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Sample records for one-dimensional perturbation code

  1. A transport based one-dimensional perturbation code for reactivity calculations in metal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wenz, T.R.

    1995-02-01

    A one-dimensional reactivity calculation code is developed using first order perturbation theory. The reactivity equation is based on the multi-group transport equation using the discrete ordinates method for angular dependence. In addition to the first order perturbation approximations, the reactivity code uses only the isotropic scattering data, but cross section libraries with higher order scattering data can still be used with this code. The reactivity code obtains all the flux, cross section, and geometry data from the standard interface files created by ONEDANT, a discrete ordinates transport code. Comparisons between calculated and experimental reactivities were done with the central reactivity worth data for Lady Godiva, a bare uranium metal assembly. Good agreement is found for isotopes that do not violate the assumptions in the first order approximation. In general for cases where there are large discrepancies, the discretized cross section data is not accurately representing certain resonance regions that coincide with dominant flux groups in the Godiva assembly. Comparing reactivities calculated with first order perturbation theory and a straight {Delta}k/k calculation shows agreement within 10% indicating the perturbation of the calculated fluxes is small enough for first order perturbation theory to be applicable in the modeled system. Computation time comparisons between reactivities calculated with first order perturbation theory and straight {Delta}k/k calculations indicate considerable time can be saved performing a calculation with a perturbation code particularly as the complexity of the modeled problems increase.

  2. A Computer Code System for the Calculation of Reactivity and Kinetic Parameters by One-Dimensional Neutron Transport Perturbation Theory.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1985-02-01

    Version 00 TP1 is a transport theory code, developed to determine reactivity effects and kinetic parameters such as effective delayed neutron fractions and mean generation time by applying the usual perturbation formalism for one-dimensional geometry.

  3. Moving perturbation in a one-dimensional Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visuri, A.-M.; Kim, D.-H.; Kinnunen, J. J.; Massel, F.; Törmä, P.

    2014-11-01

    We simulate a balanced attractively interacting two-component Fermi gas in a one-dimensional lattice perturbed with a moving potential well or barrier. Using the time-evolving block decimation (TEBD) method, we study different velocities of the perturbation and distinguish two velocity regimes based on clear differences in the time evolution of particle densities and the pair correlation function. We show that, in the slow regime, the densities deform as particles are either attracted by the potential well or repelled by the barrier, and a wave front of hole or particle excitations propagates at the maximum group velocity. Simultaneously, the initial pair correlations are broken and coherence over different sites is lost. In contrast, in the fast regime, the densities are not considerably deformed and the pair correlations are preserved.

  4. PREMIXED ONE-DIMENSIONAL FLAME (PROF) CODE USER'S MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a user's manual that describes the problems that can be treated by the Premixed One-dimensional Flame (PROF) code. It also describes the mathematical models and solution procedures applied to these problems. Complete input instructions and a description of output ar...

  5. Sandia One-Dimensional Direct and Inverse Thermal Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-02-27

    SODDIT is a reliable tool for solving a wide variety of one-dimensional transient heat conduction problems. Originally developed in 1972 to predict the ablation of graphite/carbon bodies reentering the earth''s atmosphere, it has since been modified by the authors to extend its capabilities well beyond its original scope.

  6. Fast large scale structure perturbation theory using one-dimensional fast Fourier transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmittfull, Marcel; Vlah, Zvonimir; McDonald, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    The usual fluid equations describing the large-scale evolution of mass density in the universe can be written as local in the density, velocity divergence, and velocity potential fields. As a result, the perturbative expansion in small density fluctuations, usually written in terms of convolutions in Fourier space, can be written as a series of products of these fields evaluated at the same location in configuration space. Based on this, we establish a new method to numerically evaluate the 1-loop power spectrum (i.e., Fourier transform of the 2-point correlation function) with one-dimensional fast Fourier transforms. This is exact and a few orders of magnitude faster than previously used numerical approaches. Numerical results of the new method are in excellent agreement with the standard quadrature integration method. This fast model evaluation can in principle be extended to higher loop order where existing codes become painfully slow. Our approach follows by writing higher order corrections to the 2-point correlation function as, e.g., the correlation between two second-order fields or the correlation between a linear and a third-order field. These are then decomposed into products of correlations of linear fields and derivatives of linear fields. The method can also be viewed as evaluating three-dimensional Fourier space convolutions using products in configuration space, which may also be useful in other contexts where similar integrals appear.

  7. GASPS: A time-dependent, one-dimensional, planar gas dynamics computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.E.; Sutton, S.B.; Comfort, W.J. III

    1986-12-05

    GASP is a transient, one-dimensional planar gas dynamic computer code that can be used to calculate the propagation of a shock wave. GASP, developed at LLNL, solves the one-dimensional planar equations governing momentum, mass and energy conservation. The equations are cast in an Eulerian formulation where the mesh is fixed in space, and material flows through it. Thus it is necessary to account for convection of material from one cell to its neighbor.

  8. Proof of a Conjecture for the One-Dimensional Perturbed Gelfand Problem from Combustion Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shao-Yuan; Wang, Shin-Hwa

    2016-05-01

    We study global bifurcation curves and the exact multiplicity of positive solutions for the two-point boundary value problem arising in combustion theory: u^' ' (x)+λ exp (au/a+u) =0,quad -1 0} is the Frank-Kamenetskii parameter and a > 0 is the activation energy parameter. We prove that there exists a critical bifurcation value a 0 {≈ 4.069} such that, on the {(λ,||u||_{∞})} -plane, the bifurcation curve is S-shaped for {a > a0} and is monotone increasing for {0 < a ≤q a0} . That is, we prove the long-standing conjecture for the one-dimensional perturbed Gelfand problem. We also study, in the {(a,λ, Vert uVert _{∞})} -space, the shape and structure of the bifurcation surface.

  9. TOPAZ - the transient one-dimensional pipe flow analyzer: code validation and sample problems

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.S.

    1985-10-01

    TOPAZ is a ''user friendly'' computer code for modeling the one-dimensional-transient physics of multi-species gas transfer in arbitrary arrangements of pipes, valves, vessels, and flow branches. This document presents a series of sample problems designed to aid potential users in creating TOPAZ input files. To the extent possible, sample problems were selected for which analytical solutions currently exist. TOPAZ comparisons with such solutions are intended to provide a measure of code validation.

  10. A generalized one-dimensional computer code for turbomachinery cooling passage flow calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Ganesh N.; Roelke, Richard J.; Meitner, Peter L.

    1989-01-01

    A generalized one-dimensional computer code for analyzing the flow and heat transfer in the turbomachinery cooling passages was developed. This code is capable of handling rotating cooling passages with turbulators, 180 degree turns, pin fins, finned passages, by-pass flows, tip cap impingement flows, and flow branching. The code is an extension of a one-dimensional code developed by P. Meitner. In the subject code, correlations for both heat transfer coefficient and pressure loss computations were developed to model each of the above mentioned type of coolant passages. The code has the capability of independently computing the friction factor and heat transfer coefficient on each side of a rectangular passage. Either the mass flow at the inlet to the channel or the exit plane pressure can be specified. For a specified inlet total temperature, inlet total pressure, and exit static pressure, the code computers the flow rates through the main branch and the subbranches, flow through tip cap for impingement cooling, in addition to computing the coolant pressure, temperature, and heat transfer coefficient distribution in each coolant flow branch. Predictions from the subject code for both nonrotating and rotating passages agree well with experimental data. The code was used to analyze the cooling passage of a research cooled radial rotor.

  11. A generalized one dimensional computer code for turbomachinery cooling passage flow calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Ganesh N.; Roelke, Richard J.; Meitner, Peter L.

    1989-01-01

    A generalized one-dimensional computer code for analyzing the flow and heat transfer in the turbomachinery cooling passages was developed. This code is capable of handling rotating cooling passages with turbulators, 180 degree turns, pin fins, finned passages, by-pass flows, tip cap impingement flows, and flow branching. The code is an extension of a one-dimensional code developed by P. Meitner. In the subject code, correlations for both heat transfer coefficient and pressure loss computations were developed to model each of the above mentioned type of coolant passages. The code has the capability of independently computing the friction factor and heat transfer coefficient on each side of a rectangular passage. Either the mass flow at the inlet to the channel or the exit plane pressure can be specified. For a specified inlet total temperature, inlet total pressure, and exit static pressure, the code computers the flow rates through the main branch and the subbranches, flow through tip cap for impingement cooling, in addition to computing the coolant pressure, temperature, and heat transfer coefficient distribution in each coolant flow branch. Predictions from the subject code for both nonrotating and rotating passages agree well with experimental data. The code was used to analyze the cooling passage of a research cooled radial rotor.

  12. DOPEX-1D2C: A one-dimensional, two-constraint radiation shield optimization code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahti, G. P.

    1973-01-01

    A one-dimensional, two-constraint radiation sheild weight optimization procedure and a computer program, DOPEX-1D2C, is described. The DOPEX-1D2C uses the steepest descent method to alter a set of initial (input) thicknesses of a spherical shield configuration to achieve a minimum weight while simultaneously satisfying two dose-rate constraints. The code assumes an exponential dose-shield thickness relation with parameters specified by the user. Code input instruction, a FORTRAN-4 listing, and a sample problem are given. Typical computer time required to optimize a seven-layer shield is less than 1/2 minute on an IBM 7094.

  13. MULTI-IFE-A one-dimensional computer code for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) target simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramis, R.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

    2016-06-01

    The code MULTI-IFE is a numerical tool devoted to the study of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) microcapsules. It includes the relevant physics for the implosion and thermonuclear ignition and burning: hydrodynamics of two component plasmas (ions and electrons), three-dimensional laser light ray-tracing, thermal diffusion, multigroup radiation transport, deuterium-tritium burning, and alpha particle diffusion. The corresponding differential equations are discretized in spherical one-dimensional Lagrangian coordinates. Two typical application examples, a high gain laser driven capsule and a low gain radiation driven marginally igniting capsule are discussed. In addition to phenomena relevant for IFE, the code includes also components (planar and cylindrical geometries, transport coefficients at low temperature, explicit treatment of Maxwell's equations) that extend its range of applicability to laser-matter interaction at moderate intensities (<1016  W cm-2). The source code design has been kept simple and structured with the aim to encourage user's modifications for specialized purposes.

  14. Benchmarking report for WIGGLE: A one-dimensional transient diffusion theory code

    SciTech Connect

    Pevey, R.E.

    1990-11-01

    WIGGLE is a static/transient one-dimensional diffusion theory calculation written to estimate the axial power profile while safety rods are falling during a scram. The code is used in the LOCA Limits Analysis Package (LLAP), a part of the SRS system for calculating thermal-hydraulic limits. Since WIGGLE was designed to be implemented through LLAP and not as a stand-alone code, it consists entirely of subroutines; the problem data must be passed to it from a driver routine. This project concerned the verification of WIGGLE, which limited it to the determination that WIGGLE is correctly implementing the transient 1D diffusion equation. The approach was to compare the results of the code with three analytic solutions: a static homogeneous calculation of the pre-accident power profile (without end-fittings); a static heterogeneous calculation of the pre-accident power profile (includes end-fittings); and a transient calculation designed to test the time-dependent calculational ability. The results of all three calculations were essentially identical to the analytical solutions, thus giving us confidence that WIGGLE is correctly solving the one-dimensional time-dependent diffusion equation.

  15. TOPP: A post-processor for TOPAZ, the one dimensional pipe flow analysis code

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.W.

    1987-07-01

    TOPP is a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) post-processor for producing graphical results from the one dimensional pipe flow analysis code, TOPAZ. TOPAZ was written by W. S. Winters of Sandia National Laboratory, Livermore (SNLL) and is available on the CRAY computers at LLNL. The SNLL version of TOPAZ produces a very limited set of variables that can be used as input to a post-processor. The version at LLNL has been modified to output every time-dependent variable to an absolute binary file at the user specified minor edit frequency. TOPP reads this absolute binary file and produces a variety of graphical results. 2 refs.

  16. One-dimensional transport code modelling of the limiter-divertor region in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.M.; Post, D.E.; Jensen, R.V.; Seidl, F.G.P.

    1980-02-01

    A model of the limiter-divertor scrape-off region has been incorporated into the BALDUR one-dimensional tokamak transport code. Simulations of PDX and ALCATOR have been carried out for ohmic and neutral beam heated cases. In particular, we have studied how the edge conditions and energy loss mechanisms of PDX depend upon plasma density, and compared our results with analytic estimates. The sensitivity of the results to changes in the transport coefficients and scrape-off model is also discussed.

  17. 1DB, a one-dimensional diffusion code for nuclear reactor analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Little, W.W. Jr. )

    1991-09-01

    1DB is a multipurpose, one-dimensional (plane, cylinder, sphere) diffusion theory code for use in reactor analysis. The code is designed to do the following: To compute k{sub eff} and perform criticality searches on time absorption, reactor composition, reactor dimensions, and buckling by means of either a flux or an adjoint model; to compute collapsed microscopic and macroscopic cross sections averaged over the spectrum in any specified zone; to compute resonance-shielded cross sections using data in the shielding factor format; and to compute isotopic burnup using decay chains specified by the user. All programming is in FORTRAN. Because variable dimensioning is employed, no simple restrictions on problem complexity can be stated. The number of spatial mesh points, energy groups, upscattering terms, etc. is limited only by the available memory. The source file contains about 3000 cards. 4 refs.

  18. Robustness of one-dimensional viscous fluid motion under multidimensional perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feireisl, Eduard; Sun, Yongzhong

    2015-12-01

    We adapt the relative energy functional associated to the compressible Navier-Stokes system to show stability of solutions emanating from 1-D initial data with respect to multidimensional N = 2, 3 perturbations. Besides the application of the relative energy inequality as a suitable "distance" between two solutions, refined regularity estimates in Lp based Sobolev spaces are used.

  19. Properties of the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model from a high-order perturbative expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damski, Bogdan; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2015-12-01

    We employ a high-order perturbative expansion to characterize the ground state of the Mott phase of the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model. We compute for different integer filling factors the energy per lattice site, the two-point and density-density correlations, and expectation values of powers of the on-site number operator determining the local atom number fluctuations (variance, skewness, kurtosis). We compare these expansions to numerical simulations of the infinite-size system to determine their range of applicability. We also discuss a new sum rule for the density-density correlations that can be used in both equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems.

  20. Thermodynamic perturbation theory for associating fluids confined in a one-dimensional pore

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Bennett D.

    2015-06-21

    In this paper, a new theory is developed for the self-assembly of associating molecules confined to a single spatial dimension, but allowed to explore all orientation angles. The interplay of the anisotropy of the pair potential and the low dimensional space results in orientationally ordered associated clusters. This local order enhances association due to a decrease in orientational entropy. Unlike bulk 3D fluids which are orientationally homogeneous, association in 1D necessitates the self-consistent calculation of the orientational distribution function. To test the new theory, Monte Carlo simulations are performed and the theory is found to be accurate. It is also shown that the traditional treatment in first order perturbation theory fails to accurately describe this system. The theory developed in this paper may be used as a tool to study hydrogen bonding of molecules in 1D zeolites as well as the hydrogen bonding of molecules in carbon nanotubes.

  1. SESOIL. Code System Calculate One-Dimensional Vertical Transport Unsaturated Soil Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, S.J.; Hetrick, D.M.

    1994-08-01

    SESOIL, as an integrated screening-level soil compartment model, is designed to simultaneously model water transport, sediment transport, and pollutant fate. SESOIL is a one-dimensional vertical transport model for the unsaturated soil zone. Only one compound at a time can be considered. The model is based on mass balance and equilibrium partitioning of the chemical between different phases (dissolved, sorbed, vapor, and pure). The SESOIL model was designed to perform long-term simulations of chemical transport and transformations in the soil and uses theoretically derived equations to represent water transport, sediment transport on the land surface, pollutant transformation, and migration of the pollutant to the atmosphere and groundwater. Climatic data, compartment geometry, and soil and chemical property data are the major components used in the equations. SESOIL was developed as a screening-level model, utilizing less soil, chemical, and meteorological values as input than most other similar models. Output of SESOIL includes time-varying pollutant concentrations at various soil depths and pollutant loss from the unsaturated zone in terms of surface runoff, percolation to the groundwater, volatilization, and degradation. The February 1995 release corrects an error that caused the code to fail when average monthly air temperature was -10C and includes an improved iteration procedure for the mass balance equations in the model.

  2. NATCRCTR: One-dimensional thermal-hydraulics analysis code for natural-circulation TRIGA reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Feltus, M.A.; Rubinaccio, G.

    1996-12-31

    The Pennsylvania State University nuclear engineering department is evaluating the upgrade of the Reed College (Portland, Oregon) TRIGA reactor from 250 kW to 1 MW in two areas: thermal-hydraulics and steady-state neutronics analysis. This analysis was initiated as a cooperative effort between Penn State and Reed College as a training project for two International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) fellows from Ghana. The two Ghanaian IAEA fellows were assisted by G. Rubinaccio, an undergraduate, who undertook the task of writing the new computer programs for the thermal-hydraulic and physics evaluation as a three-credit special design project course. The Reed College TRIGA, which has a fixed graphite radial reflector, is cooled by natural circulation, without external cross-flow; whereas, the Penn State Breazeale Reactor has significant crossflow into its sides. To model the Reed TRIGA, the NATCRCTR program has been developed from first principles using the following assumptions: 1. The core is surrounded by the fixed reflector structure, which acts as a one-dimensional channel. 2. The core inlet temperature distribution is constant at the core bottom. 3. The axial heat flux distribution is a chopped cosine shape. 4. The heat transfer in the fuel is primarily in the radial directions. 5. A small gap between the fuel and cladding exists. The NATCRCTR code is used to find the peak centerline fuel, gap, and cladding surface temperatures, based on assumed flux and engineering peaking factors.

  3. SESOIL. Code System Calculate One-Dimensional Vertical Transport Unsaturated Soil Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Hetrick, D.M.; Scott, D.J.

    1994-08-01

    SESOIL, as an integrated screening-level soil compartment model, is designed to simultaneously model water transport, sediment transport, and pollutant fate. SESOIL is a one-dimensional vertical transport model for the unsaturated soil zone. Only one compound at a time can be considered. The model is based on mass balance and equilibrium partitioning of the chemical between different phases (dissolved, sorbed, vapor, and pure). The SESOIL model was designed to perform long-term simulations of chemical transport and transformations in the soil and uses theoretically derived equations to represent water transport, sediment transport on the land surface, pollutant transformation, and migration of the pollutant to the atmosphere and groundwater. Climatic data, compartment geometry, and soil and chemical property data are the major components used in the equations. SESOIL was developed as a screening-level model, utilizing less soil, chemical, and meteorological values as input than most other similar models. Output of SESOIL includes time-varying pollutant concentrations at various soil depths and pollutant loss from the unsaturated zone in terms of surface runoff, percolation to the groundwater, volatilization, and degradation. The February 1995 release corrects an error that caused the code to fail when average monthly air temperature was -10C and includes an improved iteration procedure for the mass balance equations in the model. PLEASE NOTE: The RISKPRO information management software (see OTHER PROG/OPER SYS INFO) was used by the developers of the New SESOIL User`s Guide in their study and revisions of SESOIL. Using RISKPRO in conjunction with SESOIL is an option, and it may provide the easiest way to use SESOIL. The other option, use of SESOIL in stand-alone mode, has been tested and used. The stand-alone option is covered in `Instructions for Running Stand-Alone SESOIL Code`, and in `A Seasonal Soil Compartment Model`.

  4. Code System Calculate One-Dimensional Vertical Transport Unsaturated Soil Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Bonazountas, Marcos; Wagner, Janet

    1989-03-01

    SESOIL, as an integrated screening-level soil compartment model, is designed to simultaneously model water transport, sediment transport, and pollutant fate. SESOIL is a one-dimensional vertical transport model for the unsaturated soil zone. Only one compound at a time can be considered. The model is based on mass balance and equilibrium partitioning of the chemical between different phases (dissolved, sorbed, vapor, and pure). The SESOIL model was designed to perform long-term simulations of chemical transport and transformations in the soil and uses theoretically derived equations to represent water transport, sediment transport on the land surface, pollutant transformation, and migration of the pollutant to the atmosphere and groundwater. Climatic data, compartment geometry, and soil and chemical property data are the major components used in the equations. SESOIL was developed as a screening-level model, utilizing less soil, chemical, and meteorological values as input than most other similar models. Output of SESOIL includes time-varying pollutant concentrations at various soil depths and pollutant loss from the unsaturated zone in terms of surface runoff, percolation to the groundwater, volatilization, and degradation. The February 1995 release corrects an error that caused the code to fail when average monthly air temperature was -10C and includes an improved iteration procedure for the mass balance equations in the model. PLEASE NOTE: The RISKPRO information management software (see OTHER PROG/OPER SYS INFO) was used by the developers of the New SESOIL User''s Guide in their study and revisions of SESOIL. Using RISKPRO in conjunction with SESOIL is an option, and it may provide the easiest way to use SESOIL. The other option, use of SESOIL in stand-alone mode, has been tested and used. The stand-alone option is covered in ''Instructions for Running Stand-Alone SESOIL Code'', and in ''A Seasonal Soil Compartment Model''.

  5. Code System Calculate One-Dimensional Vertical Transport Unsaturated Soil Zone

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1989-03-01

    SESOIL, as an integrated screening-level soil compartment model, is designed to simultaneously model water transport, sediment transport, and pollutant fate. SESOIL is a one-dimensional vertical transport model for the unsaturated soil zone. Only one compound at a time can be considered. The model is based on mass balance and equilibrium partitioning of the chemical between different phases (dissolved, sorbed, vapor, and pure). The SESOIL model was designed to perform long-term simulations of chemical transport andmore » transformations in the soil and uses theoretically derived equations to represent water transport, sediment transport on the land surface, pollutant transformation, and migration of the pollutant to the atmosphere and groundwater. Climatic data, compartment geometry, and soil and chemical property data are the major components used in the equations. SESOIL was developed as a screening-level model, utilizing less soil, chemical, and meteorological values as input than most other similar models. Output of SESOIL includes time-varying pollutant concentrations at various soil depths and pollutant loss from the unsaturated zone in terms of surface runoff, percolation to the groundwater, volatilization, and degradation. The February 1995 release corrects an error that caused the code to fail when average monthly air temperature was -10C and includes an improved iteration procedure for the mass balance equations in the model. PLEASE NOTE: The RISKPRO information management software (see OTHER PROG/OPER SYS INFO) was used by the developers of the New SESOIL User''s Guide in their study and revisions of SESOIL. Using RISKPRO in conjunction with SESOIL is an option, and it may provide the easiest way to use SESOIL. The other option, use of SESOIL in stand-alone mode, has been tested and used. The stand-alone option is covered in ''Instructions for Running Stand-Alone SESOIL Code'', and in ''A Seasonal Soil Compartment Model''.« less

  6. Mott-insulator phase of the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model: A high-order perturbative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damski, Bogdan; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2006-10-01

    The one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model at a unit filling factor is studied by means of a very high-order symbolic perturbative expansion. Analytical expressions are derived for the ground-state quantities such as energy per site, variance of on-site occupation, and correlation functions: ⟨âj†âj+r⟩ and ⟨n̂jn̂j+r⟩ . These findings are compared to numerics and good agreement is found in the Mott insulator phase. Our results provide analytical approximations to important observables in the Mott phase, and are also of direct relevance to future experiments with ultracold atomic gases placed in optical lattices. We also discuss the symmetry of the Bose-Hubbard model associated with the sign change of the tunneling coupling.

  7. DEXTER: A one-dimensional code for calculating thermionic performance of long converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, C. D.

    1971-01-01

    A versatile code is described for computing the coupled thermionic electric-thermal performance of long thermionic converters in which the temperature and voltage variations cannot be neglected. The code is capable of accounting for a variety of external electrical connection schemes, coolant flow paths and converter failures by partial shorting. Example problem solutions are included along with a user's manual.

  8. User's manual for the one-dimensional hypersonic experimental aero-thermodynamic (1DHEAT) data reduction code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.

    1995-01-01

    A FORTRAN computer code for the reduction and analysis of experimental heat transfer data has been developed. This code can be utilized to determine heat transfer rates from surface temperature measurements made using either thin-film resistance gages or coaxial surface thermocouples. Both an analytical and a numerical finite-volume heat transfer model are implemented in this code. The analytical solution is based on a one-dimensional, semi-infinite wall thickness model with the approximation of constant substrate thermal properties, which is empirically corrected for the effects of variable thermal properties. The finite-volume solution is based on a one-dimensional, implicit discretization. The finite-volume model directly incorporates the effects of variable substrate thermal properties and does not require the semi-finite wall thickness approximation used in the analytical model. This model also includes the option of a multiple-layer substrate. Fast, accurate results can be obtained using either method. This code has been used to reduce several sets of aerodynamic heating data, of which samples are included in this report.

  9. One-dimensional code to predict the thermal behavior of the UTSI MHD radiant furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Galanga, F.L.

    1984-03-01

    An analytical model of the thermal behavior of the radiant furnace components installed in the CFFF has been developed. Efforts have been primarily directed towards obtaining a representative global evaluation of the heat recovery of the major downstream components. An overall review of the heat transfer code developed specifically for the DOE CFFF downstream components is presented. The basic methods by which the gas state, transport properties, and the thermal radiative and convective properties are calculated are delineated. Since the thermal behavior of the furnace is radiation dominated, a greater emphasis was placed on this mode of heat transfer. The heat transfer model employs a single zone approximation to the physical problem. The results of the code show good agreement with the experimental data. A more rigorous approach to the problem requires the use of a multi-zone analysis which is presently under consideration. 21 references. (WHK)

  10. Natural Circulation of Lead-Bismuth in a One-Dimensional Loop: Experiments and Code Predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Agostini, P.; Bertacci, G.; Gherardi, G.; Bianchi, F.; Meloni, P.; Nicolini, D.; Ambrosini, W.; Forgione, F.; Fruttuoso, G.; Oriolo, F.

    2002-07-01

    The paper summarizes the results obtained by an experimental and computational study jointly performed by ENEA and University of Pisa. The study is aimed at assessing the capabilities of an available thermal-hydraulic system code in simulating natural circulation in a loop in which the working fluid is the eutectic lead-bismuth alloy as in the Italian proposal for Accelerator Driven System (ADS) reactor concepts. Experiments were performed in the CHEOPE facility installed at the ENEA Brasimone Research Centre and pre- and post-test calculations were run using a version of the RELAP5/Mod.3.2, purposely modified to account for Pb-Bi liquid alloy properties and behavior. The main results obtained by the experimental tests and by the code analyses are presented in the paper providing material to discuss the present predictive capabilities of transient and steady-state behavior in liquid Pb-Bi systems. (authors)

  11. Development of one-dimensional computational fluid dynamics code 'GFLOW' for groundwater flow and contaminant transport analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rahatgaonkar, P. S.; Datta, D.; Malhotra, P. K.; Ghadge, S. G.

    2012-07-01

    Prediction of groundwater movement and contaminant transport in soil is an important problem in many branches of science and engineering. This includes groundwater hydrology, environmental engineering, soil science, agricultural engineering and also nuclear engineering. Specifically, in nuclear engineering it is applicable in the design of spent fuel storage pools and waste management sites in the nuclear power plants. Ground water modeling involves the simulation of flow and contaminant transport by groundwater flow. In the context of contaminated soil and groundwater system, numerical simulations are typically used to demonstrate compliance with regulatory standard. A one-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics code GFLOW had been developed based on the Finite Difference Method for simulating groundwater flow and contaminant transport through saturated and unsaturated soil. The code is validated with the analytical model and the benchmarking cases available in the literature. (authors)

  12. One-Dimensional Lagrangian Code for Plasma Hydrodynamic Analysis of a Fusion Pellet Driven by Ion Beams.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1986-12-01

    Version 00 The MEDUSA-IB code performs implosion and thermonuclear burn calculations of an ion beam driven ICF target, based on one-dimensional plasma hydrodynamics and transport theory. It can calculate the following values in spherical geometry through the progress of implosion and fuel burnup of a multi-layered target. (1) Hydrodynamic velocities, density, ion, electron and radiation temperature, radiation energy density, Rs and burn rate of target as a function of coordinates and time, (2) Fusion gainmore » as a function of time, (3) Ionization degree, (4) Temperature dependent ion beam energy deposition, (5) Radiation, -particle and neutron spectra as a function of time.« less

  13. TOPAZ: The transient one-dimensional pipe flow analyzer: An update on code improvements and increased capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.S.

    1987-09-01

    TOPAZ is a ''user-friendly'' computer code for modeling the one-dimensional, transient physics of multi-species gas transfer in arbitrary arrangements of pipes, valves, vessels, and flow branches. This report, the fourth in a series of reports documenting TOPAZ, discusses coding improvements and the addition of new capabilities. These improvements make the current version of TOPAZ considerably more versatile than the original version which was distributed last year. For example, the new version does not restrict the user to modeling only hydrogen and helium isotope flows. Users now have the capability of modeling arbitrary gas mixture flows. In addition users may define time-dependent functions for mass generation, energy deposition, flow area, and maximum integration time step. Parallel flow paths and flows through channels having noncircular cross-sections may now be simulated. Improvements in TOPAZ mesh generation have been made which permit users to add additional ''plumbing'' to existing models without renumbering the mesh. 7 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Numerical Zooming Between a NPSS Engine System Simulation and a One-Dimensional High Compressor Analysis Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Follen, Gregory; auBuchon, M.

    2000-01-01

    Within NASA's High Performance Computing and Communication (HPCC) program, NASA Glenn Research Center is developing an environment for the analysis/design of aircraft engines called the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). NPSS focuses on the integration of multiple disciplines such as aerodynamics, structures, and heat transfer along with the concept of numerical zooming between zero-dimensional to one-, two-, and three-dimensional component engine codes. In addition, the NPSS is refining the computing and communication technologies necessary to capture complex physical processes in a timely and cost-effective manner. The vision for NPSS is to create a "numerical test cell" enabling full engine simulations overnight on cost-effective computing platforms. Of the different technology areas that contribute to the development of the NPSS Environment, the subject of this paper is a discussion on numerical zooming between a NPSS engine simulation and higher fidelity representations of the engine components (fan, compressor, burner, turbines, etc.). What follows is a description of successfully zooming one-dimensional (row-by-row) high-pressure compressor analysis results back to a zero-dimensional NPSS engine simulation and a discussion of the results illustrated using an advanced data visualization tool. This type of high fidelity system-level analysis, made possible by the zooming capability of the NPSS, will greatly improve the capability of the engine system simulation and increase the level of virtual test conducted prior to committing the design to hardware.

  15. User's manual for ONEDANT: a code package for one-dimensional, diffusion-accelerated, neutral-particle transport

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dell, R.D.; Brinkley, F.W. Jr.; Marr, D.R.

    1982-02-01

    ONEDANT is designed for the CDC-7600, but the program has been implemented and run on the IBM-370/190 and CRAY-I computers. ONEDANT solves the one-dimensional multigroup transport equation in plane, cylindrical, spherical, and two-angle plane geometries. Both regular and adjoint, inhomogeneous and homogeneous (k/sub eff/ and eigenvalue search) problems subject to vacuum, reflective, periodic, white, albedo, or inhomogeneous boundary flux conditions are solved. General anisotropic scattering is allowed and anisotropic inhomogeneous sources are permitted. ONEDANT numerically solves the one-dimensional, multigroup form of the neutral-particle, steady-state form of the Boltzmann transport equation. The discrete-ordinates approximation is used for treating the angular variation of the particle distribution and the diamond-difference scheme is used for phase space discretization. Negative fluxes are eliminated by a local set-to-zero-and-correct algorithm. A standard inner (within-group) iteration, outer (energy-group-dependent source) iteration technique is used. Both inner and outer iterations are accelerated using the diffusion synthetic acceleration method. (WHK)

  16. TWANG-PIC, a novel gyro-averaged one-dimensional particle-in-cell code for interpretation of gyrotron experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Braunmueller, F. Tran, T. M.; Alberti, S.; Genoud, J.; Hogge, J.-Ph.; Tran, M. Q.; Vuillemin, Q.

    2015-06-15

    A new gyrotron simulation code for simulating the beam-wave interaction using a monomode time-dependent self-consistent model is presented. The new code TWANG-PIC is derived from the trajectory-based code TWANG by describing the electron motion in a gyro-averaged one-dimensional Particle-In-Cell (PIC) approach. In comparison to common PIC-codes, it is distinguished by its computation speed, which makes its use in parameter scans and in experiment interpretation possible. A benchmark of the new code is presented as well as a comparative study between the two codes. This study shows that the inclusion of a time-dependence in the electron equations, as it is the case in the PIC-approach, is mandatory for simulating any kind of non-stationary oscillations in gyrotrons. Finally, the new code is compared with experimental results and some implications of the violated model assumptions in the TWANG code are disclosed for a gyrotron experiment in which non-stationary regimes have been observed and for a critical case that is of interest in high power gyrotron development.

  17. Determination of neutron flux distribution by using ANISN, a one-dimensional discrete S sub n ordinates transport code with anisotropic scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghorai, S. K.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to use a one-dimensional discrete coordinates transport code called ANISN in order to determine the energy-angle-spatial distribution of neutrons in a 6-feet cube rock box which houses a D-T neutron generator at its center. The project was two-fold. The first phase of the project involved adaptation of the ANISN code written for an IBM 360/75/91 computer to the UNIVAC system at JSC. The second phase of the project was to use the code with proper geometry, source function and rock material composition in order to determine the neutron flux distribution around the rock box when a 14.1 MeV neutron generator placed at its center is activated.

  18. Determination of neutron flux distribution by using ANISN, a one-dimensional discrete S sub n ordinates transport code with anisotropic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorai, S. K.

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to use a one-dimensional discrete coordinates transport code called ANISN in order to determine the energy-angle-spatial distribution of neutrons in a 6-feet cube rock box which houses a D-T neutron generator at its center. The project was two-fold. The first phase of the project involved adaptation of the ANISN code written for an IBM 360/75/91 computer to the UNIVAC system at JSC. The second phase of the project was to use the code with proper geometry, source function and rock material composition in order to determine the neutron flux distribution around the rock box when a 14.1 MeV neutron generator placed at its center is activated.

  19. One-dimensional thermohydraulic code THESEUS and its application to chilldown process simulation in two-phase hydrogen flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, P.; Skorek, T.

    THESUS is a thermohydraulic code for the calculation of steady state and transient processes of two-phase cryogenic flows. The physical model is based on four conservation equations with separate liquid and gas phase mass conservation equations. The thermohydraulic non-equilibrium is calculated by means of evaporation and condensation models. The mechanical non-equilibrium is modeled by a full-range drift-flux model. Also heat conduction in solid structures and heat exchange for the full spectrum of heat transfer regimes can be simulated. Test analyses of two-channel chilldown experiments and comparisons with the measured data have been performed.

  20. Robustness of topological quantum codes: Ising perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarei, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-02-01

    We study the phase transition from two different topological phases to the ferromagnetic phase by focusing on points of the phase transition. To this end, we present a detailed mapping from such models to the Ising model in a transverse field. Such a mapping is derived by rewriting the initial Hamiltonian in a new basis so that the final model in such a basis has a well-known approximated phase transition point. Specifically, we consider the toric codes and the color codes on various lattices with Ising perturbation. Our results provide a useful table to compare the robustness of the topological codes and to explicitly show that the robustness of the topological codes depends on triangulation of their underlying lattices.

  1. Evaluation of EPICOR-II Resin/Liner lysimeter investigation data using MIXBATH'' a one-dimensional transport code

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, J.W.; Rogers, R.D. ); Brey, R.R. ); Sullivan, T.M. )

    1992-01-01

    The computer code MIXBATH has been applied to compare model predictions with six years of leachate collection data from five lysimeters located at Oak Ridge and five located at Argonne National Laboratories. The goal of this study was to critique the applicability of these data for use as a basis for the long-term prediction of release and transport of radionuclides contained in Portland type I-II cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene waste forms loaded with EPICOR-II prefilter ion exchange resins. MIXBATH was useful in providing insight into information needs for long-term performance assessment. In most cases, the total activity released from the lysimeters over the test period was indistinguishable from background, indicating a need for longer-term data collection. In cases where there was both sufficient information available and activity released, MIXBATH was able to predict releases within an order of magnitude of those measured. Releases are extremely sensitive to the soil partition coefficient and waste form diffusion coefficient, and these were identified as the key data needs for long-term performance assessment.

  2. Evaluation of EPICOR-II Resin/Liner lysimeter investigation data using ``MIXBATH`` a one-dimensional transport code

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, J.W.; Rogers, R.D.; Brey, R.R.; Sullivan, T.M.

    1992-08-01

    The computer code MIXBATH has been applied to compare model predictions with six years of leachate collection data from five lysimeters located at Oak Ridge and five located at Argonne National Laboratories. The goal of this study was to critique the applicability of these data for use as a basis for the long-term prediction of release and transport of radionuclides contained in Portland type I-II cement and Dow vinyl ester-styrene waste forms loaded with EPICOR-II prefilter ion exchange resins. MIXBATH was useful in providing insight into information needs for long-term performance assessment. In most cases, the total activity released from the lysimeters over the test period was indistinguishable from background, indicating a need for longer-term data collection. In cases where there was both sufficient information available and activity released, MIXBATH was able to predict releases within an order of magnitude of those measured. Releases are extremely sensitive to the soil partition coefficient and waste form diffusion coefficient, and these were identified as the key data needs for long-term performance assessment.

  3. One-Dimensional, Multigroup Cross Section and Design Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis Code System - Generalized Perturbation Theory.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1981-02-02

    Version: 00 SENSIT computes the sensitivity and uncertainty of a calculated integral response (such as a dose rate) due to input cross sections and their uncertainties. Sensitivity profiles are computed for neutron and gamma-ray reaction cross sections (of standard multigroup cross-section sets) and for secondary energy distributions (SED's) of multigroup scattering matrices.

  4. One-dimensional turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Kerstein, A.R.

    1996-12-31

    One-Dimensional Turbulence is a new turbulence modeling strategy involving an unsteady simulation implemented in one spatial dimension. In one dimension, fine scale viscous and molecular-diffusive processes can be resolved affordably in simulations at high turbulence intensity. The mechanistic distinction between advective and molecular processes is thereby preserved, in contrast to turbulence models presently employed. A stochastic process consisting of mapping {open_quote}events{close_quote} applied to a one-dimensional velocity profile represents turbulent advection. The local event rate for given eddy size is proportional to the velocity difference across the eddy. These properties cause an imposed shear to induce an eddy cascade analogous in many respects to the eddy cascade in turbulent flow. Many scaling and fluctuation properties of self-preserving flows, and of passive scalars introduced into these flows, are reproduced.

  5. One-Dimensional Oscillator in a Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amore, Paolo; Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss a quantum-mechanical model of two particles that interact by means of a harmonic potential and are confined to a one-dimensional box with impenetrable walls. We apply perturbation theory to the cases of different and equal masses and analyse the symmetry of the states in the latter case. We compare the approximate perturbation results…

  6. One-Dimensional Czedli-Type Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Eszter K.; Mader, Attila; Tepavcevic, Andreja

    2011-01-01

    The notion of an island has surfaced in recent algebra and coding theory research. Discrete versions provide interesting combinatorial problems. This paper presents the one-dimensional case with finitely many heights, a topic convenient for student research.

  7. One-Dimensionality and Whiteness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Dolores

    2006-01-01

    This article is a theoretical discussion that links Marcuse's concept of one-dimensional society and the Great Refusal with critical race theory in order to achieve a more robust interrogation of whiteness. The author argues that in the context of the United States, the one-dimensionality that Marcuse condemns in "One-Dimensional Man" is best…

  8. RADONE: a computer code for simulating fast-transient, one-dimensional hydrodynamic conditions and two-layer radionuclide concentrations including the effect of bed-deposition in controlled rivers and tidal estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Eraslan, A.H.; Abdel-Razek, M.M.

    1985-05-01

    RADONE is a computer code for predicting the transient, one-dimensional transport of radiouclides in receiving water bodies. The model formulation considers the one-dimensional (cross-sectionally averaged) conservation of mass and momentum equations and the two coupled, depth-averaged radionuclide transport equations for the water layer and the bottom sediment layer. The coupling conditions incorporate bottom deposition and resuspension effects. The computer code uses a discrete-element method that offers variable river cross-section spacing, accurate representation of cross-sectional geometry, and numerical accuracy. A sample application is provided for the problem of hypothetical accidental releases and actual routine releases of radionuclides to the Hudson River.

  9. Finite-temperature second-order many-body perturbation and Hartree–Fock theories for one-dimensional solids: An application to Peierls and charge-density-wave transitions in conjugated polymers

    SciTech Connect

    He, Xiao; Ryu, Shinsei; Hirata, So

    2014-01-14

    Finite-temperature extensions of ab initio Gaussian-basis-set spin-restricted Hartree–Fock (HF) and second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theories are implemented for infinitely extended, periodic, one-dimensional solids and applied to the Peierls and charge-density-wave (CDW) transitions in polyyne and all-trans polyacetylene. The HF theory predicts insulating CDW ground states for both systems in their equidistant structures at low temperatures. In the same structures, they turn metallic at high temperatures. Starting from the “dimerized” low-temperature equilibrium structures, the systems need even higher temperatures to undergo a Peierls transition, which is accompanied by geometric as well as electronic distortions from dimerized to non-dimerized forms. The conventional finite-temperature MP2 theory shows a sign of divergence in any phase at any nonzero temperature and is useless. The renormalized finite-temperature MP2 (MP2R) theory is divergent only near metallic electronic structures, but is well behaved elsewhere. MP2R also predicts CDW and Peierls transitions occurring at two different temperatures. The effect of electron correlation is primarily to lower the Peierls transition temperature.

  10. Finite-temperature coupled-cluster, many-body perturbation, and restricted and unrestricted Hartree-Fock study on one-dimensional solids: Luttinger liquids, Peierls transitions, and spin- and charge-density waves.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Matthew R; Hirata, So

    2015-09-14

    One-dimensional (1D) solids exhibit a number of striking electronic structures including charge-density wave (CDW) and spin-density wave (SDW). Also, the Peierls theorem states that at zero temperature, a 1D system predicted by simple band theory to be a metal will spontaneously dimerize and open a finite fundamental bandgap, while at higher temperatures, it will assume the equidistant geometry with zero bandgap (a Peierls transition). We computationally study these unique electronic structures and transition in polyyne and all-trans polyacetylene using finite-temperature generalizations of ab initio spin-unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) and spin-restricted coupled-cluster doubles (CCD) theories, extending upon previous work [He et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 024702 (2014)] that is based on spin-restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) and second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theories. Unlike RHF, UHF can predict SDW as well as CDW and metallic states, and unlike MP2, CCD does not diverge even if the underlying RHF reference wave function is metallic. UHF predicts a gapped SDW state with no dimerization at low temperatures, which gradually becomes metallic as the temperature is raised. CCD, meanwhile, confirms that electron correlation lowers the Peierls transition temperature. Furthermore, we show that the results from all theories for both polymers are subject to a unified interpretation in terms of the UHF solutions to the Hubbard-Peierls model using different values of the electron-electron interaction strength, U/t, in its Hamiltonian. The CCD wave function is shown to encompass the form of the exact solution of the Tomonaga-Luttinger model and is thus expected to describe accurately the electronic structure of Luttinger liquids. PMID:26374011

  11. Finite-temperature coupled-cluster, many-body perturbation, and restricted and unrestricted Hartree–Fock study on one-dimensional solids: Luttinger liquids, Peierls transitions, and spin- and charge-density waves

    SciTech Connect

    Hermes, Matthew R.; Hirata, So

    2015-09-14

    One-dimensional (1D) solids exhibit a number of striking electronic structures including charge-density wave (CDW) and spin-density wave (SDW). Also, the Peierls theorem states that at zero temperature, a 1D system predicted by simple band theory to be a metal will spontaneously dimerize and open a finite fundamental bandgap, while at higher temperatures, it will assume the equidistant geometry with zero bandgap (a Peierls transition). We computationally study these unique electronic structures and transition in polyyne and all-trans polyacetylene using finite-temperature generalizations of ab initio spin-unrestricted Hartree–Fock (UHF) and spin-restricted coupled-cluster doubles (CCD) theories, extending upon previous work [He et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 024702 (2014)] that is based on spin-restricted Hartree–Fock (RHF) and second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theories. Unlike RHF, UHF can predict SDW as well as CDW and metallic states, and unlike MP2, CCD does not diverge even if the underlying RHF reference wave function is metallic. UHF predicts a gapped SDW state with no dimerization at low temperatures, which gradually becomes metallic as the temperature is raised. CCD, meanwhile, confirms that electron correlation lowers the Peierls transition temperature. Furthermore, we show that the results from all theories for both polymers are subject to a unified interpretation in terms of the UHF solutions to the Hubbard–Peierls model using different values of the electron-electron interaction strength, U/t, in its Hamiltonian. The CCD wave function is shown to encompass the form of the exact solution of the Tomonaga–Luttinger model and is thus expected to describe accurately the electronic structure of Luttinger liquids.

  12. One-Dimensional Grid Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerstein, Alan R.; Nilsen, Vebjørn

    1998-11-01

    To capture molecular mixing and other small scale phenomena such as chemical reactions and differential diffusion, it is essential to resolve all the length (and time) scales. For large Reynolds number flows this is impossible to do in three-dimensional turbulence simulations with the current and foreseeable future computer technology. To circumvent this problem the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model, as the name implies, considers only one spatial dimension in which all the length scales can be resolved even at very large Reynolds numbers. To incorporate the effect of advection on a one-dimensional domain, the evolution of the velocity and scalar profiles is randomly interrupted by a sequence of profile rearrangements representing the effect of turbulent eddies. Results obtained from ODT simulations of grid turbulence with a passive scalar are presented. The decay exponents for the velocity and passive scalar fluctuations, as predicted by ODT, compare favorably with experimental data.

  13. Transient One-dimensional Pipe Flow Analyzer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1986-04-08

    TOPAZ-SNLL, the Transient One- dimensional Pipe flow AnalyZer code, is a user-friendly computer program for modeling the heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and thermodynamics of multi-species gas transfer in arbitrary arrangements of pipes, valves, vessels, and flow branches. Although the flow conservation equations are assumed to be one-dimensional and transient, multidimensional features of internal fluid flow and heat transfer may be accounted for using the available quasi-steady flow correlations (e.g., Moody friction factor correlation and variousmore » form loss and heat transfer correlations). Users may also model the effects of moving system boundaries such as pistons, diaphragms, and bladders. The features of fully compressible flow are modeled, including the propagation of shocks and rarefaction waves, as well as the establishment of multiple choke points along the flow path.« less

  14. Transient One-dimensional Pipe Flow Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    1986-04-08

    TOPAZ-SNLL, the Transient One- dimensional Pipe flow AnalyZer code, is a user-friendly computer program for modeling the heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and thermodynamics of multi-species gas transfer in arbitrary arrangements of pipes, valves, vessels, and flow branches. Although the flow conservation equations are assumed to be one-dimensional and transient, multidimensional features of internal fluid flow and heat transfer may be accounted for using the available quasi-steady flow correlations (e.g., Moody friction factor correlation and various form loss and heat transfer correlations). Users may also model the effects of moving system boundaries such as pistons, diaphragms, and bladders. The features of fully compressible flow are modeled, including the propagation of shocks and rarefaction waves, as well as the establishment of multiple choke points along the flow path.

  15. Supersonic propulsion simulation by incorporating component models in the large perturbation inlet (LAPIN) computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Gary L.; Richard, Jacques C.

    1991-01-01

    An approach to simulating the internal flows of supersonic propulsion systems is presented. The approach is based on a fairly simple modification of the Large Perturbation Inlet (LAPIN) computer code. LAPIN uses a quasi-one dimensional, inviscid, unsteady formulation of the continuity, momentum, and energy equations. The equations are solved using a shock capturing, finite difference algorithm. The original code, developed for simulating supersonic inlets, includes engineering models of unstart/restart, bleed, bypass, and variable duct geometry, by means of source terms in the equations. The source terms also provide a mechanism for incorporating, with the inlet, propulsion system components such as compressor stages, combustors, and turbine stages. This requires each component to be distributed axially over a number of grid points. Because of the distributed nature of such components, this representation should be more accurate than a lumped parameter model. Components can be modeled by performance map(s), which in turn are used to compute the source terms. The general approach is described. Then, simulation of a compressor/fan stage is discussed to show the approach in detail.

  16. Development of Generalized Perturbation Theory Capability within the SCALE Code Package

    SciTech Connect

    Jessee, Matthew Anderson; Williams, Mark L; DeHart, Mark D

    2009-01-01

    Computational capability has been developed to calculate sensitivity coefficients of generalized responses with respect to cross-section data in the SCALE code system. The focus of this paper is the implementation of generalized perturbation theory (GPT) for one-dimensional and two-dimensional deterministic neutron transport calculations. GPT is briefly summarized for computing sensitivity coefficients for reaction rate ratio responses within the existing framework of the TSUNAMI sensitivity and uncertainty (S/U) analysis code package in SCALE. GPT provides the capability to analyze generalized responses related to reactor analysis, such as homogenized cross-sections, relative powers, and conversion ratios, as well as measured experimental parameters such as 28 (epithermal/thermal 238U capture rates) in thermal benchmarks and fission ratios such as 239Pu(n,f)/235U(n,f) in fast benchmarks. The S/U analysis of these experimental integral responses can be used to augment the existing TSUNAMI S/U analysis capabilities for system similarity assessment and data adjustment. S/U analysis is provided for boiling water reactor pin cell as part of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Uncertainty Analysis in Modeling benchmark.

  17. One-Dimensional Heat Conduction

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, Steven B.

    1992-03-09

    ICARUS-LLNL was developed to solve one-dimensional planar, cylindrical, or spherical conduction heat transfer problems. The IBM PC version is a family of programs including ICARUSB, an interactive BASIC heat conduction program; ICARUSF, a FORTRAN heat conduction program; PREICAR, a BASIC preprocessor for ICARUSF; and PLOTIC and CPLOTIC, interpretive BASIC and compiler BASIC plot postprocessor programs. Both ICARUSB and ICARUSF account for multiple material regions and complex boundary conditions, such as convection or radiation. In addition, ICARUSF accounts for temperature-dependent material properties and time or temperature-dependent boundary conditions. PREICAR is a user-friendly preprocessor used to generate or modify ICARUSF input data. PLOTIC and CPLOTIC generate plots of the temperature or heat flux profile at specified times, plots of the variation of temperature or heat flux with time at selected nodes, or plots of the solution grid. First developed in 1974 to allow easy modeling of complex one-dimensional systems, its original application was in the nuclear explosive testing program. Since then it has undergone extensive revision and been applied to problems dealing with laser fusion target fabrication, heat loads on underground tests, magnetic fusion switching tube anodes, and nuclear waste isolation canisters.

  18. One-Dimensional Heat Conduction

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-03-09

    ICARUS-LLNL was developed to solve one-dimensional planar, cylindrical, or spherical conduction heat transfer problems. The IBM PC version is a family of programs including ICARUSB, an interactive BASIC heat conduction program; ICARUSF, a FORTRAN heat conduction program; PREICAR, a BASIC preprocessor for ICARUSF; and PLOTIC and CPLOTIC, interpretive BASIC and compiler BASIC plot postprocessor programs. Both ICARUSB and ICARUSF account for multiple material regions and complex boundary conditions, such as convection or radiation. In addition,more » ICARUSF accounts for temperature-dependent material properties and time or temperature-dependent boundary conditions. PREICAR is a user-friendly preprocessor used to generate or modify ICARUSF input data. PLOTIC and CPLOTIC generate plots of the temperature or heat flux profile at specified times, plots of the variation of temperature or heat flux with time at selected nodes, or plots of the solution grid. First developed in 1974 to allow easy modeling of complex one-dimensional systems, its original application was in the nuclear explosive testing program. Since then it has undergone extensive revision and been applied to problems dealing with laser fusion target fabrication, heat loads on underground tests, magnetic fusion switching tube anodes, and nuclear waste isolation canisters.« less

  19. One-dimensional Quantum Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervais, Guillaume

    2015-03-01

    Fifty year ago, Joachim Mazdak Luttinger generalized the Tomonaga theory of interactions in a one-dimensional metal and show that the prior restrictions imposed by Tomonaga were not necessary. This model is now known as the Tomonaga- Luttinger liquid model (TLL) and most remarkably it does have mathematically exact solutions. In the case of electrons, it predicts that the spin and charge sector should separate, with each of them propagating with their own velocities. While there has been many attempts (some with great success) to observe TLL behaviour in clean quantum wires designed on an ultra-clean semiconductor platform, overall the Luttinger physics is experimentally still in its infancy. For instance, little is known regarding the 1D physics in a strongly-interacting neutral system, whether from the point-of-view of TLL theory or even localization physics. Helium-4, the paradigm superfluid, and Helium-3, the paradigm Fermi liquid, should in principleboth become Luttinger liquids if taken to the one-dimensional limit. In the bosonic case, this is supported by large-scale Quantum Monte Carlo simulations which found that a lengthscale of ~ 2 nm is sufficient for the system to crossover to the 1D regime and display universal Luttinger scaling. At McGill University, an experiment has been constructed to measure the liquid helium mass flow through a single nanopore. The technique consists of drilling a single nanopore in a SiN membrane using a TEM, and then applying a pressure gradient across the membrane. Previously published data in 45nm diameter hole determined the superfluid critical velocity to be close to the limit set by the Feynman vortex rings model. More recent work performed on nanopores with radii as small as 3 nm (and a length of 30nm) show the critical exponent for superfluid velocity to significantly deviate from its bulk value, 2/3. This is an important hint for the crossing over to the one-dimensional state in a strongly-correlated bosonic liquid.

  20. GATO Code Modification to Compute Plasma Response to External Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, A. D.; Chu, M. S.; Ng, E.; Li, X. S.; James, A.

    2006-10-01

    It has become increasingly clear that the plasma response to an external nonaxiymmetric magnetic perturbation cannot be neglected in many situations of interest. This response can be described as a linear combination of the eigenmodes of the ideal MHD operator. The eigenmodes of the system can be obtained numerically with the GATO ideal MHD stability code, which has been modified for this purpose. A key requirement is the removal of inadmissible continuum modes. For Finite Hybrid Element codes such as GATO, a prerequisite for this is their numerical restabilization by addition of small numerical terms to δ,to cancel the analytic numerical destabilization. In addition, robustness of the code was improved and the solution method speeded up by use of the SuperLU package to facilitate calculation of the full set of eigenmodes in a reasonable time. To treat resonant plasma responses, the finite element basis has been extended to include eigenfunctions with finite jumps at rational surfaces. Some preliminary numerical results for DIII-D equilibria will be given.

