs to fix problems arising as the Station ages. In order to help the ISS crew members maintain EVA proficiency or train for contingency repairs during their mission, the Johnson Space Center's VRLab designed an immersive ISS Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT). The VRT incorporates a unique optical system that makes use of the already successful Dynamic On-board Ubiquitous Graphics (DOUG) software to assist crew members with procedure reviews and contingency EVAs while on board the Station. The need to train and re-train crew members for EVAs and contingency scenarios is crucial and extremely demanding. ISS crew members are now asked to perform EVA tasks for which they have not been trained and potentially have never seen before. The Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT

  9. STS-57 traditional onboard crew portrait on flight deck of Endeavour, OV-105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-57 crewmembers, wearing mission polo shirts, pose for their traditional onboard (inflight) crew portrait on the aft flight deck of Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Left to right in the front row are Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) Peter J.K. Wisoff, Pilot Brian J. Duffy, MS4 Janice E. Voss with Commander Ronald J. Grabe, MS2 Nancy J. Sherlock, and Payload Commander (PLC) and Mission Specialist (MS) G. David Low in the back (left to right). The window shades are in place on overhead windows W7 and W8.

  10. STS-57 traditional onboard crew portrait on flight deck of Endeavour, OV-105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-57 crewmembers, wearing mission polo shirts, pose for their traditional onboard (inflight) crew portrait on the aft flight deck of Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Left to right in the front are Payload Commander (PLC) and Mission Specialist (MS) G. David Low (left) and Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) Peter J.K. Wisoff. Behind them (left to right) are Commander Ronald J. Grabe, Pilot Brian J. Duffy, MS4 Janice E. Voss, and MS2 Nancy J. Sherlock. Sunlight shines through overhead windows W7 and W8.

  11. Apollo 14 mission circuit breaker anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Continuity through the circuit breaker in the mechanically closed condition was prevented by a foreign substance on the contact surface onboard Apollo 14. It was concluded that this was the only failure of this type in over 3400 units that were flown, and since no circuit breaker is a single-point failure for crew safety or mission success, no corrective action was taken.

  12. Onboard Photo: International Microgravity Laboratory-2 in Cargo Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-65) onboard photo of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) in the cargo bay with Earth in the background. Mission objectives of IML-2 were to conduct science and technology investigations that required the low-gravity environment of space, with emphasis on experiments that studied the effects of microgravity on materials processes and living organisms. Materials science and life sciences are two of the most exciting areas of microgravity research because discoveries in these fields could greatly enhance the quality of life on Earth. If the structure of certain proteins can be determined by examining high-quality protein crystals grown in microgravity, advances can be made to improve the treatment of many human diseases. Electronic materials research in space may help us refine processes and make better products, such as computers, lasers, and other high-tech devices. The 14-nation European Space Agency (ESA), the Canadian Space Agency (SCA), the French National Center for Space Studies (CNES), the German Space Agency and the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DARA/DLR), and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) participated in developing hardware and experiments for the IML missions. The missions were managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The Orbiter Columbia was launched from the Kennedy Space Center on July 8, 1994 for the IML-2 mission.

  13. Intelligent onboard TV system TELAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, Alexander A.

    2004-09-01

    On-board television system TELAN includes one or several monitors with fragmented screen space (for example with liquid crystals), three and more small-sized video cameras (color and/or monochrome), adaptive means of their switching and, possibly, means of video recording. The means of adaptive switching provide automatic lead-out to the screen of the monitor of information, optimum for current transport situation. Advantages of such television system are: (1) practically circular review, i.e. absence of "blind/dead" zones; (2) substantial increase of safety of driving, as it allows to boost the rate of the proper response of driver in pre-emergency and other critical situations; (3) effective protection against blinding by headlights of the going behind and/or overtaking automobile; (4) high quality of the image even under bad conditions of supervision (for example in complete darkness, fog); (5) broad-range functionalities, including opportunity of automatic recording of pre-emergency conditions, automatic recording followed by the command of alarm system etc.

  14. Optimization of Planck-LFI on-board data handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maris, M.; Tomasi, M.; Galeotta, S.; Miccolis, M.; Hildebrandt, S.; Frailis, M.; Rohlfs, R.; Morisset, N.; Zacchei, A.; Bersanelli, M.; Binko, P.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cuttaia, F.; Chulani, H.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Fogliani, S.; Franceschi, E.; Gasparo, F.; Gomez, F.; Gregorio, A.; Herreros, J. M.; Leonardi, R.; Leutenegger, P.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Malaspina, M.; Mandolesi, N.; Manzato, P.; Meharga, M.; Meinhold, P.; Mennella, A.; Pasian, F.; Perrotta, F.; Rebolo, R.; Türler, M.; Zonca, A.

