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Sample records for one-dimensional quantum zakharov

  1. One-dimensional Quantum Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervais, Guillaume

    2015-03-01

    Fifty year ago, Joachim Mazdak Luttinger generalized the Tomonaga theory of interactions in a one-dimensional metal and show that the prior restrictions imposed by Tomonaga were not necessary. This model is now known as the Tomonaga- Luttinger liquid model (TLL) and most remarkably it does have mathematically exact solutions. In the case of electrons, it predicts that the spin and charge sector should separate, with each of them propagating with their own velocities. While there has been many attempts (some with great success) to observe TLL behaviour in clean quantum wires designed on an ultra-clean semiconductor platform, overall the Luttinger physics is experimentally still in its infancy. For instance, little is known regarding the 1D physics in a strongly-interacting neutral system, whether from the point-of-view of TLL theory or even localization physics. Helium-4, the paradigm superfluid, and Helium-3, the paradigm Fermi liquid, should in principleboth become Luttinger liquids if taken to the one-dimensional limit. In the bosonic case, this is supported by large-scale Quantum Monte Carlo simulations which found that a lengthscale of ~ 2 nm is sufficient for the system to crossover to the 1D regime and display universal Luttinger scaling. At McGill University, an experiment has been constructed to measure the liquid helium mass flow through a single nanopore. The technique consists of drilling a single nanopore in a SiN membrane using a TEM, and then applying a pressure gradient across the membrane. Previously published data in 45nm diameter hole determined the superfluid critical velocity to be close to the limit set by the Feynman vortex rings model. More recent work performed on nanopores with radii as small as 3 nm (and a length of 30nm) show the critical exponent for superfluid velocity to significantly deviate from its bulk value, 2/3. This is an important hint for the crossing over to the one-dimensional state in a strongly-correlated bosonic liquid.

  2. Zakharov equations in quantum dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Sayed, F.; Vladimirov, S. V.; Ishihara, O.

    2015-08-15

    By generalizing the formalism of modulational interactions in quantum dusty plasmas, we derive the kinetic quantum Zakharov equations in dusty plasmas that describe nonlinear coupling of high frequency Langmuir waves to low frequency plasma density variations, for cases of non-degenerate and degenerate plasma electrons.

  3. One dimensional representations in quantum optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janszky, J.; Adam, P.; Foldesi, I.; Vinogradov, An. V.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of representing the quantum states of a harmonic oscillator not on the whole alpha-plane but on its one dimensional manifolds is considered. It is shown that a simple Gaussian distribution along a straight line describes a quadrature squeezed state while a similar Gaussian distribution along a circle leads to the amplitude squeezed state. The connection between the one dimensional representations and the usual Glauber representation is discussed.

  4. Pattern dynamics and spatiotemporal chaos in the quantum Zakharov equations.

    PubMed

    Misra, A P; Shukla, P K

    2009-05-01

    The dynamical behavior of the nonlinear interaction of quantum Langmuir waves (QLWs) and quantum ion-acoustic waves (QIAWs) is studied in the one-dimensional quantum Zakharov equations. Numerical simulations of coupled QLWs and QIAWs reveal that many coherent solitary patterns can be excited and saturated via the modulational instability of unstable harmonic modes excited by a modulation wave number of monoenergetic QLWs. The evolution of such solitary patterns may undergo the states of spatially partial coherence (SPC), coexistence of temporal chaos and spatiotemporal chaos (STC), as well as STC. The SPC state is essentially due to ion-acoustic wave emission and due to quantum diffraction, while the STC is caused by the combined effects of SPC and quantum diffraction, as well as by collisions and fusions among patterns in stochastic motion. The energy in the system is strongly redistributed, which may switch on the onset of weak turbulence in dense quantum plasmas. PMID:19518570

  5. Pattern dynamics and spatiotemporal chaos in the quantum Zakharov equations

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, A. P.; Shukla, P. K.

    2009-05-15

    The dynamical behavior of the nonlinear interaction of quantum Langmuir waves (QLWs) and quantum ion-acoustic waves (QIAWs) is studied in the one-dimensional quantum Zakharov equations. Numerical simulations of coupled QLWs and QIAWs reveal that many coherent solitary patterns can be excited and saturated via the modulational instability of unstable harmonic modes excited by a modulation wave number of monoenergetic QLWs. The evolution of such solitary patterns may undergo the states of spatially partial coherence (SPC), coexistence of temporal chaos and spatiotemporal chaos (STC), as well as STC. The SPC state is essentially due to ion-acoustic wave emission and due to quantum diffraction, while the STC is caused by the combined effects of SPC and quantum diffraction, as well as by collisions and fusions among patterns in stochastic motion. The energy in the system is strongly redistributed, which may switch on the onset of weak turbulence in dense quantum plasmas.

  6. Unitary equivalent classes of one-dimensional quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Hiromichi

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates unitary equivalent classes of one-dimensional quantum walks. We prove that one-dimensional quantum walks are unitary equivalent to quantum walks of Ambainis type and that translation-invariant one-dimensional quantum walks are Szegedy walks. We also present a necessary and sufficient condition for a one-dimensional quantum walk to be a Szegedy walk.

  7. Coherent and passive one dimensional quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Yuting; Jefferson, John H.; Lovett, Brendon W.

    2014-10-01

    We show that the state of a flying qubit may be transferred to a chain of identical, (near) ferromagnetically polarized, but non-interacting, static spin-\\frac{1}{2} particles in a passive way. During this process the flying qubit is coherently polarized, emerging in the direction of the majority static spins. We conjecture that this process is reversible for any number of flying qubits injected sequentially in an arbitrary superposition state, proving this explicitly for an arbitrary state of one and two flying qubits. We also find a special case in which we are able to prove the conjecture for an arbitrary number of qubits. Our architecture thus has the potential to be exploited as a passive quantum memory to encode the flying qubits without the necessity of resetting between successive encoding operations. We also illustrate that the quantum information may be spread over many static spins in the memory chain, making the mechanism resistant to spin decoherence and other imperfections. We discuss implementing the memory system with trapped bosonic atoms, controlled by a spatial light modulator.

  8. Fate of classical solitons in one-dimensional quantum systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Pustilnik, M.; Matveev, K. A.

    2015-11-23

    We study one-dimensional quantum systems near the classical limit described by the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. The excitations near this limit are the well-known solitons and phonons. The classical description breaks down at long wavelengths, where quantum effects become dominant. Focusing on the spectra of the elementary excitations, we describe analytically the entire classical-to-quantum crossover. We show that the ultimate quantum fate of the classical KdV excitations is to become fermionic quasiparticles and quasiholes. We discuss in detail two exactly solvable models exhibiting such crossover, the Lieb-Liniger model of bosons with weak contact repulsion and the quantum Toda model, and argue that the results obtained for these models are universally applicable to all quantum one-dimensional systems with a well-defined classical limit described by the KdV equation.

  9. Quantum rectifier in a one-dimensional photonic channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascarenhas, E.; Santos, M. F.; Auffèves, A.; Gerace, D.

    2016-04-01

    By using a fully quantum approach based on an input-output formulation of the stochastic Schrödinger equation, we show rectification of radiation fields in a one-dimensional waveguide doped with a pair of ideal two-level systems for three topical cases: classical driving, under the action of noise, and single-photon pulsed excitation. We show that even under the constant action of unwanted noise the device still operates effectively as an optical isolator, which is of critical importance for noise resistance. Finally, harnessing stimulated emission allows for nonreciprocal behavior for single-photon inputs, thus showing purely quantum rectification at the single-photon level. The latter is a considerable step towards the ultimate goal of devising an unconditional quantum rectifier for arbitrary quantum states.

  10. Casimir forces between defects in one-dimensional quantum liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Recati, A.; Fuchs, J.N.; Peca, C.S.; Zwerger, W.

    2005-08-15

    We discuss the effective interactions between two localized perturbations in one-dimensional quantum liquids. For noninteracting fermions, the interactions exhibit Friedel oscillations, giving rise to a Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida-type interaction familiar from impurity spins in metals. In the interacting case, at low energies, a Luttinger-liquid description applies. In the case of repulsive fermions, the Friedel oscillations of the interacting system are replaced, at long distances, by a universal Casimir-type interaction which depends only on the sound velocity and decays inversely with the separation. The Casimir-type interaction between localized perturbations embedded in a fermionic environment gives rise to a long-range coupling between quantum dots in ultracold Fermi gases, opening an alternative to couple qubits with neutral atoms. We also briefly discuss the case of bosonic quantum liquids in which the interaction between weak impurities turns out to be short ranged, decaying exponentially on the scale of the healing length.

  11. Decay of fermionic quasiparticles in one-dimensional quantum liquids.

    PubMed

    Matveev, K A; Furusaki, A

    2013-12-20

    The low-energy properties of one-dimensional quantum liquids are commonly described in terms of the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid theory, in which the elementary excitations are free bosons. To this approximation, the theory can be alternatively recast in terms of free fermions. In both approaches, small perturbations give rise to finite lifetimes of excitations. We evaluate the decay rate of fermionic excitations and show that it scales as the eighth power of energy, in contrast to the much faster decay of bosonic excitations. Our results can be tested experimentally by measuring the broadening of power-law features in the density structure factor or spectral functions. PMID:24483750

  12. One-dimensional quantum spin heterojunction as a thermal switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chuan-Jing; Jin, Li-Hui; Gong, Wei-Jiang

    2016-03-01

    We study the thermal transport through a quantum spin-1 2 heterojunction, which consists of a finite-size chain with two-site anisotropic XY interaction and three-site XZX+YZY interaction coupled at its ends to two semi-infinite isotropic XY chains. By performing the Jordan-Wigner transformation, the original spin Hamiltonian is mapped onto a fermionic Hamiltonian. Then, the fermionic structure is discussed, and the heat current as a function of structural parameters is evaluated. It is found that the magnetic fields applied at respective chains play different roles in adjusting the heat current in this heterojunction. Moreover, the interplay between the anisotropy of the XY interaction and the three-site spin interaction assists to further control the thermal transport. In view of the numerical results, we propose this heterojunction to be an alternate candidate for manipulating the heat current in one-dimensional (1D) systems.

  13. Dynamics of Mobile Impurities in One-Dimensional Quantum Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schecter, Michael

    2014-09-01

    We study the dynamics of mobile impurities in a one-dimensional quantum liquid. Due to singular scattering with low-energy excitations of the host liquid, the impurity spectral properties become strongly renormalized even at weak coupling. This leads to universal phenomena with no higher-dimensional counterparts, such as lattice-free Bloch oscillations, power-law threshold behavior in the impurity spectral function and a quantum phase transition as the impurity mass exceeds a critical value. The additional possibility of integrability in one-dimension leads to the absence of thermal viscosity at special points in parameter space. The vanishing of the phonon-mediated Casimir interaction between separate impurities can be understood on the same footing. We explore these remarkable phenomena by developing an effective low-energy theory that identifies the proper collective coordinates of the dressed impurity, and their coupling to the low-energy excitations of the host liquid. The main appeal of our approach lies in its ability to describe a dynamic response using effective parameters which obey exact thermodynamic relations. The latter may be extracted using powerful numerical or analytical techniques available in one-dimension, yielding asymptotically exact results for the low-energy impurity dynamics.

  14. Bulk-edge correspondence of one-dimensional quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cedzich, C.; Grünbaum, F. A.; Stahl, C.; Velázquez, L.; Werner, A. H.; Werner, R. F.

    2016-05-01

    We outline a theory of symmetry protected topological phases of one-dimensional quantum walks. We assume spectral gaps around the symmetry-distinguished points +1 and ‑1, in which only discrete eigenvalues are allowed. The phase classification by integer or binary indices extends the classification known for translation invariant systems in terms of their band structure. However, our theory requires no translation invariance whatsoever, and the indices we define in this general setting are invariant under arbitrary symmetric local perturbations, even those that cannot be continuously contracted to the identity. More precisely we define two indices for every walk, characterizing the behavior far to the right and far to the left, respectively. Their sum is a lower bound on the number of eigenstates at +1 and ‑1. For a translation invariant system the indices add up to zero, so one of them already characterizes the phase. By joining two bulk phases with different indices we get a walk in which the right and left indices no longer cancel, so the theory predicts bound states at +1 or ‑1. This is a rigorous statement of bulk-edge correspondence. The results also apply to the Hamiltonian case with a single gap at zero.

  15. Quantum walks with a one-dimensional coin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Erba, Marco; Perinotti, Paolo; Tosini, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    Quantum walks (QWs) describe particles evolving coherently on a graph. The internal degree of freedom corresponds to a Hilbert space, called a coin system. We consider QWs on Cayley graphs of some group G . In the literature, investigations concerning infinite G have been focused on graphs corresponding to G =Zd with a coin system of dimension 2, whereas for a one-dimensional coin (so-called scalar QWs) only the case of finite G has been studied. Here we prove that the evolution of a scalar QW with G infinite Abelian is trivial, providing a thorough classification of this kind of walks. Then we consider the infinite dihedral group D∞, that is, the unique non-Abelian group G containing a subgroup H ≅Z with two cosets. We characterize the class of QWs on the Cayley graphs of D∞, and, via a coarse-graining technique, we show that it coincides with the class of spinorial walks on Z which satisfies parity symmetry. This class of QWs includes the Weyl and the Dirac QWs. Remarkably, there exist also spinorial walks that are not coarse graining of a scalar QW, such as the Hadamard walk.

  16. Quench dynamics in one-dimensional quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, Jarrett L.

    The possibility of simulating non-equilibrium physics using cold atomic systems motivates many open questions regarding the dynamics of systems whose equilibrium properties are well understood. We first consider the non-equilibrium dynamics in a one-dimensional quantum spin chain by arranging the spins in an inhomogeneous initial state by application of a spatially varying magnetic field and rapidly switching off the field, also allowing for a sudden change in the interaction strength. The non-interacting case is treated exactly. To treat interactions, we employ a low-energy bosonization approach which correctly reproduces the long-time behavior in the non-interacting case. Depending on the strength of interactions, we find two different types of behavior. In the gapless region, expansion of the domain wall is ballistic. In the gapped phase, time evolution is substantially more complicated. To explore the time evolution within a gapped system, we turn our attention to a numerical investigation of a more general, low-energy theory: the quantum sine-Gordon model. Beginning with a domain wall density configuration, we study dynamics using the semi-classical truncated Wigner approximation. The numerical study is complemented by an analytical investigation of how an initial current-carrying state evolves when an energy gap is suddenly switched on. Both approaches reveal the persistence of some part of the initial current in the long-time limit. Finally, we apply the random phase approximation to treat weak interactions in a system of fermions after an interaction quench. We study how collective modes are modified by the quench. Compared to equilibrium, we find an enhanced particle-hole continuum which damps the collective mode for attractive interactions, while a single undamped mode survives for repulsive interactions. The situation is also investigated in the presence of a current.

  17. Quantum solution for the one-dimensional Coulomb problem

    SciTech Connect

    Nunez-Yepez, H. N.; Salas-Brito, A. L.; Solis, Didier A.

    2011-06-15

    The one-dimensional hydrogen atom has been a much studied system with a wide range of applications. Since the pioneering work of Loudon [R. Loudon, Am. J. Phys. 27, 649 (1959).], a number of different features related to the nature of the eigenfunctions have been found. However, many of the claims made throughout the years in this regard are not correct--such as the existence of only odd eigenstates or of an infinite binding-energy ground state. We explicitly show that the one-dimensional hydrogen atom does not admit a ground state of infinite binding energy and that the one-dimensional Coulomb potential is not its own supersymmetric partner. Furthermore, we argue that at the root of many such false claims lies the omission of a superselection rule that effectively separates the right side from the left side of the singularity of the Coulomb potential.

  18. Quantum mechanics of graphene with a one-dimensional potential

    SciTech Connect

    Miserev, D. S.; Entin, M. V.

    2012-10-15

    Electron states in graphene with a one-dimensional potential have been studied. An approximate solution has been obtained for a small angle between vectors of the incident electron momentum and potential gradient. Exactly solvable problems with a potential of the smoothened step type U(x) Utanh(x/a) and a potential with a singularity U(x) = -U/(|x| + d) are considered. The transmission/reflection coefficients and phases for various potential barriers are determined. A quasi-classical solution is obtained.

  19. Quantum diffusion on a cyclic one-dimensional lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Torre, A. C.; Mártin, H. O.; Goyeneche, D.

    2003-09-01

    The quantum diffusion of a particle in an initially localized state on a cyclic lattice with N sites is studied. Diffusion and reconstruction time are calculated. Strong differences are found for even or odd number of sites and the limit N→∞ is studied. The predictions of the model could be tested with microtechnology and nanotechnology devices.

  20. New solutions of the Zakharov's equation system for quantum plasmas in form of nonlinear bursts lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinov, Alexander E.; Kitayev, Ilya N.

    2014-02-15

    New multiplicative solutions of the Zakharov's quantum system of equations using the separation of variables method are found. The found solutions are interpreted as spatial-periodical lattices of non-linear plasma bursts. It is shown that the bursts could be both symmetrical and asymmetrical by an electric field.

  1. Glimmers of a Quantum KAM Theorem: Insights from Quantum Quenches in One-Dimensional Bose Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandino, G. P.; Caux, J.-S.; Konik, R. M.

    2015-10-01

    Real-time dynamics in a quantum many-body system are inherently complicated and hence difficult to predict. There are, however, a special set of systems where these dynamics are theoretically tractable: integrable models. Such models possess nontrivial conserved quantities beyond energy and momentum. These quantities are believed to control dynamics and thermalization in low-dimensional atomic gases as well as in quantum spin chains. But what happens when the special symmetries leading to the existence of the extra conserved quantities are broken? Is there any memory of the quantities if the breaking is weak? Here, in the presence of weak integrability breaking, we show that it is possible to construct residual quasiconserved quantities, thus providing a quantum analog to the KAM theorem and its attendant Nekhoreshev estimates. We demonstrate this construction explicitly in the context of quantum quenches in one-dimensional Bose gases and argue that these quasiconserved quantities can be probed experimentally.

  2. Quantum information entropy for one-dimensional system undergoing quantum phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu-Dong, Song; Shi-Hai, Dong; Yu, Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Calculations of the quantum information entropy have been extended to a non-analytically solvable situation. Specifically, we have investigated the information entropy for a one-dimensional system with a schematic “Landau” potential in a numerical way. Particularly, it is found that the phase transitional behavior of the system can be well expressed by the evolution of quantum information entropy. The calculated results also indicate that the position entropy Sx and the momentum entropy Sp at the critical point of phase transition may vary with the mass parameter M but their sum remains as a constant independent of M for a given excited state. In addition, the entropy uncertainty relation is proven to be robust during the whole process of the phase transition. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11375005) and partially by 20150964-SIP-IPN, Mexico.

  3. Fluctuations and Stochastic Processes in One-Dimensional Many-Body Quantum Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stimming, H.-P.; Mauser, N. J.; Mazets, I. E.

    2010-07-02

    We study the fluctuation properties of a one-dimensional many-body quantum system composed of interacting bosons and investigate the regimes where quantum noise or, respectively, thermal excitations are dominant. For the latter, we develop a semiclassical description of the fluctuation properties based on the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck stochastic process. As an illustration, we analyze the phase correlation functions and the full statistical distributions of the interference between two one-dimensional systems, either independent or tunnel-coupled, and compare with the Luttinger-liquid theory.

  4. Quantum trajectories in complex space: one-dimensional stationary scattering problems.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chia-Chun; Wyatt, Robert E

    2008-04-21

    One-dimensional time-independent scattering problems are investigated in the framework of the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. The equation for the local approximate quantum trajectories near the stagnation point of the quantum momentum function is derived, and the first derivative of the quantum momentum function is related to the local structure of quantum trajectories. Exact complex quantum trajectories are determined for two examples by numerically integrating the equations of motion. For the soft potential step, some particles penetrate into the nonclassical region, and then turn back to the reflection region. For the barrier scattering problem, quantum trajectories may spiral into the attractors or from the repellers in the barrier region. Although the classical potentials extended to complex space show different pole structures for each problem, the quantum potentials present the same second-order pole structure in the reflection region. This paper not only analyzes complex quantum trajectories and the total potentials for these examples but also demonstrates general properties and similar structures of the complex quantum trajectories and the quantum potentials for one-dimensional time-independent scattering problems. PMID:18433189

  5. Wurtzite GaAs Quantum Wires: One-Dimensional Subband Formation.

    PubMed

    Vainorius, Neimantas; Lehmann, Sebastian; Gustafsson, Anders; Samuelson, Lars; Dick, Kimberly A; Pistol, Mats-Erik

    2016-04-13

    It is of contemporary interest to fabricate nanowires having quantum confinement and one-dimensional subband formation. This is due to a host of applications, for example, in optical devices, and in quantum optics. We have here fabricated and optically investigated narrow, down to 10 nm diameter, wurtzite GaAs nanowires which show strong quantum confinement and the formation of one-dimensional subbands. The fabrication was bottom up and in one step using the vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism. Combining photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy with transmission electron microscopy on the same individual nanowires, we were able to extract the effective masses of the electrons in the two lowest conduction bands as well as the effective masses of the holes in the two highest valence bands. Our results, combined with earlier demonstrations of thin crystal phase nanodots in GaAs, set the stage for the fabrication of crystal phase quantum dots having full three-dimensional confinement. PMID:27004550

  6. Quantum bright solitons in a quasi-one-dimensional optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbiero, Luca; Salasnich, Luca

    2014-06-01

    We study a quasi-one-dimensional attractive Bose gas confined in an optical lattice with a superimposed harmonic potential by analyzing the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian of the system. Starting from the three-dimensional many-body quantum Hamiltonian, we derive strong inequalities involving the transverse degrees of freedom under which the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian can be safely used. To have a reliable description of the one-dimensional ground state, which we call a quantum bright soliton, we use the density-matrix-renormalization-group (DMRG) technique. By comparing DMRG results with mean-field (MF) ones, we find that beyond-mean-field effects become relevant by increasing the attraction between bosons or by decreasing the frequency of the harmonic confinement. In particular, we find that, contrary to the MF predictions based on the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation, average density profiles of quantum bright solitons are not shape-invariant. We also use the time-evolving-block-decimation method to investigate the dynamical properties of bright solitons when the frequency of the harmonic potential is suddenly increased. This quantum quench induces a breathing mode whose period crucially depends on the final strength of the superimposed harmonic confinement.

  7. Simple One-Dimensional Quantum-Mechanical Model for a Particle Attached to a Surface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2010-01-01

    We present a simple one-dimensional quantum-mechanical model for a particle attached to a surface. It leads to the Schrodinger equation for a harmonic oscillator bounded on one side that we solve in terms of Weber functions and discuss the behaviour of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. We derive the virial theorem and other exact relationships…

  8. Conditioned quantum motion of an atom in a continuously monitored one-dimensional lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blattmann, Ralf; Mølmer, Klaus

    2016-05-01

    We consider a quantum particle on a one-dimensional lattice subject to weak local measurements and study its stochastic dynamics conditioned on the measurement outcomes. Depending on the measurement strength our analysis of the quantum trajectories reveals dynamical regimes ranging from quasicoherent wave-packet oscillations to a Zeno-type dynamics. We analyze how these dynamical regimes are directly reflected in the spectral properties of the noisy measurement records.

  9. Strongly confined tunnel-coupled one-dimensional electron systems from an asymmetric double quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, S. S.; Fischer, S. F.; Kunze, U.; Schuh, D.; Abstreiter, G.

    2008-03-01

    Vertically stacked quantum point contacts (QPCs) are prepared by atomic force microscope (AFM) lithography from an asymmetric GaAs/AlGaAs double quantum well (DQW) heterostructure. Top- and back-gate voltages are used to tune the tunnel-coupled QPCs, and back-gate bias cooling is employed to investigate coupled and decoupled one-dimensional (1D) modes. Parity dependent mode coupling is invoked by the particular asymmetry in the vertical DQW confinement.

  10. Non-Luttinger quantum liquid of one-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Po, Hoi Chun; Chen, Weiqiang; Zhou, Qi

    2014-07-01

    We show that the synthetic spin-orbit coupling created in current ultracold atom experiments provides physicists a unique tool to control the Luttinger liquid parameter K of weakly interacting bosons in one dimension. At a critical value of the Raman coupling strength Ωc, K is suppressed down to zero, and the characteristic quasi-long-range order for ordinary one-dimensional quantum systems disappears. Consequently, the single-particle correlation function decays exponentially at the ground state, signifying the rise of a one-dimensional quantum many-body state beyond the standard Luttinger liquid paradigm. Momentum distribution, as well as scaling relations for various quantities in the vicinity of the critical point, can be used as a direct diagnosis of this non-Luttinger quantum liquid.

  11. Plasmonic photocatalytic reactions enhanced by hot electrons in a one-dimensional quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. J.; Liu, B.-H.; Lin, C.-T.; Su, W. S.

    2015-11-01

    The plasmonic endothermic oxidation of ammonium ions in a spinning disk reactor resulted in light energy transformation through quantum hot charge carriers (QHC), or quantum hot electrons, during a chemical reaction. It is demonstrated with a simple model that light of various intensities enhance the chemical oxidization of ammonium ions in water. It was further observed that light illumination, which induces the formation of plasmons on a platinum (Pt) thin film, provided higher processing efficiency compared with the reaction on a bare glass disk. These induced plasmons generate quantum hot electrons with increasing momentum and energy in the one-dimensional quantum well of a Pt thin film. The energy carried by the quantum hot electrons provided the energy needed to catalyze the chemical reaction. The results indicate that one-dimensional confinement in spherical coordinates (i.e., nanoparticles) is not necessary to provide an extra excited state for QHC generation; an 8 nm Pt thin film for one-dimensional confinement in Cartesian coordinates can also provide the extra excited state for the generation of QHC.

  12. Plasmonic photocatalytic reactions enhanced by hot electrons in a one-dimensional quantum well

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H. J. E-mail: hhjhuangkimo@gmail.com; Liu, B. H.; Lin, C. T.; Su, W. S.

    2015-11-15

    The plasmonic endothermic oxidation of ammonium ions in a spinning disk reactor resulted in light energy transformation through quantum hot charge carriers (QHC), or quantum hot electrons, during a chemical reaction. It is demonstrated with a simple model that light of various intensities enhance the chemical oxidization of ammonium ions in water. It was further observed that light illumination, which induces the formation of plasmons on a platinum (Pt) thin film, provided higher processing efficiency compared with the reaction on a bare glass disk. These induced plasmons generate quantum hot electrons with increasing momentum and energy in the one-dimensional quantum well of a Pt thin film. The energy carried by the quantum hot electrons provided the energy needed to catalyze the chemical reaction. The results indicate that one-dimensional confinement in spherical coordinates (i.e., nanoparticles) is not necessary to provide an extra excited state for QHC generation; an 8 nm Pt thin film for one-dimensional confinement in Cartesian coordinates can also provide the extra excited state for the generation of QHC.

  13. A one-dimensional quantum walk with multiple-rotation on the coin

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Peng; Zhang, Rong; Qin, Hao; Zhan, Xiang; Bian, Zhihao; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We introduce and analyze a one-dimensional quantum walk with two time-independent rotations on the coin. We study the influence on the property of quantum walk due to the second rotation on the coin. Based on the asymptotic solution in the long time limit, a ballistic behaviour of this walk is observed. This quantum walk retains the quadratic growth of the variance if the combined operator of the coin rotations is unitary. That confirms no localization exhibits in this walk. This result can be extended to the walk with multiple time-independent rotations on the coin. PMID:26822563

  14. Berry's phase in a one-dimensional quantum many-body system

    SciTech Connect

    Schuetz, G. )

    1994-03-01

    We study an interacting one-dimensional quantum lattice gas of massive fermions on a ring with [ital L] lattice sites. The ring is threaded by a magnetic flux corresponding to a twist in boundary conditions. We compute the periodicity of the ground state under an adiabatically increasing flux and the associated Berry's phase occurring in this process. The model has a second-order phase transition line which coincides with a line where the Berry phase changes nonanalytically.