  1. One-dimensional wave turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Vladimir; Dias, Frédéric; Pushkarev, Andrei

    2004-08-01

    The problem of turbulence is one of the central problems in theoretical physics. While the theory of fully developed turbulence has been widely studied, the theory of wave turbulence has been less studied, partly because it developed later. Wave turbulence takes place in physical systems of nonlinear dispersive waves. In most applications nonlinearity is small and dispersive wave interactions are weak. The weak turbulence theory is a method for a statistical description of weakly nonlinear interacting waves with random phases. It is not surprising that the theory of weak wave turbulence began to develop in connection with some problems of plasma physics as well as of wind waves. The present review is restricted to one-dimensional wave turbulence, essentially because finer computational grids can be used in numerical computations. Most of the review is devoted to wave turbulence in various wave equations, and in particular in a simple one-dimensional model of wave turbulence introduced by Majda, McLaughlin and Tabak in 1997. All the considered equations are model equations, but consequences on physical systems such as ocean waves are discussed as well. The main conclusion is that the range in which the theory of pure weak turbulence is valid is narrow. In general, wave turbulence is not completely weak. Together with the weak turbulence component, it can include coherent structures, such as solitons, quasisolitons, collapses or broad collapses. As a result, weak and strong turbulence coexist. In situations where coherent structures cannot develop, weak turbulence dominates. Even though this is primarily a review paper, new results are presented as well, especially on self-organized criticality and on quasisolitonic turbulence.

  2. One-dimensional silicone nanofilaments.

    PubMed

    Artus, Georg R J; Seeger, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    A decade ago one-dimensional silicone nanofilaments (1D-SNF) such as fibres and wires were described for the first time. Since then, the exploration of 1D-SNF has led to remarkable advancements with respect to material science and surface science: one-, two- and three-dimensional nanostructures of silicone were unknown before. The discovery of silicone nanostructures marks a turning point in the research on the silicone material at the nanoscale. Coatings made of 1D-SNF are among the most superhydrophobic surfaces known today. They are free of fluorine, can be applied to a large range of technologically important materials and their properties can be modified chemically. This opens the way to many interesting applications such as water harvesting, superoleophobicity, separation of oil and water, patterned wettability and storage and manipulation of data on a surface. Because of their high surface area, coatings consisting of 1D-SNF are used for protein adsorption experiments and as carrier systems for catalytically active nanoparticles. This paper reviews the current knowledge relating to the broad development of 1D-SNF technologies. Common preparation and coating techniques are presented along with a comparison and discussion of the published coating parameters to provide an insight on how these affect the topography of the 1D-SNF or coating. The proposed mechanisms of growth are presented, and their potentials and shortcomings are discussed. We introduce all explored applications and finally identify future prospects and potentials of 1D-SNF with respect to applications in material science and surface science. PMID:24742356

  3. Reflectometry as a fluctuation diagnostic: A one-dimensional simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, A.E.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Peebles, W.A.; Rhodes, T.L. )

    1992-10-01

    Reflectometry is currently employed to characterize turbulence in fusion plasmas worldwide and is expected to be a major diagnostic on the next generation of machines (e.g., ITER). Until recently, little was known about the response of a reflectometer to fluctuations (degree of localization of the signal, sensitivity to fluctuation wave number, dependence on density scale length, etc.). To elucidate these properties, we have been modeling reflectometer behavior with a code based on solution of a one-dimensional full wave equation. The code models an infinite plane plasma with density gradient in the {ital x} direction and solves the full wave equation to find the electric field of the reflectometer's electromagnetic wave. It can simulate stationary and moving density perturbations with arbitrary waveforms and wave numbers in plasmas with arbitrary density profiles. We present results of test cases comparing computational results to known analytic solutions for linear and 1{minus}{alpha}{sup 2}/{ital x}{sup 2} plasma density profiles, which show very good agreement.

  4. A One Dimensional, Time Dependent Inlet/Engine Numerical Simulation for Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, Doug; Davis, Milt, Jr.; Cole, Gary

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) have developed a closely coupled computer simulation system that provides a one dimensional, high frequency inlet/engine numerical simulation for aircraft propulsion systems. The simulation system, operating under the LeRC-developed Application Portable Parallel Library (APPL), closely coupled a supersonic inlet with a gas turbine engine. The supersonic inlet was modeled using the Large Perturbation Inlet (LAPIN) computer code, and the gas turbine engine was modeled using the Aerodynamic Turbine Engine Code (ATEC). Both LAPIN and ATEC provide a one dimensional, compressible, time dependent flow solution by solving the one dimensional Euler equations for the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. Source terms are used to model features such as bleed flows, turbomachinery component characteristics, and inlet subsonic spillage while unstarted. High frequency events, such as compressor surge and inlet unstart, can be simulated with a high degree of fidelity. The simulation system was exercised using a supersonic inlet with sixty percent of the supersonic area contraction occurring internally, and a GE J85-13 turbojet engine.

  5. One dimensional representations in quantum optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janszky, J.; Adam, P.; Foldesi, I.; Vinogradov, An. V.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of representing the quantum states of a harmonic oscillator not on the whole alpha-plane but on its one dimensional manifolds is considered. It is shown that a simple Gaussian distribution along a straight line describes a quadrature squeezed state while a similar Gaussian distribution along a circle leads to the amplitude squeezed state. The connection between the one dimensional representations and the usual Glauber representation is discussed.

  6. One-dimensional Gromov minimal filling problem

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Alexandr O; Tuzhilin, Alexey A

    2012-05-31

    The paper is devoted to a new branch in the theory of one-dimensional variational problems with branching extremals, the investigation of one-dimensional minimal fillings introduced by the authors. On the one hand, this problem is a one-dimensional version of a generalization of Gromov's minimal fillings problem to the case of stratified manifolds. On the other hand, this problem is interesting in itself and also can be considered as a generalization of another classical problem, the Steiner problem on the construction of a shortest network connecting a given set of terminals. Besides the statement of the problem, we discuss several properties of the minimal fillings and state several conjectures. Bibliography: 38 titles.

  7. Heredity in one-dimensional quadratic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romera, M.; Pastor, G.; Alvarez, G.; Montoya, F.

    1998-12-01

    In an iterative process, as is the case of a one-dimensional quadratic map, heredity has never been mentioned. In this paper we show that the pattern of a superstable orbit of a one-dimensional quadratic map can be expressed as the sum of the gene of the chaotic band where the pattern is to be found, and the ancestral path that joins all its ancestors. The ancestral path holds all the needed genetic information to calculate the descendants of the pattern. The ancestral path and successive descendant generations of the pattern constitute the family tree of the pattern, which is important to study and understand the orbit's ordering.

  8. One-Dimensional Wavefront Sensor Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-04-25

    This software analyzes one-dimensional wavefront sensor data acquired with any of several data acquisition systems. It analyzes the data to determine centroids, wavefront slopes and overall wavefront error. The data can be displayed in many formats, with plots of various parameters vs time and position, including computer generated movies. Data can also be exported for use by other programs.

  9. Decay of fermionic quasiparticles in one-dimensional quantum liquids.

    PubMed

    Matveev, K A; Furusaki, A

    2013-12-20

    The low-energy properties of one-dimensional quantum liquids are commonly described in terms of the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid theory, in which the elementary excitations are free bosons. To this approximation, the theory can be alternatively recast in terms of free fermions. In both approaches, small perturbations give rise to finite lifetimes of excitations. We evaluate the decay rate of fermionic excitations and show that it scales as the eighth power of energy, in contrast to the much faster decay of bosonic excitations. Our results can be tested experimentally by measuring the broadening of power-law features in the density structure factor or spectral functions. PMID:24483750

  10. Programmers manual for a one-dimensional Lagrangian transport model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoellhamer, D.H.; Jobson, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    A one-dimensional Lagrangian transport model for simulating water-quality constituents such as temperature, dissolved oxygen , and suspended sediment in rivers is presented in this Programmers Manual. Lagrangian transport modeling techniques, the model 's subroutines, and the user-written decay-coefficient subroutine are discussed in detail. Appendices list the program codes. The Programmers Manual is intended for the model user who needs to modify code either to adapt the model to a particular need or to use reaction kinetics not provided with the model. (Author 's abstract)

  11. Computer model of one-dimensional equilibrium controlled sorption processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grove, D.B.; Stollenwerk, K.G.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical solution to the one-dimensional solute-transport equation with equilibrium-controlled sorption and a first-order irreversible-rate reaction is presented. The computer code is written in FORTRAN language, with a variety of options for input and output for user ease. Sorption reactions include Langmuir, Freundlich, and ion-exchange, with or without equal valance. General equations describing transport and reaction processes are solved by finite-difference methods, with nonlinearities accounted for by iteration. Complete documentation of the code, with examples, is included. (USGS)

  12. Hybrid Nanomaterials: One Dimensional Nanoparticle Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Nikhil; Pochan, Darrin

    2007-03-01

    One-dimensional nanoparticle assemblies have potential applications in sensing, as plasmon and energy waveguides and in the conduction of novel signals such as phonons and spin states. Herein we present two strategies for the fabrication of such assemblies. Micro and meso-scale particle assemblies have been produced via a coaxial electrospinning process that results in assemblies of particles (silica and silver) encapsulated within a polymer nanofiber (polyethylene oxide). The method has been demonstrated successfully in the creation of 1D assemblies of differently sized silica particles. The effect of change in solution concentrations and relative flow rates in internal and external channels of the coaxial electrospinning apparatus on the structure of these assemblies has been investigated. Nano-scale assemblies of gold particles have been prepared by templating gold nanoparticles on a 20 amino acid peptide that displays laminated morphology. These assemblies are formed as laterally spaced one-dimensional nanoparticle assemblies.

  13. Superconducting cosmic strings and one dimensional extended supersymmetric algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Oikonomou, V.K.

    2014-11-15

    In this article we study in detail the supersymmetric structures that underlie the system of fermionic zero modes around a superconducting cosmic string. Particularly, we extend the analysis existing in the literature on the one dimensional N=2 supersymmetry and we find multiple N=2, d=1 supersymmetries. In addition, compact perturbations of the Witten index of the system are performed and we find to which physical situations these perturbations correspond. More importantly, we demonstrate that there exists a much more rich supersymmetric structure underlying the system of fermions with N{sub f} flavors and these are N-extended supersymmetric structures with non-trivial topological charges, with “N” depending on the fermion flavors.

  14. Loschmidt echo in one-dimensional interacting Bose gases

    SciTech Connect

    Lelas, K.; Seva, T.; Buljan, H.

    2011-12-15

    We explore Loschmidt echo in two regimes of one-dimensional interacting Bose gases: the strongly interacting Tonks-Girardeau (TG) regime, and the weakly interacting mean-field regime. We find that the Loschmidt echo of a TG gas decays as a Gaussian when small (random and time independent) perturbations are added to the Hamiltonian. The exponent is proportional to the number of particles and the magnitude of a small perturbation squared. In the mean-field regime the Loschmidt echo shows richer behavior: it decays faster for larger nonlinearity, and the decay becomes more abrupt as the nonlinearity increases; it can be very sensitive to the particular realization of the noise potential, especially for relatively small nonlinearities.

  15. Casimir forces between defects in one-dimensional quantum liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Recati, A.; Fuchs, J.N.; Peca, C.S.; Zwerger, W.

    2005-08-15

    We discuss the effective interactions between two localized perturbations in one-dimensional quantum liquids. For noninteracting fermions, the interactions exhibit Friedel oscillations, giving rise to a Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida-type interaction familiar from impurity spins in metals. In the interacting case, at low energies, a Luttinger-liquid description applies. In the case of repulsive fermions, the Friedel oscillations of the interacting system are replaced, at long distances, by a universal Casimir-type interaction which depends only on the sound velocity and decays inversely with the separation. The Casimir-type interaction between localized perturbations embedded in a fermionic environment gives rise to a long-range coupling between quantum dots in ultracold Fermi gases, opening an alternative to couple qubits with neutral atoms. We also briefly discuss the case of bosonic quantum liquids in which the interaction between weak impurities turns out to be short ranged, decaying exponentially on the scale of the healing length.

  16. Wave turbulence in one-dimensional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, V. E.; Guyenne, P.; Pushkarev, A. N.; Dias, F.

    2001-05-01

    A two-parameter nonlinear dispersive wave equation proposed by Majda, McLaughlin and Tabak is studied analytically and numerically as a model for the study of wave turbulence in one-dimensional systems. Our ultimate goal is to test the validity of weak turbulence theory. Although weak turbulence theory is independent on the sign of the nonlinearity of the model, the numerical results show a strong dependence on the sign of the nonlinearity. A possible explanation for this discrepancy is the strong influence of coherent structures - wave collapses and quasisolitons - in wave turbulence.

  17. One-dimensional hypersonic phononic crystals.

    PubMed

    Gomopoulos, N; Maschke, D; Koh, C Y; Thomas, E L; Tremel, W; Butt, H-J; Fytas, G

    2010-03-10

    We report experimental observation of a normal incidence phononic band gap in one-dimensional periodic (SiO(2)/poly(methyl methacrylate)) multilayer film at gigahertz frequencies using Brillouin spectroscopy. The band gap to midgap ratio of 0.30 occurs for elastic wave propagation along the periodicity direction, whereas for inplane propagation the system displays an effective medium behavior. The phononic properties are well captured by numerical simulations. The porosity in the silica layers presents a structural scaffold for the introduction of secondary active media for potential coupling between phonons and other excitations, such as photons and electrons. PMID:20141118

  18. The one-dimensional hydrogen atom revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palma, G.; Raff, U.

    2006-09-01

    The one-dimensional Schrodinger hydrogen atom is an interesting mathematical and physical problem for the study of bound states, eigenfunctions, and quantum-degeneracy issues. This one-dimensional physical system has given rise to some intriguing controversy for more than four decades. Presently, still no definite consensus seems to have been reached. We reanalyzed this apparently controversial problem, approaching it from a Fourier-transform representation method combined with some fundamental (basic) ideas found in self-adjoint extensions of symmetric operators. In disagreement with some previous claims, we found that the complete Balmer energy spectrum is obtained together with an odd-parity set of eigenfunctions. Closed-form solutions in both coordinate and momentum spaces were obtained. No twofold degeneracy was observed as predicted by the degeneracy theorem in one dimension, though it does not necessarily have to hold for potentials with singularities. No ground state with infinite energy exists since the corresponding eigenfunction does not satisfy the Schrodinger equation at the origin.

  19. An improved lambda-scheme for one-dimensional flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moretti, G.; Dipiano, M. T.

    1983-01-01

    A code for the calculation of one-dimensional flows is presented, which combines a simple and efficient version of the lambda-scheme with tracking of discontinuities. The latter is needed to identify points where minor departures from the basic integration scheme are applied to prevent infiltration of numerical errors. Such a tracking is obtained via a systematic application of Boolean algebra. It is, therefore, very efficient. Fifteen examples are presented and discussed in detail. The results are exceptionally good. All discontinuites are captured within one mesh interval.

  20. Accuracy of differential sensitivity for one-dimensional shock problems

    SciTech Connect

    Henninger, R.J.; Maudlin, P.J.; Rightley, M.L.

    1998-07-01

    The technique called Differential Sensitivity has been applied to the system of Eulerian continuum mechanics equations solved by a hydrocode. Differential Sensitivity uses forward and adjoint techniques to obtain output response sensitivity to input parameters. Previous papers have described application of the technique to two-dimensional, multi-component problems. Inaccuracies in the adjoint solutions have prompted us to examine our numerical techniques in more detail. Here we examine one-dimensional, one material shock problems. Solution accuracy is assessed by comparison to sensitivities obtained by automatic differentiation and a code-based adjoint differentiation technique. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Aperiodicity in one-dimensional cellular automata

    SciTech Connect

    Jen, E.

    1990-01-01

    Cellular automata are a class of mathematical systems characterized by discreteness (in space, time, and state values), determinism, and local interaction. A certain class of one-dimensional, binary site-valued, nearest-neighbor automata is shown to generate infinitely many aperiodic temporal sequences from arbitrary finite initial conditions on an infinite lattice. The class of automaton rules that generate aperiodic temporal sequences are characterized by a particular form of injectivity in their interaction rules. Included are the nontrivial linear'' automaton rules (that is, rules for which the superposition principle holds); certain nonlinear automata that retain injectivity properties similar to those of linear automata; and a wider subset of nonlinear automata whose interaction rules satisfy a weaker form of injectivity together with certain symmetry conditions. A technique is outlined here that maps this last set of automata onto a linear automaton, and thereby establishes the aperiodicity of their temporal sequences. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Superfluid helium-4 in one dimensional channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Duk Y.; Banavar, Samhita; Chan, Moses H. W.; Hayes, John; Sazio, Pier

    2013-03-01

    Superfluidity, as superconductivity, cannot exist in a strict one-dimensional system. However, the experiments employing porous media showed that superfluid helium can flow through the pores of nanometer size. Here we report a study of the flow of liquid helium through a single hollow glass fiber of 4 cm in length with an open id of 150 nm between 1.6 and 2.3 K. We found the superfluid transition temperature was suppressed in the hollow cylinder and that there is no flow above the transition. Critical velocity at temperature below the transition temperature was determined. Our results bear some similarity to that found by Savard et. al. studying the flow of helium through a nanohole in a silicon nitrite membrane. Experimental study at Penn State is supported by NSF Grants No. DMR 1103159.

  3. One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Superprisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical calculations indicate that it should be possible for one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystals (see figure) to exhibit giant dispersions known as the superprism effect. Previously, three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal superprisms have demonstrated strong wavelength dispersion - about 500 times that of conventional prisms and diffraction gratings. Unlike diffraction gratings, superprisms do not exhibit zero-order transmission or higher-order diffraction, thereby eliminating cross-talk problems. However, the fabrication of these 3D photonic crystals requires complex electron-beam substrate patterning and multilayer thin-film sputtering processes. The proposed 1D superprism is much simpler in structural complexity and, therefore, easier to design and fabricate. Like their 3D counterparts, the 1D superprisms can exhibit giant dispersions over small spectral bands that can be tailored by judicious structure design and tuned by varying incident beam direction. Potential applications include miniature gas-sensing devices.

  4. Three one-dimensional structural heating programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Two computer programs for calculating profiles in a ten-element structure consisting of up to ten materials are presented, along with a third program for calculating the mean temperature for a payload container placed in an orbiting vehicle cargo bay. The three programs are related by the sharing of a common analytical technique; the energy balance is based upon one-dimensional heat transfer. The first program, NQLDW112, assumes a non-ablating surface. NQLDW117 is very similar but allows the outermost element to ablate. NQLDW040 calculates an average temperature profile through an idealized model of the real payload cannister and contents in the cargo bay of an orbiting vehicle.

  5. Unitary equivalent classes of one-dimensional quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Hiromichi

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates unitary equivalent classes of one-dimensional quantum walks. We prove that one-dimensional quantum walks are unitary equivalent to quantum walks of Ambainis type and that translation-invariant one-dimensional quantum walks are Szegedy walks. We also present a necessary and sufficient condition for a one-dimensional quantum walk to be a Szegedy walk.

  6. One-dimensional photonic crystal fishbone hybrid nanocavity with nanoposts

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Tsan-Wen; Lin, Pin-Tso; Lee, Po-Tsung

    2014-05-12

    We propose and investigate a one-dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) fishbone (FB) hybrid nanocavity lying on silver substrate with a horizontal air slot. With very few PhC periods, the confined transverse-magnetic, TM{sub 10} hybrid mode concentrated within the air slot shows high quality factor over effective mode volume ratio larger than 10{sup 5}λ{sup −3}. Most importantly, this FB hybrid nanocavity allows formation of low-index nanoposts within the air slot without significantly affecting the mode properties. These nanoposts guarantee the structural stabilities under different environmental perturbations. Furthermore, capabilities of our proposed design in serving as optical sensors and tweezers for bio-sized nanoparticles are also investigated.

  7. A new code to study structures in collisionally active, perturbed debris discs: application to binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thébault, P.

    2012-01-01

    Context. Debris discs are traditionally studied using two distinct types of numerical models: statistical particle-in-a-box codes to study their collisional and size distribution evolution, and dynamical N-body models to study their spatial structure. The absence of collisions in N-body codes is in particular a major shortcoming, as collisional processes are expected to significantly alter the results obtained from pure N-body runs. Aims: We present a new numerical model, to study the spatial structure of perturbed debris discs in both a dynamical and collisional steady-state. We focus on the competing effects of gravitational perturbations by a massive body (planet or star), the collisional production of small grains, and the radiation pressure placing these grains in possibly dynamically unstable regions. Methods: We consider a disc of parent bodies in a dynamical steady-state, from which small radiation-pressure-affected grains are released in a series of runs, each corresponding to a different orbital position of the perturber, where particles are assigned a collisional destruction probability. These collisional runs produce successive position maps that are then recombined, following a complex procedure, to generate surface density profiles for each orbital position of the perturbing body. Results: We apply our code to the case of a circumprimary disc in a binary. We find pronounced structures inside and outside the dynamical stability regions. For low eB, the disc's structure is time varying, with spiral arms in the dynamically "forbidden" region precessing with the companion star. For high eB, the disc is strongly asymmetric but time invariant, with a pronounced density drop in the binary's periastron direction.

  8. One-dimensional immiscible displacement experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, N. R.; Graham, D. N.; Farquhar, G. J.

    1992-08-01

    In recent years, a great deal of attention has focused on the development of various methods to predict the fate of immiscible contaminants (NAPL's) in soils. In an attempt to satisfy this requirement, a host of numerical models has been developed. Unfortunately, there exist little experimental data to verify the assumptions used in the derivation of these immiscible flow models. One objective of this paper is to report on a non-destructive measurement technique which was used to capture the relative organic-phase saturation variations in a number of two-phase flow displacement experiments. The data obtained from these experiments were compared to results obtained from a one-dimensional, finite-element based, two-phase flow model. The experiments consisted of five separate trials using three different immiscible liquids (hydraulic oil, kerosene and hexane) in a water-saturated column. Irregular immiscible liquid infiltration fronts were observed in four of the five experiments, indicating that very small-scale heterogeneities control the infiltration of immiscible liquids into soil. Independent of the column experiments, saturation-capillary pressure curves were determined for the various liquids. In general, the simulated NAPL saturation vs. time profiles agreed very well with the observations for all five of the trials.

  9. Transport in a one-dimensional hyperconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plamadeala, Eugeniu; Mulligan, Michael; Nayak, Chetan

    2016-03-01

    We define a "hyperconductor" to be a material whose electrical and thermal dc conductivities are infinite at zero temperature and finite at any nonzero temperature. The low-temperature behavior of a hyperconductor is controlled by a quantum critical phase of interacting electrons that is stable to all potentially gap-generating interactions and potentially localizing disorder. In this paper, we compute the low-temperature dc and ac electrical and thermal conductivities in a one-dimensional hyperconductor, studied previously by the present authors, in the presence of both disorder and umklapp scattering. We identify the conditions under which the transport coefficients are finite, which allows us to exhibit examples of violations of the Wiedemann-Franz law. The temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity, which is characterized by the parameter ΔX, is a power law, σ ∝1 /T1 -2 (2 -ΔX) when ΔX≥2 , down to zero temperature when the Fermi surface is commensurate with the lattice. There is a surface in parameter space along which ΔX=2 and ΔX≈2 for small deviations from this surface. In the generic (incommensurate) case with weak disorder, such scaling is seen at high temperatures, followed by an exponential increase of the conductivity lnσ ˜1 /T at intermediate temperatures and, finally, σ ∝1 /T2 -2 (2 -ΔX) at the lowest temperatures. In both cases, the thermal conductivity diverges at low temperatures.

  10. Transport in a One-Dimensional Hyperconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plamadeala, Eugeniu; Mulligan, Michael; Nayak, Chetan

    We define a `hyperconductor' to be a material whose electrical and thermal DC conductivities are infinite at zero temperature. The low-temperature behavior of a hyperconductor is controlled by a quantum critical phase of interacting electrons that is stable to all potentially-gap-generating interactions and arbitrary potentially-localizing disorder. We compute the low-temperature DC and AC electrical and thermal conductivities in a one-dimensional hyperconductor, studied previously by the present authors, in the presence of both disorder and umklapp scattering. We identify the conditions under which the transport coefficients are finite, and exhibit examples of violations of the Wiedemann-Franz law. We show that the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity is a power law, σ ~ 1 /T 1 - 2 (2 -ΔX) for ΔX >= 2 , down to zero temperature when the Fermi surface is commensurate with the lattice. In the incommensurate case with weak disorder, such scaling is seen at high-temperatures, followed by an exponential increase of the conductivity lnσ ~ 1 / T at intermediate temperatures and, finally, σ ~ 1 /T 2 - 2 (2 -ΔX) at the lowest temperatures. In both cases, the thermal conductivity diverges at low temperatures.

  11. Using the NASA GRC Sectored-One-Dimensional Combustor Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Mehta, Vishal R.

    2014-01-01

    The document is a user manual for the NASA GRC Sectored-One-Dimensional (S-1-D) Combustor Simulation. It consists of three sections. The first is a very brief outline of the mathematical and numerical background of the code along with a description of the non-dimensional variables on which it operates. The second section describes how to run the code and includes an explanation of the input file. The input file contains the parameters necessary to establish an operating point as well as the associated boundary conditions (i.e. how it is fed and terminated) of a geometrically configured combustor. It also describes the code output. The third section describes the configuration process and utilizes a specific example combustor to do so. Configuration consists of geometrically describing the combustor (section lengths, axial locations, and cross sectional areas) and locating the fuel injection point and flame region. Configuration requires modifying the source code and recompiling. As such, an executable utility is included with the code which will guide the requisite modifications and insure that they are done correctly.

  12. The one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation and its some excitation states

    SciTech Connect

    Prayitno, T. B.

    2015-04-16

    We have derived some excitation states of the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation coupled by the gravitational potential. The methods that we have used here are taken by pursuing the recent work of Kivshar et. al. by considering the equation as a macroscopic quantum oscillator. To obtain the states, we have made the appropriate transformation to reduce the three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation into the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation and applying the time-independent perturbation theory in the general solution of the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation as a linear superposition of the normalized eigenfunctions of the Schrödinger equation for the harmonic oscillator potential. Moreover, we also impose the condition by assuming that some terms in the equation should be so small in order to preserve the use of the perturbation method.

  13. One-Dimensional Analysis Techniques for Pulsed Blowing Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, Frank

    2005-11-01

    Pulsed blowing offers reductions in bleed air requirements for aircraft flow control. Efficient pulsed blowing systems require careful design to minimize bleed air use while distributing blowing to multiple locations. Pulsed blowing systems start with a steady flow supply and process it to generate a pulsatile flow. The fluid-acoustic dynamics of the system play an important role in overall effectiveness. One-dimensional analysis techniques that in the past have been applied to ventilation systems and internal combustion engines have been adapted to pulsed blowing. Pressure wave superposition and reflection are used with the governing equations of continuity, momentum and energy to determine particle velocities and pressures through the flow field. Simulations have been performed to find changes in the amplitude and wave shape as pulses are transmitted through a simple pulsed blowing system. A general-purpose code is being developed to simulate wave transmission and allow the determination of blowing system dynamic parameters.

  14. Quasi-one-dimensional foam drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassia, P.; Cilliers, J. J.; Neethling, S. J.; Ventura-Medina, E.

    Foam drainage is considered in a froth flotation cell. Air flow through the foam is described by a simple two-dimensional deceleration flow, modelling the foam spilling over a weir. Foam microstructure is given in terms of the number of channels (Plateau borders) per unit area, which scales as the inverse square of bubble size. The Plateau border number density decreases with height in the foam, and also decreases horizontally as the weir is approached. Foam drainage equations, applicable in the dry foam limit, are described. These can be used to determine the average cross-sectional area of a Plateau border, denoted A, as a function of position in the foam. Quasi-one-dimensional solutions are available in which A only varies vertically, in spite of the two-dimensional nature of the air flow and Plateau border number density fields. For such situations the liquid drainage relative to the air flow is purely vertical. The parametric behaviour of the system is investigated with respect to a number of dimensionless parameters: K (the strength of capillary suction relative to gravity), α (the deceleration of the air flow), and n and h (respectively, the horizontal and vertical variations of the Plateau border number density). The parameter K is small, implying the existence of boundary layer solutions: capillary suction is negligible except in thin layers near the bottom boundary. The boundary layer thickness (when converted back to dimensional variables) is independent of the height of the foam. The deceleration parameter α affects the Plateau border area on the top boundary: weaker decelerations give larger Plateau border areas at the surface. For weak decelerations, there is rapid convergence of the boundary layer solutions at the bottom onto ones with negligible capillary suction higher up. For strong decelerations, two branches of solutions for A are possible in the K=0 limit: one is smooth, and the other has a distinct kink. The full system, with small but non

  15. TOPAZ - the transient one-dimensional pipe flow analyzer: equations and numerics

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.S.

    1985-12-01

    TOPAZ is a ''user friendly'' computer code for modeling the one-dimensional, transient physics of multi-species gas transfer in arbitrary arrangements of pipes, valves, vessels, and flow branches. This report, the third in a series of reports documenting TOPAZ, deals exclusively with governing equations, numerical methods, and code architecture.

  16. Decay of Bogoliubov excitations in one-dimensional Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristivojevic, Zoran; Matveev, K. A.

    2016-07-01

    We study the decay of Bogoliubov quasiparticles in one-dimensional Bose gases. Starting from the hydrodynamic Hamiltonian, we develop a microscopic theory that enables one to systematically study both the excitations and their decay. At zero temperature, the leading mechanism of decay of a quasiparticle is disintegration into three others. We find that low-energy quasiparticles (phonons) decay with the rate that scales with the seventh power of momentum, whereas the rate of decay of the high-energy quasiparticles does not depend on momentum. In addition, our approach allows us to study analytically the quasiparticle decay in the whole crossover region between the two limiting cases. When applied to integrable models, including the Lieb-Liniger model of bosons with contact repulsion, our theory confirms the absence of the decay of quasiparticle excitations. We account for two types of integrability-breaking perturbations that enable finite decay: three-body interaction between the bosons and two-body interaction of finite range.

  17. Bulk-edge correspondence of one-dimensional quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedzich, C.; Grünbaum, F. A.; Stahl, C.; Velázquez, L.; Werner, A. H.; Werner, R. F.

    2016-05-01

    We outline a theory of symmetry protected topological phases of one-dimensional quantum walks. We assume spectral gaps around the symmetry-distinguished points +1 and ‑1, in which only discrete eigenvalues are allowed. The phase classification by integer or binary indices extends the classification known for translation invariant systems in terms of their band structure. However, our theory requires no translation invariance whatsoever, and the indices we define in this general setting are invariant under arbitrary symmetric local perturbations, even those that cannot be continuously contracted to the identity. More precisely we define two indices for every walk, characterizing the behavior far to the right and far to the left, respectively. Their sum is a lower bound on the number of eigenstates at +1 and ‑1. For a translation invariant system the indices add up to zero, so one of them already characterizes the phase. By joining two bulk phases with different indices we get a walk in which the right and left indices no longer cancel, so the theory predicts bound states at +1 or ‑1. This is a rigorous statement of bulk-edge correspondence. The results also apply to the Hamiltonian case with a single gap at zero.

  18. Berry phase oscillations in a one-dimensional Dirac comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, William; Cassera, Nicholas; Rave, Matthew

    In quantum mechanics, the Berry phase is a geometric phase acquired by a wave function over the course of a cycle, when subjected to adiabatic processes. In general, this phase is due to the geometry of the underlying parameter space and thus depends only on the path taken. In any system described by a periodic potential, the torus topology of the Brillouin zone itself can lead to such a phase. In this work, we numerically calculate the Berry phase for a one-dimensional Dirac comb described by N distinct wells per unit cell. As expected, the resulting Berry phase exhibits a rich band-dependence. In the case where N = 2 , we find that the Berry phase corresponding to the nth energy band oscillates such that γn (x) =An sin (πx) cos [ (2 n - 1) πx ] , where An is a band-dependent constant and 0 < x < 1 is the relative position of the two wells. This expression, obtained using perturbation theory, gives excellent agreement with exact numerical results, even at low energy levels. The Berry phase exhibits a similar behavior for cases where N > 2 .

  19. TOPAZ - the transient one-dimensional pipe flow analyzer: user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.S.

    1985-07-01

    TOPAZ is a ''user friendly'' computer code for modeling the one-dimensional-transient physics of multi-species gas transfer in arbitrary arrangements of pipes, valves, vessels, and flow branches. This document serves as a user's manual for the code, and should provide potential users with enough information to take advantage of many of the code's capabilities. Details regarding equations and numerics, example problems, applications, and modeling assumptions will be discussed in companion documents.

  20. A collision history-based approach to Sensitivity/Perturbation calculations in the continuous energy Monte Carlo code SERPENT

    SciTech Connect

    Giuseppe Palmiotti

    2015-05-01

    In this work, the implementation of a collision history-based approach to sensitivity/perturbation calculations in the Monte Carlo code SERPENT is discussed. The proposed methods allow the calculation of the eects of nuclear data perturbation on several response functions: the eective multiplication factor, reaction rate ratios and bilinear ratios (e.g., eective kinetics parameters). SERPENT results are compared to ERANOS and TSUNAMI Generalized Perturbation Theory calculations for two fast metallic systems and for a PWR pin-cell benchmark. New methods for the calculation of sensitivities to angular scattering distributions are also presented, which adopts fully continuous (in energy and angle) Monte Carlo estimators.

  1. Topological states in one dimensional solids and photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atherton, Timothy; Mathur, Harsh

    2011-03-01

    We show that the band structure of a one-dimensional solid with particle-hole symmetry may be characterized by a topological index that owes its existence to the non-trivial homotopy of the space of non-degenerate real symmetric matrices. Moreover we explicitly demonstrate a theorem linking the topological index to the existence of bound states on the surface of a semi-infinite one dimensional solid. Our analysis is a one-dimensional analogue of the analysis of topological insulators in two and three dimensions by Balents and Moore; our results may be relevant to long molecules that are the one dimensional analogue of topological insulators. We propose the realization of this physics in a one-dimensional photonic crystal. In this case the topology of the bandstructure reveals itself not as a bound surface state but as a Lorentzian feature in the time delay of light that is otherwise perfectly reflected by the photonic crystal.

  2. Spatial modes in one-dimensional models for capillary jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, J.; González, H.; García, F. J.

    2016-03-01

    One-dimensional (1D) models are widely employed to simplify the analysis of axisymmetric capillary jets. These models postulate that, for slender deformations of the free surface, the radial profile of the axial velocity can be approximated as uniform (viscous slice, averaged, and Cosserat models) or parabolic (parabolic model). In classical works on spatial stability analysis with 1D models, considerable misinterpretation was generated about the modes yielded by each model. The already existing physical analysis of three-dimensional (3D) axisymmetric spatial modes enables us to relate these 1D spatial modes to the exact 3D counterparts. To do so, we address the surface stimulation problem, which can be treated as linear, by considering the effect of normal and tangential stresses to perturb the jet. A Green's function for a spatially local stimulation having a harmonic time dependence provides the general formalism to describe any time-periodic stimulation. The Green's function of this signaling problem is known to be a superposition of the spatial modes, but in fact these modes are of fundamental nature, i.e., not restricted to the surface stimulation problem. The smallness of the wave number associated with each mode is the criterion to validate or invalidate the 1D approaches. The proposed axial-velocity profiles (planar or parabolic) also have a remarkable influence on the outcomes of each 1D model. We also compare with the classical 3D results for (i) conditions for absolute instability, and (ii) the amplitude of the unstable mode resulting from both normal and tangential surface stress stimulation. Incidentally, as a previous task, we need to re-deduce 1D models in order to include eventual stresses of various possible origins (electrohydrodynamic, thermocapillary, etc.) applied on the free surface, which were not considered in the previous general formulations.

  3. Study on longitudinal dispersion relation in one-dimensional relativistic plasma: Linear theory and Vlasov simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.; Wu, S. Z.; Zhou, C. T.; He, X. T.; Key Laboratory of HEDP of the Ministry of Education, CAPT, Peking University, Beijing 100871 ; Zhu, S. P.

    2013-09-15

    The dispersion relation of one-dimensional longitudinal plasma waves in relativistic homogeneous plasmas is investigated with both linear theory and Vlasov simulation in this paper. From the Vlasov-Poisson equations, the linear dispersion relation is derived for the proper one-dimensional Jüttner distribution. Numerically obtained linear dispersion relation as well as an approximate formula for plasma wave frequency in the long wavelength limit is given. The dispersion of longitudinal wave is also simulated with a relativistic Vlasov code. The real and imaginary parts of dispersion relation are well studied by varying wave number and plasma temperature. Simulation results are in agreement with established linear theory.

  4. Quasi-One-Dimensional Modeling of Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Christopher I.

    2002-01-01

    . While such a nozzle is a considerable idealization, it is clear that nozzle design and optimization will play a critical role in whether the performance potential of PDREs can be effectively realized in practice. In order to study PDRE nozzle issues with greater accuracy, a quasi-one-dimensional, finite-rate chemistry CFD code has been developed by the author. Comparisons of the code with both the previous MOC model and experimental data from Stanford University are reported. The effect of constant-gamma and finite-rate chemistry assumptions on the flowfield and performance is examined. Parametric studies of the effect of nozzle throat size and expansion ratio, at various blowdown pressure ratios, are reported.

  5. Extending the Analysis of One-Dimensional Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canderle, Luis H.

    1999-01-01

    Proposes that introductory physics courses extend the analysis of one-dimensional motion to a more sophisticated level. Gives four experimental setups and graphical analysis of the distance, velocity, and acceleration in the vertical and horizontal directions. (WRM)

  6. Asymptotic formula for eigenvalues of one dimensional Dirac system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulusoy, Ismail; Penahlı, Etibar

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we study the spectral problem for one dimensional Dirac system with Dirichlet boundary conditions. By using Counting lemma, we give an asymptotic formulas of eigenvalues of Dirac system.

  7. One dimensional time-to-explode (ODTX) in HMX spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Breshears, D.

    1997-06-02

    In a series of papers researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have reported measurements of the time to explosion in spheres of various high explosives following a rapid, uniform increase in the surface temperature of the sphere. Due to the spherical symmetry, the time-dependent properties of the explosive (temperature, chemical composition, etc.) are functions of the radial spatial coordinate only; thus the name one-dimensional time-to-explosion (ODTX). The LLNL researchers also report an evolving series of computational modeling results for the ODTX experiments, culminating in those obtained using a sophisticated heat transfer code incorporating accurate descriptions of chemical reaction. Although the chemical reaction mechanism used to describe HMX decomposition is quite simple, the computational results agree very well with the experimental data. In addition to reproducing the magnitude and temperature dependence of the measured times to explosion, the computational results also agree with the results of post reaction visual inspection. The ODTX experiments offer a near-ideal example of a transport process (heat transfer in this case) tightly coupled with chemical reaction. The LLNL computational model clearly captures the important features of the ODTX experiments. An obvious question of interest is to what extent the model and/or its individual components (specifically the chemical reaction mechanism) are applicable to other experimental scenarios. Valid exploration of this question requires accurate understanding of (1) the experimental scenario addressed by the LLNL model and (2) details of the application of the model. The author reports here recent work addressing points (1) and (2).

  8. The nature of one-dimensional carbon: polyynic versus cumulenic.

    PubMed

    Neiss, Christian; Trushin, Egor; Görling, Andreas

    2014-08-25

    A question of both fundamental as well as practical importance is the nature of one-dimensional carbon, in particular whether a one-dimensional carbon allotrope is polyynic or cumulenic, that is, whether bond-length alternation occurs or not. By combining the concept of aromaticity and antiaromaticity with the rule of Peierls distortion, the occurrence and magnitude of bond-length alternation in carbon chains with periodic boundary conditions and corresponding carbon rings as a function of the chain or ring length can be explained. The electronic properties of one-dimensional carbon depend crucially on the bond-length alternation. Whereas it is generally accepted that carbon chains in the limit of infinite length have a polyynic structure at the minimum of the potential energy surface with bond-length alternation, we show here that zero-point vibrations lead to an effective equalization of all carbon-carbon bond lengths and thus to a cumulenic structure. PMID:24962252

  9. One-dimensional rainbow technique using Fourier domain filtering.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingchun; Promvongsa, Jantarat; Wu, Xuecheng; Cen, Kefa; Grehan, Gerard; Saengkaew, Sawitree

    2015-11-16

    Rainbow refractometry can measure the refractive index and the size of a droplet simultaneously. The refractive index measurement is extracted from the absolute rainbow scattering angle. Accordingly, the angular calibration is vital for accurate measurements. A new optical design of the one-dimensional rainbow technique is proposed by using a one-dimensional spatial filter in the Fourier domain. The relationship between the scattering angle and the CCD pixel of a recorded rainbow image can be accurately determined by a simple calibration. Moreover, only the light perpendicularly incident on the lens in the angle (φ) direction is selected, which exactly matches the classical inversion algorithm used in rainbow refractometry. Both standard and global one-dimensional rainbow techniques are implemented with the proposed optical design, and are successfully applied to measure the refractive index and the size of a line of n-heptane droplets. PMID:26698532

  10. One-Dimensional Quasicrystals from Incommensurate Charge Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flicker, Felix; van Wezel, Jasper

    2015-12-01

    Artificial quasicrystals are nowadays routinely manufactured, yet only two naturally occurring examples are known. We present a class of systems with the potential to be realized both artificially and in nature, in which the lowest energy state is a one-dimensional quasicrystal. These systems are based on incommensurately charge-ordered materials, in which the quasicrystalline phase competes with the formation of a regular array of discommensurations as a way of interpolating between incommensurate charge order at high temperatures and commensurate order at low temperatures. The nonlocal correlations characteristic of the quasicrystalline state emerge from a free-energy contribution localized in reciprocal space. We present a theoretical phase diagram showing that the required material properties for the appearance of such a ground state allow for one-dimensional quasicrystals to form in real materials. The result is a potentially wide class of one-dimensional quasicrystals.

  11. One dimensional speckle fields generated by three phase level diffusers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabezas, L.; Amaya, D.; Bolognini, N.; Lencina, A.

    2015-02-01

    Speckle patterns have usually been obtained by using ground glass as random diffusers. Liquid-crystal spatial light modulators have opened the possibility of engineering tailored speckle fields obtained from designed diffusers. In this work, one-dimensional Gaussian speckle fields with fully controllable features are generated. By employing a low-cost liquid-crystal spatial light modulator, one-dimensional three phase level diffusers are implemented. These diffusers make it possible to control average intensity distribution and statistical independence among the generated patterns. The average speckle size is governed by an external slit pupil. A theoretical model to describe the generated speckle patterns is developed. Experimental and theoretical results confirming the generation of one-dimensional speckle fields are presented. Some possible applications of these speckles, such as atom trapping and super-resolution imaging, are briefly envisaged.

  12. Quantum solution for the one-dimensional Coulomb problem

    SciTech Connect

    Nunez-Yepez, H. N.; Salas-Brito, A. L.; Solis, Didier A.

    2011-06-15

    The one-dimensional hydrogen atom has been a much studied system with a wide range of applications. Since the pioneering work of Loudon [R. Loudon, Am. J. Phys. 27, 649 (1959).], a number of different features related to the nature of the eigenfunctions have been found. However, many of the claims made throughout the years in this regard are not correct--such as the existence of only odd eigenstates or of an infinite binding-energy ground state. We explicitly show that the one-dimensional hydrogen atom does not admit a ground state of infinite binding energy and that the one-dimensional Coulomb potential is not its own supersymmetric partner. Furthermore, we argue that at the root of many such false claims lies the omission of a superselection rule that effectively separates the right side from the left side of the singularity of the Coulomb potential.

  13. Some topological states in one-dimensional cold atomic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Feng; Zhang, Dan-Wei; Zhu, Shi-Liang

    2015-07-15

    Ultracold atoms trapped in optical lattices nowadays have been widely used to mimic various models from condensed-matter physics. Recently, many great experimental progresses have been achieved for producing artificial magnetic field and spin–orbit coupling in cold atomic systems, which turn these systems into a new platform for simulating topological states. In this paper, we give a review focusing on quantum simulation of topologically protected soliton modes and topological insulators in one-dimensional cold atomic system. Firstly, the recent achievements towards quantum simulation of one-dimensional models with topological non-trivial states are reviewed, including the celebrated Jackiw–Rebbi model and Su–Schrieffer–Heeger model. Then, we will introduce a dimensional reduction method for systematically constructing high dimensional topological states in lower dimensional models and review its applications on simulating two-dimensional topological insulators in one-dimensional optical superlattices.

  14. An exact solution of solute transport by one-dimensional random velocity fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cvetkovic, V.D.; Dagan, G.; Shapiro, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of one-dimensional transport of passive solute by a random steady velocity field is investigated. This problem is representative of solute movement in porous media, for example, in vertical flow through a horizontally stratified formation of variable porosity with a constant flux at the soil surface. Relating moments of particle travel time and displacement, exact expressions for the advection and dispersion coefficients in the Focker-Planck equation are compared with the perturbation results for large distances. The first- and second-order approximations for the dispersion coefficient are robust for a lognormal velocity field. The mean Lagrangian velocity is the harmonic mean of the Eulerian velocity for large distances. This is an artifact of one-dimensional flow where the continuity equation provides for a divergence free fluid flux, rather than a divergence free fluid velocity. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Spin-Lattice Order in One-Dimensional Conductors: Beyond the RKKY Effect.

    PubMed

    Schecter, Michael; Rudner, Mark S; Flensberg, Karsten

    2015-06-19

    We investigate magnetic order in a lattice of classical spins coupled to an isotropic gas of one-dimensional conduction electrons via local exchange interactions. The frequently discussed Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida effective exchange model for this system predicts that spiral order is always preferred. Here we consider the problem nonperturbatively, and find that such order vanishes above a critical value of the exchange coupling that depends strongly on the lattice spacing. The critical coupling tends to zero as the lattice spacing becomes commensurate with the Fermi wave vector, signaling the breakdown of the perturbative Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida picture, and spiral order, even at weak coupling. We provide the exact phase diagram for arbitrary exchange coupling and lattice spacing, and discuss its stability. Our results shed new light on the problem of utilizing a spiral spin-lattice state to drive a one-dimensional superconductor into a topological phase. PMID:26197005

  16. Spin-Lattice Order in One-Dimensional Conductors: Beyond the RKKY Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schecter, Michael; Rudner, Mark S.; Flensberg, Karsten

    2015-06-01

    We investigate magnetic order in a lattice of classical spins coupled to an isotropic gas of one-dimensional conduction electrons via local exchange interactions. The frequently discussed Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida effective exchange model for this system predicts that spiral order is always preferred. Here we consider the problem nonperturbatively, and find that such order vanishes above a critical value of the exchange coupling that depends strongly on the lattice spacing. The critical coupling tends to zero as the lattice spacing becomes commensurate with the Fermi wave vector, signaling the breakdown of the perturbative Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida picture, and spiral order, even at weak coupling. We provide the exact phase diagram for arbitrary exchange coupling and lattice spacing, and discuss its stability. Our results shed new light on the problem of utilizing a spiral spin-lattice state to drive a one-dimensional superconductor into a topological phase.

  17. Pose estimation for one-dimensional object with general motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinbo; Song, Ge; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2014-11-01

    Our primary interest is in real-time one-dimensional object's pose estimation. In this paper, a method to estimate general motion one-dimensional object's pose, that is, the position and attitude parameters, using a single camera is proposed. Centroid-movement is necessarily continuous and orderly in temporal space, which means it follows at least approximately certain motion law in a short period of time. Therefore, the centroid trajectory in camera frame can be described as a combination of temporal polynomials. Two endpoints on one-dimensional object, A and B, at each time are projected on the corresponding image plane. With the relationship between A, B and centroid C, we can obtain a linear equation system related to the temporal polynomials' coefficients, in which the camera has been calibrated and the image coordinates of A and B are known. Then in the cases that object moves continuous in natural temporal space within the view of a stationary camera, the position of endpoints on the one-dimensional object can be located and also the attitude can be estimated using two end points. Moreover the position of any other point aligned on one-dimensional object can also be solved. Scene information is not needed in the proposed method. If the distance between the endpoints is not known, a scale factor between the object's real positions and the estimated results will exist. In order to improve the algorithm's performance from accuracy and robustness, we derive a pain of linear and optimal algorithms. Simulations' and experiments' results show that the method is valid and robust with respect to various Gaussian noise levels. The paper's work contributes to making self-calibration algorithms using one-dimensional objects applicable to practice. Furthermore, the method can also be used to estimate the pose and shape parameters of parallelogram, prism or cylinder objects.

  18. Hybrid surface-relief/volume one dimensional holographic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchetta, D. E.; Spegni, P.; Di Donato, A.; Simoni, F.; Castagna, R.

    2015-04-01

    Many one dimensional optically patterned photopolymers exist as surface relief or volume phase gratings. However, as far as we know, holographically recorded acrylate-based gratings in which both configurations are present are not described in literature. In this work we report a two steps fabrication process in which a large-area high-resolution hybrid volume/surface relief grating phase gratings is created in a thin film of multiacrylate material spinned on a proper designed substrate. Optical and morphological investigations, made on the optically patterned area, confirm the presence of a one dimensional double (surface relief and Bragg volume phase) periodic structure.

  19. Lateral electronic screening in quasi-one-dimensional plasmons.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, T; Tegenkamp, C; Pfnür, H

    2016-09-01

    The properties of one-dimensional (1D) plasmons are rather unexplored. We investigated the plasmonic collective excitations, measured as one-dimensional plasmon dispersions with electron energy loss spectroscopy, highly resolved both in energy and lateral momentum, for both phases of Au induced chains on stepped Si(553) substrates. We observe 1D dispersions that are strongly influenced by the lateral chain width and by the interchain coupling. Indications for the existence of two different plasmons originating from two surface bands of the systems are given for the low coverage phase. PMID:27384978

  20. Lateral electronic screening in quasi-one-dimensional plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenstein, T.; Tegenkamp, C.; Pfnür, H.

    2016-09-01

    The properties of one-dimensional (1D) plasmons are rather unexplored. We investigated the plasmonic collective excitations, measured as one-dimensional plasmon dispersions with electron energy loss spectroscopy, highly resolved both in energy and lateral momentum, for both phases of Au induced chains on stepped Si(553) substrates. We observe 1D dispersions that are strongly influenced by the lateral chain width and by the interchain coupling. Indications for the existence of two different plasmons originating from two surface bands of the systems are given for the low coverage phase.

  1. Explicit solutions of one-dimensional total variation problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makovetskii, Artyom; Voronin, Sergei; Kober, Vitaly

    2015-09-01

    This work deals with denosing of a one-dimensional signal corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise. A common way to solve the problem is to utilize the total variation (TV) method. Basically, the TV regularization minimizes a functional consisting of the sum of fidelity and regularization terms. We derive explicit solutions of the one-dimensional TV regularization problem that help us to restore noisy signals with a direct, non-iterative algorithm. Computer simulation results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed algorithm for restoration of noisy signals.

  2. One-dimensional fast migration of vacancy clusters in metals

    SciTech Connect

    Matsukawa, Yoshitaka; Zinkle, Steven J

    2007-01-01

    The migration of point defects, e.g. crystal lattice vacancies and self-interstitial atoms (SIAs), typically occurs through three-dimensional (3-D) random walk. However, when vacancies and SIAs agglomerate with like defects forming clusters, the migration mode may change. Recently, atomic-scale computer simulations using molecular dynamics (MD) codes have reported that nanometer-sized two-dimensional (2-D) clusters of SIAs exhibit one-dimensional (1-D) fast migration1-7. The 1-D migration mode transports the entire cluster containing several tens of SIAs with a mobility comparable to single SIAs3. This anisotropic migration of SIA clusters can have a significant impact on the evolution of a material fs neutron-irradiation damage microstructure, which dominates the material fs lifetime in nuclear reactor environments8-9. This is also proposed to be a key physical mechanism for the self-organization of nanometer-sized sessile vacancy cluster arrays10-13. Given these findings for SIA clusters, a fundamental question is whether the 1-D migration mode is also possible for 2-D clusters of vacancies. Preceding MD results predicted that 1-D migration of vacancy clusters is possible in body-centered cubic (bcc) iron, but not in face-centered cubic (fcc) copper2. Previous experimental studies have reported 1-D migration of SIA clusters14, but there have been no observations of 1-D vacancy cluster migration. Here we present the first experimental transmission electron microscopy (TEM) dynamic observation demonstrating the 1-D migration of vacancy clusters in fcc gold. It was found that the mobility of the vacancy clusters via the 1-D migration is much higher than single vacancies via 3-D random walk and comparable to single SIAs via 3-D random walk. Hence, the mobility of the glissile clusters is not associated with the character of their constituent point defects. Dynamic conversion of a planar vacancy loop into a 3-D stacking fault tetrahedron geometry was also observed.

  3. Heat flow between species in one-dimensional particle plasma simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, William S.; Gray, Perry C.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of Eldridge and Feix (1962) is presently applied to characterize the rate of heat flow between two one-dimensional particle species. Formulas derived assuming initial Maxwellian distributions, while complex, are judged applicable to simulators. Tests of the theory by simulations using Langdon and Birdsall's (1985) standard code yield results which indicate that heat flow between species may become rapid when the actual (not necessarily the intended) temperatures differ: thereby presenting a substantial hazard.

  4. Heat flow between species in one-dimensional particle plasma simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, William S.; Gray, Perry C.

    1991-07-01

    The theory of Eldridge and Feix (1962) is presently applied to characterize the rate of heat flow between two one-dimensional particle species. Formulas derived assuming initial Maxwellian distributions, while complex, are judged applicable to simulators. Tests of the theory by simulations using Langdon and Birdsall's (1985) standard code yield results which indicate that heat flow between species may become rapid when the actual (not necessarily the intended) temperatures differ: thereby presenting a substantial hazard.

  5. One-dimensional thermonuclear burn computations for the Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (RFPR)

    SciTech Connect

    Nebel, R.A.; Miley, G.H.; Moses, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Conceptual fusion reactor designs of the Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (RFPR) have been based on profile-averaged zero-dimensional (point) plasma models. The plasma response/performance that has been predicted by the point plasma model is re-examined by a comprehensive one-dimensional (radial) burn code (RFPBRN) that has been developed and parametrically evaluated for the RFPR. The RFPR plasma parameters have been optimized and effects of turbulent transport and stability have been studied.

  6. SOLA-STAR: a one-dimensional ICED-ALE hydrodynamics program for spherically symmetric flows

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutman, L.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report describes a simple, general-purpose, and efficient algorithm for solving one-dimensional spherically symmetric, transient fluid-dynamics problems using a variation of the ICED-ALE technique. Included are the finite difference equations, three test problems that illustrate various capabilities of the program, and a complete code description, including a listing, sample data decks and output, a summary of important variable names, and hints for conversion to other operating systems.