    2009-12-01

    To asses stability against 1/f noise, the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) on-board the Planck mission will acquire data at a rate much higher than the data rate allowed by the science telemetry bandwith of 35.5 Kbps. The data are processed by an on-board pipeline, followed on-ground by a decoding and reconstruction step, to reduce the volume of data to a level compatible with the bandwidth while minimizing the loss of information. This paper illustrates the on-board processing of the scientific data used by Planck/LFI to fit the allowed data-rate, an intrinsecally lossy process which distorts the signal in a manner which depends on a set of five free parameters (Naver, r1, r2, q, Script O) for each of the 44 LFI detectors. The paper quantifies the level of distortion introduced by the on-board processing as a function of these parameters. It describes the method of tuning the on-board processing chain to cope with the limited bandwidth while keeping to a minimum the signal distortion. Tuning is sensitive to the statistics of the signal and has to be constantly adapted during flight. The tuning procedure is based on a optimization algorithm applied to unprocessed and uncompressed raw data provided either by simulations, pre-launch tests or data taken in flight from LFI operating in a special diagnostic acquisition mode. All the needed optimization steps are performed by an automated tool, OCA2, which simulates the on-board processing, explores the space of possible combinations of parameters, and produces a set of statistical indicators, among them: the compression rate Cr and the processing noise epsilonQ. For Planck/LFI it is required that Cr = 2.4 while, as for other systematics, epsilonQ would have to be less than 10% of rms of the instrumental white noise. An analytical model is developed that is able to extract most of the relevant information on the processing errors and the compression rate as a function of the signal statistics and the processing parameters

  15. Autonomous operations through onboard artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, R. L.; Chien, S.; Castano, R.; Rabideau, G.

    2002-01-01

    The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly onboard the Air Force TechSat 21 constellation of three spacecraft scheduled for launch in 2006. ASE uses onboard continuous planning, robust task and goal-based execution, model-based mode identification and reconfiguration, and onboard machine learning and pattern recognition to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. Demonstration of these capabilities in a flight environment will open up tremendous new opportunities in planetary science, space physics, and earth science that would be unreachable without this technology.

  16. Using New Technologies in Support of Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Adrian J.; Welch, David C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper forms a perspective of how new technologies such as onboard autonomy and internet-like protocols will change the look and feel of operations. It analyzes the concept of a lights-out mission operations control center and it's role in future mission support and it describes likely scenarios for evolving from current concepts.

  17. The TESIS experiment on the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzin, S. V.; Zhitnik, I. A.; Shestov, S. V.; Bogachev, S. A.; Bugaenko, O. I.; Ignat'ev, A. P.; Pertsov, A. A.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Reva, A. A.; Slemzin, V. A.; Sukhodrev, N. K.; Ivanov, Yu. S.; Goncharov, L. A.; Mitrofanov, A. V.; Popov, S. G.; Shergina, T. A.; Solov'ev, V. A.; Oparin, S. N.; Zykov, A. M.

    2011-04-01

    On February 26, 2009, the first data was obtained in the TESIS experiment on the research of the solar corona using imaging spectroscopy. The TESIS is a part of the scientific equipment of the CORONAS-PHO-TON spacecraft and is designed for imaging the solar corona in soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet regions of the spectrum with high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions at altitudes from the transition region to three solar radii. The article describes the main characteristics of the instrumentation, management features, and operation modes.

  18. Advanced stellar compass onboard autonomous orbit determination, preliminary performance.

    PubMed

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John L; Jørgensen, Peter S; Denver, Troelz

    2004-05-01

    Deep space exploration is in the agenda of the major space agencies worldwide; certainly the European Space Agency (SMART Program) and the American NASA (New Millennium Program) have set up programs to allow the development and the demonstration of technologies that can reduce the risks and the cost of deep space missions. From past experience, it appears that navigation is the Achilles heel of deep space missions. Performed on ground, this imposes considerable constraints on the entire system and limits operations. This makes it is very expensive to execute, especially when the mission lasts several years and, furthermore, it is not failure tolerant. Nevertheless, to date, ground navigation has been the only viable solution. The technology breakthrough of advanced star trackers, like the advanced stellar compass (ASC), might change this situation. Indeed, exploiting the capabilities of this instrument, the authors have devised a method to determine the orbit of a spacecraft autonomously, onboard, and without a priori knowledge of any kind. The solution is robust and fast. This paper presents the preliminary performance obtained during the ground testing in August 2002 at the Mauna Kea Observatories. The main goals were: (1) to assess the robustness of the method in solving autonomously, onboard, the position lost-in-space problem; (2) to assess the preliminary accuracy achievable with a single planet and a single observation; (3) to verify the autonomous navigation (AutoNav) module could be implemented into an ASC without degrading the attitude measurements; and (4) to identify the areas of development and consolidation. The results obtained are very encouraging. PMID:15220158