  15. Extended supersymmetry and hidden symmetries in one-dimensional matrix quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrianov, A. A.; Sokolov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    We study properties of nonlinear supersymmetry algebras realized in the one-dimensional quantum mechanics of matrix systems. Supercharges of these algebras are differential operators of a finite order in derivatives. In special cases, there exist independent supercharges realizing an (extended) supersymmetry of the same super-Hamiltonian. The extended supersymmetry generates hidden symmetries of the super-Hamiltonian. Such symmetries have been found in models with (2×2)-matrix potentials.

  16. Bose-Fermi solid and its quantum melting in a one-dimensional optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Bin; Das Sarma, S.; Wang, Daw-Wei

    2010-08-15

    We investigate the quantum phase diagram of Bose-Fermi mixtures of ultracold dipolar particles trapped in one-dimensional optical lattices in the thermodynamic limit. With the presence of nearest-neighbor (NN) interactions, a long-ranged ordered crystalline phase (Bose-Fermi solid) is found stabilized in the limit of weak intersite tunneling (J). When J is increased, such a Bose-Fermi solid can be quantum melted into a Bose-Fermi liquid through different procedures, depending on whether the crystalline order is dominated by the NN interaction between fermions or bosons. These properties are qualitatively different from the classical picture of solid-liquid phase transition.

  17. Numerical Analysis of Quantum Transport Equation for Bose Gas in One Dimensional Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Yukiro; Nakamura, Yusuke; Yamanaka, Yoshiya

    The quantum transport equation and the correction of the quasiparticle energy are derived by imposing the renormalization conditions on the improved time-dependent on-shell self-energy in nonequilibrium Thermo Field Dynamics. They are numerically analyzed for the one dimensional system of cold neutral atomic Bose gas confined by a combined harmonic and optical lattice potentials. The analysis indicates that the correction of the quaisparticle energy plays a crucial role in the thermal relaxation processes described by the quantum transport equation.

  18. Dynamic behavior of the quantum Zakharov-Kuznetsov equations in dense quantum magnetoplasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhen, Hui-Ling; Tian, Bo Wang, Yu-Feng; Zhong, Hui; Sun, Wen-Rong

    2014-01-15

    Quantum Zakharov-Kuznetsov (qZK) equation is found in a dense quantum magnetoplasma. Via the spectral analysis, we investigate the Hamiltonian and periodicity of the qZK equation. Using the Hirota method, we obtain the bilinear forms and N-soliton solutions. Asymptotic analysis on the two-soliton solutions shows that the soliton interaction is elastic. Figures are plotted to reveal the propagation characteristics and interaction between the two solitons. We find that the one soliton has a single peak and its amplitude is positively related to H{sub e}, while the two solitons are parallel when H{sub e} < 2, otherwise, the one soliton has two peaks and the two solitons interact with each other. Hereby, H{sub e} is proportional to the ratio of the strength of magnetic field to the electronic Fermi temperature. External periodic force on the qZK equation yields the chaotic motions. Through some phase projections, the process from a sequence of the quasi-period doubling to chaos can be observed. The chaotic behavior is observed since the power spectra are calculated, and the quasi-period doubling states of perturbed qZK equation are given. The final chaotic state of the perturbed qZK is obtained.

  19. Quantum effects on one-dimensional collision dynamics of fermion clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Jun'ichi; Tezuka, Masaki; Kawakami, Norio

    2012-12-01

    Recently, many experiments with cold atomic gases have been conducted from interest in the non-equilibrium dynamics of correlated quantum systems. Of these experiments, the mixing dynamics of fermion clusters motivates us to research cluster-cluster collision dynamics in one-dimensional Fermi systems. We adopt the one-dimensional Fermi-Hubbard model and apply the time-dependent density matrix renormalization group method. We simulate collisions between two fermion clusters of spin-up and spin-down and calculate reflectance of the clusters R changing the particle number in each cluster and the interaction strength between two fermions with up and down spins. We also evaluate the quasi-classical (independent collision) reflectance Rqc to compare it with R. The quasi-classical picture is quantitatively valid in the limit of weak interaction, but it is not valid when interaction is strong.

  20. Magnetoresistance of One-Dimensional Subbands in Tunnel-Coupled Double Quantum Wires

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, J.S.; Blount, M.A.; Simmons, J.A.; Wendt, J.R.; Lyo, S.K.; Reno, J.L.

    1999-08-04

    The authors study the low-temperature in-plane magnetoresistance of tunnel-coupled quasi-one-dimensional quantum wires. The wires are defined by two pairs of mutually aligned split gates on opposite sides of a {le} 1 micron thick AlGaAs/GaAs double quantum well heterostructure, allowing independent control of the width of each quantum well. In the ballistic regime, when both wires are defined and the field is perpendicular to the current, a large resistance peak at {approximately}6 Tesla is observed with a strong gate voltage dependence. The data is consistent with a counting model whereby the number of subbands crossing the Fermi level changes with field due to the formation of an anticrossing in each pair of 1D subbands.

  1. Quantum and Thermal Effects of Dark Solitons in a One-Dimensional Bose Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, A. D.; Ruostekoski, J.

    2010-05-14

    We numerically study the imprinting and dynamics of dark solitons in a bosonic atomic gas in a tightly confined one-dimensional harmonic trap both with and without an optical lattice. Quantum and thermal fluctuations are synthesized within the truncated Wigner approximation in the quasicondensate description. We track the soliton coordinates and calculate position and velocity uncertainties. We find that the phase fluctuations lower the classically predicted soliton speed and seed instabilities. Individual runs show interactions of solitons with sound waves, splitting, and disappearing solitons.

  2. Bosonization study of quantum phase transitions in the one-dimensional asymmetric Hubbard model

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z. G.; Chen, Y. G.; Gu, S. J.

    2007-04-15

    The quantum phase transitions in the one-dimensional asymmetric Hubbard model are investigated with the bosonization approach. The conditions for the phase transition from density wave to phase separation, the correlation functions, and their exponents are obtained analytically. Our results show that the difference between the hopping integrals for up- and down-spin electrons is crucial for the occurrence of the phase separation. When the difference is large enough, the phase separation will appear even if the on-site interaction is small.

  3. One-Dimensional Quantum Liquids with Power-Law Interactions: The Luttinger Staircase

    SciTech Connect

    Dalmonte, M.; Pupillo, G.; Zoller, P.

    2010-10-01

    We study one-dimensional fermionic and bosonic gases with repulsive power-law interactions 1/|x|{sup {beta}}, with {beta}>1, in the framework of Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) theory. We obtain an accurate analytical expression linking the TLL parameter to the microscopic Hamiltonian, for arbitrary {beta} and strength of the interactions. In the presence of a small periodic potential, power-law interactions make the TLL unstable towards the formation of a cascade of lattice solids with fractional filling, a 'Luttinger staircase'. Several of these quantum phases and phase transitions are realized with ground state polar molecules and weakly bound magnetic Feshbach molecules.

  4. Quantum magnetism without lattices in strongly interacting one-dimensional spinor gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deuretzbacher, F.; Becker, D.; Bjerlin, J.; Reimann, S. M.; Santos, L.

    2014-07-01

    We show that strongly interacting multicomponent gases in one dimension realize an effective spin chain, offering an alternative simple scenario for the study of one-dimensional (1D) quantum magnetism in cold gases in the absence of an optical lattice. The spin-chain model allows for an intuitive understanding of recent experiments and for a simple calculation of relevant observables. We analyze the adiabatic preparation of antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic ground states, and show that many-body spin states may be efficiently probed in tunneling experiments. The spin-chain model is valid for more than two components, opening the possibility of realizing SU(N) quantum magnetism in strongly interacting 1D alkaline-earth-metal or ytterbium Fermi gases.

  5. Magnetoresistance of One-Dimensional Subbands in Tunnel-Coupled Double Quantum Wires

    SciTech Connect

    Blount, M.A.; Lyo, S.K.; Moon, J.S.; Reno, J.L.; Simmons, J.A.; Wendt, J.R.

    1999-04-27

    We study the low-temperature in-plane magnetoresistance of tunnel-coupled quasi-one-dimensional quantum wires. The wires are defined by two pairs of mutually aligned split gates on opposite sides of a < 1 micron thick AlGaAs/GaAs double quantum well heterostructure, allowing independent control of their widths. In the ballistic regime, when both wires are defined and the field is perpendicular to the current, a large resistance peak at ~6 Tesla is observed with a strong gate voltage dependence. The data is consistent with a counting model whereby the number of subbands crossing the Fermi level changes with field due to the formation of an anticrossing in each pair of 1D subbands.

  6. Mechanism of spin and charge separation in one-dimensional quantum antiferromagnets

    SciTech Connect

    Mudry, C.; Fradkin, E. )

    1994-10-15

    We reconsider the problem of separation of spin and charge in one-dimensional quantum antiferromagnets. We show that spin and charge separation in one-dimensional strongly correlated systems cannot be described by the slave-boson or fermion representation within any perturbative treatment of the interactions between the slave holons and slave spinons. The constraint of single occupancy must be implemented exactly. As a result the slave fermions and bosons are not part of the physical spectrum. Instead, the excitations that carry the separate spin and charge quantum numbers are solitons. To prove this result, it is sufficient to study the pure spinon sector in the slave-boson representation. We start with a short-range resonating-valence-bond state spin liquid mean-field theory for the frustrated antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 chain. We derive an effective theory for the fluctuations of the Affleck-Marston and Anderson order parameters. We show how to recover the phase diagram as a function of the frustration by treating the fluctuations nonperturbatively.

  7. Quantum magnetism in strongly interacting one-dimensional spinor Bose systems

    PubMed Central

    Dehkharghani, Amin; Volosniev, Artem; Lindgren, Jonathan; Rotureau, Jimmy; Forssén, Christian; Fedorov, Dmitri; Jensen, Aksel; Zinner, Nikolaj

    2015-01-01

    Strongly interacting one-dimensional quantum systems often behave in a manner that is distinctly different from their higher-dimensional counterparts. When a particle attempts to move in a one-dimensional environment it will unavoidably have to interact and ‘push’ other particles in order to execute a pattern of motion, irrespective of whether the particles are fermions or bosons. A present frontier in both theory and experiment are mixed systems of different species and/or particles with multiple internal degrees of freedom. Here we consider trapped two-component bosons with short-range inter-species interactions much larger than their intra-species interactions and show that they have novel energetic and magnetic properties. In the strongly interacting regime, these systems have energies that are fractions of the basic harmonic oscillator trap quantum and have spatially separated ground states with manifestly ferromagnetic wave functions. Furthermore, we predict excited states that have perfect antiferromagnetic ordering. This holds for both balanced and imbalanced systems, and we show that it is a generic feature as one crosses from few- to many-body systems. PMID:26073680

  8. Wigner-Yanase skew information and quantum phase transition in one-dimensional quantum spin-1/2 chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Shuguo; Tong, Peiqing

    2016-04-01

    The quantum coherence based on Wigner-Yanase skew information and its relations with quantum phase transitions (QPTs) in one-dimensional quantum spin-1/2 chains are studied. Different from those at the critical point (CP) of the Ising transition in the transverse-field XY chain, the single-spin quantum coherence and the two-spin local σ ^z quantum coherence are extremal at the CP of the anisotropy transition, and the first-order derivatives of the two-spin local σ ^x and σ ^y quantum coherence have logarithmic divergence with the chain size. For the QPT between the gapped and gapless phases in the chain with three-spin interactions, however, no finite-size scaling behavior of the derivatives of quantum coherence is found.

  9. Quantum state transfer and controlled-phase gate on one-dimensional superconducting resonators assisted by a quantum bus.

    PubMed

    Hua, Ming; Tao, Ming-Jie; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-01-01

    We propose a quantum processor for the scalable quantum computation on microwave photons in distant one-dimensional superconducting resonators. It is composed of a common resonator R acting as a quantum bus and some distant resonators rj coupled to the bus in different positions assisted by superconducting quantum interferometer devices (SQUID), different from previous processors. R is coupled to one transmon qutrit, and the coupling strengths between rj and R can be fully tuned by the external flux through the SQUID. To show the processor can be used to achieve universal quantum computation effectively, we present a scheme to complete the high-fidelity quantum state transfer between two distant microwave-photon resonators and another one for the high-fidelity controlled-phase gate on them. By using the technique for catching and releasing the microwave photons from resonators, our processor may play an important role in quantum communication as well. PMID:26907366

  10. Quantum state transfer and controlled-phase gate on one-dimensional superconducting resonators assisted by a quantum bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Ming; Tao, Ming-Jie; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-02-01

    We propose a quantum processor for the scalable quantum computation on microwave photons in distant one-dimensional superconducting resonators. It is composed of a common resonator R acting as a quantum bus and some distant resonators rj coupled to the bus in different positions assisted by superconducting quantum interferometer devices (SQUID), different from previous processors. R is coupled to one transmon qutrit, and the coupling strengths between rj and R can be fully tuned by the external flux through the SQUID. To show the processor can be used to achieve universal quantum computation effectively, we present a scheme to complete the high-fidelity quantum state transfer between two distant microwave-photon resonators and another one for the high-fidelity controlled-phase gate on them. By using the technique for catching and releasing the microwave photons from resonators, our processor may play an important role in quantum communication as well.

  11. Quantum state transfer and controlled-phase gate on one-dimensional superconducting resonators assisted by a quantum bus

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Ming; Tao, Ming-Jie; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-01-01

    We propose a quantum processor for the scalable quantum computation on microwave photons in distant one-dimensional superconducting resonators. It is composed of a common resonator R acting as a quantum bus and some distant resonators rj coupled to the bus in different positions assisted by superconducting quantum interferometer devices (SQUID), different from previous processors. R is coupled to one transmon qutrit, and the coupling strengths between rj and R can be fully tuned by the external flux through the SQUID. To show the processor can be used to achieve universal quantum computation effectively, we present a scheme to complete the high-fidelity quantum state transfer between two distant microwave-photon resonators and another one for the high-fidelity controlled-phase gate on them. By using the technique for catching and releasing the microwave photons from resonators, our processor may play an important role in quantum communication as well. PMID:26907366

  12. Interplay of classical and quantum capacitance in a one-dimensional array of Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Pedro; García-García, Antonio M.

    2014-02-01

    Even in the absence of Coulomb interactions, phase fluctuations induced by quantum size effects become increasingly important in superconducting nanostructures as the mean level spacing becomes comparable with the bulk superconducting gap. Here we study the role of these fluctuations, termed "quantum capacitance," in the phase diagram of a one-dimensional ring of ultrasmall Josephson junctions at zero temperature by using path-integral techniques. Our analysis also includes dissipation due to quasiparticle tunneling and Coulomb interactions through a finite mutual and self-capacitance. The resulting phase diagram has several interesting features: A finite quantum capacitance can stabilize superconductivity even in the limit of only a finite mutual-capacitance energy, which classically leads to breaking of phase coherence. In the case of vanishing charging effects, relevant in cold-atom settings where Coulomb interactions are absent, we show analytically that superfluidity is robust to small quantum finite-size fluctuations and identify the minimum grain size for phase coherence to exist in the array. We have also found that the renormalization group results are in some cases very sensitive to relatively small changes of the instanton fugacity. For instance, a certain combination of capacitances could lead to a nonmonotonic dependence of the superconductor-insulator transition on the Josephson coupling.

  13. Anomalous quantum heat transport in a one-dimensional harmonic chain with random couplings.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yonghong; Zhao, Hui

    2012-07-11

    We investigate quantum heat transport in a one-dimensional harmonic system with random couplings. In the presence of randomness, phonon modes may normally be classified as ballistic, diffusive or localized. We show that these modes can roughly be characterized by the local nearest-neighbor level spacing distribution, similarly to their electronic counterparts. We also show that the thermal conductance G(th) through the system decays rapidly with the system size (G(th) ∼ L(-α)). The exponent α strongly depends on the system size and can change from α < 1 to α > 1 with increasing system size, indicating that the system undergoes a transition from a heat conductor to a heat insulator. This result could be useful in thermal control of low-dimensional systems. PMID:22713930

  14. Effective interactions, large-scale diagonalization, and one-dimensional quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvaal, Simen; Hjorth-Jensen, Morten; Nilsen, Halvor Møll

    2007-08-01

    The widely used large-scale diagonalization method using harmonic oscillator basis functions (an instance of the Rayleigh-Ritz method [S. Gould, Variational Methods for Eigenvalue Problems: An Introduction to the Methods of Rayleigh, Ritz, Weinstein, and Aronszajn (Dover, New York, 1995)], also called a spectral method, configuration-interaction method, or “exact diagonalization” method) is systematically analyzed using results for the convergence of Hermite function series. We apply this theory to a Hamiltonian for a one-dimensional model of a quantum dot. The method is shown to converge slowly, and the nonsmooth character of the interaction potential is identified as the main problem with the chosen basis, while, on the other hand, its important advantages are pointed out. An effective interaction obtained by a similarity transformation is proposed for improving the convergence of the diagonalization scheme, and numerical experiments are performed to demonstrate the improvement. Generalizations to more particles and dimensions are discussed.

  15. One-dimensional multicomponent Fermi gas in a trap: quantum Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveeva, N.; Astrakharchik, G. E.

    2016-06-01

    A one-dimensional world is very unusual as there is an interplay between quantum statistics and geometry, and a strong short-range repulsion between atoms mimics Fermi exclusion principle, fermionizing the system. Instead, a system with a large number of components with a single atom in each, on the opposite acquires many bosonic properties. We study the ground-state properties of a multicomponent repulsive Fermi gas trapped in a harmonic trap by a fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo method. The interaction between all components is considered to be the same. We investigate how the energetic properties (energy, contact) and correlation functions (density profile and momentum distribution) evolve as the number of components is changed. It is shown that the system fermionizes in the limit of strong interactions. Analytical expressions are derived in the limit of weak interactions within the local density approximation for an arbitrary number of components and for one plus one particle using an exact solution.

  16. A new method to calculate Berry phase in one-dimensional quantum anomalous Hall insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Based on the residue theorem and degenerate perturbation theory, we derive a new, simple and general formula for Berry phase calculation in a two-level system for which the Hamiltonian is a real symmetric matrix. The special torus topology possessed by the first Brillouin zone (1 BZ) of this kind of systems ensures the existence of a nonzero Berry phase. We verify the correctness of our formula on the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. Then the Berry phase of one-dimensional quantum anomalous Hall insulator (1DQAHI) is calculated analytically by applying our method, the result being -π/2 -π/4 sgn (B) [ sgn (Δ - 4 B) + sgn (Δ) ]. Finally, illuminated by this idea, we investigate the Chern number in the two-dimensional case, and find a very simple way to determine the parameter range of the non-trivial Chern number in the phase diagram.

  17. Quantum spin fluctuations in quasi-one-dimensional chlorine-bridged platinum complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xing; Donohoe, Robert J.; Wang, Wen Z.; Bishop, Alan R.; Gammel, Jan T.

    1997-12-01

    We report experimental and theoretical studies of spin dynamic process in the quasi-one-dimensional chlorine- bridged platinum complex, [PtII(en)2][PtIV(en)2Cl2](ClO4)4, where en equals ethylenediamine, C2N2H8. The process manifests itself in collapsing of the hyperfine and superhyperfine structures in the electron spin resonance spectrum and non-statistical distribution of spectral weight of the Pt isotopes. More surprisingly, it is activated only at temperatures below 6 K. We interpret the phenomenon in terms of quantum tunneling of the electronic spin in a strong electron-electron and electron-phonon coupling regime. This is modeled using a non-adiabatic many-body approach, in which polarons and solitons represent local spin-Peierls regions in a strongly disproportional charge- density-wave background and display intriguing spin-charge separation in the form of pinned charge and tunneling spin fluctuations.

  18. Quantum phase transition of light in a one-dimensional photon-hopping-controllable resonator array

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Chunwang; Gao Ming; Deng Zhijiao; Dai Hongyi; Chen Pingxing; Li Chengzu

    2011-10-15

    We give a concrete experimental scheme for engineering the insulator-superfluid transition of light in a one-dimensional (1D) array of coupled superconducting stripline resonators. In our proposed architecture, the on-site interaction and the photon-hopping rate can be tuned independently by adjusting the transition frequencies of the charge qubits inside the resonators and at the resonator junctions, respectively, which permits us to systematically study the quantum phase transition of light in a complete parameter space. By combining the techniques of photon-number-dependent qubit transition and fast readout of the qubit state using a separate low-Q resonator mode, the statistical property of the excitations in each resonator can be obtained with a high efficiency. An analysis of the various decoherence sources and disorders shows that our scheme can serve as a guide to upcoming experiments involving a small number of coupled resonators.

  19. Engineering quantum magnetism in one-dimensional trapped Fermi gases with p -wave interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lijun; Guan, Xiwen; Cui, Xiaoling

    2016-05-01

    The highly controllable ultracold atoms in a one-dimensional (1D) trap provide a new platform for the ultimate simulation of quantum magnetism. In this regard, the Néel antiferromagnetism and the itinerant ferromagnetism are of central importance and great interest. Here we show that these magnetic orders can be achieved in the strongly interacting spin-1/2 trapped Fermi gases with additional p -wave interactions. In this strong-coupling limit, the 1D trapped Fermi gas exhibits an effective Heisenberg spin X X Z chain in the anisotropic p -wave scattering channels. For a particular p -wave attraction or repulsion within the same species of fermionic atoms, the system displays ferromagnetic domains with full spin segregation or the antiferromagnetic spin configuration in the ground state. Such engineered magnetisms are likely to be probed in a quasi-1D trapped Fermi gas of 40K atoms with very close s -wave and p -wave Feshbach resonances.

  20. Continuous wavelet transform analysis of one-dimensional quantum bound states from first principles

    SciTech Connect

    Handy, C.R.; Murenzi, R.

    1996-11-01

    Over the last decade, Handy and Bessis have developed a moment-problem-based, multiscale quantization theory, the eigenvalue moment method (EMM), which has proven effective in solving singular, strongly coupled, multidimensional Schr{umlt o}dinger Hamiltonians. We extend the scope of EMM by demonstrating its essential role in the generation of wavelet transforms for one-dimensional quantum systems. Combining this with the function-wavelet reconstruction formulas currently available, we are able to recover the wave function systematically, from first principles, through a multiscale process proceeding from large spatial scales to smaller ones. This accomplishment also addresses another outstanding problem, that of reconstructing a function from its moments. For the class of problems considered, the combined EMM-wavelet analysis yields a definitive solution. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  1. Quantum walks accompanied by spin flipping in one-dimensional optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Liu, Na; Chen, Shu; Zhang, Yunbo

    2015-11-01

    We investigate continuous-time quantum walks of two fermionic atoms loaded in one-dimensional optical lattices with on-site interaction and subjected to a Zeeman field. The quantum walks are accompanied by spin-flipping processes. We calculate the time-dependent density distributions of the two fermions with opposite spins which are initially positioned at the center site by means of an exact numerical method. Besides the usual fast linear expansion behavior, we find an interesting spin-flipping-induced localization in the time evolution of density distributions. We show that the fast linear expansion behavior can be restored by simply ramping up the Zeeman field or further increasing the spin-flipping strength. The intrinsic origin of this exotic phenomenon is attributed to the emergence of a flat band in the single-particle spectrum of the system. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of on-site interaction on the dynamics of the quantum walkers. The two-particle correlations are calculated and the signal of localization is also shown therein. A simple potential experimental application of this interesting phenomenon is proposed.

  2. Quantum phase transitions in exactly solvable one-dimensional compass models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Wen-Long; Horsch, Peter; Oleś, Andrzej M.

    2014-03-01

    We present an exact solution for a class of one-dimensional compass models which stand for interacting orbital degrees of freedom in a Mott insulator. By employing the Jordan-Wigner transformation we map these models on noninteracting fermions and discuss how spin correlations, high degeneracy of the ground state, and Z2 symmetry in the quantum compass model are visible in the fermionic language. Considering a zigzag chain of ions with singly occupied eg orbitals (eg orbital model) we demonstrate that the orbital excitations change qualitatively with increasing transverse field, and that the excitation gap closes at the quantum phase transition to a polarized state. This phase transition disappears in the quantum compass model with maximally frustrated orbital interactions which resembles the Kitaev model. Here we find that the finite transverse field destabilizes the orbital-liquid ground state with macroscopic degeneracy, and leads to peculiar behavior of the specific heat and orbital susceptibility at finite temperature. We show that the entropy and the cooling rate at finite temperature exhibit quite different behavior near the critical point for these two models.

  3. Unveiling -tangle and quantum phase transition in the one-dimensional anisotropic XY model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-Cheng; Xu, Shuai; He, Juan; Ye, Liu

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the relationship between -tangle and quantum phase transition (QPT) is investigated by employing the quantum renormalization-group method in the one-dimensional anisotropic XY model. The results show that all the 1-tangles increase firstly and then decrease with the anisotropy parameter increasing, and the Coffman-Kundu-Wootters monogamy inequality is always tenable for this system. The entanglement's status of subsystems depends on its site position, and this proposition can be generalized to a multipartite system. Meanwhile, with the increasing of the size of the system, the -tangle decreases slowly and tends to a fixed value finally. Additionally, it exhibits a QPT and a maximum value for the next-nearest-neighbor entanglement at the critical point in our model, which is different from the case of two-body system. After several iterations of the renormalization, the quantum entanglement measure can develop two saturated values, which are associated with two different phases: spin-fluid phase and the Néel phase. To gain further insight, the nonanalytic and scaling behaviors of -tangle have also been analyzed in detail.

  4. Quantum phases of quadrupolar Fermi gases in coupled one-dimensional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Min; Lahrz, M.; Mathey, L.

    2014-01-01

    Following the recent proposal to create quadrupolar gases [Bhongale et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 155301 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.155301], we investigate what quantum phases can be created in these systems in one dimension. We consider a geometry of two coupled one-dimensional (1D) systems, and derive the quantum phase diagram of ultracold fermionic atoms interacting via quadrupole-quadrupole interactions within a Tomonaga-Luttinger-liquid framework. We map out the phase diagram as a function of the distance between the two tubes and the angle between the direction of the tubes and the quadrupolar moments. The latter can be controlled by an external field. We show that there are two magic angles θB,1c and θB,2c between 0 and π /2, where the intratube quadrupolar interactions vanish and change signs. Adopting a pseudospin language with regard to the two 1D systems, the system undergoes a spin-gap transition and displays a zigzag density pattern, above θB,2c and below θB,1c. Between the two magic angles, we show that polarized triplet superfluidity and a planar spin-density-wave order compete with each other. The latter corresponds to a bond-order solid in higher dimensions. We demonstrate that this order can be further stabilized by applying a commensurate periodic potential along the tubes.

  5. Quantum transport of strongly interacting photons in a one-dimensional nonlinear waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafezi, Mohammad; Chang, Darrick E.; Gritsev, Vladimir; Demler, Eugene; Lukin, Mikhail D.

    2012-01-01

    We present a theoretical technique for solving the quantum transport problem of a few photons through a one-dimensional, strongly nonlinear waveguide. We specifically consider the situation where the evolution of the optical field is governed by the quantum nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Although this kind of nonlinearity is quite general, we focus on a realistic implementation involving cold atoms loaded in a hollow-core optical fiber, where the atomic system provides a tunable nonlinearity that can be large even at a single-photon level. In particular, we show that when the interaction between photons is effectively repulsive, the transmission of multiphoton components of the field is suppressed. This leads to antibunching of the transmitted light and indicates that the system acts as a single-photon switch. On the other hand, in the case of attractive interaction, the system can exhibit either antibunching or bunching, which is in stark contrast to semiclassical calculations. We show that the bunching behavior is related to the resonant excitation of bound states of photons inside the system.

