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Sample records for oncology study group

  1. [Establishment of a uniform common data set for pediatric oncology. Applied Informatics Study Group of the GPOH (Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology)].

    PubMed

    Sauter, S; Kaatsch, P; Creutzig, U; Michaelis, J

    1994-01-01

    Large multicenter trials have made a major contribution to the improvement of treatment results in childhood malignancies. Coordination and central documentation ensure the quality of treatment and permit clinical and scientific investigations. This kind of cooperation requires a vast amount of documentation, which by itself has become a critical factor in answering important medical questions. The problems result from non-standardized documentation systems in different studies, from insufficient integration of clinical work and documentation and from a lack of application of modern computer based data management systems. The working group "Applied Informatics" of the German "Gesellschaft für Pädiatrische Onkologie und Hämatologie (GPOH)" has started a project to create an uniform basic data set for the German pediatric oncology group. Relevant initial diagnostic data, information about planned and realized treatment as well as data concerning negative event had to be standardized. A minimal common data set with a substantially reduced documentation, which is applicable for all patients and trials, would have failed to fulfil the clinical as well as the research needs. The data set presented here is a detailed information structure introduced as a basic tool for the improvement of data management in the German pediatric oncology group. This first version of the basic data set will need further development, since some of the problems still need to be resolved and the requirements for such data pools are changing. Based on this data set new computer software and clinical information systems have to be developed to enable documentation and processing of all clinical and study related data. PMID:7967429

  2. Evidence-based recommendations of postoperative radiotherapy in lung cancer from Oncologic Group for the Study of Lung Cancer (Spanish Radiation Oncology Society).

    PubMed

    Gómez, A; González, J A; Couñago, F; Vallejo, C; Casas, F; de Dios, N Rodríguez

    2016-04-01

    Locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a diversified illness in which postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) for complete resection with positive hiliar (pN1) and/or mediastinal (pN2) lymph nodes is controversial. Although several studies have shown that PORT has beneficial effects, randomized trials are needed to demonstrate its impact on overall survival. In this review, the Spanish Radiation Oncology Group for Lung Cancer describes the most relevant literature on PORT in NSCLC patients stage pN1-2. In addition, we have outlined the current recommendations of different national and international clinical guidelines and have also specified practical issues regarding treatment volume definition, doses and fractionation. PMID:26280402

  3. Histologic effects of Medroxyprogesterone Acetate on endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study

    PubMed Central

    Zaino, Richard J.; Brady, William E; Todd, William; Leslie, Kimberly; Fischer, Edgar G.; Horowitz, Neil S.; Mannel, Robert S.; Walker, Joan L.; Ivanovic, Marina; Duska, Linda R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Progestins have been used in the treatment of recurrent endometrial adenocarcinoma for almost 50 years. Some endometrial carcinomas respond to hormonal therapy, but the mechanism of action remains incompletely known. We wished to determine the efficacy of progestins to induce a histologic response in endometrioid carcinomas and explore its effects on histologic and immunohistochemical measures of growth and cell death. Methods The Gynecologic Oncology Group initiated a study of 75 women with endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma, 59 of whom received the progestin, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) for 21-24 days immediately prior to hysterectomy and had available slides. Initial biopsies and hysterectomies were H&E stained and immunostained for estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR), progesterone receptor Beta (PRB), Bcl-2, Ki-67, and cleaved caspase-3 (Casp3). A histologic response was defined subjectively, following which specific histologic measurements and semi-quantitative scores of immunohistologic variables of initial biopsies were compared to post-treatment slides. Results Only one complete histologic response was seen, but 37 tumors (63%) had a partial histologic response. Specific histologic changes included the following: a decrease in the nuclear grade, the number of mitotic figures, nucleoli, and mean gland cellularity, and acquisition of more abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, squamous metaplasia, and secretion. The tumors that displayed a subjectively defined histologic response following treatment differed initially from those that did not only with respect to initial nuclear grade and the mitotic index. Statistically significant differences in the specific histologic features in carcinomas of responders versus non-responders following treatment were found only with respect to acquisition of pale eosinophilic cytoplasm and luminal secretion. More than 90% of tumors were initially ER positive and 76% were PR positive. The

  4. RECQ1 A159C Polymorphism Is Associated With Overall Survival of Patients With Resected Pancreatic Cancer: A Replication Study in NRG Oncology Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9704

    PubMed Central

    Li, Donghui; Moughan, Jennifer; Crane, Christopher; Hoffman, John P.; Regine, William F.; Abrams, Ross A.; Safran, Howard; Liu, Chang; Chang, Ping; Freedman, Gary M.; Winter, Kathryn A.; Guha, Chandan; Abbruzzese, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To confirm whether a previously observed association between RECQ1 A159C variant and clinical outcome of resectable pancreatic cancer patients treated with preoperative chemoradiation is reproducible in another patient population prospectively treated with postoperative chemoradiation. Methods and Materials Patients were selected, according to tissue availability, from eligible patients with resected pancreatic cancer who were enrolled on the NRG Oncology Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9704 trial of 5-fluorouacil (5-FU)-based chemoradiation preceded and followed by 5-FU or gemcitabine. Deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue sections, and genotype was determined using the Taqman method. The correlation between genotype and overall survival was analyzed using a Kaplan-Meier plot, log-rank test, and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Results In the 154 of the study’s 451 eligible patients with evaluable tissue, genotype distribution followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (ie, 37% had genotype AA, 43% AC, and 20% CC). The RECQ1 variant AC/CC genotype carriers were associated with being node positive compared with the AA carrier (P = .03). The median survival times (95% confidence interval [CI]) for AA, AC, and CC carriers were 20.6 (16.3–26.1), 18.8 (14.2–21.6), and 14.2 (10.3–21.0) months, respectively. On multivariate analysis, patients with the AC/CC genotypes were associated with worse survival than patients with the AA genotype (hazard ratio [HR] 1.54, 95% CI 1.07–2.23, P =.022). This result seemed slightly stronger for patients on the 5-FU arm (n = 82) (HR 1.64, 95% CI 0.99–2.70, P =.055) than for patients on the gemcitabine arm (n = 72, HR 1.46, 95% CI 0.81–2.63, P =.21). Conclusions Results of this study suggest that the RECQ1 A159C genotype may be a prognostic or predictive factor for resectable pancreatic cancer patients who are treated with adjuvant 5-FU before and after 5-FU-based chemoradiation

  5. Patterns of Radiotherapy Practice for Pancreatic Cancer in Japan: Results of the Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG) Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Ito, Yoshinori; Karasawa, Katsuyuki; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Onishi, Hiroshi; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Shibuya, Keiko; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Okuno, Yoshishige; Nishino, Shigeo; Ogo, Etsuyo; Uchida, Nobue; Karasawa, Kumiko; Nemoto, Kenji; Nishimura, Yasumasa

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To determine the patterns of radiotherapy practice for pancreatic cancer in Japan. Methods and Materials: A questionnaire-based national survey of radiotherapy for pancreatic cancer treated between 2000 and 2006 was conducted by the Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG). Detailed information on 870 patients from 34 radiation oncology institutions was accumulated. Results: The median age of all patients was 64 years (range, 36-88), and 80.2% of the patients had good performance status. More than 85% of patients had clinical Stage T3-T4 disease, and 68.9% of patients had unresectable disease at diagnosis. Concerning radiotherapy (RT), 49.8% of patients were treated with radical external beam RT (EBRT) (median dose, 50.4 Gy), 44.4% of patients were treated with intraoperative RT (median dose, 25 Gy) with or without EBRT (median dose, 45 Gy), and 5.9% of patients were treated with postoperative radiotherapy (median dose, 50 Gy). The treatment field consisted of the primary tumor (bed) only in 55.6% of the patients. Computed tomography-based treatment planning and conformal RT was used in 93.1% and 83.1% of the patients treated with EBRT, respectively. Chemotherapy was used for 691 patients (79.4%; before RT for 66 patients; during RT for 531; and after RT for 364). Gemcitabine was the most frequently used drug, followed by 5-fluorouracil. Conclusion: This study describes the general patterns of RT practice for pancreatic cancer in Japan. Most patients had advanced unresectable disease, and radical EBRT, as well as intraoperative RT with or without EBRT, was frequently used. Chemotherapy with gemcitabine was commonly used in conjunction with RT during the survey period.

  6. RTOG Gynecologic Oncology Working Group: Comprehensive Results

    PubMed Central

    Gaffney, David K.; Jhingran, Anuja; Portelance, Lorraine; Viswanathan, Akila; Schefter, Tracey; Weidhaas, Joanne; Small, William

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to comprehensively describe the activities of the Gynecologic Oncology Working Group within the RTOG. Clinical trials will be reviewed as well as translational science and ancillary activities. Over the past 40 years, a myriad of clinical trials have been performed within the RTOG with the aim of improving overall survival and decreasing morbidity in women with cervical or endometrial cancer. Major study questions have included hyperbaric oxygen, neutron radiotherapy, altered fractionation, hypoxic cell sensitization, chemosensitization, and volume directed radiotherapy. RTOG 7920 demonstrated improvement in overall survival in patients with stages IB through IIB cervical carcinoma receiving prophylactic paraaortic irradiation compared to pelvic radiation alone. RTOG 9001 demonstrated that cisplatin and 5-FU chemoradiotherapy to the pelvis for advanced cervix cancer markedly improved overall survival compared to extended field radiotherapy alone. More recent trials have employed radioprotectors, molecular targeted therapy, and intensity modulated radiation therapy. Ancillary studies have developed CTV atlases for research protocols and routine clinical use. Worldwide practice patterns have been investigated in cervix, endometrial, and vulvar cancer thru the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG). Translational studies have focused on immunohistochemical markers, changes in gene expression, and miRNA patterns impacting prognosis. The RTOG gynecologic working group has performed clinical trials that have defined the standard of care, improved survival, and added to our understanding of the biology of cervical and endometrial cancers. PMID:24819663

  7. Prevalence of K-Ras mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma: A Turkish Oncology Group pilot study

    PubMed Central

    TURHAL, NAZIM SERDAR; SAVAŞ, BERNA; ÇOŞKUN, ÖZNUR; BAŞ, EMINE; KARABULUT, BÜLENT; NART, DENIZ; KORKMAZ, TANER; YAVUZER, DILEK; DEMIR, GÖKHAN; DOĞUSOY, GÜLEN; ARTAÇ, MEHMET

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common male-predominant type of cancer worldwide. There is no effective treatment regimen available for advanced-stage disease and chemotherapy is generally ineffective in these patients. The number of studies on the prevalence of K-Ras mutations in HCC patients is currently limited. A total of 58 patients from 6 comprehensive cancer centers in 4 metropolitan cities of Turkey were enrolled in this study. Each center committed to enroll approximately 10 random patients whose formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissues were available for K-Ras, exon 2 genotyping. Two methods were applied based on the availability of adequate amounts of tumor DNA. In the first method, the samples were processed using TheraScreen. The genomic DNA was further used to detect the 7 most frequent somatic mutations (35G>A; 35G>C; 35G>T; 34G>A; 34G>C; 34G>T and 38G>A) in codons 12 and 13 in exon 2 of the K-Ras oncogene by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the second method, the genomic DNA was amplified by PCR using primers specific for K-Ras exon 2 with the GML SeqFinder Sequencing System's KRAS kit. The identified DNA sequence alterations were confirmed by sequencing both DNA strands in two independent experiments with forward and reverse primers. A total of 40 samples had adequate tumor tissue for the mutation analysis. A total of 33 (82.5%) of the investigated samples harbored no mutations in exon 2. All the mutations were identified via a direct sequencing technique, whereas none were identified by TheraScreen. In conclusion, in our patients, HCC exhibited a remarkably low (<20%) K-Ras mutation rate. Patients harboring K-Ras wild-type tumors may be good candidates for treatment with epidermal growth factor inhibitors, such as cetuximab. PMID:26807232

  8. Family history of cancer and risk of pediatric and adolescent Hodgkin lymphoma: A Children's Oncology Group study.

    PubMed

    Linabery, Amy M; Erhardt, Erik B; Richardson, Michaela R; Ambinder, Richard F; Friedman, Debra L; Glaser, Sally L; Monnereau, Alain; Spector, Logan G; Ross, Julie A; Grufferman, Seymour

    2015-11-01

    Family history of lymphoid neoplasm (LN) is a strong and consistently observed Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) risk factor, although it has been only marginally examined in pediatric/adolescent patients. Here, healthy control children identified by random digit dialing were matched on sex, race/ethnicity and age to HL cases diagnosed at 0-14 years at Children's Oncology Group institutions in 1989-2003. Detailed histories were captured by structured telephone interviews with parents of 517 cases and 783 controls. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) RNA detection was performed for 355 available case tumors. Two analytic strategies were applied to estimate associations between family cancer history and pediatric/adolescent HL. In a standard case-control approach, multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In a reconstructed cohort approach, each relative was included as a separate observation, and multivariate proportional hazards regression was used to produce hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Using the latter, pediatric/adolescent HL was associated with a positive family history (HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.06-1.36), particularly early-onset cancers (HR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.06-1.59) and those in the paternal lineage (HR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.16-1.65), with a suggested association for LN in first-degree relatives (HR = 3.61, 95% CI: 0.87-15.01). There were no discernable patterns for EBV+ versus EBV- HL. The clustering of LN within pedigrees may signal shared genetic susceptibility or common environmental exposures. Heritable genetic risk variants have only recently begun to be discovered, however. These results are consistent with other studies and provide a compelling rationale for family-based studies to garner information about genetic susceptibility to HL. PMID:25940226

  9. Long Term Results of the Children’s Cancer Group Studies for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia 1983–2002: a Children’s Oncology Group Report

    PubMed Central

    Gaynon, Paul S.; Angiolillo, Anne L.; Carroll, William L.; Nachman, James B.; Trigg, Michael E.; Sather, Harland N.; Hunger, Stephen P.; Devidas, Meenakshi

    2010-01-01

    The Children’s Cancer Group enrolled 13,298 young people age < 21 years on one of 16 protocols between 1983 and 2002. Outcomes were examined in three time periods, 1983–1988, 1989–1995, 1996–2002. Over the three intervals, 10-year event-free survival (EFS) for Rome/NCI standard risk and higher risk B-precursor patients was 68% and 58%, 77% and 63%, and 78% and 67%, respectively; while for standard risk and higher risk T-cell patients, EFS was 65% and 56%, 78% and 68%, and 70% and 72%, respectively. Five-year EFS for infants was 36%, 38%, and 43%, respectively. Seminal randomized studies led to a number of important findings. Stronger post induction intensification improved outcome for both standard and higher risk patients. With improved systemic therapy, additional IT methotrexate effectively replaced cranial radiation. For standard risk patients receiving three-drug induction, iso-toxic substitution of dexamethasone for prednisone improved EFS. Pegylated asparaginase safely and effectively replaced native asparaginase. Thus, rational therapy modifications yielded better outcomes for both standard and higher risk patients. These trials provide the platforms for current Children’s Oncology Group trials. PMID:20016531

  10. A pilot study of tandem high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue as consolidation for high-risk neuroblastoma: Children's Oncology Group study ANBL00P1.

    PubMed

    Seif, A E; Naranjo, A; Baker, D L; Bunin, N J; Kletzel, M; Kretschmar, C S; Maris, J M; McGrady, P W; von Allmen, D; Cohn, S L; London, W B; Park, J R; Diller, L R; Grupp, S A

    2013-07-01

    Increasing treatment intensity has improved outcomes for children with neuroblastoma. We performed a pilot study in the Children's Oncology Group to assess the feasibility and toxicity of a tandem myeloablative regimen without TBI supported by autologous CD34-selected peripheral blood stem cells. Forty-one patients with high-risk neuroblastoma were enrolled; eight patients did not receive any myeloablative consolidation procedure and seven received only one. Two patients out of 41 (4.9%) experienced transplant-related mortality. CD34 selection was discontinued after subjects were enrolled due to serious viral illness. From the time of study enrollment, the overall 3-year EFS and OS were 44.8 ± 9.6% and 59.2 ± 9.2% (N=41). These results demonstrate that tandem transplantation in the cooperative group setting is feasible and support a randomized comparison of single vs tandem myeloablative consolidation with PBSC support for high-risk neuroblastoma. PMID:23334272

  11. The National Oncology Working Group (NOW) initiative: payer and provider collaborations in oncology benefits management.

    PubMed

    Soper, Aileen M; Reeder, C E; Brown, Loreen M; Stojanovska, Ana; Lennert, Barbara J

    2010-04-01

    Payers recognize the need to expand benefits management for oncology but struggle to find effective solutions amid the complexity of available therapies and skepticism from oncologists, who are facing their own set of economic pressures. An effort called the National Oncology Working Group (NOW) Initiative is trying to change the sometimes adversarial relationship between payers and oncologists through a collaborative model. The group, which is supported by pharmaceutical manufacturer sanofi-aventis, is developing patient-centered strategies for successful and sustainable oncology benefits management. The focus includes finding consensus between payers and providers and devising solutions for oncology management such as decreasing variability of cancer care and improving end-of-life care for patients with terminal illness. NOW is designing tools that will be tested in small-scale regional demonstration projects, which NOW participants anticipate will set an example for successful oncology benefits management that can be replicated and expanded. PMID:20370311

  12. Cell proliferation activity in posterior uveal melanoma after Ru-106 brachytherapy: an EORTC ocular oncology group study

    PubMed Central

    Pe'er, J.; Stefani, F.; Seregard, S.; Kivela, T.; Lommatzsch, P.; Prause, J.; Sobottka, B.; Damato, B.; Chowers, I.

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To evaluate the cell proliferation activity in posterior uveal melanomas after Ru-106 brachytherapy.
METHODS—Eyes containing choroidal or ciliary body melanoma from seven ocular oncology centres, which were enucleated after first being treated by Ru-106 brachytherapy and which had enough melanoma tissue to enable histological assessment, were included. The 57 eligible specimens were divided into a group of 44 eyes that were enucleated because of tumour regrowth, and a non-recurrent group of 13 eyes that were enucleated because of complications such as neovascular glaucoma. 46 non-irradiated eyes harbouring uveal melanoma served as a control group. All specimens underwent routine processing. They were cut into 5 µm sections, and were stained with two main cell proliferation markers: PC-10 for PCNA and MIB-1 for Ki-67. The stained sections were assessed, and the cells that were positive in the immunostaining were counted in each section. The results were evaluated by various statistical methods.
RESULTS—The PC-10 score showed a statistically significant difference across the three groups (p = 0.002). The control group showed the highest PC-10 score (median 31.0 PCC/HPF) followed by the tumour regrowth group (median 4.9 PCC/HPF). The lowest PC-10 scores were found in the non-recurrent tumours (median 0.05 PCC/HPF). The MIB-1 score in the control group (median 5.77 PCC/HPF) was similar to the regrowth group (median 5.4 PCC/HPF). In contrast, the MIB-1 score in the non-recurrent tumours was statistically significantly lower (median 0.42 PCC/HPF). The PC-10 and MIB-1 scores were similar in tumours composed of either spindle cells or epithelioid cells in all groups.
CONCLUSIONS—The non-recurrent melanomas demonstrate significantly lower cellular proliferation activity than melanomas that showed regrowth or that were not irradiated at all. In our hands, PCNA gave more meaningful information than Ki-67. Our findings strongly support the need

  13. Patient Reported Outcomes in a Practice Changing Randomized Trial of Bevacizumab in the Treatment of Advanced Cervical Cancer: An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Penson, Richard T.; Huang, Helen Q.; Wenzel, Lari B.; Monk, Bradley J.; Stockman, Sharon; Long, Harry J.; Ramondetta, Lois M.; Landrum, Lisa M.; Oaknin, Ana; Reid, Thomas J.A.; Leitao, Mario M.; Method, Michael; Michael, Helen; Tewari, Krishnansu S.

    2015-01-01

    Background To analyze patient reported outcomes (PROs) in GOG 240, the practice-changing, randomized phase 3 trial that concluded that chemotherapy (cisplatin-paclitaxel or topotecan-paclitaxel) plus bevacizumab significantly improves overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and response rates compared to chemotherapy alone in advanced cervical cancer. Trial registration number: NCT00803062. Methods Patients were assessed pre-cycle 1, 2, and 5 and at 6 and 9 months post-cycle 1 with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Cervix Trial Outcome Index (FACT-Cx TOI), and items from the FACT/GOG-Neurotoxicity (Ntx) subscale, and a worst pain item from the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI). Differences in FACT-Cx TOI scores were assessed using a linear mixed model adjusting for baseline score and age. A mixed effects mixed distributions model was fitted to evaluate treatment differences of likelihood to report neurotoxicity and pain, and severity of these symptoms, once reported. The association between baseline health-related quality of life and survival was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models. Findings Among 390 evaluable patients, PRO completion rates declined from 96% (baseline) to 63% (9 months post-cycle 1). Completion rates were not statistically different among treatment regimens (p=0.67). Patients receiving chemotherapy plus bevacizumab reported 1.2 points lower on average (98.75% CI: −4.1, 1.7; p=0.30) in the FACT-Cx TOI scores than those with chemotherapy alone. Patients treated with chemotherapy plus bevacizumab were less likely to report neurotoxicty (overall odds ratio: 0.58; 98.75% CI: 0.17, 0.98; p=0.01). Severity of neurotoxic symptoms did not differ between the two groups (p=0.69). Both groups had similar odds of complaining of pain (odds ratio=0.96; 95% CI: 0.39, 1.52; p=0.78) and reported similar severity of pain (p=0.1). For the entire population, the baseline FACT-Cx TOI score was significantly associated with OS (HR 0

  14. Reasons for Participation in Optional Pharmacokinetic Studies in Children with Cancer: A Children’s Oncology Group Phase 1 Consortium Study

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Stacey L.; Winick, Naomi; Ingle, Ashish Mark; Adamson, Peter C.; Blaney, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies provide critical information about the disposition of anticancer drugs in children. In the Children’s Oncology Group (COG) Phase 1 Consortium, pharmacokinetic studies are usually optional. We surveyed the attitudes towards PK studies among subjects in phase 1 trials at COG institutions. Methods Subjects were eligible if they participated in a phase 1 anticancer drug study with optional PK studies within the 4 weeks, regardless of whether they agreed to participate in the PK studies. Staff provided demographics; subjects/parents completed a questionnaire. Results Fifty eligible subjects enrolled. Thirty-six (72%) of the 50 eligible subjects consented to participate in PK studies; 14 (25%) declined. The most common reasons for participating were “the results might help researchers learn more about the drug” and “results from the pharmacokinetic studies might help other children.” The most common reasons for not participating were “having the samples drawn would mean spending extra time in the hospital,” and “my child might have needed a separate IV catheter in order to participate.” Conclusions The majority of subjects identified altruistic motives for participation in PK studies. Subjects who did not participate in PK studies identified extra time and need for an extra IV as important concerns. Simple interventions like sending staff to the subjects’ home to draw PK samples or drawing samples from existing catheters could increase the number of subjects who are willing to participate in PK studies. PMID:20486176

  15. Insufficiency Fractures After Pelvic Radiation Therapy for Uterine Cervical Cancer: An Analysis of Subjects in a Prospective Multi-institutional Trial, and Cooperative Study of the Japan Radiation Oncology Group (JAROG) and Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG)

    SciTech Connect

    Tokumaru, Sunao; Toita, Takafumi; Oguchi, Masahiko; Ohno, Tatsuya; Kato, Shingo; Niibe, Yuzuru; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Kodaira, Takeshi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Shikama, Naoto; Kenjo, Masahiro; Yamauchi, Chikako; Suzuki, Osamu; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Teshima, Teruki; Kagami, Yoshikazu; Nakano, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; and others

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate pelvic insufficiency fractures (IF) after definitive pelvic radiation therapy for early-stage uterine cervical cancer, by analyzing subjects of a prospective, multi-institutional study. Materials and Methods: Between September 2004 and July 2007, 59 eligible patients were analyzed. The median age was 73 years (range, 37-84 years). The International Federation of Gynecologic Oncology and Obstetrics stages were Ib1 in 35, IIa in 12, and IIb in 12 patients. Patients were treated with the constant method, which consisted of whole-pelvic external-beam radiation therapy of 50 Gy/25 fractions and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy of 24 Gy/4 fractions without chemotherapy. After radiation therapy the patients were evaluated by both pelvic CT and pelvic MRI at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Diagnosis of IF was made when the patients had both CT and MRI findings, neither recurrent tumor lesions nor traumatic histories. The CT findings of IF were defined as fracture lines or sclerotic linear changes in the bones, and MRI findings of IF were defined as signal intensity changes in the bones, both on T1- and T2-weighted images. Results: The median follow-up was 24 months. The 2-year pelvic IF cumulative occurrence rate was 36.9% (21 patients). Using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0, grade 1, 2, and 3 IF were seen in 12 (21%), 6 (10%), and 3 patients (5%), respectively. Sixteen patients had multiple fractures, so IF were identified at 44 sites. The pelvic IF were frequently seen at the sacroileal joints (32 sites, 72%). Nine patients complained of pain. All patients' pains were palliated by rest or non-narcotic analgesic drugs. Higher age (>70 years) and low body weight (<50 kg) were thought to be risk factors for pelvic IF (P=.007 and P=.013, Cox hazard test). Conclusions: Cervical cancer patients with higher age and low body weight may be at some risk for the development of pelvic IF after pelvic radiation therapy.

  16. Combined Microsatellite Instability, MLH1 Methylation Analysis, and Immunohistochemistry for Lynch Syndrome Screening in Endometrial Cancers From GOG210: An NRG Oncology and Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Goodfellow, Paul J.; Billingsley, Caroline C.; Lankes, Heather A.; Ali, Shamshad; Cohn, David E.; Broaddus, Russell J.; Ramirez, Nilsa; Pritchard, Colin C.; Hampel, Heather; Chassen, Alexis S.; Simmons, Luke V.; Schmidt, Amy P.; Gao, Feng; Brinton, Louise A.; Backes, Floor; Landrum, Lisa M.; Geller, Melissa A.; DiSilvestro, Paul A.; Pearl, Michael L.; Lele, Shashikant B.; Powell, Matthew A.; Zaino, Richard J.; Mutch, David

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The best screening practice for Lynch syndrome (LS) in endometrial cancer (EC) remains unknown. We sought to determine whether tumor microsatellite instability (MSI) typing along with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and MLH1 methylation analysis can help identify women with LS. Patients and Methods ECs from GOG210 patients were assessed for MSI, MLH1 methylation, and mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression. Each tumor was classified as having normal MMR, defective MMR associated with MLH1 methylation, or probable MMR mutation (ie, defective MMR but no methylation). Cancer family history and demographic and clinical features were compared for the three groups. Lynch mutation testing was performed for a subset of women. Results Analysis of 1,002 ECs suggested possible MMR mutation in 11.8% of tumors. The number of patients with a family history suggestive of LS was highest among women whose tumors were classified as probable MMR mutation (P = .001). Lynch mutations were identified in 41% of patient cases classified as probable mutation (21 of 51 tested). One of the MSH6 Lynch mutations was identified in a patient whose tumor had intact MSH6 expression. Age at diagnosis was younger for mutation carriers than noncarriers (54.3 v 62.3 years; P < .01), with five carriers diagnosed at age > 60 years. Conclusion Combined MSI, methylation, and IHC analysis may prove useful in Lynch screening in EC. Twenty-four percent of mutation carriers presented with ECs at age > 60 years, and one carrier had an MSI-positive tumor with no IHC defect. Restricting Lynch testing to women diagnosed at age < 60 years or to women with IHC defects could result in missing a substantial fraction of genetic disease. PMID:26552419

  17. The prognostic value of histological grading of posterior fossa ependymomas in children: a Children's Oncology Group study and a review of prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Tihan, Tarik; Zhou, Tianni; Holmes, Emi; Burger, Peter C; Ozuysal, Sema; Rushing, Elisabeth J

    2008-02-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of 96 pediatric posterior fossa ependymomas in order to determine the prognostic value of histological grade based on the current WHO grading scheme. The patients were selected among Children's Oncology Group (previously Pediatric Oncology Group-POG) patients enrolled in clinical trials, and on the basis of central pathology review, location, and age. We excluded entities such as sub-ependymoma, myxopapillary, or clear-cell ependymoma, after a consensus diagnosis by three neuropathologists. A total of 66 males and 30 females with a median age of 48 months were identified. The group was analyzed to determine the effects of histological grade, age, gender, and extent of resection on event-free and overall survival. Our results showed that extent of resection, age, and histological grade were independent prognostic variables for event-free survival. The relative risk for extent of resection and histological grade was calculated as 3.59 (P<0.001) and 3.58 (P<0.001), respectively. Overall survival significantly correlated with extent of resection and age, but not with histological grade. We compared our results with peer-reviewed publications on pediatric intracranial ependymomas in the English language between 1990 and 2005. Selection criteria identified 32 manuscripts involving 1444 patients. Extent of resection was a significant factor in 21, age in 12, and histological grading in nine of these studies. Other factors reported to be significant by more than one study included tumor location and radiation treatment. Our findings suggest that histological grade (WHO Grade II vs III) is an independent prognostic indicator for event-free survival, but may not be so for overall survival in pediatric posterior fossa ependymomas. We believe that an accurate assessment of the prognostic value of histological grade depends on the selection of a well-characterized clinical cohort of sufficient size, and the inclusion of relevant

  18. A Pilot Study of Intensified PEG-Asparaginase in High-risk Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Children's Oncology Group Study AALL08P1.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Vilmarie; Kairalla, John; Salzer, Wanda L; Raetz, Elizabeth A; Loh, Mignon Lc; Carroll, Andrew J; Heerema, Nyla A; Wood, Brent L; Borowitz, Michael J; Burke, Michael J; Asselin, Barbara L; Devidas, Meenakshi; Winick, Naomi J; Carroll, William L; Hunger, Stephen P; Dreyer, ZoAnn E

    2016-08-01

    AALL08P1 was designed to determine whether biweekly intensified pegaspargase (I-PEG) was feasible and safe in pediatric patients with newly diagnosed high-risk B-precursor lymphoblastic leukemia when given with Children's Oncology Group hemiaugmented BFM therapy. High-risk average (HR-Avg) patients received standard pegaspargase dosing (6 doses), whereas high-risk high (HR-High) patients received I-PEG biweekly from the start of Consolidation until day 1 of Maintenance. Feasibility and safety were defined in advance as ≥65% of patients tolerating at least 8 doses of I-PEG and 90% requiring ≤49 weeks from day 1 of Consolidation to the initiation of Maintenance. Targeted toxicities included allergic reactions, anaphylaxis, pancreatitis, thrombosis, bleeding, central nervous system events, and sepsis. AALL08P1 enrolled 104 patients; 54 were classified as HR-Avg and 30 as HR-High after completion of induction therapy. Only 53% (16/30) of the HR-High patients received ≥8 total doses of I-PEG and 50% (15/30) took ≤49 weeks from start of Consolidation to the initiation of Maintenance. I-PEG did not significantly increase grade 2 to 5 targeted toxicities. I-PEG was not feasible or safe as defined in AALL08P1. Complete assessment of this regimen was limited due to removal of patients from I-PEG regimen and early closure of the study. PMID:27299599

  19. Phase II study of zoledronic acid combined with docetaxel for non-small-cell lung cancer: West Japan Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Haruyasu; Yamanaka, Takeharu; Seto, Takashi; Sugio, Kenji; Okamoto, Isamu; Sawa, Toshiyuki; Hirashima, Tomonori; Takeda, Koji; Atagi, Shinji; Fukuoka, Masahiro; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this open-label, multicenter, randomized phase II trial was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of zoledronic acid in combination with docetaxel in previously treated patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and bone metastases. In this study, patients randomly received docetaxel (60 mg/m2) with (group DZ) or without (group D) zoledronic acid every 21 days. There were 50 patients in each group, and the primary endpoint was progression-free survival. In an efficacy analysis of 94 patients (DZ, 48; D, 46), the median progression-free survival was 2.7 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5–3.5 months) for the DZ group and 2.6 months (95% CI, 1.5–3.4 months) for the D group (stratified log-rank test, P = 0.89). The median overall survival was 10.4 months (95% CI, 7.0–15.8 months) for the DZ group and 9.7 months (95% CI, 6.1–12.5 months) for the D group (stratified log-rank test, P = 0.62). There were no clinically relevant differences in the frequencies of grade 3 or 4 adverse events between the two groups. No treatment-related deaths occurred in the DZ group. Zoledronic acid combined with docetaxel was well tolerated but did not meet the primary endpoint of demonstrating a longer progression-free survival in advanced NSCLC patients with bone metastases compared with docetaxel alone. This trial was registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN000001098). PMID:24837137

  20. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group clinical trials with misonidazole

    SciTech Connect

    Wasserman, T.H.; Stetz, J.; Phillips, T.L.

    1981-05-15

    This paper presents a review of the progressive clinical trials of the hypoxic cell radiosensitizer, misonidazole, in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Presentation is made of all the schemas of the recently completed and currently active RTOG Phase II and Phase III studies. Detailed information is provided on the clinical toxicity of the Phase II trials, specifically regarding neurotoxicity. With limitations in drug total dose, a variety of dose schedules have proven to be tolerable, with a moderate incidence of nausea and vomiting and mild peripheral neuropathy or central neuropathy. No other organ toxicity has been seen, specifically no liver, renal or bone marrow toxicities. An additional Phase III malignant glioma trial in the Brain Tumor Study Group is described.

  1. Phase I feasibility study of intraperitoneal cisplatin and intravenous paclitaxel followed by intraperitoneal paclitaxel in untreated ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal carcinoma: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Dizon, Don S.; Sill, Michael W.; Gould, Natalie; Rubin, Stephen C.; Yamada, S. Diane; DeBernardo, Robert L.; Mannel, Robert S.; Eisenhauer, Eric L.; Duska, Linda R.; Fracasso, Paula M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Intraperitoneal chemotherapy has shown a survival advantage over intravenous chemotherapy for women with newly diagnosed optimally debulked epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal carcinoma. However, significant toxicity has limited its acceptance. In an effort to reduce toxicity, the Gynecologic Oncology Group conducted a Phase I study to evaluate the feasibility of day 1 intravenous (IV) paclitaxel and intraperitoneal (IP) cisplatin followed by day 8 IP paclitaxel on an every 21-day cycle. Methods Patients with Stage IIB-IV epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, primary peritoneal carcinomas or carcinosarcoma received paclitaxel 135 mg/m2 IV over 3 hours followed by cisplatin 75 mg/m2 IP on day 1 and paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 IP on day 8 of a 21 day cycle with 6 cycles planned. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was defined as febrile neutropenia or dose-delay of greater than 2 weeks due to failure to recover counts, or Grade 3-5 non-hematologic toxicity occurring within the first 4 cycles of treatment. Results Twenty of 23 patients enrolled were evaluable and nineteen (95%) completed all six cycles of therapy. Three patients experienced a DLT consisting of infection with normal absolute neutrophil count, grade 3 hyperglycemia, and grade 4 abdominal pain. Conclusions This modified IP regimen which administers both IV paclitaxel and IP cisplatin on day one, followed by IP paclitaxel on day eight, of a twenty-one day cycle appears feasible and is an attractive alternative to the intraperitoneal treatment regimen administered in GOG-0172. PMID:21820161

  2. Perspectives and practical applications of medical oncologists on defensive medicine (SYSIPHUS study): a study of the Palliative Care Working Committee of the Turkish Oncology Group (TOG).

    PubMed

    Tanriverdi, Ozgur; Cay-Senler, Filiz; Yavuzsen, Tugba; Turhal, Serdar; Akman, Tulay; Komurcu, Seref; Cehreli, Ruksan; Ozyilkan, Ozgur

    2015-04-01

    Defensive medicine occasionally indulges unnecessary treatment requests to defend against lawsuits for medical errors and the use of unapproved medical applications. This study determines the attitudes and orientations of medical oncologists on defensive medicine. A cross-sectional survey was sent by e-mail to medical oncologists. The survey was designed to determine the participants' demographic characteristics and defensive medicine practices. The survey measured the attitudes about defensive medicine practices of the oncologists based on a five-point Likert scale (never, rarely, sometimes, often, and always). One hundred and forty-six of a total of 402 physicians serving in oncology were fully filled, and the rate of return invitation was 36 %. The majority of participants were male, with a duration of between 7 and 9 years of work as university hospital officials, and the mean age was 46 ± 9 (years). International guidelines were followed in the most common is NCCN, and the majority of respondents felt that the application of these guidelines improves their defensive medicine. All participants of defensive medicine who stand on the basis of the definition were found to be more afraid of complaints by patients' relatives. Physicians of 45 % was noted that applying defensive medicine. Among the participants were the most frequent checkups of positive defensive approach is defined as increasing or shortening the follow-up period, while avoiding high-risk patients were detected as described in the definition of negative defensive medicine. Both professional groups in both the positive and negative defensive medicine approach defensive medicine approach, academic tasks, work experience and job time, there was a significant correlation between the location. Made in single- and multi-variable analyses, positions were identified both positive and negative defensive medicine is an independent risk factor for direction. Improving the working conditions of young

  3. Local Control With Reduced-Dose Radiotherapy for Low-Risk Rhabdomyosarcoma: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group D9602 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Breneman, John; Meza, Jane; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Raney, R. Beverly; Wolden, Suzanne; Michalski, Jeff; Laurie, Fran; Rodeberg, David A.; Meyer, William

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of reduced-dose radiotherapy on local control in children with low-risk rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) treated in the Children's Oncology Group D9602 study. Methods and Materials: Patients with low-risk RMS were nonrandomly assigned to receive radiotherapy doses dependent on the completeness of surgical resection of the primary tumor (clinical group) and the presence of involved regional lymph nodes. After resection, most patients with microscopic residual and uninvolved nodes received 36 Gy, those with involved nodes received 41.4 to 50.4 Gy, and those with orbital primary tumors received 45 Gy. All patients received vincristine and dactinomycin, with cyclophosphamide added for patient subsets with a higher risk of relapse in Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group III and IV studies. Results: Three hundred forty-two patients were eligible for analysis; 172 received radiotherapy as part of their treatment. The cumulative incidence of local/regional failure was 15% in patients with microscopic involved margins when cyclophosphamide was not part of the treatment regimen and 0% when cyclophosphamide was included. The cumulative incidence of local/regional failure was 14% in patients with orbital tumors. Protocol-specified omission of radiotherapy in girls with Group IIA vaginal tumors (n = 5) resulted in three failures for this group. Conclusions: In comparison with Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group III and IV results, reduced-dose radiotherapy does not compromise local control for patients with microscopic tumor after surgical resection or with orbital primary tumors when cyclophosphamide is added to the treatment program. Girls with unresected nonbladder genitourinary tumors require radiotherapy for postsurgical residual tumor for optimal local control to be achieved.

  4. Multicenter Analysis of Long-Term Oncologic Impact of Anastomotic Leakage After Laparoscopic Total Mesorectal Excision: The Korean Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery Study Group.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeonghyun; Choi, Gyu-Seog; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Nam Kyu; Park, Jun Seok; Kim, Min Jung; Lee, Kang Young; Baik, Seung Hyuk

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to validate the oncologic outcomes of anastomotic leakage (AL) after laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (TME) in a large multicenter cohort. The impact of AL after laparoscopic TME for rectal cancer surgery has not yet been clearly described. This was a multicenter retrospective study of 1083 patients who underwent laparoscopic TME for nonmetastatic rectal cancer (stage 0-III). AL was defined as an anastomotic complication within 30 days of surgery irrespective of requiring a reoperation or interventional radiology. Estimated local recurrence (LR), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were compared between the leakage group and the no leakage group using the log-rank method. Multivariate Cox-regression analysis was used to adjust confounding for survival. The incidence of AL was 6.4%. Mortality within 30 days of surgery occurred in 1 patient (1.4%) in the leakage group and 2 patients (0.2%) in the no leakage group. The leakage group showed a higher LR rate (6.4% vs 1.8%, P = 0.011). Five-year DFS and OS were significantly lower in the leakage group than the no leakage group (DFS 71.7% vs 82.1%, P = 0.016, OS 81.8% vs 93.5%, P = 0.007). Multivariate analysis showed that AL was an independent poor prognostic factor for DFS and OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.6; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.0-2.6; P = 0.042, HR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.2; P = 0.028, respectively). AL after laparoscopic TME was significantly associated with an increased rate of LR, systemic recurrence and poor OS. PMID:26200636

  5. Advanced Stage Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Ovary is both Rare and Highly Lethal: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Zaino, Richard J.; Brady, Mark F.; Lele, Subodh M.; Michael, Helen; Greer, Benjamin; Bookman, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Primary mucinous adenocarcinomas of the ovary are uncommon and their biologic behavior uncertain. Retrospective studies suggest that many mucinous carcinomas diagnosed as primary to the ovary were actually metastatic from another site. A prospective randomized trial provided an opportunity to estimate the frequency of mucinous tumors, diagnostic reproducibility, and clinical outcomes. Methods A phase III trial enrolled 4000 women with stage III or IV ovarian carcinoma, treated by surgical staging and debulking, with randomization to one of five chemotherapeutic arms. Slides and pathology reports classified as primary mucinous carcinoma were reviewed independently by three pathologists. Cases were re-classified as primary or metastatic to the ovary according to two methods. Overall survival (OS) of reclassified groups was compared with each other and with that of patients with serous carcinomas. Results Forty-four cases were classified as mucinous adenocarcinoma at review. Using either method, only about one third were interpreted by the three reviewers as primary mucinous carcinomas. Reproducibility of interpretations among the reviewers was high with unanimity of opinion in 30 of the 44 (68%) cases. The median survival (MS) did not differ significantly between the groups interpreted as primary or metastatic, but the OS was significantly less than that for women with serous carcinoma (14 vs 42 months, p<0.001). Conclusion Advanced stage mucinous carcinoma of the ovary is very rare and is associated with poor OS. Many mucinous adenocarcinomas that are diagnosed as primary ovarian neoplasms appear to be metastatic to the ovary. PMID:20862744

  6. Large-field, external beam irradiation as a surgical adjuvant for node-positive colon carcinoma: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Pilot Study (PA285).

    PubMed

    Merrick, H W; Turner, S S; Dobelbower, R R; Bennett, J M; Haller, D

    2000-08-01

    The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) PA-285 study was designed as a pilot study to evaluate the effect of large-field, external beam abdominal irradiation as an adjuvant treatment for resectable stage C1 to C2 colon cancer. Eligible patients received 45 Gy directed to the tumor bed and periaortic lymph nodes, as well as 30 Gy to the liver. Patients were followed up for time to recurrence and for survival. Fourteen patients were enrolled. One elected not to have radiation after surgery; one died of acute hepatic radiation toxicity after a major deviation from protocol. Of the 12 remaining patients, seven survived longer than 10 years for a survival rate of 58%. Other than the fatal hepatic toxicity, side effects from radiation were moderate and of short duration. One patient failed to complete therapy because of ascites, had two episodes of partial bowel obstruction (successfully treated conservatively), and subsequently survived more than 10 years. Two of three patients with stage C1 tumors, four of eight with C2 tumors, and one with a C3 tumor were long-term survivors. This study demonstrates the feasibility and acceptable toxicity of this adjuvant regimen. The numbers are too limited to evaluate survival, but all seven survivors have lived more than 10 years. PMID:10955858

  7. The role of prophylactic cranial irradiation in regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A Southwest Oncology Group Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rusch, V.W.; Griffin, B.R.; Livingston, R.B. )

    1989-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most common malignant disease in the United States. Only the few tumors detected very early are curable, but there has been some progress in the management of more advanced non-small cell lung cancer, particularly in regionally inoperable disease. Prevention of central nervous system relapse is an important issue in this group of patients because brain metastases ultimately develop in 20% to 25% of them. Seventy-three patients with regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer were entered into a Phase II trial of neutron chest radiotherapy sandwiched between four cycles of chemotherapy including cisplatin, vinblastine, and mitomycin C. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was administered concurrently with chest radiotherapy (3000 cGy in 10 fractions in 15 patients; 3600 cGy in 18 fractions in the remaining 50 patients). Patients underwent computed tomographic scan of the brain before treatment and every 3 months after treatment. The initial overall response rate was 79%, but 65 of the 73 patients have subsequently died of recurrent disease. Median follow-up is 9 months for all 73 patients and 26 months for eight long-term survivors. No patient who completed the prophylactic cranial irradiation program had clinical or radiologic brain metastases. Toxic reactions to prophylactic cranial irradiation included reversible alopecia in all patients, progressive dementia in one patient, and possible optic neuritis in one patient. Both of these patients received 300 cGy per fraction of irradiation. The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation has been controversial, but its safety and efficacy in this trial supports its application in a group of patients at high risk for central nervous system relapse. Further evaluation of prophylactic cranial irradiation in clinical trials for regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer is warranted.

  8. Equivalence of intrathecal chemotherapy and radiotherapy as central nervous system prophylaxis in children with acute lymphatic leukemia: a pediatric oncology group study

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.P.; Chen, T.; Dyment, P.G.; Hvizdala, E.; Steuber, C.P.

    1982-10-01

    The efficacy of intrathecal (i.t.) chemoprophylaxis was compared with cranial radiotherapy plus i.t. methotrexate (MTX) in a Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) study accessing 408 patients from September 10, 1974, to October 29, 1976. Randomization was stratified by prognostic groups (PGs) based on age and white blood cell count at diagnosis. All received induction therapy with vincristine and prednisone (Pred); maintenance therapy consisted of daily 6-mercaptopurine and weekly MTX. Consolidation for arm 1 employed cyclophosphamide and L-asparaginase followed by biwekly 5-day courses of parenteral MTX. The first dose of each course of MTX was given i.t. in triple chemoprophylaxis (MTX, hydrocortisone, and cytosine arabinoside). During maintenance, i.t. chemoprophylaxis was bimonthly and 28-day Pred ''pulses'' were given every 3 mo. Arm 2 i.t. chemoprophylaxis was initiated on achievement of remission, and arm 3 i.t. on treatment day 1; both continued 1 yr. Arm 4 induction included two doses of L-asparaginase. On achievement of remission, CNS prophylaxis (radiotherapy, 2400 rad plus i.t. MTX) was given. For all, therapy was discontinued after 3 yr of continuous complete remission. Survival and the incidence of extramedullary relapse were similar for the treatment employing either i.t. chemoprophylaxis or radiotherapy plus i.t. MTX upon achievement of remission. The study indicates that i.t. chemoprophylaxis may be substituted for cranial radiotherapy when utilizing effective systemic regimens. Additionally, chemoprophylaxis may be reduced from 3 to 1 yr in patients with good prognostic factors. (JMT)

  9. A Phase I Trial Of MK-2206 In Children with Refractory Malignancies: A Children's Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Fouladi, Maryam; Perentesis, John P.; Phillips, Christine L.; Leary, Sarah; Reid, Joel M.; McGovern, Renee M.; Ingle, Ashish M.; Ahern, Charlotte H.; Ames, Matthew M.; Houghton, Peter; Doyle, L. Austin; Weigel, Brenda; Blaney, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background We report results of a phase I trial designed to estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), describe dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), and characterize the pharmacokinetic profile of MK-2206, an AKT inhibitor, in children with refractory or recurrent malignancies. Procedure MK-2206 was administered either every other day (schedule 1), or once a week (Schedule 2) in a 28-day cycle. Dose escalations in increments of ∼30% were independently made in each part using the rolling-six design. Serial pharmacokinetic (PK) studies were obtained. Biological studies include analysis of PI3K/PTEN/AKT-cell signaling pathway in pre and post-therapy in PBMC and in tumors at diagnosis or recurrence. Results Fifty patients [26 males, median age 12.6 years (range, 3.1-21.9)] with malignant glioma (16), ependymoma (4), hepatocellular carcinoma (3), gliomatosis cereberi (2) or other tumors (22) were enrolled; 40 were fully evaluable for toxicity (schedule 1 n=23; schedule 2 n=17). Schedule 1 DLTs included: grade 3 dehydration in 1/6 patients at 28 mg/m2; grade 4 hyperglycemia and neutropenia in 1/6 patients at 45 mg/ m2; and grade 3 rash in 3/6 patients at dose level 4 (58 mg/m2). Schedule 2 DLTs included: grade 3 alkaline phosphatase in 1/6 patients at 90 mg/m2; grade 3 rash in 1/6 patients at 120 mg/ m2, and grade 3 rash in 2/6 patients at 155 mg/m2. Conclusions The recommended pediatric phase 2 dose of MK-2206 is 45 mg/m2/dose every other day or 120 mg/m2/dose weekly. Pharmacokinetics appeared linear over the dose range studied. PMID:24664955

  10. Phase 2 Study of Temozolomide-Based Chemoradiation Therapy for High-Risk Low-Grade Gliomas: Preliminary Results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0424

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Barbara J.; Hu, Chen; Macdonald, David R.; Lesser, Glenn J.; Coons, Stephen W.; Brachman, David G.; Ryu, Samuel; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Liu, Junfeng; Chakravarti, Arnab; Mehta, Minesh

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0424 was a phase 2 study of a high-risk low-grade glioma (LGG) population who were treated with temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation therapy (RT), and outcomes were compared to those of historical controls. This study was designed to detect a 43% increase in median survival time (MST) from 40.5 to 57.9 months and a 20% improvement in 3-year overall survival (OS) rate from 54% to 65% at a 10% significance level (1-sided) and 96% power. Methods and Materials: Patients with LGGs with 3 or more risk factors for recurrence (age ≥40 years, astrocytoma histology, bihemispherical tumor, preoperative tumor diameter of ≥6 cm, or a preoperative neurological function status of >1) were treated with RT (54 Gy in 30 fractions) and concurrent and adjuvant TMZ. Results: From 2005 to 2009, 129 evaluable patients (75 males and 54 females) were accrued. Median age was 49 years; 91% had a Zubrod score of 0 or 1; and 69%, 25%, and 6% of patients had 3, 4, and 5 risk factors, respectively. Patients had median and minimum follow-up examinations of 4.1 years and 3 years, respectively. The 3-year OS rate was 73.1% (95% confidence interval: 65.3%-80.8%), which was significantly improved compared to that of prespecified historical control values (P<.001). Median survival time has not yet been reached. Three-year progression-free survival was 59.2%. Grades 3 and 4 adverse events occurred in 43% and 10% of patients, respectively. One patient died of herpes encephalitis. Conclusions: The 3-year OS rate of 73.1% for RTOG 0424 high-risk LGG patients is higher than that reported for historical controls (P<.001) and the study-hypothesized rate of 65%.

  11. Pilot Study of Nelarabine in Combination With Intensive Chemotherapy in High-Risk T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Dunsmore, Kimberly P.; Devidas, Meenakshi; Linda, Stephen B.; Borowitz, Michael J.; Winick, Naomi; Hunger, Stephen P.; Carroll, William L.; Camitta, Bruce M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Children's Oncology Group study AALL00P2 was designed to assess the feasibility and safety of adding nelarabine to a BFM 86–based chemotherapy regimen in children with newly diagnosed T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Patients and Methods In stage one of the study, eight patients with a slow early response (SER) by prednisone poor response (PPR; ≥ 1,000 peripheral blood blasts on day 8 of prednisone prephase) received chemotherapy plus six courses of nelarabine 400 mg/m2 once per day; four patients with SER by high minimal residual disease (MRD; ≥ 1% at day 36 of induction) received chemotherapy plus five courses of nelarabine; 16 patients with a rapid early response (RER) received chemotherapy without nelarabine. In stage two, all patients received six 5-day courses of nelarabine at 650 mg/m2 once per day (10 SER patients [one by MRD, nine by PPR]) or 400 mg/m2 once per day (38 RER patients; 12 SER patients [three by MRD, nine by PPR]). Results The only significant difference in toxicities was decreased neutropenic infections in patients treated with nelarabine (42% with v 81% without nelarabine). Five-year event-free survival (EFS) rates were 73% for 11 stage one SER patients and 67% for 22 stage two SER patients treated with nelarabine versus 69% for 16 stage one RER patients treated without nelarabine and 74% for 38 stage two RER patients treated with nelarabine. Five-year EFS for all patients receiving nelarabine (n = 70) was 73% versus 69% for those treated without nelarabine (n = 16). Conclusion Addition of nelarabine to a BFM 86–based chemotherapy regimen was well tolerated and produced encouraging results in pediatric patients with T-ALL, particularly those with a SER, who have historically fared poorly. PMID:22734022

  12. Infectious, autoimmune, and allergic diseases and risk of Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents: A Children’s Oncology Group (COG) study

    PubMed Central

    Linabery, Amy M.; Erhardt, Erik B.; Fonstad, Rachel K.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Bunin, Greta R.; Ross, Julie A.; Spector, Logan G.; Grufferman, Seymour

    2014-01-01

    An infectious origin for pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has long been suspected and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been implicated in a subset of cases. Increased HL incidence in children with congenital and acquired immunodeficiencies, consistent associations between autoimmune diseases and adult HL, and genome-wide association and other genetic studies together suggest immune dysregulation is involved in lymphomagenesis. Here, healthy control children identified by random digit dialing were matched on sex, race/ethnicity, and age to HL cases diagnosed in 1989-2003 at 0-14 years at Children’s Oncology Group institutions. Parents of 517 cases and 784 controls completed telephone interviews, including items regarding medical histories. Tumor EBV status was determined for 355 cases. Using conditional logistic regression, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of HL. Cases were more likely to have had an infection >1 year prior to HL diagnosis (OR=1.69, 95% CI:0.98-2.91); case siblings were also more likely to have had a prior infection (OR=2.04, 95% CI:1.01-4.14). Parental history of autoimmunity associated with increased EBV+ HL risk (OR=2.97, 95% CI:1.34-6.58), while having a parent (OR=1.47, 95% CI:1.01-2.14) or sibling (OR=1.62, 95% CI:1.11-2.36) with an allergy was associated with EBV− HL. These results may indicate true increased risk for infections and increased risk with family history of autoimmune and allergic conditions that varies by tumor EBV status, or they may be attributable to inaccurate recall. In addition to employing biomarkers to confirm the role of immune-modulating conditions in pediatric HL, future studies should focus on family-based designs. PMID:24523151

  13. Phase II evaluation of sunitinib in the treatment of recurrent or refractory high-grade glioma or ependymoma in children: a children's Oncology Group Study ACNS1021.

    PubMed

    Wetmore, Cynthia; Daryani, Vinay M; Billups, Catherine A; Boyett, James M; Leary, Sarah; Tanos, Rachel; Goldsmith, Kelly C; Stewart, Clinton F; Blaney, Susan M; Gajjar, Amar

    2016-07-01

    Sunitinib malate is a small multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor that inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and stem cell factor receptor (KIT), which are highly expressed by some high-grade brain tumors. We conducted a phase II study to estimate the efficacy and further characterize the pharmacokinetics of sunitinib in pediatric patients with recurrent or refractory high-grade glioma (Stratum A) or ependymoma (Stratum B). This was a prospective, multicenter Phase II trial conducted through the Children's Oncology Group (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01462695). Sunitinib, 15 mg/m2, was orally administered once daily for 4 weeks every 6 weeks. The safety and tolerability of sunitinib, an estimate of progression-free survival (PFS), analyses of sunitinib pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics modulation of plasma VEGF and VEGFR2 were also assessed. Thirty eligible patients (17 patients on Stratum A, 13 patients on Stratum B) were enrolled and 29 patients were evaluable for response. Sunitinib was reasonably well tolerated in children with recurrent ependymoma or high-grade glioma. Most adverse events were of mild-to-moderate severity and manageable with supportive treatment. While there was a statistically significant modulation of plasma VEGFR2 with sunitinib exposure, there were no sustained tumor responses. Both strata were closed at time of planned interim analysis as there was not sufficient efficacy associated with sunitinib in children with recurrent brain tumors. Sunitinib was well tolerated in children and young adults with recurrent high-grade glioma or ependymoma but had no single agent objective antitumor activity in these patients. PMID:27109549

  14. Gene Expression Signatures Predictive of Early Response and Outcome in High-Risk Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Children's Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhojwani, Deepa; Kang, Huining; Menezes, Renee X.; Yang, Wenjian; Sather, Harland; Moskowitz, Naomi P.; Min, Dong-Joon; Potter, Jeffrey W.; Harvey, Richard; Hunger, Stephen P.; Seibel, Nita; Raetz, Elizabeth A.; Pieters, Rob; Horstmann, Martin A.; Relling, Mary V.; den Boer, Monique L.; Willman, Cheryl L.; Carroll, William L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To identify children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) at initial diagnosis who are at risk for inferior response to therapy by using molecular signatures. Patients and Methods Gene expression profiles were generated from bone marrow blasts at initial diagnosis from a cohort of 99 children with National Cancer Institute–defined high-risk ALL who were treated uniformly on the Children's Oncology Group (COG) 1961 study. For prediction of early response, genes that correlated to marrow status on day 7 were identified on a training set and were validated on a test set. An additional signature was correlated with long-term outcome, and the predictive models were validated on three large, independent patient cohorts. Results We identified a 24–probe set signature that was highly predictive of day 7 marrow status on the test set (P = .0061). Pathways were identified that may play a role in early blast regression. We have also identified a 47–probe set signature (which represents 41 unique genes) that was predictive of long-term outcome in our data set as well as three large independent data sets of patients with childhood ALL who were treated on different protocols. However, we did not find sufficient evidence for the added significance of these genes and the derived predictive models when other known prognostic features, such as age, WBC, and karyotype, were included in a multivariate analysis. Conclusion Genes and pathways that play a role in early blast regression may identify patients who may be at risk for inferior responses to treatment. A fully validated predictive gene expression signature was defined for high-risk ALL that provided insight into the biologic mechanisms of treatment failure. PMID:18802149

  15. Phase II trial of fluorouracil and recombinant interferon alfa-2a in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study.

    PubMed

    Wadler, S; Lembersky, B; Atkins, M; Kirkwood, J; Petrelli, N

    1991-10-01

    In a pilot clinical trial, treatment of patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma with the combination of fluorouracil (5FU) and recombinant interferon alfa-2a (IFN) resulted in objective tumor regression in 62% of patients. To confirm these findings in a multiinstitutional setting, a phase II clinical trial was initiated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) in 1989. The treatment regimen was identical to that used in the earlier study: 5FU 750 mg/m2/d for 5 days as a continuous infusion followed by weekly outpatient bolus therapy and IFN 9MU subcutaneously beginning day 1 and administered three times per week. Doses were modified for gastrointestinal, hematologic, and neurologic toxicity and for fatigue, similarly to those used in the previous pilot trial. Thirty-eight patients were registered; 36 are evaluable for response (one lost to follow-up and one with nonmeasurable disease). All patients had metastatic or locally recurrent disease beyond the scope of resection; 31 of 38 had liver metastases, and 20 of 38 had two or more sites of involvement. Eight patients had grade 4 toxicities, including sepsis (nonneutropenic) (one), watery diarrhea (two), and granulocytopenia (six). Grade 3 neurologic toxicities were observed in two (5%) patients and included slurred speech and gait disturbance. Objective response was 42% (95% confidence interval [Cl], 27% to 58%), including one clinical complete responder and 14 partial responders. Among the responding patients, the median time to treatment failure was 8 months. Two patients remain on treatment at 10+ and 16+ months: median survival has not been reached. The results of this multiinstitutional trial suggest that the addition of IFN to 5FU enhances the objective response rates achieved in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma and that the toxicities of this regimen are acceptable. PMID:1919631

  16. Oncology nurse navigator role delineation study: an oncology nursing society report.

    PubMed

    Brown, Carlton G; Cantril, Cynthia; McMullen, Lori; Barkley, Dana L; Dietz, Michele; Murphy, Cynthia Miller; Fabrey, Lawrence J

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of the Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) Oncology Nurse Navigator Role Delineation Study was to examine the job-function activities of the oncology nurse navigator, thus providing an understanding of this unique role. The Role Delineation Advisory Committee consisting mainly of oncology nurse navigators was formed to provide content expertise to Applied Measurement Professionals, which conducted the role delineation study. Three hundred and thirty nurses completed the survey. The study clearly defined tasks, knowledge areas, and skills that are very specific to the nurse navigator role; however, the overlap in knowledge with the general oncology nurse role needs to be explored. The ONS Board of Directors and the Oncology Nursing Certification Corporation Board of Directors currently are exploring the need for additional initiatives to help define the role and competencies of the oncology nurse navigator. PMID:23178350

  17. About the Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group supports clinical oncology trials in cancer prevention and control in community settings. The group also supports investigator-initiated research projects in supportive, palliative and end-of-life care, and coordinates clinical oncology research projects with other NCI programs to be done in the community setting. |

  18. Prognostic significance of minimal residual disease in high risk B-ALL: a report from Children's Oncology Group study AALL0232.

    PubMed

    Borowitz, Michael J; Wood, Brent L; Devidas, Meenakshi; Loh, Mignon L; Raetz, Elizabeth A; Salzer, Wanda L; Nachman, James B; Carroll, Andrew J; Heerema, Nyla A; Gastier-Foster, Julie M; Willman, Cheryl L; Dai, Yunfeng; Winick, Naomi J; Hunger, Stephen P; Carroll, William L; Larsen, Eric

    2015-08-20

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) is highly prognostic in pediatric B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). In Children's Oncology Group high-risk B-ALL study AALL0232, we investigated MRD in subjects randomized in a 2 × 2 factorial design to receive either high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) or Capizzi methotrexate (C-MTX) during interim maintenance (IM) or prednisone or dexamethasone during induction. Subjects with end-induction MRD ≥0.1% or those with morphologic slow early response were nonrandomly assigned to receive a second IM and delayed intensification phase. MRD was measured by 6-color flow cytometry in 1 of 2 reference labs, with excellent agreement between the two. Subjects with end-induction MRD <0.01% had a 5-year event-free survival (EFS) of 87% ± 1% vs 74% ± 4% for those with MRD 0.01% to 0.1%; increasing MRD amounts was associated with progressively worse outcome. Subjects converting from MRD positive to negative by end consolidation had a relatively favorable 79% ± 5% 5-year disease-free survival vs 39% ± 7% for those with MRD ≥0.01%. Although HD-MTX was superior to C-MTX, MRD retained prognostic significance in both groups (86% ± 2% vs 58% ± 4% for MRD-negative vs positive C-MTX subjects; 88% ± 2% vs 68% ± 4% for HD-MTX subjects). Intensified therapy given to subjects with MRD >0.1% did not improve either 5-year EFS or overall survival (OS). However, these subjects showed an early relapse rate similar to that seen in MRD-negative ones, with EFS/OS curves for patients with 0.1% to 1% MRD crossing those with 0.01% to 0.1% MRD at 3 and 4 years, thus suggesting that the intensified therapy altered the disease course of MRD-positive subjects. Additional interventions targeted at the MRD-positive group may further improve outcome. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00075725. PMID:26124497

  19. Quality-of-Life Comparisons in a Randomized Trial of Interval Secondary Cytoreduction in Advanced Ovarian Carcinoma: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, Lari; Huang, Helen Q.; Monk, Bradley J.; Rose, Peter G.; Cella, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare self-reported quality of life (QOL) in patients who did versus did not undergo interval secondary cytoreduction after initial surgery and combination chemotherapy for advanced ovarian cancer and to assess the association between baseline QOL scores and survival. Patients and Methods Consenting patients participating in a Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) phase III treatment trial (GOG 152) completed the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–Ovarian (FACT-O) questionnaire and treatment-specific supplemental questions at the third and sixth chemotherapy cycles and at 6 and 12 months after starting treatment. Results For all patients, QOL decreased approximately 1 unit from the first to second assessment. Significant improvement observed at 6 months (P < .001) was sustained at 12 months, with no appreciable between-group difference. The baseline FACT-O score was associated with overall survival (P = .048) but not progression-free survival. Less neurotoxicity was reported among patients who did (38.4%) versus did not (54.0%) undergo interval secondary cytoreduction at the third assessment (P = .005), and older patients experienced more long-term effects. Conclusion This is the first multicenter randomized trial in ovarian cancer to longitudinally examine self-reported QOL and establish a predictive value of baseline QOL on survival, attributed primarily to the lowest-scoring quartile. Although interval secondary cytoreduction resulted in no notable long-term difference, a clinically significant improvement was seen in both arms at 6 and 12 months after starting therapy. Interestingly, there were fewer complaints of neurotoxicity at 6 months among patients who did versus did not undergo interval secondary cytoreduction. PMID:16110020

  20. Gender, Race, and Survival: A Study in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Brain Metastases Patients Utilizing the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Recursive Partitioning Analysis Classification

    SciTech Connect

    Videtic, Gregory M.M.; Reddy, Chandana A.; Chao, Samuel T.; Rice, Thomas W.; Adelstein, David J.; Barnett, Gene H.; Mekhail, Tarek M.; Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Suh, John H.

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To explore whether gender and race influence survival in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in patients with brain metastases, using our large single-institution brain tumor database and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) brain metastases classification. Methods and materials: A retrospective review of a single-institution brain metastasis database for the interval January 1982 to September 2004 yielded 835 NSCLC patients with brain metastases for analysis. Patient subsets based on combinations of gender, race, and RPA class were then analyzed for survival differences. Results: Median follow-up was 5.4 months (range, 0-122.9 months). There were 485 male patients (M) (58.4%) and 346 female patients (F) (41.6%). Of the 828 evaluable patients (99%), 143 (17%) were black/African American (B) and 685 (83%) were white/Caucasian (W). Median survival time (MST) from time of brain metastasis diagnosis for all patients was 5.8 months. Median survival time by gender (F vs. M) and race (W vs. B) was 6.3 months vs. 5.5 months (p = 0.013) and 6.0 months vs. 5.2 months (p = 0.08), respectively. For patients stratified by RPA class, gender, and race, MST significantly favored BFs over BMs in Class II: 11.2 months vs. 4.6 months (p = 0.021). On multivariable analysis, significant variables were gender (p = 0.041, relative risk [RR] 0.83) and RPA class (p < 0.0001, RR 0.28 for I vs. III; p < 0.0001, RR 0.51 for II vs. III) but not race. Conclusions: Gender significantly influences NSCLC brain metastasis survival. Race trended to significance in overall survival but was not significant on multivariable analysis. Multivariable analysis identified gender and RPA classification as significant variables with respect to survival.

  1. Long-Term Survival Advantage and Prognostic Factors Associated With Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy Treatment in Advanced Ovarian Cancer: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Devansu; Java, James J.; Salani, Ritu; Armstrong, Deborah K.; Markman, Maurie; Herzog, Thomas; Monk, Bradley J.; Chan, John K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine long-term survival and associated prognostic factors after intraperitoneal (IP) chemotherapy in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Patients and Methods Data from Gynecologic Oncology Group protocols 114 and 172 were retrospectively analyzed. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for statistical analyses. Results In 876 patients, median follow-up was 10.7 years. Median survival with IP therapy was 61.8 months (95% CI, 55.5 to 69.5), compared with 51.4 months (95% CI, 46.0 to 58.2) for intravenous therapy. IP therapy was associated with a 23% decreased risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.90; P = .002). IP therapy improved survival of those with gross residual (≤ 1 cm) disease (AHR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.92; P = .006). Risk of death decreased by 12% for each cycle of IP chemotherapy completed (AHR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.94; P < .001). Factors associated with poorer survival included: clear/mucinous versus serous histology (AHR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.83 to 4.24; P < .001), gross residual versus no visible disease (AHR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.48 to 2.43; P < .001), and fewer versus more cycles of IP chemotherapy (AHR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.94; P < .001). Younger patients were more likely to complete the IP regimen, with a 5% decrease in probability of completion with each year of age (odds ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93 to 0.96; P < .001). Conclusion The advantage of IP over intravenous chemotherapy extends beyond 10 years. IP therapy enhanced survival of those with gross residual disease. Survival improved with increasing number of IP cycles. PMID:25800756

  2. Phase II Study of Accelerated High-Dose Radiotherapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Patients With Limited Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 0239

    SciTech Connect

    Komaki, Ritsuko; Paulus, Rebecca; Ettinger, David S.; Videtic, Gregory M.M.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Glisson, Bonnie S.; Sause, William T.; Curran, Walter J.; Choy, Hak

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether high-dose thoracic radiation given twice daily during cisplatin-etoposide chemotherapy for limited small-cell lung cancer (LSCLC) improves survival, acute esophagitis, and local control rates relative to findings from Intergroup trial 0096 (47%, 27%, and 64%). Patients and Methods: Patients were accrued over a 3-year period from 22 US and Canadian institutions. Patients with LSCLC and good performance status were given thoracic radiation to 61.2 Gy over 5 weeks (daily 1.8-Gy fractions on days 1-22, then twice-daily 1.8-Gy fractions on days 23-33). Cisplatin (60 mg/m{sup 2} IV) was given on day 1 and etoposide (120 mg/m{sup 2} IV) on days 1-3 and days 22-24, followed by 2 cycles of cisplatin plus etoposide alone. Patients who achieved complete response were offered prophylactic cranial irradiation. Endpoints included overall and progression-free survival; severe esophagitis (Common Toxicity Criteria v 2.0) and treatment-related fatalities; response (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors); and local control. Results: Seventy-two patients were accrued from June 2003 through May 2006; 71 were evaluable (median age 63 years; 52% female; 58% Zubrod 0). Median survival time was 19 months; at 2 years, the overall survival rate was 36.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.6%-47.7%), and progression-free survival 19.7% (95% CI 11.4%-29.6%). Thirteen patients (18%) experienced severe acute esophagitis, and 2 (3%) died of treatment-related causes; 41% achieved complete response, 39% partial response, 10% stable disease, and 6% progressive disease. The local control rate was 73%. Forty-three patients (61%) received prophylactic cranial irradiation. Conclusions: The overall survival rate did not reach the projected goal; however, rates of esophagitis were lower, and local control higher, than projected. This treatment strategy is now one of three arms of a prospective trial of chemoradiation for LSCLC (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0538

  3. Bloodstream infections in children with cancer: a multicentre surveillance study of the Italian Association of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology. Supportive Therapy Group-Infectious Diseases Section.

    PubMed

    Viscoli, C; Castagnola, E; Giacchino, M; Cesáro, S; Properzi, E; Tucci, F; Mura, R M; Alvisi, P; Zanazzo, G; Surico, G; Bonetti, F; De Sio, L; Izzi, G; Di Cataldo, A; Ziino, O; Massolo, F; Nardi, M; Santoro, N; Binda, S

    1999-05-01

    A one-year prospective, multicentre surveillance study on aetiology, main clinical features and outcome of bloodstream infections in children with cancer was conducted in 18 paediatric haematology centres belonging to the Italian Association for Paediatric Haematology and Oncology. A total of 191 bloodstream infections were reported during the study period. Of them, 123 (64%) occurred in neutropenic and 68 (36%) in non-neutropenic patients. Gram-positive cocci caused 45% (85/191) of the episodes, gram-negative rods 41% (78/191), and fungi 9% (18/191). The remaining 5% (10/191) of the episodes were poly-microbial infections. A total of 204 pathogens were isolated (46% gram-positive cocci; 44% gram-negative rods; and 10% fungi). The aetiologic distribution was similar among neutropenic and non-neutropenic patients. A correlation between the infection and the presence of an indwelling central venous catheter was found in 20% (23/114) of the episodes among neutropenic patients and in 55% (23/62) among non-neutropenic patients. Gram-negative micro-organisms were isolated in an unusually high proportion of catheter-related infections (48%). The overall mortality rate from any cause within 30 days from the first positive blood culture was 11%, and was higher among patients who were neutropenic at the onset of the infection than among those who were not neutropenic (15 versus 4%, P = 0.03). In addition, the mortality was significantly higher in recipients of bone marrow transplantation than in patients with acute leukaemia or solid tumour (21, 11 and 6%, respectively) and was also higher in fungaemias and poly-microbial infections (22 and 30%) than in single gram-positive and gram-negative bacteraemias (11 and 6%). PMID:10505037

  4. Genetic variation in DNA-repair pathways and response to radiochemotherapy in esophageal adenocarcinoma: a retrospective cohort study of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent data in esophageal cancer suggests the variant allele of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in XRCC1 may be associated with resistance to radiochemotherapy. However, this SNP has not been assessed in a histologically homogeneous clinical trial cohort that has been treated with a uniform approach. In addition, whether germline DNA may serve as a surrogate for tumor genotype at this locus is unknown in this disease. Our objective was to assess this SNP in relation to the pathologic complete response (pCR) rate in subjects with esophageal adenocarcinoma who received cisplatin-based preoperative radiochemotherapy in a multicenter clinical trial (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 1201). As a secondary aim, we investigated the rate of allelic imbalance between germline and tumor DNA. Methods Eighty-one eligible treatment-naïve subjects with newly diagnosed resectable esophageal adenocarcinoma received radiotherapy (45 Gy) concurrent with cisplatin-based chemotherapy, with planned subsequent surgical resection. The primary endpoint was pCR, defined as complete absence of tumor in the surgical specimen after radiochemotherapy. Using germline DNA from 60 subjects, we examined the base-excision repair SNP, XRCC1 Arg399Gln, and 4 other SNPs in nucleotide excision (XPD Lys751Gln and Asp312Asn, ERCC1 3' flank) and double-stranded break (XRCC2 5' flank) repair pathways, and correlated genotype with pCR rate. Paired tumor tissue was used to estimate the frequency of allelic imbalance at the XRCC1 SNP. Results The variant allele of the XRCC1 SNP (399Gln) was detected in 52% of subjects. Only 6% of subjects with the variant allele experienced a pCR, compared to 28% of subjects without the variant allele (odds ratio 5.37 for failing to achieve pCR, p = 0.062). Allelic imbalance at this locus was found in only 10% of informative subjects, suggesting that germline genotype may reflect tumor genotype at this locus. No significant association with pCR was noted

  5. A Study of Layered Learning in Oncology.

    PubMed

    Bates, Jill S; Buie, Larry W; Lyons, Kayley; Rao, Kamakshi; Pinelli, Nicole R; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Roth, Mary T

    2016-05-25

    Objective. To explore use of pharmacy learners as a means to expand pharmacy services in a layered learning practice model (LLPM), to examine whether an LLPM environment precludes achievement of knowledge-based learning objectives, and to explore learner perception of the experience. Design. An acute care oncology pharmacy practice experience was redesigned to support the LLPM. Specifically, the redesign focused on micro discussion, standardized feedback (eg, rubrics), and cooperative learning to enhance educational gain through performing clinical activities. Assessment. Posttest scores evaluating knowledge-based learning objectives increased in mean percentage compared to pretest values. Learners viewed the newly designed practice experience positively with respect to perceived knowledge attainment, improved clinical time management skills, contributions to patient care, and development of clinical and self-management skills. A fifth theme among students, comfort with learning, was also noted. Conclusion. Layered learning in an oncology practice experience was well-received by pharmacy learners. Data suggest a practice experience in the LLPM environment does not preclude achieving knowledge-based learning objectives and supports further studies of the LLPM. PMID:27293235

  6. A Study of Layered Learning in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Buie, Larry W.; Lyons, Kayley; Rao, Kamakshi; Pinelli, Nicole R.; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E.; Roth, Mary T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore use of pharmacy learners as a means to expand pharmacy services in a layered learning practice model (LLPM), to examine whether an LLPM environment precludes achievement of knowledge-based learning objectives, and to explore learner perception of the experience. Design. An acute care oncology pharmacy practice experience was redesigned to support the LLPM. Specifically, the redesign focused on micro discussion, standardized feedback (eg, rubrics), and cooperative learning to enhance educational gain through performing clinical activities. Assessment. Posttest scores evaluating knowledge-based learning objectives increased in mean percentage compared to pretest values. Learners viewed the newly designed practice experience positively with respect to perceived knowledge attainment, improved clinical time management skills, contributions to patient care, and development of clinical and self-management skills. A fifth theme among students, comfort with learning, was also noted. Conclusion. Layered learning in an oncology practice experience was well-received by pharmacy learners. Data suggest a practice experience in the LLPM environment does not preclude achieving knowledge-based learning objectives and supports further studies of the LLPM. PMID:27293235

  7. Report of a Phase I Evaluation of Dose and Schedule of Interleukin-1 Alpha and Cyclophosphamide in Patients with Advanced Tumors: An Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Study (PX990) and Review of IL-1-Based Studies of Hematopoietic Reconstitution

    PubMed Central

    Neuberg, Donna; Atkins, Michael B.; Tester, William J.; Wadler, Scott; Stewart, James A.; Chachoua, Abraham; Schuchter, Lynn M.

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a cytokine critical to inflammation, immunological activation, response to infection, and bone marrow hematopoiesis. Cyclophosphamide downmodulates immune suppressor cells and is cytotoxic to a variety of tumors. A phase I trial of IL-1 and cyclophosphamide was conducted by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. This study evaluated 3 dose levels and 3 schedules in patients with solid tumors. The goal was to evaluate the hematopoietic supportive care effect and possible antitumor effect. Toxicity was fever, chills, hypotension, nausea/emesis, hepatic, and neutropenia. Toxicity increased with dose increases of interleukin-1. Treatment at all dose levels resulted in significant increases in total white blood cell (WBC) counts above baseline. Nadir WBC and nadir absolute neutrophil counts were not significantly different by dose level of IL-1 or schedule of IL-1. Toxicity due to IL-1 at higher doses prohibited further evaluation of this agent for hematopoietic support, particularly in view of the activity and tolerability of more lineage-specific hematopoietic cytokines. Therapeutic interventions in the role of IL-1 in inflammatory conditions and cancer may be further informed by our definition of its clinical and biological effects in this evaluation of dose and schedule. PMID:24433038

  8. Can We Predict Plan Quality for External Beam Partial Breast Irradiation: Results of a Multicenter Feasibility Study (Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group Study 06.02)

    SciTech Connect

    Kron, Tomas; Willis, David; Link, Emma; Lehman, Margot; Campbell, Gillian; O'Brien, Peter; Chua, Boon

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Partial breast irradiation (PBI) after lumpectomy may be an option for selected patients with early breast cancer. A feasibility study of accelerated PBI delivered using external beam 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (RT) was undertaken at 8 Australasian centers. The present study evaluated the impact of patient, tumor, and RT technique-related factors on the quality of RT plans as determined by the dose–volume parameters of organs at risk. Methods and Materials: Forty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. All RT plans were centrally reviewed using predefined dosimetric criteria before commencement and after completion of protocol therapy. The RT plans of 47 patients met the dose–volume constraints, and all 47 patients received PBI to a prescribed dose of 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions. The RT plan quality was determined by volumes of the ipsilateral whole breast, lung, and heart that received 50% and 95%; 30%; and 5% of the prescribed dose, respectively. Patient, tumor, and RT technique-related factors were investigated for association with the parameters of RT plan quality. Results: The ratio of the planning target volume to the ipsilateral whole-breast volume was significantly associated with the ipsilateral breast doses on multiple variable analyses. The distance of the postlumpectomy surgical cavity from the heart and lung were predictive for heart and lung doses, respectively. A distance between surgical cavity and heart of >4 cm typically resulted in <1% of the heart volume receiving 5 Gy or less. It was more difficult to meet the heart dose constraint for left-sided and medially located tumors. Conclusions: Partial breast irradiation using 3-dimensional conformal RT was feasible within the study constraints. The ratio of planning target volume to ipsilateral whole-breast volume and the distance of surgical cavity from the heart were significant predictors of the quality of treatment plan for external beam PBI.