  19. Large Area Dust Detector onboard Solar Power Sail Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Hajime

    JAXA is aiming to launch the solar power sail engineering demonstrator to the outer planet region of the solar system like Jupiter and the Jovian Trojan asteroids in 2010's. Its interplanetary cruise is a relevant and rare opportunity to monitor physical properties that may be varied by heliocentric distances continuously such as solar wind, solar magnetosphere and micrometeoroid flux. We have been developing the largest but still light-weight dust detector ever to be onboard deep space probes since 2000. PVDF films of a few to 10's of micron thickness are attached as a small part of the solar sail membrane to count and time hypervelocity impacts by micrometeoroids larger than micron size. The first spaceflight test of this dust detector in the order of 100 cm2 detection area was conducted onboard SSSAT (Solar Sail Satellite) as the M-V sub-payload launched to LEO in September 2006. The second opportunity of this series will be the 4- channel impact sensors onboard Kagayaki nano-satellite as an H-IIA piggyback to be launched in 2008. Actual interplanetary measurements can be achieved by the Small Solar Power Sail Demonstrator that will go inside the orbit of the Earth (1 AU) close to Venus around 2010. On this spacecraft, the 8-channel PVDF sensors of about 1 m2 detection area will be onboard to test this system in the interplanetary operation and to hopefully measure dust flux anisotropy in the trailing edge of the Earth, heliocentric flux variance inside 1 AU, and opportunistic detections of possible cometary dust trails and flux enhancement near Venus. The sensors filter electronic, thermal and vibration noises and record time, peak hold value, and relax duration of signals of micrometeoroid impacts. When the full-size solar power sail mission goes beyond 1 AU passing the main asteroid belt to 5 AU in 2010's, this dust detector system will be onboard in the order of several m2 active area. It will also compare its results with infrared observation of zodiacal

  20. On-board Data Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Steve; Stein, Cara; Graves, Sara J.

    Networks of remote sensors are becoming more common as technology improves and costs decline. In the past, a remote sensor was usually a device that collected data to be retrieved at a later time by some other mechanism. This collected data were usually processed well after the fact at a computer greatly removed from the in situ sensing location. This has begun to change as sensor technology, on-board processing, and network communication capabilities have increased and their prices have dropped. There has been an explosion in the number of sensors and sensing devices, not just around the world, but literally throughout the solar system. These sensors are not only becoming vastly more sophisticated, accurate, and detailed in the data they gather but they are also becoming cheaper, lighter, and smaller. At the same time, engineers have developed improved methods to embed computing systems, memory, storage, and communication capabilities into the platforms that host these sensors. Now, it is not unusual to see large networks of sensors working in cooperation with one another. Nor does it seem strange to see the autonomous operation of sensorbased systems, from space-based satellites to smart vacuum cleaners that keep our homes clean and robotic toys that help to entertain and educate our children. But access to sensor data and computing power is only part of the story. For all the power of these systems, there are still substantial limits to what they can accomplish. These include the well-known limits to current Artificial Intelligence capabilities and our limited ability to program the abstract concepts, goals, and improvisation needed for fully autonomous systems. But it also includes much more basic engineering problems such as lack of adequate power, communications bandwidth, and memory, as well as problems with the geolocation and real-time georeferencing required to integrate data from multiple sensors to be used together.

  1. Hubble space telescope onboard battery performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Gopalakrishna M.; Wajsgras, Harry; Vaidyanathan, Hari; Armontrout, Jon D.

    1996-01-01

    The performance of six 88 Ah Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries that are used onboard in the Hubble Space Telescope (Flight Spare Module (FSM) and Flight Module 2 (FM2)) is discussed. These batteries have 22 series cells per battery and a common bus that would enable them to operate at a common voltage. It is launched on April 24, 1990. This paper reviews: the cell design, battery specification, system constraints, operating parameters, onboard battery management, and battery performance.

  2. Uav Onboard GPS in Positioning Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahar, K. N.; Kamarudin, S. S.

    2016-06-01

    The establishment of ground control points is a critical issue in mapping field, especially for large scale mapping. The fast and rapid technique for ground control point's establishment is very important for small budget projects. UAV onboard GPS has the ability to determine the point positioning. The objective of this research is to assess the accuracy of unmanned aerial vehicle onboard global positioning system in positioning determination. Therefore, this research used UAV onboard GPS as an alternative to determine the point positioning at the selected area. UAV is one of the powerful tools for data acquisition and it is used in many applications all over the world. This research concentrates on the error contributed from the UAV onboard GPS during observation. There are several points that have been used to study the pattern of positioning error. All errors were analyzed in world geodetic system 84- coordinate system, which is the basic coordinate system used by the global positioning system. Based on this research, the result of UAV onboard GPS positioning could be used in ground control point establishment with the specific error. In conclusion, accurate GCP establishment could be achieved using UAV onboard GPS by applying a specific correction based on this research.

  3. Mars Exploration Rover mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, Joy A.; Adler, Mark; Matijevic, Jacob R.; Squyres, Steven W.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Kass, David M.

    2003-10-01

    In January 2004 the Mars Exploration Rover mission will land two rovers at two different landing sites that show possible evidence for past liquid-water activity. The spacecraft design is based on the Mars Pathfinder configuration for cruise and entry, descent, and landing. Each of the identical rovers is equipped with a science payload of two remote-sensing instruments that will view the surrounding terrain from the top of a mast, a robotic arm that can place three instruments and a rock abrasion tool on selected rock and soil samples, and several onboard magnets and calibration targets. Engineering sensors and components useful for science investigations include stereo navigation cameras, stereo hazard cameras in front and rear, wheel motors, wheel motor current and voltage, the wheels themselves for digging, gyros, accelerometers, and reference solar cell readings. Mission operations will allow commanding of the rover each Martian day, or sol, on the basis of the previous sol's data. Over a 90-sol mission lifetime, the rovers are expected to drive hundreds of meters while carrying out field geology investigations, exploration, and atmospheric characterization. The data products will be delivered to the Planetary Data System as integrated batch archives.