  7. Minimum critical length for superconductivity in one-dimensional wires

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, C.C.; Santhanam, P.; Wind, S.J.; Brady, M.J.; Bucchignano, J.J. )

    1994-08-01

    We have experimentally studied the superconducting behavior of one-dimensional aluminum wires of various lengths. Each wire had much wider two-dimensional contact pads on both sides. At a temperature [ital T] below [ital T][sub [ital c

  8. Underwater striling engine design with modified one-dimensional model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Daijin; Qin, Kan; Luo, Kai

    2015-09-01

    Stirling engines are regarded as an efficient and promising power system for underwater devices. Currently, many researches on one-dimensional model is used to evaluate thermodynamic performance of Stirling engine, but in which there are still some aspects which cannot be modeled with proper mathematical models such as mechanical loss or auxiliary power. In this paper, a four-cylinder double-acting Stirling engine for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs) is discussed. And a one-dimensional model incorporated with empirical equations of mechanical loss and auxiliary power obtained from experiments is derived while referring to the Stirling engine computer model of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The P-40 Stirling engine with sufficient testing results from NASA is utilized to validate the accuracy of this one-dimensional model. It shows that the maximum error of output power of theoretical analysis results is less than 18% over testing results, and the maximum error of input power is no more than 9%. Finally, a Stirling engine for UUVs is designed with Schmidt analysis method and the modified one-dimensional model, and the results indicate this designed engine is capable of showing desired output power.

  9. Underwater striling engine design with modified one-dimensional model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Daijin; Qin, Kan; Luo, Kai

    2015-05-01

    Stirling engines are regarded as an efficient and promising power system for underwater devices. Currently, many researches on one-dimensional model is used to evaluate thermodynamic performance of Stirling engine, but in which there are still some aspects which cannot be modeled with proper mathematical models such as mechanical loss or auxiliary power. In this paper, a four-cylinder double-acting Stirling engine for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs) is discussed. And a one-dimensional model incorporated with empirical equations of mechanical loss and auxiliary power obtained from experiments is derived while referring to the Stirling engine computer model of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The P-40 Stirling engine with sufficient testing results from NASA is utilized to validate the accuracy of this one-dimensional model. It shows that the maximum error of output power of theoretical analysis results is less than 18% over testing results, and the maximum error of input power is no more than 9%. Finally, a Stirling engine for UUVs is designed with Schmidt analysis method and the modified one-dimensional model, and the results indicate this designed engine is capable of showing desired output power.

  10. Approximate Approaches to the One-Dimensional Finite Potential Well

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Shilpi; Pathak, Praveen; Singh, Vijay A.

    2011-01-01

    The one-dimensional finite well is a textbook problem. We propose approximate approaches to obtain the energy levels of the well. The finite well is also encountered in semiconductor heterostructures where the carrier mass inside the well (m[subscript i]) is taken to be distinct from mass outside (m[subscript o]). A relevant parameter is the mass…

  11. A difference characteristic for one-dimensional deterministic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahverdian, A. Yu.; Apkarian, A. V.

    2007-06-01

    A numerical characteristic for one-dimensional deterministic systems reflecting its higher order difference structure is introduced. The comparison with Lyapunov exponent is given. A difference analogy for Eggleston theorem as well as an estimate for Hausdorff dimension of the difference attractor, formulated in terms of the new characteristic is proved.

  12. Teaching Module for One-Dimensional, Transient Conduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribando, Robert J.; O'Leary, Gerald W.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a PC-based teaching module designed to instruct engineering students in transient one-dimensional conduction heat transfer analysis. The discussion considers problem formulation, nondimensionalization, discretization, numerical stability and the time-step restriction, program operation, and program verification. (MES)

  13. Synchronization of One-Dimensional Stochastically Coupled Cellular Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrowinski, Maciej J.; Kosinski, Robert A.

    In this work the authors study synchronization resulting from the asymmetric stochastic coupling between two one-dimensional chaotic cellular automata and provide a simple analytical model to explain this phenomenon. The authors also study synchronization in a more general case, using sets of rules with a different number of states and different values of Langton's parameter λ.

  14. The Long Decay Model of One-Dimensional Projectile Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattery, Mark Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces a research study on student model formation and development in introductory mechanics. As a point of entry, I present a detailed analysis of the Long Decay Model of one-dimensional projectile motion. This model has been articulated by Galileo ("in De Motu") and by contemporary students. Implications for instruction are…

  15. Transition density of one-dimensional diffusion with discontinuous drift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Weijian

    1990-01-01

    The transition density of a one-dimensional diffusion process with a discontinuous drift coefficient is studied. A probabilistic representation of the transition density is given, illustrating the close connections between discontinuities of the drift and Brownian local times. In addition, some explicit results are obtained based on the trivariate density of Brownian motion, its occupation, and local times.

  16. One-Dimensional Ising Model with "k"-Spin Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Yale

    2011-01-01

    We examine a generalization of the one-dimensional Ising model involving interactions among neighbourhoods of "k" adjacent spins. The model is solved by exploiting a connection to an interesting computational problem that we call ""k"-SAT on a ring", and is shown to be equivalent to the nearest-neighbour Ising model in the absence of an external…

  17. Zero-n gap in one dimensional photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chobey, Mahesh K.; Suthar, B.

    2016-05-01

    We study a one-dimensional (1-D) photonic crystal composed of Double Positive (DPS) and Double Negative (DNG) material. This structure shows omnidirectional photonic bandgap, which is insensitive with angle of incidence and polarization. To study the effect of structural parameters on the photonic band structure, we have calculated photonic band gap at various thicknesses of DPS and DNG.

  18. Exact Results for One Dimensional Fluids Through Functional Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantoni, Riccardo

    2016-06-01

    We review some of the exactly solvable one dimensional continuum fluid models of equilibrium classical statistical mechanics under the unified setting of functional integration in one dimension. We make some further developments and remarks concerning fluids with penetrable particles. We then apply our developments to the study of the Gaussian core model for which we are unable to find a well defined thermodynamics.

  19. Reflection properties of one dimensional plasma photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arun; Khundrakpam, Pinky; Sharma, Priyanka

    2013-06-01

    In this paper band structure and reflection properties of on one-dimensional plasma photonic crystal (PPC) containing alternate layers of dielectric and micro-plasma have been presented. For the purpose of computation, transfer matrix method has been used. It is found that width of the forbidden band gap(s) can be increased by increasing the thickness of plasma layers.

  20. One-Dimensional SO2 Predictions for Duct Injection

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-10-05

    DIAN1D is a one-dimensional model that predicts SO2 absorption by slurry droplets injected into a flue gas stream with two-fluid atomizers. DIANUI is an interactive user interface for DIAN1D. It prepares the input file for DIAN1D from plant design specifications and process requirements.

  1. Toward precise solution of one-dimensional velocity inverse problems

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, S.; Hagin, F.

    1980-01-01

    A family of one-dimensional inverse problems are considered with the goal of reconstructing velocity profiles to reasonably high accuracy. The travel-time variable change is used together with an iteration scheme to produce an effective algorithm for computation. Under modest assumptions the scheme is shown to be convergent.

  2. A one-dimensional material transfer model for HECTR version 1. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, A.S.; Wong, C.C.

    1991-08-01

    HECTR (Hydrogen Event Containment Transient Response) is a lumped-parameter computer code developed for calculating the pressure-temperature response to combustion in a nuclear power plant containment building. The code uses a control-volume approach and subscale models to simulate the mass, momentum, and energy transfer occurring in the containment during a loss-of-collant-accident (LOCA). This document describes one-dimensional subscale models for mass and momentum transfer, and the modifications to the code required to implement them. Two problems were analyzed: the first corresponding to a standard problem studied with previous HECTR versions, the second to experiments. The performance of the revised code relative to previous HECTR version is discussed as is the ability of the code to model the experiments. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Modelling and calculation of flotation process in one-dimensional formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amanbaev, Tulegen; Tilleuov, Gamidulla; Tulegenova, Bibigul

    2016-08-01

    In the framework of the assumptions of the mechanics of the multiphase media is constructed a mathematical model of the flotation process in the dispersed mixture of liquid, solid and gas phases, taking into account the degree of mineralization of the surface of the bubbles. Application of the constructed model is demonstrated on the example of one-dimensional stationary flotation and it is shown that the equations describing the process of ascent of the bubbles are singularly perturbed ("rigid"). The effect of size and concentration of bubbles and the volumetric content of dispersed particles on the flotation process are analyzed.

  4. Confined One Dimensional Harmonic Oscillator as a Two-Mode System

    SciTech Connect

    Gueorguiev, V G; Rau, A P; Draayer, J P

    2005-07-11

    The one-dimensional harmonic oscillator in a box problem is possibly the simplest example of a two-mode system. This system has two exactly solvable limits, the harmonic oscillator and a particle in a (one-dimensional) box. Each of the two limits has a characteristic spectral structure describing the two different excitation modes of the system. Near each of these limits, one can use perturbation theory to achieve an accurate description of the eigenstates. Away from the exact limits, however, one has to carry out a matrix diagonalization because the basis-state mixing that occurs is typically too large to be reproduced in any other way. An alternative to casting the problem in terms of one or the other basis set consists of using an ''oblique'' basis that uses both sets. Through a study of this alternative in this one-dimensional problem, we are able to illustrate practical solutions and infer the applicability of the concept for more complex systems, such as in the study of complex nuclei where oblique-basis calculations have been successful.

  5. Excitonic condensation in spatially separated one-dimensional systems

    SciTech Connect

    Abergel, D. S. L.

    2015-05-25

    We show theoretically that excitons can form from spatially separated one-dimensional ground state populations of electrons and holes, and that the resulting excitons can form a quasicondensate. We describe a mean-field Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory in the low carrier density regime and then focus on the core-shell nanowire giving estimates of the size of the excitonic gap for InAs/GaSb wires and as a function of all the experimentally relevant parameters. We find that optimal conditions for pairing include small overlap of the electron and hole bands, large effective mass of the carriers, and low dielectric constant of the surrounding media. Therefore, one-dimensional systems provide an attractive platform for the experimental detection of excitonic quasicondensation in zero magnetic field.

  6. Pairing correlations in a trapped one-dimensional Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudla, Stephen; Gautreau, Dominique M.; Sheehy, Daniel E.

    2015-04-01

    We use a BCS-type variational wave function to study attractively interacting quasi-one-dimensional fermionic atomic gases, motivated by cold-atom experiments that access the one-dimensional regime using an anisotropic harmonic trapping potential (with trapping frequencies ωx=ωy≫ωz ) that confines the gas to a cigar-shaped geometry. To handle the presence of the trap along the z direction, we construct our variational wave function from the harmonic oscillator Hermite functions, which are the eigenstates of the single-particle problem. Using an analytic determination of the effective interaction among harmonic oscillator states along with a numerical solution of the resulting variational equations, we make specific experimental predictions for how pairing correlations would be revealed in experimental probes, such as the local density and the momentum correlation function.

  7. Scaling properties of one-dimensional driven-dissipative condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Liang; Sieberer, Lukas M.; Altman, Ehud; Diehl, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    We numerically investigate the scaling properties of a one-dimensional driven-dissipative condensate described by a stochastic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation (SCGLE). We directly extract the static and dynamical scaling exponents from the dynamics of the condensate's phase field, and find that both coincide with the ones of the one-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation. We furthermore calculate the spatial and the temporal two-point correlation functions of the condensate field itself. The decay of the temporal two-point correlator assumes a stretched-exponential form, providing further quantitative evidence for an effective KPZ description. Moreover, we confirm the observability of this nonequilibrium scaling for typical current experimental setups with exciton-polariton systems, if cavities with a reduced Q factor are used.

  8. Dynamics of one-dimensional Kerr cavity solitons.

    PubMed

    Leo, François; Gelens, Lendert; Emplit, Philippe; Haelterman, Marc; Coen, Stéphane

    2013-04-01

    We present an experimental observation of an oscillating Kerr cavity soliton, i.e., a time-periodic oscillating one-dimensional temporally localized structure excited in a driven nonlinear fiber cavity with a Kerr-type nonlinearity. More generally, these oscillations result from a Hopf bifurcation of a (spatially or temporally) localized state in the generic class of driven dissipative systems close to the 1 : 1 resonance tongue. Furthermore, we theoretically analyze dynamical instabilities of the one-dimensional cavity soliton, revealing oscillations and different chaotic states in previously unexplored regions of parameter space. As cavity solitons are closely related to Kerr frequency combs, we expect these dynamical regimes to be highly relevant for the field of microresonator-based frequency combs. PMID:23572006

  9. Fate of classical solitons in one-dimensional quantum systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Pustilnik, M.; Matveev, K. A.

    2015-11-23

    We study one-dimensional quantum systems near the classical limit described by the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. The excitations near this limit are the well-known solitons and phonons. The classical description breaks down at long wavelengths, where quantum effects become dominant. Focusing on the spectra of the elementary excitations, we describe analytically the entire classical-to-quantum crossover. We show that the ultimate quantum fate of the classical KdV excitations is to become fermionic quasiparticles and quasiholes. We discuss in detail two exactly solvable models exhibiting such crossover, the Lieb-Liniger model of bosons with weak contact repulsion and the quantum Toda model, and argue that the results obtained for these models are universally applicable to all quantum one-dimensional systems with a well-defined classical limit described by the KdV equation.

  10. Spatial coherence properties of one dimensional exciton-polariton condensates.

    PubMed

    Fischer, J; Savenko, I G; Fraser, M D; Holzinger, S; Brodbeck, S; Kamp, M; Shelykh, I A; Schneider, C; Höfling, S

    2014-11-14

    In this work, we combine a systematic experimental investigation of the power- and temperature-dependent evolution of the spatial coherence function, g^{(1)}(r), in a one dimensional exciton-polariton channel with a modern microscopic numerical theory based on a stochastic master equation approach. The spatial coherence function g^{(1)}(r) is extracted via high-precision Michelson interferometry, which allows us to demonstrate that in the regime of nonresonant excitation, the dependence g^{(1)}(r) reaches a saturation value with a plateau, which is determined by the intensity of the pump and effective temperature of the crystal lattice. The theory, which was extended to allow for treating incoherent excitation in a stochastic frame, matches the experimental data with good qualitative and quantitative agreement. This allows us to verify the prediction that the decay of the off-diagonal long-range order can be almost fully suppressed in one dimensional condensate systems. PMID:25432043

  11. One-dimensional Hubbard-Luttinger model for carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishkhanyan, H. A.; Krainov, V. P.

    2015-06-01

    A Hubbard-Luttinger model is developed for qualitative description of one-dimensional motion of interacting Pi-conductivity-electrons in carbon single-wall nanotubes at low temperatures. The low-lying excitations in one-dimensional electron gas are described in terms of interacting bosons. The Bogolyubov transformation allows one to describe the system as an ensemble of non-interacting quasi-bosons. Operators of Fermi excitations and Green functions of fermions are introduced. The electric current is derived as a function of potential difference on the contact between a nanotube and a normal metal. Deviations from Ohm law produced by electron-electron short-range repulsion as well as by the transverse quantization in single-wall nanotubes are discussed. The results are compared with experimental data.

  12. Versatile hydrothermal synthesis of one-dimensional composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yonglan

    2008-12-01

    In this paper we report on a versatile hydrothermal approach developed to fabricate one-dimensional (1D) composite structures. Sulfur and selenium formed liquid and adsorbed onto microrods as droplets and subsequently reacted with metallic ion in solution to produce nanoparticles-decorated composite microrods. 1D composites including ZnO/CdS, ZnO/MnS, ZnO/CuS, ZnO/CdSe, and FeOOH/CdS were successfully made using this hydrothermal strategy and the growth mechanism was also discussed. This hydrothermal strategy is simple and green, and can be extended to the synthesis of various 1D composite structures. Moreover, the interaction between the shell nanoparticles and the one-dimensional nanomaterials were confirmed by photoluminescence investigation of ZnO/CdS.

  13. Assessing the inherent uncertainty of one-dimensional diffusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we assess the inherent uncertainty of one-dimensional diffusion processes via a stochasticity classification which provides an à la Mandelbrot categorization into five states of uncertainty: infra-mild, mild, borderline, wild, and ultra-wild. Two settings are considered. (i) Stopped diffusions: the diffusion initiates from a high level and is stopped once it first reaches a low level; in this setting we analyze the inherent uncertainty of the diffusion's maximal exceedance above its initial high level. (ii) Stationary diffusions: the diffusion is in dynamical statistical equilibrium; in this setting we analyze the inherent uncertainty of the diffusion's equilibrium level. In both settings general closed-form analytic results are established, and their application is exemplified by stock prices in the stopped-diffusions setting, and by interest rates in the stationary-diffusions setting. These results provide a highly implementable decision-making tool for the classification of uncertainty in the context of one-dimensional diffusions.

  14. One-dimensional XY model: Ergodic properties and hydrodynamic limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuhov, A. G.; Suhov, Yu. M.

    1986-11-01

    We prove theorems on convergence to a stationary state in the course of time for the one-dimensional XY model and its generalizations. The key point is the well-known Jordan-Wigner transformation, which maps the XY dynamics onto a group of Bogoliubov transformations on the CAR C *-algebra over Z 1. The role of stationary states for Bogoliubov transformations is played by quasifree states and for the XY model by their inverse images with respect to the Jordan-Wigner transformation. The hydrodynamic limit for the one-dimensional XY model is also considered. By using the Jordan-Wigner transformation one reduces the problem to that of constructing the hydrodynamic limit for the group of Bogoliubov transformations. As a result, we obtain an independent motion of "normal modes," which is described by a hyperbolic linear differential equation of second order. For the XX model this equation reduces to a first-order transfer equation.

  15. Improving the One Dimensional Schr"odinger Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schorer, Bradley; Bricher, Stephen; Murray, Joelle

    2009-05-01

    The simple harmonic oscillator (SHO) model is a useful approach for approximating energies close to the ground state in a one dimensional hydrogen atom. According to empirical evidence, the actual potential results in an asymmetric equilibrium point and exhibits and exhibits asymptotic behavior at large distances from the nucleus. This creates a problem in the SHO model, as it does not possess such characteristics, and as a result, has energy values that do not match do not agree with the known energy levels very well. We propose a new one dimensional potential that more accurately fits the empirical data than the SHO model. We test our model by comparing the Schr"odinger equation's energy states to accepted energy levels of the hydrogen atom. Possible other uses for this model include the description of energy levels of atoms other than the hydrogen atom.

  16. Entanglement vs. gap for one-dimensional spin systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, Matthew; Aharonov, Dorit; Gottesman, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    We study the relationship between entanglement and spectral gap for local Hamiltonians in one dimension. The area law for a one-dimensional system states that for the ground state, the entanglement of any interval is upper-bounded by a constant independent of the size of the interval. However, the possible dependence of the upper bound on the spectral gap {Delta} is not known, as the best known general upper bound is asymptotically much larger than the largest possible entropy of any model system previously constructed for small {Delta}. To help resolve this asymptotic behavior, we construct a family of one-dimensional local systems for which some intervals have entanglement entropy which is polynomial in 1/{Delta}, whereas previously studied systems had the entropy of all intervals bounded by a constant times log(1/{Delta}).

  17. Defects in a nonlinear pseudo one-dimensional solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, Graciela B.; Fincher, C. R., Jr.

    1985-03-01

    These infrared studies of acetanilide together with the existence of two equivalent structures for the hydrogen-bonded chain suggest the possibility of a topological defect state rather than a Davydov soliton as suggested previously. Acetanilide is an example of a class of one-dimensional materials where solitons are a consequence of a twofold degenerate structure and the nonlinear dynamics of the hydrogen-bonded network.

  18. Cooling of a One-Dimensional Bose Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauer, B.; Grišins, P.; Mazets, I. E.; Schweigler, T.; Rohringer, W.; Geiger, R.; Langen, T.; Schmiedmayer, J.

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally study the dynamics of a degenerate one-dimensional Bose gas that is subject to a continuous outcoupling of atoms. Although standard evaporative cooling is rendered ineffective by the absence of thermalizing collisions in this system, we observe substantial cooling. This cooling proceeds through homogeneous particle dissipation and many-body dephasing, enabling the preparation of otherwise unexpectedly low temperatures. Our observations establish a scaling relation between temperature and particle number, and provide insights into equilibration in the quantum world.

  19. Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics in one-dimensional bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldovin, F.; Cappellaro, A.; Orlandini, E.; Salasnich, L.

    2016-06-01

    We study cold dilute gases made of bosonic atoms, showing that in the mean-field one-dimensional regime they support stable out-of-equilibrium states. Starting from the 3D Boltzmann–Vlasov equation with contact interaction, we derive an effective 1D Landau–Vlasov equation under the condition of a strong transverse harmonic confinement. We investigate the existence of out-of-equilibrium states, obtaining stability criteria similar to those of classical plasmas.

  20. Superlensing properties of one-dimensional dielectric photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savo, Salvatore; di Gennaro, Emiliano; Andreone, Antonello

    2009-10-01

    We present the experimental observation of the superlensing effect in a slab of a one-dimensional photonic crystal made of tilted dielectric elements. We show that this flat lens can achieve subwavelength resolution in different frequency bands. We also demonstrate that the introduction of a proper corrugation on the lens surface can dramatically improve both the transmission and the resolution of the imaged signal.

  1. Many-body Anderson localization in one-dimensional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delande, Dominique; Sacha, Krzysztof; Płodzień, Marcin; Avazbaev, Sanat K.; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2013-04-01

    We show, using quasi-exact numerical simulations, that Anderson localization in a disordered one-dimensional potential survives in the presence of attractive interaction between particles. The localization length of the particles' center of mass—computed analytically for weak disorder—is in good agreement with the quasi-exact numerical observations using the time evolving block decimation algorithm. Our approach allows for simulation of the entire experiment including the final measurement of all atom positions.

  2. Topological modes in one-dimensional solids and photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atherton, Timothy J.; Butler, Celia A. M.; Taylor, Melita C.; Hooper, Ian R.; Hibbins, Alastair P.; Sambles, J. Roy; Mathur, Harsh

    2016-03-01

    It is shown theoretically that a one-dimensional crystal with time-reversal and particle-hole symmetries is characterized by a topological invariant that predicts the existence or otherwise of edge states. This is confirmed experimentally through the construction and simulation of a photonic crystal analog in the microwave regime. It is shown that the edge mode couples to modes external to the photonic crystal via a Fano resonance.

  3. Thermalization in a one-dimensional integrable system

    SciTech Connect

    Grisins, Pjotrs; Mazets, Igor E.

    2011-11-15

    We present numerical results demonstrating the possibility of thermalization of single-particle observables in a one-dimensional system, which is integrable in both the quantum and classical (mean-field) descriptions (a quasicondensate of ultracold, weakly interacting bosonic atoms are studied as a definite example). We find that certain initial conditions admit the relaxation of single-particle observables to the equilibrium state reasonably close to that corresponding to the Bose-Einstein thermal distribution of Bogoliubov quasiparticles.

  4. Cloud pumping in a one-dimensional photochemical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costen, Robert C.; Tennille, Geoffrey M.; Levine, Joel S.

    1988-01-01

    Cloud pumping data based on tropical maritime updraft statistics are incorporated in a one-dimensional steady-state eddy diffusive photochemical model of the troposphere. It is suggested that regions with weaker convection, such as the midlatitudes, may also experience substantial effects from cloud pumping. The direct effects of cloud pumping on CO were found to be more significant than implied by sensitivity studies. The (CH3)2S profile computed with cloud pumping agrees well with previous data.

  5. Growth of one-dimensional single-crystalline hydroxyapatite nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Fuzeng; Ding, Yonghui; Ge, Xiang; Lu, Xiong; Wang, Kefeng; Leng, Yang

    2012-06-01

    A facile, effective and template/surfactant-free hydrothermal route in the presence of sodium bicarbonate was developed to synthesize highly uniform single-crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) nanorods with the lengths of several hundred nanometers and aspect ratio up to ˜20. One dimensional (1-D) growth and aspect ratio could be controlled by hydrothermal reaction time and temperature. The longitudinal axis, also the growth direction of the nanorods, is parallel to the [001] direction of HA hexagonal crystal structure.

  6. Quasi-Dirac points in one-dimensional graphene superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. H.; Tseng, P.; Hsueh, W. J.

    2016-08-01

    Quasi-Dirac points (QDPs) with energy different from the traditional Dirac points (TDPs) have been found for the first time in one-dimensional graphene superlattices. The angular-averaged conductance reaches a minimum value at the QDPs, at which the Fano factor approaches 1/3. Surprisingly, the minimum conductance at these QDPs may be lower than that at the TDPs under certain conditions. This is remarkable as the minimum conductance attainable in graphene superlattices was believed to appear at TDPs.

  7. On numerical modeling of one-dimensional geothermal histories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haugerud, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical models of one-dimensional geothermal histories are one way of understanding the relations between tectonics and transient thermal structure in the crust. Such models can be powerful tools for interpreting geochronologic and thermobarometric data. A flexible program to calculate these models on a microcomputer is available and examples of its use are presented. Potential problems with this approach include the simplifying assumptions that are made, limitations of the numerical techniques, and the neglect of convective heat transfer. ?? 1989.

  8. Species segregation in one-dimensional granular-system simulations.

    PubMed

    Pantellini, F; Landi, S

    2008-02-01

    We present one-dimensional molecular dynamics simulations of a two-species, initially uniform, freely evolving granular system. Colliding particles swap their relative position with a 50% probability allowing for the initial spatial ordering of the particles to evolve in time and frictional forces to operate. Unlike one-dimensional systems of identical particles, two-species one-dimensional systems of quasi-elastic particles are ergodic and the particles' velocity distributions tend to evolve towards Maxwell-Boltzmann distributions. Under such conditions, standard fluid equations with merely an additional sink term in the energy equation, reflecting the non-elasticity of the interparticle collisions, provide an excellent means to investigate the system's evolution. According to the predictions of fluid theory we find that the clustering instability is dominated by a non-propagating mode at a wavelength of the order 10 pi L/N epsilon , where N is the total number of particles, L the spatial extent of the system and epsilon the inelasticity coefficient. The typical fluid velocities at the time of inelastic collapse are seen to be supersonic, unless N epsilon

  9. Cryptography using multiple one-dimensional chaotic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pareek, N. K.; Patidar, Vinod; Sud, K. K.

    2005-10-01

    Recently, Pareek et al. [Phys. Lett. A 309 (2003) 75] have developed a symmetric key block cipher algorithm using a one-dimensional chaotic map. In this paper, we propose a symmetric key block cipher algorithm in which multiple one-dimensional chaotic maps are used instead of a one-dimensional chaotic map. However, we also use an external secret key of variable length (maximum 128-bits) as used by Pareek et al. In the present cryptosystem, plaintext is divided into groups of variable length (i.e. number of blocks in each group is different) and these are encrypted sequentially by using randomly chosen chaotic map from a set of chaotic maps. For block-by-block encryption of variable length group, number of iterations and initial condition for the chaotic maps depend on the randomly chosen session key and encryption of previous block of plaintext, respectively. The whole process of encryption/decryption is governed by two dynamic tables, which are updated time to time during the encryption/decryption process. Simulation results show that the proposed cryptosystem requires less time to encrypt the plaintext as compared to the existing chaotic cryptosystems and further produces the ciphertext having flat distribution of same size as the plaintext.

  10. NASA One-Dimensional Combustor Simulation--User Manual for S1D_ML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stueber, Thomas J.; Paxson, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    The work presented in this paper is to promote research leading to a closed-loop control system to actively suppress thermo-acoustic instabilities. To serve as a model for such a closed-loop control system, a one-dimensional combustor simulation composed using MATLAB software tools has been written. This MATLAB based process is similar to a precursor one-dimensional combustor simulation that was formatted as FORTRAN 77 source code. The previous simulation process requires modification to the FORTRAN 77 source code, compiling, and linking when creating a new combustor simulation executable file. The MATLAB based simulation does not require making changes to the source code, recompiling, or linking. Furthermore, the MATLAB based simulation can be run from script files within the MATLAB environment or with a compiled copy of the executable file running in the Command Prompt window without requiring a licensed copy of MATLAB. This report presents a general simulation overview. Details regarding how to setup and initiate a simulation are also presented. Finally, the post-processing section describes the two types of files created while running the simulation and it also includes simulation results for a default simulation included with the source code.

  11. One-Dimensional Scanning Approach to Shock Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokars, Roger; Adamovsky, Girgory; Floyd, Bertram

    2009-01-01

    Measurement tools for high speed air flow are sought both in industry and academia. Particular interest is shown in air flows that exhibit aerodynamic shocks. Shocks are accompanied by sudden changes in density, pressure, and temperature. Optical detection and characterization of such shocks can be difficult because the medium is normally transparent air. A variety of techniques to analyze these flows are available, but they often require large windows and optical components as in the case of Schlieren measurements and/or large operating powers which precludes their use for in-flight monitoring and applications. The one-dimensional scanning approach in this work is a compact low power technique that can be used to non-intrusively detect shocks. The shock is detected by analyzing the optical pattern generated by a small diameter laser beam as it passes through the shock. The optical properties of a shock result in diffraction and spreading of the beam as well as interference fringes. To investigate the feasibility of this technique a shock is simulated by a 426 m diameter optical fiber. Analysis of results revealed a direct correlation between the optical fiber or shock location and the beam s diffraction pattern. A plot of the width of the diffraction pattern vs. optical fiber location reveals that the width of the diffraction pattern was maximized when the laser beam is directed at the center of the optical fiber. This work indicates that the one-dimensional scanning approach may be able to determine the location of an actual shock. Near and far field effects associated with a small diameter laser beam striking an optical fiber used as a simulated shock are investigated allowing a proper one-dimensional scanning beam technique.

  12. One-dimensional intense laser pulse solitons in a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sudan, R.N.; Dimant, Y.S.; Shiryaev, O.B.

    1997-05-01

    A general analytical framework is developed for the nonlinear dispersion relations of a class of large amplitude one-dimensional isolated envelope solitons for modulated light pulse coupled to electron plasma waves, previously investigated numerically [Kozlov {ital et al.}, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. {bold 76}, 148 (1979); Kaw {ital et al.}, Phys. Rev. Lett. {bold 68}, 3172 (1992)]. The analytical treatment of weakly nonlinear solitons [Kuehl and Zhang, Phys. Rev. E {bold 48}, 1316 (1993)] is extended to the strongly nonlinear limit. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Dynamical Structure Factors of quasi-one-dimensional antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagemans, Rob; Caux, Jean-Sébastien; Maillet, Jean Michel

    2007-03-01

    For a long time it has been impossible to accurately calculate the dynamical structure factors (spin-spin correlators as a function of momentum and energy) of quasi-one-dimensional antiferromagnets. For integrable Heisenberg chains, the recently developed ABACUS method (a first-principles computational approach based on the Bethe Ansatz) now yields highly accurate (over 99% of the sum rule) results for the DSF for finite chains, allowing for a very precise description of neutron-scattering data over the full momentum and energy range. We show remarkable agreement between results obtained with ABACUS and experiment.

  14. Discrete breathers in one-dimensional diatomic granular crystals.

    PubMed

    Boechler, N; Theocharis, G; Job, S; Kevrekidis, P G; Porter, Mason A; Daraio, C

    2010-06-18

    We report the experimental observation of modulational instability and discrete breathers in a one-dimensional diatomic granular crystal composed of compressed elastic beads that interact via Hertzian contact. We first characterize their effective linear spectrum both theoretically and experimentally. We then illustrate theoretically and numerically the modulational instability of the lower edge of the optical band. This leads to the dynamical formation of long-lived breather structures, whose families of solutions we compute throughout the linear spectral gap. Finally, we experimentally observe the manifestation of the modulational instability and the resulting generation of localized breathing modes with quantitative characteristics that agree with our numerical results. PMID:20867305

  15. A one-dimensional basic oscillator model of the vircator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Debabrata

    2009-06-01

    A one-dimensional model of the virtual cathode oscillator (vircator) is proposed keeping only the essential physical processes. The basic model consists of a radiating charge in an oscillating electric field. Using parameters from (realistic) particle-in-cell simulations such as the charge Q and amplitude E1 of the oscillating electric field, the model correctly predicts the amplitude of virtual cathode oscillation and the power radiated. The basic model is then extended to incorporate beam-cavity interaction and the resonance effect.

  16. One-dimensional image transformation in white light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartelt, H.

    1981-08-01

    A method for linear, one-dimensional transformations in white light is described. In the case of discrete object and transformation functions, this operation may also be called a matrix multiplication. The method uses the multiplexing facility of the wavelength coordinate. This fact allows an image quality corresponding to the full spatial resolution of the optical system to be achieved. Any type of positive basis functions can be introduced into the optical system. The only restriction is caused by the use of temporally incoherent light. Therefore, bipolar basis functions of a transformation must be split into positive parts. As an application, a Walsh-Hadamard transformation has been performed.

  17. Parallel solution of sparse one-dimensional dynamic programming problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.

    1989-01-01

    Parallel computation offers the potential for quickly solving large computational problems. However, it is often a non-trivial task to effectively use parallel computers. Solution methods must sometimes be reformulated to exploit parallelism; the reformulations are often more complex than their slower serial counterparts. We illustrate these points by studying the parallelization of sparse one-dimensional dynamic programming problems, those which do not obviously admit substantial parallelization. We propose a new method for parallelizing such problems, develop analytic models which help us to identify problems which parallelize well, and compare the performance of our algorithm with existing algorithms on a multiprocessor.

  18. One-dimensional electron system over liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovdrya, Yu. Z.; Nikolaenko, V. A.; Gladchenko, S. P.

    2000-07-01

    A system close to a one-dimensional (1D) electron system on superfluid helium is realized in the experiments. A profiled substrate with a small dielectric constant is used to create a set of parallel channels on the surface of liquid helium. The mobility of carriers was measured in this system in the temperature range 0.5-1.8 K. For clean substrates the electron mobility increases with decreasing temperature and reaches high values at low temperatures. The results of experiments are found to be in a good agreement with the existing theory.

  19. Coupling Identical one-dimensional Many-Body Localized Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordia, Pranjal; Lüschen, Henrik P.; Hodgman, Sean S.; Schreiber, Michael; Bloch, Immanuel; Schneider, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    We experimentally study the effects of coupling one-dimensional many-body localized systems with identical disorder. Using a gas of ultracold fermions in an optical lattice, we artificially prepare an initial charge density wave in an array of 1D tubes with quasirandom on-site disorder and monitor the subsequent dynamics over several thousand tunneling times. We find a strikingly different behavior between many-body localization and Anderson localization. While the noninteracting Anderson case remains localized, in the interacting case any coupling between the tubes leads to a delocalization of the entire system.

  20. One-dimensional hydrodynamic model generating a turbulent cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Sakajo, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    As a minimal mathematical model generating cascade analogous to that of the Navier-Stokes turbulence in the inertial range, we propose a one-dimensional partial-differential-equation model that conserves the integral of the squared vorticity analog (enstrophy) in the inviscid case. With a large-scale random forcing and small viscosity, we find numerically that the model exhibits the enstrophy cascade, the broad energy spectrum with a sizable correction to the dimensional-analysis prediction, peculiar intermittency, and self-similarity in the dynamical system structure.

  1. Correlations in light propagation in one-dimensional waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javanainen, Juha; Ruostekoski, Janne

    2016-05-01

    We study light propagation between atoms in a one-dimensional waveguide both analytically and using numerical simulations. We employ classical electrodynamics, but in the limit of low light intensity the results are essentially exact also for quantum mechanics. We characterize the cooperative interactions between the atoms mediated by the electromagnetic field. The focus is on resonance shifts for various statistics of the positions of the atoms, such as statistically independent positions or atoms in a regular lattice. These shifts, potentially important if 1D waveguides are to be used in metrology, are different from the usual resonance shifts found in three spatial dimensions.

  2. Cooling of a One-Dimensional Bose Gas.

    PubMed

    Rauer, B; Grišins, P; Mazets, I E; Schweigler, T; Rohringer, W; Geiger, R; Langen, T; Schmiedmayer, J

    2016-01-22

    We experimentally study the dynamics of a degenerate one-dimensional Bose gas that is subject to a continuous outcoupling of atoms. Although standard evaporative cooling is rendered ineffective by the absence of thermalizing collisions in this system, we observe substantial cooling. This cooling proceeds through homogeneous particle dissipation and many-body dephasing, enabling the preparation of otherwise unexpectedly low temperatures. Our observations establish a scaling relation between temperature and particle number, and provide insights into equilibration in the quantum world. PMID:26849577

  3. Quantum mechanics of graphene with a one-dimensional potential

    SciTech Connect

    Miserev, D. S.; Entin, M. V.

    2012-10-15

    Electron states in graphene with a one-dimensional potential have been studied. An approximate solution has been obtained for a small angle between vectors of the incident electron momentum and potential gradient. Exactly solvable problems with a potential of the smoothened step type U(x) Utanh(x/a) and a potential with a singularity U(x) = -U/(|x| + d) are considered. The transmission/reflection coefficients and phases for various potential barriers are determined. A quasi-classical solution is obtained.

  4. Solution methods for one-dimensional viscoelastic problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubstad, John M.; Simitses, George J.

    1987-01-01

    A recently developed differential methodology for solution of one-dimensional nonlinear viscoelastic problems is presented. Using the example of an eccentrically loaded cantilever beam-column, the results from the differential formulation are compared to results generated using a previously published integral solution technique. It is shown that the results obtained from these distinct methodologies exhibit a surprisingly high degree of correlation with one another. A discussion of the various factors affecting the numerical accuracy and rate of convergence of these two procedures is also included. Finally, the influences of some 'higher order' effects, such as straining along the centroidal axis are discussed.

  5. One-dimensional physics in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giamarchi, Thierry

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a brief introduction to some of the systems and questions concerning one-dimensional interacting quantum systems. Historically, organic conductors and superconductors - a field extremely active in the "Laboratoire de physique des solides" in Orsay, in a good part thanks to the influence of Jacques Friedel, played a crucial role in this field. I will describe some of the aspects of this physics and also review some of the very exciting theoretical and experimental developments that took place in the 1D world in the last 15 years or so. xml:lang="fr"

  6. A statistical formulation of one-dimensional electron fluid turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fyfe, D.; Montgomery, D.

    1977-01-01

    A one-dimensional electron fluid model is investigated using the mathematical methods of modern fluid turbulence theory. Non-dissipative equilibrium canonical distributions are determined in a phase space whose co-ordinates are the real and imaginary parts of the Fourier coefficients for the field variables. Spectral densities are calculated, yielding a wavenumber electric field energy spectrum proportional to k to the negative second power for large wavenumbers. The equations of motion are numerically integrated and the resulting spectra are found to compare well with the theoretical predictions.

  7. Functional One-Dimensional Lipid Bilayers on Carbon Nanotube Templates

    SciTech Connect

    Artyukhin, A; Shestakov, A; Harper, J; Bakajin, O; Stroeve, P; Noy, A

    2004-07-23

    We present one-dimensional (1-D) lipid bilayer structures that integrate carbon nanotubes with a key biological environment-phospholipid membrane. Our structures consist of lipid bilayers wrapped around carbon nanotubes modified with a hydrophilic polymer cushion layer. Despite high bilayer curvature, the lipid membrane maintains its fluidity and can sustain repeated damage-recovery cycles. We also present the first evidence of spontaneous insertion of pore-forming proteins into 1-D lipid bilayers. These structures could lead to the development of new classes of biosensors and bioelectronic devices.

  8. Evaluation of one dimensional analytical models for vegetation canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, Narendra S.; Kuusk, Andres

    1992-01-01

    The SAIL model for one-dimensional homogeneous vegetation canopies has been modified to include the specular reflectance and hot spot effects. This modified model and the Nilson-Kuusk model are evaluated by comparing the reflectances given by them against those given by a radiosity-based computer model, Diana, for a set of canopies, characterized by different leaf area index (LAI) and leaf angle distribution (LAD). It is shown that for homogeneous canopies, the analytical models are generally quite accurate in the visible region, but not in the infrared region. For architecturally realistic heterogeneous canopies of the type found in nature, these models fall short. These shortcomings are quantified.

  9. Time delay in simple one-dimensional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dijk, W.; Kiers, K. A.

    1992-06-01

    The time delay or the time advance in the scattering of simple one-dimensional systems can be evaluated in a straightforward manner for certain potential models. It is found that when the interacting potential is attractive and has a strength such that it nearly supports an additional bound state, the time delay at small scattering energy is very large. On the other hand, if the potential supports a bound state with nearly zero binding energy, the time advance near threshold is anomalously large. The behavior of a wave packet scattering from the double delta-function potential is also investigated.

  10. A Sectored-One-Dimensional Model for Simulating Combustion Instabilities in Premix Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.

    1999-01-01

    A one-dimensional, CFD based combustor simulation has been developed that exhibits self-excited, thermoacoustic oscillations in premixed combustor geometries that typically have large, abrupt changes in cross sectional area. The combustor geometry is approximated by dividing it into a finite number of one-dimensional sectors. Within each sector, the equations of motion are integrated numerically, along with a species transport and a reaction equation. Across the sectors, mass and energy are conserved, and momentum loss is prescribed using appropriately compatible boundary conditions that account for the area change. The resulting simulation and associated boundary conditions essentially represent a one-dimensional, multi-block technique. Details of the simulation code are presented herein. Results are then shown comparing experimentally observed and simulated operation of a particular combustor rig that exhibited different instabilities at different operating points. It will be shown that the simulation closely matched the rig data in oscillation amplitudes, frequencies, and operating points at which the instabilities occurred. Finally, advantages and limitations of the simulation technique are discussed.

  11. One dimensional wavefront sensor development for tomographic flow measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, D.; Pierson, R.; Chen, E.

    1995-08-01

    Optical diagnostics are extremely useful in fluid mechanics because they generally have high inherent bandwidth, and are non-intrusive. However, since optical probe measurements inherently integrate all information along the optical path, it is often difficult to isolate out-of-plane components in 3-dimensional flow events. It is also hard to make independent measurements of internal flow structure. Using an arrangement of one-dimensional wavefront sensors, we have developed a system that uses tomographic reconstruction to make two-dimensional measurements in an arbitrary flow. These measurements provide complete information in a plane normal to the flow. We have applied this system to the subsonic free jet because of the wide range of flow scales available. These measurements rely on the development of a series of one-dimensional wavefront sensors that are used to measure line-integral density variations in the flow of interest. These sensors have been constructed using linear CCD cameras and binary optics lenslet arrays. In designing these arrays, we have considered the coherent coupling between adjacent lenses and have made comparisons between theory and experimental noise measurements. The paper will present examples of the wavefront sensor development, line-integral measurements as a function of various experimental parameters, and sample tomographic reconstructions.

  12. One-Dimensional Electrical Contact to Molybdenum Disulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zheng; Ra, Changho; Ahmed, Faisal; Lee, Daeyeong; Choi, Minsup; Liu, Xiaochi; Qu, Deshun; Yoo, Won Jong; Nano Device Processing Lab Team

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is one of the promising two-dimensional materials for future application in nano electronics, which has high carrier mobility, very good stability under atmosphere, proper band gap, etc. However, its application to electronic switching devices is hindered by Fermi level pinning at metal-MoS2 interfaces. Here, we experimentally demonstrate one-dimensional electrical contact to MoS2 formed via controllable plasma etching. We fabricated Al/MoS2 FET (n-type), Mo/MoS2 FET (n-type), and Pd/MoS2 FET (ambipolar). For Mo/MoS2 FET (n-type), on/off current ratio is around 108 and mobility is around 104 cm2/(Vs). By contrast, for Pd/MoS2 FET (ambipolar), on/off current ratio is around 108, hole mobility is ranged from 350 to 650 cm2/(Vs), and the mean free path of holes at 9K is around 23 nm. All the measured mobilities are evaluated by using two-terminal field-effect configuration. We can also achieve complementary logic gates with intrinsic MoS2/metal one-dimensional electrical contact.

  13. Polarization transitions in one-dimensional arrays of interacting rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roostaei, Bahman; Mullen, Kieran J.; Rezakhani, A. T.

    2008-08-01

    Periodic nanostructures can display the dynamics of arrays of atoms while enabling the tuning of interactions in ways not normally possible in nature. We examine one-dimensional (1D) arrays of a “synthetic atom,” a one-dimensional ring with a nearest-neighbor Coulomb interaction. We consider the classical limit first, finding that arrays of singly charged rings possess antiferroelectric order at low temperatures when the charge is discrete, but that they do not order when the charge is treated as a continuous classical fluid. In the quantum limit Monte Carlo simulation suggests that the system undergoes a quantum phase transition as the interaction strength is increased. This is supported by mapping the system to the 1D transverse field Ising model. Finally, we examine the effect of magnetic fields. We find that a magnetic field can alter the electrostatic phase transition producing a ferroelectric ground state, solely through its effect of shifting the eigenenergies of the quantum problem.

  14. Constraint and gauge shocks in one-dimensional numerical relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, Bernd; Alcubierre, Miguel; Nunez, Dario; Gonzalez, Jose A.

    2005-03-15

    We study how different types of blowups can occur in systems of hyperbolic evolution equations of the type found in general relativity. In particular, we discuss two independent criteria that can be used to determine when such blowups can be expected. One criteria is related to the so-called geometric blowup leading to gradient catastrophes, while the other is based upon the ODE-mechanism leading to blowups within finite time. We show how both mechanisms work in the case of a simple one-dimensional wave equation with a dynamic wave speed and sources, and later explore how those blowups can appear in one-dimensional numerical relativity. In the latter case we recover the well known 'gauge shocks' associated with Bona-Masso-type slicing conditions. However, a crucial result of this study has been the identification of a second family of blowups associated with the way in which the constraints have been used to construct a hyperbolic formulation. We call these blowups 'constraint shocks' and show that they are formulation specific, and that choices can be made to eliminate them or at least make them less severe.

  15. Lattice Boltzmann method for one-dimensional vector radiative transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Yi, Hongliang; Tan, Heping

    2016-02-01

    A one-dimensional vector radiative transfer (VRT) model based on lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) that considers polarization using four Stokes parameters is developed. The angular space is discretized by the discrete-ordinates approach, and the spatial discretization is conducted by LBM. LBM has such attractive properties as simple calculation procedure, straightforward and efficient handing of boundary conditions, and capability of stable and accurate simulation. To validate the performance of LBM for vector radiative transfer, four various test problems are examined. The first case investigates the non-scattering thermal-emitting atmosphere with no external collimated solar. For the other three cases, the external collimated solar and three different scattering types are considered. Particularly, the LBM is extended to solve VRT in the atmospheric aerosol system where the scattering function contains singularities and the hemisphere space distributions for the Stokes vector are presented and discussed. The accuracy and computational efficiency of this algorithm are discussed. Numerical results show that the LBM is accurate, flexible and effective to solve one-dimensional polarized radiative transfer problems. PMID:26906779

  16. Dislocation-mediated melting of one-dimensional Rydberg crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Sela, Eran; Garst, Markus; Punk, Matthias

    2011-08-15

    We consider cold Rydberg atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice in the Mott regime with a single atom per site at zero temperature. An external laser drive with Rabi frequency {Omega} and laser detuning {Delta} creates Rydberg excitations whose dynamics is governed by an effective spin-chain model with (quasi) long-range interactions. This system possesses intrinsically a large degree of frustration resulting in a ground-state phase diagram in the ({Delta},{Omega}) plane with a rich topology. As a function of {Delta}, the Rydberg blockade effect gives rise to a series of crystalline phases commensurate with the optical lattice that form a so-called devil's staircase. The Rabi frequency {Omega}, on the other hand, creates quantum fluctuations that eventually lead to a quantum melting of the crystalline states. Upon increasing {Omega}, we find that generically a commensurate-incommensurate transition to a floating Rydberg crystal that supports gapless phonon excitations occurs first. For even larger {Omega}, dislocations within the floating Rydberg crystal start to proliferate and a second, Kosterlitz-Thouless-Nelson-Halperin-Young dislocation-mediated melting transition finally destroys the crystalline arrangement of Rydberg excitations. This latter melting transition is generic for one-dimensional Rydberg crystals and persists even in the absence of an optical lattice. The floating phase and the concomitant transitions can, in principle, be detected by Bragg scattering of light.

  17. Generating arbitrary one-dimensional dose profiles using rotational therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Tingliang; Wu, Qiuwen

    2010-10-01

    Conformal radiation therapy can be delivered using several methods: intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) at fixed gantry angles, through the continuous gantry rotation of linac (rotational arc therapy), or by a dedicated treatment unit such as tomotherapy. The recently developed volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), a form of rotational arc therapy, has attracted lots of attention from investigators to explore its capability of generating highly conformal dose to the target. The main advanced features of VMAT are the variable dose rate and gantry rotation speed. In this paper, we present a theoretical framework of generating arbitrary one-dimensional dose profiles using rotational arc therapy to further explore the new degree of freedom of the VMAT technique. This framework was applied to design a novel technique for total body irradiation (TBI) treatment, where the desired dose distribution can be simplified by a one-dimensional profile. The technique was validated using simulations and experimental measurements. The preliminary results demonstrated that the new TBI technique using either dynamic MLC only, variable dose rate only, or a combination of dynamic MLC and variable dose rate can achieve arbitrary dose distribution in one dimension, such as uniform dose to target and lower dose to critical organ. This technique does not require the use of customized compensators, nor large treatment rooms as in the conventional extended SSD technique.

  18. Bound states of the spin-orbit coupled ultracold atom in a one-dimensional short-range potential

    SciTech Connect

    Jursenas, Rytis; Ruseckas, Julius

    2013-05-15

    We solve the bound state problem for the Hamiltonian with the spin-orbit and the Raman coupling included. The Hamiltonian is perturbed by a one-dimensional short-range potential V which describes the impurity scattering. In addition to the bound states obtained by considering weak solutions through the Fourier transform or by solving the eigenvalue equation on a suitable domain directly, it is shown that ordinary point-interaction representations of V lead to spin-orbit induced extra states.

  19. Properties of surface modes in one dimensional plasma photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, S.; Prasad, S. Singh, V.

    2015-02-15

    Properties of surface modes supported at the interface of air and a semi-infinite one dimensional plasma photonic crystal are analyzed. The surface mode equation is obtained by using transfer matrix method and applying continuity conditions of electric fields and its derivatives at the interface. It is observed that with increase in the width of cap layer, frequencies of surface modes are shifted towards lower frequency side, whereas increase in tangential component of wave-vector increases the mode frequency and total energy carried by the surface modes. With increase in plasma frequency, surface modes are found to shift towards higher frequency side. The group velocity along interface is found to control by cap layer thickness.

  20. Experiment and simulation on one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lin; Ouyang, Ji-Ting

    2014-10-15

    The transmission characteristics of microwaves passing through one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals (PPCs) have been investigated by experiment and simulation. The PPCs were formed by a series of discharge tubes filled with argon at 5 Torr that the plasma density in tubes can be varied by adjusting the discharge current. The transmittance of X-band microwaves through the crystal structure was measured under different discharge currents and geometrical parameters. The finite-different time-domain method was employed to analyze the detailed properties of the microwaves propagation. The results show that there exist bandgaps when the plasma is turned on. The properties of bandgaps depend on the plasma density and the geometrical parameters of the PPCs structure. The PPCs can perform as dynamical band-stop filter to control the transmission of microwaves within a wide frequency range.

  1. Strongly-Refractive One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Prisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal prisms can separate a beam of polychromatic electromagnetic waves into constituent wavelength components and can utilize unconventional refraction properties for wavelength dispersion over significant portions of an entire photonic band rather than just near the band edges outside the photonic band gaps. Using a ID photonic crystal simplifies the design and fabrication process and allows the use of larger feature sizes. The prism geometry broadens the useful wavelength range, enables better optical transmission, and exhibits angular dependence on wavelength with reduced non-linearity. The properties of the 1 D photonic crystal prism can be tuned by varying design parameters such as incidence angle, exit surface angle, and layer widths. The ID photonic crystal prism can be fabricated in a planar process, and can be used as optical integrated circuit elements.

  2. Unexpected photoluminescence properties from one-dimensional molecular chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ye; Yao, Mingguang; Chen, Shuanglong; Liu, Shijie; Yang, Xigui; Zhang, Weiwei; Yao, Zhen; Liu, Ran; Liu, Bo; Liu, Bingbing

    2016-01-01

    Unlike bulk iodine, iodine molecular chains formed inside one dimensional (1D) nanochannels of AlPO4-5 (AFI) single crystals show unexpected PL behavior. Thanks to its unique 1D structure, the PL exhibits obvious polarization both in excitation and emission, by changing the angle between the c-axis of the channels and the polarization direction of the incident laser. As pressure increases, the PL intensity increases obviously due to the population increase of (I2)n chains upon compression. In contrast, the breaking of the (I2)n chain at high temperature leads to the decrease of PL intensity. Our theoretical calculation further points out that the PL may arise from the intrinsic band structure of (I2)n chains.

  3. Localization of wave packets in one-dimensional random potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes, Juan Pablo Ramírez; Wellens, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    We study the expansion of an initially strongly confined wave packet in a one-dimensional weak random potential with short correlation length. At long times, the expansion of the wave packet comes to a halt due to destructive interferences leading to Anderson localization. We develop an analytical description for the disorder-averaged localized density profile. For this purpose, we employ the diagrammatic method of Berezinskii which we extend to the case of wave packets, present an analytical expression of the Lyapunov exponent which is valid for small as well as for high energies, and, finally, develop a self-consistent Born approximation in order to analytically calculate the energy distribution of our wave packet. By comparison with numerical simulations, we show that our theory describes well the complete localized density profile, not only in the tails but also in the center.

  4. Anyon Hubbard Model in One-Dimensional Optical Lattices.

    PubMed

    Greschner, Sebastian; Santos, Luis

    2015-07-31

    Raman-assisted hopping may be used to realize the anyon Hubbard model in one-dimensional optical lattices. We propose a feasible scenario that significantly improves the proposal of T. Keilmann et al. [Nat. Commun. 2, 361 (2011)], allowing as well for an exact realization of the two-body hard-core constraint, and for controllable effective interactions without the need of Feshbach resonances. We show that the combination of anyonic statistics and two-body hard-core constraint leads to a rich ground-state physics, including Mott insulators with attractive interactions, pair superfluids, dimer phases, and multicritical points. Moreover, the anyonic statistics results in a novel two-component superfluid of holon and doublon dimers, characterized by a large but finite compressibility and a multipeaked momentum distribution, which may be easily revealed experimentally. PMID:26274417

  5. Users manual for a one-dimensional Lagrangian transport model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoellhamer, D.H.; Jobson, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    A Users Manual for the Lagrangian Transport Model (LTM) is presented. The LTM uses Lagrangian calculations that are based on a reference frame moving with the river flow. The Lagrangian reference frame eliminates the need to numerically solve the convective term of the convection-diffusion equation and provides significant numerical advantages over the more commonly used Eulerian reference frame. When properly applied, the LTM can simulate riverine transport and decay processes within the accuracy required by most water quality studies. The LTM is applicable to steady or unsteady one-dimensional unidirectional flows in fixed channels with tributary and lateral inflows. Application of the LTM is relatively simple and optional capabilities improve the model 's convenience. Appendices give file formats and three example LTM applications that include the incorporation of the QUAL II water quality model 's reaction kinetics into the LTM. (Author 's abstract)

  6. Periodic transmission peak splitting in one dimensional disordered photonic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriegel, Ilka; Scotognella, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    In the present paper we present ways to modulate the periodic transmission peaks arising in disordered one dimensional photonic structures with hundreds of layers. Disordered structures in which the optical length nd (n is the refractive index and d the layer thickness) is the same for each layer show regular peaks in their transmission spectra. A proper variation of the optical length of the layers leads to a splitting of the transmission peaks. Notably, the variation of the occurrence of high and low refractive index layers, gives a tool to tune also the width of the peaks. These results are of highest interest for optical application, such as light filtering, where the manifold of parameters allows a precise design of the spectral transmission ranges.