  9. Clinical-pathologic study of stage IIB, III, and IVA carcinoma of the cervix: extended diagnostic evaluation for paraaortic node metastasis--a Gynecologic Oncology Group study.

    PubMed

    Heller, P B; Maletano, J H; Bundy, B N; Barnhill, D R; Okagaki, T

    1990-09-01

    Three hundred twenty patients were entered into GOG Protocol 63, a clinical-pathologic study of stage IIB, III, and IVA cervical carcinoma. Following the completion of FIGO staging prerequisites, patients had computerized tomography (CT), a lymph-angiogram (LAG), and an ultrasound (US) of the aortic area. If any study was positive, a cytologic or histologic evaluation by fine-needle aspiration or selective paraaortic lymphadenectomy was performed. Paraaortic node dissection was mandated for patients with negative extended staging studies. Results of extended staging evaluations were compared with histologic or cytologic results. Two hundred sixty-four patients were eligible and evaluable. One hundred sixty-seven patients (63%) were stage IIB, 89 (34%) were stage III, and 8 (3%) were stage IVA. Positive paraaortic nodes occurred in 21% of stage IIB, 31% of stage III, and 13% of stage IVA. LAG sensitivity was 79% with a specificity of 73%. Sensitivity of CT and US was 34 and 19%, respectively, with specificities of 96 and 99%, respectively. The frequency of false-negative results with LAG for patients with stage IIB disease was 6%. This decrease is consistent with a stable sensitivity and specificity. These findings suggest that a negative LAG may be adequate to eliminate surgical staging in subgroups with low risk of metastasis to the aortic nodes. Until new noninvasive testing methods are developed, LAG appears to be the most reliable noninvasive examination to evaluate spread of cervical cancer to aortic nodes. PMID:2227556

  10. Vincristine, Actinomycin, and Cyclophosphamide Compared With Vincristine, Actinomycin, and Cyclophosphamide Alternating With Vincristine, Topotecan, and Cyclophosphamide for Intermediate-Risk Rhabdomyosarcoma: Children's Oncology Group Study D9803

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, Carola A.S.; Stoner, Julie A.; Hawkins, Douglas S.; Rodeberg, David A.; Hayes-Jordan, Andrea A.; Paidas, Charles N.; Parham, David M.; Teot, Lisa A.; Wharam, Moody D.; Breneman, John C.; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Anderson, James R.; Meyer, William H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the outcome of patients with intermediate-risk rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) treated with standard VAC (vincristine, dactinomycin, and cyclophosphamide) chemotherapy to that of patients treated with VAC alternating with vincristine, topotecan, and cyclophosphamide (VAC/VTC). Patients and Methods Patients were randomly assigned to 39 weeks of VAC versus VAC/VTC; local therapy began after week 12. Patients with parameningeal RMS with intracranial extension (PME) were treated with VAC and immediate x-ray therapy. The primary study end point was failure-free survival (FFS). The study was designed with 80% power (5% two-sided α level) to detect an increase in 5-year FFS from 64% to 75% with VAC/VTC. Results A total of 617 eligible patients were entered onto the study: 264 were randomly assigned to VAC and 252 to VAC/VTC; 101 PME patients were nonrandomly treated with VAC. Treatment strata were embryonal RMS, stage 2/3, group III (33%); embryonal RMS, group IV, less than age 10 years (7%); alveolar RMS or undifferentiated sarcoma (UDS), stage 1 or group I (17%); alveolar RMS/UDS (27%); and PME (16%). At a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 4-year FFS was 73% with VAC and 68% with VAC/VTC (P = .3). There was no difference in effect of VAC versus VAC/VTC across risk groups. The frequency of second malignancies was similar between the two treatment groups. Conclusion For intermediate-risk RMS, VAC/VTC does not significantly improve FFS compared with VAC. PMID:19770373

  11. A randomized phase II study of carboplatin plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin versus carboplatin plus paclitaxel in platinum sensitive ovarian cancer patients: a Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Platinum-based combinations are the standard second-line treatment for platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer (OC). This randomized phase II study was undertaken in order to compare the combination of carboplatin and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (LD) with carboplatin and paclitaxel (CP) in this setting. Methods Patients with histologically confirmed recurrent OC, at the time of or more than 6 months after platinum-based chemotherapy, were randomized to six cycles of CP (carboplatin AUC5 + paclitaxel 175 mg/m2, d1q21) or CLD (carboplatin AUC5 + pegylated LD 45 mg/m2, d1q28). Results A total of 189 eligible patients (CP 96, CLD 93), with a median age of 63 years, median Performance Status (PS) 0 and a median platinum free interval (PFI) of 16.5 months, entered the study. Discontinuation due to toxicity was higher in the CP patients (13.5% versus 3%, P = 0.016). The overall response rate was similar: CP 58% versus CLD 51%, P = 0.309 (Complete Response; CR 34% versus 23%) and there was no statistical difference in time-to-progression (TTP) or overall survival (OS; TTP 10.8 months CP versus 11.8 CLD, P = 0.904; OS 29.4 months CP versus 24.7 CLD, P = 0.454). No toxic deaths were recorded. Neutropenia was the most commonly seen severe toxicity (CP 30% versus CLD 35%). More frequent in CLD were severe thrombocytopenia (11% versus 2%, P = 0.016), skin toxicity and Palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE) grade 1-2 (38% versus 9%, P< 0.001), while grade 3 neurotoxicity and alopecia were higher in CP (7% versus 0%, P = 0.029, 20% versus 5%, P = 0.003). PS and PFI were independent prognostic factors for TTP and OS. Conclusions The combination of pegylated LD with carboplatin is effective, showing less neurotoxicity and alopecia than paclitaxel-carboplatin. It thus warrants a further phase III evaluation as an alternative treatment option for platinum-sensitive OC patients. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12609000436279 PMID

  12. Phase I Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Dose Escalation Study in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 98-03

    SciTech Connect

    Tsien, Christina Moughan, Jennifer; Michalski, Jeff M.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Purdy, James; Simpson, Joseph; Kresel, John J.; Curran, Walter J.; Diaz, Aidnag; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate in a Phase I trial the feasibility and toxicity of dose-escalated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) concurrent with chemotherapy in patients with primary supratentorial glioblastoma (GBM). Methods and Materials: A total of 209 patients were enrolled. All received 46 Gy in 2-Gy fractions to the first planning target volume (PTV{sub 1}), defined as the gross tumor volume (GTV) plus 1.8 cm. A subsequent boost was given to PTV{sub 2}, defined as GTV plus 0.3 cm. Patients were stratified into two groups (Group 1: PTV{sub 2} <75 cm{sup 3}; Group 2: PTV{sub 2} {>=}75 cm{sup 3}). Four RT dose levels were evaluated: 66, 72, 78, and 84 Gy. Carmustine 80 mg/m{sup 2} was given during RT, then every 8 weeks for 6 cycles. Pretreatment characteristics were well balanced. Results: Acute and late Grade 3/4 RT-related toxicities were no more frequent at higher RT dose or with larger tumors. There were no dose-limiting toxicities (acute Grade {>=}3 irreversible central nervous system toxicities) observed on any dose level in either group. On the basis of the absence of dose-limiting toxicities, dose was escalated to 84 Gy in both groups. Late RT necrosis was noted at 66 Gy (1 patient), 72 Gy (2 patients), 78 Gy (2 patients), and 84 Gy (3 patients) in Group 1. In Group 2, late RT necrosis was noted at 78 Gy (1 patient) and 84 Gy (2 patients). Median time to RT necrosis was 8.8 months (range, 5.1-12.5 months). Median survival in Group 1 was 11.6-19.3 months. Median survival in Group 2 was 8.2-13.9 months. Conclusions: Our study shows the feasibility of delivering higher than standard (60 Gy) RT dose with concurrent chemotherapy for primary GBM, with an acceptable risk of late central nervous system toxicity.

  13. Dummy Run of Quality Assurance Program in a Phase 3 Randomized Trial Investigating the Role of Internal Mammary Lymph Node Irradiation in Breast Cancer Patients: Korean Radiation Oncology Group 08-06 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Yoonsun; Kim, Jun Won; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Su Ssan; Ahn, Sung-Ja; Park, Won; Lee, Hyung-Sik; Kim, Dong Won; Lee, Kyu Chan; Suh, Hyun Suk; Kim, Jin Hee; Shin, Hyun Soo; Kim, Yong Bae; Suh, Chang-Ok

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: The Korean Radiation Oncology Group (KROG) 08-06 study protocol allowed radiation therapy (RT) technique to include or exclude breast cancer patients from receiving radiation therapy to the internal mammary lymph node (IMN). The purpose of this study was to assess dosimetric differences between the 2 groups and potential influence on clinical outcome by a dummy run procedure. Methods and Materials: All participating institutions were asked to produce RT plans without irradiation (Arm 1) and with irradiation to the IMN (Arm 2) for 1 breast-conservation treatment case (breast-conserving surgery [BCS]) and 1 mastectomy case (modified radical mastectomy [MRM]) whose computed tomography images were provided. We assessed interinstitutional variations in IMN delineation and evaluated the dose-volume histograms of the IMN and normal organs. A reference IMN was delineated by an expert panel group based on the study guidelines. Also, we analyzed the potential influence of actual dose variation observed in this study on patient survival. Results: Although physicians intended to exclude the IMN within the RT field, the data showed almost 59.0% of the prescribed dose was delivered to the IMN in Arm 1. However, the mean doses covering the IMN in Arm 1 and Arm 2 were significantly different for both cases (P<.001). Due to the probability of overdose in Arm 1, the estimated gain in 7-year disease-free survival rate would be reduced from 10% to 7.9% for BCS cases and 7.1% for MRM cases. The radiation doses to the ipsilateral lung, heart, and coronary artery were lower in Arm 1 than in Arm 2. Conclusions: Although this dummy run study indicated that a substantial dose was delivered to the IMN, even in the nonirradiation group, the dose differences between the 2 groups were statistically significant. However, this dosimetric profile should be studied further with actual patient samples and be taken into consideration when analyzing clinical outcomes according to IMN

  14. Risk factors for readmission in patients with ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal carcinoma who are receiving front-line chemotherapy on a clinical trial (GOG 218): an NRG oncology/gynecologic oncology group study (ADS-1236)☆

    PubMed Central

    Duska, Linda R.; Java, James J.; Cohn, David E.; Burger, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Readmission within 30 days is a measure of care quality. Ovarian cancer patients are at high risk for readmission, but specific risk factors are not defined. This study was designed to determine risk factors in patients with ovarian cancer receiving upfront surgery and chemotherapy. Methods The study population was enrolled to GOG 0218. Factors predictive of admission within 30 days of a previous admission or 40 days of cytoreductive surgery were investigated. Categorical variables were compared by Pearson chi-square test, continuous variables by Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney test. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate independent prognostic factors and to estimate covariate-adjusted odds. All tests were two-tailed, α = 0.05. Results Of 1873 patients, 197 (10.5%) were readmitted, with 59 experiencing >1 readmission. One-hundred-forty-four (73%) readmissions were post-operative (readmission rate 7.7%). Significant risk factors include: disease stage (stage 3 vs 4, p = 0.008), suboptimal cytoreduction (36% vs 64%, p = 0.001), ascites, (p = 0.018), BMI (25.4 vs 27.6, p < 0.001), poor PS (p < 0.001), and higher baseline CA 125 (p = 0.017). Patients readmitted within 40 days of surgery had a significantly shorter interval from surgery to chemotherapy initiation (22 versus 32 days, p < 0.0001). Patients treated with bevacizumab had higher readmission rates in the case of patients with >1 readmission. On multivariate analysis, the odds of re-hospitalization increased with doubling of BMI (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.07–3.07) and PS of 2 (OR = 2.05, 95% CI 1.21–3.48). Conclusion Significant risk factors for readmission in ovarian cancer patients undergoing primary surgery and chemotherapy include stage, residual disease, ascites, high BMI and poor PS. Readmissions are most likely after the initial surgical procedure, a discrete period to target with a prospective intervention. PMID:26335594

  15. NRG Oncology Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0822: A Phase 2 Study of Preoperative Chemoradiation Therapy Using Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Combination With Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin for Patients With Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Theodore S.; Moughan, Jennifer; Garofalo, Michael C.; Bendell, Johanna; Berger, Adam C.; Oldenburg, Nicklas B.E.; Anne, Pramila Rani; Perera, Francisco; Jabbour, Salma K.; Nowlan, Adam; DeNittis, Albert; Crane, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the rate of gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity of neoadjuvant chemoradiation with capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in cT3-4 rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients with localized, nonmetastatic T3 or T4 rectal cancer <12 cm from the anal verge were enrolled in a prospective, multi-institutional, single-arm study of preoperative chemoradiation. Patients received 45 Gy with IMRT in 25 fractions, followed by a 3-dimensional conformal boost of 5.4 Gy in 3 fractions with concurrent capecitabine/oxaliplatin (CAPOX). Surgery was performed 4 to 8 weeks after the completion of therapy. Patients were recommended to receive FOLFOX chemotherapy after surgery. The primary endpoint of the study was acute grade 2 to 5 GI toxicity. Seventy-one patients provided 80% probability to detect at least a 12% reduction in the specified GI toxicity with the treatment of CAPOX and IMRT, at a significance level of .10 (1-sided). Results: Seventy-nine patients were accrued, of whom 68 were evaluable. Sixty-one patients (89.7%) had cT3 disease, and 37 (54.4%) had cN (+) disease. Postoperative chemotherapy was given to 42 of 68 patients. Fifty-eight patients had target contours drawn per protocol, 5 patients with acceptable variation, and 5 patients with unacceptable variations. Thirty-five patients (51.5%) experienced grade ≥2 GI toxicity, 12 patients (17.6%) experienced grade 3 or 4 diarrhea, and pCR was achieved in 10 patients (14.7%). With a median follow-up time of 3.98 years, the 4-year rate of locoregional failure was 7.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0%-13.7%). The 4-year rates of OS and DFS were 82.9% (95% CI: 70.1%-90.6%) and 60.6% (95% CI: 47.5%-71.4%), respectively. Conclusion: The use of IMRT in neoadjuvant chemoradiation for rectal cancer did not reduce the rate of GI toxicity.

  16. Multidrug chemotherapy (vincristine-bleomycin-methotrexate) followed by radiotherapy in inoperable carcinomas of the head and neck: preliminary report of a pilot study of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

    SciTech Connect

    Marcial, V.A.; Velez-Garcia, E.; Figueroa-Valles, N.R.; Cintron, J.; Vallecillo, L.A.

    1980-06-01

    This is a preliminary report on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) pilot study 77-08, of a combination of chemotherapy with vincristine-bleomycin-methotrexate, followed by radiotherapy, for inoperable carcinomas of the head and neck. The main objectives of the study were to determine toxicity and tumor control. Patients who were included had untreated carcinomas, with no distant metastases, and with adequate pulmonary, renal, and liver function. Forty patients were registered for the study. Chemotherapy started with vincristine--1.5 mgs/m/sup 2/ (maximum of 2 mgs) by I.V. injection, followed by bleomycin drip for 48 hours (15 units/day), and then methotrexate (200 mgs/m/sup 2/ divided in equal doses 6 hours apart) with folinic acid rescue. Eleven patients received one course of the stated chemotherapy; 28 were given two courses with one week rest period between them. Radical curative radiotherapy was started usually two weeks after chemotherapy. A surgical procedure was considered if the patient was found operable after receiving a dose of 5000 rad with continuous therapy or at 3000 rad with split-course therapy. The level of toxicity that resulted from this combined therapy was considered acceptable. The percentage of complete response of the primary tumor was 6% with chemotherapy; this increased to 46% after irradiation, and to 65% when surgery was added.

  17. Significance of PIK3CA Mutations in Patients with Early Breast Cancer Treated with Adjuvant Chemotherapy: A Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG) Study

    PubMed Central

    Alexopoulou, Zoi; Kalogeras, Konstantine T.; Zagouri, Flora; Timotheadou, Eleni; Gogas, Helen; Pentheroudakis, George; Christodoulou, Christos; Koutras, Angelos; Bafaloukos, Dimitrios; Aravantinos, Gerasimos; Papakostas, Pavlos; Charalambous, Elpida; Papadopoulou, Kyriaki; Varthalitis, Ioannis; Efstratiou, Ioannis; Zaramboukas, Thomas; Patsea, Helen; Scopa, Chrisoula D.; Skondra, Maria; Kosmidis, Paris; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Fountzilas, George

    2015-01-01

    Background The PI3K-AKT pathway is frequently activated in breast cancer. PIK3CA mutations are most frequently found in the helical (exon 9) and kinase (exon 20) domains of this protein. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of different types of PIK3CA mutations in combination with molecular biomarkers related to PI3K-AKT signaling in patients with early breast cancer. Methods Tumor tissue samples from 1008 early breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy in two similar randomized trials of HeCOG were examined. Tumors were subtyped with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and FISH for ER, PgR, Ki67, HER2 and androgen receptor (AR). PIK3CA mutations were analyzed by Sanger sequencing (exon 20) and qPCR (exon 9) (Sanger/qPCR mutations). In 610 cases, next generation sequencing (NGS) PIK3CA mutation data were also available. PIK3CA mutations and PTEN protein expression (IHC) were analyzed in luminal tumors (ER and/or PgR positive), molecular apocrine carcinomas (MAC; ER/PgR negative / AR positive) and hormone receptor (ER/PgR/AR) negative tumors. Results PIK3CA mutations were detected in 235/1008 tumors (23%) with Sanger/qPCR and in 149/610 tumors (24%) with NGS. Concordance between the two methods was good with a Kappa coefficient of 0.76 (95% CI 0.69–0.82). Lobular histology, low tumor grade and luminal A tumors were associated with helical domain mutations (PIK3CAhel), while luminal B with kinase domain mutations (PIK3CAkin). The overall incidence of PIK3CA mutations was higher in luminal as compared to MAC and hormone receptor negative tumors (p = 0.004). Disease-free and overall survival did not significantly differ with respect to PIK3CA mutation presence and type. However, a statistically significant interaction between PIK3CA mutation status and PTEN low protein expression with regard to prognosis was identified. Conclusions The present study did not show any prognostic significance of specific PIK3CA mutations in a large group of

  18. Group Therapy with Patients in the Waiting Room of an Oncology Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnowitz, Edward; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a therapy group for cancer patients, conducted by cotherapists in an oncology waiting room. Group members provided mutual support and shared concerns and coping methods. Medical staff members became more involved and were more able to address the affective needs of the patients and their families. (JAC)

  19. A Phase 2 Trial of Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Paclitaxel Chemotherapy After Surgery in Patients With High-Risk Endometrial Cancer: A Korean Gynecologic Oncologic Group Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Hanbyoul; Nam, Byung-Ho; Kim, Seok Mo; Cho, Chi-Heum; Kim, Byoung Gie; Ryu, Hee-Sug; Kang, Soon Beom; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: A phase 2 study was completed by the Korean Gynecologic Oncologic Group to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of concurrent chemoradiation with weekly paclitaxel in patients with high-risk endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: Pathologic requirements included endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma stages III and IV. Radiation therapy consisted of a total dose of 4500 to 5040 cGy in 5 fractions per week for 6 weeks. Paclitaxel 60 mg/m{sup 2} was administered once weekly for 5 weeks during radiation therapy. Results: Fifty-seven patients were enrolled between January 2006 and March 2008. The median follow-up time was 60.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.0-58.2). All grade 3/4 toxicities were hematologic and usually self-limited. There was no life-threatening toxicity. The cumulative incidence of intrapelvic recurrence sites was 1.9% (1/52), and the cumulative incidence of extrapelvic recurrence sites was 34.6% (18/52). The estimated 5-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 63.5% (95% CI, 50.4-76.5) and 82.7% (95% CI, 72.4-92.9), respectively. Conclusions: Concurrent chemoradiation with weekly paclitaxel is well tolerated and seems to be effective for high-risk endometrioid endometrial cancers. This approach appears reasonable to be tested for efficacy in a prospective, randomized controlled study.

  20. A phase III randomized trial of postoperative pelvic irradiation in stage IB cervical carcinoma with poor prognostic features: Follow-up of a gynecologic oncology group study

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, Marvin . E-mail: mrotman@downstate.edu; Sedlis, Alexander; Piedmonte, Marion R.; Bundy, Brian; Lentz, Samuel S.; Muderspach, Laila I.; Zaino, Richard J.

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate, in a phase III randomized trial, whether postoperative external-beam irradiation to the standard pelvic field improves the recurrence-free interval and overall survival (OS) in women with Stage IB cervical cancers with negative lymph nodes and certain poor prognostic features treated by radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had Stage IB cervical cancer with negative lymph nodes but with 2 or more of the following features: more than one third (deep) stromal invasion, capillary lymphatic space involvement, and tumor diameter of 4 cm or more. The study group included 277 patients: 137 randomized to pelvic irradiation (RT) and 140 randomized to observation (OBS). The planned pelvic dose was from 46 Gy in 23 fractions to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. Results: Of the 67 recurrences, 24 were in the RT arm and 43 were in the OBS arm. The RT arm showed a statistically significant (46%) reduction in risk of recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.54, 90% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35 to 0.81, p = 0.007) and a statistically significant reduction in risk of progression or death (HR = 0.58, 90% CI = 0.40 to 0.85, p = 0.009). With RT, 8.8% of patients (3 of 34) with adenosquamous or adenocarcinoma tumors recurred vs. 44.0% (11 of 25) in OBS. Fewer recurrences were seen with RT in patients with adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous histologies relative to others (HR for RT by histology interaction = 0.23, 90% CI = 0.07 to 0.74, p = 0.019). After an extensive follow-up period, 67 deaths have occurred: 27 RT patients and 40 OBS patients. The improvement in overall survival (HR = 0.70, 90% CI = 0.45 to 1.05, p = 0.074) with RT did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: Pelvic radiotherapy after radical surgery significantly reduces the risk of recurrence and prolongs progression-free survival in women with Stage IB cervical cancer. RT appears to be particularly beneficial for patients with adenocarcinoma or

  1. Prevalence of BRCA1 mutations among 403 women with triple-negative breast cancer: implications for genetic screening selection criteria: a Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group Study.

    PubMed

    Fostira, Florentia; Tsitlaidou, Marianthi; Papadimitriou, Christos; Pertesi, Maroulio; Timotheadou, Eleni; Stavropoulou, Alexandra V; Glentis, Stavros; Bournakis, Evangelos; Bobos, Mattheos; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Papakostas, Pavlos; Pentheroudakis, George; Gogas, Helen; Skarlos, Pantelis; Samantas, Epaminontas; Bafaloukos, Dimitrios; Kosmidis, Paris A; Koutras, Angelos; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Fountzilas, George

    2012-07-01

    In spite the close association of the triple-negative breast cancer immunophenotype with hereditary breast cancers and the BRCA1 pathway, there is a lack of population studies that determine the frequency of BRCA1 mutations among triple-negative breast cancer patients. To address this, we have screened a large sample of 403 women diagnosed with triple-negative invasive breast cancer, independently of their age or family history, for germline BRCA1 mutations. Median age at diagnosis was 50 years (range 20-83). The overall prevalence of triple-negative cases among the initial patient group with invasive breast cancer was 8%. BRCA1 was screened by direct DNA sequencing in all patients, including all exons where a mutation was previously found in the Greek population (exons 5, 11, 12, 16, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24-77% of the BRCA1 coding region), including diagnostic PCRs to detect the three Greek founder large genomic rearrangements. Sixty-five deleterious BRCA1 mutations were identified among the 403 triple-negative breast cancer patients (16%). Median age of onset for mutation carriers was 39 years. Among a total of 106 women with early-onset triple-negative breast cancer (<40 years), 38 (36%) had a BRCA1 mutation, while 27% of women with triple-negative breast cancer diagnosed before 50 years (56/208) had a BRCA1 mutation. A mutation was found in 48% (50/105) of the triple-negative breast cancer patients with family history of breast or ovarian cancer. It is noteworthy, however, that of the 65 carriers, 15 (23%) had no reported family history of related cancers. All but one of the carriers had grade III tumors (98%). These results indicate that women with early-onset triple-negative breast cancer, and ideally all triple-negative breast cancer patients, are candidates for BRCA1 genetic testing even in the absence of a family history of breast or ovarian cancer. PMID:22434525

  2. Robotic, laparoscopic and open surgery for gastric cancer compared on surgical, clinical and oncological outcomes: a multi-institutional chart review. A study protocol of the International study group on Minimally Invasive surgery for GASTRIc Cancer—IMIGASTRIC

    PubMed Central

    Desiderio, Jacopo; Jiang, Zhi-Wei; Nguyen, Ninh T; Zhang, Shu; Reim, Daniel; Alimoglu, Orhan; Azagra, Juan-Santiago; Yu, Pei-Wu; Coburn, Natalie G; Qi, Feng; Jackson, Patrick G; Zang, Lu; Brower, Steven T; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Facy, Olivier; Tsujimoto, Hironori; Coratti, Andrea; Annecchiarico, Mario; Bazzocchi, Francesca; Avanzolini, Andrea; Gagniere, Johan; Pezet, Denis; Cianchi, Fabio; Badii, Benedetta; Novotny, Alexander; Eren, Tunc; Leblebici, Metin; Goergen, Martine; Zhang, Ben; Zhao, Yong-Liang; Liu, Tong; Al-Refaie, Waddah; Ma, Junjun; Takiguchi, Shuji; Lequeu, Jean-Baptiste; Trastulli, Stefano; Parisi, Amilcare

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gastric cancer represents a great challenge for healthcare providers and requires a multidisciplinary treatment approach in which surgery plays a major role. Minimally invasive surgery has been progressively developed, first with the advent of laparoscopy and recently with the spread of robotic surgery, but a number of issues are currently being debated, including the limitations in performing an effective extended lymph node dissection, the real advantages of robotic systems, the role of laparoscopy for Advanced Gastric Cancer, the reproducibility of a total intracorporeal technique and the oncological results achievable during long-term follow-up. Methods and analysis A multi-institutional international database will be established to evaluate the role of robotic, laparoscopic and open approaches in gastric cancer, comprising of information regarding surgical, clinical and oncological features. A chart review will be conducted to enter data of participants with gastric cancer, previously treated at the participating institutions. The database is the first of its kind, through an international electronic submission system and a HIPPA protected real time data repository from high volume gastric cancer centres. Ethics and dissemination This study is conducted in compliance with ethical principles originating from the Helsinki Declaration, within the guidelines of Good Clinical Practice and relevant laws/regulations. A multicentre study with a large number of patients will permit further investigation of the safety and efficacy as well as the long-term outcomes of robotic, laparoscopic and open approaches for the management of gastric cancer. Trial registration number NCT02325453; Pre-results. PMID:26482769

  3. Nurse-Led Programs to Facilitate Enrollment to Children's Oncology Group Cancer Control Trials.

    PubMed

    Haugen, Maureen; Kelly, Katherine Patterson; Leonard, Marcia; Mills, Denise; Sung, Lillian; Mowbray, Catriona; Landier, Wendy

    2016-09-01

    The progress made over the past 50 years in disease-directed clinical trials has significantly increased cure rates for children and adolescents with cancer. The Children's Oncology Group (COG) is now conducting more studies that emphasize improving quality of life for young people with cancer. These types of clinical trials are classified as cancer control (CCL) studies by the National Cancer Institute and require different resources and approaches to facilitate adequate accrual and implementation at COG institutions. Several COG institutions that had previously experienced problems with low accruals to CCL trials have successfully implemented local nursing leadership for these types of studies. Successful models of nurses as institutional leaders and "champions" of CCL trials are described. PMID:26611754

  4. A randomized trial of diet and physical activity in women treated for stage II-IV ovarian cancer: Rationale and design of the Lifestyle Intervention for Ovarian Cancer Enhanced Survival (LIVES): An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG-225) Study.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Cynthia A; Crane, Tracy E; Miller, Austin; Garcia, David O; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Alberts, David S

    2016-07-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of gynecological cancer death in United States women. Efforts to improve progression free survival (PFS) and quality of life (QoL) after treatment for ovarian cancer are necessary. Observational studies suggest that lifestyle behaviors, including diet and physical activity, are associated with lower mortality in this population. The Lifestyle Intervention for Ovarian Cancer Enhanced Survival (LIVES) NRG 0225 study is a randomized, controlled trial designed to test the hypothesis that a 24month lifestyle intervention will significantly increase PFS after oncological therapy for stage II-IV ovarian cancer. Women are randomized 1:1 to a high vegetable and fiber, low-fat diet with daily physical activity goals or an attention control group. Secondary outcomes to be evaluated include QoL and gastrointestinal health. Moreover an a priori lifestyle adherence score will be used to evaluate relationships between adoption of the diet and activity goals and PFS. Blood specimens are collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 24months for analysis of dietary adherence (carotenoids) in addition to mechanistic biomarkers (lipids, insulin, telomere length). Women are enrolled at NRG clinic sites nationally and the telephone based lifestyle intervention is delivered from The University of Arizona call center by trained health coaches. A study specific multi-modal telephone, email, and SMS behavior change software platform is utilized for information delivery, coaching and data capture. When completed, LIVES will be the largest behavior-based lifestyle intervention trial conducted among ovarian cancer survivors. PMID:27394382

  5. Natural history of transient myeloproliferative disorder clinically diagnosed in Down syndrome neonates: a report from the Children's Oncology Group Study A2971

    PubMed Central

    Alonzo, Todd A.; Gerbing, Robert B.; Hilden, Joanne M.; Sorrell, April D.; Sharma, Mukta; Loew, Thomas W.; Arceci, Robert J.; Barnard, Dorothy; Doyle, John; Massey, Gita; Perentesis, John; Ravindranath, Yaddanapudi; Taub, Jeffrey; Smith, Franklin O.

    2011-01-01

    Transient myeloproliferative disorder (TMD), restricted to newborns with trisomy 21, is a megakaryocytic leukemia that although lethal in some is distinguished by its spontaneous resolution. Later development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) occurs in some. Prospective enrollment (n = 135) elucidated the natural history in Down syndrome (DS) patients diagnosed with TMD via the use of uniform monitoring and intervention guidelines. Prevalent at diagnosis were leukocytosis, peripheral blast exceeding marrow blast percentage, and hepatomegaly. Among those with life-threatening symptoms, most (n = 29/38; 76%) received intervention therapy until symptoms abated and then were monitored similarly. Organomegaly with cardiopulmonary compromise most frequently led to intervention (43%). Death occurred in 21% but only 10% were attributable to TMD (intervention vs observation patients: 13/14 vs 1/15 because of TMD). Among those solely observed, peripheral blasts and all other TMD symptoms cleared at a median of 36 and 49 days from diagnosis, respectively. On the basis of the diagnostic clinical findings of hepatomegaly with or without life-threatening symptoms, 3 groups were identified with differing survival: low risk with neither finding (38%), intermediate risk with hepatomegaly alone (40%), and high risk with both (21%; overall survival: 92% ± 8%, 77% ± 12%, and 51% ± 19%, respectively; P ≤ .001). Among all, AML subsequently occurred in 16% at a median of 441 days (range, 118-1085 days). The trial is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00003593. PMID:21849481

  6. A Phase II Evaluation of Motesanib (AMG 706) in the Treatment of Persistent or Recurrent Ovarian, Fallopian Tube and Primary Peritoneal Carcinomas: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Schilder, RJ; Sill, MW; Lankes, HA; Gold, MA; Mannel, RS; Modesitt, SC; Hanjani, P; Bonebrake, AJ; Sood, AK; Godwin, AK; Hu, W; Alpaugh, RK

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and their receptors have a critical role in stimulating the growth of ovarian cancer cells. Motesanib is a small molecule inhibitor of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases including VEGF receptors 1-3, as well as c-KIT and platelet-derived growth factor which are related to the VEGF family. Patients and Methods Twenty-two eligible patients with recurrent ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal carcinoma were treated with an oral daily dose of 125 mg of motesanib. Peripheral blood was analyzed for circulating tumor cells (CTC) and circulating endothelial cells/circulating endothelial progenitors (CEC/CEP), VEGF levels and cell-free circulating DNA (cfDNA). Results The study was abruptly halted after four patients developed posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. One patient had a partial response and seven patients had stable disease at the time they were removed from study treatment. Twelve of the 22 patients (50%) had indeterminate responses at trial closure. Early closure without clinical efficacy data precludes meaningful correlative studies. Conclusions The serious central nervous system toxicity observed in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer precluded full examination of this agent in this population. There were no clear cut explanations for the high incidence of this known class effect in the study population compared with patients with other cancers. PMID:23321064

  7. Comparing Analytic Methods for Longitudinal GWAS and a Case-Study Evaluating Chemotherapy Course Length in Pediatric AML. A Report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Vujkovic, Marijana; Aplenc, Richard; Alonzo, Todd A; Gamis, Alan S; Li, Yimei

    2016-01-01

    Regression analysis is commonly used in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to test genotype-phenotype associations but restricts the phenotype to a single observation for each individual. There is an increasing need for analytic methods for longitudinally collected phenotype data. Several methods have been proposed to perform longitudinal GWAS for family-based studies but few methods are described for unrelated populations. We compared the performance of three statistical approaches for longitudinal GWAS in unrelated subjectes: (1) principal component-based generalized estimating equations (PC-GEE); (2) principal component-based linear mixed effects model (PC-LMEM); (3) kinship coefficient matrix-based linear mixed effects model (KIN-LMEM), in a study of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the duration of 4 courses of chemotherapy in 624 unrelated children with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) genotyped on the Illumina 2.5 M OmniQuad from the COG studies AAML0531 and AAML1031. In this study we observed an exaggerated type I error with PC-GEE in SNPs with minor allele frequencies < 0.05, wheras KIN-LMEM produces more than expected type II errors. PC-MEM showed balanced type I and type II errors for the observed vs. expected P-values in comparison to competing approaches. In general, a strong concordance was observed between the P-values with the different approaches, in particular among P < 0.01 where the between-method AUCs exceed 99%. PC-LMEM accounts for genetic relatedness and correlations among repeated phenotype measures, shows minimal genome-wide inflation of type I errors, and yields high power. We therefore recommend PC-LMEM as a robust analytic approach for GWAS of longitudinal data in unrelated populations. PMID:27547214

  8. Comparing Analytic Methods for Longitudinal GWAS and a Case-Study Evaluating Chemotherapy Course Length in Pediatric AML. A Report from the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Vujkovic, Marijana; Aplenc, Richard; Alonzo, Todd A.; Gamis, Alan S.; Li, Yimei

    2016-01-01

    Regression analysis is commonly used in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to test genotype-phenotype associations but restricts the phenotype to a single observation for each individual. There is an increasing need for analytic methods for longitudinally collected phenotype data. Several methods have been proposed to perform longitudinal GWAS for family-based studies but few methods are described for unrelated populations. We compared the performance of three statistical approaches for longitudinal GWAS in unrelated subjectes: (1) principal component-based generalized estimating equations (PC-GEE); (2) principal component-based linear mixed effects model (PC-LMEM); (3) kinship coefficient matrix-based linear mixed effects model (KIN-LMEM), in a study of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the duration of 4 courses of chemotherapy in 624 unrelated children with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) genotyped on the Illumina 2.5 M OmniQuad from the COG studies AAML0531 and AAML1031. In this study we observed an exaggerated type I error with PC-GEE in SNPs with minor allele frequencies < 0.05, wheras KIN-LMEM produces more than expected type II errors. PC-MEM showed balanced type I and type II errors for the observed vs. expected P-values in comparison to competing approaches. In general, a strong concordance was observed between the P-values with the different approaches, in particular among P < 0.01 where the between-method AUCs exceed 99%. PC-LMEM accounts for genetic relatedness and correlations among repeated phenotype measures, shows minimal genome-wide inflation of type I errors, and yields high power. We therefore recommend PC-LMEM as a robust analytic approach for GWAS of longitudinal data in unrelated populations. PMID:27547214

  9. Comparison Of Methods To Estimate Health State Utilities For Ovarian Cancer Using Quality of Life Data: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Lisa M.; Brady, William E.; Havrilesky, Laura J.; Cohn, David E.; Monk, Bradley J.; Wenzel, Lari; Cella, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Cost-effectiveness/cost-utility analyses are increasingly needed to inform decisions about care. Algorithms have been developed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) quality of life instrument to estimate utility weights for cost analyses. This study was designed to compare these algorithms in the setting of ovarian cancer. Methods GOG-0152 was a 550-patient randomized phase III trial of interval cytoreduction, and GOG-0172 was a 415-patient randomized phase III trial comparing intravenous versus intraperitoneal therapy among women with advanced ovarian cancer. QOL data were collected via the FACT at four time points in each study. Two published mapping algorithms (Cheung and Dobrez) and a linear transformation method were applied to these data. The agreement between measures was assessed by the concordance correlation coefficient (rCCC), and paired t-tests were used to compare means. Results While agreement between the estimation algorithms was good (ranged from 0.72 to 0.81), there were statistically significant (p<0.001) and clinically meaningful differences between the scores: mean scores were higher with Dobrez than with Cheung or the linear transformation method.. Scores were also statistically significantly different (p<0.001) between studies. Conclusions In the absence of prospectively collected utility data, the use of mapping algorithms is feasible, however, the optimal algorithm is not clear. There were significant differences between studies, which highlights the need for validation of these algorithms in specific settings. If cost analyses incorporate mapping algorithms to obtain utility estimates, investigators should take the variability into account. PMID:23123576

  10. A Multicenter Phase II Study of Local Radiation Therapy for Stage IEA Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas: A Preliminary Report From the Japan Radiation Oncology Group (JAROG)

    SciTech Connect

    Isobe, Koichi Kagami, Yoshikazu; Higuchi, Keiko; Kodaira, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Shikama, Naoto; Nakazawa, Masanori; Fukuda, Ichiro; Nihei, Keiji; Ito, Kana; Teshima, Teruki; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Oguchi, Masahiko

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of moderate dose radiation therapy (RT) for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in a prospective multicenter phase II trial. Methods and Materials: The subjects in this study were 37 patients with MALT lymphoma between April 2002 and November 2004. There were 16 male and 21 female patients, ranging in age from 24 to 82 years, with a median of 56 years. The primary tumor originated in the orbit in 24 patients, in the thyroid and salivary gland in 4 patients each, and 5 in the others. The median tumor dose was 30.6 Gy (range, 30.6-39.6 Gy), depending on the primary site and maximal tumor diameter. The median follow-up was 37.3 months. Results: Complete remission (CR) or CR/unconfirmed was achieved in 34 patients (92%). The 3-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and local control probability were 100%, 91.9%, and 97.3%, respectively. Thirteen patients experienced Grade 1 acute toxicities including dermatitis, mucositis, and conjunctivitis. One patient developed Grade 2 taste loss. Regarding late toxicities, Grade 2 reactions including hypothyroidism, and radiation pneumonitis were observed in three patients, and Grade 3 cataract was seen in three patients. Conclusions: This prospective phase II study demonstrated that moderate dose RT was highly effective in achieving local control with acceptable morbidity in 37 patients with MALT lymphoma.

  11. Individualized Prediction of Overall Survival After Postoperative Radiation Therapy in Patients With Early-Stage Cervical Cancer: A Korean Radiation Oncology Group Study (KROG 13-03)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyun Jin; Han, Seungbong; Kim, Young Seok; Nam, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Hak Jae; Kim, Jae Weon; Park, Won; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Kim, Jin Hee; Cha, Soon Do; Kim, Juree; Lee, Ki-Heon; Yoon, Mee Sun; and others

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: A nomogram is a predictive statistical model that generates the continuous probability of a clinical event such as death or recurrence. The aim of the study was to construct a nomogram to predict 5-year overall survival after postoperative radiation therapy for stage IB to IIA cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: The clinical data from 1702 patients with early-stage cervical cancer, treated at 10 participating hospitals from 1990 to 2011, were reviewed to develop a prediction nomogram based on the Cox proportional hazards model. Demographic, clinical, and pathologic variables were included and analyzed to formulate the nomogram. The discrimination and calibration power of the model was measured using a concordance index (c-index) and calibration curve. Results: The median follow-up period for surviving patients was 75.6 months, and the 5-year overall survival probability was 87.1%. The final model was constructed using the following variables: age, number of positive pelvic lymph nodes, parametrial invasion, lymphovascular invasion, and the use of concurrent chemotherapy. The nomogram predicted the 5-year overall survival with a c-index of 0.69, which was superior to the predictive power of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system (c-index of 0.54). Conclusions: A survival-predicting nomogram that offers an accurate level of prediction and discrimination was developed based on a large multi-center study. The model may be more useful than the FIGO staging system for counseling individual patients regarding prognosis.

  12. A Phase 1 Trial of Imetelstat in Children with Refractory or Recurrent Solid Tumors: A Children’s Oncology Group Phase 1 Consortium Study (ADVL1112)

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Patrick A.; Drissi, Rachid; Muscal, Jodi A.; Panditharatna, Eshini; Fouladi, Maryam; Ingle, Ashish M.; Ahern, Charlotte H.; Reid, Joel M.; Lin, Tong; Weigel, Brenda J.; Blaney, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Imetelstat is a covalently-lipidated 13-mer thiophosphoramidate oligonucleotide that acts as a potent specific inhibitor of telomerase. It binds with high affinity to the template region of the RNA component of human telomerase (hTERC ) and is a competitive inhibitor of telomerase enzymatic activity. The purpose of this study was to determine the recommended phase 2 dose of imetelstat in children with recurrent or refractory solid tumors. Experimental Design Imetelstat was administered intravenously over two hours on days 1 and 8, every 21 days. Dose levels of 225, 285, and 360 mg/m2 were evaluated, using the rolling-six design. Imetelstat pharmacokinetic and correlative biology studies were also performed during the first cycle. Results Twenty subjects were enrolled (median age 14 yrs; range 3–21). Seventeen were evaluable for toxicity. The most common toxicities were neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and lymphopenia, with dose-limiting myelosuppression in two of six patients at 360 mg/m2. Pharmacokinetics were dose dependent with a lower clearance at the highest dose level. Telomerase inhibition was observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells at 285 and 360 mg/m2. Two confirmed partial responses osteosarcoma (n=1) and Ewing sarcoma (n=1) were observed. Conclusions The recommended phase 2 dose of imetelstat given on days 1 and 8 of 21-day cycle is 285 mg/m2. PMID:24097866

  13. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group clinical trials for carcinoma of the cervix.

    PubMed

    Grigsby, P. W.

    1999-11-01

    Grigsby PW. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group clinical trials for carcinoma of the cervix. The purpose of this paper is to review the primary data of the clinical trials performed by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) for patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix. The trials, their strengths, limitations, and the implications of the results are discussed. During the past 25 years there have been several clinical trials performed by the RTOG to test various hypotheses for improving local control and survival for patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix. The major research themes that have been appraised are the use of hyperbaric oxygen, altered fractionation radiotherapy, hypoxic cell sensitization, chemo-sensitization, prophylactic paraaortic irradiation, and neutron radiotherapy. There are two general research themes. The initial RTOG trials for cervical cancer attempted to address the issues of tumor volume and hypoxic cells while the latter studies addressed these issues and the issue of micrometastatic disease. The phase III clinical trials performed by the RTOG have not demonstrated a local control or survival advantage in the experimental arm with the use of hyperbaric oxygen, split-course radiotherapy, hypoxic cell sensitization, or neutron radiotherapy. Acceptable toxicity and efficacy results were shown in phase II studies evaluating twice-daily irradiation and chemo-sensitization. The positive phase III trials were RTOG 79-20 which evaluated prophylactic paraaortic irradiation in patients with bulky stages IB, IIA, and IIB disease, and RTOG 90-01 which evaluated concurrent chemotherapy. Results of more recent clinical trials are pending their completion. PMID:11240808

  14. Thrice weekly azacitidine does not improve hematological responses in lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes: a study of the Hoosier Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Sayar, Hamid; Chan, Rebecca J; Orschell, Christie M; Chan, Edward M; Yu, Zhangsheng; Hood, Daniel; Plett, Artur; Yang, Zhenyun; Hui, Chua Lin; Nabinger, Sarah C; Kohlbacher, Kristopher J; West, Evan S; Walter, Amanda; Sampson, Carol; Wu, Jingwei; Cripe, Larry D

    2011-08-01

    Prolonged administration of methyl transferase inhibitors may increase response rates in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Fourteen MDS patients with anemia and less than 10% marrow blasts received azacitidine 50 mg/m(2) thrice weekly for 2 weeks every 4 weeks; 7 also received weekly erythropoietin. The response rate of 43% did not improve the rates reported with other azacitidine administration schedules, so the study was closed. A decreased apoptosis of primitive erythroid progenitors and increased expression of BclX(L) was observed with treatment in responding patients compared to non-responders. Azacitidine may modulate BclX(L) and improve erythropoiesis through reduction of apoptosis in primitive erythroid progenitor population in MDS. PMID:21420732

  15. Chemoradiation With Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in High-Risk Cervical Cancer Patients After Radical Hysterectomy: A Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Taek Sang; Kang, Soon Beom; Kim, Young Tak; Park, Byung Joo; Kim, Yong Man; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Seok Mo; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Jae Hoon; Kim, Kyung Tai

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of concurrent chemoradiation with paclitaxel and carboplatin in patients with high-risk cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Patients after radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer, with at least 1 high-risk characteristic, were administered paclitaxel 135 mg/m{sup 2}, carboplatin area under the curve = 5 every 3 weeks for 3 cycles concomitant with radiation therapy as adjuvant treatment. Results: This prospective study enrolled 71 consecutive patients. Sixty-six patients (93%) completed the planned treatment. The majority of grade 3/4 neutropenia or nonhematologic toxicities were usually self-limited. Diarrhea grades 3/4 were observed in 4 patients (5.6%). One patient developed anaphylactic shock after infusion of paclitaxel. With a median follow-up of 57 months, recurrences occurred in 16 patients. Multivariable analysis indicated that common iliac lymph node involvement is an independent risk factor for disease recurrence (odds ratio 13.48; 95% confidence interval 2.93-62.03). In the intent-to-treat population (n=71), the estimated 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival rates were 77.3% and 80.3% respectively. In the per-protocol population (n=62), disease-free survival was 78.9% and overall survival was 83.9%. Conclusions: Concurrent chemoradiation with paclitaxel/carboplatin is well tolerated and seems to be effective for patients who undergo radical hysterectomy. Therefore, a prospective, randomized controlled study should be designed to evaluate efficacy of this approach for patients with high-risk cervical cancer.

  16. Quality of Life (QOL) Analysis of a Randomized Radiation Dose Escalation Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Study: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Trial 0617

    PubMed Central

    Movsas, Benjamin; Hu, Chen; Sloan, Jeffrey; Bradley, Jeffrey; Komaki, Ritsuko; Masters, Gregory; Kavadi, Vivek; Narayan, Samir; Michalski, Jeff; Johnson, Douglas W.; Koprowski, Christopher; Curran, Walter J.; Garces, Yolanda I.; Gaur, Rakesh; Wynn, Raymond B.; Schallenkamp, John; Gelblum, Daphna Y.; MacRae, Robert M; Paulus, Rebecca; Choy, Hak

    2015-01-01

    Importance A recent randomized radiation dose escalation trial in unresectable stage III NSCLC showed a lower survival in the high-dose arm (74Gy vs. 60Gy) with concurrent chemotherapy. Quality of life (QOL), an important secondary endpoint, is presented here. Objective The primary QOL hypothesis predicted a clinically meaningful decline (CMD) in QOL via the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung Cancer Subscale (FACT-LCS) in the high-dose RT-arm at 3 months. Design RTOG 0617 was a randomized phase III study (conducted from Nov 2007 to Nov 2011) in stage III NSCLC using a 2×2 factorial design and stratified by histology, PET staging, performance status and radiation technique (3D-conformal RT [3DCRT] vs. intensity-modulated radiation [IMRT]). Setting 185 institutions in the USA and Canada. Participants Of 424 eligible stage III NSCLC patients randomized, 360 (85%) consented to QOL, of whom 313 (88%) completed baseline QOL assessments. Intervention for Clinical Trials 74Gy vs. 60Gy with concurrent and consolidation carboplatin/paclitaxel +/− cetuximab. Main Outcomes and Measures QOL was collected prospectively via FACT-Trial Outcome Index (FACT-TOI), equaling Physical-Well-Being (PWB) + Functional-Well-Being (FWB) + Lung Cancer Subscale (LCS). Data are presented at baseline & 3 and 12 months via minimal clinically meaningful changes of >=2 points for PWB, FWB or LCS or >=5 points for TOI. Results Patient demographics and baseline QOL scores were comparable between the 74Gy and 60Gy arms. Two-hundred-nineteen (72%) of living patients who completed QOL at baseline did so at 3 months and 137 (57%) of living patients did so at 12 months. Significantly more patients on 74Gy arm had clinically meaningful decline in FACT-LCS at 3 months than on the 60Gy arm (45% vs. 30%, p=0.02). At 12 months, fewer patients who received IMRT (vs 3DCRT) had clinically meaningful decline in FACT-LCS (21% vs 46%, p=0.003). Baseline FACT-TOI was associated with overall survival in

  17. Postgraduate Training in Clinical Oncology. Report on a WHO Working Group (The Hague, The Netherlands, December 6-8, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    The 1978 report of the Working Group of Postgraduate Training in Clinical Oncology, convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe in collaboration with the government of The Netherlands, is presented. The groups analyzed models of postgraduate training in clinical oncology and evaluated their suitability in relation to…

  18. A Phase II Study of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy to the Pelvis for Postoperative Patients With Endometrial Carcinoma: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 0418

    SciTech Connect

    Jhingran, Anuja; Winter, Kathryn; Portelance, Lorraine; Miller, Brigitte; Salehpour, Mohammad; Gaur, Rakesh; Souhami, Luis; Small, William; Berk, Lawrence; Gaffney, David

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of pelvic intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for patients with endometrial cancer in a multi-institutional setting and to determine whether this treatment is associated with fewer short-term bowel adverse events than standard radiation therapy. Methods: Patients with adenocarcinoma of the endometrium treated with pelvic radiation therapy alone were eligible. Guidelines for target definition and delineation, dose prescription, and dose-volume constraints for the targets and critical normal structures were detailed in the study protocol and a web-based atlas. Results: Fifty-eight patients were accrued by 25 institutions; 43 were eligible for analysis. Forty-two patients (98%) had an acceptable IMRT plan; 1 had an unacceptable variation from the prescribed dose to the nodal planning target volume. The proportions of cases in which doses to critical normal structures exceeded protocol criteria were as follows: bladder, 67%; rectum, 76%; bowel, 17%; and femoral heads, 33%. Twelve patients (28%) developed grade {>=}2 short-term bowel adverse events. Conclusions: Pelvic IMRT for endometrial cancer is feasible across multiple institutions with use of a detailed protocol and centralized quality assurance (QA). For future trials, contouring of vaginal and nodal tissue will need continued monitoring with good QA and better definitions will be needed for organs at risk.

  19. Multicenter Phase II Study of Nedaplatin and Irinotecan for Patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung: Thoracic Oncology Research Group 0910.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kouzo; Saito, Haruhiro; Kondo, Tetsuro; Murakami, Shuji; Masuda, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Michiko; Igawa, Satoshi; Katono, Ken; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Iwasawa, Shunichiro; Kurimoto, Ryota; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Shimokawa, Tsuneo; Hosomi, Yukio; Takagi, Yusuke; Kishi, Kazuma; Ohba, Mari; Oshita, Fumihiro; Watanabe, Koshiro

    2015-12-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung is moderately responsive to anticancer drugs, but no specific chemotherapy regimens have yet been established. We conducted a multicenter phase II study of nedaplatin (NP) and irinotecan (CPT) for SCC of the lung. Fifty patients underwent 4 to 6 cycles of chemotherapy comprising of NP at 100 mg/m(2) on day 1 and CPT at 60 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 every 4 weeks. Twenty-seven patients received 4 to 6 cycles of chemotherapy (median=4 cycles). Major toxicities included neutropenia (46.0%), grade 3 or 4 anorexia (22.0%), febrile neutropenia (16.0%), diarrhea (12.0%), hyponatremia (12.0%), grade 4 anemia (10.0%), thrombocytopenia (10.0%) and infection (10.0%). There were no treatment-related deaths. One patient achieved a complete response and 16 a partial response, with an overall response rate of 34.0%. The median survival time was 11.8 months (95% CI=8.3-15.8 months) and the 2-year survival rate was 22.0%. In conclusion, the NP and CPT regimen is not recommend for further evaluation for patients with advanced SCC of the lung. PMID:26637886

  20. Phase I Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Study of Pazopanib in Children With Soft Tissue Sarcoma and Other Refractory Solid Tumors: A Children's Oncology Group Phase I Consortium Report

    PubMed Central

    Glade Bender, Julia L.; Lee, Alice; Reid, Joel M.; Baruchel, Sylvain; Roberts, Timothy; Voss, Stephan D.; Wu, Bing; Ahern, Charlotte H.; Ingle, Ashish M.; Harris, Pamela; Weigel, Brenda J.; Blaney, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Pazopanib, an oral multikinase angiogenesis inhibitor, prolongs progression-free survival in adults with soft tissue sarcoma (STS). A phase I pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study of two formulations of pazopanib was performed in children with STS or other refractory solid tumors. Patients and Methods Pazopanib (tablet formulation) was administered once daily in 28-day cycles at four dose levels (275 to 600 mg/m2) using the rolling-six design. Dose determination for a powder suspension was initiated at 50% of the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) for the intact tablet. Ten patients with STS underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) scanning at baseline and 15 ± 2 days after initiation of pazopanib at the tablet MTD. Results Fifty-three patients were enrolled; 51 were eligible (26 males; median age, 12.9 years; range, 3.8 to 23.9 years). Hematologic and nonhematologic toxicities were generally mild, with dose-limiting lipase, amylase, and ALT elevation, proteinuria, and hypertension. One patient with occult brain metastasis had grade 4 intracranial hemorrhage. The MTD was 450 mg/m2 for tablet and 160 mg/m2 for suspension. Steady-state trough concentrations were reached by day 15 and did not seem to be dose dependent. One patient each with hepatoblastoma or desmoplastic small round cell tumor achieved a partial response; eight patients had stable disease for ≥ six cycles, seven of whom had sarcoma. All patients with evaluable DCE-MRI (n = 8) experienced decreases in tumor blood volume and permeability (P < .01). Placental growth factor increased, whereas endoglin and soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 decreased (P < .01; n = 41). Conclusion Pazopanib is well tolerated in children, with evidence of antiangiogenic effect and potential clinical benefit in pediatric sarcoma. PMID:23857966

  1. Successful Implementation of Image-Guided Radiation Therapy Quality Assurance in the Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 08.01 PROFIT Study

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, Mark; Frantzis, Jim; Healy, Brendan; Jones, Mark; Murry, Rebecca; Kron, Tomas; Plank, Ashley; Catton, Charles; Martin, Jarad

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: The quality assurance (QA) of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) within clinical trials is in its infancy, but its importance will continue to grow as IGRT becomes the standard of care. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of IGRT QA as part of the credentialing process for a clinical trial. Methods and Materials: As part of the accreditation process for a randomized trial in prostate cancer hypofraction, IGRT benchmarking across multiple sites was incorporated. Each participating site underwent IGRT credentialing via a site visit. In all centers, intraprostatic fiducials were used. A real-time assessment of analysis of IGRT was performed using Varian's Offline Review image analysis package. Two-dimensional (2D) kV and MV electronic portal imaging prostate patient datasets were used, consisting of 39 treatment verification images for 2D/2D comparison with the digitally reconstructed radiograph derived from the planning scan. The influence of differing sites, image modality, and observer experience on IGRT was then assessed. Results: Statistical analysis of the mean mismatch errors showed that IGRT analysis was performed uniformly regardless of institution, therapist seniority, or imaging modality across the three orthogonal planes. Conclusions: The IGRT component of clinical trials that include sophisticated planning and treatment protocols must undergo stringent QA. The IGRT technique of intraprostatic fiducials has been shown in the context of this trial to be undertaken in a uniform manner across Australia. Extending this concept to many sites with different equipment and IGRT experience will require a robust remote credentialing process.

  2. Low dose abdominal radiation as a docetaxel chemosensitizer for recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer: A phase I study of the Gynecologic Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Kunos, Charles A.; Sill, Michael W.; Buekers, Thomas E.; Walker, Joan L.; Schilder, Jeanne M.; Yamada, S. Diane; Waggoner, Steven E.; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Fracasso, Paula M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the maximum tolerated dose and dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of whole abdomen radiation as a chemosensitizer of weekly docetaxel for women with recurrent epithelial ovarian fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancers. Patients and methods Women were enrolled on one of three dose levels of docetaxel (20, 25, or 30 mg/m2) administered weekly with concurrent low dose whole abdominal radiation given as 60 cGy bid two days weekly for a total of 6 weeks. Results Thirteen women were enrolled and received 70 weekly treatments of docetaxel in combination with radiation therapy. At the first dose level, docetaxel 25 mg/m2, grade 3 fatigue and thrombocytopenia were observed. At the next dose level, docetaxel 30 mg/m2, grade 3 febrile neutropenia, grade 4 thrombocytopenia with epistaxis and grade 3 diarrhea were observed. Given these dose-limiting toxicities, a lower dose of docetaxel 20 mg/m2 was administered and found to be tolerable. No objective responses were observed among the 10 patients with measurable disease; however, the median progression-free survival (PFS) in all patients was 3.3 months, and 3 of the patients with measurable disease were free of tumor progression after 6 months (30%; 90% Confidence Interval 8.7–61%). Conclusions Twice weekly low dose whole abdomen radiation during weekly docetaxel 20 mg/m2 was well-tolerated. Given the PFS demonstrated in these women with resistant ovarian cancer, further study of whole abdominal radiation and concurrent chemotherapy may be warranted. PMID:21075438

  3. Re-induction Chemoimmunotherapy with Epratuzumab in Relapsed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL): Phase II Results from Children’s Oncology Group (COG) Study ADVL04P2

    PubMed Central

    Raetz, Elizabeth A.; Cairo, Mitchell S.; Borowitz, Michael J.; Lu, Xiaomin; Devidas, Meenakshi; Reid, Joel M.; Goldenberg, David M.; Wegener, William A.; Zeng, Hui; Whitlock, James A.; Adamson, Peter C.; Hunger, Stephen P.; Carroll, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the success of immunotherapeutic approaches in hematologic malignancies, the COG designed a phase I/II study to determine whether the addition of epratuzumab (anti-CD22) to an established chemotherapy platform improves rates of second remission (CR2) in pediatric patients with B-lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) and early bone marrow relapse. Procedure Therapy consisted of 3 established blocks of re-induction chemotherapy. Epratuzumab (360 mg/m2/dose) was combined with chemotherapy on weekly × 4 (B1) and twice weekly × 4 [8 doses] (B2) schedules during the first re-induction block. Remission rates and minimal residual disease (MRD) status were compared to historical rates observed with the identical chemotherapy platform alone. Results CR2 was achieved in 65% and 66%, of the evaluable B1 (n=54) and B2 patients (n=60), respectively; unchanged from that observed historically without epratuzumab. Rates of MRD negativity (< 0.01%) were 31% in B1 (P=0.4128)and 39% in B2 patients (P=0.1731), compared to 25% in historical controls. The addition of epratuzumab was well tolerated, with a similar toxicity profile to that observed with the re-induction chemotherapy platform regimen alone. Conclusions Epratuzumab was well tolerated in combination with re-induction chemotherapy. While CR2 rates were not improved compared to historical controls treated with chemotherapy alone, there was a non-significant trend towards improvement in MRD response with the addition of epratuzumab (twice weekly for 8 doses) to re-induction chemotherapy. PMID:25732247

  4. Phase II Study of the Addition of Bevacizumab to Standard Chemoradiation for Loco-regionally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Trial 0615

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nancy Y.; Zhang, Ed; Pfister, David. G.; Kim, John; Garden, Adam. S.; Mechalakos, James; Hu, Kenneth; Le, Quynh T.; Colevas, A. Dimitrios; Glisson, Bonnie S.; Chan, Anthony T.C.; Ang, K. Kian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We sought to improve the outcomes for loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) by testing the feasibility/safety of adding bevacizumab to chemoradiation. Patients/Methods Eligible patients with ≥T2b and/or positive node(s) were prescribed 3 cycles of bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) and cisplatin (100 mg/m2) both given on days 1, 22, and 43 of radiation (70 Gy) using IMRT delivered over 33 days on a daily basis, Monday through Friday. This is followed by 3 cycles of bevacizumab (15 mg/kg), cisplatin (80 mg/m2) both were given on days 64, 85, and 106 and fluorouracil (1000 mg/m2/d) on days 64–67, 85–88, 106–109 after radiation. The primary endpoint was to evaluate the safety of the addition of bevacizumab to chemoradiation, specifically looking at treatment-related Grade 4 hemorrhage and/or any Grade 5 adverse event in the first year. Toxicity during and after treatment were collected along with tumor control endpoints. The analysis was done per protocol. This protocol has completed its target accrual. Results There were a total of 46 patients enrolled in this study of whom 44 patients were eligible for analysis. No grade 3–4 hemorrhage or grade 5 adverse events were observed; 9 patients (20.5%) experienced grade 1–2 hemorrhage. Grade 4 adverse events were experienced by the following numbers of patients: leukopenia NOS – 6; lymphopenia – 5; neutrophil count – 5; pharyngolaryngeal pain – 2; hemoglobin – 1; infection with grade 3–4 neutrophils (blood) – 1; infection with grade 3–4 neutrophils [skin (cellulitis)] – 1; tinnitus – 1; thrombosis – 1; radiation mucositis – 1. The most common grade 3 adverse events were radiation mucositis – 33; dysphagia – 25; and mucositis/stomatitis (clinical exam) (pharynx) – 15. Two patients experienced late grade 3 xerostomia. Other late grade 3 adverse events were: dysphagia – 5; hearing impaired – 3; neuralgia NOS – 2; constitutional symptoms (other) – 1; dehydration

  5. Prospective study of the UGT1A1*27 gene polymorphism during irinotecan therapy in patients with lung cancer: Results of Lung Oncology Group in Kyusyu (LOGIK1004B)

    PubMed Central

    Suetsugu, Takayuki; Shimada, Midori; Kitazaki, Takeshi; Hashiguchi, Kohji; Kishimoto, Junji; Harada, Taishi; Seto, Takashi; Ebi, Noriyuki; Takayama, Koichi; Sugio, Kenji; Semba, Hiroshi; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Ichinose, Yukito

    2016-01-01

    Background Uridine 5′‐diphospho‐glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1*27) is known to impair the effect of UGT in basic research; however, little clinical investigation has been conducted. To evaluate the effect of the UGT1A1*27 polymorphism in irinotecan therapy, we conducted a prospective study. Methods Eligibility criteria included: lung cancer patients; scheduled irinotecan therapy doses of single ≥ 80, combination ≥ 50, radiation with single ≥ 50, or radiation with combination ≥ 40 mg/m2; age ≥ 20; and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score (PS) 0–2. Patients were examined for UGT1A1*28 and *6 polymorphisms and received irinotecan. When the UGT1A1*28 polymorphism was detected, a search for UGT1A1*27 was conducted. Fifty patients were enrolled, with 48 patients determined eligible. Results UGT1A1 polymorphisms *28/*28, *6/*6, *28/*6, *28/−, *6/−, −/− observed 0 (0%), 1 (2%), 1 (2%), 7 (15%), 17 (35%) and 22 (46%), respectively. UGT1A1*27 were examined in nine patients including one ineligible patient; however, no polymorphisms were found. The study ceased after interim analysis. In an evaluation of the side effects of irinotecan, patients with UGT1A1*28 and UGT1A1*6 polymorphisms had a higher tendency to experience febrile neutropenia than wild type (25% and 32% vs. 14%). Incidences of grade 3/4 leukopenia and neutropenia were significantly higher in patients with UGT1A1*28 polymorphisms compared with wild type (75% vs. 32%, P = 0.049; 75% vs. 36%, P = 0.039, respectively). Conclusion Our prospective study did not locate the UGT1A1*27 polymorphism, suggesting that UGT1A1*27 does not significantly predict severe irinotecan toxicity in cancer patients. PMID:27385990

  6. The impact of concurrent granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor on radiation-induced mucositis in head and neck cancer patients: A double-blind placebo-controlled prospective Phase III study by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9901

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Janice K. . E-mail: janice.ryu@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu; Swann, Suzanne; LeVeque, Francis; Johnson, Darlene J.; Chen, Allan; Fortin, Andre; Kim, Harold; Ang, Kian K.

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: Based on early clinical evidence of potential mucosal protection by granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study to test the efficacy and safety of GM-CSF in reducing the severity and duration of mucosal injury and pain (mucositis) associated with curative radiotherapy (RT) in head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients included those with head-and-neck cancer with radiation ports encompassing >50% of oral cavity and/or oropharynx. Standard RT ports were used to cover the primary tumor and regional lymphatics at risk in standard fractionation to 60-70 Gy. Concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy was allowed. Patients were randomized to receive subcutaneous injection of GM-CSF 250 {mu}g/m{sup 2} or placebo 3 times a week. Mucosal reaction was assessed during the course of RT using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria and the protocol-specific scoring system. Results: Between October 2000 and September 2002, 130 patients from 36 institutions were accrued. Nine patients (7%) were excluded from the analysis, 3 as a result of drug unavailability. More than 80% of the patients participated in the quality-of-life endpoint of this study. The GM-CSF did not cause any increase in toxicity compared with placebo. There was no statistically significant difference in the average mean mucositis score in the GM-CSF and placebo arms by a t test (p = 0.4006). Conclusion: This placebo-controlled, randomized study demonstrated no significant effect of GM-CSF given concurrently compared with placebo in reducing the severity or duration of RT-induced mucositis in patients undergoing definitive RT for head-and-neck cancer.

  7. Understanding the Differences Between Oncology Patients and Oncology Health Professionals Concerning Spirituality/Religiosity: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Camargos, Mayara Goulart de; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Barroso, Eliane Marçon; Carneseca, Estela Cristina; Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated whether spirituality/religiosity (S/R) plays an important role in the lives of cancer patients and in the work of health professionals who provide care for these patients. The correlations between spiritual quality of life (QOL) and the other QOL domain scores of patients and health professionals were also assessed. Moreover, QOL domain scores were compared between patients and health professionals. In this cross-sectional study, 1050 participants (525 oncology patients and 525 health professionals) were interviewed. Quality of life was assessed with the World Health Organization quality of life spiritual, religious, and personal beliefs (WHOQOL-SRPB). To compare the groups with respect to the instruments' domains, a quantile regression and an analysis of covariance model were used. The WHOQOL-Bref and WHOQOL-SRPB domains were correlated by performing Pearson and partial correlation tests. It was demonstrated that 94.1% of patients considered it important that health professionals addressed their spiritual beliefs, and 99.2% of patients relied on S/R to face cancer. Approximately, 99.6% of the patients reported that S/R support is necessary during cancer treatment; 98.3% of health professionals agreed that spiritual and religious support was necessary for oncology patients. Positive correlations between spiritual QOL and the other QOL domains were observed. When compared among themselves, patients exhibited significantly higher levels of spiritual QOL. In conclusion, S/R was an important construct in the minds of cancer patients and health professionals. Both groups often use S/R resources in their daily lives, which seems to positively affect their perceptions of QOL. Further studies are needed to determine how health professionals effectively address S/R during oncology practice. PMID:26632743

  8. Results of a Quality Assurance Review of External Beam Radiation Therapy in the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (Europe) Neuroblastoma Group's High-risk Neuroblastoma Trial: A SIOPEN Study

    SciTech Connect

    Gaze, Mark N.; Boterberg, Tom; Dieckmann, Karin; Hoermann, Marcus; Gains, Jennifer E.; Sullivan, Kevin P.; Ladenstein, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy is important for local control in neuroblastoma. This study reviewed the compliance of plans with the radiation therapy guidelines of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (Europe) Neuroblastoma Group (SIOPEN) High-Risk Trial protocol. Methods and Materials: The SIOPEN trial central electronic database has sections to record diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy planning data. Individual centers may upload data remotely, but not all centers involved in the trial chose to use this system. A quality scoring system was devised based on how well the radiation therapy plan matched the protocol guidelines, to what extent deviations were justified, and whether adverse effects may result. Central review of radiation therapy planning was undertaken retrospectively in 100 patients for whom complete diagnostic and treatment sets were available. Data were reviewed and compared against protocol guidelines by an international team of radiation oncologists and radiologists. For each patient in the sample, the central review team assigned a quality assurance score. Results: It was found that in 48% of patients there was full compliance with protocol requirements. In 29%, there were deviations for justifiable reasons with no likely long-term adverse effects resulting. In 5%, deviations had occurred for justifiable reasons, but that might result in adverse effects. In 1%, there was a deviation with no discernible justification, which would not lead to long-term adverse events. In 17%, unjustified deviations were noted, with a risk of an adverse outcome resulting. Conclusions: Owing to concern over the proportion of patients in whom unjustified deviations were observed, a protocol amendment has been issued. This offers the opportunity for central review of radiation therapy plans before the start of treatment and the treating clinician a chance to modify plans.

  9. Children's Oncology Group's 2013 blueprint for research: rare tumors.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Krailo, Mark; Frazier, Lindsay; Chintagumpala, Murali; Amatruda, James; Katzenstein, Howard; Malogolowkin, Marcio; Spector, Logan; Pashankar, Farzana; Meyers, Rebecka; Tomlinson, Gail

    2013-06-01

    In the US, approximately 2,000 children are diagnosed with rare cancers each year, with 5-year survival ranging from <20% for children with advanced carcinomas to >95% for children with intraocular retinoblastoma or localized germ cell tumors. During the last years, 12 clinical studies have been successfully completed in children with retinoblastoma, liver tumors, germ cell tumors, and infrequent malignancies, including therapeutic, epidemiologic, and biologic studies. Current efforts are centered in the development of large international collaborations to consolidate evidence-based definitions and risk stratifications that will support international Phase 3 clinical trials in germ cell tumors, hepatoblastoma, and other rare cancers. PMID:23255219

  10. Medical Malpractice Claims in Radiation Oncology: A Population-Based Study 1985-2012

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Deborah C.; Punglia, Rinaa S.; Fox, Dov; Recht, Abram; Hattangadi-Gluth, Jona A.

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine trends in radiation oncology malpractice claims and expenses during the last 28 years and to compare radiation oncology malpractice claims to those of other specialties. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective analysis of closed malpractice claims filed from 1985 to 2012, collected by a nationwide medical liability insurance trade association. We analyzed characteristics and trends among closed claims, indemnity payments (payments to plaintiff), and litigation expenses. We also compared radiation oncology malpractice claims to those of 21 other medical specialties. Time series dollar amounts were adjusted for inflation (2012 was the index year). Results: There were 1517 closed claims involving radiation oncology, of which 342 (22.5%) were paid. Average and median indemnity payments were $276,792 and $122,500, respectively, ranking fifth and eighth, respectively, among the 22 specialty groups. Linear regression modeling of time trends showed decreasing total numbers of claims (β = −1.96 annually, P=.003), increasing average litigation expenses paid (β = +$1472 annually, P≤.001), and no significant changes in average indemnity payments (β = −$681, P=.89). Conclusions: Medical professional liability claims filed against radiation oncologists are not common and have declined in recent years. However, indemnity payments in radiation oncology are large relative to those of many other specialties. In recent years, the average indemnity payment has been stable, whereas litigation expenses have increased.

  11. A Phase II Study of Synchronous Three-Dimensional Conformal Boost to the Gross Tumor Volume for Patients With Unresectable Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Results of Korean Radiation Oncology Group 0301 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Kwan Ho Ahn, Sung Ja; Pyo, Hong Ryull; Kim, Kyu-Sik; Kim, Young-Chul; Moon, Sung Ho; Han, Ji-Youn; Kim, Heung Tae; Koom, Woong Sub; Lee, Jin Soo

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the efficacy of synchronous three-dimensional (3D) conformal boost to the gross tumor volume (GTV) in concurrent chemoradiotherapy for patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Eligibility included unresectable Stage III NSCLC with no pleural effusion, no supraclavicular nodal metastases, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score of 0-1. Forty-nine patients with pathologically proven NSCLC were enrolled. Eighteen patients had Stage IIIA and 31 had Stage IIIB. By using 3D conformal radiotherapy (RT) techniques, a dose of 1.8 Gy was delivered to the planning target volume with a synchronous boost of 0.6 Gy to the GTV, with a total dose of 60 Gy to the GTV and 45 Gy to the planning target volume in 25 fractions during 5 weeks. All patients received weekly chemotherapy consisting of paclitaxel and carboplatin during RT. Results: With a median follow-up of 36.8 months (range, 29.0-45.5 months) for surviving patients, median survival was 28.1 months. One-, 2- and 3-year overall survival rates were 77%, 56.4%, and 43.8%, respectively. Corresponding local progression-free survival rates were 71.2%, 53.7%, and 53.7%. Compliance was 90% for RT and 88% for chemotherapy. Acute esophagitis of Grade 2 or higher occurred in 29 patients. Two patients with T4 lesions died of massive bleeding and hemoptysis during treatment (Grade 5). Overall late toxicity was acceptable. Conclusions: Based on the favorable outcome with acceptable toxicity, the acceleration scheme using 3D conformal GTV boost in this trial is warranted to compare with conventional fractionation in a Phase III trial.

  12. Radiotherapy Quality Assurance Report From Children's Oncology Group AHOD0031

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmarajan, Kavita V.; Friedman, Debra L.; FitzGerald, T.J.; McCarten, Kathleen M.; Chen, Lu; Kessel, Sandy K.; Iandoli, Matt; Laurie, Fran; Schwartz, Cindy L.; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: A phase 3 trial assessing response-based therapy in intermediate-risk Hodgkin lymphoma mandated real-time central review of involved field radiation therapy (IFRT) and imaging records by a centralized review center to maximize protocol compliance. We report the impact of centralized radiation therapy review on protocol compliance. Methods and Materials: Review of simulation films, port films, and dosimetry records was required before and after treatment. Records were reviewed by study-affiliated or review center–affiliated radiation oncologists. A deviation of 6% to 10% from protocol-specified dose was scored as “minor”; a deviation of >10% was “major.” A volume deviation was scored as “minor” if margins were less than specified or “major” if fields transected disease-bearing areas. Interventional review and final compliance review scores were assigned to each radiation therapy case and compared. Results: Of 1712 patients enrolled, 1173 underwent IFRT at 256 institutions in 7 countries. An interventional review was performed in 88% of patients and a final review in 98%. Overall, minor and major deviations were found in 12% and 6% of patients, respectively. Among the cases for which ≥1 pre-IFRT modification was requested by the Quality Assurance Review Center and subsequently made by the treating institution, 100% were made compliant on final review. By contrast, among the cases for which ≥1 modification was requested but not made by the treating institution, 10% were deemed compliant on final review. Conclusions: In a large trial with complex treatment pathways and heterogeneous radiation therapy fields, central review was performed in a large percentage of cases before IFRT and identified frequent potential deviations in a timely manner. When suggested modifications were performed by the institutions, deviations were almost eliminated.

  13. Outcomes of Patients With Surgically and Pathologically Staged IIIA-IVB Pure Endometrioid-type Endometrial Cancer: A Taiwanese Gynecology Oncology Group (TGOG-2005) Retrospective Cohort Study (A STROBE-Compliant Article).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jen-Ruei; Chang, Ting-Chang; Fu, Hung-Chun; Lau, Hei-Yu; Chen, I-Hui; Ke, Yu-Min; Liang, Yu-Ling; Chiang, An-Jen; Huang, Chia-Yen; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Hong, Mun-Kun; Wang, Yu-Chi; Huang, Kuo-Feng; Hsiao, Sheng-Mou; Wang, Peng-Hui

    2016-04-01

    In the management of patients with advanced-stage pure endometrioid-type endometrial cancer (E-EC), such as positive lymph nodes (stage III) or stage IV, treatment options are severely limited. This article aims to investigate the outcome of women with FIGO III-IV E-EC (based on FIGO 2009 system). The retrospective cohort study, based on the Taiwanese Gynecologic Oncology Group (TGOG-2005), enrolled patients undergoing staging surgery to have a pathologically confirmed FIGO III-IV E-EC from 22-member hospitals between 1991 and 2010. This cohort included 541 patients (stage III, n = 464; stage IV, n = 77). Five-year overall survival (OS) was 70.4%. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 43 months (range 0-258 months) and median OS was 52 months (range 1-258 months). Multivariate analysis showed that FIGO stage, >1/2 myometrial invasion (hazard ratio [HR] 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-2.09; P = 0.007), histological grade 3 (HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.47-2.75; P < 0.001), and metastases of pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes (PLN and PALN) (HR 2.75, 95% CI 1.13-6.72; P < 0.001) were independent risk factors for PFS. FIGO stage, >1/2 myometrial invasion (HR 1.89, 95% CI 1.34-2.64; P < 0.001), and histological grade 3 (HR 2.42, 95% CI 1.75-3.35; P < 0.001) influenced OS. Complete dissection of PLN and PALN (HR 0.27, 95% CI 0.16-0.45; P < 0.001, and HR 0.14, 95% CI 0.08-0.26; P < 0.001) and the following paclitaxel-based therapy (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.79-0.92; P = 0.017, and HR 0.48; 95% CI 0.31-0.75; P = 0.001) provided the better PFS and OS, respectively. In management of women with FIGO III-V E-EC, combination of complete staging surgery (complete dissection of PLN and PALN is included) and the following paclitaxel-based therapy could provide the better chance to survive. Patients with tumor >1/2 myometrial invasion and histological grade 3 are risky for disease-related mortality. PMID:27082583

  14. Radiotherapy in pediatric medulloblastoma: Quality assessment of Pediatric Oncology Group Trial 9031

    SciTech Connect

    Miralbell, Raymond . E-mail: Raymond.Miralbell@hcuge.ch; Fitzgerald, T.J.; Laurie, Fran; Kessel, Sandy; Glicksman, Arvin; Friedman, Henry S.; Urie, Marcia; Kepner, James L.; Zhou Tianni; Chen Zhengjia; Barnes, Pat; Kun, Larry; Tarbell, Nancy J.