  6. Anomalous behavior of the energy gap in the one-dimensional quantum XY model.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, Manaka; Yamanaka, Yuuki; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Rams, Marek M

    2015-11-01

    We reexamine the well-studied one-dimensional spin-1/2 XY model to reveal its nontrivial energy spectrum, in particular the energy gap between the ground state and the first excited state. In the case of the isotropic XY model, the XX model, the gap behaves very irregularly as a function of the system size at a second order transition point. This is in stark contrast to the usual power-law decay of the gap and is reminiscent of the similar behavior at the first order phase transition in the infinite-range quantum XY model. The gap also shows nontrivial oscillatory behavior for the phase transitions in the anisotropic model in the incommensurate phase. We observe a close relation between this anomalous behavior of the gap and the correlation functions. These results, those for the isotropic case in particular, are important from the viewpoint of quantum annealing where the efficiency of computation is strongly affected by the size dependence of the energy gap. PMID:26651656

  7. Dynamics and Bloch oscillations of mobile impurities in one-dimensional quantum liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schecter, M.; Gangardt, D. M.; Kamenev, A.

    2012-03-01

    We study the dynamics of a mobile impurity moving in a one-dimensional quantum liquid. Such an impurity induces a strong, non-linear depletion of the liquid around it. The dispersion relation of the combined object, called depleton, is a periodic function of its momentum with the period 2πn, where n is the mean density of the liquid. In the adiabatic approximation, a constant external force acting on the impurity leads to the Bloch oscillations of the impurity around a fixed position. Dynamically, such oscillations are accompanied by the radiation of energy in the form of phonons. The ensuing energy loss results in the uniform drift of the oscillation center. We derive exact results for the radiation-induced mobility as well as the thermal friction force in terms of the equilibrium dispersion relation of the dressed impurity (depleton). These results show that there is a wide range of external forces where the (drifted) Bloch oscillations exist and may be observed experimentally.

  8. A New One-dimensional Quantum Material - Ta2Pd3Se8 Atomic Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xue; Liu, Jinyu; Hu, Jin; Yue, Chunlei; Mao, Zhiqiang; Wei, Jiang; Antipina, Liubov; Sorokin, Pavel; Sanchez, Ana

    Since the discovery of carbon nanotube, there has been a persistent effort to search for other one dimensional (1D) quantum systems. However, only a few examples have been found. We report a new 1D example - semiconducting Ta2Pd3Se8. We demonstrate that the Ta2Pd3Se8 nanowire as thin as 1.3nm can be easily obtained by applying simple mechanical exfoliation from its bulk counterpart. High resolution TEM shows an intrinsic 1D chain-like crystalline morphology on these nano wires, indicating weak bonding between these atomic chains. Theoretical calculation shows a direct bandgap structure, which evolves from 0.53eV in the bulk to 1.04eV in single atomic chain. The field effect transistor based on Ta2Pd3Se8 nanowire achieved a promising performance with 104On/Off ratio and 80 cm2V-1s-1 mobility. Low temperature transport study reflects two different mechanisms, variable range hopping and thermal activation, which dominate the transport properties at different temperature regimes. Ta2Pd3Se8 nanowire provides an intrinsic 1D material system for the study low dimensional condensed matter physics.

  9. Quantum Spin Fluctuations in Quasi-One-Dimensional Chlorine-Bridged Platinum Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, X.; Donohoe, R. J.; Wang, W. Z.; Bishop, A. R.; Gammel, J. T.

    1997-01-01

    We report experimental and theoretical studies of spin dynamic process in the quasi-one-dimensional chlorine-bridged platinum complex, [Pt{sup II}(en){sub 2}][Pt{sup IV}(en){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}](ClO{sub 4}){sub 4}, where en = ethylenediamine, C{sub 2}N{sub 2}H{sub 8}. The process manifests itself in collapsing of the hyperfine and superhyperfine structures in the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrum and non-statistical distribution of spectral weight of the Pt isotopes. More surprisingly, it is activated only at temperatures below 6 K. We interpret the phenomenon in terms of quantum tunneling of the electronic spin in a strong electron-electron and electron-phonon coupling regime. This is modeled using a non-adiabatic many-body approach, in which polarons and solitons represent local spin-Peierls regions in a strongly disproportional charge-density-wave background and display intriguing spin-charge separation in the form of pinned charge and tunneling spin fluctuations. 24 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Boundary versus bulk behavior of time-dependent correlation functions in one-dimensional quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliëns, I. S.; Ramos, F. B.; Xavier, J. C.; Pereira, R. G.

    2016-05-01

    We study the influence of reflective boundaries on time-dependent responses of one-dimensional quantum fluids at zero temperature beyond the low-energy approximation. Our analysis is based on an extension of effective mobile impurity models for nonlinear Luttinger liquids to the case of open boundary conditions. For integrable models, we show that boundary autocorrelations oscillate as a function of time with the same frequency as the corresponding bulk autocorrelations. This frequency can be identified as the band edge of elementary excitations. The amplitude of the oscillations decays as a power law with distinct exponents at the boundary and in the bulk, but boundary and bulk exponents are determined by the same coupling constant in the mobile impurity model. For nonintegrable models, we argue that the power-law decay of the oscillations is generic for autocorrelations in the bulk, but turns into an exponential decay at the boundary. Moreover, there is in general a nonuniversal shift of the boundary frequency in comparison with the band edge of bulk excitations. The predictions of our effective field theory are compared with numerical results obtained by time-dependent density matrix renormalization group (tDMRG) for both integrable and nonintegrable critical spin-S chains with S =1 /2 , 1, and 3 /2 .

  11. Quantum recurrences in a one-dimensional gas of impenetrable bosons.

    PubMed

    Solano-Carrillo, E

    2015-10-01

    It is well-known that a dilute one-dimensional (1D) gas of bosons with infinitely strong repulsive interactions behaves like a gas of free fermions. Just as with conduction electrons in metals, we consider a single-particle picture of the resulting dynamics, when the gas is isolated by enclosing it into a box with hard walls and preparing it in a special initial state. We show, by solving the nonstationary problem of a free particle in a 1D hard-wall box, that the single-particle state recurs in time, signaling the intuitively expected back-and-forth motion of a free particle moving in a confined space. Under suitable conditions, the state of the whole gas can then be made to recur if all the particles are put in the same initial momentum superposition. We introduce this problem here as a modern instance of the discussions giving rise to the famous recurrence paradox in statistical mechanics: on one hand, our results may be used to develop a poor man's interpretation of the recurrence of the initial state observed [T. Kinoshita et al., Nature 440, 900 (2006)] in trapped 1D Bose gases of cold atoms, for which our estimated recurrence time is in fair agreement with the period of the oscillations observed; but this experiment, on the other hand, has been substantially influential on the belief that an isolated quantum many-body system can equilibrate as a consequence of its own unitary nonequilibrium dynamics. Some ideas regarding the latter are discussed. PMID:26565225

  12. Quantum entanglement in the one-dimensional spin-orbital SU (2 )⊗XXZ model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Wen-Long; Horsch, Peter; Oleś, Andrzej M.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the phase diagram and the spin-orbital entanglement of a one-dimensional SU (2 )⊗XXZ model with SU(2) spin exchange and anisotropic XXZ orbital exchange interactions and negative exchange coupling constant. As a unique feature, the spin-orbital entanglement entropy in the entangled ground states increases here linearly with system size. In the case of Ising orbital interactions, we identify an emergent phase with long-range spin-singlet dimer correlations triggered by a quadrupling of correlations in the orbital sector. The peculiar translational-invariant spin-singlet dimer phase has finite von Neumann entanglement entropy and survives when orbital quantum fluctuations are included. It even persists in the isotropic SU (2 )⊗SU (2) limit. Surprisingly, for finite transverse orbital coupling, the long-range spin-singlet correlations also coexist in the antiferromagnetic spin and alternating orbital phase making this phase also unconventional. Moreover, we also find a complementary orbital singlet phase that exists in the isotropic case but does not extend to the Ising limit. The nature of entanglement appears essentially different from that found in the frequently discussed model with positive coupling. Furthermore, we investigate the collective spin and orbital wave excitations of the disentangled ferromagnetic-spin/ferro-orbital ground state and explore the continuum of spin-orbital excitations. Interestingly, one finds among the latter excitations two modes of exciton bound states. Their spin-orbital correlations differ from the remaining continuum states and exhibit logarithmic scaling of the von Neumann entropy with increasing system size. We demonstrate that spin-orbital excitons can be experimentally explored using resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, where the strongly entangled exciton states can be easily distinguished from the spin-orbital continuum.

  13. Quantum recurrences in a one-dimensional gas of impenetrable bosons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano-Carrillo, E.

    2015-10-01

    It is well-known that a dilute one-dimensional (1D) gas of bosons with infinitely strong repulsive interactions behaves like a gas of free fermions. Just as with conduction electrons in metals, we consider a single-particle picture of the resulting dynamics, when the gas is isolated by enclosing it into a box with hard walls and preparing it in a special initial state. We show, by solving the nonstationary problem of a free particle in a 1D hard-wall box, that the single-particle state recurs in time, signaling the intuitively expected back-and-forth motion of a free particle moving in a confined space. Under suitable conditions, the state of the whole gas can then be made to recur if all the particles are put in the same initial momentum superposition. We introduce this problem here as a modern instance of the discussions giving rise to the famous recurrence paradox in statistical mechanics: on one hand, our results may be used to develop a poor man's interpretation of the recurrence of the initial state observed [T. Kinoshita et al., Nature 440, 900 (2006), 10.1038/nature04693] in trapped 1D Bose gases of cold atoms, for which our estimated recurrence time is in fair agreement with the period of the oscillations observed; but this experiment, on the other hand, has been substantially influential on the belief that an isolated quantum many-body system can equilibrate as a consequence of its own unitary nonequilibrium dynamics. Some ideas regarding the latter are discussed.

  14. High-frequency, 'quantum' and electromechanical effects in quasi-one-dimensional charge density wave conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrovskii, Vadim Ya; Zybtsev, Sergey G.; Nikitin, Maksim V.; Gorlova, Irina G.; Nasretdinova, Venera F.; Zaitsev-Zotov, Sergei V.

    2013-01-01

    Recent results (some previously unpublished) on the physics of charge density waves (CDWs) are reviewed. The synthesis conditions and unique properties of the quasi-one-dimensional compound {NbS_3}, with highly coherent room temperature CDWs, are described. A peculiar type of 'quantization' is discussed, which is observed in micro- and nanosamples of {K_{0.3}MoO_3} and {NbSe_3} due to the discrete nature of CDW wave vector values. The electric-field-induced torsional strain (TS) in quasi-one-dimensional conductors is considered. Research results on the TS of a noise character induced by sliding CDWs are presented, along with those on the inverse effect, the modulation of the voltage induced by externally driven TS. Results on the nonlinear conduction of {TiS_3}, a quasi-one-dimensional compound not belonging to the family of classical Peierls conductors, are also described.

  15. Long-range string orders and topological quantum phase transitions in the one-dimensional quantum compass model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hai Tao; Cho, Sam Young

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the quantum phase transition in the one-dimensional quantum compass model, we numerically calculate non-local string correlations, entanglement entropy and fidelity per lattice site by using the infinite matrix product state representation with the infinite time evolving block decimation method. In the whole range of the interaction parameters, we find that four distinct string orders characterize the four different Haldane phases and the topological quantum phase transition occurs between the Haldane phases. The critical exponents of the string order parameters β = 1/8 and the cental charges c = 1/2 at the critical points show that the topological phase transitions between the phases belong to an Ising type of universality classes. In addition to the string order parameters, the singularities of the second derivative of the ground state energies per site, the continuous and singular behaviors of the Von Neumann entropy and the pinch points of the fidelity per lattice site manifest that the phase transitions between the phases are of the second-order, in contrast to the first-order transition suggested in previous studies.

  16. Long-range string orders and topological quantum phase transitions in the one-dimensional quantum compass model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai Tao; Cho, Sam Young

    2015-01-14

    In order to investigate the quantum phase transition in the one-dimensional quantum compass model, we numerically calculate non-local string correlations, entanglement entropy and fidelity per lattice site by using the infinite matrix product state representation with the infinite time evolving block decimation method. In the whole range of the interaction parameters, we find that four distinct string orders characterize the four different Haldane phases and the topological quantum phase transition occurs between the Haldane phases. The critical exponents of the string order parameters β = 1/8 and the cental charges c = 1/2 at the critical points show that the topological phase transitions between the phases belong to an Ising type of universality classes. In addition to the string order parameters, the singularities of the second derivative of the ground state energies per site, the continuous and singular behaviors of the Von Neumann entropy and the pinch points of the fidelity per lattice site manifest that the phase transitions between the phases are of the second-order, in contrast to the first-order transition suggested in previous studies. PMID:25478955

  17. Spatial mapping and statistical reproducibility of an array of 256 one-dimensional quantum wires

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Taie, H. Kelly, M. J.; Smith, L. W.; Lesage, A. A. J.; Griffiths, J. P.; Beere, H. E.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Smith, C. G.; See, P.

    2015-08-21

    We utilize a multiplexing architecture to measure the conductance properties of an array of 256 split gates. We investigate the reproducibility of the pinch off and one-dimensional definition voltage as a function of spatial location on two different cooldowns, and after illuminating the device. The reproducibility of both these properties on the two cooldowns is high, the result of the density of the two-dimensional electron gas returning to a similar state after thermal cycling. The spatial variation of the pinch-off voltage reduces after illumination; however, the variation of the one-dimensional definition voltage increases due to an anomalous feature in the center of the array. A technique which quantifies the homogeneity of split-gate properties across the array is developed which captures the experimentally observed trends. In addition, the one-dimensional definition voltage is used to probe the density of the wafer at each split gate in the array on a micron scale using a capacitive model.

  18. Quantum phase transitions in composite matrix product states of one-dimensional spin-1/2 chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jing-Min

    2015-02-01

    For matrix product states of one-dimensional spin-1/2 chains, we investigate the properties of quantum phase transition of the proposed composite system. We find that the system has three different ferromagnetic phases, one line of the two ferromagnetic phases coexisting equally describes the paramagnetic state, and the other two lines of two ferromagnetic phases coexisting equally describe the ferrimagnetic states, while the three phases coexisting equally point describes the ferromagnetic state. Whether on phase transition lines or at the phase transition point, the system is always in an isolated mediate-coupling state, the physical quantities are discontinuous and the system has long-range correlation and has long-range classical correlation and long-range quantum correlation. We believe that our work is helpful for comprehensively and profoundly understanding the quantum phase transitions, and of some certain guidance and enlightening on the classification and measure of quantum correlation of quantum many-body systems.

  19. Monogamy of quantum correlations in the one-dimensional anisotropic XY model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shuai; Song, Xue-Ke; Ye, Liu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the monogamy properties of some quantum correlations, including the geometric quantum discord, concurrence, entanglement of formation and entropy quantum discord, in the anisotropic spin-1/2 XY model with staggered Dzyaloshinskii—Moriya (DM) interaction have been investigated using the quantum renormalization group (QRG) method. We summarize the monogamy relation for different quantum correlation measures and make an explicit comparison. Through mathematical calculations and analysis, we obtain that no matter whether the QRG steps are carried out, the monogamy of the given states are always unaltered. Moreover, we conclude that the geometric quantum discord and concurrence obey the monogamy property while other quantum correlation measures, such as entanglement of formation and quantum discord, violate it for this given model.

  20. Matrix product state approach to the finite-size scaling properties of the one-dimensional critical quantum Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung-Been; Cha, Min-Chul

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the finite-size scaling properties of the quantum phase transition in the one-dimensional quantum Ising model with periodic boundary conditions by representing the ground state in matrix product state forms. The infinite time-evolving block decimation technique is used to optimize the states. A trace over a product of the matrices multiplied as many times as the number of sites yields the finite-size effects. For sufficiently large Schmidt ranks, the finite-size scaling behavior determines the critical point and the critical exponents whose values are consistent with the analytical results.

  1. Generalized Airy functions for use in one-dimensional quantum mechanical problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaves, J. O.

    1972-01-01

    The solution of the one dimensional, time independent, Schroedinger equation in which the energy minus the potential varies as the nth power of the distance is obtained from proper linear combinations of Bessel functions. The linear combinations called generalized Airy functions, reduce to the usual Airy functions Ai(x) and Bi(x) when n equals 1 and have the same type of simple asymptotic behavior. Expressions for the generalized Airy functions which can be evaluated by the method of generalized Gaussian quadrature are obtained.

  2. Quantum-mechanical Brayton engine working with a particle in a one-dimensional harmonic trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.

    2013-05-01

    Based on the quantum version of thermodynamic processes, a quantum-mechanical Brayton engine model has been established. Expressions for the power output and efficiency of the engine are derived. Some fundamental optimal relations and general performance characteristic curves of the cycle are obtained. Furthermore, we note that it is possible to resist the reduction in efficiency, caused by compression of the adiabatic process, by decreasing the amount of energy levels of the quantum system. The results obtained here will provide theoretical guidance for the design of some new quantum-mechanical engines.

  3. Quantum and classical correlations in the one-dimensional XY model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Benqiong; Shao Bin; Li Jungang; Zou Jian; Wu Lianao

    2011-05-15

    We study the effect of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction on pairwise quantum discord, entanglement, and classical correlation in the anisotropic XY spin-half chain. Analytical expressions for both quantum and classical correlations are obtained from the spin-spin correlation functions. These pairwise quantities exhibit interesting behaviors in relation to the relative strengths of the physical parameters. For the infinite chain, we show that the quantum discord can be useful to highlight the quantum phase transition, especially for the long-distance spins, where entanglement decays rapidly. We observe nonanalyticities of the derivatives of both quantum and classical correlations with respect to the magnetic intensity at the critical point; interestingly, the DM interaction weakens the critical behavior in the derivatives of these correlations. While the DM interaction suppresses the standard behaviors of the XY model, it enhances surprisingly the pairwise entanglement for the third nearest neighbor spins.

  4. The monogamy relation and quantum phase transition in one-dimensional anisotropic XXZ model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xue-ke; Wu, Tao; Ye, Liu

    2013-10-01

    In the paper, we have researched the monogamy relation and the quantum phase transition (QPT) in the anisotropic spin XXZ model by exploiting the quantum renormalization group method. The results show that there exits QPT after several iterations of renormalization in the present system. And we can find out that the monogamy inequality of entanglement of formation (EOF) and entropy quantum discord develop two saturated values which associate with spin-liquid and Néel phases after several iterations of the renormalization. Furthermore, we can also find out that the renormalization of EOF and entropy quantum discord violate the monogamy property while the renormalized geometric quantum discord obeys it no matter whether the QPT iterations are carried out. As a byproduct, the nonanalytic phenomenon and scaling behavior of the spin system are analyzed in detail.

  5. One-dimensional quantum magnetism in the anhydrous alum KTi(SO4)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, GJ; Raja, A.; Tsirlin, AA; Mutka, H.; Kasinathan, D.; Ritter, C.; Rønnow, HM

    2015-11-01

    The anhydrous alum KTi(SO4)2, where the Ti3+ (d1, S = 1/2) ions form an anisotropic triangular lattice, has been prepared by a new hydrothermal route and characterized by magnetic susceptibility and neutron scattering measurements. Contrary to expectations, fits to the magnetic susceptibility indicate that the spins are isotropic (i.e. Heisenberg) and that the frustrating couplings are weak; indeed, the system is well modelled by nearly isolated chains. The inelastic neutron scattering data furthermore shows excellent agreement with an exact theoretical calculation for the one-dimensional spinon continuum. The unexpected magnetic properties of KTi(SO4)2 are explained in the light of density functional calculations, which reveal an unusual orbital ground state for the Ti3 + ion.

  6. Numerical Methods in Quantum Mechanics: Analysis of Numerical Schemes on One-Dimensional Schrodinger Wave Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Marvin Quenten, Jr.

    The motion and behavior of quantum processes can be described by the Schrodinger equation using the wave function, Psi(x,t). The use of the Schrodinger equation to study quantum phenomena is known as Quantum Mechanics, akin to classical mechanics being the tool to study classical physics. This research focuses on the emphasis of numerical techniques: Finite-Difference, Fast Fourier Transform (spectral method), finite difference schemes such as the Leapfrog method and the Crank-Nicolson scheme and second quantization to solve and analyze the Schrodinger equation for the infinite square well problem, the free particle with periodic boundary conditions, the barrier problem, tight-binding hamiltonians and a potential wall problem. We discuss these techniques and the problems created to test how these different techniques draw both physical and numerical conclusions in a tabular summary. We observed both numerical stability and quantum stability (conservation of energy, probability, momentum, etc.). We found in our results that the Crank-Nicolson scheme is an unconditionally stable scheme and conserves probability (unitary), and momentum, though dissipative with energy. The time-independent problems conserved energy, momentum and were unitary, which is of interest, but we found when time-dependence was introduced, quantum stability (i.e. conservation of mass, momentum, etc.) was not implied by numerical stability. Hence, we observed schemes that were numerically stable, but not quantum stable as well as schemes that were quantum stable, but not numerically stable for all of time, t. We also observed that second quantization removed the issues with stability as the problem was transformed into a discrete problem. Moreover, all quantum information is conserved in second quantization. This method, however, does not work universally for all problems.

  7. Quantum Correlation in Matrix Product States of One-Dimensional Spin Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jing-Min

    2015-09-01

    For our proposed composite parity-conserved matrix product state (MPS), if only a spin block length is larger than 1, any two such spin blocks have correlation including classical correlation and quantum correlation. Both the total correlation and the classical correlation become larger than that in any subcomponent; while the quantum correlations of the two nearest-neighbor spin blocks and the two next-nearest-neighbor spin blocks become smaller and for other conditions the quantum correlation becomes larger, i.e., the increase or the production of the long-range quantum correlation is at the cost of reducing the short-range quantum correlation, which deserves to be investigated in the future; and the ration of the quantum correlation to the total correlation monotonically decreases to a steady value as the spacing spin length increasing. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 10974137 and the Major Natural Science Foundation of the Educational Department of Sichuan Province under Grant No. 14ZA0167

  8. One-dimensional chain of quantum molecule motors as a mathematical physics model for muscle fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Tie-Yan

    2015-12-01

    A quantum chain model of multiple molecule motors is proposed as a mathematical physics theory for the microscopic modeling of classical force-velocity relation and tension transients in muscle fibers. The proposed model was a quantum many-particle Hamiltonian to predict the force-velocity relation for the slow release of muscle fibers, which has not yet been empirically defined and was much more complicated than the hyperbolic relationships. Using the same Hamiltonian model, a mathematical force-velocity relationship was proposed to explain the tension observed when the muscle was stimulated with an alternative electric current. The discrepancy between input electric frequency and the muscle oscillation frequency could be explained physically by the Doppler effect in this quantum chain model. Further more, quantum physics phenomena were applied to explore the tension time course of cardiac muscle and insect flight muscle. Most of the experimental tension transient curves were found to correspond to the theoretical output of quantum two- and three-level models. Mathematical modeling electric stimulus as photons exciting a quantum three-level particle reproduced most of the tension transient curves of water bug Lethocerus maximus. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Foundation for the Central Universities of China.

  9. Emulating quantum state transfer through a spin-1 chain on a one-dimensional lattice of superconducting qutrits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Joydip

    2014-12-01

    Spin-1 systems, in comparison to spin-1/2 systems, offer a better security for encoding and transferring quantum information, primarily due to their larger Hilbert spaces. Superconducting artificial atoms possess multiple energy levels, thereby being capable of emulating higher-spin systems. Here I consider a one-dimensional lattice of nearest-neighbor-coupled superconducting transmon systems, and devise a scheme to transfer an arbitrary qutrit state (a state encoded in a three-level quantum system) across the chain. I assume adjustable couplings between adjacent transmons, derive an analytic constraint for the control pulse, and show how to satisfy the constraint to achieve a high-fidelity state transfer under current experimental conditions. My protocol thus enables enhanced quantum communication and information processing with promising superconducting qutrits.

  10. Electron-phonon interaction effect on persistent current in a one-dimensional quantum ring by using a simple model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omidi, Mahboubeh; Faizabadi, Edris

    2015-09-01

    We use a simple model to study the electron-phonon interaction influences on persistent current in a one-dimensional quantum ring enclosed by a magnetic flux. With increasing the temperature, persistent current amplitude is reduced, especially in a quantum ring with two ions per primitive cell (diatomic ring) because of the participation of optical phonons. Furthermore, the periodicity of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations changes to Φ0 / 2 (Φ0 is magnetic flux quantum). In a diatomic ring, by increasing the difference between left and right nearest-neighbor hopping integrals at zero temperature, persistent current variations show a transition from metallic to insulator against distinctive behavior at nonzero temperature.

  11. Quantum Monte Carlo study of quasi-one-dimensional Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astrakharchik, G. E.; Blume, D.; Giorgini, S.; Granger, B. E.

    2004-04-01

    We study the behaviour of quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) Bose gases by Monte Carlo techniques, i.e. by the variational Monte Carlo, the diffusion Monte Carlo and the fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo techniques. Our calculations confirm and extend our results of an earlier study (Astrakharchik et al 2003 Preprint cond-mat/0308585). We find that a quasi-1D Bose gas (i) is well described by a 1D model Hamiltonian with contact interactions and renormalized coupling constant; (ii) reaches the Tonks-Girardeau regime for a critical value of the 3D scattering length a3D; (iii) enters a unitary regime for |a3D| rarr infin, where the properties of the gas are independent of a3D and are similar to those of a 1D gas of hard-rods and (iv) becomes unstable against cluster formation for a critical value of the 1D gas parameter. The accuracy and implications of our results are discussed in detail.

  12. Quantum Monte Carlo study of a one-dimensional phase-fluctuating condensate in a harmonic trap

    SciTech Connect

    Gils, C.; Pollet, L.; Troyer, M.; Vernier, A.; Hebert, F.; Batrouni, G. G.

    2007-06-15

    We study numerically the low-temperature behavior of a one-dimensional Bose gas trapped in an optical lattice. For a sufficient number of particles and weak repulsive interactions, we find a clear regime of temperatures where density fluctuations are negligible but phase fluctuations are considerable, i.e., a quasicondensate. In the weakly interacting limit, our results are in very good agreement with those obtained using a mean-field approximation. In coupling regimes beyond the validity of mean-field approaches, a phase-fluctuating condensate also appears, but the phase-correlation properties are qualitatively different. It is shown that quantum depletion plays an important role.

  13. One-Dimensional Three-State Quantum Walk with Single-Point Phase Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yong-Zhen; Guo, Gong-De; Lin, Song

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we study a three-state quantum walk with a phase defect at a designated position. The coin operator is a parametrization of the eigenvectors of the Grover matrix. We numerically investigate the properties of the proposed model via the position probability distribution, the position standard deviation, and the time-averaged probability at the designated position. It is shown that the localization effect can be governed by the phase defect's position and strength, coin parameter and initial state.

  14. A one-dimensional lattice model for a quantum mechanical free particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Torre, A. C.; Daleo, A.

    2000-01-01

    Two types of particles, A and B with their corresponding antiparticles, are defined in a onedimensional cyclic lattice with an odd number of sites. In each step of time evolution, each particle acts as a source for the polarization field of the other type of particle with nonlocal action but with an effect decreasing with the distance: A to \\cdots bar BBbar BBbar B \\cdots ;B to \\cdots Abar AAbar AA \\cdots . It is shown that the combined distribution of these particles obeys the time evolution of a free particle as given by quantum mechanics.

  15. Tunable localized surface plasmon resonances in one-dimensional h-BN/graphene/h-BN quantum-well structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaibiao, Zhang; Hong, Zhang; Xinlu, Cheng

    2016-03-01

    The graphene/hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN) hybrid structure has emerged to extend the performance of graphene-based devices. Here, we investigate the tunable plasmon in one-dimensional h-BN/graphene/h-BN quantum-well structures. The analysis of optical response and field enhancement demonstrates that these systems exhibit a distinct quantum confinement effect for the collective oscillations. The intensity and frequency of the plasmon can be controlled by the barrier width and electrical doping. Moreover, the electron doping and the hole doping lead to very different results due to the asymmetric energy band. This graphene/h-BN hybrid structure may pave the way for future optoelectronic devices. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11474207 and 11374217) and the Scientific Research Fund of Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, China (Grant No. 2014PY07).