  7. Quasi one dimensional transport in individual electrospun composite nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Avnon, A. Datsyuk, V.; Trotsenko, S.; Wang, B.; Zhou, S.

    2014-01-15

    We present results of transport measurements of individual suspended electrospun nanofibers Poly(methyl methacrylate)-multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The nanofiber is comprised of highly aligned consecutive multiwalled carbon nanotubes. We have confirmed that at the range temperature from room temperature down to ∼60 K, the conductance behaves as power-law of temperature with an exponent of α ∼ 2.9−10.2. The current also behaves as power law of voltage with an exponent of β ∼ 2.3−8.6. The power-law behavior is a footprint for one dimensional transport. The possible models of this confined system are discussed. Using the model of Luttinger liquid states in series, we calculated the exponent for tunneling into the bulk of a single multiwalled carbon nanotube α{sub bulk} ∼ 0.06 which agrees with theoretical predictions.

  8. Reprint of : Absorbing/Emitting Phonons with one dimensional MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosisio, Riccardo; Gorini, Cosimo; Fleury, Geneviève; Pichard, Jean-Louis

    2016-08-01

    We consider nanowires in the field effect transistor device configuration. Modeling each nanowire as a one dimensional lattice with random site potentials, we study the heat exchanges between the nanowire electrons and the substrate phonons, when electron transport is due to phonon-assisted hops between localized states. Shifting the nanowire conduction band with a metallic gate induces different behaviors. When the Fermi potential is located near the band center, a bias voltage gives rise to small local heat exchanges which fluctuate randomly along the nanowire. When it is located near one of the band edges, the bias voltage yields heat currents which flow mainly from the substrate towards the nanowire near one boundary of the nanowire, and in the opposite direction near the other boundary. This opens interesting perspectives for heat management at submicron scales: arrays of parallel gated nanowires could be used for a field control of phonon emission/absorption.

  9. One dimensional 1H, 2H and 3H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, A. J.; Astrakharchik, G. E.; Vranješ Markić, L.; Boronat, J.

    2016-05-01

    The ground-state properties of one-dimensional electron-spin-polarized hydrogen 1H, deuterium 2H, and tritium 3H are obtained by means of quantum Monte Carlo methods. The equations of state of the three isotopes are calculated for a wide range of linear densities. The pair correlation function and the static structure factor are obtained and interpreted within the framework of the Luttinger liquid theory. We report the density dependence of the Luttinger parameter and use it to identify different physical regimes: Bogoliubov Bose gas, super-Tonks–Girardeau gas, and quasi-crystal regimes for bosons; repulsive, attractive Fermi gas, and quasi-crystal regimes for fermions. We find that the tritium isotope is the one with the richest behavior. Our results show unambiguously the relevant role of the isotope mass in the properties of this quantum system.

  10. Growth of One-Dimensional MnO2 Nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Pai; Xue, Dongfeng

    Large scale MnO2 nanorods were controllably synthesized from the inexpensive precursors (e.g., manganese acetate, ammonium persulfate) via a facile one-step low temperature hydrothermal strategy. The crystal phase and microscopic morphology of the as-prepared MnO2 nanorods were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Through investigating the morphology evolution of MnO2 products in the whole synthesis process, a novel growth mechanism of these MnO2 nanorods was proposed, which may be efficiently extended to other material systems as a general approach towards one-dimensional nanostructures. The obtained MnO2 nanorods may have potential applications in Li-ion batteries and supercapacitors.

  11. Topological phase transition in quasi-one dimensional organic conductors

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiao-Shan; Liu, Yong-Jun; Zeng, Xiang-Hua; Wu, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    We explore topological phase transition, which involves the energy spectra of field-induced spin-density-wave (FISDW) states in quasi-one dimensional (Q1D) organic conductors, using an extended Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. We show that, in presence of half magnetic-flux FISDW state, the system exhibits topologically nontrivial phases, which can be characterized by a nonzero Chern number. The nontrivial evolution of the bulk bands with chemical potential in a topological phase transition is discussed. We show that the system can have a similar phase diagram which is discussed in the Haldane’s model. We suggest that the topological feature should be tested experimentally in this organic system. These studies enrich the theoretical research on topologically nontrivial phases in the Q1D lattice system as compared to the Haldane topological phase appearing in the two-dimensional lattices. PMID:26612317

  12. Pseudo-one-dimensional nucleation in dilute polymer solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lingyun; Schmit, Jeremy D.

    2016-06-01

    Pathogenic protein fibrils have been shown in vitro to have nucleation-dependent kinetics despite the fact that one-dimensional structures do not have the size-dependent surface energy responsible for the lag time in classical theory. We present a theory showing that the conformational entropy of the peptide chains creates a free-energy barrier that is analogous to the translational entropy barrier in higher dimensions. We find that the dynamics of polymer rearrangement make it very unlikely for nucleation to succeed along the lowest free-energy trajectory, meaning that most of the nucleation flux avoids the free-energy saddle point. We use these results to construct a three-dimensional model for amyloid nucleation that accounts for conformational entropy, backbone H bonds, and side-chain interactions to compute nucleation rates as a function of concentration.

  13. CHARGE ORDER FLUCTUATIONS IN ONE-DIMENSIONAL SILICIDES

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Changgan; Kent, P. R.C.; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Li, An-Ping; Weitering, Hanno H.

    2014-01-01

    Metallic nanowires are of great interest as interconnects in future nanoelectronic circuits. They also represent important systems for understanding the complexity of electronic interactions and conductivity in one-dimension. We have fabricated exceptionally long and uniform YSi2 nanowires via self-assembly of yttrium atoms on Si(001). The thinnest wires represent one of the closest realizations of the isolated Peierls chain, exhibiting van-Hove type singularities in the one-dimensional density of states and charge order fluctuations below 150 K. The structure of the wire was determined though a detailed comparison of scanning tunneling microscopy data and first-principles calculations. Sporadic broadenings of the wires’ cross section imply the existence of a novel metal-semiconductor junction whose electronic properties are governed by the finite-size- and temperature-scaling of the charge ordering correlation. PMID:18552849

  14. Probing the excitations of a one dimensional topological Bose insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Torre, Emanuele G.; Berg, Erez; Altman, Ehud

    2008-03-01

    We investigate the dynamic response of a system of ultracold dipolar atoms or molecules in the one dimensional Haldane Bose insulator phase. This phase, which was recently predicted theoretically [1], is characterized by non-local string order and its elementary excitations are domain walls in this order. We compute experimentally relevant response functions and we derive asymptotically exact expressions near the quantum critical points separating the Haldane insulator from the conventional Mott and density wave insulators. In particular, we predict a narrow absorption peak in Bragg spectroscopy experiments, due to the excitation of a single domain wall in the string order. [1] E.G. Dalla Torre, E. Berg, E. Altman, Phys. Rev Lett. 97, 260401 (2006)

  15. Size Dependent Heat Conduction in One-Dimensional Diatomic Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejal, N. Shah; P. N., Gajjar

    2016-04-01

    We study the size dependency of heat conduction in one-dimensional diatomic FPU-β lattices and establish that for low dimensional material, contribution from optical phonons is found more effective to the thermal conductivity and enhance heat transport in the thermodynamic limit N → ∞. For the finite size, thermal conductivity of 1D diatomic lattice is found to be lower than 1D monoatomic chain of the same size made up of the constituent particle of the diatomic chain. For the present 1D diatomic chain, obtained value of power divergent exponent of thermal conductivity 0.428±0.001 and diffusion exponent 1.2723 lead to the conclusions that increase in the system size, increases the thermal conductivity and existence of anomalous energy diffusion. Existing numerical data supports our findings.

  16. Majorana fermion exchange in strictly one-dimensional structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Ching-Kai; Vazifeh, M. M.; Franz, M.

    2015-04-01

    It is generally thought that the adiabatic exchange of two identical particles is impossible in one spatial dimension. Here we describe a simple protocol that permits the adiabatic exchange of two Majorana fermions in a one-dimensional topological superconductor wire. The exchange relies on the concept of “Majorana shuttle” whereby a π domain wall in the superconducting order parameter which hosts a pair of ancillary majoranas delivers one zero mode across the wire while the other one tunnels in the opposite direction. The method requires some tuning of parameters and does not, therefore, enjoy full topological protection. The resulting exchange statistics, however, remain non-Abelian for a wide range of parameters that characterize the exchange.

  17. Erosion by a one-dimensional random walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, Rebecca H.; Hughes, Barry D.; Landman, Kerry A.

    2014-08-01

    We consider a model introduced by Baker et al. [Phys. Rev. E 88, 042113 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevE.88.042113] of a single lattice random walker moving on a domain of allowed sites, surrounded by blocked sites. The walker enlarges the allowed domain by eroding the boundary at its random encounters with blocked boundary sites: attempts to step onto blocked sites succeed with a given probability and convert these sites to allowed sites. The model interpolates continuously between the Pólya random walker on the one-dimensional lattice and a "blind" walker who attempts freely, but always aborts, moves to blocked sites. We obtain some exact results about the walker's location and the rate of erosion.

  18. Topological phase transition in quasi-one dimensional organic conductors.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiao-Shan; Liu, Yong-Jun; Zeng, Xiang-Hua; Wu, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    We explore topological phase transition, which involves the energy spectra of field-induced spin-density-wave (FISDW) states in quasi-one dimensional (Q1D) organic conductors, using an extended Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. We show that, in presence of half magnetic-flux FISDW state, the system exhibits topologically nontrivial phases, which can be characterized by a nonzero Chern number. The nontrivial evolution of the bulk bands with chemical potential in a topological phase transition is discussed. We show that the system can have a similar phase diagram which is discussed in the Haldane's model. We suggest that the topological feature should be tested experimentally in this organic system. These studies enrich the theoretical research on topologically nontrivial phases in the Q1D lattice system as compared to the Haldane topological phase appearing in the two-dimensional lattices. PMID:26612317

  19. Topological phase transition in quasi-one dimensional organic conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xiao-Shan; Liu, Yong-Jun; Zeng, Xiang-Hua; Wu, Guoqing

    2015-11-01

    We explore topological phase transition, which involves the energy spectra of field-induced spin-density-wave (FISDW) states in quasi-one dimensional (Q1D) organic conductors, using an extended Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. We show that, in presence of half magnetic-flux FISDW state, the system exhibits topologically nontrivial phases, which can be characterized by a nonzero Chern number. The nontrivial evolution of the bulk bands with chemical potential in a topological phase transition is discussed. We show that the system can have a similar phase diagram which is discussed in the Haldane’s model. We suggest that the topological feature should be tested experimentally in this organic system. These studies enrich the theoretical research on topologically nontrivial phases in the Q1D lattice system as compared to the Haldane topological phase appearing in the two-dimensional lattices.

  20. A Reduced Order, One Dimensional Model of Joint Response

    SciTech Connect

    DOHNER,JEFFREY L.

    2000-11-06

    As a joint is loaded, the tangent stiffness of the joint reduces due to slip at interfaces. This stiffness reduction continues until the direction of the applied load is reversed or the total interface slips. Total interface slippage in joints is called macro-slip. For joints not undergoing macro-slip, when load reversal occurs the tangent stiffness immediately rebounds to its maximum value. This occurs due to stiction effects at the interface. Thus, for periodic loads, a softening and rebound hardening cycle is produced which defines a hysteretic, energy absorbing trajectory. For many jointed sub-structures, this hysteretic trajectory can be approximated using simple polynomial representations. This allows for complex joint substructures to be represented using simple non-linear models. In this paper a simple one dimensional model is discussed.

  1. Polaron and bipolaron of uniaxially strained one dimensional zigzag ladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavidov, B. Ya.

    2016-09-01

    An influence of the uniaxial strains in one dimensional zigzag ladder (1DZL) on the properties of polarons and bipolarons is considered. It is shown that strain changes all the parameters of the system, in particular, spectrum, existing bands and the masses of charge carriers. Numerical results obtained by taking into an account the Poisson effect clearly indicate that the properties of the (bi)polaronic system can be tuned via strain. Mass of bipolaron can be manipulated by the strain too which in turn leads to the way of tuning Bose-Einstein condensation temperature TBEC of bipolarons. It is shown that TBEC of bipolarons in strained 1DZL reasonably correlates with the values of critical temperature of superconductivity of certain perovskites.

  2. One-dimensional Electron Gases at Oxide Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yanwei; Zhong, Zhicheng; Shafer, P.; Liu, Xiaoran; Kareev, M.; Middey, S.; Meyers, D.; Arenholz, E.; Chakhalian, Jak

    Emergence of two-dimensional electron gases (2DEG) at the oxide interfaces of two dissimilar insulators is a remarkable manifestation of interface engineering. With continuously reduced dimensionality, it arises an interesting question: could one-dimensional electron gases (1DEG) be designed at oxide interfaces? So far there is no report on this. Here, we report on the formation of 1DEG at the carefully engineered titanate heterostructures. Combined resonant soft X-ray linear dichroism with electrical transport and the first-principles calculations have confirmed the formation of 1DEG driven by the interfacial symmetry breaking. Our findings provide a route to engineer new electronic and magnetic states. This work was supported by Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, DODARO, DOE, and the Director, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  3. One-dimensional vertical dust strings in a glass box

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Jie; Hyde, Truell W.; Matthews, Lorin; Qiao Ke; Zhang Zhuanhao; Douglass, Angela

    2011-07-15

    The oscillation spectrum of a one-dimensional vertical dust string formed inside a glass box on top of the lower electrode in a gaseous electronics conference (GEC) reference cell was studied. A mechanism for creating a single vertical dust string is described. It is shown that the oscillation amplitudes, resonance frequencies, damping coefficients, and oscillation phases of the dust particles separate into two distinct groups. One group exhibits low damping coefficients, increasing amplitudes, and decreasing resonance frequencies for dust particles closer to the lower electrode. The other group shows high damping coefficients but anomalous resonance frequencies and amplitudes. At low oscillation frequencies, the two groups are also separated by a {pi} phase difference. One possible cause for the difference in behavior between the two groups is discussed.

  4. One-Dimensional Time to Explosion (Thermal Sensitivity) of ANPZ

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, P.; Hust, G.; McClelland, M.; Gresshoff, M.

    2014-11-12

    Incidents caused by fire and combat operations can heat energetic materials that may lead to thermal explosion and result in structural damage and casualty. Some explosives may thermally explode at fairly low temperatures (< 100 C) and the violence from thermal explosion may cause a significant damage. Thus it is important to understand the response of energetic materials to thermal insults. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been used for decades to measure times to explosion, threshold thermal explosion temperature, and determine kinetic parameters of energetic materials. Samples of different configurations (pressed part, powder, paste, and liquid) can be tested in the system. The ODTX testing can also provide useful data for assessing the thermal explosion violence of energetic materials. This report summarizes the recent ODTX experimental data and modeling results for 2,6-diamino-3,5-dintropyrazine (ANPZ).

  5. Novel superconducting phenomena in quasi-one-dimensional Bechgaard salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerome, Denis; Yonezawa, Shingo

    2016-03-01

    It is the saturation of the transition temperature Tc in the range of 24 K for known materials in the late sixties that triggered the search for additional materials offering new coupling mechanisms leading in turn to higher Tc's. As a result of this stimulation, superconductivity in organic matter was discovered in tetramethyl-tetraselenafulvalene-hexafluorophosphate, (TMTSF)2PF6, in 1979, in the laboratory founded at Orsay by Professor Friedel and his colleagues in 1962. Although this conductor is a prototype example for low-dimensional physics, we mostly focus in this article on the superconducting phase of the ambient-pressure superconductor (TMTSF)2ClO4, which has been studied most intensively among the TMTSF salts. We shall present a series of experimental results supporting nodal d-wave symmetry for the superconducting gap in these prototypical quasi-one-dimensional conductors. xml:lang="fr"

  6. Excitations of one-dimensional supersolids with optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsueh, C.-H.; Tsai, Y.-C.; Wu, W. C.

    2016-06-01

    Based on mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii and Bogoliubov-de Gennes approaches, we investigate excitations of a one-dimensional soft-core interacting ultracold Bose gas under the effect of an optical lattice. It is found that no matter how deep the lattice is, at q →0 the lowest mode corresponds to a gapless phonon, ω12=v12q2 , whereas the second lowest mode corresponds to a gapped optical phonon, ω22=Δ2±v22q2 . Determination of the velocities v1,v2 , the gap Δ , and the possible sign change in ω2 upon the change of lattice depth can give decisive measures to the transitions across various supersolid and solid states. The power law v1˜(fs) 1 /2 with fs the superfluid fraction is identified in the present system at the tight-binding regime.

  7. Wigner quantization of some one-dimensional Hamiltonians

    SciTech Connect

    Regniers, G.; Van der Jeugt, J.

    2010-12-15

    Recently, several papers have been dedicated to the Wigner quantization of different Hamiltonians. In these examples, many interesting mathematical and physical properties have been shown. Among those we have the ubiquitous relation with Lie superalgebras and their representations. In this paper, we study two one-dimensional Hamiltonians for which the Wigner quantization is related with the orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra osp(1|2). One of them, the Hamiltonian H=xp, is popular due to its connection with the Riemann zeros, discovered by Berry and Keating on the one hand and Connes on the other. The Hamiltonian of the free particle, H{sub f}=p{sup 2}/2, is the second Hamiltonian we will examine. Wigner quantization introduces an extra representation parameter for both of these Hamiltonians. Canonical quantization is recovered by restricting to a specific representation of the Lie superalgebra osp(1|2).

  8. Bandgap characteristics of one-dimensional plasma photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Yin Yan; Ma Yanyun; Tian Chenglin; Shao Fuqiu; Xu Han; Zhuo Hongbin; Yu, M. Y.

    2009-10-15

    When two pump laser pulses intersect in an underdense plasma, plasma Bragg grating (PBG) is induced by the slow-varying ponderomotive force [Z. M. Sheng et al., Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 77, 673 (2003)]. Such a PBG can be considered as a one-dimensional (1D) plasma photonic crystal (PPC). Here the bandgap characteristic of 1D PPC composed of plasma layers of different densities is investigated theoretically and numerically. It is found that when the maximum density is lower than the critical density of the pump laser, there is only one normal-incidence bandgap. When the maximum density is higher than the critical density of the pump laser, high-order bandgaps are found. The theoretical results are verified by 1D particle-in-cell simulations.

  9. One-dimensional quantum spin heterojunction as a thermal switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chuan-Jing; Jin, Li-Hui; Gong, Wei-Jiang

    2016-03-01

    We study the thermal transport through a quantum spin-1 2 heterojunction, which consists of a finite-size chain with two-site anisotropic XY interaction and three-site XZX+YZY interaction coupled at its ends to two semi-infinite isotropic XY chains. By performing the Jordan-Wigner transformation, the original spin Hamiltonian is mapped onto a fermionic Hamiltonian. Then, the fermionic structure is discussed, and the heat current as a function of structural parameters is evaluated. It is found that the magnetic fields applied at respective chains play different roles in adjusting the heat current in this heterojunction. Moreover, the interplay between the anisotropy of the XY interaction and the three-site spin interaction assists to further control the thermal transport. In view of the numerical results, we propose this heterojunction to be an alternate candidate for manipulating the heat current in one-dimensional (1D) systems.

  10. One-dimensional disk model simulation for klystron design

    SciTech Connect

    Yonezawa, H.; Okazaki, Y.

    1984-05-01

    In 1982, one of the authors (Okazaki), of Toshiba Corporation, wrote a one-dimensional, rigid-disk model computer program <1> to serve as a reliable design tool for the 150 MW klystron development project. This is an introductory note for the users of this program. While reviewing the so-called disk programs presently available, hypotheses such as gridded interaction gaps, a linear relation between phase and position, and so on, were found. These hypotheses bring serious limitations and uncertainties into the computational results. JPNDISK was developed to eliminate these defects, to follow the equations of motion as rigorously as possible, and to obtain self-consistent solutions for the gap voltages and the electron motion. Although some inaccuracy may be present in the relativistic region, JPNDISK, in its present form, seems a most suitable tool for klystron design; it is both easy and inexpensive to use.

  11. Practical variational tomography for critical one-dimensional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong Yeon; Landon-Cardinal, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    We improve upon a recently introduced efficient quantum state reconstruction procedure targeted to states well approximated by the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA), e.g., ground states of critical models. We show how to numerically select a subset of experimentally accessible measurements which maximize information extraction about renormalized particles, thus dramatically reducing the required number of physical measurements. We numerically estimate the number of measurements required to characterize the ground state of the critical one-dimensional Ising (resp. XX) model and find that MERA tomography on 16-qubit (resp. 24-qubit) systems requires the same experimental effort as brute-force tomography on 8 qubits. We derive a bound computable from experimental data which certifies the distance between the experimental and reconstructed states.

  12. Quantum rectifier in a one-dimensional photonic channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascarenhas, E.; Santos, M. F.; Auffèves, A.; Gerace, D.

    2016-04-01

    By using a fully quantum approach based on an input-output formulation of the stochastic Schrödinger equation, we show rectification of radiation fields in a one-dimensional waveguide doped with a pair of ideal two-level systems for three topical cases: classical driving, under the action of noise, and single-photon pulsed excitation. We show that even under the constant action of unwanted noise the device still operates effectively as an optical isolator, which is of critical importance for noise resistance. Finally, harnessing stimulated emission allows for nonreciprocal behavior for single-photon inputs, thus showing purely quantum rectification at the single-photon level. The latter is a considerable step towards the ultimate goal of devising an unconditional quantum rectifier for arbitrary quantum states.

  13. Pseudo-one-dimensional nucleation in dilute polymer solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lingyun; Schmit, Jeremy D

    2016-06-01

    Pathogenic protein fibrils have been shown in vitro to have nucleation-dependent kinetics despite the fact that one-dimensional structures do not have the size-dependent surface energy responsible for the lag time in classical theory. We present a theory showing that the conformational entropy of the peptide chains creates a free-energy barrier that is analogous to the translational entropy barrier in higher dimensions. We find that the dynamics of polymer rearrangement make it very unlikely for nucleation to succeed along the lowest free-energy trajectory, meaning that most of the nucleation flux avoids the free-energy saddle point. We use these results to construct a three-dimensional model for amyloid nucleation that accounts for conformational entropy, backbone H bonds, and side-chain interactions to compute nucleation rates as a function of concentration. PMID:27415194

  14. Switching synchronization in one-dimensional memristive networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slipko, Valeriy A.; Shumovskyi, Mykola; Pershin, Yuriy V.

    2015-11-01

    We report on a switching synchronization phenomenon in one-dimensional memristive networks, which occurs when several memristive systems with different switching constants are switched from the high- to low-resistance state. Our numerical simulations show that such a collective behavior is especially pronounced when the applied voltage slightly exceeds the combined threshold voltage of memristive systems. Moreover, a finite increase in the network switching time is found compared to the average switching time of individual systems. An analytical model is presented to explain our observations. Using this model, we have derived asymptotic expressions for memory resistances at short and long times, which are in excellent agreement with results of our numerical simulations.

  15. Switching synchronization in one-dimensional memristive networks.

    PubMed

    Slipko, Valeriy A; Shumovskyi, Mykola; Pershin, Yuriy V

    2015-11-01

    We report on a switching synchronization phenomenon in one-dimensional memristive networks, which occurs when several memristive systems with different switching constants are switched from the high- to low-resistance state. Our numerical simulations show that such a collective behavior is especially pronounced when the applied voltage slightly exceeds the combined threshold voltage of memristive systems. Moreover, a finite increase in the network switching time is found compared to the average switching time of individual systems. An analytical model is presented to explain our observations. Using this model, we have derived asymptotic expressions for memory resistances at short and long times, which are in excellent agreement with results of our numerical simulations. PMID:26651772

  16. Sonic black holes in a one-dimensional relativistic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonaro, P.

    2015-09-01

    The analogy between sound propagation in a fluid background and light propagation in a curved spacetime, discovered by Unruh in 1981, does not work in general when considering the motion of a fluid which is confined in one spatial dimension being unable in (1+1) dimensions to introduce in a coherent manner an effective acoustic metric, barring some exceptional cases. In this paper a relativistic fluid is considered and the general condition for the existence of an acoustic metric in strictly one-dimensional systems is found. Attention is also paid to the physical meaning of the equations of state characterizing such systems and to the remarkable symmetry of structure taken by the basic equations. Finally the Hawking temperature is calculated in an artificial de Laval nozzle.

  17. Thermal transport in one-dimensional spin heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrachea, Liliana; Lozano, Gustavo S.; Aligia, A. A.

    2009-07-01

    We study heat transport in a one-dimensional inhomogeneous quantum spin-1/2 system. It consists of a finite-size XX spin chain coupled at its ends to semi-infinite XX and XY chains at different temperatures, which play the role of heat and spin reservoirs. After using the Jordan-Wigner transformation we map the original spin Hamiltonian into a fermionic Hamiltonian, which contains normal and pairing terms. We find the expressions for the heat currents and solve the problem with a nonequilibrium Green’s-function formalism. We analyze the behavior of the heat currents as functions of the model parameters. When finite magnetic fields are applied at the two reservoirs, the system exhibits rectifying effects in the heat flow.

  18. Magnons in one-dimensional k-component Fibonacci structures

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, C. H.; Vasconcelos, M. S.

    2014-05-07

    We have studied the magnon transmission through of one-dimensional magnonic k-component Fibonacci structures, where k different materials are arranged in accordance with the following substitution rule: S{sub n}{sup (k)}=S{sub n−1}{sup (k)}S{sub n−k}{sup (k)} (n≥k=0,1,2,…), where S{sub n}{sup (k)} is the nth stage of the sequence. The calculations were carried out in exchange dominated regime within the framework of the Heisenberg model and taking into account the RPA approximation. We have considered multilayers composed of simple cubic spin-S Heisenberg ferromagnets, and, by using the powerful transfer-matrix method, the spin wave transmission is obtained. It is demonstrated that the transmission coefficient has a rich and interesting magnonic pass- and stop-bands structures, which depends on the frequency of magnons and the k values.

  19. One-dimensional Ising model with multispin interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turban, Loïc

    2016-09-01

    We study the spin-1/2 Ising chain with multispin interactions K involving the product of m successive spins, for general values of m. Using a change of spin variables the zero-field partition function of a finite chain is obtained for free and periodic boundary conditions and we calculate the two-spin correlation function. When placed in an external field H the system is shown to be self-dual. Using another change of spin variables the one-dimensional Ising model with multispin interactions in a field is mapped onto a zero-field rectangular Ising model with first-neighbour interactions K and H. The 2D system, with size m × N/m, has the topology of a cylinder with helical BC. In the thermodynamic limit N/m\\to ∞ , m\\to ∞ , a 2D critical singularity develops on the self-duality line, \\sinh 2K\\sinh 2H=1.

  20. One-dimensional Kondo lattice model at quarter filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, J. C.; Miranda, E.

    2008-10-01

    We revisit the problem of the quarter-filled one-dimensional Kondo lattice model, for which the existence of a dimerized phase and a nonzero charge gap had been reported by Xavier [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 247204 (2003)]. Recently, some objections were raised claiming that the system is neither dimerized nor has a charge gap. In the interest of clarifying this important issue, we show that these objections are based on results obtained under conditions in which the dimer order is artificially suppressed. We use the incontrovertible dimerized phase of the Majumdar-Ghosh point of the J1-J2 Heisenberg model as a paradigm with which to illustrate this artificial suppression. Finally, by means of extremely accurate density-matrix renormalization-group calculations, we show that the charge gap is indeed nonzero in the dimerized phase.

  1. Bjorken flow in one-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamics with magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Shi; Roy, Victor; Rezzolla, Luciano; Rischke, Dirk H.

    2016-04-01

    We study the one-dimensional, longitudinally boost-invariant motion of an ideal fluid with infinite conductivity in the presence of a transverse magnetic field, i.e., in the ideal transverse magnetohydrodynamical limit. In an extension of our previous work Roy et al., [Phys. Lett. B 750, 45 (2015)], we consider the fluid to have a nonzero magnetization. First, we assume a constant magnetic susceptibility χm and consider an ultrarelativistic ideal gas equation of state. For a paramagnetic fluid (i.e., with χm>0 ), the decay of the energy density slows down since the fluid gains energy from the magnetic field. For a diamagnetic fluid (i.e., with χm<0 ), the energy density decays faster because it feeds energy into the magnetic field. Furthermore, when the magnetic field is taken to be external and to decay in proper time τ with a power law ˜τ-a, two distinct solutions can be found depending on the values of a and χm. Finally, we also solve the ideal magnetohydrodynamical equations for one-dimensional Bjorken flow with a temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility and a realistic equation of state given by lattice-QCD data. We find that the temperature and energy density decay more slowly because of the nonvanishing magnetization. For values of the magnetic field typical for heavy-ion collisions, this effect is, however, rather small. It is only for magnetic fields about an order of magnitude larger than expected for heavy-ion collisions that the system is substantially reheated and the lifetime of the quark phase might be extended.

  2. A One-Dimensional Synthetic-Aperture Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doiron, Terence; Piepmeier, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    A proposed one-dimensional synthetic- aperture microwave radiometer could serve as an alternative to either the two-dimensional synthetic-aperture radiometer described in the immediately preceding article or to a prior one-dimensional one, denoted the Electrically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR), mentioned in that article. The proposed radiometer would operate in a pushbroom imaging mode, utilizing (1) interferometric cross-track scanning to obtain cross-track resolution and (2) the focusing property of a reflector for along-track resolution. The most novel aspect of the proposed system would be the antenna (see figure), which would include a cylindrical reflector of offset parabolic cross section. The reflector could be made of a lightweight, flexible material amenable to stowage and deployment. Other than a stowage/deployment mechanism, the antenna would not include moving parts, and cross-track scanning would not entail mechanical rotation of the antenna. During operation, the focal line, parallel to the cylindrical axis, would be oriented in the cross-track direction, so that placement of receiving/radiating elements at the focal line would afford the desired along-track resolution. The elements would be microwave feed horns sparsely arrayed along the focal line. The feed horns would be oriented with their short and long cross-sectional dimensions parallel and perpendicular, respectively, to the cylindrical axis to obtain fan-shaped beams having their broad and narrow cross-sectional dimensions parallel and perpendicular, respectively, to the cylindrical axis. The interference among the beams would be controlled in the same manner as in the ESTAR to obtain along-cylindrical- axis (cross-track) resolution and cross-track scanning.

  3. Magnetic properties of manganese based one-dimensional spin chains.

    PubMed

    Asha, K S; Ranjith, K M; Yogi, Arvind; Nath, R; Mandal, Sukhendu

    2015-12-14

    We have correlated the structure-property relationship of three manganese-based inorganic-organic hybrid structures. Compound 1, [Mn2(OH-BDC)2(DMF)3] (where BDC = 1,4-benzene dicarboxylic acid and DMF = N,N'-dimethylformamide), contains Mn2O11 dimers as secondary building units (SBUs), which are connected by carboxylate anions forming Mn-O-C-O-Mn chains. Compound 2, [Mn2(BDC)2(DMF)2], contains Mn4O20 clusters as SBUs, which also form Mn-O-C-O-Mn chains. In compound 3, [Mn3(BDC)3(DEF)2] (where DEF = N,N'-diethylformamide), the distorted MnO6 octahedra are linked to form a one-dimensional chain with Mn-O-Mn connectivity. The magnetic properties were investigated by means of magnetization and heat capacity measurements. The temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility of all the three compounds could be nicely fitted using a one-dimensional S = 5/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain model and the value of intra-chain exchange coupling (J/k(B)) between Mn(2+) ions was estimated to be ∼1.1 K, ∼0.7 K, and ∼0.46 K for compounds 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Compound 1 does not undergo any magnetic long-range-order down to 2 K while compounds 2 and 3 undergo long-range magnetic order at T(N) ≈ 4.2 K and ≈4.3 K, respectively, which are of spin-glass type. From the values of J/k(B) and T(N) the inter-chain coupling (J(⊥)/k(B)) was calculated to be about 0.1J/k(B) for both compounds 2 and 3, respectively. PMID:26455515

  4. One-dimensional cloud fluid model for propagating star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Struck-Marcell, Curtis

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this project was to study the propagation of star formation (SF) with a self-consistent deterministic model for the interstellar gas. The questions of under what conditions does star formation propagate in this model and what are the mechanisms of the propagation are explored. Here, researchers used the deterministic Oort-type cloud fluid model of Scalo and Struck-Marcell (1984, also see the review of Struck-Marcell, Scalo and Appleton 1987). This cloud fluid approach includes simple models for the effects of cloud collisional coalescence or disruption, collisional energy dissipation, and cloud disruption and acceleration as the result of young star winds, HII regions and supernovae. An extensive one-zone parameter study is presented in Struck-Marcell and Scalo (1987). To answer the questions above, researchers carried out one-dimensional calculations for an annulus within a galactic disk, like the so-called solar neighborhood of the galactic chemical evolution. In the calculations the left-hand boundary is set equal to the right hand boundary. The calculation is obviously idealized; however, it is computationally convenient to study the first order effects of propagating star formation. The annulus was treated as if it were at rest, i.e., in the local rotating frame. This assumption may remove some interesting effects of a supersonic gas flow, but was necessary to maintain a numerical stability in the annulus. The results on the one-dimensional propagation of SF in the Oort cloud fluid model follow: (1) SF is propagated by means of hydrodynamic waves, which can be generated by external forces or by the pressure generated by local bursts. SF is not effectively propagated via diffusion or variation in cloud interaction rates without corresponding density and velocity changes. (2) The propagation and long-range effects of SF depend on how close the gas density is to the critical threshold value, i.e., on the susceptibility of the medium.

  5. Benchmarking the variational cluster approach by means of the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model

    SciTech Connect

    Knap, Michael; Arrigoni, Enrico; Linden, Wolfgang von der

    2010-06-15

    Convergence properties of the variational cluster approach with respect to the variational parameter space, cluster size, and boundary conditions of the reference system are investigated and discussed for bosonic many-body systems. Specifically, the variational cluster approach is applied to the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model, which exhibits a quantum phase transition from Mott to superfluid phase. In order to benchmark the variational cluster approach, results for the phase boundary delimiting the first Mott lobe are compared with essentially exact density matrix renormalization group data. Furthermore, static quantities, such as the ground state energy and the one-particle density matrix are compared with high-order strong coupling perturbation theory results. For reference systems with open boundary conditions the variational parameter space is extended by an additional variational parameter which allows for a more uniform particle density on the reference system and thus drastically improves the results. It turns out that the variational cluster approach yields accurate results with relatively low-computational effort for both the phase boundary as well as the static properties of the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model, even at the tip of the first Mott lobe where correlation effects are most pronounced.

  6. Mechanism of spin and charge separation in one-dimensional quantum antiferromagnets

    SciTech Connect

    Mudry, C.; Fradkin, E. )

    1994-10-15

    We reconsider the problem of separation of spin and charge in one-dimensional quantum antiferromagnets. We show that spin and charge separation in one-dimensional strongly correlated systems cannot be described by the slave-boson or fermion representation within any perturbative treatment of the interactions between the slave holons and slave spinons. The constraint of single occupancy must be implemented exactly. As a result the slave fermions and bosons are not part of the physical spectrum. Instead, the excitations that carry the separate spin and charge quantum numbers are solitons. To prove this result, it is sufficient to study the pure spinon sector in the slave-boson representation. We start with a short-range resonating-valence-bond state spin liquid mean-field theory for the frustrated antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 chain. We derive an effective theory for the fluctuations of the Affleck-Marston and Anderson order parameters. We show how to recover the phase diagram as a function of the frustration by treating the fluctuations nonperturbatively.

  7. Symmetry-broken local-density approximation for one-dimensional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Fergus J. M.; Ball, Caleb J.; Loos, Pierre-François

    2016-06-01

    Within density-functional theory, the local-density approximation (LDA) correlation functional is typically built by fitting the difference between the near-exact and Hartree-Fock (HF) energies of the uniform electron gas (UEG), together with analytic perturbative results from the high- and low-density regimes. Near-exact energies are obtained by performing accurate diffusion Monte Carlo calculations, while HF energies are usually assumed to be the Fermi fluid HF energy. However, it has been known since the seminal work of A. W. Overhauser [Phys. Rev. Lett. 3, 414 (1959), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.3.414; Phys. Rev. 128, 1437 (1962), 10.1103/PhysRev.128.1437] that one can obtain lower, symmetry-broken (SB) HF energies at any density. Here, we have computed the SBHF energies of the one-dimensional UEG and constructed a SB version of the LDA (SBLDA) from the results. We compare the performance of the LDA and SBLDA functionals when applied to one-dimensional systems, including atoms and molecules. Generalization to higher dimensions is also discussed.

  8. Boundary-induced dynamics in one-dimensional topological systems and memory effects of edge modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yan; Chien, Chih-Chun

    2016-07-01

    Dynamics induced by a change of boundary conditions reveals rate-dependent signatures associated with topological properties in one-dimensional Kitaev chain and SSH model. While the perturbation from a change of the boundary propagates into the bulk, the density of topological edge modes in the case of transforming to open boundary condition reaches steady states. The steady-state density depends on the transformation rate of the boundary and serves as an illustration of quantum memory effects in topological systems. Moreover, while a link is physically broken as the boundary condition changes, some correlation functions can remain finite across the broken link and keep a record of the initial condition. By testing those phenomena in the nontopological regimes of the two models, none of the interesting signatures of memory effects can be observed. Our results thus contrast the importance of topological properties in boundary-induced dynamics.

  9. A new method to calculate Berry phase in one-dimensional quantum anomalous Hall insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Based on the residue theorem and degenerate perturbation theory, we derive a new, simple and general formula for Berry phase calculation in a two-level system for which the Hamiltonian is a real symmetric matrix. The special torus topology possessed by the first Brillouin zone (1 BZ) of this kind of systems ensures the existence of a nonzero Berry phase. We verify the correctness of our formula on the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. Then the Berry phase of one-dimensional quantum anomalous Hall insulator (1DQAHI) is calculated analytically by applying our method, the result being -π/2 -π/4 sgn (B) [ sgn (Δ - 4 B) + sgn (Δ) ]. Finally, illuminated by this idea, we investigate the Chern number in the two-dimensional case, and find a very simple way to determine the parameter range of the non-trivial Chern number in the phase diagram.

  10. Anomalous Bloch oscillations in one-dimensional parity-breaking periodic potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Pettini, Giulio; Modugno, Michele

    2011-01-15

    We investigate the dynamics of a wave packet in a parity-breaking one-dimensional periodic potential slowly varied in time and perturbed by a linear potential. Parity is broken by considering an asymmetric double well per unit cell. By comparing the prediction of the semiclassical dynamics with the full Schroedinger solution, we show that Bloch oscillations are strongly affected by anomalous velocity corrections related to Berry's phase. We characterize how these effects depend on the degree of parity breaking of the potential and on the modulation parameters. We also discuss how to measure the effects of the anomalous velocity in current experiments with noninteracting Bose-Einstein condensates in bichromatic optical lattices, under the effect of gravity.

  11. A comparison between field-emission properties of three one-dimensional carbon materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhigang; Liu, Shuhe; Liu, Chang; Bai, Jin-Bo; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2007-06-01

    Electron field-emission characteristics from three types of one-dimensional carbon materials, including single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) rope, polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fiber tow, and carbon microtree, were compared. It is found that the SWNT rope exhibits the best field-emission (FE) properties of low-emission voltage, large field enhancement factor, and good stability, which are attributed to its perturbing nano-sized tip and numerous emission sites on the tip and body. Carbon microtree has the poorest FE property due to its high electrical resistivity. This work may provide useful information for the selection of cathode materials with good FE properties in the design of large current carbon-based FE cathodes.

  12. One-dimensional and quasi-one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures prepared by spray-pyrolysis-assisted thermal evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Cai, Wei

    2008-03-01

    One-dimensional (1D) and quasi-1D ZnO nanostructures have been fabricated by a kind of new spray-pyrolysis-assisted thermal evaporation method. Pure ZnO powder serves as an evaporation source. Thus-obtained products have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM). The room temperature photoluminescence spectrum of these ZnO nanostructures is presented. The results show that as-grown ZnO nanomaterials have a hexagonal wurtzite crystalline structure. Besides nanosaws, nanobelts and nanowires, complex ZnO nanotrees have also been observed in synthesized products. The study provides a new simple route to construct 1D and quasi-1D ZnO nanomaterials, which can probably be extended to fabricate other oxide nanomaterials with high melting point and doped oxide nanomaterials.

  13. An adaptive grid algorithm for one-dimensional nonlinear equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez, William E.; Hills, Richard G.

    1990-01-01

    Richards' equation, which models the flow of liquid through unsaturated porous media, is highly nonlinear and difficult to solve. Step gradients in the field variables require the use of fine grids and small time step sizes. The numerical instabilities caused by the nonlinearities often require the use of iterative methods such as Picard or Newton interation. These difficulties result in large CPU requirements in solving Richards equation. With this in mind, adaptive and multigrid methods are investigated for use with nonlinear equations such as Richards' equation. Attention is focused on one-dimensional transient problems. To investigate the use of multigrid and adaptive grid methods, a series of problems are studied. First, a multigrid program is developed and used to solve an ordinary differential equation, demonstrating the efficiency with which low and high frequency errors are smoothed out. The multigrid algorithm and an adaptive grid algorithm is used to solve one-dimensional transient partial differential equations, such as the diffusive and convective-diffusion equations. The performance of these programs are compared to that of the Gauss-Seidel and tridiagonal methods. The adaptive and multigrid schemes outperformed the Gauss-Seidel algorithm, but were not as fast as the tridiagonal method. The adaptive grid scheme solved the problems slightly faster than the multigrid method. To solve nonlinear problems, Picard iterations are introduced into the adaptive grid and tridiagonal methods. Burgers' equation is used as a test problem for the two algorithms. Both methods obtain solutions of comparable accuracy for similar time increments. For the Burgers' equation, the adaptive grid method finds the solution approximately three times faster than the tridiagonal method. Finally, both schemes are used to solve the water content formulation of the Richards' equation. For this problem, the adaptive grid method obtains a more accurate solution in fewer work units and

  14. Tokamak plasma high field side response to an n = 3 magnetic perturbation: a comparison of 3D equilibrium solutions from seven different codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiman, A.; Ferraro, N. M.; Turnbull, A.; Park, J. K.; Cerfon, A.; Evans, T. E.; Lanctot, M. J.; Lazarus, E. A.; Liu, Y.; McFadden, G.; Monticello, D.; Suzuki, Y.

    2015-06-01

    In comparing equilibrium solutions for a DIII-D shot that is amenable to analysis by both stellarator and tokamak three-dimensional (3D) equilibrium codes, a significant disagreement has been seen between solutions of the VMEC stellarator equilibrium code and solutions of tokamak perturbative 3D equilibrium codes. The source of that disagreement has been investigated, and that investigation has led to new insights into the domain of validity of the different equilibrium calculations, and to a finding that the manner in which localized screening currents at low order rational surfaces are handled can affect global properties of the equilibrium solution. The perturbative treatment has been found to break down at surprisingly small perturbation amplitudes due to overlap of the calculated perturbed flux surfaces, and that treatment is not valid in the pedestal region of the DIII-D shot studied. The perturbative treatment is valid, however, further into the interior of the plasma, and flux surface overlap does not account for the disagreement investigated here. Calculated equilibrium solutions for simple model cases and comparison of the 3D equilibrium solutions with those of other codes indicate that the disagreement arises from a difference in handling of localized currents at low order rational surfaces, with such currents being absent in VMEC and present in the perturbative codes. The significant differences in the global equilibrium solutions associated with the presence or absence of very localized screening currents at rational surfaces suggests that it may be possible to extract information about localized currents from appropriate measurements of global equilibrium plasma properties. That would require improved diagnostic capability on the high field side of the tokamak plasma, a region difficult to access with diagnostics.

  15. A disorder-enhanced quasi-one-dimensional superconductor.

    PubMed

    Petrović, A P; Ansermet, D; Chernyshov, D; Hoesch, M; Salloum, D; Gougeon, P; Potel, M; Boeri, L; Panagopoulos, C

    2016-01-01

    A powerful approach to analysing quantum systems with dimensionality d>1 involves adding a weak coupling to an array of one-dimensional (1D) chains. The resultant quasi-1D (q1D) systems can exhibit long-range order at low temperature, but are heavily influenced by interactions and disorder due to their large anisotropies. Real q1D materials are therefore ideal candidates not only to provoke, test and refine theories of strongly correlated matter, but also to search for unusual emergent electronic phases. Here we report the unprecedented enhancement of a superconducting instability by disorder in single crystals of Na2-δMo6Se6, a q1D superconductor comprising MoSe chains weakly coupled by Na atoms. We argue that disorder-enhanced Coulomb pair-breaking (which usually destroys superconductivity) may be averted due to a screened long-range Coulomb repulsion intrinsic to disordered q1D materials. Our results illustrate the capability of disorder to tune and induce new correlated electron physics in low-dimensional materials. PMID:27448209

  16. A disorder-enhanced quasi-one-dimensional superconductor

    PubMed Central

    Petrović, A. P.; Ansermet, D.; Chernyshov, D.; Hoesch, M.; Salloum, D.; Gougeon, P.; Potel, M.; Boeri, L.; Panagopoulos, C.

    2016-01-01

    A powerful approach to analysing quantum systems with dimensionality d>1 involves adding a weak coupling to an array of one-dimensional (1D) chains. The resultant quasi-1D (q1D) systems can exhibit long-range order at low temperature, but are heavily influenced by interactions and disorder due to their large anisotropies. Real q1D materials are therefore ideal candidates not only to provoke, test and refine theories of strongly correlated matter, but also to search for unusual emergent electronic phases. Here we report the unprecedented enhancement of a superconducting instability by disorder in single crystals of Na2−δMo6Se6, a q1D superconductor comprising MoSe chains weakly coupled by Na atoms. We argue that disorder-enhanced Coulomb pair-breaking (which usually destroys superconductivity) may be averted due to a screened long-range Coulomb repulsion intrinsic to disordered q1D materials. Our results illustrate the capability of disorder to tune and induce new correlated electron physics in low-dimensional materials. PMID:27448209

  17. Evolution of a One-dimensional, Two Component, Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiozawa, Yui; Miller, Bruce; Rouet, Jean-Louis

    2015-03-01

    While the universe we observe today exhibits local filament-like structures, with stellar clusters and large voids between them, the primordial universe is believed to have been nearly homogeneous with slight variations in matter density. To understand how the observed hierarchical structure was formed, researchers have developed a one-dimensional analogue of the universe that can simulate the evolution of a large number of matter particles. Investigations to date demonstrate that this model reveals structure formation that shares essential features with the three-dimensional observations. In the present work, we have expanded on this concept to include two species of matter, specifically dark matter and luminous matter. In our simulation, luminous matter is treated in a way that loses energy in interaction with itself. The results of the simulations clearly show the formation of a Cantor set like multifractal pattern over time in configuration space as well as in phase space. In contrast with most earlier studies, mass-oriented methods for computing the multifractal dimensions were performed on various subsets of the matter distribution in order to understand the bottom-up structure formation.

  18. Fractal analysis in a one-dimensional universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiozawa, Yui

    2014-09-01

    While the universe we observe today exhibits local filament-like structures, with stellar clusters and large voids between them, the primordial universe is believed to have been nearly homogeneous with slight variations in matter density. To understand how the observed hierarchical structure was formed, researchers have developed a one-dimensional analogue of the universe that can simulate the evolution of a large number of matter particles. Investigations to date demonstrate that this model reveals structure formation that shares essential features with the three-dimensional observations. In the present work, we have expanded on this concept to include two species of matter, specifically dark matter and luminous matter. In our simulation, luminous matter is treated in a way that loses energy in interaction. The results of the simulations clearly show the formation of a Cantor set like multifractal pattern over time. In contrast with most earlier studies, mass-oriented methods for computing multifractal dimensions were applied to analyze the bottom-up structure formation.

  19. Automated quantification of one-dimensional nanostructure alignment on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jianjin; Goldthorpe, Irene A; Abukhdeir, Nasser Mohieddin

    2016-06-10

    A method for automated quantification of the alignment of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures from microscopy imaging is presented. Nanostructure alignment metrics are formulated and shown to be able to rigorously quantify the orientational order of nanostructures within a two-dimensional domain (surface). A complementary image processing method is also presented which enables robust processing of microscopy images where overlapping nanostructures might be present. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of nanowire-covered surfaces are analyzed using the presented methods and it is shown that past single parameter alignment metrics are insufficient for highly aligned domains. Through the use of multiple parameter alignment metrics, automated quantitative analysis of SEM images is shown to be possible and the alignment characteristics of different samples are able to be quantitatively compared using a similarity metric. The results of this work provide researchers in nanoscience and nanotechnology with a rigorous method for the determination of structure/property relationships, where alignment of 1D nanostructures is significant. PMID:27119552

  20. Carbyne with finite length: The one-dimensional sp carbon

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Bitao; Xiao, Jun; Li, Jiling; Liu, Pu; Wang, Chengxin; Yang, Guowei

    2015-01-01

    Carbyne is the one-dimensional allotrope of carbon composed of sp-hybridized carbon atoms. Definitive evidence for carbyne has remained elusive despite its synthesis and preparation in the laboratory. Given the remarkable technological breakthroughs offered by other allotropes of carbon, including diamond, graphite, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, interest in carbyne and its unusual potential properties remains intense. We report the first synthesis of carbyne with finite length, which is clearly composed of alternating single bonds and triple bonds, using a novel process involving laser ablation in liquid. Spectroscopic analyses confirm that the product is the structure of sp hybridization with alternating carbon-carbon single bonds and triple bonds and capped by hydrogen. We observe purple-blue fluorescence emissions from the gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of carbyne. Condensed-phase carbyne crystals have a hexagonal lattice and resemble the white crystalline powder produced by drying a carbyne solution. We also establish that the combination of gold and alcohol is crucial to carbyne formation because carbon-hydrogen bonds can be cleaved with the help of gold catalysts under the favorable thermodynamic environment provided by laser ablation in liquid and because the unique configuration of two carbon atoms in an alcohol molecule matches the elementary entity of carbyne. This laboratory synthesis of carbyne will enable the exploration of its properties and applications. PMID:26601318

  1. Carbyne with finite length: The one-dimensional sp carbon.

    PubMed

    Pan, Bitao; Xiao, Jun; Li, Jiling; Liu, Pu; Wang, Chengxin; Yang, Guowei

    2015-10-01

    Carbyne is the one-dimensional allotrope of carbon composed of sp-hybridized carbon atoms. Definitive evidence for carbyne has remained elusive despite its synthesis and preparation in the laboratory. Given the remarkable technological breakthroughs offered by other allotropes of carbon, including diamond, graphite, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphene, interest in carbyne and its unusual potential properties remains intense. We report the first synthesis of carbyne with finite length, which is clearly composed of alternating single bonds and triple bonds, using a novel process involving laser ablation in liquid. Spectroscopic analyses confirm that the product is the structure of sp hybridization with alternating carbon-carbon single bonds and triple bonds and capped by hydrogen. We observe purple-blue fluorescence emissions from the gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of carbyne. Condensed-phase carbyne crystals have a hexagonal lattice and resemble the white crystalline powder produced by drying a carbyne solution. We also establish that the combination of gold and alcohol is crucial to carbyne formation because carbon-hydrogen bonds can be cleaved with the help of gold catalysts under the favorable thermodynamic environment provided by laser ablation in liquid and because the unique configuration of two carbon atoms in an alcohol molecule matches the elementary entity of carbyne. This laboratory synthesis of carbyne will enable the exploration of its properties and applications. PMID:26601318

  2. Topological water wave states in a one-dimensional structure

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhaoju; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile

    2016-01-01

    Topological concepts have been introduced into electronic, photonic, and phononic systems, but have not been studied in surface-water-wave systems. Here we study a one-dimensional periodic resonant surface-water-wave system and demonstrate its topological transition. By selecting three different water depths, we can construct different types of water waves - shallow, intermediate and deep water waves. The periodic surface-water-wave system consists of an array of cylindrical water tanks connected with narrow water channels. As the width of connecting channel varies, the band diagram undergoes a topological transition which can be further characterized by Zak phase. This topological transition holds true for shallow, intermediate and deep water waves. However, the interface state at the boundary separating two topologically distinct arrays of water tanks can exhibit different bands for shallow, intermediate and deep water waves. Our work studies for the first time topological properties of water wave systems, and paves the way to potential management of water waves. PMID:27373982

  3. Charge transport through one-dimensional Moiré crystals.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Roméo; Lherbier, Aurélien; Barraud, Clément; Della Rocca, Maria Luisa; Lafarge, Philippe; Charlier, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Moiré superlattices were generated in two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals heterostructures and have revealed intriguing electronic structures. The appearance of mini-Dirac cones within the conduction and valence bands of graphene is one of the most striking among the new quantum features. A Moiré superstructure emerges when at least two periodic sub-structures superimpose. 2D Moiré patterns have been particularly investigated in stacked hexagonal 2D atomic lattices like twisted graphene layers and graphene deposited on hexagonal boron-nitride. In this letter, we report both experimentally and theoretically evidence of superlattices physics in transport properties of one-dimensional (1D) Moiré crystals. Rolling-up few layers of graphene to form a multiwall carbon nanotube adds boundaries conditions that can be translated into interference fringes-like Moiré patterns along the circumference of the cylinder. Such a 1D Moiré crystal exhibits a complex 1D multiple bands structure with clear and robust interband quantum transitions due to the presence of mini-Dirac points and pseudo-gaps. Our devices consist in a very large diameter (>80 nm) multiwall carbon nanotubes of high quality, electrically connected by metallic electrodes acting as charge reservoirs. Conductance measurements reveal the presence of van Hove singularities assigned to 1D Moiré superlattice effect and illustrated by electronic structure calculations. PMID:26786067

  4. Quantum walks with a one-dimensional coin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Erba, Marco; Perinotti, Paolo; Tosini, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    Quantum walks (QWs) describe particles evolving coherently on a graph. The internal degree of freedom corresponds to a Hilbert space, called a coin system. We consider QWs on Cayley graphs of some group G . In the literature, investigations concerning infinite G have been focused on graphs corresponding to G =Zd with a coin system of dimension 2, whereas for a one-dimensional coin (so-called scalar QWs) only the case of finite G has been studied. Here we prove that the evolution of a scalar QW with G infinite Abelian is trivial, providing a thorough classification of this kind of walks. Then we consider the infinite dihedral group D∞, that is, the unique non-Abelian group G containing a subgroup H ≅Z with two cosets. We characterize the class of QWs on the Cayley graphs of D∞, and, via a coarse-graining technique, we show that it coincides with the class of spinorial walks on Z which satisfies parity symmetry. This class of QWs includes the Weyl and the Dirac QWs. Remarkably, there exist also spinorial walks that are not coarse graining of a scalar QW, such as the Hadamard walk.