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential influence of radiotherapy quality on survival in high-risk pediatric medulloblastoma patients. Methods and Materials: Trial 9031 of the Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) aimed to study the relative benefit of cisplatin and etoposide randomization of high-risk patients with medulloblastoma to preradiotherapy vs. postradiotherapy treatment. Two-hundred and ten patients were treated according to protocol guidelines and were eligible for the present analysis. Treatment volume (whole brain, spine, posterior fossa, and primary tumor bed) and dose prescription deviations were assessed for each patient. An analysis of first site of failure was undertaken. Event-free and overall survival rates were calculated. A log-rank test was used to determine the significance of potential survival differences between patients with and without major deviations in the radiotherapy procedure. Results: Of 160 patients who were fully evaluable for all treatment quality parameters, 91 (57%) had 1 or more major deviations in their treatment schedule. Major deviations by treatment site were brain (26%), spinal (7%), posterior fossa (40%), and primary tumor bed (17%). Major treatment volume or total dose deviations did not significantly influence overall and event-free survival. Conclusions: Despite major treatment deviations in more than half of fully evaluable patients, underdosage or treatment volume misses were not associated with a worse event-free or overall survival.

  15. General surgeons' views on Oncologic Multidisciplinary Group meetings as part of colorectal cancer care.

    PubMed

    Feroci, Francesco; Lenzi, Elisa; Baraghini, Maddalena; Cantafio, Stefano; Scatizzi, Marco

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the current effectiveness of Oncologic Multidisciplinary Groups (OMGs) meetings across central Tuscany through surgeons' reports and their individual perceived benefits on colorectal cancer management. One hundred and sixty-seven general surgeons received a questionnaire with 21 questions covering organizational characteristics of OMGs and the individual perceived benefits of OMGs. The responses were analyzed by hospital setting (teaching vs. community hospital). The reply rate was 62.8 %, and 82 respondent surgeons (49.1 %) were involved in the treatment of colorectal cancer patients. At community hospitals, there was a more frequent participation of medical oncologists, radiation oncologists and pathologists; a less selection of discussed cases was performed; and almost all decisions were inserted into official patient charts (p < 0.05). Community hospital surgeons perceived more of a benefit than academic surgeons: OMGs ensure that all treatment options are considered and improve timeliness of care, patient outcomes, patient satisfaction and communication with patients (p < 0.05). The surveyed surgeons reported that OMGs offer a modest degree of protection from malpractice but improve communications between colleagues and are an opportunity for personal professional development. Professionals regularly participating in well-conducted and well-organized OMGs for colorectal cancer felt that the multidisciplinary strategy may be advantageous to both patients and caregivers. PMID:22987014

  16. Phase 2 trial design in neuro-oncology revisited: a report from the RANO group.

    PubMed

    Galanis, Evanthia; Wu, Wenting; Cloughesy, Timothy; Lamborn, Kathleen; Mann, Bhupinder; Wen, Patrick Y; Reardon, David A; Wick, Wolfgang; Macdonald, David; Armstrong, Terri S; Weller, Michael; Vogelbaum, Michael; Colman, Howard; Sargent, Daniel J; van den Bent, Martin J; Gilbert, Mark; Chang, Susan

    2012-05-01

    Advances in the management of gliomas, including the approval of agents such as temozolomide and bevacizumab, have created an evolving therapeutic landscape in glioma treatment, thus affecting our ability to reliably use historical controls to comparatively assess the activity of new therapies. Furthermore, the increasing availability of novel, targeted agents--which are competing for a small patient population, in view of the low incidence of primary brain tumours--draws attention to the need to improve the efficiency of phase 2 clinical testing in neuro-oncology to expeditiously transition the most promising of these drugs or combinations to potentially practice-changing phase 3 trials. In this report from the Response Assessment in Neurooncology (RANO) group, we review phase 2 trial designs that can address these challenges and capitalise on scientific and clinical advances in brain tumour treatment in neuro-oncology to accelerate and optimise the selection of drugs deserving further testing in phase 3 trials. Although there is still a small role for single-arm and non-comparative phase 2 designs, emphasis is placed on the potential role that comparative randomised phase 2 designs--such as screening designs, selection designs, discontinuation designs, and adaptive designs, including seamless phase 2/3 designs--can have. The rational incorporation of these designs, as determined by the specific clinical setting and the trial's endpoints or goals, has the potential to substantially advance new drug development in neuro-oncology. PMID:22554547

  17. A strategy for young members within national radiation oncology societies: the Italian experience (AIRO Giovani group)

    PubMed Central

    Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Alongi, Filippo; Ciammella, Patrizia; De Bari, Berardino; Franco, Pierfrancesco; Livi, Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Aim To briefly review history, structure, past events and future projects of AIRO (Associazione Italiana Radioterapia Oncologica) young group (AIRO Giovani), focusing on its specific commitment to multidisciplnary networking among junior clinical oncologists at a national and international level. Background AIRO Giovani is a part of AIRO composed by members under 40 years old. Its main activities are scientific and educational meetings dedicated to young Italian radiation oncologists and collaborative research projects. Materials and Methods AIRO Giovani structure, events organized and supported by AIRO giovani as well as scientific activities are here reported from its creation in 2007 up to current days. Results AIRO Giovani group was able to create a consolidated network between Italian junior radiation oncologists, while opening the possibility to collaborate with junior groups of other national scientific societies in the field of oncology and with ESTRO young members. Scientific projects carried out by the group have been successful and will be further implemented in next years. Conclusions AIRO Giovani is still in its infancy, but its early positive experience supports the creation and development of young groups within national radiation oncology societies. PMID:24669305

  18. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) 2012 Workforce Study: The Radiation Oncologists' and Residents' Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Pohar, Surjeet; Fung, Claire Y.; Hopkins, Shane; Miller, Robert; Azawi, Samar; Olsen, Christine

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) conducted the 2012 Radiation Oncology Workforce Survey to obtain an up-to-date picture of the workforce, assess its needs and concerns, and identify quality and safety improvement opportunities. The results pertaining to radiation oncologists (ROs) and residents (RORs) are presented here. Methods: The ASTRO Workforce Subcommittee, in collaboration with allied radiation oncology professional societies, conducted a survey study in early 2012. An online survey questionnaire was sent to all segments of the radiation oncology workforce. Respondents who were actively working were included in the analysis. This manuscript describes the data for ROs and RORs. Results: A total of 3618 ROs and 568 RORs were surveyed. The response rate for both groups was 29%, with 1047 RO and 165 ROR responses. Among ROs, the 2 most common racial groups were white (80%) and Asian (15%), and the male-to-female ratio was 2.85 (74% male). The median age of ROs was 51. ROs averaged 253.4 new patient consults in a year and 22.9 on-treatment patients. More than 86% of ROs reported being satisfied or very satisfied overall with their career. Close to half of ROs reported having burnout feelings. There was a trend toward more frequent burnout feelings with increasing numbers of new patient consults. ROs' top concerns were related to documentation, reimbursement, and patients' health insurance coverage. Ninety-five percent of ROs felt confident when implementing new technology. Fifty-one percent of ROs thought that the supply of ROs was balanced with demand, and 33% perceived an oversupply. Conclusions: This study provides a current snapshot of the 2012 radiation oncology physician workforce. There was a predominance of whites and men. Job satisfaction level was high. However a substantial fraction of ROs reported burnout feelings. Perceptions about supply and demand balance were mixed. ROs top concerns reflect areas of attention for the

  19. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) with t(8;14)(q11.2;q32): B-cell disease with high proportion of Down Syndrome. A Children's Oncology Group (COG) Study

    PubMed Central

    Messinger, Yoav H.; Higgins, Rodney R.; Devidas, Meenakshi; Hunger, Stephen P.; Carroll, Andrew J.; Heerema, Nyla A.

    2012-01-01

    The rare translocation t(8;14)(q11.2;q32) has been described in patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), particularly patients with Down Syndrome (DS). We describe patients with t(8;14)(q11.2;q32) that were identified by the Children's Oncology Group (COG) ALL cytogenetics database, expanding our previous report of 10 patients with this translocation. Twenty-two such patients were treated with COG protocols. All patients had B-cell ALL and 7 (31.8%) had DS. None of the children with DS had an event, thus these patients had a superior estimated 5-year event-free survival (EFS) compared to non-DS patients (100% vs. 50.1 ± 17.7%; p=0.04). Only one patient (4.5%) had a concomitant Philadelphia chromosome t(9;22)(q34;q11.2). The cytogenetics data of two additional patients, who were not eligible for COG protocols, are also included in this report. In conclusion, ALL patients with the recurring translocation t(8;14)(q11.2;q32) have B-cell phenotype and a high percentage have DS. Children with DS and t(8;14)(q11.2;q34) have improved event-free survival using standard COG therapy compared to non-DS patients. We did not find an increased number of patients with a concomitant Philadelphia chromosome in this population. PMID:22939398

  20. Analysis of non-clonal chromosome abnormalities observed in hematologic malignancies among Southwest Oncology Group patients

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, T.S.; Dobin, S.M.

    1994-09-01

    From 1987-1994, the Southwest Oncology Group Cytogenetics Committee reviewed 1571 studies in 590 adult patient cases with ALL, AML, CML or CLL. These were analyzed for the presence of clinically important non-clonal abnormalities (NCA). Abnormalities were defined as non-clonal if one metaphase had a structural abnormality or an extra chromosome. Chromosome loss was not analyzed due to the possibility of random loss. In 72 cases (12%) comprising 136 studies, at least one NCA was observed. In 21 of these cases (29%), NCAs consisted of obvious clonal evolution or instability, and thus were not included in the analysis. At least one structural NCA was observed in which the abnormality differed from the mainline in 36 (50%) patients. Seventeen of the 36 cases had a normal mode. Nineteen of the 36 patients had an abnormal or normal/abnormal mode. At least one numerical NCA was found in 15 cases (21%). Fifteen cases (21%) contained at least one marker chromosome. Several cases involved NCA in more than one of the above divisions. NCAs could be classified into several categories: (1){open_quotes}the clone to come{close_quotes}, (2) evolving clones which then disappeared, (3) NCAs with putative clinical importance that never became clonal, (4) NCAs during remission identical to the preceding clonal abnormality, (5) NCAs which indicated clonal evolution or instability. Examples include one metaphase with t(9;22) or del(20q) or inv(16) or +8 which either preceded or followed clonal findings of the same aberration. Such findings should be communicated to the clinician.

  1. Oncological outcome after lung metastasis in patients presenting with localized chondrosarcoma at extremities: Tokai Musculoskeletal Oncology Consortium study

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tomoki; Matsumine, Akihiko; Yamada, Satoshi; Tsukushi, Satoshi; Kawanami, Katsuhisa; Ohno, Takatoshi; Katagiri, Hirohisa; Sugiura, Hideshi; Yamada, Kenji; Yamada, Yoshihisa; Sudo, Akihiro; Nishida, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    The oncological outcome after lung metastasis in patients with chondrosarcoma of the extremities has not been reported. Between June 2000 and June 2013, 179 patients with chondrosarcoma in the extremities were treated at eleven hospitals. Twenty consecutive patients (11.2%) developed lung metastases after initial treatment of primary chondrosarcoma in the extremities. We investigated the oncological outcome of 20 chondrosarcoma patients with lung metastasis. There were 14 males and six females with a mean age of 49 years. The mean duration between primary surgery and appearance of lung metastases was 34 months. The mean follow-up period was 48 months. We excluded patients with lung metastasis at the time of presentation from this study. At the final follow-up, four of 20 patients had no evidence of disease, four were alive with disease, and twelve had died of disease. The 3- and 5-year survival rates after lung metastasis were 51.5% and 45.7%, respectively. Tumor grade, extrapulmonary metastasis, and treatment for lung metastases including metastasectomy and radiofrequency ablation were identified by univariate analysis to be significant prognostic factors for oncological analysis. In conclusion, this study evaluated the oncological outcome in patients with chondrosarcoma of the extremities with lung metastasis. Although a large-scale study might be required to confirm the results of this study, we suggest that metastasectomy and/or radiofrequency ablation should be considered to improve postmetastatic survival. PMID:27536136

  2. Prospective, longitudinal assessment of quality of life in children from diagnosis to 3 months off treatment for standard risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Results of Children's Oncology Group study AALL0331.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Hannah-Rose; Lu, Xiaomin; Myers, Regina M; Sung, Lillian; Balsamo, Lyn M; Carroll, William L; Raetz, Elizabeth; Loh, Mignon L; Mattano, Leonard A; Winick, Naomi J; Devidas, Meenakshi; Hunger, Stephen P; Maloney, Kelly; Kadan-Lottick, Nina S

    2016-01-15

    Standard risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (SR-ALL) has high cure rates, but requires 2-3 years of therapy. We aimed to (i) prospectively evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) during and after SR-ALL therapy, and (ii) identify associated predictors. Parents of 160 SR-ALL patients enrolled on Children's Oncology Group (COG) therapeutic trial AALL0331 at 31 sites completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 4.0 Generic Core Scales (physical, emotional and social functioning) and Family Assessment Device-General Functioning (FAD-GF) at 1, 6 and 12 months after diagnosis, and 3 months post-therapy. Mean PedsQL scores in physical, emotional and social functioning were impaired 1 month after diagnosis but steadily improved. Three months post-therapy, impaired physical and social functioning was observed in 27.8 and 25.8% of patients, respectively. In repeated-measures analysis, problematic family functioning predicted emotional (OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.03-3.34) and social (OR = 1.99, 95% CI 1.21-3.27) impairment. Larger household size was associated with social impairment (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.02-1.45). Adverse neurological event(s) during therapy predicted post-therapy physical (OR = 5.17, 95% CI 1.61-16.63) and social (OR = 8.17, 95% CI 1.19-56.16) impairment. HRQOL 1 month after diagnosis was not predictive of HRQOL 3 months after therapy completion. In conclusion, children with SR-ALL experience considerable impairment in HRQOL at the end of induction, but rapidly improve. However, many still experience physical and social impairment 3 months post-therapy, suggesting a role for continued family and physical functioning support. Longer follow-up is needed to determine if post-therapy deficits change over time. PMID:26235006

  3. RTOG Sarcoma Radiation Oncologists Reach Consensus on Gross Tumor Volume and Clinical Target Volume on Computed Tomographic Images for Preoperative Radiotherapy of Primary Soft Tissue Sarcoma of Extremity in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Dian; Bosch, Walter; Roberge, David; Finkelstein, Steven E.; Petersen, Ivy; Haddock, Michael; Chen, Yen-Lin E.; Saito, Naoyuki G.; Kirsch, David G.; Hitchcock, Ying J.; Wolfson, Aaron H.; DeLaney, Thomas F.

    2011-11-15

    Objective: To develop a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) atlas delineating gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) to be used for preoperative radiotherapy of primary extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Methods and Materials: A consensus meeting was held during the RTOG meeting in January 2010 to reach agreement about GTV and CTV delineation on computed tomography (CT) images for preoperative radiotherapy of high-grade large extremity STS. Data were presented to address the local extension of STS. Extensive discussion ensued to develop optimal criteria for GTV and CTV delineation on CT images. Results: A consensus was reached on appropriate CT-based GTV and CTV. The GTV is gross tumor defined by T1 contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images. Fusion of magnetic resonance and images is recommended to delineate the GTV. The CTV for high-grade large STS typically includes the GTV plus 3-cm margins in the longitudinal directions. If this causes the field to extend beyond the compartment, the field can be shortened to include the end of a compartment. The radial margin from the lesion should be 1.5 cm, including any portion of the tumor not confined by an intact fascial barrier, bone, or skin surface. Conclusion: The consensus on GTV and CTV for preoperative radiotherapy of high-grade large extremity STS is available as web-based images and in a descriptive format through the RTOG. This is expected to improve target volume consistency and allow for rigorous evaluation of the benefits and risks of such treatment.

  4. Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Properties of Calaspargase Pegol Escherichia coli L-Asparaginase in the Treatment of Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Results From Children's Oncology Group Study AALL07P4

    PubMed Central

    Angiolillo, Anne L.; Schore, Reuven J.; Devidas, Meenakshi; Borowitz, Michael J.; Carroll, Andrew J.; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Heerema, Nyla A.; Keilani, Taha; Lane, Ashley R.; Loh, Mignon L.; Reaman, Gregory H.; Adamson, Peter C.; Wood, Brent; Wood, Charlotte; Zheng, Hao W.; Raetz, Elizabeth A.; Winick, Naomi J.; Carroll, William L.; Hunger, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Asparaginase is a critical agent used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Pegaspargase (SS-PEG), a pegylated form of Escherichia coli L-asparaginase with a succinimidyl succinate (SS) linker, is the first-line asparaginase product used in Children's Oncology Group (COG) ALL trials. Calaspargase pegol (SC-PEG) replaces the SS linker in SS-PEG with a succinimidyl carbamate linker, creating a more stable molecule. COG AALL07P4 was designed to determine the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic comparability of SC-PEG to SS-PEG in patients with newly diagnosed high-risk (HR) B-cell ALL. Patients and Methods A total of 165 evaluable patients were randomly assigned at a 2:1 ratio to receive SC-PEG at 2,100 (SC-PEG2100; n = 69) or 2,500 IU/m2 (SC-PEG2500; n = 42) versus SS-PEG 2,500 IU/m2 (SS-PEG2500; n = 54) as part of an otherwise identical chemotherapy regimen. The groups were similar demographically, except more female patients received SC-PEG2500. Results The mean half-life of plasma asparaginase activity for both SC-PEG doses was approximately 2.5× longer than that of SS-PEG2500. The total systemic exposure, as defined by induction area under the curve from time 0 to 25 days, was greater with SC-PEG2500 than with SS-PEG2500 or SC-PEG2100. The proportion of patients with plasma asparaginase activity ≥ 100 mIU/mL and ≥ 400 mIU/mL was higher in patients who received SC-PEG as compared with SS-PEG2500. After one dose of pegylated asparaginase on induction day 4, plasma asparagine was undetectable for 11 days for SS-PEG2500 and 18 days for both SC-PEG groups. Conclusion SC-PEG2500 achieves a significantly longer period of asparaginase activity above defined thresholds and asparagine depletion compared with SS-PEG2500 and has a comparable toxicity profile in children with HR B-cell ALL. PMID:25348002

  5. Modern Radiation Therapy for Extranodal Lymphomas: Field and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    SciTech Connect

    Yahalom, Joachim; Illidge, Tim; Specht, Lena; Hoppe, Richard T.; Li, Ye-Xiong; Tsang, Richard; Wirth, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Extranodal lymphomas (ENLs) comprise about a third of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Radiation therapy (RT) is frequently used as either primary therapy (particularly for indolent ENL), consolidation after systemic therapy, salvage treatment, or palliation. The wide range of presentations of ENL, involving any organ in the body and the spectrum of histological sub-types, poses a challenge both for routine clinical care and for the conduct of prospective and retrospective studies. This has led to uncertainty and lack of consistency in RT approaches between centers and clinicians. Thus far there is a lack of guidelines for the use of RT in the management of ENL. This report presents an effort by the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) to harmonize and standardize the principles of treatment of ENL, and to address the technical challenges of simulation, volume definition and treatment planning for the most frequently involved organs. Specifically, detailed recommendations for RT volumes are provided. We have applied the same modern principles of involved site radiation therapy as previously developed and published as guidelines for Hodgkin lymphoma and nodal NHL. We have adopted RT volume definitions based on the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), as has been widely adopted by the field of radiation oncology for solid tumors. Organ-specific recommendations take into account histological subtype, anatomy, the treatment intent, and other treatment modalities that may be have been used before RT.

  6. Non interventional drug studies in oncology: Why we need them?

    PubMed

    Mishra, Divya; Vora, Jesal

    2010-10-01

    Oncology is a highly researched therapeutic area with an ever expanding armamentarium of drugs entering the market. It is unique in how the heterogeneity of tumor, patient and treatment factors is critical in determining outcomes of interventions. When it comes to decision making in the clinic, the practicing physician often seeks answers in populations with obvious deviations from the ideal selected populations included in the pivotal phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs). While the randomized nature of the RCT ensures its high internal validity by removing bias, their 'controlled' nature casts a doubt on their generalizability to the real world population. It is for this reason that trials done in a naturalistic setting post the marketing authorization of a drug are increasingly required. This article discusses the importance of non interventional drug studies in oncology as an important tool in testing the external validity of controlled trial results and its value in generation of new hypothesis. It also discusses the limitations of such studies while outlining the steps in their effective conduct. PMID:21350727

  7. A Phase II Comparative Study of Gross Tumor Volume Definition With or Without PET/CT Fusion in Dosimetric Planning for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC): Primary Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0515

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, Jeffrey; Bae, Kyounghwa; Choi, Noah; Forster, Ken; Siegel, Barry A.; Brunetti, Jacqueline; Purdy, James; Faria, Sergio; Vu, Toni; Thorstad, Wade; Choy, Hak

    2012-01-01

    Background: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0515 is a Phase II prospective trial designed to quantify the impact of positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) compared with CT alone on radiation treatment plans (RTPs) and to determine the rate of elective nodal failure for PET/CT-derived volumes. Methods: Each enrolled patient underwent definitive radiation therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer ({>=}60 Gy) and had two RTP datasets generated: gross tumor volume (GTV) derived with CT alone and with PET/CT. Patients received treatment using the PET/CT-derived plan. The primary end point, the impact of PET/CT fusion on treatment plans was measured by differences of the following variables for each patient: GTV, number of involved nodes, nodal station, mean lung dose (MLD), volume of lung exceeding 20 Gy (V20), and mean esophageal dose (MED). Regional failure rate was a secondary end point. The nonparametric Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test was used with Bonferroni adjustment for an overall significance level of 0.05. Results: RTOG 0515 accrued 52 patients, 47 of whom are evaluable. The follow-up time for all patients is 12.9 months (2.7-22.2). Tumor staging was as follows: II = 6%; IIIA = 40%; and IIIB = 54%. The GTV was statistically significantly smaller for PET/CT-derived volumes (98.7 vs. 86.2 mL; p < 0.0001). MLDs for PET/CT plans were slightly lower (19 vs. 17.8 Gy; p = 0.06). There was no significant difference in the number of involved nodes (2.1 vs. 2.4), V20 (32% vs. 30.8%), or MED (28.7 vs. 27.1 Gy). Nodal contours were altered by PET/CT for 51% of patients. One patient (2%) has developed an elective nodal failure. Conclusions: PET/CT-derived tumor volumes were smaller than those derived by CT alone. PET/CT changed nodal GTV contours in 51% of patients. The elective nodal failure rate for GTVs derived by PET/CT is quite low, supporting the RTOG standard of limiting the target volume to the primary tumor and involved nodes.

  8. Exercise and Fatigue in Adolescent and Young Adult Survivors of Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Hooke, Mary C.; Friedman, Debra L.; Campbell, Kristin; Withycombe, Janice; Schwartz, Cindy L.; Kelly, Kara; Meza, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is a significant problem for adolescent and young adult (AYA) Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors. The relationship between exercise and fatigue is complex. This study explored the trajectory of and the relationship between exercise and fatigue over 36 months post-therapy in a cohort of 103 AYA-aged HL survivors treated on Children's Oncology Group (COG) study AHOD0031. Descriptive statistics and generalized estimating equations were used in this secondary data analysis. Exercise and fatigue improved over time but were unrelated; amount of exercise at end of therapy predicted amount of exercise at 12 (p = 0.02) and 36 (p = 0.0008) months post-therapy. PMID:26421221

  9. Children's Oncology Group (COG) Statistics and Data Center - Support for Childhood Cancer Research Projects Conducted through the COG

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J; Krailo, M

    2011-04-11

    Project Description: These monies will support statistical staff within the Children's Oncology Group's Statistics and Data Center. A portion of these funds will allow the hiring of a full time Master's level statistician within the Group Operations Center in Arcadia, CA to assist current PhD level statisticians with the analysis of completed and ongoing pediatric clinical trials conducted through the COG. Approximately 50% of this individual's effort will be shared by the PhD statisticians located within the COG Group Operations Center with percent effort assigned by the Associate Group Statistician. The remaining 50% will be used to support projects of general interest to the Statistics and Data Center including the development of tools to facilitate Clinical Data Upload System (CDUS) reporting and the production of study public and Data Safety Monitoring Committee reports. The remaining balance of monies will facilitate the hiring of one full time PhD level statistician located at the SDC office in Gainesville, FL. This individual will be focused on the most common pediatric cancer, Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL).

  10. Pelvic Normal Tissue Contouring Guidelines for Radiation Therapy: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Panel Atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, Hiram A.; Barthold, H. Joseph; O'Meara, Elizabeth; Bosch, Walter R.; El Naqa, Issam; Al-Lozi, Rawan; Rosenthal, Seth A.; Lawton, Colleen; Lee, W. Robert; Sandler, Howard; Zietman, Anthony; Myerson, Robert; Dawson, Laura A.; Willett, Christopher; Kachnic, Lisa A.; Jhingran, Anuja; Portelance, Lorraine; Ryu, Janice; and others

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To define a male and female pelvic normal tissue contouring atlas for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials. Methods and Materials: One male pelvis computed tomography (CT) data set and one female pelvis CT data set were shared via the Image-Guided Therapy QA Center. A total of 16 radiation oncologists participated. The following organs at risk were contoured in both CT sets: anus, anorectum, rectum (gastrointestinal and genitourinary definitions), bowel NOS (not otherwise specified), small bowel, large bowel, and proximal femurs. The following were contoured in the male set only: bladder, prostate, seminal vesicles, and penile bulb. The following were contoured in the female set only: uterus, cervix, and ovaries. A computer program used the binomial distribution to generate 95% group consensus contours. These contours and definitions were then reviewed by the group and modified. Results: The panel achieved consensus definitions for pelvic normal tissue contouring in RTOG trials with these standardized names: Rectum, AnoRectum, SmallBowel, Colon, BowelBag, Bladder, UteroCervix, Adnexa{sub R}, Adnexa{sub L}, Prostate, SeminalVesc, PenileBulb, Femur{sub R}, and Femur{sub L}. Two additional normal structures whose purpose is to serve as targets in anal and rectal cancer were defined: AnoRectumSig and Mesorectum. Detailed target volume contouring guidelines and images are discussed. Conclusions: Consensus guidelines for pelvic normal tissue contouring were reached and are available as a CT image atlas on the RTOG Web site. This will allow uniformity in defining normal tissues for clinical trials delivering pelvic radiation and will facilitate future normal tissue complication research.

  11. Validation and Simplification of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Recursive Partitioning Analysis Classification for Glioblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jing; Wang Meihua; Won, Minhee; Shaw, Edward G.; Coughlin, Christopher; Curran, Walter J.; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: Previous recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) of patients with malignant glioma (glioblastoma multiforme [GBM] and anaplastic astrocytoma [AA]) produced six prognostic groups (I-VI) classified by six factors. We sought here to determine whether the classification for GBM could be improved by using an updated Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) GBM database excluding AA and by considering additional baseline variables. Methods and Materials: The new analysis considered 42 baseline variables and 1,672 GBM patients from the expanded RTOG glioma database. Patients receiving radiation only were excluded such that all patients received radiation+carmustine. 'Radiation dose received' was replaced with 'radiation dose assigned.' The new RPA models were compared with the original model by applying them to a test dataset comprising 488 patients from six other RTOG trials. Fitness of the original and new models was evaluated using explained variation. Results: The original RPA model explained more variations in survival in the test dataset than did the new models (20% vs. 15%) and was therefore chosen for further analysis. It was reduced by combining Classes V and VI to produce three prognostic classes (Classes III, IV, and V+VI), as Classes V and VI had indistinguishable survival in the test dataset. The simplified model did not further improve performance (explained variation 18% vs. 20%) but is easier to apply because it involves only four variables: age, performance status, extent of resection, and neurologic function. Applying this simplified model to the updated GBM database resulted in three distinct classes with median survival times of 17.1, 11.2, and 7.5 months for Classes III, IV, and V+VI, respectively. Conclusions: The final model, the simplified original RPA model combining Classes V and VI, resulted in three distinct prognostic groups defined by age, performance status, extent of resection, and neurologic function. This classification will be used

  12. Modern Radiation Therapy for Primary Cutaneous Lymphomas: Field and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, Lena; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Illidge, Tim; Wilson, Lynn D.; Hoppe, Richard T.

    2015-05-01

    Primary cutaneous lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of diseases. They often remain localized, and they generally have a more indolent course and a better prognosis than lymphomas in other locations. They are highly radiosensitive, and radiation therapy is an important part of the treatment, either as the sole treatment or as part of a multimodality approach. Radiation therapy of primary cutaneous lymphomas requires the use of special techniques that form the focus of these guidelines. The International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group has developed these guidelines after multinational meetings and analysis of available evidence. The guidelines represent an agreed consensus view of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group steering committee on the use of radiation therapy in primary cutaneous lymphomas in the modern era.

  13. Feasibility of Economic Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 91-11 Using Medicare Data

    SciTech Connect

    Konski, Andre; Bhargavan, Mythreyi; Owen, Jean; Paulus, Rebecca; Cooper, Jay; Forastiere, Arlene; Ang, K. Kian; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: The specific aim of this analysis was to evaluate the feasibility of performing a cost-effectiveness analysis using Medicare data from patients treated on a randomized Phase III clinical trial. Methods and Materials: Cost data included Medicare Part A and Part B costs from all providers-inpatient, outpatient, skilled nursing facility, home health, hospice, and physicians-and were obtained from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for patients eligible for Medicare, treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9111 between 1992 and 1996. The 47-month expected discounted (annual discount rate of 3%) cost for each arm of the trial was calculated in 1996 dollars, with Kaplan-Meier sampling average estimates of survival probabilities for each month and mean monthly costs. Overall and disease-free survival was also discounted 3%/year. The analysis was performed from a payer's perspective. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated comparing the chemotherapy arms to the radiation alone arm. Results: Of the 547 patients entered, Medicare cost data and clinical outcomes were available for 66 patients. Reasons for exclusion included no RTOG follow-up, Medicare HMO enrollment, no Medicare claims since trial entry, and trial entry after 1996. Differences existed between groups in tumor characteristics, toxicity, and survival, all which could affect resource utilization. Conclusions: Although we were able to test the methodology of economic analysis alongside a clinical trial using Medicare data, the results may be difficult to translate to the entire trial population because of non-random missing data. Methods to improve Medicare data capture and matching to clinical trial samples are required.

  14. A phase I study with an expanded cohort to assess feasibility of intravenous docetaxel, intraperitoneal carboplatin and intraperitoneal paclitaxel in patients with previously untreated ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal carcinoma: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Natalie; Sill, Michael W.; Mannel, Robert S.; Thaker, Premal H.; DiSilvestro, Paul A.; Waggoner, Steven E.; Yamada, S. Diane; Armstrong, Deborah K.; Fracasso, Paula M.; Walker, Joan L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and assess the feasibility of intravenous (IV) docetaxel, intraperitoneal (IP) carboplatin and IP paclitaxel in women with Stage II-IV untreated ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal carcinoma. Methods Patients received docetaxel (55-75 mg/m2) IV and carboplatin (AUC 5-7) IP on day 1 and paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 IP on day 8. A standard 3+3 design was used in the dose escalation phase. A 2-stage group sequential design with 20 patients at the MTD was used in the feasibility phase. Results The MTD determined during the dose escalation phase was day 1 docetaxel 75 mg/m2 IV, carboplatin AUC 6 IP and day 8 IP paclitaxel 60 mg/m2. Forty-six patients were enrolled in the feasibility portion at this dose level. Six were unevaluable. Fifteen evaluable patients had dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) within the first four cycles. These DLTs were prolonged neutropenia (2), neutropenic fever (7), grade 4 thrombocytopenia (1), grade 4 dehydration (1), grade 3 infection (2), grade 3 oral mucositis (1) and pulmonary embolism (1). Conclusions Docetaxel 75 mg/m2 IV, carboplatin AUC 6 IP administered on day 1, and paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 IP administered on day 8, is the MTD when considering one cycle of treatment but was not feasible over four cycles due to bone marrow toxicity. We recommend reduction of carboplatin to AUC 5 should this regimen be considered for treatment in women with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer. PMID:22943879

  15. Impact of healing touch on pediatric oncology outpatients: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Kathi J; Fletcher, Nancy B; Hamilton, Craig A; McLean, Thomas W

    2009-01-01

    Healing Touch (HT) is a biofield therapy used to enhance well-being. We conducted a pilot study to assess its effects in pediatric oncology patients. We enrolled patients in the continuation or consolidation phase of therapy. Patients or their parent completed simple visual analogue scales (VASs; 0-10) for relaxation, vitality, overall well-being, stress, anxiety, and depression before and after a 20-minute period of rest and a standardized HT treatment. Patients' heart rates were monitored and later analyzed for heart rate variability (HRV) characteristics. Of the nine patients, all completed VASs and six had usable HRV data. The average age was 9 years. VAS scores for stress decreased significantly more for HT treatment than for rest (HT: 4.4-1.7; rest: 2.3-2.3; p = .03). The HRV characteristic of total power was significantly lower during HT than for rest (HT 599 +/- 221; rest: 857 +/- 155; p = .048), and sympathetic activity was somewhat but not significantly lower (HT: 312 +/- 158; rest: 555 +/- 193; p = .06). HT is associated with lowered stress and changes in HRV. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms of these effects in larger samples and to explore the impact on additional clinically relevant measures. PMID:19476730

  16. A prospective multicentre study to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of osmotic release oral system (OROS®) hydromorphone in opioid-naive cancer patients: Results of the Korean South West Oncology Group study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Eun-Kee; Shim, Hyunjeong; Han, Hye-Suk; Sun, DerSheng; Lee, Soon-Il; Kang, Myung Hee; Lee, KyuTaek; Cho, DoYeun; Cho, In Sung; Park, Suk Young; Kim, Samyong; Yim, Chang-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Osmotic release oral system (OROS®) hydromorphone is a potent, long-acting opioid analgesic, effective and safe for controlling cancer pain in patients who have received other strong opioids. To date, few studies have examined the efficacy of hydromorphone for pain relief in opioid-naive cancer patients. OBJECTIVES: A prospective, open-label, multicentre trial was conducted to determine the efficacy and tolerability of OROS hydromorphone as a single and front-line opioid therapy for patients experiencing moderate to severe cancer pain. METHODS: OROS hydromorphone was administered to patients who had not previously received strong, long-acting opioids. The baseline evaluation (visit 1) was followed by two evaluations (visits 2 and 3) performed two and 14 weeks later, respectively. The starting dose of OROS hydromorphone was 4 mg/day and was increased every two days when pain control was insufficient. Immediate-release hydromorphone was the only accepted alternative strong opioid for relief of breakthrough pain. The efficacy, safety and tolerability of OROS hydromorphone, including the effects on quality of life, and patients’ and investigators’ global impressions on pain relief were evaluated. The primary end point was pain intensity difference (PID) at visit 2 relative to visit 1 (expressed as %PID). RESULTS: A total of 107 patients were enrolled in the present study. An improvement in pain intensity of >50% (≥50% PID) was observed in 51.0% of the full analysis set and 58.6% of the per-protocol set. The mean pain score, measured using a numerical rating scale, was significantly reduced after two weeks of treatment, and most adverse events were manageable. Quality of life also improved, and >70% of patients and investigators were satisfied with the treatment. CONCLUSIONS: OROS hydromorphone provided effective pain relief and improved quality of life in opioid-naive cancer patients. As a single and front-line treatment, OROS hydromorphone delivered

  17. Late Effects Surveillance Recommendations among Survivors of Childhood Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Children's Oncology Group Report.

    PubMed

    Chow, Eric J; Anderson, Lynnette; Baker, K Scott; Bhatia, Smita; Guilcher, Gregory M T; Huang, Jennifer T; Pelletier, Wendy; Perkins, Joanna L; Rivard, Linda S; Schechter, Tal; Shah, Ami J; Wilson, Karla D; Wong, Kenneth; Grewal, Satkiran S; Armenian, Saro H; Meacham, Lillian R; Mulrooney, Daniel A; Castellino, Sharon M

    2016-05-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an important curative treatment for children with high-risk hematologic malignancies, solid tumors, and, increasingly, nonmalignant diseases. Given improvements in care, there are a growing number of long-term survivors of pediatric HCT. Compared with childhood cancer survivors who did not undergo transplantation, HCT survivors have a substantially increased burden of serious chronic conditions and impairments involving virtually every organ system and overall quality of life. This likely reflects the joint contributions of pretransplantation treatment exposures and organ dysfunction, the transplantation conditioning regimen, and any post-transplantation graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In response, the Children's Oncology Group (COG) has created long-term follow-up guidelines (www.survivorshipguidelines.org) for survivors of childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer, including those who were treated with HCT. Guideline task forces, consisting of HCT specialists, other pediatric oncologists, radiation oncologists, organ-specific subspecialists, nurses, social workers, other health care professionals, and patient advocates systematically reviewed the literature with regards to late effects after childhood cancer and HCT since 2002, with the most recent review completed in 2013. For the most recent review cycle, over 800 articles from the medical literature relevant to childhood cancer and HCT survivorship were reviewed, including 586 original research articles. Provided herein is an organ system-based overview that emphasizes the most relevant COG recommendations (with accompanying evidence grade) for the long-term follow-up care of childhood HCT survivors (regardless of current age) based on a rigorous review of the available evidence. These recommendations cover both autologous and allogeneic HCT survivors, those who underwent transplantation for nonmalignant diseases, and those with a history of chronic GVHD. PMID

  18. Etiologic Heterogeneity in Endometrial Cancer: Evidence from a Gynecologic Oncology Group Trial

    PubMed Central

    Brinton, Louise A.; Felix, Ashley S.; McMeekin, D. Scott; Creasman, William T.; Sherman, Mark E.; Mutch, David; Cohn, David E.; Walker, Joan L.; Moore, Richard G.; Downs, Levi S.; Soslow, Robert A.; Zaino, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although the epidemiology of typical endometrial carcinomas (grades 1–2 endometrioid or Type I) is well established, less is known regarding higher grade endometrioid or non-endometrioid carcinomas (Type II). Within a large Gynecologic Oncology Group trial (GOG-210), which included central pathology review, we investigated the etiologic heterogeneity of endometrial cancers by comparing risk factors for different histologic categories. Methods Based on epidemiologic questionnaire data, risk factor associations, expressed as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), were estimated comparing grade 3 endometrioid and Type II cancers (including histologic subtypes) to grades 1–2 endometrioid cancers. Results Compared with 2,244 grades 1–2 endometrioid cancers, women with Type II cancers (321 serous, 141 carcinosarcomas, 77 clear cell, 42 mixed epithelial with serous or clear cell components) were older; more often non-white, multiparous, current smokers; and less often obese. Risk factors for grade 3 endometrioid carcinomas (n=354) were generally similar to those identified for Type II cancers, although patients with grade 3 endometrioid tumors more often had histories of breast cancer without tamoxifen exposure while those with Type II tumors were more frequently treated with tamoxifen. Patients with serous cancers and carcinosarcomas more frequently had breast cancer histories with tamoxifen treatment compared to patients with other tumors. Conclusions Risk factors for aggressive endometrial cancers, including grade 3 endometrioid and non-endometrioid tumors, appear to differ from lower grade endometrioid carcinomas. Our findings support etiologic differences between Type I and II endometrial cancers as well as additional heterogeneity within Type II cancers. PMID:23485770

  19. Controversies in the management of endometrial cancer: a survey of the Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Yun; Kim, Kidong; Kang, Sokbom; Seong, Seok Ju; Kim, Jae Weon; Kim, Byoung-Gie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify current practice patterns for unresolved issues in the surgical and adjuvant management of endometrial cancer in Korea. Methods We designed and conducted a survey of all 218 active members of the Korean Gynecologic Oncology Group to try to identify how they would manage various case scenarios for endometrial cancer. Data were collected using an Internet survey database. Results A total of 108 members (49.5%) responded to the survey. Laparoscopy (81.6%) was the most commonly used mode of surgery in early-stage endometrial cancer. Of all the respondents, 19.8% stated that lymphadenectomy could be omitted and 21.7% recommended selective lymphadenectomy based on sentinel biopsy or frozen results for patients with presumed stage IA/grade 1 disease. On the other hand, 71.9% of respondents recommended para-aortic lymphadenectomy for patients with presumed stage IB/grade 1 disease and 86.4% recommended this treatment for presumed stage IB/grade 3 disease. The majority of respondents performed adjuvant therapy for stage IB/grade 2 (91.7%), IB/grade 3 (99.0%), and stage II (89.6%). Whole pelvic radiotherapy and vaginal brachytherapy were the most frequently used options among these patients. All respondents administered adjuvant therapy when node metastasis was found, and concurrent chemoradiotherapy (53.2%) was the most preferred option for stage IIIC1 disease. Conclusion There is broad variation in both the surgical and adjuvant treatment of endometrial cancer among Korean gynecologic oncologists. PMID:26404123

  20. Late Mortality After Dexrazoxane Treatment: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Eric J.; Asselin, Barbara L.; Schwartz, Cindy L.; Doody, David R.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Aggarwal, Sanjeev; Baker, K. Scott; Bhatia, Smita; Constine, Louis S.; Freyer, David R.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Armenian, Saro H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Given concerns that dexrazoxane may reduce treatment efficacy, induce second cancers, and thus compromise overall survival among children, we examined long-term overall and cause-specific mortality and disease relapse rates from three randomized clinical trials. Patients and Methods Children's Oncology Group trials P9404 (T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma; n = 537), P9425 (intermediate/high-risk Hodgkin lymphoma; n = 216), and P9426 (low-risk Hodgkin lymphoma; n = 255) were conducted between 1996 and 2001. Each trial randomly assigned patients to doxorubicin with or without dexrazoxane. The dexrazoxane:doxorubicin dose ratio was 10:1, and the cumulative protocol-specified doxorubicin dose was 100 to 360 mg/m2. Dexrazoxane was given as an intravenous bolus before each doxorubicin dose. Data from all three trials were linked with the National Death Index to determine overall and cause-specific mortality by dexrazoxane status. Results Among 1,008 patients (507 received dexrazoxane) with a median follow-up of 12.6 years (range, 0 to 15.5 years), 132 died (67 received dexrazoxane). Overall mortality did not vary by dexrazoxane status (12.8% with dexrazoxane at 10 years v 12.2% without; hazard ratio [HR], 1.03; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.45). Findings were similar when each trial was examined separately. Dexrazoxane also was not significantly associated with differential causes of death. The original cancer caused 76.5% of all deaths (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.61 to 1.32) followed by second cancers (13.6% of deaths; HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.49 to 3.15). Specifically, dexrazoxane was not associated with deaths from acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplasia or cardiovascular events. Conclusion Among pediatric patients with leukemia or lymphoma, after extended follow-up, dexrazoxane use did not seem to compromise long-term survival. PMID:26014292

  1. Traumeel S in preventing and treating mucositis in young patients undergoing SCT: a report of the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Sencer, S F; Zhou, T; Freedman, L S; Ives, J A; Chen, Z; Wall, D; Nieder, M L; Grupp, S A; Yu, L C; Sahdev, I; Jonas, W B; Wallace, J D; Oberbaum, M

    2012-11-01

    Mucositis can be a serious complication of hematopoietic SCT (HSCT). A previous phase II trial in 32 children undergoing HSCT reported a beneficial effect of the homeopathic remedy Traumeel S. The Children's Oncology Group sought to replicate the results in a multi-institutional trial. The study was an international multi-center, double-blind, randomized trial comparing Traumeel with placebo in patients aged 3-25 years undergoing myeloablative HSCT. Traumeel/placebo was started on Day -1 as a five-time daily mouth rinse. Efficacy of the treatment was assessed using the modified Walsh scale for mucositis, scored daily from Day -1 to 20 days after HCST. The main outcome was the sum of Walsh scale scores (area-under-the-curve (AUC)) over this period. Other outcomes included narcotic use, days of total parenteral feeding, days of nasogastric feeding and adverse events. In 181 evaluable patients, there was no statistical difference in mucositis (AUC) in the Traumeel group (76.7) compared with placebo (67.3) (P=0.13). There was a trend towards less narcotic usage in the Traumeel patients. No statistically beneficial effect from Traumeel was demonstrated for mucositis. We could not confirm that Traumeel is an effective treatment for mucositis in children undergoing HSCT. PMID:22504933

  2. Postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in clean-contaminated head and neck oncologic surgery: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Busch, C-J; Knecht, R; Münscher, A; Matern, J; Dalchow, C; Lörincz, B B

    2016-09-01

    Antibiotic prophylaxis is commonly used in head and neck oncologic surgery, due to the clean-contaminated nature of these procedures. There is a wide variety in the use of prophylactic antibiotics regarding the duration of application and the choice of agent. The purpose of this study was to determine whether short-term or long-term antibiotic prophylaxis has an impact on the development of head and neck surgical wound infection (SWI). Retrospective chart review was carried out in 418 clean-contaminated head and neck surgical oncology cases at our department. More than 50 variables including tumour type and stage, type of surgical treatment, co-morbidities, duration and choice of antibiotic prophylaxis, and the incidence of SWI were analysed. Following descriptive data analysis, Chi square test by Pearson and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical evaluation. Fifty-eight of the 418 patients (13.9 %) developed SWI. Patients with advanced disease and tracheotomy showed a significantly higher rate of SWI than those with early stage disease and without tracheotomy (p = 0.012 and p = 0.00017, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between the SWI rates in the short term and long term treatment groups (14.6 and 13.2 %, respectively; p = 0.689). Diabetes and body weight were not found to be risk factors for SWI. Long-term antibiotic prophylaxis was not associated with a decrease in SWI in the entire cohort of patients undergoing clean-contaminated major head and neck oncologic surgery. Our data confirmed the extent of surgery and tracheotomy as being risk factors for postoperative SWI. PMID:26683471

  3. Impact of Ultrahigh Baseline PSA Levels on Biochemical and Clinical Outcomes in Two Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Prostate Clinical Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, George; Bae, Kyounghwa; Roach, Mack; Lawton, Colleen; Donnelly, Bryan; Grignon, David; Hanks, Gerald; Porter, Arthur; Lepor, Herbert; Sandler, Howard

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: To assess ultrahigh (UH; prostate-specific antigen [PSA]levels {>=}50 ng/ml) patient outcomes by comparison to other high-risk patient outcomes and to identify outcome predictors. Methods and Materials: Prostate cancer patients (PCP) from two Phase III Radiation Therapy Oncology Group clinical trials (studies 9202 and 9413) were divided into two groups: high-risk patients with and without UH baseline PSA levels. Predictive variables included age, Gleason score, clinical T stage, Karnofsky performance score, and treatment arm. Outcomes included overall survival (OS), distant metastasis (DM), and biochemical failure (BF). Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using either the Cox or Fine and Gray's regression model with associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) and p values. Results: There were 401 patients in the UH PSA group and 1,792 patients in the non-UH PSA PCP group of a total of 2,193 high-risk PCP. PCP with UH PSA were found to have inferior OS (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.02-1.39, p = 0.02), DM (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.19-1.92; p = 0.0006), and BF (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.29-1.73; p < 0.0001) compared to other high-risk PCP. In the UH cohort, PSA level was found to be a significant factor for the risk of DM (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.001-1.02) but not OS and BF. Gleason grades of 8 to 10 were found to consistently predict for poor OS, DM, and BF outcomes (with HR estimates ranging from 1.41-2.36) in both the high-risk cohort and the UH cohort multivariable analyses. Conclusions: UH PSA levels at diagnosis are related to detrimental changes in OS, DM, and BF. All three outcomes can be modeled by various combinations of all predictive variables tested.

  4. An increased frequency of 13q deletions detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization and its impact on survival in children and adolescents with Burkitt lymphoma: results from the Children's Oncology Group study CCG-5961

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Marilu; Perkins, Sherrie L.; Dave, Bhavana J.; Coccia, Peter F.; Bridge, Julia A.; Lyden, Elizabeth R.; Heerema, Nyla A.; Lones, Mark A.; Harrison, Lauren; Cairo, Mitchell S.; Sanger, Warren G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Burkitt lymphoma (BL), an aggressive B-cell malignancy, is often curable with short intensive treatment regiments. Nearly all BLs contain rearrangements of the MYC/8q24 region; however, recent cytogenetic studies suggest that certain secondary chromosomal aberrations in BL correlate with an adverse prognosis. In this multi-center study, the frequency and impact on clinical outcome of del(13q) and +7 in addition to MYC rearrangements as detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in children and adolescents with intermediate and high-risk BL registered on Children's Cancer Group study CCG-5961 were investigated. Analysis with 13q14.3 and 13q34 loci specific probes demonstrated deletions of 13q in 38/90 (42%) cases. The loss of either 13q14.3 or 13q34 alone occurred in 14% and 8%, respectively, while 20% exhibited loss of both regions. Gain of chromosome 7 was observed in 7/68 (10%) cases and MYC rearrangements were detected in 84/90 (93%). Prognostic analysis controlling for known risk factors demonstrated that patients exhibiting loss of 13q, particularly 13q14.3, had a significant decrease in 5-year overall survival (77% vs. 95%, p=0.012). These observations indicate that del(13q) occurs in childhood BL at frequencies higher than previously detected by classical cytogenetics and underscores the importance of molecular cytogenetics in risk stratification. PMID:19895612

  5. The Process of Oncology Nurse Practitioner Patient Navigation: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Frances

    2016-04-01

    Oncology nurse practitioner (ONP) patient navigators may improve clinical outcomes. However, no standard measures of the process of oncology patient navigation or of related clinical outcomes exist, and research in this area is limited. The exploratory pilot study detailed in this article used grounded theory and interviews with three ONPs to define the processes employed by ONP patient navigators in caring for patients with cancer.
. PMID:26991716

  6. Perceived roles of oncology nursing.

    PubMed

    Lemonde, Manon; Payman, Naghmeh

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Association of Nurses in Oncology (CANO) Standards of Care (2001) provides a framework that delineates oncology nursing roles and responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to explore how oncology nurses perceive their roles and responsibilities compared to the CANO Standards of Care. Six focus groups were conducted and 21 registered nurses (RNs) from a community-based hospital participated in this study. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative inductive content analysis. Three themes were identified: (1) Oncology nurses perceive a gap between their defined roles and the reality of daily practice, as cancer care becomes more complex and as they provide advanced oncology care to more patients while there is no parallel adaptation to the health care system to support them, such as safe staffing; (2) Oncology nursing, as a specialty, requires sustained professional development and leadership roles; and (3) Oncology nurses are committed to providing continuous care as a reference point in the health care team by fostering interdisciplinary collaboration andfacilitating patient's navigation through the system. Organizational support through commitment to appropriate staffing and matching scope ofpractice to patient needs may lead to maximize the health and well-being of nurses, quality of patient care and organizational performance. PMID:26897865

  7. A Phase II Study of Preradiotherapy Chemotherapy Followed by Hyperfractionated Radiotherapy for Newly Diagnosed High-Risk Medulloblastoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group (CCG 9931)

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Jeffrey Donahue, Bernadine; Mehta, Minesh; Miller, Douglas C.; Rorke, Lucy B.; Jakacki, Regina; Robertson, Patricia; Sposto, Richard; Holmes, Emi; Vezina, Gilbert; Muraszko, Karin; Puccetti, Diane; Prados, Michael; Chan, K.-W.

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: To verify feasibility and monitor progression-free survival and overall survival in children with high-risk medulloblastoma and noncerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs) treated in a Phase II study with preradiotherapy chemotherapy (CHT) followed by high-dose, hyperfractionated craniospinal radiotherapy (CSRT). Methods and Materials: Eligibility criteria included age >3 years at diagnosis, medulloblastoma with either high M stage and/or >1.5 cm{sup 2} postoperative residual disease, and all patients with noncerebellar PNET. Treatment was initiated with five alternating monthly cycles of CHT (A [cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and vincristine], B [carboplatin and etoposide], A, B, and A) followed by hyperfractionated CSRT (40 Gy) with a boost to the primary tumor (72 Gy) given in twice-daily 1-Gy fractions. Results: The valid study group consisted of 124 patients whose median age at diagnosis was 7.8 years. Eighty-four patients (68%) completed the entire protocol according to study guidelines (within 9 months), and the median time to complete CSRT was 1.6 months. Major reasons for failure to complete CHT included progressive disease (17%) and toxic death (2.4%). The 5-year progression-free survival and overall survival rates were 43% {+-} 5% and 52% {+-} 5%, respectively. No significant differences were detected in subset analysis related to response to CHT, site of primary tumor, postoperative residual disease, or M stage. Conclusions: The feasibility of this intensive multimodality protocol was confirmed, and response to pre-RT CHT did not impact on survival. Survival data from this protocol can not be compared with data from other studies, given the protocol design.

  8. Report on the use of non-clinical studies in the regulatory evaluation of oncology drugs.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Kawada, Manabu; Nishikawa, Hiroyoshi; Ochiya, Takahiro; Saya, Hideyuki; Seimiya, Hiroyuki; Yao, Ryoji; Hayashi, Masahiro; Kai, Chieko; Matsuda, Akira; Naoe, Tomoki; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Okazaki, Taku; Saji, Hideo; Sata, Masataka; Sugimura, Haruhiko; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Toi, Masakazu; Irimura, Tatsuro

    2016-02-01

    Non-clinical studies are necessary at each stage of the development of oncology drugs. Many experimental cancer models have been developed to investigate carcinogenesis, cancer progression, metastasis, and other aspects in cancer biology and these models turned out to be useful in the efficacy evaluation and the safety prediction of oncology drugs. While the diversity and the degree of engagement in genetic changes in the initiation of cancer cell growth and progression are widely accepted, it has become increasingly clear that the roles of host cells, tissue microenvironment, and the immune system also play important roles in cancer. Therefore, the methods used to develop oncology drugs should continuously be revised based on the advances in our understanding of cancer. In this review, we extensively summarize the effective use of those models, their advantages and disadvantages, ranges to be evaluated and limitations of the models currently used for the development and for the evaluation of oncology drugs. PMID:26919617

  9. Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Gastric Cancer Using Epirubicin, Cisplatin, and 5-Fluorouracil Before and After Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy With Concurrent Infusional 5-Fluorouracil: A Multicenter Study of the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group

    SciTech Connect

    Leong, Trevor; Joon, Daryl Lim; Willis, David; Jayamoham, Jayasingham; Spry, Nigel; Harvey, Jennifer; Di Iulio, Juliana; Milner, Alvin; Mann, G. Bruce; Michael, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: The INT0116 study has established postoperative chemoradiotherapy as the standard of care for completely resected gastric adenocarcinoma. However, the optimal chemoradiation regimen remains to be defined. We conducted a prospective, multicenter study to evaluate an alternative chemoradiation regimen that combines more current systemic treatment with modern techniques of radiotherapy delivery. Methods and Materials: Patients with adenocarcinoma of the stomach who had undergone an R0 resection were eligible. Adjuvant therapy consisted of one cycle of epirubicin, cisplatin, and 5-FU (ECF), followed by radiotherapy with concurrent infusional 5-FU, and then two additional cycles of ECF. Radiotherapy was delivered using precisely defined, multiple-field, three-dimensional conformal techniques. Results: A total of 54 assessable patients were enrolled from 19 institutions. The proportion of patients commencing Cycles 1, 2, and 3 of ECF chemotherapy were 100%, 81%, and 67% respectively. In all, 94% of patients who received radiotherapy completed treatment as planned. Grade 3/4 neutropenia occurred in 66% of patients with 7.4% developing febrile neutropenia. Most neutropenic episodes (83%) occurred in the post-radiotherapy period during cycles 2 and 3 of ECF. Grade 3/4 gastrointestinal toxicity occurred in 28% of patients. In all, 35% of radiotherapy treatment plans contained protocol deviations that were satisfactorily amended before commencement of treatment. At median follow-up of 36 months, the 3-year overall survival rate was estimated at 61.6%. Conclusions: This adjuvant regimen using ECF before and after three-dimensional conformal chemoradiation is feasible and can be safely delivered in a cooperative group setting. A regimen similar to this is currently being compared with the INT0116 regimen in a National Cancer Institute-sponsored, randomized Phase III trial.

  10. Five-year outcome for women randomised in a phase III trial comparing doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide with doxorubicin and docetaxel as primary medical therapy in early breast cancer: an Anglo-Celtic Cooperative Oncology Group study.

    PubMed

    Mansi, Janine L; Yellowlees, Ann; Lipscombe, Julian; Earl, Helena M; Cameron, David A; Coleman, Robert E; Perren, Timothy; Gallagher, Christopher J; Quigley, Mary; Crown, John; Jones, Alison L; Highley, Martin; Leonard, Robert C F; Evans, T R Jeffry

    2010-08-01

    To compare the long-term outcome of women with primary or locally advanced breast cancer randomised to receive either doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC) or doxorubicin and docetaxel (AD) as primary chemotherapy. Eligible patients with histologic-proven breast cancer with primary tumours > or = 3 cm, inflammatory or locally advanced disease, and no evidence of distant metastases, were randomised to receive a maximum of 6 cycles of either doxorubicin (60 mg/m(2)) plus cyclophosphamide (600 mg/m(2)) i/v or doxorubicin (50 mg/m(2)) plus docetaxel (75 mg/m(2)) i/v every 3 weeks, followed by surgery on completion of chemotherapy. Clinical and pathologic responses have previously been reported. Time to relapse, site of relapse, and all-cause mortality were recorded. This updated analysis compares long-term disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) using stratified log rank methods. A total of 363 patients were randomised to AC (n = 181) or AD (n = 182). A complete pathologic response was observed in 16% for AC and 12% for AD (P = 0.43). The number of patients with positive axillary nodes at surgery with AC was 61% and AD 66% (P = 0.36). At a median follow-up of 99 months there is no significant difference between the two groups for DFS (P = 0.20) and OS (P = 0.24). Deaths were due to metastatic breast cancer in 96% of patients. Our data do not support a clinical benefit for simultaneous administration of AD compared with AC. However, the data do not exclude a smaller benefit than the study was powered to detect and are consistent with an increase in both disease-free and overall survival of about 5% for AD compared with AC. Outcome is consistent with the pathologic complete response following surgery. PMID:20559708

  11. A Study of Rituximab and Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, and Etoposide Chemotherapy in Children with Recurrent/Refractory B-cell (CD20+) Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Mature B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Timothy C.; Weitzman, Sheila; Weinstein, Howard; Chang, Myron; Cairo, Mitchell; Hutchison, Robert; Shiramizu, Bruce; Wiley, Joseph; Woods, Deborah; Barnich, Margaret; Gross, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    Background To estimate the response rate and therapy related toxicities of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab when combined with chemotherapy including ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (ICE) in patients with relapsed and refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mature B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Methods Patients received rituximab and ICE for 1 to 3 cycles, depending upon response. Rituximab (375 mg/m2) was given on day 1 and 3 of each cycle (day 1 only for cycle 3), with ifosfamide (3000 mg/m2) and etoposide (100 mg/m2) given on days 3, 4, and 5 and carboplatin (635 mg/m2) given on day 3 only. Results Twenty-one patients were enrolled, of whom 20 were eligible and evaluable. Although hematologic toxicities were common, only one patient was removed from study due to prolonged myelosuppression. Toxicities related to infusions of rituximab were frequent but manageable. Of the 6 eligible patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, 3 achieved complete remission (CR), 1 had stable disease (SD), and 2 had progressive disease (PD). Of the 14 eligible patients with Burkitt lymphoma and B-ALL, there were 4 complete responses (CR), 5 partial responses (PR), 1 SD and 4 with PD. Thus the CR/PR rate for the entire group was 12/20 (60%). Following completion of protocol therapy 6 patients were able to proceed to consolidation with high-dose therapy and stem cell rescue. Conclusions The combination of rituximab and ICE chemotherapy was associated with an encouraging objective response rate and an acceptable toxicity profile. PMID:18816698

  12. Patterns of Relapse From a Phase 3 Study of Response-Based Therapy for Intermediate-Risk Hodgkin Lymphoma (AHOD0031): A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmarajan, Kavita V.; Friedman, Debra L.; Schwartz, Cindy L.; Chen, Lu; FitzGerald, T.J.; McCarten, Kathleen M.; Constine, Louis S.; Wolden, Suzanne L.

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: The study was designed to determine whether response-based therapy improves outcomes in intermediate-risk Hodgkin lymphoma. We examined patterns of first relapse in the study. Patients and Methods: From September 2002 to July 2010, 1712 patients <22 years old with stage I-IIA with bulk, I-IIAE, I-IIB, and IIIA-IVA with or without doxorubicin, bleomycin, vincristine, etoposide, prednisone, and cyclophosphamide were enrolled. Patients were categorized as rapid (RER) or slow early responders (SER) after 2 cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vincristine, etoposide, prednisone, and cyclophosphamide (ABVE-PC). The SER patients were randomized to 2 additional ABVE-PC cycles or augmented chemotherapy with 21 Gy involved field radiation therapy (IFRT). RER patients were stipulated to undergo 2 additional ABVE-PC cycles and were then randomized to 21 Gy IFRT or no further treatment if complete response (CR) was achieved. RER without CR patients were non-randomly assigned to 21 Gy IFRT. Relapses were characterized without respect to site (initial, new, or both; and initial bulk or initial nonbulk), and involved field radiation therapy field (in-field, out-of-field, or both). Patients were grouped by treatment assignment (SER; RER/no CR; RER/CR/IFRT; and RER/CR/no IFRT). Summary statistics were reported. Results: At 4-year median follow-up, 244 patients had experienced relapse, 198 of whom were fully evaluable for review. Those who progressed during treatment (n=30) or lacked relapse imaging (n=16) were excluded. The median time to relapse was 12.8 months. Of the 198 evaluable patients, 30% were RER/no CR, 26% were SER, 26% were RER/CR/no IFRT, 16% were RER/CR/IFRT, and 2% remained uncategorized. The 74% and 75% relapses involved initially bulky and nonbulky sites, respectively. First relapses rarely occurred at exclusively new or out-of-field sites. By contrast, relapses usually occurred at nodal sites of initial bulky and nonbulky disease. Conclusion: Although

  13. Oral and dental late effects in survivors of childhood cancer: a Children’s Oncology Group report

    PubMed Central

    Migliorati, Cesar A.; Hudson, Melissa M.; McMullen, Kevin P.; Kaste, Sue C.; Ruble, Kathy; Guilcher, Gregory M. T.; Shah, Ami J.; Castellino, Sharon M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Multi-modality therapy has resulted in improved survival for childhood malignancies. The Children’s Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers provide practitioners with exposure- and risk-based recommendations for the surveillance and management of asymptomatic survivors who are at least 2 years from completion of therapy. This review outlines the pathophysiology and risks for oral and dental late effects in pediatric cancer survivors and the rationale for oral and dental screening recommended by the Children’s Oncology Group. Methods An English literature search for oral and dental complications of childhood cancer treatment was undertaken via MEDLINE and encompassed January 1975 to January 2013. Proposed guideline content based on the literature review was approved by a multi-disciplinary panel of survivorship experts and scored according to a modified version of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network “Categories of Consensus” system. Results The Children’s Oncology Group oral-dental pan el selected 85 relevant citations. Childhood cancer therapy may impact tooth development, salivary function, craniofacial development, and temporomandibular joint function placing some childhood cancer survivors at an increased risk for poor oral and dental health. Addition ally, head and neck radiation and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation increase the risk of subsequent ma lignant neoplasms in the oral cavity. Survivors require routine dental care to evaluate for potential side effects and initiate early treatment. Conclusions Certain childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk for poor oral and dental health. Early identification of oral and dental morbidity and early interventions can optimize health and quality of life. PMID:24781353

  14. Late effects on the urinary bladder in patients treated for cancer in childhood: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Ritchey, Michael; Ferrer, Fernando; Shearer, Patricia; Spunt, Sheri L

    2009-04-01

    Childhood cancer survivors who have had pelvic or central nervous system surgery or have received alkylator-containing chemotherapy or pelvic radiotherapy as part of their cancer therapy may experience urinary bladder late effects. This article reviews the medical literature on long-term bladder complications in survivors of childhood cancer and outlines the Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-up (COG LTFU) Guidelines related to bladder function. An overview of the treatment of bladder late effects and recommended counseling for survivors with these complications are presented. PMID:18985721

  15. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Translational Research Program Stem Cell Symposium: Incorporating Stem Cell Hypotheses into Clinical Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, Wendy A. Bristow, Robert G.; Clarke, Michael F.; Coppes, Robert P.; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Duda, Dan G.; Fike, John R.; Hambardzumyan, Dolores; Hill, Richard P.; Jordan, Craig T.; Milas, Luka; Pajonk, Frank; Curran, Walter J.; Dicker, Adam P.; Chen Yuhchyau

    2009-08-01

    At a meeting of the Translation Research Program of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group held in early 2008, attendees focused on updating the current state of knowledge in cancer stem cell research and discussing ways in which this knowledge can be translated into clinical use across all disease sites. This report summarizes the major topics discussed and the future directions that research should take. Major conclusions of the symposium were that the flow cytometry of multiple markers in fresh tissue would remain the standard technique of evaluating cancer-initiating cells and that surrogates need to be developed for both experimental and clinical use.

  16. European Network of Gynaecological Oncological Trial Groups' Requirements for Trials Between Academic Groups and Industry Partners--First Update 2015.

    PubMed

    du Bois, Andreas; Reuss, Alexander; Pujade-Lauraine, Eric; Pignata, Sandro; Ledermann, Jonathan; Casado, Antonio; Sehouli, Jalid; Mirza, Mansoor; Colombo, Nicoletta; Marth, Christian; Witteveen, Els; Del Campo, Jose; Calvert, Paula; Aravantinos, Gerassimos; Vardar, Mehmet Ali; van der Zee, Ate G J; Korach, Jacob; Taskiran, Cagatay; Fehr, Mathias; Glasspool, Ros; Pfisterer, Jacobus; Cibula, David; Vergote, Ignace

    2015-09-01

    The first version of ENGOT's Requirements for Trials Between Academic Groups and Industry Partners in Europe was published 2010. This first update integrates the experiences made by the ENGOT network and the cooperative group studies while performing, analyzing, and publishing -among others - three large phase III trials. Furthermore, progress in European legislation and its impact on clinical studies in Europe have been considered in this update process. PMID:26067859

  17. Who Enrolls Onto Clinical Oncology Trials? A Radiation Patterns of Care Study Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Movsas, Benjamin . E-mail: bmovsas1@hfhs.org; Moughan, Jennifer; Owen, Jean; Coia, Lawrence R.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Hanks, Gerald; Wilson, J. Frank

    2007-07-15

    Purpose: To identify factors significantly influencing accrual to clinical protocols by analyzing radiation Patterns of Care Study (PCS) surveys of 3,047 randomly selected radiotherapy (RT) patients. Methods and Materials: Patterns of Care Study surveys from disease sites studied for the periods 1992-1994 and 1996-1999 (breast cancer, n = 1,080; prostate cancer, n = 1,149; esophageal cancer, n = 818) were analyzed. The PCS is a National Cancer Institute-funded national survey of randomly selected RT institutions in the United States. Patients with nonmetastatic disease who received RT as definitive or adjuvant therapy were randomly selected from eligible patients at each institution. To determine national estimates, individual patient records were weighted by the relative contribution of each institution and patients within each institution. Data regarding participation in clinical trials were recorded. The factors age, gender, race, type of insurance, and practice type of treating institution (academic or not) were studied by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Overall, only 2.7% of all patients were accrued to clinical protocols. Of these, 57% were enrolled on institutional review board-approved institutional trials, and 43% on National Cancer Institute collaborative group studies. On multivariate analysis, patients treated at academic facilities (p = 0.0001) and white patients (vs. African Americans, p = 0.0002) were significantly more likely to participate in clinical oncology trials. Age, gender, type of cancer, and type of insurance were not predictive. Conclusions: Practice type and race significantly influence enrollment onto clinical oncology trials. This suggests that increased communication and education regarding protocols, particularly focusing on physicians in nonacademic settings and minority patients, will be essential to enhance accrual.

  18. Phase III Study of Radiation Therapy With or Without Cis-Platinum in Patients With Unresectable Squamous or Undifferentiated Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: An Intergroup Trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (E2382)

    SciTech Connect

    Quon, Harry; Leong, Traci; Haselow, Robert; Leipzig, Bruce; Cooper, Jay; Forastiere, Arlene

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: The Head and Neck Intergroup conducted a Phase III randomized trial to determine whether the addition weekly cisplatin to daily radiation therapy (RT) would improve survival in patients with unresectable squamous cell head-and-neck carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients were randomized to RT (70 Gy at 1.8-2 Gy/day) or to the identical RT with weekly cisplatin dosed at 20 mg/m{sup 2}. Failure-free survival (FFS) and overall survival (OS) curves were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log rank test. Results: Between 1982 and 1987, 371 patients were accrued, and 308 patients were found eligible for analysis. Median follow-up was 62 months. The median FFS was 6.5 and 7.2 months for the RT and RT + cisplatin groups, respectively (p = 0.30). The p value for the treatment difference was p = 0.096 in multivariate modeling of FFS (compared to a p = 0.30 in univariate analysis). Expected acute toxicities were significantly increased with the addition of cisplatin except for in-field RT toxicities. Late toxicities were not significantly different except for significantly more esophageal (9% vs. 3%, p = 0.03) and laryngeal (11% vs. 4%, p = 0.05) late toxicities in the RT + cisplatin group. Conclusion: The addition of concurrent weekly cisplatin at 20 mg/m{sup 2} to daily radiation did not improve survival, although there was evidence of activity. Low-dose weekly cisplatin seems to have modest tumor radiosensitization but can increase the risk of late swallowing complications.

  19. Pretreatment Quality of Life Predicts for Locoregional Control in Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, Farzan; Pajak, Thomas F.; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Konski, Andre A.; Coyne, James C.; Gwede, Clement K.; Garden, Adam S.; Spencer, Sharon A.; Jones, Christopher; Movsas, Benjamin

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze the prospectively collected health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) data from patients enrolled in two Radiation Therapy Oncology Group randomized Phase III head and neck cancer trials (90-03 and 91-11) to assess their value as an independent prognostic factor for locoregional control (LRC) and/or overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: HRQOL questionnaires, using a validated instrument, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck (FACT-H and N), version 2, were completed by patients before the start of treatment. OS and LRC were the outcome measures analyzed using a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Results: Baseline FACT-H and N data were available for 1,093 patients and missing for 417 patients. No significant difference in outcome was found between the patients with and without baseline FACT-H and N data (p = 0.58). The median follow-up time was 27.2 months for all patients and 49 months for surviving patients. Multivariate analyses were performed for both OS and LRC. Beyond tumor and nodal stage, Karnofsky performance status, primary site, cigarette use, use of concurrent chemotherapy, and altered fractionation schedules, the FACT-H and N score was independently predictive of LRC (but not OS), with p = 0.0038. The functional well-being component of the FACT-H and N predicted most significantly for LRC (p = 0.0004). Conclusions: This study represents, to our knowledge, the largest analysis of HRQOL as a prognostic factor in locally advanced head and neck cancer patients. The results of this study have demonstrated the importance of baseline HRQOL as a significant and independent predictor of LRC in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer.

  20. Oncology nurses’ communication challenges with patients and families: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Smita C.; Manna, Ruth; Coyle, Nessa; Shen, Megan Johnson; Pehrson, Cassandra; Zaider, Talia; Hammonds, Stacey; Krueger, Carol A.; Parker, Patricia A.; Bylund, Carma L.

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of effective communication in an oncology setting are multifold and include the overall well-being of patients and health professionals, adherence to treatment regimens, psychological functioning, and improvements in quality of life. Nevertheless, there are substantial barriers and communication challenges reported by oncology nurses. This study was conducted to present a summary of communication challenges faced by oncology nurses. From November 2012 to March 2014, 121 inpatient nurses working in the oncology setting participated in an online pre-training qualitative survey that asked nurses to describe common communication challenges in communicating empathy and discussing death, dying, and end-of-life (EOL) goals of care. The results revealed six themes that describe the challenges in communicating empathically: dialectic tensions, burden of carrying bad news, lack of skills for providing empathy, perceived institutional barriers, challenging situations, and perceived dissimilarities between the nurse and the patient. The results for challenges in discussing death, dying and EOL goals of care revealed five themes: dialectic tensions, discussing specific topics related to EOL, lack of skills for providing empathy, patient/family characteristics, and perceived institutional barriers. This study emphasizes the need for institutions to provide communication skills training to their oncology nurses for navigating through challenging patient interactions. PMID:26278636

  1. A phase I study with an expanded cohort to assess the feasibility of intravenous paclitaxel, intraperitoneal carboplatin and intraperitoneal paclitaxel in patients with untreated ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal carcinoma: A Gynecologic Oncology Group study☆,☆☆,★

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Natalie; Sill, Michael W.; Mannel, Robert S.; Thaker, P.H.; DiSilvestro, Paul; Waggoner, Steve; Yamada, S. Diane; Armstrong, Deborah K.; Wenzel, Lari; Huang, Helen; Fracasso, Paula M.; Walker, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and assess the feasibility of intravenous (IV) paclitaxel, intraperitoneal (IP) carboplatin, and IP paclitaxel in women with newly diagnosed Stages II–IV ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal carcinoma. Methods Patients received escalating doses of paclitaxel IV and carboplatin IP on day 1 and paclitaxel IP 60 mg/m2 on day 8. A standard 3+3 design was used in the escalation phase. A two-stage group sequential design with 20 patients at the MTD was used in the feasibility phase. Patient-reported neurotoxicity was assessed pre and post treatment. Results Patients were treated with paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 IV and carboplatin IP from AUC 5–7 on day 1 and paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 IP on day 8. The MTD was estimated at carboplatin AUC 6 IP and 25 patients enrolled at this dose level. Within the first 4 cycles, seven (35%) of twenty evaluable patients had dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) including grade 4 thrombocytopenia (1), grade 3 neutropenic fever (3), >2 week delay due to ANC recovery (1), grade 3 LFT (1), and grade 3 infection (1). De-escalation to paclitaxel 135 mg/m2 IV was given to improve the safety. After six evaluable patients completed 4 cycles without a DLT, bevacizumab was added and six evaluable patients completed 4 cycles with one DLT (grade 3 hyponatremia). Conclusions Paclitaxel at 175 mg/m2 IV, carboplatin AUC 6 IP day 1 and paclitaxel 60 mg/m2 IP day 8 yield 18–56% patients with DLTs. The tolerability of the regimen in combination with bevacizumab was indicated in a small cohort. PMID:22155262

  2. Portal imaging practice patterns of children's oncology group institutions: Dosimetric assessment and recommendations for minimizing unnecessary exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Olch, Arthur J. . E-mail: aolch@chla.usc.edu; Geurts, Mark; Thomadsen, Bruce; Famiglietti, Robin; Chang, Eric L.

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: To determine and analyze the dosimetric consequences of current portal imaging practices for pediatric patients, and make specific recommendations for reducing exposure from portal imaging procedures. Methods and Materials: A survey was sent to approximately 250 Children's Oncology Group (COG) member institutions asking a series of questions about their portal imaging practices. Three case studies are presented with dosimetric analysis to illustrate the magnitude of unintended dose received by nontarget tissues using the most common techniques from the survey. Results: The vast majority of centers use double-exposure portal image techniques with a variety of open field margins. Only 17% of portal images were obtained during treatment, and for other imaging methods, few centers subtract monitor units from the treatment delivery. The number of monitor units used was nearly the same regardless of imager type, including electronic portal imaging devices. Eighty-six percent imaged all fields the first week and 17% imaged all fields every week. An additional 1,112 cm{sup 3} of nontarget tissue received 1 Gy in one of the example cases. Eight new recommendations are made, which will lower nontarget radiation doses with minimal impact on treatment verification accuracy. Conclusion: Based on the survey, changes can be made in portal imaging practices that will lower nontarget doses. It is anticipated that treatment verification accuracy will be minimally affected. Specific recommendations made to decrease the imaging dose and help lower the rate of radiation-induced secondary cancers in children are proposed for inclusion in future COG protocols using radiation therapy.

  3. Pathologic Findings at Risk-Reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy: Primary Results From Gynecologic Oncology Group Trial GOG-0199

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Mark E.; Piedmonte, Marion; Mai, Phuong L.; Ioffe, Olga B.; Ronnett, Brigitte M.; Van Le, Linda; Ivanov, Iouri; Bell, Maria C.; Blank, Stephanie V.; DiSilvestro, Paul; Hamilton, Chad A.; Tewari, Krishnansu S.; Wakeley, Katie; Kauff, Noah D.; Yamada, S. Diane; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Skates, Steven J.; Alberts, David S.; Walker, Joan L.; Minasian, Lori; Lu, Karen; Greene, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) lowers mortality from ovarian/tubal and breast cancers among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Uncertainties persist regarding potential benefits of RRSO among high-risk noncarriers, optimal surgical age, and anatomic origin of clinically occult cancers detected at surgery. To address these topics, we analyzed surgical treatment arm results from Gynecologic Oncology Group Protocol-0199 (GOG-0199), the National Ovarian Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Study. Participants and Methods This analysis included asymptomatic high-risk women age ≥ 30 years who elected RRSO at enrollment. Women provided risk factor data and underwent preoperative cancer antigen 125 (CA-125) serum testing and transvaginal ultrasound (TVU). RRSO specimens were processed according to a standardized tissue processing protocol and underwent central pathology panel review. Research-based BRCA1/2 mutation testing was performed when a participant's mutation status was unknown at enrollment. Relationships between participant characteristics and diagnostic findings were assessed using univariable statistics and multivariable logistic regression. Results Invasive or intraepithelial ovarian/tubal/peritoneal neoplasms were detected in 25 (2.6%) of 966 RRSOs (BRCA1 mutation carriers, 4.6%; BRCA2 carriers, 3.5%; and noncarriers, 0.5%; P < .001). In multivariable models, positive BRCA1/2 mutation status (P = .0056), postmenopausal status (P = .0023), and abnormal CA-125 levels and/or TVU examinations (P < .001) were associated with detection of clinically occult neoplasms at RRSO. For 387 women with negative BRCA1/2 mutation testing and normal CA-125 levels, findings at RRSO were benign. Conclusion Clinically occult cancer was detected among 2.6% of high-risk women undergoing RRSO. BRCA1/2 mutation, postmenopausal status, and abnormal preoperative CA-125 and/or TVU were associated with cancer detection at RRSO. These data can inform management decisions

  4. Depression and socio-economical burden are more common in primary caregivers of patients who are not aware of their cancer: TURQUOISE Study by the Palliative Care Working Committee of the Turkish Oncology Group (TOG).