  16. Self-localized impurities embedded in a one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate and their quantum fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Sacha, Krzysztof; Timmermans, Eddy

    2006-06-15

    We consider the self-localization of neutral impurity atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate in a one-dimensional model. Within the strong coupling approach, we show that the self-localized state exhibits parametric soliton behavior. The corresponding stationary states are analogous to the solitons of nonlinear optics and to the solitonic solutions of the Schroedinger-Newton equation (which appears in models that consider the connection between quantum mechanics and gravitation). In addition, we present a Bogoliubov-de Gennes formalism to describe the quantum fluctuations around the product state of the strong coupling description. Our fluctuation calculations yield the excitation spectrum and reveal considerable corrections to the strong coupling description. The knowledge of the spectrum allows a spectroscopic detection of the impurity self-localization phenomenon.

  17. Comment on ``Adiabatic quantum computation with a one-dimensional projector Hamiltonian''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Alastair

    2013-10-01

    The partial adiabatic search algorithm was introduced in Tulsi's paper [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.80.052328 80, 052328 (2009)] as a modification of the usual adiabatic algorithm for a quantum search with the idea that most of the interesting computation only happens over a very short range of the adiabatic path. By focusing on that restricted range, one can potentially gain an advantage by reducing the control requirements on the system, enabling a uniform rate of evolution. In this Comment, we point out an oversight in Tulsi's paper [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.80.052328 80, 052328 (2009)] that invalidates its proof. However, the argument can be corrected, and the calculations in Tulsi's paper [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.80.052328 80, 052328 (2009)] are then sufficient to show that the scheme still works. Nevertheless, subsequent works [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.82.034304 82, 034304 (2010), Chin. Phys. BCPBHAJ1674-105610.1088/1674-1056/20/4/040309 20, 040309 (2011), Chin. Phys. BCPBHAJ1674-105610.1088/1674-1056/21/1/010306 21, 010306 (2012), AASRI Procedia 1, 5862 (2012), and Quantum Inf. Process.10.1007/s11128-013-0557-1 12, 2689 (2013)] cannot all be recovered in the same way.

  18. Exploring the renormalization of quantum discord and Bell non-locality in the one-dimensional transverse Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-cheng; Shi, Jia-dong; Ding, Zhi-yong; Ye, Liu

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the effect of external magnet field g on the relationship among the quantum discord, Bell non-locality and quantum phase transition by employing quantum renormalization-group (QRG) method in the one-dimensional transverse Ising model is investigated. In our model, external magnet field g can influence the phase diagrams. The results have shown that both the two quantum correlation measures can develop two saturated values, which are associated with two distinct phases: long-ranged ordered Ising phase and the paramagnetic phase with the number of QRG iterations increasing. Additionally, quantum non-locality always existent in the long-ranged ordered Ising phase no matter whatever the value of g is and what times QRG steps are carried out and we conclude that the quantum non-locality always exists not only suitable for the two sites of block, but for nearest-neighbor blocks in the long-ranged ordered Ising phase. However, the block-block correlation in the paramagnetic phase is not strong enough to violate the Bell-CHSH inequality as the size of system becomes large. Furthermore, when the system violates the CHSH inequality, i.e., satisfies quantum non-locality, it needs to be entangled. On the other way, if the system obeys the CHSH inequality, it may be entangled or not. To gain further insight, the non-analytic and scaling behavior of QD and Bell non-locality have also been analyzed in detail and this phenomenon indicates that the behavior of the correlation can perfectly help one to observe the quantum critical properties of the model.

  19. Casimir interaction between mobile impurities in one-dimensional quantum liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schecter, Michael; Kamenev, Alex

    2014-03-01

    At zero temperature virtual phonons of a quantum liquid scatter off impurities and mediate a long-range interaction, analogous to the Casimir effect. At finite temperature, moving impurities also experience a correlated friction due to coherent exchange of real phonons. In one dimension the effect is universal and the induced interaction decays as 1 /r3 , much slower than the van der Waals interaction ~ 1 /r6 where r is the impurity separation. The magnitude of the effect is characterized by the product of impurity-phonon scattering amplitudes, which are seen to vanish for the class of integrable impurity models. By tuning the parameters near integrability one can thus observe an attractive interaction turned into a repulsive one.

  20. Phonon-Mediated Casimir Interaction between Mobile Impurities in One-Dimensional Quantum Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schecter, Michael; Kamenev, Alex

    2014-04-01

    Virtual phonons of a quantum liquid scatter off impurities and mediate a long-range interaction, analogous to the Casimir effect. In one dimension the effect is universal and the induced interaction decays as 1/r3, much slower than the van der Waals interaction ˜1/r6, where r is the impurity separation. The sign of the effect is characterized by the product of impurity-phonon scattering amplitudes, which take a universal form and have been seen to vanish for several integrable impurity models. Thus, if the impurity parameters can be independently tuned to lie on opposite sides of such integrable points, one can observe an attractive interaction turned into a repulsive one.

  1. Quantum Tunneling of Charge-Density Waves in Quasi One-Dimensional Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John Harris, Jr.

    The charge-density wave (CDW) dynamics of the linear chain compound orthorhombic TaS(,3) is characterized by extensive measurements of dc conductivity, ac admittance, direct mixing, harmonic mixing, second harmonic generation, and third harmonic generation as functions of dc bias voltage, applied frequencies, and, in some cases, the amplitude of an additional ac signal. Measurements of the direct and harmonic mixing responses of NbSe(,3) are also reported. The results are analyzed in terms of an extension of the tunneling theory of CDW depinning, proposed by John Bardeen, coupled to the theory of photon-assisted tunneling (PAT). Where possible, the results are also compared with predictions of the classical overdamped oscillator model of CDW transport. The tunneling model is shown to provide a complete and semiquantitative interpretation of the entire small -signal ac dynamics at megahertz frequencies, using only the measured dc I-V curve and an experimentally inferred frequency-voltage scaling parameter, and also accounts for much of the large-signal behavior studied thus far. The observation of both an induced ac harmonic mixing current and a third harmonic generation current whose amplitudes peak at output frequencies far below the measured "cross -over frequency" for ac conductivity agrees with the phenomenological tunneling model, but is in serious disagreement with the classical overdamped oscillator model of CDW motion. Furthermore, the absence of any observed quadrature component in the harmonic mixing response, even though the measured linear response at the applied frequencies has substantial frequency -dependent in-phase and quadrature components, is probably impossible to reconcile with any classical theory. The results reported here thus provide compelling evidence in favor of collective, coherent quantum tunneling as the mechanism of charge-density wave depinning, and indicate that macroscopic quantum effects are observed in the megahertz frequency

  2. Quantum radiation reaction force on a one-dimensional cavity with two relativistic moving mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Danilo T.; Granhen, Edney R.; Pires, Wagner P.

    2010-08-01

    We consider a real massless scalar field inside a cavity with two moving mirrors in a two-dimensional spacetime, satisfying the Dirichlet boundary condition at the instantaneous position of the boundaries, for arbitrary and relativistic laws of motion. Considering vacuum as the initial field state, we obtain formulas for the exact value of the energy density of the field and the quantum force acting on the boundaries, which extend results found in previous papers [D. T. Alves, E. R. Granhen, H. O. Silva, and M. G. Lima, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 81, 025016 (2010); 10.1103/PhysRevD.81.025016L. Li and B.-Z. Li, Phys. Lett. APYLAAG0375-9601 300, 27 (2002); 10.1016/S0375-9601(02)00674-6L. Li and B.-Z. Li, Chin. Phys. Lett.CPLEEU0256-307X 19, 1061 (2002); 10.1088/0256-307X/19/8/310L. Li and B.-Z. Li, Acta Phys. Sin.WLHPAR1000-3290 52, 2762 (2003); C. K. Cole and W. C. Schieve, Phys. Rev. A 64, 023813 (2001)PLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.64.023813]. For the particular cases of a cavity with just one moving boundary, nonrelativistic velocities, or in the limit of infinity length of the cavity (a single mirror), our results coincide with those found in the literature.

  3. Quantum radiation reaction force on a one-dimensional cavity with two relativistic moving mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Danilo T.; Granhen, Edney R.; Pires, Wagner P.

    2010-08-15

    We consider a real massless scalar field inside a cavity with two moving mirrors in a two-dimensional spacetime, satisfying the Dirichlet boundary condition at the instantaneous position of the boundaries, for arbitrary and relativistic laws of motion. Considering vacuum as the initial field state, we obtain formulas for the exact value of the energy density of the field and the quantum force acting on the boundaries, which extend results found in previous papers [D. T. Alves, E. R. Granhen, H. O. Silva, and M. G. Lima, Phys. Rev. D 81, 025016 (2010); L. Li and B.-Z. Li, Phys. Lett. A 300, 27 (2002); L. Li and B.-Z. Li, Chin. Phys. Lett. 19, 1061 (2002); L. Li and B.-Z. Li, Acta Phys. Sin. 52, 2762 (2003); C. K. Cole and W. C. Schieve, Phys. Rev. A 64, 023813 (2001)]. For the particular cases of a cavity with just one moving boundary, nonrelativistic velocities, or in the limit of infinity length of the cavity (a single mirror), our results coincide with those found in the literature.

  4. Quantum ballistic transport by interacting two-electron states in quasi-one-dimensional channels

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Danhong; Gumbs, Godfrey; Abranyos, Yonatan; Pepper, Michael; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2015-11-15

    For quantum ballistic transport of electrons through a short conduction channel, the role of Coulomb interaction may significantly modify the energy levels of two-electron states at low temperatures as the channel becomes wide. In this regime, the Coulomb effect on the two-electron states is calculated and found to lead to four split energy levels, including two anticrossing-level and two crossing-level states. Moreover, due to the interplay of anticrossing and crossing effects, our calculations reveal that the ground two-electron state will switch from one anticrossing state (strong confinement) to a crossing state (intermediate confinement) as the channel width gradually increases and then back to the original anticrossing state (weak confinement) as the channel width becomes larger than a threshold value. This switching behavior leaves a footprint in the ballistic conductance as well as in the diffusion thermoelectric power of electrons. Such a switching is related to the triple spin degeneracy as well as to the Coulomb repulsion in the central region of the channel, which separates two electrons away and pushes them to different channel edges. The conductance reoccurrence region expands from the weak to the intermediate confinement regime with increasing electron density.

  5. Graphene flakes with defective edge terminations: Universal and topological aspects, and one-dimensional quantum behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovsky, Igor; Yannouleas, Constantine; Landman, Uzi

    2012-10-01

    Systematic tight-binding investigations of the electronic spectra (as a function of the magnetic field) are presented for trigonal graphene nanoflakes with reconstructed zigzag edges, where a succession of pentagons and heptagons, that is 5-7 defects, replaces the hexagons at the zigzag edge. For nanoflakes with such reczag defective edges, emphasis is placed on topological aspects and connections underlying the patterns dominating the spectra of these systems. The electronic spectra of trigonal graphene nanoflakes with reczag edge terminations exhibit certain unique features, in addition to those that are well known to appear for graphene dots with zigzag edge termination. These unique features include breaking of the particle-hole symmetry, and they are associated with nonlinear dispersion of the energy as a function of momentum, which may be interpreted as nonrelativistic behavior. The general topological features shared with the zigzag flakes include the appearance of energy gaps at zero and low magnetic fields due to finite size, the formation of relativistic Landau levels at high magnetic fields, and the presence between the Landau levels of edge states (the so-called Halperin states) associated with the integer quantum Hall effect. Topological regimes, unique to the reczag nanoflakes, appear within a stripe of negative energies ɛb<ɛ<0, and along a separate feature forming a constant-energy line outside this stripe. The ɛb lower bound specifying the energy stripe is independent of size. Prominent among the patterns within the ɛb<ɛ<0 energy stripe is the formation of three-member braid bands, similar to those present in the spectra of narrow graphene nanorings; they are associated with Aharonov-Bohm-type oscillations, i.e., the reczag edges along the three sides of the triangle behave like a nanoring (with the corners acting as scatterers) enclosing the magnetic flux through the entire area of the graphene flake. Another prominent feature within the

  6. Optimal control equations for the one dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator under the influence of external dipole effects

    SciTech Connect

    Ayvaz, Muzaffer; Demiralp, Metin

    2012-12-10

    This study focuses on the construction of the optimal control equations for one dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator under the influence of external dipol effects and the solution of these equations by using Fluctuationlessness Theorem and a recently developed scheme called Characteristic Evolutions Method. The dipole function of the system has been taken as odd cubic spatial polynomial. Optimal control equations of the system under consideration are constructed by using expectation values of the position and the momentum operators instead of the wave and costate evolutions. It is shown that, the resulting equations are systems of ordinary differential equations and there are infinitely many ODEs. The solution strategy is based on the approximation of the expectation values for the operator products in the sense of Fluctuationlessness Theorem.

  7. Dual-Mode SERS-Fluorescence Immunoassay Using Graphene Quantum Dot Labeling on One-Dimensional Aligned Magnetoplasmonic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zou, Fengming; Zhou, Hongjian; Tan, Tran Van; Kim, Jeonghyo; Koh, Kwangnak; Lee, Jaebeom

    2015-06-10

    A novel dual-mode immunoassay based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and fluorescence was designed using graphene quantum dot (GQD) labels to detect a tuberculosis (TB) antigen, CFP-10, via a newly developed sensing platform of linearly aligned magnetoplasmonic (MagPlas) nanoparticles (NPs). The GQDs were excellent bilabeling materials for simultaneous Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL). The one-dimensional (1D) alignment of MagPlas NPs simplified the immunoassay process and enabled fast, enhanced signal transduction. With a sandwich-type immunoassay using dual-mode nanoprobes, both SERS signals and fluorescence images were recognized in a highly sensitive and selective manner with a detection limit of 0.0511 pg mL(-1). PMID:26006156

  8. Quantum critical behavior and trap-size scaling of trapped bosons in a one-dimensional optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Campostrini, Massimo; Vicari, Ettore

    2010-06-15

    We study the quantum (zero-temperature) critical behaviors of confined particle systems described by the one-dimensional (1D) Bose-Hubbard model in the presence of a confining potential, at the Mott insulator to superfluid transitions, and within the gapless superfluid phase. Specifically, we consider the hard-core limit of the model, which allows us to study the effects of the confining potential by exact and very accurate numerical results. We analyze the quantum critical behaviors in the large trap-size limit within the framework of the trap-size scaling (TSS) theory, which introduces a new trap exponent {theta} to describe the dependence on the trap size. This study is relevant for experiments of confined quasi-1D cold atom systems in optical lattices. At the low-density Mott transition, TSS can be shown analytically within the spinless fermion representation of the hard-core limit. The trap-size dependence turns out to be more subtle in the other critical regions, when the corresponding homogeneous system has a nonzero filling f, showing an infinite number of level crossings of the lowest states when increasing the trap size. At the n=1 Mott transition, this gives rise to a modulated TSS: The TSS is still controlled by the trap-size exponent {theta}, but it gets modulated by periodic functions of the trap size. Modulations of the asymptotic power-law behavior is also found in the gapless superfluid region, with additional multiscaling behaviors.

  9. A theoretical analysis of the optical absorption properties in one-dimensional InAs/GaAs quantum dot superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Kotani, Teruhisa; Birner, Stefan; Lugli, Paolo; Hamaguchi, Chihiro

    2014-04-14

    We present theoretical investigations of miniband structures and optical properties of InAs/GaAs one-dimensional quantum dot superlattices (1D-QDSLs). The calculation is based on the multi-band k·p theory, including the conduction and valence band mixing effects, the strain effect, and the piezoelectric effect; all three effects have periodic boundary conditions. We find that both the electronic and optical properties of the 1D-QDSLs show unique states which are different from those of well known single quantum dots (QDs) or quantum wires. We predict that the optical absorption spectra of the 1D-QDSLs strongly depend on the inter-dot spacing because of the inter-dot carrier coupling and changing strain states, which strongly influence the conduction and valence band potentials. The inter-miniband transitions form the absorption bands. Those absorption bands can be tuned from almost continuous (closely stacked QD case) to spike-like shape (almost isolated QD case) by changing the inter-dot spacing. The polarization of the lowest absorption peak for the 1D-QDSLs changes from being parallel to the stacking direction to being perpendicular to the stacking direction as the inter-dot spacing increases. In the case of closely stacked QDs, in-plane anisotropy, especially [110] and [11{sup ¯}0] directions also depend on the inter-dot spacing. Our findings and predictions will provide an additional degree of freedom for the design of QD-based optoelectronic devices.

  10. One-dimensional quantum antiferromagnetism in the p -orbital CsO2 compound revealed by electron paramagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaflič, Tilen; Klanjšek, Martin; Sans, Annette; Adler, Peter; Jansen, Martin; Felser, Claudia; Arčon, Denis

    2015-05-01

    Recently, it was proposed that the orbital ordering of πx,y * molecular orbitals in the superoxide CsO2 compound leads to the formation of spin-1/2 chains below the structural phase transition occurring at Ts 1=61 K on cooling. Here we report a detailed X -band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study of this phase in CsO2 powder. The EPR signal appears as a broad line below Ts 1, which is replaced by the antiferromagnetic resonance below the Néel temperature TN=8.3 K . The temperature dependence of the EPR linewidth between Ts 1 and TN agrees with the predictions for the one-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chain of S =1 /2 spins in the presence of symmetric anisotropic exchange interaction. Complementary analysis of the EPR line shape, linewidth, and the signal intensity within the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid (TLL) framework allows for a determination of the TLL exponent K =0.48 . Present EPR data thus fully comply with the quantum antiferromagnetic state of spin-1/2 chains in the orbitally ordered phase of CsO2, which is therefore a unique p -orbital system where such a state could be studied.

  11. Quantum phase transition in a one-dimensional Holstein-Hubbard model at half-filling in the thermodynamic limit: A quantum entanglement approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, I. V.; Chatterjee, Ashok

    2016-05-01

    The quantum phase transition from a spin-density wave phase to a charge-density wave phase is studied within the framework of the one-dimensional Holstein-Hubbard model. The phonons are first eliminated by using a variational phonon state and the effective electronic Hamiltonian is then exactly solved using the Bethe ansatz technique to get the ground state energy. The entanglement entropy is finally calculated to show the possibility of existence of an intervening metallic phase at the cross-over region of the spin-density and charge-density wave phases in the thermodynamic limit at half-filling.

  12. One-dimensional electronic systems in ultra-fine mesa etched InGaAs-InAlAs-InP quantum wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, K.; Demel, T.; Heitmann, D.; Grambow, P.; Ploog, K.; Razeghi, M.

    1990-04-01

    Quantum wire structures have been prepared by deep mesa etching of modulation doped InGaAs-InAlAs-InP heterostructures. In very narrow wires (width t ≈ 300 nm) it was possible to realize one-dimensional electronic systems (IDES) with quantum confined energy levels. The separation of the ID subbands was, as determined from magnetic depopulation, about 2.5 meV.

  13. Exploring the renormalization of quantum discord and Bell non-locality in the one-dimensional transverse Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-cheng; Shi, Jia-dong; Ding, Zhi-yong; Ye, Liu

    2016-05-01

    Quantum coherence is an important physical resource in quantum computation and quantum information processing. In this paper, we firstly obtain an uncertainty-like expression relating two coherences contained in corresponding local bipartite quantum system. This uncertainty-like inequality shows that the larger the coherence of one subsystem, the less coherence contained in other subsystems. Further, we discuss in detail the uncertainty-like relation among three single-partite quantum systems. We show that the coherence contained in pure tripartite quantum system is greater than the sum of the coherence of all local subsystems.

  14. Efficient optical coupling in AlGaN/GaN quantum well infrared photodetector via quasi-one-dimensional gold grating.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Tian, W; Wu, F; Zhang, J; Dai, J N; Wu, Z H; Fang, Y Y; Tian, Y; Chen, C Q

    2015-04-01

    In this letter, a new kind of grating, quasi-one-dimensional gold grating, has been proposed to enhance the optical coupling in AlGaN/GaN quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP). The electric field distribution, current density and energy flow are analyzed by an algorithm of finite element method (FEM). Significantly enhanced electric field component E(z) perpendicular to multiple quantum wells (MQWs) is explained by introducing the resonant coupling of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) and localized surface plasmon (LSP). The |E(z)|(2) in MQWs reaches 0.85 (V/m(2) when the electric field intensity (|E(0)|(2)) of normal incidence is 1 (V/m(2) at 4.65 μm, showing 2 times and 1.3 times increase compared with that obtained via a one-dimensional gold grating and a two-dimensional gold grating, respectively. The results confirm that the quasi-one-dimensional gold grating provides more plasma excitation source and higher charge density with structure optimization, resulting in a high optical coupling efficiency of 85% in quantum well region. PMID:25968712

  15. Relating tripartite quantum discord with multisite entanglement and their performance in the one-dimensional anisotropic XXZ model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Liang; Tang, Gang; Yang, Xian-qing; Wang, An-min

    2014-02-01

    In order to define quantum correlations, there are two important paradigms in quantum information theory, viz. the information-theoretic and the entanglement-separability ones. In this paper, we give an analytical relation between two measures of quantum correlations. One of them is related to the monogamy of squared bipartite quantum discord, which is a information-theoretic multipartite quantum correlation measure, while the other is the generalized geometric measure which lies in the entanglement-separability paradigm. We find a certain cone-like region on the two-dimensional spaces spanned by the two measures. Moreover, we have investigated the quantum phase transition with the two measures in the anisotropic spin XXZ model by exploiting the quantum renormalization group method.

  16. Thermodynamic properties of the one-dimensional extended quantum compass model in the presence of a transverse field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, R.

    2012-05-01

    The presence of a quantum critical point can significantly affect the thermodynamic properties of a material at finite temperatures. This is reflected, e.g., in the entropy landscape S(T, c) in the vicinity of a quantum critical point, yielding particularly strong variations for varying the tuning parameter c such as magnetic field. In this work we have studied the thermodynamic properties of the quantum compass model in the presence of a transverse field. The specific heat, entropy and cooling rate under an adiabatic demagnetization process have been calculated. During an adiabatic (de)magnetization process temperature drops in the vicinity of a field-induced zero-temperature quantum phase transitions. However close to field-induced quantum phase transitions we observe a large magnetocaloric effect.

  17. Prethermalization in a quenched one-dimensional quantum fluid of light. Intrinsic limits to the coherent propagation of a light beam in a nonlinear optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larré, Pierre-Élie; Carusotto, Iacopo

    2016-03-01

    We study the coherence properties of a laser beam after propagation along a one-dimensional lossless nonlinear optical waveguide. Within the paraxial, slowly-varying-envelope, and single-transverse-mode approximations, the quantum propagation of the light field in the nonlinear medium is mapped onto a quantum Gross-Pitaevskii-type evolution of a closed one-dimensional system of many interacting photons. Upon crossing the entrance and the back faces of the waveguide, the photon-photon interaction parameter undergoes two sudden jumps, resulting in a pair of quantum quenches of the system's Hamiltonian. In the weak-interaction regime, we use the modulus-phase Bogoliubov theory of dilute Bose gases to describe the quantum fluctuations of the fluid of light and predict that correlations typical of a prethermalized state emerge locally in their final form and propagate in a light-cone way at the Bogoliubov speed of sound in the photon fluid. This peculiar relaxation dynamics, visible in the light exiting the waveguide, results in a loss of long-lived coherence in the beam of light.

  18. Quantum optimal control pathways of ozone isomerization dynamics subject to competing dissociation: A two-state one-dimensional model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosaki, Yuzuru; Ho, Tak-San; Rabitz, Herschel

    2014-02-01

    We construct a two-state one-dimensional reaction-path model for ozone open → cyclic isomerization dynamics. The model is based on the intrinsic reaction coordinate connecting the cyclic and open isomers with the O2 + O asymptote on the ground-state 1A' potential energy surface obtained with the high-level ab initio method. Using this two-state model time-dependent wave packet optimal control simulations are carried out. Two possible pathways are identified along with their respective band-limited optimal control fields; for pathway 1 the wave packet initially associated with the open isomer is first pumped into a shallow well on the excited electronic state potential curve and then driven back to the ground electronic state to form the cyclic isomer, whereas for pathway 2 the corresponding wave packet is excited directly to the primary well of the excited state potential curve. The simulations reveal that the optimal field for pathway 1 produces a final yield of nearly 100% with substantially smaller intensity than that obtained in a previous study [Y. Kurosaki, M. Artamonov, T.-S. Ho, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 044306 (2009)] using a single-state one-dimensional model. Pathway 2, due to its strong coupling to the dissociation channel, is less effective than pathway 1. The simulations also show that nonlinear field effects due to molecular polarizability and hyperpolarizability are small for pathway 1 but could become significant for pathway 2 because much higher field intensity is involved in the latter. The results suggest that a practical control may be feasible with the aid of a few lowly excited electronic states for ozone isomerization.

  19. Quantum optimal control pathways of ozone isomerization dynamics subject to competing dissociation: A two-state one-dimensional model

    SciTech Connect

    Kurosaki, Yuzuru; Ho, Tak-San Rabitz, Herschel

    2014-02-28

    We construct a two-state one-dimensional reaction-path model for ozone open → cyclic isomerization dynamics. The model is based on the intrinsic reaction coordinate connecting the cyclic and open isomers with the O{sub 2} + O asymptote on the ground-state {sup 1}A{sup ′} potential energy surface obtained with the high-level ab initio method. Using this two-state model time-dependent wave packet optimal control simulations are carried out. Two possible pathways are identified along with their respective band-limited optimal control fields; for pathway 1 the wave packet initially associated with the open isomer is first pumped into a shallow well on the excited electronic state potential curve and then driven back to the ground electronic state to form the cyclic isomer, whereas for pathway 2 the corresponding wave packet is excited directly to the primary well of the excited state potential curve. The simulations reveal that the optimal field for pathway 1 produces a final yield of nearly 100% with substantially smaller intensity than that obtained in a previous study [Y. Kurosaki, M. Artamonov, T.-S. Ho, and H. Rabitz, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 044306 (2009)] using a single-state one-dimensional model. Pathway 2, due to its strong coupling to the dissociation channel, is less effective than pathway 1. The simulations also show that nonlinear field effects due to molecular polarizability and hyperpolarizability are small for pathway 1 but could become significant for pathway 2 because much higher field intensity is involved in the latter. The results suggest that a practical control may be feasible with the aid of a few lowly excited electronic states for ozone isomerization.

  20. Quench dynamics and ground state fidelity of the one-dimensional extended quantum compass model in a transverse field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, R.

    2016-05-01

    We study the ground state fidelity, fidelity susceptibility, and quench dynamics of the extended quantum compass model in a transverse field. This model reveals a rich phase diagram which includes several critical surfaces depending on exchange couplings. We present a characterization of quantum phase transitions in terms of the ground state fidelity between two ground states obtained for two different values of external parameters. We also derive scaling relations describing the singular behavior of the fidelity susceptibility in the quantum critical surfaces. Moreover, we study the time evolution of the system after a critical quantum quench using the Loschmidt echo (LE). We find that the revival times of LE are given by {T}{rev}=N/2{v}{max}, where N is the size of the system and v max is the maximum of the lower bound group velocity of quasi-particles. Although the fidelity susceptibility shows the same exponent in all critical surfaces, the structure of the revivals after critical quantum quenches displays two different regimes reflecting different equilibration dynamics.