  4. [The mission].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Moreno, J; Blanch Mon, A

    2000-01-01

    After having made a historical review of the concept of mission statement, of evaluating its importance (See Part I), of describing the bases to create a mission statement from a strategic perspective and of analyzing the advantages of this concept, probably more important as a business policy (See Parts I and II), the authors proceed to analyze the mission statement in health organizations. Due to the fact that a mission statement is lacking in the majority of health organizations, the strategy of health organizations are not exactly favored; as a consequence, neither are its competitive advantage nor the development of its essential competencies. After presenting a series of mission statements corresponding to Anglo-Saxon health organizations, the authors highlight two mission statements corresponding to our social context. The article finishes by suggesting an adequate sequence for developing a mission statement in those health organizations having a strategic sense. PMID:10983153

  5. Biological quarantine on international waters: an initiative for onboard protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Yoshinori; Yano, Hajime; Funase, Ryu; Sekine, Yasuhito; Takai, Ken

    2012-07-01

    The research vessel Chikyu is expanding new frontiers in science, technology, and international collaboration through deep-sea expedition. The Chikyu (length: 210 m, gross tonnage: 56752 tons) has advanced and comprehensive scientific research facilities. One of the scientific purposes of the vessel is to investigate into unexplored biosphere (i.e., undescribed extremophiles) on the Earth. Therefore, "the onboard laboratory" provides us systematic microbiological protocols with a physical containment situation. In parallel, the onboard equipments provide sufficient space for fifty scientists and technical support staff. The helicopter deck also supports various logistics through transporting by a large scale helicopter (See, http://www.jamstec.go.jp/chikyu/eng/). Since the establishment of Panel on Planetary Protection (PPP) in Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), we have an international consensus about the development and promulgation of planetary protection knowledge, policy, and plans to prevent the harmful effects of biological contamination on the Earth (e.g., Rummel, 2002). However, the matter to select a candidate location of initial quarantine at BSL4 level is often problematic. To answer the key issue, we suggest that international waters can be a meaningful option with several advantages to conduct initial onboard-biological quarantine investigation. Hence, the research vessel Chikyu is promising for further PPP requirements (e.g., Enceladus sample return project: Tsou et al., 2012). Rummel, J., Seeking an international consensus in planetary protection: COSPAR's planetary protection panel. Advances in Space Research, 30, 1573-1575 (2002). Tsou, P. et al. LIFE: Life Investigation For Enceladus - A Sample Return Mission Concept in Search for Evidence of Life. Astrobiology, in press.

  6. TDRSS Onboard Navigation System (TONS) flight qualification experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gramling, C. J.; Hart, R. C.; Folta, D. C.; Long, A. C.

    1994-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is currently developing an operational Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) System (TDRSS) Onboard Navigation System (TONS) to provide realtime, autonomous, high-accuracy navigation products to users of TDRSS. A TONS experiment was implemented on the Explorer Platform/Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EP/EUVE) spacecraft, launched June 7, 1992, to flight qualify the TONS operational system using TDRSS forward-link communications services. This paper provides a detailed evaluation of the flight hardware, an ultrastable oscillator (USO) and Doppler extractor (DE) card in one of the TDRSS user transponders and the ground-based prototype flight software performance, based on the 1 year of TONS experiment operation. The TONS experiment results are used to project the expected performance of the TONS 1 operational system. TONS 1 processes Doppler data derived from scheduled forward-link S-band services using a sequential estimation algorithm enhanced by a sophisticated process noise model to provide onboard orbit and frequency determination and time maintenance. TONS 1 will be the prime navigation system on the Earth Observing System (EOS)-AM1 spacecraft, currently scheduled for launch in 1998. Inflight evaluation of the USO and DE short-term and long-term stability indicates that the performance is excellent. Analysis of the TONS prototype flight software performance indicates that realtime onboard position accuracies of better than 25 meters root-mean-square are achievable with one tracking contact every one to two orbits for the EP/EUVE 525-kilometer altitude, 28.5 degree inclination orbit. The success of the TONS experiment demonstrates the flight readiness of TONS to support the EOS-AM1 mission.

  7. Lunar Landing Trajectory Design for Onboard Hazard Detection and Avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paschall, Steve; Brady, Tye; Sostaric, Ron

    2009-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project is developing the software and hardware technology needed to support a safe and precise landing for the next generation of lunar missions. ALHAT provides this capability through terrain-relative navigation measurements to enhance global-scale precision, an onboard hazard detection system to select safe landing locations, and an Autonomous Guidance, Navigation, and Control (AGNC) capability to process these measurements and safely direct the vehicle to a landing location. This paper focuses on the key trajectory design issues relevant to providing an onboard Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) capability for the lander. Hazard detection can be accomplished by the crew visually scanning the terrain through a window, a sensor system imaging the terrain, or some combination of both. For ALHAT, this hazard detection activity is provided by a sensor system, which either augments the crew s perception or entirely replaces the crew in the case of a robotic landing. Detecting hazards influences the trajectory design by requiring the proper perspective, range to the landing site, and sufficient time to view the terrain. Following this, the trajectory design must provide additional time to process this information and make a decision about where to safely land. During the final part of the HDA process, the trajectory design must provide sufficient margin to enable a hazard avoidance maneuver. In order to demonstrate the effects of these constraints on the landing trajectory, a tradespace of trajectory designs was created for the initial ALHAT Design Analysis Cycle (ALDAC-1) and each case evaluated with these HDA constraints active. The ALHAT analysis process, described in this paper, narrows down this tradespace and subsequently better defines the trajectory design needed to support onboard HDA. Future ALDACs will enhance this trajectory design by balancing these issues and others in an overall system