  5. Weak lasing in one-dimensional polariton superlattices

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Long; Xie, Wei; Wang, Jian; Poddubny, Alexander; Lu, Jian; Wang, Yinglei; Gu, Jie; Liu, Wenhui; Xu, Dan; Shen, Xuechu; Rubo, Yuri G.; Altshuler, Boris L.; Kavokin, Alexey V.; Chen, Zhanghai

    2015-01-01

    Bosons with finite lifetime exhibit condensation and lasing when their influx exceeds the lasing threshold determined by the dissipative losses. In general, different one-particle states decay differently, and the bosons are usually assumed to condense in the state with the longest lifetime. Interaction between the bosons partially neglected by such an assumption can smear the lasing threshold into a threshold domain—a stable lasing many-body state exists within certain intervals of the bosonic influxes. This recently described weak lasing regime is formed by the spontaneously symmetry breaking and phase-locking self-organization of bosonic modes, which results in an essentially many-body state with a stable balance between gains and losses. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first observation of the weak lasing phase in a one-dimensional condensate of exciton–polaritons subject to a periodic potential. Real and reciprocal space photoluminescence images demonstrate that the spatial period of the condensate is twice as large as the period of the underlying periodic potential. These experiments are realized at room temperature in a ZnO microwire deposited on a silicon grating. The period doubling takes place at a critical pumping power, whereas at a lower power polariton emission images have the same periodicity as the grating. PMID:25787253

  6. One-dimensional surface phonon polaritons in boron nitride nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoji G; Ghamsari, Behnood G; Jiang, Jian-Hua; Gilburd, Leonid; Andreev, Gregory O; Zhi, Chunyi; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri; Berini, Pierre; Walker, Gilbert C

    2014-01-01

    Surface polaritons, which are electromagnetic waves coupled to material charge oscillations, have enabled applications in concentrating, guiding and harvesting optical energy below the diffraction limit. Surface plasmon polaritons involve oscillations of electrons and are accessible in noble metals at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, whereas surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs) rely on phonon resonances in polar materials, and are active in the mid-infrared. Noble metal surface plasmon polaritons have limited applications in the mid-infrared. SPhPs at flat interfaces normally possess long polariton wavelengths and provide modest field confinement/enhancement. Here we demonstrate propagating SPhPs in a one-dimensional material consisting of a boron nitride nanotube at mid-infrared wavelengths. The observed SPhP exhibits high field confinement and enhancement, and a very high effective index (neff~70). We show that the modal and propagation length characteristics of the SPhPs may be controlled through the nanotube size and the supporting substrates, enabling mid-infrared applications. PMID:25154586

  7. Topological water wave states in a one-dimensional structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhaoju; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Baile

    2016-07-01

    Topological concepts have been introduced into electronic, photonic, and phononic systems, but have not been studied in surface-water-wave systems. Here we study a one-dimensional periodic resonant surface-water-wave system and demonstrate its topological transition. By selecting three different water depths, we can construct different types of water waves - shallow, intermediate and deep water waves. The periodic surface-water-wave system consists of an array of cylindrical water tanks connected with narrow water channels. As the width of connecting channel varies, the band diagram undergoes a topological transition which can be further characterized by Zak phase. This topological transition holds true for shallow, intermediate and deep water waves. However, the interface state at the boundary separating two topologically distinct arrays of water tanks can exhibit different bands for shallow, intermediate and deep water waves. Our work studies for the first time topological properties of water wave systems, and paves the way to potential management of water waves.

  8. Topological phase in one-dimensional Rashba wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sa-Ke, Wang; Jun, Wang; Jun-Feng, Liu

    2016-07-01

    We study the possible topological phase in a one-dimensional (1D) quantum wire with an oscillating Rashba spin–orbital coupling in real space. It is shown that there are a pair of particle–hole symmetric gaps forming in the bulk energy band and fractional boundary states residing in the gap when the system has an inversion symmetry. These states are topologically nontrivial and can be characterized by a quantized Berry phase ±π or nonzero Chern number through dimensional extension. When the Rashba spin–orbital coupling varies slowly with time, the system can pump out 2 charges in a pumping cycle because of the spin flip effect. This quantized pumping is protected by topology and is robust against moderate disorders as long as the disorder strength does not exceed the opened energy gap. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 115074045 and 11204187) and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20131284).

  9. Solitary Wave in One-dimensional Buckyball System at Nanoscale

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Zheng, Bowen; Liu, Yilun

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the stress wave propagation in one-dimensional (1-D) nanoscopic buckyball (C60) system by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and quantitative modeling. Simulation results have shown that solitary waves are generated and propagating in the buckyball system through impacting one buckyball at one end of the buckyball chain. We have found the solitary wave behaviors are closely dependent on the initial temperature and impacting speed of the buckyball chain. There are almost no dispersion and dissipation of the solitary waves (stationary solitary wave) for relatively low temperature and high impacting speed. While for relatively high temperature and low impacting speed the profile of the solitary waves is highly distorted and dissipated after propagating several tens of buckyballs. A phase diagram is proposed to describe the effect of the temperature and impacting speed on the solitary wave behaviors in buckyball system. In order to quantitatively describe the wave behavior in buckyball system, a simple nonlinear-spring model is established, which can describe the MD simulation results at low temperature very well. The results presented in this work may lay a solid step towards the further understanding and manipulation of stress wave propagation and impact energy mitigation at nanoscale. PMID:26891624

  10. One-dimensional simulation of lanthanide isotachophoresis using COMSOL.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Derek R; Clark, Sue B; Ivory, Cornelius F

    2012-03-01

    Electrokinetic separations can be used to quickly separate rare earth metals to determine their forensic signature. In this work, we simulate the concentration and separation of trivalent lanthanide cations by isotachophoresis. A one-dimensional simulation is developed using COMSOL v4.0a, a commercial finite element simulator, to represent the isotachophoretic separation of three lanthanides: lanthanum, terbium, and lutetium. The binding ligand chosen for complexation with the lanthanides is α-hydroxyisobutyric acid (HIBA) and the buffer system includes acetate, which also complexes with the lanthanides. The complexes formed between the three lanthanides, HIBA, and acetate are all considered in the simulation. We observe that the presence of only lanthanide:HIBA complexes in a buffer system with 10 mM HIBA causes the slowest lanthanide peak (lutetium) to split from the other analytes. The addition of lanthanide:acetate complexes into the simulation of the same buffer system eliminates this splitting. Decreasing the concentration of HIBA in the buffer to 7 mM causes the analyte stack to migrate faster through the capillary. PMID:22522543

  11. Characterization of Thermal Transport in One-dimensional Solid Materials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guoqing; Lin, Huan; Tang, Xiaoduan; Bergler, Kevin; Wang, Xinwei

    2014-01-01

    The TET (transient electro-thermal) technique is an effective approach developed to measure the thermal diffusivity of solid materials, including conductive, semi-conductive or nonconductive one-dimensional structures. This technique broadens the measurement scope of materials (conductive and nonconductive) and improves the accuracy and stability. If the sample (especially biomaterials, such as human head hair, spider silk, and silkworm silk) is not conductive, it will be coated with a gold layer to make it electronically conductive. The effect of parasitic conduction and radiative losses on the thermal diffusivity can be subtracted during data processing. Then the real thermal conductivity can be calculated with the given value of volume-based specific heat (ρcp), which can be obtained from calibration, noncontact photo-thermal technique or measuring the density and specific heat separately. In this work, human head hair samples are used to show how to set up the experiment, process the experimental data, and subtract the effect of parasitic conduction and radiative losses. PMID:24514072

  12. Interspecies tunneling in one-dimensional Bose mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Pflanzer, Anika C.; Zoellner, Sascha; Schmelcher, Peter

    2010-02-15

    We study the ground-state properties and quantum dynamics of few-boson mixtures with strong interspecies repulsion in one-dimensional traps. If one species localizes at the center, e.g., due to a very large mass compared to the other component, it represents an effective barrier for the latter, and the system can be mapped onto identical bosons in a double well. For weaker localization, the barrier atoms begin to respond to the light component, leading to an induced attraction between the mobile atoms that may even outweigh their bare intraspecies repulsion. To explain the resulting effects, we derive an effective Hubbard model for the lighter species accounting for the back action of the barrier in correction terms to the lattice parameters. Also the tunneling is drastically affected: by varying the degree of localization of the 'barrier' atoms, the dynamics of intrinsically noninteracting bosons can change from Rabi oscillations to effective pair tunneling. For identical fermions (or fermionized bosons), this leads to the tunneling of attractively bound pairs.

  13. Transmission properties of one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiveshwari, Laxmi; Awasthi, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    Omnidirectional photonic band gaps (PBGs) are found in one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals (PPC) composed of single negative metamaterials. The band characteristics and transmission properties are investigated through the transfer matrix method. We show that the proposed structure can trap light in three-dimensional space due to the elimination of Brewster's angle transmission resonance allowing the existence of complete PBG. The results are discussed in terms of incident angle, layer thickness, dielectric constant of the dielectric material, and number of unit cells (N) for TE and TM polarizations. It is seen that PBG characteristics is apparent even in an N ≥ 2 system, which is weakly sensitive to the incident angle and completely insensitive to the polarization. Finite PPC could be used for multichannel transmission filter without introducing any defect in the geometry. We show that the locations of the multichannel transmission peaks are in the allowed band of the infinite structure. The structure can work as a single or multichannel filter by varying the number of unit cells. Binary PPC can also work as a polarization sensitive tunable filter.

  14. Weak lasing in one-dimensional polariton superlattices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Long; Xie, Wei; Wang, Jian; Poddubny, Alexander; Lu, Jian; Wang, Yinglei; Gu, Jie; Liu, Wenhui; Xu, Dan; Shen, Xuechu; Rubo, Yuri G; Altshuler, Boris L; Kavokin, Alexey V; Chen, Zhanghai

    2015-03-31

    Bosons with finite lifetime exhibit condensation and lasing when their influx exceeds the lasing threshold determined by the dissipative losses. In general, different one-particle states decay differently, and the bosons are usually assumed to condense in the state with the longest lifetime. Interaction between the bosons partially neglected by such an assumption can smear the lasing threshold into a threshold domain--a stable lasing many-body state exists within certain intervals of the bosonic influxes. This recently described weak lasing regime is formed by the spontaneously symmetry breaking and phase-locking self-organization of bosonic modes, which results in an essentially many-body state with a stable balance between gains and losses. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first observation of the weak lasing phase in a one-dimensional condensate of exciton-polaritons subject to a periodic potential. Real and reciprocal space photoluminescence images demonstrate that the spatial period of the condensate is twice as large as the period of the underlying periodic potential. These experiments are realized at room temperature in a ZnO microwire deposited on a silicon grating. The period doubling takes place at a critical pumping power, whereas at a lower power polariton emission images have the same periodicity as the grating. PMID:25787253

  15. Is there hope for spintronics in one dimensional realistic systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Alexandre; Martins, Thiago; Fazzio, Adalberto; da Silva, Antônio J. R.

    2010-03-01

    The use of the electron spin as the ultimate logic bit can lead to a novel way of thinking about information flow. At the same time graphene, a gapless semiconductor, has been the subject of intense research due to its fundamental properties and its potential application in electronics. Defects are usually seen as having deleterious effects on the spin polarization of devices and thus they would tend to hinder the applicability of spintronics in realistic devices. Here we use a ab initio methods to simulate the electronic transport properties of graphene nanoribbons up to 450 nm long containing a large number of randomly distributed impurities. We will demonstrate that it is possible to obtain perfect spin selectivity in these nanoribbons which can be explained in terms of different localization lengths for each spin channel. This together with the well know exponential dependence of the conductance on the length of the device leads to a new mechanism for the spin filtering effect that is in fact driven by disorder. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this is an effect that does not depend on the underlying system itself and could be observed in carbon nanotubes and nanowires or any other one-dimensional device.

  16. One-dimensional flows of an imperfect diatomic gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    With the assumptions that Berthelot's equation of state accounts for molecular size and intermolecular force effects, and that changes in the vibrational heat capacities are given by a Planck term, expressions are developed for analyzing one-dimensional flows of a diatomic gas. The special cases of flow through normal and oblique shocks in free air at sea level are investigated. It is found that up to a Mach number 10 pressure ratio across a normal shock differs by less than 6 percent from its ideal gas value; whereas at Mach numbers above 4 the temperature rise is considerable below and hence the density rise is well above that predicted assuming ideal gas behavior. It is further shown that only the caloric imperfection in air has an appreciable effect on the pressures developed in the shock process considered. The effects of gaseous imperfections on oblique shock-flows are studied from the standpoint of their influence on the life and pressure drag of a flat plate operating at Mach numbers of 10 and 20. The influence is found to be small. (author)

  17. One-Dimensional Random Walks with One-Step Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piaskowski, Kevin; Nolan, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Formalized studies of random walks have been done dating back to the early 20th century. Since then, well-defined conclusions have been drawn, specifically in the case of one and two-dimensional random walks. An important theorem was formulated by George Polya in 1912. He stated that for a one or two-dimensional lattice random walk with infinite number of steps, N, the probability that the walker will return to its point of origin is unity. The work done in this particular research explores Polya's theorem for one-dimensional random walks that are non-isotropic and have the property of one-step memory, i.e. the probability of moving in any direction is non-symmetric and dependent on the previous step. The key mathematical construct used in this research is that of a generating function. This helps compute the return probability for an infinite N. An explicit form of the generating function was devised and used to calculate return probabilities for finite N. Return probabilities for various memory parameters were explored analytically and via simulations. Currently, further analysis is being done to try and find a relationship between memory parameters and number of steps, N.

  18. Dynamical spin structure factor of one-dimensional interacting fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyuzin, Vladimir A.; Maslov, Dmitrii L.

    2015-02-01

    We revisit the dynamic spin susceptibility χ (q ,ω ) of one-dimensional interacting fermions. To second order in the interaction, backscattering results in a logarithmic correction to χ (q ,ω ) at q ≪kF , even if the single-particle spectrum is linearized near the Fermi points. Consequently, the dynamic spin structure factor Im χ (q ,ω ) is nonzero at frequencies above the single-particle continuum. In the boson language, this effect results from the marginally irrelevant backscattering operator of the sine-Gordon model. Away from the threshold, the high-frequency tail of Im χ (q ,ω ) due to backscattering is larger than that due to finite mass by a factor of kF/q . We derive the renormalization group equations for the coupling constants of the g -ology model at finite ω and q and find the corresponding expression for χ (q ,ω ) , valid to all orders in the interaction but not in the immediate vicinity of the continuum boundary, where the finite-mass effects become dominant.

  19. Dynamic response of one-dimensional bosons in a trap

    SciTech Connect

    Golovach, Vitaly N.; Minguzzi, Anna; Glazman, Leonid I.

    2009-10-15

    We calculate the dynamic structure factor S(q,{omega}) of a one-dimensional (1D) interacting Bose gas confined in a harmonic trap. The effective interaction depends on the strength of the confinement enforcing the (1D) motion of atoms; interaction may be further enhanced by superimposing an optical lattice on the trap potential. In the compressible state, we find that the smooth variation in the gas density around the trap center leads to softening of the singular behavior of S(q,{omega}) at the first Lieb excitation mode compared to the behavior predicted for homogeneous 1D systems. Nevertheless, the density-averaged response S(q,{omega}) remains a nonanalytic function of q and {omega} at the first Lieb excitation mode in the limit of weak trap confinement. The exponent of the power-law nonanalyticity is modified due to the inhomogeneity in a universal way and thus bears unambiguously the information about the (homogeneous) Lieb-Liniger model. A strong optical lattice causes formation of Mott phases. Deep in the Mott regime, we predict a semicircular peak in S(q,{omega}) centered at the on-site repulsion energy, {omega}=U. Similar peaks of smaller amplitudes exist at multiples of U as well. We explain the suppression of the dynamic response with entering into the Mott regime, observed recently by Clement et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 155301 (2009)], based on an f-sum rule for the Bose-Hubbard model.

  20. One-dimensional nanoferroic rods; synthesis and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. A.; Seddik, U.; Okasha, N.; Imam, N. G.

    2015-11-01

    One-dimensional nanoferroic rods of BaTiO3 were synthesized by improved citrate auto-combustion technology using tetrabutyl titanate. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have been used to characterize the prepared sample. The results indicated that the crystal structure of BaTiO3 is tetragonal phase with an average crystallite size of 47 nm. SEM image gives a cauliflower-like morphology of the agglomerated nanorods. The stoichiometry of the chemical composition of the BaTiO3 ceramic was confirmed by EDX. TEM micrograph exhibited that BaTiO3 nanoparticles have rod-like shape with an average length of 120 nm and width of 43 nm. AFM was used to investigate the surface topography and its roughness. The topography image in 3D showed that the BaTiO3 particles have a rod shape with an average particle size of 116 nm which in agreement with 3D TEM result.

  1. One dimensional coordination polymers: Synthesis, crystal structures and spectroscopic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaağaç, Dursun; Kürkçüoğlu, Güneş Süheyla; Şenyel, Mustafa; Şahin, Onur

    2016-11-01

    Two new one dimensional (1D) cyanide complexes, namely [M(4-aepy)2(H2O)2][Pt(CN)4], (4-aepy = 4-(2-aminoethyl)pyridine M = Cu(II) (1) or Zn(II) (2)), have been synthesized and characterized by vibrational (FT-IR and Raman) spectroscopy, single crystal X-ray diffraction, thermal and elemental analyses techniques. The crystallographic analyses reveal that 1 and 2 are isomorphous and isostructural, and crystallize in the monoclinic system and C2 space group. The Pt(II) ions are coordinated by four cyanide-carbon atoms in the square-planar geometry and the [Pt(CN)4]2- ions act as a counter ion. The M(II) ions display an N4O2 coordination sphere with a distorted octahedral geometry, the nitrogen donors belonging to four molecules of the organic 4-aepy that act as unidentate ligands and two oxygen atoms from aqua ligands. The crystal structures of 1 and 2 are similar each other and linked via intermolecular hydrogen bonding, Pt⋯π interactions to form 3D supramolecular network. Vibration assignments of all the observed bands are given and the spectral features also supported to the crystal structures of the complexes.

  2. Charge transport through one-dimensional Moiré crystals

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Roméo; Lherbier, Aurélien; Barraud, Clément; Rocca, Maria Luisa Della; Lafarge, Philippe; Charlier, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Moiré superlattices were generated in two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals heterostructures and have revealed intriguing electronic structures. The appearance of mini-Dirac cones within the conduction and valence bands of graphene is one of the most striking among the new quantum features. A Moiré superstructure emerges when at least two periodic sub-structures superimpose. 2D Moiré patterns have been particularly investigated in stacked hexagonal 2D atomic lattices like twisted graphene layers and graphene deposited on hexagonal boron-nitride. In this letter, we report both experimentally and theoretically evidence of superlattices physics in transport properties of one-dimensional (1D) Moiré crystals. Rolling-up few layers of graphene to form a multiwall carbon nanotube adds boundaries conditions that can be translated into interference fringes-like Moiré patterns along the circumference of the cylinder. Such a 1D Moiré crystal exhibits a complex 1D multiple bands structure with clear and robust interband quantum transitions due to the presence of mini-Dirac points and pseudo-gaps. Our devices consist in a very large diameter (>80 nm) multiwall carbon nanotubes of high quality, electrically connected by metallic electrodes acting as charge reservoirs. Conductance measurements reveal the presence of van Hove singularities assigned to 1D Moiré superlattice effect and illustrated by electronic structure calculations. PMID:26786067

  3. Nucleation and growth of nanoscaled one-dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Hongtao

    Nanoscaled one-dimensional materials have attracted great interest due to their novel physical and chemical properties. The purpose of this dissertation is to study the nucleation and growth mechanisms of carbon nanotubes and silicon nitride nanowires with their field emission applications in mind. As a result of this research, a novel methodology has been developed to deposit aligned bamboo-like carbon nanotubes on substrates using a methane and ammonia mixture in microwave plasma enhanced chemical deposition. Study of growth kinetics suggests that the carbon diffusion through bulk catalyst particles controls growth in the initial deposition process. Microstructures of carbon nanotubes are affected by the growth temperature and carbon concentration in the gas phase. High-resolution transmission electron microscope confirms the existence of the bamboo-like structure. Electron diffraction reveals that the iron-based catalyst nucleates and sustains the growth of carbon nanotubes. A nucleation and growth model has been constructed based upon experimental data and observations. In the study of silicon nitride nanoneedles, a vapor-liquid-solid model is employed to explain the nucleation and growth processes. Ammonia plasma etching is proposed to reduce the size of the catalyst and subsequently produce the novel needle-like nanostructure. High-resolution transmission electron microscope shows the structure is well crystallized and composed of alpha-silicon nitride. Other observations in the structure are also explained.

  4. One-dimensional transient radiative transfer by lattice Boltzmann method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Yi, Hongliang; Tan, Heping

    2013-10-21

    The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is extended to solve transient radiative transfer in one-dimensional slab containing scattering media subjected to a collimated short laser irradiation. By using a fully implicit backward differencing scheme to discretize the transient term in the radiative transfer equation, a new type of lattice structure is devised. The accuracy and computational efficiency of this algorithm are examined firstly. Afterwards, effects of the medium properties such as the extinction coefficient, the scattering albedo and the anisotropy factor, and the shapes of laser pulse on time-resolved signals of transmittance and reflectance are investigated. Results of the present method are found to compare very well with the data from the literature. For an oblique incidence, the LBM results in this paper are compared with those by Monte Carlo method generated by ourselves. In addition, transient radiative transfer in a two-Layer inhomogeneous media subjected to a short square pulse irradiation is investigated. At last, the LBM is further extended to study the transient radiative transfer in homogeneous medium with a refractive index discontinuity irradiated by the short pulse laser. Several trends on the time-resolved signals different from those for refractive index of 1 (i.e. refractive-index-matched boundary) are observed and analysed. PMID:24150298

  5. Automated quantification of one-dimensional nanostructure alignment on surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jianjin; Goldthorpe, Irene A.; Mohieddin Abukhdeir, Nasser

    2016-06-01

    A method for automated quantification of the alignment of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures from microscopy imaging is presented. Nanostructure alignment metrics are formulated and shown to be able to rigorously quantify the orientational order of nanostructures within a two-dimensional domain (surface). A complementary image processing method is also presented which enables robust processing of microscopy images where overlapping nanostructures might be present. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of nanowire-covered surfaces are analyzed using the presented methods and it is shown that past single parameter alignment metrics are insufficient for highly aligned domains. Through the use of multiple parameter alignment metrics, automated quantitative analysis of SEM images is shown to be possible and the alignment characteristics of different samples are able to be quantitatively compared using a similarity metric. The results of this work provide researchers in nanoscience and nanotechnology with a rigorous method for the determination of structure/property relationships, where alignment of 1D nanostructures is significant.

  6. Topological order in interacting one-dimensional Bose Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grusdt, Fabian; Höning, Michael; Fleischhauer, Michael

    2015-05-01

    We discuss topological aspects of one-dimensional inversion-symmetric systems of interacting bosons, which can be implemented in current experiments with ultra cold atoms. We consider both integer and fractional fillings of a topologically non-trivial Bloch band. Our starting point is the chiral-symmetric Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model of non-interacting fermions, which can be realized by hard-core bosons. When the hard-core constraint is removed, we obtain a bosonic system with inversion-symmetry protected topological order. Because the chiral symmetry is broken by finite interactions, the bulk-boundary correspondence of the SSH model is no longer valid. Nevertheless we show that the fractional part of the charge which is localized at the edge can distinguish topologically trivial- from non-trivial states. We generalize our analysis by including nearest neighbor interactions and present a topological classification of the resulting quarter-filling Mott insulating phase. In this case fractionally charged bulk excitations exist, which we identify in the grand-canonical phase diagram. F.G. acknowledges support from the Graduate School of Material Science MAINZ.

  7. Scattering by infinitely rising one-dimensional potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, E. M.; Sesma, J.

    2015-12-01

    Infinitely rising one-dimensional potentials constitute impenetrable barriers which reflect totally any incident wave. However, the scattering by such kind of potentials is not structureless: resonances may occur for certain values of the energy. Here we consider the problem of scattering by the members of a family of potentials Va(x) = - sgn(x) | x | a, where sgn represents the sign function and a is a positive rational number. The scattering function and the phase shifts are obtained from global solutions of the Schrödinger equation. For the determination of the Gamow states, associated to resonances, we exploit their close relation with the eigenvalues of the PT-symmetric Hamiltonians with potentials VaPT(x) = - i sgn(x) | x | a. Calculation of the time delay in the scattering at real energies is used to characterize the resonances. As an additional result, the breakdown of the PT-symmetry of the family of potentials VaPT for a < 3 may be conjectured.

  8. Reentrant phase coherence in a quasi-one-dimensional superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansermet, Diane; Petrovic, Alexander P.; He, Shikun; Chernyshov, Dmitri; Hoesch, Moritz; Salloum, Diala; Gougeon, Patrick; Potel, Michel; Boeri, Lilia; Andersen, Ole K.; Panagopoulos, Christos

    Short coherence lengths characteristic of low-dimensional superconductors are related to high critical fields or temperatures. Fatally, such materials are often sensitive to disorder and suffer from phase fluctuations in the order parameter which diverge with temperature T, magnetic field H or current I. To solve synthesis and fluctuation problems, we propose to build superconductors from inhomogeneous composites of nanofilaments. Single crystals of quasi-one-dimensional Na2-δMo6Se6 featuring Na vacancy disorder (δ ~ 0 . 2) behave as percolative networks of superconducting nanowires. Long range order is established via transverse coupling between individual filaments, yet phase coherence is unstable to fluctuations and localization in the zero-(T, H, I) limit. A region of reentrant phase coherence develops upon raising (T, H, I) and is attributed to an enhancement of the transverse coupling due to electron delocalization. The observed reentrance in the electronic transport coincides with a peak in the Josephson energy EJ at non-zero (T, H, I). Na2-δMo6Se6 is a blueprint for a new generation of low dimensional superconductors with resilience to phase fluctuations at high (T, H, I). This work was supported by the National Research Foundation, Singapore, through Grant NRF-CRP4-2008-04.

  9. Validation and Comparison of One-Dimensional Graound Motion Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    B. Darragh; W. Silva; N. Gregor

    2006-06-28

    Both point- and finite-source stochastic one-dimensional ground motion models, coupled to vertically propagating equivalent-linear shear-wave site response models are validated using an extensive set of strong motion data as part of the Yucca Mountain Project. The validation and comparison exercises are presented entirely in terms of 5% damped pseudo absolute response spectra. The study consists of a quantitative analyses involving modeling nineteen well-recorded earthquakes, M 5.6 to 7.4 at over 600 sites. The sites range in distance from about 1 to about 200 km in the western US (460 km for central-eastern US). In general, this validation demonstrates that the stochastic point- and finite-source models produce accurate predictions of strong ground motions over the range of 0 to 100 km and for magnitudes M 5.0 to 7.4. The stochastic finite-source model appears to be broadband, producing near zero bias from about 0.3 Hz (low frequency limit of the analyses) to the high frequency limit of the data (100 and 25 Hz for response and Fourier amplitude spectra, respectively).

  10. Thermodynamics of trajectories of the one-dimensional Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loscar, Ernesto S.; Mey, Antonia S. J. S.; Garrahan, Juan P.

    2011-12-01

    We present a numerical study of the dynamics of the one-dimensional Ising model by applying the large-deviation method to describe ensembles of dynamical trajectories. In this approach trajectories are classified according to a dynamical order parameter and the structure of ensembles of trajectories can be understood from the properties of large-deviation functions, which play the role of dynamical free-energies. We consider both Glauber and Kawasaki dynamics, and also the presence of a magnetic field. For Glauber dynamics in the absence of a field we confirm the analytic predictions of Jack and Sollich about the existence of critical dynamical, or space-time, phase transitions at critical values of the 'counting' field s. In the presence of a magnetic field the dynamical phase diagram also displays first order transition surfaces. We discuss how these non-equilibrium transitions in the 1d Ising model relate to the equilibrium ones of the 2d Ising model. For Kawasaki dynamics we find a much simpler dynamical phase structure, with transitions reminiscent of those seen in kinetically constrained models.

  11. Numerical method of characteristics for one-dimensional blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, Sebastian; Puelz, Charles; Rivière, Béatrice; Penny, Daniel J.; Rusin, Craig G.

    2015-08-01

    Mathematical modeling at the level of the full cardiovascular system requires the numerical approximation of solutions to a one-dimensional nonlinear hyperbolic system describing flow in a single vessel. This model is often simulated by computationally intensive methods like finite elements and discontinuous Galerkin, while some recent applications require more efficient approaches (e.g. for real-time clinical decision support, phenomena occurring over multiple cardiac cycles, iterative solutions to optimization/inverse problems, and uncertainty quantification). Further, the high speed of pressure waves in blood vessels greatly restricts the time step needed for stability in explicit schemes. We address both cost and stability by presenting an efficient and unconditionally stable method for approximating solutions to diagonal nonlinear hyperbolic systems. Theoretical analysis of the algorithm is given along with a comparison of our method to a discontinuous Galerkin implementation. Lastly, we demonstrate the utility of the proposed method by implementing it on small and large arterial networks of vessels whose elastic and geometrical parameters are physiologically relevant.

  12. Energy transport in one-dimensional disordered granular solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achilleos, V.; Theocharis, G.; Skokos, Ch.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the energy transport in one-dimensional disordered granular solids by extensive numerical simulations. In particular, we consider the case of a polydisperse granular chain composed of spherical beads of the same material and with radii taken from a random distribution. We start by examining the linear case, in which it is known that the energy transport strongly depends on the type of initial conditions. Thus, we consider two sets of initial conditions: an initial displacement and an initial momentum excitation of a single bead. After establishing the regime of sufficiently strong disorder, we focus our study on the role of nonlinearity for both sets of initial conditions. By increasing the initial excitation amplitudes we are able to identify three distinct dynamical regimes with different energy transport properties: a near linear, a weakly nonlinear, and a highly nonlinear regime. Although energy spreading is found to be increasing for higher nonlinearities, in the weakly nonlinear regime no clear asymptotic behavior of the spreading is found. In this regime, we additionally find that energy, initially trapped in a localized region, can be eventually detrapped and this has a direct influence on the fluctuations of the energy spreading. We also demonstrate that in the highly nonlinear regime, the differences in energy transport between the two sets of initial conditions vanish. Actually, in this regime the energy is almost ballistically transported through shocklike excitations.

  13. Energy Models of One-Dimensional Multi-Propagative Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichchou, M. N.; Le Bot, A.; Jezequel, L.

    1997-04-01

    For a number of years, a model well suited to medium and high frequencies in structures, and called Energy Flow analysis, has been studied in order to generalize Statistical Energy Analysis. This model is based on a thermal analogy: a law analogous to Fourier's law for heat flow is involved. This relationship, which relates the energy flow to the energy density, leads to a differential equation similar to the heat conduction equation in steady state conditions. The aim of this study is to generalize previous works on one-dimensional structures. A wave approach is adopted, It is shown that Fourier's law is valid for one symmetric propagation mode (one group velocity). However this law has to be modified for non-symmetric propagation modes or multi-mode propagation. In each case, the wave approach determines the relationship between energy density and energy flow. Finally, the theoretical models are illustrated with several examples of waveguides: an Euler-Bernoulli beam on an elastic support, pipes carrying moving fluid and a Timoshenko beam.

  14. Transmission properties of one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Shiveshwari, Laxmi; Awasthi, S. K.

    2015-09-15

    Omnidirectional photonic band gaps (PBGs) are found in one-dimensional ternary plasma photonic crystals (PPC) composed of single negative metamaterials. The band characteristics and transmission properties are investigated through the transfer matrix method. We show that the proposed structure can trap light in three-dimensional space due to the elimination of Brewster's angle transmission resonance allowing the existence of complete PBG. The results are discussed in terms of incident angle, layer thickness, dielectric constant of the dielectric material, and number of unit cells (N) for TE and TM polarizations. It is seen that PBG characteristics is apparent even in an N ≥ 2 system, which is weakly sensitive to the incident angle and completely insensitive to the polarization. Finite PPC could be used for multichannel transmission filter without introducing any defect in the geometry. We show that the locations of the multichannel transmission peaks are in the allowed band of the infinite structure. The structure can work as a single or multichannel filter by varying the number of unit cells. Binary PPC can also work as a polarization sensitive tunable filter.

  15. Solitary Wave in One-dimensional Buckyball System at Nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Zheng, Bowen; Liu, Yilun

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the stress wave propagation in one-dimensional (1-D) nanoscopic buckyball (C60) system by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and quantitative modeling. Simulation results have shown that solitary waves are generated and propagating in the buckyball system through impacting one buckyball at one end of the buckyball chain. We have found the solitary wave behaviors are closely dependent on the initial temperature and impacting speed of the buckyball chain. There are almost no dispersion and dissipation of the solitary waves (stationary solitary wave) for relatively low temperature and high impacting speed. While for relatively high temperature and low impacting speed the profile of the solitary waves is highly distorted and dissipated after propagating several tens of buckyballs. A phase diagram is proposed to describe the effect of the temperature and impacting speed on the solitary wave behaviors in buckyball system. In order to quantitatively describe the wave behavior in buckyball system, a simple nonlinear-spring model is established, which can describe the MD simulation results at low temperature very well. The results presented in this work may lay a solid step towards the further understanding and manipulation of stress wave propagation and impact energy mitigation at nanoscale. PMID:26891624

  16. Electrical transport in doped one-dimensional nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Li, Tan; Wang, Jianning; Zhang, Yumin

    2005-09-01

    Mobility and noise are two important issues for electronic devices, and they have many new features in one-dimensional (1D) doped nanostructures. For the convenience of readers the background of solid state physics is reviewed first, and then the transport process in 3D crystal material is introduced. Velocity saturation is an important phenomenon in modern electronic devices, and it is analyzed in an intuitive approach. It is predicted FinFET will be the next generation MOSFET, and its structure and characteristics are introduced. With the reduction of device dimensions the mesoscopic phenomena begin to show up. A simple way to treat transport problem in this domain is the Landauer-Büttiker formula, and the basic equation is derived. Finally the 1D quantum wire structure grown from a bottom-up approach is reviewed. Owing to the good material quality the scattering is very weak, and the wave properties of the coherent transport are discussed. Engineering applications of nanostructures in electronic information processing that manipulates time varying signals often involve device characterizations in the time domain. Since carrier transport in nanostructures is inherently a random process and it causes random fluctuations in quantities like current and voltage, so background knowledge in the microscopic origins of noise and other related practical issues is important to identify enough noise margins for reliable system design. This subject is the focus of the second part of the review article. PMID:16193956

  17. One-dimensional surface phonon polaritons in boron nitride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoji G.; Ghamsari, Behnood G.; Jiang, Jian-Hua; Gilburd, Leonid; Andreev, Gregory O.; Zhi, Chunyi; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri; Berini, Pierre; Walker, Gilbert C.

    2014-08-01

    Surface polaritons, which are electromagnetic waves coupled to material charge oscillations, have enabled applications in concentrating, guiding and harvesting optical energy below the diffraction limit. Surface plasmon polaritons involve oscillations of electrons and are accessible in noble metals at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, whereas surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs) rely on phonon resonances in polar materials, and are active in the mid-infrared. Noble metal surface plasmon polaritons have limited applications in the mid-infrared. SPhPs at flat interfaces normally possess long polariton wavelengths and provide modest field confinement/enhancement. Here we demonstrate propagating SPhPs in a one-dimensional material consisting of a boron nitride nanotube at mid-infrared wavelengths. The observed SPhP exhibits high field confinement and enhancement, and a very high effective index (neff~70). We show that the modal and propagation length characteristics of the SPhPs may be controlled through the nanotube size and the supporting substrates, enabling mid-infrared applications.

  18. One-dimensional extended Hubbard model in the atomic limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, F.; Mancini, F. P.

    2008-06-01

    We present the exact solution of the one-dimensional extended Hubbard model in the atomic limit within the Green’s function and equations of motion formalism. We provide a comprehensive and systematic analysis of the model by considering all the relevant response and correlation functions as well as thermodynamic quantities in the whole parameters space. At zero temperature we identify four phases in the plane (U,n) ( U is the on-site potential and n is the filling) and relative phase transitions as well as different types of charge ordering. These features are endorsed by investigating at T=0 the chemical potential and pertinent local correlators, the particle and double occupancy correlation functions, the entropy, and by studying the behavior in the limit T→0 of the charge and spin susceptibilities. A detailed study of the thermodynamic quantities is also presented at finite temperature. This study evidences that a finite-range order persists for a wide range of the temperature, as shown by the behavior of the correlation functions and by the two-peak structure exhibited by the charge susceptibility and by the entropy. Moreover, the equations of motion formalism, together with the use of composite operators, allows us to exactly determine the set of elementary excitations. As a result, the density of states can be determined and a detailed analysis of the specific heat allows for identifying the excitations and for ascribing its two-peak structure to a redistribution of the charge density.

  19. Electronic effects of defects in one-dimensional channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Elliot J.; Pan, Deng; Corso, Brad L.; Gul, O. Tolga; Collins, Philip G.

    2013-09-01

    As electronic devices shrink to the one-dimensional limit, unusual device physics can result, even at room temperature. Nanoscale conductors like single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are particularly useful tools for experimentally investigating these effects. Our characterization of point defects in SWNTs has focused on these electronic consequences. A single scattering site in an otherwise quasi-ballistic SWNT introduces resistance, transconductance, and chemical sensitivity, and here we investigate these contributions using a combination of transport and scanning probe techniques. The transport measurements determine the two-terminal contributions over a wide range of bias, temperature, and environmental conditions, while the scanning probe work provides complementary confirmation that the effects originate at a particular site along the conduction path in a SWNT. Together, the combination proves that single point defects behave like scattering barriers having Poole-Frenkel transport characteristics. The Poole-Frenkel barriers have heights of 10 - 30 meV and gate-dependent widths that grow as large as 1 μm due to the uniquely poor screening in one dimension. Poole-Frenkel characteristics suggest that the barriers contain at least one localized electronic state, and that this state primarily contributes to conduction under high bias or high temperature conditions. Because these localized states vary from one device to another, we hypothesize that each might be unique to a particular defect's chemical type.

  20. One-dimensional consolidation in unsaturated soils under cyclic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Wei-Cheng; Sposito, Garrison; Lee, Jhe-Wei; Chu, Hsiuhua

    2016-05-01

    The one-dimensional consolidation model of poroelasticity of Lo et al. (2014) for an unsaturated soil under constant loading is generalized to include an arbitrary time-dependent loading. A closed-form solution for the pore water and air pressures along with the total settlement is derived by employing a Fourier series representation in the spatial domain and a Laplace transformation in the time domain. This solution is illustrated for the important example of a fully-permeable soil cylinder with an undrained initial condition acted upon by a periodic stress. Our results indicate that, in terms of a dimensionless time scale, the transient solution decays to zero most slowly in a water-saturated soil, whereas for an unsaturated soil, the time for the transient solution to die out is inversely proportional to the initial water saturation. The generalization presented here shows that the diffusion time scale for pore water in an unsaturated soil is orders of magnitude greater than that in a water-saturated soil, mainly because of the much smaller hydraulic conductivity of the former.

  1. A Smart Colorful Supercapacitor with One Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cihui; Liu, Xing; Xuan, Hongyun; Ren, Jiaoyu; Ge, Liqin

    2015-01-01

    To meet the pressing demands for portable and flexible equipment in contemporary society, developing flexible, lightweight, and sustainable supercapacitor systems with large power densities, long cycle life, and ease of strongly required. However, estimating the state-of-charge of existing supercapacitors is difficult, and thus their service life is limited. In this study, we fabricate a flexible color indicative supercapacitor device with mesoporous polyaniline (mPANI)/Poly(N-Isopropyl acrylamide-Graphene Oxide-Acrylic Acid) (P(NiPPAm-GO-AA)) one dimensional photonic crystals (1DPCs) as the electrode material through a low-cost, eco-friendly, and scalable fabrication process. We found that the state-of-charge could be monitored by the structural color oscillation due to the change in the photonic band gap position of the 1DPCs. The flexible 1DPCs supercapacitor is thin at 3 mm and exhibits good specific capacitance of 22.6 F g−1 with retention of 91.1% after 3,000 cycles. This study shows the application of the 1DPCs supercapacitor as a visual ultrathin power source. The technology may find many applications in future wearable electronics. PMID:26689375

  2. Dynamic response of one-dimensional bosons in a trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovach, Vitaly N.; Minguzzi, Anna; Glazman, Leonid I.

    2009-10-01

    We calculate the dynamic structure factor S(q,ω) of a one-dimensional (1D) interacting Bose gas confined in a harmonic trap. The effective interaction depends on the strength of the confinement enforcing the (1D) motion of atoms; interaction may be further enhanced by superimposing an optical lattice on the trap potential. In the compressible state, we find that the smooth variation in the gas density around the trap center leads to softening of the singular behavior of S(q,ω) at the first Lieb excitation mode compared to the behavior predicted for homogeneous 1D systems. Nevertheless, the density-averaged response S¯(q,ω) remains a nonanalytic function of q and ω at the first Lieb excitation mode in the limit of weak trap confinement. The exponent of the power-law nonanalyticity is modified due to the inhomogeneity in a universal way and thus bears unambiguously the information about the (homogeneous) Lieb-Liniger model. A strong optical lattice causes formation of Mott phases. Deep in the Mott regime, we predict a semicircular peak in S(q,ω) centered at the on-site repulsion energy, ω=U . Similar peaks of smaller amplitudes exist at multiples of U as well. We explain the suppression of the dynamic response with entering into the Mott regime, observed recently by Clément [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 155301 (2009)], based on an f -sum rule for the Bose-Hubbard model.

  3. Nonequilibrium electronic transport in a one-dimensional Mott insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Heidrich-Meisner, F.; Gonzalez, Ivan; Al-Hassanieh, K. A.; Feiguin, A. E.; Rozenberg, M. J.; Dagotto, Elbio R

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the nonequilibrium electronic transport properties of a one-dimensional interacting chain at half filling, coupled to noninteracting leads. The interacting chain is initially in a Mott insulator state that is driven out of equilibrium by applying a strong bias voltage between the leads. For bias voltages above a certain threshold we observe the breakdown of the Mott insulator state and the establishment of a steady-state elec- tronic current through the system. Based on extensive time-dependent density-matrix renormalization-group simulations, we show that this steady-state current always has the same functional dependence on voltage, independent of the microscopic details of the model and we relate the value of the threshold to the Lieb-Wu gap. We frame our results in terms of the Landau-Zener dielectric breakdown picture. Finally, we also discuss the real-time evolution of the current, and characterize the current-carrying state resulting from the breakdown of the Mott insulator by computing the double occupancy, the spin structure factor, and the entanglement entropy.

  4. One-dimensional particle models for heat transfer analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Ghendrih, Ph; Tamain, P.; Bagnoli, F.; Lepri, S.; Livi, R.

    2010-11-01

    For a better understanding of Spitzer-Härm closure restrictions and for estimating the relevancy of this expression when collisionnality decreases, an effort is done in developing simple models that aim at catching the physics of the transition from conductive to free-streaming heat flux. In that perspective, one-dimensional particle models are developed to study heat transfer properties in the direction parallel to the magnetic field in tokamaks. These models are based on particles that carry energy at a specific velocity and that can interact with each other or with heat sources. By adjusting the particle dynamics and particle interaction properties, it is possible to generate a broad range of models of growing complexity. The simplest models can be solved analytically and are used to link particle behavior to general macroscopic heat transfer properties. In particular, some configurations recover Fourier's law and make possible to investigate the dependance of thermal conductivity on temperature. Besides, some configurations where local balance is lost require defining non local expression for heat flux. These different classes of models could then be linked to different plasma configurations and used to study transition from collisional to non-collisional plasma.

  5. Screw dislocation-driven growth of one-dimensional nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fei

    Nanoscience and nanotechnology are impacting our lives in many ways, from electronic and photonic devices to biosensors. They also hold the promise of tackling the renewable energy challenges facing us. However, one limiting scientific challenge is the effective and efficient bottom-up synthesis of nanomaterials. In this thesis, we discuss the fundamental theories of screw dislocation-driven growth of various nanostructures including one-dimensional nanowires and nanotubes, two-dimensional nanoplates, and three-dimensional hierarchical tree-like nanostructures. We then introduce the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques to structurally characterize the dislocation-driven nanomaterials for future searching and identifying purposes. We summarize the guidelines for rationally designing the dislocation-driven growth and discuss specific examples to illustrate how to implement the guidelines. We also show that dislocation growth is a general and versatile mechanism that can be used to grow a variety of nanomaterials via distinct reaction chemistry and synthetic methods. The fundamental investigation and development of dislocation-driven growth of nanomaterials will create a new dimension to the rational design and synthesis of increasingly complex nanomaterials.

  6. Thermal transport in disordered one-dimensional spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poboiko, Igor; Feigel'man, Mikhail

    2015-12-01

    We study a one-dimensional anisotropic XXZ Heisenberg spin-1/2 chain with weak random fields hizSiz by means of Jordan-Wigner transformation to spinless Luttinger liquid with disorder and bosonization technique. First, we reinvestigate the phase diagram of the system in terms of dimensionless disorder γ =

    /J2≪1 and anisotropy parameter Δ =Jz/Jx y , we find the range of these parameters where disorder is irrelevant in the infrared limit and spin-spin correlations are described by power laws, and compare it with previously obtained numerical and analytical results. Then we use the diagram technique in terms of plasmon excitations to study the low-temperature (T ≪J ) behavior of heat conductivity κ and spin conductivity σ in this power-law phase. The obtained Lorentz number L ≡κ /σ T differs from the value derived earlier by means of the memory function method. We argue also that in the studied region inelastic scattering is strong enough to suppress quantum interference in the low-temperature limit.

  7. Digital noise generators using one-dimensional chaotic maps

    SciTech Connect

    Martínez-Ñonthe, J. A; Palacios-Luengas, L.; Cruz-Irisson, M.; Vazquez Medina, R.; Díaz Méndez, J. A.

    2014-05-15

    This work shows how to improve the statistical distribution of signals produced by digital noise generators designed with one-dimensional (1-D) chaotic maps. It also shows that in a digital electronic design the piecewise linear chaotic maps (PWLCM) should be considered because they do not have stability islands in its chaotic behavior region, as it occurs in the case of the logistic map, which is commonly used to build noise generators. The design and implementation problems of the digital noise generators are analyzed and a solution is proposed. This solution relates the output of PWLCM, usually defined in the real numbers' domain, with a codebook of S elements, previously defined. The proposed solution scheme produces digital noise signals with a statistical distribution close to a uniform distribution. Finally, this work shows that it is possible to have control over the statistical distribution of the noise signal by selecting the control parameter of the PWLCM and using, as a design criterion, the bifurcation diagram.

  8. Theoretical modelling of one dimensional photonic crystal based optical demultiplexer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Kumar, Sushil; Prasad, Surendra; Singh, Vivek

    2016-05-01

    An optical demultiplexer through one-dimensional Si-SiO2 photonic crystal structure in the presence of air cavity with a single crystal PMN-0.38PT material is presented. The transmittance of this structure is obtained using the transfer matrix method. The transmittance of this structure shows a sharp passband in the band gap region. It is observed that by introducing PMN-0.38PT layer in both sides of the air cavity, the existing band gap region of Si-SiO2 structure is slightly increased. Here, PMN-0.38PT material is working as a tunable element for passband. By applying some external potential on PMN-0.38PT crystal, the thickness of cavity layer can be tuned and the passband can be placed at any desired wavelength in the band gap region. Since the photonic band gap region contains a range of wavelengths which are not allowed to pass through the structure can be considered as a multiplex signal for the proposed demultiplexer. Therefore, any optical signal that lies in the band gap region of the structure can be separated into its components as a pass band. Hence, the proposed structure will work as an optical demultiplexer.

  9. Dynamics of Mobile Impurities in One-Dimensional Quantum Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schecter, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We study the dynamics of mobile impurities in a one-dimensional quantum liquid. Due to singular scattering with low-energy excitations of the host liquid, the impurity spectral properties become strongly renormalized even at weak coupling. This leads to universal phenomena with no higher-dimensional counterparts, such as lattice-free Bloch oscillations, power-law threshold behavior in the impurity spectral function and a quantum phase transition as the impurity mass exceeds a critical value. The additional possibility of integrability in one-dimension leads to the absence of thermal viscosity at special points in parameter space. The vanishing of the phonon-mediated Casimir interaction between separate impurities can be understood on the same footing. We explore these remarkable phenomena by developing an effective low-energy theory that identifies the proper collective coordinates of the dressed impurity, and their coupling to the low-energy excitations of the host liquid. The main appeal of our approach lies in its ability to describe a dynamic response using effective parameters which obey exact thermodynamic relations. The latter may be extracted using powerful numerical or analytical techniques available in one-dimension, yielding asymptotically exact results for the low-energy impurity dynamics.

  10. Trapped Atoms in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimble, H.

    2013-05-01

    I describe one-dimensional photonic crystals that support a guided mode suitable for atom trapping within a unit cell, as well as a second probe mode with strong atom-photon interactions. A new hybrid trap is analyzed that combines optical and Casimir-Polder forces to form stable traps for neutral atoms in dielectric nanostructures. By suitable design of the band structure, the atomic spontaneous emission rate into the probe mode can exceed the rate into all other modes by more than tenfold. The unprecedented single-atom reflectivity r0 ~= 0 . 9 for the guided probe field could create new scientific opportunities, including quantum many-body physics for 1 D atom chains with photon-mediated interactions and high-precision studies of vacuum forces. Towards these goals, my colleagues and I are pursuing numerical simulation, device fabrication, and cold-atom experiments with nanoscopic structures. Funding is provided by by the IQIM, an NSF PFC with support of the Moore Foundation, by the AFOSR QuMPASS MURI, by the DoD NSSEFF program (HJK), and by NSF Grant PHY0652914 (HJK). DEC acknowledges funding from Fundacio Privada Cellex Barcelona.

  11. A Smart Colorful Supercapacitor with One Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cihui; Liu, Xing; Xuan, Hongyun; Ren, Jiaoyu; Ge, Liqin

    2015-12-01

    To meet the pressing demands for portable and flexible equipment in contemporary society, developing flexible, lightweight, and sustainable supercapacitor systems with large power densities, long cycle life, and ease of strongly required. However, estimating the state-of-charge of existing supercapacitors is difficult, and thus their service life is limited. In this study, we fabricate a flexible color indicative supercapacitor device with mesoporous polyaniline (mPANI)/Poly(N-Isopropyl acrylamide-Graphene Oxide-Acrylic Acid) (P(NiPPAm-GO-AA)) one dimensional photonic crystals (1DPCs) as the electrode material through a low-cost, eco-friendly, and scalable fabrication process. We found that the state-of-charge could be monitored by the structural color oscillation due to the change in the photonic band gap position of the 1DPCs. The flexible 1DPCs supercapacitor is thin at 3 mm and exhibits good specific capacitance of 22.6 F g-1 with retention of 91.1% after 3,000 cycles. This study shows the application of the 1DPCs supercapacitor as a visual ultrathin power source. The technology may find many applications in future wearable electronics.

  12. Heterolayered, one-dimensional nanobuilding block mat batteries.

    PubMed

    Choi, Keun-Ho; Cho, Sung-Ju; Chun, Sang-Jin; Yoo, Jong Tae; Lee, Chang Kee; Kim, Woong; Wu, Qinglin; Park, Sang-Bum; Choi, Don-Ha; Lee, Sun-Young; Lee, Sang-Young

    2014-10-01

    The rapidly approaching smart/wearable energy era necessitates advanced rechargeable power sources with reliable electrochemical properties and versatile form factors. Here, as a unique and promising energy storage system to address this issue, we demonstrate a new class of heterolayered, one-dimensional (1D) nanobuilding block mat (h-nanomat) battery based on unitized separator/electrode assembly (SEA) architecture. The unitized SEAs consist of wood cellulose nanofibril (CNF) separator membranes and metallic current collector-/polymeric binder-free electrodes comprising solely single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-netted electrode active materials (LiFePO4 (cathode) and Li4Ti5O12 (anode) powders are chosen as model systems to explore the proof of concept for h-nanomat batteries). The nanoporous CNF separator plays a critical role in securing the tightly interlocked electrode-separator interface. The SWNTs in the SEAs exhibit multifunctional roles as electron conductive additives, binders, current collectors and also non-Faradaic active materials. This structural/physicochemical uniqueness of the SEAs allows significant improvements in the mass loading of electrode active materials, electron transport pathways, electrolyte accessibility and misalignment-proof of separator/electrode interface. As a result, the h-nanomat batteries, which are easily fabricated by stacking anode SEA and cathode SEA, provide unprecedented advances in the electrochemical performance, shape flexibility and safety tolerance far beyond those achievable with conventional battery technologies. We anticipate that the h-nanomat batteries will open 1D nanobuilding block-driven new architectural design/opportunity for development of next-generation energy storage systems. PMID:25226349

  13. One dimensional blood flow in a planetocentric orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haranas, Ioannis; Gkigkitzis, Ioannis

    2012-05-01

    All life on earth is accustomed to the presence of gravity. When gravity is altered, biological processes can go awry. It is of great importance to ensure safety during a spaceflight. Long term exposure to microgravity can trigger detrimental physiological responses in the human body. Fluid redistribution coupled with fluid loss is one of the effects. In particular, in microgravity blood volume is shifted towards the thorax and head. Sympathetic nervous system-induced vasoconstriction is needed to maintain arterial pressure, while venoconstriction limits venous pooling of blood prevents further reductions in venous return of blood to the heart. In this paper, we modify an existing one dimensional blood flow model with the inclusion of the hydrostatic pressure gradient that further depends on the gravitational field modified by the oblateness and rotation of the Earth. We find that the velocity of the blood flow VB is inversely proportional to the blood specific volume d, also proportional to the oblateness harmonic coefficient J2, the angular velocity of the Earth ωE, and finally proportional to an arbitrary constant c. For c = -0.39073 and ξH = -0.5 mmHg, all orbits result to less blood flow velocities than that calculated on the surface of the Earth. From all considered orbits, elliptical polar orbit of eccentricity e = 0.2 exhibit the largest flow velocity VB = 1.031 m/s, followed by the orbits of inclination i = 45°and 0°. The Earth's oblateness and its rotation contribute a 0.7% difference to the blood flow velocity.

  14. Stereo correspondence in one-dimensional Gabor stimuli.

    PubMed

    Prince, S J; Eagle, R A

    2000-01-01

    Previous data [Prince, S.J.D., & Eagle, R.A., (1999). Size-disparity correlation in human binocular depth perception. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 266, 1361-1365] have demonstrated that the upper disparity limit for stereopsis (DMax) is considerably smaller in filtered noise stereograms than in isolated Gabor patches of the same spatial frequency. This discrepancy is not currently understood. Here, the solution of the correspondence problem for bandpass stereograms was further examined. On each trial observers were presented with two one-dimensional Gabor stimuli containing disparities of equal magnitude but opposite sign. Subjects were required to indicate which interval contained the crossed disparity stimulus. It was found that matching behaviour changed as a function of Gabor envelope size. As a function of disparity magnitude, performance cycled between mostly correct and mostly incorrect at large envelope sizes but was always correct at small envelope sizes. At intermediate envelope sizes performance was cyclical at small disparities but always correct at large disparities. The critical envelope size at which performance changed from mostly correct to mostly incorrect at 270 degrees phase disparity was used as a measure of the matching performance as other parameters of the Gabor were varied. Both absolute and relative contrast were shown to influence the perceived sign of matches. Critical envelope size was also found to decrease as a function of spatial frequency, but more slowly than a phase-based limit would predict. These data cannot be predicted by current models of stereopsis, and can be used to constrain future models. PMID:10720662

  15. Two dimensionality in quasi-one-dimensional cobalt oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, J.; Nozaki, H.; Brewer, J. H.; Ansaldo, E. J.; Morris, G. D.; Takami, T.; Ikuta, H.; Mizutani, U.