    PubMed

    Tanriverdi, O; Yavuzsen, T; Turhal, S; Kilic, D; Yalcin, S; Ozkan, A; Uzunoglu, S; Uysal-Sonmez, O; Akman, T; Aktas, B; Ulger, S; Babacan, T; Komurcu, S; Yaren, A; Cay-Senler, F

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the personal, social and economic burden and the frequency of depression, as well as in caregivers of cancer patients who are being treated with chemotherapy in Turkey. The study is designed as a cross-sectional survey study using a 5-point Likert-type response scale, and the last part of the questionnaire includes the Beck Depression Inventory. The depression rate was found to be 64% (n = 476) among all subjects (n = 968), with 91% of those with depression demonstrating signs of mild depression. In this study, a significant difference was found between the presence of depression and age (young), sex (female), educational level (high), economic status (low), financial loss during treatment, patient's lack of knowledge about his/her diagnosis, metastatic disease and short survival time. In addition, 64% of all subjects had concerns of getting cancer, and 44% of all subjects had feelings of anger/rage against other people. In a multivariate regression analysis, the patient's lack of knowledge of the diagnosis was the independent risk factor. In conclusion, depression incidence and burden rate increased among cancer caregivers, and care burden was highly associated with depression. Accordingly, approaches to reducing the psycho-social effects of cancer should focus intensively on both the patients and their caregivers in Turkey. PMID:25828949

  5. Non-Randomized Confirmatory Trial of Laparoscopy-Assisted Total Gastrectomy and Proximal Gastrectomy with Nodal Dissection for Clinical Stage I Gastric Cancer: Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study JCOG1401.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Kozo; Katai, Hitoshi; Mizusawa, Junki; Katayama, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kenichi; Morita, Shinji; Yoshikawa, Takaki; Ito, Seiji; Kinoshita, Takahiro; Fukagawa, Takeo; Sasako, Mitsuru

    2016-06-01

    Several prospective studies on laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer have been initiated, but no prospective study evaluating laparoscopy-assisted total gastrectomy or laparoscopy-assisted proximal gastrectomy has been completed to date. A non-randomized confirmatory trial was commenced in April 2015 to evaluate the safety of laparoscopy-assisted total gastrectomy and laparoscopy-assisted proximal gastrectomy for clinical stage I gastric cancer. A total of 245 patients will be accrued from 42 Japanese institutions over 3 years. The primary endpoint is the proportion of patients with anastomotic leakage. The secondary endpoints are overall survival, relapse-free survival, proportion of patients with completed laparoscopy-assisted total gastrectomy or laparoscopy-assisted proximal gastrectomy, proportion of patients with conversion to open surgery, adverse events, and short-term clinical outcomes. The UMIN Clinical Trials Registry number is UMIN000017155. PMID:27433394

  6. Non-Randomized Confirmatory Trial of Laparoscopy-Assisted Total Gastrectomy and Proximal Gastrectomy with Nodal Dissection for Clinical Stage I Gastric Cancer: Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study JCOG1401

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Kozo; Mizusawa, Junki; Katayama, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Kenichi; Morita, Shinji; Yoshikawa, Takaki; Ito, Seiji; Kinoshita, Takahiro; Fukagawa, Takeo; Sasako, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Several prospective studies on laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer have been initiated, but no prospective study evaluating laparoscopy-assisted total gastrectomy or laparoscopy-assisted proximal gastrectomy has been completed to date. A non-randomized confirmatory trial was commenced in April 2015 to evaluate the safety of laparoscopy-assisted total gastrectomy and laparoscopy-assisted proximal gastrectomy for clinical stage I gastric cancer. A total of 245 patients will be accrued from 42 Japanese institutions over 3 years. The primary endpoint is the proportion of patients with anastomotic leakage. The secondary endpoints are overall survival, relapse-free survival, proportion of patients with completed laparoscopy-assisted total gastrectomy or laparoscopy-assisted proximal gastrectomy, proportion of patients with conversion to open surgery, adverse events, and short-term clinical outcomes. The UMIN Clinical Trials Registry number is UMIN000017155. PMID:27433394

  7. A phase II study of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, adriamycin, and cisplatin (FLAP) for metastatic gastric and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. A Penn Cancer Clinical Trial Group and Roswell Park Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program Trial.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, D J; Meropol, N J; Holroyde, C; Mintzer, D; Nuamah, I; Armstead, B; Douglass, H O; Haller, D G

    1997-06-01

    A Phase II study was performed to evaluate the activity and toxicity of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, Adriamycin, and cisplatin combination chemotherapy (FLAP) in patients with previously untreated advanced gastric and gastroesophageal (GE) junction adenocarcinoma. Forty-two consecutive patients were enrolled to received FLAP in this multi-institutional trial. Response, toxicity, and survival data were noted. Fifteen of 42 (36%) patients demonstrated objective responses, with two complete responses (5%) and 13 partial responses (31%). The median time to disease progression was 17 weeks, and the overall survival duration was 30 weeks. Myelosuppression was significant, requiring dose modifications, but there were no treatment-related deaths. FLAP is an active regimen in the treatment of advanced gastric and GE junction adenocarcinoma. We are presently using this regimen in the neoadjuvant setting in patients with gastric and GE junction cancers. PMID:9167745

  8. A Phase II Trial of Intraperitoneal EGEN-001, An IL-12 Plasmid Formulated with PEG-PEI-Cholesterol Lipopolymer in the Treatment of Persistent or Recurrent Epithelial Ovarian, Fallopian Tube or Primary Peritoneal Cancer: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Ronald D.; Sill, Michael W.; Davidson, Susan A.; Muller, Carolyn Y.; Bender, David P.; DeBernardo, Robert L.; Behbakht, Kian; Huh, Warner K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this phase II trial was to evaluate the toxicity and antitumor activity of EGEN-001 in platinum resistant recurrent ovarian cancer. Methods Eligible patients had weekly IP infusion of EGEN-001 at a dose of 24 mg/m2. Toxicity and antitumor activity were evaluated using CTCAE and RESIST criteria, respectively. Co-primary endpoints were tumor response and survival without progression (PFS) for at least 6 months. Survival without progression before going onto a subsequent therapy (EFS) for at least six months was also considered. Results A total of 58 EGEN-001 cycles were administered to 20/ 22 enrolled patients (median 2 cycles, range 1–9). The most frequently associated adverse events related specifically to EGEN-001 treatment were grade 1/2 fatigue, fever, chills, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia. Three of 20 EGEN-001 treated patients evaluable for toxicity elected to withdraw from the study motivated in part by grade 1 treatment related toxicities. There were no patients with partial or complete response (0%; 90% CI 0~10.9%). Seven (35%) of 16 patients evaluable for response had stable disease, and 9 (45%) had progressive disease. Six (30%) patients had a PFS of greater than six months, although three had gone off study and onto other therapies before six months. The estimated six-month EFS was 15%. The median PFS and OS was 2.89 and 9.17 months, respectively. Conclusion EGEN-001 at the dose and schedule evaluated was associated with some but limited activity and was seemingly less tolerated in platinum resistant recurrent ovarian cancer patients. PMID:24708919

  9. Amifostine does not prevent platinum-induced hearing loss associated with the treatment of children with hepatoblastoma. A report of the Intergroup Hepatoblastoma Study P9645 as a part of the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Katzenstein, H.M.; Chang, K.W.; Krailo, M.; Chen, Z.; Finegold, M.J.; Rowland, J.; Reynolds, M.; Pappo, A.; London, W.B.; Malogolowkin, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background To determine if amifostine is effective in reducing the toxicities associated with the administration of platinum-containing regimens in children with hepatoblastoma (HB). Methods Patients were enrolled on P9645 beginning in March of 1999. Stage I/II patients received treatment with 4 cycles of cisplatin/5-fluorouracil/vincristine (C5V) +/− amifostine. Patients with Stage III/IV disease were randomized to receive treatment with six cycles of either C5V +/− amifostine or carboplatin alternating with cisplatin (CC) +/− amifostine. Patients randomized to receive amifostine were given a dose of 740 mg/m2 intravenously over 15 minutes prior to each administration of a platinum agent. Results Eighty-two patients were considered in a special interim analysis of the incidence of toxicity. The disease outcome for patients receiving amifostine was similar to outcome in patients who did not receive amifostine (p = 0.22). The incidence of significant hearing loss (> 40 dB) was similar for patients treated with or without amifostine: 38% (14/37) vs. 38% (17/45) (p=0.68), respectively. There were no differences in the incidence of renal or bone marrow toxicities evaluated. Patients who received amifostine had a higher incidence of hypocalcemia (5% vs. 0.5%, p=0.00006). Conclusion Amifostine in the doses and schedule used in this study failed to significantly reduce the incidence of platinum-induced toxicities in patients with HB. PMID:19813275

  10. Can Epstein-Barr virus DNA load in nasopharyngeal brushings or whole blood predict recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a non-endemic region? A prospective nationwide study of the Dutch Head and Neck Oncology Cooperative Group.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Sharon D; Wildeman, Maarten A; Novalic, Zlata; Fles, Renske; van der Noort, Vincent; de Bree, Remco; Braunius, Weibel W; van den Broek, Guido B; Kreike, Bas; Kross, Kenneth W; Juwana, Hedy; Ramayanti, Octavia; Verkuijlen, Sandra A W M; de Boer, Jan Paul; Greijer, Astrid E; Middeldorp, Jaap M; Tan, I Bing

    2016-06-01

    This study estimated the value of quantitative measurements of EBV markers in the clinical management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a non-endemic area. The aim was to predict prognosis and detect recurrent and residual disease. In 72 patients, EBV DNA load in blood and nasopharyngeal brushes, and IgA VCA-p18 and EBNA1 in plasma were measured at different time points. At diagnosis and post-treatment, a cut-off value was used for detecting disease [positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive value]. The markers were correlated as a continuous variable with tumor stage, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The Cox hazard ratio model assessed hazard ratios. At diagnosis, the markers were above the COV in 45, 92, 85 and 83 % of the patients, respectively. Post-treatment, DNA load test in blood and brush had the best discriminating power (blood DNA load test: PPV 39 % and NPV 97 %, brush for local disease: PPV 75 % and NPV 99 %). Post-treatment, DNA load in blood was the best predictor for OS and DFS [hazard ratio 3.2 (95 % CI 1.51-3.5) and 2.3 (95 % CI 1.72-5.8)]. Assessing the EBV DNA load in blood has significant prognostic value, although the clinical value is for discussion. The EBV DNA load in the brush might improve early detection of local failures post-treatment. PMID:25929413

  11. CD8+ tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes in relation to HPV status and clinical outcome in patients with head and neck cancer after postoperative chemoradiotherapy: A multicentre study of the German cancer consortium radiation oncology group (DKTK-ROG).

    PubMed

    Balermpas, Panagiotis; Rödel, Franz; Rödel, Claus; Krause, Mechthild; Linge, Annett; Lohaus, Fabian; Baumann, Michael; Tinhofer, Inge; Budach, Volker; Gkika, Eleni; Stuschke, Martin; Avlar, Melanie; Grosu, Anca-Lidia; Abdollahi, Amir; Debus, Jürgen; Bayer, Christine; Stangl, Stefan; Belka, Claus; Pigorsch, Steffi; Multhoff, Gabriele; Combs, Stephanie E; Mönnich, David; Zips, Daniel; Fokas, Emmanouil

    2016-01-01

    We examined the prognostic value of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) after surgery and postoperative cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy. FFPE-tissue originating from the surgery of 161 patients treated in 8 DKTK partner sites was immunohistochemically stained for CD3 and CD8. Their expression was correlated with clinicopathological characteristics as well as overall survival (OS), local progression-free survival (LPFS) and distant metastases free-survival (DMFS), also in the context of the HPV16-DNA/p16 status. After a median follow-up of 48 months (range: 4100 months), OS at 4 years was 46.5% for the entire cohort. In multivariate analysis, high CD8 expression was confirmed as an independent prognostic parameter for OS (p = 0.002), LPFS (p = 0.004) and DMFS (p = 0.006), while CD3 expression lacked significance. In multivariate analysis HPV16 DNA positivity was associated with improved OS (p = 0.025) and LPFS (p = 0.013) and p16-positive patients showed improved DMFS (p = 0.008). Interestingly, high CD8 expression was a prognostic parameter for the clinical outcome in both HPV16 DNA-positive and HPV16 DNA-negative patients. Similar findings were observed in the multivariate analysis for the combined HPV16 DNA/p16 status. Altogether, CD8+ TILs constitute an independent prognostic marker in SCCHN patients treated with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. These data indicate that CD8-positive TILs have antitumour activity and could be used for treatment stratification. Further validation of the prognostic value of CD8+ TILs as a biomarker and its role in the immune response in SCCHN patients after adjuvant chemoradiotherapy is warranted and will be performed in the prospective DKTK-ROG study. PMID:26178914

  12. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0247: A Randomized Phase II Study of Neoadjuvant Capecitabine and Irinotecan or Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin With Concurrent Radiotherapy for Patients With Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Stuart J.; Winter, Kathryn; Meropol, Neal J.; Anne, Pramila Rani; Kachnic, Lisa; Rashid, Asif; Watson, James C.; Mitchell, Edith; Pollock, Jondavid; Lee, Robert Jeffrey; Haddock, Michael; Erickson, Beth A.; Willett, Christopher G.

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the rate of pathologic complete response (pCR) and the toxicity of two neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (chemoRT) regimens for Stage T3-T4 rectal cancer in a randomized Phase II study. Methods and Materials: Patients with Stage T3 or T4 rectal cancer of <12 cm from the anal verge were randomized to preoperative RT (50.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions) with concurrent capecitabine (1,200 mg/m{sup 2}/d Mondays through Friday) and irinotecan (50 mg/m{sup 2} weekly in four doses) (Arm 1) or concurrent capecitabine (1,650 mg/m{sup 2}/d Monday through Friday) and oxaliplatin (50 mg/m{sup 2} weekly in five doses) (Arm 2). Surgery was performed 4-8 weeks after chemoRT, and adjuvant chemotherapy 4-6 weeks after surgery. The primary endpoint was the pCR rate, requiring 48 evaluable patients per arm. Results: A total of 146 patients were enrolled. The protocol chemotherapy was modified because of excessive gastrointestinal toxicity after treatment of 35 patients; 96 were assessed for the primary endpoint-the final regimen described above. The patient characteristics were similar for both arms. After chemoRT, the rate of tumor downstaging was 52% and 60% and the rate of nodal downstaging (excluding N0 patients) was 46% and 40%, for Arms 1 and 2, respectively. The pCR rate for Arm 1 was 10% and for Arm 2 was 21%. For Arm 1 and 2, the preoperative chemoRT rate of Grade 3-4 hematologic toxicity was 9% and 4% and the rate of Grade 3-4 nonhematologic toxicity was 26% and 27%, respectively. Conclusions: Preoperative chemoRT with capecitabine plus oxaliplatin for distal rectal cancer has significant clinical activity (10 of 48 pCRs) and acceptable toxicity. This regimen is currently being evaluated in a Phase III randomized trial (National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project R04).

  13. Patterns of missing mini mental status exam (MMSE) in radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) brain cancer trials.

    PubMed

    Bae, K; Bruner, D W; Baek, S; Movsas, B; Corn, B W; Dignam, J J

    2011-11-01

    The Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE) instrument has been commonly used in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) to assess mental status in brain cancer patients. Evaluating patient factors in relation to patterns of incomplete MMSE assessments can provide insight into predictors of missingness and optimal MMSE collection schedules in brain cancer clinical trials. This study examined eight RTOG brain cancer trials with ten treatment arms and 1,957 eligible patients. Patient data compliance patterns were categorized as: (1) evaluated at all time points (Complete), (2) not evaluated from a given time point or any subsequent time points but evaluated at all the previous time points (Monotone drop-out), (3) not evaluated at any time point (All missing), and (4) all other patterns (Mixed). Patient characteristics and reasons for missingness were summarized and compared among the missing pattern groups. Baseline MMSE scores and change scores after radiation therapy (RT) were compared between these groups, adjusting for differences in other characteristics. There were significant differences in frequency of missing patterns by age, treatment type, education, and Zubrod performance status (ZPS; P < 0.001). Ninety-two percent of patients were evaluated at least once: seven percent of patients were complete pattern, 49% were Monotone pattern, and 36% were mixed pattern. Patients who received RT only regimens were evaluated at a higher rate than patients who received RT + other treatments (49-64% vs. 27-45%). Institutional error and request to not be contacted were the most frequent known reasons for missing data, but most often, reasons for missing MMSE was unspecified. Differences in baseline mean MMSE scores by missing pattern (Complete, Monotone dropout, Mixed) were statistically significant (P < 0.001) but differences were small (<1.5 points) and significance did not persist after adjustment for age, ZPS, and other factors related to missingness. Post-RT change scores

  14. Paleo-oncology: the role of ancient remains in the study of cancer.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Edward C

    2004-01-01

    Paleo-oncology is the study of carcinomas and sarcomas in ancient human populations and their hominid precursors. These populations are informative concerning the possible influences on cancer of morphologic and functional evolution, diet, lifestyle, and other environmental factors. The prevalence of cancer in ancient populations might have differed from that in modern humans, because of substantial differences in tobacco and alcohol use, diet, life expectancy, and the availability of treatment. The available physical data concerning cancer in antiquity includes evidence of its existence in animal fossils and ancient humans and their precursors. The difficulties of paleo-oncologic research include a limited soft tissue record. In evaluating cancer in ancient remains, one must also deal with the problem of pseudopathology: whether an observed tissue change is all antemortem pathologic lesion or a postmortem artifact. Future archeological discoveries and the application of improved diagnostic techniques may enable paleo-oncology to make further contributions to our understanding of cancer. PMID:15061165

  15. Management of prostate cancer in older patients: updated recommendations of a working group of the International Society of Geriatric Oncology.

    PubMed

    Droz, Jean-Pierre; Aapro, Matti; Balducci, Lodovico; Boyle, Helen; Van den Broeck, Thomas; Cathcart, Paul; Dickinson, Louise; Efstathiou, Eleni; Emberton, Mark; Fitzpatrick, John M; Heidenreich, Axel; Hughes, Simon; Joniau, Steven; Kattan, Michael; Mottet, Nicolas; Oudard, Stéphane; Payne, Heather; Saad, Fred; Sugihara, Toru

    2014-08-01

    In 2010, the International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) developed treatment guidelines for men with prostate cancer who are older than 70 years old. In 2013, a new multidisciplinary SIOG working group was formed to update these recommendations. The consensus of the task force is that older men with prostate cancer should be managed according to their individual health status, not according to age. On the basis of a validated rapid health status screening instrument and simple assessment, the task force recommends that patients are classed into three groups for treatment: healthy or fit patients who should have the same treatment options as younger patients; vulnerable patients with reversible impairment who should receive standard treatment after medical intervention; and frail patients with non-reversible impairment who should receive adapted treatment. PMID:25079103

  16. Group theories: relevance to group safety studies.

    PubMed

    Benevento, A L

    1998-01-01

    Promoting safety in the workplace has been attempted in a variety of ways. Increasingly, industries are using groups such as safety teams and quality circles to promote worker safety. Group influences on individual behavior and attitudes have long been studied in the social psychology literature, but the theories have not been commonly found outside the psychology arena. This paper describes the group theories of group polarization, risky shift, social loafing, groupthink and team think and attempts to apply these theories to existing studies that examine work group influences on safety. Interesting parallels were found but only one study examined group influences as their primary focus of research. Since groups are increasingly used for safety promotion, future research on safety that studies group influences with respect to current group theories is recommended. PMID:24441299

  17. A phase II evaluation of the potent, highly selective PARP inhibitor veliparib in the treatment of persistent or recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer in patients who carry a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation – an NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group study

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Robert L.; Sill, Michael W.; Bell-McGuinn, Katherine; Aghajanian, Carol; Gray, Heidi J.; Tewari, Krishnansu S.; Rubin, Steven C.; Rutherford, Thomas J.; Chan, John K; Chen, Alice; Swisher, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Veliparib is a potent small molecule inhibitor of PARP-1/2, which is cytotoxic in tumor cells with deficiencies in BRCA1 or BRCA2. We studied the clinical activity and toxicity of veliparib in ovarian cancer patients carrying a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation (gBRCA). Methods Eligibility included three or fewer prior chemotherapy regimens, measurable disease and no prior use of a PARP inhibitor. Veliparib was administered at 400 mg orally BID with one cycle being 28 days. The two-stage Simon design was capable of detecting a 25% response probability with 90% power while controlling alpha=10% (at a 10% assumed null response probability). Results The median age of the 50 eligible patients was 57 years (range 37–94) and 14, 18, and 18 patients had 1, 2, and 3 prior therapies respectively. Thirty patients (60%) were platinum-resistant. The median number of cycles administered was 6 (1–27). There was one grade 4 thrombocytopenia. Grade 3 adverse events were: fatigue (n=3), nausea (2), leukopenia (1), neutropenia (1), dehydration (1), and ALT (1). Grade 2 events >10% were: nausea (46%), fatigue (26%), vomiting (18%), and anemia (14%). The proportion responding was 26% (90% CI: 16%–38%, CR:2, PR:11); for platinum-resistant and platinum-sensitive patients the proportion responding was 20% and 35%, respectively. The most common reason for treatment discontinuation was progression (62%). Twenty-nine patients are alive; two with SD remain on veliparib. The median PFS is 8.18 months. Conclusions The single agent efficacy and tolerability of veliparib for BRCA mutation-associated recurrent ovarian cancer warrants further investigation. PMID:25818403

  18. The role of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy in oncological and non-oncological clinical settings: highlights from the 7th Meeting of AIRO--Young Members Working Group (AIRO Giovani).

    PubMed

    Franco, Pierfrancesco; De Bari, Berardino; Ciammella, Patrizia; Fiorentino, Alba; Chiesa, Silvia; Amelio, Dante; Pinzi, Valentina; Bonomo, Pierluigi; Vagge, Stefano; Fiore, Michele; Comito, Tiziana; Cecconi, Agnese; Mortellaro, Gianluca; Bruni, Alessio; Trovò, Marco; Filippi, Andrea Riccardo; Greto, Daniela; Alongi, Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy is a modern cancer treatment strategy able to deliver highly focused radiation in one or a few fractions with a radical intent in several clinical settings. Young radiation oncologists need a constant and tailored update in this context to improve patient care in daily clinical practice. A recent meeting of AIRO Giovani (AIRO--Young Members Working Group) was specifically addressed to this topic, presenting state-of-the-art knowledge, based on the latest evidence in this field. Highlights of the congress are summarized and presented in this report, including thorough contributions of the speakers dealing with the role of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy in both oncological and non-oncological diseases, divided according to anatomical and clinical scenarios: intra-cranial settings (brain malignant primary tumors, metastases, benign tumors and functional disorders) and extra-cranial indications (lung primary tumors and metastases, thoracic re-irradiation, liver, lymph node and bone metastases, prostate cancer). With literature data discussed during the congress as a background, stereotactic ablative radiotherapy has proved to be a consolidated treatment approach in specific oncological and non-oncological scenarios, as well as a promising option in other clinical settings, requiring a further prospective validation in the near future. We herein present an updated overview of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy use in the clinic. PMID:25688503

  19. Racial Differences in CYP3A4 Genotype and Survival Among Men Treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9202: A Phase III Randomized Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Mack Silvio, Michelle de; Rebbick, Timothy; Grignon, David; Rotman, Marvin; Wolkov, Harvey; Fisher, Barbara; Hanks, Gerald; Shipley, William U.; Pollack, Alan; Sandler, Howard; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah Ph.D.

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: Inherited genotypes may explain the inferior outcomes of African American (AA) men with prostate cancer. To understand how variation in CYP3A4 correlated with outcomes, a retrospective examination of the CYP3A4*1B genotype was performed on men treated with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 92-02. Methods and Materials: From 1,514 cases, we evaluated 56 (28.4%) of 197 AA and 54 (4.3%) of 1,274 European American (EA) patients. All patients received goserelin and flutamide for 2 months before and during RT (STAD-RT) {+-} 24 months of goserelin (long-term androgen deprivation plus radiation [LTAD-RT]). Events studied included overall survival and biochemical progression using American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus guidelines. Results: There were no differences in outcome in patients in with or without CYP3A4 data. There was an association between race and CYP3A4 polymorphisms with 75% of EAs having the Wild Type compared to only 25% of AA men (p <0.0001). There was no association between CYP3A4 classification or race and survival or progression. Conclusions: The samples analyzed support previously reported observations about the distribution of CYP3A4*1B genotype by race, but race was not associated with poorer outcome. However, patient numbers were limited, and selection bias cannot be completely ruled out.

  20. Updated recommendations from the Spanish Oncology Genitourinary Group for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Climent, Miguel Ángel; León-Mateos, Luis; González Del Alba, Aránzazu; Pérez-Valderrama, Begoña; Méndez-Vidal, M José; Mellado, Begoña; Arranz, José Ángel; Sánchez-Hernández, Alfredo; Cassinello, Javier; Olmos, David; Carles, Joan

    2015-11-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent male urogenital malignancy. Approximately 30% of patients with prostate cancer will develop advanced disease. Androgen deprivation therapy achieves disease control in about 90% of these patients, but the majority of them will eventually develop progressive disease, a status called castration-resistant prostate carcinoma (CRPC). However, in recent years, several new therapy strategies, such as immunotherapy, hormonal manipulations, chemotherapy agents and some bone-targeted therapies, have demonstrated an improvement in terms of overall survival in controlled trials. In 2012, the Spanish Oncology Genitourinary Group (SOGUG) published its recommendations for the treatment of patients with CRPC. Due to the recent appearance of important new data and the complexity of decision-making in this field, SOGUG herein provides updated recommendations for the treatment of patients with metastatic prostate cancer. PMID:26100652

  1. Detection of Preoperative Wilms Tumor Rupture with CT: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo, Arlene; Hoffer, Fredric; Mullen, Elizabeth; Geller, James; Gratias, Eric J.; Ehrlich, Peter F.; Perlman, Elizabeth J.; Rosen, Nancy; Grundy, Paul; Dome, Jeffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively determine the diagnostic performance of computed tomography (CT) in identifying the presence or absence of preoperative Wilms tumor rupture. Materials and Methods: The cohort was derived from the AREN03B2 study of the Children’s Oncology Group. The study was approved by the institutional review board and was compliant with HIPAA. Written informed consent was obtained before enrollment. The diagnosis of Wilms tumor rupture was established by central review of notes from surgery and/or pathologic examination. Seventy Wilms tumor cases with rupture were matched to 70 Wilms tumor controls without rupture according to age and tumor weight (within 6 months and 50 g, respectively). CT scans were independently reviewed by two radiologists, and the following CT findings were assessed: poorly circumscribed mass, perinephric fat stranding, peritumoral fat planes obscured, retroperitoneal fluid (subcapsular vs extracapsular), ascites beyond the cul-de-sac, peritoneal implants, ipsilateral pleural effusion, and intratumoral hemorrhage. All fluids were classified as hemorrhagic or nonhemorrhagic by using a cutoff of 30 HU. The relationship between CT findings and rupture was assessed with logistic regression models. Results: The sensitivity and specificity for detecting Wilms tumor rupture were 54% (36 of 67 cases) and 88% (61 of 69 cases), respectively, for reviewer 1 and 70% (47 of 67 cases) and 88% (61 of 69 cases), respectively, for reviewer 2. Interobserver agreement was substantial (ĸ = 0.76). All imaging signs tested, except peritoneal implants, intratumoral hemorrhage, and subcapsular fluid, showed a significant association with rupture (P ≤ .02). The attenuation of ascitic fluid did not have a significant correlation with rupture (P = .9990). Ascites beyond the cul-de-sac was the single best indicator of rupture for both reviewers, followed by perinephric fat stranding and retroperitoneal fluid for reviewers 1 and 2, respectively (P

  2. Invited review: study design considerations for clinical research in veterinary radiology and radiation oncology.

    PubMed

    Scrivani, Peter V; Erb, Hollis N

    2013-01-01

    High quality clinical research is essential for advancing knowledge in the areas of veterinary radiology and radiation oncology. Types of clinical research studies may include experimental studies, method-comparison studies, and patient-based studies. Experimental studies explore issues relative to pathophysiology, patient safety, and treatment efficacy. Method-comparison studies evaluate agreement between techniques or between observers. Patient-based studies investigate naturally acquired disease and focus on questions asked in clinical practice that relate to individuals or populations (e.g., risk, accuracy, or prognosis). Careful preplanning and study design are essential in order to achieve valid results. A key point to planning studies is ensuring that the design is tailored to the study objectives. Good design includes a comprehensive literature review, asking suitable questions, selecting the proper sample population, collecting the appropriate data, performing the correct statistical analyses, and drawing conclusions supported by the available evidence. Most study designs are classified by whether they are experimental or observational, longitudinal or cross-sectional, and prospective or retrospective. Additional features (e.g., controlled, randomized, or blinded) may be described that address bias. Two related challenging aspects of study design are defining an important research question and selecting an appropriate sample population. The sample population should represent the target population as much as possible. Furthermore, when comparing groups, it is important that the groups are as alike to each other as possible except for the variables of interest. Medical images are well suited for clinical research because imaging signs are categorical or numerical variables that might be predictors or outcomes of diseases or treatments. PMID:23578318

  3. Impact of Cancer Support Groups on Childhood Cancer Treatment and Abandonment in a Private Pediatric Oncology Centre

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Arathi; Tiwari, Khushboo; Scott, Julius Xavier; Ramachandran, Priya; Ramakrishnan, Mathangi

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To analyze the impact of two cancer support groups in the treatment and abandonment of childhood cancer. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of children with cancer funded and non-funded who were treated at Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital from 2010 to 2013. A total of 100 patients were funded, 57 by Ray of Light Foundation and 43 by Pediatric Lymphoma Project and 70 non-funded. Results: The total current survival of 80%, including those who have completed treatment and those currently undergoing treatment, is comparable in both the groups. Abandonment of treatment after initiating therapy was not seen in the financially supported group whereas abandonment of treatment after initiation was seen in one child in the non-funded group. Conclusions: Besides intensive treatment with good supportive care, financial support also has an important impact on compliance and abandonment in all socioeconomic strata of society. Financial support from private cancer support groups also has its impact beyond the patient and family, in reducing the burden on government institutions by non-governmental funding in private sector. Improvement in the delivery of pediatric oncology care in developing countries could be done by financial support from the private sector. PMID:25709189

  4. International Study Tour Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Frances L.; Matt, John J.; McCaw, William P.; Kero, Patty; Stewart, Courtney; Haddouch, Reda

    2014-01-01

    Using the context of international study tour groups, this study examined the personal and professional transformation that occurred among host faculty and staff at The University of Montana-Missoula as a result of their interactions with traveling academics from other countries. Data were collected from participant responses (n = 27) using a…

  5. Modern Radiation Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma: Field and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG)

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, Lena; Yahalom, Joachim; Illidge, Tim; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Constine, Louis S.; Eich, Hans Theodor; Girinsky, Theodore; Hoppe, Richard T.; Mauch, Peter; Mikhaeel, N. George; Ng, Andrea

    2014-07-15

    use of ISRT has not yet been validated in a formal study, it is more conservative than INRT, accounting for suboptimal information and appropriately designed for safe local disease control. The goal of modern smaller field radiation therapy is to reduce both treatment volume and treatment dose while maintaining efficacy and minimizing acute and late sequelae. This review is a consensus of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) Steering Committee regarding the modern approach to RT in the treatment of HL, outlining a new concept of ISRT in which reduced treatment volumes are planned for the effective control of involved sites of HL. Nodal and extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are covered separately by ILROG guidelines.

  6. Elective Clinical Target Volumes for Conformal Therapy in Anorectal Cancer: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Panel Contouring Atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Myerson, Robert J. Garofalo, Michael C.; El Naqa, Issam; Abrams, Ross A.; Apte, Aditya; Bosch, Walter R.; Das, Prajnan; Gunderson, Leonard L.; Hong, Theodore S.; Kim, J.J. John; Willett, Christopher G.; Kachnic, Lisa A.

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To develop a Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) atlas of the elective clinical target volume (CTV) definitions to be used for planning pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for anal and rectal cancers. Methods and Materials: The Gastrointestinal Committee of the RTOG established a task group (the nine physician co-authors) to develop this atlas. They responded to a questionnaire concerning three elective CTVs (CTVA: internal iliac, presacral, and perirectal nodal regions for both anal and rectal case planning; CTVB: external iliac nodal region for anal case planning and for selected rectal cases; CTVC: inguinal nodal region for anal case planning and for select rectal cases), and to outline these areas on individual computed tomographic images. The imaging files were shared via the Advanced Technology Consortium. A program developed by one of the co-authors (I.E.N.) used binomial maximum-likelihood estimates to generate a 95% group consensus contour. The computer-estimated consensus contours were then reviewed by the group and modified to provide a final contouring consensus atlas. Results: The panel achieved consensus CTV definitions to be used as guidelines for the adjuvant therapy of rectal cancer and definitive therapy for anal cancer. The most important difference from similar atlases for gynecologic or genitourinary cancer is mesorectal coverage. Detailed target volume contouring guidelines and images are discussed. Conclusion: This report serves as a template for the definition of the elective CTVs to be used in IMRT planning for anal and rectal cancers, as part of prospective RTOG trials.

  7. Oncologic imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bragg, D.G.; Rubin, P.; Youker, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear medicine. Topics considered include the classification of cancers, oncologic diagnosis, brain and spinal cord neoplasms, lymph node metastases, the larynx and hypopharynx, thyroid cancer, breast cancer, esophageal cancer, bladder cancer, tumors of the skeletal system, pediatric oncology, computed tomography and radiation therapy treatment planning, and the impact of future technology on oncologic diagnosis.

  8. Response assessment after stereotactic body radiotherapy for spinal metastasis: a report from the SPIne response assessment in Neuro-Oncology (SPINO) group.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Isabelle; Chang, Eric L; Sheehan, Jason; Ahluwalia, Manmeet S; Guckenberger, Matthias; Sohn, Moon-Jun; Ryu, Samuel; Foote, Matthew; Lo, Simon S; Muacevic, Alexander; Soltys, Scott G; Chao, Samuel; Gerszten, Peter; Lis, Eric; Yu, Eugene; Bilsky, Mark; Fisher, Charles; Schiff, David; Fehlings, Michael G; Ma, Lijun; Chang, Susan; Chow, Edward; Parelukar, Wendy R; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Sahgal, Arjun

    2015-12-01

    The SPine response assessment In Neuro-Oncology (SPINO) group is a committee of the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology working group and comprises a panel of international experts in spine stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Here, we present the group's first report on the challenges in standardising imaging-based assessment of local control and pain for spinal metastases. We review current imaging modalities used in SBRT treatment planning and tumour assessment and review the criteria for pain and local control in registered clinical trials specific to spine SBRT. We summarise the results of an international survey of the panel to establish the range of current practices in assessing tumour response to spine SBRT. The ultimate goal of the SPINO group is to report consensus criteria for tumour imaging, clinical assessment, and symptom-based response criteria to help standardise future clinical trials. PMID:26678212

  9. A Research Agenda for Radiation Oncology: Results of the Radiation Oncology Institute's Comprehensive Research Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jagsi, Reshma; Bekelman, Justin E.; Brawley, Otis W.; Deasy, Joseph O.; Le, Quynh-Thu; Michalski, Jeff M.; Movsas, Benjamin; Thomas, Charles R.; Lawton, Colleen A.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Hahn, Stephen M.

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To promote the rational use of scarce research funding, scholars have developed methods for the systematic identification and prioritization of health research needs. The Radiation Oncology Institute commissioned an independent, comprehensive assessment of research needs for the advancement of radiation oncology care. Methods and Materials: The research needs assessment used a mixed-method, qualitative and quantitative social scientific approach, including structured interviews with diverse stakeholders, focus groups, surveys of American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) members, and a prioritization exercise using a modified Delphi technique. Results: Six co-equal priorities were identified: (1) Identify and develop communication strategies to help patients and others better understand radiation therapy; (2) Establish a set of quality indicators for major radiation oncology procedures and evaluate their use in radiation oncology delivery; (3) Identify best practices for the management of radiation toxicity and issues in cancer survivorship; (4) Conduct comparative effectiveness studies related to radiation therapy that consider clinical benefit, toxicity (including quality of life), and other outcomes; (5) Assess the value of radiation therapy; and (6) Develop a radiation oncology registry. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this prioritization exercise is the only comprehensive and methodologically rigorous assessment of research needs in the field of radiation oncology. Broad dissemination of these findings is critical to maximally leverage the impact of this work, particularly because grant funding decisions are often made by committees on which highly specialized disciplines such as radiation oncology are not well represented.

  10. Oncology/haematology nurses: a study of job satisfaction, burnout, and intention to leave the specialty.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Linda; Yates, Patsy

    2002-01-01

    The impact of the current nursing shortage on the health care system is receiving attention by both state and federal governments. This study, using a convenience sample of 243 oncology/haematology nurses working in 11 Queensland health care facilities, explored factors that influence the quality of nurses' working lives. Although nurses reported high levels of personal satisfaction and personal accomplishment, results indicated that nearly 40% of registered nurses (RNs) are dealing with workloads they perceive excessive, 48% are dissatisfied regarding pay, and professional support is an issue. Furthermore, emotional exhaustion is a very real concern: over 70% of the sample experienced moderate to high levels. Over 48% of the sample could not commit to remaining in the specialty for a further 12 months. Health care managers and governments should implement strategies that can increase nurses' job satisfaction and reduce burnout, thereby enhancing the retention of oncology/haematology nurses. PMID:12136551

  11. An Assessment of the Current US Radiation Oncology Workforce: Methodology and Global Results of the American Society for Radiation Oncology 2012 Workforce Study

    SciTech Connect

    Vichare, Anushree; Washington, Raynard; Patton, Caroline; Arnone, Anna; Olsen, Christine; Fung, Claire Y.; Hopkins, Shane; Pohar, Surjeet

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the characteristics, needs, and concerns of the current radiation oncology workforce, evaluate best practices and opportunities for improving quality and safety, and assess what we can predict about the future workforce. Methods and Materials: An online survey was distributed to 35,204 respondents from all segments of the radiation oncology workforce, including radiation oncologists, residents, medical dosimetrists, radiation therapists, medical physicists, nurse practitioners, nurses, physician assistants, and practice managers/administrators. The survey was disseminated by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) together with specialty societies representing other workforce segments. An overview of the methods and global results is presented in this paper. Results: A total of 6765 completed surveys were received, a response rate of 19%, and the final analysis included 5257 respondents. Three-quarters of the radiation oncologists, residents, and physicists who responded were male, in contrast to the other segments in which two-thirds or more were female. The majority of respondents (58%) indicated they were hospital-based, whereas 40% practiced in a free-standing/satellite clinic and 2% in another setting. Among the practices represented in the survey, 21.5% were academic, 25.2% were hospital, and 53.3% were private. A perceived oversupply of professionals relative to demand was reported by the physicist, dosimetrist, and radiation therapist segments. An undersupply was perceived by physician's assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses. The supply of radiation oncologists and residents was considered balanced. Conclusions: This survey was unique as it attempted to comprehensively assess the radiation oncology workforce by directly surveying each segment. The results suggest there is potential to improve the diversity of the workforce and optimize the supply of the workforce segments. The survey also provides a benchmark for

  12. Reconsidering Physical Activity Restrictions for Mononephric Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Okada, Maki; Hockenberry, Marilyn J; Koh, Chester J; Meeske, Kathleen A; Rangan, Kasey E; Rodgers, Cheryl; Rosenthal, Yael; Ruccione, Kathleen S; Freyer, David R

    2016-07-01

    Although traditional recommendations for mononephric childhood cancer survivors are to avoid contact sports in order to protect the remaining kidney, review of available evidence suggests that the majority of renal loss is caused by accidents not involving sports. An interdisciplinary team performed a review of the English literature published from 1999 to 2012 within the PubMed, Cochrane, Google Scholar, and National Guidelines Clearinghouse databases. The level of evidence and proposed recommendations were graded according to an established rubric and GRADE criteria. Our review found that kidney loss is most commonly caused by nonsports activities such as motor vehicle accidents and falls, implying that restrictions on sports-related activity in mononephric pediatric survivors are not well supported. This favors encouraging ordinary sports and related activities without restriction in mononephric childhood cancer survivors because the known benefits of exercise outweigh the exceedingly low risk of renal loss. Accordingly, activity recommendations for mononephric patients have been revised in the most current version of the Children's Oncology Group Long-term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent and Young Adult Cancers. This has important implications for this and similar populations who may now undertake individual and organized sports without undue regard for their mononephric status. PMID:26589357

  13. Association between prolonged neutropenia and reduced relapse risk in pediatric AML: A report from the children's oncology group.

    PubMed

    Sung, Lillian; Aplenc, Richard; Alonzo, Todd A; Gerbing, Robert B; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Meshinchi, Soheil; Gamis, Alan S

    2016-11-01

    Objective was to describe the relationship between the number of sterile site infections and duration of neutropenia during the first four cycles of chemotherapy and the risk of recurrence and overall survival in children with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). AAML0531 was a Children's Oncology Group randomized phase 3 clinical trial that included 1022 children with de novo AML. For this analysis, we focused on non-Down syndrome favorable and standard risk patients who completed at least 4 cycles of chemotherapy without recurrence or withdrawal during protocol therapy. Those receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in first remission were excluded. Five hundred and sixty-nine patients were included; 274 (48.2%) were favorable risk. The median cumulative time with neutropenia between Induction II to completion of Intensification II was 96 (range 54-204) days. Number of sterile site infections did not influence the risk of relapse or overall survival. However, longer duration of neutropenia was associated with a lower risk of relapse (hazard ratio 0.81 per 20 days neutropenia, p = 0.007). Longer duration of neutropenia was associated with a reduced risk of relapse for children with favorable and standard risk AML. Toxicity may be influenced by pharmacogenomics suggesting that individualized chemotherapy dosing may be an effective strategy. PMID:27312107

  14. Frequency of and predictors for withholding patient safety concerns among oncology staff: a survey study.

    PubMed

    Schwappach, D L B; Gehring, K

    2015-05-01

    Speaking up about patient safety is vital to avoid errors reaching the patient and to improve a culture of safety. This study investigated the prevalence of non-speaking up despite concerns for safety and aimed to identify predictors for withholding voice among healthcare professionals (HCPs) in oncology. A self-administered questionnaire assessed safety concerns, speaking up beliefs and behaviours among nurses and doctors from nine oncology departments. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors for withholding safety concerns. A total of 1013 HCPs returned the completed survey (response rate 65%). Safety concerns were common among responders. Fifty-four per cent reported to recognise their colleagues making potentially harmful errors at least sometimes. A majority of responders reported at least some episodes of withholding concerns about patient safety. Thirty-seven per cent said they remained silent at least once when they had information that might have helped prevent an incident. Respondents believed that a high level of interpersonal, communication and coping skills are necessary to speak up about patient safety issues at their workplace. Higher levels of perceived advocacy for patient safety and psychological safety significantly decreased the frequency of withholding voice. Remaining silent about safety concerns is a common phenomenon in oncology. Improved strategies are needed to support staff in effective communication and make cancer care safer. PMID:25287114

  15. High-field small animal magnetic resonance oncology studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokacheva, Louisa; Ackerstaff, Ellen; LeKaye, H. Carl; Zakian, Kristen; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the applications of high magnetic field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) to cancer studies in small animals. High-field MRI can provide information about tumor physiology, the microenvironment, metabolism, vascularity and cellularity. Such studies are invaluable for understanding tumor growth and proliferation, response to treatment and drug development. The MR techniques reviewed here include 1H, 31P, chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging and hyperpolarized 13C MRS as well as diffusion-weighted, blood oxygen level dependent contrast imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. These methods have been proven effective in animal studies and are highly relevant to human clinical studies.

  16. Oncology clinicians' defenses and adherence to communication skills training with simulated patients: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Mathieu; de Roten, Yves; Despland, Jean-Nicolas; Stiefel, Friedrich

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to assess the impact of clinicians' defense mechanisms-defined as self-protective psychological mechanisms triggered by the affective load of the encounter with the patient-on adherence to a communication skills training (CST). The population consisted of oncology clinicians (N=31) who participated in a CST. An interview with simulated cancer patients was recorded prior and 6 months after CST. Defenses were measured before and after CST and correlated with a prototype of an ideally conducted interview based on the criteria of CST-teachers. Clinicians who used more adaptive defense mechanisms showed better adherence to communication skills after CST than clinicians with less adaptive defenses (F(1, 29) =5.26, p=0.03, d=0.42). Improvement in communication skills after CST seems to depend on the initial levels of defenses of the clinician prior to CST. Implications for practice and training are discussed. Communication has been recognized as a central element of cancer care [1]. Ineffective communication may contribute to patients' confusion, uncertainty, and increased difficulty in asking questions, expressing feelings, and understanding information [2, 3], and may also contribute to clinicians' lack of job satisfaction and emotional burnout [4]. Therefore, communication skills trainings (CST) for oncology clinicians have been widely developed over the last decade. These trainings should increase the skills of clinicians to respond to the patient's needs, and enhance an adequate encounter with the patient with efficient exchange of information [5]. While CSTs show a great diversity with regard to their pedagogic approaches [6, 7], the main elements of CST consist of (1) role play between participants, (2) analysis of videotaped interviews with simulated patients, and (3) interactive case discussion provided by participants. As recently stated in a consensus paper [8], CSTs need to be taught in small groups (up to 10

  17. High Field Small Animal Magnetic Resonance Oncology Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bokacheva, Louisa; Ackerstaff, Ellen; LeKaye, H. Carl; Zakian, Kristen; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the applications of high magnetic field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) to cancer studies in small animals. High field MRI can provide information about tumor physiology, the microenvironment, metabolism, vascularity and cellularity. Such studies are invaluable for understanding tumor growth and proliferation, response to treatment and drug development. The MR techniques reviewed here include 1H, 31P, Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) imaging, and hyperpolarized 13C MR spectroscopy as well as diffusion-weighted, Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) contrast imaging, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging. These methods have been proven effective in animal studies and are highly relevant to human clinical studies. PMID:24374985

  18. The management of respiratory motion in radiation oncology report of AAPM Task Group 76

    SciTech Connect

    Keall, Paul J.; Mageras, Gig S.; Balter, James M.

    2006-10-15

    This document is the report of a task group of the AAPM and has been prepared primarily to advise medical physicists involved in the external-beam radiation therapy of patients with thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic tumors affected by respiratory motion. This report describes the magnitude of respiratory motion, discusses radiotherapy specific problems caused by respiratory motion, explains techniques that explicitly manage respiratory motion during radiotherapy and gives recommendations in the application of these techniques for patient care, including quality assurance (QA) guidelines for these devices and their use with conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy. The technologies covered by this report are motion-encompassing methods, respiratory gated techniques, breath-hold techniques, forced shallow-breathing methods, and respiration-synchronized techniques. The main outcome of this report is a clinical process guide for managing respiratory motion. Included in this guide is the recommendation that tumor motion should be measured (when possible) for each patient for whom respiratory motion is a concern. If target motion is greater than 5 mm, a method of respiratory motion management is available, and if the patient can tolerate the procedure, respiratory motion management technology is appropriate. Respiratory motion management is also appropriate when the procedure will increase normal tissue sparing. Respiratory motion management involves further resources, education and the development of and adherence to QA procedures.

  19. Strategic Plans to Promote Head and Neck Cancer Translational Research Within the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group: A Report From the Translational Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Christine H.; Hammond, Elizabeth H.; Dicker, Adam P.; Harari, Paul M.; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2007-10-01

    Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common cancer in the United States, with an overall survival rate of approximately 40-50%. In an effort to improve patient outcomes, research efforts designed to maximize benefit and reduce toxicities of therapy are in progress. Basic research in cancer biology has accelerated this endeavor and provided preclinical data and technology to support clinically relevant advances in early detection, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Recent completion of the Human Genome Project has promoted the rapid development of novel 'omics' technologies that allow more broad based study from a systems biology perspective. However, clinically relevant application of resultant gene signatures to clinical trials within cooperative groups has advanced slowly. In light of the large numbers of variables intrinsic to biomarker studies, validation of preliminary data for clinical implementation presents a significant challenge and may only be realized with large trials that involve significant patient numbers. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Head and Neck Cancer Translational Research Program recognizes this problem and brings together three unique features to facilitate this research: (1) availability of large numbers of clinical specimens from homogeneously treated patients through multi-institutional clinical trials; (2) a team of physicians, scientists, and staff focused on patient-oriented head-and-neck cancer research with the common goal of improving cancer care; and (3) a funding mechanism through the RTOG Seed Grant Program. In this position paper we outline strategic plans to further promote translational research within the framework of the RTOG.

  20. Ethnicity and survival in childhood acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Aplenc, Richard; Alonzo, Todd A.; Gerbing, Robert B.; Smith, Franklin O.; Meshinchi, Soheil; Ross, Julie A.; Perentesis, John; Woods, William G.; Lange, Beverly J.; Davies, Stella M.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated differences in outcome by ethnicity among children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We analyzed 791 children in the CCG 2891 trial and confirmed positive findings in 850 children in the CCG 2961 trial. Hispanic and black children treated with chemotherapy in CCG 2891 had significantly inferior overall survival (OS) from study entry compared with white children (37%± 9% vs 48%± 4% [P = .016] and 34% ± 10% vs 48% ± 4%, [P = .007], respectively). Significantly fewer black children had related donors. Analyses of CCG 2961 confirmed that black children had significantly decreased OS rates compared with white children (45% ± 12% vs 60% ± 4%; P = .007) The difference in OS rates between Hispanic and white children approached statistical significance (51% ± 8% vs 60% ± 4%; P = .065) Only 7.5% of black children on CCG 2961 had an available family donor. In conclusion, Hispanic and black children with AML have worse survival than white children. Access to chemotherapy, differences in supportive care or leukemia phenotype, and reduced compliance are unlikely explanations for this difference because therapy was given intravenously according to CCG protocols. Fewer black children than expected had an available family marrow donor. (Blood. 2006;108:74-80) PMID:16537811

  1. Implementation of Remote 3-Dimensional Image Guided Radiation Therapy Quality Assurance for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Clinical Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Yunfeng; Galvin, James M.; Parker, William; Breen, Stephen; Yin Fangfang; Cai Jing; Papiez, Lech S.; Li, X. Allen; Bednarz, Greg; Chen Wenzhou; Xiao Ying

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report the process and initial experience of remote credentialing of three-dimensional (3D) image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) as part of the quality assurance (QA) of submitted data for Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) clinical trials; and to identify major issues resulting from this process and analyze the review results on patient positioning shifts. Methods and Materials: Image guided radiation therapy datasets including in-room positioning CT scans and daily shifts applied were submitted through the Image Guided Therapy QA Center from institutions for the IGRT credentialing process, as required by various RTOG trials. A centralized virtual environment is established at the RTOG Core Laboratory, containing analysis tools and database infrastructure for remote review by the Physics Principal Investigators of each protocol. The appropriateness of IGRT technique and volumetric image registration accuracy were evaluated. Registration accuracy was verified by repeat registration with a third-party registration software system. With the accumulated review results, registration differences between those obtained by the Physics Principal Investigators and from the institutions were analyzed for different imaging sites, shift directions, and imaging modalities. Results: The remote review process was successfully carried out for 87 3D cases (out of 137 total cases, including 2-dimensional and 3D) during 2010. Frequent errors in submitted IGRT data and challenges in the review of image registration for some special cases were identified. Workarounds for these issues were developed. The average differences of registration results between reviewers and institutions ranged between 2 mm and 3 mm. Large discrepancies in the superior-inferior direction were found for megavoltage CT cases, owing to low spatial resolution in this direction for most megavoltage CT cases. Conclusion: This first experience indicated that remote review for 3D IGRT as part of QA

  2. Radiation Therapy Planning for Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma: Experience of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    SciTech Connect

    Maraldo, Maja V.; Dabaja, Bouthaina S.; Filippi, Andrea R.; Illidge, Tim; Tsang, Richard; Ricardi, Umberto; Petersen, Peter M.; Schut, Deborah A.; Garcia, John; Headley, Jayne; Parent, Amy; Guibord, Benoit; Ragona, Riccardo; Specht, Lena

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare disease, and the location of lymphoma varies considerably between patients. Here, we evaluate the variability of radiation therapy (RT) plans among 5 International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) centers with regard to beam arrangements, planning parameters, and estimated doses to the critical organs at risk (OARs). Methods: Ten patients with stage I-II classic HL with masses of different sizes and locations were selected. On the basis of the clinical information, 5 ILROG centers were asked to create RT plans to a prescribed dose of 30.6 Gy. A postchemotherapy computed tomography scan with precontoured clinical target volume (CTV) and OARs was provided for each patient. The treatment technique and planning methods were chosen according to each center's best practice in 2013. Results: Seven patients had mediastinal disease, 2 had axillary disease, and 1 had disease in the neck only. The median age at diagnosis was 34 years (range, 21-74 years), and 5 patients were male. Of the resulting 50 treatment plans, 15 were planned with volumetric modulated arc therapy (1-4 arcs), 16 with intensity modulated RT (3-9 fields), and 19 with 3-dimensional conformal RT (2-4 fields). The variations in CTV-to-planning target volume margins (5-15 mm), maximum tolerated dose (31.4-40 Gy), and plan conformity (conformity index 0-3.6) were significant. However, estimated doses to OARs were comparable between centers for each patient. Conclusions: RT planning for HL is challenging because of the heterogeneity in size and location of disease and, additionally, to the variation in choice of treatment techniques and field arrangements. Adopting ILROG guidelines and implementing universal dose objectives could further standardize treatment techniques and contribute to lowering the dose to the surrounding OARs.

  3. Male Reproductive Health After Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Lisa B.; Cohen, Laurie E.; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Metzger, Monika L.; Lockart, Barbara; Hijiya, Nobuko; Duffey-Lind, Eileen; Constine, Louis; Green, Daniel; Meacham, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer will become long-term survivors. Although cancer therapy is associated with many adverse effects, one of the primary concerns of young male cancer survivors is reproductive health. Future fertility is often the focus of concern; however, it must be recognized that all aspects of male health, including pubertal development, testosterone production, and sexual function, can be impaired by cancer therapy. Although pretreatment strategies to preserve reproductive health have been beneficial to some male patients, many survivors remain at risk for long-term reproductive complications. Understanding risk factors and monitoring the reproductive health of young male survivors are important aspects of follow-up care. The Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer (COG-LTFU Guidelines) were created by the COG to provide recommendations for follow-up care of survivors at risk for long-term complications. The male health task force of the COG-LTFU Guidelines, composed of pediatric oncologists, endocrinologists, nurse practitioners, a urologist, and a radiation oncologist, is responsible for updating the COG-LTFU Guidelines every 2 years based on literature review and expert consensus. This review summarizes current task force recommendations for the assessment and management of male reproductive complications after treatment for childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers. Issues related to male health that are being investigated, but currently not included in the COG-LTFU Guidelines, are also discussed. Ongoing investigation will inform future COG-LTFU Guideline recommendations for follow-up care to improve health and quality of life for male survivors. PMID:22649147

  4. Updated response assessment criteria for high-grade gliomas: response assessment in neuro-oncology working group.

    PubMed

    Wen, Patrick Y; Macdonald, David R; Reardon, David A; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Sorensen, A Gregory; Galanis, Evanthia; Degroot, John; Wick, Wolfgang; Gilbert, Mark R; Lassman, Andrew B; Tsien, Christina; Mikkelsen, Tom; Wong, Eric T; Chamberlain, Marc C; Stupp, Roger; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Vogelbaum, Michael A; van den Bent, Martin J; Chang, Susan M

    2010-04-10

    Currently, the most widely used criteria for assessing response to therapy in high-grade gliomas are based on two-dimensional tumor measurements on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in conjunction with clinical assessment and corticosteroid dose (the Macdonald Criteria). It is increasingly apparent that there are significant limitations to these criteria, which only address the contrast-enhancing component of the tumor. For example, chemoradiotherapy for newly diagnosed glioblastomas results in transient increase in tumor enhancement (pseudoprogression) in 20% to 30% of patients, which is difficult to differentiate from true tumor progression. Antiangiogenic agents produce high radiographic response rates, as defined by a rapid decrease in contrast enhancement on CT/MRI that occurs within days of initiation of treatment and that is partly a result of reduced vascular permeability to contrast agents rather than a true antitumor effect. In addition, a subset of patients treated with antiangiogenic agents develop tumor recurrence characterized by an increase in the nonenhancing component depicted on T2-weighted/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences. The recognition that contrast enhancement is nonspecific and may not always be a true surrogate of tumor response and the need to account for the nonenhancing component of the tumor mandate that new criteria be developed and validated to permit accurate assessment of the efficacy of novel therapies. The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology Working Group is an international effort to develop new standardized response criteria for clinical trials in brain tumors. In this proposal, we present the recommendations for updated response criteria for high-grade gliomas. PMID:20231676

  5. Management of prostate cancer in older men: recommendations of a working group of the International Society of Geriatric Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Droz, Jean-Pierre; Balducci, Lodovico; Bolla, Michel; Emberton, Mark; Fitzpatrick, John M; Joniau, Steven; Kattan, Michael W; Monfardini, Silvio; Moul, Judd W; Naeim, Arash; van Poppel, Hendrik; Saad, Fred; Sternberg, Cora N

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer in men and predominantly affects older men (aged ≥70 years). The median age at diagnosis is 68 years; overall, two-thirds of prostate cancer-related deaths occur in men aged ≥75 years. With the exponential ageing of the population and the increasing life-expectancy in developed countries, the burden of prostate cancer is expected to increase dramatically in the future. To date, no specific guidelines on the management of prostate cancer in older men have been published. The International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) conducted a systematic bibliographic search based on screening, diagnostic procedures and treatment options for localized and advanced prostate cancer, to develop a proposal for recommendations that should provide the highest standard of care for older men with prostate cancer. The consensus of the SIOG Prostate Cancer Task Force is that older men with prostate cancer should be managed according to their individual health status, which is mainly driven by the severity of associated comorbid conditions, and not according to chronological age. Existing international recommendations (European Association of Urology, National Comprehensive Cancer Network, and American Urological Association) are the backbone for localized and advanced prostate cancer treatment, but need to be adapted to patient health status. Based on a rapid and simple evaluation, patients can be classified into four different groups: 1, ‘Healthy’ patients (controlled comorbidity, fully independent in daily living activities, no malnutrition) should receive the same treatment as younger patients; 2, ‘Vulnerable’ patients (reversible impairment) should receive standard treatment after medical intervention; 3, ‘Frail’ patients (irreversible impairment) should receive adapted treatment; 4, Patients who are ‘too sick’ with ‘terminal illness’ should receive only symptomatic palliative treatment. PMID:20346033

  6. A comparison of discharge strategies after chemotherapy completion in pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Miller, Tamara P; Getz, Kelly D; Kavcic, Marko; Li, Yimei; Huang, Yuan-Shun V; Sung, Lillian; Alonzo, Todd A; Gerbing, Robert; Daves, Marla; Horton, Terzah M; Pulsipher, Michael A; Pollard, Jessica; Bagatell, Rochelle; Seif, Alix E; Fisher, Brian T; Gamis, Alan S; Aplenc, Richard

    2016-07-01

    While most children receive acute myeloid leukemia (AML) chemotherapy as inpatients, there is variability in timing of discharge after chemotherapy completion. This study compared treatment-related morbidity, mortality and cumulative hospitalization in children with AML who were discharged after chemotherapy completion (early discharge) and those who remained hospitalized. Chart abstraction data for 153 early discharge-eligible patients enrolled on a Children's Oncology Group trial were compared by discharge strategy. Targeted toxicities included viridans group streptococcal (VGS) bacteremia, hypoxia and hypotension. Early discharge occurred in 11% of courses post-Induction I. Re-admission occurred in 80-100%, but median hospital stay was 7 days shorter. Patients discharged early had higher rates of VGS (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.11-2.51), hypoxia (aRR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.06-3.48) and hypotension (aRR = 4.36, 95% CI = 2.01-9.46), but there was no difference in mortality. As pressure increases to shorten hospitalizations, these results have important implications for determining discharge practices in pediatric AML. PMID:26727639

  7. Traumeel S in preventing and treating mucositis in young patients undergoing SCT: a report of the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Sencer, SF; Zhou, T; Freedman, LS; Ives, JA; Chen, Z; Wall, D; Nieder, ML; Grupp, SA; Yu, LC; Sahdev, I; Jonas, WB; Wallace, JD; Oberbaum, M

    2012-01-01

    Mucositis can be a serious complication of hematopoietic SCT (HSCT). A previous phase II trial in 32 children undergoing HSCT reported a beneficial effect of the homeopathic remedy Traumeel S. The Children’s Oncology Group sought to replicate the results in a multi-institutional trial. The study was an international multi-center, double-blind, randomized trial comparing Traumeel with placebo in patients aged 3–25 years undergoing myeloablative HSCT. Traumeel/placebo was started on Day −1 as a five-time daily mouth rinse. Efficacy of the treatment was assessed using the modified Walsh scale for mucositis, scored daily from Day −1 to 20 days after HCST. The main outcome was the sum of Walsh scale scores (area-under-the-curve (AUC)) over this period. Other outcomes included narcotic use, days of total parenteral feeding, days of nasogastric feeding and adverse events. In 181 evaluable patients, there was no statistical difference in mucositis (AUC) in the Traumeel group (76.7) compared with placebo (67.3) (P = 0.13). There was a trend towards less narcotic usage in the Traumeel patients. No statistically beneficial effect from Traumeel was demonstrated for mucositis. We could not confirm that Traumeel is an effective treatment for mucositis in children undergoing HSCT. PMID:22504933

  8. Sporadic Retinoblastoma and Parental Smoking and Alcohol Consumption before and after Conception: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Azary, Saeedeh; Ganguly, Arupa; Bunin, Greta R.; Lombardi, Christina; Park, Andrew S.; Ritz, Beate; Heck, Julia E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Retinoblastoma is the most frequent tumor of the eye in children and very little is known about the etiology of non-familial (sporadic) retinoblastoma. In this study we examined whether parental tobacco smoking or alcohol consumption (pre- or post-conception) contribute to the two phenotypes (bilateral or unilateral) of sporadic retinoblastoma. Methods Two large multicenter case-control studies identified 488 cases through eye referral centers in the United States and Canada or through the Children’s Oncology Group. Controls (n = 424) were selected from among friends and relatives of cases and matched by age. Risk factor information was obtained via telephone interview. We employed multivariable logistic regression to estimate the effects of parental tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on retinoblastoma. Findings Maternal smoking before and during pregnancy contributed to unilateral retinoblastoma risk in the child: year before pregnancy conditional Odds Ratio (OR), 8.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5–51, and unconditional OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3–4.7; month before or during pregnancy, conditional OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 0.5–20.8, and unconditional OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1–7.0. No association was found for maternal or paternal alcohol consumption. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that maternal active smoking during pregnancy may be a risk factor for sporadic retinoblastoma. Our study supports a role for tobacco exposures in embryonal tumors. PMID:26991078

  9. Challenges in translating endpoints from trials to observational cohort studies in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Ording, Anne Gulbech; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre; Ehrenstein, Vera; Lash, Timothy L; Acquavella, John; Rørth, Mikael; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trials are considered the gold standard for examining drug efficacy and for approval of new drugs. Medical databases and population surveillance registries are valuable resources for post-approval observational research, which are increasingly used in studies of benefits and risk of new cancer drugs. Here, we address the challenges in translating endpoints from oncology trials to observational studies. Registry-based cohort studies can investigate real-world safety issues – including previously unrecognized concerns – by examining rare endpoints or multiple endpoints at once. In contrast to clinical trials, observational cohort studies typically do not exclude real-world patients from clinical practice, such as old and frail patients with comorbidity. The observational cohort study complements the clinical trial by examining the effectiveness of interventions applied in clinical practice and by providing evidence on long-term clinical outcomes, which are often not feasible to study in a clinical trial. Various endpoints can be included in clinical trials, such as hard endpoints, soft endpoints, surrogate endpoints, and patient-reported endpoints. Each endpoint has it strengths and limitations for use in research studies. Endpoints used in oncology trials are often not applicable in observational cohort studies which are limited by the setting of standard clinical practice and by non-standardized endpoint determination. Observational studies can be more helpful moving research forward if they restrict focus to appropriate and valid endpoints. PMID:27354827

  10. "Burnout in Medical Oncology Fellows: a Prospective Multicenter Cohort Study in Brazilian Institutions".

    PubMed

    Cubero, Daniel I G; Fumis, Renata Rego Lins; de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Dettino, Aldo; Costa, Felipe Osório; Van Eyll, Brigitte M R H Adam; Beato, Carlos; Peria, Fernanda Maris; Mota, Augusto; Altino, José; Azevedo, Sérgio Jobim; da Rocha Filho, Duílio Reis; Moura, Melba; Lessa, Álvaro Edson Ramos; Del Giglio, Auro

    2016-09-01

    Burnout syndrome is a common occurrence among oncologists. Doctors enrolled in residency programs in clinical oncology are exposed to similar risk factors; however, few data are available in this population. This study assessed the occurrence of burnout and associated factors among first-year residents at Brazilian institutions. The present prospective, multicenter, cohort study was conducted with doctors enrolled in residency programs in clinical oncology at Brazilian institutions affiliated with the public health system. The participants answered a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), Lipp's Stress Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), upon admission to the program and 6 and 12 months later. Of 37 eligible residency programs in 2009, 11 (30.6 %) agreed to participate in the study. Fifty-four residents, representing 100 % of new admissions to the participating institutions, were included. Most of the participants met the criteria for severe burnout upon admission to the residency programs (emotional exhaustion in 49.0 % and depersonalization in 64.7 %). The scores on MBI domains emotional exhaustion and depersonalization increased significantly (p < 0.01) during the first year of residency, and the prevalence of burnout increased to 88 % at the end of that first year. The present study found a high prevalence of burnout among doctors enrolled in residency programs in clinical oncology at Brazilian institutions. A large fraction of the participants met the criteria for burnout syndrome upon admission to the program, which suggests that the problem began during the course of the previous residency program in internal medicine. PMID:25952940

  11. Study Groups: Conduit for Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makibbin, Shirley S.; Sprague, Marsha M.

    This conference presentation describes study groups as a mechanism for changing teacher behavior. The history of study groups is discussed, beginning with the first American study groups organized by Benjamin Franklin; the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle; the waning of study groups in the early 20th century as college enrollment…

  12. Evaluation of utility of pharmacokinetic studies in phase I trials of two oncology drugs

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Kehua; House, Larry; Ramírez, Jacqueline; Seminerio, Michael J.; Ratain, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose There are many phase I trials of oncology drug combinations, very few of which report clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions. We hypothesized that the utility of such pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies is low in the absence of a mechanistic hypothesis. Experimental Design We retrospectively reviewed 152 phase I (2 drug) combination studies published in 2007–2011. Results Only 28 (18%) studies had an implicit or explicit rationale, either inhibition/induction of a drug metabolizing enzyme or transporter, co-substrates for the same enzyme or transporter, potential for end-organ toxicity, or protein binding. Only 12 (8%) studies demonstrated a statistically significant DDI, based on change in clearance (or area under the curve) of parent drug and/or active metabolite. There was a strong association between a rationale and a demonstrable drug interaction, as only 2% of studies without a rationale demonstrated a DDI, compared to 32% of studies with a rationale (Fisher’s exact test, p<10−6). Conclusion DDI studies should not be routinely performed as part of phase I trials of oncology combinations. PMID:24056785

  13. Study protocol: Addressing evidence and context to facilitate transfer and uptake of consultation recording use in oncology: A knowledge translation implementation study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The time period from diagnosis to the end of treatment is challenging for newly diagnosed cancer patients. Patients have a substantial need for information, decision aids, and psychosocial support. Recordings of initial oncology consultations improve information recall, reduce anxiety, enhance patient satisfaction with communication, and increase patients' perceptions that the essential aspects of their disease and treatment have been addressed during the consultation. Despite the research evidence supporting the provision of consultation recordings, uptake of this intervention into oncology practice has been slow. The primary aim of this project is to conduct an implementation study to explicate the contextual factors, including use of evidence, that facilitate and impede the transfer and uptake of consultation-recording use in a sample of patients newly diagnosed with breast or prostate cancer. Methods Sixteen oncologists from cancer centres in three Canadian cities will participate in this three-phase study. The preimplementation phase will be used to identify and address those factors that are fundamental to facilitating the smooth adoption and delivery of the intervention during the implementation phase. During the implementation phase, breast and prostate cancer patients will receive a recording of their initial oncology consultation to take home. Patient interviews will be conducted in the days following the consultation to gather feedback on the benefits of the intervention. Patients will complete the Digital Recording Use Semi-Structured Interview (DRUSSI) and be invited to participate in focus groups in which their experiences with the consultation recording will be explored. Oncologists will receive a summary letter detailing the benefits voiced by their patients. The postimplementation phase includes a conceptual framework development meeting and a seven-point dissemination strategy. Discussion Consultation recording has been used in oncology

  14. Introduction of online adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer through a multicentre clinical trial (Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 10.01): Lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Daniel; Roxby, Paul; Kron, Tomas; Rolfo, Aldo; Foroudi, Farshad

    2013-01-01

    Online adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer is a novel radiotherapy technique that was found feasible in a pilot study at a single academic institution. In September 2010 this technique was opened as a multicenter study through the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG 10.01 bladder online adaptive radiotherapy treatment). Twelve centers across Australia and New-Zealand registered interest into the trial. A multidisciplinary team of radiation oncologists, radiation therapists and medical physicists represented the trial credentialing and technical support team. To provide timely activation and proper implementation of the adaptive technique the following key areas were addressed at each site: Staff education/training; Practical image guided radiotherapy assessment; provision of help desk and feedback. The trial credentialing process involved face-to-face training and technical problem solving via full day site visits. A dedicated “help-desk” team was developed to provide support for the clinical trial. 26% of the workload occurred at the credentialing period while the remaining 74% came post-center activation. The workload was made up of the following key areas; protocol clarification (36%), technical problems (46%) while staff training was less than 10%. Clinical trial credentialing is important to minimizing trial deviations. It should not only focus on site activation quality assurance but also provide ongoing education and technical support. PMID:23776308

  15. Introduction of online adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer through a multicentre clinical trial (Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 10.01): Lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Pham, Daniel; Roxby, Paul; Kron, Tomas; Rolfo, Aldo; Foroudi, Farshad

    2013-04-01

    Online adaptive radiotherapy for bladder cancer is a novel radiotherapy technique that was found feasible in a pilot study at a single academic institution. In September 2010 this technique was opened as a multicenter study through the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG 10.01 bladder online adaptive radiotherapy treatment). Twelve centers across Australia and New-Zealand registered interest into the trial. A multidisciplinary team of radiation oncologists, radiation therapists and medical physicists represented the trial credentialing and technical support team. To provide timely activation and proper implementation of the adaptive technique the following key areas were addressed at each site: Staff education/training; Practical image guided radiotherapy assessment; provision of help desk and feedback. The trial credentialing process involved face-to-face training and technical problem solving via full day site visits. A dedicated "help-desk" team was developed to provide support for the clinical trial. 26% of the workload occurred at the credentialing period while the remaining 74% came post-center activation. The workload was made up of the following key areas; protocol clarification (36%), technical problems (46%) while staff training was less than 10%. Clinical trial credentialing is important to minimizing trial deviations. It should not only focus on site activation quality assurance but also provide ongoing education and technical support. PMID:23776308

  16. Nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine as first-line palliative chemotherapy in a patient with metastatic pancreatic cancer with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2

    PubMed Central

    MARTÍN, ANDRÉS J. MUÑOZ; ALFONSO, PILAR GARCÍA; RUPÉREZ, ANA B.; JIMÉNEZ, MIGUEL MARTÍN

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic pancreatic cancer (PC) has been associated with a considerably poor prognosis. Due to its toxicity, first-line combination chemotherapy is limited to patients with a good performance status (PS). Previously nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine has been demonstrated to improve the overall survival rate in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer with a good PS. The present study reports a case of a patient with metastatic PC with a poor PS (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 2) and a complex set of comorbidities treated with nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine as a first-line palliative therapy. Adjusted doses of nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine reached a favourable clinical, radiological and biochemical response in the present patient, which increased the quality of life for the patient. Eventually, the patient succumbed to acute cholangitis. Based on the results of the present study, nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine appears to be a favourable treatment as first-line palliative chemotherapy for patients with metastatic PC, comorbidities and poor PS. PMID:27347207

  17. Grade Inflation in Medical Student Radiation Oncology Clerkships: Missed Opportunities for Feedback?

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, Surbhi; Swisher-McClure, Samuel; Sosnowicz, Stasha; Li, Jiaqi; Mitra, Nandita; Berman, Abigail T.; Baffic, Cordelia; Vapiwala, Neha; Freedman, Gary M.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that medical student radiation oncology elective rotation grades are inflated and cannot be used to distinguish residency applicants. Methods and Materials: The records of 196 applicants to a single radiation oncology residency program in 2011 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The grades for each rotation in radiation oncology were collected and converted to a standardized 4-point grading scale (honors, high pass, pass, fail). Pass/fail grades were scored as not applicable. The primary study endpoint was to compare the distribution of applicants' grades in radiation oncology with their grades in medicine, surgery, pediatrics, and obstetrics/gynecology core clerkships. Results: The mean United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 score of the applicants was 237 (range, 188-269), 43% had additional Masters or PhD degrees, and 74% had at least 1 publication. Twenty-nine applicants were graded for radiation oncology rotations on a pass/fail basis and were excluded from the final analysis. Of the remaining applicants (n=167), 80% received the highest possible grade for their radiation oncology rotations. Grades in radiation oncology were significantly higher than each of the other 4 clerkships studied (P<.001). Of all applicants, 195 of 196 matched into a radiation oncology residency. Higher grades in radiation oncology were associated with significantly higher grades in the pediatrics core clerkship (P=.002). However, other medical school performance metrics were not significantly associated with higher grades in radiation oncology. Conclusions: Although our study group consists of a selected group of radiation oncology applicants, their grades in radiation oncology clerkships were highly skewed toward the highest grades when compared with grades in other core clerkships. Student grading in radiation oncology clerkships should be re-evaluated to incorporate more objective and detailed performance metrics to allow for

  18. Does Hormone Therapy Reduce Disease Recurrence in Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy? An Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 94-06

    SciTech Connect

    Valicenti, Richard K.; Bae, Kwounghwa; Michalski, Jeff; Sandler, Howard; Shipley, William; Lin, Alex; Cox, James

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect on freedom from biochemical failure (bNED) or disease-free survival (DFS) by adding hormone therapy (HT) to dose-escalated radiation therapy (HDRT). Methods and Materials: We used 883 analyzable prostate cancer patients who enrolled on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 94-06, a Phase I/II dose escalation trial, and whose mean planning target volume dose exceeded 73.8 Gy (mean, 78.5 Gy; maximum, 84.3 Gy). We defined biochemical failure according to the Phoenix definition. Results: A total of 259 men started HT 2 to 3 months before HDRT, but not longer than 6 months, and 66 men with high-risk prostate cancer received HT for a longer duration. At 5 years, the biochemical failure rates after HDRT alone were 12%, 18%, and 29% for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk patients, respectively (p < 0.0001). Cox proportional hazards regression analysis adjusted for covariates revealed that pretreatment PSA level was a significant factor, whereas risk group, Gleason score, T-stage, and age were not. When the patients were stratified by risk groups, the Cox proportion hazards regression model (after adjusting for pretreatment PSA, biopsy Gleason score, and T stage) did not reveal a significant effect on bNED or DFS by adding HT to HDRT Conclusion: The addition of HT did not significantly improve bNED survival or DFS in all prostate cancer patients receiving HDRT, but did approach significance in high-risk patient subgroup. The result of this study is hypothesis generating and requires testing in a prospective randomized trial.

  19. Risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection in hemato-oncological patients: A case control study in 144 patients

    PubMed Central

    Fuereder, Thorsten; Koni, Danjel; Gleiss, Andreas; Kundi, Michael; Makristathis, Athanasios; Zielinski, Christoph; Steininger, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in hemato-oncologic patients is conflicting. We studied risk factors for CDI in a large, well-characterized cohort of hemato-oncological patients. 144 hemato-oncological patients were identified in this retrospective, single center study with a microbiologically confirmed CDI-associated diarrhea. Patients were compared with 144 age and sex matched hemato-oncologic patients with CDI negative diarrhea. Risk factors such as prior antimicrobial therapy, type of disease, chemotherapy and survival were evaluated. CDI-positive patients received more frequently any antimicrobial agent and antimicrobial combination therapy than CDI-negative patients (79% vs. 67%; OR = 2.26, p = 0.038 and OR = 2.62, p = 0.003, respectively). CDI positive patients were treated more frequently with antimicrobial agents active against C. difficile than CDI negative ones (25% vs. 13%; OR = 2.2, p = 0.039). The interval between last chemotherapy and onset of diarrhea was significantly shorter in patients without CDI (median, 17 days vs 36 days; p < 0.001). Our study demonstrates that chemotherapy is not a significant risk factor for CDI but for early onset CDI negative diarrhea. The predominant modifiable risk factor for CDI is in hemato-oncological patients antimicrobial treatment. These findings should be taken into account in the daily clinical practice to avoid CDI associated complications and excess health care costs. PMID:27510591

  20. Risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection in hemato-oncological patients: A case control study in 144 patients.