  1. Unusual entanglement transformation properties of the quantum radiation through one-dimensional random system containing left-handed-materials.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yunxia; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2008-10-13

    The quantum radiation through the multilayer structures containing the left-handed materials is investigated based on the Green-function approach to the quantization of the phenomenological Maxwell theory. Emphasis is placed on the effect of randomness on the generation and transmission of entangled-states. It is shown that some unusual properties appear for the present systems in comparison with those of the conventional dielectric structures. The quantum relative entropy is always enhanced with the increase of random degree due to the existence of nonlocalized mode in the present systems, while the maximal entanglement can be observed only at some certain randomness for the conventional dielectric structures. In contrast to exponential decrease in the conventional systems, the entanglement degrades slowly with the increase of disorder and thickness of the sample near the nonlocalized mode after transmission through the present systems. This will benefit the quantum communication for long distances. PMID:18852803

  2. Effect of double local quenches on the Loschmidt echo and entanglement entropy of a one-dimensional quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajak, Atanu; Divakaran, Uma

    2016-04-01

    We study the effect of two simultaneous local quenches on the evolution of the Loschmidt echo (LE) and entanglement entropy (EE) of a one dimensional transverse Ising model. In this work, one of the local quenches involves the connection of two spin-1/2 chains at a certain time and the other corresponds to a sudden change in the magnitude of the transverse field at a given site in one of the spin chains. We numerically calculate the dynamics associated with the LE and the EE as a result of such double quenches, and discuss the various timescales involved in this problem using the picture of quasiparticles (QPs) generated as a result of such quenches. We perform a detailed analysis of the probability of QPs produced at the two sites and the nature of the QPs in various phases, and obtain interesting results. More specifically, we find partial reflection of these QPs at the defect center or the site of h-quench, resulting in new timescales which have never been reported before.

  3. Realizing one-dimensional quantum and high-frequency transport features in aligned single-walled carbon nanotube ropes

    SciTech Connect

    Ncube, Siphephile; Chimowa, George; Chiguvare, Zivayi; Bhattacharyya, Somnath

    2014-07-14

    The superiority of the electronic transport properties of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) ropes over SWNT mats is verified from low temperature and frequency-dependent transport. The overall change of resistance versus in nanotube mats shows that 3D variable range hopping is the dominant conduction mechanism within the 2–300 K range. The magneto-resistance (MR) is found to be predominantly negative with a parabolic nature, which can also be described by the hopping model. Although the positive upturn of the MR at low temperatures establishes the contribution from quantum interference, the inherent quantum transport in individual tubes is suppressed at elevated temperatures. Therefore, to minimize multi-channel effects from inter-tube interactions and other defects, two-terminal devices were fabricated from aligned SWNT (extracted from a mat) for low temperature transport as well as high-frequency measurements. In contrast to the mat, the aligned ropes exhibit step-like features in the differential conductance within the 80–300 K temperature range. The effects of plasmon propagation, unique to one dimension, were identified in electronic transport as a non-universal power-law dependence of the differential conductance on temperature and source-drain voltage. The complex impedance showed high power transmission capabilities up to 65 GHz as well as oscillations in the frequency range up to 30 GHz. The measurements suggest that aligned SWNT ropes have a realistic potential for high-speed device applications.

  4. Realizing one-dimensional quantum and high-frequency transport features in aligned single-walled carbon nanotube ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ncube, Siphephile; Chimowa, George; Chiguvare, Zivayi; Bhattacharyya, Somnath

    2014-07-01

    The superiority of the electronic transport properties of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) ropes over SWNT mats is verified from low temperature and frequency-dependent transport. The overall change of resistance versus in nanotube mats shows that 3D variable range hopping is the dominant conduction mechanism within the 2-300 K range. The magneto-resistance (MR) is found to be predominantly negative with a parabolic nature, which can also be described by the hopping model. Although the positive upturn of the MR at low temperatures establishes the contribution from quantum interference, the inherent quantum transport in individual tubes is suppressed at elevated temperatures. Therefore, to minimize multi-channel effects from inter-tube interactions and other defects, two-terminal devices were fabricated from aligned SWNT (extracted from a mat) for low temperature transport as well as high-frequency measurements. In contrast to the mat, the aligned ropes exhibit step-like features in the differential conductance within the 80-300 K temperature range. The effects of plasmon propagation, unique to one dimension, were identified in electronic transport as a non-universal power-law dependence of the differential conductance on temperature and source-drain voltage. The complex impedance showed high power transmission capabilities up to 65 GHz as well as oscillations in the frequency range up to 30 GHz. The measurements suggest that aligned SWNT ropes have a realistic potential for high-speed device applications.

  5. Resonant quantum efficiency enhancement of midwave infrared nBn photodetectors using one-dimensional plasmonic gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Nolde, Jill A. Kim, Chul Soo; Jackson, Eric M.; Ellis, Chase T.; Abell, Joshua; Glembocki, Orest J.; Canedy, Chadwick L.; Tischler, Joseph G.; Vurgaftman, Igor; Meyer, Jerry R.; Aifer, Edward H.; Kim, Mijin

    2015-06-29

    We demonstrate up to 39% resonant enhancement of the quantum efficiency (QE) of a low dark current nBn midwave infrared photodetector with a 0.5 μm InAsSb absorber layer. The enhancement was achieved by using a 1D plasmonic grating to couple incident light into plasmon modes propagating in the plane of the device. The plasmonic grating is composed of stripes of deposited amorphous germanium overlaid with gold. Devices with and without gratings were processed side-by-side for comparison of their QEs and dark currents. The peak external QE for a grating device was 29% compared to 22% for a mirror device when the illumination was polarized perpendicularly to the grating lines. Additional experiments determined the grating coupling efficiency by measuring the reflectance of analogous gratings deposited on bare GaSb substrates.

  6. Density of defects and the scaling law of the entanglement entropy in quantum phase transition of one-dimensional spin systems induced by a quench

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Banasri; Bandyopadhyay, Pratul; Majumdar, Priyadarshi

    2011-03-15

    We have studied quantum phase transition induced by a quench in different one-dimensional spin systems. Our analysis is based on the dynamical mechanism which envisages nonadiabaticity in the vicinity of the critical point. This causes spin fluctuation which leads to the random fluctuation of the Berry phase factor acquired by a spin state when the ground state of the system evolves in a closed path. The two-point correlation of this phase factor is associated with the probability of the formation of defects. In this framework, we have estimated the density of defects produced in several one-dimensional spin chains. At the critical region, the entanglement entropy of a block of L spins with the rest of the system is also estimated which is found to increase logarithmically with L. The dependence on the quench time puts a constraint on the block size L. It is also pointed out that the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model in point-splitting regularized form appears as a combination of the XXX model and Ising model with magnetic field in the negative z axis. This unveils the underlying conformal symmetry at criticality which is lost in the sharp point limit. Our analysis shows that the density of defects as well as the scaling behavior of the entanglement entropy follows a universal behavior in all these systems.

  7. Dispersion relations near quantum criticality in the quasi one-dimensional Ising chain CoNb2O6 in transverse magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Ivelisse; Thompson, Jordan; Coldea, Radu; Robinson, Neil; Essler, Fabian; Prabhakaran, Dharmalingam; Bewley, Robert; Guidi, Tatiana

    2013-03-01

    The Ising chain in a transverse magnetic field is one of the canonical examples of a quantum phase transition. We have recently realized this model experimentally in the quasi-one-dimensional (1D) Ising-like ferromagnet CoNb2O6. Here, we present single-crystal inelastic neutron scattering measurements of the magnetic dispersion relations in the full three-dimensional (3D) Brillouin zone for magnetic fields near the critical point and in the high field paramagnetic phase. We explore the gap dependence as a function of field and quantify the cross-over to 3D physics at the lowest energies due to the finite interchain couplings. We parametrize the dispersion relations in the high-field paramagnetic phase to a spin wave model to quantify the sub-leading terms in the spin Hamiltonian beyond the dominant 1D Ising exchange.

  8. Probing π-tangle and quantum phase transition in the one-dimensional anisotropic XY model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-cheng; Xu, Shuai; He, Juan; Ye, Liu

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, the effect of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction and anisotropy on the π-tangle and quantum phase transition (QPT) by employing the QRG method in the one-dimensional anisotropic XY model is investigated. In our model the anisotropy and DM interaction parameters can influence the phase diagrams. While the anisotropy suppresses the entanglement due to favoring of the alignment of spins, the DM interaction restores the spoiled entanglement via creation of the quantum fluctuations. When the value of DM interaction is certain, the π-tangle develops into two different values which separate the system into two phases i.e. the spin-fluid phase and the Néel phase with the number of QRG iterations increased. Meanwhile, the π-tangle decreases slowly as the sites of the chain became larger, but the π-tangle tends to be a fixed value finally. Additionally, it exhibits a maximum for the next-nearest-neighbor entanglement at the critical point in our model which is different from the situation of the two-body system. To gain further insight, the nonanalytic and scaling behaviors of π-tangle have also been analyzed in detail and this phenomenon indicates that the behavior of the entanglement can perfectly help one to observe the quantum critical properties of the model.

  9. One-dimensional turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Kerstein, A.R.

    1996-12-31

    One-Dimensional Turbulence is a new turbulence modeling strategy involving an unsteady simulation implemented in one spatial dimension. In one dimension, fine scale viscous and molecular-diffusive processes can be resolved affordably in simulations at high turbulence intensity. The mechanistic distinction between advective and molecular processes is thereby preserved, in contrast to turbulence models presently employed. A stochastic process consisting of mapping {open_quote}events{close_quote} applied to a one-dimensional velocity profile represents turbulent advection. The local event rate for given eddy size is proportional to the velocity difference across the eddy. These properties cause an imposed shear to induce an eddy cascade analogous in many respects to the eddy cascade in turbulent flow. Many scaling and fluctuation properties of self-preserving flows, and of passive scalars introduced into these flows, are reproduced.

  10. Simulating quantum transport for a quasi-one-dimensional Bose gas in an optical lattice: the choice of fluctuation modes in the truncated Wigner approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Bo; Yang, Tao; Benedict, Keith A.

    2013-07-01

    We study the effect of quantum fluctuations on the dynamics of a quasi-one-dimensional Bose gas in an optical lattice at zero temperature using the truncated Wigner approximation with a variety of basis sets for the initial fluctuation modes. The initial spatial distributions of the quantum fluctuations are very different when using a limited number of plane-wave (PW), simple-harmonic-oscillator (SHO) and self-consistently determined Bogoliubov (SCB) modes. The short-time transport properties of the Bose gas, characterized by the phase coherence in the PW basis, are distinct from those gained using the SHO and SCB basis. The calculations using the SCB modes predict greater phase decoherence and stronger number fluctuations than the other choices. Furthermore, we observe that the use of PW modes overestimates the extent to which atoms are expelled from the core of the cloud, while the use of the other modes only breaks the cloud structure slightly, which is in agreement with the experimental observations by Fertig et al (2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 120403).

  11. Haldane-gap excitations in the low-Hc one-dimensional quantum antiferromagnet Ni(C5D14N2)2N3(PF6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheludev, A.; Chen, Y.; Broholm, C. L.; Honda, Z.; Katsumata, K.

    2001-03-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering on deuterated single-crystal samples is used to study Haldane-gap excitations in the new S=1 one-dimensional quantum antiferromagnet Ni(C5D14N2)2N3(PF6), that was recently recognized as an ideal model system for high-field studies. The Haldane gap energies Δx=0.42(3) meV, Δy=0.52(6) meV, and Δz=1.9(1) meV, for excitations polarized along the a, b, and c crystallographic axes, respectively, are measured. The dispersion relation is studied for momentum transfers both along and perpendicular to the chains' direction. The in-chain exchange constant J=2.8 meV is found to be much larger than interchain coupling, Jy=1.8(4)×10-3 meV and Jx=4(3)×10-4 meV, along the b and a axes, respectively. The results are discussed in the context of future experiments in high magnetic fields.

  12. Pulsed laser deposition of CuInS2 quantum dots on one-dimensional TiO2 nanorod arrays and their photoelectrochemical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Minmin; Chen, Wenyuan; Guo, Hongjian; Yu, Limin; Li, Bo; Jia, Junhong

    2016-06-01

    In the typical solution-based synthesis of colloidal quantum dots (QDs), it always resorts to some surface treatment, ligand exchange processing or post-synthesis processing, which might involve some toxic chemical regents injurious to the performance of QD sensitized solar cells. In this work, the CuInS2 QDs are deposited on the surface of one-dimensional TiO2 nanorod arrays by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The CuInS2 QDs are coated on TiO2 nanorods without any ligand engineering, and the performance of the obtained CuInS2 QD sensitized solar cells is optimized by adjusting the laser energy. An energy conversion efficiency of 3.95% is achieved under one sun illumination (AM 1.5, 100 mW cm-2). The improved performance is attributed to enhanced absorption in the longer wavelength region, quick interfacial charge transfer and few chance of carrier recombination with holes for CuInS2 QD-sensitized solar cells. Moreover, the photovoltaic device exhibits high stability in air without any specific encapsulation. Thus, the PLD technique could be further applied for the fabrication of QDs or other absorption materials.

  13. One-Dimensionality and Whiteness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Dolores

    2006-01-01

    This article is a theoretical discussion that links Marcuse's concept of one-dimensional society and the Great Refusal with critical race theory in order to achieve a more robust interrogation of whiteness. The author argues that in the context of the United States, the one-dimensionality that Marcuse condemns in "One-Dimensional Man" is best…

  14. Excitations in the quantum paramagnetic phase of the quasi-one-dimensional Ising magnet CoNb2O6 in a transverse field: Geometric frustration and quantum renormalization effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, I.; Thompson, J. D.; Coldea, R.; Prabhakaran, D.; Bewley, R. I.; Guidi, T.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; Stock, C.

    2014-07-01

    The quasi-one-dimensional (1D) Ising ferromagnet CoNb2O6 has recently been driven via applied transverse magnetic fields through a continuous quantum phase transition from spontaneous magnetic order to a quantum paramagnet, and dramatic changes were observed in the spin dynamics, characteristic of weakly perturbed 1D Ising quantum criticality. We report here extensive single-crystal inelastic neutron scattering measurements of the magnetic excitations throughout the three-dimensional (3D) Brillouin zone in the quantum paramagnetic phase just above the critical field to characterize the effects of the finite interchain couplings. In this phase, we observe that excitations have a sharp, resolution-limited line shape at low energies and over most of the dispersion bandwidth, as expected for spin-flip quasiparticles. We map the full bandwidth along the strongly dispersive chain direction and resolve clear modulations of the dispersions in the plane normal to the chains, characteristic of frustrated interchain couplings in an antiferromagnetic isosceles triangular lattice. The dispersions can be well parametrized using a linear spin-wave model that includes interchain couplings and further neighbor exchanges. The observed dispersion bandwidth along the chain direction is smaller than that predicted by a linear spin-wave model using exchange values determined at zero field, and this effect is attributed to quantum renormalization of the dispersion beyond the spin-wave approximation in fields slightly above the critical field, where quantum fluctuations are still significant.

  15. Collapse of the EPR fine structure of a one-dimensional array of weakly interacting binuclear units: A dimensional quantum phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Rafael; Abud, Julián E.; Sartoris, Rosana P.; Santana, Ricardo C.

    2011-09-01

    Binuclear (also called dimeric) compounds with pairs of antiferromagnetically coupled spins ½, S1 and S2 (Hex = -J0 S1.S2, with J0<0 for antiferromagnets), have been around for ˜60 years, providing roots to the field of molecular magnetism. In addition, as reported in recent years, weak interactions between binuclear units in a crystalline network give rise to interesting systems of interacting bosons having an energy gap, which are important in the study of quantum phenomena in many body systems coupled by stochastic distributions of interactions. Binuclear compounds have gained new relevance in the last decade with the observation of Bose-Einstein condensation. In this work, we use electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to study the role of weak inter-binuclear exchange couplings J’ (|J’| ≪|J0|) in the spectra, elementary excitations, and spin dynamics of a one-dimensional (1-D) array of antiferromagnetic (AFM) binuclear units in the hybrid (organic-inorganic) CuII compound [Cu(CH3COO)(phen)(H2O)]2·(NO3)2·4H2O. In this material, the acetate (CH3COO)- anion supports the intra-binuclear exchange coupling J0, and the stacking of the (phen) = 1,10-phenanthroline rings of neighbor units supports the inter-binuclear interactions J', giving rise to well-isolated chains. This has advantages over other binuclear compounds studied previously because magnetically equal units are arranged in a 1-D spatial arrangement along the direction of their symmetry axis, simplifying the analysis of the data and allowing a simpler treatment. In addition, single crystals of good quality allow detailed EPR experiments.EPR spectra were collected at ˜33.8 and ˜9.4-9.8 GHz in oriented single crystals at room temperature and in powder samples at temperatures (T) between 10 and 300 K. By varying the energy levels of the binuclear units with the magnetic field orientation, or changing the population of the excited triplet state with temperature and, consequently, the effective

  16. One-Dimensional Oscillator in a Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amore, Paolo; Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss a quantum-mechanical model of two particles that interact by means of a harmonic potential and are confined to a one-dimensional box with impenetrable walls. We apply perturbation theory to the cases of different and equal masses and analyse the symmetry of the states in the latter case. We compare the approximate perturbation results…

  17. Energy-selective optical excitation and detection in InAs/InP quantum dot ensembles using a one-dimensional optical microcavity

    SciTech Connect

    Gamouras, A.; Britton, M.; Khairy, M. M.; Mathew, R.; Hall, K. C.; Dalacu, D.; Poole, P.; Poitras, D.; Williams, R. L.

    2013-12-16

    We demonstrate the selective optical excitation and detection of subsets of quantum dots (QDs) within an InAs/InP ensemble using a SiO{sub 2}/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based optical microcavity. The low variance of the exciton transition energy and dipole moment tied to the narrow linewidth of the microcavity mode is expected to facilitate effective qubit encoding and manipulation in a quantum dot ensemble with ease of quantum state readout relative to qubits encoded in single quantum dots.

  18. One-dimensional two-orbital SU(N ) ultracold fermionic quantum gases at incommensurate filling: A low-energy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bois, V.; Fromholz, P.; Lecheminant, P.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the zero-temperature phase diagram of two-orbital SU (N ) fermionic models at incommensurate filling which are directly relevant to strontium and ytterbium ultracold atoms loading into a one-dimensional optical lattice. Using a low-energy approach that takes into account explicitly the SU (N ) symmetry, we find that a spectral gap for the nuclear-spin degrees of freedom is formed for generic interactions. Several phases with one or two gapless modes are then stabilized which describe the competition between different density instabilities. In stark contrast to the N =2 case, no dominant pairing instabilities emerge and the leading superfluid one is rather formed from bound states of 2 N fermions.

  19. Relaxation and thermalization in the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model: A case study for the interaction quantum quench from the atomic limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidrich-Meisner, Fabian; Pollet, Lode; Sorg, Stefan; Vidmar, Lev

    2015-03-01

    We study the relaxation dynamics and thermalization in the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model induced by a global interaction quench. Specifically, we start from an initial state that has exactly one boson per site and is the ground state of a system with infinitely strong repulsive interactions at unit filling. The same interaction quench was realized in a recent experiment. Using exact diagonalization and the density-matrix renormalization-group method, we compute the time dependence of such observables as the multiple occupancy and the momentum distribution function. We discuss our numerical results in the framework of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis and we observe that the microcanonical ensemble describes the time averages of many observables reasonably well for small and intermediate interaction strength. Moreover, the diagonal and the canonical ensembles are practically identical for our initial conditions already on the level of their respective energy distributions for small interaction strengths. Supported by the DFG through FOR 801 and the Alexander von Humboldt foundation.

  20. Exploring the Nature of Exciton Localization in Quasi One-Dimensional GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum Well Tube Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Howard; Badada, Bekele; Shi, Teng; Smith, Leigh; Zheng, Changlin; Etheridge, Joanne; Jiang, Nian; Tan, Hoe; Jagadish, Channupati

    We explore the nature of exciton localization in single GaAs/AlGaAs nanowire quantum well tube (QWT) devices using photocurrent (PC) spectroscopy combined with simultaneous photoluminescence (PL) and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) measurements. Excitons confined to GaAs quantum well tubes of 8 and 4 nm widths embedded into an AlGaAs barrier are seen to ionize at high bias. Spectroscopic signatures of the ground and excited states confined to the QWT seen in PL, PLE and PC data are consistent with simple numerical calculations. The demonstration of good electrical contact with the QWTs enables the study of Stark effect shifts in the sharp emission lines of excitons localized to quantum dot-like states within the QWT. Atomic resolution cross-sectional TEM measurements, an analysis of the temperature dependence of PL and time-resolved PL as well as the quantum confined Stark effect of these dots provide insights into the nature of the exciton localization in these nanostructures. We acknowledge the financial support of NSF DMR 1507844, DMR 151373 and ECCS 1509706 and the Australian Research Council.

  1. Universal quantum computation with Majorana fermion edge modes through microwave spectroscopy of quasi-one-dimensional cold gases in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundar, Bhuvanesh; Mueller, Erich J.

    2013-12-01

    We describe how microwave spectroscopy of cold fermions in quasi-1D traps can be used to detect, manipulate, and entangle exotic nonlocal qubits associated with "Majorana" edge modes. We present different approaches to generate the p-wave superfluidity which is responsible for these topological zero-energy edge modes. We find that the edge modes have clear signatures in the microwave spectrum and that the line shape distinguishes between the degenerate states of a qubit encoded in these edge modes. Moreover, the microwaves rotate the system in its degenerate ground-state manifold. We use these rotations to implement a set of universal quantum gates, allowing the system to be used as a universal quantum computer.

  2. Miscible-immiscible quantum phase transition in coupled two-component Bose-Einstein condensates in one-dimensional optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Fei; Sabbatini, Jacopo; Davis, Matthew J.; McCulloch, Ian P.

    2014-08-01

    We study the miscible-immiscible quantum phase transition in a linearly coupled binary Bose-Hubbard model in one dimension that can describe the low-energy properties of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate in optical lattices. With the quantum many-body ground state obtained from the density matrix renormalization group algorithm, we calculate the characteristic physical quantities of the phase transition controlled by the linear coupling between the two components. Furthermore we calculate the Binder cumulant to determine the critical point and construct the phase diagram. The strong-coupling expansion shows that in the Mott insulator regime the model Hamiltonian can be mapped to a spin-1/2 XXZ model with a transverse magnetic field.

  3. One-Dimensional Grid Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerstein, Alan R.; Nilsen, Vebjørn

    1998-11-01

    To capture molecular mixing and other small scale phenomena such as chemical reactions and differential diffusion, it is essential to resolve all the length (and time) scales. For large Reynolds number flows this is impossible to do in three-dimensional turbulence simulations with the current and foreseeable future computer technology. To circumvent this problem the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model, as the name implies, considers only one spatial dimension in which all the length scales can be resolved even at very large Reynolds numbers. To incorporate the effect of advection on a one-dimensional domain, the evolution of the velocity and scalar profiles is randomly interrupted by a sequence of profile rearrangements representing the effect of turbulent eddies. Results obtained from ODT simulations of grid turbulence with a passive scalar are presented. The decay exponents for the velocity and passive scalar fluctuations, as predicted by ODT, compare favorably with experimental data.

  4. Quantum Hall effect anomaly and collective modes in the magnetic-field induced spin-density-wave phases of quasi one-dimensional conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, N.; Yakovenko, V. M.

    1999-02-01

    We study the collective modes in the magnetic-field induced spin-density-wave (FISDW) phases experimentally observed in organic conductors of the Bechgaard salts family. In phases that exhibit a sign reversal of the quantum Hall effect (Ribault anomaly), the coexistence of two spin-density waves gives rise to additional long-wavelength collective modes besides the Goldstone modes due to spontaneous translation and rotation symmetry breaking. These modes strongly affect the charge and spin response functions. We discuss some experimental consequences for the Bechgaard salts.

  5. Magnetic-field dependence of the entanglement entropy of one-dimensional spin systems in quantum phase transitions induced by a quench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Banasri; Bandyopadhyay, Pratul; Majumdar, Priyadarshi

    2012-08-01

    We study the magnetic-field dependence of the entanglement entropy in quantum phase transition induced by a quench of the XX, XXX, and Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) models. The entropy for a block of L spins with the rest follows a logarithmic scaling law where the block size L is restricted due to the dependence of the prefactor on the quench time. Within this restricted region the entropy undergoes a renormalization group (RG) flow. From the RG flow equation we have analytically determined the magnetic field dependence of the entropy. The anisotropy parameter dependence of the entropy for the XY and the LMG models has also been studied in this framework. The results are found to be in excellent agreement with that obtained by other authors from numerical studies without any quench.

  6. One-Dimensional Heat Conduction

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, Steven B.

    1992-03-09

    ICARUS-LLNL was developed to solve one-dimensional planar, cylindrical, or spherical conduction heat transfer problems. The IBM PC version is a family of programs including ICARUSB, an interactive BASIC heat conduction program; ICARUSF, a FORTRAN heat conduction program; PREICAR, a BASIC preprocessor for ICARUSF; and PLOTIC and CPLOTIC, interpretive BASIC and compiler BASIC plot postprocessor programs. Both ICARUSB and ICARUSF account for multiple material regions and complex boundary conditions, such as convection or radiation. In addition, ICARUSF accounts for temperature-dependent material properties and time or temperature-dependent boundary conditions. PREICAR is a user-friendly preprocessor used to generate or modify ICARUSF input data. PLOTIC and CPLOTIC generate plots of the temperature or heat flux profile at specified times, plots of the variation of temperature or heat flux with time at selected nodes, or plots of the solution grid. First developed in 1974 to allow easy modeling of complex one-dimensional systems, its original application was in the nuclear explosive testing program. Since then it has undergone extensive revision and been applied to problems dealing with laser fusion target fabrication, heat loads on underground tests, magnetic fusion switching tube anodes, and nuclear waste isolation canisters.

  7. One-Dimensional Heat Conduction

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-03-09

    ICARUS-LLNL was developed to solve one-dimensional planar, cylindrical, or spherical conduction heat transfer problems. The IBM PC version is a family of programs including ICARUSB, an interactive BASIC heat conduction program; ICARUSF, a FORTRAN heat conduction program; PREICAR, a BASIC preprocessor for ICARUSF; and PLOTIC and CPLOTIC, interpretive BASIC and compiler BASIC plot postprocessor programs. Both ICARUSB and ICARUSF account for multiple material regions and complex boundary conditions, such as convection or radiation. In addition,more » ICARUSF accounts for temperature-dependent material properties and time or temperature-dependent boundary conditions. PREICAR is a user-friendly preprocessor used to generate or modify ICARUSF input data. PLOTIC and CPLOTIC generate plots of the temperature or heat flux profile at specified times, plots of the variation of temperature or heat flux with time at selected nodes, or plots of the solution grid. First developed in 1974 to allow easy modeling of complex one-dimensional systems, its original application was in the nuclear explosive testing program. Since then it has undergone extensive revision and been applied to problems dealing with laser fusion target fabrication, heat loads on underground tests, magnetic fusion switching tube anodes, and nuclear waste isolation canisters.« less

  8. One-dimensional wave turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, Vladimir; Dias, Frédéric; Pushkarev, Andrei

    2004-08-01

    The problem of turbulence is one of the central problems in theoretical physics. While the theory of fully developed turbulence has been widely studied, the theory of wave turbulence has been less studied, partly because it developed later. Wave turbulence takes place in physical systems of nonlinear dispersive waves. In most applications nonlinearity is small and dispersive wave interactions are weak. The weak turbulence theory is a method for a statistical description of weakly nonlinear interacting waves with random phases. It is not surprising that the theory of weak wave turbulence began to develop in connection with some problems of plasma physics as well as of wind waves. The present review is restricted to one-dimensional wave turbulence, essentially because finer computational grids can be used in numerical computations. Most of the review is devoted to wave turbulence in various wave equations, and in particular in a simple one-dimensional model of wave turbulence introduced by Majda, McLaughlin and Tabak in 1997. All the considered equations are model equations, but consequences on physical systems such as ocean waves are discussed as well. The main conclusion is that the range in which the theory of pure weak turbulence is valid is narrow. In general, wave turbulence is not completely weak. Together with the weak turbulence component, it can include coherent structures, such as solitons, quasisolitons, collapses or broad collapses. As a result, weak and strong turbulence coexist. In situations where coherent structures cannot develop, weak turbulence dominates. Even though this is primarily a review paper, new results are presented as well, especially on self-organized criticality and on quasisolitonic turbulence.