  8. Activities During Spacelab-1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This STS-9 mission (Spacelab-1) onboard photograph shows astronaut Owen Garriott drawing a blood sample from astronaut Byron Lichtenberg inside Spacelab-1 science module for one of the life sciences experiments, called 'Effects of Prolonged Weightlessness on the Humoral Immune Response of Humans.' The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of weightlessness on the body's immune response or ability to resist disease. Blood samples were obtained from crewmembers at designated times before, during, and after flight. These specimens were analyzed for changes in antibody levels. More than 70 experiments in 5 disciplines from 14 nations were conducted during the mission. The five disciplines included Astronomy and Solar Physics, Space Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Physics and Earth Observations, Life Sciences, and Materials Science. The Spacelab mission (STS-9), managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched on November 28, 1983.

  9. 47 CFR 80.1179 - On-board repeater limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false On-board repeater limitations. 80.1179 Section... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations On-Board Communications § 80.1179 On-board repeater limitations. When an on-board repeater is used, the following limitations must...

  10. Fuel-Cell Power Source Based on Onboard Rocket Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganapathi, Gani; Narayan, Sri

    2010-01-01

    The use of onboard rocket propellants (dense liquids at room temperature) in place of conventional cryogenic fuel-cell reactants (hydrogen and oxygen) eliminates the mass penalties associated with cryocooling and boil-off. The high energy content and density of the rocket propellants will also require no additional chemical processing. For a 30-day mission on the Moon that requires a continuous 100 watts of power, the reactant mass and volume would be reduced by 15 and 50 percent, respectively, even without accounting for boiloff losses. The savings increase further with increasing transit times. A high-temperature, solid oxide, electrolyte-based fuel-cell configuration, that can rapidly combine rocket propellants - both monopropellant system with hydrazine and bi-propellant systems such as monomethyl hydrazine/ unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (MMH/UDMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) to produce electrical energy - overcomes the severe drawbacks of earlier attempts in 1963-1967 of using fuel reforming and aqueous media. The electrical energy available from such a fuel cell operating at 60-percent efficiency is estimated to be 1,500 Wh/kg of reactants. The proposed use of zirconia-based oxide electrolyte at 800-1,000 C will permit continuous operation, very high power densities, and substantially increased efficiency of conversion over any of the earlier attempts. The solid oxide fuel cell is also tolerant to a wide range of environmental temperatures. Such a system is built for easy refueling for exploration missions and for the ability to turn on after several years of transit. Specific examples of future missions are in-situ landers on Europa and Titan that will face extreme radiation and temperature environments, flyby missions to Saturn, and landed missions on the Moon with 14 day/night cycles.

  11. File-Based Operations and CFDP On-Board Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera Alzu, Ignacio; Peran Mazon, Francisco; Gonzalo Palomo, Alfonso

    2014-08-01

    Since several years ago, there is an increasing interest among the space agencies, ESA in particular, in deploying File-based Operations (FbO) for Space missions. This aims at simplifying, from the Ground Segment's perspective, the access to the Space Segment and ultimately the overall operations. This is particularly important for deep Space missions, where the Ground-Space interaction can become too complex to handle just with traditional packet-based services. The use of a robust protocol for transferring files between Ground and Space is a key for the FbO approach, and the CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) is nowadays the main candidate for doing this job. Both Ground and Space Segments need to be adapted for FbO, being the Ground Segment naturally closer to this concept. This paper focusses on the Space Segment. The main implications related to FbO/CFDP, the possible on-board implementations and the foreseen operations are described. The case of Euclid, the first ESA mission to be file-based operated with CFDP, is also analysed.

  12. Onboard Interferometric SAR Processor for the Ka-Band Radar Interferometer (KaRIn)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esteban-Fernandez, Daniel; Rodriquez, Ernesto; Peral, Eva; Clark, Duane I.; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2011-01-01

    An interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) onboard processor concept and algorithm has been developed for the Ka-band radar interferometer (KaRIn) instrument on the Surface and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. This is a mission- critical subsystem that will perform interferometric SAR processing and multi-look averaging over the oceans to decrease the data rate by three orders of magnitude, and therefore enable the downlink of the radar data to the ground. The onboard processor performs demodulation, range compression, coregistration, and re-sampling, and forms nine azimuth squinted beams. For each of them, an interferogram is generated, including common-band spectral filtering to improve correlation, followed by averaging to the final 1 1-km ground resolution pixel. The onboard processor has been prototyped on a custom FPGA-based cPCI board, which will be part of the radar s digital subsystem. The level of complexity of this technology, dictated by the implementation of interferometric SAR processing at high resolution, the extremely tight level of accuracy required, and its implementation on FPGAs are unprecedented at the time of this reporting for an onboard processor for flight applications.