    PubMed

    Fuereder, Thorsten; Koni, Danjel; Gleiss, Andreas; Kundi, Michael; Makristathis, Athanasios; Zielinski, Christoph; Steininger, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in hemato-oncologic patients is conflicting. We studied risk factors for CDI in a large, well-characterized cohort of hemato-oncological patients. 144 hemato-oncological patients were identified in this retrospective, single center study with a microbiologically confirmed CDI-associated diarrhea. Patients were compared with 144 age and sex matched hemato-oncologic patients with CDI negative diarrhea. Risk factors such as prior antimicrobial therapy, type of disease, chemotherapy and survival were evaluated. CDI-positive patients received more frequently any antimicrobial agent and antimicrobial combination therapy than CDI-negative patients (79% vs. 67%; OR = 2.26, p = 0.038 and OR = 2.62, p = 0.003, respectively). CDI positive patients were treated more frequently with antimicrobial agents active against C. difficile than CDI negative ones (25% vs. 13%; OR = 2.2, p = 0.039). The interval between last chemotherapy and onset of diarrhea was significantly shorter in patients without CDI (median, 17 days vs 36 days; p < 0.001). Our study demonstrates that chemotherapy is not a significant risk factor for CDI but for early onset CDI negative diarrhea. The predominant modifiable risk factor for CDI is in hemato-oncological patients antimicrobial treatment. These findings should be taken into account in the daily clinical practice to avoid CDI associated complications and excess health care costs. PMID:27510591

  1. Global radiation oncology waybill

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Garzón, Victor; Rovirosa, Ángeles; Ramos, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Background/aim Radiation oncology covers many different fields of knowledge and skills. Indeed, this medical specialty links physics, biology, research, and formation as well as surgical and clinical procedures and even rehabilitation and aesthetics. The current socio-economic situation and professional competences affect the development and future or this specialty. The aim of this article was to analyze and highlight the underlying pillars and foundations of radiation oncology, indicating the steps implicated in the future developments or competences of each. Methods This study has collected data from the literature and includes highlights from discussions carried out during the XVII Congress of the Spanish Society of Radiation Oncology (SEOR) held in Vigo in June, 2013. Most of the aspects and domains of radiation oncology were analyzed, achieving recommendations for the many skills and knowledge related to physics, biology, research, and formation as well as surgical and clinical procedures and even supportive care and management. Results Considering the data from the literature and the discussions of the XVII SEOR Meeting, the “waybill” for the forthcoming years has been described in this article including all the aspects related to the needs of radiation oncology. Conclusions Professional competences affect the development and future of this specialty. All the types of radio-modulation are competences of radiation oncologists. On the other hand, the pillars of Radiation Oncology are based on experience and research in every area of Radiation Oncology. PMID:24416572

  2. Gaps in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study Original Version provides background for the curriculum and identifies gaps in current and desired comprehensive cancer care.

  3. Prevalence and Clinical Impact of Anaplasia in Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma: A Report from the Soft Tissue Sarcoma Committee for the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Qualman, Stephen; Lynch, James; Bridge, Julia; Parham, David; Teot, Lisa; Meyer, William; Pappo, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Background Anapalsia is rare in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma and has not been included in the International Classification of Rhabdomyosarcoma (ICR). A recent review of cases from the Soft Tissue Sarcoma Committee of the Children’s Oncology Group (COG) suggests that anaplasia might be more common than previously reported and may impact clinical outcome. Materials and Methods The prevalence of anaplasia (focal or diffuse) was prospectively assessed in 546 eligible cases who were registered in an Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRSG) or COG therapeutic trial from 1995–1998. The incidence of anaplasia in tumor samples and its impact in predicting clinical outcome was assessed. Results Overall 71 (13%) of all samples analyzed had anaplasia. Anaplasia was more common in patients with tumors in favorable sites and was less commonly seen in younger patients and in those with stage 2, 3 or clinical Group III disease. Regardless of its distribution (focal or diffuse), on univariate analysis the presence of anaplasia had a significant negative impact for both failure-free survival (FFS: 63% vs 77% at 5 years) and survival (S: 68% vs 82% at 5 years) in patients with embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. This effect was most pronounced in children with intermediate risk disease. Using multivariate analysis, the hazard ratio was 1.6 for FFS (p=0.085) and 1.7 for overall survival (p=0.081). Anaplasia did not affect outcome in patients with alveolar tumors. Conclusion The incidence of anaplasia in rhabdomyosarcoma is higher than previously described and may be of prognostic significance in children with intermediate risk embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. PMID:18985676

  4. Local Control and Outcome in Children with Localized Vaginal Rhabdomyosarcoma: A Report from the Soft Tissue Sarcoma Committee of the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Walterhouse, David O.; Meza, Jane L.; Breneman, John C.; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Hayes-Jordan, Andrea; Pappo, Alberto S.; Arndt, Carola; Raney, R. Beverly; Meyer, William H.; Hawkins, Douglas S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The local control approach for girls with non-resected vaginal rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) enrolled onto Intergroup RMS Study Group (IRSG)/Children’s Oncology Group (COG) studies has differed from that used at other primary sites by delaying or eliminating radiotherapy (RT) based on response achieved with chemotherapy and delayed primary resection. Procedures We reviewed locoregional treatment and outcome for patients with localized RMS of the vagina on the two most recent COG low-risk RMS studies. Results Forty-one patients with localized vaginal RMS were enrolled: 25 onto D9602 and 16 onto Subset 2 of ARST0331. Only four of the 39 with non-resected tumors received RT. The 5-year cumulative incidence of local recurrence was 26% on D9602, and the 2-year cumulative incidence of local recurrence was 43% on ARST0331. Increased local failure rates appeared to correlate with chemotherapy regimens that incorporated lower cumulative doses of cyclophosphamide. Estimated 5-year and 2-year failure free survival rates were 70% (95% CI: 46%, 84%) on D9602 and 42% (95% CI: 11%, 70%) on ARST0331, respectively. Conclusions To prevent local recurrence, we recommend a local control approach for patients with non-resected RMS of the vagina that is similar to that used for other primary sites and includes RT. We recognize that potential long-term effects of RT are sometimes unacceptable, especially for children less than 24 months of age. However, when making the decision to eliminate RT, the risk of local recurrence must be considered especially when using a chemotherapy regimen with a total cumulative cyclophosphamide dose of ≤ 4.8 g/m2. PMID:21298768

  5. Strategic plans to promote head and neck cancer translational research within Radiation Therapy Oncology Group: A report from the Translational Research Program

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Christine H.; Wong, Stuart; Ang, K. Kian; Hammond, Elizabeth H.; Dicker, Adam P.; Harari, Paul M.; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2007-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common cancer in the U.S. with an overall survival rate of approximately 40–50%. In an effort to improve patient outcomes, research efforts designed to maximize benefit and reduce toxicities of therapy are in progress. Basic research in cancer biology has accelerated this endeavor and provided preclinical data and technology to support clinically relevant advances in early detection, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Recent completion of the Human Genome Project has promoted the rapid development of novel “omics” technologies that allow more broad based study from a systems biology perspective. However, clinically relevant application of resultant gene signatures to clinical trials within cooperative groups has advanced slowly. In light of the large numbers of variables intrinsic to biomarker studies, validation of preliminary data for clinical implementation presents a significant challenge and may only be realized with large trials that involve a significant patient numbers. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Head and Neck Cancer Translational Research Program recognizes this problem and brings together three unique features to facilitate this research; 1) availability of large numbers of clinical specimens from homogeneously treated patients through multi-institutional clinical trials, 2) a team of physicians, scientists and staff focused on patient-oriented head and neck cancer research with the common goal of improving cancer care, and 3) a funding mechanism through the RTOG Seed Grant Program. In this position paper we outline strategic plans to further promote translational research within the framework of the RTOG. PMID:17848300

  6. Intrathecal triple therapy decreases central nervous system relapse but fails to improve event-free survival when compared with intrathecal methotrexate: results of the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) 1952 study for standard-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia, reported by the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Matloub, Yousif; Lindemulder, Susan; Gaynon, Paul S.; Sather, Harland; La, Mei; Broxson, Emmett; Yanofsky, Rochelle; Hutchinson, Raymond; Heerema, Nyla A.; Nachman, James; Blake, Marilyn; Wells, Linda M.; Sorrell, April D.; Masterson, Margaret; Kelleher, John F.; Stork, Linda C.

    2006-01-01

    The Children's Cancer Group (CCG) 1952 clinical trial for children with standard-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (SR-ALL) compared intrathecal (IT) methotrexate (MTX) with IT triples (ITT) (MTX, cytarabine, and hydrocortisone sodium succinate [HSS]) as presymptomatic central nervous system (CNS) treatment. Following remission induction, 1018 patients were randomized to receive IT MTX and 1009 ITT. Multivariate analysis identified male sex, hepatomegaly, CNS-2 status, and age younger than 2 or older than 6 years as significant predictors of isolated CNS (iCNS) relapse. The 6-year cumulative incidence estimates of iCNS relapse are 3.4% ± 1.0% for ITT and 5.9% ± 1.2% for IT MTX; P = .004. Significantly more relapses occurred in bone marrow (BM) and testicles with ITT than IT MTX, particularly among patients with T-cell phenotype or day 14 BM aspirate containing 5% to 25% blasts. Thus, the estimated 6-year event-free survivals (EFS) with ITT or IT MTX are equivalent at 80.7% ± 1.9% and 82.5% ± 1.8%, respectively (P = .3). Because the salvage rate after BM relapse is inferior to that after CNS relapse, the 6-year overall survival (OS) for ITT is 90.3% ± 1.5% versus 94.4% ± 1.1% for IT MTX (P = .01). It appears that ITT improves presymptomatic CNS treatment but does not improve overall outcome. PMID:16609069

  7. Quality Indicators in Radiation Oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, Jeffrey M.; Das, Prajnan

    2013-03-15

    Oncologic specialty societies and multidisciplinary collaborative groups have dedicated considerable effort to developing evidence-based quality indicators (QIs) to facilitate quality improvement, accreditation, benchmarking, reimbursement, maintenance of certification, and regulatory reporting. In particular, the field of radiation oncology has a long history of organized quality assessment efforts and continues to work toward developing consensus quality standards in the face of continually evolving technologies and standards of care. This report provides a comprehensive review of the current state of quality assessment in radiation oncology. Specifically, this report highlights implications of the healthcare quality movement for radiation oncology and reviews existing efforts to define and measure quality in the field, with focus on dimensions of quality specific to radiation oncology within the “big picture” of oncologic quality assessment efforts.

  8. Limited Chemotherapy and Shrinking Field Radiotherapy for Osteolymphoma (Primary Bone Lymphoma): Results From the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 99.04 and Australasian Leukaemia and Lymphoma Group LY02 Prospective Trial;Bone; Lymphoma; Radiotherapy; Chemotherapy; Clinical trial

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, David; Dear, Keith; Le, Thai; Barton, Michael; Wirth, Andrew; Porter, David; Roos, Daniel; Pratt, Gary

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To establish benchmark outcomes for combined modality treatment to be used in future prospective studies of osteolymphoma (primary bone lymphoma). Methods and Materials: In 1999, the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) invited the Australasian Leukemia and Lymphoma Group (ALLG) to collaborate on a prospective study of limited chemotherapy and radiotherapy for osteolymphoma. The treatment was designed to maintain efficacy but limit the risk of subsequent pathological fractures. Patient assessment included both functional imaging and isotope bone scanning. Treatment included three cycles of CHOP chemotherapy and radiation to a dose of 45 Gy in 25 fractions using a shrinking field technique. Results: The trial closed because of slow accrual after 33 patients had been entered. Accrual was noted to slow down after Rituximab became readily available in Australia. After a median follow-up of 4.3 years, the five-year overall survival and local control rates are estimated at 90% and 72% respectively. Three patients had fractures at presentation that persisted after treatment, one with recurrent lymphoma. Conclusions: Relatively high rates of survival were achieved but the number of local failures suggests that the dose of radiotherapy should remain higher than it is for other types of lymphoma. Disability after treatment due to pathological fracture was not seen.

  9. Digital Audio Recording of Initial Patient Visits to an Ocular Oncology Clinic: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Seider, Michael I; Damato, Bertil E

    2015-05-01

    It is challenging for patients to receive a new diagnosis of a life-threatening ocular tumor when visiting an ocular oncology clinic for the first time. Audio recording of patient-physician interactions has been shown to be an effective memory aid and stress-reducing technique for patients with various types of nonophthalmic cancer. This study evaluated a protocol for digitally recording the initial conversation between the ocular oncologist and the patient. Twenty patients were enrolled in the study, and 13 patients (65%) returned the survey. All of the patients who returned the survey reported being "very satisfied" with the audio recording, indicating that patients with a newly diagnosed ocular tumor were highly satisfied with the audio recording of their conversations with the ocular oncologist. Although larger studies are needed to confirm this conclusion, the initial results are encouraging. PMID:26057768

  10. Gene Expression Profiling of Ewing Sarcoma Tumors Reveals the Prognostic Importance of Tumor-Stromal Interactions: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Volchenboum, Samuel L.; Andrade, Jorge; Huang, Lei; Barkauskas, Donald A.; Krailo, Mark; Womer, Richard B.; Ranft, Andreas; Potratz, Jenny; Dirksen, Uta; Triche, Timothy J.; Lawlor, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    Relapse of Ewing sarcoma (ES) can occur months or years after initial remission and salvage therapy for relapsed disease is usually ineffective. Thus, there is great need to develop biomarkers that can predict which patients are at risk for relapse so that therapy and post-therapy evaluation can be adjusted accordingly. For the current study we performed whole genome expression profiling on two independent cohorts of clinically annotated ES tumors in an effort to identify and validate prognostic gene signatures. ES specimens were obtained from the Children’s Oncology Group (COG) and whole genome expression profiling performed using Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST arrays. Lists of differentially expressed genes between survivors and non-survivors were used to identify prognostic gene signatures. An independent cohort of tumors from the Euro-Ewing cooperative group was similarly analyzed as a validation cohort. Unsupervised clustering of gene expression data failed to segregate tumors based on outcome. Supervised analysis of survivors vs. non-survivors revealed a small number of differentially expressed genes and several statistically significant gene signatures. Gene specific enrichment analysis (GSEA) demonstrated that integrin and chemokine genes were associated with survival in tumors where stromal contamination was present. Tumors that did not harbor stromal contamination showed no association of any genes or pathways with clinical outcome. Our results reflect the challenges of performing RNA-based assays on archived bone tumor specimens. In addition, they reveal a key role for tumor stroma in determining ES prognosis. Future biologic and clinical investigations should focus on elucidating the contribution of tumor:microenvironment interactions on ES progression and response to therapy. Key words: ES, gene expression profiling, prognostic signature PMID:26052443

  11. Phase II Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trial of conventional radiation therapy followed by treatment with recombinant interferon-{beta} for supratentorial glioblastoma: Results of RTOG 9710

    SciTech Connect

    Colman, Howard . E-mail: hcolman@mdanderson.org; Berkey, Brian A.; Maor, Moshe H.; Groves, Morris D.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Vermeulen, Sandra; Mehta, Minesh P.; Yung, W.K. Alfred

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether recombinant human interferon {beta}-1a (rhIFN-{beta}), when given after radiation therapy, improves survival in glioblastoma. Methods and Materials: After surgery, 109 patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial glioblastoma were enrolled and treated with radiation therapy (60 Gy). A total of 55 patients remained stable after radiation and were treated with rhIFN-{beta} (6 MU/day i.m., 3 times/week). Outcomes were compared with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group glioma historical database. Results: RhIFN-{beta} was well tolerated, with 1 Grade 4 toxicity and 8 other patients experiencing Grade 3 toxicity. Median survival time (MST) of the 55 rhIFN-{beta}-treated patients was 13.4 months. MST for the 34 rhIFN-{beta}-treated in RPA Classes III and IV was 16.9 vs. 12.4 months for historical controls (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.89-1.81). There was also a trend toward improved survival across all RPA Classes comparing the 55 rhIFN-{beta} treated patients and 1,658 historical controls (HR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.94-1.63). The high rate of early failures (54/109) after radiation and before initiation of rhIFN-{beta} was likely caused by stricter interpretation of early radiographic changes in the current study. Matched-pair and intent-to-treat analyses performed to try to address this bias showed no difference in survival between study patients and controls. Conclusion: RhIFN-{beta} given after conventional radiation therapy was well tolerated, with a trend toward survival benefit in patients who remained stable after radiation therapy. These data suggest that rhIFN-{beta} warrants further evaluation in additional studies, possibly in combination with current temozolomide-based regimens.

  12. Late Effects on the Urinary Bladder in Patients Treated for Cancer in Childhood: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Ritchey, Michael; Ferrer, Fernando; Shearer, Patricia; Spunt, Sheri L.

    2010-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors who have had pelvic or central nervous system surgery or have received alkylator-containing chemotherapy or pelvic radiotherapy as part of their cancer therapy may experience urinary bladder late effects. This article reviews the medical literature on long-term bladder complications in survivors of childhood cancer and outlines the Children’s Oncology Group Long Term Followup (COG LTFU) Guidelines related to bladder function. An overview of the treatment of bladder late effects and recommended counseling for survivors with these complications are presented. PMID:18985721

  13. Demographic analysis: an update of randomized controlled studies in prostatic oncology

    PubMed Central

    Wehbi, Elias; Hersey, Karen; Finelli, Tony; Fleshner, Neil E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Results from randomized trials are least prone to systematic bias and represent the highest level of evidence in medical practice. We carried out a demographic analysis examining randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in prostate cancer. Particular emphasis was placed on newly conducted phase II/III RCTs between January 1997 and March 2006. Methods: We searched the MEDLINE database using the heading “prostate neoplasms” between January 1997 and March 2006. The results were then crossed with the MeSHs “Clinical trial.mp. OR clinical trial.pt. OR random:.mp. OR tu.xs;” this cross-checking is considered an optimal search strategy for detecting RCTs in MEDLINE® literature. The search yielded 7831 articles in total for the defined period. Of this total number, 7314 articles were manually analyzed and excluded as they did not represent RCTs. The qualifying 517 articles were then analyzed with emphasis on modality of therapy, cohort size, principal author, participating country and journal type. Results: Among the 517 randomized trials, most trials investigated medical therapies (42.7%). This was followed by diagnostic studies (13.2%), while the remaining categories made up 44.1%. A trend towards more completed RCTs is noted in the later years of the cohort. Cohort sizes were generally greater than 100 participants (63.1%). Urologists were the lead investigators in 48.2% of the trials. Trials were largely conducted in Europe and the United States (43.1% and 38.3%, respectively). About 7% of studies were based in Canada. Articles were generally published in surgical journals (48.4%), followed by medical journals (36.9%). Conclusions: Given that initial searches yielded nearly 8000 articles listed as RCTs in prostatic oncology, only a small percentage (5.4% to 8.6%) of these were actually RCTs which reported novel results. Most of the published data were either review articles or commentaries. It is abundantly clear that new recruitment strategies need

  14. Increasing Tumor Volume is Predictive of Poor Overall and Progression-Free Survival: Secondary Analysis of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 93-11 Phase I-II Radiation Dose-Escalation Study in Patients with Inoperable Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Werner-Wasik, Maria Swann, R. Suzanne; Bradley, Jeffrey; Graham, Mary; Emami, Bahman; Purdy, James; Sause, William

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: Patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 93-11 trial received radiation doses of 70.9, 77.4, 83.8, or 90.3 Gy. The locoregional control and survival rates were similar among the various dose levels. We investigated the effect of the gross tumor volume (GTV) on the outcome. Methods and Materials: The GTV was defined as the sum of the volumes of the primary tumor and involved lymph nodes. The tumor response, median survival time (MST), and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed separately for smaller ({<=}45 cm{sup 3}) vs. larger (>45 cm{sup 3}) tumors. Results: The distribution of the GTV was as follows: {<=}45 cm{sup 3} in 79 (49%) and >45 cm{sup 3} in 82 (51%) of 161 patients. The median GTV was 47.3 cm{sup 3}. N0 status and female gender were associated with better tumor responses. Patients with smaller ({<=}45 cm{sup 3}) tumors achieved a longer MST and better PFS than did patients with larger (>45 cm{sup 3}) tumors (29.7 vs. 13.3 months, p < 0.0001; and 15.8 vs. 8.3 months, p < 0.0001, respectively). Increasing the radiation dose had no effect on the MST or PFS. On multivariate analysis, only a smaller GTV was a significant prognostic factor for improved MST and PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 2.12, p = 0.0002; and HR, 2.0, p = 0.0002, respectively). The GTV as a continuous variable was also significantly associated with the MST and PFS (HR, 1.59, p < 0.0001; and HR, 1.39, p < 0.0001, respectively). Conclusions: Radiation dose escalation up to 90.3 Gy did not result in improved MST or PFS. The tumor responses were greater in node-negative patients and women. An increasing GTV was strongly associated with decreased MST and PFS. Future radiotherapy trials patients might need to use stratification by tumor volume.

  15. GROWTH PLATE ABNORMALITIES IN PEDIATRIC CANCER PATIENTS UNDERGOING PHASE 1 ANTI-ANGIOGENIC THERAPY: A REPORT FROM THE CHILDREN’S ONCOLOGY GROUP PHASE I CONSORTIUM

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Stephan D.; Glade-Bender, Julia; Spunt, Sheri L.; DuBois, Steven G.; Widemann, Brigitte C.; Park, Julie R.; Leary, Sarah E. S.; Nelson, Marvin D.; Adamson, Peter C.; Blaney, Susan M.; Weigel, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Pre-clinical studies suggest that anti-angiogenic agents may be toxic to the developing growth plate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of growth plate abnormalities in children with refractory cancer undergoing anti-angiogenic therapy. Materials and methods Targeted radiographic studies from 53 subjects enrolled on six separate Children’s Oncology Group Phase 1 and Pilot Consortium clinical trials evaluating new anti-cancer agents agents interfering with angiogenesis were reviewed. Subjects received tyrosine kinase inhibitors with anti-angiogenic effects (n=35), monoclonal antibodies targeting VEGF (n=13), or angiopoietin (n=5). Radiographs of their distal femur/proximal tibia were obtained at baseline. Follow-up radiographs were obtained after odd-numbered treatment cycles in patients with open growth plates who did not experience disease progression prior to cycle 3. Results Baseline and follow-up growth plate radiographs were acquired in 48/53 (90%) of patients. Five patients (9.4%), all of whom received a specific VEGF/VEGFR blocking agent [sunitinib (n=1) or pazopanib (n=4)], had growth plate abnormalities. Four patients had growth plate widening that was apparent on at least two successive radiographs, but was not confirmed by MRI. The fifth patient had progressive growth plate widening and evidence of physeal cartilage hypertrophy on MRI. Subsequent off treatment radiographs showed that the growth plate changes were reversible. Conclusion Growth plate abnormalities occur in a small, but relevant number of patients undergoing anti-angiogenic therapy. These results support the need for growth plate monitoring in children with open growth plates who are receiving anti-angiogenic therapy, and for improved methods to assess toxicity of anti-angiogenic agents to the developing skeleton. PMID:25257751

  16. Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology working group and European Association for Neuro-Oncology recommendations for the clinical use of PET imaging in gliomas.

    PubMed

    Albert, Nathalie L; Weller, Michael; Suchorska, Bogdana; Galldiks, Norbert; Soffietti, Riccardo; Kim, Michelle M; la Fougère, Christian; Pope, Whitney; Law, Ian; Arbizu, Javier; Chamberlain, Marc C; Vogelbaum, Michael; Ellingson, Ben M; Tonn, Joerg C

    2016-09-01

    This guideline provides recommendations for the use of PET imaging in gliomas. The review examines established clinical benefit in glioma patients of PET using glucose ((18)F-FDG) and amino acid tracers ((11)C-MET, (18)F-FET, and (18)F-FDOPA). An increasing number of studies have been published on PET imaging in the setting of diagnosis, biopsy, and resection as well radiotherapy planning, treatment monitoring, and response assessment. Recommendations are based on evidence generated from studies which validated PET findings by histology or clinical course. This guideline emphasizes the clinical value of PET imaging with superiority of amino acid PET over glucose PET and provides a framework for the use of PET to assist in the management of patients with gliomas. PMID:27106405

  17. 2010 Society for Neuro-Oncology Annual Meeting: a report of selected studies.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Manmeet S

    2011-02-01

    A number of important studies were presented at the Society for Neuro-Oncology annual meeting in Montréal, Canada, on 18-21 November 2010. Cediranib as monotherapy or in combination with lomustine did not show increased efficacy when compared with lomustine alone in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM). Addition of temozolomide (TMZ) or irinotecan (CPT) to bevacizumab (BEV) in patients with recurrent GBM was well tolerated, with similar efficacy to BEV alone. The addition of BEV to radiation and TMZ in newly diagnosed GBM improved progression-free survival but did not improve overall survival. TMZ alone may be a reasonable approach in elderly GBM patients with poor performance status. Two Phase II trials with sunitinib and vatalanib showed a hint of activity in patients with recurrent or progressive meningiomas. PMID:21342033

  18. Ifosfamide and Vinorelbine Is an Effective Reinduction Regimen in Children With Refractory/Relapsed Hodgkin Lymphoma, AHOD00P1: A Children’s Oncology Group Report

    PubMed Central

    Trippett, Tanya M.; Schwartz, Cindy L.; Guillerman, R. Paul; Gamis, Alan S.; Gardner, Sharon; Hogan, Shirley; London, Wendy B.; Chen, Lu; de Alarcon, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Background We assessed the safety and efficacy of ifosfamide and vinorelbine (IV) as a less toxic and effective reinduction regimen for pediatric patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma. Procedure This multi-center Children’s Oncology Group phase II pilot study enrolled patients <30 years of age with biopsy-proven Hodgkin Lymphoma in relapse or refractory disease after front-line therapy. Treatment consisted of ifosfamide 3,000 mg/m2 intravenous infusion over 24 hr on Days 1–4 and vinorelbine 25 mg/m2/dose intravenous push on Days 1 and 5 of each 21 day cycle with cytokine support. The study endpoints included estimation of key toxicities (cardiac, hepatic, or renal toxicity or toxic death), the rate of successful peripheral stem cell harvesting, and response after two cycles of therapy. Results Sixty-six patients received a median of two cycles of IV. Sixty-four of 66 were heavily pretreated, 4 had refractory disease, 55% were male and 79% had nodular sclerosis HL. The primary toxicities were hematologic. Harvested peripheral stem cells were sufficient for autologous transplantation in 46 of 54 patients for whom stem cell collection was attempted. The overall response rate (72%; 95% CI 59–83%) permitted the majority of patients to undergo subsequent stem cell transplantation. Conclusions IV is a safe and effective re-induction regimen for salvage of pediatric patients with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma with an excellent response rate and success of post chemotherapy stem cell harvest. It avoids the use of etoposide, an agent associated with secondary malignancy after stem cell transplantation. PMID:25308760

  19. Comparison of diagnostic performance of CT and MRI for abdominal staging of pediatric renal tumors: a report from the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Servaes, Sabah; Naranjo, Arlene; Geller, James I.; Ehrlich, Peter F.; Gow, Kenneth W.; Perlman, Elizabeth J.; Dome, Jeffrey S.; Gratias, Eric; Mullen, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Background CT and MRI are both used for abdominal staging of pediatric renal tumors. The diagnostic performance of the two modalities for local and regional staging of renal tumors has not been systematically evaluated. Objective To compare the diagnostic performance of CT and MRI for local staging of pediatric renal tumors. Materials and methods The study population was derived from the AREN03B2 study of the Children's Oncology Group. Baseline abdominal imaging performed with both CT and MRI within 30 days of nephrectomy was available for retrospective review in 82 renal tumor cases. Each case was evaluated for capsular penetration, lymph node metastasis, tumor thrombus, preoperative tumor rupture, and synchronous contralateral lesions. The surgical and pathological findings at central review were the reference standard. Results The sensitivity of CT and MRI for detecting capsular penetration was 68.6% and 62.9%, respectively (P=0.73), while specificity was 86.5% and 83.8% (P=1.0). The sensitivity of CT and MRI for detecting lymph node metastasis was 76.5% and 52.9% (P=0.22), and specificity was 90.4% and 92.3% (P=1.0). Synchronous contralateral lesions were identified by CT in 4/9 cases and by MRI in 7/9 cases. Conclusion CT and MRI have similar diagnostic performance for detection of lymph node metastasis and capsular penetration. MR detected more contralateral synchronous lesions; however these were present in a very small number of cases. Either modality can be used for initial loco–regional staging of pediatric renal tumors. PMID:25135711

  20. Surveillance After Initial Surgery for Pediatric and Adolescent Girls With Stage I Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors: Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Billmire, Deborah F.; Cullen, John W.; Rescorla, Frederick J.; Davis, Mary; Schlatter, Marc G.; Olson, Thomas A.; Malogolowkin, Marcio H.; Pashankar, Farzana; Villaluna, Doojduen; Krailo, Mark; Egler, Rachel A.; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Frazier, A. Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether overall survival (OS) can be preserved for patients with stage I pediatric malignant ovarian germ cell tumor (MOGCT) with an initial strategy of surveillance after surgical resection. Patients and Methods Between November 2003 and July 2011, girls age 0 to 16 years with stage I MOGCT were enrolled onto Children's Oncology Group study AGCT0132. Required histology included yolk sac, embryonal carcinoma, or choriocarcinoma. Surveillance included measurement of serum tumor markers and radiologic imaging at defined intervals. In those with residual or recurrent disease, chemotherapy with compressed PEB (cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin) was initiated every 3 weeks for three cycles (cisplatin 33 mg/m2 on days 1 to 3, etoposide 167 mg/m2 on days 1 to 3, bleomycin 15 U/m2 on day 1). Survivor functions for event-free survival (EFS) and OS were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Twenty-five girls (median age, 12 years) with stage I MOGCT were enrolled onto AGCT0132. Twenty-three patients had elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) at diagnosis. Predominant histology was yolk sac. After a median follow-up of 42 months, 12 patients had evidence of persistent or recurrent disease (4-year EFS, 52%; 95% CI, 31% to 69%). Median time to recurrence was 2 months. All patients had elevated AFP at recurrence; six had localized disease, two had metastatic disease, and four had tumor marker elevation only. Eleven of 12 patients experiencing relapse received successful salvage chemotherapy (4-year OS, 96%; 95% CI, 74% to 99%). Conclusion Fifty percent of patients with stage I pediatric MOGCT can be spared chemotherapy; treatment for those who experience recurrence preserves OS. Further study is needed to identify the factors that predict recurrence and whether this strategy can be extended successfully to older adolescents and young adults. PMID:24395845

  1. Akt activation is a common event in pediatric malignant gliomas and a potential adverse prognostic marker: a report from the children’s oncology group

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Ronald L.; Murdoch, Geoffrey H.; Burger, Peter C.; Brat, Daniel J.; Rosenblum, Marc K.; Nikiforova, Marina N.; Holmes, Emiko J.; Zhou, Tianni; Cohen, Kenneth J.; Jakacki, Regina I.

    2010-01-01

    Aberrant activation of Akt is a common finding in adult malignant gliomas, resulting in most cases from mutations or deletions involving PTEN, which allows constitutive Akt phosphorylation. In contrast, we have previously reported that pediatric malignant gliomas, which are morphologically similar to lesions arising in adults, have a substantially lower incidence of genomic alterations of PTEN. The objective of this study was to determine whether Akt activation was also an uncommon finding in childhood malignant gliomas and whether this feature was associated with survival. To address this issue, we examined the frequency of Akt activation, determined by overexpression of the activated phosphorylated form of Akt (Se473) on immunohistochemical analysis, in a series of 53 childhood malignant gliomas obtained from newly diagnosed patients treated on the Children’s Oncology Group ACNS0126 and 0423 studies. The relationship between Akt activation and p53 over-expression, MIB1 labeling, and tumor histology was evaluated. The association between Akt activation and survival was also assessed. Overexpression of activated Akt was observed in 42 of 53 tumors, far in excess of the frequency of PTEN mutations we have previously observed. There was no association between Akt activation and either histology, p53 overexpression, or MIB1 proliferation indices. Although tumors that lacked Akt overexpression had a trend toward more favorable event-free survival and overall survival (p = 0.06), this association reflected that non-overexpressing tumors were significantly more likely to have undergone extensive tumor removal, which was independently associated with outcome. Activation of Akt is a common finding in pediatric malignant gliomas, although it remains uncertain whether this is an independent adverse prognostic factor. In view of the frequency of Akt activation, the evaluation of molecularly targeted therapies that inhibit this pathway warrants consideration for these tumors

  2. From Protocols to Publications: A Study in Selective Reporting of Outcomes in Randomized Trials in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Raghav, Kanwal Pratap Singh; Mahajan, Sminil; Yao, James C.; Hobbs, Brian P.; Berry, Donald A.; Pentz, Rebecca D.; Tam, Alda; Hong, Waun K.; Ellis, Lee M.; Abbruzzese, James; Overman, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The decision by journals to append protocols to published reports of randomized trials was a landmark event in clinical trial reporting. However, limited information is available on how this initiative effected transparency and selective reporting of clinical trial data. Methods We analyzed 74 oncology-based randomized trials published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, the New England Journal of Medicine, and The Lancet in 2012. To ascertain integrity of reporting, we compared published reports with their respective appended protocols with regard to primary end points, nonprimary end points, unplanned end points, and unplanned analyses. Results A total of 86 primary end points were reported in 74 randomized trials; nine trials had greater than one primary end point. Nine trials (12.2%) had some discrepancy between their planned and published primary end points. A total of 579 nonprimary end points (median, seven per trial) were planned, of which 373 (64.4%; median, five per trial) were reported. A significant positive correlation was found between the number of planned and nonreported nonprimary end points (Spearman r = 0.66; P < .001). Twenty-eight studies (37.8%) reported a total of 65 unplanned end points; 52 (80.0%) of which were not identified as unplanned. Thirty-one (41.9%) and 19 (25.7%) of 74 trials reported a total of 52 unplanned analyses involving primary end points and 33 unplanned analyses involving nonprimary end points, respectively. Studies reported positive unplanned end points and unplanned analyses more frequently than negative outcomes in abstracts (unplanned end points odds ratio, 6.8; P = .002; unplanned analyses odd ratio, 8.4; P = .007). Conclusion Despite public and reviewer access to protocols, selective outcome reporting persists and is a major concern in the reporting of randomized clinical trials. To foster credible evidence-based medicine, additional initiatives are needed to minimize selective reporting. PMID:26304898

  3. Improved Survival for Children and Adolescents With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Between 1990 and 2005: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Hunger, Stephen P.; Lu, Xiaomin; Devidas, Meenakshi; Camitta, Bruce M.; Gaynon, Paul S.; Winick, Naomi J.; Reaman, Gregory H.; Carroll, William L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine population-based improvements in survival and the impact of clinical covariates on outcome among children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) enrolled onto Children's Oncology Group (COG) clinical trials between 1990 and 2005. Patients and Methods In total, 21,626 persons age 0 to 22 years were enrolled onto COG ALL clinical trials from 1990 to 2005, representing 55.8% of ALL cases estimated to occur among US persons younger than age 20 years during this period. This period was divided into three eras (1990-1994, 1995-1999, and 2000-2005) that included similar patient numbers to examine changes in 5- and 10-year survival over time and the relationship of those changes in survival to clinical covariates, with additional analyses of cause of death. Results Five-year survival rates increased from 83.7% in 1990-1994 to 90.4% in 2000-2005 (P < .001). Survival improved significantly in all subgroups (except for infants age ≤ 1 year), including males and females; those age 1 to 9 years, 10+ years, or 15+ years; in whites, blacks, and other races; in Hispanics, non-Hispanics, and patients of unknown ethnicity; in those with B-cell or T-cell immunophenotype; and in those with National Cancer Institute (NCI) standard- or high-risk clinical features. Survival rates for infants changed little, but death following relapse/disease progression decreased and death related to toxicity increased. Conclusion This study documents ongoing survival improvements for children and adolescents with ALL. Thirty-six percent of deaths occurred among children with NCI standard-risk features emphasizing that efforts to further improve survival must be directed at both high-risk subsets and at those children predicted to have an excellent chance for cure. PMID:22412151

  4. Impact of Gender, Partner Status, and Race on Locoregional Failure and Overall Survival in Head and Neck Cancer Patients in Three Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Dilling, Thomas J.; Bae, Kyounghwa; Paulus, Rebecca; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Garden, Adam S.; Forastiere, Arlene; Kian Ang, K.; Movsas, Benjamin

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: We investigated the impact of race, in conjunction with gender and partner status, on locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival (OS) in three head and neck trials conducted by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). Methods and Materials: Patients from RTOG studies 9003, 9111, and 9703 were included. Patients were stratified by treatment arms. Covariates of interest were partner status (partnered vs. non-partnered), race (white vs. non-white), and sex (female vs. male). Chi-square testing demonstrated homogeneity across treatment arms. Hazards ratio (HR) was used to estimate time to event outcome. Unadjusted and adjusted HRs were calculated for all covariates with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and p values. Results: A total of 1,736 patients were analyzed. Unpartnered males had inferior OS rates compared to partnered females (adjusted HR = 1.22, 95% CI, 1.09-1.36), partnered males (adjusted HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.09-1.28), and unpartnered females (adjusted HR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.09-1.32). White females had superior OS compared with white males, non-white females, and non-white males. Non-white males had inferior OS compared to white males. Partnered whites had improved OS relative to partnered non-white, unpartnered white, and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered males had inferior LRC compared to partnered males (adjusted HR = 1.26, 95% CI, 1.09-1.46) and unpartnered females (adjusted HR = 1.30, 95% CI, 1.05-1.62). White females had LRC superior to non-white males and females. White males had improved LRC compared to non-white males. Partnered whites had improved LRC compared to partnered and unpartnered non-white patients. Unpartnered whites had improved LRC compared to unpartnered non-whites. Conclusions: Race, gender, and partner status had impacts on both OS and locoregional failure, both singly and in combination.

  5. Ki-67 Is an Independent Predictor of Metastasis and Cause-Specific Mortality for Prostate Cancer Patients Treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 94-08

    SciTech Connect

    Verhoven, Bret; Yan, Yan; Ritter, Mark; Khor, Li-Yan; Hammond, Elizabeth; Jones, Christopher; Amin, Mahul; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Zeitzer, Kenneth; Pollack, Alan

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: The association of Ki-67 staining index (Ki67-SI) with overall survival (OS), disease-specific mortality (DSM), distant metastasis (DM), and biochemical failure (BF) was examined in men with favorable- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer receiving radiation therapy (RT) alone or with short-term androgen deprivation (ADT) in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 94-08. Methods and Materials: 468 patients (23.6%) on RTOG 94-08 had sufficient tissue for Ki67-SI analysis. The median follow-up time was 7.9 years. Ki67-SI was determined by immunohistochemistry and quantified manually and by image analysis. Correlative analysis versus clinical outcome was performed using the third quartile (≥Q3) cutpoint. A proportional hazards multivariable analysis (MVA) dichotomized covariates in accordance with trial stratification and randomization criteria. Results: In MVAs adjusted for all treatment covariates, high Ki67-SI (≥Q3) was correlated with increased DSM (hazard ratio [HR] 2.48, P=.03), DM (HR 3.5, P=.002), and BF (HR 3.55, P<.0001). MVA revealed similar Ki67-associated hazard ratios in each separate treatment arm for DSM, DM, and BF; these reached significance only for DM in the RT-alone arm and for BF in both arms. Ki67-SI was not a significant predictor of intraprostatic recurrence assessed by repeated biopsy 2 years after treatment. Patients with a high or low Ki67-SI seemed to experience a similar relative benefit from the addition of ADT to radiation. Conclusions: High Ki67-SI independently predicts for increased DSM, DM, and protocol BF in primarily intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with RT with or without ADT on RTOG 94-08 but does not predict for local recurrence or for increased relative benefit from ADT. This and prior studies lend support for the use of Ki67-SI as a stratification factor in future trials.

  6. Current Treatment Protocols Have Eliminated the Prognostic Advantage of Type 1 Fusions in Ewing Sarcoma: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    van Doorninck, John A.; Ji, Lingyun; Schaub, Betty; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Wing, Michele R.; Krailo, Mark D.; Lessnick, Stephen L.; Marina, Neyssa; Triche, Timothy J.; Sposto, Richard; Womer, Richard B.; Lawlor, Elizabeth R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Ewing sarcoma family tumors (ESFTs) exhibit chromosomal translocations that lead to the creation of chimeric fusion oncogenes. Combinatorial diversity among chromosomal breakpoints produces varying fusions. The type 1 EWS-FLI1 transcript is created as a result of fusion between exons 7 of EWS and 6 of FLI1, and retrospective studies have reported that type 1 tumors are associated with an improved outcome. We have re-examined this association in a prospective cohort of patients with ESFT treated according to current Children's Oncology Group (COG) treatment protocols. Methods Frozen tumor tissue was prospectively obtained from patients diagnosed with ESFT, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine translocation status. Analysis was confined to patients with localized tumors who were diagnosed after 1994 and treated according to COG protocols. Translocation status was correlated with disease characteristics, event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS). Results RT-PCR identified chimeric fusion oncogenes in 119 of 132 ESFTs. Eighty-nine percent of identified transcripts were EWS-FLI1, and of these, 58.8% were type 1. Five-year EFS and OS rates for patients with type 1 and non–type 1 fusions diagnosed between 2001 and 2005 were equivalent (type 1: EFS, 63% ± 7%; OS, 83% ± 6%; non–type 1: EFS, 71% ± 9%; OS, 79% ± 8%). Conclusion Current intensive treatment protocols for localized ESFT have erased the clinical disadvantage that was formerly observed in patients with non–type 1 EWS-FLI1 fusions. PMID:20308669

  7. Current treatment protocols have eliminated the prognostic advantage of type 1 fusions in Ewing sarcoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    van Doorninck, John A; Ji, Lingyun; Schaub, Betty; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Wing, Michele R; Krailo, Mark D; Lessnick, Stephen L; Marina, Neyssa; Triche, Timothy J; Sposto, Richard; Womer, Richard B; Lawlor, Elizabeth R

    2010-04-20

    PURPOSE Ewing sarcoma family tumors (ESFTs) exhibit chromosomal translocations that lead to the creation of chimeric fusion oncogenes. Combinatorial diversity among chromosomal breakpoints produces varying fusions. The type 1 EWS-FLI1 transcript is created as a result of fusion between exons 7 of EWS and 6 of FLI1, and retrospective studies have reported that type 1 tumors are associated with an improved outcome. We have re-examined this association in a prospective cohort of patients with ESFT treated according to current Children's Oncology Group (COG) treatment protocols. METHODS Frozen tumor tissue was prospectively obtained from patients diagnosed with ESFT, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine translocation status. Analysis was confined to patients with localized tumors who were diagnosed after 1994 and treated according to COG protocols. Translocation status was correlated with disease characteristics, event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS). Results RT-PCR identified chimeric fusion oncogenes in 119 of 132 ESFTs. Eighty-nine percent of identified transcripts were EWS-FLI1, and of these, 58.8% were type 1. Five-year EFS and OS rates for patients with type 1 and non-type 1 fusions diagnosed between 2001 and 2005 were equivalent (type 1: EFS, 63% +/- 7%; OS, 83% +/- 6%; non-type 1: EFS, 71% +/- 9%; OS, 79% +/- 8%). CONCLUSION Current intensive treatment protocols for localized ESFT have erased the clinical disadvantage that was formerly observed in patients with non-type 1 EWS-FLI1 fusions. PMID:20308669

  8. Safety of Intravenous Application of Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Preparations in Oncology: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Steele, Megan L; Axtner, Jan; Happe, Antje; Kröz, Matthias; Matthes, Harald; Schad, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Background. Traditional mistletoe therapy in cancer patients involves subcutaneous applications of Viscum album L. preparations, with doses slowly increasing based on patient responses. Intravenous infusion of high doses may improve therapeutic outcomes and is becoming more common. Little is known about the safety of this "off-label" application of mistletoe. Methods. An observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Treatment with intravenous mistletoe applications is described. The frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to intravenous mistletoe applications was calculated and compared to ADR data from a study on subcutaneous applications. Results. Of 475 cancer patients who received intravenous infusions of Helixor, Abnoba viscum, or Iscador mistletoe preparations, 22 patients (4.6%) reported 32 ADRs of mild (59.4%) or moderate severity (40.6%). No serious ADRs occurred. ADRs were more frequently reported to i.v. mistletoe administered alone (4.3%), versus prior to chemotherapy (1.6%). ADR frequency differed with respect to preparation type, with Iscador preparations showing a higher relative frequency, compared to Abnoba viscum and Helixor. Overall, patients were almost two times less likely to experience an ADR to intravenous compared to subcutaneous application of mistletoe. Conclusion. Intravenous mistletoe therapy was found to be safe and prospective studies for efficacy are recommended. PMID:24955100

  9. Safety of Intravenous Application of Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Preparations in Oncology: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Megan L.; Axtner, Jan; Happe, Antje; Kröz, Matthias; Matthes, Harald; Schad, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Background. Traditional mistletoe therapy in cancer patients involves subcutaneous applications of Viscum album L. preparations, with doses slowly increasing based on patient responses. Intravenous infusion of high doses may improve therapeutic outcomes and is becoming more common. Little is known about the safety of this “off-label” application of mistletoe. Methods. An observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Treatment with intravenous mistletoe applications is described. The frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to intravenous mistletoe applications was calculated and compared to ADR data from a study on subcutaneous applications. Results. Of 475 cancer patients who received intravenous infusions of Helixor, Abnoba viscum, or Iscador mistletoe preparations, 22 patients (4.6%) reported 32 ADRs of mild (59.4%) or moderate severity (40.6%). No serious ADRs occurred. ADRs were more frequently reported to i.v. mistletoe administered alone (4.3%), versus prior to chemotherapy (1.6%). ADR frequency differed with respect to preparation type, with Iscador preparations showing a higher relative frequency, compared to Abnoba viscum and Helixor. Overall, patients were almost two times less likely to experience an ADR to intravenous compared to subcutaneous application of mistletoe. Conclusion. Intravenous mistletoe therapy was found to be safe and prospective studies for efficacy are recommended. PMID:24955100

  10. [Using arts therapies in psycho-oncology: evaluation of an exploratory study implemented in an out-patient setting].

    PubMed

    Schiltz, L; Zimoch, A

    2013-01-01

    According to the state-of-the-art in health psychology and psycho-oncology, a cancerous disease, as well as the accompanying medical treatments, is a source ofintense emotional stress. As feelings of insecurity and anxiety are likely to induce negative effects on immune defences, those effects may overlap with the cancerous disease and complicate its evolution. As arts therapies tend to favour the imaginary and symbolic elaboration of the tensions of daily life, as well as the re appropriation of one's body and personal history, different artistic mediations may occupy an important function in the psychological follow-up of the patient. Following an exploratory study in a hospital, we carried out an action-research in an out-patient setting during six moths. The arts therapeutic treatment comprehended alternatively drawing and writing sessions while listening to music, opening tracks for a thorough verbal elaboration. The evaluation was based on psychometric scales (HADS and MDBF), rating scales for the pictorial and literary production and a semi-structured interview. According to the results of the quantitative analyses, based on non parametric statistical procedures for small groups and non metric data, as well as to the qualitative content analyses, arts therapies could become a valuable treating measure within a multidisciplinary bio-psycho-social approach. PMID:23808110

  11. Multimerin-1 (MMRN1) as Novel Adverse Marker in Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Laszlo, George S.; Alonzo, Todd A.; Gudgeon, Chelsea J.; Harrington, Kimberly H.; Gerbing, Robert B.; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Ries, Rhonda E.; Raimondi, Susana C.; Hirsch, Betsy A.; Gamis, Alan S.; Meshinchi, Soheil; Walter, Roland B.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Exploratory gene expression array analyses suggested multimerin-1 (MMRN1) to be a predictive biomarker in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Following-up on these studies, we evaluated the role of MMRN1 expression as outcome predictor in 2 recent Children’s Oncology Group trials. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN We retrospectively quantified MMRN1 expression in 183 participants of AAML03P1 and 750 participants of AAML0531 by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and correlated expression levels with disease characteristics and clinical outcome. RESULTS In AAML03P1, the highest quartile of MMRN1 expression (expression ≥0.5 relative to β-glucuronidase; n=45) was associated with inferior event-free survival (EFS; P<0.002) and higher relapse risk (P<0.004). In AAML0531, in which we quantified MMRN1 mRNA for validation, patients with relative MMRN1 expression ≥0.5 (n=160) less likely achieved remission (67% vs. 77%, P=0.006), and more frequently had minimal residual disease (43% vs. 24%, P=0.001) after one induction course. They had inferior overall survival (44±9% vs. 69±4% at 5 years; P<0.001) and EFS (32±8% vs. 54±4% at 5 years; P<0.001) and higher relapse risk (57±10% vs. 35±5% at 5 years; P<0.001). These differences were partly attributable to the fact that patients with high MMRN1 expression less likely had cytogenetic/molecular low-risk disease (P<0.001) than those with low MMRN1 expression. Nevertheless, after multivariable adjustment, high MMRN1 expression remained statistically significantly associated with shorter OS (hazard ratio [HR]=1.57 [95% confidence interval: 1.17–2.12] p=0.003) and EFS (HR=1.34 [1.04–1.73] p=0.025), and higher relapse risk (HR=1.40 [1.01–1.94] p=0.044). CONCLUSIONS Together, our studies identify MMRN1 expression as a novel biomarker that may refine AML risk-stratification. PMID:25825478

  12. Local Therapy for Rhabdomyosarcoma of the Hands and Feet: Is Amputation Necessary? A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    SciTech Connect

    La, Trang H.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Su Zheng; Linardic, Corinne; Hawkins, Douglas S.

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of children with rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) of the hand or foot treated with surgery and/or local radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Forty-eight patients with nonmetastatic RMS of the hand or foot were enrolled on Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study III, IV-Pilot, and IV. Patients received multiagent chemotherapy with surgery and/or RT. Twenty-four patients (50%) underwent surgery without local RT, of whom 4 had complete resection and 20 had an amputation. The remaining 24 patients (50%) underwent local RT, of whom 2 required RT for microscopic residual disease after prior amputation. Median follow-up for surviving patients was 9.7 years. Results: Actuarial 10-year local control was 100%; 10-year event-free survival and overall survival rates were 62% and 63%, respectively. Poor prognostic factors for recurrence included gross residual (Group III) disease and nodal involvement (p = 0.01 and 0.05, respectively). More patients in the RT group had alveolar histology, Group III disease, and nodal involvement, as compared with the surgery group. There was no difference in 10-year event-free survival (57% vs. 66%) or overall survival (63% vs. 63%) between patients who underwent surgery or local RT. Among relapsing patients, there were no long-term survivors. No secondary malignancies have been observed. Conclusions: Despite having high-risk features, patients treated with local RT achieved excellent local control. Complete surgical resection without amputation is difficult to achieve in the hand or foot. Therefore, we recommend either definitive RT or surgical resection that maintains form and function as primary local therapy rather than amputation in patients with hand or foot RMS.

  13. Preliminary Study of Pet Owner Adherence in Behaviour, Cardiology, Urology, and Oncology Fields

    PubMed Central

    Talamonti, Zita; Cassis, Chiara; Brambilla, Paola G.; Scarpa, Paola; Stefanello, Damiano; Cannas, Simona; Minero, Michela; Palestrini, Clara

    2015-01-01

    Successful veterinary treatment of animals requires owner adherence with a prescribed treatment plan. The aim of our study was to evaluate and compare the level of adherence of the owners of patients presented for behavioural, cardiological, urological, and oncological problems. At the end of the first examination, each owner completed a questionnaire. Then, the owners were called four times to fill out another questionnaire over the phone. With regard to the first questionnaire, statistically significant data concern behavioral medicine and cardiology. In the first area the owner's worry decreases during the follow-up and the number of owners who would give away the animal increases. In cardiology, owners who think that the pathology harms their animal's quality of life decreased significantly over time. With regard to the 9 additional follow-up questions, in behavioural medicine and urology the owner's discomfort resulting from the animal's pathology significantly decreases over time. Assessment of adherence appears to be an optimal instrument in identifying the positive factors and the difficulties encountered by owners during the application of a treatment protocol. PMID:26185708

  14. Preliminary Study of Pet Owner Adherence in Behaviour, Cardiology, Urology, and Oncology Fields.

    PubMed

    Talamonti, Zita; Cassis, Chiara; Brambilla, Paola G; Scarpa, Paola; Stefanello, Damiano; Cannas, Simona; Minero, Michela; Palestrini, Clara

    2015-01-01

    Successful veterinary treatment of animals requires owner adherence with a prescribed treatment plan. The aim of our study was to evaluate and compare the level of adherence of the owners of patients presented for behavioural, cardiological, urological, and oncological problems. At the end of the first examination, each owner completed a questionnaire. Then, the owners were called four times to fill out another questionnaire over the phone. With regard to the first questionnaire, statistically significant data concern behavioral medicine and cardiology. In the first area the owner's worry decreases during the follow-up and the number of owners who would give away the animal increases. In cardiology, owners who think that the pathology harms their animal's quality of life decreased significantly over time. With regard to the 9 additional follow-up questions, in behavioural medicine and urology the owner's discomfort resulting from the animal's pathology significantly decreases over time. Assessment of adherence appears to be an optimal instrument in identifying the positive factors and the difficulties encountered by owners during the application of a treatment protocol. PMID:26185708

  15. Can the referring surgeon enhance accrual of breast cancer patients to medical and radiation oncology trials? The ENHANCE study

    PubMed Central

    Arnaout, A.; Kuchuk, I.; Bouganim, N.; Pond, G.; Verma, S.; Segal, R.; Dent, S.; Gertler, S.; Song, X.; Kanji, F.; Clemons, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The accrual rate to clinical trials in oncology remains low. In this exploratory pilot study, we prospectively assessed the role that engaging a referring surgeon plays in enhancing nonsurgical oncologic clinical trial accrual. Methods Newly diagnosed breast cancer patients were seen by a surgeon who actively introduced specific patient-and physician-centred strategies to increase clinical trial accrual. Patient-centred strategies included providing patients, before their oncology appointment, with information about specific clinical trials for which they might be eligible, as evaluated by the surgeon. The attitudes of the patients about clinical trials and the interventions used to improve accrual were assessed at the end of the study. The primary outcome was the clinical trial accrual rate during the study period. Results Overall clinical trial enrolment during the study period among the 34 participating patients was 15% (5 of 34), which is greater than the institution’s historical average of 7%. All patients found the information delivered by the surgeon before the oncology appointment to be very helpful. Almost three quarters of the patients (73%) were informed about clinical trials by their oncologist. The top reasons for nonparticipation reported by the patients who did not participate in clinical trials included lack of interest (35%), failure of the oncologist to mention clinical trials (33%), and inconvenience (19%). Conclusions Accrual of patients to clinical trials is a complex multistep process with multiple potential barriers. The findings of this exploratory pilot study demonstrate a potential role for the referring surgeon in enhancing nonsurgical clinical trial accrual. PMID:27330365

  16. The role of racial genetic admixture with endometrial cancer outcomes: An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group study

    PubMed Central

    Rocconi, Rodney P.; Lankes, Heather A.; Brady, William E.; Goodfellow, Paul J.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Alvarez, Ronald D.; Creasman, William; Fernández, José R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Racial genetic admixture (RGA), a measure to account for ancestral genetic background that correlates with individual's racial classification, could provide insights on causation of racial disparity in endometrial cancer (EC). Our objective is to evaluate the association of RGA with EC outcomes. Methods EC patients enrolled onto the GOG-210 protocol were eligible. A randomized subcohort stratified by stage and self-reported race/ethnicity of black or white was used. Genotyping was performed using custom-selected Ancestry Informative Markers to calculate individual admixture estimates of African and European ancestral background. Results A total of 149 patients were evaluated (self-reported race: 70 black & 79 white). Mean RGA for African ancestry for self-reported black patients was 0.65 (range 0.04–0.86); while mean RGA for European ancestry for self-reported white patients was 0.77 (range 0.12–0.88). Progression-free survival (PFS) analysis using proportional hazards models stratified by stage and race revealed that each 0.10 increase in African ancestry was associated with worse PFS with hazard ratio (HR) of 1.11 (95% CI 0.90–1.37). Each 0.10 increase in European RGA was associated with improved PFS with HR of 0.86 (95% CI 0.69–1.07). Using tertiles of African RGA showed increasing risk of progression of death with increasing African RGA (with 0–5% as reference), HR (95% CIs) for top two tertiles are: 6%–66%: 1.38 (0.64, 2.97), and 67%–86%: 2.27 (0.74, 6.95). Conclusion RGA demonstrated a trend with PFS in self-reported black and white patients with EC. Patients with increased levels of African ancestry showed a trend towards worse survival after stratifying by stage/race. PMID:26603970

  17. A Phase II Trial of Brivanib in Recurrent or Persistent Endometrial Cancer: An NRG Oncology/Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Matthew A.; Sill, Michael W.; Goodfellow, Paul J.; Benbrook, Doris M.; Lankes, Heather A.; Leslie, Kimberly K.; Jeske, Yvette; Mannel, Robert S.; Spillman, Monique A; Lee, Paula S.; Hoffman, James S.; McMeekin, D. Scott; Pollock, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Brivanib, an oral, multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor with activity against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) was investigated as a single agent in a phase II trial to assess the activity and tolerability in recurrent or persistent endometrial cancer (EMC). Patients and Methods Eligible patients had persistent or recurrent EMC after receiving one to two prior cytotoxic regimens, measurable disease, and performance status of ≤2. Treatment consisted of brivanib 800 mg orally every day until disease progression or prohibitive toxicity. Primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) at six months and objective tumor response. Expression of multiple angiogenic proteins and FGFR2 mutation status was assessed. Results Forty-five patients were enrolled. Forty-three patients were eligible and evaluable. Median age was 64 years. Twenty-four patients (55.8%) received prior radiation. Median number of cycles was two (range 1–24). No GI perforations but one rectal fistula were seen. Nine patients had grade 3 hypertension, with one experiencing grade 4 confusion. Eight patients (18.6%; 90% CI 9.6–31.7%) had responses (one CR and seven PRs), and 13 patients (30.2%; 90% CI 18.9–43.9%) were PFS at six months. Median PFS and overall survival (OS) were 3.3 and 10.7 months, respectively. When modeled jointly, VEGF and Angiopoietin-2 expression may diametrically predict PFS. Estrogen receptor-α (ER) expression was positively correlated with OS. Conclusion Brivanib is reasonably well tolerated and worthy of further investigation based on PFS at six months in recurrent or persistent EMC. PMID:25019571

  18. Older Age Predicts Decreased Metastasis and Prostate Cancer-Specific Death for Men Treated With Radiation Therapy: Meta-Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Hamstra, Daniel A.; Bae, Kyounghwa; Pilepich, Miljenko V.; Hanks, Gerald E.; Grignon, David J.; McGowan, David G.; Roach, Mack; Lawton, Colleen; Lee, R. Jeffrey; Sandler, Howard

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: The impact of age on prostate cancer (PCa) outcome has been controversial; therefore, we analyzed the effect of age on overall survival (OS), distant metastasis, prostate cancer-specific death (PCSD), and nonprostate cancer death (NPCD) on patients with locally advanced PCa. Methods and Materials: Patients who participated in four Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) phase III trials, 8531, 8610, 9202, and 9413, were studied. Cox proportional hazards regression was used for OS analysis, and cumulative events analysis with Fine and Gray's regression was used for analyses of metastasis, PCSD, and NPCD. Results: Median follow-up of 4,128 patients with median age of 70 (range, 43-88 years) was 7.3 years. Most patients had high-risk disease: cT3 to cT4 (54%) and Gleason scores (GS) of 7 (45%) and 8 to 10 (27%). Older age ({<=}70 vs. >70 years) predicted for decreased OS (10-year rate, 55% vs. 41%, respectively; p < 0.0001) and increased NPCD (10-year rate, 28% vs. 46%, respectively; p < 0.0001) but decreased metastasis (10-year rate, 27% vs. 20%, respectively; p < 0.0001) and PCSD (10-year rate, 18% vs. 14%, respectively; p < 0.0001). To account for competing risks, outcomes were analyzed in 2-year intervals, and age-dependent differences in metastasis and PCSD persisted, even in the earliest time periods. When adjusted for other covariates, an age of >70 years remained associated with decreased OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.56 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-1.70] p < 0.0001) but with decreased metastasis (HR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.63-0.83] p < 0.0001) and PCSD (HR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.66-0.92] p < 0.0001). Finally, the impact of the duration of androgen deprivation therapy as a function of age was evaluated. Conclusions: These data support less aggressive PCa in older men, independent of other clinical features. While the biological underpinning of this finding remains unknown, stratification by age in future trials appears to be warranted.

  19. Postoperative Chemoradiotherapy and Cetuximab for High-Risk Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group RTOG-0234

    PubMed Central

    Harari, Paul M.; Harris, Jonathan; Kies, Merrill S.; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Jordan, Richard C.; Gillison, Maura L.; Foote, Robert L.; Machtay, Mitchell; Rotman, Marvin; Khuntia, Deepak; Straube, William; Zhang, Qiang; Ang, Kian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report results of a randomized phase II trial (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group RTOG-0234) examining concurrent chemoradiotherapy and cetuximab in the postoperative treatment of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) with high-risk pathologic features. Patients and Methods Eligibility required pathologic stage III to IV SCCHN with gross total resection showing positive margins and/or extracapsular nodal extension and/or two or more nodal metastases. Patients were randomly assigned to 60 Gy radiation with cetuximab once per week plus either cisplatin 30 mg/m2 or docetaxel 15 mg/m2 once per week. Results Between April 2004 and December 2006, 238 patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 4.4 years, 2-year overall survival (OS) was 69% for the cisplatin arm and 79% for the docetaxel arm; 2-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 57% and 66%, respectively. Patients with p16-positive oropharynx tumors showed markedly improved survival outcome relative to patients with p16-negative oropharynx tumors. Grade 3 to 4 myelosuppression was observed in 28% of patients in the cisplatin arm and 14% in the docetaxel arm; mucositis was observed in 56% and 54%, respectively. DFS in this study was compared with that in the chemoradiotherapy arm of the RTOG-9501 trial (Phase III Intergroup Trial of Surgery Followed by Radiotherapy Versus Radiochemotherapy for Resectable High Risk Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck), which had a hazard ratio of 0.76 for the cisplatin arm versus control (P = .05) and 0.69 for the docetaxel arm versus control (P = .01), reflecting absolute improvement in 2-year DFS of 2.5% and 11.1%, respectively. Conclusion The delivery of postoperative chemoradiotherapy and cetuximab to patients with SCCHN is feasible and tolerated with predictable toxicity. The docetaxel regimen shows favorable outcome with improved DFS and OS relative to historical controls and has commenced formal testing in a phase II/III trial

  20. Timing of Salvage Hormonal Therapy in Prostate Cancer Patients With Unfavorable Prognosis Treated With Radiotherapy: A Secondary Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 85-31

    SciTech Connect

    Souhami, Luis; Bae, Kyounghwa; Pilepich, Miljenko; Sandler, Howard

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 85-31 was a randomized trial comparing radiotherapy (RT) alone vs. RT plus adjuvant androgen suppression for life in unfavorable-prognosis carcinoma of the prostate. We examined the impact of early initiation of salvage hormonal therapy (HT) in relapsing patients randomized to RT alone arm. Methods and Materials: Patients were divided into two groups: early salvage HT and late salvage HT. The early salvage group was defined as receiving HT with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of less than 10 ng/mL, and the late salvage HT group had a PSA level of 10 ng/mL or greater. The outcomes were overall survival (OS), cause-specific mortality (CSM), and local failure (LF). The Kaplan-Meier estimation and log-rank test were used for OS, and the cumulative incidence estimation and Gray's test were used for CSM and LF. Proportional hazards regression models were used to compare the outcomes adjusted for other covariates. Results: The median follow-up times of surviving patients in the early and late salvage HT groups were about 11 and 13 years, respectively. The late salvage HT group had significantly more post-prostatectomy patients and patients with high Gleason scores. After adjustment for all covariates, OS was significantly longer in the early salvage HT group (hazard ratio, 1.5; p = 0.01). However, there were no statistically significant differences in LF or CSM between the groups. Conclusions: The early introduction of salvage HT resulted in improved OS but not improved CSM and LF. A randomized trial to define the optimal salvage hormonal timing is warranted in this group of patients with PSA recurrence after RT.

  1. Knowledge of and attitudes toward complementary and alternative therapies; a national multicentre study of oncology professionals in Norway.

    PubMed

    Risberg, T; Kolstad, A; Bremnes, Y; Holte, H; Wist, E A; Mella, O; Klepp, O; Wilsgaard, T; Cassileth, B R

    2004-03-01

    This study reports on oncology professionals' knowledge and attitude toward complementary and alternative medicines (CAM), classified according to their primary application as complementary or alternative methods. In June 2002, we conducted a national, multicentre survey of 828 Norwegian oncologists, nurses, clerks and therapeutic radiographers. A response rate of 61% was achieved. Only a few physicians (4%) described their reactions to alternative medicine as positive compared with nurses (33%), therapeutic radiographers (32%) and clerks (55%) (P<0.0001). Females showed a more positive view than males (33% versus 14%, P<0.0001). More participants expressed a positive attitude to complementary versus alternative medicines. Most respondents regarded healing by hand or prayer, homeopathy, and Iscador (mistletoe) as alternative therapies. In contrast, most respondents classified acupuncture, meditation, reflexology, music/art-therapy, aromatherapy and massage as complementary therapies. This survey demonstrates major differences, by gender as well as oncology health profession in views about and the classification of various CAM methods. PMID:14962719

  2. Evaluation of satisfaction with work-life balance among U.S. Gynecologic Oncology fellows: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Szender, J Brian; Grzankowski, Kassondra S; Eng, Kevin H; Odunsi, Kunle; Frederick, Peter J

    2016-04-01

    To characterize the state of satisfaction with work-life balance (WLB) among gynecologic oncology fellows in training, risk factors for dissatisfaction, and the impact of dissatisfaction on career plans. A cross-sectional evaluation of gynecologic oncology fellows was performed using a web-based survey. Demographic data, fellowship characteristics, and career plans were surveyed. The primary outcomes were satisfaction with WLB and career choices. p < 0.05 was used as a test for significance. Regression analysis was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) for various potential risk factors for dissatisfaction. Of 52.5% responding fellows, 22.2% were satisfied with WLB, but 83.3% would be physicians again and 80.3% would select gynecologic oncology again. Satisfaction with WLB was significantly associated with age (PR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.54-0.91), working fewer than 80 h per week (PR = 4.35, 95% CI: 1.34-14.10), and fatigue (PR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.12-0.75). Career and WLB satisfaction were not associated with gender, marital status, and whether or not the fellow is a parent. Those satisfied with WLB planned to work an average of 3.5 years longer than those who were not (p < 0.05). Gynecologic oncology fellows are not generally satisfied with their WLB, although this does not alter their overall career or specialty satisfaction. Satisfaction with WLB predicts a longer post-fellowship career. Further studies are needed to determine the workforce impact of this lack of perceived balance. PMID:27331129

  3. Challenges and Facilitators of Community Clinical Oncology Program Participation: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Reiter, Kristin L.; Weiner, Bryan J.; Minasian, Lori; Song, Paula H.

    2013-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Successful participation in the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) can expand access to clinical trials and promote cancer treatment innovations for patients and communities otherwise removed from major cancer centers. Yet CCOP participation involves administrative, financial, and organizational challenges that can impact hospital and provider participants. This study was designed to improve our understanding of challenges associated with CCOP participation from the perspectives of involved providers, and to learn about opportunities to overcome these challenges. We conducted five case studies of hospitals and providers engaged with the CCOP. Across organizations we interviewed forty-one administrative, physician, and nurse key informants. We asked about CCOP participation, focusing on issues related to implementation, operations, and organizational support. We analyzed interview transcripts both deductively and inductively, exploring themes that emerged. Interviewees noted seven challenges associated with CCOP participation: 1) lack of appreciation for the value of participation; 2) poor understanding about CCOP operations; 3) cost; 4) need to meet CCOP requirements; 5) required workflow changes; 6) managing patient recruitment and physician involvement; and 7) sustaining hospital leadership support. Informants also suggested three major opportunities to facilitate participation: 1) increase awareness of the CCOP; 2) enhance commitment to the CCOP; and 3) promote and support champions of the CCOP. Improving our understanding of the challenges and facilitators of CCOP participation may help hospitals and providers in efforts to increase and sustain participation in the CCOP, thus helping to helping to preserve access to innovative medical treatment options for patients in need. PMID:23424817

  4. Does Cancer Literature Reflect Multidisciplinary Practice? A Systematic Review of Oncology Studies in the Medical Literature Over a 20-Year Period

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, Emma B.; Ahmed, Awad A.; Yoo, Stella K.; Jagsi, Reshma; Hoffman, Karen E.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Quality cancer care is best delivered through a multidisciplinary approach requiring awareness of current evidence for all oncologic specialties. The highest impact journals often disseminate such information, so the distribution and characteristics of oncology studies by primary intervention (local therapies, systemic therapies, and targeted agents) were evaluated in 10 high-impact journals over a 20-year period. Methods and Materials: Articles published in 1994, 2004, and 2014 in New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, Lancet Oncology, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology, Radiotherapy and Oncology, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, Annals of Surgical Oncology, and European Journal of Surgical Oncology were identified. Included studies were prospectively conducted and evaluated a therapeutic intervention. Results: A total of 960 studies were included: 240 (25%) investigated local therapies, 551 (57.4%) investigated systemic therapies, and 169 (17.6%) investigated targeted therapies. More local therapy trials (n=185 [77.1%]) evaluated definitive, primary treatment than systemic (n=178 [32.3%]) or targeted therapy trials (n=38 [22.5%]; P<.001). Local therapy trials (n=16 [6.7%]) also had significantly lower rates of industry funding than systemic (n=207 [37.6%]) and targeted therapy trials (n=129 [76.3%]; P<.001). Targeted therapy trials represented 5 (2%), 38 (10.2%), and 126 (38%) of those published in 1994, 2004, and 2014, respectively (P<.001), and industry-funded 48 (18.9%), 122 (32.6%), and 182 (54.8%) trials, respectively (P<.001). Compared to publication of systemic therapy trial articles, articles investigating local therapy (odds ratio: 0.025 [95% confidence interval: 0.012-0.048]; P<.001) were less likely to be found in high-impact general medical journals. Conclusions: Fewer studies evaluating local therapies, such as surgery and radiation, are published in

  5. Creating opportunities to support oncology nursing practice: surviving and thriving.

    PubMed

    Rashleigh, Laura; Cordon, Charissa; Wong, Jiahui

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence to support that specialization in nursing leads to improved outcomes for patients, including increased QOL, improved symptom management, and fewer hospital admissions. Oncology nurses face several challenges in pursuing specialization, due to individual and system issues such as limited time and resources. To address these challenges, de Souza Institute launched a province-wide study group for nurses in Ontario who planned to write the Canadian Nurses Association (CNA) Oncology Certification Exam. The study group was led by educators from de Souza and Princess Margaret Hospital and drew expertise from nursing leaders across Ontario who shared the same vision of oncology nursing excellence. The study group was innovative by embracing telemedicine and web-based technology, which enabled flexibility for nurses' work schedules, learning styles, physical location and practice experience. The study group utilized several theoretical perspectives and frameworks to guide the curriculum: Adult Learning Theories, Cooperative Learning, Generational Learning Styles, CANO standards for practice and the CNA exam competencies. This approach enabled 107 oncology nurses across the province in 17 different sites to connect, as a group, study interactively and fully engage in their learning. A detailed evaluation method was utilized to assess baseline knowledge, learning needs, cooperative group process, exam success rates, and document unexpected outcomes. Ninety-four per cent of participants passed the CNA Oncology Exam. Lessons learned and future implications are discussed. The commitment remains to enable thriving through generating new possibilities, building communities of practice, mentoring nurses and fostering excellence in oncology practice. PMID:21462874

  6. Do Case Rates Affect Physicians' Clinical Practice in Radiation Oncology?: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Loy, Bryan A.; Shkedy, Clive I.; Powell, Adam C.; Happe, Laura E.; Royalty, Julie A.; Miao, Michael T.; Smith, Gary L.; Long, James W.; Gupta, Amit K.

    2016-01-01

    Case rate payments combined with utilization monitoring may have the potential to improve the quality of care by reducing over and under-treatment. Thus, a national managed care organization introduced case rate payments at one multi-site radiation oncology provider while maintaining only fee-for-service payments at others. This study examined whether the introduction of the payment method had an effect on radiation fractions administered when compared to clinical guidelines. The number of fractions of radiation therapy delivered to patients with bone metastases, breast, lung, prostate, and skin cancer was assessed for concordance with clinical guidelines. The proportion of guideline-based care ascertained from the payer's claims database was compared before (2011) and after (2013) the payment method introduction using relative risks (RR). After the introduction of case rates, there were no significant changes in guideline-based care in breast, lung, and skin cancer; however, patients with bone metastases and prostate cancer were significantly more likely to have received guideline-based care (RR = 2.0 and 1.1, respectively, p<0.05). For the aggregate of all cancers, the under-treatment rate significantly declined (p = 0.008) from 4% to 0% after the introduction of case rate payments, while the over-treatment rate remained steady at 9%, with no significant change (p = 0.20). These findings suggest that the introduction of case rate payments did not adversely affect the rate of guideline-based care at the provider examined. Additional research is needed to isolate the effect of the payment model and assess implications in other populations. PMID:26870963

  7. Do Case Rates Affect Physicians' Clinical Practice in Radiation Oncology?: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Loy, Bryan A; Shkedy, Clive I; Powell, Adam C; Happe, Laura E; Royalty, Julie A; Miao, Michael T; Smith, Gary L; Long, James W; Gupta, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    Case rate payments combined with utilization monitoring may have the potential to improve the quality of care by reducing over and under-treatment. Thus, a national managed care organization introduced case rate payments at one multi-site radiation oncology provider while maintaining only fee-for-service payments at others. This study examined whether the introduction of the payment method had an effect on radiation fractions administered when compared to clinical guidelines. The number of fractions of radiation therapy delivered to patients with bone metastases, breast, lung, prostate, and skin cancer was assessed for concordance with clinical guidelines. The proportion of guideline-based care ascertained from the payer's claims database was compared before (2011) and after (2013) the payment method introduction using relative risks (RR). After the introduction of case rates, there were no significant changes in guideline-based care in breast, lung, and skin cancer; however, patients with bone metastases and prostate cancer were significantly more likely to have received guideline-based care (RR = 2.0 and 1.1, respectively, p<0.05). For the aggregate of all cancers, the under-treatment rate significantly declined (p = 0.008) from 4% to 0% after the introduction of case rate payments, while the over-treatment rate remained steady at 9%, with no significant change (p = 0.20). These findings suggest that the introduction of case rate payments did not adversely affect the rate of guideline-based care at the provider examined. Additional research is needed to isolate the effect of the payment model and assess implications in other populations. PMID:26870963

  8. On Sufism, Sufi Group Study and Group Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einhorn, Jay

    1979-01-01

    Sufism is an ancient tradition of experiential human development. Sufi human development specialists utilize the group setting as a major study format. Comparison with group counseling might broaden perspectives on the possibilities and pitfalls of group process, and pinpoint several important issues relevant to group leadership. (Author)

  9. Transitioning to independence and maintaining research careers in a new funding climate: american society of preventive oncology junior members interest group report.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jada G; Birmingham, Wendy C; Tehranifar, Parisa; Irwin, Melinda L; Klein, William M P; Nebeling, Linda; Chubak, Jessica

    2013-11-01

    The American Society of Preventive Oncology (ASPO) is a professional society for multi-disciplinary investigators in cancer prevention and control. The ASPO Junior Members Interest Group promotes the interests of predoctoral, postdoctoral, and junior faculty members within the Society, and provides them with career development and training opportunities. To this end, as part of the 37th ASPO Annual Meeting held in Memphis, Tennessee in March 2013, the Junior Members Interest Group organized a session designed to address issues faced by early-career investigators as they navigate the transition to become an independent, well-funded scientist with a sustainable program of research in the current climate of reduced and limited resources. Four speakers were invited to provide their complementary but distinct perspectives on this topic based on their personal experiences in academic, research-intensive positions and in federal funding agencies. This report summarizes the main themes that emerged from the speakers' presentations and audience questions related to mentoring; obtaining grant funding; publishing; developing expertise; navigating appointments, promotion, and tenure; and balancing demands. These lessons can be used by early-career investigators in cancer prevention and control as they transition to independence and build programs of fundable research. PMID:24190867

  10. Transitioning to Independence and Maintaining Research Careers in a New Funding Climate: American Society of Preventive Oncology Junior Members Interest Group Report

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jada G.; Birmingham, Wendy C.; Tehranifar, Parisa; Irwin, Melinda L.; Klein, William M. P.; Nebeling, Linda; Chubak, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The American Society of Preventive Oncology (ASPO) is a professional society for multi-disciplinary investigators in cancer prevention and control. The ASPO Junior Members Interest Group promotes the interests of predoctoral, postdoctoral, and junior faculty members within the Society, and provides them with career development and training opportunities. To this end, as part of the 37th ASPO Annual Meeting held in Memphis, Tennessee in March 2013, the Junior Members Interest Group organized a session designed to address issues faced by early career investigators as they navigate the transition to become an independent, well-funded scientist with a sustainable program of research in the current climate of reduced and limited resources. Four speakers were invited to provide their complementary but distinct perspectives on this topic based on their personal experiences in academic, research-intensive positions and in federal funding agencies. This report summarizes the main themes that emerged from the speakers’ presentations and audience questions related to mentoring; obtaining grant funding; publishing; developing expertise; navigating appointments, promotion, and tenure; and balancing demands. These lessons can be used by early career investigators in cancer prevention and control as they transition to independence and build programs of fundable research. PMID:24190867

  11. Interobserver Variability in Target Definition for Hepatocellular Carcinoma With and Without Portal Vein Thrombus: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Theodore S.; Bosch, Walter R.; Krishnan, Sunil; Kim, Tae K.; Mamon, Harvey J.; Shyn, Paul; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Seong, Jinsil; Haddock, Michael G.; Cheng, Jason C.; Feng, Mary U.; Stephans, Kevin L.; Roberge, David; Crane, Christopher; Dawson, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Defining hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) gross tumor volume (GTV) requires multimodal imaging, acquired in different perfusion phases. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the variability in contouring and to establish guidelines and educational recommendations for reproducible HCC contouring for treatment planning. Methods and Materials Anonymous, multiphasic planning computed tomography scans obtained from 3 patients with HCC were identified and distributed to a panel of 11 gastrointestinal radiation oncologists. Panelists were asked the number of HCC cases they treated in the past year. Case 1 had no vascular involvement, case 2 had extensive portal vein involvement, and case 3 had minor branched portal vein involvement. The agreement between the contoured total GTVs (primary + vascular GTV) was assessed using the generalized kappa statistic. Agreement interpretation was evaluated using Landis and Koch’s interpretation of strength of agreement. The S95 contour, defined using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm consensus at the 95% confidence level, was created for each case. Results Of the 11 panelists, 3 had treated >25 cases in the past year, 2 had treated 10 to 25 cases, 2 had treated 5 to 10 cases, 2 had treated 1 to 5 cases, 1 had treated 0 cases, and 1 did not respond. Near perfect agreement was seen for case 1, and substantial agreement was seen for cases 2 and 3. For case 2, there was significant heterogeneity in the volume identified as tumor thrombus (range 0.58–40.45 cc). For case 3, 2 panelists did not include the branched portal vein thrombus, and 7 panelists contoured thrombus separately from the primary tumor, also showing significant heterogeneity in volume of tumor thrombus (range 4.52–34.27 cc). Conclusions In a group of experts, excellent agreement was seen in contouring total GTV. Heterogeneity exists in the definition of portal vein thrombus that may impact treatment planning

  12. Weight Patterns in Children With Higher Risk ALL: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group (COG) for CCG 1961

    PubMed Central

    Withycombe, Janice S.; Post-White, Janice E.; Meza, Jane L.; Hawks, Ria G.; Smith, Lynette M.; Sacks, Nancy; Seibel, Nita L.