    2006-03-01

    Magnetism of quasi-one-dimensional (1D) cobalt oxides ACoO ( A=Ca, Sr and Ba, n=1-5 and ∞) was investigated by μ+SR using polycrystalline samples, at temperatures from 300 K down to 1.8 K. The wTF- μ+SR experiments showed the existence of a magnetic transition in all six samples investigated. The onset temperature of the transition (Tcon) was found to decrease with n; that is, 100±25, 90±10, 85±10, 65±10 50±10, and 15±1 K for n=1-5, and ∞, respectively. In particular, for the samples with n=2-5, Tcon was detected only by the present μ+SR measurements. A muon spin oscillation was clearly observed in both Ca 3Co 2O 6(n=1) and BaCoO 3(n=∞), whereas only a fast relaxation is apparent even at 1.8 K in the other four samples ( n=2-5). Taking together with the fact that the paramagnetic Curie temperature ranges from -150 to -200 K for the compound with n=2 and 3, the μ+SR result indicates that a two-dimensional (2D) short-range antiferromagnetic (AF) order, which has been thought to be unlikely to exist at high T due to a relatively strong 1D F interaction, appears below Tcon for all compounds with n=1-5; but quasi-static long-range AF order formed only in Ca 3Co 2O 6, below 25 K. For BaCoO 3(n=∞), as T decreased from 300 K, 1D F order appeared below 53 K, and a sharp 2D AF transition occurred at 15 K.

  16. Quench dynamics in one-dimensional quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, Jarrett L.

    The possibility of simulating non-equilibrium physics using cold atomic systems motivates many open questions regarding the dynamics of systems whose equilibrium properties are well understood. We first consider the non-equilibrium dynamics in a one-dimensional quantum spin chain by arranging the spins in an inhomogeneous initial state by application of a spatially varying magnetic field and rapidly switching off the field, also allowing for a sudden change in the interaction strength. The non-interacting case is treated exactly. To treat interactions, we employ a low-energy bosonization approach which correctly reproduces the long-time behavior in the non-interacting case. Depending on the strength of interactions, we find two different types of behavior. In the gapless region, expansion of the domain wall is ballistic. In the gapped phase, time evolution is substantially more complicated. To explore the time evolution within a gapped system, we turn our attention to a numerical investigation of a more general, low-energy theory: the quantum sine-Gordon model. Beginning with a domain wall density configuration, we study dynamics using the semi-classical truncated Wigner approximation. The numerical study is complemented by an analytical investigation of how an initial current-carrying state evolves when an energy gap is suddenly switched on. Both approaches reveal the persistence of some part of the initial current in the long-time limit. Finally, we apply the random phase approximation to treat weak interactions in a system of fermions after an interaction quench. We study how collective modes are modified by the quench. Compared to equilibrium, we find an enhanced particle-hole continuum which damps the collective mode for attractive interactions, while a single undamped mode survives for repulsive interactions. The situation is also investigated in the presence of a current.

  17. Spectroscopy of one-dimensionally inhomogeneous media with quadratic nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Golubkov, A A; Makarov, Vladimir A

    2011-11-30

    We present a brief review of the results of fifty years of development efforts in spectroscopy of one-dimensionally inhomogeneous media with quadratic nonlinearity. The recent original results obtained by the authors show the fundamental possibility of determining, from experimental data, the coordinate dependences of complex quadratic susceptibility tensor components of a onedimensionally inhomogeneous (along the z axis) medium with an arbitrary frequency dispersion, if the linear dielectric properties of the medium also vary along the z axis and are described by a diagonal tensor of the linear dielectric constant. It is assumed that the medium in question has the form of a plane-parallel plate, whose surfaces are perpendicular to the direction of the inhomogeneity. Using the example of several components of the tensors X{sup (2)}(z, {omega}{sub 1} {+-} {omega}{sub 2}; {omega}{sub 1}, {+-} {omega}{sub 2}), we describe two methods for finding their spatial profiles, which differ in the interaction geometry of plane monochromatic fundamental waves with frequencies {omega}{sub 1} and {omega}{sub 2}. The both methods are based on assessing the intensity of the waves propagating from the plate at the sum or difference frequency and require measurements over a range of angles of incidence of the fundamental waves. Such measurements include two series of additional estimates of the intensities of the waves generated under special conditions by using the test and additional reference plates, which eliminates the need for complicated phase measurements of the complex amplitudes of the waves at the sum (difference) frequency.

  18. Construction and optoelectronic properties of organic one-dimensional nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong Sheng; Fu, Hongbing; Peng, Aidong; Ma, Ying; Liao, Qing; Yao, Jiannian

    2010-03-16

    In the last 10 years, nanomaterials based on small organic molecules have attracted increasing attention. Such materials have unique optical and electronic properties, which could lead to new applications in nanoscale devices. Zero-dimensional (0D) organic nanoparticles with amorphous structures have been widely studied; however, the systematic investigation of crystalline one-dimensional (1D) organic nanostructures has only emerged in recent years. Researchers have used inorganic 1D nanomaterials, such as wires, tubes, and belts, as building blocks in optoelectronic nanodevices. We expect that their organic counterparts will also play an important role in this field. Because organic nanomaterials are composed of molecular units with weaker intermolecular interactions, they allow for higher structural tunability, reactivity, and processability. In addition, organic materials usually possess higher luminescence efficiency and can be grown on almost any solid substrate. In this Account, we describe recent progress in our group toward the construction of organic 1D nanomaterials and studies of their unique optical and electronic properties. First, we introduce the techniques for synthesizing 1D organic nanostructures. Because this strategy is both facile and reliable, liquid phase synthesis is most commonly used. More importantly, this method allows researchers to produce composite materials, including core/sheath and uniformly doped structures, which allow to investigate the interactions between different components in the nanomaterials, including fluorescent resonance energy transfer and photoinduced electron transfer. Physical vapor deposition allows for the synthesis of organic 1D nanomaterials with high crystallinity. Nanomaterials produced with this method offer improved charge transport properties and better optoelectronic performance in areas including multicolor emission, tunable emission, optical waveguide, and lasing. Although inorganic nanomaterials have

  19. Analytical models of optical response in one-dimensional semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2015-09-01

    The quantum mechanical description of the optical properties of crystalline materials typically requires extensive numerical computation. Including excitonic and non-perturbative field effects adds to the complexity. In one dimension, however, the analysis simplifies and optical spectra can be computed exactly. In this paper, we apply the Wannier exciton formalism to derive analytical expressions for the optical response in four cases of increasing complexity. Thus, we start from free carriers and, in turn, switch on electrostatic fields and electron-hole attraction and, finally, analyze the combined influence of these effects. In addition, the optical response of impurity-localized excitons is discussed.

  20. One-dimensional daisyworld: spatial interactions and pattern formation.

    PubMed

    Adams, B; Carr, J; Lenton, T M; White, A

    2003-08-21

    The zero-dimensional daisyworld model of Watson and Lovelock (1983) demonstrates that life can unconsciously regulate a global environment. Here that model is extended to one dimension, incorporating a distribution of incoming solar radiation and diffusion of heat consistent with a spherical planet. Global regulatory properties of the original model are retained. The daisy populations are initially restricted to hospitable regions of the surface but exert both global and local feedback to increase this habitable area, eventually colonizing the whole surface. The introduction of heat diffusion destabilizes the coexistence equilibrium of the two daisy types. In response, a striped pattern consisting of blocks of all black or all white daisies emerges. There are two mechanisms behind this pattern formation. Both are connected to the stability of the system and an overview of the mathematics involved is presented. Numerical experiments show that this pattern is globally determined. Perturbations in one region have an impact over the whole surface but the regulatory properties of the system are not compromised by transient perturbations. The relevance of these results to the Earth and the wider climate modelling field is discussed. PMID:12875827

  1. A quasi-one-dimensional model of thermoacoustics in the presence of mean flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzinger, Tobias; Baumgartner, Armin; Polifke, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In thermoacoustic regenerators, the interaction of thermo-viscous boundary layers and axial temperature gradients causes a conversion from thermal energy to acoustic power or vice versa. In this paper, an improved analytical model for thermoacoustic boundary layer effects in the presence of mean flow is derived and analyzed. Previous formulations of the thermo-acoustic effect take into account effects of mean flow on acoustic propagation only implicitly, i.e. in as much as mean flow influences the mean temperature field. The new model, however, includes additional terms in the perturbation equations, which describe explicitly the interaction between steady mean flow and acoustics. For a parallel plate pore the three-dimensional thermoacoustic equations are derived and reduced to a transversally averaged system of differential equations by applying Green's function technique and suitable assumptions. The resulting one-dimensional perturbation equations are then solved numerically for two sets of boundary conditions to obtain the linear scattering matrix coefficients. The solutions, generated for a wide range of frequencies, can be applied in a low-order "network model" context to study the stability of thermoacoustic devices. The impact of mean flow on the thermoacoustic interaction is investigated and validated against full computational fluid dynamics simulations of laminar, compressible flow for one specific configuration. It is shown that at low frequencies (Womersley number < 1) the new formulation predicts the acoustic behavior more accurately than the earlier formulations. Finally, the ideas and benefit of further improved and more complex models for higher Mach numbers are discussed.

  2. Linear and nonlinear compact modes in quasi-one-dimensional flatband systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-González, Dany; Molina, Mario I.

    2016-04-01

    We examine analytically and numerically the spectral properties of three quasi-one-dimensional lattices, namely, kagome, Lieb, and stub lattices, which are characterized for having flatbands in their spectrum. It is observed that the degenerate eigenmodes modes of these flatbands form a Starklike ladder where each mode is shifted by one lattice site. Their combination can give rise to compact modes that do not diffract due to a geometrical phase cancellation. For all three cases we computed the stability of the fundamental band mode against perturbation of their amplitude and phase, the effect of possible anisotropy of the couplings, and the presence of small random perturbations of the coupling. For the Lieb and stub ribbon, the compact mode turns out to be quite robust and the flatband survives, while for the kagome ribbon, the compact mode is destroyed and the flatband is lost. When adding nonlinear effects, the compact mode turns out to be also a nonlinear eigenvector, with a power curve that is proportional to the eigenvalue and exists for any eigenvalue, in marked contrast to the usual case of discrete solitons, which can exist only outside the linear bands. These properties look promising for a future design of a robust system for long-distance propagation of information.

  3. Concerning isothermal self-similar blast waves. I - One-dimensional flow and its stability. II - Two-dimensional flow and its stability. [in stellar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerche, I.

    1978-01-01

    One-dimensional self-similar isothermal flow behind a blast wave propagating in a medium whose density varies with distance is investigated for the cases of one-dimensional and two-dimensional flow. The isothermal flow model is adopted as an alternative to adiabatic models of self-similar flow, which neglect heat flux. The topology of the one-dimensional flow solutions, the singularities, and the influence of boundary conditions are discussed; the instability of the isothermal blast waves against nonself-similar perturbations is also considered. The number of critical points in the two-dimensional solutions is found to vary from the number in the one-dimensional problem.

  4. Coulomb drag between one-dimensional electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Mustafa

    We have measured Coulomb drag (CD) between two spatially separated and electrically isolated one-dimensional (1D) wires to study the Luttinger liquid (LL) state in 1D systems. We have fabricated dual-wire CD devices with long quantum wires (≥ 1 microm) and short quantum wires (≤ 500 nm) with respect to the thermal lengths. The devices are made from high-mobility (≅10 6cm2/Vs) two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures, using high-resolution e-beam lithography, combined with metal deposition by e-beam evaporation to form surface Schottky gates. Peak in drag voltage occurs when the subband bottoms of the lowest energy subbands of the drive and the drag wires line up with each other and the Fermi level. We have observed drag on 1 microm device at 22 mK temperature which is found to be reminiscent of the drag observed earlier on a 2 microm device. An extensive reanalysis of the drag results obtained on the 2 microm device indicates a power-law temperature dependence of drag for both identical and non-identical wires. Also drag is found to decay exponentially with the mismatch between the wires. These properties indicate the existence of Luttinger liquid (LL) state in the long wire device. We have observed positive and negative drags on short wire devices. The observed temperature dependence of drag resistance, for both positive and negative drags, shows first an increase, followed by a constant plateau and finally a decrease as the temperature is increased. This is in line with the predictions of the Fermi--Luttinger liquid (FLL) forward momentum transfer theory. This is the first experimental observation of 1D Coulomb drag due to forward momentum transfer between wires. A negative drag between same type of carriers (holes or electrons) may conceivably result from forward momentum transfer or forward scattering if the band curvature of the drag wire at or near the Fermi point is negative. Negative band curvature may result from asymmetry

  5. Coulomb drag between one-dimensional electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Mustafa

    We have measured Coulomb drag (CD) between two spatially separated and electrically isolated one-dimensional (1D) wires to study the Luttinger liquid (LL) state in 1D systems. We have fabricated dual-wire CD devices with long quantum wires (≥ 1 mum) and short quantum wires (≤ 500 nm) with respect to the thermal lengths. The devices are made from high-mobility (≅106cm2/Vs) two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures, using high-resolution e-beam lithography, combined with metal deposition by e-beam evaporation to form surface Schottky gates. Peak in drag voltage occurs when the subband bottoms of the lowest energy subbands of the drive and the drag wires line up with each other and the Fermi level. We have observed drag on 1 mum device at 22 mK temperature which is found to be reminiscent of the drag observed earlier on a 2 mum device. An extensive reanalysis of the drag results obtained on the 2 mum device indicates a power-law temperature dependence of drag for both identical and non-identical wires. Also drag is found to decay exponentially with the mismatch between the wires. These properties indicate the existence of Luttinger liquid (LL) state in the long wire device. We have observed positive and negative drags on short wire devices. The observed temperature dependence of drag resistance, for both positive and negative drags, shows first an increase, followed by a constant plateau and finally a decrease as the temperature is increased. This is in line with the predictions of the Fermi-Luttinger liquid (FLL) forward momentum transfer theory. This is the first experimental observation of 1D Coulomb drag due to forward momentum transfer between wires. A negative drag between same type of carriers (holes or electrons) may conceivably result from forward momentum transfer or forward scattering if the band curvature of the drag wire at or near the Fermi point is negative. Negative band curvature may result from asymmetry in the wire

  6. Molecular Self-Assembly into One-Dimensional Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    PALMER, LIAM C.; STUPP, SAMUEL I.

    2008-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Self-assembly of small molecules into one-dimensional nanostructures offers many potential applications in electronically and biologically active materials. The recent advances discussed in this Account demonstrate how researchers can use the fundamental principles of supramolecular chemistry to craft the size, shape, and internal structure of nanoscale objects. In each system described here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to study the assembly morphology. Circular dichroism, nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, and optical spectroscopy provided additional information about the self-assembly behavior in solution at the molecular level. Dendron rod–coil molecules self-assemble into flat or helical ribbons. They can incorporate electronically conductive groups and can be mineralized with inorganic semiconductors. To understand the relative importance of each segment in forming the supramolecular structure, we synthetically modified the dendron, rod, and coil portions. The self-assembly depended on the generation number of the dendron, the number of hydrogen-bonding functions, and the length of the rod and coil segments. We formed chiral helices using a dendron–rod–coil molecule prepared from an enantiomerically enriched coil. Because helical nanostructures are important targets for use in biomaterials, nonlinear optics, and stereoselective catalysis, researchers would like to precisely control their shape and size. Tripeptide-containing peptide lipid molecules assemble into straight or twisted nanofibers in organic solvents. As seen by AFM, the sterics of bulky end groups can tune the helical pitch of these peptide lipid nanofibers in organic solvents. Furthermore, we demonstrated the potential for pitch control using trans-to-cis photoisomerization of a terminal azobenzene group. Other molecules called peptide amphiphiles (PAs) are known to assemble in water into cylindrical nanostructures that

  7. One-dimensional optical wave turbulence: Experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurie, Jason; Bortolozzo, Umberto; Nazarenko, Sergey; Residori, Stefania

    2012-05-01

    We present a review of the latest developments in one-dimensional (1D) optical wave turbulence (OWT). Based on an original experimental setup that allows for the implementation of 1D OWT, we are able to show that an inverse cascade occurs through the spontaneous evolution of the nonlinear field up to the point when modulational instability leads to soliton formation. After solitons are formed, further interaction of the solitons among themselves and with incoherent waves leads to a final condensate state dominated by a single strong soliton. Motivated by the observations, we develop a theoretical description, showing that the inverse cascade develops through six-wave interaction, and that this is the basic mechanism of nonlinear wave coupling for 1D OWT. We describe theory, numerics and experimental observations while trying to incorporate all the different aspects into a consistent context. The experimental system is described by two coupled nonlinear equations, which we explore within two wave limits allowing for the expression of the evolution of the complex amplitude in a single dynamical equation. The long-wave limit corresponds to waves with wave numbers smaller than the electrical coherence length of the liquid crystal, and the opposite limit, when wave numbers are larger. We show that both of these systems are of a dual cascade type, analogous to two-dimensional (2D) turbulence, which can be described by wave turbulence (WT) theory, and conclude that the cascades are induced by a six-wave resonant interaction process. WT theory predicts several stationary solutions (non-equilibrium and thermodynamic) to both the long- and short-wave systems, and we investigate the necessary conditions required for their realization. Interestingly, the long-wave system is close to the integrable 1D nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) (which contains exact nonlinear soliton solutions), and as a result during the inverse cascade, nonlinearity of the system at low wave

  8. Bioinspired one-dimensional materials for directional liquid transport.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jie; Zheng, Yongmei; Jiang, Lei

    2014-08-19

    One-dimensional materials (1D) capable of transporting liquid droplets directionally, such as spider silks and cactus spines, have recently been gathering scientists' attention due to their potential applications in microfluidics, textile dyeing, filtration, and smog removal. This remarkable property comes from the arrangement of the micro- and nanostructures on these organisms' surfaces, which have inspired chemists to develop methods to prepare surfaces with similar directional liquid transport ability. In this Account, we report our recent progress in understanding how this directional transport works, as well our advances in the design and fabrication of bioinspired 1D materials capable of transporting liquid droplets directionally. To begin, we first discuss some basic theories on droplet directional movement. Then, we discuss the mechanism of directional transport of water droplets on natural spider silks. Upon contact with water droplets, the spider silk undergoes what is known as a wet-rebuilt, which forms periodic spindle-knots and joints. We found that the resulting gradient of Laplace pressure and surface free energy between the spindle-knots and joints account for the cooperative driving forces to transport water droplets directionally. Next, we discuss the directional transport of water droplets on desert cactus. The integration of multilevel structures of the cactus and the resulting integration of multiple functions together allow the cactus spine to transport water droplets continuously from tip to base. Based on our studies of natural spider silks and cactus spines, we have prepared a series of artificial spider silks (A-SSs) and artificial cactus spines (A-CSs) with various methods. By changing the surface roughness and chemical compositions of the artificial spider silks' spindle-knots, or by introducing stimulus-responsive molecules, such as thermal-responsive and photoresponsive molecules, onto the spindle-knots, we can reversibly manipulate

  9. Effect of flow on quasi-one-dimensional acoustic wave propagation in a variable area duct of finite length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumsdaine, E.; Ragab, S.

    1977-01-01

    The general equation for the velocity potential of quasi-one-dimensional acoustic wave motion in a variable area, finite duct with one-dimensional flow is derived by using a perturbation technique. The nonlinear second-order partial differential equation is linearized and then solved, by either a power series expansion method or the Runge-Kutta fourth-order method, for harmonic time dependence. The boundary condition taken at the duct mouth is that of matching the impedance of the duct sound field to that of the radiation field at the duct opening. Three axial Mach number variations along the duct axis are considered and the results obtained are compared with those for the case of constant Mach number, to determine the influence of the axial velocity gradient on sound propagation. The effect of flow on the radiation impedance is also considered.

  10. Lempel-Ziv complexity analysis of one dimensional cellular automata.

    PubMed

    Estevez-Rams, E; Lora-Serrano, R; Nunes, C A J; Aragón-Fernández, B

    2015-12-01

    Lempel-Ziv complexity measure has been used to estimate the entropy density of a string. It is defined as the number of factors in a production factorization of a string. In this contribution, we show that its use can be extended, by using the normalized information distance, to study the spatiotemporal evolution of random initial configurations under cellular automata rules. In particular, the transfer information from time consecutive configurations is studied, as well as the sensitivity to perturbed initial conditions. The behavior of the cellular automata rules can be grouped in different classes, but no single grouping captures the whole nature of the involved rules. The analysis carried out is particularly appropriate for studying the computational processing capabilities of cellular automata rules. PMID:26723145

  11. Lempel-Ziv complexity analysis of one dimensional cellular automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estevez-Rams, E.; Lora-Serrano, R.; Nunes, C. A. J.; Aragón-Fernández, B.

    2015-12-01

    Lempel-Ziv complexity measure has been used to estimate the entropy density of a string. It is defined as the number of factors in a production factorization of a string. In this contribution, we show that its use can be extended, by using the normalized information distance, to study the spatiotemporal evolution of random initial configurations under cellular automata rules. In particular, the transfer information from time consecutive configurations is studied, as well as the sensitivity to perturbed initial conditions. The behavior of the cellular automata rules can be grouped in different classes, but no single grouping captures the whole nature of the involved rules. The analysis carried out is particularly appropriate for studying the computational processing capabilities of cellular automata rules.

  12. Extended forward sensitivity analysis of one-dimensional isothermal flow

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.; Zhao, H.

    2013-07-01

    Sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification is an important part of nuclear safety analysis. In this work, forward sensitivity analysis is used to compute solution sensitivities on 1-D fluid flow equations typical of those found in system level codes. Time step sensitivity analysis is included as a method for determining the accumulated error from time discretization. The ability to quantify numerical error arising from the time discretization is a unique and important feature of this method. By knowing the relative sensitivity of time step with other physical parameters, the simulation is allowed to run at optimized time steps without affecting the confidence of the physical parameter sensitivity results. The time step forward sensitivity analysis method can also replace the traditional time step convergence studies that are a key part of code verification with much less computational cost. One well-defined benchmark problem with manufactured solutions is utilized to verify the method; another test isothermal flow problem is used to demonstrate the extended forward sensitivity analysis process. Through these sample problems, the paper shows the feasibility and potential of using the forward sensitivity analysis method to quantify uncertainty in input parameters and time step size for a 1-D system-level thermal-hydraulic safety code. (authors)

  13. Electron acceleration at nearly perpendicular collisionless shocks. I - One-dimensional simulations without electron scale fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauss-Varban, D.; Burgess, D.; Wu, C. S.

    1989-01-01

    Under certain conditions electrons can be reflected and effectively energized at quasi-perpendicular shocks. This process is most prominent close to the point where the upstream magnetic field is tangent to the curved shock. A theoretical explanation of the underlying physical mechanism has been proposed which assumes conservation of magnetic moment and a static, simplified shock profile are performed. Test particle calculations of the electron reflection process in order to examine the results of the theoretical analysis without imposing these restrictive conditions. A one-dimensional hybrid simulation code generates the characteristic field variations across the shock. Special emphasis is placed on the spatial and temporal length scales involved in the mirroring process. The simulation results agree generally well with the predictions from adiabatic theory. The effects of the cross-shock potential and unsteadiness are quantified, and the influence of field fluctuations on the reflection process is discussed.

  14. DEPTH-CHARGE static and time-dependent perturbation/sensitivity system for nuclear reactor core analysis. Revision I. [DEPTH-CHARGE code

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.R.

    1985-04-01

    This report provides the background theory, user input, and sample problems required for the efficient application of the DEPTH-CHARGE system - a code black for both static and time-dependent perturbation theory and data sensitivity analyses. The DEPTH-CHARGE system is of modular construction and has been implemented within the VENTURE-BURNER computational system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The DEPTH module (coupled with VENTURE) solves for the three adjoint functions of Depletion Perturbation Theory and calculates the desired time-dependent derivatives of the response with respect to the nuclide concentrations and nuclear data utilized in the reference model. The CHARGE code is a collection of utility routines for general data manipulation and input preparation and considerably extends the usefulness of the system through the automatic generation of adjoint sources, estimated perturbed responses, and relative data sensitivity coefficients. Combined, the DEPTH-CHARGE system provides, for the first time, a complete generalized first-order perturbation/sensitivity theory capability for both static and time-dependent analyses of realistic multidimensional reactor models. This current documentation incorporates minor revisions to the original DEPTH-CHARGE documentation (ORNL/CSD-78) to reflect some new capabilities within the individual codes.

  15. Applications of One-Dimensional Nanomaterials for Stretchable Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Feng

    Electronics that can be stretched and/or conformal to curvilinear surfaces has recently attracted broad attention. Success of stretchable electronics depends on the availability of electronic materials and structures that can be highly stretched, compressed, bent, and twisted. One-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials are expected to aid the development of the stretchable electronic systems by improving performance, expanding integration possibilities, and potentially lowering cost, due to their superior mechanical/electronic/optical properties, high aspect ratios, and compatibility with bulk synthesis. This dissertation is primarily focused on the application of 1D nanomaterials, including silicon nanowires (SiNWs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and silver nanowires (AgNWs) for stretchable electronics. The mechanical properties of SiNWs, grown by the vapor-liquid-solid process, were first studied with in situ tensile tests inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was found that the fracture strain increased from 2.7% to about 12% when the NW diameter decreased from 60 to 15 nm. The Young's modulus decreased while the fracture strength increased up to 12.2 GPa, as the nanowire diameter decreased. The fracture strength also increased with the decrease of the side surface area. Repeated loading and unloading during tensile tests demonstrated that the nanowires are linear elastic until fracture without appreciable plasticity. Then, SiNW coils were fabricated on elastomeric substrates by a controlled buckling process. SiNWs were first transferred onto prestrained and ultraviolet/ozone (UVO)-treated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrates and buckled upon release of the prestrain. Two buckling modes (the in-plane wavy mode and the three-dimensional coiled mode) were found; a transition between them was achieved by controlling the UVO treatment of PDMS. Structural characterization revealed that the NW coils were oval-shaped. The oval-shaped NW coils exhibited very large

  16. Spontaneous Charge Carrier Localization in Extended One-Dimensional Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlček, Vojtěch; Eisenberg, Helen R.; Steinle-Neumann, Gerd; Neuhauser, Daniel; Rabani, Eran; Baer, Roi

    2016-05-01

    Charge carrier localization in extended atomic systems has been described previously as being driven by disorder, point defects, or distortions of the ionic lattice. Here we show for the first time by means of first-principles computations that charge carriers can spontaneously localize due to a purely electronic effect in otherwise perfectly ordered structures. Optimally tuned range-separated density functional theory and many-body perturbation calculations within the G W approximation reveal that in trans-polyacetylene and polythiophene the hole density localizes on a length scale of several nanometers. This is due to exchange-induced translational symmetry breaking of the charge density. Ionization potentials, optical absorption peaks, excitonic binding energies, and the optimally tuned range parameter itself all become independent of polymer length as it exceeds the critical localization length. Moreover, we find that lattice disorder and the formation of a polaron result from the charge localization in contrast to the traditional view that lattice distortions precede charge localization. Our results can explain experimental findings that polarons in conjugated polymers form instantaneously after exposure to ultrafast light pulses.

  17. The seasonal effect in one-dimensional Daisyworld.

    PubMed

    Biton, Eli; Gildor, Hezi

    2012-12-01

    We have studied the effects of seasonal Solar Radiation Forcing (SRF) on the climate self-regulatory capability of life, using a latitudinal-dependent Daisyworld model. Because the seasonal polarity of SRF increases poleward, habitable conditions exist in the equatorial regions year round, whereas, in the high latitudes, harsh winters cause annual extinction of life, and only the summers are inhabited or regulated by life. Seasonality affects climate regulation by two major mechanisms: (1) the cold winter conditions in the high latitudes reduce the global temperature below the optimal temperature; (2) during summer, life experiences higher SRF anomalies and, therefore, shifts to higher albedo when compared to annual mean SRF. In turn, a full capacity for temperature regulation is reached at lower SRF, and the range of SRF over which life regulates climate is significantly reduced. Lastly, initiation/extinction of life at low/highly-perturbed SRF occurs at the poles. Therefore, an irreversible global extinction occurs once life passes its regulatory capacity in the poles. We conduct extensive sensitivity analyses on various model parameters (latitudinal heat diffusion, heat capacity, and population death rate), strengthening the generality/robustness of the above net seasonal effects. Applications to other SRF fluctuation, as Milankovitch cycles are discussed. PMID:23010177

  18. Unified One-Dimensional Simulations of Gamma-Ray Line Emission from Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, P. A.; Hungerford, A. L.; Fryer, C. L.; Evans, T. M.; Urbatsch, T. J.; Boggs, S. E.; Isern, J.; Bravo, E.; Hirschmann, A.; Kumagai, S.; Pinto, P. A.; The, L.-S.

    2004-10-01

    The light curves of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are powered by gamma rays emitted by the decay of radioactive elements such as 56Ni and its decay products. These gamma rays are downscattered, absorbed, and eventually reprocessed into the optical emission that makes up the bulk of all SN observations. Detection of the gamma rays that escape the expanding star provide the only direct means to study this power source for SN Ia light curves. Unfortunately, disagreements between calculations for the gamma-ray lines have made it difficult to interpret any gamma-ray observations. Here we present a detailed comparison of the major gamma-ray line transport codes for a series of one-dimensional SN Ia models. Discrepancies in past results were due to errors in the codes, and the corrected versions of the seven different codes yield very similar results. This convergence of the simulation results allows us to infer more reliable information from the current set of gamma-ray observations of SNe Ia. The observations of SN 1986G, SN 1991T, and SN 1998bu are consistent with explosion models based on their classification: subluminous, superluminous, and normally luminous, respectively.

  19. One-dimensional gravity in infinite point distributions.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, A; Joyce, M; Sicard, F

    2009-10-01

    The dynamics of infinite asymptotically uniform distributions of purely self-gravitating particles in one spatial dimension provides a simple and interesting toy model for the analogous three dimensional problem treated in cosmology. In this paper we focus on a limitation of such models as they have been treated so far in the literature: the force, as it has been specified, is well defined in infinite point distributions only if there is a centre of symmetry (i.e., the definition requires explicitly the breaking of statistical translational invariance). The problem arises because naive background subtraction (due to expansion, or by "Jeans swindle" for the static case), applied as in three dimensions, leaves an unregulated contribution to the force due to surface mass fluctuations. Following a discussion by Kiessling of the Jeans swindle in three dimensions, we show that the problem may be resolved by defining the force in infinite point distributions as the limit of an exponentially screened pair interaction. We show explicitly that this prescription gives a well defined (finite) force acting on particles in a class of perturbed infinite lattices, which are the point processes relevant to cosmological N -body simulations. For identical particles the dynamics of the simplest toy model (without expansion) is equivalent to that of an infinite set of points with inverted harmonic oscillator potentials which bounce elastically when they collide. We discuss and compare with previous results in the literature and present new results for the specific case of this simplest (static) model starting from "shuffled lattice" initial conditions. These show qualitative properties of the evolution (notably its "self-similarity") like those in the analogous simulations in three dimensions, which in turn resemble those in the expanding universe. PMID:19905274

  20. Fabrication and characterization of one dimensional zinc oxide nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chun

    In this thesis, one dimensional (1D) ZnO nanostructures with controlled morphologies, defects and alignment have been fabricated by a simple vapor transfer method. The crystal structures, interfaces, growth mechanisms and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Great efforts have been devoted to the patterned growth and assembly of ZnO nanostructures as well as the stability of ZnO nanowires (NWs). Using carbonized photoresists, a simple and very effective method has been developed for fabricating and patterning high-quality ZnO NW arrays. ZnO NWs from this method show excellent alignment, crystal quality, and optical properties that are independent of the substrates. The carbonized photoresists provide perfect nucleation sites for the growth of aligned ZnO NWs and also perfectly connect to the NWs to form ideal electrodes. This approach is further extended to realize large area growth of different forms of ZnO NW arrays (e.g., the horizontal growth and multilayered ZnO NW arrays) on other kinds of carbon-based materials. In addition, the as-synthesized vertically aligned ZnO NW arrays show a low weighted reflectance (Rw) and can be used as antireflection coatings. Moreover, non c-axis growth of 1D ZnO nanostructures (e.g., nanochains, nanobrushes and nanobelts) and defect related 1D ZnO nanostructures (e.g., Y-shaped twinned nanobelts and hierarchical nanostructures decorated by flowers induced by screw dislocations) is also present. Using direct oxidization of pure Zn at high temperatures in air, uniformed ZnO NWs and tetrapods have been fabricated. The spatially-resolved PL study on these two kinds of nanostructures suggests that the defects leading to the green luminescence (GL) should originate from the structural changes along the legs of the tetrapods. Surface defects in these ZnO nanostructures play an unimportant

  1. Simulation of magnetic island dynamics under resonant magnetic perturbation with the TEAR code and validation of the results on T-10 tokamak data

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, N. V.; Kakurin, A. M.

    2014-10-15

    Simulation of the magnetic island evolution under Resonant Magnetic Perturbation (RMP) in rotating T-10 tokamak plasma is presented with intent of TEAR code experimental validation. In the T-10 experiment chosen for simulation, the RMP consists of a stationary error field, a magnetic field of the eddy current in the resistive vacuum vessel and magnetic field of the externally applied controlled halo current in the plasma scrape-off layer (SOL). The halo-current loop consists of a rail limiter, plasma SOL, vacuum vessel, and external part of the circuit. Effects of plasma resistivity, viscosity, and RMP are taken into account in the TEAR code based on the two-fluid MHD approximation. Radial distribution of the magnetic flux perturbation is calculated with account of the externally applied RMP. A good agreement is obtained between the simulation results and experimental data for the cases of preprogrammed and feedback-controlled halo current in the plasma SOL.

  2. Natural circulation in a liquid metal one-dimensional loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarantino, M.; De Grandis, S.; Benamati, G.; Oriolo, F.

    2008-06-01

    A wide use of pure lead, as well as its alloys (such as lead-bismuth, lead-lithium), is foreseen in several nuclear-related fields: it is studied as coolant in critical and sub-critical nuclear reactors, as spallation target for neutron generation in several applications and for tritium generation in fusion systems. In this framework, a new facility named NAtural CIrculation Experiment (NACIE), has been designed at ENEA-Brasimone Research Centre. NACIE is a rectangular loop, made by stainless steel pipes. It consists mainly of a cold and hot leg and an expansion tank installed on the top of the loop. A fuel bundle simulator, made by three electrical heaters placed in a triangular lattice, is located in the lower part of the cold leg, while a tube in tube heat exchanger is installed in the upper part of the hot leg. The adopted secondary fluid is THT oil, while the foreseen primary fluid for the tests is lead-bismuth in eutectic composition (LBE). The aim of the facility is to carry out experimental tests of natural circulation and collect data on the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) for heavy liquid metal flowing through rod bundles. The paper is focused on the preliminary estimation of the LBE flow rate along the loop. An analytical methodology has been applied, solving the continuity, momentum and energy transport equations under appropriate hypothesis. Moreover numerical simulations have been performed. The FLUENT 6.2 CFD code has been utilized for the numerical simulations. The main results carried out from the pre-tests simulations are illustrated in the paper, and a comparison with the theoretical estimations is done.

  3. One-dimensional quasi-exactly solvable Schrödinger equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turbiner, Alexander V.

    2016-06-01

    Quasi-Exactly Solvable Schrödinger Equations occupy an intermediate place between exactly-solvable (e.g. the harmonic oscillator and Coulomb problems, etc.) and non-solvable ones. Mainly, they were discovered in the 1980s. Their major property is an explicit knowledge of several eigenstates while the remaining ones are unknown. Many of these problems are of the anharmonic oscillator type with a special type of anharmonicity. The Hamiltonians of quasi-exactly-solvable problems are characterized by the existence of a hidden algebraic structure but do not have any hidden symmetry properties. In particular, all known one-dimensional (quasi)-exactly-solvable problems possess a hidden sl(2, R) -Lie algebra. They are equivalent to the sl(2, R) Euler-Arnold quantum top in a constant magnetic field. Quasi-Exactly Solvable problems are highly non-trivial, they shed light on the delicate analytic properties of the Schrödinger Equations in coupling constant, they lead to a non-trivial class of potentials with the property of Energy-Reflection Symmetry. The Lie-algebraic formalism allows us to make a link between the Schrödinger Equations and finite-difference equations on uniform and/or exponential lattices, it implies that the spectra is preserved. This link takes the form of quantum canonical transformation. The corresponding isospectral problems for finite-difference operators are described. The underlying Fock space formalism giving rise to this correspondence is uncovered. For a quite general class of perturbations of unperturbed problems with the hidden Lie algebra property we can construct an algebraic perturbation theory, where the wavefunction corrections are of polynomial nature, thus, can be found by algebraic means. In general, Quasi-Exact-Solvability points to the existence of a hidden algebra formalism which ranges from quantum mechanics to 2-dimensional conformal field theories.

  4. One-dimensional edge state transport in a topological Kondo insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Yasuyuki; Syers, Paul; Wang, Xiangfeng; Wang, Renxiong; Paglione, Johnpierre

    2016-03-01

    Topological insulators, with metallic boundary states protected against time-reversal-invariant perturbations, are a promising avenue for realizing exotic quantum states of matter, including various excitations of collective modes predicted in particle physics, such as Majorana fermions and axions. According to theoretical predictions, a topological insulating state can emerge from not only a weakly interacting system with strong spin-orbit coupling, but also in insulators driven by strong electron correlations. The Kondo insulator compound SmB6 is an ideal candidate for realizing this exotic state of matter, with hybridization between itinerant conduction electrons and localized f-electrons driving an insulating gap and metallic surface states at low temperatures. Here we exploit the existence of surface ferromagnetism in SmB6 to investigate the topological nature of metallic surface states by studying magnetotransport properties at very low temperatures. We find evidence of one-dimensional surface transport with a quantized conductance value of e2/h originating from the chiral edge channels of ferromagnetic domain walls, providing strong evidence that topologically non-trivial surface states exist in SmB6.

  5. One-Dimensional, Two-Phase Flow Modeling Toward Interpreting Motor Slag Expulsion Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kibbey, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum oxide slag accumulation and expulsion was previously shown to be a player in various solid rocket motor phenomena, including the Space Shuttle's Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) pressure perturbation, or "blip," and phantom moment. In the latter case, such un ]commanded side accelerations near the end of burn have also been identified in several other motor systems. However, efforts to estimate the mass expelled during a given event have come up short. Either bulk calculations are performed without enough physics present, or multiphase, multidimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic analyses are performed that give a snapshot in time and space but do not always aid in grasping the general principle. One ]dimensional, two ]phase compressible flow calculations yield an analytical result for nozzle flow under certain assumptions. This can be carried further to relate the bulk motor parameters of pressure, thrust, and mass flow rate under the different exhaust conditions driven by the addition of condensed phase mass flow. An unknown parameter is correlated to airflow testing with water injection where mass flow rates and pressure are known. Comparison is also made to full ]scale static test motor data where thrust and pressure changes are known and similar behavior is shown. The end goal is to be able to include the accumulation and flow of slag in internal ballistics predictions. This will allow better prediction of the tailoff when much slag is ejected and of mass retained versus time, believed to be a contributor to the widely-observed "flight knockdown" parameter.

  6. Excitons in one-dimensional van der Waals materials: Sb2S3 nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, Fabio; Filip, Marina R.; Giustino, Feliciano

    2015-09-01

    Antimony sulphide Sb2S3 has emerged as a promising material for a variety of energy applications ranging from solar cells to thermoelectrics and solid-state batteries. The most distinctive feature of Sb2S3 is its crystal structure, which consists of parallel 1-nm-wide ribbons held together by weak van der Waals forces. This structure clearly suggests that it should be possible to isolate individual Sb2S3 ribbons using micromechanical or liquid-phase exfoliation techniques. However, it is not clear yet how to identify the ribbons postexfoliation using standard optical probes. Using state-of-the-art first-principles calculations based on many-body perturbation theory, here we show that individual ribbons of Sb2S3 carry optical signatures clearly distinct from those of bulk Sb2S3 . In particular, we find a large blueshift of the optical absorption edge (from 1.38 to 2.30 eV) resulting from the interplay between a reduced screening and the formation of bound excitons. In addition, we observe a transition from an indirect band gap to a direct gap, suggesting an enhanced photoluminescence in the green. These unique fingerprints will enable extending the research on van der Waals materials to the case of one-dimensional chalchogenides.

  7. Numerical solutions for the one-dimensional heat-conduction equation using a spreadsheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvirtzman, Zohar; Garfunkel, Zvi

    1996-12-01

    We show how to use a spreadsheet to calculate numerical solutions of the one-dimensional time-dependent heat-conduction equation. We find the spreadsheet to be a practical tool for numerical calculations, because the algorithms can be implemented simply and quickly without complicated programming, and the spreadsheet utilities can be used not only for graphics, printing, and file management, but also for advanced mathematical operations. We implement the explicit and the Crank-Nicholson forms of the finite-difference approximations and discuss the geological applications of both methods. We also show how to adjust these two algorithms to a nonhomogeneous lithosphere in which the thermal properties (thermal conductivity, density, and radioactive heat generation) change from the upper crust to the lower crust and to the mantle. The solution is presented in a way that can fit any spreadsheet (Lotus-123, Quattro-Pro, Excel). In addition, a Quattro-Pro program with macros that calculate and display the thermal evolution of the lithosphere after a thermal perturbation is enclosed in an appendix.

  8. Climate sensitivity of a one-dimensional radiative-convective model with cloud feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, W.-C.; Rossow, W. B.; Yao, M.-S.; Wolfson, M.

    1981-01-01

    The potential complexity of the feedback between global mean cloud amount and global mean surface temperature when variations of the vertical cloud distribution are included is illustrated. This is done by studying the behavior of a one-dimensional radiative-convective model with two types of cloud variation: (1) variable cloud cover with constant optical thickness and (2) variable optical thickness with constant cloud cover. The variable parameter is calculated on the assumption that a correlation exists between cloud amount and precipitation or the vertical flux convergence of latent heat. Since the vertical latent heat flux is taken to be a fraction of the total heat flux, modeled by convective adjustment, the sensitivity of the results to two different critical lapse rates is examined. These are a constant 6.5 K/km lapse rate and a temperature-dependent, moist adiabatic lapse rate. The effects of the vertical structure of climate perturbations on the nature of the cloud feedback are also examined. The model results reveal that changes in the vertical cloud distribution and mean cloud optical thickness can be as important to climate variations as are changes in the total cloud cover.

  9. Effective field theory for one-dimensional valence-bond-solid phases and their symmetry protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuji, Yohei

    2016-03-01

    We investigate valence-bond-solid (VBS) phases in one-dimensional spin systems by an effective field theory developed by Schulz [Phys. Rev. B 34, 6372 (1986), 10.1103/PhysRevB.34.6372]. While the distinction among the VBS phases is often understood in terms of different entanglement structures protected by certain symmetries, we adopt a different but more fundamental point of view, that is, different VBS phases are separated by a gap closing under certain symmetries. In this way, the effective field theory reproduces the known three symmetries: time reversal, bond-centered inversion, and dihedral group of π spin rotations. It also predicts that there exists another symmetry: site-centered inversion combined with a spin rotation by π . We demonstrate that the last symmetry gives distinct trivial phases, which cannot be characterized by their entanglement structure, in terms of a simple perturbative analysis in a spin chain. We also discuss several applications of the effective field theory to the phase transitions among VBS phases in microscopic models and an extension of the Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem to non-translational-invariant systems.

  10. Maximum group velocity in a one-dimensional model with a sinusoidally varying staggered potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Tanay; Sen, Diptiman; Dutta, Amit

    2015-06-01

    We use Floquet theory to study the maximum value of the stroboscopic group velocity in a one-dimensional tight-binding model subjected to an on-site staggered potential varying sinusoidally in time. The results obtained by numerically diagonalizing the Floquet operator are analyzed using a variety of analytical schemes. In the low-frequency limit we use adiabatic theory, while in the high-frequency limit the Magnus expansion of the Floquet Hamiltonian turns out to be appropriate. When the magnitude of the staggered potential is much greater or much less than the hopping, we use degenerate Floquet perturbation theory; we find that dynamical localization occurs in the former case when the maximum group velocity vanishes. Finally, starting from an "engineered" initial state where the particles (taken to be hard-core bosons) are localized in one part of the chain, we demonstrate that the existence of a maximum stroboscopic group velocity manifests in a light-cone-like spreading of the particles in real space.

  11. Analytical and numerical study of dirty bosons in a quasi-one-dimensional harmonic trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khellil, Tama; Balaž, Antun; Pelster, Axel

    2016-06-01

    The emergence of a Bose-glass region in a quasi one-dimensional Bose–Einstein-condensed gas in a harmonic trapping potential with an additional delta-correlated disorder potential at zero temperature is studied using three approaches. At first, the corresponding time-independent Gross–Pitaevskii equation is numerically solved for the condensate wave function, and disorder ensemble averages are evaluated. In particular, we analyse quantitatively the emergence of mini-condensates in the local minima of the random potential, which occurs for weak disorder preferentially at the border of the condensate, while for intermediate disorder strength this happens in the trap centre. Second, in view of a more detailed physical understanding of this phenomenon, we extend a quite recent non-perturbative approach towards the weakly interacting dirty boson problem, which relies on the Hartree–Fock theory and is worked out on the basis of the replica method, from the homogeneous case to a harmonic confinement. Finally, in the weak disorder regime we also apply the Thomas–Fermi approximation, while in the intermediate disorder regime we additionally use a variational ansatz in order to describe analytically the numerically observed redistribution of the fragmented mini-condensates with increasing disorder strength.

  12. Gap maps and intrinsic diffraction losses in one-dimensional photonic crystal slabs.

    PubMed

    Gerace, Dario; Andreani, Lucio Claudio

    2004-05-01

    A theoretical study of photonic bands for one-dimensional (1D) lattices embedded in planar waveguides with strong refractive index contrast is presented. The approach relies on expanding the electromagnetic field on the basis of guided modes of an effective waveguide, and on treating the coupling to radiative modes by perturbation theory. Photonic mode dispersion, gap maps, and intrinsic diffraction losses of quasi guided modes are calculated for the case of self-standing membranes as well as for silicon-on-insulator structures. Photonic band gaps in a waveguide are found to depend strongly on the core thickness and on polarization, so that the gaps for transverse electric and transverse magnetic modes most often do not overlap. Radiative losses of quasiguided modes above the light line depend in a nontrivial way on structure parameters, mode index, and wave vector. The results of this study may be useful for the design of integrated 1D photonic structures with low radiative losses. PMID:15244959

  13. Energy transport mechanism in the form of proton soliton in a one-dimensional hydrogen-bonded polypeptide chain.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, L; Priya, R; Ayyappan, N; Gopi, D; Jayanthi, S

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of protons in a one-dimensional hydrogen-bonded (HB) polypeptide chain (PC) is investigated theoretically. A new Hamiltonian is formulated with the inclusion of higher-order molecular interactions between peptide groups (PGs). The wave function of the excitation state of a single particle is replaced by a new wave function of a two-quanta quasi-coherent state. The dynamics is governed by a higher-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation and the energy transport is performed by the proton soliton. A nonlinear multiple-scale perturbation analysis has been performed and the evolution of soliton parameters such as velocity and amplitude is explored numerically. The proton soliton is thermally stable and very robust against these perturbations. The energy transport by the proton soliton is more appropriate to understand the mechanism of energy transfer in biological processes such as muscle contraction, DNA replication, and neuro-electric pulse transfer on biomembranes. PMID:26198375

  14. One-Dimensional Ablation with Pyrolysis Gas Flow Using a Full Newton's Method and Finite Control Volume Procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amar, Adam J.; Blackwell, Ben F.; Edwards, Jack R.

    2007-01-01

    The development and verification of a one-dimensional material thermal response code with ablation is presented. The implicit time integrator, control volume finite element spatial discretization, and Newton's method for nonlinear iteration on the entire system of residual equations have been implemented and verified for the thermochemical ablation of internally decomposing materials. This study is a continuation of the work presented in "One-Dimensional Ablation with Pyrolysis Gas Flow Using a Full Newton's Method and Finite Control Volume Procedure" (AIAA-2006-2910), which described the derivation, implementation, and verification of the constant density solid energy equation terms and boundary conditions. The present study extends the model to decomposing materials including decomposition kinetics, pyrolysis gas flow through the porous char layer, and a mixture (solid and gas) energy equation. Verification results are presented for the thermochemical ablation of a carbon-phenolic ablator which involves the solution of the entire system of governing equations.

  15. WONDY V: a one-dimensional finite-difference wave-propagation code

    SciTech Connect

    Kipp, M.E.; Lawrence, R.J.

    1982-06-01

    WONDY V solves the finite difference analogs to the Lagrangian equations of motion in one spatial dimension (planar, cylindrical, or spherical). Simulations of explosive detonation, energy deposition, plate impact, and dynamic fracture are possible, using a variety of existing material models. In addition, WONDY has proven to be a powerful tool in the evaluation of new constitutive models. A preprocessor is available to allocate storage arrays commensurate with problem size, and automatic rezoning may be employed to improve resolution. This document provides a description of the equations solved, available material models, operating instructions, and sample problems.

  16. Simulation of Thermal Stratification in BWR Suppression Pools with One Dimensional Modeling Method

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Ling Zou; Hongbin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The suppression pool in a boiling water reactor (BWR) plant not only is the major heat sink within the containment system, but also provides the major emergency cooling water for the reactor core. In several accident scenarios, such as a loss-of-coolant accident and extended station blackout, thermal stratification tends to form in the pool after the initial rapid venting stage. Accurately predicting the pool stratification phenomenon is important because it affects the peak containment pressure; the pool temperature distribution also affects the NPSHa (available net positive suction head) and therefore the performance of the Emergency Core Cooling System and Reactor Core Isolation Cooling System pumps that draw cooling water back to the core. Current safety analysis codes use zero dimensional (0-D) lumped parameter models to calculate the energy and mass balance in the pool; therefore, they have large uncertainties in the prediction of scenarios in which stratification and mixing are important. While three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods can be used to analyze realistic 3-D configurations, these methods normally require very fine grid resolution to resolve thin substructures such as jets and wall boundaries, resulting in a long simulation time. For mixing in stably stratified large enclosures, the BMIX++ code (Berkeley mechanistic MIXing code in C++) has been developed to implement a highly efficient analysis method for stratification where the ambient fluid volume is represented by one-dimensional (1-D) transient partial differential equations and substructures (such as free or wall jets) are modeled with 1-D integral models. This allows very large reductions in computational effort compared to multi-dimensional CFD modeling. One heat-up experiment performed at the Finland POOLEX facility, which was designed to study phenomena relevant to Nordic design BWR suppression pool including thermal stratification and mixing, is used for

  17. Continuous-Energy Adjoint Flux and Perturbation Calculation using the Iterated Fission Probability Method in Monte Carlo Code TRIPOLI-4® and Underlying Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truchet, G.; Leconte, P.; Peneliau, Y.; Santamarina, A.; Malvagi, F.

    2014-06-01

    Pile-oscillation experiments are performed in the MINERVE reactor at the CEA Cadarache to improve nuclear data accuracy. In order to precisely calculate small reactivity variations (<10 pcm) obtained in these experiments, a reference calculation need to be achieved. This calculation may be accomplished using the continuous-energy Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI-4® by using the eigenvalue difference method. This "direct" method has shown limitations in the evaluation of very small reactivity effects because it needs to reach a very small variance associated to the reactivity in both states. To answer this problem, it has been decided to implement the exact perturbation theory in TRIPOLI-4® and, consequently, to calculate a continuous-energy adjoint flux. The Iterated Fission Probability (IFP) method was chosen because it has shown great results in some other Monte Carlo codes. The IFP method uses a forward calculation to compute the adjoint flux, and consequently, it does not rely on complex code modifications but on the physical definition of the adjoint flux as a phase-space neutron importance. In the first part of this paper, the IFP method implemented in TRIPOLI-4® is described. To illustrate the effciency of the method, several adjoint fluxes are calculated and compared with their equivalent obtained by the deterministic code APOLLO-2. The new implementation can calculate angular adjoint flux. In the second part, a procedure to carry out an exact perturbation calculation is described. A single cell benchmark has been used to test the accuracy of the method, compared with the "direct" estimation of the perturbation. Once again the method based on the IFP shows good agreement for a calculation time far more inferior to the "direct" method. The main advantage of the method is that the relative accuracy of the reactivity variation does not depend on the magnitude of the variation itself, which allows us to calculate very small reactivity perturbations with high

  18. One-dimensional numerical modeling of Blue Jet and its impact on stratospheric chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duruisseau, F.; Thiéblemont, R.; Huret, N.

    2011-12-01

    In the stratosphere the ozone layer is very sensitive to the NOx abundance. The ionisation of N2 and O2 molecules by TLE's (Transient Luminous Events) is a source of NOx which is currently not well quantified and could act as a loss of ozone. In this study a one dimensional explicit parameterization of a Blue-Jet propagation based on that proposed by Raizer et al. (2006 and 2007) has been developed. This parameterization considers Blue-Jet as a streamer initiated by a bidirectional leader discharge, emerging from the anvil and sustained by moderate cloud charge. The streamer growth varies with the electrical field induced by initial cloud charge and the initial altitude. This electrical parameterization and the chemical mechanisms associated with the discharge have been implemented into a detailed chemical model of stratospheric ozone including evolution of nitrogen, chlorine and bromine species. We will present several tests performed to validate the electrical code and evaluate the propagation velocity and the maximum altitude attains by the blue jet as a function of electrical parameters. The results obtained giving the spatiotemporal evolution of the electron density are then used to initiate the specific chemistry associated with the Blue Jet. Preliminary results on the impact of such discharge on the ozone content and the whole stratospheric system will be presented.

  19. An adaptive mesh-moving and refinement procedure for one-dimensional conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Rupak; Flaherty, Joseph E.; Arney, David C.