  13. The Gamma-Ray Burst On-board Trigger ECLAIRs of SVOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanne, Stephane

    2016-07-01

    SVOM, the Space-based multi-band astronomical Variable Objects Monitor, is a French-Chinese satellite mission for Gamma-Ray Burst studies. The conclusion of the Phase B studies is scheduled in 2016 and the launch is foreseen in 2021. With its set of 4 on-board instruments as well as dedicated ground instruments, SVOM will study GBRs in great detail, including their temporal and spectral properties from visible to gamma-rays. The coded-mask telescope ECLAIRs on-board SVOM with its Burst On-board Trigger system analyzes in real-time a 2 sr portion of the sky in the 4-120 keV energy range to detect and localize the GRBs. It then requests the spacecraft slew to allow GRB follow-up observations by the on-board narrow field-of-view telescopes MXT in X-rays and VT in the visible, and informs the community of observers via a dedicated ground network. This paper gives an update on the status of ECLAIRs and its Burst On-board Trigger system.

  14. Adaptive Techniques for Intelligent Onboard Magnetospheric/Ionospheric Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, I. A.; Huang, X.; Reinisch, B. W.; Benson, R. F.

    2006-12-01

    Rapid detection and response to sudden changes in the space plasma surrounding the Earth is instrumental to achieving the strategic goals in Sun-Earth Connection and Space Weather research conducted by NASA. It also provides important knowledge for adaptive planning of the science instrument operations that have to accommodate tremendous plasma variability along the orbit. Radio sounding has been used by multiple space missions to accurately determine plasma density, both locally and remotely. Its major science product, however, is an image of signal strength in the frequency vs. travel time frame, whose autonomous analysis onboard is a non-trivial, intelligent system task. We present a fully-autonomous technique for analysis of relaxation sounding data collected by the Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) on IMAGE satellite during 2000-2005. The technique interprets data by detecting signatures of major plasma resonances in the image and then interpreting them by seeking the best match to the theoretical model of resonance inter-dependencies. Testing of the algorithm against collected RPI data indicate partial success in evaluation of resonance frequencies. Whereas robust and accurate determination of the electron gyro-frequency from RPI data appears possible, the plasma frequency signatures can often be too weak to be detected and interpreted automatically. We discuss the conditions for correct evaluation of the plasma frequency in the RPI data, derive requirements to the radar instrument design from the analysis results, and outline potential for onboard implementation and utility in subsequent decision making process.

  15. On-board data management study for EOPAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davisson, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    The requirements, implementation techniques, and mission analysis associated with on-board data management for EOPAP were studied. SEASAT-A was used as a baseline, and the storage requirements, data rates, and information extraction requirements were investigated for each of the following proposed SEASAT sensors: a short pulse 13.9 GHz radar, a long pulse 13.9 GHz radar, a synthetic aperture radar, a multispectral passive microwave radiometer facility, and an infrared/visible very high resolution radiometer (VHRR). Rate distortion theory was applied to determine theoretical minimum data rates and compared with the rates required by practical techniques. It was concluded that practical techniques can be used which approach the theoretically optimum based upon an empirically determined source random process model. The results of the preceding investigations were used to recommend an on-board data management system for (1) data compression through information extraction, optimal noiseless coding, source coding with distortion, data buffering, and data selection under command or as a function of data activity, (2) for command handling, (3) for spacecraft operation and control, and (4) for experiment operation and monitoring.

  16. Onboard Radar Processing Development for Rapid Response Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lou, Yunling; Chien, Steve; Clark, Duane; Doubleday, Josh; Muellerschoen, Ron; Wang, Charles C.

    2011-01-01

    We are developing onboard processor (OBP) technology to streamline data acquisition on-demand and explore the potential of the L-band SAR instrument onboard the proposed DESDynI mission and UAVSAR for rapid response applications. The technology would enable the observation and use of surface change data over rapidly evolving natural hazards, both as an aid to scientific understanding and to provide timely data to agencies responsible for the management and mitigation of natural disasters. We are adapting complex science algorithms for surface water extent to detect flooding, snow/water/ice classification to assist in transportation/ shipping forecasts, and repeat-pass change detection to detect disturbances. We are near completion of the development of a custom FPGA board to meet the specific memory and processing needs of L-band SAR processor algorithms and high speed interfaces to reformat and route raw radar data to/from the FPGA processor board. We have also developed a high fidelity Matlab model of the SAR processor that is modularized and parameterized for ease to prototype various SAR processor algorithms targeted for the FPGA. We will be testing the OBP and rapid response algorithms with UAVSAR data to determine the fidelity of the products.

  17. Safe Onboard Guidance and Control Under Probabilistic Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackmore, Lars James

    2011-01-01

    An algorithm was developed that determines the fuel-optimal spacecraft guidance trajectory that takes into account uncertainty, in order to guarantee that mission safety constraints are satisfied with the required probability. The algorithm uses convex optimization to solve for the optimal trajectory. Convex optimization is amenable to onboard solution due to its excellent convergence properties. The algorithm is novel because, unlike prior approaches, it does not require time-consuming evaluation of multivariate probability densities. Instead, it uses a new mathematical bounding approach to ensure that probability constraints are satisfied, and it is shown that the resulting optimization is convex. Empirical results show that the approach is many orders of magnitude less conservative than existing set conversion techniques, for a small penalty in computation time.