    2011-01-01

    Background This retrospective analysis defined and described patterns and predictors of weight change during treatment in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) with high-risk features who received treatment on Children's Cancer Group protocol CCG 1961. Procedure Patients (1,638) were enrolled in CCG 1961 from November 1996 to May 2002. Weight was measured as BMI percent (%), specific for age and gender, and defined as 100 × ln(BMI/median BMI). Results By the end of treatment, 23% of children were obese (BMI ≥ 95%), compared with 14% at diagnosis. Children who received post-induction intensified therapy (arms C, D, SER with Doxorubicin or Idarubicin) had higher gastrointestinal toxicities and lower BMI% from consolidation through interim maintenance 1. BMI% then increased for all arms between delayed intensification and maintenance 1 or 2. Children who were of Black or Hispanic race, obese at diagnosis, or who had grade 3 or 4 pancreatitis/glucose toxicities during induction had higher BMI% throughout treatment. Children were more likely to be obese at the end of the study if they were aged 5–9 years at diagnosis or female gender. Cranial radiation was not a predictor of obesity. Conclusions Successful treatment of higher risk childhood ALL was associated with obesity, independent of cranial irradiation. The beginning of maintenance therapy may be the best time to intervene with nutritional and behavioral interventions, particularly for children who are obese or aged 5–9 years at diagnosis, female, Black or Hispanic, or those with metabolic toxicities during induction. PMID:19688832

  13. Oncologic Safety of Robot Thyroid Surgery for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Comparative Study of Robot versus Open Thyroid Surgery Using Inverse Probability of Treatment Weighting

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Tae-Yon; Yoon, Jong Ho; Han, Minkyu; Lee, Yi Ho; Lee, Yu-mi; Song, Dong Eun; Chung, Ki-Wook; Kim, Won Bae; Shong, Young Kee; Hong, Suck Joon

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oncologic safety of robot thyroid surgery compared to open thyroid surgery for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We enrolled 722 patients with PTC who underwent a total thyroidectomy with central compartment node dissection (CCND) from January 2009 to December 2010. These patients were classified into open thyroid surgery (n = 610) or robot thyroid surgery (n = 112) groups. We verified the impact of robot thyroid surgery on clinical recurrence and ablation/control-stimulated thyroglobulin (sTg) levels predictive of non-recurrence using weighted logistic regression models with inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). Age, sex, thyroid weight, extent of CCND, and TNM were significantly different between the two groups (p < 0.05); however, there was no significant difference in recurrence between the open and robot groups (1.5% vs. 2.7%; p = 0.608). The proportion of patients with ablation sTg < 10.0 ng/mL and control sTg < 1.0 ng/mL was comparable between the two groups (p > 0.05). Logistic regression with IPTW using the propensity scores estimated by adjusting all of the parameters demonstrated that robot thyroid surgery did not influence the clinical recurrence (OR; 0.784, 95% CI; 0.150–3.403, p = 0.750), ablation sTg (OR; 0.950, 95% CI; 0.361–2.399, p = 0.914), and control sTg levels (OR; 0.498, 95% CI; 0.190–1.189, p = 0.130). Robot thyroid surgery is comparable to open thyroid surgery with regard to oncologic safety in PTC patients. PMID:27285846

  14. Oncologic Safety of Robot Thyroid Surgery for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Comparative Study of Robot versus Open Thyroid Surgery Using Inverse Probability of Treatment Weighting.

    PubMed

    Sung, Tae-Yon; Yoon, Jong Ho; Han, Minkyu; Lee, Yi Ho; Lee, Yu-Mi; Song, Dong Eun; Chung, Ki-Wook; Kim, Won Bae; Shong, Young Kee; Hong, Suck Joon

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oncologic safety of robot thyroid surgery compared to open thyroid surgery for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We enrolled 722 patients with PTC who underwent a total thyroidectomy with central compartment node dissection (CCND) from January 2009 to December 2010. These patients were classified into open thyroid surgery (n = 610) or robot thyroid surgery (n = 112) groups. We verified the impact of robot thyroid surgery on clinical recurrence and ablation/control-stimulated thyroglobulin (sTg) levels predictive of non-recurrence using weighted logistic regression models with inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). Age, sex, thyroid weight, extent of CCND, and TNM were significantly different between the two groups (p < 0.05); however, there was no significant difference in recurrence between the open and robot groups (1.5% vs. 2.7%; p = 0.608). The proportion of patients with ablation sTg < 10.0 ng/mL and control sTg < 1.0 ng/mL was comparable between the two groups (p > 0.05). Logistic regression with IPTW using the propensity scores estimated by adjusting all of the parameters demonstrated that robot thyroid surgery did not influence the clinical recurrence (OR; 0.784, 95% CI; 0.150-3.403, p = 0.750), ablation sTg (OR; 0.950, 95% CI; 0.361-2.399, p = 0.914), and control sTg levels (OR; 0.498, 95% CI; 0.190-1.189, p = 0.130). Robot thyroid surgery is comparable to open thyroid surgery with regard to oncologic safety in PTC patients. PMID:27285846

  15. Imaging Opportunities in Radiation Oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Balter, James M.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Dunnick, N. Reed; Siegel, Eliot L.

    2011-02-01

    Interdisciplinary efforts may significantly affect the way that clinical knowledge and scientific research related to imaging impact the field of Radiation Oncology. This report summarizes the findings of an intersociety workshop held in October 2008, with the express purpose of exploring 'Imaging Opportunities in Radiation Oncology.' Participants from the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), American Association of physicists in Medicine (AAPM), American Board of Radiology (ABR), Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG), European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ESTRO), and Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM) discussed areas of education, clinical practice, and research that bridge disciplines and potentially would lead to improved clinical practice. Findings from this workshop include recommendations for cross-training opportunities within the allowed structured of Radiology and Radiation Oncology residency programs, expanded representation of ASTRO in imaging related multidisciplinary groups (and reciprocal representation within ASTRO committees), increased attention to imaging validation and credentialing for clinical trials (e.g., through the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN)), and building ties through collaborative research as well as smaller joint workshops and symposia.

  16. Multicriteria decision analysis in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Adunlin, Georges; Diaby, Vakaramoko; Montero, Alberto J.; Xiao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background There has been a growing interest in the development and application of alternative decision-making frameworks within health care, including multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA). Even though the literature includes several reviews on MCDA methods, applications of MCDA in oncology are lacking. Aim The aim of this paper is to discuss a rationale for the use of MCDA in oncology. In this context, the following research question emerged: How can MCDA be used to develop a clinical decision support tool in oncology? Methods In this paper, a brief background on decision making is presented, followed by an overview of MCDA methods and process. The paper discusses some applications of MCDA, proposes research opportunities in the context of oncology and presents an illustrative example of how MCDA can be applied to oncology. Findings Decisions in oncology involve trade-offs between possible benefits and harms. MCDA can help analyse trade-off preferences. A wide range of MCDA methods exist. Each method has its strengths and weaknesses. Choosing the appropriate method varies depending on the source and nature of information used to inform decision making. The literature review identified eight studies. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was the most often used method in the identified studies. Conclusion Overall, MCDA appears to be a promising tool that can be used to assist clinical decision making in oncology. Nonetheless, field testing is desirable before MCDA becomes an established decision-making tool in this field. PMID:24635949

  17. Interobserver Variability in Target Definition for Hepatocellular Carcinoma With and Without Portal Vein Thrombus: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Theodore S.; Bosch, Walter R.; Krishnan, Sunil; Kim, Tae K.; Mamon, Harvey J.; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Seong, Jinsil; Haddock, Michael G.; Cheng, Jason C.; Feng, Mary U.; Stephans, Kevin L.; Roberge, David; and others

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Defining hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) gross tumor volume (GTV) requires multimodal imaging, acquired in different perfusion phases. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the variability in contouring and to establish guidelines and educational recommendations for reproducible HCC contouring for treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Anonymous, multiphasic planning computed tomography scans obtained from 3 patients with HCC were identified and distributed to a panel of 11 gastrointestinal radiation oncologists. Panelists were asked the number of HCC cases they treated in the past year. Case 1 had no vascular involvement, case 2 had extensive portal vein involvement, and case 3 had minor branched portal vein involvement. The agreement between the contoured total GTVs (primary + vascular GTV) was assessed using the generalized kappa statistic. Agreement interpretation was evaluated using Landis and Koch's interpretation of strength of agreement. The S95 contour, defined using the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm consensus at the 95% confidence level, was created for each case. Results: Of the 11 panelists, 3 had treated >25 cases in the past year, 2 had treated 10 to 25 cases, 2 had treated 5 to 10 cases, 2 had treated 1 to 5 cases, 1 had treated 0 cases, and 1 did not respond. Near perfect agreement was seen for case 1, and substantial agreement was seen for cases 2 and 3. For case 2, there was significant heterogeneity in the volume identified as tumor thrombus (range 0.58-40.45 cc). For case 3, 2 panelists did not include the branched portal vein thrombus, and 7 panelists contoured thrombus separately from the primary tumor, also showing significant heterogeneity in volume of tumor thrombus (range 4.52-34.27 cc). Conclusions: In a group of experts, excellent agreement was seen in contouring total GTV. Heterogeneity exists in the definition of portal vein thrombus that may impact treatment planning

  18. Head-and-Neck Target Delineation Among Radiation Oncology Residents After a Teaching Intervention: A Prospective, Blinded Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bekelman, Justin E. Wolden, Suzanne; Lee, Nancy

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: We conducted this study to determine the feasibility of incorporating a teaching intervention on target delineation into the educational curriculum of a radiation oncology residency program and to assess the short-term effects on resident skills. Methods and Materials: The study schema consisted of a baseline evaluation, the teaching intervention, and a follow-up evaluation. At the baseline evaluation, the participants contoured three clinical tumor volumes (CTVs) (70 Gy, 59.4 Gy, and 54 Gy) on six contrast-enhanced axial computed tomography images of a de-identified patient with Stage T2N2bM0 squamous cell carcinoma of the right base of the tongue. The participants attended a series of head-and-neck oncology and anatomy seminars. The teaching intervention consisted of a didactic lecture and an interactive hands-on practical session designed to improve the knowledge and skills for target delineation in the head and neck. At the follow-up evaluation, the residents again contoured the CTVs. Results: Of the 14 eligible residents, 11 (79%) actually participated in the study. For all participants, but especially for those who had not had previous experience with head-and-neck target delineation, the teaching intervention was associated with improvement in the delineation of the node-negative neck (CTV 54 Gy contour). Regardless of clinical experience, participants had difficulty determining what should be included in the CTV 59.4 Gy contour to ensure adequate coverage of potential microscopic disease. Conclusion: Incorporating a teaching intervention into the education curriculum of a radiation oncology residency program is feasible and was associated with short-term improvements in target delineation skills. Subsequent interventions will require content refinement, additional validation, longer term follow-up, and multi-institutional collaboration.

  19. Modern Radiation Therapy for Nodal Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma—Target Definition and Dose Guidelines From the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    SciTech Connect

    Illidge, Tim; Specht, Lena; Yahalom, Joachim; Aleman, Berthe; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Constine, Louis; Dabaja, Bouthaina; Dharmarajan, Kavita; Ng, Andrea; Ricardi, Umberto; Wirth, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is the most effective single modality for local control of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and is an important component of therapy for many patients. Many of the historic concepts of dose and volume have recently been challenged by the advent of modern imaging and RT planning tools. The International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) has developed these guidelines after multinational meetings and analysis of available evidence. The guidelines represent an agreed consensus view of the ILROG steering committee on the use of RT in NHL in the modern era. The roles of reduced volume and reduced doses are addressed, integrating modern imaging with 3-dimensional planning and advanced techniques of RT delivery. In the modern era, in which combined-modality treatment with systemic therapy is appropriate, the previously applied extended-field and involved-field RT techniques that targeted nodal regions have now been replaced by limiting the RT to smaller volumes based solely on detectable nodal involvement at presentation. A new concept, involved-site RT, defines the clinical target volume. For indolent NHL, often treated with RT alone, larger fields should be considered. Newer treatment techniques, including intensity modulated RT, breath holding, image guided RT, and 4-dimensional imaging, should be implemented, and their use is expected to decrease significantly the risk for normal tissue damage while still achieving the primary goal of local tumor control.

  20. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Consensus Panel Guidelines for the Delineation of the Clinical Target Volume in the Postoperative Treatment of Pancreatic Head Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Karyn A.; Regine, William F.; Dawson, Laura A.; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Haustermans, Karin; Bosch, Walter R.; Turian, Julius; Abrams, Ross A.

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To develop contouring guidelines to be used in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 0848, a Phase III randomized trial evaluating the benefit of adjuvant chemoradiation in patients with resected head of pancreas cancer. Methods and Materials: A consensus committee of six radiation oncologists with expertise in gastrointestinal radiotherapy developed stepwise contouring guidelines and an atlas for the delineation of the clinical target volume (CTV) in the postoperative treatment of pancreas cancer, based on identifiable regions of interest and margin expansions. Areas at risk for subclinical disease to be included in the CTV were defined, including nodal regions, anastomoses, and the preoperative primary tumor location. Regions of interest that could be reproducibly contoured on postoperative imaging after a pancreaticoduodenectomy were identified. Standardized expansion margins to encompass areas at risk were developed after multiple iterations to determine the optimal margin expansions. Results: New contouring recommendations based on CT anatomy were established. Written guidelines for the delineation of the postoperative CTV and normal tissues, as well as a Web-based atlas, were developed. Conclusions: The postoperative abdomen has been a difficult area for effective radiotherapy. These new guidelines will help physicians create fields that better encompass areas at risk and minimize dose to normal tissues.

  1. German Recommendations for Diagnosis and Treatment of Breast Cancer 2008. What is New from the Breast Commission of the German Gynaecological Oncology Working Group (AGO)?

    PubMed Central

    Kantelhardt, Eva J.; Thomssen, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Summary Some form of standardised treatment for patients with breast cancer is probably well established in German health institutions throughout the country. Keeping standards up to date, however, is a rather complex activity involving time and financial resources. Turnover of scientific knowledge is fast and numerous. Most health care professionals will not be able to ensure such kind of evidence-based diagnostics and treatment standards of care alone. The breast commission of the German Gynaecological Oncology Working Group (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie, AGO) has again published their yearly update on recommendations for the diagnosis and therapy of breast cancer. Literature was screened for new findings up to the beginning of 2008. Changes were incorporated in nearly all of the 25 chapters. Notably, duration and schedules of adjuvant endocrine therapy, updated adjuvant chemotherapy regimens, findings in plastic surgery, radiotherapy for node positive disease, evaluation of new prognostic and predictive factors, classification of lobular neoplasia, treatment of Paget's disease, inflammatory breast cancer, and sarcoma, as well as lapatinib and bevacizumab are discussed, only to mention a few. Using this easy accessible tool, high quality care can be given to the patient, standards can be communicated and justified to the health care system and new ideas will arise for clinical and pre-clinical development. PMID:21373211

  2. High Expression of Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling-2 Predicts Poor Outcome in Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Laszlo, George S.; Ries, Rhonda E.; Gudgeon, Chelsea J.; Harrington, Kimberly H.; Alonzo, Todd A.; Gerbing, Robert B.; Raimondi, Susana C.; Hirsch, Betsy A.; Gamis, Alan S.; Meshinchi, Soheil; Walter, Roland B.

    2015-01-01

    Deregulated cytokine signaling is a characteristic feature of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and expression signatures of cytokines and chemokines have been identified as significant prognostic factor in this disease. Given this aberrant signaling, we hypothesized that expression of Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling-2 (SOCS2), a negative regulator of cytokine signaling, might be altered in AML and could provide predictive information. Among 188 participants of the Children's Oncology Group AAML03P1 trial, SOCS2 mRNA levels varied >6,000-fold. Higher (>median) SOCS2 expression was associated with inferior overall (60±10% vs. 75±9%, p=0.026) and event-free (44±10% vs. 59±10%, p=0.031) survival. However, these differences were accounted for by higher prevalence of high-risk and lower prevalence of low-risk disease among patients with higher SOCS2 expression, limiting the clinical utility of SOCS2 as predictive marker. It remains untested whether high SOCS2 expression identifies a subset of leukemias with deregulated cytokine signaling that could be amenable to therapeutic intervention. PMID:24559289

  3. Lenalidomide and high-dose dexamethasone compared with dexamethasone as initial therapy for multiple myeloma: a randomized Southwest Oncology Group trial (S0232)

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, John; Hussein, Mohamad A.; Bolejack, Vanessa; Moore, Dennis F.; Whittenberger, Brock F.; Abidi, Muneer H.; Durie, Brian G. M.; Barlogie, Bart

    2010-01-01

    The Southwest Oncology Group conducted a randomized trial comparing lenalidomide (LEN) plus dexamethasone (DEX; n = 97) to placebo (PLC) plus DEX (n = 95) in newly diagnosed myeloma. Three 35-day induction cycles applied DEX 40 mg/day on days 1 to 4, 9 to 12, and 17 to 20 together with LEN 25 mg/day for 28 days or PLC. Monthly maintenance used DEX 40 mg/day on days 1 to 4 and 15 to 18 along with LEN 25 mg/day for 21 days or PLC. Crossover from PLC-DEX to LEN-DEX was encouraged on progression. One-year progression-free survival, overall response rate, and very good partial response rate were superior with LEN-DEX (78% vs 52%, P = .002; 78% vs 48%, P < .001; 63% vs 16%, P < .001), whereas 1-year overall survival was similar (94% vs 88%; P = .25). Toxicities were more pronounced with LEN-DEX (neutropenia grade 3 or 4: 21% vs 5%, P < .001; thromboembolic events despite aspirin prophylaxis: 23.5% [initial LEN-DEX or crossover] vs 5%; P < .001). This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00064038. PMID:20876454

  4. Standardizing Naming Conventions in Radiation Oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Santanam, Lakshmi; Hurkmans, Coen; Mutic, Sasa; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van; Brame, Scott; Straube, William; Galvin, James; Tripuraneni, Prabhakar; Michalski, Jeff; Bosch, Walter

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. Materials and Methods: The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. Results: In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were

  5. Breakthrough pain and its treatment: critical review and recommendations of IOPS (Italian Oncologic Pain Survey) expert group.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Marchetti, Paolo; Cuomo, Arturo; Mammucari, Massimo; Caraceni, Augusto

    2016-02-01

    Controversies exist about the definition and epidemiology of breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP), the pharmacological treatment options, drug dosing, and how to select the medications for BTcP among the new fentanyl products. Existing data were critically evaluated to provide recommendations by an expert group. An algorithm to diagnose BTcP should be used followed by a careful assessment. Fentanyl products provide efficacy and rapidity of action to counteract the temporal pattern of BTcP. The doses of opioids used for background pain should guide the choice of the doses of fentanyl products. The choice of fentanyl products should be based on individual clinical conditions. PMID:26438145

  6. Impact of TOF PET on whole-body oncologic studies: a human observer lesion detection and localization study

    PubMed Central

    Surti, Suleman; Scheuermann, Joshua; Fakhri, Georges El; Daube-Witherspoon, Margaret E.; Lim, Ruth; Abi-Hatem, Nathalie; Moussallem, Elie; Benard, Francois; Mankoff, David; Karp, Joel S.

    2011-01-01

    Phantom studies have shown improved lesion detection performance with time-of-flight (TOF) PET. In this study we evaluate the benefit of fully-3D, TOF PET in clinical whole-body oncology using human observers to localize and detect lesions in realistic patient anatomic backgrounds. Our hypothesis is that with TOF imaging we achieve improved lesion detection and localization for clinically challenging tasks with a bigger impact in large patients. Methods 100 patient studies with normal 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake were chosen. 10-mm diameter spheres were imaged in air at variable locations in the scanner field-of-view (FOV) corresponding to lung and liver locations within each patient. Sphere data were corrected for attenuation and merged with patient data to produce fused list data files with lesions added to normal patients. All list files were reconstructed with full corrections and with or without the TOF kernel using a list-mode iterative algorithm. The images were presented to readers to localize and report with a confidence level the presence/absence of a lesion. The interpretation results were then analyzed to calculate the probability of correct localization and detection, and the area under the localized receiver operating characteristic (LROC) curve. The results were analyzed as a function of scan time per bed position, patient body-mass index (BMI < 26 and BMI ≥ 26), and type of imaging (TOF and Non-TOF). Results Our results showed that longer scan times led to improved area under the LROC curve for all patient sizes. With TOF imaging there was a bigger increase in the area under the LROC curve for larger patients (BMI ≥ 26). Finally, combining longer scan times with TOF imaging we saw smaller differences in the area under the LROC curve for large and small patients. Conclusion A combination of longer scan time (3 minutes in this study) together with TOF imaging provides the best performance for imaging large patients and/or a low uptake

  7. Analysis of prognostic factors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in infants: report on CCG 1953 from the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Hilden, Joanne M.; Dinndorf, Patricia A.; Meerbaum, Sharon O.; Sather, Harland; Villaluna, Doojduen; Heerema, Nyla A.; McGlennen, Ron; Smith, Franklin O.; Woods, William G.; Salzer, Wanda L.; Johnstone, Helen S.; Dreyer, Zoann; Reaman, Gregory H.

    2006-01-01

    Infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has a poor therapeutic outcome despite attempts to treat it based on prognostic factor–guided therapy. This is the first cooperative group trial characterizing all infants at the molecular level for MLL/11q23 rearrangement. All infants enrolled on Children's Cancer Group (CCG) 1953 were tested for MLL rearrangement by Southern blot and the 11q23 translocation partner was identified (4;11, 9;11, 11;19, or “other”) by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One hundred fifteen infants were enrolled; overall event-free survival (EFS) was 41.7% (SD = 9.2%) and overall survival (OS) was 44.8% at 5 years. Five-year EFS for MLL-rearranged cases was 33.6% and for MLL-nonrearranged cases was 60.3%. The difference in EFS between the 3 major MLL rearrangements did not reach statistical significance. Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed a rank order of significance for negative impact on prognosis of CD10 negativity, age younger than 6 months, and MLL rearrangement, in that order. Toxicity was the most frequent cause of death. Relapse as a first event in CCG 1953 was later (median, 295 days) compared with CCG 1883 historic control (median, 207 days). MLL/11q23 rearrangement, CD10 expression, and age are important prognostic factors in infant ALL, but molecular 11q23 translocation partners do not predict outcome. PMID:16556894

  8. Duration of Androgen Suppression Before Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Randomized Clinical Trial 9910

    PubMed Central

    Pisansky, Thomas M.; Hunt, Daniel; Gomella, Leonard G.; Amin, Mahul B.; Balogh, Alexander G.; Chinn, Daniel M.; Seider, Michael J.; Duclos, Marie; Rosenthal, Seth A.; Bauman, Glenn S.; Gore, Elizabeth M.; Rotman, Marvin Z.; Lukka, Himanshu R.; Shipley, William U.; Dignam, James J.; Sandler, Howard M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether prolonged androgen suppression (AS) duration before radiotherapy improves survival and disease control in prostate cancer. Patients and Methods One thousand five hundred seventy-nine men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of AS followed by radiotherapy with an additional 8 weeks of concurrent AS (16 weeks total) or to 28 weeks of AS followed by radiotherapy with an additional 8 weeks of AS (36 weeks total). The trial sought primarily to detect a 33% reduction in the hazard of prostate cancer death in the 28-week assignment. Time-to-event end points are reported for up to 10 years of follow-up. Results There were no between-group differences in baseline characteristics of 1,489 eligible patients with follow-up. For the 8- and 28-week assignments, 10-year disease-specific survival rates were 95% (95% CI, 93.3% to 97.0%) and 96% (95% CI, 94.6% to 98.0%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.81; P = .45), respectively, and 10-year overall survival rates were 66% (95% CI, 62.0% to 69.9%) and 67% (95% CI, 63.0% to 70.8%; HR, 0.95; P = .62), respectively. For the 8- and 28-week assignments, 10-year cumulative incidences of locoregional progression were 6% (95% CI, 4.3% to 8.0%) and 4% (95% CI, 2.5% to 5.7%; HR, 0.65; P = .07), respectively; 10-year distant metastasis cumulative incidences were 6% (95% CI, 4.0% to 7.7%) and 6% (95% CI, 4.0% to 7.6%; HR, 1.07; P = .80), respectively; and 10-year prostate-specific antigen–based recurrence cumulative incidences were 27% (95% CI, 23.1% to 29.8%) and 27% (95% CI, 23.4% to 30.3%; HR, 0.97; P = .77), respectively. Conclusion Extending AS duration from 8 weeks to 28 weeks before radiotherapy did not improve outcomes. A lower than expected prostate cancer death rate reduced ability to detect a between-group difference in disease-specific survival. The schedule of 8 weeks of AS before radiotherapy plus 8 weeks of AS during radiotherapy remains a standard of care in intermediate

  9. Oncologic Safety of Immediate Breast Reconstruction for Invasive Breast Cancer Patients: A Matched Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Shin-Hoo; Yoo, Tae-Kyung; Lee, Han-Byoel; Jin, Ung Sik; Chang, Hak; Minn, Kyung Won; Noh, Dong-Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) between patients undergoing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) and those undergoing mastectomy alone. Methods A retrospective review of patients who underwent mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction for resectable invasive breast cancer between 2002 and 2010 at a single center was conducted. These cases were matched to patients who underwent mastectomy alone in the same time period, performed by 1:2 matching. Matching control variables included age, tumor size, axillary lymph node metastasis, and estrogen receptor status. Overall, 189 patients were identified in the IBR group, and 362 patients were matched to this group. Results In the IBR group, 75 patients (39.7%) underwent conventional total mastectomy, 78 (41.3%) underwent skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM), and 36 (19.0%) underwent nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM). The IBR group was significantly younger than the control group (41.9 and 45.1 years, respectively) (p=0.032), in spite of matching between three age groups. The DFS rates were similar between the IBR group and mastectomy alone group, at 92.0% and 89.9%, respectively, at 5-year follow-up (log-rank test, p=0.496). The 5-year LRFS was 96.2% in the IBR group and 96.4% in the mastectomy alone group (log-rank test, p=0.704), similar to data from previous reports. Subgroup analyses for SSM or NSM patients showed no differences in LRFS and DFS between the two groups. Additionally, in stage III patients, IBR did not cause an increase in recurrence. Conclusion IBR after mastectomy, including both SSM and NSM, had no negative impact on recurrence or patient survival, even in patients with advanced disease. PMID:27064557

  10. Health and Risk Behaviors in Survivors of Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Report From the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Kris Ann P.; Chen, Lu; Chen, Zhengjia; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.; Nicholson, H. Stacy; Neglia, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Survivors of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) face increased risks of chronic disease and secondary malignancies. Substance exposure may compound these risks. Procedures Participants were diagnosed with AML at <21 years of age and survived ≥5 years following diagnosis. All underwent chemotherapy alone or followed by autologous BMT (chemo ± autoBMT) or underwent allogeneic BMT (alloBMT) if an HLA-matched related donor was available. Survivors completed a health questionnaire and a Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Results Of eligible survivors, 117 were ≥18 years of age and completed a YRBS. Survivors were a mean age of 10 years at diagnosis and 24 years at interview. Of the substance exposures assessed by YRBS, tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana were most common. Twenty-two percent (22%) had smoked cigarettes in the last 30 days. One-quarter (25%) reported binge drinking in the last month. None of these exposures varied by treatment group. Less than 10% of survivors reported cocaine, heroin, or methamphetamine use. Men were more likely to report high substance exposure (P = 0.004). Sadness/suicidality score was associated with cancer-related anxiety (P = 0.006) and multiple health conditions (P = 0.006). Conclusions This analysis reveals exposure to tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana in young adults with few differences based on treatment received. Survivors with cancer-related anxiety or multiple health conditions were more likely to report sadness/hopelessness. PMID:20232426

  11. OUTCOME AND PROGNOSTIC FACTORS FOR CHILDREN WITH SUPRATENTORIAL PRIMITIVE NEUROECTODERMAL TUMORS TREATED WITH CARBOPLATIN DURING RADIOTHERAPY: A REPORT FROM THE CHILDREN’S ONCOLOGY GROUP

    PubMed Central

    Jakacki, Regina I.; Burger, Peter C.; Kocak, Mehmet; Boyett, James M.; Goldwein, Joel; Mehta, Minesh; Packer, Roger J.; Tarbell, Nancy J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Supratentorial PNETs (sPNET) are uncommon embryonal malignancies of the central nervous system whose prognosis has historically been poor. We evaluated the outcome and prognostic factors of children with sPNET treated prospectively on a Children’s Oncology Group trial. Procedure Following surgery, patients received craniospinal radiotherapy with concurrent carboplatin followed by six months of maintenance chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide and vincristine. Results Five-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) for all patients was 58 ±7% and 48 ±7%. For patients with pineoblastoma (n=23), five-year OS and PFS was 81 ± 9% and 62 ± 11%. Extent of resection but not M-stage was prognostic. Five-year OS and PFS for 37 patients with non-pineal tumors (NPsPNET) was 44 ± 8% and 39 ± 8%, significantly worse than for PB (p=0.055 and 0.009 respectively). Extent of resection and major radiotherapy deviations were prognostic. Five year OS was 59 +/− 11.4% for those undergoing complete resection versus 10.4 +/− 7% for those who did not (p=0.017). Central pathologic review called 14 (38%) “classic” sPNET, 8 (22%) "undifferentiated” and 13 (35%) “malignant gliomas”. There was no significant difference between the subgroups, although survival distributions approached significance when the combined “classic” and “undifferentiated” group was compared to the “malignant gliomas”. Conclusions Carboplatin during RT followed by 6 months of non-intensive chemotherapy is a feasible treatment strategy for patients with sPNET. Aggressive surgical resection should be attempted if feasible. The classification of supratentorial small cell malignancies can be difficult. PMID:25704363

  12. Metabolic Tumor Volume as a Prognostic Imaging-Based Biomarker for Head-and-Neck Cancer: Pilot Results From Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 0522

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, David L.; Harris, Jonathan; Yao, Min; Rosenthal, David I.; Opanowski, Adam; Levering, Anthony; Ang, K. Kian; Trotti, Andy M.; Garden, Adam S.; Jones, Christopher U.; Harari, Paul; Foote, Robert; Holland, John; Zhang, Qiang; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate candidate fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging biomarkers for head-and-neck chemoradiotherapy outcomes in the cooperative group trial setting. Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 0522 patients consenting to a secondary FDG-PET/CT substudy were serially imaged at baseline and 8 weeks after radiation. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), SUV peak (mean SUV within a 1-cm sphere centered on SUVmax), and metabolic tumor volume (MTV) using 40% of SUVmax as threshold were obtained from primary tumor and involved nodes. Results: Of 940 patients entered onto RTOG 0522, 74 were analyzable for this substudy. Neither high baseline SUVmax nor SUVpeak from primary or nodal disease were associated with poor treatment outcomes. However, primary tumor MTV above the cohort median was associated with worse local-regional control (hazard ratio 4.01, 95% confidence interval 1.28-12.52, P=.02) and progression-free survival (hazard ratio 2.34, 95% confidence interval 1.02-5.37, P=.05). Although MTV and T stage seemed to correlate (mean MTV 6.4, 13.2, and 26.8 for T2, T3, and T4 tumors, respectively), MTV remained a strong independent prognostic factor for progression-free survival in bivariate analysis that included T stage. Primary MTV remained prognostic in p16-associated oropharyngeal cancer cases, although sample size was limited. Conclusion: High baseline primary tumor MTV was associated with worse treatment outcomes in this limited patient subset of RTOG 0522. Additional confirmatory work will be required to validate primary tumor MTV as a prognostic imaging biomarker for patient stratification in future trials.

  13. Are Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Para-aortic Contouring Guidelines for Pancreatic Neoplasm Applicable to Other Malignancies—Assessment of Nodal Distribution in Gynecological Malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Kabolizadeh, Peyman; Fulay, Suyash; Beriwal, Sushil

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy is used to reduce dose to adjacent critical structures while maintaining adequate target coverage, but it requires precise target localization. We report the 3-dimensional distribution of para-aortic (PA) lymph nodes (LN) in pelvic malignancies. We propose a guideline to accurately define the PA LN by anatomic landmarks and compare our data with published guidelines for pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis was performed on 46 patients with pelvic malignancies and positive PA LNs. Positive LNs were defined based on size and morphology or fluorodeoxyglucose avidity. All PA LNs were characterized into 3 groups based on location: left PA (between aorta and left psoas muscle), aortocaval (between aorta and inferior vena cava), and right paracaval (between inferior vena cava and right psoas muscle). Patients with retrocrural LNs were also analyzed. Results: One hundred thirty-three positive PA LNs were evaluated. The majority of the PA LNs were in the left PA (59%) and aortocaval (35) regions, and only 8% were in the right paracaval region. All patients with positive right paracaval LNs also had involved left PA LNs, with only 1 exception. The highest PA LN involvement was at the level of the renal vessels and was seen in 28% of patients. Of these patients with disease extending to renal vessels, 38% had retrocrural LN involvement. Conclusions: The nodal contouring for the PA region should not be defined by a fixed circumferential margin around the vessels. The left PA and aortocaval spaces should be covered adequately because these are common locations of PA LNs. For microscopic disease superiorly, contouring should extend up to renal vessels rather than a fixed bony landmark. For patients who have nodal involvement at renal vessels, one can consider including retrocrural LNs. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Para-aortic Contouring Guidelines for Pancreatic Neoplasm are not applicable to

  14. A study of blood cross-matching requirements for surgery in gynecological oncology: improved efficiency and cost saving.

    PubMed

    Foley, C L; Mould, T; Kennedy, J E; Barton, D P J

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design and implement a maximum surgical blood order schedule (MSBOS) within a specialist gynecological oncology department in a tertiary referral center and evaluate its impact on the cross-match to transfusion ratio (CTR). A retrospective case note audit was undertaken to identify common operations performed within the unit and their transfusion requirements. The efficiency of blood usage was assessed using the CTR, and an MSBOS was devised and implemented. A prospective audit of preoperative blood cross-matching and subsequent blood usage was then performed for consecutive elective operations in the unit, to assess the effect of the MSBOS. The retrospective study of 222 cases demonstrated a CTR of 2.25 equivalent to 44% usage of cross-matched blood. Ninety two percent of operations performed within the unit could be incorporated into an MSBOS. The prospective study of 207 cases demonstrated a significantly reduced CTR of 1.71 or 59% blood usage (chi2 = 12.4, P < 0.001). This equates to a saving of 102 units of blood over the 15 months prospective audit. Protocol adherence was 77%. No patient was adversely affected by the adoption of the MSBOS. We conclude that an MSBOS can be safely introduced into a gynecological oncology department resulting in significant financial savings. PMID:14675329

  15. Methodological issues in observational studies and non-randomized controlled trials in oncology in the era of big data.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shiro; Tanaka, Sachiko; Kawakami, Koji

    2015-04-01

    Non-randomized controlled trials, cohort studies and database studies are appealing study designs when there are urgent needs for safety data, outcomes of interest are rare, generalizability is a matter of concern, or randomization is not feasible. This paper reviews four typical case studies from methodological viewpoints and clarifies how to minimize bias in observational studies in oncology. In summary, researchers planning observational studies should be cautious of selection of appropriate databases, validity of algorithms for identifying outcomes, comparison with incident users or self-control, rigorous collection of information on potential confounders and reporting details of subject selection. Further, a careful study protocol and statistical analysis plan are also necessary. PMID:25589456

  16. Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) of prognostic factors in three radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) brain metastases trials

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.; Gaspar, L.; Rotman, M.

    1995-12-31

    Promising results from new approaches such as radiosurgery or stereotactic radiosurgery of brain metastases have recently been reported. Are these results due to the therapy alone or can the results be attributed in part to patient selection? An analysis of tumor/patient characteristics and treatment variables in previous RTOG brain metastases studies was considered necessary to fully evaluate the benefit of these new interventions.

  17. Oncology nurse navigator.

    PubMed

    Case, Mary Ann B

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this integrative review is to explore the presence of the oncology nurse as navigator on measurable patient outcomes. Eighteen primary nursing research studies were found using combinations of the following key words: advocate, cancer, case manager, coach, certification, guide, navigator, nurse, oncology, patient navigator, pivot nurse, and continuity of care. Nurse researchers identified nursing-sensitive patient outcomes related to the time to diagnosis and appropriate treatment, effect on mood states, satisfaction, support, continuity of care, and cost outcomes. Navigator roles are expanding globally, and nurses should continue to embrace opportunities to ensure the safe passage of patients with cancer along the entire trajectory of illness and to evaluate the implications for educational preparation, research, and practice of navigators of all kinds. PMID:21278039

  18. Collaborative Ocular Oncology Group Report No. 1: Prospective Validation of a Multi-Gene Prognostic Assay in Uveal Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Onken, Michael D.; Worley, Lori A.; Char, Devron H.; Augsburger, James J.; Correa, Zelia M; Nudleman, Eric; Aaberg, Thomas M.; Altaweel, Michael M.; Bardenstein, David S.; Finger, Paul T.; Gallie, Brenda L.; Harocopos, George J.; Hovland, Peter G.; McGowan, Hugh D.; Milman, Tatyana; Mruthyunjaya, Prithvi; Simpson, E. Rand; Smith, Morton E.; Wilson, David J.; Wirostko, William J.; Harbour, J. William

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluates the prognostic performance of a 15 gene expression profiling (GEP) assay that assigns primary posterior uveal melanomas to prognostic subgroups: class 1 (low metastatic risk) and class 2 (high metastatic risk). Design Prospective, multicenter study. Participants 459 patients with posterior uveal melanoma were enrolled from 12 independent centers. Testing Tumors were classified by GEP as class 1 or class 2. The first 260 samples were also analyzed for chromosome 3 status using a single nucleotide polymorphism assay. Net reclassification improvement analysis was performed to compare the prognostic accuracy of GEP to the 7th edition clinical Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM) classification and to chromosome 3 status. Main Outcome Measures Patients were managed for their primary tumor and monitored for metastasis. Results The GEP assay successfully classified 446/459 (97.2%) cases. The GEP was class 1 in 276 cases (61.9%) and class 2 in 170 cases (38.1%). Median follow-up was 17.4 months (mean, 18.0 months). Metastasis was detected in 3 (1.1%) class 1 cases and 44 (25.9%) class 2 cases (log rank test, P<10−14). Although there was an association between GEP class 2 and monosomy 3 (Fisher exact test, P<0.0001), 54/260 (20.8%) tumors were discordant for GEP and chromosome 3 status, among which GEP demonstrated superior prognostic accuracy (log rank test, P=0.0001). Using multivariate Cox modeling, GEP class had a stronger independent association with metastasis than any other prognostic factor (P<0.0001). Chromosome 3 status did not contribute additional prognostic information that was independent of GEP (P=0.2). At three years follow-up, the net reclassification improvement of GEP over TNM classification was 0.43 (P=0.001) and 0.38 (P=0.004) over chromosome 3 status. Conclusions The GEP assay had a high technical success rate and was the most accurate prognostic marker among all of the factors analyzed. GEP provided a highly significant

  19. Group Performance in Information Systems Project Groups: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahli, Bouchaib; Buyukkurt, Meral Demirbag

    2005-01-01

    The importance of teamwork in Information Systems Development (ISD) practice and education has been acknowledged but not studied extensively to date. This paper tests a model of how groups participating in ISD projects perform and examines the relationships between some antecedents of this performance based on group research theory well…

  20. Repackaging prostate cancer support group research findings: an e-KT case study.

    PubMed

    Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina S; Lohan, Maria; Bottorff, Joan L

    2015-01-01

    In the context of psychosocial oncology research, disseminating study findings to a range of knowledge "end-users" can advance the well-being of diverse patient subgroups and their families. This article details how findings drawn from a study of prostate cancer support groups were repackaged in a knowledge translation website--www.prostatecancerhelpyourself.ubc.ca--using Web 2.0 features. Detailed are five lessons learned from developing the website: the importance of pitching a winning but feasible idea, keeping a focus on interactivity and minimizing text, negotiating with the supplier, building in formal pretests or a pilot test with end-users, and completing formative evaluations based on data collected through Google™ and YouTube™ Analytics. The details are shared to guide the e-knowledge translation efforts of other psychosocial oncology researchers and clinicians. PMID:24713522

  1. Do Intermediate Radiation Doses Contribute to Late Rectal Toxicity? An Analysis of Data From Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 94-06

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Susan L.; Dong, Lei; Michalski, Jeff M.; Bosch, Walter R.; Winter, Kathryn; Cox, James D.; Purdy, James A.; Mohan, Radhe

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the volumes of rectum exposed to intermediate doses, from 30 to 50 Gy, contribute to the risk of Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity among patients with prostate cancer receiving radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Data from 1009 patients treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 94-06 were analyzed using three approaches. First, the contribution of intermediate doses to a previously published fit of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model was determined. Next, the extent to which intermediate doses provide additional risk information, after taking the LKB model into account, was investigated. Third, the proportion of rectum receiving doses higher than a threshold, VDose, was computed for doses ranging from 5 to 85 Gy, and a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine which of these parameters were significantly associated with time to Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity. Results: Doses <60 Gy had no detectable impact on the fit of the LKB model, as expected on the basis of the small estimate of the volume parameter (n = 0.077). Furthermore, there was no detectable difference in late rectal toxicity among cohorts with similar risk estimates from the LKB model but with different volumes of rectum exposed to intermediate doses. The multivariate Cox proportional hazards model selected V75 as the only value of VDose significantly associated with late rectal toxicity. Conclusions: There is no evidence from these data that intermediate doses influence the risk of Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity. Instead, the critical doses for this endpoint seem to be {>=}75 Gy. It is hypothesized that cases of Grade {>=}2 late rectal toxicity occurring among patients with V75 less than approximately 12% may be due to a 'background' level of risk, likely due mainly to biological factors.

  2. Cognition and Quality of Life After Chemotherapy Plus Radiotherapy (RT) vs. RT for Pure and Mixed Anaplastic Oligodendrogliomas: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Trial 9402

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Meihua; Cairncross, Gregory; Shaw, Edward

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9402 compared procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy plus radiation therapy (PCV + RT) vs. RT alone for anaplastic oligodendroglioma. Here we report longitudinal changes in cognition and quality of life, effects of patient factors and treatments on cognition, quality of life and survival, and prognostic implications of cognition and quality of life. Methods and Materials: Cognition was assessed by Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and quality of life by Brain-Quality of Life (B-QOL). Scores were analyzed for survivors and within 5 years of death. Shared parameter models evaluated MMSE/B-QOL with survival. Results: For survivors, MMSE and B-QOL scores were similar longitudinally and between treatments. For those who died, MMSE scores remained stable initially, whereas B-QOL slowly declined; both declined rapidly in the last year of life and similarly between arms. In the aggregate, scores decreased over time (p = 0.0413 for MMSE; p = 0.0016 for B-QOL) and were superior with age <50 years (p < 0.001 for MMSE; p = 0.0554 for B-QOL) and Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) 80-100 (p < 0.001). Younger age and higher KPS were associated with longer survival. After adjusting for patient factors and drop-out, survival was longer after PCV + RT (HR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49-0.9, p = 0.0084; HR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.54-1.01, p = 0.0592) in models with MMSE and B-QOL. In addition, there were no differences in MMSE and B-QOL scores between arms (p = 0.4752 and p = 0.2767, respectively); higher scores predicted longer survival. Conclusion: MMSE and B-QOL scores held steady in the upper range in both arms for survivors. Younger, fitter patients had better MMSE and B-QOL and longer survival.

  3. Posttreatment prostatic-specific antigen doubling time as a surrogate endpoint for prostate cancer-specific survival: An analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 92-02

    SciTech Connect

    Valicenti, Richard K. . E-mail: Richard.Valicenti@mail.tju.edu; DeSilvio, Michelle; Hanks, Gerald E.; Porter, Arthur; Brereton, Harmar; Rosenthal, Seth A.; Shipley, William U.; Sandler, Howard M.

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: We evaluated whether posttreatment prostatic-specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) was predictive of prostate cancer mortality by testing the Prentice requirements for a surrogate endpoint. Methods and Materials: We analyzed posttreatment PSA measurements in a cohort of 1,514 men with localized prostate cancer (T2c-4 and PSA level <150 ng/mL), treated and monitored prospectively on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 92-02. From June 1992 to April 1995, men were randomized to neoadjuvant androgen deprivation and 65-70 Gy of radiation therapy (n = 761), or in combination with 24 months of adjuvant androgen deprivation (n = 753). Using an adjusted Cox proportional hazards model, we tested if PSADT was prognostic and independent of randomized treatment in this cohort. The endpoints were time to PSADT (assuming first-order kinetics for a minimum of 3 rising PSA measurements) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). Results: After a median follow-up time of 5.9 years, randomized treatment was a significant predictor for CSS (p{sub Cox} = 0.002), PSADT <6 months (p{sub Cox} < 0.001), PSADT <9 months (p{sub Cox} < 0.001), and PSADT <12 months (p{sub Cox} < 0.001) but not for PSADT <3 (p{sub Cox} = 0.4). The significant posttreatment PSADTs were also significant predictors of CSS (p{sub Cox}< 0.001). After adjusting for T stage, Gleason score and PSA, all of Prentice's requirements were not met, indicating that the effect of PSADT on CSS was not independent of the randomized treatment. Conclusions: Prostatic specific antigen doubling time is significantly associated with CSS, but did not meet all of Prentice's requirements for a surrogate endpoint of CSS. Thus, the risk of dying of prostate cancer is not fully explained by PSADT.

  4. Patient-Reported Outcome Coordinator Did Not Improve Quality of Life Assessment Response Rates: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Donna; Gerbing, Robert; Alonzo, Todd; Aplenc, Richard; Nagarajan, Rajaram; Schulte, Fiona; Cullen, Patricia; Sung, Lillian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Health related quality of life (HRQL) assessments during therapy for pediatric cancer provide valuable information to better understand the patient experience. Our objective was to determine the impact of a patient-reported outcome (PRO) coordinator on HRQL questionnaire completion rates during a pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) trial. Methods AAML1031 is a multicenter Children’s Oncology Group therapeutic trial for de novo AML with a secondary aim to assess HRQL of children and adolescents treated with chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Parents/guardians are the primary respondents and four questionnaires are administered at eight time points. The questionnaires are the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales, PedsQL 3.0 Acute Cancer Module, PedsQL Multidimensional Fatigue Scale, and the Pediatric Inventory for Parents. To improve response rates, a central PRO coordinator was instituted and reminded sites about upcoming and delinquent questionnaires. The proportion of HRQL questionnaires completed were compared prior to, and following institution of the PRO coordinator. This analysis evaluated the first five assessment time points. Results There were231 families who consented to participate in the HRQL aim. Overall response rates for all questionnaires were 73–83%. At time point 1, within 14 days of chemotherapy initiation, post-PRO coordinator completion rates were significantly higher for three of four questionnaires. However, the effect was not sustained and at time point 4, one month following last chemotherapy or HSCT, completion rates were significantly lower post-PRO coordinator for all four questionnaires. Conclusion Addition of a central PRO coordinator did not result in sustained improvement in HRQL questionnaire completion rates. Efforts to improve response rates must consider other strategies. PMID:25915772

  5. [The role of prostate specific antigen in diagnosis of localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Nara Uro-Oncology Research Group].

    PubMed

    Hirao, Y; Ozono, S; Kagebayashi, Y; Yoshi, M; Tani, Y; Uemura, H; Momose, H; Okajima, E

    1996-10-01

    The number of cases of prostate carcinoma (PCA) is steadily inceasing in Japan. The clinical application of a reliable tumor marker, prostate specific antigen (PSA) for the diagnosis, as well as the increasing elderly population in Japan may account for this increase. The subjects were patients at the Nara Medical University and its affiliated hospitals; 1) 687 cases without PCA were evaluated for age-specific PSA and the incidence of abnormal PSA following urological manipulations, 2) 135 cases with histological proven BPH by transurethral resection of prostate (TUR-P) were examined for PSA density (PSAD) and positive PSA rate in BPH, 3) 135 cases receiving a needle biopsy with suspicion of PCA were examined for the efficacy of PSA and PSAD and other parameters, and 4) 459 PCA cases treated between 1988 and 1994, were examined for specific PSA and PSAD values by stage and degree of cell differentiation. The PSA assay used in this study was MARKIT-M PA (normal range < or = 3.6 ng/ml). The PSA was decreased gradually with age in non-PCA patients, and abnormal PSA was found in 5.5% of these patients following manipulations. The average PSA was 2.95 +/- 2.03 ng/ml in 130 BPH patients (mean age: 71.1 +/- 7.0 years old. and average prostate volume: 32.9 +/- 16.1 ml). And abnormal PSA level (more than 3.61 ng/ml) was found in 22.3%. The mean PSAD was 0.1.0 +/- 0.06, and PSAD was below 0.15 in 86.1% of these BPH cases. Among the 135 cases receiving a needle biopsy, 33 cases had PSA values between 3.61 and 10.0 ng/ml. Of these cases, PCA was found in 18.5% of the 27 cases with a PSAD below 1.5, and in 33.3% of the 6 cases with a PSAD over 1.5. PSA and PSAD were proportionally increased with stage, and a significant difference in the PSA value was observed between stage B1 and B2, and stage C and D (P < 0.05). However, PSA and PSAD values were not significantly correlated with the cell differentiation in PCA stage A2-C. In total, PSA was 18.1 ng/ml in well, 23.9 ng/ml in

  6. Shorter-Duration Therapy Using Vincristine, Dactinomycin, and Lower-Dose Cyclophosphamide With or Without Radiotherapy for Patients With Newly Diagnosed Low-Risk Rhabdomyosarcoma: A Report From the Soft Tissue Sarcoma Committee of the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Walterhouse, David O.; Pappo, Alberto S.; Meza, Jane L.; Breneman, John C.; Hayes-Jordan, Andrea A.; Parham, David M.; Cripe, Timothy P.; Anderson, James R.; Meyer, William H.; Hawkins, Douglas S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRSG) studies III and IV showed improved failure-free survival (FFS) rates with vincristine, dactinomycin, and cyclophosphamide (VAC; total cumulative cyclophosphamide dose, 26.4 g/m2) compared with vincristine and dactinomycin (VA) for patients with subset-one low-risk embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS; stage 1/2 group I/II ERMS or stage 1 group III orbit ERMS). The objective of Children's Oncology Group ARST0331 was to reduce the length of therapy without compromising FFS for this subset of low-risk patients by using VA in combination with lower-dose cyclophosphamide (total cumulative dose, 4.8 g/m2) plus radiotherapy (RT). Patients and Methods This noninferiority prospective clinical trial enrolled newly diagnosed patients with subset-one clinical features. Therapy included four cycles of VAC followed by four cycles of VA over 22 weeks. Patients with microscopic or gross residual disease at study entry received RT. Results With a median follow-up of 4.3 years, we observed 35 failures among 271 eligible patients versus 48.4 expected failures, calculated using a fixed outcome based on the FFS expected for similar patients treated on the IRSG D9602 protocol. The estimated 3-year FFS rate was 89% (95% CI, 85% to 92%), and the overall survival rate was 98% (95% CI, 95% to 99%). Patients with paratesticular tumors had the most favorable outcome. Three-year cumulative incidence rates for any local, regional, or distant failures were 7.6%, 1.5%, and 3.4%, respectively. Conclusion Shorter-duration therapy that included lower-dose cyclophosphamide and RT did not compromise FFS for patients with subset-one low-risk ERMS. PMID:25267746

  7. Effect of Remote Ischaemic Conditioning in Oncology Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy: Rationale and Design of the ERIC-ONC Study--A Single-Center, Blinded, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Chung, Robin; Maulik, Angshuman; Hamarneh, Ashraf; Hochhauser, Daniel; Hausenloy, Derek J; Walker, J Malcolm; Yellon, Derek M

    2016-02-01

    Cancer survival continues to improve, and thus cardiovascular consequences of chemotherapy are increasingly important determinants of long-term morbidity and mortality. Conventional strategies to protect the heart from chemotherapy have important hemodynamic or myelosuppressive side effects. Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) using intermittent limb ischemia-reperfusion reduces myocardial injury in the setting of percutaneous coronary intervention. Anthracycline cardiotoxicity and ischemia-reperfusion injury share common biochemical pathways in cardiomyocytes. The potential for RIC as a novel treatment to reduce subclinical myocyte injury in chemotherapy has never been explored and will be investigated in the Effect of Remote Ischaemic Conditioning in Oncology (ERIC-ONC) trial (clinicaltrials.gov NCT 02471885). The ERIC-ONC trial is a single-center, blinded, randomized, sham-controlled study. We aim to recruit 128 adult oncology patients undergoing anthracycline-based chemotherapy treatment, randomized in a 1:1 ratio into 2 groups: (1) sham procedure or (2) RIC, comprising 4, 5-minute cycles of upper arm blood pressure cuff inflations and deflations, immediately before each cycle of chemotherapy. The primary outcome measure, defining cardiac injury, will be high-sensitivity troponin-T over 6 cycles of chemotherapy and 12 months follow-up. Secondary outcome measures will include clinical, electrical, structural, and biochemical endpoints comprising major adverse cardiovascular clinical events, incidence of cardiac arrhythmia over 14 days at cycle 5/6, echocardiographic ventricular function, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels at 3 months follow-up, and changes in mitochondrial DNA, micro-RNA, and proteomics after chemotherapy. The ERIC-ONC trial will determine the efficacy of RIC as a novel, noninvasive, nonpharmacological, low-cost cardioprotectant in cancer patients undergoing anthracycline-based chemotherapy. PMID:26807534

  8. Somatic, hematologic phenotype, long-term outcome, and effect of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. An analysis of 97 Fanconi anemia patients from the Italian national database on behalf of the Marrow Failure Study Group of the AIEOP (Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology).

    PubMed

    Svahn, Johanna; Bagnasco, Francesca; Cappelli, Enrico; Onofrillo, Daniela; Caruso, Silvia; Corsolini, Fabio; De Rocco, Daniela; Savoia, Anna; Longoni, Daniela; Pillon, Marta; Marra, Nicoletta; Ramenghi, Ugo; Farruggia, Piero; Locasciulli, Anna; Addari, Carmen; Cerri, Carla; Mastrodicasa, Elena; Casazza, Gabriella; Verzegnassi, Federico; Riccardi, Francesca; Haupt, Riccardo; Barone, Angelica; Cesaro, Simone; Cugno, Chiara; Dufour, Carlo

    2016-07-01

    We analyzed 97 Fanconi anemia patients from a clinic/biological database for genotype, somatic, and hematologic phenotype, adverse hematological events, solid tumors, and treatment. Seventy-two patients belonged to complementation group A. Eighty percent of patients presented with mild/moderate somatic phenotype and most with cytopenia. No correlation was seen between somatic/hematologic phenotype and number of missense mutations of FANCA alleles. Over follow-up, 33% of patients improved or maintained mild/moderate cytopenia or normal blood count, whereas remaining worsened cytopenia. Eleven patients developed a hematological adverse event (MDS, AML, pathological cytogenetics) and three developed solid tumors. 10 years cumulative risk of death of the whole cohort was 25.6% with median follow-up 5.8 years. In patients eligible to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation because of moderate cytopenia, mortality was significantly higher in subjects transplanted from matched unrelated donor over nontransplanted subjects, whereas there was no significant difference between matched sibling donor transplants and nontransplanted patients. In patients eligible to transplant because of severe cytopenia and clonal disease, mortality risk was not significantly different in transplanted from matched unrelated versus matched sibling donor versus nontransplanted subjects. The decision to transplant should rely on various elements including, type of donor, HLA matching, patient comorbidities, impairment, and clonal evolution of hematopoiesis. Am. J. Hematol. 91:666-671, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27013026

  9. Lived experiences of pediatric oncology nurses in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Mohsenpour, Mohaddeseh; Asadi, Neda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Caring is a valuable task. The staff in any profession that involves patients’ fear, anxiety, pain, and suffering may experience similar feelings. As a professional group, oncology nurses deal with patients and their relatives and caregivers under very stressful conditions. They encounter pain, suffering, and death as a part of their daily life. A number of studies have evaluated the experiences of pediatric oncology nurses in other countries. Therefore, conducting a survey about the experiences of Iranian nurses of caring for children with cancer can reveal their demands, stress, and limitations. Materials and Methods: In a qualitative research, in-depth, unstructured individual interviews with open-ended questions were conducted to evaluate the experiences of pediatric oncology nurses in a hospital in a metropolitan city of Iran. The subjects all consented to participate and had at least one year of working experience in the ward. Content analysis was performed to analyze the data. Results: The lived experiences of pediatric oncology nurses were categorized in five main themes. These themes included attachment, supportive care, trying to repress feelings, feeling of helplessness, and the need to be supported. Conclusions: According to these results, nurses who provide care for children with cancer require support. This research also highlighted the roles, limitations, and needs of nurses in pediatric oncology wards. PMID:24403935

  10. A Phase 3 Trial of 2 Years of Androgen Suppression and Radiation Therapy With or Without Adjuvant Chemotherapy for High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Final Results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Phase 3 Randomized Trial NRG Oncology RTOG 9902

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, Seth A.; Hunt, Daniel; Sartor, A. Oliver; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Gomella, Leonard; Grignon, David; Rajan, Raghu; Kerlin, Kevin J.; Jones, Christopher U.; Dobelbower, Michael; Shipley, William U.; Zeitzer, Kenneth; Hamstra, Daniel A.; Donavanik, Viroon; Rotman, Marvin; Hartford, Alan C.; Michalski, Jeffrey; Seider, Michael; Kim, Harold; and others

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Long-term (LT) androgen suppression (AS) with radiation therapy (RT) is a standard treatment of high-risk, localized prostate cancer (PCa). Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9902 was a randomized trial testing the hypothesis that adjuvant combination chemotherapy (CT) with paclitaxel, estramustine, and oral etoposide plus LT AS plus RT would improve overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: Patients with high-risk PCa (prostate-specific antigen 20-100 ng/mL and Gleason score [GS] ≥7 or clinical stage ≥T2 and GS ≥8) were randomized to RT and AS (AS + RT) alone or with adjuvant CT (AS + RT + CT). CT was given as four 21-day cycles, delivered beginning 28 days after 70.2 Gy of RT. AS was given as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone for 24 months, beginning 2 months before RT plus an oral antiandrogen for 4 months before and during RT. The study was designed based on a 6% improvement in OS from 79% to 85% at 5 years, with 90% power and a 2-sided alpha of 0.05. Results: A total of 397 patients (380 eligible) were randomized. The patients had high-risk PCa, 68% with GS 8 to 10 and 34% T3 to T4 tumors, and median prostate-specific antigen of 22.6 ng/mL. The median follow-up period was 9.2 years. The trial closed early because of excess thromboembolic toxicity in the CT arm. The 10-year results for all randomized patients revealed no significant difference between the AS + RT and AS + RT + CT arms in OS (65% vs 63%; P=.81), biochemical failure (58% vs 54%; P=.82), local progression (11% vs 7%; P=.09), distant metastases (16% vs 14%; P=.42), or disease-free survival (22% vs 26%; P=.61). Conclusions: NRG Oncology RTOG 9902 showed no significant differences in OS, biochemical failure, local progression, distant metastases, or disease-free survival with the addition of adjuvant CT to LT AS + RT. The trial results provide valuable data regarding the natural history of high-risk PCa treated with LT AS + RT and have implications for

  11. Organisational design for an integrated oncological department

    PubMed Central

    Meiss-de Haas, Ch.L.; Falkmann, H.; Douma, J.; van Gassel, J.G.; Peters, W.G.; van Mierlo, R.; van Turnhout, J.M.; Verhagen, C.A.H.H.V.M.; Schrijvers, A.J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Objective The outcomes of a Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threat (SWOT) analysis of three Integrated Oncological Departments were compared with their present situation three years later to define factors that can influence a successful implementation and development of an Integrated Oncological Department in- and outside (i.e. home care) the hospital. Research design Comparative Qualitative Case Study. Methods Auditing based on care-as-usual norms by an external, experienced auditing committee. Research setting Integrated Oncological Departments of three hospitals. Results Successful multidisciplinary care in an integrated, oncological department needs broad support inside the hospital and a well-defined organisational plan. PMID:16896411

  12. Case management in oncology rehabilitation (CAMON): The effect of case management on the quality of life in patients with cancer after one year of ambulant rehabilitation. A study protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial in oncology rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cancer diseases and their therapies have negative effects on the quality of life. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of case management in a sample of oncological outpatients with the intent of rehabilitation after cancer treatment. Case management wants to support the complex information needs of the patients in addition to the segmented structure of the health care system. Emphasis is put on support for self-management in order to enhance health - conscious behaviour, learning to deal with the burden of the illness and providing the opportunity for regular contacts with care providers. We present a study protocol to investigate the efficacy of a case management in patients following oncology rehabilitation after cancer treatment. Methods The trial is a multicentre, two-arm randomised controlled study. Patients are randomised parallel in either 'usual care' plus case management or 'usual care' alone. Patients with all types of cancer can be included in the study, if they have completed the therapy with chemo- and/or radiotherapy/surgery with curative intention and are expected to have a survival time >1 year. To determine the health-related quality of life the general questionnaire FACT G is used. The direct correlation between self-management and perceived self-efficacy is measured with the Jerusalem & Schwarzer questionnaire. Patients satisfaction with the care received is measured using the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care 5 As (PACIC-5A). Data are collected at the beginning of the trial and after 3, 6 and 12 months. The power analysis revealed a sample size of 102 patients. The recruitment of the centres began in 2009. The inclusion of patients began in May 2010. Discussion Case management has proved to be effective regarding quality of life of patients with chronic diseases. When it comes to oncology, case management is mainly used in cancer treatment, but it is not yet common in the rehabilitation of cancer patients

  13. Southeastern Cancer Study Group: breast cancer studies

    SciTech Connect

    Smalley, R.V.; Bartolucci, A.A.; Moore, M.

    1983-12-01

    During the past 10 years, the Southeastern Cancer Study Group (SECSG) has been engaged in one major adjuvant study and three major advanced disease studies for patients with adenocarcinoma of the breast. The adjuvant study is demonstrating that six months of adjuvant CMF is the therapeutic equivalent of 12 months and that post-operative irradiation is of no added therapeutic benefit. In patients with advanced disease, a low dose 5 drug combination of CMFVP induces more objective responses than single agent 5FU, but improves survival only for those patients with liver metastases when compared to the sequential use of the same 5 single agents. The three drug combination, CAF, utilizing doxorubicin, induces more objective responses than low dose CMFVP, but it does not improve overall survival. The addition of a phase active combination, CAMELEON, (i.e., sequentially alternating therapy) of CAF has not improved the duration of disease control and survival for patients with liver metastases, lymphangitic and nodular lung metastases compared to CAF. Aggressive combination chemotherapeutic approaches to patients with advanced disease provide better and longer disease and tumor control but only marginal improvements in overall survival. Adding additional agents to a maximally tolerable regimen has not improved the therapeutic outcome.

  14. A lean case study in an oncological hospital: implementation of a telephone triage system in the emergency service

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, José Crespo; Ramos, Madalena; Paixão, Carina

    2014-01-01

    Lean practices and thinking have increased substantially in the last few years. Applications of lean practices to health care are found worldwide. Despite that, new contributions are required because the application of lean thinking to hospitals has a long way to go. Lean practices and thinking do not include, in the literature or practice programs, any references to triage systems in health care units. The common triage systems require physical presence, but there are alternative methods to avoid the need to move patients: these alternative triage systems, given their characteristics, may be included in the spectrum of lean practices. Currently, patients that are already known to suffer from cancer are encouraged to go to hospital (public or private, with an oncological focus) when facing side effects from chemotherapy or radiation treatments; they are then submitted to a triage system (present themselves to the hospital for examination). The authors of this paper propose the introduction of telephone or email triage for impaired patients as a valid substitute for moving them physically, thereby often avoiding several unnecessary moves. This approach has, in fact, characteristics similar to a lean practice in that it reduces costs and maintains, if done properly, the overall service offered. The proposed ‘remote’ triage emerged from the results of a large survey sent to patients and also as the outcome of a set of semistructured interviews conducted with hospital nurses. With the results they obtained, the authors felt comfortable proposing this approach both to public and private hospitals, because the study was conducted in the most important, largest, and best-known oncological unit in Spain. As a final result, the health care unit studied is now taking the first steps to implement a remote triage system by telephone, and has begun to reduce the previously necessary movement of impaired patients. PMID:24376365

  15. New Advanced Technologies to Provide Decentralised and Secure Access to Medical Records: Case Studies in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Quantin, Catherine; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Allaert, François André; Fassa, Maniane; Bourquard, Karima; Boire, Jean-Yves; de Vlieger, Paul; Maigne, Lydia; Breton, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    The main problem for health professionals and patients in accessing information is that this information is very often distributed over many medical records and locations. This problem is particularly acute in cancerology because patients may be treated for many years and undergo a variety of examinations. Recent advances in technology make it feasible to gain access to medical records anywhere and anytime, allowing the physician or the patient to gather information from an “ephemeral electronic patient record”. However, this easy access to data is accompanied by the requirement for improved security (confidentiality, traceability, integrity, ...) and this issue needs to be addressed. In this paper we propose and discuss a decentralised approach based on recent advances in information sharing and protection: Grid technologies and watermarking methodologies. The potential impact of these technologies for oncology is illustrated by the examples of two experimental cases: a cancer surveillance network and a radiotherapy treatment plan. It is expected that the proposed approach will constitute the basis of a future secure “google-like” access to medical records. PMID:19718446

  16. Benefit from prolonged dose-intensive chemotherapy for infants with malignant brain tumors is restricted to patients with ependymoma: a report of the Pediatric Oncology Group randomized controlled trial 9233/34

    PubMed Central

    Strother, Douglas R.; Lafay-Cousin, Lucie; Boyett, James M.; Burger, Peter; Aronin, Patricia; Constine, Louis; Duffner, Patricia; Kocak, Mehmet; Kun, Larry E.; Horowitz, Marc E.; Gajjar, Amar

    2014-01-01

    Background The randomized controlled Pediatric Oncology Group study 9233 tested the hypothesis that dose-intensive (DI) chemotherapy would improve event-free survival (EFS) for children <3 years of age with newly diagnosed malignant brain tumors. Methods Of 328 enrolled eligible patients, diagnoses were medulloblastoma (n = 112), ependymoma (n = 82), supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (sPNET, n = 38) and other malignant brain tumors (n = 96), and were randomized to 72 weeks of standard dose chemotherapy (Regimen A, n = 162) or DI chemotherapy (Regimen B, n = 166). Radiation therapy (RT) was recommended for patients with evidence of disease at completion of chemotherapy or who relapsed within 6 months of chemotherapy completion. Results Distributions of EFS for Regimens A and B were not significantly different (P = 0.32) with 2- and 10-year rates of 22.8% ± 3.3% and 15.4% ± 3.7%, and 27.1% ± 3.4% and 20.8% ± 3.8%, respectively. Thus, the study hypothesis was rejected. While distributions of EFS and OS were not significantly different between Regimens A and B for patients with medulloblastoma and sPNET, DI chemotherapy resulted in significantly improved EFS distribution (P = .0011) (2-year EFS rates of 42.1% vs. 19.6% with SD chemotherapy), but not OS distribution, for patients with centrally confirmed ependymoma. The degree of surgical resection affected EFS, OS or both for most tumor groups. Approximately 20%, 40% and 20% of patients with medulloblastoma, ependymoma treated with DI chemotherapy, and sPNET, respectively appear to have been cured without RT. Of 11 toxic deaths on study, 10 occurred on the DI chemotherapy arm. Conclusions Prolonged dose-intensive chemotherapy given to infants with malignant brain tumors resulted in increased EFS only for patients with ependymoma. PMID:24335695

  17. Results of a phase II trial of transrectal ultrasound-guided permanent radioactive implantation of the prostate for definitive management of localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 98-05)

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Colleen A. . E-mail: clawton@radonc.mcw.edu; DeSilvio, Michelle; Lee, W. Robert; Gomella, Leonard; Grignon, David; Gillin, Michael; Morton, Gerard; Pisansky, Thomas; Sandler, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of transrectal ultrasound-guided permanent radioactive {sup 125}I implantation of the prostate for organ-confined adenocarcinoma of the prostate compared with historical data of prostatectomy and external beam radiotherapy within a cooperative group setting. Methods and Materials: Patients accrued to this study had histologically confirmed, locally confined, adenocarcinoma of the prostate with clinical Stage T1b, T1c, or T2a, no nodal or metastatic disease, prostate-specific antigen level of {<=}10 ng/mL, and Gleason score of {<=}6. All patients underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided radioactive {sup 125}I permanent seed implantation into the prostate. The prescribed dose was 145 Gy to the prostate planning target volume. Results: A total of 27 institutions accrued a total of 101 patients to this protocol, with no institution accruing >8 patients. Six patients were ineligible, leaving 95 properly entered as eligible in the study. The median follow-up was 5.3 years (range, 0.4-6.5 years). At 5 years, 5 patients had local failure, 1 had evidence of distant failure, and 6 (6%) had biochemical failure. The overall survival rate at 5 years was 96.7%. At last follow-up, no patient had died of prostate cancer or related toxicities. Eight patients had a maximal acute toxicity level of 3, and no patient had Grade 4 or 5 acute toxicity. During follow-up, 2 patients had maximal Grade 3 toxicity, both related to bladder issues, and no patient experienced Grade 4 or 5 toxicity. Conclusion: The results of this clinical protocol (a multi-institutional trial of brachytherapy for localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate) have demonstrated that this type of trial can be successfully completed through Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. Biochemical disease-free survival was comparable with other brachytherapy published series and with the results after surgery and external beam radiotherapy.

  18. Effect of Radiotherapy Techniques (IMRT vs. 3D-CRT) on Outcome in Patients With Intermediate-Risk Rhabdomyosarcoma Enrolled in COG D9803-A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Chi; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Meza, Jane L.; Anderson, James R.; Lyden, Elizabeth R.; Brown, Christopher K.; Morano, Karen; Laurie, Fran; Arndt, Carola A.; Enke, Charles A.; Breneman, John C.

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric parameters of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in patients with intermediate-risk rhabdomyosarcoma and to analyze their effect on locoregional control and failure-free survival (FFS). Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 375 patients enrolled in the Children's Oncology Group protocol D9803 study, receiving IMRT or 3D-CRT. Dosimetric data were collected from 179 patients with an available composite plan. The chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was used to compare the patient characteristics and radiotherapy parameters between the two groups. The interval-to-event outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using log-rank tests. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to examine the effect of the treatment technique on FFS after adjusting for primary site and risk group. Results: The median follow-up time was 5.7 and 4.2 years for patients receiving 3D-CRT and IMRT, respectively. No differences in the 5-year failure of locoregional control (18% vs. 15%) or FFS (72% vs. 76%) rates were noted between the two groups. Multivariate analysis revealed no association between the two techniques and FFS. Patients with primary tumors in parameningeal sites were more likely to receive IMRT than 3D-CRT. IMRT became more common during the later years of the study. Patients receiving IMRT were more likely to receive >50 Gy, photon energy of {<=}6 MV, and >5 radiation fields than those who received 3D-CRT. The coverage of the IMRT planning target volume by the prescription dose was improved compared with the coverage using 3D-CRT with similar target dose heterogeneity. Conclusions: IMRT improved the target dose coverage compared with 3D-CRT, although an improvement in locoregional control or FFS could not be demonstrated in this population. Future studies comparing the integral dose to nontarget tissue and late radiation toxicity

  19. Ethical issues in integrative oncology.

    PubMed

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Schiff, Elad; Golan, Ofra

    2008-08-01

    Integrative oncology relates to an emerging dialog between complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) scholars, oncologists, family practitioners, and other health care providers who envision an extended and holistic patient-centered approach to oncology care. The multiple commitments of integrative oncology to a medical humanistic approach and to a strong evidence-based foundation may impose considerable ethical concerns and dilemmas. The authors use narrative ethics to present a case study that exemplifies the ethical challenges confronting physicians and health care providers who wish to provide an integrative approach for their patients. An ethical analysis of the narrative is provided to help clarify the ethical issues and conflicts within it. Finally, a framework that may transform ethical constraints to a communication tool is proposed. PMID:18638699

  20. Tissue Microarrays in Clinical Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Voduc, David; Kenney, Challayne; Nielsen, Torsten O.

    2008-01-01

    The tissue microarray is a recently-implemented, high-throughput technology for the analysis of molecular markers in oncology. This research tool permits the rapid assessment of a biomarker in thousands of tumor samples, using commonly available laboratory assays such as immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization. Although introduced less than a decade ago, the TMA has proven to be invaluable in the study of tumor biology, the development of diagnostic tests, and the investigation of oncological biomarkers. This review describes the impact of TMA-based research in clinical oncology and its potential future applications. Technical aspects of TMA construction, and the advantages and disadvantages inherent to this technology are also discussed. PMID:18314063

  1. Personality types of oncology nurses.

    PubMed

    Bean, C A; Holcombe, J K

    1993-12-01

    Personality type influences the choice of occupation. The breadth of specialty areas within oncology nursing allows for divergent activities and relationships and, thus, the accommodation of different personality characteristics. This exploratory study examined personality types for a convenience sample of oncology nurses predominantly employed in hospitals. According to the personality typology defined by Carl Jung, a person demonstrates a preference among four dimensions, i.e., extraversion/introversion, sensory/intuition, thinking/feeling, and judging/perceiving. The type with the strongest self-selection for these oncology nurses was ISFJ, where feeling is introverted and perception is practical, so that helping others is both a responsibility and a pleasure. The discussion relates the personality types to Jung's theory and their impact in clinical practice. Strengths and weaknesses of each personality type are described. PMID:8111753

  2. Prospective Evaluation of Quality of Life and Neurocognitive Effects in Patients With Multiple Brain Metastases Receiving Whole-Brain Radiotherapy With or Without Thalidomide on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Trial 0118

    SciTech Connect

    Corn, Benjamin W. Moughan, Jennifer M.S.; Knisely, Jonathan P.S.; Fox, Sherry W.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Yung, W.K. Alfred; Curran, Walter J.; Robins, H. Ian; Brachman, David G.; Henderson, Randal H.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Movsas, Benjamin

    2008-05-01

    Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0118 randomized patients with multiple brain metastases to whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) {+-} thalidomide. This secondary analysis of 156 patients examined neurocognitive and quality of life (QOL) outcomes. Methods and Materials: Quality of life was determined with the Spitzer Quality of Life Index (SQLI). The Folstein Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) assessed neurocognitive function. SQLI and MMSE were administered at baseline and at 2-month intervals. MMSE was scored with a threshold value associated with neurocognitive functioning (absolute cutoff level of 23) and with the use of corrections for age and educational level. Results: Baseline SQLI predicted survival. Patients with SQLI of 7-10 vs. <7 had median survival time (MST) of 4.8 vs. 3.1 months, p = 0.05. Both arms showed steady neurocognitive declines, but SQLI scores remained stable. Higher levels of neurocognitive decline were observed with age and education-level corrections. Of patients considered baseline age/educational level neurocognitive failures, 32% died of intracranial progression. Conclusions: Quality of life and neuropsychological testing can be prospectively administered on a Phase III cooperative group trial. The MMSE should be evaluated with adjustments for age and educational level. Baseline SQLI is predictive of survival. Despite neurocognitive declines, QOL remained stable during treatment and follow-up. Poor neurocognitive function may predict clinical deterioration. Lack of an untreated control arm makes it difficult to determine the contribution of the respective interventions (i.e., WBRT, thalidomide) to neurocognitive decline. The RTOG has developed a trial to study the role of preventative strategies aimed at forestalling neurocognitive decline in this population.