  9. The one-dimensional hydrogen atom revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palma, G.; Raff, U.

    2006-09-01

    The one-dimensional Schrodinger hydrogen atom is an interesting mathematical and physical problem for the study of bound states, eigenfunctions, and quantum-degeneracy issues. This one-dimensional physical system has given rise to some intriguing controversy for more than four decades. Presently, still no definite consensus seems to have been reached. We reanalyzed this apparently controversial problem, approaching it from a Fourier-transform representation method combined with some fundamental (basic) ideas found in self-adjoint extensions of symmetric operators. In disagreement with some previous claims, we found that the complete Balmer energy spectrum is obtained together with an odd-parity set of eigenfunctions. Closed-form solutions in both coordinate and momentum spaces were obtained. No twofold degeneracy was observed as predicted by the degeneracy theorem in one dimension, though it does not necessarily have to hold for potentials with singularities. No ground state with infinite energy exists since the corresponding eigenfunction does not satisfy the Schrodinger equation at the origin.

  10. One-dimensional silicone nanofilaments.

    PubMed

    Artus, Georg R J; Seeger, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    A decade ago one-dimensional silicone nanofilaments (1D-SNF) such as fibres and wires were described for the first time. Since then, the exploration of 1D-SNF has led to remarkable advancements with respect to material science and surface science: one-, two- and three-dimensional nanostructures of silicone were unknown before. The discovery of silicone nanostructures marks a turning point in the research on the silicone material at the nanoscale. Coatings made of 1D-SNF are among the most superhydrophobic surfaces known today. They are free of fluorine, can be applied to a large range of technologically important materials and their properties can be modified chemically. This opens the way to many interesting applications such as water harvesting, superoleophobicity, separation of oil and water, patterned wettability and storage and manipulation of data on a surface. Because of their high surface area, coatings consisting of 1D-SNF are used for protein adsorption experiments and as carrier systems for catalytically active nanoparticles. This paper reviews the current knowledge relating to the broad development of 1D-SNF technologies. Common preparation and coating techniques are presented along with a comparison and discussion of the published coating parameters to provide an insight on how these affect the topography of the 1D-SNF or coating. The proposed mechanisms of growth are presented, and their potentials and shortcomings are discussed. We introduce all explored applications and finally identify future prospects and potentials of 1D-SNF with respect to applications in material science and surface science. PMID:24742356

  11. Haldane-gap excitations in the low-H{sub c} one-dimensional quantum antiferromagnet Ni(C{sub 5}D{sub 14}N{sub 2}){sub 2}N{sub 3}(PF{sub 6})

    SciTech Connect

    Zheludev, A.; Chen, Y.; Broholm, C. L.; Honda, Z.; Katsumata, K.

    2001-03-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering on deuterated single-crystal samples is used to study Haldane-gap excitations in the new S=1 one-dimensional quantum antiferromagnet Ni(C{sub 5}D{sub 14}N{sub 2}){sub 2}N{sub 3}(PF{sub 6}), that was recently recognized as an ideal model system for high-field studies. The Haldane gap energies {Delta}{sub x}=0.42(3) meV, {Delta}{sub y}=0.52(6) meV, and {Delta}{sub z}=1.9(1) meV, for excitations polarized along the a, b, and c crystallographic axes, respectively, are measured. The dispersion relation is studied for momentum transfers both along and perpendicular to the chains' direction. The in-chain exchange constant J=2.8 meV is found to be much larger than interchain coupling, J{sub y}=1.8(4)x10{sup -3} meV and J{sub x}=4(3)x10{sup -4} meV, along the b and a axes, respectively. The results are discussed in the context of future experiments in high magnetic fields.

  12. Some topological states in one-dimensional cold atomic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Feng; Zhang, Dan-Wei; Zhu, Shi-Liang

    2015-07-15

    Ultracold atoms trapped in optical lattices nowadays have been widely used to mimic various models from condensed-matter physics. Recently, many great experimental progresses have been achieved for producing artificial magnetic field and spin–orbit coupling in cold atomic systems, which turn these systems into a new platform for simulating topological states. In this paper, we give a review focusing on quantum simulation of topologically protected soliton modes and topological insulators in one-dimensional cold atomic system. Firstly, the recent achievements towards quantum simulation of one-dimensional models with topological non-trivial states are reviewed, including the celebrated Jackiw–Rebbi model and Su–Schrieffer–Heeger model. Then, we will introduce a dimensional reduction method for systematically constructing high dimensional topological states in lower dimensional models and review its applications on simulating two-dimensional topological insulators in one-dimensional optical superlattices.

  13. Transport in a one-dimensional hyperconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plamadeala, Eugeniu; Mulligan, Michael; Nayak, Chetan

    2016-03-01

    We define a "hyperconductor" to be a material whose electrical and thermal dc conductivities are infinite at zero temperature and finite at any nonzero temperature. The low-temperature behavior of a hyperconductor is controlled by a quantum critical phase of interacting electrons that is stable to all potentially gap-generating interactions and potentially localizing disorder. In this paper, we compute the low-temperature dc and ac electrical and thermal conductivities in a one-dimensional hyperconductor, studied previously by the present authors, in the presence of both disorder and umklapp scattering. We identify the conditions under which the transport coefficients are finite, which allows us to exhibit examples of violations of the Wiedemann-Franz law. The temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity, which is characterized by the parameter ΔX, is a power law, σ ∝1 /T1 -2 (2 -ΔX) when ΔX≥2 , down to zero temperature when the Fermi surface is commensurate with the lattice. There is a surface in parameter space along which ΔX=2 and ΔX≈2 for small deviations from this surface. In the generic (incommensurate) case with weak disorder, such scaling is seen at high temperatures, followed by an exponential increase of the conductivity lnσ ˜1 /T at intermediate temperatures and, finally, σ ∝1 /T2 -2 (2 -ΔX) at the lowest temperatures. In both cases, the thermal conductivity diverges at low temperatures.

  14. Transport in a One-Dimensional Hyperconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plamadeala, Eugeniu; Mulligan, Michael; Nayak, Chetan

    We define a `hyperconductor' to be a material whose electrical and thermal DC conductivities are infinite at zero temperature. The low-temperature behavior of a hyperconductor is controlled by a quantum critical phase of interacting electrons that is stable to all potentially-gap-generating interactions and arbitrary potentially-localizing disorder. We compute the low-temperature DC and AC electrical and thermal conductivities in a one-dimensional hyperconductor, studied previously by the present authors, in the presence of both disorder and umklapp scattering. We identify the conditions under which the transport coefficients are finite, and exhibit examples of violations of the Wiedemann-Franz law. We show that the temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity is a power law, σ ~ 1 /T 1 - 2 (2 -ΔX) for ΔX >= 2 , down to zero temperature when the Fermi surface is commensurate with the lattice. In the incommensurate case with weak disorder, such scaling is seen at high-temperatures, followed by an exponential increase of the conductivity lnσ ~ 1 / T at intermediate temperatures and, finally, σ ~ 1 /T 2 - 2 (2 -ΔX) at the lowest temperatures. In both cases, the thermal conductivity diverges at low temperatures.

  15. Excitations in the quantum paramagnetic phase of the quasi-one-dimensional Ising magnet CoNb2O6 in a transverse field: Geometric frustration and quantum renormalization effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Ivelisse; Thompson, J. D.; Coldea, R.; Prabhakaran, D.; Bewley, R. I.; Guidi, T.; Rodriguez-Rivera, J. A.; Stock, C.

    We report extensive single-crystal inelastic neutron scattering measurements of the magnetic excitations in the quasi 1D Ising ferromagnet CoNb2O6 in the quantum paramagnetic phase to characterize the effects of the finite interchain couplings. In this phase, we observe that excitations have a sharp, resolution-limited line shape at low energies and over most of the dispersion bandwidth, as expected for spin-flip quasiparticles. We map the full bandwidth along the strongly dispersive chain direction and resolve clear modulations of the dispersions in the plane normal to the chains, characteristic of frustrated interchain couplings in an antiferromagnetic isosceles triangular lattice. The dispersions can be well parametrized using a linear spin-wave model that includes interchain couplings and further neighbor exchanges. The observed dispersion bandwidth along the chain direction is smaller than that predicted by a linear spin-wave model using exchange values determined at zero field. We attribute this effect to quantum renormalization of the dispersion beyond the spin-wave approximation in fields slightly above the critical field, where quantum fluctuations are still significant. We acknowledge support from EPSRC Grant No. EP/H014934/1, the Oxford Clarendon Fund Scholarship and NSERC of Canada.

  16. One-Dimensional Czedli-Type Islands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Eszter K.; Mader, Attila; Tepavcevic, Andreja

    2011-01-01

    The notion of an island has surfaced in recent algebra and coding theory research. Discrete versions provide interesting combinatorial problems. This paper presents the one-dimensional case with finitely many heights, a topic convenient for student research.

  17. Thermalization in a one-dimensional integrable system

    SciTech Connect

    Grisins, Pjotrs; Mazets, Igor E.

    2011-11-15

    We present numerical results demonstrating the possibility of thermalization of single-particle observables in a one-dimensional system, which is integrable in both the quantum and classical (mean-field) descriptions (a quasicondensate of ultracold, weakly interacting bosonic atoms are studied as a definite example). We find that certain initial conditions admit the relaxation of single-particle observables to the equilibrium state reasonably close to that corresponding to the Bose-Einstein thermal distribution of Bogoliubov quasiparticles.

  18. Cooling of a One-Dimensional Bose Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauer, B.; Grišins, P.; Mazets, I. E.; Schweigler, T.; Rohringer, W.; Geiger, R.; Langen, T.; Schmiedmayer, J.

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally study the dynamics of a degenerate one-dimensional Bose gas that is subject to a continuous outcoupling of atoms. Although standard evaporative cooling is rendered ineffective by the absence of thermalizing collisions in this system, we observe substantial cooling. This cooling proceeds through homogeneous particle dissipation and many-body dephasing, enabling the preparation of otherwise unexpectedly low temperatures. Our observations establish a scaling relation between temperature and particle number, and provide insights into equilibration in the quantum world.

  19. One-dimensional Gromov minimal filling problem

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Alexandr O; Tuzhilin, Alexey A

    2012-05-31

    The paper is devoted to a new branch in the theory of one-dimensional variational problems with branching extremals, the investigation of one-dimensional minimal fillings introduced by the authors. On the one hand, this problem is a one-dimensional version of a generalization of Gromov's minimal fillings problem to the case of stratified manifolds. On the other hand, this problem is interesting in itself and also can be considered as a generalization of another classical problem, the Steiner problem on the construction of a shortest network connecting a given set of terminals. Besides the statement of the problem, we discuss several properties of the minimal fillings and state several conjectures. Bibliography: 38 titles.

  20. Heredity in one-dimensional quadratic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romera, M.; Pastor, G.; Alvarez, G.; Montoya, F.

    1998-12-01

    In an iterative process, as is the case of a one-dimensional quadratic map, heredity has never been mentioned. In this paper we show that the pattern of a superstable orbit of a one-dimensional quadratic map can be expressed as the sum of the gene of the chaotic band where the pattern is to be found, and the ancestral path that joins all its ancestors. The ancestral path holds all the needed genetic information to calculate the descendants of the pattern. The ancestral path and successive descendant generations of the pattern constitute the family tree of the pattern, which is important to study and understand the orbit's ordering.

  1. One-Dimensional Wavefront Sensor Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-04-25

    This software analyzes one-dimensional wavefront sensor data acquired with any of several data acquisition systems. It analyzes the data to determine centroids, wavefront slopes and overall wavefront error. The data can be displayed in many formats, with plots of various parameters vs time and position, including computer generated movies. Data can also be exported for use by other programs.

  2. Hybrid Nanomaterials: One Dimensional Nanoparticle Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Nikhil; Pochan, Darrin

    2007-03-01

    One-dimensional nanoparticle assemblies have potential applications in sensing, as plasmon and energy waveguides and in the conduction of novel signals such as phonons and spin states. Herein we present two strategies for the fabrication of such assemblies. Micro and meso-scale particle assemblies have been produced via a coaxial electrospinning process that results in assemblies of particles (silica and silver) encapsulated within a polymer nanofiber (polyethylene oxide). The method has been demonstrated successfully in the creation of 1D assemblies of differently sized silica particles. The effect of change in solution concentrations and relative flow rates in internal and external channels of the coaxial electrospinning apparatus on the structure of these assemblies has been investigated. Nano-scale assemblies of gold particles have been prepared by templating gold nanoparticles on a 20 amino acid peptide that displays laminated morphology. These assemblies are formed as laterally spaced one-dimensional nanoparticle assemblies.

  3. Transient One-dimensional Pipe Flow Analyzer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1986-04-08

    TOPAZ-SNLL, the Transient One- dimensional Pipe flow AnalyZer code, is a user-friendly computer program for modeling the heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and thermodynamics of multi-species gas transfer in arbitrary arrangements of pipes, valves, vessels, and flow branches. Although the flow conservation equations are assumed to be one-dimensional and transient, multidimensional features of internal fluid flow and heat transfer may be accounted for using the available quasi-steady flow correlations (e.g., Moody friction factor correlation and variousmore » form loss and heat transfer correlations). Users may also model the effects of moving system boundaries such as pistons, diaphragms, and bladders. The features of fully compressible flow are modeled, including the propagation of shocks and rarefaction waves, as well as the establishment of multiple choke points along the flow path.« less

  4. Transient One-dimensional Pipe Flow Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    1986-04-08

    TOPAZ-SNLL, the Transient One- dimensional Pipe flow AnalyZer code, is a user-friendly computer program for modeling the heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and thermodynamics of multi-species gas transfer in arbitrary arrangements of pipes, valves, vessels, and flow branches. Although the flow conservation equations are assumed to be one-dimensional and transient, multidimensional features of internal fluid flow and heat transfer may be accounted for using the available quasi-steady flow correlations (e.g., Moody friction factor correlation and various form loss and heat transfer correlations). Users may also model the effects of moving system boundaries such as pistons, diaphragms, and bladders. The features of fully compressible flow are modeled, including the propagation of shocks and rarefaction waves, as well as the establishment of multiple choke points along the flow path.

  5. Polarization transitions in one-dimensional arrays of interacting rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roostaei, Bahman; Mullen, Kieran J.; Rezakhani, A. T.

    2008-08-01

    Periodic nanostructures can display the dynamics of arrays of atoms while enabling the tuning of interactions in ways not normally possible in nature. We examine one-dimensional (1D) arrays of a “synthetic atom,” a one-dimensional ring with a nearest-neighbor Coulomb interaction. We consider the classical limit first, finding that arrays of singly charged rings possess antiferroelectric order at low temperatures when the charge is discrete, but that they do not order when the charge is treated as a continuous classical fluid. In the quantum limit Monte Carlo simulation suggests that the system undergoes a quantum phase transition as the interaction strength is increased. This is supported by mapping the system to the 1D transverse field Ising model. Finally, we examine the effect of magnetic fields. We find that a magnetic field can alter the electrostatic phase transition producing a ferroelectric ground state, solely through its effect of shifting the eigenenergies of the quantum problem.

  6. Correlations in light propagation in one-dimensional waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javanainen, Juha; Ruostekoski, Janne

    2016-05-01

    We study light propagation between atoms in a one-dimensional waveguide both analytically and using numerical simulations. We employ classical electrodynamics, but in the limit of low light intensity the results are essentially exact also for quantum mechanics. We characterize the cooperative interactions between the atoms mediated by the electromagnetic field. The focus is on resonance shifts for various statistics of the positions of the atoms, such as statistically independent positions or atoms in a regular lattice. These shifts, potentially important if 1D waveguides are to be used in metrology, are different from the usual resonance shifts found in three spatial dimensions.

  7. Cooling of a One-Dimensional Bose Gas.

    PubMed

    Rauer, B; Grišins, P; Mazets, I E; Schweigler, T; Rohringer, W; Geiger, R; Langen, T; Schmiedmayer, J

    2016-01-22

    We experimentally study the dynamics of a degenerate one-dimensional Bose gas that is subject to a continuous outcoupling of atoms. Although standard evaporative cooling is rendered ineffective by the absence of thermalizing collisions in this system, we observe substantial cooling. This cooling proceeds through homogeneous particle dissipation and many-body dephasing, enabling the preparation of otherwise unexpectedly low temperatures. Our observations establish a scaling relation between temperature and particle number, and provide insights into equilibration in the quantum world. PMID:26849577

  8. One-dimensional physics in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giamarchi, Thierry

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a brief introduction to some of the systems and questions concerning one-dimensional interacting quantum systems. Historically, organic conductors and superconductors - a field extremely active in the "Laboratoire de physique des solides" in Orsay, in a good part thanks to the influence of Jacques Friedel, played a crucial role in this field. I will describe some of the aspects of this physics and also review some of the very exciting theoretical and experimental developments that took place in the 1D world in the last 15 years or so. xml:lang="fr"

  9. Wave turbulence in one-dimensional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, V. E.; Guyenne, P.; Pushkarev, A. N.; Dias, F.

    2001-05-01

    A two-parameter nonlinear dispersive wave equation proposed by Majda, McLaughlin and Tabak is studied analytically and numerically as a model for the study of wave turbulence in one-dimensional systems. Our ultimate goal is to test the validity of weak turbulence theory. Although weak turbulence theory is independent on the sign of the nonlinearity of the model, the numerical results show a strong dependence on the sign of the nonlinearity. A possible explanation for this discrepancy is the strong influence of coherent structures - wave collapses and quasisolitons - in wave turbulence.

  10. One-dimensional hypersonic phononic crystals.

    PubMed

    Gomopoulos, N; Maschke, D; Koh, C Y; Thomas, E L; Tremel, W; Butt, H-J; Fytas, G

    2010-03-10

    We report experimental observation of a normal incidence phononic band gap in one-dimensional periodic (SiO(2)/poly(methyl methacrylate)) multilayer film at gigahertz frequencies using Brillouin spectroscopy. The band gap to midgap ratio of 0.30 occurs for elastic wave propagation along the periodicity direction, whereas for inplane propagation the system displays an effective medium behavior. The phononic properties are well captured by numerical simulations. The porosity in the silica layers presents a structural scaffold for the introduction of secondary active media for potential coupling between phonons and other excitations, such as photons and electrons. PMID:20141118

  11. One dimensional 1H, 2H and 3H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, A. J.; Astrakharchik, G. E.; Vranješ Markić, L.; Boronat, J.

    2016-05-01

    The ground-state properties of one-dimensional electron-spin-polarized hydrogen 1H, deuterium 2H, and tritium 3H are obtained by means of quantum Monte Carlo methods. The equations of state of the three isotopes are calculated for a wide range of linear densities. The pair correlation function and the static structure factor are obtained and interpreted within the framework of the Luttinger liquid theory. We report the density dependence of the Luttinger parameter and use it to identify different physical regimes: Bogoliubov Bose gas, super-Tonks–Girardeau gas, and quasi-crystal regimes for bosons; repulsive, attractive Fermi gas, and quasi-crystal regimes for fermions. We find that the tritium isotope is the one with the richest behavior. Our results show unambiguously the relevant role of the isotope mass in the properties of this quantum system.

  12. Dislocation-mediated melting of one-dimensional Rydberg crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Sela, Eran; Garst, Markus; Punk, Matthias

    2011-08-15

    We consider cold Rydberg atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice in the Mott regime with a single atom per site at zero temperature. An external laser drive with Rabi frequency {Omega} and laser detuning {Delta} creates Rydberg excitations whose dynamics is governed by an effective spin-chain model with (quasi) long-range interactions. This system possesses intrinsically a large degree of frustration resulting in a ground-state phase diagram in the ({Delta},{Omega}) plane with a rich topology. As a function of {Delta}, the Rydberg blockade effect gives rise to a series of crystalline phases commensurate with the optical lattice that form a so-called devil's staircase. The Rabi frequency {Omega}, on the other hand, creates quantum fluctuations that eventually lead to a quantum melting of the crystalline states. Upon increasing {Omega}, we find that generically a commensurate-incommensurate transition to a floating Rydberg crystal that supports gapless phonon excitations occurs first. For even larger {Omega}, dislocations within the floating Rydberg crystal start to proliferate and a second, Kosterlitz-Thouless-Nelson-Halperin-Young dislocation-mediated melting transition finally destroys the crystalline arrangement of Rydberg excitations. This latter melting transition is generic for one-dimensional Rydberg crystals and persists even in the absence of an optical lattice. The floating phase and the concomitant transitions can, in principle, be detected by Bragg scattering of light.

  13. Three one-dimensional structural heating programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Two computer programs for calculating profiles in a ten-element structure consisting of up to ten materials are presented, along with a third program for calculating the mean temperature for a payload container placed in an orbiting vehicle cargo bay. The three programs are related by the sharing of a common analytical technique; the energy balance is based upon one-dimensional heat transfer. The first program, NQLDW112, assumes a non-ablating surface. NQLDW117 is very similar but allows the outermost element to ablate. NQLDW040 calculates an average temperature profile through an idealized model of the real payload cannister and contents in the cargo bay of an orbiting vehicle.

  14. One-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Superprisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical calculations indicate that it should be possible for one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystals (see figure) to exhibit giant dispersions known as the superprism effect. Previously, three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal superprisms have demonstrated strong wavelength dispersion - about 500 times that of conventional prisms and diffraction gratings. Unlike diffraction gratings, superprisms do not exhibit zero-order transmission or higher-order diffraction, thereby eliminating cross-talk problems. However, the fabrication of these 3D photonic crystals requires complex electron-beam substrate patterning and multilayer thin-film sputtering processes. The proposed 1D superprism is much simpler in structural complexity and, therefore, easier to design and fabricate. Like their 3D counterparts, the 1D superprisms can exhibit giant dispersions over small spectral bands that can be tailored by judicious structure design and tuned by varying incident beam direction. Potential applications include miniature gas-sensing devices.

  15. Aperiodicity in one-dimensional cellular automata

    SciTech Connect

    Jen, E.

    1990-01-01

    Cellular automata are a class of mathematical systems characterized by discreteness (in space, time, and state values), determinism, and local interaction. A certain class of one-dimensional, binary site-valued, nearest-neighbor automata is shown to generate infinitely many aperiodic temporal sequences from arbitrary finite initial conditions on an infinite lattice. The class of automaton rules that generate aperiodic temporal sequences are characterized by a particular form of injectivity in their interaction rules. Included are the nontrivial linear'' automaton rules (that is, rules for which the superposition principle holds); certain nonlinear automata that retain injectivity properties similar to those of linear automata; and a wider subset of nonlinear automata whose interaction rules satisfy a weaker form of injectivity together with certain symmetry conditions. A technique is outlined here that maps this last set of automata onto a linear automaton, and thereby establishes the aperiodicity of their temporal sequences. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Superfluid helium-4 in one dimensional channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Duk Y.; Banavar, Samhita; Chan, Moses H. W.; Hayes, John; Sazio, Pier

    2013-03-01

    Superfluidity, as superconductivity, cannot exist in a strict one-dimensional system. However, the experiments employing porous media showed that superfluid helium can flow through the pores of nanometer size. Here we report a study of the flow of liquid helium through a single hollow glass fiber of 4 cm in length with an open id of 150 nm between 1.6 and 2.3 K. We found the superfluid transition temperature was suppressed in the hollow cylinder and that there is no flow above the transition. Critical velocity at temperature below the transition temperature was determined. Our results bear some similarity to that found by Savard et. al. studying the flow of helium through a nanohole in a silicon nitrite membrane. Experimental study at Penn State is supported by NSF Grants No. DMR 1103159.

  17. One-dimensional immiscible displacement experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, N. R.; Graham, D. N.; Farquhar, G. J.

    1992-08-01

    In recent years, a great deal of attention has focused on the development of various methods to predict the fate of immiscible contaminants (NAPL's) in soils. In an attempt to satisfy this requirement, a host of numerical models has been developed. Unfortunately, there exist little experimental data to verify the assumptions used in the derivation of these immiscible flow models. One objective of this paper is to report on a non-destructive measurement technique which was used to capture the relative organic-phase saturation variations in a number of two-phase flow displacement experiments. The data obtained from these experiments were compared to results obtained from a one-dimensional, finite-element based, two-phase flow model. The experiments consisted of five separate trials using three different immiscible liquids (hydraulic oil, kerosene and hexane) in a water-saturated column. Irregular immiscible liquid infiltration fronts were observed in four of the five experiments, indicating that very small-scale heterogeneities control the infiltration of immiscible liquids into soil. Independent of the column experiments, saturation-capillary pressure curves were determined for the various liquids. In general, the simulated NAPL saturation vs. time profiles agreed very well with the observations for all five of the trials.

  18. Probing the excitations of a one dimensional topological Bose insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Torre, Emanuele G.; Berg, Erez; Altman, Ehud

    2008-03-01

    We investigate the dynamic response of a system of ultracold dipolar atoms or molecules in the one dimensional Haldane Bose insulator phase. This phase, which was recently predicted theoretically [1], is characterized by non-local string order and its elementary excitations are domain walls in this order. We compute experimentally relevant response functions and we derive asymptotically exact expressions near the quantum critical points separating the Haldane insulator from the conventional Mott and density wave insulators. In particular, we predict a narrow absorption peak in Bragg spectroscopy experiments, due to the excitation of a single domain wall in the string order. [1] E.G. Dalla Torre, E. Berg, E. Altman, Phys. Rev Lett. 97, 260401 (2006)

  19. Thermal transport in one-dimensional spin heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrachea, Liliana; Lozano, Gustavo S.; Aligia, A. A.

    2009-07-01

    We study heat transport in a one-dimensional inhomogeneous quantum spin-1/2 system. It consists of a finite-size XX spin chain coupled at its ends to semi-infinite XX and XY chains at different temperatures, which play the role of heat and spin reservoirs. After using the Jordan-Wigner transformation we map the original spin Hamiltonian into a fermionic Hamiltonian, which contains normal and pairing terms. We find the expressions for the heat currents and solve the problem with a nonequilibrium Green’s-function formalism. We analyze the behavior of the heat currents as functions of the model parameters. When finite magnetic fields are applied at the two reservoirs, the system exhibits rectifying effects in the heat flow.

  20. Practical variational tomography for critical one-dimensional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong Yeon; Landon-Cardinal, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    We improve upon a recently introduced efficient quantum state reconstruction procedure targeted to states well approximated by the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA), e.g., ground states of critical models. We show how to numerically select a subset of experimentally accessible measurements which maximize information extraction about renormalized particles, thus dramatically reducing the required number of physical measurements. We numerically estimate the number of measurements required to characterize the ground state of the critical one-dimensional Ising (resp. XX) model and find that MERA tomography on 16-qubit (resp. 24-qubit) systems requires the same experimental effort as brute-force tomography on 8 qubits. We derive a bound computable from experimental data which certifies the distance between the experimental and reconstructed states.

  1. Electronic properties of quasi one-dimensional quantum wire models under equal coupling strength superpositions of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papp, E.; Micu, C.; Racolta, D.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper one deals with the theoretical derivation of energy bands and of related wavefunctions characterizing quasi 1D semiconductor heterostructures, such as InAs quantum wire models. Such models get characterized this time by equal coupling strength superpositions of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions of dimensionless magnitude a under the influence of in-plane magnetic fields of magnitude B. We found that the orientations of the field can be selected by virtue of symmetry requirements. For this purpose one resorts to spin conservations, but alternative conditions providing sensible simplifications of the energy-band formula can be reasonably accounted for. Besides the wavenumber k relying on the 1D electron, one deals with the spin-like s=±1 factors in the front of the square root term of the energy. Having obtained the spinorial wavefunction, opens the way to the derivation of spin precession effects. For this purpose one resorts to the projections of the wavenumber operator on complementary spin states. Such projections are responsible for related displacements proceeding along the Ox-axis. This results in a 2D rotation matrix providing both the precession angle as well as the precession axis.

  2. Electronic properties of quasi one-dimensional quantum wire models under equal coupling strength superpositions of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Papp, E.; Micu, C.; Racolta, D.