  18. Efficient Spectral Endmember Detection Onboard the EO-1 Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bornstein, Ben; Thompson, David R.; Tran, Daniel; Bue, Brian; Chien, Steve; Castano, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Spaceflight and planetary exploration place severe constraints on the available bandwidth for downlinking large hyperspectral images. In addition, communications with spacecraft often occur intermittently, so mission-relevant hyperspectral data must wait for analysis on the ground before it can inform spacecraft activity planning. Onboard endmember detection can help alleviate these problems. It enables novelty detection and target identification for scheduling follow-up activities such as additional observation by narrow field of view instruments. Additionally, endmember analysis can facilitate data summary for downlink. This work describes a planned experiment of selective downlink by the EO-1 autonomous spacecraft. Here an efficient superpixel endmember detection algorithm keeps to the limited computational constraints of the flight processor. Tests suggest the procedure could enable significant improvements in downlink efficiency.

  19. DAMPE silicon tracker on-board data compression algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Fei; Qiao, Rui; Peng, Wen-Xi; Fan, Rui-Rui; Gong, Ke; Wu, Di; Wang, Huan-Yu

    2015-11-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is an upcoming scientific satellite mission for high energy gamma-ray, electron and cosmic ray detection. The silicon tracker (STK) is a subdetector of the DAMPE payload. It has excellent position resolution (readout pitch of 242 μm), and measures the incident direction of particles as well as charge. The STK consists of 12 layers of Silicon Micro-strip Detector (SMD), equivalent to a total silicon area of 6.5 m2. The total number of readout channels of the STK is 73728, which leads to a huge amount of raw data to be processed. In this paper, we focus on the on-board data compression algorithm and procedure in the STK, and show the results of initial verification by cosmic-ray measurements. Supported by Strategic Priority Research Program on Space Science of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA040402) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (1111403027)

  20. First use of SAM onboard calibration gas cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malespin, C.; Trainer, M. G.; Manning, H. L.; Franz, H. B.; Conrad, P. G.; Raaen, E.; Webster, C. R.; Flesch, G.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Wong, M. H.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument (Mahaffy et al 2012) suite on Curiosity completed its first measurement of the onboard calibration gas cell on MSL Mission Sol 1042. The cell consists of a gas mixture of four primary gases, along with trace fluorinated hydrocarbon high mass calibrants. The mix is comprised of approximately 25% CO2, N2, Xe and Ar, where the 129Xe has been given a three times enrichment relative to terrestrial xenon in order to distinguish it isotopically from Martian atmospheric Xe. Analysis of the calibration cell is intended to identify changes in instrument performance between pre-launch calibrations and operations on Mars, for any of the three main subsystems in SAM: the Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS), Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS), and Gas Chromatograph (GC). Here we present the experimental approach, results, and implications for instrument performance after almost three years of measurements on Mars.

  1. Simplified interplanetary guidance procedures using onboard optical measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamer, H. A.; Johnson, K. G.

    1972-01-01

    Simplified guidance procedures have been developed which are based on preflight determination of the characteristics of perturbed trajectories. The results are devoted primarily to planetary approach guidance; however, some considerations for midcourse guidance are included. The methods are studied for an Earth-to-Mars trajectory but would be applicable to Grand Tour and other types of missions. Generally requiring only a single onboard optical angular measurement, the approach procedure predicts guidance corrections for the control of periapsis radius as well as orbital plane orientation. An error analysis has shown that the periapsis radius at Mars can be controlled to a 1 sigma accuracy of about 20 km if the guidance is performed 1/2 day before periapsis passage. If the guidance is performed at the Martian sphere of influence (2.2 days before periapsis), the error doubles because of the increased effect of measurement and maneuvering errors.

  2. EXCEED: an extreme ultraviolet spectrometer onboard SPRINT-A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Go; Yoshioka, Kazuo; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Uemizu, Kazunori; Ishii, Hiroaki; Uji, Kentaro; Yoshikawa, Ichiro; Kagitani, Masato; Tsuchiya, Fuminori

    2012-09-01

    The extreme ultraviolet (EUV) telescope EXCEED (Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscope for Exospheric Dynamics) onboard the Japan's small satellite SPRINT-A will be launched in August 2013. The EXCEED instrument will observe tenuous gases and plasmas around the planets in the solar system (e.g., Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn). The EXCEED instrument is designed to have a spectral range of 60-145 nm with a spectral resolution of 0.4-1.0 nm. The instrument has a field of view of 400” x 140” (maximum), and the attitude fluctuations are stabilized within +/-5". The optics of the instrument consists of an entrance mirror with a diameter of 200 mm, three types of slits, two types of filters, a laminar type grating, and a 5-stage microchannel plate assembly with a resistive anode encoder. In this paper, we report the general mission overview, the instrumentations, and the results of ground calibrations.

  3. Human and Robotic Space Mission Use Cases for High-Performance Spaceflight Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Richard; Bergman, Larry; Some, Raphael; Whitaker, William; Powell, Wesley; Johnson, Michael; Goforth, Montgomery; Lowry, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Spaceflight computing is a key resource in NASA space missions and a core determining factor of spacecraft capability, with ripple effects throughout the spacecraft, end-to-end system, and the mission; it can be aptly viewed as a "technology multiplier" in that advances in onboard computing provide dramatic improvements in flight functions and capabilities across the NASA mission classes, and will enable new flight capabilities and mission scenarios, increasing science and exploration return per mission-dollar.