  3. Multidisciplinary care in pediatric oncology

    PubMed Central

    Cantrell, Mary Ann; Ruble, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the significant advances in the treatment of childhood cancer and supportive care that have occurred over the last several decades and details how these advances have led to improved survival and quality of life (QOL) for children with cancer through a multidisciplinary approach to care. Advances in the basic sciences, general medicine, cooperative research protocols, and policy guidelines have influenced and guided the multidisciplinary approach in pediatric oncology care across the spectrum from diagnosis through long-term survival. Two case studies are provided to highlight the nature and scope of multidisciplinary care in pediatric oncology care. PMID:21811384

  4. Qualitative approach to patient-reported outcomes in oncology: protocol of a French study

    PubMed Central

    Orri, Massimiliano; Sibeoni, Jordan; Labey, Mathilde; Bousquet, Guilhem; Verneuil, Laurence; Revah-Levy, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The past decade has been characterised by movement from a doctor-centred to a patient-centred approach to treatment outcomes, in which doctors try to see the illness through their patients’ eyes. Patients, family members and doctors are the three participants in cancer care, but their perspectives about what have been helpful during cancer treatment have never simultaneously and explicitly compared in the same qualitative study. The aim of this study project is to explore patients’ perspectives about the care they receive, as well as families’ and doctors’ perspectives about what have been helpful for the patient. These three points of view will be compared and contrasted in order to analyse the convergences and divergences in these perspectives. Methods and analysis This is a national multicentre qualitative study. Participants will be constituted by three different subsamples: (1) patients with cancer (skin, breast, urological and lung cancers), (2) their relatives, and (3) their referring physicians. Recruitment will follow the purposive sample technique, and the final sample size will be determined by data saturation. Data will be collected through open-ended semistructured interviews and independently analysed with NVivo V.10 software by three researchers according to the principles of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Ethics and dissemination The research protocol received approval from the University Paris Descartes review board (IRB number: 20140600001072), and participants will provide written consent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to focus on the simultaneous exploration of the separate points of view of patients, families and doctors about the care received during the cancer care journey. We expect that our findings will help to improve communication and relationships between doctors, patients and families. Comparison of these three points of view will provide information about the convergences and

  5. A Phase 3 Trial of Whole Brain Radiation Therapy and Stereotactic Radiosurgery Alone Versus WBRT and SRS With Temozolomide or Erlotinib for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and 1 to 3 Brain Metastases: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0320

    SciTech Connect

    Sperduto, Paul W.; Wang, Meihua; Robins, H. Ian; Schell, Michael C.; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Komaki, Ritsuko; Souhami, Luis; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Khuntia, Deepak; Demas, William; Shah, Sunjay A.; Nedzi, Lucien A.; Perry, Gad; Suh, John H.; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2013-04-01

    Background: A phase 3 Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) study subset analysis demonstrated improved overall survival (OS) with the addition of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases. Because temozolomide (TMZ) and erlotinib (ETN) cross the blood-brain barrier and have documented activity in NSCLC, a phase 3 study was designed to test whether these drugs would improve the OS associated with WBRT + SRS. Methods and Materials: NSCLC patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases were randomized to receive WBRT (2.5 Gy × 15 to 37.5 Gy) and SRS alone, versus WBRT + SRS + TMZ (75 mg/m{sup 2}/day × 21 days) or ETN (150 mg/day). ETN (150 mg/day) or TMZ (150-200 mg/m{sup 2}/day × 5 days/month) could be continued for as long as 6 months after WBRT + SRS. The primary endpoint was OS. Results: After 126 patients were enrolled, the study closed because of accrual limitations. The median survival times (MST) for WBRT + SRS, WBRT + SRS + TMZ, and WBRT + SRS + ETN were qualitatively different (13.4, 6.3, and 6.1 months, respectively), although the differences were not statistically significant. Time to central nervous system progression and performance status at 6 months were better in the WBRT + SRS arm. Grade 3 to 5 toxicity was 11%, 41%, and 49% in arms 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P<.001). Conclusion: The addition of TMZ or ETN to WBRT + SRS in NSCLC patients with 1 to 3 brain metastases did not improve survival and possibly had a deleterious effect. Because the analysis is underpowered, these data suggest but do not prove that increased toxicity was the cause of inferior survival in the drug arms.

  6. A Paired, Double-Blind, Randomized Comparison of a Moisturizing Durable Barrier Cream to 10% Glycerine Cream in the Prophylactic Management of Postmastectomy Irradiation Skin Care: Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 04.01

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Peter H.; Plant, Natalie; Graham, Jennifer L.; Browne, Lois; Borg, Martin; Capp, Anne; Delaney, Geoff P.; Harvey, Jennifer; Kenny, Lisbeth; Francis, Michael; Zissiadis, Yvonne

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: A previous, unblinded study demonstrated that an alcohol-free barrier film containing an acrylate terpolymer (ATP) was effective in reducing skin reactions compared with a 10% glycerine cream (sorbolene). The different appearances of these products precluded a blinded comparison. To test the acrylate terpolymer principle in a double-blinded manner required the use of an alternative cream formulation, a moisturizing durable barrier cream (MDBC); the study was conducted by the Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) as protocol 04.01. Methods and Materials: A total of 333 patients were randomized; 1 patient was ineligible and 14 patients withdrew or had less than 7 weeks' observations, leaving 318 for analysis. The chest wall was divided into medial and lateral compartments, and patients were randomized to have MDBC applied daily to the medial or lateral compartment and sorbolene to the other compartment. Weekly observations, photographs, and symptom scores (pain and pruritus) were collected to week 12 or resolution of skin reactions if earlier. Skin dose was confirmed by centrally calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters. Results: Rates of medial and lateral compartment Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC), version 3, greater than or equal to grade 3 skin reactions were 23% and 41%, but rates by skin care product were identical at 32%. There was no significant difference between MDBC and sorbolene in the primary endpoint of peak skin reactions or secondary endpoints of area-under-the-curve skin reaction scores. Conclusions: The MDBC did not reduce the peak skin reaction compared to sorbolene. It is possible that this is related to the difference in the formulation of the cream compared with the film formulation. Skin dosimetry verification and double blinding are essential for radiation skin care comparative studies.

  7. Feasibility study of the use of similarity maps in the evaluation of oncological dynamic positron emission tomography images.

    PubMed

    Thireou, T; Kontaxakis, G; Strauss, L G; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, A; Pavlopoulos, S; Santos, A

    2005-01-01

    A preliminary study is presented on the potential role of similarity mapping (SM) in the evaluation of oncological dynamic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography studies, mainly in lesion localisation and detectability. Similarity maps were calculated using previously described (correlation coefficient (COR) and normalised correlation coefficient (NCOR)) and newly introduced similarity measures (sum of squares coefficient (SSQ), squared sum coefficient (SQS), sum of cubes coefficient (SC) and cubed sum coefficient (CS)). The results were evaluated using simulated and clinical data. The study revealed that the best-suited similarity measure for such applications was the CS similarity coefficient, which provided the best parametric images, delineating structures of interest and supporting the visual interpretation of data sets. It was shown that SM and standardised uptake value (SUV) images had comparable diagnostic performance, although SM was able to offer additional time-related information in a single image. For the case of colorectal recurrences (17 cases), the measured contrast values for the CS and SUV images were 2.36 +/- 0.47 and 4.12 +/- 0.42, respectively, whereas, for three cases of giant cell tumours, these values were 11.6 +/- 2.1 and 11.9 +/- 1.8, respectively. PMID:15742716

  8. Maternal Coping Strategies in Response to a Child’s Chronic and Oncological Disease: a Cross-Cultural Study in Italy and Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Perricone, Giovanna; Guerra, Marina Prista; Cruz, Orlanda; Polizzi, Concetta; Lima, Lígia; Morales, Maria Regina; de Lemos, Marina Serra; Fontana, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    A child’s oncological or chronic disease is a stressful situation for parents. This stress may make it difficult for appropriate management strategies aimed at promoting the child’s wellbeing and helping him or her cope with a disease to be adopted. In particular, this study focuses on the possible connections between the variable national cultural influences and the parental strategies used to cope with a child’s severe disease by comparing the experiences of Italian and Portuguese mothers. The study investigates differences and cross-cultural elements among the coping strategies used by Italian and Portuguese mothers of children with oncological or chronic disease. Two groups of mothers took part: 59 Italian mothers (average age 37.7 years; SD=4.5) and 36 Portuguese mothers (average age 39.3 years; SD=4.6). The tool used was the Italian and the Portuguese versions of the COPE inventory that measures five coping strategies: Social Support, Avoidance Coping, Positive Aptitude, Religious Faith and Humor, Active Coping. There were statistically significant differences between Portuguese and Italian mothers regarding Social Support (F(3, 94)=6.32, P=0.014, ɳ2=0.065), Religious Faith and Humor (F(3, 94)=20.06, P=0.001, ɳ2=0.18, higher values for Portuguese mothers) and Avoidance Coping (F(3, 94)=3.30, P=0.06, ɳ2=0.035, higher values for Italian mothers). Regarding child’s disease, the only statistically significant difference was in Religious Faith and Humor (F(3, 94)=7.49, P=0.007, ɳ2=0.076, higher values for mothers of children with chronic disease). The findings of specific cultural transversalities provide the basis for reflection on important factors emerging on the relationship between physicians and parents. In fact, mothers’ coping abilities may allow health workers involved in a child’s care not only to understand how parents face a distressful event, but also to provide them with professional support. PMID:23904966

  9. Significant Reduction of Late Toxicities in Patients With Extremity Sarcoma Treated With Image-Guided Radiation Therapy to a Reduced Target Volume: Results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group RTOG-0630 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dian; Zhang, Qiang; Eisenberg, Burton L.; Kane, John M.; Li, X. Allen; Lucas, David; Petersen, Ivy A.; DeLaney, Thomas F.; Freeman, Carolyn R.; Finkelstein, Steven E.; Hitchcock, Ying J.; Bedi, Manpreet; Singh, Anurag K.; Dundas, George; Kirsch, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We performed a multi-institutional prospective phase II trial to assess late toxicities in patients with extremity soft tissue sarcoma (STS) treated with preoperative image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) to a reduced target volume. Patients and Methods Patients with extremity STS received IGRT with (cohort A) or without (cohort B) chemotherapy followed by limb-sparing resection. Daily pretreatment images were coregistered with digitally reconstructed radiographs so that the patient position could be adjusted before each treatment. All patients received IGRT to reduced tumor volumes according to strict protocol guidelines. Late toxicities were assessed at 2 years. Results In all, 98 patients were accrued (cohort A, 12; cohort B, 86). Cohort A was closed prematurely because of poor accrual and is not reported. Seventy-nine eligible patients from cohort B form the basis of this report. At a median follow-up of 3.6 years, five patients did not have surgery because of disease progression. There were five local treatment failures, all of which were in field. Of the 57 patients assessed for late toxicities at 2 years, 10.5% experienced at least one grade ≥ 2 toxicity as compared with 37% of patients in the National Cancer Institute of Canada SR2 (CAN-NCIC-SR2: Phase III Randomized Study of Pre- vs Postoperative Radiotherapy in Curable Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcoma) trial receiving preoperative radiation therapy without IGRT (P < .001). Conclusion The significant reduction of late toxicities in patients with extremity STS who were treated with preoperative IGRT and absence of marginal-field recurrences suggest that the target volumes used in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group RTOG-0630 (A Phase II Trial of Image-Guided Preoperative Radiotherapy for Primary Soft Tissue Sarcomas of the Extremity) study are appropriate for preoperative IGRT for extremity STS. PMID:25667281

  10. A Comparison of Computer-Assisted Instruction and Tutorials in Hematology and Oncology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, T. J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study comparing the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and small group instruction found no significant difference in medical student achievement in oncology but higher achievement through small-group instruction in hematology. Students did not view CAI as more effective, but saw it as a supplement to traditional methods. (MSE)

  11. American Society for Radiation Oncology

    MedlinePlus

    ... PAC Become an Advocate Log In SNIPEND American Society for Radiation Oncology Plan your time at the ... oncology practices. RO-ILS The only medical specialty society-sponsored incident learning system for radiation oncology. RO ...

  12. Expert Consensus Panel Guidelines on Geriatric Assessment in Oncology

    PubMed Central

    O'Donovan, A.; Mohile, S.G.; Leech, M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite consensus guidelines on best practice in the care of older patients with cancer, geriatric assessment (GA) has yet to be optimally integrated into the field of oncology in most countries. There is a relative lack of consensus in the published literature as to the best approach to take, and there is a degree of uncertainty as to how integration of geriatric medicine principles might optimally predict patient outcomes. The aim of the current study was to obtain consensus on GA in oncology to inform the implementation of a geriatric oncology programme. Methods A four round Delphi process was employed. The Delphi method is a structured group facilitation process, using multiple iterations in order to gain consensus on a given topic Results Consensus was reached on the optimal assessment method and interventions required for the commonly employed domains of GA. Other aspects of GA, such as screening methods and age cutoff for assessment represented a higher degree of disagreement. Discussion The expert panel employed in this study clearly identified the criteria that should be included in a clinical geriatric oncology programme. In the absence of evidence-based guidelines, this may prove useful in the care of older cancer patients. PMID:25757457

  13. Comparison of 123I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and 131I-MIBG Semi-Quantitative Scores in Predicting Survival in Patients With Stage 4 Neuroblastoma: A Report From the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo, Arlene; Parisi, Marguerite T.; Shulkin, Barry L.; London, Wendy B.; Matthay, Katherine K.; Kreissman, Susan G.; Yanik, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Background 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scans are preferable to 131I-MIBG for neuroblastoma imaging as they deliver less patient radiation yet have greater sensitivity in disease detection. Both 123I-MIBG and 131I-MIBG scans were used for disease assessments of neuroblastoma patients enrolled on Children’s Oncology Group (COG) high-risk study A3973. The hypothesis was that 123I-MIBG and 131I-MIBG scans were sufficiently similar for clinical purposes in terms of ability to predict survival. Procedure Patients enrolled on COG A3973 with stage 4 disease who completed 123I-MIBG or 131I-MIBG scans at diagnosis, post-induction, post-transplant, or post-biotherapy were analyzed. The performance of the Curie score for each MIBG scan type in predicting survival was evaluated. At each time point, survival curves for 123I-MIBG versus 131I-MIBG were compared using the log-rank test. Results Of the 413 patients on A3973 with at least one MIBG scan, 350 were stage 4. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 33.4 ± 3.6% and 45.6 ± 4.0% (N = 350). At post-induction, EFS (P = 0.3501) and OS (P = 0.5337) for 123I-MIBG versus 131I-MIBG were not significantly different. Similarly, comparisons at the three other time points were non-significant. Conclusions We found no evidence of a statistically significant difference in outcome by type of scan. For future survival analyses of MIBG Curie scores, 123I-MIBG and 131I-MIBG results may be combined and analyzed overall, without adjustment for scan type. PMID:21328522

  14. Long-Term Follow-Up of Autotransplantation Trials for Multiple Myeloma: Update of Protocols Conducted by the Intergroupe Francophone du Myelome, Southwest Oncology Group, and University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Barlogie, Bart; Attal, Michel; Crowley, John; van Rhee, Frits; Szymonifka, Jackie; Moreau, Philippe; Durie, Brian G.M.; Harousseau, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to update outcomes of autotransplantation trials for myeloma conducted by the Intergroupe Francophone du Myelome (IFM), the Southwest Oncology Group, and the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (Total Therapy [TT]). Methods IFM90 (N = 194), IFM04 (N = 402), IFM9902 (N = 692), IFM9904 (N = 197), S9321 (N = 817), TT1 (N = 231), TT2 (N = 668), and TT3 (N = 303) were updated, and results were compared with original reports. Results Superior survival with single transplantation versus standard therapy in IFM90 was confirmed (P = .004), and a trend in favor of tandem versus single transplantation was maintained in IFM94 (P = .08). S9321 data were validated, with comparable survival in single transplantation and standard treatment arms (P = .35). A survival benefit from thalidomide maintenance in IFM9902 was not confirmed (P = .39) but emerged for the thalidomide arm of TT2 (P = .04). On multivariate analysis, survival was superior in TT2, TT3, and IFM9902 (all P < .001); tandem transplantations were superior to both single transplantations and standard therapies (P < .001), as were tandem transplantations with added thalidomide versus trials without thalidomide (P < .001). Postrelapse survival (PRS) was superior when initial event-free survival (EFS) exceeded 1280 days and when tandem transplantations had been administered, whereas PRS was shorter when EFS lasted 803 days or less and when trials had included thalidomide and bortezomib. Conclusion These long-term follow-up data of transplantation trials provide a crucial framework of reference for outcome reporting of novel agent–based trials reportedly exhibiting remarkable short-term efficacy approaching high-dose therapy results. PMID:20085933

  15. Breast cancer patients' narrative experiences about communication during the oncology care process: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Abt Sacks, A; Perestelo-Perez, L; Rodriguez-Martin, B; Cuellar-Pompa, L; Algara López, M; González Hernández, N; Serrano-Aguilar, P

    2016-09-01

    To analyse the perception about the information and communication received to evaluate oncologic care of breast cancer patients in Spain. Qualitative study based on conducting in-depth interviews. An inductive thematic analysis of the illness narratives was performed. Intentional theoretical sampling of 41 people diagnosed with breast cancer. The information provided during care process is assessed as appropriate, as it includes personalised skills focused on communication and considers organisational and contextual issues. In some cases, the information was considered partial, heterogeneous and at times contradictory, which revealed a lack of continuity. To provide and adequately cover information needs from the patient perspective, it is necessary to ensure access, both in its physical (material) and intellectual (comprehension) dimension, keeping in mind elements of social capital (social networks) and cultural capital (values, beliefs, non-verbal language) that facilitate or hinder access. The current state of transition to a horizontal model in the doctor-patient relationship, could account for the difficulties, deficits and contradictions in communication and information that breast cancer patients perceive in many contexts. PMID:26412025

  16. Facebook Groups as LMS: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meishar-Tal, Hagit; Kurtz, Gila; Pieterse, Efrat

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a pilot study in using Facebook as an alternative to a learning management system (LMS). The paper reviews the current research on the use of Facebook in academia and analyzes the differences between a Facebook group and a regular LMS. The paper reports on a precedent-setting attempt to use a Facebook group as a course…

  17. Oral Health Status of Chinese Paediatric and Adolescent Oncology Patients with Chemotherapy in Hong Kong: a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kung, A.Y.H; Zhang, S; Zheng, L.W; Wong, G.H.M; Chu, C.H

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To study the oral health status of Chinese children and adolescents undergoing chemotherapy in Hong Kong. Method: All Chinese children and adolescent oncology patients aged 18 or below attending the Children's Centre for Cancer and Blood Disease at a hospital for chemotherapy were invited and parental consent was sought before they were accepted into the study. The study comprised of 1) a parental questionnaire, 2) the collection of medical history and 3) a clinical examination for tooth decay (caries) and mucosal status. Results: A total of 69 patients were invited, and they all participated in this study. Their mean age was 9.2±5.0 and 44 (64%) were males. Twenty-six patients (38%) had no caries experience (DMFT and/or dmft = 0). Higher caries experience was detected in participants that were not born in Hong Kong, had completed active chemotherapy, participated in school dental care service and whose parents had low educational levels. There were 41 patients with active chemotherapy, 24 of whom were diagnosed with acute leukaemia, 5 with haematological malignancies other than leukaemia and 11 with solid tumours. Antimetabolites, cytotoxic antibiotics, alkylating agents and plant alkaloids were administered in 49%, 32%, 24% and 22% of them, respectively. Twenty-six (63%) patients showed no mucosal complications. The most common oral complication was oral mucositis (24%) followed by petechiae (10%). Conclusion: About two-thirds of paediatric and adolescent cancer patients had caries experience, which was more common among those who had completed chemotherapy. Oral mucositis followed by petechiae were the two most common complications of receiving chemotherapy. PMID:25674168

  18. Oncology Advanced Practitioners Bring Advanced Community Oncology Care.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Wendy H

    2016-01-01

    Oncology care is becoming increasingly complex. The interprofessional team concept of care is necessary to meet projected oncology professional shortages, as well as to provide superior oncology care. The oncology advanced practitioner (AP) is a licensed health care professional who has completed advanced training in nursing or pharmacy or has completed training as a physician assistant. Oncology APs increase practice productivity and efficiency. Proven to be cost effective, APs may perform varied roles in an oncology practice. Integrating an AP into an oncology practice requires forethought given to the type of collaborative model desired, role expectations, scheduling, training, and mentoring. PMID:27249776

  19. Patterns of Care in Elderly Head-and-Neck Cancer Radiation Oncology Patients: A Single-Center Cohort Study

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Shaohui; O'Sullivan, Brian; Waldron, John; Lockwood, Gina; Bayley, Andrew; Kim, John; Cummings, Bernard; Dawson, Laura A.; Hope, Andrew; Cho, John; Witterick, Ian; Chen, Eric X.; Ringash, Jolie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the patterns of care for elderly head-and-neck cancer patients with those of younger patients. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of all new mucosal head-and-neck cancer referrals to radiation oncology between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2007 at our institution. The clinical characteristics, treatment pattern, tolerance, and outcomes were compared between the elderly (aged {>=}75 years) and younger (aged <75 years) cohorts. Results: A total of 2,312 patients, including 452 (20%) elderly and 1,860 (80%) younger patients, were studied. The elderly patients were more likely to be women (36% vs. 27%, p <.01) and to have other malignancies (23% vs. 13%, p <.01), Stage I or II disease (38% vs. 32%, p <.01), and N0 status (56% vs. 42%, p <.01). Treatment was less often curative in intent (79% vs. 93%, p <.01). For the 1,487 patients who received definitive radiotherapy (RT), no differences were found between the elderly (n = 238) and younger (n = 1,249) patients in treatment interruption, completion, or treatment-related death. Within the subset of 760 patients who received intensified treatment (concurrent chemoradiotherapy or hyperfractionated accelerated RT), no difference was seen between the elderly (n = 46) and younger (n = 714) patients in treatment interruption, completion, or treatment-related death. After a median follow-up of 2.5 years, the 2-year cause-specific survival rate after definitive RT was 72% (range, 65-78%) for the elderly vs. 86% (range, 84-88%) for the younger patients (p <.01). Conclusion: Elderly head-and-neck cancer patients exhibited different clinical characteristics and experienced different patterns of care from younger patients. Although age itself was an adverse predictor of cause-specific survival, its effect was modest. Elderly patients selected for definitive RT or intensified RT showed no evidence of impaired treatment tolerance.

  20. [Treatment of cognitive impairments in oncology: a review of longitudinal controlled studies].

    PubMed

    Borghgraef, Cindy; Libert, Yves; Etienne, Anne-Marie; Delvaux, Nicole; Reynaert, Christine; Razavi, Darius

    2014-09-01

    Various studies highlight cognitive impairments in cancer patients. This paper proposes a review of longitudinal controlled studies evaluating the efficacy of interventions aiming to reduce these cognitive impairments. Longitudinal controlled studies evaluating the efficacy of interventions aiming to reduce cognitive impairments in adult cancer patients and published between 1993 and 2013 were identified, with the exception of studies that implied patients suffering from CNS tumor or metastasis. Pharmacological interventions (n = 11) suggested the positive impact of modafinil on memory and executive functions. Non-pharmacological interventions (n = 10) suggested the positive impact of cognitive revalidation and stimulation programs, psycho-education and meditation on several memory, attentional and executive objective as well as subjective functions. Non-pharmacological interventions show more significant cognitive benefits than pharmacological interventions. Some longitudinal controlled studies support the usefulness of interventions aiming to reduce cognitive impairments in cancer patients. Further studies should evaluate the effectiveness of programs combining technics aiming to reduce cognitive impairments and psychotherapeutic technics aiming to support patients' coping with illness. PMID:25062497

  1. Identifying oncological emergencies.

    PubMed

    Guddati, Achuta K; Kumar, Nilay; Segon, Ankur; Joy, Parijat S; Marak, Creticus P; Kumar, Gagan

    2013-01-01

    Prompt identification and treatment of life-threatening oncological conditions is of utmost importance and should always be included in the differential diagnosis. Oncological emergencies can have a myriad of presentations ranging from mechanical obstruction due to tumor growth to metabolic conditions due to abnormal secretions from the tumor. Notably, hematologic and infectious conditions may complicate the presentation of oncological emergencies. Advanced testing and imaging is generally required to recognize these serious presentations of common malignancies. Early diagnosis and treatment of these conditions can significantly affect the patient's clinical outcome. PMID:23873016

  2. Hanford single-shell tank grouping study

    SciTech Connect

    Remund, K.M.; Anderson, C.M.; Simpson, B.C.

    1995-10-01

    A tank grouping study has been conducted to find Hanford single-shell tanks with similar waste properties. The limited sampling resources of the characterization program could be allocated more effectively by having a better understanding of the groups of tanks that have similar waste types. If meaningful groups of tanks can be identified, tank sampling requirements may be reduced, and the uncertainty of the characterization estimates may be narrowed. This tank grouping study considers the analytical sampling information and the historical information that is available for all single-shell tanks. The two primary sources of historical characterization estimates and information come from the Historical Tank Content Estimate (HTCE) Model and the Sort on Radioactive Waste Tanks (SORWT) Model. The sampling and historical information are used together to come up with meaningful groups of similar tanks. Based on the results of analyses presented in this report, credible tank grouping looks very promising. Some groups defined using historical information (HTCE and SORWT) correspond well with those based on analytical data alone.

  3. Integrating E-Learning into Postgraduate Radiotherapy and Oncology Education: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Probst, Heidi; Eddy, David; Doughty, Jo; Hodgson, Denyse

    2009-01-01

    Training health professionals within university environments has traditionally focused on face-to-face methods. Practitioners working within the UK National Health Service (NHS) have found it difficult to gain leave from work to attend for study due to the demands of the NHS and staff shortages. In response, the authors developed a distance…

  4. Feasibility of quality of life assessment in routine clinical oncology practice: a Tunisian study.

    PubMed

    Masmoudi, A; Frikha, M; Daoud, J

    2009-01-01

    Limited research has been devoted to quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients in developing countries. To assess the feasibility of QOL assessment in a cohort of Tunisian cancer patients, the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire was administered to 23 women treated with adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer on an outpatient basis at baseline and during the 3rd cycle of chemotherapy. We observed a significant deterioration in physical functioning, cognitive functioning and social functioning during chemotherapy. However, a wide range of methodological and practical obstacles to routine QOL evaluation were identified through this study. Further improvement of cancer care infrastructure and public education is still needed before reliable QOL studies can be performed. PMID:19554983

  5. Recruiting Terminally Ill Patients into Non-Therapeutic Oncology Studies: views of Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-therapeutic trials in which terminally ill cancer patients are asked to undergo procedures such as biopsies or venipunctures for research purposes, have become increasingly important to learn more about how cancer cells work and to realize the full potential of clinical research. Considering that implementing non-therapeutic studies is not likely to result in direct benefits for the patient, some authors are concerned that involving patients in such research may be exploitive of vulnerable patients and should not occur at all, or should be greatly restricted, while some proponents doubt whether such restrictions are appropriate. Our objective was to explore clinician-researcher attitudes and concerns when recruiting patients who are in advanced stages of cancer into non-therapeutic research. Methods We conducted a qualitative exploratory study by carrying out open-ended interviews with health professionals, including physicians, research nurses, and study coordinators. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Analysis was carried out using grounded theory. Results The analysis of the interviews unveiled three prominent themes: 1) ethical considerations; 2) patient-centered issues; 3) health professional issues. Respondents identified ethical issues surrounding autonomy, respect for persons, beneficence, non-maleficence, discrimination, and confidentiality; bringing to light that patients contribute to science because of a sense of altruism and that they want reassurance before consenting. Several patient-centered and health professional issues are having an impact on the recruitment of patients for non-therapeutic research. Facilitators were most commonly associated with patient-centered issues enhancing communication, whereas barriers in non-therapeutic research were most often professionally based, including the doctor-patient relationship, time constraints, and a lack of education and training in research. Conclusions This paper aims to

  6. Space Station concept development group studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, L. E.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA study activities in preparation for a Space Station began in the early 1970's. The early studies included many in-house NASA and contracted studies. A group of representatives from all the NASA Centers, titled the Space Station Concept Development Group (CDG) was involved in the studies which led to the initiation of the Space Station Program. The CDG studies were performed over a period of approximately one year and consisted of four phases. The initial phase had the objective to determine the functions required of the station as opposed to a configuration. The activities of the second phase were primarily concerned with a sizing of the facilities required for payloads and the resources necessary to support these mission payloads. The third phase of studies was designed to develop a philosophical approach to a number of areas related to autonomy, maintainability, operations and logistics, and verification. The fourth phase of the study was to be concerned with configuration assessment activities.

  7. Clinical radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    This book presents current concepts of radiation oncology in the management of various malignant diseases. Recent advances such as the use of linear accelerators and recently increased knowledge concerning radiation biology have been incorporated into the text.

  8. Basic Principles in Oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogl, Thomas J.

    The evolving field of interventional oncology can only be considered as a small integrative part in the complex area of oncology. The new field of interventional oncology needs a standardization of the procedures, the terminology, and criteria to facilitate the effective communication of ideas and appropriate comparison between treatments and new integrative technology. In principle, ablative therapy is a part of locoregional oncological therapy and is defined either as chemical ablation using ethanol or acetic acid, or thermotherapies such as radiofrequency, laser, microwave, and cryoablation. All these new evolving therapies have to be exactly evaluated and an adequate terminology has to be used to define imaging findings and pathology. All the different technologies and evaluated therapies have to be compared, and the results have to be analyzed in order to improve the patient outcome.

  9. Geriatric oncology: comparing health related quality of life in head and neck cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Population ageing is increasing the number of people annually diagnosed with cancer worldwide, once most types of tumours are age-dependent. High-quality healthcare in geriatric oncology requires a multimodal approach and should take into account stratified patient outcomes based on factors other than chronological age in order to develop interventions able to optimize oncology care. This study aims to evaluate the Health Related Quality of Life in head and neck cancer patients and compare the scores in geriatric and younger patients. Methods Two hundred and eighty nine head and neck cancer patients from the Oncology Portuguese Institute participated in the Health Related Quality of Life assessment. Two patient groups were considered: the geriatric (≥ 65 years old, n = 115) and the younger (45-60 years old, n= 174). The EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-H&N35 questionnaires were used. Results Head and neck cancer patients were mostly males, 77.4% within geriatric group and 91.4% among younger patients group. The most frequent tumour locations were similar in both groups: larynx, oral cavity and oropharynx - base of the tongue. At the time of diagnosis, most of younger male patients were at disease stage III/IV (55.9%) whereas the majority of younger female patients were at disease stage I/II (83.4%). The geriatric patient distribution was found to be similar in any of the four disease stages and no gender differences were observed. We found that age (geriatrics scored generally worse), gender (females scored generally worse), and tumour site (larynx tumours denounce more significant problems between age groups) clearly influences Health Related Quality of Life perceptions. Conclusions Geriatric oncology assessments signalize age-independent indicators that might guide oncologic geriatric care optimization. Decision-making in geriatric oncology must be based on tumour characteristics and chronological age but also on performance status evaluation, co

  10. [Planning nursing care in oncology: study of the structure of social representations of nurses].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Rita de Cássia Velozo; da Cruz, Enêde Andrade

    2014-03-01

    Characterize the social representations of nurses regarding the planning of nursing care for people with cancer, by determining the central nucleus and of the peripheral system. Qualitative study conducted in a specialized hospital in Salvador, Bahia, between July 2008 and March 2009. Data collection was made by free association of words, with forty-one nurses. The data were processed by the software Ensemble de Programmes Permettant L'analyse des Evocations and analyzed according to the Theory of Social Representations. The results indicated the following central elements: humanization, care, organization, individualizing and suffering. In the peripheral system, professional and personal attitudinal elements necessary for the planning were observed: skill, knowledge on the disease, family care, respect and sensitivity. It is concluded that care planning is linked to the peculiarities of the individual with cancer, and requires that nurses have knowledge and skills necessary to prioritize actions and ensure the quality of care. PMID:24930281

  11. Burnout in United States Academic Chairs of Radiation Oncology Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Kusano, Aaron S.; Thomas, Charles R.; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Formenti, Silvia C.; Hahn, Stephen M.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Mittal, Bharat B.

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to determine the self-reported prevalence of burnout in chairs of academic radiation oncology departments, to identify factors contributing to burnout, and to compare the prevalence of burnout with that seen in other academic chair groups. Methods and Materials: An anonymous online survey was administered to the membership of the Society of Chairs of Academic Radiation Oncology Programs (SCAROP). Burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS). Results: Questionnaires were returned from 66 of 87 chairs (76% response rate). Seventy-nine percent of respondents reported satisfaction with their current positions. Common major stressors were budget deficits and human resource issues. One-quarter of chairs reported that it was at least moderately likely that they would step down in the next 1 to 2 years; these individuals demonstrated significantly higher emotional exhaustion. Twenty-five percent of respondents met the MBI-HSS criteria for low burnout, 75% for moderate burnout, and none for high burnout. Group MBI-HSS subscale scores demonstrated a pattern of moderate emotional exhaustion, low depersonalization, and moderate personal accomplishment, comparing favorably with other specialties. Conclusions: This is the first study of burnout in radiation oncology chairs with a high response rate and using a validated psychometric tool. Radiation oncology chairs share similar major stressors to other chair groups, but they demonstrate relatively high job satisfaction and lower burnout. Emotional exhaustion may contribute to the anticipated turnover in coming years. Further efforts addressing individual and institutional factors associated with burnout may improve the relationship with work of chairs and other department members.

  12. [The epidemiological analysis of monitoring of the immune status in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident for early identification of risk groups and diagnostics of oncological diseases. Report 1].

    PubMed

    Oradovskaia, I V; Pashchenkova, Iu G; Feoktistov, V V; Nikonova, M F; Vikulov, G Kh; Bozheskaia, N V; Smirnova, N N

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is one of major factors of risk of oncological diseases. A question about the frequency of malignant neoplasms (MN) and their early identification in the liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident remains opened. In the present work, the results of long-term immunological monitoring of the liquidators of consequences of the failure at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChN PP) living in the Northwest region of Russia are analyzed; we also heve made an attempt to reveal the predictors of oncological diseases in this group of individuals. The frequency of the newly revealed MN cases in a cohort of the persons who took part in liquidation of consequences of the ChNPP failure and were followed-up in 1999-2009, has made up 89 cases per 1005 persons (8.856%), which somewhat exceeds general population indicators. Regarding the frequency of separate MN localizations, lung cancer, cancer of stomach and cancer of prostate gland predominated, which corresponds to the world's tendency of MN prevalence. It has been established that as early as 1-3 years before diagnosis of MN is confirmed in liquidators, a number of changes in the immune status comes to light: drop in percentage of CD3+ and CD4(+)-T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes to a lesser extent, decrease in the CD4+/CD8+ index, increase of the relative and absolute content of CD16(+)-lymphocytes, increase of absolute content of CD8(+)-T-lymphocytes, prevalence of CD3+16/56+(NK-T) cell over CD3-16/56+(NK) cells, rise of the activity of phagocytes. Patients with the presence of one or several of the above-mentioned signs should be attributed to the MN risk group for determination of tumor markers, thorough examination and dynamic observation. PMID:21520622

  13. Hyperthermia in Oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocna, Marta

    2007-11-01

    The aim of hyperthermia in oncology is destroy the cancer tissues by heat (so called non-ionizing form of the therapy). The cancer tissues is influenced by the temperature in the range of 40-44 °C. The article presents the most important facts connected with using hyperthermia in oncology and gives an overview of the current clinical investigation of this kind of thermotherapy in the treatment of cancer in Poznan.

  14. The experience of participatory research: Perceptions of oncology employees participating in a workplace study

    PubMed Central

    Sale, Joanna E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Participatory research, a concept developed in the Third World, has been increasingly applied to community and health research in developed countries. However, little is known about attitudes to the participatory process in the context of workplace research, especially that carried out in health care settings. In this qualitative study, employees participating in a quality of work-life (QWL) project at a Canadian cancer centre were asked about their perceptions of the participatory research process. Using a phenomenological approach, the author interviewed 12 employees. The following themes emerged from the analysis of interview data: 1) The role of management and senior management was viewed as being important but employees were uncomfortable with the presence of management at meetings; 2) The desired composition of the committee was more complex than ensuring representation from workers and there may have been a natural process by which this composition was attained; 3) Participatory research without action was unacceptable; and 4) Full participation in all aspects of the project was difficult to achieve. These findings have important implications because they challenge some existing notions in the literature about participatory research. Recommendations regarding trust issues, membership recruitment, and the role of members in the participatory process are outlined. PMID:26526288

  15. Cognitive function during and six months following chemotherapy for front-line treatment of ovarian, primary peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer: An NRG oncology/gynecologic oncology group study☆

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Lisa M.; Huang, Helen Q.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Robinson, William R.; Johnson, Rhonda; Chambers, Setsuko K.; Mannel, Robert S.; Puls, Larry; Davidson, Susan A.; Method, Michael; Lele, Shashikant; Havrilesky, Laura; Nelson, Tina; Alberts, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Changes in cognitive function have been identified in and reported by many cancer survivors. These changes have the potential to impact patient quality of life and functional ability. This prospective longitudinal study was designed to quantify the incidence of change in cognitive function in newly diagnosed ovarian cancer patients throughout and following primary chemotherapy. Methods Eligible patients had newly diagnosed, untreated ovarian cancer and had planned to receive chemotherapy. Web-based and patient reported cognitive assessments and quality of life questionnaires were conducted prior to chemotherapy, prior to cycle four, after cycle six, and six months after completion of primary therapy. Results Two-hundred-thirty-one evaluable patients entered this study between May 2010 and October 2011. At the cycle 4 time point, 25.2% (55/218) of patients exhibited cognitive impairment in at least one domain. At the post-cycle 6 and 6-month follow up time points, 21.1% (44/208) and 17.8% (30/169) of patients, respectively, demonstrated impairment in at least one domain of cognitive function. There were statistically significant, but clinically small, improvements in processing speed (p < 0.001) and attention (p < 0.001) but not in motor response time (p = 0.066), from baseline through the six-month follow up time period. Conclusions This was a large, prospective study designed to measure cognitive function in ovarian cancer. A subset of patients had evidence of cognitive decline from baseline during chemotherapy treatment in this study as measured by the web-based assessment; however, changes were generally limited to no more than one domain. PMID:26456812

  16. Higher Biologically Effective Dose of Radiotherapy Is Associated With Improved Outcomes for Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Treated With Chemoradiation: An Analysis of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

    SciTech Connect

    Machtay, Mitchell; Movsas, Benjamin; Paulus, Rebecca; Gore, Elizabeth M.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Albain, Kathy; Sause, William T.; Curran, Walter J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Patients treated with chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma (LA-NSCLC) were analyzed for local-regional failure (LRF) and overall survival (OS) with respect to radiotherapy dose intensity. Methods and Materials: This study combined data from seven Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials in which chemoradiotherapy was used for LA-NSCLC: RTOG 88-08 (chemoradiation arm only), 90-15, 91-06, 92-04, 93-09 (nonoperative arm only), 94-10, and 98-01. The radiotherapeutic biologically effective dose (BED) received by each individual patient was calculated, as was the overall treatment time-adjusted BED (tBED) using standard formulae. Heterogeneity testing was done with chi-squared statistics, and weighted pooled hazard ratio estimates were used. Cox and Fine and Gray's proportional hazard models were used for OS and LRF, respectively, to test the associations between BED and tBED adjusted for other covariates. Results: A total of 1,356 patients were analyzed for BED (1,348 for tBED). The 2-year and 5-year OS rates were 38% and 15%, respectively. The 2-year and 5-year LRF rates were 46% and 52%, respectively. The BED (and tBED) were highly significantly associated with both OS and LRF, with or without adjustment for other covariates on multivariate analysis (p < 0.0001). A 1-Gy BED increase in radiotherapy dose intensity was statistically significantly associated with approximately 4% relative improvement in survival; this is another way of expressing the finding that the pool-adjusted hazard ratio for survival as a function of BED was 0.96. Similarly, a 1-Gy tBED increase in radiotherapy dose intensity was statistically significantly associated with approximately 3% relative improvement in local-regional control; this is another way of expressing the finding that the pool-adjusted hazard ratio as a function of tBED was 0.97. Conclusions: Higher radiotherapy dose intensity is associated with improved local-regional control and

  17. Low Interrater Reliability in Grading of Rectal Bleeding Using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Toxicity Scales: A Survey of Radiation Oncologists

    SciTech Connect

    Huynh-Le, Minh-Phuong; Zhang, Zhe; Tran, Phuoc T.; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Song, Daniel Y.

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To measure concordance among genitourinary radiation oncologists in using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI CTC) and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grading scales to grade rectal bleeding. Methods and Materials: From June 2013 to January 2014, a Web-based survey was sent to 250 American and Canadian academic radiation oncologists who treat prostate cancer. Participants were provided 4 case vignettes in which patients received radiation therapy and developed rectal bleeding and were asked for management plans and to rate the bleeding according to NCI CTC v.4 and RTOG late toxicity grading (scales provided). In 2 cases, participants were also asked whether they would send the patient for colonoscopy. A multilevel, random intercept modeling approach was used to assess sources of variation (case, respondent) in toxicity grading to calculate the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Agreement on a dichotomous grading scale (low grades 1-2 vs high grades 3-4) was also assessed, using the κ statistic for multiple respondents. Results: Seventy-two radiation oncologists (28%) completed the survey. Forty-seven (65%) reported having either written or been principal investigator on a study using these scales. Agreement between respondents was moderate (ICC 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-0.58) when using NCI CTC and fair using the RTOG scale (ICC 0.28, 95% CI 0.20-0.40). Respondents who chose an invasive management were more likely to select a higher toxicity grade (P<.0001). Using the dichotomous scale, we observed moderate agreement (κ = 0.42, 95% CI 0.40-0.44) with the NCI CTC scale, but only slight agreement with the RTOG scale (κ = 0.19, 95% CI 0.17-0.21). Conclusion: Low interrater reliability was observed among radiation oncologists grading rectal bleeding using 2 common scales. Clearer definitions of late rectal bleeding toxicity should be constructed to reduce this variability and avoid ambiguity in both

  18. Metacognition and Group Differences: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, metacognition refers to performing visual analysis and discrimination of real life events and situations in naïve psychology, naïve physics, and naïve biology domains. It is used, along with measuring reaction time, to examine differences in the ability of four groups of students to select appropriate pictures that correspond with…

  19. Report of the Public Cryptography Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC.

    Concerns of the National Security Agency (NSA) that information contained in some articles about cryptography in learned and professional journals and in monographs might be inimical to the national security are addressed. The Public Cryptography Study Group, with one dissenting opinion, recommends that a voluntary system of prior review of…

  20. Triple negative breast cancer in Moroccan women: clinicopathological and therapeutic study at the National Institute of Oncology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined by the lack of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) expression. This is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis despite the high rates of response to chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to determine the clinicopathological, therapeutic features and outcomes associated with this type of breast cancer. Methods This is a retrospective study of confirmed triple negative breast cancer females collected at the National institute of oncology of Rabat in Morocco, between January 2007 and December 2008. Epidemiological, clinical, histological, therapeutic and evolutive data were analyzed. OS and DFS rates were estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results A total of one 152 patients with breast cancer, were identified as having triple-negative breast cancer (16,5%). The median age at diagnosis was 46 years. 130 patients (86%) had infiltrating ductal carcinoma and thirteen had medullar carcinoma (9%). 84 cases (55%) were grade III Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR). 48 % had positive lymph nodes, and 5 % had distant metastases at diagnosis. According TNM staging, 12 patients (8%) had stage I, 90 patients (60%) had stage II and the 43(28%) had stage III. 145 patients received surgery. 41 (28%) had conservative surgery and 104 (72%) received radical mastectomy with axillary lymph nodes dissection. 14 patients with advanced tumors or inflammatory breast cancer have received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and four patients (28%) had complete pathologic response. From 131 patients how received adjuvant chemotherapy, 99 patients (75,5%) had Anthracycline based chemotherapy) and 27 patients (20,6%) had sequential Anthracycline and docetaxel,. Seven patients with metastatic disease received anthracycline-based regimen in the first line metastatic chemotherapy. The median follow-up time was 46 months (range 6,1 -60 months). Overall survival at 5 years for all

  1. Influence of Noncompliance With Radiation Therapy Protocol Guidelines and Operative Bed Recurrences for Children With Rhabdomyosarcoma and Microscopic Residual Disease: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    SciTech Connect

    Million, Lynn; Anderson, James; Breneman, John; Hawkins, Douglas S.; Laurie, Fran; Michalski, Jeff; Rodeberg, David; Wharam, Moody; Wolden, Suzanne; Donaldson, Sarah S.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: Postoperative radiation therapy (RT) is recommended for patients with rhabdomyosarcoma having microscopic disease. Sometimes RT dose/volume is reduced or omitted in an attempt to avoid late effects, particularly in young children. We reviewed operative bed recurrences to determine if noncompliance with RT protocol guidelines influenced local-regional control. Methods and Materials: All operative bed recurrences among 695 Group II rhabdomyosarcoma patients in Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRS) I through IV were reviewed for deviation from RT protocol. Major/minor dose deviation was defined as >10% or 6-10% of the prescribed dose (40-60 Gy), respectively. Major/minor volume deviation was defined as tumor excluded from the RT field or treatment volume not covered by the specified margin (preoperative tumor volume and 2- to 5-cm margin), respectively. No RT was a major deviation. Results: Forty-six of 83 (55%) patients with operative bed recurrences did not receive the intended RT (39 major and 7 minor deviations). RT omission was the most frequent RT protocol deviation (19/46, 41%), followed by dose (17/46, 37%), volume (9/46, 20%), and dose and volume deviation (1/46, 2%). Only 7 operative bed recurrences occurred in IRS IV (5% local-regional failure) with only 3 RT protocol deviations. Sixty-three (76%) patients with recurrence died of disease despite retrieval therapy, including 13 of 19 nonirradiated children. Conclusion: Over half of the operative bed recurrences were associated with noncompliance; omission of RT was the most common protocol deviation. Three fourths of children die when local-regional disease is not controlled, emphasizing the importance of RT in Group II rhabdomyosarcoma.

  2. Psycho-oncology: Searching for practical wisdom?

    PubMed

    Butlin, Helen

    2015-10-01

    The debate is vigorous in psycho-oncology about whether spiritual, existential, and psychosocial are the most comprehensive terms for academic research discourses investigating meaning and purpose. A call-to-action email from the International Society of Psycho-Oncology included the term soul. The current essay highlights the historical and contemporary uses of "soul" to suggest that the re-emergent soul signifies a tacit quest for an "intangible" that seems missing in current constructs of clinical domains reflected in the vigor of the debates. It is suggested that the re-emergence of the pre-Medieval meaning(s) of the notion of soul affirms a growing need for integrative paradigms on "being human" to guide psycho-oncology practitioners and their research. As a paradigmatic example, a clinical support group entitled Soul Medicine is described as employing the term soul to open up the more marginal discourses about experiences of illness arising from philosophical reflection, arts, humanities, and spirituality within a clinical oncology context. A link between soul and wisdom is suggested for further exploration with the view that phronesis ("the virtue of practical wisdom"), an emerging concept in health professional education research, is of ultimate value to the people psycho-oncology seeks to serve. This group holds that garnering wisdom from the expertise of those living with cancer should be a central aim of our field. PMID:26399749

  3. Parental Perspectives on a Behavioral Health Music Intervention for Adolescent/Young Adult Resilience during Cancer Treatment: Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Docherty, Sharron L.; Robb, Sheri L.; Phillips-Salimi, Celeste; Cherven, Brooke; Stegenga, Kristin; Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna; Roll, Lona; Stickler, Molly Donovan; Haase, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper describes parental perspectives on the helpfulness and meaningfulness of a behavioral health music therapy intervention targeted to adolescents/young adults (AYA) with cancer undergoing stem cell transplantation. We demonstrate how qualitative methods may be used to understand critical aspects of an intervention and mechanisms by which the intervention impacts the target AYA outcomes resilience and quality of life. Methods A qualitative descriptive design was used to obtain parents’ perspectives. Maximum variation purposive sampling was used to sample 16 parents whose AYA had been randomized to the intervention group. A semi-structured, open-ended interview was conducted between 100 and 160 days following their AYA’s transplant. Results Results are grouped into three categories: (1) helpfulness and meaningfulness of the intervention to AYA adjustment to the transplantation experience; (2) helpfulness and meaningfulness of the intervention for parents; and (3) AYA ability to participate in the intervention during acute phase of transplantation. Conclusions Parents observed and interacted with their AYA who participated in a targeted, behavioral intervention. Thus parents were able to describe mechanisms through which the intervention was helpful and meaningful for the AYA and indirect personal benefits for themselves. The results suggest the importance of the targeted outcomes identified in the Resilience in Illness Model and mechanisms of action in the Contextual Support Model of Music Therapy and identifies approaches for future study. PMID:23332481

  4. Early Salvage Hormonal Therapy for Biochemical Failure Improved Survival in Prostate Cancer Patients After Neoadjuvant Hormonal Therapy Plus Radiation Therapy-A Secondary Analysis of Irish Clinical Oncology Research Group 97-01

    SciTech Connect

    Mydin, Aminudin R.; Dunne, Mary T.; Finn, Marie A.; Armstrong, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the survival benefit of early vs late salvage hormonal therapy (HT), we performed a secondary analysis on patients who developed recurrence from Irish Clinical Oncology Research Group 97-01, a randomized trial comparing 4 vs 8 months neoadjuvant HT plus radiation therapy (RT) in intermediate- and high-risk prostate adenocarcinoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 102 patients from the trial who recurred were analyzed at a median follow-up of 8.5 years. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on the timing of salvage HT: 57 patients had prostate-specific antigen (PSA) {<=}10 ng/mL and absent distant metastases (group 1, early), 21 patients had PSA >10 ng/mL and absent distant metastases (group 2, late), and 24 patients had distant metastases (group 3, late). The endpoint analyzed was overall survival (OS) calculated from 2 different time points: date of enrolment in the trial (OS1) and date of initiation of salvage HT (OS2). Survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves and a Cox regression model. Results: The OS1 differed significantly between groups (P<.0005): OS1 at 10 years was 78% in group 1, 42% in group 2, and 29% in group 3. The OS2 also differed significantly between groups (P<.0005): OS2 at 6 years was 70% in group 1, 47% in group 2, and 22% in group 3. Group 1 had the longest median time from end of RT to biochemical failure compared with groups 2 and 3 (3.3, 0.9, and 1.7 years, respectively; P<.0005). Group 1 also had the longest median PSA doubling time compared with groups 2 and 3 (9.9, 3.6, and 2.4 months, respectively; P<.0005). On multivariate analysis, timing of salvage HT, time from end of RT to biochemical failure, and PSA nadir on salvage HT were significant predictors of survival. Conclusion: Early salvage HT based on PSA {<=}10 ng/mL and absent distant metastases improved survival in patients with prostate cancer after failure of initial treatment with neoadjuvant HT plus RT.

  5. Oral Health Status of Patients Undergoing Treatment for Head and Neck Oncology in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ciaran; Killough, Simon; Markey, Neill; Winning, Lewis; McKenna, Gerald

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to collect data on the oral health status of patients undergoing treatment for head and neck oncology across Northern Ireland. Data were collected on all patients referred to the Northern Ireland Multidisciplinary Head and Neck Oncology Team for discussion and treatment planning. Each patient underwent pre-treatment dental assessment in the Centre for Dentistry, Queen's University Belfast, between June 2013 and November 2014. Data were collected from clinical oral examinations supplemented with intra-oral radiographs. During the course of the study 96 patients were assessed and the levels of dental disease observed in this cohort were high. On clinical examination 43% were diagnosed with caries and 46% with periodontal disease. Ten patients were completely edentate. The disease profile of this patient group presents significant challenges to dental services tasked with rendering patients dentally fit prior to undergoing oncology treatment. PMID:27424336

  6. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF NEUROPATHIC CHRONIC PAIN IN ONCOLOGY PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Zhumaliyeva, V; Cialkowska-Rysz, A; Sirota, V; Kulishov, V; Omarova, I

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the primary prevalence of chronic neuropathic pain syndrome in oncology patients of Karaganda (Kazakhstan), to estimate the structure of pain syndrome in randomly chosen patients, to assess the effectiveness of analgesic therapy in oncology patients. All the patients with confirmed cancer admitted to hospital in Karaganda regional oncologic dispensary were studied. The study period was limited to 60 consecutive days. The results were statistically processed using 6.0 «STATISTICA» program. In 11,2±1,6% of the cases, oncology patients that got combined modality treatment suffered from the chronic neuropathic pain syndrome; 66,7±7,3% patients of them had the III cancer stage. 2. While studying the chronic neuropathic pain structure it was revealed that: 52,4±7,7% of the patients suffered from a mild pain, from average - 38,1±7,5% of the patients, from severe pain - 9,5±4,5%. Neuropathic pain syndrome in the form of numbness occurred in 47,6±7,7% of the respondents, tingling - in 38,1±7,5% of the patients and 14,3±5,4% of the respondents described it as «electric shock». 52,4±7,7% of the patients described temperature changes of the skin, 28,6±7,0% of them told about allodynia. The given pain can be correctly diagnosed on rare occasions. It brings about the low efficiency of currently prescribed standard pain treatment. It was 20%-effective only for ¼ of the patients. In sum, it can be brought into focus that each 10th oncology patient of the II clinical group in Kazakhstan may potentially suffer from the chronic neuropathic pain syndrome. The given syndrome in cancer patients requires selective differential diagnostics and constant management of the pain treatment regimen because of occurrence of standard regimens incapacity, progression of tolerance to the actual pain treatment and significant deterioration of oncology patients' life quality. PMID:27348160

  7. Simulated Group Counseling for Group Work Training: A Four-Year Research Study of Group Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, John L.; Sullivan, Brandon A.

    2000-01-01

    Examines Simulated Group Counseling (SGC), a training model for graduate-level group workers. During a four-year period, 98 graduate students participated in 12 role-played SGC groups. SGC followed a model of group development and was highly consistent with expected changes in non-role-played groups. Discusses SGC advantages, especially related to…

  8. Cretaceous Cogollo Group study - District Zulia Occidental

    SciTech Connect

    Lagazzi, R.; D`Antonio, G.; Hung, O.; Avila, A.

    1996-08-01

    The Cretaceous Cogollo Group, with over 1500 feet of platform carbonate and shale section, contains important oil accumulations in the west portion of the Maracaibo basin. However, after discovery of the major oil fields, all subsequent exploration and exploitation efforts led to disappointing results. This paper summarizes the study of the Cogollo Group in the Lake Maracaibo West Coast area, where light Cretaceous oil may have an impact on the total reserves. After integrating the Cogollo Group into the regional framework, the study focuses on the District Zulia Occidental, where over 40 deep wells either penetrated or tested the reservoir. Structural and stratigraphic descriptions are enriched by a significant amount of core and petrophysical data that leads to a better understanding of the reservoir layering and pore geometry. Well production performance and reservoir data are incorporated to the study as additional tools to determine the size of the oil accumulations. Finally, the study addresses the possibility of drilling slant or horizontal wells as a way to reduce the number of dry holes or marginal producers.

  9. Major milestones in translational oncology.

    PubMed

    Dragani, Tommaso A; Castells, Antoni; Kulasingam, Vathany; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Earl, Helena; Iams, Wade T; Lovly, Christine M; Sedelaar, J P Michiel; Schalken, Jack A

    2016-01-01

    Translational oncology represents a bridge between basic research and clinical practice in cancer medicine. Today, translational research in oncology benefits from an abundance of knowledge resulting from genome-scale studies regarding the molecular pathways involved in tumorigenesis. In this Forum article, we highlight the state of the art of translational oncology in five major cancer types. We illustrate the use of molecular profiling to subtype colorectal cancer for both diagnosis and treatment, and summarize the results of a nationwide screening program for ovarian cancer based on detection of a tumor biomarker in serum. Additionally, we discuss how circulating tumor DNA can be assayed to safely monitor breast cancer over the course of treatment, and report on how therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors is proving effective in advanced lung cancer. Finally, we summarize efforts to use molecular profiling of prostate cancer biopsy specimens to support treatment decisions. Despite encouraging early successes, we cannot disregard the complex genetics of individual susceptibility to cancer nor the enormous complexity of the somatic changes observed in tumors, which urge particular attention to the development of personalized therapies. PMID:27469586

  10. Clinical exercise interventions in pediatric oncology: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Freerk T; Bloch, Wilhelm; Beulertz, Julia

    2013-10-01

    Studies in pediatric oncology have shown a positive effect of physical activity on disease- and treatment-related side effects. Although several reviews have approved the benefits of therapeutic exercise for adult cancer patients, no systematic review exists summarizing the evidence of physical activity in pediatric oncology. We identified a total of 17 studies using the PubMed database and Cochrane library. To evaluate the evidence, we used the evaluation system of the Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine 2001. The findings confirm that clinical exercise interventions are feasible and safe, especially with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients and during medical treatment. No adverse effects have been reported. Positive effects were found on fatigue, strength, and quality of life. Single studies present positive effects on the immune system, body composition, sleep, activity levels, and various aspects of physical functioning. Child-specific aspects such as cognitive abilities, growth, adolescence, and reintegration into peer-groups, school, and sports have barely been taken into consideration. The evidence for exercise interventions in pediatric oncology is rated level "3." Although the results are very promising, future research of high methodological quality and focusing on child-specific aspects is needed to establish evidence-based exercise recommendations, particularly for childhood cancer patients. PMID:23857296

  11. Micronutrients in Oncological Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Gröber, Uwe; Holzhauer, Peter; Kisters, Klaus; Holick, Michael F.; Adamietz, Irenäus A.

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional supplements are widely used among patients with cancer who perceive them to be anticancer and antitoxicity agents. Depending on the type of malignancy and the gender 30%–90% of the cancer patients supplement their diets with antioxidant and immuno-stabilizing micronutrients, such as selenium, vitamin C, and vitamin D, often without the knowledge of the treating physician. From the oncological viewpoint, there are justifiable concerns that dietary supplements decrease the effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recent studies, however, have provided increasing evidence that treatment is tolerated better—with an increase in patient compliance and a lower rate of treatment discontinuations—when micronutrients, such as selenium, are added as appropriate to the patient’s medication. Nutritional supplementation tailored to an individual’s background diet, genetics, tumor histology, and treatments may yield benefits in subsets of patients. Clinicians should have an open dialogue with patients about nutritional supplements. Supplement advice needs to be individualized and come from a credible source, and it is best communicated by the physician. PMID:26985904

  12. Micronutrients in Oncological Intervention.

    PubMed

    Gröber, Uwe; Holzhauer, Peter; Kisters, Klaus; Holick, Michael F; Adamietz, Irenäus A

    2016-03-01

    Nutritional supplements are widely used among patients with cancer who perceive them to be anticancer and antitoxicity agents. Depending on the type of malignancy and the gender 30%-90% of the cancer patients supplement their diets with antioxidant and immuno-stabilizing micronutrients, such as selenium, vitamin C, and vitamin D, often without the knowledge of the treating physician. From the oncological viewpoint, there are justifiable concerns that dietary supplements decrease the effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recent studies, however, have provided increasing evidence that treatment is tolerated better-with an increase in patient compliance and a lower rate of treatment discontinuations-when micronutrients, such as selenium, are added as appropriate to the patient's medication. Nutritional supplementation tailored to an individual's background diet, genetics, tumor histology, and treatments may yield benefits in subsets of patients. Clinicians should have an open dialogue with patients about nutritional supplements. Supplement advice needs to be individualized and come from a credible source, and it is best communicated by the physician. PMID:26985904

  13. Pediatric oncology in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Muhammad Shamvil

    2012-03-01

    Pediatric oncology in Pakistan has developed over last decade with substantial increase in the facility for treatment and number of expertise. Though large numbers of children still do not reach treatment center more children have now access to quality cancer treatment. There has been gradual improvement in Pediatric oncology nursing and allied services. Pediatric Palliative care in Pakistan is in initial phase of development. Pediatric Oncology services are largely supported by philanthropists. Children Cancer Hospital a project of Children Cancer Foundation Pakistan Trust is not only providing quality treatment to every child regardless of paying ability but also playing a pivotal role in capacity building and creating awareness about childhood cancer in Pakistan. PMID:22357147

  14. Prognostic Significance and Tumor Biology of Regional Lymph Node Disease in Patients With Rhabdomyosarcoma: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Rodeberg, David A.; Garcia-Henriquez, Norbert; Lyden, Elizabeth R.; Davicioni, Elai; Parham, David M.; Skapek, Stephen X.; Hayes-Jordan, Andrea A.; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Brown, Kenneth L.; Triche, Timothy J.; Meyer, William H.; Hawkins, Douglas S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Regional lymph node disease (RLND) is a component of the risk-based treatment stratification in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of RLND to prognosis for patients with RMS. Patients and Methods Patient characteristics and survival outcomes for patients enrolled onto Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study IV (N = 898, 1991 to 1997) were evaluated among the following three patient groups: nonmetastatic patients with clinical or pathologic negative nodes (N0, 696 patients); patients with clinical or pathologic positive nodes (N1, 125 patients); and patients with a single site of metastatic disease (77 patients). Results Outcomes for patients with nonmetastatic alveolar N0 RMS were significantly better than for patients with N1 RMS (5-year failure-free survival [FFS], 73% v 43%, respectively; 5-year overall survival [OS], 80% v 46%, respectively; P < .001). Patients with a single site of alveolar metastasis had even worse FFS and OS (23% FFS and OS, P = .01) when compared with patients with N1 RMS; however, the differences was not as large as the differences between patients with N0 RMS and N1 RMS. For embryonal RMS, there was no statistically significant difference in FFS or OS (P = .41 and P = .77, respectively) for patients with N1 versus N0 RMS. Gene array analysis of primary tumor specimens identified that genes associated with the immune system and antigen presentation were significantly increased in N1 versus N0 alveolar RMS. Conclusion RLND alters prognosis for alveolar but not embryonal RMS. For patients with N1 disease and alveolar histology, outcomes were more similar to distant metastatic disease rather than local disease. Current data suggest that more aggressive therapy for patients with alveolar N1 RMS may be warranted. PMID:21357792

  15. Institutional guidelines and ongoing studies in management of liver tumours: the experience of the European Institute of Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Biffi, R; Orsi, F; Zampino, MG; Chiappa, A; Fazio, N; De Braud, F; Bonomo, G; Monfardini, L; Vigna, PD; Luca, F; Bodei, L; Bartolomei, M; Catalano, G; Leonardi, MC; Ferrari, M; Andreoni, B; Goldhirsch, A; Paganelli, G; Orecchia, R

    2008-01-01

    Background: An institutional task force on upper gastrointestinal tumours is active at the European Institute of Oncology (EIO). Members decided to collate the institutional guidelines on management of liver tumours (primary and metastatic) into a document. This article is aimed at presenting the current treatment guidelines as well as ongoing research protocols and trials in this field at the EIO. Methods: A steering committee convened to assign tasks to individual members. Contributions from experts in each treatment area were collated in a single document, in order to produce a draft for subsequent review from the aforementioned committee. Six drafts have been discussed and the final version approved. Results: Surgical, medical oncology, interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and radiation therapy approaches, their roles in management of liver tumours and ongoing research trials are presented and discussed in this article. Conclusions: At the EIO a multi-disciplinary integrated approach to liver tumours is standard and several ongoing research projects are currently active in this field. PMID:22275961

  16. Group exposure for agoraphobics: a replication study.

    PubMed

    Teasdale, J D; Walsh, P A; Lancashire, M; Mathews, A M

    1977-02-01

    A replication study was conducted of the treatment of agoraphobics by exposure in cohesive groups, as described by Hand, Lamantagne and Marks (1974). The continuing improvement during follow-up, with consequent large overall improvement, reported in the original study was not replicated. However, the present study confirmed the usefulness of this procedure as a highly cost-efficient treatment. The assumed equivalence of the Gelder and Marks (1966) phobic rating scale and its modification by Watson and Marks (1971) was examined. Large discrepancies between the scales were obtained for initial assessments and change scores. It is suggested that there is a need for workers in this field to agree on methods of measurement. PMID:837039

  17. Addressing the challenge of intergroup studies in oncology: the EORTC experience. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zurlo, A; Therasse, P

    2002-03-01

    Intergroup studies are conducted by more than one clinical research group. There are several difficulties that hamper in practice the possibility of conducting such trials, as all interested parties will have to address unusual and complex issues. These are mainly related to differences in size, interests, motivations and means among different research organisations. The EORTC recognises the importance to promote intergroup collaboration providing to all interested groups the necessary expertise and organisational support to conduct intergroup studies. The role of the EORTC evolved from the spontaneous organisations of intergroup trials to the definition of a basic set of principles and criteria that groups have to fulfil to participate in intergroup trials. Recently, a specific EORTC Intergroup Office started its activity devoted to solve the issues related to the intergroup co-operation. This office will have an increasing role to promote and help in conducting intergroup studies. PMID:11858988

  18. Preliminary Toxicity Analysis of 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy Versus Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy on the High-Dose Arm of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0126 Prostate Cancer Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, Jeff M.; Yan, Yan; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Bosch, Walter R.; Winter, Kathryn; Galvin, James M.; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Morton, Gerard C.; Parliament, Matthew B.; Sandler, Howard M.

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To give a preliminary report of clinical and treatment factors associated with toxicity in men receiving high-dose radiation therapy (RT) on a phase 3 dose-escalation trial. Methods and Materials: The trial was initiated with 3-dimensional conformal RT (3D-CRT) and amended after 1 year to allow intensity modulated RT (IMRT). Patients treated with 3D-CRT received 55.8 Gy to a planning target volume that included the prostate and seminal vesicles, then 23.4 Gy to prostate only. The IMRT patients were treated to the prostate and proximal seminal vesicles to 79.2 Gy. Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2.0, and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer late morbidity scores were used for acute and late effects. Results: Of 763 patients randomized to the 79.2-Gy arm of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0126 protocol, 748 were eligible and evaluable: 491 and 257 were treated with 3D-CRT and IMRT, respectively. For both bladder and rectum, the volumes receiving 65, 70, and 75 Gy were significantly lower with IMRT (all P<.0001). For grade (G) 2+ acute gastrointestinal/genitourinary (GI/GU) toxicity, both univariate and multivariate analyses showed a statistically significant decrease in G2+ acute collective GI/GU toxicity for IMRT. There were no significant differences with 3D-CRT or IMRT for acute or late G2+ or 3+ GU toxicities. Univariate analysis showed a statistically significant decrease in late G2+ GI toxicity for IMRT (P=.039). On multivariate analysis, IMRT showed a 26% reduction in G2+ late GI toxicity (P=.099). Acute G2+ toxicity was associated with late G3+ toxicity (P=.005). With dose–volume histogram data in the multivariate analysis, RT modality was not significant, whereas white race (P=.001) and rectal V70 ≥15% were associated with G2+ rectal toxicity (P=.034). Conclusions: Intensity modulated RT is associated with a significant reduction in acute G2+ GI/GU toxicity. There is a trend for a

  19. Environmental studies group. Annual report for 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, D. C.; Hurley, J. D.

    1980-08-21

    Group projects included radioecological studies of aquatic and terrestrial systems, land management activities, foodstuff monitoring, dust transport studies including fugitive dust measurements and modeling, and several support programs involving evaluation of the plant's ambient air samplers and airborne tritium monitoring techniques. Some salient results from the several project reports include determination of an appropriate model for mechanically generated fugitive dust dispersion, a radionuclide inventory of Smart Ditch Pond (Pond D-1), a coefficient of community determination for two terrestrial sample plots on the plant site buffer zone, a natality and mortality rate determination for fawns in the plant deer herd (including one positive coyote-kill determination), inlet loss and filter paper collection efficiencies for the plant ambient air samplers, and differential tritium sampling measurements of the vapor in Building 771 stack effluent.

  20. Quality Assessment in Oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, Jeffrey M.; Das, Prajnan

    2012-07-01

    The movement to improve healthcare quality has led to a need for carefully designed quality indicators that accurately reflect the quality of care. Many different measures have been proposed and continue to be developed by governmental agencies and accrediting bodies. However, given the inherent differences in the delivery of care among medical specialties, the same indicators will not be valid across all of them. Specifically, oncology is a field in which it can be difficult to develop quality indicators, because the effectiveness of an oncologic intervention is often not immediately apparent, and the multidisciplinary nature of the field necessarily involves many different specialties. Existing and emerging comparative effectiveness data are helping to guide evidence-based practice, and the increasing availability of these data provides the opportunity to identify key structure and process measures that predict for quality outcomes. The increasing emphasis on quality and efficiency will continue to compel the medical profession to identify appropriate quality measures to facilitate quality improvement efforts and to guide accreditation, credentialing, and reimbursement. Given the wide-reaching implications of quality metrics, it is essential that they be developed and implemented with scientific rigor. The aims of the present report were to review the current state of quality assessment in oncology, identify existing indicators with the best evidence to support their implementation, and propose a framework for identifying and refining measures most indicative of true quality in oncologic care.

  1. [Thoracic oncology: annual review].

    PubMed

    Sculier, J-P; Berghmans, T; Meert, A-P

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the literature published in 2011-12 in the field of thoracic oncology. Are discussed because of new original publications: epidemiology, screening, pulmonary nodule, diagnosis and assessment, treatment of lung cancer non-small cell, small cell lung cancer, prognosis, palliative care and end of life, organization of care, mesothelioma. PMID:23755717

  2. Updates in oncology.

    PubMed

    Sculier, Jean-Paul; Meert, Anne-Pascale; Berghmans, Thierry

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this review is to report the Clinical Year in Review proceedings in the field of thoracic oncology that were presented at the 2013 European Respiratory Society Annual Congress in Barcelona, Spain. Various topics were reviewed, including: epidemiology, screening, histology, and treatment of nonsmall cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. PMID:24591664

  3. Randomized Clinical Trial of Therapeutic Music Video Intervention for Resilience Outcomes in Adolescents/Young Adults Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Robb, Sheri L.; Burns, Debra S.; Stegenga, Kristin A.; Haut, Paul R.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Meza, Jane; Stump, Timothy E.; Cherven, Brooke O.; Docherty, Sharron L.; Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna L.; Kintner, Eileen K.; Haight, Ann E.; Wall, Donna A.; Haase, Joan E.

    2013-01-01

    Background To reduce the risk of adjustment problems associated with Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant (HSCT) for adolescents/young adults (AYA), we examined efficacy of a therapeutic music video (TMV) intervention delivered during the acute phase of HSCT to: (a) increase protective factors of spiritual perspective, social integration, family environment, courageous coping, and hope-derived meaning; (b) decrease risk factors of illness-related distress and defensive coping; and (c) increase outcomes of self-transcendence and resilience. Methods A multi-site, randomized controlled trial (COG-ANUR0631) conducted at 8 Children’s Oncology Group sites involving 113 AYA aged 11–24 years undergoing myeloablative HSCT. Participants, randomized to the TMV or low-dose control (audiobooks) group, completed 6 sessions over 3 weeks with a board-certified music therapist. Variables were based on Haase’s Resilience in Illness Model. Participants completed measures related to latent variables of illness-related distress, social integration, spiritual perspective, family environment, coping, hope-derived meaning and resilience at baseline (T1), post-intervention (T2), and 100-days post-transplant (T3). Results At T2, the TMV group reported significantly better courageous coping (ES=0.505; P=0.030). At T3, the TMV group reported significantly better social integration (ES=0.543; P=.028) and family environment (ES=0.663; P=0.008), as well as moderate non-significant effect sizes for spiritual perspective (E=0.450; P=0.071) and self-transcendence (ES=0.424; P=0.088). Conclusion The TMV intervention improves positive health outcomes of courageous coping, social integration, and family environment during a high risk cancer treatment. We recommend the TMV be examined in a broader population of AYA with high risk cancers. PMID:24469862

  4. The radiation oncology workforce: A focus on medical dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Gregg F.; Mobile, Katherine; Yu, Yan

    2014-07-01

    The 2012 Radiation Oncology Workforce survey was conducted to assess the current state of the entire workforce, predict its future needs and concerns, and evaluate quality improvement and safety within the field. This article describes the dosimetrist segment results. The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Workforce Subcommittee, in conjunction with other specialty societies, conducted an online survey targeting all segments of the radiation oncology treatment team. The data from the dosimetrist respondents are presented in this article. Of the 2573 dosimetrists who were surveyed, 890 responded, which resulted in a 35% segment response rate. Most respondents were women (67%), whereas only a third were men (33%). More than half of the medical dosimetrists were older than 45 years (69.2%), whereas the 45 to 54 years age group represented the highest percentage of respondents (37%). Most medical dosimetrists stated that their workload was appropriate (52%), with respondents working a reported average of 41.7 ± 4 hours per week. Overall, 86% of medical dosimetrists indicated that they were satisfied with their career, and 69% were satisfied in their current position. Overall, 61% of respondents felt that there was an oversupply of medical dosimetrists in the field, 14% reported that supply and demand was balanced, and the remaining 25% felt that there was an undersupply. The medical dosimetrists' greatest concerns included documentation/paperwork (78%), uninsured patients (80%), and insufficient reimbursement rates (87%). This survey provided an insight into the dosimetrist perspective of the radiation oncology workforce. Though an overwhelming majority has conveyed satisfaction concerning their career, the study allowed a spotlight to be placed on the profession's current concerns, such as insufficient reimbursement rates and possible oversupply of dosimetrists within the field.

  5. The radiation oncology workforce: a focus on medical dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Gregg F; Mobile, Katherine; Yu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The 2012 Radiation Oncology Workforce survey was conducted to assess the current state of the entire workforce, predict its future needs and concerns, and evaluate quality improvement and safety within the field. This article describes the dosimetrist segment results. The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Workforce Subcommittee, in conjunction with other specialty societies, conducted an online survey targeting all segments of the radiation oncology treatment team. The data from the dosimetrist respondents are presented in this article. Of the 2573 dosimetrists who were surveyed, 890 responded, which resulted in a 35% segment response rate. Most respondents were women (67%), whereas only a third were men (33%). More than half of the medical dosimetrists were older than 45 years (69.2%), whereas the 45 to 54 years age group represented the highest percentage of respondents (37%). Most medical dosimetrists stated that their workload was appropriate (52%), with respondents working a reported average of 41.7 ± 4 hours per week. Overall, 86% of medical dosimetrists indicated that they were satisfied with their career, and 69% were satisfied in their current position. Overall, 61% of respondents felt that there was an oversupply of medical dosimetrists in the field, 14% reported that supply and demand was balanced, and the remaining 25% felt that there was an undersupply. The medical dosimetrists׳ greatest concerns included documentation/paperwork (78%), uninsured patients (80%), and insufficient reimbursement rates (87%). This survey provided an insight into the dosimetrist perspective of the radiation oncology workforce. Though an overwhelming majority has conveyed satisfaction concerning their career, the study allowed a spotlight to be placed on the profession׳s current concerns, such as insufficient reimbursement rates and possible oversupply of dosimetrists within the field. PMID:24630911

  6. Bayesian Model Selection for Group Studies

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Klaas Enno; Penny, Will D.; Daunizeau, Jean; Moran, Rosalyn J.; Friston, Karl J.

    2009-01-01

    approaches in the presence of outliers. We expect that this new random effects method will prove useful for a wide range of group studies, not only in the context of DCM, but also for other modelling endeavours, e.g. comparing different source reconstruction methods for EEG/MEG or selecting among competing computational models of learning and decision-making. PMID:19306932

  7. Delayed primary excision with subsequent modification of radiotherapy dose for intermediate-risk rhabdomyosarcoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group Soft Tissue Sarcoma Committee.

    PubMed

    Rodeberg, David A; Wharam, Moody D; Lyden, Elizabeth R; Stoner, Julie A; Brown, Kenneth; Wolden, Suzanne L; Paidas, Charles N; Donaldson, Sarah S; Hawkins, Douglas S; Spunt, Sheri L; Arndt, Carola A

    2015-07-01

    The majority of intermediate-risk rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) patients have gross residual disease (Group III) after their first operative procedure. It is currently not known if local control rates can be maintained when, following induction chemotherapy, the radiation therapy (RT) dose is decreased after a delayed primary excision (DPE). To answer this question we evaluated patients enrolled on COG D9803 (1999-2005) who had Group III tumors of the bladder dome, extremity or trunk (thorax, abdomen and pelvis) were candidates for DPE at Week 12 if the primary tumor appeared resectable. RT dose was then adjusted by the completeness of DPE: no evidence of disease 36 Gy, microscopic residual 41.4 Gy and gross residual disease (GRD) 50.4 Gy. A total of 161 Group III patients were evaluated (24 bladder dome, 63 extremity and 74 trunk). Seventy-three patients (45%) underwent DPE which achieved removal of all gross disease in 61 (84%) who were then eligible for reduced RT dose (43/73 received 36 Gy, 19/73 received 41.4 Gy). The local 5-year failure rate (0% for bladder dome, 7% for extremity and 20% for trunk) was similar to IRS-IV, which did not encourage DPE and did not allow for DPE adapted RT dose reduction. In conclusion, DPE was performed in 45% of Group III RMS patients with tumors at select anatomic sites (bladder dome, extremity and trunk) and 84% of those who had DPE were eligible for RT dose reduction. Local control outcomes were similar to historic results with RT alone. PMID:25418440

  8. DPHEP: From Study Group to Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiers, Jamie

    2014-06-01

    The international study group on data preservation in High Energy Physics, DPHEP, achieved a major milestone in 2012 with the publication of its eagerly anticipated large-scale report [1]. This document contains a description of data preservation activities from all major high energy physics collider-based experiments and laboratories. A central message of the report is that data preservation in HEP is not possible without long term investment in not only hardware but also human resources, and with this in mind DPHEP will evolve to a new collaboration structure in 2013. This paper describes the progress made since the publication of that report - shortly before CHEP 2012 - as well as the future working directions of the new collaboration.

  9. 2003 survey of Canadian radiation oncology residents

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, Don . E-mail: donyee@cancerboard.ab.ca; Fairchild, Alysa; Keyes, Mira; Butler, Jim; Dundas, George

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncology's popularity as a career in Canada has surged in the past 5 years. Consequently, resident numbers in Canadian radiation oncology residencies are at all-time highs. This study aimed to survey Canadian radiation oncology residents about their opinions of their specialty and training experiences. Methods and Materials: Residents of Canadian radiation oncology residencies that enroll trainees through the Canadian Resident Matching Service were identified from a national database. Residents were mailed an anonymous survey. Results: Eight of 101 (7.9%) potential respondents were foreign funded. Fifty-two of 101 (51.5%) residents responded. A strong record of graduating its residents was the most important factor residents considered when choosing programs. Satisfaction with their program was expressed by 92.3% of respondents, and 94.3% expressed satisfaction with their specialty. Respondents planning to practice in Canada totaled 80.8%, and 76.9% plan to have academic careers. Respondents identified job availability and receiving adequate teaching from preceptors during residency as their most important concerns. Conclusions: Though most respondents are satisfied with their programs and specialty, job availability and adequate teaching are concerns. In the future, limited time and resources and the continued popularity of radiation oncology as a career will magnify the challenge of training competent radiation oncologists in Canada.