    1993-01-01

    We examine the performance of an adaptive mesh-moving and /or local mesh refinement procedure for the finite difference solution of one-dimensional hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. Adaptive motion of a base mesh is designed to isolate spatially distinct phenomena, and recursive local refinement of the time step and cells of the stationary or moving base mesh is performed in regions where a refinement indicator exceeds a prescribed tolerance. These adaptive procedures are incorporated into a computer code that includes a MacCormack finite difference scheme wih Davis' artificial viscosity model and a discretization error estimate based on Richardson's extrapolation. Experiments are conducted on three problems in order to qualify the advantages of adaptive techniques relative to uniform mesh computations and the relative benefits of mesh moving and refinement. Key results indicate that local mesh refinement, with and without mesh moving, can provide reliable solutions at much lower computational cost than possible on uniform meshes; that mesh motion can be used to improve the results of uniform mesh solutions for a modest computational effort; that the cost of managing the tree data structure associated with refinement is small; and that a combination of mesh motion and refinement reliably produces solutions for the least cost per unit accuracy.

  20. One-dimensional computational model of pulse wave propagation in the human bronchial tree.

    PubMed

    Clavica, Francesco; Alastruey, Jordi; Borlotti, Alessandra; Sherwin, Spencer J; Khir, Ashraf W

    2010-01-01

    Airflow in the respiratory system has been predominantly studied in rigid ducts. Three-dimensional simulations are computationally expensive. One-dimensional (1-D) modelling offers a good compromise between accuracy and computational cost. In this work we described the propagation of air pulse in a model of human airways using the 1-D equations of flow in compliant vessels. Seven generations of bifurcations, starting from the trachea, were studied. Peripheral airways (from the 8(th) to 23(rd) generation) were modelled using lumped parameter models. Peripheral resistance values for normal and emphysematous lungs were taken from the literature. An acceleration pulse, very short in time, was enforced at the inlet of trachea. The results suggest that compression (positive pressure peaks) and expansion (negative pressure peaks) waves are generated according to the reflection coefficients of the corresponding reflection sites (bifurcations and terminal reflections). Different values for peripheral bronchial resistance generate three different terminal reflections, all negative with different wave amplitudes. The sensitivity of the code to different peripheral resistances suggests that the 1-D formulation is a promising tool for a better understanding of the impact of disease on the velocity and pressure waveforms in the first generations of airway vessels. PMID:21096163

  1. Analytical and Computational Study of One-Dimensional Impact of Graded Elastic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidler, Mike; Gazonas, George

    2001-06-01

    Traditional armor designs consist of discrete layers of homogeneous materials with different properties. Some recent efforts to improve the ballistic performance of lightweight armors involve replacing several or all of these layers by a monolithic material with continuous property variations. The stress waves generated by ballistic impact in these functionally graded materials tend to be much more complex than in the corresponding layered materials. This fact has led us to examine whether existing hydrocodes can capture the complex wave structures in graded materials and, in particular, whether these codes can accurately predict the peak stresses that may lead to material failure. In this paper we report on the initial phase of this program. We consider the one-dimensional impact of a homogeneous projectile on a graded target, with or without a homogeneous backing plate. All materials are assumed to be linear elastic. Smooth gradings in the density and the elastic modulus are chosen for which exact analytical solutions (including multiple reflections) can be derived using Laplace transforms. These exact solutions are compared with DYNA3D simulations of the same problems. The effects artificial viscosity, nodal spacing (i.e., mesh grading), and number of elements on the DYNA3D solutions are examined.

  2. Thermal Decomposition of Trinitrotoluene (TNT) with a New One-Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) Apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, T D; Simpson, R L; Maienschein, J; Tarver, C

    2001-03-23

    The thermal explosion of trinitrotoluene (TNT) is used as a basis for evaluating the performance of a new One-Dimensional-Time-to-Explosion (ODTX) apparatus. The ODTX experiment involves holding a 12.7 mm-diameter spherical explosive sample under confinement (150 MPa) at a constant elevated temperature until the confining pressure is exceeded by the evolution of gases during chemical decomposition. The resulting time to explosion as a function of temperature provides valuable decomposition kinetic information. A comparative analysis of the measurements obtained from the new unit and an older system is presented. Discussion on selected performance aspects of the new unit will also be presented. The thermal explosion of TNT is highly dependent on the material. Analysis of the time to explosion is complicated by historical and experimental factors such as material variability, sample preparation, temperature measurement and system errors. Many of these factors will be addressed. Finally, a kinetic model using a coupled thermal and heat transport code (chemical TOPAZ) was used to match the experimental data.

  3. Public Release of a One Dimensional Version of the Photon Clean Method (PCM1D)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Matthew H.; Jernigan, J. G.

    2006-09-01

    We announce the public release of a one dimensional version of the Photon Clean Method (PCM1D). This code is in the general class of "inverse Monte Carlo" methods and is specifically designed to interoperate with the public analysis tools available from the Chandra Science Center and the HEASARC. The tool produces models of event based data on a photon by photon basis. The instrument models are based on the standard ARF and RMF fits files. The resulting models have a high number of degrees of freedom of order the number of photons detected providing an alternative analysis compared to the usual method of fitting models with only a few parameters. The original work on this method is described in ADASS 1996 (Jernigan and Vezie). We thank H. Tananbaum and J. McDowell of the Chandra Science Center, S. Kahn, the RGS/XMM-Newton US team leader, and W. Craig and S. Labov of the I Division of LLNL for their support for the development of the PCM concept. We thank P. Beiersdorfer and the EBIT team for the support to develop the first public version of PCM1D.

  4. Comparisons between thermodynamic and one-dimensional combustion models of spark-ignition engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramos, J. I.

    1986-01-01

    Results from a one-dimensional combustion model employing a constant eddy diffusivity and a one-step chemical reaction are compared with those of one-zone and two-zone thermodynamic models to study the flame propagation in a spark-ignition engine. One-dimensional model predictions are found to be very sensitive to the eddy diffusivity and reaction rate data. The average mixing temperature found using the one-zone thermodynamic model is higher than those of the two-zone and one-dimensional models during the compression stroke, and that of the one-dimensional model is higher than those predicted by both thermodynamic models during the expansion stroke. The one-dimensional model is shown to predict an accelerating flame even when the front approaches the cold cylinder wall.

  5. FEEDBACK FROM CENTRAL BLACK HOLES IN ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES: TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODELS COMPARED TO ONE-DIMENSIONAL MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, Gregory S.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Ciotti, Luca

    2011-08-10

    We extend the black hole (BH) feedback models of Ciotti, Ostriker, and Proga to two dimensions. In this paper, we focus on identifying the differences between the one-dimensional and two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. We examine a normal, isolated L{sub *} galaxy subject to the cooling flow instability of gas in the inner regions. Allowance is made for subsequent star formation, Type Ia and Type II supernovae, radiation pressure, and inflow to the central BH from mildly rotating galactic gas which is being replenished as a normal consequence of stellar evolution. The central BH accretes some of the infalling gas and expels a conical wind with mass, momentum, and energy flux derived from both observational and theoretical studies. The galaxy is assumed to have low specific angular momentum in analogy with the existing one-dimensional case in order to isolate the effect of dimensionality. The code then tracks the interaction of the outflowing radiation and winds with the galactic gas and their effects on regulating the accretion. After matching physical modeling to the extent possible between the one-dimensional and two-dimensional treatments, we find essentially similar results in terms of BH growth and duty cycle (fraction of the time above a given fraction of the Eddington luminosity). In the two-dimensional calculations, the cool shells forming at 0.1-1 kpc from the center are Rayleigh-Taylor unstable to fragmentation, leading to a somewhat higher accretion rate, less effective feedback, and a more irregular pattern of bursting compared with the one-dimensional case.

  6. EFDC1D - A ONE DIMENSIONAL HYDRODYNAMIC AND SEDIMENT TRANSPORT MODEL FOR RIVER AND STREAM NETWORKS: MODEL THEORY AND USERS GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technical report describes the new one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic and sediment transport model EFDC1D. This model that can be applied to stream networks. The model code and two sample data sets are included on the distribution CD. EFDC1D can simulate bi-directional unstea...

  7. One-dimensional frustrated plaquette compass model: Nematic phase and spontaneous multimerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzezicki, Wojciech; Oleś, Andrzej M.

    2016-06-01

    We introduce a one-dimensional (1D) pseudospin model on a ladder where the Ising interactions along the legs and along the rungs alternate between XiXi +1 and ZiZi +1 for even/odd bond (rung). We include also the next-nearest-neighbor Ising interactions on plaquettes' diagonals that alternate in such a way that a model where only leg interactions are switched on is equivalent to the one when only the diagonal ones are present. Thus in the absence of rung interactions the model can interpolate between two 1D compass models. The model possesses local symmetries which are the parities within each 2 ×2 cell (plaquette) of the ladder. We find that for different values of the interaction it can realize ground states that differ by the patterns formed by these local parities. By exact diagonalization we derive detailed phase diagrams for small systems of L =4 , 6, and 8 plaquettes, and use next L =12 to identify generic phases that appear in larger systems as well. Among them we find a nematic phase with macroscopic degeneracy when the leg and diagonal interactions are equal and the rung interactions are larger than a critical value. By performing a perturbative expansion around this phase we find indeed a very complex competition around the nematic phase which has to do with releasing frustration in this range of parameters. The nematic phase is similar to the one found in the two-dimensional compass model. For particular parameters the low-energy sector of the present plaquette model reduces to a 1D compass model with spins S =1 which suggests that it realizes peculiar crossovers within the class of compass models. Finally, we show that the model can realize phases with broken translation invariance which can be either dimerized, trimerized, etc., or completely disordered and highly entangled in a well identified window of the phase diagram.

  8. One-Dimensional Analysis of Thermal Stratification in AHTR and SFR Coolant Pools

    SciTech Connect

    Haihua Zhao; Per F. Peterson

    2007-10-01

    Thermal stratification phenomena are very common in pool type reactor systems, such as the liquid-salt cooled Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) and liquid-metal cooled fast reactor systems such as the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). It is important to accurately predict the temperature and density distributions both for design optimation and accident analysis. Current major reactor system analysis codes such as RELAP5 (for LWR’s, and recently extended to analyze high temperature reactors), TRAC (for LWR’s), and SASSYS (for liquid metal fast reactors) only provide lumped-volume based models which can only give very approximate results and can only handle simple cases with one mixing source. While 2-D or 3-D CFD methods can be used to analyze simple configurations, these methods require very fine grid resolution to resolve thin substructures such as jets and wall boundaries, yet such fine grid resolution is difficult or impossible to provide for studying the reactor response to transients due to computational expense. Therefore, new methods are needed to support design optimization and safety analysis of Generation IV pool type reactor systems. Previous scaling has shown that stratified mixing processes in large stably stratified enclosures can be described using one-dimensional differential equations, with the vertical transport by free and wall jets modeled using standard integral techniques. This allows very large reductions in computational effort compared to three-dimensional numerical modeling of turbulent mixing in large enclosures. The BMIX++ (Berkeley mechanistic MIXing code in C++) code was originally developed at UC Berkeley to implement such ideas. This code solves mixing and heat transfer problems in stably stratified enclosures. The code uses a Lagrangian approach to solve 1-D transient governing equations for the ambient fluid and uses analytical or 1-D integral models to compute substructures. By including liquid salt properties, BMIX++ code is

  9. One-Dimensional Perovskite Manganite Oxide Nanostructures: Recent Developments in Synthesis, Characterization, Transport Properties, and Applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Liang, Lizhi; Wu, Heng; Zhu, Xinhua

    2016-12-01

    One-dimensional nanostructures, including nanowires, nanorods, nanotubes, nanofibers, and nanobelts, have promising applications in mesoscopic physics and nanoscale devices. In contrast to other nanostructures, one-dimensional nanostructures can provide unique advantages in investigating the size and dimensionality dependence of the materials' physical properties, such as electrical, thermal, and mechanical performances, and in constructing nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices. Among the one-dimensional nanostructures, one-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures have been received much attention due to their unusual electron transport and magnetic properties, which are indispensable for the applications in microelectronic, magnetic, and spintronic devices. In the past two decades, much effort has been made to synthesize and characterize one-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures in the forms of nanorods, nanowires, nanotubes, and nanobelts. Various physical and chemical deposition techniques and growth mechanisms are explored and developed to control the morphology, identical shape, uniform size, crystalline structure, defects, and homogenous stoichiometry of the one-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures. This article provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art research activities that focus on the rational synthesis, structural characterization, fundamental properties, and unique applications of one-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures in nanotechnology. It begins with the rational synthesis of one-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures and then summarizes their structural characterizations. Fundamental physical properties of one-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures are also highlighted, and a range of unique applications in information storages, field-effect transistors, and spintronic devices are discussed. Finally, we conclude this review with some perspectives/outlook and future

  10. One-Dimensional Perovskite Manganite Oxide Nanostructures: Recent Developments in Synthesis, Characterization, Transport Properties, and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Liang, Lizhi; Wu, Heng; Zhu, Xinhua

    2016-03-01

    One-dimensional nanostructures, including nanowires, nanorods, nanotubes, nanofibers, and nanobelts, have promising applications in mesoscopic physics and nanoscale devices. In contrast to other nanostructures, one-dimensional nanostructures can provide unique advantages in investigating the size and dimensionality dependence of the materials' physical properties, such as electrical, thermal, and mechanical performances, and in constructing nanoscale electronic and optoelectronic devices. Among the one-dimensional nanostructures, one-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures have been received much attention due to their unusual electron transport and magnetic properties, which are indispensable for the applications in microelectronic, magnetic, and spintronic devices. In the past two decades, much effort has been made to synthesize and characterize one-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures in the forms of nanorods, nanowires, nanotubes, and nanobelts. Various physical and chemical deposition techniques and growth mechanisms are explored and developed to control the morphology, identical shape, uniform size, crystalline structure, defects, and homogenous stoichiometry of the one-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures. This article provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art research activities that focus on the rational synthesis, structural characterization, fundamental properties, and unique applications of one-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures in nanotechnology. It begins with the rational synthesis of one-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures and then summarizes their structural characterizations. Fundamental physical properties of one-dimensional perovskite manganite nanostructures are also highlighted, and a range of unique applications in information storages, field-effect transistors, and spintronic devices are discussed. Finally, we conclude this review with some perspectives/outlook and future

  11. The one-dimensional Boltzmann gas: The ergodic hypothesis and the phase portrait of small systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rouet, J.L. ); Blasco, F.; Feix, M.R. )

    1993-04-01

    The concept of ergodicity and its application to microcanonical systems composed of few particles of different masses are clarified. The distribution functions in position and velocity are theoretically derived and numerically verified. Moreover, the authors deal with a one-dimensional Boltzmann gas where the order relation (connected to the one dimensionality) brings constraints depending on the two classes of boundary conditions enforced (reflecting, periodic). The numerical simulations on a one-dimensional Boltzmann gas act as real experiments and allow them to play on the constraints to which the system is subjected. 9 refs., 11 figs.

  12. Surface characterization and surface electronic structure of organic quasi-one-dimensional charge transfer salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sing, M.; Schwingenschlögl, U.; Claessen, R.; Dressel, M.; Jacobsen, C. S.

    2003-03-01

    We have thoroughly characterized the surfaces of the organic charge-transfer salts TTF-TCNQ and (TMTSF)2PF6 which are generally acknowledged as prototypical examples of one-dimensional conductors. In particular x-ray-induced photoemission spectroscopy turns out to be a valuable nondestructive diagnostic tool. We show that the observation of generic one-dimensional signatures in photoemission spectra of the valence band close to the Fermi level can be strongly affected by surface effects. Especially, great care must be exercised taking evidence for an unusual one-dimensional many-body state exclusively from the observation of a pseudogap.

  13. A one-dimensional study of the evolution of the microwave breakdown in air

    SciTech Connect

    Semenov, V. E.; Rakova, E. I.; Glyavin, M. Yu.; Tarakanov, V. P.; Nusinovich, G. S.

    2015-09-15

    The microwave breakdown in air is simulated numerically within a simple 1D model taking into account a perturbation of electromagnetic field by plasma. The simulations were performed using two qualitatively different codes. One of these codes is based on computation of Maxwell equations, whereas the other one utilizes an approximation of quasi-monochromatic electromagnetic field. There is a good agreement between simulation results obtained by using both codes. Calculations have been carried out in a wide range of air pressures and field frequencies; also varied were initial spatial distributions of plasma density. The results reveal strong dependence of the breakdown evolution on the relation between the field frequency and the gas pressure as well as on the presence of extended rarefied background plasma. At relatively low gas pressures (or high field frequencies), the breakdown process is accompanied by the stationary ionization wave propagating towards the incident electromagnetic wave. In the case of a high gas pressure (or a relatively low field frequency), the peculiarities of the breakdown are associated with a formation of plasma filament array. The extended background plasma can suppress formation of the plasma filament array completely even at high pressures (or low frequencies)

  14. Wave pattern induced by a localized obstacle in the flow of a one-dimensional polariton condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larré, P.-É.; Pavloff, N.; Kamchatnov, A. M.

    2012-10-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on generation of wave patterns by a polariton condensate incident on a localized obstacle, we study the characteristics of such flows under the condition that irreversible processes play a crucial role in the system. The dynamics of a nonresonantly pumped polariton condensate in a quasi-one-dimensional quantum wire is modeled by a Gross-Pitaevskii equation with additional phenomenological terms accounting for the dissipation and pumping processes. The response of the condensate flow to an external potential describing a localized obstacle is considered in the weak-perturbation limit and also in the nonlinear regime. The transition from a viscous drag to a regime of wave resistance is identified and studied in detail.

  15. Time-dependent calculations of transfer ionization by fast proton-helium collision in one-dimensional kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serov, Vladislav V.; Kheifets, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    We analyze a transfer ionization (TI) reaction in the fast proton-helium collision H++He →H0+He2 ++ e- by solving a time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) under the classical projectile motion approximation in one-dimensional kinematics. In addition, we construct various time-independent analogs of our model using lowest-order perturbation theory in the form of the Born series. By comparing various aspects of the TDSE and the Born series calculations, we conclude that the recent discrepancies of experimental and theoretical data may be attributed to deficiency of the Born models used by other authors. We demonstrate that the correct Born series for TI should include the momentum-space overlap between the double-ionization amplitude and the wave function of the transferred electron.

  16. Global classical solutions to the one-dimensional compressible fluid models of Korteweg type with large initial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhengzheng; Chai, Xiaojuan; Dong, Boqing; Zhao, Huijiang

    2015-10-01

    This paper is concerned with the global existence of classical solutions with large initial data away from vacuum to the Cauchy problem of the one-dimensional isothermal compressible fluid models of Korteweg type with density-dependent viscosity coefficient and capillarity coefficient. The case when the viscosity coefficient μ (ρ) =ρα and the capillarity coefficient κ (ρ) =ρβ for some parameters α, β ∈ R is considered. Under some conditions on α, β, we first show the global existence of large solutions around constant states if the far-fields of the initial data are the same, while if the far-fields of the initial data are different, we prove the global stability of rarefaction waves with large strength. Here global stability means the initial perturbation can be arbitrarily large. Our analysis is based on the elementary energy method and the technique developed by Y. Kanel' [29].

  17. The role of extreme orbits in the global organization of periodic regions in parameter space for one dimensional maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Diogo Ricardo; Hansen, Matheus; Guarise, Gustavo; Medrano-T, Rene O.; Leonel, Edson D.

    2016-04-01

    We show that extreme orbits, trajectories that connect local maximum and minimum values of one dimensional maps, play a major role in the parameter space of dissipative systems dictating the organization for the windows of periodicity, hence producing sets of shrimp-like structures. Here we solve three fundamental problems regarding the distribution of these sets and give: (i) their precise localization in the parameter space, even for sets of very high periods; (ii) their local and global distributions along cascades; and (iii) the association of these cascades to complicate sets of periodicity. The extreme orbits are proved to be a powerful indicator to investigate the organization of windows of periodicity in parameter planes. As applications of the theory, we obtain some results for the circle map and perturbed logistic map. The formalism presented here can be extended to many other different nonlinear and dissipative systems.

  18. Brownian-dynamics computer simulations of a one-dimensional polymer model. I. Simple potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, R.; Livornese, L.L.

    1982-11-01

    Brownian Dynamics computer simulation results are presented on a simple one-dimensional polymer model which contains the essential features of rotational angle flexibility. Comparison is made with analytical treatments of the model.

  19. Ultra-refractive and extended-range one-dimensional photonic crystal superprisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, D. Z. Y.

    2003-01-01

    We describe theoretical analysis and design of one-dimensional photonic crystal prisms. We found that inside the photonic crystal, for frequencies near the band edges, light propagation direction is extremely sensitive to the variations in wavelength and incident angle.

  20. Simulating higher-dimensional geometries in GADRAS using approximate one-dimensional solutions.

    SciTech Connect

    Thoreson, Gregory G.; Mitchell, Dean James; Harding, Lee T.

    2013-02-01

    The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) software package is capable of simulating the radiation transport physics for one-dimensional models. Spherical shells are naturally one-dimensional, and have been the focus of development and benchmarking. However, some objects are not spherical in shape, such as cylinders and boxes. These are not one-dimensional. Simulating the radiation transport in two or three dimensions is unattractive because of the extra computation time required. To maintain computational efficiency, higher-dimensional geometries require approximations to simulate them in one-dimension. This report summarizes the theory behind these approximations, tests the theory against other simulations, and compares the results to experimental data. Based on the results, it is recommended that GADRAS users always attempt to approximate reality using spherical shells. However, if fissile material is present, it is imperative that the shape of the one-dimensional model matches the fissile material, including the use of slab and cylinder geometry.

  1. Non-unique results of collisions of quasi-one-dimensional dissipative solitons.

    PubMed

    Descalzi, Orazio; Brand, Helmut R

    2015-12-13

    We investigate collisions of quasi-one-dimensional dissipative solitons (DSs) for a large class of initial conditions, which are not temporally asymptotic quasi-one-dimensional DSs. For the case of sufficiently small approach velocity and sufficiently large values of the dissipative cross-coupling between the counter-propagating DSs, we find non-unique results for the outcome of collisions. We demonstrate that these non-unique results are intrinsically related to a modulation instability along the crest of the quasi-one-dimensional objects. As a model, we use coupled cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equations. Among the final results found are stationary and oscillatory compound states as well as more complex assemblies consisting of quasi-one-dimensional and localized states. We analyse to what extent the final results can be described by the solutions of one cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with effective parameters. PMID:26527813

  2. One-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensation of photons in a microtube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruchkov, Alex J.

    2016-04-01

    This paper introduces a quasiequilibrium one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensation of photons trapped in a microtube. Light modes with a cutoff frequency (a photon's "mass") interact through different processes of absorption, emission, and scattering on molecules and atoms. In this paper we study the conditions for the one-dimensional condensation of light and the role of photon-photon interactions in the system. The technique in use is the Matsubara Green's functions formalism modified for the quasiequilibrium system under study.

  3. One-dimensional embedded cluster approach to modeling CdS nanowires.

    PubMed

    Buckeridge, J; Bromley, S T; Walsh, A; Woodley, S M; Catlow, C R A; Sokol, A A

    2013-09-28

    We present an embedded cluster model to treat one-dimensional nanostructures, using a hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approach. A segment of the nanowire (circa 50 atoms) is treated at a QM level of theory, using density functional theory (DFT) with a hybrid exchange-correlation functional. This segment is then embedded in a further length of wire, treated at an MM level of theory. The interaction between the QM and MM regions is provided by an embedding potential located at the interface. Point charges are placed beyond the ends of the wire segment in order to reproduce the Madelung potential of the infinite system. We test our model on the ideal system of a CdS linear chain, benchmarking our results against calculations performed on a periodic system using a plane-wave DFT approach, with electron exchange and correlation treated at the same level of approximation in both methods. We perform our tests on pure CdS and, importantly, the system containing a single In or Cu impurity. We find excellent agreement in the determined electronic structure using the two approaches, validating our embedded cluster model. As the hybrid QM/MM model avoids spurious interactions between charged defects, it will be of benefit to the analysis of the role of defects in nanowire materials, which is currently a major challenge using a plane-wave DFT approach. Other advantages of the hybrid QM/MM approach over plane-wave DFT include the ability to calculate ionization energies with an absolute reference and access to high levels of theory for the QM region which are not incorporated in most plane-wave codes. Our results concur with available experimental data. PMID:24089744

  4. One-Dimensional Hybrid Satellite Track Model for the Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, Wei; Killeen, T. L.; Burns, A. G.; Johnson, R. M.; Emery, B. A.; Roble, R. G.; Winningham, J. D.; Gary, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    A one-dimensional hybrid satellite track model has been developed to calculate the high-latitude thermospheric/ionospheric structure below the satellite altitude using Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) satellite measurements and theory. This model is based on Emery et al. satellite track code but also includes elements of Roble et al. global mean thermosphere/ionosphere model. A number of parameterizations and data handling techniques are used to input satellite data from several DE 2 instruments into this model. Profiles of neutral atmospheric densities are determined from the MSIS-90 model and measured neutral temperatures. Measured electron precipitation spectra are used in an auroral model to calculate particle impact ionization rates below the satellite. These rates are combined with a solar ionization rate profile and used to solve the O(+) diffusion equation, with the measured electron density as an upper boundary condition. The calculated O(+) density distribution, as well as the ionization profiles, are then used in a photochemical equilibrium model to calculate the electron and molecular ion densities. The electron temperature is also calculated by solving the electron energy equation with an upper boundary condition determined by the DE 2 measurement. The model enables calculations of altitude profiles of conductivity and Joule beating rate along and below the satellite track. In a first application of the new model, a study is made of thermospheric and ionospheric structure below the DE 2 satellite for a single orbit which occurred on October 25, 1981. The field-aligned Poynting flux, which is independently obtained for this orbit, is compared with the model predictions of the height-integrated energy conversion rate. Good quantitative agreement between these two estimates has been reached. In addition, measurements taken at the incoherent scatter radar site at Chatanika (65.1 deg N, 147.4 deg W) during a DE 2 overflight are compared with the model

  5. Interacting one dimensional electron systems and stripe phase of high temperature superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaefari, Akbar

    In this dissertation, I will consider the problem of coupled one dimensional electronic systems particularly in connection with the stripe phases of high temperature superconductors. Three major problems have been addressed in this dissertation. In chapter one, I consider the problem of the Local Density of States for spin-gapped one-dimensional charge density wave (CDW) states and Mott insulators in the presence of a hard-wall boundary. I calculate the boundary contribution to the single-particle Green function in the low-energy limit using field theory techniques and analyze it in terms of its Fourier transform in both time and space. The boundary LDOS in the CDW case exhibits a singularity at momentum 2kF, which is indicative of the pinning of the CDW order at the impurity. Several dispersing features has been observed at frequencies above the spin gap, which provide a characteristic signature of spin-charge separation. This demonstrates that the boundary LDOS can be used to infer properties of the underlying bulk system. In the presence of a boundary magnetic field mid-gap states localized at the boundary emerge with signature in the LDOS. I discuss implications of these results for STM experiments on quasi-1D systems such as two-leg ladder materials like Sr14Cu24O41. By exchanging the roles of charge and spin sectors, all our results directly carry over to the case of one-dimensional Mott insulators. In the second chapter, I study an extended Hubbard-Heisenberg model on two types of two leg ladders, a model without flux and a model with flux pi per plaquette. In the case of the conventional (flux-less) ladder the Pair density wave state arises for certain filling fractions when commensurability conditions is satisfied. For the flux pi ladder the pair density wave phase is generally present. The PDW phase is characterized by a finite spin gap and a superconducting order parameter with a finite (commensurate in this case) wave vector and power

  6. Structurally driven one-dimensional electron confinement in sub-5-nm graphene nanowrinkles

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyunseob; Jung, Jaehoon; Ruoff, Rodney S.; Kim, Yousoo

    2015-01-01

    Graphene-based carbon materials such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphenes have distinct and unique electronic properties that depend on their dimensionality and geometric structures. Graphene wrinkles with pseudo one-dimensional structures have been observed in a graphene sheet. However, their one-dimensional electronic properties have never been observed because of their large widths. Here we report the unique electronic structure of graphene nanowrinkles in a graphene sheet grown on Ni(111), the width of which was small enough to cause one-dimensional electron confinement. Use of spatially resolved, scanning tunnelling spectroscopy revealed bandgap opening and a one-dimensional van Hove singularity in the graphene nanowrinkles, as well as the chemical potential distribution across the graphene nanowrinkles. This observation allows us to realize a metallic-semiconducting-metallic junction in a single graphene sheet. Our demonstration of one-dimensional electron confinement in graphene provides the novel possibility of controlling its electronic properties not by chemical modification but by ‘mechanical structuring'. PMID:26494181

  7. One-dimensional electromagnetic band gap structures formed by discharge plasmas in a waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Arkhipenko, V. I.; Simonchik, L. V. Usachonak, M. S.; Callegari, Th.; Sokoloff, J.

    2014-09-28

    We demonstrate the ability to develop one-dimensional electromagnetic band gap structure in X-band waveguide solely by using the positive columns of glow discharges in neon at the middle pressure. Plasma inhomogeneities are distributed uniformly along a typical X-band waveguide with cross section of 23×10 mm². It is shown that electron densities larger than 10¹⁴ cm ⁻³ are needed in order to create an effective one-dimensional electromagnetic band gap structure. Some applications for using the one-dimensional electromagnetic band gap structure in waveguide as a control of microwave (broadband filter and device for variation of pulse duration) are demonstrated.

  8. Discussion of a one-dimensional radial-compressor model for design and performance prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhardt, Andreas

    1987-09-01

    Computer modeling of radial compressors is discussed in an analytical review, with a focus on the mathematical description of the loss components. Consideration is given to the one-dimensional theory of compressor flow, quasi-steady treatment of parameter values, model construction, and the structure of the computer program. Numerical results for a two-cycle engine compressor are presented in graphs along with data from experimental measurements and photographs of the compressor components; good agreement is obtained except near the edges of the parameter space investigated. The one-dimensional approach is shown to be very efficient in terms of development and computer time, but to depend on accurate information on the parameter distribution. Three-dimensional models, while very costly and time-consuming, could provide the input data necessary for routine computations with one-dimensional models.

  9. Visualizing One-Dimensional Electronic States and their Scattering in Semi-conducting Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beidenkopf, Haim; Reiner, Jonathan; Norris, Andrew; Nayak, Abhay Kumar; Avraham, Nurit; Shtrikman, Hadas

    One-dimensional electronic systems constitute a fascinating playground for the emergence of exotic electronic effects and phases, within and beyond the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid paradigm. More recently topological superconductivity and Majorana modes were added to that long list of phenomena. We report scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy measurements conducted on pristine, epitaxialy grown InAs nanowires. We resolve the 1D electronic band structure manifested both via Van-Hove singularities in the local density-of-states, as well as by the quasi-particle interference patterns, induced by scattering from surface impurities. By studying the scattering of the one-dimensional electronic states off various scatterers, including crystallographic defects and the nanowire end, we identify new one-dimensional relaxation regimes and yet unexplored effects of interactions. Some of these may bear implications on the topological superconducting state and Majorana modes therein. The authors acknowledge support from the Israeli Science Foundation (ISF).

  10. Ignition transient analysis of a solid rocket motor using a one dimensional two fluid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardue, Byron A.; Han, Samuel S.

    1992-07-01

    A one dimensional two fluid numerical model has been used to study the ignition transient stage of a Space Shuttle solid rocket motor. During the ignition phase of a solid rocket motor a pressure transient is induced by complex transport processes involving the igniter gas heat transfer to the propellant, chemical reactions at the propellant surface, and the interaction of the fluid with the attached rocket nozzle. One dimensional models used in the past neglected the aluminum oxide particles which are present in the combustion gases. The current model uses the IPSA (Inter-Phase-Slip-Algorithm) to solve the transient compressible flow equations for the rocket chamber and attached nozzle. Numerical results for head end pressure changes and overall thrust are compared with both measurement data and predictions of a one dimensional one fluid model.

  11. One-dimensional transport equation models for sound energy propagation in long spaces: theory.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yun; Larsen, Edward W; Xiang, Ning

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional transport equation model is developed to describe the sound energy propagation in a long space. Then this model is reduced to a one-dimensional model by approximating the solution using the method of weighted residuals. The one-dimensional transport equation model directly describes the sound energy propagation in the "long" dimension and deals with the sound energy in the "short" dimensions by prescribed functions. Also, the one-dimensional model consists of a coupled set of N transport equations. Only N=1 and N=2 are discussed in this paper. For larger N, although the accuracy could be improved, the calculation time is expected to significantly increase, which diminishes the advantage of the model in terms of its computational efficiency. PMID:20370013

  12. High-frequency, 'quantum' and electromechanical effects in quasi-one-dimensional charge density wave conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrovskii, Vadim Ya; Zybtsev, Sergey G.; Nikitin, Maksim V.; Gorlova, Irina G.; Nasretdinova, Venera F.; Zaitsev-Zotov, Sergei V.

    2013-01-01

    Recent results (some previously unpublished) on the physics of charge density waves (CDWs) are reviewed. The synthesis conditions and unique properties of the quasi-one-dimensional compound {NbS_3}, with highly coherent room temperature CDWs, are described. A peculiar type of 'quantization' is discussed, which is observed in micro- and nanosamples of {K_{0.3}MoO_3} and {NbSe_3} due to the discrete nature of CDW wave vector values. The electric-field-induced torsional strain (TS) in quasi-one-dimensional conductors is considered. Research results on the TS of a noise character induced by sliding CDWs are presented, along with those on the inverse effect, the modulation of the voltage induced by externally driven TS. Results on the nonlinear conduction of {TiS_3}, a quasi-one-dimensional compound not belonging to the family of classical Peierls conductors, are also described.

  13. Absence of the discontinuous transition in the one-dimensional triplet creation model.

    PubMed

    Park, Su-Chan

    2009-12-01

    Although Hinrichsen in his unpublished work theoretically rebutted the possibility of the discontinuous transition in one-dimensional nonequilibrium systems unless there are additional conservation laws, long-range interactions, macroscopic currents, or special boundary conditions, we have recently observed the resurrection of the claim that the triplet creation (TC) model introduced by Dickman and Tomé [Phys. Rev. A 44, 4833 (1991)] would show the discontinuous transition. By extensive simulations, however, we find that the one-dimensional TC does belong to the directed percolation universality class even for larger diffusion constant than the suggested tricritical point in the literature. Furthermore, we find that the phase boundary is well described by the crossover from the mean field to the directed percolation, which supports the claim that the one-dimensional TC does not exhibit a discontinuous transition. PMID:20365114

  14. Dynamic simulation of wavy-stratified two-phase flow with the one-dimensional two-fluid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullmer, William D.

    The one-dimensional two-fluid model is the basis for the description of the transport of mass, momentum and energy in the thermal-hydraulic codes used for nuclear reactor safety analysis. Unlike other physical transport models, the one-dimensional two-fluid model suffers from the possibility of being ill-posed as an initial-boundary value problem depending on the flow conditions and the relevant physical closure laws. Typically, the ill-posedness is dealt with through either excessive numerical damping or the addition of unphysical closure laws designed for the sole purpose of hyperbolization. Unfortunately both methods eliminate the instability along with the problem of ill-posedness causing the model to undoubtedly lose some of its inherent dynamic capability. In this work, a one-dimensional two-fluid model for horizontal or slightly inclined stratified flow is developed. Higher order physical models that are often neglected, such as surface tension and axial viscous stress, are retained for their short-wavelength stability properties. Characteristic, dispersion and nonlinear analyses are performed to demonstrate that the resulting model is linearly well-posed and nonlinearly well-behaved. While it has been known that higher-order differential terms are able to regularize the short-wavelength problem of ill-posedness without removing the long-wavelength instability, the literature is relatively silent on the consequences of using a model under linearly unstable conditions. Using carefully selected conditions in an idealized infinite domain, it is demonstrated for the first time that the one-dimensional two-fluid model exhibits chaotic behavior in addition to limit cycles and asymptotic stability. The chaotic behavior is a consequence of the long-wavelength linear instability (energy source) the nonlinearity (energy transfer) and the short-wavelength dissipation (energy sink). Since the model is chaotic, solutions exhibit a sensitive dependence on initial

  15. Fluctuations and Stochastic Processes in One-Dimensional Many-Body Quantum Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stimming, H.-P.; Mauser, N. J.; Mazets, I. E.

    2010-07-02

    We study the fluctuation properties of a one-dimensional many-body quantum system composed of interacting bosons and investigate the regimes where quantum noise or, respectively, thermal excitations are dominant. For the latter, we develop a semiclassical description of the fluctuation properties based on the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck stochastic process. As an illustration, we analyze the phase correlation functions and the full statistical distributions of the interference between two one-dimensional systems, either independent or tunnel-coupled, and compare with the Luttinger-liquid theory.

  16. The ion implantation-induced properties of one-dimensional nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, ion implantation is an extensively used technique for material modification. Using this method, we can tailor the properties of target materials, including morphological, mechanical, electronic, and optical properties. All of these modifications impel nanomaterials to be a more useful application to fabricate more high-performance nanomaterial-based devices. Ion implantation is an accurate and controlled doping method for one-dimensional nanomaterials. In this article, we review recent research on ion implantation-induced effects in one-dimensional nanostructure, such as nanowires, nanotubes, and nanobelts. In addition, the optical property of single cadmium sulfide nanobelt implanted by N+ ions has been researched. PMID:23594476

  17. Localization of carriers in a one-dimensional electron system over liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladchenko, S. P.; Kovdrya, Yu. Z.; Nikolaenko, V. A.

    2000-07-01

    The mobility of carriers in a one-dimensional electron system over liquid helium has been measured at the temperature 0.5-1.7 K and for different values of linear electron density. Profiled nylon substrates with some quantity of charge deposited were used for the realization of a one-dimensional electron system. It is shown that electron mobility is dependent on the quantity of the charge on a substrate. Effects observed are explained by the localization of electrons moving in the random potential created by the substrates charge. It is supposed that at low temperatures the movement of carriers is determined by quantum effects.

  18. The estimation of biological tissues trauma under their perforation by one-dimensional implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shil'ko, S.; Chernous, D.; Panin, S.

    2015-11-01

    The subject of paper is a base stage of positioning of one-dimensional implants (fixing, diagnostic) element, stretching through an aperture in a biotissue. Corresponding mechanical and mathematical model describes implant interaction with biotissues in the conditions of sticking and sliding of contacting surfaces. Theoretical dependences for implant elongation and the maximum value of stress tensor intensity in interfacing volumes of the material are presented, allowing one to calculate the frictional and mechanical characteristics of one-dimensional implant and to estimate the injuring action from biomechanics point of view.

  19. One-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensation of photons in a microtube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruchkov, Alex

    This study introduces a quasiequilibrium one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensation of photons trapped in a microscopical waveguide. Light modes with a cut-off frequency (''photon's mass'') interact through different processes of absorption, re-emition, and scattering on molecules of dye. In this work I consider conditions for the one-dimensional condensation of light and the role of photon-photon interactions in the system. The computational technique in use is the Matsubara's Green's functions formalism modified for the quasiequilibrium system under study.

  20. One-dimensional pattern of Au nanodots by ion-beam sputtering: formation and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kim, J-H; Ha, N-B; Kim, J-S; Joe, M; Lee, K-R; Cuerno, R

    2011-07-15

    Highly ordered one-dimensional arrays of nanodots, or nanobeads, are fabricated by forming nanoripples and nanodots in sequence, entirely by ion-beam sputtering (IBS) of Au(001). This demonstrates the capability of IBS for the fabrication of sophisticated nanostructures via hierarchical self-assembly. The intricate nanobead pattern ideally serves to identify the governing mechanisms for the pattern formation: nonlinear effects, especially local redeposition and surface-confined transport, are essential both for the formation and the preservation of the one-dimensional order of the nanobead pattern. PMID:21625038

  1. Spectral Function of the One-Dimensional Hubbard Model away from Half Filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benthien, H.; Gebhard, F.; Jeckelmann, E.

    2004-06-01

    We calculate the photoemission spectral function of the one-dimensional Hubbard model away from half filling using the dynamical density-matrix renormalization group method. An approach for calculating momentum-dependent quantities in finite open chains is presented. Comparison with exact Bethe ansatz results demonstrates the unprecedented accuracy of our method. Our results show that the photoemission spectrum of the quasi-one-dimensional conductor TTF-TCNQ provides evidence for spin-charge separation on the scale of the conduction bandwidth.

  2. Spectral function of the one-dimensional Hubbard model away from half filling.

    PubMed

    Benthien, H; Gebhard, F; Jeckelmann, E

    2004-06-25

    We calculate the photoemission spectral function of the one-dimensional Hubbard model away from half filling using the dynamical density-matrix renormalization group method. An approach for calculating momentum-dependent quantities in finite open chains is presented. Comparison with exact Bethe ansatz results demonstrates the unprecedented accuracy of our method. Our results show that the photoemission spectrum of the quasi-one-dimensional conductor TTF-TCNQ provides evidence for spin-charge separation on the scale of the conduction bandwidth. PMID:15245039

  3. Peak, multi-peak and broadband absorption in graphene-based one-dimensional photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloua, R.; Kebbab, Z.; Chiker, F.; Khadraoui, M.; Sahraoui, K.; Bouzidi, A.; Medles, M.; Mathieu, C.; Benramdane, N.

    2014-11-01

    We theoretically investigate the possibility of enhancing light absorption in graphene-based one dimensional photonic crystal. We demonstrate that it is possible to achieve total light absorption at technologically important wavelengths using one-dimensional graphene-based photonic crystals. By means of the transfer matrix method, we investigate the effect of refractive indices and layer numbers on the optical response of the structure. We found that it is possible to achieve one peak, multi-peak or broadband, and complete optical absorption. As a result, the proposed photonic structures enable myriad potential applications such as photodetection, shielding and optical sensing.

  4. One-dimensional edge state of Bi thin film grown on Si(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakami, Naoya; Lin, Chun-Liang; Kawai, Maki; Takagi, Noriaki; Arafune, Ryuichi

    2015-07-20

    The geometric and electronic structures of the Bi thin film grown on Si(111) were investigated by using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. We have found two types of edges, one of which hosts an electronic state localized one-dimensionally. We also revealed the energy dispersion of the localized edge state from the evolution of quasiparticle interference patterns as a function of energy. These spectroscopic findings well reproduce those acquired for the cleaved surface of the bulk Bi crystal [I. K. Drozdov et al., Nat. Phys. 10, 664 (2014)]. The present results indicate that the deposited Bi film provides a tractable stage for further scrutiny of the one-dimensional edge state.

  5. Fabrication, device assembly, and application of one-dimensional chalcogenides nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kum, Maxwell Chun Man

    Nanotechnology has received a tremendous amount of research interests ever since the first discovery of carbon nanotubes. One-dimensional nanostructures, such as nanorods, nanowires, nanobelts as well as nanotubes, are of significant interest because of their potential application as interconnects and functional units in nanoscale electrical, optoelectronic, electrochemical, electromechanical, thermoelectric, spintronic, photovoltaic, and sensory devices. Nanoscale one-dimensional devices promise to deliver improved performance, to miniaturize bulky devices, to enable higher density nanoscale devices, and to lower energy consumption. As the radius of these one-dimensional nanostructures fall below the exciton Bohr radius of their respective materials, the structural morphology and size effectively modulates the fundamental electrical, optical, and magnetic properties due to quantum confinement effect. In addition, the high surface to volume ratio of one-dimensional nanostructures enables the device properties to be extremely sensitivity to the environment which is particularly attractive for sensing application. Currently, the focuses of nanotechnology research are (1) the fabrication technique with control over the composition, crystal structure, morphology, and size, (2) the device assembly of nanostructures into complex functional devices, and (3) the characterization and application of these nanoscale devices. There are a multitude of fabrication techniques for one-dimensional nanostructures, including but not exclusively, vapor-solid, vapor-liquid-solid, colloidal, solution-liquid-solid, self-assembly, and template directed electrodeposition. As one-dimensional nanostructures are produced, several techniques are available to assemble them into functional complex nanoscale devices, including but not exclusively, electron beam lithography, focus ion beam, magnetic assembly, and AC dielectrophoretic alignment. In this work, one-dimensional cadmium telluride (Cd

  6. One-dimensional crystal growth model on a square lattice substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yi; Lu, Chenxi; Yang, Bo; Tao, Xiangming; Wang, Jianfeng; Ye, Gaoxiang

    2016-08-01

    A one-dimensional crystal growth model along the preferential growth direction is established. The simulation model is performed on a square lattice substrate. First, particles are deposited homogeneously and, as a result, each of the lattice sites is occupied by one particle. In the subsequent stage, N nuclei are selected randomly on the substrate, then the growth process starts by adsorbing the surrounding particles along the preferential growth directions of the crystals. Finally, various one-dimensional crystals with different length and width form. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental findings.

  7. The ion implantation-induced properties of one-dimensional nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen Qing; Xiao, Xiang Heng; Stepanov, Andrey L.; Dai, Zhi Gao; Wu, Wei; Cai, Guang Xu; Ren, Feng; Jiang, Chang Zhong

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays, ion implantation is an extensively used technique for material modification. Using this method, we can tailor the properties of target materials, including morphological, mechanical, electronic, and optical properties. All of these modifications impel nanomaterials to be a more useful application to fabricate more high-performance nanomaterial-based devices. Ion implantation is an accurate and controlled doping method for one-dimensional nanomaterials. In this article, we review recent research on ion implantation-induced effects in one-dimensional nanostructure, such as nanowires, nanotubes, and nanobelts. In addition, the optical property of single cadmium sulfide nanobelt implanted by N+ ions has been researched.

  8. Conversion method of powder inelastic scattering data for one-dimensional systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tomiyasu, Dr. Keisuke; Fujita, Prof. Masaki; Kolesnikov, Alexander I; Bewley, Robert I.; Bull, Dr. Martyn J.; Bennington, Dr. Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    Extracting dispersive magnetic excitations from inelastic neutron scattering data usually requires large single crystals. We present a simple yet powerful method for extracting such information from polycrystalline or powder data for one-dimensional systems. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this data treatment by extracting dispersion curves from powder inelastic neutron scattering data on the one-dimensional spin-half systems: CuGeO3 and Rb2Cu2Mo3O12. For many such materials it is not possible to grow sufficiently large crystals and this method offers a quick and efficient way to study their magnetic excitations.

  9. One-dimensional hybrid satellite track model for the Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, Wei; Killeen, T. L.; Burns, A. G.; Johnson, R. M.; Emery, B. A.; Roble, R. G.; Winningham, J. D.; Gary, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    A one-dimensional hybrid satellite track model has been developed to calculate the high-latitude thermospheric/ionospheric structure below the satellite altitude using Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) satellite measurements and theory. This model is based on Emery et al. (1985) satellite track code but also includes elements of Roble et al. (1987b) global mean thermosphere/ionosphere model. A number of parameterizations and data handling techniques are used to input satellite data from several DE 2 instruments into this model. Profiles of neutral atmospheric densities are determined from the Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter 1990 (MSIS-90) model and measured neutral temperatures. Measured electron precipitation spectra are used in an auroral model to calculate particle impact ionization rates below the satellite. These rates are combined with a solar ionization rate profile and used to solve the O(+) diffusion equation, with the measured electron density as an upper boundary condition. The calculated O(+) density distribution, as well as the ionization profiles, are then used in a photochemical equilibrium model to calculate the electron and molecular ion densities. The electron temperature is also calculated by solving the electron energy equation with an upper boundary condition determined by the DE 2 measurement. The model enables calculations of altitude profiles of conductivity and Joule heating rate along and below the satellite track. In a first application of the new model, a study is made of thermospheric and ionospheric structure below the DE 2 satellite for a single orbit which occurred on October 25, 1981. The field-aligned Poynting flux, which is independently obtained for this orbit, is compared with the model predictions of the height-integrated energy conversion rate. Good quantitative agreement between these two estimates has been reached. In addition, measurements taken at the incoherent scatter radar site at Chatanika (65.1 deg N, 147.4 deg W

  10. Conservative numerical schemes for unsteady one-dimensional two phase flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Cascales, Jose Ramon

    The thesis is devoted to the modelization of non steady two phase mixtures of liquid and vapour. It has been motivated by the great amount of industrial applications in which we find these phenomena. Transient two phase flow is a very important issue in nuclear, chemical and industrial applications. In the case of the nuclear industry due to the importance of preventing loss of coolant accidents (LOCA) and guaranteeing a good performance of the coolant system in power plants. We justify the present development by means of the introduction of the most important codes developed during the last two decades and their associated mesh techniques. It is basically focused on the extension of some conservative and explicit schemes to obtain approximate solutions of the system of equations in one dimensional one pressure two phase flow. They have been centred and upwind schemes to solve multiphase flow problems, most of them based on the exact or approximate solution of Riemann problems using Godunov's like methods such as Approximate Riemann solvers or Flux Splitting methods. We have studied mainly TVD schemes, Adapted TVD schemes (ATVD) and the AUSM family of schemes. Firstly we introduce the 1D two phase flow system of equations with which we will work. We consider the systems of equations more used depending on the model. Thus we introduce the homogeneous model, the isentropic model and the separated model will be treated in some detail. The evaluation of the eigenstructure of the homogeneous and the separated two phase flow is studied. Different methods to determine the eigenvalues are presented. A general method to determine the eigenvectors is studied as well. We extend different conservative schemes to two phase flow whose good behaviour in single phase has been well proved. They are basically TVD schemes, the Adapted TVD schemes developed by Gascon and Corberan and the AUSM family of schemes, firstly introduced by Steffen and Liou. Most of the extensions developed

  11. Simple One-Dimensional Quantum-Mechanical Model for a Particle Attached to a Surface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2010-01-01

    We present a simple one-dimensional quantum-mechanical model for a particle attached to a surface. It leads to the Schrodinger equation for a harmonic oscillator bounded on one side that we solve in terms of Weber functions and discuss the behaviour of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. We derive the virial theorem and other exact relationships…

  12. Lagrangian formulation of the one-dimensional Vlasov equation. [in plasma physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewak, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    A new formulation of the one-dimensional Vlasov equation is derived which is analogous to the Kalman-transformed cold-plasma equations. The equations are shown to yield nonsecular, nonlinear approximations to a source or boundary-value problem. It is suggested that the formulation may have other applications in nonlinear plasma theory.

  13. Electron beam electromagnetic field interaction in one-dimensional coaxial vircator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, H.; Liu, G. Z.; Yang, Z. F.

    2005-10-01

    A one-dimensional model of the interaction between an injected electron beam and an electromagnetic (EM) field inside a coaxial vircator is presented. The effects of the injected electron beam energy spread, anode absorption rate, feedback and injected current premodulation are analyzed. The EM-gains of interaction between the electron beam and TM01, TE11 modes are derived and discussed.

  14. A one-dimensional shock capturing finite element method and multi-dimensional generalizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, T. J. R.; Mallet, M.; Zanutta, R.; Taki, Y.; Tezduyar, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    Multi-dimensional generalizations of a one-dimensional finite element shock capturing scheme are proposed. A scalar model problem is used to emphasize that 'preferred directions' are important in multi-dimensional applications. Schemes are developed for the two-dimensional Euler equations. One, based upon characteristics, employs the Mach lines and streamlines as preferred directions.

  15. One-dimensional random field Ising model and discrete stochastic mappings

    SciTech Connect

    Behn, U.; Zagrebnov, V.A.

    1987-06-01

    Previous results relating the one-dimensional random field Ising model to a discrete stochastic mapping are generalized to a two-valued correlated random (Markovian) field and to the case of zero temperature. The fractal dimension of the support of the invariant measure is calculated in a simple approximation and its dependence on the physical parameters is discussed.

  16. One-dimensional simulation of temperature and moisture in atmospheric and soil boundary layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bornstein, R. D.; Santhanam, K.

    1981-01-01

    Meteorologists are interested in modeling the vertical flow of heat and moisture through the soil in order to better simulate the vertical and temporal variations of the atmospheric boundary layer. The one dimensional planetary boundary layer model of is modified by the addition of transport equations to be solved by a finite difference technique to predict soil moisture.

  17. An Autonomous Star Identification Algorithm Based on One-Dimensional Vector Pattern for Star Sensors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Liyan; Xu, Luping; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance the robustness and accelerate the recognition speed of star identification, an autonomous star identification algorithm for star sensors is proposed based on the one-dimensional vector pattern (one_DVP). In the proposed algorithm, the space geometry information of the observed stars is used to form the one-dimensional vector pattern of the observed star. The one-dimensional vector pattern of the same observed star remains unchanged when the stellar image rotates, so the problem of star identification is simplified as the comparison of the two feature vectors. The one-dimensional vector pattern is adopted to build the feature vector of the star pattern, which makes it possible to identify the observed stars robustly. The characteristics of the feature vector and the proposed search strategy for the matching pattern make it possible to achieve the recognition result as quickly as possible. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively accelerate the star identification. Moreover, the recognition accuracy and robustness by the proposed algorithm are better than those by the pyramid algorithm, the modified grid algorithm, and the LPT algorithm. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the other three star identification algorithms. PMID:26198233

  18. On the numerical solution of the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Francisco M.

    2016-05-01

    We discuss two sources of error in the numerical calculation of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation. By means of suitable examples we analyse the effect of both a finite mesh size and the use of approximate boundary conditions.

  19. Improved implementation of the HLL approximate Riemann solver for one-dimensional open channel flows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several new techniques are proposed to overcome the deficiencies in the conventional formulation of the approximate Riemann solvers for one-dimensional open channel flows, which include numerical imbalance and inaccuracy in the solution of discharge. The former arises in the case of irregular geomet...

  20. Results from field tests of the one-dimensional Time-Encoded Imaging System.

    SciTech Connect

    Marleau, Peter; Brennan, James S.; Brubaker, Erik

    2014-09-01

    A series of field experiments were undertaken to evaluate the performance of the one dimensional time encoded imaging system. The significant detection of a Cf252 fission radiation source was demonstrated at a stand-off of 100 meters. Extrapolations to different quantities of plutonium equivalent at different distances are made. Hardware modifications to the system for follow on work are suggested.

  1. Quantum bright solitons in a quasi-one-dimensional optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbiero, Luca; Salasnich, Luca

    2014-06-01

    We study a quasi-one-dimensional attractive Bose gas confined in an optical lattice with a superimposed harmonic potential by analyzing the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian of the system. Starting from the three-dimensional many-body quantum Hamiltonian, we derive strong inequalities involving the transverse degrees of freedom under which the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian can be safely used. To have a reliable description of the one-dimensional ground state, which we call a quantum bright soliton, we use the density-matrix-renormalization-group (DMRG) technique. By comparing DMRG results with mean-field (MF) ones, we find that beyond-mean-field effects become relevant by increasing the attraction between bosons or by decreasing the frequency of the harmonic confinement. In particular, we find that, contrary to the MF predictions based on the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation, average density profiles of quantum bright solitons are not shape-invariant. We also use the time-evolving-block-decimation method to investigate the dynamical properties of bright solitons when the frequency of the harmonic potential is suddenly increased. This quantum quench induces a breathing mode whose period crucially depends on the final strength of the superimposed harmonic confinement.

  2. Suggested Courseware for the Non-Calculus Physics Student: Measurement, Vectors, and One-Dimensional Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Joyce; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Evaluates 16 commercially available courseware packages covering topics for introductory physics. Discusses the price, sub-topics, program type, interaction, time, calculus required, graphics, and comments of each program. Recommends two packages in measurement and vectors, and one-dimensional motion respectively. (YP)

  3. DENSITY-DEPENDENT FLOW IN ONE-DIMENSIONAL VARIABLY-SATURATED MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A one-dimensional finite element is developed to simulate density-dependent flow of saltwater in variably saturated media. The flow and solute equations were solved in a coupled mode (iterative), in a partially coupled mode (non-iterative), and in a completely decoupled mode. P...