  4. A ground-based memory state tracker for satellite on-board computer memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quan, Alan; Angelino, Robert; Hill, Michael; Schwuttke, Ursula; Hervias, Felipe

    1993-01-01

    The TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite, currently in Earth orbit, will use radar altimetry to measure sea surface height over 90 percent of the world's ice-free oceans. In combination with a precise determination of the spacecraft orbit, the altimetry data will provide maps of ocean topography, which will be used to calculate the speed and direction of ocean currents worldwide. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has primary responsibility for mission operations for TOPEX/POSEIDON. Software applications have been developed to automate mission operations tasks. This paper describes one of these applications, the Memory State Tracker, which allows the ground analyst to examine and track the contents of satellite on-board computer memory quickly and efficiently, in a human-readable format, without having to receive the data directly from the spacecraft. This process is accomplished by maintaining a groundbased mirror-image of spacecraft On-board Computer memory.

  5. An analysis of the Kalman filter in the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) onboard attitude determination subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, Frank; Harman, Richard; Garrick, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) spacecraft needs a highly accurate attitude knowledge to achieve its mission objectives. Utilizing the fixed-head star trackers (FHSTs) for observations and gyroscopes for attitude propagation, the discrete Kalman Filter processes the attitude data to obtain an onboard accuracy of 86 arc seconds (3 sigma). A combination of linear analysis and simulations using the GRO Software Simulator (GROSS) are employed to investigate the Kalman filter for stability and the effects of corrupted observations (misalignment, noise), incomplete dynamic modeling, and nonlinear errors on Kalman filter. In the simulations, on-board attitude is compared with true attitude, the sensitivity of attitude error to model errors is graphed, and a statistical analysis is performed on the residuals of the Kalman Filter. In this paper, the modeling and sensor errors that degrade the Kalman filter solution beyond mission requirements are studied, and methods are offered to identify the source of these errors.

  6. S/W concept for an autonomous rendezvous and docking mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, J.

    The onboard software required for a typical rendezvous and docking mission profile is discussed. The mission profiles for the MATRA and MBB/ERNO satellites are given along with corresponding satellite configurations. The navigational algorithms used in the individual mission phases are briefly explained, and the corresponding structure of the application software and the related service software are addressed.

  7. Guidance and Navigation Requirements for Unmanned Flyby and Swingby Missions to the Outer Planets. Volume 3; Low Thrust Missions, Phase B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The guidance and navigation requirements for unmanned missions to the outer planets, assuming constant, low thrust, ion propulsion are discussed. The navigational capability of the ground based Deep Space Network is compared to the improvements in navigational capability brought about by the addition of guidance and navigation related onboard sensors. Relevant onboard sensors include: (1) the optical onboard navigation sensor, (2) the attitude reference sensors, and (3) highly sensitive accelerometers. The totally ground based, and the combination ground based and onboard sensor systems are compared by means of the estimated errors in target planet ephemeris, and the spacecraft position with respect to the planet.

  8. New On-board Microprocessors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, R.

    (for SW development on PC etc.), or to consider using it as a PCI master controller in an on-board system. Advanced SEU fault tolerance is in- troduced by design, using triple modular redundancy (TMR) flip-flops for all registers and EDAC protection for all memories. The device will be manufactured in a radia- tion hard Atmel 0.25 um technology, targeting 100 MHz processor clock frequency. The non fault-tolerant LEON processor VHDL model is available as free source code, and the SPARC architecture is a well-known industry standard. Therefore, know-how, software tools and operating systems are widely available.

  9. Cassini Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Robert

    2005-08-10

    The Cassini/Huygens mission is a joint NASA/European Space Agency/Italian Space Agency project which has a spacecraft currently in orbit about Saturn, and has successfully sent an atmospheric probe through the atmosphere of Saturn's largest moon Titan and down to its previously hidden surface. This presentation will describe the overall mission, how it got a rather massive spacecraft to Saturn, and will cover some of the scientific results of the mission to date.

  10. An intelligent, onboard signal processing payload concept

    SciTech Connect

    Shriver, P. M.; Harikumar, J.; Briles, S. C.; Gokhale, M.

    2003-01-01

    Our approach to onboard processing will enable a quicker return and improved quality of processed data from small, remote-sensing satellites. We describe an intelligent payload concept which processes RF lightning signal data onboard the spacecraft in a power-aware manner. Presently, onboard processing is severely curtailed due to the conventional management of limited resources and power-unaware payload designs. Delays of days to weeks are commonly experienced before raw data is received, processed into a human-usable format, and finally transmitted to the end-user. We enable this resource-critical technology of onboard processing through the concept of Algorithm Power Modulation (APM). APM is a decision process used to execute a specific software algorithm, from a suite of possible algorithms, to make the best use of the available power. The suite of software algorithms chosen for our application is intended to reduce the probability of false alarms through postprocessing. Each algorithm however also has a cost in energy usage. A heuristic decision tree procedure is used which selects an algorithm based on the available power, time allocated, algorithm priority, and algorithm performance. We demonstrate our approach to power-aware onboard processing through a preliminary software simulation.