  10. Precision oncology: origins, optimism, and potential.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Vinay; Fojo, Tito; Brada, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Imatinib, the first and arguably the best targeted therapy, became the springboard for developing drugs aimed at molecular targets deemed crucial to tumours. As this development unfolded, a revolution in the speed and cost of genetic sequencing occurred. The result-an armamentarium of drugs and an array of molecular targets-set the stage for precision oncology, a hypothesis that cancer treatment could be markedly improved if therapies were guided by a tumour's genomic alterations. Drawing lessons from the biological basis of cancer and recent empirical investigations, we take a more measured view of precision oncology's promise. Ultimately, the promise is not our concern, but the threshold at which we declare success. We review reports of precision oncology alongside those of precision diagnostics and novel radiotherapy approaches. Although confirmatory evidence is scarce, these interventions have been widely endorsed. We conclude that the current path will probably not be successful or, at a minimum, will have to undergo substantive adjustments before it can be successful. For the sake of patients with cancer, we hope one form of precision oncology will deliver on its promise. However, until confirmatory studies are completed, precision oncology remains unproven, and as such, a hypothesis in need of rigorous testing. PMID:26868357

  11. Undergraduate preparation of the oncology nurse.

    PubMed

    Pierce, M

    1992-09-01

    Determining appropriate cancer-related content for undergraduate nursing curricula requires careful consideration of content that is needed versus content that is desired for the nurse generalist. Studies have indicated a wide variety of topics and time allotment for this content among schools of nursing. Innovative strategies using games, computers, preceptors, and elective courses have allowed schools of nursing to include more comprehensive coverage of oncology-related topics. Issues concerning clinical oncology nursing opportunities for undergraduate studies still need to be clarified. Undergraduate students must be afforded the legitimacy of their status as novices in nursing and in the specialty of oncology. Didactic and clinical experiences should result in the knowledge and skills needed to develop professionally from novice to expert. PMID:1408964

  12. Recurrent abnormalities can be used for risk group stratification in pediatric AMKL: a retrospective intergroup study.

    PubMed

    de Rooij, Jasmijn D E; Masetti, Riccardo; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Cayuela, Jean-Michel; Trka, Jan; Reinhardt, Dirk; Rasche, Mareike; Sonneveld, Edwin; Alonzo, Todd A; Fornerod, Maarten; Zimmermann, Martin; Pigazzi, Martina; Pieters, Rob; Meshinchi, Soheil; Zwaan, C Michel; Locatelli, Franco

    2016-06-30

    Genetic abnormalities and early treatment response are the main prognostic factors in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) is a rare subtype of AML. Deep sequencing has identified CBFA2T3/GLIS2 and NUP98/KDM5A as recurrent aberrations, occurring in similar frequencies as RBM15/MKL1 and KMT2A-rearrangements. We studied whether these cytogenetic aberrations can be used for risk group stratification. To assess frequencies and outcome parameters of recurrent cytogenetic aberrations in AMKL, samples and clinical data of patients treated by the Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica, Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster Study Group, Children's Oncology Group, Dutch Childhood Oncology Group, and the Saint Louis Hôpital were collected, enabling us to screen 153 newly diagnosed pediatric AMKL cases for the aforementioned aberrations and to study their clinical characteristics and outcome. CBFA2T3/GLIS2 was identified in 16% of the cases; RBM15/MKL1, in 12%; NUP98/KDM5A and KMT2A rearrangements, in 9% each; and monosomy 7, in 6%. These aberrations were mutually exclusive. RBM15/MKL1-rearranged patients were significantly younger. No significant differences in sex and white blood cell count were found. NUP98/KDM5A, CBFA2T3/GLIS2, KMT2A-rearranged lesions and monosomy 7 (NCK-7) independently predicted a poor outcome, compared with RBM15/MKL1-rearranged patients and those with AMKL not carrying these molecular lesions. NCK-7-patients (n = 61) showed a 4-year probability of overall survival of 35 ± 6% vs 70 ± 5% in the RBM15/MKL1-other groups (n = 92, P < .0001) and 4-year probability of event-free survival of 33 ± 6% vs 62 ± 5% (P = .0013), the 4-year cumulative incidence of relapse being 42 ± 7% and 19 ± 4% (P = .003), respectively. We conclude that these genetic aberrations may be used for risk group stratification of pediatric AMKL and for treatment tailoring. PMID:27114462

  13. Potential role for metformin in urologic oncology

    PubMed Central

    Sayyid, Rashid Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Metformin is one of the most commonly used drugs worldwide. It is currently considered first-line pharmacological agent for management of diabetes mellitus type 2. Recent studies have suggested that metformin may have further benefits, especially in the field of urologic oncology. Use of metformin has been shown to be associated with decreased incidence and improved outcomes of prostate, bladder, and kidney cancer. These studies suggest that metformin does have a future role in the prevention and management of urologic malignancies. In this review, we will discuss the latest findings in this field and its implications on the management of urologic oncology patients. PMID:27195314

  14. Obesity as a risk factor in cancer: A national consensus of the Spanish Society for the Study of Obesity and the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology.

    PubMed

    Goday, A; Barneto, I; García-Almeida, J M; Blasco, A; Lecube, A; Grávalos, C; Martínez de Icaya, P; de las Peñas, R; Monereo, S; Vázquez, L; Palacio, J E; Pérez-Segura, P

    2015-10-01

    In the last few years, many prospective studies have demonstrated a clear association between obesity and cancers of the colon and rectum, breast in post-menopausal women, endometrium, kidney, oesophagus and pancreas. Obesity is also associated with a high risk of recurrence and cancer-related death. The pathophysiology of obesity involves various changes that may be implicated in the relationship between obesity and cancer, such as excess inflammatory cytokines and chronic inflammation, hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance, and raised leptin and oestrogens. The Spanish Society for the Study of Obesity and the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology have signed a cooperation agreement to work together towards reducing the impact of obesity in cancer. Preventing obesity prevents cancer. PMID:26036853

  15. The Feasibility and Oncological Safety of Axillary Reverse Mapping in Patients with Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chao; Yang, Ben; Zuo, Wen-Shu; Zheng, Gang; Yang, Li; Zheng, Mei-Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Objective The axillary reverse mapping (ARM) technique has recently been developed to prevent lymphedema by preserving the arm lymphatic drainage during sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) or axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) procedures. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the feasibility and oncological safety of ARM. Methods We searched Medline, Embase, Web of science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library for relevant prospective studies. The identification rate of ARM nodes, the crossover rate of SLN-ARM nodes, the proportion of metastatic ARM nodes, and the incidence of complications were pooled into meta-analyses by the random-effects model. Results A total of 24 prospective studies were included into meta-analyses, of which 11 studies reported ARM during SLNB, and 18 studies reported ARM during SLNB. The overall identification rate of ARM nodes was 38.2% (95% CI 32.9%-43.8%) during SLNB and 82.8% (78.0%-86.6%) during ALND, respectively. The crossover rate of SLN-ARM nodes was 19.6% (95% CI 14.4%-26.1%). The metastatic rate of ARM nodes was 16.9% (95% CI 14.2%-20.1%). The pooled incidence of lymphedema was 4.1% (95% CI 2.9–5.9%) for patients undergoing ARM procedure. Conclusions The ARM procedure was feasible during ALND. Nevertheless, it was restricted by low identification rate of ARM nodes during SLNB. ARM was beneficial for preventing lymphedema. However, this technique should be performed with caution given the possibility of crossover SLN-ARM nodes and metastatic ARM nodes. ARM appeared to be unsuitable for patients with clinically positive breast cancer due to oncological safety concern. PMID:26919589

  16. Dermatological Findings in Turkish Paediatric Haematology-Oncology Patients

    PubMed Central

    Uksal, Umit; Ozturk, Pinar; Colgecen, Emine; Taslidere, Nazan; Patiroglu, Turkan; Ozdemir, Mehmet Akif; Torun, Yasemin Altuner; Borlu, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Diagnoses of skin, mucosae, hair and nail manifestations in malignant diseases are often challenging because of life-threatening drug reactions, opportunistic infections or skin involvement of primary processes. Description of morphology, configuration and distribution of lesions is important in order to differentiate the self-healing eruptions from serious side effects of chemotherapy. There are case reports from Turkey including dermatological manifestations of malignancies and case series in adult patients but there are no published large group studies assessing all manifestations in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological features of dermatological findings in children with haemato-oncological diseases. Materials and Methods: The study was performed at the Erciyes University, Faculty of Medicine Pediatric Hematology-Oncology Clinic, Turkey. Three dermatologists daily consulted all patients admitted to the clinic during a one-year period. Results: The study group comprised of 157 children (79 female/78 male) aged 1–16 years (mean 7.19±4.63). Detailed dermatological examinations were performed, including oral-genital mucosae, hair and nails. Thorough skin examination revealed that 70% of the patients exhibited at least one dermatological finding. Generalized xerosis and hyperpigmentation were the most common findings among patients undergoing chemotherapy (24.19%). Multiple nevi on at least 10 covered areas were very frequent among patients undergoing long-term chemotherapy (18.47%). Three were identified as dysplastic nevus, but malignant transformation was not observed during the one-year study period. Conclusion: Regular dermatological consultation may help resolve the diagnostic and therapeutic problems in paediatric haemato-oncology clinics. PMID:27551173

  17. An Exploratory Study of Expert Group Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubel, Deborah J.; Kline, William B.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the results of a grounded theory exploration that described expert group leaders' experiences and perceptions during the process of leading groups in terms of influence of experience, preexisting knowledge and attitudes, and in-the-moment leadership process. The discussion presents implications for practice, counselor…

  18. [Oncology PET imaging].

    PubMed

    Inubushi, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    At the beginning of this article, likening medical images to "Where is Waldo?" I indicate the concept of diagnostic process of PET/CT imaging, so that medical physics specialists could understand the role of each imaging modality and infer our distress for image diagnosis. Then, I state the present situation of PET imaging and the basics (e.g. health insurance coverage, clinical significance, principle, protocol, and pitfall) of oncology FDG-PET imaging which accounts for more than 99% of all clinical PET examinations in Japan. Finally, I would like to give a wishful prospect of oncology PET that will expand to be more cancer-specific in order to assess therapeutic effects of emerging molecular targeted drugs targeting the "hallmarks of cancer". PMID:25199271

  19. Effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on the quality of life of the oncologic patient: a multicentric cooperative study.

    PubMed

    Neri, B; Garosi, V L; Intini, C

    1997-06-01

    Anorexia and cachexia, major problems in patients with cancer, lead to decreased caloric intake and weight loss. Successful treatment of these conditions has a positive effect on patients' quality of life. Among the pharmacologic treatments, partial effects have been observed following administration of corticosteroids, anabolizing drugs and synthetic progestogens such as megestrol acetate and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether MPA is able to influence the quality of life of neoplastic patients undergoing different chemotherapeutic regimens and/or radiotherapy for different tumor types. A series of 279 cancer patients undergoing either chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy treatment for different tumor types was randomly allocated to receive either MPA or no treatment. We explored the effect of MPA oral suspension at the daily dose of 1000 mg for 12 weeks (group A) or no treatment (group B). Our data show an increase of body weight in group A patients and improvement in performance status. The outcome of the present study strongly demonstrates that therapy with MPA plays a fundamental role in ameliorating the complex symptomatology of cancer patients in intermediate or advanced stage of the disease undergoing casual treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. PMID:9215608

  20. Introduction to pediatric oncology

    SciTech Connect

    McWhirter, W.R.; Masel, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book covers the varied and complex aspects of management in pediatric oncology. Emphasis is placed on a team approach and on establishing and maintaining an individualized, humanistic relationships with the patient. Numerous illustrations show modern imaging techniques that are proving most valuable in the investigation of suspected or confirmed childhood cancer. Physical and psychological side effects of short-term and long-term treatment are also discussed.

  1. Comparison of In-Patient Costs for Children Treated on the AAML0531 Clinical Trial: A Report From the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Getz, Kelly D.; Li, Yimei; Alonzo, Todd A.; Hall, Matthew; Gerbing, Robert B.; Sung, Lillian; Huang, Yuan-Shung; Arnold, Staci; Seif, Alix E.; Miller, Tamara P.; Bagatell, Rochelle; Fisher, Brian T.; Adamson, Peter C.; Gamis, Alan; Keren, Ron; Aplenc, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background A better understanding of drivers of treatment costs may help identify effective cost containment strategies and prioritize resources. We aimed to develop a method for estimating inpatient costs for pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) enrolled on NCI-funded Phase III trials, compare costs between AAML0531 treatment arms (standard chemotherapy ± gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GMTZ)), and evaluate primary drivers of costs for newly diagnosed pediatric AML. Procedure Patients from the AAML0531 trial were matched on hospital, sex, and dates of birth and diagnosis to the Pediatric Health Information Systems (PHIS) database to obtain daily billing data. Inpatient treatment costs were calculated as adjusted charges multiplied by hospital-specific cost-to-charge ratios. Generalized linear models were used to compare costs between treatment arms and courses, and by patient characteristics. Results Inpatient costs did not differ by randomized treatment arm. Costs varied by course with stem cell transplant being most expensive, followed by Intensification II (cytarabine/mitoxantrone) and Induction I (cytarabine/daunorubicin/etoposide). Room/board and pharmacy were the largest contributors to inpatient treatment cost, representing 74% of the total cost. Higher AML risk group (P = 0.0003) and older age (P < 0.0001) were associated with significantly higher daily inpatient cost. Conclusions Costs from external data sources can be successfully integrated into NCI-funded Phase III clinical trials. Inpatient treatment costs did not differ by GMTZ exposure but varied by chemotherapy course. Variation in cost by course was driven by differences in duration of hospitalization through room/board charges as well as increased clinical and pharmacy charges in specific courses. Pediatr Blood Cancer PMID:25946708

  2. Lapatinib and Potential Prognostic Value of EGFR Mutations in a Gynecologic Oncology Group Phase II Trial of Persistent or Recurrent Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Kimberly K.; Sill, Michael W.; Lankes, Heather A.; Fischer, Edgar G.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Gray, Heidi; Schilder, Russell J.; Walker, Joan L.; Tewari, Krishnansu; Hanjani, Parviz; Abulafia, Ovadia; Rose, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND A phase II trial was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER2, lapatinib, and to explore EGFR, HER2 (EGFR2), phosphorylated ERK MAP Kinase (pERK), and Ki67 expression, as well as EGFR mutations in persistent/recurrent endometrial cancer (EC). METHODS Women with histologically-confirmed, measurable, persistent/recurrent EC following one or two prior regimens were eligible and treated with 1500 mg oral lapatinib daily until progression or severe toxicity. A 2-stage group sequential design was used to evaluate the regimen with 6 month PFS as the primary endpoint. The trial had a 10% type I error rate with 90% power. EGFR, HER2, pERK, and Ki67 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) from hysterectomy specimens, pre-treatment biopsies, and post-treatment biopsies (when available). Exons 18-21 of EGFR were sequenced. RESULTS Three patients of 30 evaluable had PFS ≥6 months, one had a partial response, seven had stable disease, 21 had progressive disease and one was indeterminate. Three mutations in EGFR were identified. Two of these, L688F and K754E, were not associated with response or PFS. However, a newly identified mutation in exon 18, E690K, occurred in the patient with a partial response and progression-free survival extending past six months. CONCLUSION While lapatinib has limited activity in unselected cases, the identification of a previously unreported mutation in EGFR (E690K) with a response, suggests that lapatinib may be beneficial in some cases of EC. PMID:22885469

  3. Hybrid Imaging in Oncology.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Nosheen; Zaman, Maseeh uz; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Zaman, Unaiza; Shahid, Wajeeha; Zaman, Areeba; Tahseen, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    In oncology various imaging modalities play a crucial role in diagnosis, staging, restaging, treatment monitoring and follow up of various cancers. Stand-alone morphological imaging like computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide a high magnitude of anatomical details about the tumor but are relatively dumb about tumor physiology. Stand-alone functional imaging like positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) are rich in functional information but provide little insight into tumor morphology. Introduction of first hybrid modality PET/CT is the one of the most successful stories of current century which has revolutionized patient care in oncology due to its high diagnostic accuracy. Spurred on by this success, more hybrid imaging modalities like SPECT/CT and PET/MR were introduced. It is the time to explore the potential applications of the existing hybrid modalities, developing and implementing standardized imaging protocols and train users in nuclear medicine and radiology. In this review we discuss three existing hybrid modalities with emphasis on their technical aspects and clinical applications in oncology. PMID:26320423

  4. [Factitious diseases in oncology].

    PubMed

    Reich, Michel; Clermont, Amélie; Amela, Éric; Kotecki, Nuria

    2015-12-01

    Factitious diseases and pathomimias and particularly Munchausen's syndrome, due to their rarity, are poorly diagnosed by medical teams working in oncology. Consequences can be serious and result in unadapted surgery or non justified implementation of chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens. These patients simulate diseases in order to attract medical attention. They might become belligerent and are likely to promptly discharge themselves from hospital if they do not get the desired attention or are unmasked. With two following case reports and literature review, we would like to alert clinicians about difficulties encountered in diagnosis and management of factitious disorders. When faced with this diagnosis, the patient will tend to deny reality and break contact with the medical team who exposed him. Medical peregrinating behavior surrounded by conflicts with medical team, past psychiatric illness, history of working in the medical and paramedical field and social isolation can guide the diagnosis. Somaticians and especially surgeons working in the oncologic field must remain vigilant about this diagnosis and collaborate with either the psycho-oncologic team or the consultation-liaison psychiatric team. Some recommendations for medical professionals how to cope with these patients will be suggested. PMID:26597474

  5. Reasons for Non-Completion of Health Related Quality of Life Evaluations in Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Donna L.; Nagarajan, Rajaram; Caparas, Mae; Schulte, Fiona; Cullen, Patricia; Aplenc, Richard; Sung, Lillian

    2013-01-01

    Background Health related quality of life (HRQL) assessments during therapy for pediatric cancer are important. The objective of this study was to describe reasons for failure to provide HRQL assessments during a pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) clinical trial. Methods We focused on HRQL assessments embedded in a multicenter pediatric AML clinical trial. The PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales, PedsQL 3.0 Acute Cancer Module, PedsQL Multidimensional Fatigue Scale, and Pediatric Inventory for Parents were obtained from parent/guardian respondents at a maximum of six time points. Children provided self-report optionally. A central study coordinator contacted sites with delinquent HRQL data. Reasons for failure to submit the HRQL assessments were evaluated by three pediatric oncologists and themes were generated using thematic analysis. Results There were 906 completed and 1091 potential assessments included in this analysis (83%). The median age of included children was 12.9 years (range 2.0 to 18.9). The five themes for non-completion were: patient too ill; passive or active refusal by respondent; developmental delay; logistical challenges; and poor knowledge of study processes from both the respondent and institutional perspective. Conclusions We identified reasons for non-completion of HRQL assessments during active therapy. This information will facilitate recommendations to improve study processes and future HRQL study designs to maximize response rates. PMID:24040278

  6. Observational Study: Familial Relevance and Oncological Significance of Revised Bethesda Guidelines in Colorectal Patients That Have Undergone Curative Resection

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Won Beom; Kim, Chan Wook; Yoon, Yong Sik; Park, In Ja; Lim, Seok-Byung; Yu, Chang Sik; Kim, Jin Cheon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Amsterdam criteria for the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) exclude most suspect cases of possible hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC). By contrast, revised Bethesda guidelines excessively broaden the disease spectrum. The aim of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the cliniciopathilogical characteristics of patients fulfilling the revised Bethesda guidelines and to review the efficacy and limitations of the revised guidelines. This retrospective study enrolled 3609 patients who underwent curative surgery for primary CRC. Patients were classified into the Bethesda group or the control group according to whether they fulfilled the revised Bethesda guidelines. Patients were further categorized when they fulfilled a minimum of 2 items of the revised guidelines. Individual items were analyzed for deficient mismatch repair (d-MMR). The median follow-up was 82.9 (interquartile range, 72–101) months. Patients in the Bethesda group were younger and had a higher rate of reduced mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression, microsatellite instability, and right colonic involvement (all P < 0.001) than the control group. As a predictor of d-MMR, the revised Bethesda guidelines showed a sensitivity of 63.0% and a specificity of 72.6%. Items 1 and 2, respectively, or the item pair 1 and 2, were independent predictors of d-MMR (all P < 0.001). Patients fulfilling the Bethesda guidelines showed clinicopathological features of HNPCC. The revised Bethesda guidelines appear to be a competent predictor of d-MMR. Specifically, items 1 and 2 are significant predictors of d-MMR and may be relevant to the application of the revised Bethesda guidelines. PMID:26871811

  7. Learning in Groups: A Comparison of Study Groups and T Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Edward B.; Astrachan, Boris M.

    1971-01-01

    This paper focuses on a comparison of two models, with special attention to the ways in which authority and peer relations are viewed. The need for theoretical and technical amalgamation to advance our understanding of group phenomena is stressed. A comment by James Crowfoot, University of Michigan follows. (Author)

  8. Selenium in oncology: from chemistry to clinics.

    PubMed

    Micke, Oliver; Schomburg, Lutz; Buentzel, Jens; Kisters, Klaus; Muecke, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    The essential trace element selenium, which is a crucial cofactor in the most important endogenous antioxidative systems of the human body, is attracting more and more the attention of both laypersons and expert groups. The interest of oncologists mainly focuses in the following clinical aspects: radioprotection of normal tissues, radiosensitizing in malignant tumors, antiedematous effect, prognostic impact of selenium, and effects in primary and secondary cancer prevention. Selenium is a constituent of the small group of selenocysteine-containing selenoproteins and elicits important structural and enzymatic functions. Selenium deficiency has been linked to increased infection risk and adverse mood states. It has been shown to possess cancer-preventive and cytoprotective activities in both animal models and humans. It is well established that Se has a key role in redox regulation and antioxidant function, and hence in membrane integrity, energy metabolism and protection against DNA damage. Recent clinical trials have shown the importance of selenium in clinical oncology. Our own clinical study involving 48 patients suggest that selenium has a positive effect on radiation-associated secondary lymphedema in patients with limb edemas, as well as in the head and neck region, including endolaryngeal edema. Another randomized phase III study of our group was performed to examine the cytoprotective properties of selenium in radiation oncology. The aim was to evaluate whether sodium selenite is able to compensate a preexisting selenium deficiency and to prevent radiation induced diarrhea in adjuvant radiotherapy for pelvic gynecologic malignancies. Through this study, the significant benefits of sodium selenite supplementation with regards to selenium deficiency and radiotherapy induced diarrhea in patients with cervical and uterine cancer has been shown for the first time in a prospective randomized trial. Survival data imply that supplementation with selenium does not

  9. Current Management of Surgical Oncologic Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Bosscher, Marianne R. F.; van Leeuwen, Barbara L.; Hoekstra, Harald J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives For some oncologic emergencies, surgical interventions are necessary for dissolution or temporary relieve. In the absence of guidelines, the most optimal method for decision making would be in a multidisciplinary cancer conference (MCC). In an acute setting, the opportunity for multidisciplinary discussion is often not available. In this study, the management and short term outcome of patients after surgical oncologic emergency consultation was analyzed. Method A prospective registration and follow up of adult patients with surgical oncologic emergencies between 01-11-2013 and 30-04-2014. The follow up period was 30 days. Results In total, 207 patients with surgical oncologic emergencies were included. Postoperative wound infections, malignant obstruction, and clinical deterioration due to progressive disease were the most frequent conditions for surgical oncologic emergency consultation. During the follow up period, 40% of patients underwent surgery. The median number of involved medical specialties was two. Only 30% of all patients were discussed in a MCC within 30 days after emergency consultation, and only 41% of the patients who underwent surgery were discussed in a MCC. For 79% of these patients, the surgical procedure was performed before the MCC. Mortality within 30 days was 13%. Conclusion In most cases, surgery occurred without discussing the patient in a MCC, regardless of the fact that multiple medical specialties were involved in the treatment process. There is a need for prognostic aids and acute oncology pathways with structural multidisciplinary management. These will provide in faster institution of the most appropriate personalized cancer care, and prevent unnecessary investigations or invasive therapy. PMID:25933135

  10. Tyrosine kinome sequencing of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group TARGET Project | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    TARGET researchers sequenced the tyrosine kinome and downstream signaling genes in 45 high-risk pediatric ALL cases with activated kinase signaling, including Ph-like ALL, to establish the incidence of tyrosine kinase mutations in this cohort. The study confirmed previously identified somatic mutations in JAK and FLT3, but did not find novel alterations in any additional tyrosine kinases or downstream genes. The mechanism of kinase signaling activation in this high-risk subgroup of pediatric ALL remains largely unknown.

  11. [First Mexican consensus on recommendations of the multidisciplinary care of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM): Mexican Interdisciplinary Group on Neuro-Oncology Research (GIMINO)].

    PubMed

    Celis, Miguel Ángel; Alegría-Loyola, Marco Antonio; González-Aguilar, Alberto; Martínez-Tlahuel, Jorge; Green-Renner, Dan; Reyes-Soto, Gervith; Arellano-Reynoso, Alfonso; Flores-Castro, Jesús Manuel; Moreno-Jiménez, Sergio; Poitevin-Chacón, María Adela; Cacho-Díaz, Bernardo; Olvera-Manzanilla, Eduardo; Díaz-Victoria, Ana Ruth; Aguilar-Castañeda, Erika; Granados-García, Martín; Rodríguez-Orozco, Josana; Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Álvarez-Avitia, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is one of the most aggressive central nervous system tumors and with worse prognosis. Until now,treatments have managed to significantly increase the survival of these patients, depending on age, cognitive status, and autonomy of the individuals themselves. Based on these parameters, both initial or recurrence treatments are performed, as well as monitoring of disease by imaging studies. When the patient enters the terminal phase and curative treatments are suspended, respect for the previous wishes of the patient and development and implementation of palliative therapies must be guaranteed. PMID:26089278

  12. Medical Student Knowledge of Oncology and Related Disciplines: a Targeted Needs Assessment.

    PubMed

    Oskvarek, Jonathan; Braunstein, Steve; Farnan, Jeanne; Ferguson, Mark K; Hahn, Olwen; Henderson, Tara; Hong, Susan; Levine, Stacie; Rosenberg, Carol A; Golden, Daniel W

    2016-09-01

    Despite increasing numbers of cancer survivors, non-oncology physicians report discomfort and little training regarding oncologic and survivorship care. This pilot study assesses medical student comfort with medical oncology, surgical oncology, radiation oncology, hospice/palliative medicine, and survivorship care. A survey was developed with input from specialists in various fields of oncologic care at a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center. The survey included respondent demographics, reports of experience with oncology, comfort ratings with oncologic care, and five clinical vignettes. Responses were yes/no, multiple choice, Likert scale, or free response. The survey was distributed via email to medical students (MS1-4) at two US medical schools. The 105 respondents were 34 MS1s (32 %), 15 MS2s and MD/PhDs (14 %), 26 MS3s (25 %), and 30 MS4s (29 %). Medical oncology, surgical oncology, and hospice/palliative medicine demonstrated a significant trend for increased comfort from MS1 to MS4, but radiation oncology and survivorship care did not. MS3s and MS4s reported the least experience with survivorship care and radiation oncology. In the clinical vignettes, students performed the worst on the long-term chemotherapy toxicity and hospice/palliative medicine questions. Medical students report learning about components of oncologic care, but lack overall comfort with oncologic care. Medical students also fail to develop an increased self-assessed level of comfort with radiation oncology and survivorship care. These pilot results support development of a formalized multidisciplinary medical school oncology curriculum at these two institutions. An expanded national survey is being developed to confirm these preliminary findings. PMID:26153490

  13. Children's Learning Groups: A Study of Emergent Leadership, Dominance, and Group Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Ryoko

    This study explores the importance of the group context in the emergence of leadership, dominance, and group effectiveness in children's collaborative learning groups. Ten 3-person work groups performed a collaborative math activity. Using achievement goal orientation (Ames, 1992; Maehr and Midgley, 1996; Pintrich and Schunk, 1996) as a framework,…

  14. Cognitive Distance, Absorptive Capacity and Group Rationality: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Curşeu, Petru Lucian; Krehel, Oleh; Evers, Joep H. M.; Muntean, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of a simulation study in which we explore the joint effect of group absorptive capacity (as the average individual rationality of the group members) and cognitive distance (as the distance between the most rational group member and the rest of the group) on the emergence of collective rationality in groups. We start from empirical results reported in the literature on group rationality as collective group level competence and use data on real-life groups of four and five to validate a mathematical model. We then use this mathematical model to predict group level scores from a variety of possible group configurations (varying both in cognitive distance and average individual rationality). Our results show that both group competence and cognitive distance are necessary conditions for emergent group rationality. Group configurations, in which the groups become more rational than the most rational group member, are groups scoring low on cognitive distance and scoring high on absorptive capacity. PMID:25314132

  15. Rituximab extended schedule or retreatment trial for low tumour burden non-follicular indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Protocol E4402.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael E; Hong, Fangxin; Gascoyne, Randy D; Wagner, Lynne I; Krauss, John C; Habermann, Thomas M; Swinnen, Lode J; Schuster, Stephen J; Peterson, Christopher G; Sborov, Mark D; Martin, S Eric; Weiss, Matthias; Ehmann, W Christopher; Horning, Sandra J; Kahl, Brad S

    2016-06-01

    The rituximab extended schedule or retreatment trial (RESORT; E4402) was a phase 3 randomized prospective trial comparing maintenance rituximab (MR) versus a retreatment (RR) dosing strategy in asymptomatic, low tumour burden indolent lymphoma. A planned exploratory sub-study compared the two strategies for small lymphocytic (SLL) and marginal zone lymphomas (MZL). Patients responding to rituximab weekly × 4 were randomized to MR (single dose rituximab every 3 months until treatment failure) or RR (rituximab weekly × 4) at the time of each progression until treatment failure. The primary endpoint was time to treatment failure (TTTF). Patients with SLL (n = 57), MZL (n = 71) and unclassifiable small B-cell lymphoma (n = 3) received induction rituximab. The overall response rate (ORR) was 40% [95% confidence interval (CI) 31-49%; SLL ORR 22·8%; MZL ORR 52·1%]; all 52 responders were randomized. At a median of 4·3 years from randomization, treatment failure occurred in 18/23 RR and 15/29 MR. The median TTTF was 1·4 years for RR and 4·8 years for MR (P = 0·012); median time to first cytotoxic therapy was 6·3 years for RR and not reached for MR (P = 0·0002). Survival did not differ (P = 0·72). In low tumour burden SLL and MZL patients responding to rituximab induction, MR significantly improved TTTF as compared with RR. PMID:26970533

  16. Radiotherapy With or Without Erythropoietin for Anemic Patients With Head and Neck Cancer: A Randomized Trial of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG 99-03)

    SciTech Connect

    Machtay, Mitchell Pajak, Thomas F.; Suntharalingam, Mohan; Shenouda, George; Hershock, Diane; Stripp, Diana C.; Cmelak, Anthony J.; Schulsinger, Alan

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: To determine whether the addition of recombinant human erythropoietin (Epo) could improve the outcomes of anemic patients receiving definitive radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had SCCHN, with a plan for continuous-course definitive radiotherapy (66-72 Gy) with or without chemotherapy. Patients with Stage III or IV SCCHN were required to undergo concurrent chemoradiotherapy and/or accelerated fractionation radiotherapy. Preradiotherapy hemoglobin was required to be between 9.0 g/dL and 13.5 g/dL (12.5 g/dL for women). Patients randomized to Epo received 40,000 U once weekly, starting 7-10 days before start of radiotherapy. Results: A total of 148 patients were enrolled; 141 were evaluable. Median pretreatment hemoglobin was 12.1 g/dL. Hemoglobin levels at 4 weeks rose by an average of 1.66 g/dL in the Epo arm, compared with an average 0.24 g/dL decrease in the control arm (p = 0.0001). Median follow-up was 2.5 years (3.1 years for surviving patients). There was no statistically significant difference in the primary endpoint of local-regional failure (LRF) rate between the treatment arms. The 3-year LRF rate was 36% for control and 44% for Epo (p = 0.56). There were also no significant differences in local-regional progression-free survival (LRPFS), patterns of failure, overall survival, or toxicity. The 3-year LRPFS rate was 52% for control and 47% for Epo. The overall survival rate was 57% and 56%, respectively. Conclusions: The addition of Epo to definitive radiotherapy for SCCHN did not improve outcomes. The study was not specifically designed to detect a potential negative association between Epo and tumor progression/survival.

  17. A gynecologic oncology group phase II trial of two p53 peptide vaccine approaches: subcutaneous injection and intravenous pulsed dendritic cells in high recurrence risk ovarian cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Rahma, Osama E.; Ashtar, Ed; Czystowska, Malgorzata; Szajnik, Marta E.; Wieckowski, Eva; Bernstein, Sarah; Herrin, Vincent E.; Shams, Mortada A.; Steinberg, Seth M.; Merino, Maria; Gooding, William; Visus, Carmen; DeLeo, Albert B.; Wolf, Judith K.; Bell, Jeffrey G.; Berzofsky, Jay A.; Whiteside, Theresa L.; Khleif, Samir N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Peptide antigens have been administered by different approaches as cancer vaccine therapy, including direct injection or pulsed onto dendritic cells; however, the optimal delivery method is still debatable. In this study, we describe the immune response elicited by two vaccine approaches using the wild-type (wt) p53 vaccine. Experimental design Twenty-one HLA-A2.1 patients with stage III, IV, or recurrent ovarian cancer over-expressing the p53 protein with no evidence of disease were treated in two cohorts. Arm A received SC wt p53:264-272 peptide admixed with Montanide and GM-CSF. Arm B received wt p53:264-272 peptide-pulsed dendritic cells IV. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) was administered to both cohorts in alternative cycles. Results Nine of 13 patients (69%) in arm A and 5 of 6 patients (83%) in arm B developed an immunologic response as determined by ELISPOT and tetramer assays. The vaccine caused no serious systemic side effects. IL-2 administration resulted in grade 3 and 4 toxicities in both arms and directly induced the expansion of T regulatory cells. The median overall survival was 40.8 and 29.6 months for arm A and B, respectively; the median progression-free survival was 4.2 and. 8.7 months, respectively. Conclusion We found that using either vaccination approach generates comparable specific immune responses against the p53 peptide with minimal toxicity. Accordingly, our findings suggest that the use of less demanding SC approach may be as effective. Furthermore, the use of low-dose SC IL-2 as an adjuvant might have interfered with the immune response. Therefore, it may not be needed in future trials. PMID:21927947

  18. Life-Space Assessment in Urogynecology and Gynecologic Oncology Surgery Patients: A Measure of Perioperative Mobility and Function

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Chere’ M.L.; Wheeler, Thomas L.; Markland, Alayne D.; Straughn, J. Michael; Richter, Holly E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of gynecologic surgery on mobility and functional status in women ≥ 60 years of age using Life-Space Assessment (LSA). Design Observational prospective cohort study Setting Academic outpatient urogynecology and gynecologic oncology clinics Participants Women presenting for urogynecology (N=51) and gynecologic oncology (N=51) surgery. Measurements LSA scores six weeks, six months and one year after surgery. Participant demographics, preoperative diagnoses, surgical approach, and medical comorbidities were collected. Analyses utilized repeated measures. Results Mean age was 71 + 7 years. Urogynecology participants started and maintained a higher LSA (p-value=0.03) than oncology participants at all study intervals. At six weeks post-surgery, urogynecology and oncology participants’ mean decline was 13-points (95% CI 4, 21 p-value=.004) and 23-points (95% CI 13, 33 p-value < .001), respectively. At six months, the urogynecology and oncology participants’ scores increased by a mean of 9-points (95% CI 1, 17 p-value=.033), and 13-points (95% CI 5, 20 p-value=.001) points, respectively. No significant difference was found at one year from baseline within each group or between groups in LSA scores. Income, depression, Body Mass Index (BMI) and having an operative complication predicted a larger decline in life-space over time in both groups. Conclusion Gynecologic surgical interventions in older women limit physical and functional ability at six weeks postoperatively. Both the urogynecology and gynecologic oncology cohorts returned to baseline levels by six months which was sustained to one year. PMID:19874406

  19. Nonadherence to Oral Mercaptopurine and Risk of Relapse in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Smita; Landier, Wendy; Shangguan, Muyun; Hageman, Lindsey; Schaible, Alexandra N.; Carter, Andrea R.; Hanby, Cara L.; Leisenring, Wendy; Yasui, Yutaka; Kornegay, Nancy M.; Mascarenhas, Leo; Ritchey, A. Kim; Casillas, Jacqueline N.; Dickens, David S.; Meza, Jane; Carroll, William L.; Relling, Mary V.; Wong, F. Lennie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Systemic exposure to mercaptopurine (MP) is critical for durable remissions in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Nonadherence to oral MP could increase relapse risk and also contribute to inferior outcome in Hispanics. This study identified determinants of adherence and described impact of adherence on relapse, both overall and by ethnicity. Patients and Methods A total of 327 children with ALL (169 Hispanic; 158 non-Hispanic white) participated. Medication event-monitoring system caps recorded date and time of MP bottle openings. Adherence rate, calculated monthly, was defined as ratio of days of MP bottle opening to days when MP was prescribed. Results After 53,394 person-days of monitoring, adherence declined from 94.7% (month 1) to 90.2% (month 6; P < .001). Mean adherence over 6 months was significantly lower among Hispanics (88.4% v 94.8%; P < .001), patients age ≥ 12 years (85.8% v 93.1%; P < .001), and patients from single-mother households (80.6% v 93.1%; P = .001). A progressive increase in relapse was observed with decreasing adherence (reference: adherence ≥ 95%; 94.9% to 90%: hazard ratio [HR], 4.1; 95% CI,1.2 to 13.5; P = .02; 89.9% to 85%: HR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.0 to 15.5; P = .04; < 85%: HR. 5.7; 95% CI, 1.9 to 16.8; P = .002). Cumulative incidence of relapse (± standard deviation) was higher among Hispanics (16.5% ± 4.0% v 6.3% ± 2.2%; P = .02). Association between Hispanic ethnicity and relapse (HR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.1 to 6.1; P = .02) became nonsignificant (HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 0.6 to 5.2; P = .26) after adjusting for adherence and socioeconomic status. At adherence rates ≥ 90%, Hispanics continued to demonstrate higher relapse, whereas at rates < 90%, relapse risk was comparable to that of non-Hispanic whites. Conclusion Lower adherence to oral MP increases relapse risk. Ethnic difference in relapse risk differs by level of adherence—an observation currently under investigation. PMID:22564992

  20. Prognostic biomarkers in phase II trial of cetuximab-containing induction and chemoradiation in resectable HNSCC: Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group E2303

    PubMed Central

    Psyrri, Amanda; Lee, Ju-Whei; Pectasides, Eirini; Vassilakopoulou, Maria; Kosmidis, Efstratios K.; Burtness, Barbara A.; Rimm, David L.; Wanebo, Harold J.; Forastiere, Arlene A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We sought to evaluate correlation between tissue biomarker expression (using standardized, quantitative immunofluorescence) and clinical outcome in E2303 trial. Experimental Design Sixty-three eligible patients with operable stage III/IV HNSCC participated in ECOG 2303, phase II trial of induction chemotherapy with weekly cetuximab, paclitaxel and carboplatin followed by chemoradiation with same regimen. A tissue microarray (TMA) was constructed and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), ERK1/2, Met, Akt, STAT3, β-catenin, E-cadherin, EGFR Variant III, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, NF-kappa b, p53, PI3Kp85, PI3Kp110a, PTEN, NRAS, and pRb protein expression levels were assessed using automated quantitative protein analysis (AQUA). For each dichotomized biomarker, overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and event-free survival (EFS) were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared using log-rank tests. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and test for significance. Results Forty-two of 63 patients with TMA data on at least one biomarker were included in the biomarker analysis. Tumor ERK1/2 levels were significantly associated with PFS (HR (low/high)=3.29, p=0.026) and OS (HR (low/high)=4.34, p=0.008). On multivariable Cox regression analysis, ERK1/2 remained significantly associated with OS (p=0.024) and PFS (p=0.022) after controlling for primary site (oropharynx vs. non-oropharynx) and disease stage (III vs. IV), respectively. Clustering analysis revealed that clusters indicative of activated RAS/MAPK/ERK and/or PI3K/Akt pathways were associated with inferior OS and/or PFS and maintained significance in multivariable analysis. Conclusions These results implicate PI3K/Akt and RAS/MAPK/ERK pathways in resistance to cetuximab-containing chemoradiation in HNSCC. Large prospective studies are required to validate these results. PMID:24700741

  1. Natural History of CNS Relapse in Patients With Aggressive Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: A 20-Year Follow-Up Analysis of SWOG 8516—The Southwest Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Steven H.; Unger, Joseph M.; LeBlanc, Michael; Friedberg, Jonathan; Miller, Thomas P.; Fisher, Richard I.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the incidence, natural history, and risk factors predictive of CNS relapse in patients with de novo aggressive lymphomas and to evaluate the efficacy of CNS prophylaxis in patients with initial bone marrow (BM) involvement. Patients and Methods We conducted an analysis of CNS events from 20-year follow-up data on 899 eligible patients with aggressive lymphoma treated on Southwest Oncology Group protocol 8516, a randomized trial of CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone), MACOP-B (methotrexate, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, and bleomycin), ProMACE (prednisone, methotrexate, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, etoposide)-CytaBOM (cytarabine, bleomycin, vincristine, methotrexate), and m-BACOD (methotrexate, bleomycin, cyclophosphamide, etoposide). Patients with BM involvement randomly assigned to receive ProMACE-CytaBOM (63 patients) or m-BACOD (58 patients) were to receive CNS prophylaxis, whereas those randomly assigned to receive CHOP or MACOP-B did not. Results CNS relapse is uncommon (25 of 899 patients), with a cumulative incidence of 2.8%. CNS relapse occurs early (median time to relapse, 5.4 months from diagnosis). Indeed, 20 of 25 patients with CNS relapse relapsed during chemotherapy, or within 6 months of completion. The number of extranodal sites and the International Prognostic Index were predictive of CNS relapse. There was no significant benefit of CNS prophylaxis in patients with BM involvement at diagnosis; however, given the small number of events, the power of this analysis is limited. Conclusion The early occurrence of CNS events suggests that these patients had subclinical disease at initial diagnosis. As such, strategies to better detect and treat patients with subclinical CNS disease at diagnosis would be anticipated to result in a decrease in the incidence of CNS relapse, without subjecting those patients not destined for CNS relapse to unnecessary and potentially toxic

  2. Implementation of the american college of surgeons oncology group z1071 trial data in clinical practice: is there a way forward for sentinel lymph node dissection in clinically node-positive breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy?

    PubMed

    Mittendorf, Elizabeth A; Caudle, Abigail S; Yang, Wei; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Shaitelman, Simona; Chavez-MacGregor, Mariana; Woodward, Wendy A; Bedrosian, Isabelle; Kuerer, Henry M; Hunt, Kelly K

    2014-08-01

    For clinically node-positive breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy, approximately 40 % will be found to be pathologically node negative. The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1071 trial was therefore conducted to evaluate sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) in these patients. The trial's primary end point was to determine the false-negative rate (FNR) among patients with clinical N1 disease in whom at least 2 sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) were identified. The FNR was 12.6 %, which exceeded the prespecified end point of 10.0 %. After data publication, our multidisciplinary team discussed the trial results and how we may incorporate the findings into clinical practice. Patient selection and surgical technique are critical. As an example, when dual tracer technique was used, the FNR was 10.8 %. Data from the trial presented at the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium suggested that the FNR could be improved if a clip was placed in the biopsy-proven positive lymph node and removal of that node during SLND was confirmed. Taking this into consideration, we have proposed an approach to surgical management of the axilla in clinically node-positive patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy termed targeted axillary dissection (TAD). TAD involves placing a clip at the time a lymph node is determined to be positive. After completion of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the clipped node is localized by using a wire or radioactive seed, and during the SLND procedure, all SLNs and the clipped node are removed. We are currently evaluating the efficacy of TAD in axillary staging after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. PMID:24841348

  3. Economic analysis of a phase III clinical trial evaluating the addition of total androgen suppression to radiation versus radiation alone for locally advanced prostate cancer (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 86-10)

    SciTech Connect

    Konski, Andre . E-mail: a_konski@fccc.edu; Sherman, Eric; Krahn, Murray; Bremner, Karen; Beck, J. Robert; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Pilepich, Michael

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of adding hormone therapy to radiation for patients with locally advanced prostate cancer, using a Monte Carlo simulation of a Markov Model. Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 86-10 randomized patients to receive radiation therapy (RT) alone or RT plus total androgen suppression (RTHormones) 2 months before and during RT for the treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer. A Markov model was designed with Data Pro (TreeAge Software, Williamstown, MA). The analysis took a payer's perspective. Transition probabilities from one state of health (i.e., with no disease progression or with hormone-responsive metastatic disease) to another were calculated from published rates pertaining to RTOG 86-10. Patients remained in one state of health for 1 year. Utility values for each health state and treatment were obtained from the literature. Distributions were sampled at random from the treatment utilities according to a second-order Monte Carlo simulation technique. Results: The mean expected cost for the RT-only treatments was $29,240 (range, $29,138-$29,403). The mean effectiveness for the RT-only treatment was 5.48 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) (range, 5.47-5.50). The mean expected cost for RTHormones was $31,286 (range, $31,058-$31,555). The mean effectiveness was 6.43 QALYs (range, 6.42-6.44). Incremental cost-effectiveness analysis showed RTHormones to be within the range of cost-effectiveness at $2,153/QALY. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curve analysis resulted in a >80% probability that RTHormones is cost-effective. Conclusions: Our analysis shows that adding hormonal treatment to RT improves health outcomes at a cost that is within the acceptable cost-effectiveness range.

  4. Decline in Tested and Self-Reported Cognitive Functioning After Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation for Lung Cancer: Pooled Secondary Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Randomized Trials 0212 and 0214

    SciTech Connect

    Gondi, Vinai; Paulus, Rebecca; Bruner, Deborah W.; Meyers, Christina A.; Gore, Elizabeth M.; Wolfson, Aaron; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Sun, Alexander Y.; Choy, Hak; Movsas, Benjamin

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To assess the impact of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) on self-reported cognitive functioning (SRCF), a functional scale on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30). Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 0214 randomized patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer to PCI or observation; RTOG 0212 randomized patients with limited-disease small cell lung cancer to high- or standard-dose PCI. In both trials, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT)-Recall and -Delayed Recall and SRCF were assessed at baseline (after locoregional therapy but before PCI or observation) and at 6 and 12 months. Patients developing brain relapse before follow-up evaluation were excluded. Decline was defined using the reliable change index method and correlated with receipt of PCI versus observation using logistic regression modeling. Fisher's exact test correlated decline in SRCF with HVLT decline. Results: Of the eligible patients pooled from RTOG 0212 and RTOG 0214, 410 (93%) receiving PCI and 173 (96%) undergoing observation completed baseline HVLT or EORTC QLQ-C30 testing and were included in this analysis. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was associated with a higher risk of decline in SRCF at 6 months (odds ratio 3.60, 95% confidence interval 2.34-6.37, P<.0001) and 12 months (odds ratio 3.44, 95% confidence interval 1.84-6.44, P<.0001). Decline on HVLT-Recall at 6 and 12 months was also associated with PCI (P=.002 and P=.002, respectively) but was not closely correlated with decline in SRCF at the same time points (P=.05 and P=.86, respectively). Conclusions: In lung cancer patients who do not develop brain relapse, PCI is associated with decline in HVLT-tested and self-reported cognitive functioning. Decline in HVLT and decline in SRCF are not closely correlated, suggesting that they may represent distinct elements of the cognitive spectrum.

  5. Empirical Bayes for Group (DCM) Studies: A Reproducibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Litvak, Vladimir; Garrido, Marta; Zeidman, Peter; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    This technical note addresses some key reproducibility issues in the dynamic causal modelling of group studies of event related potentials. Specifically, we address the reproducibility of Bayesian model comparison (and inferences about model parameters) from three important perspectives namely: (i) reproducibility with independent data (obtained by averaging over odd and even trials); (ii) reproducibility over formally distinct models (namely, classic ERP and canonical microcircuit or CMC models); and (iii) reproducibility over inversion schemes (inversion of the grand average and estimation of group effects using empirical Bayes). Our hope was to illustrate the degree of reproducibility one can expect from DCM when analysing different data, under different models with different analyses. PMID:26733846

  6. Empirical Bayes for Group (DCM) Studies: A Reproducibility Study.

    PubMed

    Litvak, Vladimir; Garrido, Marta; Zeidman, Peter; Friston, Karl

    2015-01-01

    This technical note addresses some key reproducibility issues in the dynamic causal modelling of group studies of event related potentials. Specifically, we address the reproducibility of Bayesian model comparison (and inferences about model parameters) from three important perspectives namely: (i) reproducibility with independent data (obtained by averaging over odd and even trials); (ii) reproducibility over formally distinct models (namely, classic ERP and canonical microcircuit or CMC models); and (iii) reproducibility over inversion schemes (inversion of the grand average and estimation of group effects using empirical Bayes). Our hope was to illustrate the degree of reproducibility one can expect from DCM when analysing different data, under different models with different analyses. PMID:26733846

  7. A Phase II Evaluation of Gefitinib in the Treatment of Persistent or Recurrent Endometrial Cancer: A Gynecologic Oncology Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Kimberly K.; Sill, Michael W.; Fischer, Edgar; Darcy, Kathleen M.; Mannel, Robert S.; Tewari, Krishnansu S.; Hanjani, Parviz; Wilken, Jason A.; Baron, Andre T.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Schilder, Russell J.; Singh, Meenakshi; Maihle, Nita J.

    2013-01-01

    Background A phase II trial was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of gefitinib in patients with persistent/recurrent endometrial cancer. Methods Women with histologically confirmed persistent/recurrent endometrial cancer were treated with 500 mg oral gefitinib daily until progression or severe toxicity, with progression-free survival (PFS) at six months as the primary endpoint. Tumor expression of total epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor A (PRA) and B (PRB), Ki67, pEGFR and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) were examined pre- and post-treatment. EGFR was sequenced, and serum concentrations of soluble EGFR (sEGFR) at baseline also were examined. Results Of 29 patients enrolled, 26 were evaluable for efficacy and toxicity. Four patients experienced PFS ≥6 months, and one had a complete response which was not associated with an EGFR mutation. The concentration of sEGFR in pretreatment serum was positively correlated with overall survival (OS), but not with responsiveness to gefitinib in this small patient cohort. Expression of tumor biomarkers was not associated with PFS or OS. Co-expression of ER with PRA in primary and recurrent tumors, and pEGFR with pERK in primary tumors was observed. Conclusions This treatment regimen was tolerable but lacked sufficient efficacy to warrant further evaluation in this setting. The possible association between serum sEGFR concentrations and OS, and temporal changes in expression of pEGFR and pERK and the documented CR of one patient are interesting and warrant additional investigation. PMID:23438670

  8. Pediatric narrative oncology: interprofessional training to promote empathy, build teams, and prevent burnout.

    PubMed

    Sands, Stephen A; Stanley, Patricia; Charon, Rita

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of providing narrative training to a mixed group of doctors, nurses, social workers, and child life therapists on a pediatric oncology service for the purpose of promoting empathy, building teams, and preventing burnout. All staff members were invited to attend a weekly narrative training seminar for 6 weeks. During these seminars, participants wrote about their attachment to patients, their emotional responses to patients and families, and their attempts to imagine clinical situations from the perspectives of patients and family members; participants then read aloud their narratives to one another during a facilitated discussion. Baseline and post-intervention assessments used the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and the Stressor Scale for Pediatric Oncology Nurses (SSPON), and a focus group was convened to assess qualitative outcomes at the study's conclusion. Nineteen staff members who consented and participated in the training completed all baseline and postintervention measures.THE IRI subset of Perspective Taking improved at a statistically significant level (P = 0.029), and the Empathic Concern subset trended toward significant improvement (P= 0.056). Reported stress levels on the SSPON increased at varying rates over the course of the study. Focus group reports indicated that teamwork and resilience improved in the 6 weeks of the seminar. A narrative training approach aimed at an inter-disciplinary group of healthcare professionals has promise as a means to address some of the most difficult aspects of pediatric oncology care facing clinicians. PMID:18847073

  9. A comparative study of adaptive dose-finding designs for phase I oncology trials of combination therapies

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Akihiro; Wages, Nolan A.; Sato, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the relative performance of competing model-based dose-finding methods for combination phase I trials. In this study, we focused on five model-based dose-finding methods that have been recently developed. We compared the recommendation rates for true maximum-tolerated dose combinations (MTDCs) and over-dose combinations among these methods under 16 scenarios for 3 × 3, 4 × 4, 2 × 4, and 3 × 5 dose combination matrices. We found that performance of the model-based dose-finding methods varied depending on (1) whether the dose combination matrix is square or not; (2) whether the true MTDCs exist within the same group along the diagonals of the dose combination matrix; and (3) the number of true MTDCs. We discuss the details of the operating characteristics and the advantages and disadvantages of the five methods compared. PMID:25974405

  10. Ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses1

    PubMed Central

    da Luz, Kely Regina; Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira; Schmidtt, Pablo Henrique; Barlem, Edison Luiz Devos; Tomaschewski-Barlem, Jamila Geri; da Rosa, Luciana Martins

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to know the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses. Method: descriptive and exploratory study with a qualitative approach, performed in inpatient units and in chemotherapy out-patients units that provide assistance to oncological patients in two capitals in the South region of Brazil. Eighteen nurses participated in this study, selected by snowball sampling type. For data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out, which were recorded and transcribed, and then analyzed by thematic analysis. Results: two categories were established: when informing or not becomes a dilemma - showing the main difficulties related to oncological treatment information regarding health staff, health system, and infrastructure; to invest or not - dilemmas related to finitude - showing situations of dilemmas related to pain and confrontation with finitude. Conclusion: for the effective confrontation of the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses to occur, it is important to invest in the training of these professionals, preparing them in an ethical and human way to act as lawyers of the patient with cancer, in a context of dilemmas related mainly to the possibility of finitude. PMID:26626012

  11. Computational Study of Platinum Group Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popoola, A. I.; Lowther, J. E.

    2014-02-01

    Various properties of substitutional alloys formed from aluminium and the platinum group metals (PGMs) are examined using density functional (D-F) theory and show strong variations depending on metal type. A similar pattern for the binary alloys is observed using molecular dynamics modeling employing Sutton Chen potentials. All results suggest that several of the PGMs could have superior properties to the presently used Ni3Al alloy for high temperature applications. Some phases are predicted to be stable with extremely high melting temperatures (MTs).

  12. Dialogical Approach Applied in Group Counselling: Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koivuluhta, Merja; Puhakka, Helena

    2013-01-01

    This study utilizes structured group counselling and a dialogical approach to develop a group counselling intervention for students beginning a computer science education. The study assesses the outcomes of group counselling from the standpoint of the development of the students' self-observation. The research indicates that group counselling…

  13. [Dignity therapy in oncology].

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, Carla Ida

    2016-04-01

    In oncology, little is known about dignity, dignity-related distress and the issues that influence the sense of dignity for patients. Dignity is personal, subject to changes depending on the experience and the path of life. In oncology some patients feel that their dignity is directly related to the disease, to physical and emotional symptoms, to the highest level of physical and cognitive autonomy and to the continuity of the self. Patient dignity inventory (PDI) is a validate tool designed to measure various sources of dignity-related distress among patients nearing the end of life and serve as a screening tool to assess a broad range of issues that influence the sense of dignity. Dignity therapy is a novel focused psychotherapy consisting in a brief semi-structured interview, audio-recorded and transcribed in order to obtain the "generativity document". The patients are invited to tell about their life history, and to leave words of guidance and offer instructions to pass along to their son, daughters, husband, wife, parents, others. The generativity document is the result of process of emotional and existential care for the patients and a gift for everybody will receive it. PMID:27093325

  14. A Study of Group Dynamics in Educational Leadership Cohort and Non-Cohort Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlee, Bobbie J.; Karanxha, Zorka

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine group dynamics of educational leadership students in cohorts and make comparisons with the group dynamics characteristics of non-cohort students. Cohorts have emerged as dynamic and adaptive entities with attendant group dynamic processes that shape collective learning and action. Cohort (n=42) and…

  15. Report of the School Finance Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This document reports the findings of a study assessing the status of school finance in Wisconsin and recommending preferred methods for funding the public schools. Seventy-nine topics were considered in five areas: state support, general aid, categorical aid, factors affecting school costs, and other topics. The study's recommendations regarding…

  16. Noble metals in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Markowska, Anna; Jaszczyńska-Nowinka, Karolina; Lubin, Jolanta; Markowska, Janina

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide research groups are searching for anticancer compounds, many of them are organometalic complexes having platinum group metals as their active centers. Most commonly used cytostatics from this group are cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin. Cisplatin was used fot the first time in 1978, from this time many platinum derivatives were created. In this review we present biological properties and probable future clinical use of platinum, gold, silver, iridium and ruthenium derivatives. Gold derivative Auranofin has been studied extensively. Action of silver nanoparticles on different cell lines was analysed. Iridium isotopes are commonly used in brachyterapy. Ruthenium compound new anti-tumour metastasis inhibitor (NAMI-A) is used in managing lung cancer metastases. Electroporation of another ruthenium based compound KP1339 was also studied. Most of described complexes have antiproliferative and proapoptotic properties. Further studies need to be made. Nevertheless noble metal based chemotherapheutics and compounds seem to be an interesting direction of research. PMID:26557773

  17. Models of Care in Geriatric Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Magnuson, A.; Dale, W.; Mohile, S.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is common in older adults and the approach to cancer treatment and supportive measures in this age group is continuously evolving. Incorporating geriatric assessment (GA) into the care of the older patient with cancer has been shown to be feasible and predictive of outcomes, and there are unique aspects of the traditional geriatric domains that can be considered in this population. Geriatric assessment-guided interventions can also be developed to support patients during their treatment course. There are several existing models of incorporating geriatrics into oncology care, including a consultative geriatric assessment, geriatrician “embedded” within an oncology clinic and primary management by a dual-trained geriatric oncologist. Although a geriatrician or geriatric oncologist leads the geriatric assessment, is it truly a multidisciplinary assessment, and often includes evaluation by a physical therapist, occupational therapist, pharmacist, social worker and nutritionist. PMID:25587518

  18. Nutrition support in surgical oncology.

    PubMed

    Huhmann, Maureen B; August, David A

    2009-01-01

    This review article, the second in a series of articles to examine the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) Guidelines for the Use of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition in Adult and Pediatric Patients, evaluates the evidence related to the use of nutrition support in surgical oncology patients. Cancer patients develop complex nutrition issues. Nutrition support may be indicated in malnourished cancer patients undergoing surgery, depending on individual patient characteristics. As with the first article in this series, this article provides background concerning nutrition issues in cancer patients, as well as discusses the role of nutrition support in the care of surgical cancer patients. The goal of this review is to enrich the discussion contained in the clinical guidelines as they relate to recommendations made for surgical patients, cite the primary literature more completely, and suggest updates to the guideline statements in light of subsequently published studies. PMID:19605805

  19. Actionable data analytics in oncology: are we there yet?

    PubMed

    Barkley, Ronald; Greenapple, Rhonda; Whang, John

    2014-03-01

    To operate under a new value-based paradigm, oncology providers must develop the capability to aggregate, analyze, measure, and report their value proposition--that is, their outcomes and associated costs. How are oncology providers positioned currently to perform these functions in a manner that is actionable? What is the current state of analytic capabilities in oncology? Are oncology providers prepared? This line of inquiry was the basis for the 2013 Cancer Center Business Summit annual industry research survey. This article reports on the key findings and implications of the 2013 research survey with regard to data analytic capabilities in the oncology sector. The essential finding from the study is that only a small number of oncology providers (7%) currently possess the analytic tools and capabilities necessary to satisfy internal and external demands for aggregating and reporting clinical outcome and economic data. However there is an expectation that a majority of oncology providers (60%) will have developed such capabilities within the next 2 years. PMID:24633285

  20. International scoping study: accelerator working group report

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael; Zisman, M.S.

    2006-09-30

    During the past several years, an International Scoping Study (ISS) of a Neutrino Factory was carried out, with the aim of developing an internationally accepted baseline facility design. Progress toward that goal will be described. Many of the key technical aspects of a Neutrino Factory facility design are presently being investigated experimentally, and the status of these investigations will be mentioned. Plans for the recently launched International Design Study (IDS), which serves as a follow-on to the ISS, will be briefly described.

  1. Guidelines for treatment naming in radiation oncology.

    PubMed

    Denton, Travis R; Shields, Lisa B E; Hahl, Michael; Maudlin, Casey; Bassett, Mark; Spalding, Aaron C

    2015-01-01

    Safety concerns may arise from a lack of standardization and ambiguity during the treatment planning and delivery process in radiation therapy. A standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention in radiation therapy was developed by a task force comprised of several Radiation Oncology Societies. We present a nested-survey approach in a community setting to determine the methodology for radiation oncology departments to standardize their practice. Our Institution's continuous quality improvement (CQI) committee recognized that, due to growth from one to three centers, significant variability existed within plan parameters specific to patients' treatment. A multidiscipline, multiclinical site consortium was established to create a guideline for standard naming. Input was gathered using anonymous, electronic surveys from physicians, physicists, dosimetrists, chief therapists, and nurse managers. Surveys consisted of several primary areas of interest: anatomical sites, course naming, treatment plan naming, and treatment field naming. Additional concepts included capitalization, specification of later-ality, course naming in the event of multiple sites being treated within the same course of treatment, primary versus boost planning, the use of bolus, revisions for plans, image-guidance field naming, forbidden characters, and standard units for commonly used physical quantities in radiation oncology practice. Guidelines for standard treatment naming were developed that could be readily adopted. This multidisciplinary study provides a clear, straightforward, and easily implemented protocol for the radiotherapy treatment process. Standard nomenclature facilitates the safe means of communication between team members in radiation oncology. The guidelines presented in this work serve as a model for radiation oncology clinics to standardize their practices. PMID:27074449

  2. Losing Control: Conducting Studies with Comparison Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Studies in education often report the differences between participants' and non-participants' test scores, course grades, retention, and other criteria. When participants' average performance is higher, it can be difficult to attribute the improvements to participation. Comparing participants and non-participants on other measures can strengthen…

  3. Facilitating Professional Development through Teacher Study Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, La' Toya

    2010-01-01

    Differentiated instruction is a way of teaching, which gives students multiple choices to learn information. Fourth grade teachers at one elementary school were not implementing the differentiated instructional techniques that would help them address the learning needs of their students. The purpose of this project study was to create a teacher…

  4. Mongolism, Ciba Foundation Study Group Number 25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolstenholme, G. E. W., Ed.; Porter, Ruth, Ed.

    Resulting from a 1-day conference on mongolism, the book contains research studies and discussion summaries. Papers include "Parental Age, Live-Birth Order, and Pregnancy-Free Interval in Down's Syndrome in Japan" by E. Matsunaga, "Consanguineous Marriages and Mongolism" by H. Foressman and H. O. Akesson, "Correlation of Dermal Patterns on…

  5. Cluster Analysis in Minority Group Poverty Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, E. Lamar

    This paper, one of a series which arose out of data gathered on Choctaw Indians, Negroes, and whites in a low income area of Mississippi, expands upon one aspect of a recently completed analysis by the author. In the study, an attempt was made to distinguish between the characteristics associated with income levels and those related to ethnic…

  6. Hyperfractionated radiaton therapy and bis-chlorethyl nitrosourea in the treatment of malignant glioma - possible advantage observed at 72. 0 Gy in 1. 2 Gy B. I. D. fractions: Report of the radiation therapy oncology group protocol 8302

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.F. ); Curran, W.J.; Powlis, W.D. ); Scott, C. ); Nelson, J.S. ); Weinstein, A.S. ); Ahmad, K. ); Constine, L.S. ); Murray, K. ); Mohiuddin, M. ); Fischbach, J. )

    1993-01-15

    Between January 1983 and November 1987, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group conducted a prospective, randomized, multi-institutional, dose searching Phase I/II trial to evaluate hyperfractionated radiation therapy in the treatment of supratentorial malignant glioma. Patients with anaplastic astrocytoma, or glioblastoma multiforme, age 18-70 years with a Karnofsky performance status of 40-100 were stratified according to age, Karnofsky performance status, and histology, and were randomized. Initially randomization was to one of three arms: 64.8 Gy, 72.0 Gy, and 76.8 Gy. Fractions of 1.2 Gy were given twice daily, 5 days per week, with intervals of 4 to 8 hr. All patients received bis-chlorethyl nitrosourea (BCNU) 80 mg/m2 on days 3, 4, 5 of radiation therapy and then every 8 weeks for 1 year. After acceptable rates of acute and late effects were found, the randomization was changed to 81.6 Gy and 72.0 Gy with a weighting of 2:1. Out of 466 patients randomized, 435 were analyzed. The distribution of prognostic factors was comparable among the 76.8 Gy arm, 81.6 Gy arm, and the final randomization of the 72 Gy arm. The 64.8 Gy arm and the initial randomization of the 72 Gy arm had somewhat worse prognostic variables. Late radiation toxicity occurred in 1.3-6.8% of the patients, with a modest increase with increasing radiation dose. The best survival occurred in those patients treated with 72 Gy. The Cox proportional hazards model confirmed the prognostic variables of age, histology and Karnofsky performance status. In addition, the longer interval of 4.5-8 hr was associated with a worse prognosis than the 4-4.4 hr interval. The difference in survival between the 81.6 Gy arm and the lower three arms approached significance with inferior survival observed in the 81.6 Gy arm. 72 Gy delivered by 1.2 Gy twice daily is no more toxic than 60 Gy delivered conventionally. 26 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Randomized Phase III Trial to Test Accelerated Versus Standard Fractionation in Combination With Concurrent Cisplatin for Head and Neck Carcinomas in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0129 Trial: Long-Term Report of Efficacy and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix; Zhang, Qiang; Ang, K. Kian; Weber, Randal S.; Rosenthal, David I.; Soulieres, Denis; Kim, Harold; Silverman, Craig; Raben, Adam; Galloway, Thomas J.; Fortin, André; Gore, Elizabeth; Westra, William H.; Chung, Christine H.; Jordan, Richard C.; Gillison, Maura L.; List, Marcie; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We tested the efficacy and toxicity of cisplatin plus accelerated fractionation with a concomitant boost (AFX-C) versus standard fractionation (SFX) in locally advanced head and neck carcinoma (LA-HNC). Patients and Methods Patients had stage III to IV carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, or larynx. Radiation therapy schedules were 70 Gy in 35 fractions over 7 weeks (SFX) or 72 Gy in 42 fractions over 6 weeks (AFX-C). Cisplatin doses were 100 mg/m2 once every 3 weeks for two (AFX-C) or three (SFX) cycles. Toxicities were scored by using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria 2.0 and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method and were compared by using the one-sided log-rank test. Locoregional failure (LRF) and distant metastasis (DM) rates were estimated by using the cumulative incidence method and Gray's test. Results In all, 721 of 743 patients were analyzable (361, SFX; 360, AFX-C). At a median follow-up of 7.9 years (range, 0.3 to 10.1 years) for 355 surviving patients, no differences were observed in OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.96; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.18; P = .37; 8-year survival, 48% v 48%), PFS (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.24; P = .52; 8-year estimate, 42% v 41%), LRF (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.38; P = .78; 8-year estimate, 37% v 39%), or DM (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.24; P = .16; 8-year estimate, 15% v 13%). For oropharyngeal cancer, p16-positive patients had better OS than p16-negative patients (HR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.42; P < .001; 8-year survival, 70.9% v 30.2%). There were no statistically significant differences in the grade 3 to 5 acute or late toxicities between the two arms and p-16 status. Conclusion When combined with cisplatin, AFX-C neither improved outcome nor increased late toxicity in patients with LA-HNC. Long-term high survival

  8. Inconsistent labeling of food effect for oral agents across therapeutic areas: differences between oncology and non-oncology products

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Soonmo Peter; Ratain, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Several recent oral oncology drug labels were labeled to be administered in fasted states despite the fact that food increases their bioavailability. Since this was inconsistent with principles of oral drug delivery, we hypothesized that there were inconsistencies across therapeutic areas. Experimental Design Oral agents approved by US FDA from January 2000 to May 2009 were included in our study. Comparison of the food labeling patterns between oncology and non-oncology drugs was made using Fisher's exact test. Results Of 99 drugs evaluated, 34 showed significant food effects on bioavailability. When food markedly enhanced bioavailability, 8 out of 9 non-oncology drugs were labeled “fed” to take advantage of the food-drug interaction while all oncology drugs (n=3) were labeled to be administered in “fasted” states (Fisher's exact; p= 0.01). Conclusions Drug labeling pattern with respect to food-drug interactions observed with oncology drugs is in contradiction to fundamental pharmacological principles, as exemplified in the labeling of non-oncology drugs. PMID:20736327

  9. Space station group activities habitability module study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David

    1986-01-01

    This study explores and analyzes architectural design approaches for the interior of the Space Station Habitability Module (originally defined as Habitability Module 1 in Space Station Reference Configuration Decription, JSC-19989, August 1984). In the Research Phase, architectural program and habitability design guidelines are specified. In the Schematic Design Phase, a range of alternative concepts is described and illustrated with drawings, scale-model photographs and design analysis evaluations. Recommendations are presented on the internal architectural, configuration of the Space Station Habitability Module for such functions as the wardroom, galley, exercise facility, library and station control work station. The models show full design configurations for on-orbit performance.

  10. [Biosimilar drugs in oncology].

    PubMed

    Levêque, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    Biosimilar drugs are biologic drugs clinically similar to the reference products. They correspond to a generic approach applied to biologic agents. Biosimilars are aimed to provide cheaper drugs by enhancing the concurrency. The approval of biosimilars is abbreviated when compared to that of the reference biologics but includes clinical trials (distinguishing them from the generics). Current available biosimilars in oncology are filgrastim and epoietin alpha. In the next future, will be launched rituximab and trastuzumab. In France, the development of biosimilars is faced with many hurdles that necessitates a better information of physicians and a greater price discount in the out-patient setting. More globally, harmonisation of recommendations particularly concerning extrapolation of indications and nomenclature are needed for a better acceptance. PMID:26832422

  11. Nuclear medicine in oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.

    1996-12-31

    Radioactivity was discovered in the late 1890s, and as early as 1903, Alexander Graham Bell advocated that radioactivity be used to treat tumors. In 1913, the first paper describing therapeutic uses of radium was published; in 1936, {sup 24}Na was administered as a therapy to a leukemia patient. Three years later, uptake of {sup 89}Sr was noted in bone metastases. During the 1940s, there was increasing use of iodine therapy for thyroid diseases, including thyroid cancer. Diagnostic {open_quotes}imaging{close_quotes} with radioisotopes was increasingly employed in the 1930s and 40s using probes and grew in importance and utility with the development of scintillation detectors with photorecording systems. Although coincidence counting to detect positron emissions was developed in 1953, the first medical center cyclotron was not installed until 1961. The 1960s saw the development of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals, emission reconstruction tomography [giving rise to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)], and {sup 64}Ga tumor imaging. Nuclear medicine was recognized as a medical specialty in 1971. Radiolabeled antibodies targeting human tumors in animals was reported in 1973; antibody tumor imaging in humans was reported in 1978. Technology has continued to advance, including the development of SPECT cameras with coincidence detection able to perform FDG/PET imaging. With this overview as as backdrop, this paper focuses on the role of nuclear medicine in oncology from three perspectives: nonspecific tumor imaging agents, specific tumor imaging agents, and radioisotopes for tumor therapy. In summary, while tumor diagnosis and treatment were among the first uses explored for radioactivity, these areas have yet to reach their full potential. Development of new radioisotopes and new radiopharmaceuticals, coupled with improvements in technology, make nuclear oncology an area of growth for nuclear medicine.

  12. Computed Tomography Imaging in Oncology.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Lisa J

    2016-05-01

    Computed tomography (CT) imaging has become the mainstay of oncology, providing accurate tumor staging and follow-up imaging to monitor treatment response. Presurgical evaluation of tumors is becoming commonplace and guides surgeons as to the extent and whether complete tumor resection is possible. CT imaging plays a crucial role in radiotherapy treatment planning. CT imaging in oncology has become ubiquitous in veterinary medicine because of increased availability of this imaging modality. This article focuses on CT cancer staging in veterinary oncology, CT imaging for surgical planning, and advances in CT simulation for radiation therapy planning. PMID:26851976

  13. Measurement of Cardiac Index by Transpulmonary Thermodilution Using an Implanted Central Venous Access Port: A Prospective Study in Patients Scheduled for Oncologic High-Risk Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Suria, Stéphanie; Wyniecki, Anne; Eghiaian, Alexandre; Monnet, Xavier; Weil, Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    Background Transpulmonary thermodilution allows the measurement of cardiac index for high risk surgical patients. Oncologic patients often have a central venous access (port-a-catheter) for chronic treatment. The validity of the measurement by a port-a-catheter of the absolute cardiac index and the detection of changes in cardiac index induced by fluid challenge are unknown. Methods We conducted a monocentric prospective study. 27 patients were enrolled. 250 ml colloid volume expansions for fluid challenge were performed during ovarian cytoreductive surgery. The volume expansion-induced changes in cardiac index measured by transpulmonary thermodilution by a central venous access (CIcvc) and by a port-a-catheter (CIport) were recorded. Results 23 patients were analyzed with 123 pairs of measurements. Using a Bland and Altman for repeated measurements, the bias (lower and upper limits of agreement) between CIport and CIcvc was 0.14 (−0.59 to 0.88) L/min/m2. The percentage error was 22%. The concordance between the changes in CIport and CIcvc observed during volume expansion was 92% with an r = 0.7 (with exclusion zone). No complications (included sepsis) were observed during the follow up period. Conclusions The transpulmonary thermodilution by a port-a-catheter is reliable for absolute values estimation of cardiac index and for measurement of the variation after fluid challenge. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT02063009 PMID:25136951

  14. Urological medical oncology: land of opportunity.

    PubMed

    Jones, Robert

    2013-02-01

    Robert Jones speaks to Francesca Lake, Managing Commissioning Editor. Robert completed his PhD in molecular biology at the Beatson Institute for Cancer Research (Glasgow, UK) and is currently the senior lecturer in medical oncology at the University of Glasgow (UK) and a consultant at the Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre (Glasgow, UK). He is involved in the management of prostate, bladder and kidney cancers in the clinic and performs collaborative translational research with researchers from the Beatson Institute. He also manages Phase I, II and III trials in the urological cancer field, and is Chief Investigator of the TOUCAN and PLUTO trials (urothelial cancer), SAPROCAN and MAdCaP trials (prostate cancer), and the UK component of the ASPEN trial (renal cell carcinoma). Recently, he has been involved in the COMPARZ trial, which compared pazopanib with sunitinib in renal cell carcinoma patients. He is director of the Glasgow Cancer Research UK Clinical Trials Unit and is an active member of the UK National Cancer Research Institute Clinical Studies Groups in urology. PMID:23414465

  15. Professional Development within Collaborative Teacher Study Groups: Pitfalls and Promises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Teacher study groups are often thought to be effective professional development structures. Such teacher communities may foster teacher learning through a collaborative culture and the codification of group members' collective knowledge. However, not all study groups are effective professional development. This article is a discussion of factors…

  16. Study Abroad: The Reality of Building Dynamic Group Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransbury, Molly K.; Harris, Sandra A.

    1994-01-01

    The collaborative effort of a professor of human development with expertise in group process and a general education professor with expertise in Greek mythology and culture uses a case study format to apply theoretical models of group dynamics to the travel and learning experience of study abroad. Implications for course design and group process…

  17. [Oncological care according Alfred Schütz].

    PubMed

    Popim, Regina Célia; Boemer, Magali Roseira

    2005-01-01

    The study was realized among oncological nurses in their daily work routine and aimed to understand these professionals' subjective action, starting from their relation with patients, adopting a phenomenological reference framework based on the ideas of Alfred Schütz. The question: what does working in oncological care mean to you? Please describe, was used to collect statements, which were analyzed and clarified the typical action of a nurse caregiver in this daily routine. The study revealed that oncological care implies dealing with humans in a fragile situation; requires a relationship of affectivity; is care delivery that entails the genesis of professional burnout. Care delivery in oncology is highly complex, requiring a professional competence that goes beyond the technical-scientific sphere. Nursing professionals need to seek strategies which enable them to face the fatigue they are submitted to in their work. PMID:16308624

  18. International Outreach: What Is the Responsibility of ASTRO and the Major International Radiation Oncology Societies?

    SciTech Connect

    Mayr, Nina A.; Hu, Kenneth S.; Liao, Zhongxing; Viswanathan, Akila N.; Amendola, Beatriz E.; Calaguas, Miriam J.; Palta, Jatinder R.; Yue, Ning J.; Rengan, Ramesh; Williams, Timothy R.

    2014-07-01

    In this era of globalization and rapid advances in radiation oncology worldwide, the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) is committed to help decrease profound regional disparities through the work of the International Education Subcommittee (IES). The IES has expanded its base, reach, and activities to foster educational advances through a variety of educational methods with broad scope, in addition to committing to the advancement of radiation oncology care for cancer patients around the world, through close collaboration with our sister radiation oncology societies and other educational, governmental, and organizational groups.

  19. Mind-body therapies in integrative oncology.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Gary; Fisher, William; Johnson, Aimee

    2010-12-01

    There is growing interest in mind-body therapies as adjuncts to mainstream cancer treatment, and an increasing number of patients turn to these interventions for the control of emotional stress associated with cancer. Increased research funding has enabled many such interventions to be evaluated for their efficacy, including studies of mind-body interventions to reduce pain, anxiety, insomnia, anticipatory, and treatment-related nauseas, hot flashes, and improved mood. Mind-body treatments evaluated for their utility in oncology include relaxation therapies, biofeedback, meditation and hypnosis, yoga, art and music therapy, tai chi, and qigong. Although studies are not always methodologically sound and results mixed, a growing number of well-designed studies provide convincing evidence that mind-body techniques are beneficial adjuncts to cancer treatment. The evidence is sufficient to recommend further investigation and adoption of these techniques in mainstream oncology care. PMID:21116746

  20. Exercise Promotion in Geriatric Oncology.

    PubMed

    Burhenn, Peggy S; Bryant, Ashley Leak; Mustian, Karen M

    2016-09-01

    Evidence of the benefits of exercise for people with cancer from diagnosis through survivorship is growing. However, most cancers occur in older adults and little exercise advice is available for making specific recommendations for older adults with cancer. Individualized exercise prescriptions are safe, feasible, and beneficial for the geriatric oncology population. Oncology providers must be equipped to discuss the short- and long-term benefits of exercise and assist older patients in obtaining appropriate exercise prescriptions. This review provides detailed information about professionals and their roles as it relates to functional assessment, intervention, and evaluation of the geriatric oncology population. This review addresses the importance of functional status assessment and appropriate referrals to other oncology professionals. PMID:27484061