  4. Comparing the Impact of Dynamic and Static Media on Students' Learning of One-Dimensional Kinematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mešic, Vanes; Dervic, Dževdeta; Gazibegovic-Busuladžic, Azra; Salibašic, Džana; Erceg, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    In our study, we aimed to compare the impact of simulations, sequences of printed simulation frames and conventional static diagrams on the understanding of students with regard to the one-dimensional kinematics. Our student sample consisted of three classes of middle years students (N = 63; mostly 15 year-olds). These three classes served as…

  5. One-Dimensional Collision Carts Computer Model and Its Design Ideas for Productive Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Loo Kang

    2012-01-01

    We develop an Easy Java Simulation (EJS) model for students to experience the physics of idealized one-dimensional collision carts. The physics model is described and simulated by both continuous dynamics and discrete transition during collision. In designing the simulations, we discuss briefly three pedagogical considerations namely (1) a…

  6. General dispersion and dissipation relations in a one-dimensional viscoelastic lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenqiang; Yu, Jidong; Tang, Zhiping

    2008-12-01

    We derive the general dispersion and dissipation relations for a one-dimensional viscoelastic lattice, demonstrate the relevance of these relations to viscoelastic fracture and phase transition, and show a procedure to determine the suitable mesh size in numerical simulation of stress waves propagating in viscoelastic continuum.

  7. Time-dependent radiation transport in a one-dimensional medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, W.; Meszaros, P.

    1985-01-01

    An analytic solution of the time-dependent radiation transport problem in a one-dimensional, stationary and homogeneous medium of finite thickness is presented. The solution is found by the method of images, and is compared with an eigenfunction expansion. Previous conjectures about the structure of such an expansion are clarified. The Green's function of this problem is also expanded in scattering orders.

  8. Local reduction of certain wave operators to one-dimensional form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roe, Philip

    1994-01-01

    It is noted that certain common linear wave operators have the property that linear variation of the initial data gives rise to one-dimensional evolution in a plane defined by time and some direction in space. The analysis is given For operators arising in acoustics, electromagnetics, elastodynamics, and an abstract system.

  9. A fast and flexible one-dimensional image processing implementation for visual feedback control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Richard W.; Penix, Wayne A.; Richardson, Russell D.

    1988-01-01

    A simple and efficient image processing system is described which can provide one-dimensional image processing for sample rates approaching video rates. The system is utilized for visual feedback where guidance and process controls are required, such as for arc-welding robots.

  10. Computer Simulation of a Particle in a One-Dimensional Double or Triple Potential Well.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humberston, J. W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A computer program was written for a model system in quantum mechanics (particle in a one-dimensional finite square well potential). Described is a major extension of the single-well program to treat problem of a particle in a double/triple finite square potential well. Technical/educational features of the program are considered. (Author/JN)

  11. An Autonomous Star Identification Algorithm Based on One-Dimensional Vector Pattern for Star Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Liyan; Xu, Luping; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In order to enhance the robustness and accelerate the recognition speed of star identification, an autonomous star identification algorithm for star sensors is proposed based on the one-dimensional vector pattern (one_DVP). In the proposed algorithm, the space geometry information of the observed stars is used to form the one-dimensional vector pattern of the observed star. The one-dimensional vector pattern of the same observed star remains unchanged when the stellar image rotates, so the problem of star identification is simplified as the comparison of the two feature vectors. The one-dimensional vector pattern is adopted to build the feature vector of the star pattern, which makes it possible to identify the observed stars robustly. The characteristics of the feature vector and the proposed search strategy for the matching pattern make it possible to achieve the recognition result as quickly as possible. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively accelerate the star identification. Moreover, the recognition accuracy and robustness by the proposed algorithm are better than those by the pyramid algorithm, the modified grid algorithm, and the LPT algorithm. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the other three star identification algorithms. PMID:26198233

  12. Facile synthesis of one-dimensional peapod-like Sb@C submicron-structures

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, W; Lorger, S; Wang, B; Bommier, C; Ji, XL

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel synthetic route to fabricate a one-dimensional peapod-like Sb@C structure with disperse Sb submicron-particles encapsulated in carbon submicron-tubes. The synthetic route may well serve as a general methodology for fabricating carbon/metallic fine structures by thermally reducing their carbon-coated metal oxide composites.

  13. One-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic calculations of a hydrogen-gas puff

    SciTech Connect

    Maxon, S.; Nielsen, P.D.

    1981-04-20

    A one-dimensional Lagrangian calculation of the implosion of a hydrogen gas puff is presented. At maximum compression, 60% of the mass is located in a density spike .5 mm off the axis with a half width of 40 ..mu..m. The temperature on axis reaches 200 eV.

  14. ONE-DIMENSIONAL HYDRODYNAMIC/SEDIMENT TRANSPORT MODEL FOR STREAM NETWORKS: TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technical report describes a new sediment transport model and the supporting post-processor, and sampling procedures for sediments in streams. Specifically, the following items are described herein:

    EFDC1D - This is a new one-dimensional hydrodynamic and sediment tr...

  15. Simple Two-Dimensional Corrections for One-Dimensional Pulse Tube Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. M.; Kittel, P.; Timmerhaus, K. D.; Radebaugh, R.

    2004-01-01

    One-dimensional oscillating flow models are very useful for designing pulse tubes. They are simple to use, not computationally intensive, and the physical relationship between temperature, pressure and mass flow are easy to understand when used in conjunction with phasor diagrams. They do not possess, however, the ability to directly calculate thermal and momentum diffusion in the direction transverse to the oscillating flow. To account for transverse effects, lumped parameter corrections, which are obtained though experiment, must be used. Or two-dimensional solutions of the differential fluid equations must be obtained. A linear two-dimensional solution to the fluid equations has been obtained. The solution provides lumped parameter corrections for one-dimensional models. The model accounts for heat transfer and shear flow between the gas and the tube. The complex Nusselt number and complex shear wall are useful in describing these corrections, with phase relations and amplitudes scaled with the Prandtl and Valensi numbers. The calculated ratio, a, between a two-dimensional solution of the oscillating temperature and velocity and a one-dimensional solution for the same shows a scales linearly with Va for Va less than 30. In this region alpha less than 0.5, that is, the enthalpy flow calculated with a two-dimensional model is 50% of a calculation using a one-dimensional model. For Va greater than 250, alpha = 0.8, showing that diffusion is still important even when it is confined to a thing layer near the tube wall.

  16. Analysis of reverse combustion in tar sands: a one-dimensional model

    SciTech Connect

    Amr, A.

    1980-08-01

    This paper describes a one-dimensional numerical model which simulates oil recovery from tar sands by reverse combustion. The method of lines is used to solve the nonlinear differential equations describing the flow. The effects of volumetric air flux on the peak temperature, flame velocity, and oil recovery efficiency are reported. The results are compared to the results of relevant experimental studies.

  17. Fringe pattern demodulation using the one-dimensional continuous wavelet transform: field-programmable gate array implementation.

    PubMed

    Abid, Abdulbasit

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a thorough discussion of the proposed field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementation for fringe pattern demodulation using the one-dimensional continuous wavelet transform (1D-CWT) algorithm. This algorithm is also known as wavelet transform profilometry. Initially, the 1D-CWT is programmed using the C programming language and compiled into VHDL using the ImpulseC tool. This VHDL code is implemented on the Altera Cyclone IV GX EP4CGX150DF31C7 FPGA. A fringe pattern image with a size of 512×512 pixels is presented to the FPGA, which processes the image using the 1D-CWT algorithm. The FPGA requires approximately 100 ms to process the image and produce a wrapped phase map. For performance comparison purposes, the 1D-CWT algorithm is programmed using the C language. The C code is then compiled using the Intel compiler version 13.0. The compiled code is run on a Dell Precision state-of-the-art workstation. The time required to process the fringe pattern image is approximately 1 s. In order to further reduce the execution time, the 1D-CWT is reprogramed using Intel Integrated Primitive Performance (IPP) Library Version 7.1. The execution time was reduced to approximately 650 ms. This confirms that at least sixfold speedup was gained using FPGA implementation over a state-of-the-art workstation that executes heavily optimized implementation of the 1D-CWT algorithm. PMID:23458800

  18. One-dimensional CdS nanostructures: a promising candidate for optoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiqiao; Wang, Xi; Xu, Junqi; Zhang, Qi; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri; Ma, Ying; Zhai, Tianyou

    2013-06-11

    As a promising candidate for optoelectronics, one-dimensional CdS nanostructures have drawn great scientific and technical interest due to their interesting fundamental properties and possibilities of utilization in novel promising optoelectronical devices with augmented performance and functionalities. This progress report highlights a selection of important topics pertinent to optoelectronical applications of one-dimensional CdS nanostructures over the last five years. This article begins with the description of rational design and controlled synthesis of CdS nanostructure arrays, alloyed nanostructucures and kinked nanowire superstructures, and then focuses on the optoelectronical properties, and applications including cathodoluminescence, lasers, light-emitting diodes, waveguides, field emitters, logic circuits, memory devices, photodetectors, gas sensors, photovoltaics and photoelectrochemistry. Finally, the general challenges and the potential future directions of this exciting area of research are highlighted. PMID:23629853

  19. Performance Analysis of Selective Breeding Algorithm on One Dimensional Bin Packing Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sriramya, P.; Parvathavarthini, B.

    2012-12-01

    The bin packing optimization problem packs a set of objects into a set of bins so that the amount of wasted space is minimized. The bin packing problem has many important applications. The objective is to find a feasible assignment of all weights to bins that minimizes the total number of bins used. The bin packing problem models several practical problems in such diverse areas as industrial control, computer systems, machine scheduling, VLSI chip layout and etc. Selective breeding algorithm (SBA) is an iterative procedure which borrows the ideas of artificial selection and breeding process. By simulating artificial evolution in this way SBA algorithm can easily solve complex problems. One dimensional bin packing benchmark problems are taken for evaluating the performance of the SBA. The computational results of SBA algorithm show optimal solution for the tested benchmark problems. The proposed SBA algorithm is a good problem-solving technique for one dimensional bin packing problems.

  20. Synthetic magnetic fluxes and topological order in one-dimensional spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graß, Tobias; Muschik, Christine; Celi, Alessio; Chhajlany, Ravindra W.; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2015-06-01

    Engineering topological quantum order has become a major field of physics. Many advances have been made by synthesizing gauge fields in cold atomic systems. Here we carry over these developments to other platforms which are extremely well suited for quantum engineering, namely, trapped ions and nano-trapped atoms. Since these systems are typically one-dimensional, the action of artificial magnetic fields has so far received little attention. However, exploiting the long-range nature of interactions, loops with nonvanishing magnetic fluxes become possible even in one-dimensional settings. This gives rise to intriguing phenomena, such as fractal energy spectra, flat bands with localized edge states, and topological many-body states. We elaborate on a simple scheme for generating the required artificial fluxes by periodically driving an XY spin chain. Concrete estimates demonstrating the experimental feasibility for trapped ions and atoms in wave guides are given.

  1. Quantum effects on one-dimensional collision dynamics of fermion clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Jun'ichi; Tezuka, Masaki; Kawakami, Norio

    2012-12-01

    Recently, many experiments with cold atomic gases have been conducted from interest in the non-equilibrium dynamics of correlated quantum systems. Of these experiments, the mixing dynamics of fermion clusters motivates us to research cluster-cluster collision dynamics in one-dimensional Fermi systems. We adopt the one-dimensional Fermi-Hubbard model and apply the time-dependent density matrix renormalization group method. We simulate collisions between two fermion clusters of spin-up and spin-down and calculate reflectance of the clusters R changing the particle number in each cluster and the interaction strength between two fermions with up and down spins. We also evaluate the quasi-classical (independent collision) reflectance Rqc to compare it with R. The quasi-classical picture is quantitatively valid in the limit of weak interaction, but it is not valid when interaction is strong.

  2. In situ peeling of one-dimensional nanostructures using a dual-probe nanotweezer.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui; Régnier, Stéphane

    2010-03-01

    We reported a method for in situ peeling force measurement of one-dimensional nanostructures using a dual-probe nanotweezer, which is developed on the principle of force microscopy. Benefiting from capabilities of image scanning and accurate force sensing, the nanotweezer is capable of positioning one-dimensional nanostructures deposited on a surface and then performing in situ peeling tests with pick-and-place operations at different peeling locations of interest along a selected nanostructure. In experiments, nanoscale peeling of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) on a silicon substrate has been studied. Peeling locations at the end and in the middle of the SiNW were tested and the results indicate that approximate peeling energies are needed. PMID:20370218

  3. Universality of One-Dimensional Fermi Systems, I. Response Functions and Critical Exponents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benfatto, G.; Falco, P.; Mastropietro, V.

    2014-08-01

    The critical behavior of one-dimensional interacting Fermi systems is expected to display universality features, called Luttinger liquid behavior. Critical exponents and certain thermodynamic quantities are expected to be related among each other by model-independent formulas. We establish such relations, the proof of which has represented a challenging mathematical problem, for a general model of spinning fermions on a one dimensional lattice; interactions are short ranged and satisfy a positivity condition which makes the model critical at zero temperature. Proofs are reported in two papers: in the present one, we demonstrate that the zero temperature response functions in the thermodynamic limit are Borel summable and have anomalous power-law decay with multiplicative logarithmic corrections. Critical exponents are expressed in terms of convergent expansions and depend on all the model details. All results are valid for the special case of the Hubbard model.

  4. One-dimensional turbulence modeling of a turbulent counterflow flame with comparison to DNS

    SciTech Connect

    Jozefik, Zoltan; Kerstein, Alan R.; Schmidt, Heiko; Lyra, Sgouria; Kolla, Hemanth; Chen, Jackie H.

    2015-06-01

    The one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model is applied to a reactant-to-product counterflow configuration and results are compared with DNS data. The model employed herein solves conservation equations for momentum, energy, and species on a one dimensional (1D) domain corresponding to the line spanning the domain between nozzle orifice centers. The effects of turbulent mixing are modeled via a stochastic process, while the Kolmogorov and reactive length and time scales are explicitly resolved and a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism is used. Comparisons between model and DNS results for spatial mean and root-meansquare (RMS) velocity, temperature, and major and minor species profiles are shown. The ODT approach shows qualitatively and quantitatively reasonable agreement with the DNS data. Scatter plots and statistics conditioned on temperature are also compared for heat release rate and all species. ODT is able to capture the range of results depicted by DNS. However, conditional statistics show signs of underignition.

  5. On one-dimensional stretching functions for finite-difference calculations. [computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinokur, M.

    1979-01-01

    The class of one-dimensional stretching functions used in finite-difference calculations is studied. For solutions containing a highly localized region of rapid variation, simple criteria for a stretching function are derived using a truncation error analysis. These criteria are used to investigate two types of stretching functions. One is an interior stretching function, for which the location and slope of an interior clustering region are specified. The simplest such function satisfying the criteria is found to be one based on the inverse hyperbolic sine. The other type of function is a two-sided stretching function, for which the arbitrary slopes at the two ends of the one-dimensional interval are specified. The simplest such general function is found to be one based on the inverse tangent.

  6. Anomalous charge transport in a quasi-one-dimensional electron system over liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladchenko, S. P.; Kovdrya, Yu. Z.; Nikolaenko, V. A.

    2003-11-01

    The conductivity σ in a quasi-one-dimensional electron system over liquid helium is measured in the temperature interval 0.5-1.7 K over a wide range of electron densities n. It is shown that the quantity σ/ne (e is the charge of the electron) initially increases with decreasing temperature and then, after passing through a maximum, begins to decline for T≈1 K. In this temperature region the value of σ/ne, above a certain value of the drift potential Vd, decreases with increasing Vd. It is conjectured that the anomalous charge transport observed in this study is due either to spatial ordering of the electrons in the quasi-one-dimensional channels or to the formation of many-electron polarons in the nonuniform potential along the channels.

  7. Sub-Fickean Diffusion in a One-Dimensional Plasma Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen, W. L.

    2013-12-01

    A one-dimensional dusty plasma ring is formed in a strongly-coupled complex plasma. The dust particles in the ring can be characterized as a one-dimensional system where the particles cannot pass each other. The particles perform random walks due to thermal motions. This single-file self diffusion is characterized by the mean-squared displacement (msd) of the individual particles which increases with time t. Diffusive processes that follow Ficks law predict that the msd increases as t, however, single-file diffusion is sub-Fickean meaning that the msd is predicted to increase as t^(1/2). Particle position data from the dusty plasma ring is analyzed to determine the scaling of the msd with time. Results are compared with predictions of single-file diffusion theory.

  8. Periodic one-dimensional hopping model with transitions between nonadjacent states.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunxin

    2011-09-01

    A one-dimensional hopping model is useful for describing the motion of microscopic particles in a thermal noise environment. Recent experiments on the new generation of light-driven rotary molecular motors found that a motor in state i can jump forward to state i+1 or i+2 or backward to state i-1 or i-2 directly. In this paper, inspired by these experiments, such a modified periodic one-dimensional hopping model with arbitrary period N is studied theoretically. The mean velocity, effective diffusion constant, and mean dwell time in one single mechanochemical cycle are obtained. The corresponding results are illustrated and verified by being applied to the synthetic rotary molecular motors. PMID:22060325

  9. A one-dimensional model of solid-earth electrical resistivity beneath Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blum, Cletus; Love, Jeffrey J.; Pedrie, Kolby; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Rigler, E. Joshua

    2015-01-01

    An estimated one-dimensional layered model of electrical resistivity beneath Florida was developed from published geological and geophysical information. The resistivity of each layer is represented by plausible upper and lower bounds as well as a geometric mean resistivity. Corresponding impedance transfer functions, Schmucker-Weidelt transfer functions, apparent resistivity, and phase responses are calculated for inducing geomagnetic frequencies ranging from 10−5 to 100 hertz. The resulting one-dimensional model and response functions can be used to make general estimates of time-varying electric fields associated with geomagnetic storms such as might represent induction hazards for electric-power grid operation. The plausible upper- and lower-bound resistivity structures show the uncertainty, giving a wide range of plausible time-varying electric fields.

  10. One-dimensional hyperbolic transport: Positivity and admissible boundary conditions derived from the wave formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasiello, Antonio; Crescitelli, Silvestro; Giona, Massimiliano

    2016-05-01

    We consider the one-dimensional Cattaneo equation for transport of scalar fields such as solute concentration and temperature in mass and heat transport problems, respectively. Although the Cattaneo equation admits a stochastic interpretation-at least in the one-dimensional case-negative concentration values can occur in boundary-value problems on a finite interval. This phenomenon stems from the probabilistic nature of this model: the stochastic interpretation provides constraints on the admissible boundary conditions, as can be deduced from the wave formulation here presented. Moreover, as here shown, energetic inequalities and the dissipative nature of the equation provide an alternative way to derive the same constraints on the boundary conditions derived by enforcing positivity. The analysis reported is also extended to transport problems in the presence of a biasing velocity field. Several general conclusions are drawn from this analysis that could be extended to the higher-dimensional case.

  11. Wurtzite GaAs Quantum Wires: One-Dimensional Subband Formation.

    PubMed

    Vainorius, Neimantas; Lehmann, Sebastian; Gustafsson, Anders; Samuelson, Lars; Dick, Kimberly A; Pistol, Mats-Erik

    2016-04-13

    It is of contemporary interest to fabricate nanowires having quantum confinement and one-dimensional subband formation. This is due to a host of applications, for example, in optical devices, and in quantum optics. We have here fabricated and optically investigated narrow, down to 10 nm diameter, wurtzite GaAs nanowires which show strong quantum confinement and the formation of one-dimensional subbands. The fabrication was bottom up and in one step using the vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism. Combining photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy with transmission electron microscopy on the same individual nanowires, we were able to extract the effective masses of the electrons in the two lowest conduction bands as well as the effective masses of the holes in the two highest valence bands. Our results, combined with earlier demonstrations of thin crystal phase nanodots in GaAs, set the stage for the fabrication of crystal phase quantum dots having full three-dimensional confinement. PMID:27004550

  12. Properties of one-dimensional molybdenum nanowires in a confined environment

    SciTech Connect

    Sumpter, Bobby G; Meunier, Vincent; Muramatsu, H; Hayashi, T; Kim, Y A; Shimamoto, Daisuke; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto; Dresselhaus, M; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio; Endo, M

    2009-01-01

    The atomistic mechanism for the self-assembly of molybdenum into one-dimensional metallic nanowires in a confined environment such as a carbon nanotube is investigated using quantum mechanical calculations. We find that Mo does not organize into linear chains but rather prefers to form four atom per unit-cell nanowires that consist of a subunit of a Mo-BCC crystal. Our model explains the 0.3 nm separation between features measured by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and why the nanotube diameter must be in the 0.70 - 1.0 nm range to accommodate the smallest stable one-dimensional wire. We also computed the electronic band-structure of the Mo wires inside a nanotube and found significant hybridization with the nanotube states, thereby explaining the experimentally observed quenching of fluorescence and the damping of the radial breathing modes as well as an increased resistance to oxidation.

  13. Exact canonically conjugate momenta approach to a one-dimensional neutron-proton system, I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Seiya; da Providência, João

    2015-06-01

    Introducing collective variables, a collective description of nuclear surface oscillations has been developed with the first-quantized language, contrary to the second-quantized one in Sunakawa's approach for a Bose system. It overcomes difficulties remaining in the traditional theories of nuclear collective motions: Collective momenta are not exact canonically conjugate to collective coordinates and are not independent. On the contrary to such a description, Tomonaga first gave the basic idea to approach elementary excitations in a one-dimensional Fermi system. The Sunakawa's approach for a Fermi system is also expected to work well for such a problem. In this paper, on the isospin space, we define a density operator and further following Tomonaga, introduce a collective momentum. We propose an exact canonically momenta approach to a one-dimensional neutron-proton (N-P) system under the use of the Grassmann variables.

  14. Nonlinear Asymptotic Integration Algorithms for One-dimensional Autonomous Dissipative First-order Odes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslach, Henry W., Jr.; Freed, Alan D.; Walker, Kevin P.

    1994-01-01

    Nonlinear asymptotic integrators are applied to one-dimensional, nonlinear, autonomous, dissipative, ordinary differential equations. These integrators, including a one-step explicit, a one-step implicit, and a one- and two-step midpoint algorithm, are designed to follow the asymptotic behavior of a system approaching a steady state. The methods require that the differential equation be written in a particular asymptotic form. This is always possible for a one-dimensional equation with a globally asymptotic steady state. In this case, conditions are obtained to guarantee that the implicit algorithms are well defined. Further conditions are determined for the implicit methods to be contractive. These methods are all first order accurate, while under certain conditions the midpoint algorithms may also become second order accurate. The stability of each method is investigated and an estimate of the local error is provided.

  15. The role of multiple scattering in one-dimensional radiative transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, D.

    1975-01-01

    The usual methods of solving the radiative transfer equation yield answers which embrace all orders of scattering and thus shed little light on the underlying physical process. The present analysis examines the contributions of the various orders of scattering to the one dimensional transfer of radiation. In the one dimensional case an exact analytical solution exists and the problem reduces to that of expanding these exact solutions in powers of the albedo for single scattering. Formulas are given which permit the calculation of any order of scattering in an atmosphere of arbitrary optical thickness, particle albedo, and asymmetry parameter. The results should aid in identifying those physical situations where only the lowest orders of scattering play a significant role and where appropriate approximate methods might provide results of acceptable accuracy.

  16. Increase of Superconducting Correlation due to Dimensionality Change in Quasi-One-Dimensional Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuseya, Yuki; Ogata, Masao

    2007-09-01

    Response functions for spin-density-wave (SDW) and d-wave singlet superconductivity (dSC) in quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) electron systems are calculated by a renormalization group technique. It is shown that the response functions for both SDW, χs, and dSC, χd, are enhanced by interchain hopping, t\\bot, i.e., by quasi-one dimensionality. When the Fermi surface deviates from perfect nesting, χs saturates below the energy scale of imperfectness of the nesting, while χd is hardly affected. Consequently, the superconducting correlation increases even away from the SDW phase. This gives a possible interpretation of the recent experimental results of Q1D organic conductor (TMTTF)2SbF6, where Tc increases even away from the SDW phase.

  17. Calculations for the one-dimensional soft Coulomb problem and the hard Coulomb limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebremedhin, Daniel H.; Weatherford, Charles A.

    2014-05-01

    An efficient way of evolving a solution to an ordinary differential equation is presented. A finite element method is used where we expand in a convenient local basis set of functions that enforce both function and first derivative continuity across the boundaries of each element. We also implement an adaptive step-size choice for each element that is based on a Taylor series expansion. This algorithm is used to solve for the eigenpairs corresponding to the one-dimensional soft Coulomb potential, 1/√x2+β2 , which becomes numerically intractable (because of extreme stiffness) as the softening parameter (β) approaches zero. We are able to maintain near machine accuracy for β as low as β =10-8 using 16-digit precision calculations. Our numerical results provide insight into the controversial one-dimensional hydrogen atom, which is a limiting case of the soft Coulomb problem as β →0.

  18. Hot-wire probe used for measurement of one dimensional flow with bidirection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Chengxu

    2010-08-01

    In order to solve the difficulties of the measurement of one-dimensional and bi-direction flow by a hot-wire probe, a test method and the model experiment are presented in this paper. Based on the exiting hot-wire sensor, another same sensor is added. The two sensors are installed in parallel whose distance is 6 times their diameters, and they are separately connected to the controller. If the flow goes around two circular cylinders in tandem with the low Reynolds number, an obvious velocity drop between free-stream and gap flow can be found. Consequently, the velocity detected by the upstream sensor is higher than that by the downstream one. Because the relatively fixed position of the pair of sensors has been determined beforehand, the direction of the one-dimensional flow can be deduced from the plus and minus of velocity drop detected by the two sensors.

  19. Suppressing Klein tunneling in graphene using a one-dimensional array of localized scatterers.

    PubMed

    Walls, Jamie D; Hadad, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Graphene's unique physical and chemical properties make it an attractive platform for use in micro- and nanoelectronic devices. However, electrostatically controlling the flow of electrons in graphene can be challenging as a result of Klein tunneling, where electrons normally incident to a one-dimensional potential barrier of height V are perfectly transmitted even as V → ∞. In this study, theoretical and numerical calculations predict that the transmission probability for an electron wave normally incident to a one-dimensional array of localized scatterers can be significantly less than unity when the electron wavelength is smaller than the spacing between scatterers. In effect, placing periodic openings throughout a potential barrier can, somewhat counterintuitively, decrease transmission in graphene. Our results suggest that electrostatic potentials with spatial variations on the order of the electron wavelength can suppress Klein tunneling and could find applications in developing graphene electronic devices. PMID:25678400

  20. Consistent treatment of viscoelastic effects at junctions in one-dimensional blood flow models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Lucas O.; Leugering, Günter; Blanco, Pablo J.

    2016-06-01

    While the numerical discretization of one-dimensional blood flow models for vessels with viscoelastic wall properties is widely established, there is still no clear approach on how to couple one-dimensional segments that compose a network of viscoelastic vessels. In particular for Voigt-type viscoelastic models, assumptions with regard to boundary conditions have to be made, which normally result in neglecting the viscoelastic effect at the edge of vessels. Here we propose a coupling strategy that takes advantage of a hyperbolic reformulation of the original model and the inherent information of the resulting system. We show that applying proper coupling conditions is fundamental for preserving the physical coherence and numerical accuracy of the solution in both academic and physiologically relevant cases.

  1. Scattering of two coherent photons inside a one-dimensional coupled-resonator waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Alexanian, Moorad

    2010-01-15

    We consider the coherent propagation of n photons in a one-dimensional coupled-resonator waveguide for n=2,3,4.... The scattering by a three-level atom, which resides in one of the resonators of the waveguide and gives rise to only two-photon transitions, results in a perfect quantum switch that allows either total reflection or total transmission. This is to be contrasted to the case of a single photon inside a one-dimensional resonant waveguide scattered by a two-level system with single-photon transitions where only total reflection can be accomplished; viz. the system behaves only as a perfect mirror but not as an ideal, transparent medium.

  2. ODTLES : a model for 3D turbulent flow based on one-dimensional turbulence modeling concepts.

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, Randy; Kerstein, Alan R.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon

    2005-01-01

    This report describes an approach for extending the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model of Kerstein [6] to treat turbulent flow in three-dimensional (3D) domains. This model, here called ODTLES, can also be viewed as a new LES model. In ODTLES, 3D aspects of the flow are captured by embedding three, mutually orthogonal, one-dimensional ODT domain arrays within a coarser 3D mesh. The ODTLES model is obtained by developing a consistent approach for dynamically coupling the different ODT line sets to each other and to the large scale processes that are resolved on the 3D mesh. The model is implemented computationally and its performance is tested and evaluated by performing simulations of decaying isotropic turbulence, a standard turbulent flow benchmarking problem.

  3. Thermal conductivities of one-dimensional anharmonic/nonlinear lattices: renormalized phonons and effective phonon theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nianbei; Li, Baowen

    2012-12-01

    Heat transport in low-dimensional systems has attracted enormous attention from both theoretical and experimental aspects due to its significance to the perception of fundamental energy transport theory and its potential applications in the emerging field of phononics: manipulating heat flow with electronic anologs. We consider the heat conduction of one-dimensional nonlinear lattice models. The energy carriers responsible for the heat transport have been identified as the renormalized phonons. Within the framework of renormalized phonons, a phenomenological theory, effective phonon theory, has been developed to explain the heat transport in general one-dimensional nonlinear lattices. With the help of numerical simulations, it has been verified that this effective phonon theory is able to predict the scaling exponents of temperature-dependent thermal conductivities quantitatively and consistently.

  4. All-optical electromagnetically induced transparency using one-dimensional coupled microcavities.

    PubMed

    Naweed, Ahmer; Goldberg, David; Menon, Vinod M

    2014-07-28

    We report the first experimental realization of all-optical electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) via a pair of coherently interacting SiO2 microcavities in a one-dimensional SiO2/Si3N4 photonic crystal consisting of a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). The electromagnetic interactions between the coupled microcavities (CMCs), which possess distinct Q-factors, are controlled by varying the number of embedded SiO2/Si3N4 bilayers in the coupling DBR. In case of weak microcavity interactions, the reflectivity spectrum reveals an all-optical EIT resonance which splits into an Autler-Townes-like resonance under condition of strong microcavity coupling. Our results open up the way for implementing optical analogs of quantum coherence in much simpler one-dimensional structures. We also discuss potential applications of CMCs. PMID:25089499

  5. One-dimensional behavior and high thermoelectric power factor in thin indium arsenide nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Mensch, P.; Karg, S. Schmidt, V.; Gotsmann, B.; Schmid, H.; Riel, H.

    2015-03-02

    Electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of quasi-one-dimensional indium arsenide (InAs) nanowires with 20 nm diameter are investigated. The carrier concentration of the passivated nanowires was modulated by a gate electrode. A thermoelectric power factor of 1.7 × 10{sup −3} W/m K{sup 2} was measured at room temperature. This value is at least as high as in bulk-InAs and exceeds by far typical values of thicker InAs nanowires with three-dimensional properties. The interpretation of the experimental results in terms of power-factor enhancement by one-dimensionality is supported by model calculations using the Boltzmann transport formalism.

  6. Electron trapping and transport by supersonic solitons in one-dimensional systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    A one-dimensional chain of ions or molecules and electrons described by a Froehlich-type Hamiltonian with quartic phonon anharmonicities is investigated. It is shown that the anharmonic lattice supports supersonic solitons which under favorable circumstances may trap electrons and transport them along the lattice. For a lattice constant/soliton spatial extent quotient of the order of 0.1, rough estimates give electron trapping energies in the meV range. They imply a useful temperature range, up to tens of degrees K, for observing the new effect. The activation energy of a lattice soliton is proportional to the molecular mass and is therefore quite high (about 1 eV) for typical quasi-one-dimensional organic systems.

  7. On One-Dimensional Stretching Functions for Finite-Difference Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinokur, M.

    1980-01-01

    The class of one dimensional stretching function used in finite difference calculations is studied. For solutions containing a highly localized region of rapid variation, simple criteria for a stretching function are derived using a truncation error analysis. These criteria are used to investigate two types of stretching functions. One is an interior stretching function, for which the location and slope of an interior clustering region are specified. The simplest such function satisfying the criteria is found to be one based on the inverse hyperbolic sine. The other type of function is a two sided stretching function, for which the arbitrary slopes at the two ends of the one dimensional interval are specified. The simplest such general function is found to be one based on the inverse tangent. The general two sided function has many applications in the construction of finite difference grids.

  8. Bioinspired One-Dimensional Nano-Wrinkles Guide Liquid Behaviors at the Liquid-Solid Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Sun, Quanmei; Chen, Long; Feng, Jiantao; Han, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Learning from nature concerning how nanostructured surfaces interact with liquids may provide insight into better understanding of inside living biological interfaces bearing these nanostructures and further development of innovative materials contacting water. Here we investigate the dynamic behaviour of water droplet interacting with one-dimensional nano-wrinkles of different size on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface. The structure design of the variationally one-dimensional nano-wrinkles is inspired by in vivo responding topographic changes in aortic intima, which was characterized with liquid-phase atomic force microscopy. We show here that increasing the amplitude of the wrinkles promotes the spreading and energy dissipation of liquid droplets on the wrinkled interfaces. This result suggests a possible bio-protection mechanism of blood vessels via its structural changes on the aortic intima against elevated flowing blood, and provides a basis for tuning interfacial nanostructure of optimal durability against wearing by the liquid behaviors. PMID:27398541

  9. One-dimensional polyaniline nanostructures synthesized by interfacial polymerization in a solids-stabilized emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yongjun

    2006-01-01

    One-dimensional polyaniline nanostructures were synthesized by interfacial polymerization in a solids-stabilized oil/water emulsion for the first time. The products were characterized with TEM, FTIR and UV-vis. FTIR analyses proved the polyaniline synthesized were of emeraldine salt form; the results of TEM showed that when MgCO 3 and CaCO 3 particles were used as emulsifiers, polyaniline nanofibers with an average diameter of 33 nm and nanotubes with an average outer diameter of 28 nm were obtained, respectively. Comparing to ordinary interfacial polymerization approach, our new route needed much less amount of oil phase and shorter polymerization time. A possible mechanism for the formation of one-dimensional polyaniline nanostructures was suggested.

  10. Suppressing Klein tunneling in graphene using a one-dimensional array of localized scatterers

    PubMed Central

    Walls, Jamie D.; Hadad, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Graphene's unique physical and chemical properties make it an attractive platform for use in micro- and nanoelectronic devices. However, electrostatically controlling the flow of electrons in graphene can be challenging as a result of Klein tunneling, where electrons normally incident to a one-dimensional potential barrier of height V are perfectly transmitted even as V → ∞. In this study, theoretical and numerical calculations predict that the transmission probability for an electron wave normally incident to a one-dimensional array of localized scatterers can be significantly less than unity when the electron wavelength is smaller than the spacing between scatterers. In effect, placing periodic openings throughout a potential barrier can, somewhat counterintuitively, decrease transmission in graphene. Our results suggest that electrostatic potentials with spatial variations on the order of the electron wavelength can suppress Klein tunneling and could find applications in developing graphene electronic devices. PMID:25678400

  11. State-transition-matrix method for inverse scattering in one-dimensional inhomogeneous media.

    PubMed

    Zarifi, Davoud; Soleimani, Mohammad; Abdolali, Ali

    2014-11-01

    This study presents an analytical approach for the electromagnetic characterization of one-dimensional inhomogeneous media. The proposed approach provides the permittivity profile of the medium in terms of the reflection and transmission coefficients. The inverse solution of the permittivity profile is obtained with the help of the state-transition matrix (STM) and its properties, which are presented and proved. The advantage of using this analytic reconstruction technique is its ability to remove complexity and nonlinearity of the inverse problem. Several examples have been considered for validation of the proposed technique and, in each case, quite good agreement has been found between the original and reconstructed profiles. It has been established from the obtained results that when the scattering parameters are combined with the properties of STM, a robust and reliable technique is provided for the electromagnetic characterization of one-dimensional inhomogeneous media. PMID:25493896

  12. Tunable terahertz multichannel filter based on one-dimensional superconductor-dielectric photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yang; Yi, Lin

    2014-12-14

    By means of the transfer matrix method, the transmission properties of one-dimensional photonic crystals (PCs) consisting of superconductor and dielectric have been systematically investigated within the terahertz frequency range (0.1–10 THz). It is shown that comb-like resonant peaks in transmission band can be formed without adding any defect layer in superconductor-dielectric PCs, which means that such a one-dimensional periodic structure can serve as a tunable terahertz multichannel filter by using the PCs passband. Furthermore, the influences coming from the period of the structure, the thickness of the components, the permittivity of the dielectric layers, temperature, and the normal conducting electrons on the filtering properties are also numerically investigated.

  13. Non-Luttinger quantum liquid of one-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Po, Hoi Chun; Chen, Weiqiang; Zhou, Qi

    2014-07-01

    We show that the synthetic spin-orbit coupling created in current ultracold atom experiments provides physicists a unique tool to control the Luttinger liquid parameter K of weakly interacting bosons in one dimension. At a critical value of the Raman coupling strength Ωc, K is suppressed down to zero, and the characteristic quasi-long-range order for ordinary one-dimensional quantum systems disappears. Consequently, the single-particle correlation function decays exponentially at the ground state, signifying the rise of a one-dimensional quantum many-body state beyond the standard Luttinger liquid paradigm. Momentum distribution, as well as scaling relations for various quantities in the vicinity of the critical point, can be used as a direct diagnosis of this non-Luttinger quantum liquid.

  14. Photonic band structures of one-dimensional photonic crystals doped with plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, B.; Xie, M. Q.; Peng, L.

    2012-07-01

    The photonic band structures (PBSs) of oblique incidence propagation in one-dimensional plasma-doped photonic crystals (PCs) are investigated carefully. When the lattice constant of plasma-doped PCs is less than the incident wavelength, the PC becomes anisotropic. Therefore, the dielectric constant of PC is converted into a complex tensor dielectric constant. This determines the PBSs of PCs. In the present paper, one-dimensional PCs are taken as an example to study both normal and absorption PBSs. Using both the effective medium approximation and the transfer matrix method, we can derive the dispersion relation for PCs. The dependence of the plasma filling factor on the effective dielectric constant and PBSs is calculated and discussed.

  15. One-dimensional rare earth compounds and complexes: preparation and improved photoluminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Song, Hongwei; Pan, Guohui; Bai, Xue; Li, Suwen; Yu, Hongquan; Zhang, Hui

    2008-03-01

    One-dimensional nanosized phosphors demonstrate special structural and photoluminescence properties, which have application potential in some optical fields. In this article, we present our recent progress on preparation and luminescence properties of some one-dimensional rare earth compounds and complexes, the core-shell oxide nanowires prepared by a two-step hydrothermal route, the nanowires of some inorganic compounds doped with rare earths and rare earth complexes/PVP composites prepared by the electrospinning method, and the rare earth complexes in the SBA-15 mesoporous molecule sieves. In these systems, some novel or improved photoluminescence properties are observed such as improved luminescence quantum yield, thermal stability and/or photostability, and depressed thermal effect in upconversion luminescence. PMID:18468146

  16. Exact spatial density of ideal Bose atoms in a one-dimensional harmonic trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ze

    2016-05-01

    We have proposed an exact analytical solution to the problem of Bose–Einstein condensation (BEC) of harmonically trapped, one-dimensional, and ideal atoms. It is found that the number of atoms in vapor is characterized by an analytical function, which involves a q -digamma function in mathematics. We employ the q -digamma function to calculate the spatial density n(z;T, N) of ideal Bose atoms in a one-dimensional harmonic trap. The first main finding in this paper is that when Bose atoms are in the normal state, the density profile exhibits Friedel oscillations. The second main finding is that when Bose atoms are in the BEC state, the density profile exhibits a sharp peak with extremely narrow width. The third main finding is that the central peak of the spatial density is a monotonically increasing function of the number of atoms N but is a monotonically decreasing function of temperature T.

  17. Motion of Cesium Atoms in the One-Dimensional Magneto-Optical Trap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Yimin; Chen, Xuzong; Wang, Qingji; Wang, Yiqiu

    1996-01-01

    The force to which Cs atoms are subjected in the one-dimensional magneto-optical trap (lD-MOT) is calculated, and properties of this force are discussed. Several methods to increase the number of Cs atoms in the lD-MOT are presented on the basis of the analysis of the capture and escape of Cs atoms in the ID-MOT.

  18. Quasi-one-dimensional compressible flow across face seals and narrow slots. 2: Computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.; Smith, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    A computer program is presented for compressible fluid flow with friction across face seals and through narrow slots. The computer program carries out a quasi-one-dimensional flow analysis which is valid for laminar and turbulent flows under both subsonic and choked flow conditions for parallel surfaces. The program is written in FORTRAN IV. The input and output variables are in either the International System of Units (SI) or the U.S. customary system.

  19. Flexibly guiding of acoustic waves by one-dimensional sonic crystal with omnidirectional bandgap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hai-Long; Ou-Yang, Shi-Liang; He, Zhaojian; Deng, Ke; Zhao, Heping

    2015-09-01

    An acoustic waveguide based on the omnidirectional reflection of one-dimensional (1D) sonic crystal (sc) is designed to realize the flexible guiding of sound waves. Numerical simulations indicate that high-efficiency transmission can be achieved at arbitrary bending angle and over a wide frequency range. Moreover, flexible waveguide branches can also be easily constructed by introducing more crystal structures into the waveguides. Owing to its designing flexibility, this waveguide would be very useful in various integrated applications based on SCs.

  20. Femtosecond lasing from a fluorescent protein in a one dimensional random cavity

    PubMed Central

    Drane, T.M.; Bach, H.; Shapiro, M.; Milner, V.

    2015-01-01

    We present evidence of random lasing from the fluorescent protein DsRed2 embedded in a random one-dimensional cavity. Lasing is achieved when a purified protein solution, placed inside a layered random medium, is optically excited with a femtosecond pump pulse in the direction perpendicular to the plane of random layers. We demonstrate that pumping with ultrashort pulses resulted in a lasing threshold two orders of magnitude lower than that found for nanosecond excitation. PMID:26137388

  1. Low-cost lithography for fabrication of one-dimensional diffraction gratings by using laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinghui; Zhu, Xiangwen; Zhou, Qian; Wang, Huanhuan; Ni, Kai

    2015-08-01

    A low-cost lithography technology is presented in this paper for fabrication of sub-micron order one-dimensional diffraction gratings. A Lloyd's mirror interferometer which can generate stable interference fringes is used as fabrication tool. The Lloyd's mirror interferometer is composed of a mirror and a substrate coated by photoresist, which are placed by nighty degrees. A plane wave is projected onto the Lloyd's mirror and divided into two halves, one of which is directly projected onto the substrate and the other one reaches the substrate after being reflected by the mirror. These two beam interfere with each other and generate interference fringes, which are exposed onto the photoresist. After being developed, the exposed photoresist shows a one-dimensional surface-relief grating structures. In conventional lithography system based on the principle mentioned above, gas lasers, such as He-Cd laser are widely employed. The cost and footprint of such laser sources, however, are always high and bulky. A low-cost system by using cost-efficient 405 nm laser diodes is then proposed for solving these problems. A key parameter, coherence length that determines one-dimensional grating width is systematically studied. A fabrication system based on the interference lithography principle and 405 nm laser diodes is constructed for evaluation of the feasibility of using laser didoes as laser source. Gratings with 570 nm pitch are fabricated and evaluated by an atomic force microscope. Experiments results show that low-cost 405 nm laser diode is an effective laser source for one-dimensional grating fabrication.

  2. Extended supersymmetry and hidden symmetries in one-dimensional matrix quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrianov, A. A.; Sokolov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    We study properties of nonlinear supersymmetry algebras realized in the one-dimensional quantum mechanics of matrix systems. Supercharges of these algebras are differential operators of a finite order in derivatives. In special cases, there exist independent supercharges realizing an (extended) supersymmetry of the same super-Hamiltonian. The extended supersymmetry generates hidden symmetries of the super-Hamiltonian. Such symmetries have been found in models with (2×2)-matrix potentials.

  3. Structural features of conducting quasi-one-dimensional organic halides and pseudohalides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R.; Lowe-Ma, C.; Samson, S.

    1982-01-01

    The physical properties of quasi-one-dimensional conductors are profoundly influenced by slight changes in structure. The unusual structural features of this class of materials include only short range order of the anions and structure modulation. The nature of disorder and structure modulation can affect the character of the metal-to-insulator transition at low temperature, and may allow us to make some predictions of low temperature behavior based on room temperature structural properties.

  4. Study of thermal throat of RBCC combustor based on one-dimensional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-jun; Li, Jiang; Qin, Fei; He, Guo-qiang; Shi, Lei

    2015-12-01

    An analysis model was developed to better understand the formation mechanism and variation law of the thermal throat in a rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) combustor. This analysis model is based on one-dimensional flow equations and consideration of the variation in factors such as the area, exothermic distribution, and the fuel-rich jet of the rocket. The influence law for the thermal throat under the interaction of the exothermic distribution and the variation of the area is consistent with the heat release models for a gaseous jet and liquid kerosene. The effective cross-sectional area of the jet was calculated and incorporated into the model. The results calculated using the one-dimensional model were found to be consistent with those obtained from a three-dimensional numerical simulation. The position of the thermal throat was predicted with an error of 0.36%. The maximum relative errors of the static pressure among the corresponding points were 7.4% and 9.3% for the static temperature and total pressure, respectively. The one-dimensional model and three-dimensional numerical simulation were validated using experimental data obtained in direct-connect testing. Except for the cavity region, the maximum relative error of the corresponding points between the simulation results and test results was less than 8.9%, and that between the model results and test results was 10.4%. Compared to the fuel equivalence ratio, the expansion ratio, injection location, and exothermic rate have a significant impact on the position of the thermal throat. An optimization study of the RBCC combustor for the ramjet mode was conducted by adjusting the thermal throat. The thrust performance improved by 31.6% at Ma3 after optimization. These results indicate the important role that the one-dimensional model can play in analyzing the thermal throat and guiding the preliminary design of an RBCC combustor.

  5. Pressure-induced recovery of Fourier's law in one-dimensional momentum-conserving systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Dye SK

    2016-07-01

    We report the two typical models of normal heat conduction in one-dimensional momentum-conserving systems. They show the Arrhenius and the non-Arrhenius temperature dependence. We construct the two corresponding phenomenologies, transition-state theory of thermally activated dissociation and the pressure-induced crossover between two fixed points in fluctuating hydrodynamics. Compressibility yields the ballistic fixed point, whose scaling is observed in Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) β lattices.

  6. Critical fluctuations in the one-dimensional Bak-Sneppen model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, W. Y.; Yang, C. B.

    2012-11-01

    The critical fluctuation properties of fitness distribution in the one-dimensional Bak-Sneppen model are studied in terms of the normalized factorial moments, erraticity moments and the factorial correlators. For a fitness window below the gap intermittent behaviors are observed. The scaling exponent for the BS model is different from that in two dimensional Ising model for second order phase transition. There is no correlation between fluctuations in two windows separated by the critical gap.

  7. One-dimensional Vlasov simulation of parallel electric fields in two-electron population plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Saharia, K.; Goswami, K. S.

    2007-09-15

    One-dimensional Vlasov simulation in electron current carrying multicomponent plasma seeded with a density depression is presented. Considering two electron populations [one is sufficiently hot ({approx}keV) and the other is cold along with cold background ions], the formation of weak double layers is investigated. Simulation results show that in this numerical setting, formation of such double layers needs the majority of the hot electrons.

  8. Exact solution of the one-dimensional Hubbard model with arbitrary boundary magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Cao, Junpeng; Yang, Wen-Li; Shi, Kangjie; Wang, Yupeng

    2014-02-01

    The one-dimensional Hubbard model with arbitrary boundary magnetic fields is solved exactly via the Bethe ansatz methods. With the coordinate Bethe ansatz in the charge sector, the second eigenvalue problem associated with the spin sector is constructed. It is shown that the second eigenvalue problem can be transformed into that of the inhomogeneous XXX spin chain with arbitrary boundary fields which can be solved via the off-diagonal Bethe ansatz method.

  9. Residual entropy and waterlike anomalies in the repulsive one dimensional lattice gas

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Fernando Barbosa V. da; Oliveira, Fernando Albuquerque; Barbosa, Marco Aurélio A.

    2015-04-14

    The thermodynamics and kinetics of the one dimensional lattice gas with repulsive interaction are investigated using transfer matrix technique and Monte Carlo simulations. This simple model is shown to exhibit waterlike anomalies in density, thermal expansion coefficient, and self-diffusion. An unified description for the thermodynamic anomalies in this model is achieved based on the ground state residual entropy which appears in the model due to mixing entropy in a ground state phase transition.

  10. One-dimensional Fibonacci grating for far-field super-resolution imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kedi; Wang, Guo Ping

    2013-06-15

    One-dimensional Fibonacci gratings are used to transform evanescent waves into propagating waves for far-field super-resolution imaging. By detecting far-field intensity distributions of light through objects in front of the Fibonacci grating in free space, we can observe the objects with nearly λ/9 spatial resolution. Analytical results are verified by numerical simulations. We also discuss the effect of sampling error on imaging resolution of the system. PMID:23938967

  11. Analytical and Computational Study of One-Dimensional Impact of Graded Elastic Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidler, Mike; Gazonas, George

    2002-07-01

    Some of the recent efforts to improve the ballistic performance of lightweight armors utilize functionally graded materials to provide a continuous transition in properties between dissimilar materials. It has been conjectured that the elimination of abrupt acoustic impedance changes may result in beneficial stress wave attenuation. We examine this issue for some idealized one-dimensional problems in which all materials are linear elastic. Exact solutions are compared with DYNA3D simulations of the same problems.

  12. The interaction of a Prandtl-Meyer wave and a quasi-one-dimensional flow region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silnikov, M. V.; Chernyshov, M. V.

    2015-04-01

    A mathematical model for the interaction between a Prandtl-Meyer flow and a quasi-one-dimensional subsonic or supersonic stream is developed. The analytical description of the shape of the slipstream dividing two interacting streams is achieved, and its parametrical analysis is performed. The results of the study may be of practical use in supersonic jet flow-obstacle interaction analysis, which is important for the safety of space vehicle launches.

  13. Superfluid–insulator transition in strongly disordered one-dimensional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhiyuan; Pollet, Lode; Prokof’ev, N.; Svistunov, B.

    2016-04-01

    We present an asymptotically exact renormalization-group theory of the superfluid–insulator transition in one-dimensional (1D) disordered systems, with emphasis on an accurate description of the interplay between the Giamarchi–Schulz (instanton–anti-instanton) and weak-link (scratched-XY) criticalities. Combining the theory with extensive quantum Monte Carlo simulations allows us to shed new light on the ground-state phase diagram of the 1D disordered Bose–Hubbard model at unit filling.

  14. Wannier functions for one-dimensional s-p optical superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganczarek, Wojciech; Modugno, Michele; Pettini, Giulio; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2014-09-01

    The physics of one-dimensional optical superlattices with resonant s-p orbitals is reexamined in the language of appropriate Wannier functions. It is shown that details of the tight-binding model realized in different optical potentials crucially depend on the proper determination of Wannier functions. We discuss the properties of a superlattice model which quasiresonantly couples s and p orbitals and show its relation with different tight-binding models used in other works.

  15. Conditioned quantum motion of an atom in a continuously monitored one-dimensional lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blattmann, Ralf; Mølmer, Klaus

    2016-05-01

    We consider a quantum particle on a one-dimensional lattice subject to weak local measurements and study its stochastic dynamics conditioned on the measurement outcomes. Depending on the measurement strength our analysis of the quantum trajectories reveals dynamical regimes ranging from quasicoherent wave-packet oscillations to a Zeno-type dynamics. We analyze how these dynamical regimes are directly reflected in the spectral properties of the noisy measurement records.

  16. Comment on 'Absolute negative mobility in a one-dimensional overdamped system'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiechowicz, J.; Kostur, M.; Łuczka, J.

    2016-04-01

    Recently Ru-Yin Chen et al. (Phys. Lett. A 379 (2015) 2169-2173) presented results on the absolute negative mobility (ANM) in a one-dimensional overdamped system and claimed that a new minimal model of ANM was proposed. We suggest that the authors introduced a mistake in their calculations. Then we perform a precise numerical simulation of the corresponding Langevin equation to show that the ANM phenomenon does not occur in the considered system.

  17. Transition from a Two-Dimensional Superfluid to a One-Dimensional Mott Insulator

    SciTech Connect

    Bergkvist, Sara; Rosengren, Anders; Saers, Robert; Lundh, Emil; Rehn, Magnus; Kastberg, Anders

    2007-09-14

    A two-dimensional system of atoms in an anisotropic optical lattice is studied theoretically. If the system is finite in one direction, it is shown to exhibit a transition between a two-dimensional superfluid and a one-dimensional Mott insulating chain of superfluid tubes. Monte Carlo simulations are consistent with the expectation that the phase transition is of Kosterlitz-Thouless type. The effect of the transition on experimental time-of-flight images is discussed.

  18. Strongly confined tunnel-coupled one-dimensional electron systems from an asymmetric double quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, S. S.; Fischer, S. F.; Kunze, U.; Schuh, D.; Abstreiter, G.

    2008-03-01

    Vertically stacked quantum point contacts (QPCs) are prepared by atomic force microscope (AFM) lithography from an asymmetric GaAs/AlGaAs double quantum well (DQW) heterostructure. Top- and back-gate voltages are used to tune the tunnel-coupled QPCs, and back-gate bias cooling is employed to investigate coupled and decoupled one-dimensional (1D) modes. Parity dependent mode coupling is invoked by the particular asymmetry in the vertical DQW confinement.

  19. Inverse coefficient problems for one-dimensional heat transfer with a preservation of medium temperature condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oralsyn, Gulaym

    2016-08-01

    We study an inverse coefficient problem for a model equation for one-dimensional heat transfer with a preservation of medium temperature. It is needed (together with finding its solution) to find time dependent unknown coefficient of the equation. So, for this inverse problem, existence of an unique generalized solution is proved. The main difficulty of the considered problems is that the eigenfunction system of the corresponding boundary value problems does not have the basis property.

  20. Classical Communication Help and Probabilistic Teleportation with One-Dimensional Non-maximally Entangled Cluster States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yan; Song, Jie; Song, He-Shan

    2008-06-01

    We present an explicit protocol for probabilistic teleport an arbitrary and unknown two-qubit entangled state via a one-dimensional four-particle non-maximally entangled cluster state. By construction, our four-partite state is not reducible to a pair of Bell states. We show that teleportation can be successfully realized with a certain probability. This protocol indicate that the four-qubit state is a likely candidate for the genuine four-particle analogue to a Bell state.