    2013-11-13

    In this paper one deals with the theoretical derivation of energy bands and of related wavefunctions characterizing quasi 1D semiconductor heterostructures, such as InAs quantum wire models. Such models get characterized this time by equal coupling strength superpositions of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions of dimensionless magnitude a under the influence of in-plane magnetic fields of magnitude B. We found that the orientations of the field can be selected by virtue of symmetry requirements. For this purpose one resorts to spin conservations, but alternative conditions providing sensible simplifications of the energy-band formula can be reasonably accounted for. Besides the wavenumber k relying on the 1D electron, one deals with the spin-like s=±1 factors in the front of the square root term of the energy. Having obtained the spinorial wavefunction, opens the way to the derivation of spin precession effects. For this purpose one resorts to the projections of the wavenumber operator on complementary spin states. Such projections are responsible for related displacements proceeding along the Ox-axis. This results in a 2D rotation matrix providing both the precession angle as well as the precession axis.

  3. The effect of split gate dimensions on the electrostatic potential and 0.7 anomaly within one-dimensional quantum wires on a modulation doped GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. W.; Al-Taie, H.; Lesage, A. A. J.; Thomas, K. J.; Sfigakis, F.; See, P.; Griffiths, J. P.; Farrer, I.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Kelly, M. J.; Smith, C. G.

    We use a multiplexing scheme to measure the conductance properties of 95 split gates of 7 different gate dimensions fabricated on a GaAs/AlGaAs chip, in a single cool down. The number of devices for which conductance is accurately quantized reduces as the gate length increases. However, even the devices for which conductance is accurately quantized in units of 2e2 / h show no correlation between the length of electrostatic potential barrier in the channel and the gate length, using a saddle point model to estimate the barrier length. Further, the strength of coupling between the gates and the 1D channel does not increase with gate length beyond 0.7 μm. The background electrostatic profile appears as significant as the gate dimension in determining device behavior. We find a clear correlation between the curvature of the electrostatic barrier along the channel and the strength of the ``0.7 anomaly'' which identifies the electrostatic length of the channel as the principal factor governing the conductance of the 0.7 anomaly. Present address: Wisconsin Institute for Quantum Information, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI.

  4. Quasi-one-dimensional foam drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassia, P.; Cilliers, J. J.; Neethling, S. J.; Ventura-Medina, E.

    Foam drainage is considered in a froth flotation cell. Air flow through the foam is described by a simple two-dimensional deceleration flow, modelling the foam spilling over a weir. Foam microstructure is given in terms of the number of channels (Plateau borders) per unit area, which scales as the inverse square of bubble size. The Plateau border number density decreases with height in the foam, and also decreases horizontally as the weir is approached. Foam drainage equations, applicable in the dry foam limit, are described. These can be used to determine the average cross-sectional area of a Plateau border, denoted A, as a function of position in the foam. Quasi-one-dimensional solutions are available in which A only varies vertically, in spite of the two-dimensional nature of the air flow and Plateau border number density fields. For such situations the liquid drainage relative to the air flow is purely vertical. The parametric behaviour of the system is investigated with respect to a number of dimensionless parameters: K (the strength of capillary suction relative to gravity), α (the deceleration of the air flow), and n and h (respectively, the horizontal and vertical variations of the Plateau border number density). The parameter K is small, implying the existence of boundary layer solutions: capillary suction is negligible except in thin layers near the bottom boundary. The boundary layer thickness (when converted back to dimensional variables) is independent of the height of the foam. The deceleration parameter α affects the Plateau border area on the top boundary: weaker decelerations give larger Plateau border areas at the surface. For weak decelerations, there is rapid convergence of the boundary layer solutions at the bottom onto ones with negligible capillary suction higher up. For strong decelerations, two branches of solutions for A are possible in the K=0 limit: one is smooth, and the other has a distinct kink. The full system, with small but non

  5. Charge transport through one-dimensional Moiré crystals

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Roméo; Lherbier, Aurélien; Barraud, Clément; Rocca, Maria Luisa Della; Lafarge, Philippe; Charlier, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Moiré superlattices were generated in two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals heterostructures and have revealed intriguing electronic structures. The appearance of mini-Dirac cones within the conduction and valence bands of graphene is one of the most striking among the new quantum features. A Moiré superstructure emerges when at least two periodic sub-structures superimpose. 2D Moiré patterns have been particularly investigated in stacked hexagonal 2D atomic lattices like twisted graphene layers and graphene deposited on hexagonal boron-nitride. In this letter, we report both experimentally and theoretically evidence of superlattices physics in transport properties of one-dimensional (1D) Moiré crystals. Rolling-up few layers of graphene to form a multiwall carbon nanotube adds boundaries conditions that can be translated into interference fringes-like Moiré patterns along the circumference of the cylinder. Such a 1D Moiré crystal exhibits a complex 1D multiple bands structure with clear and robust interband quantum transitions due to the presence of mini-Dirac points and pseudo-gaps. Our devices consist in a very large diameter (>80 nm) multiwall carbon nanotubes of high quality, electrically connected by metallic electrodes acting as charge reservoirs. Conductance measurements reveal the presence of van Hove singularities assigned to 1D Moiré superlattice effect and illustrated by electronic structure calculations. PMID:26786067

  6. Charge transport through one-dimensional Moiré crystals.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Roméo; Lherbier, Aurélien; Barraud, Clément; Della Rocca, Maria Luisa; Lafarge, Philippe; Charlier, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Moiré superlattices were generated in two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals heterostructures and have revealed intriguing electronic structures. The appearance of mini-Dirac cones within the conduction and valence bands of graphene is one of the most striking among the new quantum features. A Moiré superstructure emerges when at least two periodic sub-structures superimpose. 2D Moiré patterns have been particularly investigated in stacked hexagonal 2D atomic lattices like twisted graphene layers and graphene deposited on hexagonal boron-nitride. In this letter, we report both experimentally and theoretically evidence of superlattices physics in transport properties of one-dimensional (1D) Moiré crystals. Rolling-up few layers of graphene to form a multiwall carbon nanotube adds boundaries conditions that can be translated into interference fringes-like Moiré patterns along the circumference of the cylinder. Such a 1D Moiré crystal exhibits a complex 1D multiple bands structure with clear and robust interband quantum transitions due to the presence of mini-Dirac points and pseudo-gaps. Our devices consist in a very large diameter (>80 nm) multiwall carbon nanotubes of high quality, electrically connected by metallic electrodes acting as charge reservoirs. Conductance measurements reveal the presence of van Hove singularities assigned to 1D Moiré superlattice effect and illustrated by electronic structure calculations. PMID:26786067

  7. Dynamics of low dimensional model for weakly relativistic Zakharov equations for plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Sahu, Biswajit; Pal, Barnali; Poria, Swarup; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar

    2013-05-15

    In the present paper, the nonlinear interaction between Langmuir waves and ion acoustic waves described by the one-dimensional Zakharov equations (ZEs) for relativistic plasmas are investigated formulating a low dimensional model. Equilibrium points of the model are found and it is shown that the existence and stability conditions of the equilibrium point depend on the relativistic parameter. Computational investigations are carried out to examine the effects of relativistic parameter and other plasma parameters on the dynamics of the model. Power spectrum analysis using fast fourier transform and also construction of first return map confirm that periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic type solution exist for both relativistic as well as in non-relativistic case. Existence of supercritical Hopf bifurcation is noted in the system for two critical plasmon numbers.

  8. Conditions for one-dimensional supersonic flow of quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovanazzi, S.; Farrell, C.; Kiss, T.; Leonhardt, U.

    2004-12-01

    One can use transsonic Bose-Einstein condensates of alkali atoms to establish the laboratory analog of the event horizon and to measure the acoustic version of Hawking radiation. We determine the conditions for supersonic flow and the Hawking temperature for realistic condensates on waveguides where an external potential plays the role of a supersonic nozzle. The transition to supersonic speed occurs at the potential maximum and the Hawking temperature is entirely determined by the curvature of the potential.

  9. Computer Simulation of a Particle in a One-Dimensional Double or Triple Potential Well.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humberston, J. W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A computer program was written for a model system in quantum mechanics (particle in a one-dimensional finite square well potential). Described is a major extension of the single-well program to treat problem of a particle in a double/triple finite square potential well. Technical/educational features of the program are considered. (Author/JN)

  10. Interspecies tunneling in one-dimensional Bose mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Pflanzer, Anika C.; Zoellner, Sascha; Schmelcher, Peter

    2010-02-15

    We study the ground-state properties and quantum dynamics of few-boson mixtures with strong interspecies repulsion in one-dimensional traps. If one species localizes at the center, e.g., due to a very large mass compared to the other component, it represents an effective barrier for the latter, and the system can be mapped onto identical bosons in a double well. For weaker localization, the barrier atoms begin to respond to the light component, leading to an induced attraction between the mobile atoms that may even outweigh their bare intraspecies repulsion. To explain the resulting effects, we derive an effective Hubbard model for the lighter species accounting for the back action of the barrier in correction terms to the lattice parameters. Also the tunneling is drastically affected: by varying the degree of localization of the 'barrier' atoms, the dynamics of intrinsically noninteracting bosons can change from Rabi oscillations to effective pair tunneling. For identical fermions (or fermionized bosons), this leads to the tunneling of attractively bound pairs.

  11. Thermal transport in disordered one-dimensional spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poboiko, Igor; Feigel'man, Mikhail

    2015-12-01

    We study a one-dimensional anisotropic XXZ Heisenberg spin-1/2 chain with weak random fields hizSiz by means of Jordan-Wigner transformation to spinless Luttinger liquid with disorder and bosonization technique. First, we reinvestigate the phase diagram of the system in terms of dimensionless disorder γ =

    /J2≪1 and anisotropy parameter Δ =Jz/Jx y , we find the range of these parameters where disorder is irrelevant in the infrared limit and spin-spin correlations are described by power laws, and compare it with previously obtained numerical and analytical results. Then we use the diagram technique in terms of plasmon excitations to study the low-temperature (T ≪J ) behavior of heat conductivity κ and spin conductivity σ in this power-law phase. The obtained Lorentz number L ≡κ /σ T differs from the value derived earlier by means of the memory function method. We argue also that in the studied region inelastic scattering is strong enough to suppress quantum interference in the low-temperature limit.

  12. A disorder-enhanced quasi-one-dimensional superconductor.

    PubMed

    Petrović, A P; Ansermet, D; Chernyshov, D; Hoesch, M; Salloum, D; Gougeon, P; Potel, M; Boeri, L; Panagopoulos, C

    2016-01-01

    A powerful approach to analysing quantum systems with dimensionality d>1 involves adding a weak coupling to an array of one-dimensional (1D) chains. The resultant quasi-1D (q1D) systems can exhibit long-range order at low temperature, but are heavily influenced by interactions and disorder due to their large anisotropies. Real q1D materials are therefore ideal candidates not only to provoke, test and refine theories of strongly correlated matter, but also to search for unusual emergent electronic phases. Here we report the unprecedented enhancement of a superconducting instability by disorder in single crystals of Na2-δMo6Se6, a q1D superconductor comprising MoSe chains weakly coupled by Na atoms. We argue that disorder-enhanced Coulomb pair-breaking (which usually destroys superconductivity) may be averted due to a screened long-range Coulomb repulsion intrinsic to disordered q1D materials. Our results illustrate the capability of disorder to tune and induce new correlated electron physics in low-dimensional materials. PMID:27448209

  13. A disorder-enhanced quasi-one-dimensional superconductor

    PubMed Central

    Petrović, A. P.; Ansermet, D.; Chernyshov, D.; Hoesch, M.; Salloum, D.; Gougeon, P.; Potel, M.; Boeri, L.; Panagopoulos, C.

    2016-01-01

    A powerful approach to analysing quantum systems with dimensionality d>1 involves adding a weak coupling to an array of one-dimensional (1D) chains. The resultant quasi-1D (q1D) systems can exhibit long-range order at low temperature, but are heavily influenced by interactions and disorder due to their large anisotropies. Real q1D materials are therefore ideal candidates not only to provoke, test and refine theories of strongly correlated matter, but also to search for unusual emergent electronic phases. Here we report the unprecedented enhancement of a superconducting instability by disorder in single crystals of Na2−δMo6Se6, a q1D superconductor comprising MoSe chains weakly coupled by Na atoms. We argue that disorder-enhanced Coulomb pair-breaking (which usually destroys superconductivity) may be averted due to a screened long-range Coulomb repulsion intrinsic to disordered q1D materials. Our results illustrate the capability of disorder to tune and induce new correlated electron physics in low-dimensional materials. PMID:27448209

  14. Berry phase oscillations in a one-dimensional Dirac comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, William; Cassera, Nicholas; Rave, Matthew

    In quantum mechanics, the Berry phase is a geometric phase acquired by a wave function over the course of a cycle, when subjected to adiabatic processes. In general, this phase is due to the geometry of the underlying parameter space and thus depends only on the path taken. In any system described by a periodic potential, the torus topology of the Brillouin zone itself can lead to such a phase. In this work, we numerically calculate the Berry phase for a one-dimensional Dirac comb described by N distinct wells per unit cell. As expected, the resulting Berry phase exhibits a rich band-dependence. In the case where N = 2 , we find that the Berry phase corresponding to the nth energy band oscillates such that γn (x) =An sin (πx) cos [ (2 n - 1) πx ] , where An is a band-dependent constant and 0 < x < 1 is the relative position of the two wells. This expression, obtained using perturbation theory, gives excellent agreement with exact numerical results, even at low energy levels. The Berry phase exhibits a similar behavior for cases where N > 2 .

  15. Topological phase in one-dimensional Rashba wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sa-Ke, Wang; Jun, Wang; Jun-Feng, Liu

    2016-07-01

    We study the possible topological phase in a one-dimensional (1D) quantum wire with an oscillating Rashba spin–orbital coupling in real space. It is shown that there are a pair of particle–hole symmetric gaps forming in the bulk energy band and fractional boundary states residing in the gap when the system has an inversion symmetry. These states are topologically nontrivial and can be characterized by a quantized Berry phase ±π or nonzero Chern number through dimensional extension. When the Rashba spin–orbital coupling varies slowly with time, the system can pump out 2 charges in a pumping cycle because of the spin flip effect. This quantized pumping is protected by topology and is robust against moderate disorders as long as the disorder strength does not exceed the opened energy gap. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 115074045 and 11204187) and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20131284).

  16. Electrical transport in doped one-dimensional nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Li, Tan; Wang, Jianning; Zhang, Yumin

    2005-09-01

    Mobility and noise are two important issues for electronic devices, and they have many new features in one-dimensional (1D) doped nanostructures. For the convenience of readers the background of solid state physics is reviewed first, and then the transport process in 3D crystal material is introduced. Velocity saturation is an important phenomenon in modern electronic devices, and it is analyzed in an intuitive approach. It is predicted FinFET will be the next generation MOSFET, and its structure and characteristics are introduced. With the reduction of device dimensions the mesoscopic phenomena begin to show up. A simple way to treat transport problem in this domain is the Landauer-Büttiker formula, and the basic equation is derived. Finally the 1D quantum wire structure grown from a bottom-up approach is reviewed. Owing to the good material quality the scattering is very weak, and the wave properties of the coherent transport are discussed. Engineering applications of nanostructures in electronic information processing that manipulates time varying signals often involve device characterizations in the time domain. Since carrier transport in nanostructures is inherently a random process and it causes random fluctuations in quantities like current and voltage, so background knowledge in the microscopic origins of noise and other related practical issues is important to identify enough noise margins for reliable system design. This subject is the focus of the second part of the review article. PMID:16193956

  17. Trapped Atoms in One-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimble, H.

    2013-05-01

    I describe one-dimensional photonic crystals that support a guided mode suitable for atom trapping within a unit cell, as well as a second probe mode with strong atom-photon interactions. A new hybrid trap is analyzed that combines optical and Casimir-Polder forces to form stable traps for neutral atoms in dielectric nanostructures. By suitable design of the band structure, the atomic spontaneous emission rate into the probe mode can exceed the rate into all other modes by more than tenfold. The unprecedented single-atom reflectivity r0 ~= 0 . 9 for the guided probe field could create new scientific opportunities, including quantum many-body physics for 1 D atom chains with photon-mediated interactions and high-precision studies of vacuum forces. Towards these goals, my colleagues and I are pursuing numerical simulation, device fabrication, and cold-atom experiments with nanoscopic structures. Funding is provided by by the IQIM, an NSF PFC with support of the Moore Foundation, by the AFOSR QuMPASS MURI, by the DoD NSSEFF program (HJK), and by NSF Grant PHY0652914 (HJK). DEC acknowledges funding from Fundacio Privada Cellex Barcelona.

  18. Localization of carriers in a one-dimensional electron system over liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladchenko, S. P.; Kovdrya, Yu. Z.; Nikolaenko, V. A.

    2000-07-01

    The mobility of carriers in a one-dimensional electron system over liquid helium has been measured at the temperature 0.5-1.7 K and for different values of linear electron density. Profiled nylon substrates with some quantity of charge deposited were used for the realization of a one-dimensional electron system. It is shown that electron mobility is dependent on the quantity of the charge on a substrate. Effects observed are explained by the localization of electrons moving in the random potential created by the substrates charge. It is supposed that at low temperatures the movement of carriers is determined by quantum effects.

  19. Topological states in one dimensional solids and photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atherton, Timothy; Mathur, Harsh

    2011-03-01

    We show that the band structure of a one-dimensional solid with particle-hole symmetry may be characterized by a topological index that owes its existence to the non-trivial homotopy of the space of non-degenerate real symmetric matrices. Moreover we explicitly demonstrate a theorem linking the topological index to the existence of bound states on the surface of a semi-infinite one dimensional solid. Our analysis is a one-dimensional analogue of the analysis of topological insulators in two and three dimensions by Balents and Moore; our results may be relevant to long molecules that are the one dimensional analogue of topological insulators. We propose the realization of this physics in a one-dimensional photonic crystal. In this case the topology of the bandstructure reveals itself not as a bound surface state but as a Lorentzian feature in the time delay of light that is otherwise perfectly reflected by the photonic crystal.

  20. The one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation and its some excitation states

    SciTech Connect

    Prayitno, T. B.

    2015-04-16

    We have derived some excitation states of the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation coupled by the gravitational potential. The methods that we have used here are taken by pursuing the recent work of Kivshar et. al. by considering the equation as a macroscopic quantum oscillator. To obtain the states, we have made the appropriate transformation to reduce the three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation into the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation and applying the time-independent perturbation theory in the general solution of the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation as a linear superposition of the normalized eigenfunctions of the Schrödinger equation for the harmonic oscillator potential. Moreover, we also impose the condition by assuming that some terms in the equation should be so small in order to preserve the use of the perturbation method.

  1. Gigantic optical nonlinearity in one-dimensional Mott-Hubbard insulators

    PubMed

    Kishida; Matsuzaki; Okamoto; Manabe; Yamashita; Taguchi; Tokura

    2000-06-22

    The realization of all-optical switching, modulating and computing devices is an important goal in modern optical technology. Nonlinear optical materials with large third-order nonlinear susceptibilities (chi(3)) are indispensable for such devices, because the magnitude of this quantity dominates the device performance. A key strategy in the development of new materials with large nonlinear susceptibilities is the exploration of quasi-one-dimensional systems, or 'quantum wires'--the quantum confinement of electron-hole motion in one-dimensional space can enhance chi(3). Two types of chemically synthesized quantum wires have been extensively studied: the band insulators of silicon polymers, and Peierls insulators of pi-conjugated polymers and platinum halides. In these systems, chi(3) values of 10(-12) to 10(-7) e.s.u. (electrostatic system of units) have been reported. Here we demonstrate an anomalous enhancement of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility in a different category of quantum wires: one-dimensional Mott insulators of 3d transition-metal oxides and halides. By analysing the electroreflectance spectra of these compounds, we measure chi(3) values in the range 10(-8) to 10(-5) e.s.u. The anomalous enhancement results from a large dipole moment between the lowest two excited states of these systems. PMID:10879529

  2. Extending the Analysis of One-Dimensional Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canderle, Luis H.

    1999-01-01

    Proposes that introductory physics courses extend the analysis of one-dimensional motion to a more sophisticated level. Gives four experimental setups and graphical analysis of the distance, velocity, and acceleration in the vertical and horizontal directions. (WRM)

  3. Asymptotic formula for eigenvalues of one dimensional Dirac system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulusoy, Ismail; Penahlı, Etibar

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we study the spectral problem for one dimensional Dirac system with Dirichlet boundary conditions. By using Counting lemma, we give an asymptotic formulas of eigenvalues of Dirac system.

  4. Coulomb drag between one-dimensional electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Mustafa

    We have measured Coulomb drag (CD) between two spatially separated and electrically isolated one-dimensional (1D) wires to study the Luttinger liquid (LL) state in 1D systems. We have fabricated dual-wire CD devices with long quantum wires (≥ 1 microm) and short quantum wires (≤ 500 nm) with respect to the thermal lengths. The devices are made from high-mobility (≅10 6cm2/Vs) two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures, using high-resolution e-beam lithography, combined with metal deposition by e-beam evaporation to form surface Schottky gates. Peak in drag voltage occurs when the subband bottoms of the lowest energy subbands of the drive and the drag wires line up with each other and the Fermi level. We have observed drag on 1 microm device at 22 mK temperature which is found to be reminiscent of the drag observed earlier on a 2 microm device. An extensive reanalysis of the drag results obtained on the 2 microm device indicates a power-law temperature dependence of drag for both identical and non-identical wires. Also drag is found to decay exponentially with the mismatch between the wires. These properties indicate the existence of Luttinger liquid (LL) state in the long wire device. We have observed positive and negative drags on short wire devices. The observed temperature dependence of drag resistance, for both positive and negative drags, shows first an increase, followed by a constant plateau and finally a decrease as the temperature is increased. This is in line with the predictions of the Fermi--Luttinger liquid (FLL) forward momentum transfer theory. This is the first experimental observation of 1D Coulomb drag due to forward momentum transfer between wires. A negative drag between same type of carriers (holes or electrons) may conceivably result from forward momentum transfer or forward scattering if the band curvature of the drag wire at or near the Fermi point is negative. Negative band curvature may result from asymmetry

  5. Coulomb drag between one-dimensional electron systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Mustafa

    We have measured Coulomb drag (CD) between two spatially separated and electrically isolated one-dimensional (1D) wires to study the Luttinger liquid (LL) state in 1D systems. We have fabricated dual-wire CD devices with long quantum wires (≥ 1 mum) and short quantum wires (≤ 500 nm) with respect to the thermal lengths. The devices are made from high-mobility (≅106cm2/Vs) two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures, using high-resolution e-beam lithography, combined with metal deposition by e-beam evaporation to form surface Schottky gates. Peak in drag voltage occurs when the subband bottoms of the lowest energy subbands of the drive and the drag wires line up with each other and the Fermi level. We have observed drag on 1 mum device at 22 mK temperature which is found to be reminiscent of the drag observed earlier on a 2 mum device. An extensive reanalysis of the drag results obtained on the 2 mum device indicates a power-law temperature dependence of drag for both identical and non-identical wires. Also drag is found to decay exponentially with the mismatch between the wires. These properties indicate the existence of Luttinger liquid (LL) state in the long wire device. We have observed positive and negative drags on short wire devices. The observed temperature dependence of drag resistance, for both positive and negative drags, shows first an increase, followed by a constant plateau and finally a decrease as the temperature is increased. This is in line with the predictions of the Fermi-Luttinger liquid (FLL) forward momentum transfer theory. This is the first experimental observation of 1D Coulomb drag due to forward momentum transfer between wires. A negative drag between same type of carriers (holes or electrons) may conceivably result from forward momentum transfer or forward scattering if the band curvature of the drag wire at or near the Fermi point is negative. Negative band curvature may result from asymmetry in the wire

  6. Synthetic magnetic fluxes and topological order in one-dimensional spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graß, Tobias; Muschik, Christine; Celi, Alessio; Chhajlany, Ravindra W.; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2015-06-01

    Engineering topological quantum order has become a major field of physics. Many advances have been made by synthesizing gauge fields in cold atomic systems. Here we carry over these developments to other platforms which are extremely well suited for quantum engineering, namely, trapped ions and nano-trapped atoms. Since these systems are typically one-dimensional, the action of artificial magnetic fields has so far received little attention. However, exploiting the long-range nature of interactions, loops with nonvanishing magnetic fluxes become possible even in one-dimensional settings. This gives rise to intriguing phenomena, such as fractal energy spectra, flat bands with localized edge states, and topological many-body states. We elaborate on a simple scheme for generating the required artificial fluxes by periodically driving an XY spin chain. Concrete estimates demonstrating the experimental feasibility for trapped ions and atoms in wave guides are given.

  7. Superfluid–insulator transition in strongly disordered one-dimensional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhiyuan; Pollet, Lode; Prokof’ev, N.; Svistunov, B.

    2016-04-01

    We present an asymptotically exact renormalization-group theory of the superfluid–insulator transition in one-dimensional (1D) disordered systems, with emphasis on an accurate description of the interplay between the Giamarchi–Schulz (instanton–anti-instanton) and weak-link (scratched-XY) criticalities. Combining the theory with extensive quantum Monte Carlo simulations allows us to shed new light on the ground-state phase diagram of the 1D disordered Bose–Hubbard model at unit filling.

  8. Strong-coupling ansatz for the one-dimensional Fermi gas in a harmonic potential

    PubMed Central

    Levinsen, Jesper; Massignan, Pietro; Bruun, Georg M.; Parish, Meera M.

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in modern physics is to accurately describe strongly interacting quantum many-body systems. One-dimensional systems provide fundamental insights because they are often amenable to exact methods. However, no exact solution is known for the experimentally relevant case of external confinement. We propose a powerful ansatz for the one-dimensional Fermi gas in a harmonic potential near the limit of infinite short-range repulsion. For the case of a single impurity in a Fermi sea, we show that our ansatz is indistinguishable from numerically exact results in both the few- and many-body limits. We furthermore derive an effective Heisenberg spin-chain model corresponding to our ansatz, valid for any spin-mixture, within which we obtain the impurity eigenstates analytically. In particular, the classical Pascal’s triangle emerges in the expression for the ground-state wave function. As well as providing an important benchmark for strongly correlated physics, our results are relevant for emerging quantum technologies, where a precise knowledge of one-dimensional quantum states is paramount. PMID:26601220

  9. Studying non-equilibrium many-body dynamics using one-dimensional Bose gases

    SciTech Connect

    Langen, Tim; Gring, Michael; Kuhnert, Maximilian; Rauer, Bernhard; Geiger, Remi; Mazets, Igor; Smith, David Adu; Schmiedmayer, Jörg; Kitagawa, Takuya; Demler, Eugene

    2014-12-04

    Non-equilibrium dynamics of isolated quantum many-body systems play an important role in many areas of physics. However, a general answer to the question of how these systems relax is still lacking. We experimentally study the dynamics of ultracold one-dimensional (1D) Bose gases. This reveals the existence of a quasi-steady prethermalized state which differs significantly from the thermal equilibrium of the system. Our results demonstrate that the dynamics of non-equilibrium quantum many-body systems is a far richer process than has been assumed in the past.

  10. The nature of one-dimensional carbon: polyynic versus cumulenic.

    PubMed

    Neiss, Christian; Trushin, Egor; Görling, Andreas

    2014-08-25

    A question of both fundamental as well as practical importance is the nature of one-dimensional carbon, in particular whether a one-dimensional carbon allotrope is polyynic or cumulenic, that is, whether bond-length alternation occurs or not. By combining the concept of aromaticity and antiaromaticity with the rule of Peierls distortion, the occurrence and magnitude of bond-length alternation in carbon chains with periodic boundary conditions and corresponding carbon rings as a function of the chain or ring length can be explained. The electronic properties of one-dimensional carbon depend crucially on the bond-length alternation. Whereas it is generally accepted that carbon chains in the limit of infinite length have a polyynic structure at the minimum of the potential energy surface with bond-length alternation, we show here that zero-point vibrations lead to an effective equalization of all carbon-carbon bond lengths and thus to a cumulenic structure. PMID:24962252

  11. One-dimensional rainbow technique using Fourier domain filtering.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingchun; Promvongsa, Jantarat; Wu, Xuecheng; Cen, Kefa; Grehan, Gerard; Saengkaew, Sawitree

    2015-11-16

    Rainbow refractometry can measure the refractive index and the size of a droplet simultaneously. The refractive index measurement is extracted from the absolute rainbow scattering angle. Accordingly, the angular calibration is vital for accurate measurements. A new optical design of the one-dimensional rainbow technique is proposed by using a one-dimensional spatial filter in the Fourier domain. The relationship between the scattering angle and the CCD pixel of a recorded rainbow image can be accurately determined by a simple calibration. Moreover, only the light perpendicularly incident on the lens in the angle (φ) direction is selected, which exactly matches the classical inversion algorithm used in rainbow refractometry. Both standard and global one-dimensional rainbow techniques are implemented with the proposed optical design, and are successfully applied to measure the refractive index and the size of a line of n-heptane droplets. PMID:26698532

  12. One-Dimensional Quasicrystals from Incommensurate Charge Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flicker, Felix; van Wezel, Jasper

    2015-12-01

    Artificial quasicrystals are nowadays routinely manufactured, yet only two naturally occurring examples are known. We present a class of systems with the potential to be realized both artificially and in nature, in which the lowest energy state is a one-dimensional quasicrystal. These systems are based on incommensurately charge-ordered materials, in which the quasicrystalline phase competes with the formation of a regular array of discommensurations as a way of interpolating between incommensurate charge order at high temperatures and commensurate order at low temperatures. The nonlocal correlations characteristic of the quasicrystalline state emerge from a free-energy contribution localized in reciprocal space. We present a theoretical phase diagram showing that the required material properties for the appearance of such a ground state allow for one-dimensional quasicrystals to form in real materials. The result is a potentially wide class of one-dimensional quasicrystals.

  13. One dimensional speckle fields generated by three phase level diffusers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabezas, L.; Amaya, D.; Bolognini, N.; Lencina, A.

    2015-02-01

    Speckle patterns have usually been obtained by using ground glass as random diffusers. Liquid-crystal spatial light modulators have opened the possibility of engineering tailored speckle fields obtained from designed diffusers. In this work, one-dimensional Gaussian speckle fields with fully controllable features are generated. By employing a low-cost liquid-crystal spatial light modulator, one-dimensional three phase level diffusers are implemented. These diffusers make it possible to control average intensity distribution and statistical independence among the generated patterns. The average speckle size is governed by an external slit pupil. A theoretical model to describe the generated speckle patterns is developed. Experimental and theoretical results confirming the generation of one-dimensional speckle fields are presented. Some possible applications of these speckles, such as atom trapping and super-resolution imaging, are briefly envisaged.

  14. Pose estimation for one-dimensional object with general motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinbo; Song, Ge; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2014-11-01

    Our primary interest is in real-time one-dimensional object's pose estimation. In this paper, a method to estimate general motion one-dimensional object's pose, that is, the position and attitude parameters, using a single camera is proposed. Centroid-movement is necessarily continuous and orderly in temporal space, which means it follows at least approximately certain motion law in a short period of time. Therefore, the centroid trajectory in camera frame can be described as a combination of temporal polynomials. Two endpoints on one-dimensional object, A and B, at each time are projected on the corresponding image plane. With the relationship between A, B and centroid C, we can obtain a linear equation system related to the temporal polynomials' coefficients, in which the camera has been calibrated and the image coordinates of A and B are known. Then in the cases that object moves continuous in natural temporal space within the view of a stationary camera, the position of endpoints on the one-dimensional object can be located and also the attitude can be estimated using two end points. Moreover the position of any other point aligned on one-dimensional object can also be solved. Scene information is not needed in the proposed method. If the distance between the endpoints is not known, a scale factor between the object's real positions and the estimated results will exist. In order to improve the algorithm's performance from accuracy and robustness, we derive a pain of linear and optimal algorithms. Simulations' and experiments' results show that the method is valid and robust with respect to various Gaussian noise levels. The paper's work contributes to making self-calibration algorithms using one-dimensional objects applicable to practice. Furthermore, the method can also be used to estimate the pose and shape parameters of parallelogram, prism or cylinder objects.

  15. Fabrication, device assembly, and application of one-dimensional chalcogenides nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kum, Maxwell Chun Man

    Nanotechnology has received a tremendous amount of research interests ever since the first discovery of carbon nanotubes. One-dimensional nanostructures, such as nanorods, nanowires, nanobelts as well as nanotubes, are of significant interest because of their potential application as interconnects and functional units in nanoscale electrical, optoelectronic, electrochemical, electromechanical, thermoelectric, spintronic, photovoltaic, and sensory devices. Nanoscale one-dimensional devices promise to deliver improved performance, to miniaturize bulky devices, to enable higher density nanoscale devices, and to lower energy consumption. As the radius of these one-dimensional nanostructures fall below the exciton Bohr radius of their respective materials, the structural morphology and size effectively modulates the fundamental electrical, optical, and magnetic properties due to quantum confinement effect. In addition, the high surface to volume ratio of one-dimensional nanostructures enables the device properties to be extremely sensitivity to the environment which is particularly attractive for sensing application. Currently, the focuses of nanotechnology research are (1) the fabrication technique with control over the composition, crystal structure, morphology, and size, (2) the device assembly of nanostructures into complex functional devices, and (3) the characterization and application of these nanoscale devices. There are a multitude of fabrication techniques for one-dimensional nanostructures, including but not exclusively, vapor-solid, vapor-liquid-solid, colloidal, solution-liquid-solid, self-assembly, and template directed electrodeposition. As one-dimensional nanostructures are produced, several techniques are available to assemble them into functional complex nanoscale devices, including but not exclusively, electron beam lithography, focus ion beam, magnetic assembly, and AC dielectrophoretic alignment. In this work, one-dimensional cadmium telluride (Cd

  16. Hybrid surface-relief/volume one dimensional holographic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchetta, D. E.; Spegni, P.; Di Donato, A.; Simoni, F.; Castagna, R.

    2015-04-01

    Many one dimensional optically patterned photopolymers exist as surface relief or volume phase gratings. However, as far as we know, holographically recorded acrylate-based gratings in which both configurations are present are not described in literature. In this work we report a two steps fabrication process in which a large-area high-resolution hybrid volume/surface relief grating phase gratings is created in a thin film of multiacrylate material spinned on a proper designed substrate. Optical and morphological investigations, made on the optically patterned area, confirm the presence of a one dimensional double (surface relief and Bragg volume phase) periodic structure.

  17. Lateral electronic screening in quasi-one-dimensional plasmons.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, T; Tegenkamp, C; Pfnür, H

    2016-09-01

    The properties of one-dimensional (1D) plasmons are rather unexplored. We investigated the plasmonic collective excitations, measured as one-dimensional plasmon dispersions with electron energy loss spectroscopy, highly resolved both in energy and lateral momentum, for both phases of Au induced chains on stepped Si(553) substrates. We observe 1D dispersions that are strongly influenced by the lateral chain width and by the interchain coupling. Indications for the existence of two different plasmons originating from two surface bands of the systems are given for the low coverage phase. PMID:27384978

  18. Explicit solutions of one-dimensional total variation problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makovetskii, Artyom; Voronin, Sergei; Kober, Vitaly

    2015-09-01

    This work deals with denosing of a one-dimensional signal corrupted by additive white Gaussian noise. A common way to solve the problem is to utilize the total variation (TV) method. Basically, the TV regularization minimizes a functional consisting of the sum of fidelity and regularization terms. We derive explicit solutions of the one-dimensional TV regularization problem that help us to restore noisy signals with a direct, non-iterative algorithm. Computer simulation results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed algorithm for restoration of noisy signals.

  19. Lateral electronic screening in quasi-one-dimensional plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenstein, T.; Tegenkamp, C.; Pfnür, H.

    2016-09-01

    The properties of one-dimensional (1D) plasmons are rather unexplored. We investigated the plasmonic collective excitations, measured as one-dimensional plasmon dispersions with electron energy loss spectroscopy, highly resolved both in energy and lateral momentum, for both phases of Au induced chains on stepped Si(553) substrates. We observe 1D dispersions that are strongly influenced by the lateral chain width and by the interchain coupling. Indications for the existence of two different plasmons originating from two surface bands of the systems are given for the low coverage phase.

  20. Photon transport in a one-dimensional nanophotonic waveguide QED system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Zeyang; Zeng, Xiaodong; Nha, Hyunchul; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2016-06-01

    The waveguide quantum electrodynamics (QED) system may have important applications in quantum device and quantum information technology. In this article we review the methods being proposed to calculate photon transport in a one-dimensional (1D) waveguide coupled to quantum emitters. We first introduce the Bethe ansatz approach and the input–output formalism to calculate the stationary results of a single photon transport. Then we present a dynamical time-dependent theory to calculate the real-time evolution of the waveguide QED system. In the longtime limit, both the stationary theory and the dynamical calculation give the same results. Finally, we also briefly discuss the calculations of the multiphoton transport problems.

  1. Compressed simulation of thermal and excited states of the one-dimensional X Y model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyajian, W. L.; Kraus, B.

    2015-09-01

    Since several years, the preparation and manipulation of a small number of quantum systems in a controlled and coherent way is feasible in many experiments. In fact, these experiments are nowadays commonly used for quantum simulation and quantum computation. As recently shown, such a system can, however, also be utilized to simulate specific behaviors of exponentially larger systems. That is, certain quantum computations can be performed by an exponentially smaller quantum computer. This compressed quantum computation can be employed to observe, for instance, the quantum phase transition of the one-dimensional (1D) X Y model using very few qubits. We extend here this notion to simulate the behavior of thermal as well as excited states of the 1D X Y model. In particular, we consider the 1D X Y model of a spin chain of n qubits and derive a quantum circuit processing only log(n ) qubits which simulates the original system. We demonstrate how the behavior of thermal as well as any eigenstate of the system can be efficiently simulated in this compressed fashion and present a quantum circuit on log(n ) qubits to measure the magnetization, the number of kinks, and correlations occurring in the thermal as well as any excited state of the original systems. Moreover, we derive compressed circuits to study time evolutions.

  2. A difference characteristic for one-dimensional deterministic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahverdian, A. Yu.; Apkarian, A. V.

    2007-06-01

    A numerical characteristic for one-dimensional deterministic systems reflecting its higher order difference structure is introduced. The comparison with Lyapunov exponent is given. A difference analogy for Eggleston theorem as well as an estimate for Hausdorff dimension of the difference attractor, formulated in terms of the new characteristic is proved.

  3. Teaching Module for One-Dimensional, Transient Conduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribando, Robert J.; O'Leary, Gerald W.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a PC-based teaching module designed to instruct engineering students in transient one-dimensional conduction heat transfer analysis. The discussion considers problem formulation, nondimensionalization, discretization, numerical stability and the time-step restriction, program operation, and program verification. (MES)

  4. Synchronization of One-Dimensional Stochastically Coupled Cellular Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrowinski, Maciej J.; Kosinski, Robert A.

    In this work the authors study synchronization resulting from the asymmetric stochastic coupling between two one-dimensional chaotic cellular automata and provide a simple analytical model to explain this phenomenon. The authors also study synchronization in a more general case, using sets of rules with a different number of states and different values of Langton's parameter λ.

  5. The Long Decay Model of One-Dimensional Projectile Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattery, Mark Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces a research study on student model formation and development in introductory mechanics. As a point of entry, I present a detailed analysis of the Long Decay Model of one-dimensional projectile motion. This model has been articulated by Galileo ("in De Motu") and by contemporary students. Implications for instruction are…

  6. One-Dimensional SO2 Predictions for Duct Injection

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-10-05

    DIAN1D is a one-dimensional model that predicts SO2 absorption by slurry droplets injected into a flue gas stream with two-fluid atomizers. DIANUI is an interactive user interface for DIAN1D. It prepares the input file for DIAN1D from plant design specifications and process requirements.

  7. Minimum critical length for superconductivity in one-dimensional wires

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, C.C.; Santhanam, P.; Wind, S.J.; Brady, M.J.; Bucchignano, J.J. )

    1994-08-01

    We have experimentally studied the superconducting behavior of one-dimensional aluminum wires of various lengths. Each wire had much wider two-dimensional contact pads on both sides. At a temperature [ital T] below [ital T][sub [ital c

  8. Underwater striling engine design with modified one-dimensional model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Daijin; Qin, Kan; Luo, Kai

    2015-09-01

    Stirling engines are regarded as an efficient and promising power system for underwater devices. Currently, many researches on one-dimensional model is used to evaluate thermodynamic performance of Stirling engine, but in which there are still some aspects which cannot be modeled with proper mathematical models such as mechanical loss or auxiliary power. In this paper, a four-cylinder double-acting Stirling engine for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs) is discussed. And a one-dimensional model incorporated with empirical equations of mechanical loss and auxiliary power obtained from experiments is derived while referring to the Stirling engine computer model of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The P-40 Stirling engine with sufficient testing results from NASA is utilized to validate the accuracy of this one-dimensional model. It shows that the maximum error of output power of theoretical analysis results is less than 18% over testing results, and the maximum error of input power is no more than 9%. Finally, a Stirling engine for UUVs is designed with Schmidt analysis method and the modified one-dimensional model, and the results indicate this designed engine is capable of showing desired output power.

  9. Underwater striling engine design with modified one-dimensional model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Daijin; Qin, Kan; Luo, Kai

    2015-05-01

    Stirling engines are regarded as an efficient and promising power system for underwater devices. Currently, many researches on one-dimensional model is used to evaluate thermodynamic performance of Stirling engine, but in which there are still some aspects which cannot be modeled with proper mathematical models such as mechanical loss or auxiliary power. In this paper, a four-cylinder double-acting Stirling engine for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs) is discussed. And a one-dimensional model incorporated with empirical equations of mechanical loss and auxiliary power obtained from experiments is derived while referring to the Stirling engine computer model of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The P-40 Stirling engine with sufficient testing results from NASA is utilized to validate the accuracy of this one-dimensional model. It shows that the maximum error of output power of theoretical analysis results is less than 18% over testing results, and the maximum error of input power is no more than 9%. Finally, a Stirling engine for UUVs is designed with Schmidt analysis method and the modified one-dimensional model, and the results indicate this designed engine is capable of showing desired output power.

  10. Approximate Approaches to the One-Dimensional Finite Potential Well

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Shilpi; Pathak, Praveen; Singh, Vijay A.

    2011-01-01

    The one-dimensional finite well is a textbook problem. We propose approximate approaches to obtain the energy levels of the well. The finite well is also encountered in semiconductor heterostructures where the carrier mass inside the well (m[subscript i]) is taken to be distinct from mass outside (m[subscript o]). A relevant parameter is the mass…

  11. PREMIXED ONE-DIMENSIONAL FLAME (PROF) CODE USER'S MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a user's manual that describes the problems that can be treated by the Premixed One-dimensional Flame (PROF) code. It also describes the mathematical models and solution procedures applied to these problems. Complete input instructions and a description of output ar...

  12. One-Dimensional Ising Model with "k"-Spin Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Yale

    2011-01-01

    We examine a generalization of the one-dimensional Ising model involving interactions among neighbourhoods of "k" adjacent spins. The model is solved by exploiting a connection to an interesting computational problem that we call ""k"-SAT on a ring", and is shown to be equivalent to the nearest-neighbour Ising model in the absence of an external…

  13. Sandia One-Dimensional Direct and Inverse Thermal Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-02-27

    SODDIT is a reliable tool for solving a wide variety of one-dimensional transient heat conduction problems. Originally developed in 1972 to predict the ablation of graphite/carbon bodies reentering the earth''s atmosphere, it has since been modified by the authors to extend its capabilities well beyond its original scope.

  14. Zero-n gap in one dimensional photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chobey, Mahesh K.; Suthar, B.

    2016-05-01

    We study a one-dimensional (1-D) photonic crystal composed of Double Positive (DPS) and Double Negative (DNG) material. This structure shows omnidirectional photonic bandgap, which is insensitive with angle of incidence and polarization. To study the effect of structural parameters on the photonic band structure, we have calculated photonic band gap at various thicknesses of DPS and DNG.

  15. Exact Results for One Dimensional Fluids Through Functional Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantoni, Riccardo

    2016-06-01

    We review some of the exactly solvable one dimensional continuum fluid models of equilibrium classical statistical mechanics under the unified setting of functional integration in one dimension. We make some further developments and remarks concerning fluids with penetrable particles. We then apply our developments to the study of the Gaussian core model for which we are unable to find a well defined thermodynamics.

  16. Reflection properties of one dimensional plasma photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Arun; Khundrakpam, Pinky; Sharma, Priyanka

    2013-06-01

    In this paper band structure and reflection properties of on one-dimensional plasma photonic crystal (PPC) containing alternate layers of dielectric and micro-plasma have been presented. For the purpose of computation, transfer matrix method has been used. It is found that width of the forbidden band gap(s) can be increased by increasing the thickness of plasma layers.

  17. Toward precise solution of one-dimensional velocity inverse problems

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, S.; Hagin, F.

    1980-01-01

    A family of one-dimensional inverse problems are considered with the goal of reconstructing velocity profiles to reasonably high accuracy. The travel-time variable change is used together with an iteration scheme to produce an effective algorithm for computation. Under modest assumptions the scheme is shown to be convergent.

  18. Transition density of one-dimensional diffusion with discontinuous drift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Weijian

    1990-01-01

    The transition density of a one-dimensional diffusion process with a discontinuous drift coefficient is studied. A probabilistic representation of the transition density is given, illustrating the close connections between discontinuities of the drift and Brownian local times. In addition, some explicit results are obtained based on the trivariate density of Brownian motion, its occupation, and local times.

  19. Nonlinear wave solutions of the three-dimensional Zakharov-Kuznetsov-Burgers equation in dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seadawy, Aly R.

    2015-12-01

    The propagation of dust-ion-acoustic waves with high-energy electrons and positrons in three-dimensional is considered. The Zakharov-Kuznetsov-Burgers (ZKB) equations for the dust-ion-acoustic waves in dusty plasmas is obtained. The conservations laws and integrals of motion for the ZKB equation are deduced. In the present study, by applying the modified direct algebraic method, we found the electric field potential, electric field and quantum statistical pressure in form water wave solutions for three-dimensional ZKB equation. The solutions for the ZKB equation are obtained precisely and efficiency of the method can be demonstrated. The stability of the obtained solutions and the movement role of the waves by making the graphs of the exact solutions are discussed and analyzed.

  20. Reformulating the Schroedinger equation as a Shabat-Zakharov system

    SciTech Connect

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt

    2010-02-15

    We reformulate the second-order Schroedinger equation as a set of two coupled first-order differential equations, a so-called 'Shabat-Zakharov system' (sometimes called a 'Zakharov-Shabat' system). There is considerable flexibility in this approach, and we emphasize the utility of introducing an 'auxiliary condition' or 'gauge condition' that is used to cut down the degrees of freedom. Using this formalism, we derive the explicit (but formal) general solution to the Schroedinger equation. The general solution depends on three arbitrarily chosen functions, and a path-ordered exponential matrix. If one considers path ordering to be an 'elementary' process, then this represents complete quadrature, albeit formal, of the second-order linear ordinary differential equation.

  1. Properties of one-dimensional molybdenum nanowires in a confined environment

    SciTech Connect

    Sumpter, Bobby G; Meunier, Vincent; Muramatsu, H; Hayashi, T; Kim, Y A; Shimamoto, Daisuke; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto; Dresselhaus, M; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio; Endo, M

    2009-01-01

    The atomistic mechanism for the self-assembly of molybdenum into one-dimensional metallic nanowires in a confined environment such as a carbon nanotube is investigated using quantum mechanical calculations. We find that Mo does not organize into linear chains but rather prefers to form four atom per unit-cell nanowires that consist of a subunit of a Mo-BCC crystal. Our model explains the 0.3 nm separation between features measured by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and why the nanotube diameter must be in the 0.70 - 1.0 nm range to accommodate the smallest stable one-dimensional wire. We also computed the electronic band-structure of the Mo wires inside a nanotube and found significant hybridization with the nanotube states, thereby explaining the experimentally observed quenching of fluorescence and the damping of the radial breathing modes as well as an increased resistance to oxidation.

  2. One-dimensional rare earth compounds and complexes: preparation and improved photoluminescence properties.

    PubMed

    Song, Hongwei; Pan, Guohui; Bai, Xue; Li, Suwen; Yu, Hongquan; Zhang, Hui

    2008-03-01

    One-dimensional nanosized phosphors demonstrate special structural and photoluminescence properties, which have application potential in some optical fields. In this article, we present our recent progress on preparation and luminescence properties of some one-dimensional rare earth compounds and complexes, the core-shell oxide nanowires prepared by a two-step hydrothermal route, the nanowires of some inorganic compounds doped with rare earths and rare earth complexes/PVP composites prepared by the electrospinning method, and the rare earth complexes in the SBA-15 mesoporous molecule sieves. In these systems, some novel or improved photoluminescence properties are observed such as improved luminescence quantum yield, thermal stability and/or photostability, and depressed thermal effect in upconversion luminescence. PMID:18468146

  3. All-optical electromagnetically induced transparency using one-dimensional coupled microcavities.

    PubMed

    Naweed, Ahmer; Goldberg, David; Menon, Vinod M

    2014-07-28

    We report the first experimental realization of all-optical electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) via a pair of coherently interacting SiO2 microcavities in a one-dimensional SiO2/Si3N4 photonic crystal consisting of a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). The electromagnetic interactions between the coupled microcavities (CMCs), which possess distinct Q-factors, are controlled by varying the number of embedded SiO2/Si3N4 bilayers in the coupling DBR. In case of weak microcavity interactions, the reflectivity spectrum reveals an all-optical EIT resonance which splits into an Autler-Townes-like resonance under condition of strong microcavity coupling. Our results open up the way for implementing optical analogs of quantum coherence in much simpler one-dimensional structures. We also discuss potential applications of CMCs. PMID:25089499

  4. Scattering of two coherent photons inside a one-dimensional coupled-resonator waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Alexanian, Moorad

    2010-01-15

    We consider the coherent propagation of n photons in a one-dimensional coupled-resonator waveguide for n=2,3,4.... The scattering by a three-level atom, which resides in one of the resonators of the waveguide and gives rise to only two-photon transitions, results in a perfect quantum switch that allows either total reflection or total transmission. This is to be contrasted to the case of a single photon inside a one-dimensional resonant waveguide scattered by a two-level system with single-photon transitions where only total reflection can be accomplished; viz. the system behaves only as a perfect mirror but not as an ideal, transparent medium.

  5. Zakharov simulations of beam-induced turbulence in the auroral ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, H.; Guio, P.; Hirsch, M. A.; Semeter, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Recent detections of strong incoherent scatter radar echoes from the auroral F region, which have been explained as the signature of naturally produced Langmuir turbulence, have motivated us to revisit the topic of beam-generated Langmuir turbulence via simulation. Results from one-dimensional Zakharov simulations are used to study the interaction of ionospheric electron beams with the background plasma at the F region peak. A broad range of beam parameters extending by more than 2 orders of magnitude in average energy and electron number density is considered. A range of wave interaction processes, from a single parametric decay, to a cascade of parametric decays, to formation of stationary density cavities in the condensate region, and to direct collapse at the initial stages of turbulence, is observed as we increase the input energy to the system. The effect of suprathermal electrons, produced by collisional interactions of auroral electrons with the neutral atmosphere, on the dynamics of Langmuir turbulence is also investigated. It is seen that the enhanced Landau damping introduced by the suprathermal electrons significantly weakens the turbulence and truncates the cascade of parametric decays.

  6. Statistics of extreme waves in the framework of one-dimensional Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agafontsev, Dmitry; Zakharov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    time. In case of the cnoidal wave initial condition we observe severely non-Rayleigh PDFs for the classical NLS equation (1) with the regions corresponding to 2-, 3- and so on soliton collisions clearly seen of the PDFs. Addition of six-wave interactions in Eq. (2) for condensate initial condition results in appearance of non-Rayleigh addition to the PDFs that increase with six-wave interaction constant α and disappears with the absence of six-wave interactions α = 0. References: [1] D.S. Agafontsev, V.E. Zakharov, Rogue waves statistics in the framework of one-dimensional Generalized Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation, arXiv:1202.5763v3.

  7. Versatile hydrothermal synthesis of one-dimensional composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yonglan

    2008-12-01

    In this paper we report on a versatile hydrothermal approach developed to fabricate one-dimensional (1D) composite structures. Sulfur and selenium formed liquid and adsorbed onto microrods as droplets and subsequently reacted with metallic ion in solution to produce nanoparticles-decorated composite microrods. 1D composites including ZnO/CdS, ZnO/MnS, ZnO/CuS, ZnO/CdSe, and FeOOH/CdS were successfully made using this hydrothermal strategy and the growth mechanism was also discussed. This hydrothermal strategy is simple and green, and can be extended to the synthesis of various 1D composite structures. Moreover, the interaction between the shell nanoparticles and the one-dimensional nanomaterials were confirmed by photoluminescence investigation of ZnO/CdS.

  8. Spatial coherence properties of one dimensional exciton-polariton condensates.

    PubMed

    Fischer, J; Savenko, I G; Fraser, M D; Holzinger, S; Brodbeck, S; Kamp, M; Shelykh, I A; Schneider, C; Höfling, S

    2014-11-14

    In this work, we combine a systematic experimental investigation of the power- and temperature-dependent evolution of the spatial coherence function, g^{(1)}(r), in a one dimensional exciton-polariton channel with a modern microscopic numerical theory based on a stochastic master equation approach. The spatial coherence function g^{(1)}(r) is extracted via high-precision Michelson interferometry, which allows us to demonstrate that in the regime of nonresonant excitation, the dependence g^{(1)}(r) reaches a saturation value with a plateau, which is determined by the intensity of the pump and effective temperature of the crystal lattice. The theory, which was extended to allow for treating incoherent excitation in a stochastic frame, matches the experimental data with good qualitative and quantitative agreement. This allows us to verify the prediction that the decay of the off-diagonal long-range order can be almost fully suppressed in one dimensional condensate systems. PMID:25432043

  9. Assessing the inherent uncertainty of one-dimensional diffusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we assess the inherent uncertainty of one-dimensional diffusion processes via a stochasticity classification which provides an à la Mandelbrot categorization into five states of uncertainty: infra-mild, mild, borderline, wild, and ultra-wild. Two settings are considered. (i) Stopped diffusions: the diffusion initiates from a high level and is stopped once it first reaches a low level; in this setting we analyze the inherent uncertainty of the diffusion's maximal exceedance above its initial high level. (ii) Stationary diffusions: the diffusion is in dynamical statistical equilibrium; in this setting we analyze the inherent uncertainty of the diffusion's equilibrium level. In both settings general closed-form analytic results are established, and their application is exemplified by stock prices in the stopped-diffusions setting, and by interest rates in the stationary-diffusions setting. These results provide a highly implementable decision-making tool for the classification of uncertainty in the context of one-dimensional diffusions.

  10. Excitonic condensation in spatially separated one-dimensional systems

    SciTech Connect

    Abergel, D. S. L.

    2015-05-25

    We show theoretically that excitons can form from spatially separated one-dimensional ground state populations of electrons and holes, and that the resulting excitons can form a quasicondensate. We describe a mean-field Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory in the low carrier density regime and then focus on the core-shell nanowire giving estimates of the size of the excitonic gap for InAs/GaSb wires and as a function of all the experimentally relevant parameters. We find that optimal conditions for pairing include small overlap of the electron and hole bands, large effective mass of the carriers, and low dielectric constant of the surrounding media. Therefore, one-dimensional systems provide an attractive platform for the experimental detection of excitonic quasicondensation in zero magnetic field.